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Full text of "The annual register, or, A view of the history, politics, and literature for the year .."

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This hook belonged to the 
I ate Hugh Edward Eger ton ^ 
Beit Professor of Qolonial 
History in the University of 
Oxfo?\i from 1 905 //? 1 920 



• ^ J 






r 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 

OB A VIEW OP THB 

HISTORY, 

POLITICS, 

AND V 

L ITER A T UR E, 

For the YEAR 1808. 



LONDON: 

:i^TSD ron w. otbido^ Astf son; lovgkks, iiurbt, reei, ana 
ouHE ; D. CKonT ; j. bbll ; j. cuthkil ; l&ckikoton, Atttif, anu 
CO.; K. JErFERT ; vebhob, hood, add siiadpe; j, Aifer.ne; 

AMU J. WACLBTR. 

1810. 



Printed hy 



^Harding & WrigbT)^ 
{ and ;• 

t W. Wilson, j 



St. John's Square, London. 



afi^;^ 






^^^ffo. 



tn 



OXFORD 




■fWv j 



*.i 



nv 



•^ 



PREFACE. 



iS the history of 1808, the great object of attention is 
^paio. Spain is the centre around which we arrange all 
mher countries in Europe ; and we take more or less inte* 
h<i m tbeni^ according to the relation in which they stand 
to the theatre^ on which the contest between liberty and 
ivranny is to be determined. This exhibits to our view a 
striking mixture of patriotism and corruption, exertion and 
remissness, precaution and improvidence, heroism and cow- 
ardice. Patriotic ardour, however, prevailed, on the whole, 
over corruption ; and though new levies of peasants were 
apt^ on most occasions, to consult, as was to be expected, 
their safety by flight, tlie amovy ffj^viaSy and the bravery 
of manj thousands of Spaniards were' tarried to the highest 
V'tch of glory ; and formed an early and fond hope, that 
vi Hme character pre-eminently energetic and great should 
be j>n>duced by the present contest, and the patriots place 
him at their head, and trust themselves entirely to his 
direction, the Great Peninsula might be saved, and the 
tide of fortune turned against the tyrant. Such were the 
eipectatioDS of humanity after the first efforts of the 
direction of provincial juntas. At the present moment, 
be minds of men, accustomed to anticipate future by ,a 
: trospection of past events, are agitated between hope and 
>ar, according as they turn their views to the progress of 
•nquerors, or the prosperous success of those who, con- 
fading for liberty, have made head against them. 
When a great and populous nation, possessing extensive 
<^t compacted dominions, is roused to arms, and breathes 
i spirit of ambition and conquest, it has generally been 
•ound for a time irresistible. Multitudes are united under 
^ne standard ; experience produces able commanders ; they 
possess all the advantages of stratagem and attack over 
mere defence: resistance only renovates their spirits, in- 
flames 



ii PREFACE. 

• 

flames their passions^ and with their strength increases 
their pretensions. They go on, conquering and to con- 
quer. The Persians under Cyrus were irresistible: the 
Macedonians under Alexander were irresistible; so were 
the Romans; the Saracens who invaded Europe from 
the south ; and the hordes of Tartars that have poured at 
different peribds into the north of Europe and of Asia* 
To come nearer to our owti times'i and a case the most 
similar in history to what is now alluded to, Charlemagne, 
triumphing over all confederation and resistance^ carried 
. his conquests over Europe to the banks of the Vistula — 
precisely to the territory that witnessed the peace of Tilsit 
in 1807. Scarcely had that great and enterprising prince 
remitted his exertions for the farther extension of his empire, 
or ceased from aggression, when the Norwegians and Danes 
appeared, and made predatory descents on the coast of 
Aquitaine. In the reign of his successors, they* eiFected 
settlements in Sicily, Naples, France, and Great Britain : 
thus proving still the truth of the maxim, that enthusiasm 
and aggression usually prevail over the power attacked, or 
combinations among different powers for common safety. 

On the other hand, the spirit of liberty, in as many or 
more instances, and some of them against the most fearful 
odds, has proved invincible. Not to multiply examples 
which will readily occur to readers of history,- the Dutch 
maintained or regained their liberty, after a struggle with 
both the branches of the. House of Austria, then in the 
zenith of its power, continued for half a century. The 
.mountameers of Chili were not to be subdued by the arms 
of Charles V., nor those of Yi\% successors^ to this daj. 
Whatever be the issue of the present contest in the Penm- 
sula, it is proper to record the efforts of patriotism and 
courage, and the resources of necessity — we had almost 
said, of despair, 

^ While doubts and fears were entertained that the poli- 
tical independence of Old Spain was hastening to a period^ 
a gleam of hope arose, that, in all events, tlie Spanish name 
Hiid nation would still be preserved in both Asia and Ame-» 
rii;a — flm ultra. 



THE 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 

For the YEAR 1808. 



THE 



HISTORY 



OF 



E U R O P E. 



CHAP. I. . 

7%f PArllatnenlary proceedings ef this Year,€ natural Band of Con*' 
"nexion between the great Events of J 807 and 1808. — Speech from the 
Throne, -^Debates thereon in both Houses, — Moved in the Peers by 
the Earl of Galloway, — Amendment moved by the Duke of Norfolk. — 
Tftis Amendment seconded by Lord Sidmouth, — Opposed by the Earl 
of Aberdeen. — Supported by Lord Grenvillc—Opjwsed by lufrd 
Hawkesbury* — Supported by the EmH of Lauderdale. — Opposed by 
Lord Mulg^'ove, — Tlte Amendment rejected. — In the House of .Com* 
snono the Address moved by Lord Hamilton,^-Motionfor the Address 
seconded by Mr. C. Ellis. — Observations by Lord Milton respecting 
the Attack on Copenhagen, ^^Speech of Air. Ponstpiby, and Notice of a 
Motion respecting the affair of Copenhagen^ — 7ne Addre^€ supported 
hf Mr, Milnes. — Strictures on the Address by Mr, Whiibread. — 
Speech of Mr. Canning in support of the Address, — Lord H, Petty 
against the attack on Copenhagen. — Air. BathUrst ditto, — Mr, Wind- 
ham ditto. — "Reply of Mr. PercevaL — The Question car&ied without a 
Division. — Report of the Address, — Fresh Debutes. 

THE wonderful events tliat^isd were^brought into discussion in the 

come to pass on the^ continent iinperial parliament of Great Britain 

of Europe in the summer and au- and Ireland, that was assembled on 

tumn of 1807, formed a great por- the 3 ist of January, 1808. iL.is 

tiou of the various sulyects that therefore proper, in the history of 
Vor.. L. [B] this 



J 



I ^.?_ 



AJ^NUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



this year, fof the sake of order, 
both chronolbgical and natuttl, in 
the first place to give some account 
of the proceedings and debates of 
this great national council; the 
only great council in Europe in 
which political afiairs could be treat- 
ed with freedom. The attention of. 
parliament towards the close of the 
session was rouzed with equal impor- 
tunity by the most unexpected eveuts 

^ iH the west of Europe : events which 
seemed to be as fortuuqtcand bright, 
as those in the north and east bad 
been disastrous and cloudy. Though 
therefore }Hirliainentary aflMrs con* 
stitute only a secondary and subof- 
dinate part of the history of Europe, 
in the present case, they form, a 
very natural bond of connexion be- 
tween the great events of 1807 atnd 
those of 1808. 

• The speech frmajhc throne*, 
dieliver^d by comroissioRl turned as 

. usual on tbfc great public' questions 
that would come under discussion 
in parliament ; the most important 
of which were the expedition to 
Copenha*;en ; our relations with 
Russia, Austria, and Sweden ; tbe 
departure of the royal family of 
Portugal for the Brazils ; and the 
orders in council respecting neutral 
commerce. In rile house of peers 
^ an add ress, in answer t||^his majesty's 
speech, was moved by the earl of 
Galloway, who recapituhited with 
great approbation its most promi- 
nent features. In the speei^h from 

' tbe throne, tlnir lordships liad been 
informed, that soon after tbe treaty 
of l^lsit had announced the dire- 
liction of Russia, of tbe cauae she; 
had espoused, his Majesty's minis- 
ters received th« most positive in- 
formation that it was the intention 



•f the enemy to compel the courts 
of Denmark and Portugal to sub*, 
scribe their navies to a general con* 
federapy about to be formed against 
this country. This formidable 
combination had been frustrated 
with res|)ect to Denmark by force 
of arms. The hostile sentiments 
of the court of Denmark, evinced 
in many ways for some years past, 
had rendered every other mo<le of* 
proceeding useless. It was an un- 
fortunate circumstance that the 
Danish fleet should be encircled bjj^ 
the walls of the capital^ thereby 
causing misfortune which every ha- 
roan mind would wish?^ have 
avoided. But it was credlrffble to 
the arms of this country, and meri- 
torious in the ofljcers commanding 
the expedition, that every attempt 
was made to prevent that evil. As 
tsoon as success had enabled us to 
judge for ourselves, every predic- 
tion of govemmenf had been veri'^ 
tied* An arsenal was found to be 
over supplied wilb every article of 
equipment, magazines replete with 
stpres, ascertained to have been 
purchased by agents of France, and 
demonstrations which could not 
escape the eye of seamen, that tl^e 
fleet was on tlie eve of being fitted 
out. It was gratifying to reflect on 
the meau^ that had been empA>yed 
'to secure the navy of Portugal from 
the grasp of France, by recom- 
mending to tbe court to transfer the 
seat'inf their government to the 
Brazils ; to see one government of 
Europe preferring emigration to sub- 
mission to France, an event from 
which, provided a strict friendship 
and liberal policy should be observed 
by both Britain and Portugal, the 
most beneficial results were to • be 



State Paper9> page 296. 



f 



expected 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



expected. It was gratifying also 
to reflect, tiiat at the very luoraetit 
wben our n^ercnants were deprived 
of their trade with Russia, so large 
a portion of the continent of Ame- 
rica wskt thrown open to their enter- 
prize. He hoped that we should 
becofoe independent of Russia for 
evfr. If the legblature of these 
kbirdonis would grant a hberal 
bounty to encourage the cultiration 
r4 hemp and flax, both at home and 
in the British colonies, we might 
▼el live to greet the day of our 
quarrel with Russia, and even hail 
f^ith satisfaction the inauspicious 
treaty of Tilsit. 

With respect to the other powers 
of Europe^ lord (xalloway observed, 
tbdt with the single exception of 
Sweden, they were prostrate at the 
itet of France, and obedient to the 
maodates of their domineering 
master. But the conduct and spirit 
 of the independent, monarch of 
Sweden merited every ^ulogium. 
He trusted that a British iforce 
would aid him in the Baltic to defy 
hb eoemies, and that Brilisli grati- 
tude HTOuld compensate any loss he 
might be obliged tosuficr, by trans- 
ferring to faim some of those colo- 
nies we could so well spare, and 
niust soon take from our joint foes. 
As to our dispute with the Uuited 
Slates of America, local knowledge 
obtained by him at the early periods 
of the French revolution had en- 
abled faiflfi to form a very deckled 
< 'pinion with respect to that country, 
au4 be was sorry to say, he could ' 
z'A form a flattering one; and he 
«is batppj to learn by tlie tenour • 
e>/kb niajestys speech, that it was 
ihA the iotention of bis majesty's 
govtmment to concede one single 
point more to that illiberal and pre- 
jud/ced people. ** My lords/' said 



he, " we must make a stand some- 
where, and wliere can we do it bet- 
ter than in defence of our se<imen 
and our trade, which the Ameri- 
cans unequivocally demanded ? If 
America prefer French alliance to 
British connection, it is not in vour 
power to contfbul her choice, nor 
can you prevent that war which I 
do not wish to take place ; but 
which, if it does take place, I am 
confident, if pursued by us with 
jtidgment and reference to the 
American -cliaracter and situation^ 
no man need to fear/' But lord 
Galloivagr observed, our chief con- 
cern was with Finance ; •* She pro- 
claims, my lords, that she will 
not lay down her arms, but will 
augment Iter force until she 
has conquered the liberty of the 
seas, the first right of all nations. 
In recommendiag to us an armed 
truce, which site calls a peac6, she. 
says, ' it- shall endure until she 
chooses to proclaim anew the prin- 
ciples of her armed neutrality,"' 
when she permits you to proclaim 
your principles of maritime law. 
Is 4his what you are willing to ac- 
cept as your peace ? -Have we al- 
ready forgot the peace of Amiens ? 
Do we wish to see the seamen of 
France all restored, and the pend- 
ants of her ^Aij^s going up, wiiile 
ours will necessarily be coming 
down? My lords, although the 
arms of Europe may appear on the 
side of France, I cannot believe 
th^t her heart is against this coun- 
try. If we remain firm and lAtap- 
palled, as recommended by his 
majesty, and exemplified by hii0- 
self,« some balance may yet be pre-- 
served in £u^ope ; if we yield, no 
man can forsee the consequences/' 
Ttie earl concluded by moving an 
address to his majesty, whicl^ as 
[B 2] usual. 



ANNUAL REGISTER, isos. 



usual, re-echoed the sentiments of 
the speech* This motion was se- 
conded by lord Ken;v6u, who 
dwelt chiefly on the passage in tl^e 
speech which related to the emi- 
gration of the court of Portugal to 
the Brazil, and the spirit with 
which mini.^ters con^iucted them- 
selves in not surrendering the naval 
rights of this country to the Annrir 
c^ns. The duke of Norfolk was 
sorry that it would }Jt impossible for 
him to give his unqualified assent to 
the address as it stooc^. The speech . 
from the throne declared, that it 
was with the deepest relu#iuce his 
majesty had found himself com- 
pelled to resort to the extremity of 
force against Denmark* Now the 
duke» looking in the most carefiil 
inahner to^he speech, did not per- 
ceive that it was in the contempla- 
tion of his majestj('a servants to af*- ' 
ford to the house an^ such infor- 
mation qnh the subject as should 
ens|^le them to say that they saw 
reason for concurriog in a declara- 
tion that there was a necessity for 
the measure. He was aware it 
would' be said that every species of 
discretion sbould be observed in 
exposing matters of such delicacy. 
This principle^ and the propriety of 
acting upon it« in roost cases, he 
was far fj*om disputing ; but be 
thought it was carryhig the doctrine 
too nir to desfre of that house to 
express their opinion of the necessity, 
of a measure of so ex.treme a nature, 
; without the most dlstaut tittle of 
evidence to jttstify it. His grace 
herefore moved* that the clause re- 
specting the expediliop to theBaltic, 
in th^ redress, should be omitted. 

The an^ndm^t proposed was 
seconded -by lord visount Sid- 
mouth. The speech referred to 
the fad of hiss majesty haviDg 



been apprised of tbe^ intentioif 
of the enemy to combine the 
powers of the contineut in one gen* 
era! coofederacy, to be directed 
either to the entire subjugation of 
this kingdom, or to the imposing: 
upon his majesty an insecure and 
inglorious peace ; that for this pur- 
pose, states formerly neutral, were 
to be forced into hostility, and 
compelled to bfuig to bear against 
the different parts of his majesty's 
dominions, the whole of the naval 
force of Europe, and specifically 
the fleets of Portugal and Denmark. 
If this were really the case^ it would 
be a complete justification of the 
conduct of this country, not only 
in our own eyes, but those of the 
whole world. For the moment a 
nation, meditates liostility against 
you, that is to be regarded as a 
declaration of war. But then^ to 
give effect to this justification, some 
proof of its existence must be ad- 
duced. " A hostile disposition," it 
had been said, on the part of the 
Danish government towards this 
country^ bad manifested itself for 
the last seven years ; and the fact 
of their having acqeded to the views 
of.France^ was evident from the 
immense quantity of stores and 
ammunition fouud in their arsenals. 
Lord S^ asked if it was consiste&t 
with humap reason, or even with the 
words of the speech itself, in an- 
other paragraph, that the court of 
Deifbark should be in amity with 
France at a time when France was 
carrying on hostilitiesagainst Rossiat 
01* if it could be supposed, that be- 
tween the|)eriod of the battle whicli 
preced«4:^he..p^ace of Tilsit, and 
our attack dii .Cc^pefihagen, these 
stores had' be^tii Gollecled ? Where 
then were the demonstrations^ of 
hostility manifbted ou, the part of 
« Denikiark 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



Denmark against this country? 
Wlierf were licr armies ? In Hol- 
stein. Wliere wa!^ her fleet 1. Lying 
iti ordinaij. Her ariuifs, so far 
from l)eing in hostile movement 
ajBpii''St us, were, to the number of 
^0«000 men, encamiMMJ in Hofstein, 
guarding against the hostile move- 
nients of the Trench. Had they 
been in Zeabind, ue might not so 
easily have l>eeii at)te (o congratu- 
late ourselves on the victory we 
obtained. Her nuvy, so far from 
meditating ho&tiHties against us, was 
surprized, the greater part of it in 
a stills of complete disrepair. It 
was said tiiat the French tvould 
have seized on Holstehi, and from 
tiience might have easily passed ov^r 
into Zealand. This, his ^lordship 
understood, was by no nJtans so 
ea^iy as was imagined ; such a Jrost 
eeld<>m occurred as to afford a com- 
fortable passage from the one pbce 
to the other: and even when it did 
so dappen the people of Zealand 
might break the ice nearest to their 
own side. And, supposing that the 
French might thus have got pos- 
session of the Danish uavy, what 
nse could they have nmde of it 7 
What had we to dread from the 
atldttion of sixteen sail of the tine, 
of such ships as those of Denmark 1 
£ven before theiiatlle of Trafalgar 
we could have had notliing to dread 
from such an accession of strength 
to OUT enemy, far less now. ^ We 
were \6\d that hostile dispositions, on 
the part of the northern powers, had 
begun to shew themselves ever since 
the peace of Tilsit. Why then had 
we sAlowed a Russian flee^ice that 
time to pass through Hie iKditerra- 
nean, and three sail ofihe line belong" 
ing to Russia to go unmolested, at 
the very same time the Danish fleet 
wa8 seized on 1 Would it not have 



been more magnanimous to have 
attacked the powerful than the 
weak ? It was known that the minds 
of the inliabitants of Petersburgh 
were favomrabletothis country. Our 
fleet, by ptesenting itself at a proper 
time before that capital, might have 
gained possession of it, and thus 
Sweden would have been saved ; 
and Denmark, wlio was as much 
our friend as Russifi was our ally. 
Would have been spared. This mode 
of warfare his lordship objected to, 
particularly as tending to overturn 
the law of nations.llt would have been 
more becoming in Great Britain to 
oppose our honour and good faith' 
to our enemy's mode of warfare. 

The earl of Aberdeen defendy^d 
the expedition to Copenhagen. Of 
the law of nations, sclf-protection 
was a' principle. Much h^d been 
said of the extraordinary and un*- 
precedented nature of this expedi« 
tion. ; hut there was a precedent 
fot it in the conduct of the late ad- 
ministration towards Turkey. And 
he did not conceive it to be more 
probable, that the Turkish fleet 
should sail into the Eiq^isb channel 
than the Danish. ^ 

Lord Grenville said, that from 
the commencement of the war in 
1793* down to (he termination of 
the illustrious administration of the 
illustrious Mr. Pitt, in no speech 
from the throne, at the commence* 
ment of a session, were parliament 
called upon to pledge themselves in 
support of measures >>ithout evi- 
dence before tbeni of their neces^ty, 
propriety, or utility. In no case 
were tliey called upon to approve 
of measures before the papers re? 
latiug to them were produced^ 
whereon a judgiuent might befonur 
ed according to the evidence of the 
case t yet, in the present instance, 

[B 3] miubtens 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1803. 



niinisters depaitiD^ from so salutary 
a rait, not only caHed opoD parlia- 
nient to approve of measores which 
nothing but absolute necessity could 
joslify^ and respecting the necessity 
of which not a tittle of endencehad 
been produced, but bad even called 
upon them to a|)plaud other mea- 
sures now, reinfecting which papers 
were to. be produced hereafter. 
There was on the continent of Eu- 
rope a great reliance on the integrity 
and justice of the British parlia- 
ment ; and it looked with anxiety 
for the decision of this council on 
the motives and policy of the expe- 
dition to <Iopenhageri. This had 
already made an impression througli- 
out 4be continent unfavourable to 
this country. How niuch greater 
would that impression be, if par- 

' liameiit should give its decision ap- 
proving of that expedition 1 And 
still 'more, if it should do so, wilh*^ 
out any evi(;lence or information on 
the subject. Ministers had asserted, 
that there were secret articles in the 
treaty of Tilsit afiecting the inter- 
ests of this country, and the French 
government, asserted there were 
none. Here then wasn challenge ; 
' and it was incumbent on ministers 
to prove that there were such arti- 
cles, but this they had not attempted 

, to do ; and in the speech from the 
throne had given up the assertion 
they had formerly made, of the 
existence of those secret articles, in 
his majebty's declaration respecting 
Russia. That circumstances might; 
exist which Ip^ould inu>era lively jus- 
tify such an expedition ar that to 
Copenhagen, was admitted by the 
most approved writers on the law 
of nations. , The same writers, how* 
ever, statecT the dreadful conse- 
quences that would result from the 



application of such a doctrine, un« 
less the imperative circumstances 
were clearly proved and accurately 
defined. The daiiger ought to be 
cU^rly established,. and the inability 
of the neutral state to defend itself. 
With respect to the Danish fleet, 
which it had been said was in a state 
of preparation, was it not natural 
when all the powers around her 
were at war, thai she should be in 
a state of preparation ? Bift if be 
had not been grossly misinformed, 
so far from this being the case, the 
greater part of the Danish ships 
were laid up in ordinary. 1^ wasr 
contended, that because French 
troops occupietl Holstein, Zealand 
must fall of course, but tbis was not 
at all proved ; on the contrary^ 
there vere between Holslein and 
Zealand two |>as$ages, of the sea ; 
the one six, and the other sixteen 
miles wide, which a French army 
must cross to invade Zealand, and 
where they might b^ met with effect 
by British or Danish shipd. It 
might as well be s-aid, that England 
inust be conquered by the French 
because they occupy the continent 
of France, there being only a chan- 
i)el twenty-one miles broad between 
Calais and Dover, as that Zealand 
must fall if fiolstein were occupied 
by French troops. It had been 
argued by the noble lord who spoke 
last, that the expedition to Copen- 
hagen had a precedent in that to ' 
Constantinople, Supposing the ex- 
pedition to Constantinople to have 
been an instance of bad faith, bow 
is that to justify another instance of 
bad faith ? T%e fact however was» 
that the <ftpe4ilion to Turkey was 
chiefly in confoifnity witb the treaty 
with Russia, and that its object 
was not to seize the Turkish fleets 

bu^ 



II 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



but to enforce the execntion of trea- 
ties. 

Willi regard to the two proposi- 
tions maintained by ministers, tint, 
that we should not enter into a ne- 
gociation unless the basis thereof 
should be previously slated; and, 
secondly, that we sliould not avail 
ourselves of the mediation of any 
power not perfectly impartial, or 
suspected of partii^ity to the epetjiy. 
Lord G. could . not cohceive any 
thing more preposterous. The se- 
cond proposition was |ieculiarly un- 
tenable, because we do not accept 
a mediator as an umpire, but merely 
as amediumof facilitaUng our com- 
munication with the enemy. If the 
mediator be partial to 'the enemy, 
what injury can result to us? We 
are not bound by his sentiments, 
and we may avail ourselves of his 
interposition, by rejecting which \ve 
may provoke him to declare against 
us. Such precisely had been the 
case with respect to Russia. As to 
the first proposition there were not 
in the whole history of this, or any 
other civilized country, any precer 
dents to be found for sustaining it. 
With respect to that topic of the 
speech which rehited to PortugaJ, 
the simple questions were, what we 
had lost, and whf|t we had gained 
by the emigration to Portugall We 
had lost, as a publication of the ene- 
my had lately stated, * two of tlie 
most important ports for us on the 
whole coast of the continent of Eu- 
rope, Lbbon and Oporto. And, 
with regard to the transmarine pos- 
sessions of PortujQil, he asked what 
we had obtained, more than what 
we possessed before, by the pre- 
sence of the Prince of Brasil in 
that settlement? How would the 
Brazils be made more productive 
for this country, by any other imeans 



than those which would tend to the 
consummate ruin of our own colo- 
nies ? f n so far as the emigration in 
question manifested any friendship 
tor us, or ds it presented a contrast 
to the conduct of other princes, it 
certainly formed a grateful subject ' 
for the contetpplation of maokind, 
and ofcongrfltulation to that house. 
But as to the commercial or politi- 
cal advantages to be derived fnmi if 
to this country, he could not consent 
to delude his countrymen by holdr 
lug out sMch ideas. 

In reviewing tlie dreadful cata- 
logue of evils which surrounded or 
menaced this country, he believed 
that the greatest additional calamity 
for us, and the greatest advantage 
for France tliat could be well ima- 
gined, would be a war with Ame- 
rica. Such, indeed, was the lan- 
guage of ministers themselves. And 
yet what had been their conduct? 
Why, at the very time it was most 
material to avoid such a war, they 
absolutely altered the law of the 
land to promote it. Ministers stated, 
and in that Lord G. agreed with 
them, that no difficulty or danger 
could befal the country equal to 
that of. acquiescing in the surrender 
of our maritime rights. If America 
put forth such a claitn, then a call 
upon parliament and the country to 
resist it would be unanimously an- 
swered in tbeaf^rmaUve. But Ame- 
rica had not asserted feny such claim: 
-^ The speech. Lord G. observed, 
studiously separated the two ques- 
tions involved in our controversy 
with America, namely, that of the 
Gl^esapeak, and that relating; to our 
orders of council. But those ques- 
tions would not be separated in 
America, nor yet in discussion here. 
In examining the orders of council, 
they were to be consideced in three 

[ B 4 ] point 



8 



ANNUAL REGISTER, i808. 



poiots of view ; first, as affecting our 
commerce ; secondly, the consiitu- 

. tioii ; and . lastly, our negocialion 
with, America. When all the papers 
relative to this important question 
, shoulii be laid ]^efore the houi>e, it 
would be the duty of the house 
particularly to enquire, whether his 
majesty's goverument could consti- 
tutionally enact such prohibitions as 
these orders of council contain ; 
next, wheiher the time chosen for 
issuing these orders was not pecu* 
liariy exceptionable, as tending so 
much to inflame the minds of tlie 
Americans, already so strongly ex« 
cited against us; and also, whether 
we had any sight thus to anQil^ilA^^ 
the whole trade of America : thus 
to say to that power, as our orders 
distinctly expressed, " No^ a ship 
of yours shall sail which shall not 
be subject to contiscatioii by us, or 
to conditions which ^hall subject it 
. to c(>nfiscatioii by the enemy*" 
Lord G. asked, whether such lan- 
guage was reconcileable with any 
]a\y or usage, or principle of equity? 
On what grounds co^uld the para- 
graph in the speech relate to the 
necessity of the orders in council I 
The pkiin interpretation of this pa- 
ragraph was, ** that we had been 
too long caring on a most unequal 
contest of juilice against injlislicc." 
Could that great man, Mr. Pitt, 
look down from heaven upon this 
declaration, lipw much would be 
deprecate the sentiment, " that we 

> ought to terminate the unequal coa- 
tesl of justice against in,j.ustice ?*' 
It wa^ to the pruiciple which sus- 
tained justice against injustice th^ 
we owed pur consequence, cbarac- 

' ter, and safely. ' Jt was this prii^ 
ciple that animated our army and 
navy, which upheld t)ie spirit of the 
peoplCi^ and wliich^ if ne should 



abandon, we would ^jnk into ^batnc 
and degradation. 

Lord Grenville concluded a long 
speech, of which we h^ve only giveu 
briefly the substance, as all the to- 
pics lie handled afterwards becaipe 
subjects of separate discussion, with 
an earnest representation of the im- 
portance and necessity of an inqui- 
ry into the stale of Ireland, with a 
view to the adoption of measures 
calculated to conciliate the popula- 
, tion of that country. 

LordHawkesbury having observed, 
that ministers could not be expected 
to pohit out the precise quarter and 
channel from which they had re- 
• ceived their information respecting 
the arrangements atTils<^ said, that 
even if ministers entertained any 
doubt of their in formation respect- 
ing what passed at Tilsit, it must 
long siuce have vanislicd. The in- 
formation received through the chan- 
nel alluded to was corroborated by a 
variety of otlier channels wholly un- 
connected with eacHpother. It was 
corroborated by the, testimony of 
the government of Portugal, to 
whom it was proposed to make 
common cause with the continent 
against England, and to unite their 
fleet with that of Spain^ of France, 
and of Denmark, to enable the con- 
federacy to make a general attack 
on these islands. It was corrobo* 
rated by the testimony of di^ereitt 
persons in Ireland, where all the de- 
signs and projects of the enemy 
were most speedily known, and 
where it was pron^ised, that the 
combined fieet» of Spain, Portugal, 
and Denmark, should make a de- 
scent on both Ireland «|nd Britain* 
but the principal one oa Ireland. — > 
A wish had Ijeep expressed tiiat we 
bad proceeded to Groiistadt, and 
seized the Bus&ian fleet, l(;avi^g the 

Danish 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



D^ish flfet of fiinteeo sail of tbe line 
t^hird us ! ! Besides, tbe Russian 
dett was not so ready for sea, nor so 
ui:! calculated in any respect as the 
Danish fleet to carry the designs of 
the enemy into execution. Fur- 
tkr, Ihere were many circumstances 
in !i)f treaty of Tilsit which indis- 
p< sed tlie people of Russia against 
tJi3t treal>: and even Ot tbe lime the' 
seizure of the Danish fleet was 
kjtown al Petersburghy the emperor 
Ale\au(ier seemed more inclined 
t}<au before to renew hb relations 
7>ithtius country. As to all that 
v^ii ur^ed against the orders in 
council, and against the treatment 
('i America, while a negociation 
uhh Aniebca was on foot, it was 
lioublless better to abstain from a 
(i-^usiion that would tend only 
(mtluT to inflame the niiuds of the 
tuo countries, lie lamented the 
(uicuUed-for mentioo of the state of 
Irrldod. The concessions alluded 
to by^tlie noble baroD could not 
cow be thought of. Indeer^ eves 
ii' ibese cowicessioas were made, stilt 
luore would be called for, and there 
«(>u!d be no end of such demands. 

The earl of L^wdecdale replied 
to lord Hawkesbury, and strongly 
vr;'P(J the cooststutionfti necessity oif 
•i biil of indemnity ftnr tbe orders of 
counciL 

Lord Mulgrave ad Quitted* tlial 
rf iilter at the time af rejecti«g the 
Uassias mecUati^n, por.al this qio- 
meat, liad governioeiii any copy of 
ii't: secret articles of the treaty of 
TiUit. They were in possession of 
^cret projects^ biU could only as* 
^rt«Qotadduce proof of their nature^ 

The duke of Norfolk's moticm, 
to omit tbe fourth paragraph iu tbe 
{proposed address U> t)ie throne, re- 
specting the seizure of tbe Dani^ 
fieet; and aiK>tb«r amendflMMit by 



lord Grenville, declaratory if tbe 
opinion of tbe house, that it would 
neither be respectful to his nia- 
jebty, nor becoming the dignity 
of tiie house, to give an opi- 
nion «is to the propiiely of re- 
jecting the Russian mediation till 
the papers relative to that question 
were before the house, were both 
negatived without a division. The 
address was then agreed to, and or- 
dered to be presented. — Against the 
decision of the house res|)ecting the 
.seizure of the Danish fleets, pro- 
tests, with reasons of dissent, were 
entered bv . the duke of Clarence, 
lord Rawdon, tlie earl of Lauder- 
dale, the earl Grev, lord Vassal 
Holland, the duke of Norfolk, the 
viscount Sid mouth, and lord Erskine* 

On tbe same dav» Jan. 21, in 
the house of commons, as soon as 
tlie speech from tbe throne was read 
from the chair, 

Lord Hamilton rose, and in a 
maidca speech moved the address. 
AAer a review of the extraordinary 
state of Europe, the difficulties and 
dan&:ers that eavitoned our Gonairy» 
and the success aod the glory witk 
which it had made head against aM 
these; be said, that in the regret 
which bis majesty liad ex|>ressed at 
being compelled to adopt hostile 
measures against Denmark^ 'the 
bouse would undoubtedly join ; but 
it would be a regiet ufiiptxed witk 
ref>rQikb: for, after lAw tt-ealy of 
Tilsil, and tlie subsequent conduct 
of Russia and Dennuirk, i| was ini«- 
possible tliat any nan could doubt 
of a.combinatioo of powers having 
J)eeii formed against us. Too long 
bad the commoa enemy of Europe 
been permitted to proceed in hb 
career of violence- to neutral powers 
for tbe aggrandvemeot oi his owo« 
Thaft the expedition to Coptabagea 

was 



10 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



M^as most iinportaBty and most cri- 
. tkaL everv one must have felt wlien 
it nvas brought to a determination ; 
every oiie must now be sensible 
that H was most wise. He chal- 
lenged the annaisof Europe to pro- 
duce an instance of a warlike en- 
terprize, in which so much entreaty 
had been resorted to before success, 
and samuch forbearance manifested 
after it< What his majesty's mini- 
sters had planned with decision, 
they had carried into effect with a 
force which could not leave to tlie 
Danes any hope of triumphing in a . 
contest. And he confessed, that he 
could no more consider the Danish 
govemment'as justified in sacrificing 
the lives' of so many gallajit men in 
.ahoplesB resistance, than he could 
admire the heroism of the prince, 
who^ himself escaping from the 
dangers with which he was environ^ 
ed, coolly devoted his capital to 
destruction, and its inhabitants to 
slaughter. Accustomed as we had 
been lately to witness extraordinary 
events, he could not avoid expres- 
sing his astonishment at seeing the 
emperor of Russia,^ the champion of 
. the continent, secured by his situa- 
tion from the calamities which had 
' overtaken other countries, volunta- 
rily put the la^ hand to the degra- 
dation of the continental powers of 
Europe ; to see him descending 
firom the proud eminence on which 
he had been placed, for the purpose , 
of violating his engagements, and 
crouching under the throne of that^ 
usurper, whom he bad so lately in- 
sulted and defied. The contrast 
which the firmness and magnanimity 
of the king of Sweden displayed^ 
commanded equally our adnuralion. 
and support. And lord H. was 
9tire, that the house would gladly 
enable his majesty not only to fulfil 



his engagements to that gallant 
prince, but also to sliew to the 
world, that it was hot by the qnan- 
tum of immediate interest that we 
measured our national faith and 
friendsbipw 

Of many important subjects of 
consideration presented by his ma- 
jesty's speech, none were more iin- 
portaut than the principle adopted, 
and the steps taken by our govern- 
ment, to fhistrate .the enemy's de- 
signs against our commerce : the 
principle of retaliation and self-de 
fence. — In a moment of frenzy, 
France had issued edicts levelled 
against our commerce. Had the 
objects of these measures been at- 
tained, had they even partially crip- 
pled bur means, the consideration 
that a temporary distress to our- 
selves was utter ruin to ouk* oppo- 
nents, must have induced us to per- 
severe in the contest with tranquil- 
lity and firmness ; but the very re- 
verse was the fact. So far from our 
means being diminbhed, Although 
the difierent branches of < our com- 
merce might vary in extent, the ag- 
gregate exceeded that of the most 
prosperous period of our history: 
jnsomuch that his majesty, in his 
roost gracious speech, expressed his 
confidence, that nomatermi increase 
of the burthens of his people would 
be necessary. 

There was on6 subject, from the 
contemplation of which unalloyed 
pleasure must be derived iif every * 
point of view ; namely, the rescue 
from the power of France of one 
of the oldest and most faithful of 
our allies, jtransferred from a coun- 
try weak and indefensible to one se- 
cure and powerful : an occurrence 
which afibrd^ a field for the most 
brilliant anticipations, commercial 
and political. Lord Hamilton tlien 

\ said. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



11 



said, that under the impression of 
the feelings which he experienced, 
he ^ibould move that an humble ad- 
dress should be presented to his 
majesty, &c. The address, which, 
as usual, was an iecbo to the speech, 
being read by the ^ clerk at the 
table, 

Mr. C. Ellis seconded the mo- 
tion. With respect to the design 
entertained by France, of compel- 
ling Denmark to jciin the confede- 
racy asainst Great BHtain, if mi- 
nisters were in possession in July 
of the information alone, which had 
since been publicly disclosed, they 
would have failed in tneir duty if 
they had not acted as they did. A 
similar attempt had beeu made by 
France on Portugal. But the 
frankness of the court of Lisbon, 
and .its determmation neither to 
lend its aid to the confederacy a- 
gainst Great Britain, nor to aban- 
c|on British persons and pro|)erty to 
the. possession of ^be French, eo- 
titled it to the confidence of his ma- 
jest) 's government, and justified it 
in pursuing a line of conduct dif- 
ferent from that adopted in the case 
of Denmark. Adverting to the Rus- 
sia:! declaration, he contended, that 
a character very difierent from that 
of Russia marked the compositioi^ 
not only in the sort of argument 
made use of, but in the peculiari- 
ties of the style, which, if not 
French, was the most happy imita- 
tion of French that he had ever 
seen. The magnanimity of his ma- 
jesty in offering reparation for in- 
jury to the United States of Ame- 
rica, was most praise worthy. He 
trusted the Anglo-Americans would 
see that it was not their true policyi 
to unite themselves to France. We 
had ample means of carrying on 
war. In our navy we had not only 



the most efficient defence, but a' 
greater power of active hostility 
than, perhaps,; we ourselves were 
yet aware of. By exerting our na- 
val force in every possible direction, 
we 'might shew the eneiny that a 
predominant navy give^ a power 
scarcely inferior to Uiat of a con- 
quering army. 

Lord viscount Milton regretted, 
that ministers had not expressed 
their willingness to enter into a ne- 
gotiation, on suitable terms, for 
peace. At the same time,. he did not 
approve of any idle •clamoui's for 
peace before the terms of negotia- 
tion should be ascertained. The 
attack on Copenhagen he consider* 
ed to be prima facie ui^ustifiable. 
Copenhagen was letlt defenceless, 
while the Danish troops were pour- 
ing towards Hoktein, thus eviiidng 
an unaffected confidence in the 
^ amity of the British nation, and at 
the same time a sincere distrust of the 
French army. Yet he did not deny 
that there might have been circum- 
stances as yet unrevealed, by which 
the attack on that capital might be 
•justified. 

Mr. Fonsonby observed* that his 
majesty's speech embraced such a 
variety of topics, that it was not 
easy to express one's sentiments 
upon it. Had it been made known, 
as -was tlie usual custom, two or 
three> days before it was delifered, 
members would have had Iciss difl 
ficulty in stating their opinions upon 
its contents. And this was the more 
to be wished, that it was the longest 
perhaps that was* ever heard from 
the throne since th^ days of James 
I. Its principal object be under- 
stood to be, the elueidation of onr 
relations of peace and war with 
other powers. But before he coold 
deliver an opinion of the conduct* 

on 



12 ANNUAL REGISTER, f808. 



oQ/rrhich these retationji depended, 
he tniist be in ponsf ssion of the cor<- 
icsfiDiiclefice wliich had laketi place 
bet\%eefi our own government and 
the governmeuts of Ibreign nations. 
It was right in ministers to assume 
an attitude of di^tv, worthy, of the 
diaracter'and resoiirres of thet:oiin- 
try. Whether a prolongation of 
tfie frar with France, or the com- 
^neiicement of tMstilities with other 
powers was tlie only alternative lefl " 
118, he was nor in possession of in* 
formalion 8ufficie«it to fonn an opi- 
nion. The liovse, he asserted, was 
equalW destitute of information on 
tbie .queslfoa relative to America 
and neutral nations. There was 
amotlKf miliject of mnch^ import*- 
aace, which migflit liave been jntro- 
iiatted into ttie spt* edi, natnely, the 
present state of Irekind. A^ to the 
aikir of €>rtipea^(Een, he would on 
a ftitvre oocasioH nie^^e for the pro^ 
tlvctioD'oi^iieccBsary documents, 90 
that it m^rht, at least, be fairly 
bi^ongbt-iiito diseAseio*. 
. Mr. MitneSk itfMr m enlo^ <m 
Ibe ptfaienir advnimstration, ol^i^^ 
ed, that it would indeed hatebeeik 
inD^poiitic't# achpt tfny measiive by 
vMdi thedmrairfer of the eouatr^ 
might be affeetoci, if the powers of 
Europe retained tlieir iadeiietidetice, 
if Ibe f oiiretwkeiit of Deamerfk'hM 
Veeo fratf to (Mm that edtirse 
wincb itft honour and interest dieta^ 
ted^ But' there was Qot a pMH»t ptt 
the coMliatnt wbioh eould bai« re* 
anted the maadates #f the* enemy. 
Itwaathafirstdutyef liniiisfers to 
act opb» tKe neeessiry of th« elMe, 
aMbM Witt «quaHylh«ir dai^ td trse 
tfaair disctfelioii in ji^{»ii^g of that 
iMPBSMtyi^ And'ify itvudling upon^ ¥^i 
Hiiyr watv t4* arr at al, it wa» bM 
that itRiry fibottid^ evr upon the sMe* 
<rf fwbKc «ecat>ity. If D^itmark 



bad been really worse disposed to* 
wards this country than she was, 
could slie have pursued any other 
course than that precisely which 
she had followed 1 The exti;^ordi« 
,narj concentration of French troops 
oh the frontiers of Hdlslein, the 
submission of Denmark to the de- 
crees of France, and heh remon- 
strances agauist ouriiiaritime rights, 
together with her active and for- 
midable naval equipments, were 
sufficient evidences of her submis- 
sion to Buonaparte. — Was Buona- 
parte's system, that *' all Europe 
should be devoted, excepting pen- 
mark?" With a large navy, with a 
more extended commerce, and with 
the kevs of the Baltic id her hand. 
"Would be have allowed her to re- 
main as a monument of reproach to 
^he I'Assalage of surroundins coim- 
tries, and -to have broken the con* 
thruity of flte chain whlcb binda 
every country of Europe? It was 
the declared opmioh of a noble 
iWd (Miltoit) that the expedition 
slioitM be condemned, because the 
ttfivfn pnnc^ w'as iM tlobteiti, and 
Ms" forces unprepai;ed iht action. 
9lrtfnge vti that sefitiment might ap« 
peat to hiaf «Arhid, it exerted no snr- 
prne. It i^as a doctrine of the 
•ehool of which th^ noWe'ford' w^as 
a diseipKe, or= perhaps the leader. 
Atid when a ildblef lord (Petty) an- 
tronnded, tfeal then: motto waJ — 
•* Noi Bt^tftR Setvawms Sectmdis ;" 
ot that they wonM ne^r afford any 
assisftince to friends till they were 
ia* a' condition not to want it, be 
cdtttd riot btH* thhdt the advke of 
the noble Vord perflklly' natural, 
that We sboilM never resist ati ene- 
m^ tM heshotdd be in a cohtfition 
«6 despise' ou^ resistance. As. to 
peace, Buoaapt<rte wt>nld certainfy, 
in Ms tek-ms, wish t6' qinestion our 

maritime 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



1^ 



marilij&e supr?inac>% a patrimony 
entailed apoo us, aiid therefore not 
a nwtter of oegoli^tiou ; minUters 
i»uuld jadge bow far .a peace was 
pfiimUiag under such ausp^ct-s.^ 
WcTt Buooaparte to abdi(;ate his 
tliiQQC, aod to depose ail his lui-* 
nlon princes ; were lie to restore to 
France ber legal governmeut, and 
to Europe her balance of power» 
tije} would not, ki his mind, be 
equivalents for the sacrifice of our 
commaiid al sea. — We hadi seen. 
the original pciuciples of reyolu* 
tionary devastation Mtled into a 
ava^e tyranny, which had arnied, 
b> its menacies or corruption, the 
rest of Eatope against us. We saw 
ibat it bad a leader pledged to our 
ruin, who, aft^r exhausting the other 
sources of bis malignity, renounced 
at length that commercial 4aw which 
mitigated the war to both, and con* 
verted into the instruments of his 
hostility the want and misery of his 
owu people! We saw, however, 
that in this spirit of destruction, 
disengaged from all its other ob- 
jects, aod concentrated on the down* 
hi of this smgle country, he had not 
sidvanced one single step towards 
H; that the time was still to come, 
v^ben the glories of the great na- 
tion were to burst on Britain, and 
^ben, execrating the oligarchy of 
cur coDstitulioD, we were to become 
^ppy in the monardiy he was to 
ei^e us. In tlie mean time, iie de* 
clared us blockaded, not by the 
presence and assaidt of his navies, 
^»il the consequent destruction ojf 
our comniercial strength, but . by 
ilmltiog the gates against his own 
siuppiog. Seeing all this, and re^ 
fieciiog how iar the predictions of 
Buooaparte had been fulfilled^ and 
00 whom thb spedea of warfare 
P^sed heaviest, the whole nation 



might learn a lesson of encourage* 
meot and of adiuonilion : to bear 
wl'at they had so steadily borne, 
an^l to command success by deserv* 
ing iL 

Mr. Whitbread said, that if Ikere 
was no other jUsUtication of tlie at*» 
tack on Denmark than what had 
been given that evening, he had ua 
hesitation in declaring it base and 
treacherous. He declared,, that he 
would ratiier have seen the fleet 
of Denmark in forced hostilities 
a^uinst us, manned by her sailors, 
acting under compulsion, than he 
would, after what had happened, 
see them moored in our own ports. 
In addition to the inveterate animo- 
sity of Denmark, to which this act 
had given rise, had it not also been 
the means of cutting off our com- 
munication with tlie continent, as 
well as of throwing Denmark into 
the hands of Franoett But we were 
told it would be dangerous .to grant 
the information desired. To whooK 
would it be dangerous 1 To mini- 
steral He verily believed they had 
rione to give. To those wfio gav* 
them the information on which the^^. 
acted ? This be could not well con- 
ceive, since they liad asserted their 
being in possession of it : and it 
was not very material, after avow« 
ing this fact, whether t)»ey imparted 
the substance of tlie infomialion or 
not. As to the fisurt in question it^* 
self, we had assertion against asser- 
tion: the assertion of the crown 
prince of Dennark. on Ibe ona 
handy and an assertion which mi- 
nisters had put inle the month of 
their sovereign on the other. And^ 
for his own part, lie had no liesita<^* 
tion in saying, tliat he gave credittn 
the former in preference to the lat^ 
ter. 

Sir, Whitbread here adverted 

to 



14 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



to expressioQS used by the noble 
lord who moved the address, highly 
derogatory to the courage of the 
crowB prince, and such certainly as 
never opgbt to have been applied to 
^y nuin who, like him, had been 
tried, or indeed to any man who 
was untried. He saw, however, 
witJt'regret and sorrow, that it was 
quite the fashion to deal out sar- 
casms, and sometimes abuse on 
those powers who, in consequence 
of the pressure of circumstancesi had 
been compelled to abandon our 
cause. He was fyr from thinking 
that the emperor Alexander had de- 
serted us in a moment of despon- 
dency and alarm as«had been stated, 
and was persuaded that he had been 
forced to the step he took by the 
necessity of the case. — As to the 
» emigration from Portugal, it was 
brought about by the menacing pro- 
clamation of Buonaparte, and the 
approach of a French army to Lis- 
bon, not, in any degree by the dex- 
terity and address of ministers, and 
their agent, lord Strangibrd, as had . 
been given out. — Of our relations 
with Vienna and Petersburgh, he 
would forbear to speak till the pro- 
mised papers were on the table ; 
but if the principles of common sense 
were applied to the present conjunc- 
ture, a more favourable opportu- 
nity for negotiating a peace with 
France could not be hoped for. 

Mr. secretary Canning was sur- 
prized, that Mr. Ponsonby should 
^ nave required a day's preparation 
to marshal his arguments or opi- 
nions on the matter of the ad- 
dress; to deliver his sentiments 
upon topics on which the public 
' mind bad iong since formed a de- 
cided opbiion. For the discussion 
of these, he had stated, as an addi- 
tional ground of delay, the necessity 



• of communications inspecting the 
intercourse between his majesty's 
ministers and the courts of Austria 
and Russia. — ^These powers were 
not in a bituatiou to mediate im- 
partially. If this fact should be 
proved by the notes to be produced, 
he hoped for Mr. P's. upprobation 
of ministers, in not- consenting to 
treat till' they should know upon 
what basis ; a question tbal had oc- 
cupied three months in the late ne- 
' gotialion. As to the expedition to 
Copenhagen, it was possible that 
Mr. P. might move for some in- 
formation that might be produced 
safely. But if he should move for 
the secret information on whicii 
that expedition was undertaken, as 
far as his judgment went, he be- 
lieved he would never have ocular 
conviction. — Was. it possible, that 
a time when there was no capital on 
the continent where the power of 
Buonaparte could not drag the of-* 
•fender against him to iexecdtioop 
should - be fixed on for divulgipj^ 
the sources of secret intelligence ? 
Was this country to isay to the 
agents who served it from fidelity, 
or froni less worthy motives, ** You 
shall serve us but once, and your 
life shall be the forfeitr-- What had 
happened to Portugal was suffici- 
ent to convince every fair thinking 
man of the truth of the infonnation 
respecting Denmark : for the com- 
munications from the Portuguese 
government related as well to the 
Danish as the Portuguese navy. 
In the expedition to Copenhagen 
the present ministers had the ex- 
ample of those before them. It 
was only necessary to apply to Den- 
mark the principle they h«i applied 
to Portugal; to threaten and co- 
erce secret enemies, or at least 
suspicious neutrals, intaead of old 

and 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



15 



and faithful allies. It was remark- 
able thai while the applicatioo of 
force at Copenhageo was condemn- 
ed by the gentlemen opposite, the 
non-applicalion of it at Lisbon was 
censured no less severely. But so 
it would have Been if the force had 
been applied at Lisbon and negoti- 
ation at Copenhagen. The Danish 
navy would have been lost by fool- 
ish confidence, and Portugal out- 
raged by unprincipled and impolitic 
violence. 

With respect to the late supposed 
negotiation for peace, Mr. C. declar- 
ed that no tangible overture had been 
made either by. the French or Aus- 
trian goveniment. With respect to 
the late orders of councilretaliating 
the restrictions of tlie French go- 
vernment on our commerce, he 
maintained our rii^ht to go as far as 
France, and make Frauce feel, in 
the effects of her own injustice, 
that we could hope to bring her to 
niore reasonable conduct. The vi- 
gour of the British navy, when put 
forth with a determination which the 
moderate spirit of our government 
had hitherto restrained, would prove 
equal to cope with the power that 
the tyrant of France had establish- 
ed at land. It would appear, that 
if he combined all the powers of the 
continent to oppress us, the combi- 
nation would but encrease our 
strength and energy, and make us 
triumph under our oppression. 

Lord H. PetU contended, that 
the principles of right and wrong 
were to be cionsidered in politics as 
well as philosophy, and on these 
men were to reason in general till 
a particular case was made out. It 
was a singular instance to be in a 
state of war with a power agaiq3t 
which there were no doouments to 



prove a hostile act. Lord Petty re- 
gretted very much that there should 
be so little in the speech about the 
temporary policy respecting Den- 
mark, and nothing at all abolit the 
permanent policy respecting Ire- 
land. 

Mr. Bathnrst contended, tliat all 
the danger that would arise from a 
communication of the particulars of 
the intelligence required, had t>een 
incurred already. He' was sur- 
prized that those who had examine 
ed whether Portugal could be de^ 
fended against France, Imd not 
also enquired into the practicability 
of defending Zealand, and whetlfer 
the Danes were able and disposed 
to defend themselves. 

Mr. Windham put the question 
if it was reasonable to call upon the 
country to approve of a proceeding 
in its nature involving the national 
character^ without alledging one hi- 
stance in proof of either the justice 
or policy of the measuTe ? As to 
the question of right, he was wiHing 
to wait for the justification of mini- 
sters, and should, for the sake of 
the country, be most happy to* 
find it satisfiictory. . Bnt as to the 
policy, he could only say, that he 
would rather Buonaparte were now 
in possesion of the Danish fleet by 
the means to wliich he must have 
resorted in the seizure of it, than 
that England should have got it in. 
the way she did. The ships would 
be rotten when the effervescence of 
national feelmg would live in the 
remembrance of national injury*— 
To this observation. 

The chancellor of the exche- 
quer replied, that certainly th^ 
captured shipt would - be rotten 
some time or otlier, but not io the 
ensuing spring; not at a period 

when 



16 ANNUAL REGISTEB, 180j}. 

ivbea they might be employed in of one part ef tbe speech* 11i€ 

convening Freocii troops to Ireland* treaty of Tiiait was signed ou tbe 

not when tiie^f were to be employed 7tb of July ; intelligeocey and a 

'iu excluding us from the Baltic, and copy of it reacbed this coantry on 

furthering thedesignsof tbe enemy*' the SUi of August only, and yet» on 

Colonel Montague ,MattVew eft* the 26th of Jnly, tlie orders had 

pressed, in strong terms, bis mistrurt been given to admiral Gkimbier to 

ef a set of miniaters who had come sail from tbe Downs. 

into office with an avowed hostilify Mr. Pym expressed bis opiniop 

against four miliions of his m^es*- that our advantages from peace 

' ly's subjects in Ireland* would be equal to, if not greater^ 

f Tlie question was then carried tlian that of our enemies. It was 

without a divisioui and the house impossible for him, on the evidence 

adjourned. before the house, to approTe of tbe 

House of Commons, Friday, expedition to Denmark. 
Jan. 22,— Lord Hamilton bronght Mr. York said, that he wonld ask 
u^ the report of the address to bis' any man acquainted with public 
niajesty. business, wlietber the naliKe of our 
Mr. Macdonatd said, that tbe government was not such that the 
armament of the Danes could not government of the- country eould 
be considered as hostile, bet^use not proceed if it did not act upon 
the preparations in their harbours grounds which could not» consist- 
could not have been begun in. the ently with the interests of the couih 
interval between the treaty of Tilsit try, be made public } ^ He was old 
and tlie sailing of tbe expedition ;• enough to remember tbe American 
and as to^tbe dispositions of the war, and be^onld state from- op* 
Danes, tli#ir arming exhibited ra- portunities wlrich be Itad had of 
ther St jealousy of the designs of personally knowing the /act^ that 
Franee than of those of Great in eonsequence of the producti<m 
Britaui. of the papers; relative to the sail- 
Mr. Tuller Hiis only sorry that ing of the Toulon ^e^ ou tlie 
ministers had not seized every bird motion of a gentleman of very high 
that hovered about the transactions talents, now no more, (Mr. Fox) 
at^ilsit. Whatever the other side the Frepch had been enabled to cut 
of the house might say about the off a source of intelligence which 
allegations of crowil prmcesr or half this country had posseMed in HoU 
crown princes, %ve ought to believe land since the days of queen Anne* 
our own ministers. He would give credit to goveru" 
Mr. Herbert «vas of opinion, that ment for their having received in-* 
the present ministers had, by their telligenee of the secret atlicks of 
expedition, disgraced the comitry, Tdsit. There was eiieugh on the 
without either necessity or ability, fiice of such papers to- enable the 
\Yet he would not oppose the ad- enemy to trace tfao source fronv 
dress, thongi) he woald not pro- whence they miglit-^have been re«> 
miat his support of the measuses to eeived.^ On tbe seenet Mtioles of 
which it rehul^. Tilsit he woold rest^iihr foot, and 
Mr. Eden required an explanation give hit approbation to tbemcasore 

' i» 



HISTORY Of tXlKOVEl 



it 



h question. As to the collusion of 
Denmark, be tnust confess tliat as 
an Enj^shaian, he thou;^'ht and felt 
that the pSnish govenmieut (for lie 
would not- Bpeak with disrespect 
of the prince so nearW connected 
with our own family) had acted 
with coHusion. Tt on^lit not to be 
forgotten that before foroe was em- 
ployed, an alternative had been o^ 
iered to the Danisii government* 
and when that ahernalive was re- 
jected he thought we were ri^bt in 
employing force to secure the fleet: % 
a conduct that was jastriiable on 
the first principles of human nature, 
self-preservation. Abstract princi- 
ples of right he respected as much 
as any man ; but iu our respect for 
these we should not sufier ourselves 
lo become the victims of abstract 
principles of wrong. AVilh regard 
to the dates which had been ad- 
verted to, gentVmen seemed to 
draw their whole argument from 
the rapidity with' which ihe expedi- 
tion had been fitted out and dis- 
patched; a rapidity which they had 
jiot lately been accustomed to wit- 
ness. And if the crown prince, or 
rather (for mii\isters often goverued 
princes and kings) the Bemstoffis 
had, formed their estimates of the 
expedition, from the specimens th^y 
had lately seen, they would not 
have expected that Zealand would, 
be so soon surrounded : they there- 
fore thought it expedient to keep 
their army in Holstein, to keep up 
appearances. As to the question of 
peace, it was involved in difficulty 
and delicacy. He had supported 
the peace of Amiens, as an experi- 
ment; yet as the experiment had 
been made, he was not disposed to 
repeat it. Whilst Buonaparte con- 
tinued at the head of the French 
cation, and should t;onthme to go« 
Vol. L. 



vern by military measures, froi^ 
the moment we should make peace 
*wi(h him our dagger Would begin. ' 
Ho trusted, however, that ministers 
would not reject auy offers of ne- 
gotiation on terms of equality, and 
the pomt of honour should be never 
given up. 

Mr. Windham thought that hor 
nour in any peace that might now 
be conclu'led, was totally out of the 
question ; safety wsis ail wc could 
ut>w look for, and this was all b# 
would ask. The honourable gentle* 
man appeared to treat anciently 
received principles with as httic ' 
ceremony as tlie famous French 
committee of safety had done. 
Mr.W. however, would still venture 
to profess an attachment to th^ old 
maxim of * honesty being the best 
poHcy;'a maxim, which was just as 
infe when applied to the conduct of 
natiof)s as that of individiials. Noc 
did lie think it sufficient merely to 
profess it.; it was equally essential 
to act upon it. But an open and 
public renunciation ^f this prin* 
ciple was an alarming symptom in* 
deed, and infinitc'ljr more fatal to 
the cause of public morals than 
many practical deviations from it. 
It was a state of most hopeless de^ 
pravity when people began to adapt 
their theory to their^ practice. He 
advised miubters to stop short in 
this new career, for he assured them 
they would cut but a poor figure 
when compared with the cnemy» 
who from long practice, was become 
a rival too formidable for us to en- 
counter. It never had been dis- 
puted that government might have^ 
received information which it would 
be imprudent in them to publish. 
But there was another i|uestion. 
Whether or not they should have 
acted on such information ? Mr. W. 
C suspected, • 



18 A N;NjU ^Bj f. RG,I S^Tli Rj . Wpp. 



snspccteil, that io the cue in <iu€s- 
fioN, the niiiustf r9» instead of pre- 
parinf trocpf for an expedition, 
had prepared an eapeditioo for tJie. 
troops. Finding that they bad got 
money in their pockets, they re*. 
•dtvtd*m'||leMlmi;1lw Koi knowing 
^bat lb d# ivMi the araiy %ey had 
ooWbcledf -th«y said, after some i^ 
ileilioii,^ ^^-Odd hkss- us, let us go 
and.aMtk the Datii^ fleet." 
'■"■ Mr Caiioing, iil viswer. to ^lie 
^oestton plitby Mr/Edc^, observ^: 
€d| that mjnbters bM nen^t- >aid 
fkitliiey had hi Ib^posses^tfany 
due ti^i^t artid^ ot th^ treat t x>f 
TOsir, but 'o)t)y timr iKe sutnttipce 
of- sneli ^vpt 'drtieles\'bcid 'be^i^ 
confld^iaMy coitamuiiira'l^ to bis 
Majenys gov^mftei&r, ^^Ak\ Hiat a 
(ongtiniapfe#»ttStptlie dsite'ad* 
fei^4aby the hon'ourabfe fcatie- 
man. 'A«t<»lhe infereuee tfttempt- 
edto> bednMrnffiomth^advanc^ 
stale' ^ {{reparalioti Id Vrbieb Ihe 
aniMinicnl if as placed; before the 
tremy of Ttbit, it yum uotinrions 
thit that army ivat the» e^^dppihg 
foran fnfirely distliicf «li^iN3t,'Wlien 
the ae^tet lntettiM4t$i> ia» received 



H'Licb made it the dnty of mioistera 
to employ it in the service in which 
it bad been so successfully eu- 
gaged, 

Mr. Whitbread, after soma ob- 
servations on the importance of 
mabtainiti^ national morfdify ami 
good faith, and the possibitftyMof 
inakhtg p^acr as readily now as at 
ahy ft^rmer period ^ftlie war,^d* 
^thd i(y what bad fidten from Mr. 
YoAe of a lender 6r optfon, at it 
was caifed, made to th^ Daoies, 
. that if they g:ave ui their fie^^t; 'we 
Would defrtid ttiera fron^ fhe' 
French; How ^ We <(efeiid thi^i, 
wlio ' were not able, afier setzing 
fl)eir fleet, to keep possesskni •of 
Zealand fi>r ^e winrert' He.cbii* 
' eluded wini re|leatJngbis<^otmetian^ 
that minislers had never Ifte^iTcd* 
either in sulistance «r hn ibrltt, llie 
secret inMrmaliou which 4bey al- 
leged th^y liad r«<ieived; aud ta 
wfdeb they had attributed that fatal 
anddisgraiceful expedition. 

The report Was tirou^t op^'and 
llieaddresM* was presented 'ti» his 
' Miijesly, wbo retofned Iymt ino^t 
gtacious au^^vvr January 25tb. * 






J ■''• 



^- » 









A- c 



CH/VP. 



n^S T^f>U T ' r E tP ffO P E. • -^ ig 



' i 



V : • 1  • 



k ^ 



. cJtt^-ip.'ji. ;:; 






pl^imthtjitt^ck on(}9pfjJiascn,'r:4 Motion ti- tkf4umt^Hffie/^t 

Dimian ^^ iJkc^ liamc^ ^wtied.— Motion hy jifr, PofLsHbff- fim 
Ptiffn rrUtivt^.to^ the EjcpedUion to Copen^ogen^-^^iut f^t carpgin 
Ref9iiU0M on e thai Su^ecUr-OffpOMed ijf Mr,. Cfftniii^t^^/rv 
Mliae^^L^d J^stson QoufO^^^lunrd Cla&tltriB4ght ^c, SfCrrSup^^ 
portid by Mr. tVindhfun'-rand Mr. W/ikimtad,''-4^ aDhmm sof 
iJi*fk$M(, negatived.^ Him»e qf Peertr-MoHot^ ^ HeBuke of 
^wjvikfmr t£t Substana ^foU Cummumcaiion^ roneoUng Ihc ^tefe 
^/ tkf Dmu$k Nmf^t andtko Sterei JriicUs ofiU tftct^ ^ likiL^ 
Sufpmiai Ity Loid HutcUnsimr-The £arl ^ Budmghmohin^, 
TkE^l^Mowftr-ThtJEjpclrfJir^f^Tht MarlofSt.ffmcent 
-Urd.Sidmmak^ife.Ac.r^Ppo^»d.buiheM€rq!m$i^ mildiky^ 
Lori'Bmrmgdim^iArd Ummck, ^k^ ACpT-Nrgtitmd^^Rtoih^ 
f'm ^ovoi hif iMd SUmwXK for ^ pte^^fpmg^iho Dnnui Fleet .m 
mJijt^t^tiiMUmigHbetpjaUmfJli^ rafm^ t<i^Oenim>k.^j^ior, 

Mr. SkendtmfinrtM f^^$pondenfi€ u^kk.pmmdffifrtkis Cnaitu^,. 
UltMir ^ ,Copmh9gen, itU/iitn Hit Mi^jCo; Miniofm mtiiAe: 
(mi wf SliOckMm^ retniiot to the retmning^ fioenomon 0f. tie 
Itkmlof Zedamd by 4 Smdttkjirmy in Cont^r^iMi HU M^oH^o 
yoraM.Siifported by Mr. iVindlufm^Mr, PoimoiU^p i^oiifc.^ 
Offpo9ed by Mr. Canning ;'-n€gatived, — Houh of LordM.-^ Motion 
h the Em'I of Darnleylor an Address to His Majesty, stating that 
tkfretras no Necessity fir the Expedition againH Copenhagen, Ife.^- 
nf^adved — Motion for an Address to His Migesty of an opposite 
Sature bjf Loi'd Elliot I'-^arried.-^Conversation respecting Uu De- 
tintioM mid Condemnation of Danish Trading Fessels.^^Moust of 
^ommms.-^ Baltic Expedition brought agam into Discwiion by Mr. 
^^^crp.'-Motionfor an Address to His Mofssiv to the same Effect as 
that if Lord Damley's in the House of Lards.^Debate.^Ths Mo- 
tion negatived. — HouuofCommons.-^motion by Lord Folkstone6fthe 
iome taumr as that in the House of Lordo by Lord Stdmouth^ respect- 
'AjT ih Danish Navy. -^Supported and opposed on the usual Grounds 
^y differrmt Speakers i-^-negatived.^ House of Lords\'^H€iolutions 
f^ttd by Lord Sidamuih respecting the Ships detained in our Har-^ 
b(nars previously to Hostilities,"^ Dafotc^rhe Motion UfgtUived. 

• » 

THOUGH tlie expedition to examined in the debates on tht 
Copenh»gen had been so fully speech fsom the throne, in re* 

C 2 «^)e«l 



5S0 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

« 

spect of both moral law and sound been induced to give it n6 opposi' 

po^cy» it was again and again lion; bift^b^n it fiva^ . pro{K>sed 

Drought into discussion^ and con- also to thank the uayy eiiiploy^ iui 

tinued to be at different times, and this e^xpeditiun, he coidd not but 

on different occasions, a subject of oppose tlie motion, as'^there was no 

Tery animated. controversy for aU opportunity for the display of xntli* 

lobst the whole of the p^sent ses- tary naval skill. The hi|[h and fie- 

sion of pariiament. culiar honour of the thanks of par- 

Tb tlie house of lords January Tiameiit ought not to be rendered , 

!i6tb, lord Hiiwkesbury moved a too common.' In order to preserve' 

vote of thanks to the officers em- its valne it ought to be reserved for 

pAoyed in the attack of Copenhagen, great occasions, for brilliant ex- 

His motion, be premised* related ploits and great victoriesi as in the 

merely to the service on which the Roman republic triumphs were 

expedition to Copenhagen was sent» never granted but for the most 

and i^ot at all to the poUcv of the splendid achievpsents. — Earl Grey 

expedition, the object of which, spoke to the same effect. — Lora 

undoubtedly of great magnitude Auckland observed that there was 

and importance, was attained by . no information before the house .to 

the skill and ability of the officers shew the policy or propriety of at- 

employed. Here he gave an ac- tacking an unsuspecting, and de-* 

count of the origin, progress, and fenceless people ; but with resp^t 

issue of the expedition*. H« praised to the execution of the service, it 

the promptitude and rapidity with had displayed great ability, energy^' 

which tlie Danish ships were fitted and skill, 

out and brought away, and con- Lord Mi\lgrav^ in reply to lord 

eluded by moving the thanks of the Molland> said, that he could not 

house to lieutenant general lord see on what ground, in tiie present 

viscount Cathdart, K. T., for the question, any dbtinction could be 

prompt and d^isive measures a- made between the army and the 

dopted by him in the attack on. Co- navy. The most skilful distribu- 

penhagen. . tious were made by lord ^G^mbier 

Loi^ Holland contended that In . tlie dis)>osal of the fleet under 
the magnitude and importance of his command; that part of it 
an object alone, was not a suffici- which was entrusted to rearadmiral 
ent ground for, the thanks of par- Keates was extended for 200 miles^ 
liament to those who had been em- and had for its ol^ct^ 4o cut off 
ployed with success in obtaining it. the communication between Zea- 
In the present instance there was no land and the continent. By this 
opportunity for the display of skill means tlie Danish army in Hoktein 
aad science. Had there been an was prevented from passing into 
opportunitj', there could not be a Zealand. The skill therefore of 
doubt but these qualities would admiral Gambler had been con- 
have been eminently displayed, spkuously manifested. But in any 
Had it been proposed only to thank case when the army and ijavy were , 
the armyj he might, perhaps, have conjointly employed, to vote thanks 

« 
^ Per t nsrnitive of which ?e« chftpler Xf V, df mit last volinric. 

to 



MlStOkY OF EVRO^E. 



21 



lion wad agreed 'tb^" and ordered to 
he commduicated to lord GaniDieir 
xvhen in bis place m ih^ house. 
Lord Hav^ke^bu^y next'' move^ 
thanks to vice admiral sir H. % 
Stanhope, bart. rear admirals Es- 
sington. Sir ^muel Hood, K. 0. 
and Keates, captain sir (Totne Pop- 
ham, K. M. captain of the i)eet 
and the other officers. The dukp 
of Norfolk asked J, if it was usual to 
indode In a vote of ftanks; the cap^ 
tain of a fleet by name t A con- 
versation ensued about precedent^* 
Tlie earl of Lauderdale observed 
that it would be a most singulai' 
circumstance if sir Home Poptiaui 
were to be made the first instance of 
the captaiji uf a fleet being Ibankei) 
hy name. Some precedents wc^fe prpr 
duced, and the motion was agreed 
to. So also was a motion for ^i 
proving aind acknowledging I he sec? 
vices of the seamen and marines; 
and the result of both motions wa$ 
ordered to be communicated bjr 
the lord chancellor ,to lord Gam- 
bier. 

On the same day thanks to bfs 
Majesty's army and navy employed 
in the Baltic expeditions were 
moved in the house of commons by 
lord Casllereagb, who ei^patiatecl 
on the maj^nilude and import^pce 
of the exploit, the difiiculties that 
were surmounted in performing il» 
and the prompt exertions of the 
board of ordnance; to whose great 
exertions it was in a great measnre 
owing that a British force was as- 
sembled, ready to act in 'the Baltic 
before the middle of August. 

Mr. Windham observed, that in 
the present question, it was the 
province of the house to decide 
generally upon the merits of the 

* The d]il^t.fif If orfolkhad gives notice on the day before tli&t he tho^M to^mor* 
row se'onight move for certain papers respecting tlie expedition to Copenhagen. 

C 3 . . service. 



to tbe 'one and not to Ifie^otber, 
couTd not tend to any possible good. 
ft had, besides, always been tbe 
practice to imite them in votes of 
thanks Wfiere they were jointly em- 
ployed. '*■ . 
The Aiblion being ptit dnd car- 
ried, and the issue ordered to be 
commuhicated to lord viscount 
Cathcarf, on his taking his seal 
in the house, lord Hawkesbury 
• moved (hanks to sir Harry Burrarcl, 
hart, the earl of Rosslya, the hon- 
oimible sir 6. L. Ludlow, K. R 
sir David Baird, the major generals, 
brigadiers and pther officers em- 
ployed, and an approval and ac- 
knowledgment of the services of 
the^ non-commissioned officers and 
soldiers; \Vhich motions were agreed 
to, and ordered to be communicat- 
ed by the Ion) chancellor to lord 
viscount CalhcatT. 

Hf& lordship then mox'^ed the 
thanks of the house to the right 
honourable lord Oambier, foi* the 
judicious distribution of the fleet, 
thereby contributing to the success of 
the expedition after all negotiation 
had failed, and for the promptitude 
displayed in fitting out tlie Danish 
ships, and shipping the stores. 

The duke of Norfolk objected, 
that the wofd^ relative to negotia- 
tion tended to prejudge the question 
of which notice had been given, 
and of which the object was to as- 
certain the nature of the previous 
ijegoilation*. 

Lord Hawkesbury replied, that 
the negotiation alluded to in the 
motion was merely that entered 
into by the Commanders in their 
military capacity, and had no re- 
ference to political negotiation. 
After a short conversation the mo- 



02 A N K U-A L RE G I SfT ER} i«08. 



(jon; it Wj^i necessary tq^makc a Io#e» t^e )(nave .iyliis^?-.a^ nben 

/listiiKtpiiL'bie^ th^. 9i<rits pf J^ tU aclmii^QV ^. .tjift fto^c.iw^ 

i|9etQ9ibtei;3.vvbo..p1aiiiiefi,and Jun^seU^ tiie^ervi^^e M'^. of such a 

ilie luiv^ l^^id armv M^h^ iierfornied paturejlLal even iU4Uccet» mM^tJie 

jtt)e.<q(|MdiUojQ^ The juffice apd conUroplaVed wikb,.pain, . be. \v«3 

^\^S of j^« exnedilipii wotdd far upiii thUJung^ji^ iv piw^r Qcca^ 

50Vij^ undcc coniKieratioii at. an* >ioo for Uie legislature (o bestow 

J" Tili^ timel .. tphe, miei^oo npw bi^ .i^rhat ougbt always to be aoopuuiei i 

ore tWliou3e~4iQU>)y was, whetlier the higbes). jiKiuoUr^ a;id a ceiv^rd 

tbe Service was of sa^b a aature as j;iaraniount to ev^ry olher..- He waft 

^o raijk,|i among Uiose. itu^tances uiUing ta allow Uial the aritiy. aiul 

'iX distibg»i\$bed aud sMcccssfiA) naiiry , had. dou«.,evcry .thimg tbai 

exiertlons for which any rpte of could l)#. either .reQ^ired ^r i:j(pc9t^ 

ttiviiks of that bouM uad been ed of them, and.tlial tbeir servicer 

morded* ana ip his oj^moo it' lumht rank with a cai^ of either a 

,diJ pot coine undef that descrip- gallaut defence or a si^essful. re* 

liuii of ^<;rvi<;e bv whicblher^ites.of treat ; but he denied thj^.tUey ppsi- 

^atiqna) gralitude oiigbt to be %fh aessed those ing^eoU v hic\( alpji^ 

Tcrtie4'» nor was at all pjf that na* cpuld entitle wkxa lo a vote of |egts- 

lure to which tfae^ ought to be an- lative ibaiiks. Mr* \Vifidbam ad- 

5 lied. . Ha conceived that the only yerted U> tjb title conferred op ad- 

t occasion for the two bouses of miral Crambieti whicb did not , re- 

arlianiei^t tp puss a vote of.tbanhi cord t|ia nature, or cpaijader of i\xc 

or the services of eitlier the ar^y service for which it had bee^ gnintF- 

or ^vy> was« tbe achievement of ed, as in the ini^tauces of Iprd Nel-» 

iome exploit which aifforded matter son and lord DniKaOf . where tlic 

of general and unmined joy and, ex- title wna borrowed from tlie re^cU 

ultation : ^wheui^^ fo^r example, it ive scepes of their achievf^meuU. 

Was bestowed in consequence of a Nor bad be heard pi any H^^^ 

victory obtain^cl over tlie first trpops being distributed on ! he. presept *^ 

.in the worlc^ and. over legions on fonner occasion^* .He tb^p le- 

which had arrogated to Uiciu;selves plied to that part. ,oJf the, pobte 

fhe titfe. of ii^ncibk, not with su- lord's speech, in which, ta had . de- 

penor number«r but with a force scribed the high state of preparation 

not even equal to that of the euiemy. of the Danish sbipS| at the saiue 

inhere was no man ^»ho did not feel time that. be. claimed credit foi: the 

a pride aiid glory in joming in it. vast activity in putting thost ,^i^ 

Ti{kl in circumstances like the pre- in a state for being hxQugJu. pff« 

seiit^ in which one ostensible part Either his^prepuses nipstbie ial^> or 

of the expedition bad been entrust- tbe inference be attempted to c^raw 

cd lo an'officet who couid plead in from, them .unfounded*;' Ifijhe 

his owp behalf only the approtm- aanie.mconsi«tent strain, the. #ip]i^ 

tiod'of a" sielf-created tribunal, in lord had as^rted th^. fprc^e.^^ent 

opposltioti to a sentence of condom- against Copenhagen to be.sofor- 

hat^oP lalel;^ pa^ed .upon hint by n^idahle a^ to mixe i^efistgnca ui^a- 

ope' ^.galty constituted, ,aud who, vaiUng* while, wi.di the same b|«alh, 

in UU. fprtune Iiad exeinpl^ed the be called upon the bbu9a.<o pass a 

: * vole 



? 



HlS^rO-HY OP EU ROPE/ ^ 



iikfl?, bribery; 'tthdenler)>rlliedFtfae 
KMtets employ tA ito ii^nrice^bm 
BO $ufch tal«!iits )imf qu^Utie? wtre 
miDited. "It -yma \ ittcfiliitiitnt - oti a 
Brititift house orcotnnioiis^fMiiPticu- 
luriy !ri tittiei ¥kt the Pf-esent, t6 
^sert Hi digbtty^ and to maiittaiii 
Ibe' credit attached to its opinion df 
what constitutes a great national ex- 
ploit.' NeSfhet did' he conceive^ 
IVoiu what he knew of the two 
tioble lords Wlio w^re embariced'in 
the iBXp^tionii that they wooM 
thfadc the present worthy tb be 
ranked aintfng tlie achievements of 
their former life. There was no- 
thmg in the name bf Copenhagen, 
(which signifies Utenilly a harbour 
of inerdiailts) cakniated to call 
fbrtb the ebetgieS of a sbldier, the 
son of a ^Mier, and the 'father of 
a Soldier, like lord Cathcart» wUo^ 
fornkr servtoes were well known, 
and with justice highly apprechiled. 
And th^ vtri ch'cttmstance of ad- 
ittiral GaiubwKs Ik^ving advantage- 
bnslydktinguished himself' as a 
captalii'iltthft gforibus action of the 
fiM of Jdiie, w^ sufficient of itself 
totnakelkim set, comparatively, but 
a small' value oil hi^ services on the 
pt^^sent b^caifiom ' * - 

Mn VnndhatD nexttfrew the at- 
tention of the honse to the conduct 
bf^mii^tsters in tnbvitig 'such a resb« 
littibn, the^effbdtof whfch was, not 
iad^ee^ to'eabrease the (axes t>n the 
profile,- bnt what wlis'stHf a moire 
senous'oti'l, if the peopli* could onfy 
be brotight lo ondL+ilandft, to di- 
niiuislt XM gi^i'fruid of honour, 
the bc^i' incentive to honourable 
e^^ertibrts^' and what Was worse still, 
libt bniy to aiVpdy- it iajadicibuslj, 
But i:o destroy the talue of the 
whtfc' fJapttal; 'GiranWng' tWat ah 
imptbViaeht'^n^tiin M-nsbad, h^- 



cadse' it-' #lis'squande'fin^-a^3f^llie 
pulitni ifioney i slJff, thbugh Wire . 
{)edsiob was grautcfd ihrpip{>ei^y,^^l^ 
next ^as not the wor^ oh'tKaf kc- 
cdunt.' But when hbnoirt* M'*is oince 
deprecmred> its value was aflo^eflier 
Io«. It was todr diffitult Ijoii e»^ 
to perceive the objecit m^f^e^£ikd. 
lA view, m thiis heaping few^it oji 
those i^ho'bad apart in the siprvice. . 
Tt was to give it aflctitjot^s iiiM» 
and an'iiiipotlaiKce In (he eyes, oT 
the public that did not belong to 'it. 
Mr. Wiiidl&m coi^cluded, \vTth so-, 
lemnlf proti^stfns agiiinst this mis*, 
tipplicatibn' of the sacred de^it 
committed to Hie hotise; of dealing, 
out' with fairness 'and ihipartiality 
expressions bf the j^ubtlc^titude 
to those who were etniiloyeft m Its« 
service.' '"'' ^■' " •" '*/';^ . 
. Mn Aratid, after advertjtij; to 
Yhe all^dged weakness of Cieiiiuark 
to defei)d "herself, had she been at- 
tacked by Trahc^, conceived' that 
It would" bii altogether liicoiisrinent 
to pass a votfe'df thanks tor si ser- 
vice which dMyes its principal im- 
portance froOi the degree of resist- 
ance li^hich'thbsie ebiplbyed in it had 
to encounter. . T 

The chanceJTbt o/'ifieexc)iequcr 
tliougljr^that iir Mr/ yf\ Obiectioiis 
to giving tlianks' in certain cases 
Were admitted, tliey would .' \h 
very prejudicial to the servioc. 
Mr. W. had admlljled, thsit it was 
hi^iiy mertlorions^ by a judiqoij|s 
retreat, to secure th^ safety' of uh 
army or a navy ; but tlial the bovise 
had never contempTHtyd | si(civ a 
service as a proper object of IbeCr 
thanks. The right honourable geutle- ' 
man seenied to have li)rgoiteh the 
case of admiraV Cbrnw^Uis, ^ho 
liad received the thanks of f^rt^^- 
nteiit, hot for a victory, buf a re- 
treat, •• for the iability, judgment 
[C 4] and 



s« 



AJSfNUAL REGMTJER, 1«08. 



and, brav«ry ^idi he h^d dtspiay^ 
ed ji» the prefi«iic«, of 9 «iiperior. 
iee^ of the i?aemy-** He luentioaed 
othf^r ii^^tances in wliicU ibt boM^ . 
of commoDs bad voted their thinks, 
ivliipii were of a MiHeceoA detccipr . 
tion from tbatio> wlficli 51r- W. \va» 
<{esirous of coniininii; it— Mr* Tif^r- 
ney shewed tbat tbe preoedeuts 
cited b^ Mr. Percev;al were uot apn 
plic2(ble to the present case. . Tbe- 
cases were \^' do Rieans paniUel. 1 

.The inotiop fur thanks to lor/d 
Cathcarl being read from the ebairw 
the bouse divid^d.-^For kb^ mation . 
100; against it ic^. After J^liicbt 
motion^ ior thanks to Idrd Gambier, . 
&c. fyc, (b^ same as tlH»seiathe. 
house of peers, were .aj^reed to, 

Mr. Ponsoob^ rose to ipove foe 
such papers as his im^jesty's minis* 
ters were disposed to kv before tlie 
hQUse reUtive to tbe expedition to 
Copenhageu. The house .would 
tl^ius learn wbstt papers they were 
cot disposed to graul ; w^ thus a 
subject of unmixed debate would 
come before the house, tie wassorry 
t o . say, that f rooi a commuoication . 
he had had with the suctatary for 
foreign affairs, he could not call for 
more papers tbnu wh9t iie should 
now move for» . He should first 
move, that an hunible address be 
presei^l^d for co|ijes of tbe procta*. 
niations issiied by the commanders 
of'his ni$|je$ty'j naval and military^ 
forces, while before Copenhagen; 
and also cppies or extracts of tbe 
comm^iiicaliQu^ with the. Dajuab. 
govemmentj touching the surrewier 
of the Datis^ ileet bv capitulation. 
Secondly, tliat tjiere be laid before 
the bouse, copies of the articles of 
capitulation condudied between tJ)e 
jcommandcrs of his ij^ijesty's naval . 
and military forces, or eitber of 
tbeoi| and fh^fiSuc^n (pomip^d|og • 



lus;>I>anisb mi^dky'^^ottnHu 4iie 
isliiii4 of Zealand '.Mn^Mf^ky^imr 
tl^e^i^NtaMie of eto€i4iBfe«tiali4Mi«» 
Ii^ulheenreonivect inaroTbieo^icaty'e 
ngval offiaira» and Ike «ottceri eif 
tbe 4od( yard'^ wiih w ep eot l^the 
state «and cooditioB of the Dwsiifc 
ships al the tione of tbcH! sm rc udk r . 
oi: ^j^bseqiveDtly' I0 Iheir .arriwvft m 
Butish ports. .«.<•■ 

JHouae of^aaiqw^o^ February 3^ 
--'Mr. Ponsonb^yparsitfinl fee nelaoe 
of a mnition respesttng the et ped*" 
t^ toiCapenbageai»sl«ited ittot^eolb 
He proposed lo cooemkr Ibis safer* « 
ject in t^e thxee ^Kslinct rebtMs 
of Denmark* Rtissiiu . Mid Fnmee : 
toasccrUlB the .dii|MM|itioii of- tfee 
lianisb govemi^eot tewawlsi: lliii' 
coiiptryi for 4ome< time fvevioiM to 
the atteck'.on Oopeohagews to fee 
enebled to dkcide wbrtfecr miii&» 
dialdy aAer t^eUeaty of TtUt, 
Russia bad ept^ly ahaodoned lier- 
self to tbe councils oCFsaoce;' and 
with sespect to IfnuKetrto^aMertain 
what melius Fr^iMSe had to com|iei 
DenmaikJo depart fiijOi&iievsyateni 
of neutrality ; ai^ • especiaUy . how 
far France cei4J have sncceedad 
in any attempts \a annoy us iu tbe 
Baltic. 1a eitber case it «as feia 
object to ascertaiu/lbe meaoe'^f 
France. It ivas idle to taUs ot tbe 
disposition of .Esanoe^ ibt^ ber 
means he took,.. ta^ be ia this caae, 
as doubifc4 as' her dispoflitie^. was 
unquestionable' .As ainfitifioalioB 
of tbe expedtticHi» 4t was in^nmHed 
that Deooiisrk was eoaUe.ta.de* 
fend het own neutrality. One of 
the resokitfon^. therefore he should 
submit to the hoi|fle> would bd for 
copies of all coauiuiakatiens fee»» 
tween this coimlry aed tbeJ^nish 
•government at, tlie close lO^ .tlie'laal 
war, whereto « the Panisb' ^govertt^ 
meat avowg^ as itsiapolc^'fevdo* 

parting 



HISTORY OF EUROPE- • 25 

inrling ftm ito mmitniilkj, il» ii»* loid Qatobicr arrived io tlit Sottudl 
ability Io ffiftial U» openntioo of en- The house was in possessioi^ of -fh^, 
tenotl iaiuwioe. With H!^:md t» evideaee ^ffectxi in ^oof of the 
tko riiHiotilion of DeniMric firevH hosttke bilefieioits of Deimittrk to- 
ons Io hostiMBS, the oiagect of his wards this counti^ ; that is no evi- 
resoiiitioiia . would fae» to pot the deoea wlialever : prtciselj>as itouch 
lidwiir In posseswNir of all reporl.<f he believed^ aft mftiisters' thtriiH 
luado to the government Gi this selves had. ButwIHit iva»lhe evi-* 
ctfuatry^ lelative Io aH attempts on 'drace on the other side i ' ' Wi;eli 
the part of Denmark toencreaser vague mmoOTfiratetcited the, ala'rni 
hat naval poiver» to supply tier ar« of the Danish captains, they made 



seoals« to equip her aavy, to man a formal applicatian to the Danish 
the ifoet, ofor iiutaBce, wfakh are cons»l, wisditng to ascertaiw 'Whether 



sohaequetttiy sei^aed <on« It was a the alann ^icilad bj th^ report 

well kfMMWB practice io the Danish of an intendad expedttioii was 

mame, 'ithai- every- seaman was well* oi* iH founded. Tlie Dan» 

oUigeJ, on entering uM the Da-- ish . cdnsul applied* in Itwir tie- 



niah service, to nterrhe his name half ta Ibe.ooancfi. of eciranieroe» 
ill a boolfi^ to state alar^ thenaase: an iastilutioi? which ferme^l apart' 
of tbe vessel in ithidi be erahar ks, of tfie • Danish fovermiieiit. What 
to partieoteriae the deettnatioa, and was the answer to Ifae Danish con**' ' 
to stale. «« v«liat service bound. saH 'ihtA thefe was 'tfot ihr 
Therefore, Jkcaniark woold fladv slightest ground for appreliensioh 
extrfiiie' difikuky iu* secretly in«t ov the part of tlie Daiiisii euptaiiis: 
creasing her naval force. Still And at this period of Denmark's ' 
morS' diiioirlty i^ not insptissible) '' nnsnspectiag:. ciofidasee iu its, there 
would it he for that power to raise * was no less a ntntkber:tban three 
a .>donBiderable iteetrifl a short time, r hundred Danislrt ships in our har^ 
For it was not tliere as io England, bouts. Suppoihng Denmark will* 
where > there eoiistanlly abounds * ing, thxwgh unable to preserve tier 
suds an immense popaiatHMi of sea- neutrality, no asaa, who had read 
inm^ aad whore w^ mighty naval* * the law of nations, or any cases at 
poanev coald he suddenly called - all. Would pretend tpjostify atiat^ 
inloi action, not only, by rekvting tadt n|lon a neutral |iowcr merely 
to the great aesoaiaes imawdiately because it was weak^ aniess upon 
ia oar power, but by the oompul- tlie priacipU* of self preservation, 
6ivo openaiod orf 'an impressment, But how was this to be made out? 
throwing at oiiee into- the hands of By pivving- the absolate detemiina- 
the aieeutive govemmeat a power tion of France loseize on Ike Danish 
tliatmighl, on the instant, be wield- fleet, ibr the puvpose 'of directing 
ed with' efiecti «Mff. P. tbevefore that force against us;, and also by*' 
caatended^' lhal< if •Denmark pio^ proving the inceinpeteaey of Den- 
jeatsd* 's4»cb designs against ' this mark to defend hersdf again^ sudi 
coanftry m hid'been. alledged, she aivattempt on the part of Frande ; 
jnnst have prdeeeded to the aeces- by proving too, her ihdis)>dsition to 
:>aiy prrpaflMioiis,- ami that if she * resist snch an atteknpt, aad parti- - 
had anteved on. vsuoh . patpetttioRS, cnlarly the ceilainty 'of har ytetdk^ ' 
shemuslfaavcbatroyadsoaiadeiiioi^ to superior force ;^*it2* alf nhieli - 
siatio^- of them, long before my cases we were without even tiie 

shadow 



2* AJ^NUAL11EGI5TJEE, JW8. 

and^brav^y wjikli he hdU display^ lu»..D«i»isb jmijM^^'s (Q«tes>i« tiie 

ed .m the pre&enceof. a ftopierior isJav4 Qi'ZiMlaii<ls Aii4iUr4ly»'fer' 

deet of the eoeniy.'* He aueiuiooed tlie^uji»stace of lAicb mSanoedUmm^. 

othfir JQHances in i^bid) Ih^ ho«i^ h^ lateen r€oe«v^fr#iii;hHi«9«My's 

of commons bad voted ibeir tlisHiks, naval offiotra, and d« *oificerft <if^ 

whip!) were of a ^iiffecenl defcjrifir , tlM^ 4^ y^(^ ^iUt ia<t» mt !» ihe^ 

tionfrom tbattawbijcH Mr. W. w^ si^ke'aDci coaditiott ctf.^beDaNBfe 

4e&iious of ^oniiniiig it^-Mr. Tinr^ shipt ait ib« tiow of tbcic suf Tct id ter . 

nev shewed that the precedents or ^fibiieqiieotly I0 Ibfiir.arimii m 

cited by Mr. Percev^il were uot «p^ Bcitidi port*. . .♦. ' ' 

plic^le to tbe. pre3eQt case* The Houie of ^ptiqiooDSt Febc^»7 3^ 

cases were by no means paniUel. . —Mr. PdDsonb^»|^r9iififit fat natice 

.The. inotkni for thanks to )or4 ofamoUon re«pe«tjn^ tfaeei^l 



Cathcart being read, from the «bair» tioatAiCapeiifaag^irSUtediU'Otueolw 

the house divided.— For tb^ molioa , lio proposed, to cornier Ibis subf ' 

IPO; a^aiui^t it lo, Aftcriftlucb, jef;t iu Ibe thiee. ibaliiiU cebUMa 

motion^fortbanks^toldrdGarohier,, ofDeonark^ Russitu.aBd Fnnice^ 
Jkc. fyc. th^ «ame as tlipse in^the.- tootsccrUun tbe'.dii|^itkNi of tlie 

house of peer9, were .agreed to. . Aanisb govefm^ent UiwaMi&: Uiii' 

Itf r. PoAsouby ro^e to move £ot coMi^ry» ibr j^otm* time fievkMU to 

such papers as bis mi^jesty's i];iinis« thefltt«ck'.oii CWpeobagtuig to be 

ters were disposed to toy before the enabled (o chckie whelber imine* 

liQuse rebtive to the expedition lo diateiy after tbe • Uealy of. Tibk, 

Copenhagen. The house .would Russia bad eiiliiely ahMHioiied lier- 

tbus learn what papers tbey were self to thecoiuiciUoCFiadGe; an4 

cot dibposed to grau^; «ad U^us a with iie$pect to VraBcearto.aMeFiiiiii 

subject of unmixed debate would what menns FriMMS^ bad tacomiiel 

come before the hoiise. He was>sorry Demnaik. to depart fion bavayatetB 

to.say, that from a communication. of.i»eutraiity ; aodespecUly- bow 

he bad had with the secretary for far FratKe e/mtfi have au^ceedad 

foreign affairs* he could not call for in auy attetiipts to aniM>y ua in Ibe 

iiiore papers th»n what he should Baltic, in ^eiibar CMe it m%k Ju& 

now move for. . He should first object to ascertain* Ibe ineanft of 

move, that an humble address be Fnuice* It was idle to talk of tbe 

presebt^d for copies of the. proda*. dispo^ijtion of .Sfanoe ; ihut^ her^ 

niatious issued by the commanders, raeaiw be took.. ia> be ia this case*, 

of his ni^jeisty'^ oaval and military^ a^ doubt/t4 as: bar fdisposilioi^.was 

forces, while l^foie Cof^eqbagen; uuqaestionsible^ ^ a j«isli$ailion 

and alao cpipies or extracts of tbe of tbe expedition^ 4t was inttnimled 

commiLitiicatiou^ with, the Danish, that .Deooiark was .noaUe.to do- 

government^ touching t.he surrender fend be« own neutrality. One of 

of the pat sb ^eet bv capitulation, tho resokitfona. therefore he should 

Secondly, tLat there be laid before submit to the houses would he for 

thebou$e, copies of tbe articles of copies of all coflamiiakations htr 

icapituiatioi) concUid/ed betweeq the tween this €Qiailry</aMt> the Oanish 

icommiandcrs of his ini^jasly's naval . •govfrumeat.at.tlte elose^'.<the'lapt 

and military forces* or either of war, wherein « the Panisb. )govaii«" 

tbenii and jilie officers ipomi|iaQdiog.< mept ^voiw^. as ilfinpolcigt ffi«-d^ 

parting; 



HISTORY OP EUROPE.  25 

puiaghwm ita aralrdit;, iM i»- lewd OaBbier nrriffd io (h* SouutT. 
^biiilp to aUMt tlic vpnation «f «i- The iMute was in ponnsmn of -llie. 
fensl Mncooe. With icgtard 1» eiirteoM «ffFtcd in proof nf (he 
Ike JJHiBiilinw of DniMark previ> bosMe nkstiona of DenmuTk to- 
•jv» to bMtit*He>, the object of bi» iunl» Hiii counti^ ; timt h ih> evi- 
ibolatMMS w«k1iI he. to pat Ibe desM wlialewr : prcciKltu mucfa 
IxHac in povesaoa of kII reports he belfevcil, bb ministen lb«in- 
loade to the gotvmnwilt of tliia selves had. Butwliat tVBstfae evi-- 
rgualrt, tvlMnc to aH iltatnpts on 'droce on the olher side 4 ' Wliea 
Ibe part of DeaniHk loenrrease vaguerwnourfintexcitedlliF.alifrni 
kef mat ponrcr, to sap^ her ar- of the Dauish captaine, tbey made 
Mtiahk lo equip her navy, to aiaa a formal BpplicatiaB to the Daniui 
llie 4eet, -for iiiilii i , whkh we rwuaJ, wi^iiftto mcertabriflMlher 
suhseqtMwlly <euad oo. It was a. the atarai excited by the Te|KiTt 
«dl i Min a pnctiee in the Dani^ of an tnkended expeititiMU wa> 
nwioe, -that every - feMnan was ' >¥«l|. oi* ill fouoded. The Dan- 
obiigHl, on eBlertog iuW the Da- iab TOiMd am>ikd' in Ihcir be- 
iiiss wrviee, to iiiwiihii his aatae half to the . ooandt of eomraerce, , 
iu a boeh, lo state aim ihe naiMe. an inlUulinn kU^Ii formed a part 
m (hB fonl ia ultiah be eiBharlis, of t^ie 'Uanisfa |D*en>ineiil. Viku 
to yafttmlarBe tbe dcittnatMa, and was Iht aiiamer lo the D^niih con^ ' 
to dale «■ wliBt Mr*ice bound, sail 'That tiMe was not ibe 
Tlwretbte, Oenniark woald ffatl . stablest ^und for iippr?lientioB 
ciircne ctii&cidly in' secretly in-i oa the part ol' riie Daiiisli citptains. 
onnog her aaval force. Still Awd at lfai$ period of Dnimnrk's 
nan itJii nil, if sot iaqiicsytile-, •' DDtiiipectiaji^caafideace in lU, there 
irouU it be far that power t» raise ' was no lass a iitntibtr than three 
K oomidei^le ieet in a ihnrt lime. ' htuidred Daoislr'ifaipa in our bar'- 
For it was not tbtte u in England, boun. Sitpposing Denmark will* 
nbtre Ifaan: eoiuCaolly abounds - ing, thsugh ooable to preserve Iter 
^11^ an Bnmeoee popalalioil of sea- iieutrahly, no naa, who had read 
incM, aad when w tmgfaly natal-' the taw of ttatioiis, m wiy cases at 
!>••« coald be iuddealy called ' all, would pretend t^ JDstify aNjiU 
into acbao, not en^. by re^orti^ - ladt upon a neutral power merely 
la Ibe ycat teaoOROt ifDMediately because it was weak, anless upon 
lavar power, bat by Ibe oooipul- the principle of self prtae r vat inn. 
But how H*H9 tilts to be nwie out? 
By praoing the abicJute datemiina- 
lioo of Frnnce toscizeaa Ibe Danish 
fleet, for the pufpnie of directing 
liiBt force againtt us; and alsv by' 
proving the ineaHipeteaey of Den- 
mark to defend herself ngaiaMsach 
an-altetnpt on Hie part o4' Frarrct; 
hyprovinii; too, k«r indisfiMitioti to 
TCfist tiich an attempt, and pirrlt- 
cntarly the certainty of bar yielding ' 
to eiipetkir force :»' M tibith > 
Cities we were williout even llie 
shadow 



ss 



ANNUAL REGrSTER, 1803. 



nn^dk mofe force, and knit with, 
mucli greater Tigour than ^b^ pre*' 
tiding* oii««> would 'be formed tn 
g»itiit4l|M <>!0«atry? was it not pro- 
hlbie, fttim'lbe experience of the 
pttfit, tliafl Depaiiurk would be iti- 
4«ced by inclination,^ or compelled 
hy forcei to join tiiBt league? He 
iiltistrated the probability of -such 
an event at great leit«;(b, by hrs* 
tarical details, accompanied with rc^ 
Acctioos and inferences. ^ Among 
other dehiils end ct>?ninent9, he read 
extracts from- several dir^patches 
from Mr. iiarlick^^ stating that 
after tbe French decree of the 2 1st 
Novieniber had been onnin<UHtcated 
to the Danish government, a de- 
niaad -9/^ made, that the Danish 
army should ft>e withdrawn from 
Holstein. that no English or S\YedisU 
troops ahould be allowed to cntrr 
the Danish territory, n^r any laea" 
sares taken demonstrative of dis- 
trait) of France ; that on receipt of 
this intelligence at Kiel, relays of 
horses liad been providetl, not for 
tha ad%anccj but to secare the re- 
treat of. the crown prmce ; tliat no 
preparations had been mad^^ for 
defence, nor any inclination shewn 
to Tesort to the aid of tiie natnral 
allies of, Denmark ; that severaf of 
tlie persons employed in the cflices 
of state, u^ere attached to the 
FreiKh intetcsts, and acted in col- 
lusion with Ffaiice. In short, Mr. 
Garlicke thought it his duly to state, 
that there was reason to conclude,* 
that France, when in an attitude to 
make the demand, \f outd insist on 
the exelusion of BritL^h vessels from 
the ports of Denmark, and proba^ 
biy aft^wards^ ua the surrender of 
Copeobasen. 

Mr. C.' asked, whether Dei>- 
mark had not the ino^t tmt*<pn\*ocal 
intimation of tlie <iaflgers that hun^ 
over Iwl - Had not tlic bullelhi 



pablrsh^dby ^btton^>0fi9c/^tler the 
battieof Priedlaitd, giwn her no- 
tice of her appfoarhing-fhte; when 
it stat^; ' " That the blbcl^adto of 
the continent wooM th^ c%aseto 
be a vain w6rd T Td What otfi^r 
ports ttrantlidseiyf Denmark, codf^f 
this prospective threat be applred ? 
What others were iieuti^ ? Tb Den* 
mark alone, this intimation of^'lfae 
bntfelhi referred* and accordmel^ 
she was fbuTid 'shrinking into tier 
shell, as France approached, aticf 
neglecting to make uny additloti'lo 
her means of defence. Ife' asked, 
if this was a state of things ift^which 
his majesty's ministers were to go 
on^ conftdiiTg in the smcc^ty and the 
means of the Danish gbvcrnmeiir, * 
tin they should be called on fof as- 
sistance? — As to the dfspositioii of 
Russia, all acco«itits agreed hiret»re-^ 
seating, that the mind of tl>e eotitt* 
of Russia was aHeaated froni this' 
country, and one might easily con- 
ceive a irasoix M that iiKienailioii. ' 
The expectation of assistance froin 
this country, no matter whether 
vi-eli or ill founded, wts the eatise, 
not of the peacie of Tilsit, hot of 
the temper \\\ wliich It wks conclud- 
ed. Ont of twenty dtspatthes re- 
ceived from our ambas^or With 
the emperor, there was not one hi 
which hedidudtsay, '' Seitd' assist- 
ance, or Russia will f4i] you. Mak^ 
a dirersfon that shall take patt o^ 
the weight ofthfc w'ar (Iff Rtissta, tor 
she will withdraw from it." 

It hail b^en Titrd, why not at- 
tack CronMadt, and menace ttie 
emperor hi his o^vii capitiitT There 
was a great party, or rather ^ fiia- 
joritybf the bettermost p<»6ptc in 
Russia, ^vho werje anxi<yus fot'BHtish 
comiectioa ; but wliatever thf* par* - 
tiallti^s'of such petsoiis ndglit have 
been, tltf^y luustail liaye feK^Hie 
botiour and glory of their country . 

and* 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



S5 



imf (herefon^ it cottM not be det 
sireabfe i»de$troy, by an unprofit* 
aiije attack on Ibe natiwial £edings» 
the aasoeot p{>piiladty of this ooun*- 
try. Beadcs^ there were» at tfa'di 
tune, five hnndred British ships in 
the pprts ij^f Russia, and m tlioii- 
sod British seaaiea. The conduct 
thai bad beeo adopted io the expe- 
ditioR to Copcahagcn, was not wiih* 
out pfecedent ar example^ In the 
year 1801, (lie bisuul of Madeira 
bail bMO taken posaessioii of l^y 
oiir gonenuncAt, Ah* fear it sliaulii 
k\X iuloihe bands of tlie Erench; 
ytt Portttf^al was a oeutral nation,* 
And had always, by way of em** 
oeoce. been styled the old and an- 
cieid a% of Eni^hiQd. Io the }ear 
\ii06, tbere bad been reporlsd' its 
being the intention of the French 
soveraroeot to inwade PottugaL 
He had. hinsel^ no doubt of tbe 
peq^ual inteni^on of the Freacb 
coweauBeBt to prosecute lbat'<ie- 
«>.^i>, tiipugli it ^li not ftppeHr, tJmt 
a Fiaoch ^my vas asseti^leii at 
Ba>oon«* He admired tbe cootluct 
whkb had beep adopted by tbe hie 
nuoialev 00 the oceasiop; Qiid be 
ttii gratitude* for tbe. nuiiiRcr- in 
«luck tlieur proceeding had eaubleU 
la« I0 meet the general question on 
this chaise. Hare be read fui ex* 
tract from. the instructions,. c*iven by 
tiic lale Uoard of admiralty to the 
ftfl of St. Vincent,, when dispatched 
to li^QB.— Of all persons he did 
not thnik» that tiie present niiuisters 
tbould be accosed. of * injustice by 
the caploia of Aiexandiia ; of mis- 
managemeot, by tbe attackers of 
tbeJ^udanetks; as ingloriou?, by 
thecoo^uesors of Constantinople,-^ 
By the expedition to Copenhagen, 
the aieaua of the eoeniy for mjuriag 
(ireat Bfilaia had been redueedi 
and the aeaurity uf thecoontry aug^ 



Hiented. Those who thbu^^ht the 
|Kilicy of thst meaBlil^e weak, and 
its execution unjua, wonkl vote a- 
gainst him ; hot he -cdnid not con* 
sider it as maidy to take (he divi- 
sion upon the motion for papers, 
and not on the merits of the qnes*> 
tion, merely because some few 
would vote for papers who ivoiUd 
not support a motion • for cen« 
sure. 

Mr. Windham, after a good 
deal of laughter at ti>e action and 
gesticulation with uhich Mr. Can* 
ningwas uccustomed to grace bis 
oratory, observed, that he bad 
ventured t(i justify himself upon 
Cftsos not only n<^l anala«.'ous, but ia 
direct ami pointed conlradktion to 
liie question at issue : ** You," sayi* 
be^ ** the late ministers, condemn 
our measure iinainst Copciiha£;eny 
altiiousfh yon did the same tiiin!» 
against Portugal:" — " To this," 
said Mr. - Windham, we answer, 
" tliat thou«i:h in the same situation, 
we did not ^lerform the same act. 
Tlie navy of l*ortu*;iil was threaten- 
ed with an attack by Buonaparte ; 
an aniiv had actitaliv been usseni* 
bM al'Bayonne, for Ihc puipose of 
vittlating the neutrality of Portugal, 
and ultimately scizim; her fleet.-*- 
We sent a squudron, under the 
comn.aml of an intcliigont and ac- 
tive olHccr, to be actuully on the 
spot ; not to Ije giiidwl by general 
and unsupported surmises ; not to 
proceed to extremity until tlie in- 
tention of France was not only ma- 
nifest, but likely to be carried iuto 
execution, until it should be evi- 
dent to the world, and to the Por- 
tuguese themselves, that there uas 
no altemativc between onf temp<i- 
rary possess/on of the ships, and 
thtir^eisfiire /)y France: that though 
coiBiirilcd i{> th« execution, the 

means 



so ANSTUA'i:R£OISTi:ftVi808, 



tNms*.of jtt^Hfieatiaii sltoiM^lMF 

M manifest as the ifietevre-^'' •' 

• Tlie^&ttiic^ oa C<»petihitg«D,' Mr. 
Wiiidllitw^«iMwi<ltfMl ai a vtotatiwt 
<rf thai (mMc hw of taltokif, Wliieti, 
(fimigh Hivewd dii oecMiMM t^tbe 
parli^i^r i^ewt ^ eam mm ^ieB, 
muatiR wull)ieh»e to the getietat 
interests of mankiikl* Did the i^« 
tJAHs o<f tInrC tfieasurt iraloly liope; 
llMi its aAantaget w<Md'o<ilHve 
the dair^ «iKt Ilic calatifil^ thiiit; 
wMriU^ftog^hMiiitY Wti4pD»iw 
Diark or- FVunea iltociM^ li«v«t h:^ > 
fruited that mtfiirwitii IM ^Uli 
ami ener^ei Mlifieh Mf' cdiMkiet 
had aUbrdad tiMiifl -Here Mn 
Wmdiidiii fhreiir a nnry Hvefypfie^ 
ture of the recollections and s^iiti* 
nieuts of the' Danes, )ut^ dCber na- 
tions, ^fi beholding tlie momi^ 
nienls of ear havoc in CopeoHagen. 
There was' a chisf «f tneil, he mM, 
so|»rone to i^J the narrow vfew^ 
and sonliil indueeiiieiitsof life, ilMtt* 
no measure epfMiftted m^ht ol mk^ 
hie, hut til the ^rdM^tolit tt^ro^- 
dticeci. These' nte»- weulct ^ett 
wkh acclanuittoti etly^y'tetofpluii-' c 
der and raping enralesy 4>f the • 
mesHs and maifner iii<which'it was^^ 
eflWl^d. *' Bitt' I Wish to: hear^f he 
opinion of your leanieii doctors- of 
the \awt Md yt^t proftftiml M^es, 
attd learrust eWilhms^on tlid oppo^ • 
site side of the 'house. Are they 
converts »e the new <loctriue I WtU-' . 
Uiey distlaim thectihiiPT of tlMH 
ptth!sc law of fmtioci.4, witicb %\my 
have taken siscfa ^are to undenftaiid 
9t^if^ coMHiMkmeale? Are Chey prr-' 
pafeil to tllvoW'olF thdr wigs, bury • 
their books, and break their waods» - 
in ortier- to subsHitttls the new " 
system> of anproeoked outrage, in - 
plaee 6f the eKptoded doMtoe of 
moraijiuAicel A due:)atid pre|k» 
c(iu6(lBiice in ministers, I would he - ' 



tlAe'tlst-imin ho reftise; hiit^.tiridef 
the'pres^of cfrcunistaiy^^ 1 nio^ 
teH tlien), Ihtft' froni" M \Hef tmve 
no letter of attorney f > MvHl^ HfV 
ci^t 9n4h<$itni)rldf Itie 'c^uotrv; 
afiJI to Utfiihh tt'^'ith » staio; ufitcli 
no falttre tircumstatH^jjs' can rt- 

Mr. unifies said, (hiit'while* ir^- 
tVelneti Oppointe to hint- gave credit 
to tlie ilisMir!iiic^s''«lf''B<ibnitpaf^e, 
they oiiiilt^l iiooppottuitityWcal!- 
ingf in Question the dechratihiis of 
tiiefrowii sovet^lf^n^MHl'ltb mifitS' 
tei^.. it hhd been eontetkied tfaet 
the measure MoW tMift>re/tte hcAise 
wia Wrong npcin the laee-oPit; trat 
was^there not %ottj^tbhi^'iwyong-on 
the face of a mc^on, whi^tefm^ 
ed a di!(dosure df iktfbnAntidn^^rdfl'- 
fid^mlmlly commui^tiedl HV^okf 
it not be;injtidicious to Hirour <tpen 
the teedvds'of tne fofet^h-oflBe^ fyy 
wMeh ihe ^neniy wotiki* fce^ ^t in 
po^teMion 6f Ihe m^m ViiM gn*' 
vehimenit had' >ai 6blainiii2' a^^kiib w* 
Mge of his jptahi/ and t^mfluntly 
of Irnslratinu llieir exeeHtfoh'?* He 
considered llie -» tnelion as 'an' at^ 
tetM|>t^ on the part of 'the opfyosd- 
tioli, to cbnvert ttie moHey votect* 
by parllaiiient for secret MtVice 
into nicans hf proeit^inj*' infofimi- 
lieu for themselves, which 'no ^iife 
else was sit' aH Miolt<>U9' to -ohtain. 
Ife advised theitt, instead <ifbmii!- 
ing for%vard motioni» of thi^^eHp- 
tioii, at once* fo propose *a'tesi)lH- 
tion, thni^inislerff Imd totHici^Oii- 
fideiiee of p^riiannent. ' "- ^^ 

Mr.Batliutt^cihtertM/'thkir rile 
dangler of disdosing' proofs 'slibuld 
not be i)ledded ^feneintty.' i -^Let 
ministeri tett; whyihift'^r tlmtttpil- 
citie paper eouki Mr be ^granntvl: 

Nor \wii it neeeisarf/lu V^^^ 
any |itptr; tbet they*th4QmM'*ae* 
qiwint file htfnse bolv tMqp c&Mte by . 

it. 



I 

:l HftcHrfapt^iok, .tftitt Iktit^ PfpsM^nliich wa» likt 4 pretcfilr 
cQuM be lojf .olgirctioif la llM.firo* to llied^^f Alfieni* • -. : - «(< 
diidioa of any M<>!;unif nU thaliiaft^ -rMr* Morris called* Upon-g^finc-, 
been jiMfffi fan «Qd«. m ifi» <H^ nMA-l^ itflrel an the InuBMMnll diul^' 
Dioii, tbe lelleiSi .e&tmcti from get Mrith ^hjch Ikk <oim|r)r/Wat^ 
Mhiobloil bccarfac), PHg)it (p be Klir(iUciMHl«iiQdf»aflici>liK2y4[r«1iiiid; 
aouwg lite muiit^er. Tli^kMfrof tliew^9MiQ»of "wbicb^ivaft ti^ob*^ 
Mr. GarlidLe, f«)r instaDce, statiof* jccllowbiek tbeuieof tlie OaniUi* 
tU boftil^ aiiinI of OeiMnarkr ws>a fl^^ was dci$lhic4« • • r ' u-- 
cf^imporiaot. Xl wtt.iinpoilaot Mr* liyHkloii sconfeaitclf Ibal 
M for di^ bouse to. ka^, upon dUftriiig lu ke did from Ibe preaetiC 
whut the.ofUMop of tjial f^deiiian afloiuiHlratioo^ onsnmoj Mopoiluai 
«as fo<9niil«d ; tbaV if Ibo Fr^Mli pouill».:fiitfii fha aatimctkMi Ikey^ 
w<rc ooct m pQit^raiiftn <4 Botft^ nad fpftrt the bi9iiae^o«-Uio^ inca- 
tiieKivjdoir Z^lasd mini Hill inta- sqrool tte litee«paditiott» 1»4miI 
i:;«tr ponrsr*. ^. Capitiuig,. in' i^- on llult' poiiil bailoiiio llieiff- pro* 
!u^oa 4o llie.f:os(4wl of (he 4ai«^ mlytit. ?'V|e Paiiiih fad was uu- 
^JibittuUatipo towtf ds • Portugal* doubtedl^r jbtetided ftar the mvdsiott 
^i*i ixiifttdt ths^ if we coul4 at<* of (ftlaml« 
idLour.aUjff fuieiy ^ ivvebl «t-^ Jtfr. WhUiiread. coMluded a- 
tick 4 power . m^b. , w« b^ ev^i^y sp^**'*' Jn -wipporl of lha> inoiton be- 
rtJUOQ ^ inspect qf boitilo ioten- lore Ibe house, at lUlowft: *' Mi-* 
tittasaniut us; but tlie booous-^ njiten niiQted^Oiiiiilate.the eiieni^r- 
^^iesecc^tuy secDiad uot li>^kooir,; of Fpuuse. How didlliey do Ibat'i 
or U) Ifaxf ibf^ott llail tbeenp^dit^ FrpaceJbadt alaiu a.gi«Ht, Md iiifo » 
*m alludod.to.was. w^K. Bo| to al* E^and fAut^ g^ ami kill ao lirlp* . 
Uck, butK> prated, an ailjp, ai <a. leii^ iotiooml ckild ; but tlieqaes^ 
time wbeo Uwe were Bc4i4k.tr9ops tifo iiow.iiiaa^ niH wbiither the es- , 
>i Fucti^ Uii fcpfl an actual, iiv pediMoikwaaJualififible^ but whether 
vis^QQ pf French aod Spauiab tbat'housa.wM.-bouml.tpgivecr«fdit 
*fM)p$, He eo^kl ^oot| however, tolbe atserllonsof ministersy aad 
b'it naiark rUiat ni^teri, while, wbelher it ought nol- to recp^ire 
<^ viSblield all iuforpiatipa re* more iufociualiou. ; 
ixdin^.tbe late espeditiofi^ bad Loni LevesonG over denied po»- 
rji the uaaiiesl scrupU: iu disclosing. . silively, that llie luMtiUiy of Rosshi 
 i tbe secrets of ^<^verunient for was occaiiutitd^ either by the ne^ . 
''<s bit iTK^ years*/ « glec^of. fiugtaud to send i|er suc^ 
Ur.LcslisFosieff ooneeivadi that cours; or by the? attack oaCopeiK 
<^e (x^ilioip lo CMfie*ihai9«« ivas^ ba^sen^ The real cause of that. 
i^'peiativdy diciAt^b^llieasceoiU hostility^. wa3» the baltle^of Fried- 
'^7 wkifh lUnmipapfi^ Iwd ac- landr VVtheit.' the.. emperor Alex* 
<: iirni over tjie arms . And > oocoMrls amleT' :amved at :Petersbttri^i frum 
>i the poveifr of ibe iiottb. iuouu^ Tilsit, j^i'itx si^rmug theTpi(4ca vritb 
»5iienr«;.ofib« negligence auUsu* .France, 4be 6rU pOtsun he visited, 
pincse^taf l)ieble.4iln|ini$lfalioo/ wue his loim^erof marine; and the ^ 
^^ich .M di^ MUiig' for tbe,.fir$t <>iders he afterwards jQ9ve« 
comuuii .otMie|.#itcfpt* ^tadiiig a . wa» Jo repair Jhr batteries of Grqin- 
^i'BiW^, suWds to.' IM: \ms ,ol. stadl.. .,:,,: . . • 

Lord 



32 . ANlffUAL REGISTER, I60d. 

Lord Caatlereft^, Among: afiMkl- IienM, tie senlhntfita] iytlttn of 
variety of parliciikirt touched oo- gemlemen on tfie other Me of the 
ilk a long speeehf in vindicatioh of hoosey embraced all natioM but 
theexpedilioiito Copenhagen, gave * Uieir own. Thetr disquHiHOfra 
an account of Hkt mrious ea^ea* ' might be well enough calculated 
vours used by bit ougest/f govern-' fbr the amusement of achoels ; but 
meot to bring the court <^ Defr> they were not fitted for the events 
mark toen exfriawHioQof ita newa, of real IUc» or a state of ferocious 
without effect ; and eooeleded, that war. — On a division of the houte, 
the crown priaee» in the whole of there appeared for Mr^Ponsoiiby's 
Ills couduol^ liad aecretly (avooied motion 108. AgMSt it 253. 
the views of Fmnet. He denied; ' House of Lonls, Feb. ^. — ^The 
that Denmaric was contpctent to duke oi Norfolk caHed the atten- 
defend itself agant8l> the power of tionof their loidshipa to the im- 
Fradbe. Aslo the mertiony flRtt portant >subject, on which he had 
wis ouglit lo have nemaioed in Co- moved them to be summoned. The 
ptnhageo, gewerranenl had ||i«an • eape<ltttoo to Copenhagen, vtras a 
that question every discussion ; and measure which deeply afecfed the . 
the naval-and military eifioers being character of tbe coualry; and, in 
consulted osi Ihe occasion^ were of order that they migttt-t:ome to a 
ophiion, that lit weald require a true judgment of it, H.was material 
larger feeee to keep poss^ssioti of that they shoifld be fiinfished with 
Zealand than this country .could all that body of information, to 
spare ; and much greater thaa was whteii mmnters bad, o» a former 
then in Zealand* The qucMkNi/ night, alluded, but which was not 
alsa, had been put to the first naval . regfularly on their table*. Violence 
authorities, whether the island oould- of an extraordinanr kind liad been 
be surrounded by our vessels, so as ussNf, and great scandal had been 
to prevent an invasion on the 'part incurreil both to Hie government 
of the f reneb. The report^if Ad- and Hie nation, from wliidi nothing 
iiiiml Kettii was, tlrat oo the Jat- but clear evidence of an imperious 
land side there were seven or eight necessity oooM acquit tbeae: an 
forts* in which might be collected evidence not'to be afbrded but by 
to the amount of sixty thousand the examinatipn of papers. Me 
men; that, if tke ninety pendants would so word his motion, as. to 
wbish wese then fiying round Zea- slesr dear of all difficulty and dan- 
land were to occupy the Belt, they ger of disclosure ; and he sbmiM 
must he five rasles distaot from eVen have no objection to alter the 
each t)ther ; and that, as some of words, if it should be tboucfht any 
these might' be drivto from tbeh* inconvcuiem^ coutd arise from it 
stalioos the French could'«u thai' as it now stotNt to any of the agents 
occasion send over tlieir forces in ofm iu is te is , or to the state. The 
the small osaft, of which there was duke moved, for " the s'ut>stance 
a suffident nuiDber atoag the shores of all the eommunteattons that had 
ofiJutland • been made to ministers iu the course 

Blft Luslfiqi^n defended the o€the last year; with respeet to the 

expedition iui tlie usua^ grounds, slate of the Danish tiW9, of any 

Oo the topic of the law of sationsi apfMirent increase thereof ort>ftny 

. , ^ .iteps 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



33 



i\ep§ hkttk to pttSpBte the sanfe (or 
<<ea; Ibe proclamalioo and ^or^ 
'^esooodeace of our commanders at 
Copenhagen ; and the substance. of 
111 the secret coiiiniuhication<9 rer. 
5(i«ciin^ Uie secret articles of the 
treaty of Tilsit ." 

A loft? nod animated debate en* 
<aed, in whicli the arguments on 
b^th aides of .tlie qnestion, nvliich 
hive already been laid before our 
r^^adera, were urged* with addi- 
t otEsi cirenmstances, and placed in . 
a ereai "variety of points of view. 

The duke of Norfolk's motion , 
«a^ snpfiorted bj lord Butchinson, 
I'^rd Erskine, lord Bticktiighani-* 
«liire, the earl of Mi>ira« tbe earl of 
Jer^ej, the earl of St. Vincent, earl 
Grey, lord Daroky, and lord Sid* 
motitb. It was opposed by . tbe 
inar(|ius WcUesley, lord Boring- 
cion, lord Harrowby, lord Lime-^ 
rxk, lord Uawkesbury, and^ lord 
MuJgrfcve. 

Tbe marquis of Wellesley, who 
ini mediately rose op when the duke 
^'f Norfolk sat down, took a survey 
<- f ail the objections that had been 
nrzcd agaunsi the expedition. He 
rk&iotaincd^ that the facts and 
cireuntsiaaces already before the. 
hoQ%e, were abundantly sufficient 
to eaable the house to fomi a judg* 
npnt on the justice and policy of 
( e measure; that it was the de-.. 
^ jQ mf Buonaparte to employ tl)e 
itsauTcds of Denmark among the 
other naval means wbicb he medi- 
tated to wield against Ibe' maritime 
« flKiaarity of Great Britain* As » 
I was the JDlerest, so it was in the 
ai Bttooaparte to accomplish 
• either bv fraud and iu- 
trivue^ oc by open Ibrce and vio- 
lence. Io.pf»of of this assertion, 
l.e enlered into* a minute detail of 
the mwim^M pS tbe Beit. Tbs . 

VouU 



;o 



*\: 



15 



ponibility of cros«iin? the Belt in the 
ordinary season of tite year, in spite 
of the utmost vi>;i|ance of our 
cruizers, waS confirnieti by tlie feet, 
that several bodies of' the encmv's 
troops actually. got over into Zea- 
land, during the operations exerted 
to preveut it. . And, as to the de- 
sign of Bnonapafte, wrho could 
doubt it ? Had he hesitated, in his' 
usual abrupt tone and manner, to 
enqtiireof the rainisterii of Portu- 
gal and Oeatp^rk, wheUier they 
had transmitted to their respective' 
courts, his instructions, ftiat their 
fleets should be eq'uipperl, and 
ready to unite irith him in crushing . 
the maritime despotism of Eiig* 
landy and wjtfa that view to declare 
war, in concert with hlro,^ against 
England by the 1st of September t 
But it was said Denmark could de- 
fend herself. Could Denmark de-* 
fend i^ealaiid after she Mas deprived 
ofHolstein, from whence Ihe drew 
provisions for the support of her 
iilisolar dominions? — Nor was it' 
the policy only of Denmark, <th£it 
inclined her to lean towards France* 
rier commercial interests gave ber 
th6 sknie-bias, for they weVe found- 
ed on the principles of tbe armed 
neutrality. It might also be said, 
that the accession of tlie Danish- 
fleet to the naval means of France, 
could not have created any serious 
danger to the safety of tliis coun* 
try. But there was, a wide diffi?- 
rencc between the present state of 
affaifs, and that previous to the 
glorious battle of Trafalgar. That 
almost all the ^real powers of tbe 
continent were iu arms against 
France. But wLea the expeidilion 
was sent against Copenhagen, the 
whole of the continent was sub- 
dued, atid subdued not merely for 
tlie purpose of conquest, but the' 
[ D ] subjugation 



1 



34 ., ANNUAL REGISTER, l«08. 

• * 

sulgu^iotf of England^ tbro«|gh m; from these coirremHons, of 
the downfiitof beriiaTalsopreiDa<7» vhidi be gave a cireumstaBtial ao 
Hie Dfoeasitj of the oneasure. be ooynltotlw house, be was coo vinced^ 
coDskiered as dear. It odIj re- that the emperor was smcere in his 
.luaiDed to inquire, whether the desire to m^Utfe, if possible, a peace 
priodples on which it was uoderta- between this country and France i 
ken and executed, were coirtrary to but at all events, lord Hutcbiosoa 
the law of natious. as laid down believed that Ihe relations of peace 
and acted €fi in old times, before and amity ought then have been 
tiie bond by which it h4d united preserved between Great Britaia 
all civilized nations was burst by the and Russia. He had never said» 
French levolutionl Tlie first ri^t nor did he now mean to say, that 
that grew out of that bw, as well if the attack on Copeohagen bad 
il^ of the law. of nature, was the never been made, there would have 
right of security:, a righ^ which been no. war with Russia; but he 
oou]d uot be ttniited by any of the Would say* that the rrsuit of that 
lights of neutiality ; but, it seem- expedition did materially change 
ed« on account of the expedition to. the relations between Great Bri« 
Copenhagen, a general cry was tain and Russia,, and give rise to 
raised against England. Hie voice sentiments of a very hostile nature^ 
of Europe was said to condemn us. at the court of Peleaburgh. At 
Was tlie voice of Europe oow*^ the last interview he had with the 
free f Or did any power or indivi- ^ einperor, which was oh the 4th of 
dual on the continent venture; to * September, his imperial majesty 
hreatlie a seotinient hostile lo the closed the conversation, by repeat- 
views 6f Buonaparte! He implored ing with, much eniphasb, that fac 
. their lordships not. in the bosom of would have satisfaction for Dea- 
present security, to look back on mark. Lord W. had treated light- 
past dangers, with ^ view to cen-' iy the opinion expressed in Europe 
sure those by whose services they respecting the expedition to Copeo« 
had been avoided, lest future mi-' hagen ; but that opinion was h^hly 
nisters, in cases of similar urgency unfavourable to this country : nor 
and danger, should be deterred,, had that expedition, as he coa* 
from emwating'Oie present glorious* ceived, been justified bv. the. ar- 
exampk, under the apprehension of guments used by the noble lord* 
beiag stigmatised as the violatois Lord Erskine. expressed his sa> 
of neutru rights, ^nd the imitators tisfaction. that lord W. had eiidea- 
of the injustice of the enemy. voured to rest his arguments on the 
I^jwd Hutclynson was of opmioD, law of nations, and not on the mon- 
' that evtea supposing the French to strous doctrine, that the law of jia- 
h^M been ui possession of Hoi* tionswas at j^n.end, and tha) we 
stein and Jutland, still Zealand .were justified in resorting to .auy 
snigiit faave.been defended with ef« me^sune that might suii our con- 
feet against the freuch arms. Hav- venience. This was copying that con- 
tag b^n employed- on a very im- duct of revolutionary France, which 
porlnit mission^ whicls^ptve him an was Ihejorigin of tl|e war with that 
epportimi^ of having some con- country. He had rather that France 
venatidas wi|(ttbe eniperor of Rua h9d tinteD the fleet, an^ that we 












• 



A» 



56 



ANNUAL REGlStER, lg08. 



to the cotml'ry/ to magoffy the 
danger which the measure adopted 
was intended to avert ; whilst the 
fee! fact wfif| tlnst of this supjnwed 
combination of naval force, Sweden 



fleet, the Danes would liave taken 
the first opportnnity of entrrine 
into the maritira«; confedtracv 
a/^aiust this country/ as in tire form- 
er instance* which led to one of t<ie 



was with us, the Baltic fleet -oif greateit naval achievements record- 
Russia ' completdy in our power, ed in our annals. It was iqipossihle 



and therefor^' the Danish fleet, 
evert if at the disposal of France, 
which was aft least questionable, the 
only danger against which we had 
to piNivide. But this wa$ thought 
so great and imthifient as to justify 
measures, whichi -but for tke 
French revolution, would be with- 
out precedent. Why, his lordship 



to s(4)po8e that Buonaparte, afler 
having annihilated the arnijes of 
the ^ontirf^nt,'%ould have suflFered 
isolated Denmark to retain her in- 
dependence. We hiid trusted' lo 
the declafation of Deamiatk too 
longi Her conduct had* not niertt* 
ed such confldence. Skt had not 
made preparations for her defence, 



asked, under tlie circumstances of nor shewn any inclination to resist 
danger under which alone our con- ance. It was only when tlie Engli^t 



duct towards Denmark w^s defend- 
ed, were the Aussian ships of war 
that passed through our fleet in the 
Baltic;, and the Russian squadron 
lA the Mediterranean, suffered ' to 
escape? By taking possession of 
tlie latter^ we should have flicilitat'* 
ed the negociation then depending 
with the Turks ^ and with such an 



and Hanoverians were sidvancins 
to the rescue of the north, that she 
had attembled her troo{» in Holi- 
te?n. He ivas surprized to find 
sudf horror expressed at the expe- 
dition to Copenhsgen, b^ those 
who had' approved that against 
Gonstantinopleb He could conceive 
that a person m1gl>t condemn both ; 



iustrnment in our baud, we might but he could scarcely think it po: 

have trusted to the mediation of sible for one to approve the attack 

tiie court of Petersburgh, whilst, at on Constantinople, where there m as 



the same time, by a strong naval 
f^rce in the Baltic, we shduld have 
protected, and enallT^d ^Denmark 
to maintain lier neutrality, kept 
qpen the Sound, and thus effectu- 
ally have disappointed tlie expec- 
tations ' Buonaparte had formed, 
from the influence Ire had gained 
over the emperor of Au^i^. Btt' 
above all, we should have avoided 
the abandonment of those sacred 
principles of justice and honour, 
by which the conduct of our govern- 
ment had been so advantageously* 
contrasted with that of Franeew 
. Lord Harrowby cOnteiftded; that 
tf we h«d not Mfl^d the Daniaih 



no obvious necessity, and condemu 
that against Copenhagen, which Ma> 
so necessary for our security. Tlii^ 
country had beet) acfting on su^ii 
grounds, as wottld justify an indi- 
vidual in aggression. The enem) 
had departed from the t^w of nst- 
lions, atidVt, couseque^y* were 
not bound to adhere to it.* If wt 
had adhered to the principles ot 
the noble lords, on the other side, 
iu the late disturbances in Ireland, 
we should have been goihg to law 
with the rd>els, whilst they were 
|;oing to war with us. 

Tmearl of'ltfoira said, that of 
the hostile inteiittoiti of Ihte |>resent 



uot. 



ruler 






*; 



•>» 






«l 



•>» 



lb 



I » 



w ■. 



-38. ANNttAt REGISTER, 180)5; 

ing witli Fiiincc previous to our at- to join with the ftrittsh force, the at- 
tack (>h lier capital: tio such in- teoipt of defending Zealand ifould 
ferenre could Oe drawn from the have been made. That oflfor having 
qiimitity of stores foiuid in her »r- been niade aiid' rejected^ na time 
senaU, becaluse therfe had not been wa^ tb be to^t. The * mudcralion 
time for cotlecling thla0 stores be-* Ifliidfor^aranceoFourcommaaders, 
tvveen the period at which the l>efore and after the attacl^ left no 
tk'caty of Tilsit was concluded, and ^toom -for regret at tlienstiDiier in 
the date*'of bur invflftiDu;^ / wlitcfli the lousiness had been done. 

' Lord tiawli»bury observed, fliat llev^'then could it be said, that the 
the laW of uations^was founded on '- expedition excited disgust in all the 
the law of nature. One nflftiou^ iva dons of Europe? Th<toe was in- 
'was bound to aftoiher in the^ coto-* deed ' but*' littie fireadora of .speech 
- luoifwealth of Mtes, jbst as ode oh the continent ; but ^here tiiat 
- jmltvidual \vas bound' to aiHitther m fi«edoni exfstedy 4he voice proved 
icivil; society* The ohf^ difference favourable to Bdi^isu And -il was 
was, tlmt in c!vil Society t)iere wer« no wouder, for the generat intenests 
tribunaUto judge between man '^nd of Europe were constdled ds weh 
man: and that in the c^iltonoii- as those of Great Britain. Surope, 
^ 'trealth of irtetts tbcK vat no $ud]r Asia^ Africa, and Ameriea/^ould 
^ tUbuoal. Specific intelligence * of find fn tfiis Hct the nucleus of their 
^llie ' secret arrangements pi Tilsit* future iadraendenee aodgduidesr 
bad reached ministers fmni a quar- Wrtliofit MjpSf cotanics, and 'torn- 
ter which precluded all >dal!kbt of merce, oajr etie»iy> would n^:|er ht 
, an inteutftn to « form a laarilime able to humble Brit&in ; ind th» 
confederacy jfgainst Great BritaiiH grand blow would fO€ ever prevent 
;' After the battles of AitMerliti, Jena/- the; attainment of his object. 
^ and; Friedland, there was nothing The carl of St. Vincent declared 
on jhe cotttifient that cdiiid oppose liis. opmion, tlftti -supposing Zea- 
aiiy Tesistance to Fmnce. Den- laad and" the Diansbpnavy tcT be ia 
^ mark, when called upon, would the possession of Deiifliark. aud the 
have had no aHeffialiVe* ThS^was FreoetiT to be in possession of H ol- 
^'tlie ptea she^had ailedged in excuse Ueut, lie should thnik it'|nllre prae- 
for decbring agaiia^ us before, ia ticdbl0 lb invade ttn^ country from 
circiimstancesiess^impdhitive. f>en<- Boul^^|ae> than Zealand fit>ntHol- 
^~ mark was un^Ie to defend Mol^-^ stein. A»^ta tlie^%tate of the Danish 
teiu t and it wjas the'^ opinion oii> '^6tt, it seeilied to hit lordship to 
the ablM t)flicers, that flP. two be exactly what it was ,^heu he 
bodies of French of t5,0QO each', * -first icnew it about eight yean 
had been stationed afong the lielf,^ ago; 

in . aeiarat^ eo|Fps^ of 5000 each, Lord Grey observed, thi^tftbough 
some of them would haWe got over it might be the policy of Fraoae to 
mt^ ZeahBll. Aud wiieti once ^ lake the most immadiat^tteafures 
t>ody of Ihem did get over, there for acco.fllpHBiAig her ends, it wits 
was n^Houbt that ^ey would have far from likelyltiat DeninarltsfaouM 
got tfaid better «( the Danes, who vgrant a*relA|v Compliance 'vritb the 
tvere the worst latiiil troops- in £u- demandsdf the Freacftigdifcniincot. 
ppeSkf the t)aYies had beep willmg- -'It was undoiffotedly Im iutfrest to 









I 






HISTOBY OF EUROPE. 



39 



keep tfut of the cootat. And if she 
was desirous of doiog so, she had 
a threat to. hold «iit to Buonaparte, 
as powerful as any he had to drive 
ber to a eompHance with his wishes. 
Sbtt had the British navy to apply 
to fotj>rotection ; and it would have 
been absolute ruin to Buonaparte's 
own schemes to have driven fiei* to 
such a resource. . His noble friend 
(lord St. Vincent) had just declared^ 
that Ae Danes iu Zealand were as 
secure against an attad^ from Hoi- ^ 
stem, as we were against an attack 
froni Boulogne. From the opinion 
of a military person, Lord H. wish- 
ed to infer the contrary. But that 
opinion did not seem to lord Grey 
to b$ at all to the point It was in 
answer Jo a question, as to the 
chanc^ of some one of f\¥^ or six 
diyisioiiB, or ^000, out of dd»000 
men succeeding in effecting a land- 
ing* . This waa merely a hypotheti- 
cal question, the answer to which 
proved nothing ; for it did not say» 
that on one division landing* Zea-> 
land must &1I as ai necessary couse-* 
quence. it was said, the Danes were 
hostilely disposed toiA'ards us, in 
proof of which, tlie American war . 
"was cited, the armed neutrality, and 
>.tiieconftd4racy of 1800^1« From 
these however, particularly the last, 
his lordship v^as inclined to form an 
opinion directly opposite. They 
would tdU to mind what had b^ea 
the irffect of that confederacy : an 
attack on their capital, and the 
loss of a considerable part of their 
fleet Lord G. entered into a 
statement of the actual situation 
of the Danish fleet ; no part of 
wbich^ it appeared, to him, could . 
have been ready for sea in less tl)aii 
six weeks, aatd the .greatet.part 
in tm/t- less than 4k months. If 
the mimtters bad been anaiotts 
l^. fitieiigt^en the couufiry, the;y . 



\vould have turned their eyes 
towards Ireland. Let them re> 
store to Denmark ber ships; 
let thane be manned by the most 
hj^ile of our enemies. To meet 
that forcet let government grant to 
Ireland her ciyil and religious liber- 
ties, and they would have done 
more for the safety of the country 
than all the fleets of Denmark 
could ever effect As to Lisbon,  
which had - been referved to, oUr 
commander .there had no instruc- 
tions to attempt carrying off the 
fleet, but in the event of the French 
taking possession of the country. 
And at Constantinople no demand 
.was made which we had not a right 
to:»ake by treaty. 

Lord Mafgrav^ urged the same 
arguments that bad been made usA 
of aipin and again m defence of 
the expedition to Copenhagen* 
There might be a great deal» he 
•aid* of. magnanimity in contem- 
platiugft without <my degree of ap- 
prehension, so, much danger, as 
that of the Danish fleet falling uito 
the hands of the eneny ; but for his 
part he preferred tbeprudence which 
saved us from incurring it. A greaF 
deal, had been said on the abiurdity 
of allowing the Rusiian fleet to iia» 
vigate the seas at pleasure^ at tbe 
ttme time that this serious attack 
bad been made on the Danish ma« 
rine. Now the fact was, that ordeia 
had been dispatched to our oflicers 
not to permit a Russian fleet to go 
into an enemy's port. It was not 
want of caution that had admitted 
the eoHance of a Russian squadron 
into the Tagus, but want of wmd, 
and unfavourable weather, by 
which Sir Sidney Smith was pre- 
vented from reaching the Tagus, 
until two d^ys after that squadron 
had got iota it. ' • .^ 

Lord DaiDlev contended, that * 
[D 4] , no 



.* 



• s 



« I' 



•*.  r. 



;* 



40 'annual REG I« T E R, 1809. 



iio caae v^lialever liad be«n made 
out to Justify the liarsTi .measures 
resorted to by miniUeisin aMHcking 
A d^feticolcss pt-opie in a stale of 
avowed neutrality. 

' Lord viscoun* Sid moutli contend- 
ed, ID the first place, tlial ther^ 
was no reason to supptse that the 
' Danes i^ere hostileU ' inclined to-> 
wards tis ; and in the ne%X, even 
mimitting that tbey were. Oiat this 
wpuld' not in itjM^If justify the 
..measure of tiie .eMf>ediiioD, He 
cammented on the glaring anachroe 
nisni of imputmg the expedition, 
which sailed in July, to intelligence 
not received here till the 81 h of the 
following month, and the indecency 
pf putting such an assertion in the 
mouth of his majesty. As 4o the 
designs Of the French i$ the Gallic, 
Russia woi^ld never ^ have sutfened 
France to have established any 
serious influence in th^t sea. With 
respect to tlie danger to this cbun- 
*4ry/ he 'considered it ikst, with 
rcspcet to- its certainty; and next, 
-Juitb respect to its platitude. Its 
certainty had not at all been^made 
Out, nor was it greater In point of 
jnagnUude' than of certainty, nor 
was its urgency greater than either. 
He gate it as bis opinion, that the 
Danish ships should be kept in a 
stale <lf .readiness for restoratioo. 
lie coBJured their lordship»} to 
'pause before they decided on a 
cjtiestion jovofving so deeply the 
national character ; t^nd that tbey. 
^Tould bear in mind, that iif, as bad 
bcen'said, tbe expedition-bad been 
bitberto ||;efierally approved of by 
the country^ it was because the 
country looked with confidence to 
tniniaters, for the fullest justification 
of their conduct. The house tbeo 
drrided — For the duke of Norfolk's 
motion, 48. Against it^ 105. 



* *  

House of commons, February 
Sth.— Mr. Whitbread called the at^ 
tention of tJie house to a subject of 
the highest importance. AHudins to 
the conduct of Mr. secretary Can- 
ning;, m quoting {lartial eaiiracts in 
support of the opinions he waa- 
n^intaining^ iu the late debftte* of 
Febjruary 3d, on the subject of 
Copenhagen, he said» a practice 
bad crept into tliat house which, he 
thought, bad been carried. to aa 
immoderate extreme. He con- 
sidered tbeoright bc»nourable genille^, 
man to be bound b> ever\' tie of 
honour and of policy, to prove by.liie 
production of (be papers he sboukl 
movf for, \bat the feebogd^ honour, 
and character of our ministers 
. abrpad aqd at home i^rere safe in 
the baoils of tbe secretary of state 
for foreign affairs. The first ^x- 
tract he should allude to, was that 
referred to by Mc ۥ in bi^ speed)* 
February .3d, from lord Homick'^ 
official dispatch to Mr. .Garlicke^ 
)[»earing date the 3d of t^ecember, 
] 80&I He would move for a copy 
of Inat dispatch ; for be bad autho- 
rity to sfate, that lord Howick had 
reason to think himselfuotdone jus- 
tice to in this instance. He did not 
mean to say tliat the right hofiourabl^ 
secretary Itad forged such extracts; 
but he did j^y, tb^t by stopping 
short in the mid^t of a «e|Ueace^ 
and omitting tbe subsequent part^ 
th^t wholly quaK^^ t^e preceding^ 
by reading as absolute what was 
meant bypothetically^ he did say, 
that this was reading a man'a^ evi. 
detice against himself, and 'ag^nst 
the true nature of tbe ^Videnf:e. 
It was neither more oor less tkan 
falsifyiii^ tbe statements of another 
perscM), whose i^tuatiousbouIdi>a?e 
cofnmanded more deliciiisy. Mr. 
Garlicke had Ihq^ hardly treated^ 

Loid 



r. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



41 



Tjord Howick mijiht stand up in his 
I'ijic and vindicate himself, but 
\%!j€re could Mr. Garlicke vindicate 
hi'* di5]iatcUes, from garbled mis- 
rq>reseiilulioii8. And how anxious 
roust ive be to vindiciilc his character 
tn the Danish court, and every 
otlierl But inde|iendenlly of any 
personal relations, Mr. C. was 
p!aced in a raost important one to 
I be public The Copenhagen ex- 
pedtlioD was not yet justified. The 
farKK>urable secretary for foreign 
SiihiTB had been driven from 
inson to reason, and it u'as for him 
to prove, that the last he had re- 
sorted to, the extracts he had read, 
were not falsified. Mr. Whitbread 
concluded, with moving, ** that a 
copy of a dispatch from lord How- 
ick, dated the 3d of December, 
IS06, from which extracts had 
been read in the debate, on Wed- 
m^sday the 3d of February, be 
hiv\ before tlie house; and also a 
c:.?p5 of a note from Mr. Rust to 
lord Howick, from which extracts 
liad been read, &c." ' « 

BIr. Canning asked, if Mr. \V. 
recollected with what view he had 
cited tlie dispatch of the 3d of De- 
cember ] It was probable that ex- 
tsttng circamstances might have led 
lo a compromise, by which the 
Beet of Denmark would have been 
surrendered to France. Jn sup- 
poft of this assertion, he had very 
naturally read part of a dispatch 
irum lord Howick to Mr. Garlick, 
in which the latter was instructed, 
if any disposition should be mani- 
fested on the part of the Danes to 
enter into such a compromise, dis- 
tinetiv lo state, that it would be 
resented by bis majesty. He bad 
an ob^tion whatever' to the {pro- 
duction of the n^tear to and from 
Un Rfsi. They ccntaiued an a()le 



discussion of the French decree 
of the 21st of December, ant of 
the English order of council of the 
7th of January. For the pinduc- 
tion of these papers he wuuhi vote 
cheerfully, but not for the di^^patrh 
of the noble lord, for the produc- 
tion of which there had not been . . 
laid any snilicient grouud. 

Mr. Whitbread observed, that 
Mr. C. in his statement of the in- 
structions to Mr. Garlieke, bad left 
ofl* where the very first wnrd of tJie 
next sentence, the word but, \*ould 
have completely knocked dr»wn all ' 
his reasoning on the subject. Mr. 
W's. motion was supported hv lord 
Temple, Mr* Herbert, Mr. Tier- 
ney, Mr. Horner, Mr. Windham, 
Mr. Lyttletoii, Mr.- Sheridan, and 
Mr. Sharp. It was opposed by the 
secretary at war, Mr. L<>ckhart, 
the chancellor .of the exchequer, 
sir John Orde, and sir M. Monta- 
gue. On a division of the house, 
there appeared for the motion 79 • 
against it 1 27, 

House of lords, February 1 1 th. 
^Lord Sidmouth gave notice of a ' 
motion he intended to make, ou a ^ 
fit opportunity, for an ad<lress to 
his mujesty, praying he would he 
graciously pleased to give directions 
that the Danish Heet be kept in such 
a state, as not to preclude tiie pos- 
sibility of restoring it, should cir- . 
cumstances (^ccur under which it 
might be expedient to restore it. 
Agreeably (o tJiis notice, the noble 
viscount rose to make a motion to 
this effect, on February 18th. ; but 
be requested, previously, that the 
summons sent by tjie British com- 
manders to the governor of Copen- » 
ha<>en, on the l6th of August, and 
a subsequent letter from them might 
be read ; which was done. His 
object he said, was to propose to 

their 



f ■* 



\f 



.-« 



K H- 



42 ' A'l^^N^.UAL REGISTER?, tSOS. 

'their Urdshtps, to come to a reso-'^ be (akeh w ith respect to the «hip« 

"^ Itttiofi stating the ini|lbrtance 6t' of war now in tlie po^ehiori of his 

' prescrtrfiig the Danish fleet tb such majesty, in consequence oMie ca- 

^ a state libr k mii^ht be ever4#d(!y pft'utation of Copentegen> ^at 

• -tM^^reti to Dttimark,' on the te- might preclude tire efentual. restitu- 
Bloralion of peace, or sooner, if tion of them to the govcriiment of 

- fl^ssibliH. He said * eveDtiially/ as DetimaA»an;reeablyto the spirft of 

k H^^^ possible that Mcli a situation ' the requistlioii referred to. in the 

\ ^ ^f aSufls mightSexist, that ta re-» proclamation issued onttie l6th of 

.«tore the Danish tJeet might be August, by tlie ^toramaiiders iu 

Ai ' E^uig it to France, and also 1^- chief of 'his majesty's tieaaii^ laud 

*^ j.^ . cause h^did not wish to bi^g mr* forces, employed oii tkit occasion ; 

i^^pcd anjr motftni that might inter- and renewed in tlior letter of tlie 

" iilft with the prerogntire of Ihe first of September', fc tlie com- 

^ t . crown. He bad al|o used the mander in ciifef of Ihe forces of his 

4enn$ * the restoration of peace, or Paiitsh majesty." ! »5 

sooner'^becanseciVcumstauresnyight < Lord Boringdon thought the pro* 

*^ occur, not^iithsfanding the continu- position of the noble viscount of a 

' - ance of the war, in whiih the re- * iMvel and extraordinary nature^ and 

flotation of the fleet might be sttcii-m if adopted, must lead to 

proper. He shouhi ' not liave Jhe most pri^u^ial conseqneoces. 

/ l>rou^t forward jhc motion if be . Had such a proposition as tbia been 

^ad liot seen by the votes of the adopted witu respect^ the^flpanisb 

• *^ lious^ of commons Ihnt the Danish frigates, would it not h^ greatly 

, . • •sb^s'hatf been surveyed, for Tfie embarrassed the earl 6f LiU&rdaJe 

^ ^ fmrpose of bein^ talten into the Brin vsk his uegociations at Purist Such 

J ^isb service. ' To^dopt a resolution t -propo^hioit 'oc\dd - be adopted 

^ "* of the nature "proposed, ivoold set oitl)' on (li ogrolind, that tlie -Spanl'h 

^ /OS right ill the eyes of Euro|>e^ apd .^xpedhion was wholly aDJustiflttbIc, 

\ .f- evince mir tieshre to be just 'We uuJi^tiie liouschad already decided 

^llotild-have at some period' either ou both its justice and necesMty. 

, -to restore the Aeet or to make com* Lord Eiieuboroogh . fhoogbt, 

pen^tiou for it; and it w its better tb^t e^^ei^ considoratioh oC" jus- 

to come at once to a resolution, de- iSce and regard lor -the iatertsts 

"' daring a decided opinion on the land welfare of the coiAilry were 

• subject. Not all the * victories of iu siip]>ort of the motion 'of his 
' Ihe niler of France; nor all  his noble Iriend. 

eonquesfs, could give him so mixch The iOrd chancellor contended, 

' pleasure as to obtain.{i victory over that both by ttie law df pr^j^edent, 

the honour and integrity of this and by thatof the collstitnt&bn, the 

coantry. * He had, upoYi 'consider- present motion must be resisted. 

ation, Ihougbt it i^etierto propose Tbe ships Ve had taken from Hot> 

a resolution of th^ house, t|fan an land bad not been restored,'' nor 

t atldress tb the l|^rone. Hk lordship th4se from Spcrin, nor those taken 

' ooncludetl^ by iimving, '* thai it at Toafon* fiat the coiistituthra of 

W;as highly important to the tionour , the country was -decisive upoii' this 

•f this countff, that under present ' point. Captured ships became the 

tifctfrnstanieeSj no measures, stipuld proiMtly of ibe erown, and Ibe 

^ . . "^ V '" • present 

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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



< 



prfient motion tfnded to ti^iinp 
the hand of the prero^aLive. 

Lord Holland contended^ t^at 
the qu^ion did uot at all affect 
the prerogative of the crown, (t 
ivas oi*Iy, whether that bouse would 
resolve,, tliat it was expedient that 
tlie govemmeat should reserve to 
itself th^ power of restoring, even- 
tually,, tlie sbip^ seized by us at 

.. Copenliagea to tlie Danes, • He 
¥^as not inclined at present to enter 
into any jexposition of the shi flint?, 
prevaricaj^ug testimony that had 
been resorted to, In vindication of 
the Baltic expedition* One titue 
^Penmark was represented 9s sincere 
in ber professions of neutrality, 
but too weak to act op to hf r in- 
tentions. At another, tliey were 
tciU, that as her sincerity .was qnes- 
tioaable, ber ineaos of annoyance 
were- to be feared and provided 
agaiosfv Again, it was pretended, 
tlial Uie sole grounds of the expedi* 
tion were the secret arrangement of 
the treaty of Titaxt; and wbea it 
'^as attempted to tra$^ the alledged 
informalion to any aQtl)entic source, 
Portugal was at one period brought 
forviard as the informer ;. an^ at 
another^ the disaffected Irish. This 
^hoct of shifting naturally created 
suspicion in the mind of every im-. 
partial man. Considering the pre- 

. aent motion, with a- reference to 
the question of peace, he appealed 
to the feelings of the noble, lords, 
wisether i| would hot be mor«;for 
Ibe honour of the country, if they 
could commenoea'negotiation, after 
4 voiuiilary cession oti their parts, 
xather than the subsequent degra- 
dation of a forced surrender, ex- 
acted by the stipulations of .a 
treaty? . • 

Lord Harrowby opposed the 
mption of the noMecVisc^Mitj be- 



cause, instead of giving them fa 
» lities in a negotiation for peace, 
would better our* government, a 
prevent Diem from obtaiuiug t 
terms which they mi^ht, otherw 
secure. The arizumeuts of t 
noble lords opposite went too 1 
for their purpose; for,- if tli 
proved any thiug, they proved, ^ 
that tiie Danihli flcetjshould beU< 
.in order, that it might be restoi' 
'at sonic subsequent period, but 
stantly an<i without delay* 

Lord flrskiue observed, (hat * 
hud gone to the Danish shores in 
amicable character, and treated w 
the Danes on an amicable footii 
We took them hy. surprize, wli 
they were lulled into security, a 
then proposed that they shoi 
purcliase the temporary protect t 
of a foreign power, by the surrcn<: 
of their indej^endence as a iiati 
for ever. With respect to the li 
of precedent he dissented from 
noble and learned friend 011 the sa* 

* 

The (ja&es cit^d by iiis nobic friei 
were not; in bis opinion, apf>li( 
ble to that before, their lordshi, 
There was no obligation whatev 
on the part of thb country, to 1 
store to retohit ionized Holland \ 
ships taken from the stadihold 
With respect to the precedent 

, Toulon, the Toulon fleet was ( 
posited m our faands.on the expr 
, condition of Us being restored 
ihe restoration of monarchy. A 
in the treaty of Amiens, thrre v 
not one syllable said by Fratu 
indicative of any claim to that fle 
But there Mas notliiug for whi 
lord Erskine was more anxious tli 
to shew to the world, that what 
4id was indeed the work of nu 
necessity ; and .that this necess 
being once at attend, we scorn 

.to enter into any pitiful calculati 






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4^  ANNUAL RE(JiSTEIl, 1808. 



of. turoinff it to our own ad van- 



•lagc. . 



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Tbe earl of JSelkiilc, though he 
Wts a friend to the priMcipie of the 
Danish expedition, thbiiglit it his 
, dnty to support the motion before 
the iioose. 
.' Lord Redesdafe thotfght, that 

. ^,tbe origffial proposition of our com- 
inanders to restore the Danish fleet, 
was completely doi)^ away by the 
si^bseqitent conduct of the Danish' 
govern meAt, in rejecting the ternns 
of that proposition, and entering 
into hostilities with this country. — 
Tliere wa9 no nation in Europe to 
- %vblcb Denmark had been so ad- 
verse, for several yearf beck, as to 
this cduntrv. * Slie would have 
Acted faostiiely towards us if she 
could ; and our government acted 
.wieeljr in depriving ber of her 
- means. Sucb^ pledge as that for 
Ihe restoration of ihose means 
would, . instead of tending to . con«> 
<iliale, serve to produce an oppo- 

^ site effect, as it proposed to con- 
' cede that before hand, wfaicli ought 
: to be left for matter of treaty. 

The earl of Barnley conceived it 
to be ' peculiarly becoming that 
bouse to ^and * forward, for the 
purpose ikf cesM^uing the national 
character from the imputation na- 
tural]y'4o be affixed upon it, by the 
DaoLsb expedition. 

Lord Mulgrave, to the assertion, 

. . that we did not Want ships but 
itiieo, replied by alled<;ing, that we 

.. colildhave men enough at any. time, 

< but tliftt we might stand in need of 
stiippiog. 

• Lord GfieflviHe denied, that the 
hoQse had yet come to any deci* 
sion on ^e merits of tlie I>aiiisli 

•' expedition; the evidence relative to 
which had not yet been laid before 
it 1^ expliiii2«d the. object of the 



motion; it was by no means pro<«- 
pos^d, that the Danish fleet should 
be restored under any particular 
circumstances ; but merely that, in 
order to facilitate a reconciliation, 
and with a view io (economy al^O, it 
should foe kept in such a ^tate as to 
prevent any obstructions to peace 
with Deumaik. by enablhig us to 
restore it with the least pos.«ible ex- 
pence and difficulty. A ftvr depre- 
cating the principle, tbat a state of 
war should caned moral obliga- 
tions, Or that we stiould shrink from 
doing justice lest it should lead to 
loss» he proceeded ,to comment 
on the consequences likely to result 
from the natnre of our attack on 
Copenhagen. So far from dSestro^*- 
ingf hy that attack, the naval re- 
isoorces of Denmark, we had, par- 
ticularly by the spirit we |:>i'Qduced, 
contributed to protiiote and'exteiid 
tbem. Her ports and arseoals were 
still remaioiiig, with a vast quan- 
tity of naval materials; and any 
supply she wanted, she could with- 
out diffitulty obtain., T^e |>ro^ 
to be deriv^ from 'oi^r iniquity 
waL in fact, iramtttenal while wre 
hacT 'created a spirit, valour^ and 
animosity to light against us, which 
mast furnish powerful ^d to the 
cdmmop enemy. 

Cord Hawkesbury opposed the 
ihotion^ as tending to fetter the 
executive government, 'in case of a 
Negotiation with Denmark; as cast- 
ing an oblique censure on the cbn- 
'diict of ministers; and as affixing a 
stigma upon a measure,' vvhich was 
bothjast and necessary /- 

Lord Sidmouth repf&d to lord 
Hawkesbury, on the usual ground^, 
that the Baltic' cxiiediliou was nei^ 
tiler jiist, neeessHi^,' lior politically 
necessary ; and that at any rate th« 
ships, under certain circumstances* 

. . ou^it 






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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



45 



oii«:ht to be restored to Denmark. 
The lipase divided. For lord Sid* 
iiKxitlis motion^ 51.— Against it,' 
105. 

Uouie of Commons, Feb. 25. — 
Mr. Sheridan submitted -.to tiie 
bouse a propoffirion, which appear- 
ed to bim of the first importance. 
He IiaH hoped, that strong informa- 
tioii would have proved the attack 
mi Copenltasen to have been an 
met of necessity ; or that some un- 
eqinvocal instance of the hostih'ty 
of Denmark would have been 
^lewii ; or lastly, that some argu> 
ibetit woiftd have offered some to- 
krable pretext for their conduct. 
But wben he' found, that iustcad of 
this, they only made an awkward 
attempt to form som^tbiD? out of 
all tlienhree ; that, they first prer 
tended a stroi^ necessity ; that on 
being driven from this ground, 
tfiey tried to point out a yariety of 
provocaUQUs on the part' of Den- 
mark : that they then said, it was 
necessary to cIo some j^tout act, 
wtiJch might prove to the world 
that ibey could imitate Buonaparte ; 
and that the result' of the whoife 
was a total denial of alt actual in- 
fbmttlioQ whatever^ he could not 
disguise (he mifavourable impres- 
sioa wtnch had been made upon 
1)15 miod. The allegation, that 
granting infbrmatioo- was danger* 
(MIS, was ever on tlie lips of those 
whose purposes required conceaU 
mait. Adniittin«r, however, tfiat 
the granting of intbrmalion mi<:lit 
be sometimes inconvenient, perha))s 
eveir dangerous, publicity was the 
vital principle of our political con* 
•iftutioa. Despotic govenioieut? 
bad some advantages from that se- 
cret larking manner in wbicli busi- 
ness night be there transacted. 
The peculiar cooveaiences eiijoyed 



by a despotic government were ba- 
lanced by advanta;'e8 on the side of 
freedom ten thousand ti men greater* 
This proposition Mr. Sheridan il- 
liistrated in a very happy manner. 
Supposiiig that a case could be ^ 
made out against Denmark^ the 
house was without information re* 
specting the real caiise bf the war 
with Russia. He look it for, grant-, 
ed, that it n'as not simply the at- 
tack upon Copenhagen which bad 
ulienatedtheempcrorof Russia from 
this country. It was owin^ to some- 
thmg that had occurred posterior  
to that attack, that he had arrang- 
ed hinisclf in the list of our eoe- 
mios: thc'cunnuunicalion imparted ' 
to the court of Petersburgh, of the 
foul, treacherous, and base propo- 
sals that were made after the capi- 
tulation of Copenhagen, by mini- 
sters to Mr. Rist, the Danish agent 
in this country, desiring Deimiark 
to submit to any terms they might 
think proper to dictate, on the pain 
of haying Norway wrested from 
that kingdom and given to Swe- 
den. If he could trust to the pa- 
pers, which he held in his hand, 
purporting to be the substance of a 
conversation which passed between 
Mr. secretary Canning and Mr. 
Rist, and copies of a correspond- 
ence, whicli passed between the  
courts of Copenhagen and Stock- ' 
bolm, it appeared that^ at tiie very 
time when nunisters were soliciliiig ' 
the mediation of the emperor of 
Russia between Great Britain aud 
Demnark, they were thr^'alcniog to 
despoil Denmark of a part of her 
territories, and, after liaviug eva- 
cuated Zealand, according to the 
capitulation, to co-ofKra'te with i^ 
Swedish garrison in aoain taking 
pfMsessioo of It. Flagrant and 
wicked, as be conceived the £rst 

attack 



*« 



u 



« ft 



4» ANNUAL REG rSTEE>. 1808. 



cf uded with inomg» ^* That Itere 
be laid before tbe house, as far as 
thfi same could be''done« >fitliojifc 
detriment to the pablic ' service, 
copies or extracts'' of the corres^ 
pondeiwie which p|lse4. after the 



09 Cnpenhagen ,to have been, 
to have violated |be capitt^latioii 

'- ^ronkt hsve been sHIkmore base aaii 
criiDinal. Mr. Sheridaa read tbe 
aeveral papers to whi<^h he alluded; 

'^1>efiiiiiip^..witb Mr. Rist's note to 



count Beriistorff» eontaioing a coin«« capitulation of Copenhagen', bc-> 



aninication of 'five different me-^ 

' ^ nSces, if the court of Deonmrk did 

jiQt agree to sobscribe to certain 

' f eraoji ; and ending with • note ad- 

' iftcssed by baron Fawbe, theSweiU 

,-. tth charge d'aflainesat the court 

'^ of Kiel, lo. count Bernstoff, the 

\-'JDanish minister, declaring, that 

u , ^ Had his •Swedish majesty .fudged 

.-It necf^sary to occupy Zealand 

pritli/his troops JQHltly with tKose 

of his. allies, he should have done 

it; and* the king wishes, that he 

jDOay never find himself in the case 

' ,fo regret, that he had acted other- 



tween his majesty's mhristers and 
the court of Silockholm, rdative ta 
the retaining^ possession of Zealaiui 
by a Swedish army^orhieoncert with 
his nuyesly's fortes ; also fat copies^ 
OP extracts of the correspondence 
which passed between bis majesty's 
ministers and the-^Danislh charge 
d'afllaii^, or his secretary^ resideii* 
tiary at the cfurt of London." • 

Mr. secretary Canning ' replied, 
at great length, to Mr. SbH'idan; 
to the most important points . m 
who^ speech he answered^ that die 
docMJne of opposins publicity, to 
tJie saeresy with which the eaemy 
'Mr. Sheridan put the queslton 'cotiducted bis aftiir8,'lvoDld||te very 

iSk the houMv whether it would sane-* piroperlf *^t were prepare^ to be* 

tijdn the siew ay^em of withholding come the sut^ects of that '^nerny ;. 

^linferiiiatiorijelative to the mea- and that no such offer had been 

sures of ministers 1 If it »did, it made of Norway to Sweden, as^had 
^ V would be betts|;to decide at onoe, just been alledgad- It was true that 

that .the inter fere^^ce of tliaj^ houie what had passed between hiass^Lf 

w^ni at all times an i9kpedtment4o 
> the operations ofgovenuiient; that 

parliament m difficult times Avas a 



I' 






nuisance; that it was- better for the 
king to prorogue it durmg'^ plea* 

, sure, raise saoney as he pleases, 
and makevt^ar or peace^^hen^hpw, 

'or on'vbat terms he tnay think 
proper. He inrphmd ministers to 
des(|f Snathe system ef filing 



and the Danish ebargr d'afiaii^ faiid 
b^n reduced to a minute, in the 
shap^ of a protocol ;of a conference; 
but ^'i^ was not in it a single 
word or what the right honeutafalk 
gentleman had read from, the Mo* 
nitenr. The proposition ttatfaad 
l»e€tt made to the Hanisli^ charge 
d'afiaires, was.eitlier that be sboud 
procure full powers to Ireat, or m- 



Puonapatte with lus own weapo;i8» dute Ids government ' to appoint 

Let them oppoie lenity and mode- some person with such powetv, to 

tationto his .cruelty and oppres- treat witli^ a minister to be sent 

sion; good faith to his treacliery ; Aotft - this country to Copenhagen* 

t^ his violence and despotism the Thn was tbe sy^le of the. official 



nind9esS4>f the British constitution; 
and, tibove all, to his inystery let 
the^ oppose pu^^fci^. Be con- 



commuoicatioir. , ft wauld'&ot .le 
contended; that in any dooiirerya- 
tions tte might liave had with thai 

•' r 'gqiitlema% 



r 



1 



>'«. 



t 



n. 






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48 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1308. 



Ifr. Canning liBfl returned a mere 
assertion ; in wljicli, as usual, lie 
was conlideot just in proportion as 
lie «vas.deftient in proof and argu« 

. mefit li« bad stated, that even 
were^the paper? applied for 'laid be- 
fore the hous^y the gentlemen who 
Jiipported' the motion would not 
find wimt fh^y wanted. They 
wanjled 9v>nie proofs to co,ntradict 
the statements which appeared in 
tbe Mmiiteur, *'and to fiodirate the 
character of tJie country ; which 

' would i>e very imperfectly ^indi-^ 

cated indeed, if it rested on the 

jMiere assertion of tlie right honour- 

a'bte gentleman. If he thought the 

. papers wo\ild support his as^sertion, 

was it not ftatural to infer that he 

^ would produce them ? And was it 

'^ not equally natural to infer the 

contrary from the perliilacity of his 

refusal? He look a view of the 

m 

. auintadversions which had appeared 
in the Moiiiteur^ uml maintained 
that they were In some parts par* 
ticularly just, though not expressed 
in very happy terms. 
, The earl of Temple thought the 

. iTiatler under consideration midit 
iDe decided by a sin<>Ie ques'tion^ 
Was there, or was iJiere not any 
negotiation with Sweden, or any 
othHr foreign power, to occupy Zea- 
land after our troops were bomid 
to evacuate it ? 

"Mr. Canning repeated, that it 
was the determined purpose of mi- 
nisters to evacuate Zealand, and li- 
terally aeeording to, the capitula- 
tion ; 1[)ut when he said literatfy, 
ht mear^ not according to' the let- 
ter, but the spirit of the capitula- 
tion. The doubts entertained by 
ministers as to the construction of 
that capitulation^ would not be con- 

- &idered as uuaeaso«Rble by any can- 
did man, who looked inck to the 



period af which ft took place, and 
who reflected, that it w^ conduded 
m the utter ignorance df 'the decla- 
ration of war by the panisk go- 
vernment. 

Lord Temple said, the question 
was, whether it was pro|K»sed to 
any otherppwer to occupy Zealand, 
aAer our troops shoidd have eva- 
cuated it 1 

Mr* CanDiiig; asked. If the noble 
lorH meant to enquire, wlietlier 
aflfer all hopes of a terminatite of 
the war witti Denmark had ceased, 
ministers had it in contemplation, 
or had actually provided to take any 
hostile steps agninst that conntry ?* 

The question having been iouclly 
and repeatedly called for, the house 
divided. — ^^For Mr. Sheridan's mo- 
tion 85.— Against !( 184. 

'House of Lords, March 3. — The 
earl of Darnley, lifter a saitable 
preface, moved that an hnmble 
address be presented to tits ma- 
jesty, 

** That after attentively consider- 
ing all the public documents before 
us concerning the late attack on 
Co)>^nhagen, and the war which it 
has produced, we have found the 
information which tliev afford ex- 
tremely imperfect and unsatisfac- 
lory. 

^Tbat In "a matter in j/iiuch 
both t^e* honour and tlie interests 
of our comifry tere so deepiv rt »n- 
cemed, we had hoped for the fiillesyt 
explanations. The ipttnciplcs of 
our constitution, and the uniform 
practtoe of his majesty, and the so- 
vereigns of his iltiistrioiis houstf, rr^- 
quire that parliament shoWld be 
distinctly apprised of Xi\e true 
grounds of entering into hew wars, 
especially in a situation of our 
country wholly unprecedented. 
)iad Denmark been a p9g%y to 

anv 



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History of I^urppE. 



49 



uny hostile tonfedcrary aganist tbe. 
Tv^his or ioteresU of the BritisU em- 
pire, our resistance would have 
been necessary, and c^ir warfare le- 
gitimate. Under such ciroiun- 
stances we «houU only have had 

• to regret, that the ports and arsenals 
of that country should so lightly 
have heen abandoned, when advan- 
tages so vtry considerable had been 
derived from their temporary oc- 
cupation; dnd when, by our con- 
tiouing to hold them during the 
war, all real danger from that quar- 
ter might have been efiectually 
averted, 

" But we cannot doubt that Den- 
mark, instead of engaginjB; in hostile 
leagues, had resolve(| still to main- 
tain her neutrality. This fact is 
proved even by the imperfect do-. 

 curaelits which have been laid be- 
fore us^ and is confirmed by the 
proclamation issued bv his majesty's 
conunanders unniediately before 
the attack. 

** Certainly Denmark was no 
party, nor does it appear that she 
was privy, to any confederacy hos- 
tile to this country. W« are not 
even satisfied that sneh a league did 
really exist. 

, ** The conclusion of any secret 
articles at Tilsit, aticctiug the righta 
or interests of the British empire, 
appears to have been uniformly de- * 
Died both by Russia end France. 

" The correspondence of his 
majesty's secretary of state, and the 
dates of tlie transactions' them- 
selves, prove that his n^ajesty's mi- 
nisters could not be»in possession of 
any sii^h articles, when the atlack wa^ • 
ordereji against Copenliagen ; a|id « 
it has been distinctly admitteil in 
til is house, that they have not yet 
obtained a copy x>f tbeiii. 

" Th6 king's ambaSsaidor at Pe- 
VoL. L. • 



tersburgh, in an official tiote, rested , 
the defence of the measures not on 
tny hostile purposes either of Den- 
mark or Russia, b«l solely on the . 
designs, which It was satd» the 
French government had long siaoe 
been known to entertain. 

•* His maji^ty's ministers not on- 
ly forcbore to advise such measures* 
as would have been necessary to re- 
pel any real iiostility of Russia, but. 
they actually solicited the media- 
tion of that povtrer to extinguish a 
war, and her guarantee to defeat 
projects, in which it is now pre- 
tended tliey knew her to have been 
a ppncipal and contracting party. 

" Allegations thus inconsistent 
with each other, and contrary to 
admitted facts, weaken, instead of 
supporting^ the cause to which they 
are applied. ^ 

5< With respect to tliealledged ne- ^ 
ces^ity of the case, we beg leave to 
assure his majesty, Uiat we cannot 
think so nieanly of the power and 
resources ((>f lus empire, of the spirit 
of his people, or of the valour and 
discipline of his fleets and armies, 
as to admit that such an act could 
have been required for any purpose 
of self-preservation. 

" Any temporary advantages 
which the possession of such ships 
a lid stores as were taken at Copen^ 
hagen can afford, are already much 
more than counterbalanced by the 
other consequences of a measure, 
which appears hot less objectionable 
in policy than in principle. That 
measure basiiugmeht^d th« number 
of our enemies; it 'has counte- 
nanced the injurious representations 
circulated thi^onghont Europe re* 
spectihg oi^r prin^ples and desfgns; 
and has inflitmed agaipst us the 
warmest' passions of neutral and of 
friendly natipns. 
' tJ^] '"But 



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I 

£0 



A;NrNyAL'tlEGI81CER, 180R 



Y '*«Biit k' has^ above dH, ahdieit and pe^^ of.T^;>Vb«/«vpwed 
•nr^BwiffiersiresioQiif Ibejufltiioeoi' declaration o^ the French govern- 



our'cainet^aseniiiDent^hich ha<I 
lizlhartoNSQpfMirted as tiinNs^k alf 
tePi>'«lifioiiltic8; coitTmandiii^ th'6 
ftispect .of othec pollers, «and tn* 
t4tiragidg us in'.an bttmklebtt^.'AQh^ 
' fideiit cMBce. ^cot tiie ultimalV jprc^ 
l^iinivflttidli^iKmig of^Provkkricew 
;. /^ yiw9Mw^'3A we are even iret 
to prtHidflOQe«dcfii4Mveiy oo-a siib* 
jecCt. the . fuUv knowledge of ivliich 
hat been to perjin'oeioualy w ^bhr Id 



tiieiit|r'toexi;lude trie .^riti4i fi^ 
from evei^ (lort of Eui:(i|>^, and fo 
combine all fbe p^era of tie con- 
tmciit, in a general ,ciw(ederacj» 
agaia»t the Hiarii^iiie V%|D< mui 
|>olilical exbfeuee of Gr^t Bri- 
tain, moat hJgAl^. «|i|)r«^ve tW 
pfonifH an(f fignroua lueaaoreft 
adoptcd^bj bib majesti^^ ttuijiaters, 
for the purpfise of re^atm £mi d 
the reacbpf brs enemies, {be, fleet 



fronaiur; \and reluctant aa #e must «and naval resources of Penranj'fc.'' 

The bouse d^videdl' For the ido> 
t loii 12^ ^--Against it 5jb : ' 

House of Lotds, Maiteii 7.— 
Vidco(iial$idmouth called tbehr Icxd- 
^iip/a4(eiitioa to a subjeet of great 
impoilaoee, .He Iiad liearA tbat 
wlieii « rumour prevaiMof im in- 
tended attack upon .CopeAb9i§Ba« a 
repn^ntatiou Had been ^ made to 
goverbmeiit oa behalf of l&$ Da*- 
njsh vesaek then in oar fmts*- fot 
the purniise of asoeilainuig, wbe- 



ever beto adroit o^lm'^ns iiii- 

favourable- Jbb the jostice .qJ|^« those 

counsels bj^ -iwhi^* bis ma|esty'8 

'^^lidiM^ h;»s been actuated; u if #e 

)'ef compelieCt on auck^an occitsioo* 

to speak, to Ttis majesty Ibelaujpiage 

^ ..'af truth;: :Anrf we muat^thcrelbre, 

wMl all haiiiility^ ajod v^ tlie most 

J unfeigned anit heartfelt sorrow, re^ 

present, that in a case, whi«b» aik^e 

all otliei^/ required ^llae .elea^eat 

pii^f, • every presum|K iotLJa agajusl 

I usi atid that no parlicie of ev^ 

* dence. bis 3VM1 been adduced bj 

which our national cbaracterGiii'be 

viiidicafed frqm'.tiir guilt. gf an un* 

pi'ovobed and 4]remeaitated( viola 



therilbey were safe in -cooipletug 
tbetr cargoes. The^atmre of tS 
represeirtation, or (lie auijfai to it. 
he jlitf not Icnow, But afi^rwav ds, 
intimation having been niadai>y the 



tlon of that good fai(b»justicey and'' chamber of cokniBerce'at Copen- 
humanilyy wlndi. bate hitherto been kagei>, that4here:Waa.QO e^ipecla- 



at Kftycti ibegioj^ ai|d (he safeguard 
ofllie. British empire.'* 

.The/ aiildfess propb^^d by, the 
earlrof DiaittUiy mrasf'ipupiioiilM by 



tion of bostilities with tliis ^ouiiiiy. 
thyse vesails proceeded lacod%>let« 
their cai^oes. F^reviously, ^Mow- 
ever, to the sailing o|y4iher^3tpedi- 
lord Holland, alfd oppbllfsd by Uie.- tion, an order was. issued .under 



ft 



K - 



To/ds £Ui9t iuid Bpriligdon.-— tlie 
*^ioMac .diyidj*d. For the Oli^oa 

^X^^^Againsl.itJlO- ^- * 
>x :. S^e\ijsk,i/>rd Elliot moved for 

^au addres^^ i>i9.«Weatv, a^ting^ 
^ Vr tli'4t. this 4iau9e» ^nsiSeiialf^ ^he 
^ d^cIaniHou jtiic(< befq||e thtmi by )iad b^ardf amj^un^. to nearh 

bis m»Jealy^ command ; the state 3,0()0,000L . if tb^ alal^itieflU 

la which ^rcQ|Kiiieot ^\vas ^u^ed, 
i. iur consoqufi^e of tTie'. j^egoti^tipn 



which alt tfiose vtssels . were dc- 
tai^^ jwid otlicRi|brou{Ah iiH the 
whole of , which lie had heaiNi'V^ert: 
since ^ couderanad> and ^ T>e«iistte 
droits of admtnAjr. itEbepnctecp 
of these' vessela and cargoSC b< 



we^e true, he could JltbelfKthink* 
uig Ibe eireunistaiicef! Aescatapled 



•* 



X* 



^ 

im 



ip 



>> 






t 



««* JSf 



•r 



HISfORV OF tUJlOPE. 



SI 



K' 



power, wbiie riRlKr ships wi¥e m 
pert, and ail her stores irere in her 
arseiMls. An aolof thkjprMui/actr 
injitft^ called Ibr a ftaak evpod- 



in the aniiab of the couutry. •' Ufi^ 
less he had fiirther information^ h^ 
must iver believe, tlial our eipedi- 

tionla Copenhagen caasMthewar .-„ — ^- .. 

with Henmark, and» therefore, that ".tion ; and, indeed, .in tlw words of 
the vessels previously Stained; his miucsty's speech, i| was doe to 
ought to have Ifeen eonsidered'ln a Europe and the world* Bot bad 
dtflerent situation from vessels de* it appeared that asiniBtert had not' 
tained in consequence of the pte- resorted to thb act of ViomMe,- ai 
vious hostile power to which Xhef long as a doubt of DennmshV hos* 
belonged. He wished td ask th^ tiiitv, sts long aira hope of her neu-^ 
noble secretary of alete, whether traht^ re^iained ? iW grounds of 



4 



^ 



it was true, that the Vessels he had justihication had been threefold t 



alluded to hid been coademtt^l in 
the manner staled, and also, wlie* 
ther the crews were detained as 
prisonteof warl- 

Lord. Ifawkesbirry stated/ that 



Firet, the intentfon* of France to 
seiee upon HtoUMn; and to compel 
Denmark -to dtpait fh>m her neiw 
trality; secoadljr, the co-operatioir. 
of Russia* with France ; and'^hird-^ 



the same course ha()*beeu adopted «' ly, the lioliusion of Deoaonrk with^ 
with respect to the Danish vessels, * Fraace, and the latent conspiraqf 
as had tieen adopted with Inspect of three powers against the mari-^ ' 
to the vessels «f other powers de- time rights of Gfeat Britain. Ilkv- 
taine<l iu shnilar^ ciraamstanoas." iof enmiaed these threes-grounds, ^i^ 
No assuranai of protection had- wbieh appeared to him altogethee 
been -given either dinactiy or ia« nnsatisf^cMy, he concluded a very 
directly by^govemmeiyrto the Da* animated ao^ higenioits . speech^ 
nish vessels in our perts, at the Wfthmovibg, '^ .. '« 

time mentioned b^ the noble lord. ** That an hmnbie ad4ras be 
As to the crews, they were as^ in presented to his majesty, sobmltting ^ 
other cases,i^etained pfisonem of to his^^Aiyesty; * tlAit we haire atten- ' 
war/ with thi(' exception of sbme Ifl^ .tively considered ali the Morma^ 
dividualsi'wbo had tieen under par* tion beibro os resnectinj^ the hite 
ticular circumshinties released. A attack on €openhBgirn> and the 
cartel proposed to ttie Danish go^' trar i|f which we have CoMJ^quenlly 
vemfW^ot ' liad t>een hitherto de- been involved ; and that We deey>ly 

laiii|nl to have found it imperfect, 
ieontralktory, and utisatislactory, in * 
i»all itf parts^ 

^ 9 That respecting a transactioif^ 
in v^liich both tlie hononr aud4he 
interests of. our' country m^ so 
deeply concerned, we had^ hoped *' 



•^ 



S 



A* 



cHned. As tb the value o/ the 
ships' and cargoes it had been great- 
ly exaggerated*  \ 

House ofl.^ofn^ns; Attrch iu 
— The Baltic expedition was agahl 
brou;?ftf into diScttssion By , 

Mr. Sharpi wbO' con^tderfed zi\ 
that ted passed hitfa^rtd on titis 
subject, ds'bnfy prellininaiy to \hi 
sentetfce wlirch t|^'ho«^e would 
now be i*alM lipodi to give. - In a 
lime or)>r0nHiiid |^ace Ve beni* 
barded the metropolb^f a Mfatrta 



•r • 



'y< Jt 



^* 



for the fullest >explanatieB; 

'^^Ht the prineipler of oifr cto* 
Stitutiob, and the Uffiifcyp practice 
of his majesty and the sovereigns 
of his fflustQpiis house, Vaquire that 
payment ^oald be Jjitinctlj ap^ 
^'> m, priced 

" \ 



pavMame 



►■■k 



K 



o 



-V 



ik f' 



•• 

1 



50 ANKLUL REGISTER, 1808. 



^•^ 



H 






c 

. 1 



•nr mrtf prrsmie'Q of the jntfioe •( 
oar Ti o ig -:. ji iCBlimctit -mluA bad 
hitlirrto npiporteid as tlinMM;ii aU 
^■rcfiilfficiiilia; coihmandb*; th'e 
respect of «tbrr|Mnittn»'«id en- 
Manging us in an Itunthir but e6n« 
fiiietH CMBoe «b tiie ultinalV jprtf* 
l^tdmrm^ Iteang ol^Providebcc. 
'. ^ Vmmkiitt^'ja we are ctcn yet 
to pronodoee.defiainrciy on -a sob* 
jed,. the , fiiU knowlcdgs of ivhidi 
has been to pectiDadoasSy irithhrM 
frooLur; and reluctant as #e fliu!(t 
ever- belo adraii cattdmails «ii- 
fiivooffaMrJO the justice oj[ those 
connseb by twMph' Ms' ixujeiit/s 
condocf has been actuated; ive#t«e 
>eC comiielfe(t on «ichan occasioQ^ 
|0 speak to 6is majeatjrllie language 

. <>l' truth. 'An4 we must^ tlierefbre» 
wMi all hwliilitj^ and wMi die most 

. unfeigned an^ heartfelt sorrow, ro«' 
present, that in a case, wlucbj akolR 
all otJierij required Ihe .eleawt-* 
piyof* evei^f presumpiioaiiagaibsjl 
us; aiid that no particle of eiU 
denpe'* his j(A been adduced b; 
which our national character can be 
viiidicafed from the guili #f ao lui- 
provoked and .firemeaitated^ viola#^ 
tion of th«t good fiiith, justioef and'* 
humankjv wIhcIi. liate hitherto been 
at (^e ibe glofjf aiid the safeguard 
of tiie. British -eufpirc." 

The a^ldress proposed by tlie 
earl' of Darrdey irair'f up|voi4a<l by 
lord liollaiid, awl oppoied bv Ihe.- 
tords £Uifl and Borifigdon.-^the 

**1ioif8e .divid|;d. For the ittMiou 
4i-rAgainfit.it J 10. , 
.^ A.AeK«ihis,^rd Elliot mored for 
au address^ [m . niQasti. sCatiag^ 
Vf tli'^t Ibis Jiou9e» i4y>n8ickriiif^ the 
d^cIailHiou hiid- bef^lte thtnn by 

-Ul$ inajesly^ comviancl; the state 
(V which ibc'oiiitinent^was r^ueed, 
iu cons^qufHie of ilie, . i^goi^qn 
* . • • * * 



and peace of.TiM;ibe avowed 
declara^on of the French goveri- 
neal^'toeaclnde (be ^citMi flag 
Irom every port ef Europe and to 
combine all the p^a-ers of the cou- 
tinent, in a general confederacy^ 
against the wariipnie f^D*, ami 
political exisleuce of Gr^t Bri* 
tain, most highly., apprave tbe 
pionipt and vigorous nueasure* 
adopCcd-by bii Mt|esty^ nuiusters, 
for the purpose of reiiMAdiiii>iU<^ 
the readb ^f \m eneniiest the fleet 

.and naval resources of Denioark.'^ 
The house dividtd. For the mo- 
tion t^^-^-AAinst it 67f • 

House of LoKk» Mareh 7. — 
Vidcounl^moHthadkdtbeirlard- 
^iip/a4teutioii to a subject of grcst 
impoitaate. He had beard that 
wlien a romour pttvaifeit of iui in- 
teudcd attad( «pon C^penhngin^ a 

' rrpiMentatioa had been-matde to 
government on behalf of the Da« 
nish vesiels then in our |^rts» Air 
tiie purpiise of ascertaining. %vbe» 
then Aey f»ere safe in -eooipletjiig 
their cargoes. Vhe>iialura of this 
re|vresen£ationj or (lie anitffec to it| 
he 4kr not know. But aftenmrd5» 
intiiiiation having lieen madj^y the 
chamber of cotniperce ^at ^opeo- 
hageiH that4here 'Was ^no ^expects- 
tion of hostilities with tliis «ouulry» 
th^se vesptf^ proceeded fneomplete 
their caigoes. Previousfy» .how- 
ever» to the sailing of-tbetespedi- 
tion, an order was; issued under 
which alt those vfssels.were de- 
taii^^ 9ad oflicr\;brou;At<. in> the 
whole of. which lie' had h<?and were 
since " cottdemna^^ and. be^^e 
droits of ^dmmA^'. ^e. p^^ce 
of these' vessels and largoc-s ^ 

-^nid b^ard, anmunted. to nearl> 
2,0()0,0p0L . if Iheie statemfot^ 
we(e tmc^ he could nbt brll^.thiok- 
big Ike circumstances .QiKsanq>l«<^ 















in 



'■'2^ 



} 






HISTORY OF JEUROPE. -* -.53' 



tliau counterbalanced by'tfae in^- 
creascd ^dangers arising froih Uie 
mauner in which they have been 
obtained* " ' .  

'' That this measnit, so highly < 
objectionable both in policv pnd in 
priudple, has augnieqted u^k nuror 
ber of bur'eBeraies ; has .animated 
against us the passions of whole 
nations, #&o before were amicably 
disposed ' towiprds us ; ' and has» 
above all, shaken our own reliance 
on the justice of our cause; the 
only sentimeiJt wlii«i1i has' hitherto 
upheld us in all our difficulties ; 
comniandii^ the resgect of other 
nations^ and inspiring our owu peo- 
ple wi|h a confident expectatioq^ 
under the blessing of Providence, 
of a successful ^temiinatioa of a 
long and arduous contest. ' 

** That we are ever unwilling, to 
proii^unce definitively on a inea 
sure, the whole grounds' of which 
are not before us : but that, in a 
case which, above all others, re 
quiri^d the clearest proof, we have 
the deepest ivortification at beini^ 
cotiipclled to " acknowledge, that 
every presiiatption is against us; 
and that uo evidence has yet been 
adduced on which' we can safely 
rest tlie defence oC oiir country^; 
from accusations the most ii^urious' 
to our national chattckr. '« ^.• 

M^. Sharp's 'tnotion was >up* 
ported on the umal grquud^ by 
Mr. Orde, Mr. H.l«usiuGgtOQ>]yir. 
Abercroiubie* pr% Lawreifoe, Mr. 
Fitzgerald, Mr. Whitbread," and 
loxd^Henry Petty. As to tbe Rus- 
sian war, lord Petty was wttlmg to 
concede* that this miglit faav^ arises 
even if the- Danish expedition liad 
not tf ken place; but, it urould hs^ye 
been -a war of a diU'erentjcharacier. 
We shoul(i' liot have bad the opi- 
nion, nnd tlie.pcsople pf Kusain 



aganist us. The  secretary for fo-^ ' 
reign scftini, and h& advocates, Jn' 
a manner copfessed - the inefficacy 
of a war of justice against injustice, jr 
and iQ procisdm to the world tfai^ 
dangerous and degradhigdoclrine,'<» 
that England was warranted and re- 
solved to employ the worst wea- 
pons used ky France, for thcpur- • 
pose of- overcotuing what' it called 
French iniquity. The motion was 
'opposed by . c' 

Mr. Stuart ^ortley, Mr. Por-^ . 
cher, lojprf £. Gowcr, Mr* Robelt ^ 
Thornton, tfhe Secretary at War, 
•Mr. CVbkcr, and Mr. Canning.. 
The secretary at ivar adverted to^ 
facf, which appears incleed, in the 
present questioh, . \o he of great \ 
weight. He read an extract from 
ofiicial papers, to shew that at one • 
period stnne steps had been taken 
by the Dahish government for en- • . 
ablinj^ its fieel to oppose the pas-^ 
sa|;e of the French from the con- 
tinent. But . theae had been aban* 
doned, aiid when tlM& moment of ^ 
danger came, it was perfectly un- 
provided and unprepared fSf re- 
sistance. 

Of all the arguments dsed on - 
the other side of the house, Mr. 
Sh^rp conceived the plain transla- , 
tioii ia be tbb, that any belligerent 
^wcr is entitled to seize upon any 
ineaAs pf attack and defence that 
a- neutralpower niiiy possess; lest 
those means should be seized by ^ ^ 
another beiligerent. He entreated » 
the house tp consider to what con- 
se()uenoe$ ibfi . establishment of such 
a doctrine must lead. The bouse 
divided.*-rFor the motion 64— A- 
gflinstit.i^gj. i • ' . 

-. Hooie ^ Lords, . Mar/Ji 24.— * 
Tbe: earl <if Suffc^li; wh« tatfd not 
.i-y«t. hewl v»3l satisfkcfiDrry. e»- 
^phmlioa of tile • grouiDd on w. ileb 



•. I 



I ^ 






•-. * 



«' 



* t. 



«>^ 



••• 



t . . .. 



tir 54^ ••• A'KN¥AL |lEGISTt:R,-*iS08. 

* ^«iich< i^ fmien^ attaek had btto St^ph^if, abdMr. Davy Qiijcfy.-* 
made 6b Copenhagen, imy^ed an .Oa*a divk&on bf Ike bouse, th«te 
^Atm to lib nMyesty, prayfog thai appeared fo# Lofd Foikertoiie'i mo- 
# directkMit might be ghrtn to fa? be- tifpii 44— Acaiftse it K)5- ' 

' ' frift the boost tech eorrtspoMmce ^ iHonse of Lords/ May l7*^Lord 

« *'^ hid lakeo phee between Mr.^ Tisoouot Sidmoittb hMe, kt pur- 

OaHicko and the teeretaiy of states soanee-Af noliee, to^caitl Ihefrtord- 

* froas November 1 806» .|o Jidv ships' at tootbiitQ^he Mjeci 6f the 

» 1 SOTIf fes^gedng the d«iigos whiefa Danish vesseb detained pi«vioii5 to 

Denmark 0i coi^utflition with Rus- hostilities. * It wad ft p^nciple of 

siiik was supposed to be medilatio^ natnml justice, aekno^led^ by 

r. "^t^- ^ ttie hw of ttatk>ns, tfa^t vessels cav* 



liust this country. 

Ldrd-Hawkesbuvy observed, that ' ryitig ontifdein lie ports of any 
.the papers now moved ferbythe country should Jb^cd^ protecttoii, 
ooUtf ford, had already been Vie- -^ until some caiase of liostiltly^liaoM 
fused, and tliat the motion for ' luivMrisen. But tlie Danish v«ft- 
lAiidv*^ they 'were Granted 'had been seb had been seised wilhoul- any 
negalivod. after matare consid^ra- opevious cmise of hostilil^ He 

^ tion and fiaig discussion. ha<l stated on a'fovmer^occaskH), 

' Lo«(| GrenviHe contended, that tli»tthe proceeds^ t>ft1lcf^bole of 
0)1 the subject to which* the flM>- ttee vessels and cargoes amoonted 
tion referred^ the hoose^ were atill.^ to near 2,O0O;00OU He now pTo- 
ycry imperfeclfy infortiied. Tlie -^ceedkd1oslfew, by a slatemeftt of 
motiop was also supoorted. by earl padjfeulai^' that Ira did not make 
Grey. The question l>eiog put, was that statement on li^ gpounds, 
negatived, \ The aAfOunt of the slim, aiowever, 

X House of Cammoa<i,r>March S9.. tiiade no diflhfence with reip^to 

-^Lord Folk^torte, after a soitalile Ihe priaeiple on whjtf) the "tliotion 

|ire4|be, .moved an address to his he was about to submit to th^ 

iiig)€^ of t^e same teoour as'that house was founded, fit was aware 

proposed by Lord Sidmouth in the that British prope^ to a cmwder- 

Iiouse of lords ; the main drift of ahfr extent had been aaqoe^ted 

it being, that his majesty might be in Denm«tfi,4kAar hostilities bad 

pleased to give direetinns, thai tiie l^n commenced by this country ; 

Danish fleet should be kept in sncb and lie thpugltl It fair that Jtlfe pro* 

^ slate ei repair and preparation,' ceeds of Ahe DalMi vessels shosild 

a^ |o render *|t possible that it be anawerabla^. idNbe fiiat instance, 

mifitiil <be restored as soon as it • for- the- anfonn|. of this property. 

Vould be done, consistetitly with Having Klated Ae drjAoi^fhereso- 

-the security 6f hisown doinlDioos; ^utiona now to be ihoVed Ibr^ be 

'^ to declare his mteutmn of <io lamented titat a dispoaitiDn ted 

jdoing. lately been sfiewn to ddpart from 

*' Lord FoIkestoneV molJ<^ was those principles of juilioa whicli 

smi^orted by Mr. Brand; Mn WO- hod hTtheito charecteriaed tbe can- 

berlbrce, ifcr. "Hawkins Browne^ duotof this country, itt> order, a$ 

^Mr. tknlmi)^Thimr. Mr. i^binjh it ^ had been aUedgsff, to meet 

iUm, Mr. BaHmiat,' and Sir Jameti tlie h^ustico of tlie lenomy. His 

• HaU ;*iand oppo^orl'by 8ir Tlioma^ 'Wisli' was, that those |^no|^les, al* 

^Turtoo^4fe Stfaeon, Mr. Jbincf. 'though diyen out of ^ery part of 

M 



'•* ^- .'I 



.> 



f- 






.} HISTORY OF EUIli^J>E.'x ' J.5 .' 

A ' - ' 

thci inmtioeut, abaidd. fiQd.$n asv- ji^^tiftc and lihera1ii^|lN^^ i|e l4eHs(;(i 
Jnin in 0resit Brkaia^ tcnicl be ~lo4|vect , .j ^ :• jti ] ^ 
fa«re ctierishedaDd supported ; tkis "^ Tliat it yiQ^d ,he -k'l^f \\S>' 
renderiog .niiir jconducl^ a^ stated uouraUe lo t^« ch^r^^r o£ this -^i^. 
fcoBL the thjtpue 10.171)4, » contrast €o>tSilry» {hat-cooskkjiuii Um pec^- 
to that o(! then^iMiny, ultiinutely liav eifcuinstaReea d£>.V)e: pie^nt ^ 
laatDtaitting and exaitiog pur cha-l case,* all :iiunf|ec5 and v^hes^dc* 
^ractcr, juid coAtributiiig to our l^ned an^ tsiken^ii> -cqnse^ueu^'of 
real aeeqrit j^. Hii lordsbip cmi- tj^ orders, aqd iiistr^iiDti^ii^Aafore- 4 
eluded, b^ffnovkig the fcdiowiog saikJ, s|u>uld be released upon surh 
res^lntioiis :, < .. ^ ^ . ^' terjns aod xoH^itioiisas liis: majesty ' 

« 'VThat il -appears to.Hib house/ may Ifaink fit to re^i^ - * * 

thai shijM and other property to a , , - • " -'thai, ai the time of issuing (he 
laige Bumber and amount,, bcl^g- orders -and , instructions af^ressiKl* 
Jng to ittldects of |»b paoisb ma* there were^also in the porls of this 
jesty, fa^ve been seized an44ctaiiied )iingdom nuiny sliips and cargoes 
inmr oidera.aiwl iastrnctieos/ W- belonging^ ro sul^ect» of liis Da- 
sued iMjfore * inifonnatrph wias re- nish majesty, which having bj^i^n h* 

cehred by4be Britidi gommment unjustly and ' wfon^fw^ly brought 
of the coiiimenctmei^l of bostU^ties iqto^tbe sahl ports, hadibeen de^ ^ 

Mrith Denamk ; and at untune when ««eed t^rbe restored to tiie owners ; 
thtie was no ^ledjjed 61: sopposed and. that.lmany juiore then und^r 
ctMse of war or repiiaals, anq when ^ adjudicati^, nm^l^ as it appears, 
. in.{>ursiiit of a,peiieea1}le and law- li^ve^been io tike manner decreed (0 
ftti oomtterce, tbere^as an uiiosual be^fiestor^d : that^freight-money, {o 
aecniiHlatioo of Dankth-tcbips and a large amount, liad been, and other ^ 
cargqip ii|»oof pbitsi^. ynd^.. liie f turns of the like na)!\irfi i»ust ,h^y^ \ 
most' perfect i;0>^deoce of seou-^' .bfen,. pronounced to bp d^^^ all 
rity; and that this said sliips and ivhirh daps, cargoes,* and, freight-* 
otfaer pn^Wy luif e beeatince con* .moocy have, in consequence q# the 
denmedaspiia&lotiiecfown* ; superrening hostifides, been aop- "^ 

*< WbfMn consideration of tktf^x- ' ' (l^ained 9» prize to the crow n. .> 

tinqrdiabrjr- circmBslaBc^ 'tmder * '^ That it is essential to justice ai|d 
wUpb tfia tuid orders aadinstrio- > iQtjhe honour of. the British name, 
tions^^iiere imed, it is highly expe- * as well ^ut conformgjiyle to the an- 
dieiily' that exempt for Hie. purpose -cieiit practice oCcturcourts^ 'find to 
cxf indeBMifytog sueh. Bvitisb sub-*' tbe estabti^faed' iifim\it^ of tfie 
jttif as may faav^auffeftd Aom the lafw of nations, thut iDffectiiai means « 
se^ucfllratiin .of thein prepei^ ii) be s^Jop^ for giving to the own- '*. 
Deiiiiiafky,.tha . appropriatipn . of <erS'-of }bc said shipsj, and other 
the prOM^ of r the said ahip»«aid ..prpp^y^ tbe fuU benefibof tb^dc- 
olbflr cflbcts should be. suspended, 'crees propoanccd in their favour by 
ao that ao' obstacle jnay be occa-. Ihe^liish coiirt.of .adntiralty, or by 
fioned Ibereby^ to sach eveatuafl , his lofijissty's high court ofipppeal 
compensatioa tq the orional oivn- for pria^ ; alii 0c adopjipn of 
an u' circuaistBncc9>ina^ppear to >^aitdi mi^ns J9rr<ndeic^ the more 
admit of, and as hj|^iuiye^ ui' bis > obfigai^ry c^ the fiiith of this im- 



i» 



•-<i 



% 



.# 



^* 



«"> 



P A 



m 



'%' 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808, 



> 4 



•^ «• 



^ 



twiMitrj imder diteumon» with ih^ io^iiu^hed mintil^r? ^opgh, as 

^ fiew of mdudDgthe h«ne to ooiafe a priv«l6 iadiv]dMt;/lie imdti.tained ^ 
to ft resolution on the^iropriety of a commaaicalioii ^ivitli Ibecittperor 
«oaifliti|ciDg a^^neg^otialioli for of Rilsnn; with'4he knowiedge of 
))eftce with JVaooe at the pr^nt . OttP-«eci%4^^ minister^ THe««ai- 

. wimient. Accordin^y,*«nlhe l6tk 'venalioti whieh lie held tvitb th€ 
tyf Fehroary, Mr. Wbitbread rose« emfieror on the 2dd of Aagiist, was 
^ursmnt to notion "to more Sorter* 

'. tain papeit, necessinry to be tiefbre 
tip house, previous to the discus- 
afoDs inrhieh he intended tf intro- 
duce OB Noiylay se'nniglit* Mini^- 

^^er^ after various transa^om, in 
*ivj|iich they hadt^rea^eagaged in the 
cdiarse «f faut sSimiher, had laid 
tipon Ihe lable, notes, dispalcfaes^ 
and 'extracts of.dispatdies, expla* 
•natory of their t:onduct« This he 
^^consideNd as defident ; and his de* 
»' !r ^ sign ^vas to call ' on ministers to 
make up the . chasm. His fir$t 

-' tnotiop woudd be for copies dtad ex- 
tracts tf dispatches from the secre^ 
taiy of. state foiT'foreiga. afbira to 
our ibhislers at Vienna, relative to 

the proffered mediation of Aifstria, \ on honourable terQis* Mm>^t this 

*9p be undei^food that this was to document necessary 1 Could there 

Degrailted, he would say notjbiiig 1^ any thing indiscreet io eomaiu* 

en that4K>int. Hk seebnd motion tiicating it t Tfte noUe lord was 

was or great and batpniovint ibi- not prevented by an| oblvakkM) 

portance. It wasfor an eatf^cttlf whatever of duty^r expCmocy, 

fllfi dbpatch coplaioing the ^iih- to conceal the fonvi^Miob. He 

stance of the conversation that toot* then pjpocejjpded to state instances m 

plate l>etwe6n the eroperpr of which coniiiipniK^tloBs of ^nvers^- 

Russia and loid Hutchinson, on the - tions^with soveretgn^ad been Ijiic) 

fS3d of August, 1807» t^lfitiv^ to before ^he lipuse. * Mv. ff. also 

the offer of the Russian mediation wanted iki hate the sifbstance of 

.fbr peace, fisc. It had beenin^* the verbal assurances, ' rdatiKa to 

nuatoed, that it was k breiteh of peace between Rhasia and ftrance, 

^duty, in any accredited miiaister, to * mentioned in tiie note of our amliaa^ 

'^mention tfaa-conversations he might .^dor of the 60th df June* 1807 ; 

have had with a sov^eigti, lliis 'the dispatch, coittaintBg-asstmHaces 

wir not the case in all chrcUHlr , of satisfaction for a promised co> 

^nces; but at any rate, hnrd Hut- operation after a change of minis- 

thinson, a most djtf^guislied'iudi- try; with several otiier papm, re-r 

vidual, renowned for his militaif^ latke to the Rtassiaii loan, Sweden, 

&c. After a shorilt^deha^^ Mr. 
Wh!tbre9d whhdrew his ^nt m<^ 

^ a **®"** 



known w41«t the time,tnd U^d 
con^jed to this country in a di 
l^tch from lord Levesoa Gower^ 
to whom A had been comm^i^yc jiiJ 
for this expr^ purpose. ' ' Why 
then^Aihl it not be commutucated 
in an authejitic and regular fom^ to 
Ae houite 1' Hie emperor confid- 
ing, in t.be judgment aad' IfiegHty 
of lord Htitcbinsoo, asbid Juia» 
whetliejp, considering'^the stlualion 
of a^B^irs, peace ought vottq be 
co^cluded• Lord H. asserlad itbat 
it ouflit. The ^mperoc tltea said 
tliM lie had oiMfed hii ntodiattoo 
foi' a peac4 with England, statpug, 
at thevsame time, that, finmi what 
(le koe\v, peace might be coqdaded 






# * 



talents, and not less celebrated ft$r 
his high sen^<of honpur, was not 



#; 






^ 



^. 



«* 



.< 



HI&TORY OF EUROPE. 59 

ou, whicfa related to tbc proffered bsive been fur differei»l from wim • , 
ledialioii of Austra* Tbesecood, it was. AU projects were now ^veft 
ailing ibr exlraict«tfi4km iord Leve- op of oblaioki^ indemnity lor ^thd 
on Gower's dlspatcoy containing^ past, of idictating » cooatitution lo 
lie assurances referred to Mr. Bud-» France* or of. curbitig the power 
erg, 28th June* was negatived; * audfumbition of BiMNMJ|^rter ifiiiir*. 
riiat, f«r Cities of Ml assurances only aiio now» wasto 4p^end*our<« '• 
»f co-operation given to the courts #elves. 'And what probaUitsr was 
•f St. Peterslmrgfar; €uid ' S^ock- there of ^*obtaintng a mofe bonoiir* 
loliiu 'was, with Aome modifica- able peace than o^ght be coodud- 
ions, acceded tip» as were all th^ ed at the present tnomefit? He 
others, ^'v ' ' called the attea(jott of tUfc hiniie to 

House <u coinmons, February the present^situation of the country , 
!f)th. — Mc Mnutbread rose to with regard to ^(foreign polrei:s» 
nuke his anoouiKAd mcrtion, for The peace of Tilsit ha4 be^ treat- 
ntering immediately into a negoti- ed in iiis,n)iyesty's declaration, and 
tiou ^r peace. After some pre&-' • in the speech of the eoinmissioners» 
ory observations re:»peeting the ac- most disastrous to Russia, aad^jre^ 
Liiuwledged danger of ^e {flesent . presented as the eflfect o( dtespon- 
Tisis, he said, Jthat his present in^ ^ dency . and ahniv. But Mr. W. * 
eation was'lo ^ke a review of the contended, |hat this peace " had 
iiformaliott now hefor^ the house, dbeen the salvation, and had- pre* 
espeetin'g the condtiot bf minbters vented the Russian army from be- 
II refusing tb enter into negotiation Jug toNly ^nd completely extin* 
viih France, thereon to ground a guisl^. Before the pea<^ of Til* . 
esulutioD^xpre^sKse of what the sit, however, «ia«LGonclui(|^, an of* 
(ate of the coootry might* have 'Str bad been made by Russia, |o , 
ieen, had a difierent course ibern mediate a J^mc b#ween Great'' 
;ursued* He bad, a month ago,^ Britiia and France: an ofl[er which 
tated some of tbe>symptoiR^ of he h^d alwiiys considered as an e^* 
he preaeflt crisis' of tbe cobntry. .. Ibsion of Alexander^ heart towards 
iince tliat timc^ several petitions this country. Hi^ Mr. Whitbread 
jad been presented la^ the homn^ epteredlnto a detailed analysis of 
)f which tbe.stalements were most the piipers which bad been laid on 
iistressing, .the prayer most mo^- the table, relative to ibis offer, on 
ite, and the genend lone most |^i- '-.the part of Russia, and the refusal 
riotic. • He did not bring foiai^rd of iqinisters tottao^ept'of it. In tho 
lie motion he was about to make, -jcoune of many observations ami 
II consequent of these petitions; comments, he adverted to general 



I 



►• 



>ut be was not sorry that they had 
ieeu , presented, because he was a 
rieiid to pto|iti0Ai4g : much fgtad had 
>t;eu produced by petitions. • It was 
)}' the petitions of the people, that 
in end had been put to the Ameri- 



Bugbetg's letter Jif the: i^ih June, 
.10 which he cQmplains of Russia 
having been left unaided iiifihe con- 
test. On the justice or iujustiotf of 
these oouiplainfs, he did not nnyv 
mean. to enter; but he contended 



an war; and if the petitions of that the l;|nguage held in 'this note, 
lie people had b^n attendisd to in wbkbwas that of a man whoseero* 
ii« early p^ of the jast war a^nst ed to feel that, lie had. been ill used, 
our ttluation qcKV wonld % ivas itself » proof of the fideliW oC 

. ^ /' - , ^ the* 



:nuice. 



• 1.' 



' •% 



V ••• 



<:• 



4. 



€0 ANNUAL REGISTERj 1808. 



;tbe emperor of Russia; or^ at 
' ^ fea^^ of a persuasion on his part, 
» tdat he bad/ acted witii fidelity in 
h^ engagements, ah^ that his con- 
tact was not dictated by the petu- 
iaiir€eeKngs^f the moment. And» 
'even this note* wal conducted with 
an oficr ^ medialioi^ accdhipanied- 
not merely. with '^ bel/cfri^nt with' 
an assurance that ^it would be ac- 
cepted by trance. He did not 
inean to l^y that |ord L. Gower 
- was etnjiowered to accept ^of fin's 
nmJi^ion, or thai, he was wrong ia 
nbt accepting of it. He oqly wished 
Ibe bouse to obser?e, that this offer 



form, but to common sense*^ Tlicy 
seemed also to ha^ confounded tbcs 
character of h mediator witb tiia% 
of an umpiE^. 'He nesit proceedetil 
t6 an analysis of the' correspofid^uce 
with Austria, If ministers had bad 
a dispositi^ 'Icwards* peace, they 
would have accepted the proiFered 
niediatimi of*' Austriaii with that 
confidence and cood-wili l{i\vards 
'bcr, whiirfi her fonner conduct 
towards '^s bad melted. Ekit 
here, too, they had manifested n 
disposition to sfart instead of 
smoothing difficulties. The petu- 
lance of Mr. secretary Canning, he 



J k 



I 



yras made b^ore tlie peace of Til^ said, the difficulties which ha was 
sit jmis concluded ; and that it was constantly raising, tlie olAtacles he 
an offer proceeding from 'a sincere^ threw in the way, and the^ false 

^ iMbh^: on the part of Ithe emperor' constructions he was.^ipt'tb fall into, 
ofRushiA, tol^cilitaka pacific ar-. proved clearly that no' negotiaVfDu 
rangement between " this country could be conduced by bidr witfi 
and France, accompanied with a any reasonaMiicbanee o^ success, 
moral certainly of , France* beings The rulel- of France had; at three 
^ ready to meet us half-way itt^ the .distinct periods^ made tyfiers evf 
proposed liegotiatibn. ThS, t(|en, peace to this country, if^ernis fin- 
..was olne of I hose 'golden' opportuni^ objecfionable. The first was re- 
lies^ which, when oucejost, ar^ ir- jecteft The second was not ahso- 
vetrievat^e. But it had been lafd, lutely rejected ; birf lord IVXafgrave 
that ** no intimation 4)f tiie basis on liad wriften a coutufAelious letter, 
whkdi (*rance proposed to treat had^ informing lilm, '* that tis majesty 
been ^iven :" (j4 whicli Mr. W. had consulted his allies.^ ' *.Wc hxM 
. observed, that tf it could ewr have ttlen an 'opportunity of selling a 

. Wen a matter of doubt' whet BSr the ' recogj^ition to him ; and we ni^ht 
previous settl^eni of a basis was h^^e sold maav before be h^d cf^a- 

• necessary to the hope of a success-'^ bl^ed hhnselras he had iiow*dbne 
ful negotiation, the ^experience' of in dS^ance of us. Not^vithstandme, 
Ihie last negotiation with Frabce,'^ however, the' manner iti which hi» ; 



i> 



#ould have placed that .question 
beyond controverqr. Mr. W. pro- 
ceeded to anhnadvert pn lord J^ 
GowerV^ispatlthes oi the 5d Sep- 
tember ; and on th.e dispatched in 
a|pwer t6 them by TVlr. secretary 
ipanning: silid on a review of* the 
whole, cohteiided, that ministers, in- 



former offers bad rbeen treated, 
another /ofier, and tbat afler hi^ 
power had been greatly increased^ 
had been made ttrdugit^he mter- 
yentfori. of other powers.*'** »That 
offer bad been acoeptctl ; and what 
did gentlemen on the other side 
mean to do4 Wcfre they, as was 



sVead of smoothing, had been ass;-' stated Jjp the king's ^ech, iftiunif 
duous only in raising.. difG^ultj^s, abont for Unr imp^iai medjiatfKt 
\<9sA\ acted no^ only contrary to <^ There was no sucbycnediator. noir 

^ to 



-a 



;v^ J 



' .*. 



> ^ 



r *-•• 



•f 



* 1^ 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



6lr 



•() be had, and noAung remained peace ryet jt uiiglit be said tbat in 

hut a direct coramunicatipii, But all Ibis he was insineere« TIm 

it would appear as if a personal mi^iit be the opinion of some ; but 

hoslility to Buonsparle existed: before .that opinion could be reo- 
«ik1 why t^ because th^ people were . dered general or universal^ it would 

(old that he was ambitious and be. necessary to enter into a nee^o** - 

cruel, and a .violator- oi all righki' tiation to prove ft. Ms, Whitbread 

liuiiian and .divine* The political Concluded a long and elaborate 

conduct of princes was tliat alone speedy by moving (he foliowiag; 

with which other nations had to do; resolutions:. * ' \« . 
and of the effects of that, nations *'- That it is the opinion -of |liif 

-and not* individuals. It was not the hottj^^ thai the condition^ ^tipnlated 

()oucr of France tliat was formi'^ by his majesty s ministers fiw tlie 

ifiihlf , (mt that of the French em* acceptance o( the mediation oSered 

l^eror.' » it was the. talents of the by (he eiujveror of Russia, were 

en)pcr6r that consolidated' the pre- , iuex}XM)ienl and impolitic* 
sent miss. We'teid'^foreed hiai to ^' That it is the opinion of tbif .. 

try the ejtperiraent of ooiitendine house, that tlie condnct of liis mar. ! 

\sith all the Eiiropean armieSy a|id Jesty's ministers on- llie subject of 

thoy liaci been defeated; and in the mediation of tfie empi^r^r o(, 



] Proportion as we went on with the 
war, we w^re consolidating bis 
power more ar^ more. IfanotliJMr 
character arose, new interests, new 
\ lews, and new treaties, would be 
formed; m^ this woukt happen 
sooner or lalen ' In the mean tinle, 
it was impossible to subdue Buonn- 
parte by war; l^t was now ob- 
vious. *Mr» VV. after €xposi&g the 
delusive hopes of conquering France 
thron^h her finances, proceeded 
to shew (he futility of aiiotber delu- 
sion, namely, that Buonaparte would 
he hated by jhe people and the 
army, and that the mass of the po^ 
puiatton of tJie difierent countrie'^ 
lie should enter, woulit rise against 



AMslria* was unwise and inipoHtic, 
and not calculated. to asoertam how 
far tlM! restoratiou of the blesisings 
of peace misiht or might liot liave 
beenattamable, through' the meant 
of such mediation* 

" That Ibis bouse feels it fncnni* 
bent on itself 16 declare, <liuit there 
is -nothing in the present clircum« 
stancfes of tlie war, that ought to' 
preclude hh majesty from eint>nic^ 
ing any fair opportunity of acceding 
to, or ' copmenciQg a negoclatioft 
with the cneiuy, on a, fo4»tjng of 
equality, for the termination of 
hoslitilics, qu terms of justice and 
hon6nr/* ' 

Mr,* Ponsonby concurred witk 



I 



..y 






,* 



^lini. All this had^beeu proved to ?ns honourable friend as to his two- 
tjc completely unfounded. The hist lirstVesolutions: and in the third, 
point he would tonch upon was Uie 
allegation, that Buonaparte had 
sworn tbe^icstrudiou'of this coun- 
t ly. He fisked» where and when he 
had done so? Was it during, his 
(Consulate 1 Was it afteU\e became 
inipcror^'of France? No. For 
ken, also, he hail made ^n offer o{ 



likewise* he agreed in the letter, but 
differed as to tli)^ spirit and effect^* 
and as to the fVropriety of passing 
such a resolurion-at the present m<w 
ment. The third proposition, if 
adopted, ^vould bind muiisters im- 
mediately to take steps towards % 
negotiation; \^i^ich must produce' 



.« 



<: 






'* A 



t' 



*fi2 "'ANNHJAL REGISTsER, 'lapsTi*' 

>9ge af thte two results. Minislers with Mr« Pon^sfty in liis pinion 

i% baving tried th^ niclipattoii tf the on the IqsI proposition of iUt bo- 

^ enetnyt wOtrid come badt .to the noumUe mover, bat for differ«fil 

*!'• bouse «tid say* ''We have tried bini» reasons. He did not see' tfai^t the 

and ^d him averse to negotiation ; house was called onW hiteiif^re in- 

^ oi, in stldlfta state pTtrritation, tlftt the conduct of the exed^tive poM^er, 

it 19 IB vaiu to expeet him to treat unless i||ippeared that the servaot» 
on anytUog like booourable terms/'.;, of the croWn bad njsconducCed 

This, of course^ they would assert, themselves in regard to whnt was 

and was tbf lefi^ of tbe passing of passed. JThe third pn^sitlon 1 

this resolution* Or^agaiOy if they could not be agreed ., to without' 

^ did enter into terms/ knd a d||||Q- agiieing also . to the'' two fertner. 

^.uovraUe ptMtt shdlM b^ tlie coa- tkithe was so'afiir from agreeing to 

sfil^encci fl«^y W4|M sayi "tholre- theses 4hal he thoui^ oaitiisteRs 

proadk'does not lie on ul^ blame acted wittfbecomlbgctrcumspectioD 

yourselves, you were too impatient* in doubting tliat the mediatton of 

Xtiere was.aiiolher reason which Russifi ana Austpn would have 

^^joperatcd strongly with himi The been impartially everted towsihi^ 

house was^ever^'day receiving peti- thiptfCouBtiy. It by 00 rtjf aus fbl- 

jfons for peace; MatingHlTie pressure lowed Uuit, because a^tberof thfde 

^ « tinder .which the petitioners |jblK>ur^ powers cooH be sil^po&ed to hold 

ed, froin«tile markets on the conlt* France in a higfaer regard than they 

oenttrbeiDg shutiigainst tliem< tf did this country, th^miglit not, to 

we Were, in consajpence of agree* serve their o^n purposes, hnwc^sa- 

. i^g tjir/the present proposition^ to .^rificed onr inlinttls. 

send ^ an^as$ador to France^ ' Lord' Milton, thomdrhe slgre<Kf 

nuigUKituit Bdouaparte sty^ *' It is tpithe two first propAton^ could 

nptsix waeiis afoce yon sent away n^ go tlie length of Ae third ; not | 

the* Austrian anitiaisador, whose being satisfied th# there was yet ' 

taediatioa yoU' rejected. . Youtalli^ ground ;to address his majesty to 

^ howeuer, c^ a pressure on your ma* remove his ministers, as beiii^ dis- 

nufiatftlires; Is it ae 1 Then I wiU inciinai to, peace,' which must tie* 

V ^persevere in follMthig up the mea- ce^rily^«Aceonfi}my Ihat proposi* 

,<iures'lhave| adoptee^ andvtafcine tibu. 

*" ^ advanciige of thispreMre, wii Mr. J. W. WmdgayeUsfdedded' 

, Jfocoe jail t<o acc^t any sort of sppport to the whol^f '|bt$. reso- | 
* pea4M chttsef to grant ydu." 'if it^' lotions of his faotiourabte ftHod I 



wne onee to be ' bid down , as a Among ofltoi!t«eniiuHiB, lie aAtdt-tbere 
maxim, that oh acooimt of a*pres- '- was now 00 point of dMitaol wher« 
-sptc on any. due braoch or part of war cotdd be.cilHed on* We hftd* 
the commuBity, 4he whoterfiation destroyed ali^he 6^w that bad 
•«. fptet give way^ he coiidd not look been opposed to us. ' Buonapart^T 
^ ; on b^land > iu any t>ther light than had disconifiM sA tbe am^ that^ 
'K as a 6bncfiieved. dlimtry. If hil faadliMi sent agttin«ft iiiy/*'Flie 
f^ honourable friepB, there^e, would "Wa/.'^^fact," had died' U'.Baiitral 

\ udt witlidraw his motion, he should death.- It had been lih^ a 4re 
p move the previous question. ' going out for wanVof 4|^' The 
4 Mr»^ WUberforc^ agreed eBtirH)'* Jf<'P06>4M^ i^rc^so sni^ried' 









** 



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. T 
•* • 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



63 



by lord MaboQ udMf* J* Snutb* 
Hik) spoke with grejil enttusnisin ia 
pTdtse of the takut$ '^n4 iivkpeiid* 
csre of ^^. Wbitbrea<t ^ 

Mr. Camiin^fe giviogr Mr. WbiU 
bread full credk for being ttocere 
in tbe opiaicin he bed €^rested« 
rofitended UiHl, adnutliDg liegotiii- 
tioii to be desirable and good when 
ibere vm a prospect of iti leading 



He bad himaetf do doubt that Up 
dieclamtioD on Ihe sul^ect 6f Co- 

fenbagei^rwas forced on Ruaaia hy 
ranee. : It was thought strange^ 
that while tbe mediation o& Russia 
was deemed suspicious as between 
BQtain and France, the mediation 
of thai power was solicited as De« 
tween Britain and Denniaik. But 



this^ application was perfectly con^ 
to peace^ it was s^xiiischiaf;wben it ^.sistent with the ehnracfiif of Pro^ 
(ud Qftt afibrd that prospect* It ' tector of the north ; and by pre- 
tended te eicile dece&ful Hope^ and ^ seryingf any part of tbe iadepend- 
to {»arslyze exertion. Thebonoar- enceof tlfi^ state, tliere might yet 

be rgon to hope that i^lLwas not 
irrecQverabry lost. The first/#ffer 
of mediatiQfi from Austria' was im- 



Mt gentfuuan ufas sattsfied, that 
«b«u 4tt)sna said yre miglht bave 
bflounMe Umm, the fact was so. 
But why, m tnat c^se, did not 
Rusbia slate ^lote terras? What 
tlimva migbt lytive looked dp4«ii as 
' iODourable terms^ migt)t not be so 
'.. uiud upon in this coitntry. The 
marojer iaTivbich Russia actfid re- 
P^ctiog Prussia ; that in whfeh she 



«T: 



»'J 



hmtt kk a .40iseiwboUy inconsist- 
c'li witfi tba lonritiroe power and 
iU^'ogtb ef Great %itain; and in 
tbit seaseibiced inta^air^iie diplo- 



mediately sub.sequent to the battle^ 
of £^u; dejBcribcd in the gasette^ 
pubhshed by tbe late ministers, as\ 
compile victory on the park, of the 
allies. It was accepted. nathout any 
illfaer condition, than that ik ebould 
be aocepted«equiilly by all the bel- 
rreodeied the guamnteed repub:^ ligerenfc powers. Toe oSdt was 
c of ihe^Seven hie% i tbepbijase of ' made accordingly^ but accepted by 
manlne peace/' ilwaya ifsed by France m terms so offensive t% Bri- 
tain, tlial it' would have been ^ 
Question Whetder any negoliatian 
itfionat could have been instituted. 
Bi>t before this, question could be 
niiiic papers of the powers rf|luced, ttfougbi to an issue, the battle of 
^^tier (he cootroul of Buonapar^ ;', Fnedl^ud had totally diestroyed the 
iht apparent compromise of the lu* hopes of tbe allies ; an4 when lord 

]|^efnbrok^. mentioned the matter at 
Vienna* he was told that thing? were 
so changed that nothing could be 
doue. A .second offer of niedia^^ 
|ion» on the part of AuMriaj Was 
afterwards raade^T28th November, 
by prince Stahrembei^l But \)ie 
'im« to. shew the dii^ositiqn of whole of thi proceedings, on tbe 
;^j^si]ii>kii^ l^r cHvoiioii to Fimoe, partx^ Austria, respecting tbi^se-^ 
*A, tiisulie inclination* of the Hus-. oono^ offer, wore evident marks of 
''Q goxeroment to 4I^Kpfete. tM^ F/eocii diqlation. ^ <t 

•v^mnKrcial treaty ..ws^h. "Britaiu, \ Mr. Sheridan was determined to 
^^}^^ QfljICGount of the jofiuence su|>port the whole of tbe diree reso*^ 
:t Fraocf, andrtosAOt excluded, tttions^ which h% would have donif 

'bad 



* • 

4. > 



t 



9 



^.- 



^j^flrfence of Sicily;— all tjiese 
re grouadi for . sitfpeeling that 
' trmiswbicli Ri^sia descrit^ed a9 
tumble, m%iiVio f«ict,.be very 
•^^ ^ni being so qu Ihe principles 
' ''it A Bfitisii goveri^^^nl was bound 
*- ici uj^n. i\ very material fadi 



»»- 



.. -n 






r 



r\ 






• . 



« r 






t 



.« 



*v 



$4 ANl»rtJALREGIS.T.12-R, ISOS: 



LaA they been conceived in stronger 
terms. With regard 'to petitions 
for peace, he was decided^ of opi- 
nion that the way to put a stop to 
tbcni, \vx}\.i\d be to satisfy the counr 
tryThat the house was stfongly ^is- 



the facts oi|.whicb lie preluded to 
Ibund it. His object was» to pre- 
vent t)ie repetition .of t^ practice 
whicb t|]e Jipuse had wilnoned oa 
the 3d of February last, and which . 
stood recorded on the journals of 



posad tp peace, wheni peace was * the houai? on the 8th of Fehipry^ 
fairly attainable. As a great deal he hoped for the last t^e. Qu 
still remained to be said upon this, the 3d of February, certain papers 
important question, particularly on had been 'moved ror by a ijgnt ho« 
the third resolution, into which it f oourable friend af his^ Mr. Poa- 
was now* too late to enter, he. moved sonby; and in ttie debate whicb 



an adjournment of the de1»aie till 
to-morrow. 

Air. Adam, requested his right 
honourable friend to withdraw bis 
motion, and let the house decide 
upon the resolutions ; for every one 
of. which he meant to vote af&rnia- 
tively. His opinion was, that nii- 
nbters,*by their conduct, had put a 
bar to any ex|)ectation of peai^ 
being proposed by them, or to them ; 
and until that bar should be re- 



took place, the discussion embraced 
not only tbfc motioii for jpapers, but 
the conduct of* the iiHiividuals to 
which those, papeb referred. On 
that occasion, the secretary o(i state 
for the foreign department read 
extract^ from two of, those papers 
which bad been moved Cpr, for the 
purpose of putting the house in pos- 
session of tlie informatioQ necessary 
to enable !t to form a judgment 
respcctin,^ tfae]^opriety of the bos* 



moved by a declaration of the sen- * ttle proceedings whicb government 

timents of that house, be very much had adi^^ed agfiiust Denmark^ On 

feared there could be no hope of the 8tli of February, another lio- 

peace Ar the country. ' Mr. Sberi- nourable friend 6f liks, Mr. Whit- 



dan withdrew lib motion ; and after 
a few words from Mr. J. Smit}l and 
Mr. Wilbetforcc, and a reply to the 
latter by Mr. Whitbread, the house 
divided upon each of the resolu- 
*tlons. — ^Upon tbe first the numbers 
were. Ayes 70 — Noes 2IQ,— tjppn 
the second, A^es 67^.>Ioes 211.— 
Upon the third. Ayes 58 — Noes 
217. 



bread, moved for the, production of 
those very papers, from which Jhe 
secretary had^ead extracts on the 
dd nf tSebruary, on the ground that 
the extracts conyeyed a different 
imprefldon from that which t^ wri- 
ters of those ^spatches, lord How-» 
ick and Mr. C^arlicke, iutende4 to 
convey. On ttye 3d of February, 
the reason give6 for not producinnr 



Tojlie debates concerning our rcp i the whole of the papers was, .that 

lations to the northern powers, se- their contenti could not be ^is- 

veral resolutions moved in the house closed without detriment to the pub- 
of cotnmons by Mr. Adam, 4th of lie service. And on the jitn of 

March, respecting the law of .par- February, the secretary persWed in 

liameut', formed a kind of natural ^ppposlng thdr productio^i^n Ibe 

episode. ^ Befoce stating'' the terms preteucd tlyaf, in the extracts lie 

of his motion, he found it neces^ had made tMm them, he hac) not 

^ sary to euter into some discussion misrepre^^ted the opinidtl of lovd 

of general 4^rlnci|ie9> and to state Howick and Mr. Garlicke. On tfie 

* / . -r .. 26th 



1^ 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



6S 



2fy\h of February, hoii^ever, the 
Jijlit faonoUrahle secretary had 
Tonie down to the bouse himself, 
V^r the purpose, as he stated, 
>f vindicating his own character, 
md movied for the prociuction of 
hose very papers, which, on Uie 3d 
»f February, he contended could 
u>t be disclosed with safety, and 
lie production of which, on the iJlh 
»f February, he had resisted on 
nolher : so that, according to "Mr. 
banning, the public convenience 
nd safety were not to be put in the 
alance with his personal fefe|ings 
lid interests ! The reading of ex- 
acts on the 3d of February, was 
ot preparatory ^o a proceeding, 
ut on the very modet of 9 pro- 
ceding that was to terminate In ad- 
idication. And it was upon this 
roiiod that be pronounced the se- 
retary Canning'^ conduct to be 
faoliy irregular and highly censur- 
ble. If a libel was publisiied on 
(ly member of llie bouse, he might 
love that the libel should be read 
1 the house ; but the house would 
ut grant any proceedings upon the 
bel till it was on th^ir table. That 
w practice bad been invariably 
dhered to, and that it was irregu- 
ir in debate to quote any paper 
hich had not b<;en regularly sub- 
lilted to parliament, Mr. Adam 
roved by many precedents, and a 
iiiform analogy. But if there were 

precedeol for what he was about 
> projiose, be reminded the house» 
lat the circuni&tances were also 

1 together novel, and on this ground 
c hoped, that that the bouse would 
rente a precedent. Mr.. Adam 
aviog pointed a great variety of 
•rejudiciHl consequence! that might 
rise from the pr4ctice of quoting 
ariial extracts, if not checked, 



included with moving the followr 
ing resolutions: 

'* That it appears to this, hpuse^ 
that one of his. miyesty's principal 
secretaries of state did ri^ad to tliis 
house dispatches and other commu-^ 
nications to and from the accredited 
ministers of this country at foreign 
courts, relative to the subjects of 
their piii^sion ; and that he ha» 
stated and read other matters re- 
specting the transactions of this 
country with foreign powers, none 
of which were comnmnicated to 
this house by his majesty's com^ 
mands, and some of which' this 
bouse has determined to be unfit 
to be produced. 

" That such conduct is subver- 
sive of the ancient and approved 
usages of parliameut, is destructive 
ot tuir discussion and decbion, and 
has a direct tendency to injure the 
public interest, by making the resoc 
lutions of this house proceed on in* 
accurate statements, which it can- 
not correct by reference to the do- 
cuments from which those state- 
ments are made ; or to force on the 
consideration of this house, papers 
which, in its wisdom, it may deem 
unfit for public production. 

' " And further, that such conduct 
16 contrary to the trust reposed by 
the constitution in the confidential 
servants of the crown." 

Mr. Canning spoke at coaljkler- 
able lebgth id his own defence* 
The substance of his speech was» 
a statemenf of precedents for quot* 
ing partial extracts 00 the part of 
former ministers; an inquiry into 
some of the statements that bad 
been made by Mr. Adam ; and a 
claim to the right of using, as one 
^of his majesty's nihiisters, a discre- 
tionary power. Was tbe bonour^ 



66 



ANNUAL REGISTER, ISOSL 



able and learnecl gentleman, who 
liad moved the resolutions, prepared 
to say that no ]nfcM*niation was given 
to parliament, bat that which came 
in the more regular and authentic 
sliape of a message from his ma- 
jesty? In Chis case, uo minisler 
conid ever affiard satisfactory infor* 
nation to either house of 'parlia« 
itoent. But, it might be said, the 
question might be foir, but the an- 
swer not correct f How was cor<^ 
rectnesi, or incornectocss, in such a 
case» to be judged of? Was it pro- 
per to tell whence you borrowed 
the intelligence? Through what 
channel it camel Was it to be 
communicated by extract or in de- 
tail? To all these modes of com- 
munication objections were started, 
yet no reason had been started, why 
one should be preferred to another. 
By partial statement), it was said, 
great mischief might be committedj 
and nmch injury done, to our di- 
plomatic agents. To a detail of 
the informatton, equally .strong ob- 
jections were offered. What, thien, 
could be the guide of a minister's 
conduct, but hb own discretion? 
And where could that discretion re- 
side, but with the very per^n whose 
discretion the learned and honour- 
able gentleman moved resolutions 
to crimiuale? Mr. Caontng, hav- 
ing cpnclnded his speech, withdrew, 
not thinking himself competent to 
Tote when a criminal charge was 
brought against his own conduct* 
A debate ensued, in which Mr. 
Adam's motion was snmyorted by 
Mr. Windham and Mr^ Whitbread; 
and opposed by the chancellor of 
the exchequer, lord CSastlereagb, 
and Mr.SturgesBoorne. Mr; Adam 
replied to afl the arguments that, 
had been used against hit motion^ 
and insisted thiii the eondttct of the 



right honourable secret^, wbicl 
he called in question, was asaiml 
the usage of parliament : th^ thi 
was proved by its never appearinc 
to have been ihe practice of th< 
house, and by its being checked 
each time when it was resorted to 
As to modem practice, whatever il 
mi.i;ht be, he cared not, because 
that did not defeat the ancient 
usag^ founded on the principlea 
thaf formed the comihon law of the 
country, the practice of the house^ 
and the acquiescence of the people. 
And he contended, that his cfoctrinc 
%vas confirmed and established b} 
the entries of the 8tb of Febniarv. 
which be had rtod to the house, 
the only entries of the sort to be 
found- on their joumab. He was 
perfectly satnfied that h< bad dis- 
charged a moftt important duty in 
bringing this most important law 
and constitution of parliatnent in- 
to discussion; both to counteract 
the entries on the jonmaK ^^ 
to check a course of proceeding 
which placed the means of sway- 
ing the decisions and acts of that 
house, by misrepresenting facts, 
and b^ withholding and detaining 
the evidoice of them entirely in tbe 
hands of the ministers of the crown. 
On the previous qttestion, which 
had been moved by the cfaancetior 
of the exchequer, the house (li« 
vided ; Ayes l6'8-~ Noes 67- 

While the great question respect* 
ing our seizure of the Danish flee^ 
and in consequence of this, as wi 
aliedged by tiie members of pai" 
ment m opposition to the pi 
ministerSv the alienation and host 
lily of the emperor Alexapder 
this counUy; was the graikd \opn 
the attention of parliament was th 
called to the late unfortmiate ex] 

dition to the Dardanelles, and 

AlexaodrJ^ 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



67 



Al^saBiMk Tb» subject, ^ow* 
mr, wuaol brought into disciis* 
im at I party oieas^ire, or a move* 
mni of ekher miniBterml o.r atili* 
a!<ni«tenal Udks ; but by a gen-> 
t'eiian «bo appears to ha¥e been 
uQcomteded with auy party. Ttiough 
tiie fxpedidon to tke Dardancltes 
td) tbonght by Mn Canning, and 
"tiier speikf rs on his side of tlie 
y'\i% au excellent Argwneutnm 
id htmnem, and Ind become a 
«ind of stand iDg joke^ neither Ibe 
'hikf nor the policy of an attack 
on Copenhagen, could possibly he 
'■^mctd by the injostice, impolicy, or 
tin\ management of the expedition 
i.^iost Constantinople. Still less 
•«p('Sed, it may be presnined, were 
("ic iate ministers to recall that mi* 
*TA[>k attempt to the attention of 
be legiskUure and llie public. Yet 
firv were not altogether displeased 
*-jt it tiras brought under review, 
^caase it afforded an opportunity 
^f shewing clearly in what it m-* 
'^c<i from tbe attack on Copenha- 
:\ with which ministerialists af-« 
>*vted to confound it, iu every 
r^pect, except its want of success. 
In ihe debate of February 8^h, oq 
'^e subject of the E^ltic expedition, 
M'. Wbitbread expressed gi;eat sa« 
' 'f;fdioa and gladness, that the bu* 
' •'fss of Ihe Dardandles was soon 
^ocoflK on, when lie feared a great 
"wc vi Mr. CanDing^s drollery, 
«'«4vs laughable, if not always very 
'riified, would ife entirety re^ 
->vtfd. Other gentlemen express 
'^'f on different occasions, tbe 
' i*t sentiment. 

HoQseof Comnons, Feb. 15.-;^ 
M'. Taylor rose, pursuant to nbi* 

<:. lo move for papers necessary 
' ' convey a proper understanding 
■^ the particulars connected with 
'^ expedhioo to the DardaaetlM 



omf to Alexandria. The frequent 
references . to tJiese transactions in 
tlie discussions on tlie affair of Co*^ 
penrugen, to- which they bad been 
^assimilated in priacipie, rendered 
a more particular investigation of 
them necessary. But it wa4 not 
merely to estimate the right and pro* 
priefy of these aUacks on neutral 
powers, that ,lhe papers he was 
about to move for ought to ha 
before the hoose. By these attacks 
we were involved in a war with 
Turkey, and no communication 
whatever had been made to parlia^ 
nient on tbe subject. Tl was no 
private or party motive that bad 
induced bini to bring forward this 
motion. He was not connected 
with any party, and be had com- 
munjcated with only one or two 
members on the subject. Having 
for a ^ort time been resident in 
Turkey, and conversant with the 
manners of. Ihe people and their-. 
|K>Ulical attachments, his attention 
)vas naturally engaged by the dis- 
patches of his majesty's ambassador 
and commanders in the Darda-* 
nelies ; and with every allention 
tliat he was able to give, he could 
neither discover why the armament 
went, nor why it had come away. 
Whatever might be the morality, or 
tlie policy of liie Copenhagen expe- 
dition, it at lenst afibrded a con- 
spicuous example of judicious ma-' 
nageme»it, and able execution. 
When a transaction of tbatkind was 
thought by some to call for. inquiry^ 
be could not think that a transact 
tion, in wjiich the character of tha 
navy, the favourite serylce of the 
country, was brought in question 
by ill success, ought to be suffered 
lo pass wilhool investigationr These 
were the motives wliich induced 
h)^ to bring this subject before tlie 
[F 2] house» 



68 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



liouse. H« would ahstain from 
pronoiincin<E^ any opinion till the 
papcrt, wlifcti were lo pinh hi» 
judpitfnr, as well as that of the 
house, should be properly consi- 
dered. We would, however, enu- 
merate briefly (he. circumstances of 
the transaction. Tlic British fleet 
appeared at the enlraitce of the 
I>ardane?les, on the 29th of Janu- 
ary, 1807> whife the British ambas- 
sador was still at Const<intinop)e. 
Tli^ Brrtisb fleet attacked the castles 
and forced its passage, bumintv a 
Turkish frigate. 'Ilie British fleet 
remained twelve days before Con- 
•tantinople, and then came back 
the same way, without doing any 
tiling further. This situation was 
one, in which no British officer 
would wish to remaifi, or ought to 
be suflTcred to remain, without in- 
atiiry. The papcn he should move 
for would tend to shew why the 
British squadron had gone to the 
Dardanelles, why it had come away, 
and what had beert done there. 
He DH>ved, that there l>e laid be- 
fore the house, a copy of the traaty 
of aHiancc, ofiensive and defensive, 
between his majesty and the Otto- 
man porte, sign^ at Constantmople 
January 5, 1799. ^J His majesty's 
ministers, sir Sidney Smith, and Mr. 
Spencer Smith ; abo a copy of any 
secret article of the said treaty, re- 
gulating the passage of the Dar- 
danelles by British shifis of war; 
.a copy of a dispatch of lord Elgin, 
relative to the exchange of the rati- 
fications of the said treaty ; • copy 
of any treaty existing tietween thu 
Forte and Russia on the 19th Ja- 
nuary, I8O7; copies of the. letters 
of the secretary of state to Mr. 
ArbutJ)not,his nia^iesty's ambassador 
at Constantinople at tlie time of the 
British oquadsoo's proceeding to 



that place, and of Mr. Afbothhot' 
dispatches afler the arrival of th 
squadron ; copies of (he in^braction 
issued to lord Collingwoodf *aad 
those issued by him to sir.Jobi 
Duckworth, rehiting to the bumiitj 
of a Danish ship in the Dardaaelles 
and copies, generally, of all die cor 
respondence of -lord Colliagwood 
and the officers scut by blm on Uri 
service. 

Tl>e earl of Temple secoodec 
the motion. 

Mr. secretary Canning, aflei 
waiting a few moments to see i 
any one on the opposition benches 
the side of the bouse niost inte* 
rested in the present question, wouk 
rise to deliver his sentiments, con- 
sidered ^himself as called on, in 
consequence of their silence, to staU 
what he thought necessary on Um 
present niotkni* The motion, as 
he had observed on a former occa< 
sion, was broagbt forward witbouf 
his concurrence or knowledge, as 
had also been stated that night b} 
tlie honourable mover biraselt^ >viilj 
wiiom he Imd not the honour of a^ 
acqtnintance. He had no mi 
of ascertaining the nature of (i 
information he meant to call A 
till the honourable. gentleman tr9i 
n^itt^ to him that moming a 
of the papers he meant to m< 
for. Having gone over, the li^ 
and stated for the sattsfiiction of ll 
honourable gentleman who hi 
made the motion, .bow far it 
.possible and proper i» comply wi 
each of the motions, lie oeclai 
that, for his own part, lie s^w 
ground for inalttuliug an iaqul 
under the present > circmnslau< 
He was not aware of any practi^ 
benefit tliat could arise lo the 
try from the investigatioii propose 
Buty aft^ wiiat h«l.b«€Q said 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



€9 



the other sitk of tlie house, he did that fte^house might be enabled to 

not tkinir himself at ]iiiert)t to dis- take a clear view of the subject. — 

suade thehobse from entering into The motion was then agreed to. 
it. A long eonversatioo ensued. House of Commuos Mny CO. — 

about the iiedessity and propriety of Mr. Taylor rose, to move his pro* 

an inqairy on the present subject, mised resolutions respecting the ex< 



,\ 



The iBterlocutors were, Mr. T. 
GrenviUe, Mr. Wellesley Pole, Mr. 
Jobuatone, Mr. Windham, lord Cas- 
tiereagh, Mr. Tierary, the ciiancel 
lor of the exchequer, Mr. Crocker, 
and Mr« Willierforce. To the se- 
cond motion, the object of which 
uas, tu produce all llic papers that 
might serve to shew the causes that 
led to our preseut hostility with the 
Ottoman Porte, 

Mr. Johnstone proposed an a- 
meudnienl, which, after a few words 
from Mr. Camiing, was put thus 
and carried : 

" So far as those causes are con- 
nected with tlie exfHfdition to the 
Dardanelles.'' 

The other motions, comprehend- 
ing all ietlera from lord Elgin, Mr. 
Arbathnot, sir Sydney Smith, and 
the admirals Coilingwood, Duck- 
worth, and Lewis, were also put 
and agreed 'to. -^ In addition to 
these papers, Mr Qrenville, Febru- 
ary 1 8, moved, " That tliere be 
laid before the house, the substance 
or extraots of the instructions under 
which his ma^jesty's miuister at jthe 
Porte was acting, at any tune since 
the conimeaoemeut of the present 
war, with respect to the aid to be 
given to Rosata, . in any discussions 
that might arise betweeUithat power 
and the Porte; and especially so far 
as rehites to the instructions, under 
which he racked, after the formation 
of ttie contineaUd oonfederacy in 
the year 1«05. 



pedition to the DardaneUes. In 
order to prove the injustice of that 
expedition, lie reviewed tlie nature 
of the connectitui between tiiis 
country and the Porte. The only 
ground, he raaiutaiued, that we had 
for interference, was the treaties 
between Russia, England, and the 
Porte, the obi igal ions of whid) trea* 
ties hail become void by the peace 
of Amiens. The Russians tiad only 
acquired a right to pass from the 
Black Sea in single ships, tst the 
purpose of throwing supplies iuto 
the .Ionian republic, which right 
was to be at an end when that repul>* 
lie should be settled. And it did 
end when the whole fell into the 
power of Buonaparte. With regard 
to the policy of tlie expedition, he 
thought it was extremely unwise to 
alienate from OS the mmds of the 
Turks, who had lieeh extreniely 
well disposed to us; the truth of 
which' proposition he proved by 
reading a variety of documents. 
By passing the Dardanelles, we had 
commenced hoslihties before nego- 
tiation. The attack on the Turkish 
ships nas au useless oL»ject; the 
number of ships not being equal 
to the enterprise. And lord CoU 
lingwood ought to have been allow- 
ed to choose any officer he pleased 
(or. coaducling the expedition. — 
With re9|>ect. to the expedition to 
Alexandria, he had not been able 
to discover its object and policy* 
and it liad been so mismanaged as 



Mr. Cannnig agreed with Mr. 4o bring disgrace on the British 
Orenville^ tluu the production of arms* He concluded by moving a 
that paper vtu necessary^ u order resolution, ** That his majest/s 

[F 3] fleet 



70 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



fleet under sir J. Duckworth had, 
on the fiOtli February, 1807, ap- 
peared before Constauttnople. aud 
continued tliere for ten d'^ys, witli- 
out. doing any thing. And that it 
was the opinion of the house, that 
arrangements had not been made 
by the then ininistryy adequate to 
the occasion/' 

Mr. Grenville expressed great 
' satisfaclion that the accosatiofis 
against the Lite ministers, had at 
length been made in a manner that 
rendered them tangible. It was 
iitipossible, he said, for any one to. 
read the papers on the table, and 
to say that either the justice or the 
policy of interfering in the dispute 
between Russia and the Porte, was 
questionable. This ri»ht of inter- 
ference was not founded on the 
triple alliance of the dth January 
only. This treaty respected a long 
course of negotiation for peace and 
salliance between Great Britain,, the 
Porte, and Russia. With this ob- 
ject in vtewy the peace of Jassy 
bad been concluded between Rus- 
sia aud the Porte, tmder the influ-^ 
lence of Great Britain. We had, 
therefore, a right to support Russia, 
and tbe4ate ministry had exercised 
it in pursuance of that wise policy 
that bad been adopted both by 
tbt^ii* predecessors and successors, 
' viz. the maintenance of a connec- 
tion between Russia, the Porte, and 
tliis country. Hiey saw the grow- 
ing influence of France, and the 
decreased influence of this country 
and Russia with the Porte, and 
wished to give a check to so unfor- 
tunate a change of sentiment. As to 
the qoantum of force sent to the 
Dardanelles, it was suggested by 
lord CoHinf^wood. The late mi- 
iiisters took the opinion of some of 
Mte first .naval characters on the 



salyect, and all of them agreed that 
a considerably* smaller force than 
what was dbpatched, was consider- 
ably more than adequate to the 
undertaking. They were fully jus- 
tified, too, in expecting, co-opera- 
tion and assistance from the Russi- 
ans, by whose fleet our squadron 
was joined four days afterwards. 
The situatk>n, however, was such, 
and so capable of defence, that in- 
stead of three sail of theiine, which 
admiral Lewis had at first declared 
to be sufiicient, the same gallant 
admiral had estimated the force ne- 
cessary to succeed, at ten sail of the 
line. Troops were also talked of 
as being necessary to the success of 
such an expedition. But he asked 
the house if it was at all likely that 
such a body of troops could have 
been'sent as would have been equal 
to encounter 200,000 p\en, who 
liad appeared in arms along the 
coast previously to our ships leav- 
ing the I>8rdauelies ? Witli r^rd 
to the expedition and occupatios 
of Alexandria, this was a post of 
the utmost importance : for though 
not intended to be used as tlie first 
step towards the conquest of £g}'ptf 
the capture of it, was in this point of 
view, an object of the higbest import- 
ance. Let it not be forgotten, of 
what moment it was regarded by 
Buonaparte, no bad judge in those 
matters. While matters were grow;^ 
ing daily and hourly worse andj 
worse at Constantinople, nothing 
seemed more, to be dreaded, than 
that Alexandria, and probably, in 
consequence, Egypt, should fnli 
int6 the hands of the Freudi. The 
sole object of the expedition wa^ 
Alexandria,^ and this was accom- 
plished in a creditable, not a dis- 
graceful manner. If attempts were 
made to carry the cciiquest farther, 

thai 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



71 



tbat was done'withoat any iosUuc- 
tioos from government, lliere was 
no scardtj^ of provisions iu Alexan- 
dria. One thing only seemed dis- 
astrous and unaccountable, namely, 
the gratuitous abandonment of the 
place by the pr^nt government. 
They found it taken» and why did 
tliey give it up? White the whole 
mibtary force of the enemy did not 
exceed 60OO, and the garrison of 
Alexandria was fully equal to that 
number, there could lie nothing 
that could render that step a mea- 
sure of imperious necessity, unless, 
indeed, it could be said that this 
Mras a great waste of the public 
force, and that it was proper that 
part of it should be let loose. At 
the very time when government 
wa^ treating with the Porte for a 
state of neutrality, to lay the pos- 
session of so Important a place at 
the feet of their opponent, seemed 
to be an unaccountable mode of 
proceeding. But what had become 
of the troops so set at liberty ? He 
believed tlmt, from that moment to 
the present, they had not been en- 
gaged in any enterprise of advan- 
tage to the country, and that they 
Lad sca^rcely been heard of. 

Mr. secretary Canning, in reply 
to Mr. Grenville, said, if any gen-* 
tlenian would but look into the treaty 
of triple alliance in 1798, he would 
perceive that the argument of the 
right honourable gentlemsm could 
not be sustained. It referred to 
the situation and existing circum- 
stances of the contracting parties, 
all equally at tluit period at war 
with France. The treaty contained 
a stipulatiopj limiting its operation 
to eight years ; after which it was 
to undergo a reyisi<y), and such 
alteration as the respective situa- 
tions of the different countries 



* 

might then render necessary. It 
was so understood in this country ; 
and the cirtumstances to which it 
was applied, were mentioned in the 
preamble. Could it be asserted, 
that a treaty negotiated with a view 
to existing hosliiities, iii which all 
the parties were engaged, and fol- 
lowed, not by a joint peace, but 
by separate pacifications, must ne- 
cessarily^survive ? Or that, if it did 
not, it was necessary to be viewed 
on the renewal of another war, into 
which any of the parties might af- 
terwards ienter f But this bad never 
been the understanding of any of 
the parties, nor had the treaty been 
so acted upon. It had been as- 
serted, tliat the refusal of the pas- 
sage of the Dardanelles to the 
Russians, had given us a rigiit to 
assume an armed mediation. But 
as the passage was granted by a 
subsequent convention, to whidi 
this country was not a party, we 
had no right, in virtue of an ante- 
rior treaty, to insist on the fulfil- 
ment of that convention, to which 
we were not a party. The inter- 
fereuce at Copenhagen was not 
more decisive in principle than 
the forcing th^ passage of the 
Dardanelles, and B|>pearing, in a 
hostile attitude, before Constan- 
tinople. Here a force was sent to 
bombard the capital, not of a neu* 
tral, but of a triple ally. If the 
late ministers could lay upon the' 
table a copy of a treaty of defen- 
sive alliance with Denmark, the 
cases would be parallel, except 
that the Danish expedition v^as 
crowned with success, while the 
other was attended with defeat and 
disgrace. It was impossible that 
Uie Turkish fleet, . passing the Dar- 
danelles, and the Streights of Gib- 
raltar, should attack any of the 
{F 4] British 



», 






?2 A N N U A L RE O I S T £ R, I iOS. 



British possesriotis. On the other' 
haad, the Ddbuh fleet, if once 
lalaocfaed with a hostile view, might 
be on 9«r shores witiiout a nio- 
laeat's notice. An ibtervention to 
procure; by pacific means, the ar-* 
rangement desired by Russia, he 
did not condemn ;  but lo inter-* 
fere, first by threats^ and aftenvards 
by violence, vioJence inadequate to 
its object and unsuccessful, was 
what he did condemn. It was 
known that the passage of the Dar- 
danelles would be regarded as an 
act of hostility; at least, it was 
qaite as natural to suppose, that 
the approach to Copenhagetl*, the 
landing of troops, and the invest- 
ment of that capital, would be re- 
ceived without resistance or a feeliug 
of hostility, as that the appearance 
in a menacing posture before Con- 
stantinople, woyld be viewed with 
calmness and indiAerence. But the 
estimate of the strengtii of the cas- 
tle, and the appointment of the 
British force, shewed clearly that 
there was an idea that the object 
of the.expedilion was likely to be 
regarded as hostile, and to t>e met 
with resistance. But it was said, 
Ijie expedition appeared before 
Constantinople purely for Russian 
objects. The restoration of the 
Hospodars was, indeed, a Russian 
object* But how was this de- 
manded by the Britbh commander? 
With the alternative of giving up 
the Turkish fleet ! If the fleet liad 
been given up, could the restora- 
tion of the Hospodars have been 



still hoisted on 1 If not^ where war 
our attention to the interests of 
Russia 1 As to the policy of the 
expedition^ Russia ought to have 
l)een induced by all means to con- 
centrate her whole force against the 
most dangerous enemy, Buonaparte. 
This ought to have been our po* 
licy also. Then, as to the force« it 
was so inadequate to its object, that 
if sir Thomas Lewis had not come 
away with 'the utmost expedition, 
his passage would have been totally 
cut oflf. It was asked, what 5 or 
6000 troops, required by the naval 
comnianders, could have done, when 
Constantinople had 200,000 men 
of military ^ge among its inhabi- 
tants ? Thev might have destroyed 
the castle of Abydos by a coi^ de 
main, and they might have held 
the castle of Sestos, where the 
'200,000 men from Constantinople 
could not have got at thenou But 
the troo|>s were sent to Alexandria 
to commit a doable breach of alli* 
ance, and to incur a double failure^ 
He did not Ihink that 6000 men 
could achieve miracles. He could 
hardly conceive that 5000 men 
could open a communication from 
Chili to Buenos- Ay reS| over the 
highest and moat impracticable 
mountains in the world f ; but be 
did think they might have destroy- 
ed one small castle by a €mip dt 
munn, and taken and held another 
in which no attack could have been 
made upon them. With regard to 
the troops that had been ordered 
to evacuate ^exaiidna, they had 

Kt 



* For an Sceonnt of the expeditions to Copenbarai, the DardanellcSy aad Alex« 
aodria, witli reflections, see last volume of this work, being the 49thj Chap. XL and 
Chap, XIV, 

t Alluding, in his nsnal style of sarcasm and Mcrirahiation, to the iastractioitt 
given by Mr. Windham, as secretary fop the coJoaiesandfer war^ to bngadter-feao- 
rai Cranfurd, who was sent with a force from 4 to dOOO men to QMliy October^ 
^U^r— See last vphnne Hist. Europe, p. xti. 



# 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



75 



vtfirtemfnrt of tbe force m Sicily* 
irbicb wm brosgbt lo Gibraltar 
vdb t view to' co^opernte in secur* 
iaz the fetmft of the royal itmily • 
ot Portos^d irohi LbboB, Ihougb 
tHi <A§fd, was happily effected 
p k^i tit tlie^ neceifiity of employing 
than. Neither he nor his cot-> 
leagues, he obsenred, bad been for- 
waid to take a pari in the present 
di^ussiott. He did not see what 
pndicai benefit could Tesnlt from 
aceaaire on pexsons who were no 
bso^ in his majesty^ councils. 
Aod he thought it would be inju« 
lidis to bave on the journals a re* 
soiutioo reflecting on the hononr of 
tiie eoBotsj. He thonght, there* 



ibie» he ahould best do hit doty bj 
moving the order of Ihe day. 
* Mr. Windham considered a tieaiy 
as binding only with respect to 
what was in the purview nf thai 
treaty. A friend might booome 
our very worst enemy* 

Col., Mark Woodendeavourtd to 
proceed in a speech against the ex- 
pedition ; but thc' question vms so 
loudly called for» that be was 
obliged to sit down* The hons^ 
however* gave way to the reply of 
Mr. William Taylor.^Aftcr wbkfa^ 
the question that the other orders 
be now read, i^'as put and aami 
without a division* 



CHAPi 



.»i 



s 



74 ANNUAL JIEQISTER, 1808. 



/ / 



CHAP. IV. . 

'CmmerciiBt Warfare. — Order$ of Council, a Subject of unusual keen^ 

ness and pertinacity of Debate. — Motion for referring the Orders in 
 ' CoumtH respecting Neutral Trade to tne Comtinttee ^ Ways and 

Means. — Reiterated ' Debates in both Houses concerning both the 
* Justice and IjegMty, and the Policy of the Measure.-^Charges in 

iht House of Common f of injustice^ Oppression, and Cruefty in the 
' Conduct of the Marquis of WMesley towards the Nabobs of Oude 

and Areott, declared to be unfounded; and the Thanks of the House 

to the Marquis* 

Tfi£ commerciat warfare, or but that of superior force. It was 
the yyar of passivity aod pri* very generally remarked, that dur- 
'vation (a novelty in the history of ing the present session the opposi- 
the world) in which Great Britain tion to ministry was unusually keen, 
and France were now engaged, was vigilant, and persevering. Thepre^ 
traced in our (ast volume*; to the sent ministers were not supposed 
decrees of the emperor of the to possess much ability — ou tlie 
French, declaring the whole island whole, there was allowed to be a 
of Great Britain to be in a state of superiority of powers, of both rea- 
biockade. A protec^og and self- soning and oratory among their op- 
defensive system was interposed by ponents: who, fully sensible of this, 
our orders in council ; 'and trade seized every opportunity of haiig- 
began again to flourish : yet there ing on the skirts of ministers, aud 
was no measure of administration distracting and worrying them with 
discussed in the present session incessant debates.' Those concern- 
that occupied so great a portion of ing orders of council possessed 
' the time and attention of parlia- very little interest, were universally 
ment, or occasioned such keen and accounted dry, and at length be- 
pertinacipus debate, the Baltic came tiresome at the time. Tliej 
expedition alone, perhaps except- cannot appear more interesting 
ed. On both these subjects the now. 

members in opposition had the ad«> The great question to which 

'vantage of standing not only on what they refer is to ht decided not by 

they maintained to be political ex- arguments, but by facts. Thoughi 

pediency, but the plausi^e ground therefore, there was scarcely » 

of justice and the law of nations; week when there was not some de- 

though there was not now iafact, bate or conversation about French 

any law of nations; or at least decrees, British orders in couocilf 

any such law in force. Buonaparte, foreign licences, or American trea- 

who swayed a sceptre of iron on ties of commerce, it will not be ex- 

the continent, acknowledged no law pected that our account of those 

proceedings 

* Hist. Eur. Chap. XII. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE, 



75 



proceedtnga shall be giber than 
sumoitry. 

House of CoBUUom, Feb. 5. — 
The cbaocetlpr of ihe excliequer, 
) laving moved, that Ihe orders of 
iiis majesty ia council respecting 
neutral trade be referred to the 
coniniiltee of waj^s and means. 

Lord H. Petty said, that as 
doobts #ere eDtertained of the le- 
gality of those orders^ it was the 
duty of ministers to have those 
doubts removed by showing to the 
house in the first' place their neces- 
sity, and then by applying for an 
indemnity bill Agamst the uncfiin- 
stitutional exercise of them. Lord 
Petty contended that the orders in 



Bui as the legality of the measuee 
was in the opinion of the noble 
lord, as far from being defensible 
as the policy— the policy ini^ht as 
well be discussed £rst, and the le- 
gality afterwards. The measures 
now in force were suggested by 
the propriety of relahatiug the 
aggressions of the enemy. All 
traiie ill English goods wan prohi^ 
biled, and nil such goods, wlierever 
found, were declared lawful prize. 
Lord Petty had said, tliat this was 
of no moment, as the internal exe- 
cution of the decree in France was 
all tlmt was intended. It was ^« 
Iher singular, however, that the 
first news of the publication of the 



council violated both the law of decree at Berlin was accompanied 
nations and the municipal law of this with an account of its ^having been 



country, and farther, that to en- 
force them was a measure of great 
impolicy. 

The t>oasting decree of Buona- 
parte, declaring England and its 
ports, to be in a state of blockade, 
liad never been acted upon ; nor, 
as Imd been declared by the French 
minister of marine decrees to ge- 
neral Armstrong, the American en- 
voy, was it ever intended to be act- 
ed on, with regard to neutrals. It 
vras part of a liberty of the subject 
that he should have free access to 
^tran^rs. The orders in council 
were a violation of Magtm 
CharU. 

Mr. Perceval in reply, main- 
tained that the late orders in coun- 
cil were founded on the same prin- 
ciple as the order of the 7th of Ja- 



most rigorously enforced at Ham- 
burgh. Was this confining the ope- 
ration of the decree to French ter* 
ritory.1 In what manner did Buona- 
parte himself explain the decree in 
answer to the remonstrance from 
the merchants of Hamburgh, who 
stated, that a great deal of the 
goods seized actually belonged to 
them, and that the measures he was 
pursuing^ were pr^rgnaat with greater 
ruin to himself than to his enemy 1 
*' To destroy the commerce of the 
vile English," said he, ** in every 
possible, way is iuy object. I have 
it in my power ; and wish to ruiu 
Hamburgh: for that would pro- 
mote, the destruction of Eoglisl^ 



^commerce." 



Tlie sanctity of every neutral 
flag was, forsooth, to be ;nost cere- 



nuary 1807» issued by the late mi-- moiiiously respected at sea: while 
nisters, witii* this difference' only* every principle and every right of 



that they were more efficient. The 
noble lord wished now to discuss the 
legality of these orders in council^ 
and to reserve the question of policy 
to another stage «f the business. 



neutral territory was to be invaded 
and violated by land ! 

Mr. Perceval, on the contrary^ 
maintained, that we had a complete 
light to retaliate on the enemy his 

own 



76 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808- 



own measorei; thai it ihe enemy 
declared we sliould liave do trade, 
we had a right to' declare tiiat he 
aliouJd have no trade; t!nit if the 
enemy proclaimed British nianu- 
£ictures and colonial produce good 
priae^ we bad a right to declare 
French manufactures and produce 
good prize. 

Willi respect to the nature of the 
retaliation, was it to be confined 
exactly to the course pursued by 
the euemy T If the principle of right 
to retaliate were admitted, it must 
ftiso be admitted that we had a 



ture, had been stated hy Mon! 
Decres a.<t his opinion only, his an 
authorized opinion, hot his know 
ledge.' If his majestyii present mi 
nisters hacf violated Magna Cbarti 
and the statues of Edward, f U. tfiej 
had been violated by lord Pettj 
himself and his friends. But tfai 
fact was that they had not Ijcen 
violated by either fiarty: for they 
related to a state of peace, and not 
of war. 

As to the poHcy of the ordsers in 
council, previously to the issuing of 
the orders of council, France en- 



right to choose our mode of retafia- joyed, by the assistance of neu- 
tk>n : otherwise, in uiauy instances^ trals, as great advantages of trade 



retaliation would only enforce ttie 
destruction of the power retaliat- 
ing. It was an unfounded asser- 
tion, that though we had a right to 
injure tlie euemy, we had no right 
to do BO by means that would be 
prejudicial to neutral powers. 



as we possessed whh our triumphant 
navy. Our navy, indeed, as belli* 
gerent, was neutralized^ and ren- 
dered useless, liy neutral sliips car- 
rying to Frauce all that was im- 
portant for France to obtain. This 
nad been the case for so Ions a 



Tt)e question in the present case,*" period, that even prior to the de- 
was, is the injury to neutral powers cree of the 21st of November, it 
only consequential on measures might have been matter of delicate 
directed against the enemy, or was inquiry, whether this comitry ought 
the measure originally directed not to have resorted to &e m<?a- 
against neutral pov\ers? The con- sureof 1756*. But after the de- 



duct of the la!»t administration, in 
blocking up a whole river, one side 
of which was occupied by neutral 
powers, proved that tli^y admitted 
tlie justice of this doct rine. It had 
been contcMded that we should 
have waited to see the eftVct of the 
French decree on neutral powers; 
or whether France intended to put 
it in force. That the decree did 
not alter the practice of neutral na- 
vigation, nor affect the American 
convention • with Prance, nor alter 
the existing mode of maritime cap- 



cree of the 21st of November, a 
much stronger measure lyecome ne* 
cessary. Otherwise French pro- 
perty conveyed in neotral l>ottaD]s 
would have been safe : British pro- 
perty In danger, ft bad lieen de- 
clared that the French decrete wa» 
a dead letter, and that it was easily 
evaded. ^ He was well aware that 
the certificates of origin gave Op- 
portunities, by the assistiiuce of for- 
gery and perjury, for the introduc- 
tion of our goods into tb^ conti- 
nent. Such practifces^ however* 

'were 



• The coastiojc trade of France was prohibited in It 56, on the grotaid that 
■eixtraU bkd dd right to cany on that coasting trade -ftr ^France in wai,*whiCB 
FT4!ice wualU have carried ca for herself in peace. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



n 



vtre not to be eDconraged. And 
so fMx was (be French decree from 
being 4 (ii>a(i ielt^r, that new pro- 
visions were, froQi time to time, sup- 
plied for uiiikiii^ upiisdeficteQcies. 
The different coasts had been lined 
with troo|)3» and other means of 
iiuproveiueol from time to time re« 
curred to. 

Among the ar;i5:ttinentt which had 
been urged against the orders in 
council, it bad been said, that 
Ibey were the cause of Uie distress 
suffered by our manufacturers: 
tliat France had shut the door a- 
pajnst our commerce, and that we 
bad bolted it. But this distress 
existed antecedeutlv to the orders 
in council. It orfginated in the 
Freocli decree. I-t was impossible 
to say to wliat extent the arbitrary 
power of France might compel the 
countries under her dominion to 
consent to their own ruiu. If France 
could exclude our goods from the 
continent, they would have been 
cxcUided had our orders never ap* 
peared.. If they should be exclud- 
ed, we must look to the rest of the 
world: of the trade with which 
ive bad» by those very orders, se- 
cured a monopoly. 

With regard ta the effect which 
the orders in council might have on 
our relations with Anierica, loss to 
America was loss to Great Britain. 
The prosperity of America was the 
prosperity of Great Britain, and he 
was Hj anxious lo preserve peace 
with Aiperica, consistently with tba 
rights and interests of this country, 
as any man. As he hoped that 

Ceace might be preserved, so he 
elleved that it would be preserved ; 
for jt was impossible that any can- 
did and enlightened American 
•liould cu>nsider the principle ofthe 
•rdefs'in council as a caase of war* 



It was impossible that the. Ameri- 
cans could look at the ordert ift 
coui^cil without perceiving in them 
mpny instances of caution not t# 
injure Ami rica. 

Dr.* Lawrence contended, that 
though Buonaparte might have 
been guilty of injustice, that would 
not lie a justification of the Boitsc 
in imitating his acts. Such an ene- 
ni)- otn^htio be resisted not h^ acta 
of violence, but by determined 
Goum^e, It behoved the legisla- 
ture, before the orders could bave 
any effect on foreign nations, to 
ascertain whether they were rivfat* 
The orders of council could not be 
considered as measures of retalia- 
tion, because the French decree of 
the 21st November, 1S06, had 
never been actc^l upon ao as to re« 
quire such a retaliation. 

With this doctrine the master of 
the rolls (Sir William Grant) a- 
greed in part. But, when the ene* 
my departed from justice, we were 
justified in retaliating in substance; 
and not bound to -adhere to tlie 
form. It was matter of astonish* 
ment to him, to hear any one who 
had uttered a syllable in support 
of llie order of 1 S07, object to the 
orders under consideration. The 
very preamble to the former order 
was a confutation of Lord 1-J* 
Petty's arguments, and those of bis 
learned friend, Lawreuce. That pre- 
auihie stated llicgross injunticeof the 
French decree to be the foundatioa 
of the order. The orders in coun- 
cil only declared the ports of France 
and her allies, to be in a state of 
blockade, and their produce con- 
traband of war ; and France had 
done the same by this country. He 
considered the French certificates 
of origin as a prohibition of neu* 
txais from carrying British goods, 

aud 



78 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1868. 



and eonlctided tfiat this was t 
breach of the law of natkym; and 
that tieutraK bj thus admkthig thai 
FnMKe bad to iegis>ate for tbepn, 
made themselves inslrunienls of 
Fntncd a^amst os. If France could 
coflfiniie to enjoy aH tbeadvaiita||cs 
of comin^rce tfarongh nentrat track, 
whilst w« were swSertng every in« 
jntj that call result from her de- 
creesy she wouAd have no motive 
for peace ; and this coootry would 
soon be redilccd to th^ alternative 
of either submitting to peace upon 
any terms, or of coatinning ^be 
war to an emtless peri^. But he 
thought Europe might be made to 
feel that a maritime power is much 
less dependant upon Europe, than 
the continent is upon the maritime 
power. He would not suffer bis 
country to perish, merely beeauaie 
the measures which were ^necessary 
A>r its preservation it»ight prea 
upon neutral commerce, which Bu- 
onaparte had before violated. — 
There was no contract without a 
icdprocal obligation ; and, if neu^ 
trab did not oblige the other party 
to adhere to the law of nations, they 
could not complain of us for not 
adhering to it. Upon these grounds 
he saw no reason to question the 
propriety of those orders of coun- 
cil, whidi would impeach the or- 
der of January ] 807, issued by an 
administration, — which certainly 
claimed to possess a great propor- 
tiotk of the wisdom, consideration^ 
and leammg of the nation. 

Mr. Windham admitted that the 
roaster of the rolls was right in 
the position, that if neutrals ac^ 
quieseed hi restrictions ' imposed 
by a belligerent, the other tieHi-* 
gucnt would be warranted in con- * 
sidering such neutrals as a party 
to those restrictioi^^ Even then. 



however, k woaM become m qa^p' 
tion on tbp score of poficy, how far 
neutrals, so acting, should be iden- 
tified with the esemy, or treated 
hostiiely. A good deal was to he 
saki on this head, particuhrly re- 
spectmg Aafferiea* Mr. Wimifaam 
proceeded to make several ammad* 
venions on what he conceited' had 
been expressed by the master of tbe 
rolls. But here it wouM be nuga- 
tory to enter st all into these, as 
that honourable gestlenian hard de« 
ckred, that he had not' uttered a 
s^llablcr thai could justifyihe jight 
honourable gentleman in ii^puting 
to him the doctrines which hie was 
said to have laid down ; and that 
no such ideas had ever ^tered his 
mind. Mr. Windham concluded 
with declarmgy that the • measure 
beforo tlie house required much re- 
consideration; and the question of 
the legality or illegality of the or« 
ders in council, should be decided 
upon before they entered on a dis- 
cussion in a comnfiltee, of the mea- 
sures by which it was proposed 
that they should be followed up. 

Sir .Arthur Ptgott said, that th« 
right of retaliation was an incidental 
right, growing out of an injury pre* 
viousty received. If that injury, 
the injury of blockade, had not 
been actually suiiered, it was un- 
possible tliat we could, nccordin;; 
to tEiny law either of nations or of 
reason, or even according to the 
obvious meaning of the word, r^fff' 
Ifc^f, by blockadmg the eiiefn}'^ 
ports. And if not done as a Plea- 
sure of retaliation, the act wai com* 
mitted in violation 6f all law what- * 
even ' But it was said, that a siHii- 
laV measure had been adopted by 
tbe late administration. ^. That, \( 
it had been so, would n6t have been 
ant justification. But the contrary, 

in 



HISTO.RY dip Elf HOPE. 



7^ 



in fact, Was seen by fbe ^phcfialton 
given by lord Howick, to Mt» 
Risty the Danish mmi^er. '' It 
is not our intention that our orders 
should affect the genfral trade of 
neutrals ; bat only to prevent the 
coasring trade of France and her 
dependencies from being carried 
on by neutrals, as that species of 
trade was such as pro|)erly belong- 
ed to France herself, and to which 
neutrals were to be considered as 
lending iheimelves inifitirly./' 

The question^ that the orders iri 
council be referred to a comnriltee 
of ways and m^ns being puf, was 
carried without a,diVhiori. Tlie 
chancellor of the excheqiier . then 
stated, that it uas his fntention to 
propose to the faou^e, ori'd future 
day, thai a ce^lain anoourit of dqty 
be laid on almost cveVy article or 
commerce to be exported froin this 
country,^ except the produte of 
Great Britain, and her colonies. 
For the present, he stated iqerely 
ids general object. A resolulioD 
expressive of general approbation, 
fvas then passed, pro forma. 

The question of both the legality 
and the policy of the orders in 
council was brought into discussion 
in the house of peers, on the I5th 
of February, by lord Auckland ;^ 
who, in calling their lordships' at- 
tention to this subject, wished them 
to bear in mind five points. He 
must suppose, in the first place, 
that ministers, previously to their 
issuing these orders, had satisfied 
themselves with respect to their le- 
gality, both as relatmg to the law .of 
nations, and statute lieiW ; secondly, 
that there wais a justifiable ground 
for issuing these orders; thirdly, 
that it was expedient to apply that 
ground ; fWurlhly, that the manner 
and tiflie of issuing them were pre^ 



cisely those which were ptoper: 
the fifth point was of a fnore trifling 
nature; but <me on which their 
lordships mi.^ht have a great deal 
of trouble ; he meant tlie intelligi- 
bility of the orders. The injustice 
and illegality of the orders, his lord- 
ship maintained on nearly the same 
grounds that were taken E^y opposi- 
tion m the house of commons. He 
concluded by moving, that th^- 
house should resolve itself into a 
committee, to consider of the orders 
of cpnncil. The same arguments, 
also, though placed in a variety of 
lights, were made use of by the 
lords who followed lord AacldaQd 
on the same side of the question. 

Lord Erskine admitted, that the 
violent decree of the French go^ 
vemment, gave us 2L right to retali- 
ate ; but to retaliate on the enemy, 
not on neutrals. We had no mor^ 
tight, he .maintained, to alter the 
law of nations, on our own autlio'^ 
rity for our own convenience, than' 
a judge here had to alter the hiw' 
of the land without tlie authority 
of parliament. But af^er ali^ what 
was the value of this decree which 
Buonaparte, intoxicated with his 
victories, had issued? What was 
the use to talk of blockading Bri- 
tain, wbeD* he had scarcely a ship 
on the ocean to enforce his orders! 
He might as well have talked of 
blockading the moon. * *- 

Lord Kingcontended,that France 
had not put her decrees in execu- 
tion, and that we had no proof th«(t 
neutrals would snbitiit to them. — > 
As to the argument that we had a 
right to hurt our enemy,- though a 
djcutt^l miglU be injured conse- 
quently, be denied that we ought 
to do a great injury to a neutral, 
in ordci: to hurt our enemy a little. 
With regard to the policy of the 

measure 



82 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



 Lort) viseouBft Sidmooth was tic* 
^011% tlwl.tbc orders nugbt be re- 
^*rrad: to a coininittee» tliat 4ie 
mtaht have an opportuoUy of fully 
iiivcflliQating this jiftportaiil subject ; 
on tvhkb he had not yet been able 
to form a decided opinion. 

The iiouse then divided. For 
lord Auckland's motion 48 — A- 
gainst it 106. 

-. On the same day, in. the bouse 
of commons^ Mr.. IJ^n^onby, who 
had moyed for some papers rela* 
live top America, btit which* were 
not yet ready to be laid before the 
house, -said, that lie hoped the 
chancellor of (he excho<)uer would* 
agree to postpone the second read*^ 
ing.of the bill, relative totlie orders 
ofcoimcil, for three or four days, 
as the sub|ect was not only mo- 
mentous but intricate. 

l^he diancellor of the exchequer 
oould not see the necessity of the 
papers called for. 

After some little debate on. 
this point* Mr. Whitbread moved, 
** That tlie 8econ(j|. reading of the 
nid bill be now read, for the pnr'- 
pose of bewg discharged/' 

AAer some observations on both 
sides, tlie house divided. . For dis? 
charging the order 81<^A^inst it 
113. But it was finally agreed, 
ihat the second readhig of the hill 
should be postponed till Thursday 
the 18th, npon a mutual under- 
standing, that there should be no. 
delay requu^ed beyond that day: 
when, accordingly, the order of the 
day was mbved for the second read- 
ing of the orders of council bill. « 

«.The motion was opposed by Mr. 
Sden, the earl Temple, Mr. Hib- 
bert, Mr. William Smith, and lord 
H. Petty; and supported by tlie 
advocate general, (sir Jolpn J^iicbols), 
Mr. Roie^'and lord Gastlereagh. 



In ihe preceding discussions oa 
tlje ordens Jn couocil» in both 
houses^ the debate was coniiQied 
almost solely to the justice, or le- 
gality of Uie measure. The ques* 
tion of policy seemed to have been 
industriously avoided ; or when 
brought forward, it was touched on 
but slightly. In the debate of this 
night, and in subsequent debases, 
tlie question of policy was fully as 
Bjuch discussed as that of legality. 

Lord Temple observed, that 
there was now only one neutral^ 
by whose means our conymerce 
might be carried on, and why did 
we assist the views of Buonaparte, 
by closing up this outlet 2 By these 
orders we were distressing -our own 
colonies, by bringing so iiuich pro- 
duce into competition with theirs, 
as far as exportation to foreign 
markets was concerned. We were 
preventing the Americans from car- 
rying off the surplus of our Indian 
commodities, and by stoppiag up 
their channels of trade, rendered 
them less able to [Hirchas^ onr owa 
manufactures. 

• Mr. Htbbert denied, .tlifttjii these 
orders there was any particular 
view to the interests of the West 
India trade. The great quantity 
of goods. which would be brought 
here for exportation would inter- 
fere, whatever the duty might he, 
with the exportation of our own 
commodities. 

Mr. William Smith, having ob- 
served, that it was not expected to 
be able to compel Buonaparte to 
rescind his decree, and. that all that 
coiUd bedone, was, to presssolieavily 
on the people, . as to force them to 
smuggle; said*, that the. question 
came toAhliJ whether we. s|iou^<^ 
run the risk cif provoking the hos- 
tility of America, or qc^tinoing her 

emlMirgo, 



l* 



HISTORY OP EUROPE, 



»5 



embargo, in order to try howmocb 
we couM smoggle- into the conti* 
nent 1 If we were detemiiued to 
smuggle, we ought to consider how 
Tvc coiild smuggle most 8occessfully& 
In this view, Ibe policy of these or- 
ders was most extraordinary; for 
it appealed Ibat ministers expected 
to smuggle more, by having all ves- 
sels excluded from France, than 
tbe^ could have done if certain 
vessels had been freely admitted. 

Lord Petty observed, that when 
an American captain, finding him- 
self in a British port, should disco* 
ver, that the grand figore of the 
king's prerogative was changed in- 
to the appearance of a custom- 
house officer, he might say, ** I 
thought 1 was seized in rfght of tl:e' 
king's prerogative." " Oh! yes ;" 
says the olfcer, «* but I will agree 
to sell you the king's prerogative. 
I keep the king^s shop, and if you 
pay ma '23, or SOL you may pro- 
ceed to your original destination.'* 
This was so very coutrarv to the 
avowed intention of the biH, that 
it brought into his mind the idea 
of something foreign to that a^' 
vowed Intention getting into ally 
other parliamentary proceeding. 

In defence of the orders in conn-' 
cil, the advocate gfq.eral said, that ' 
the French government falsely as- 
suming that the British govern- 
ment bad cteclared ports under the 
dominion of France to be in a state 
of blockade, without placing arm- 
ed ships to exercise and enforce 
that blockade; and claiming a right 
to retaliate on the same principles, 
declared the British islands in a 
state of blockade. But the fact was, 
that in the most extensive block- 
ade, published by this 'country, 
which extended fronv the Elbe to 
Brest, a partictilar ia^uirjf bad been 



made, whether there was a iMCtal 
force sufficient to execute that 
blockade according to tlie terms of 
public law.' The result of that 
inquiry was, to shew that tlierewas ^ 
an ample force, and that force was 
employed accordingly. Tlie reta- 
liation on the French decree was 
gradual, moderate, and dignified.* 
If by our retaliation, France should, 
be deprived of many of the necea- 
sary^articles of daily consumption^ 
the French would, in the course of 
a little time, be forced to become 
the violators of the prohibition t>f 
their own government. — There 
were French houses established in 
America, to facilitate, by means of 
American ships, the colonial trade 
of France, Spain, and Holland. 
And , it was from these French 
houses, that a great part of the late 
groundless outcry against Great 
Britain proceeded. It should be 
Kcollected, that in all engagements, 
express or implied, t>etween belli- 
gerent and neutrals, there were 
neutral duties as well as > neutral 
rights : and that belligerents ' had 
direct obligations towards them- 
selves, as well as collateral obliga- 
tions towards their neighbours. If 
a neutral power allowed its terri- 
tory to be violated by one belli- 
gerent, it was bound to allow an' 
equal latitude to the opposite bel- 
ligent. The same principle held 
at sea; and if America submitted 
to the intervention of France, the 
intervention should be pennitted on 
the part of Britain. 

Mr. Rose said, that these orders 
were not intended as a measure of 
finance. Tlie duties were imposed < 
in order to distress the enemy.' 
Even all our cruixers could not 
prevent sratiggting. It miisht be 
easily conceived tb^o that the 

[G2] French 



84 



A 



•♦ • 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



French tould not possibly prevent 
our comraodities from being smug- 
. gled into the contineot. 

Lord Caallereagh assured the 
house, that he and his colleagues 
were extremely 'anxious to avert the 
iotemiption o^pdace and amity with 
America. But we were not, from 
the mere apprehension of a war 
with America, to shrink from the 
assertion of those maritime righti^ 
which are so esiicntial to,our,na- 
t^ual strength and prosperity : our 
means of shutting up the produce 
of America jo her ports, m conse-, 
quence of ouc vast marine, were far 
more extensive than her means of 
expluding us. And consequently, 
a considerabk portion of what ibis 
country now exports to America, 
would find its way iuto that ]'coun> 
try, notwithstanding a war. 

On a division of the house, tliere 
appeared — For the second read- 
ily 214— Against it 94* 

Next day, the chan^Uor or 
the exchequer, in consequeupe.of 
an amendment he intended to in- 
troduce into the orders of| coibcil 
bill, proposed that it should that 
night ga through a comipittee pro 
forma; that tlie report should be 
received on Monday, and that on 
Tuesday, at recommitment should 
take plaee, when the bill nMght be 
discussed^ The principle of Jhe 
alteration, was, to limit the opera- 
tion of the bill, by rendering the 
duties impoled by it applicable to 
articles impdrted in such vessels 
only as sailed from their own ports, 
after they had received notice of 
the measure. 

On ^ motion for the speaker's 

leaving ^he chair, after a Utile con- 

Aersation among Mr. Perceval, 

" Mi;. Davy Giddy, Mr» Brand, and 



^'Mr. H. Martin, the hoose divided. 

Ayes ;^ 13 — Noes 3^. 

February 24.— The Hquse of 
Commons in a committee on the 
orders in council bill. 

A bill for intercourse with Ame- 
rica, had been introduced into 
parliament, and went hand in hand 
with the ordersof council bill. Be- 
tween these -tw^ bills, it was o\h 
served by certain members in op- 
position, that there were some 
glaring inconsistencies, which made 
it impossible that they should both 
be carried into effect at the same 
tin^. The American treaty being 
referred to the committee on the 
orders of council bill, 

Mr. Tieroi^y w&hed to. know, 
what could possibly be the object 
of this absurditv — what cotvld be 
the propriety of carrying on two 
bills at the same time, directly con- 
trary to each other I 

Mr. Rose said, (hat there was a 
seemuig incongruity; b/it in tlie 
American treaty bill there was a 
clause ^o\.aUow its lieing^ altered or 
repealed, if necessary, at any time 
#|ring the preset session. In the 
present biH America was placed on 
the footing of the most ^lyoured 
' nation. 

, Mr. Tierney thought it quite im- 
proper to carry on two inconsistent 
bills at Ibe sam^ time^ iW thought 
it wou,ld be. much better to delay 
the present proceedmgs ^11 il should 
be ascertained, whether we could 
come . to any arrangement v^ilb 
America. 

The chanccllpr of the exchequer 
observed, that what was qilled cou- 
tradictiou was no more' than this ; 
that there \vere certain provisions 
in this b^l w^ich. a^ered those of 
th^ oi^er. ^he intercourse bill 

u wai 



») 



« 






HISTORY OF EURaPE. 



85 



wai 001 a' new anvrigeraeDt wilfa hibition wlis to be the subject of a 
America. It was the continaftnce separate bill. But as tiie honour* 
ftfuddme^ an act of the 23d of able geutlenian was of opinion^ 



ti)f kjiig» whkh we might after as io 
us Kemed proper* II was judged 
tdnseaUe to contmae.it a short 
time longer, ia ord^ to sheW a dif- 
itrmi spirit from that of Aniertcsr, 
an^ leave her Hme to cotisider 



that no inconvenience would be 
felt from this on the continent, 
there appealed in his own view Io 
be no. good reason Hbr his motion^ 
He observed, however, that he Ind 
godd information that the Ivant of 



cosily of tli^ mcasare she had *botb bark and sugar was. severely 



adopte^i in a moment of spleen. 
No mconvenienoe would result from 
passiD^^' both togetiwr. 

Oa the reading of the second 
thiaet Mr. Whitbread rose, to 
move, that the words " Jestits 
bark" be omitted. There was no 
reason whatever to suppose, that 
the pra^ore from want of common 
^rk would be 50ch as to indoott 
thf enemv to apply for peace. 
The continent was supplied with 
bark fls Weil as sugar for two 
}ean eonsamption ; so that H mcnt 
be s long tima before the right 
bonourable gentleman's scheme 
cotitd operate. It was, iri fact, in 
'i»e view that Mr. Perceval bad of 
tbe subject, tiie most chttdish and 



felt OB tlie continent In the bill, 
for the probibition, there was to be 
a provision; to enable hb majesty to 
grant licences for the exportation 
of bark under certain circumstanoes. 
It was intended thereby to prevent 
the bark from being exported^ un- 
less the enemv chose to admit 
other articles at tlie sume thne. If, 
therefore, tbey fell any great dis- 
tress for the want of it, they had 
only to take it on. the prescribed 
coiKlitiotts. As to thciifioe senti- 
mental view that had been given 
of a war of Ihb kind, he should be 
glad to know the distinction be- 
tween- this and the privations in a 
besieged town.  

Mr. Wilberforce observed, tfaaf 



negatory that cobM be conceiveA* 4he general of a blockading army 
In SQQiher point bf view, it WHs might ftiirly hope, that he might be 



(i<^testable, tnlmman, atrocious, imd 
might occasion severe rstaltation. ' 
if the committee agreed- to the 
propontkar of en<leav<nirio» to pre- 
sent b»k from reaching tfre conti- 
enit, insteaTt ot throwing the 
^mntf a want' of humanity on 
'^ (bftacter of Buonaparter a re- 



likely to make syne intpression on 
the besieged army, or of making 
the general of the garrison sympa- 
thize with the feelings of the su£R?r- 
ing inhabitants; but could it be 
supposed that a similar' impression 
could be nfade on the feelings of that 
general who at' present coramauricd 



dtrction would be cast on the cha^ fttlie great garrison of the French na- 
racter of our own country, where- tioni The measure might possibly ex- 



^^ much might be gained by niiti- 
?dled rigour towards an enemy, ex- 
(•>me of all ideas of principfes of 

bomanifv;' 

The ehtneellor of tbe exclieqner 
Ji<l, thit the present bill only ini- 
P*>^ a dqly on bark. The- pro- 



cite a more general union of hatred 
against the English nation, amongst 
all ranks of the Frendi people. It 
might add to the ferocity, or unfeel- 
ing character of the contest ; but i^ 
coukl not possibly be the means of 
patting an end to it. 

[G3] On 

if 

4 



♦* 



i 



86 



ANNtTAL REGIS1*ER, 1808. 



On a dWkioa of the house, the 
aniendment proposed by Mr. Whit* 
bread was negatived. For the ori- 
ginal motion 1^7 — Against it 76. 

Hoijwe of Lords, Feb. C6. — On 
the third reading of the American 
intercourse bill, lord Auckland ob- 
jected, ai he had done on sundry 
occasions before, to this bill, as be- 
ing in nfeny of its provisions in di- 
^rect contradiction to the bill now 
before the other house, intended to 
carry into effect certain parts of the 
orders of 'Council; and he nr^ed . 
, the tendency of those orders to irri* 
tate America, and particularly re- 
marked on the warning to be given 
to neutrals; and the object of 
which appealed to be to force them 
into our ports. 

Lord Bathurst observed, that the 
warning was intended only for the 
purpose, that (he neutral should 
refrain from going to a blockaded 
port ; but the vessel so warned 
would be at liberty to proceed to a 
port not blockaded to the ports of 
this country, or to return to its own 
ports. 

Lord Hawkesbury said, the ob- 
ject in passing the present bill was, 
to give time for making arrange- 
jnents respecting American com- 
merce; which if the former act 
was suffered to expire could not be 
carried on to this country in Ame- 
rican vessels. The bill was read a 
third time and passed. ^ 

House of Peers, Feb. 29.— Lord 
St. John rose, in pursuance of no^ 
tice, to move certain resolutions re- 
specting the orders in council. Af- 
ter reviewing the explanations given' 
by the French government, of its 
decree of the 21st November, and 
*of the documents tending to shew 
that the Americans had neither ac- 
quiesced, nor meant to acquiesce in 



that decree, be read the ft||owiog 
resolutions: 

^ That previous- to the lltb of 
November last, bis majesty's go- 
▼emment was not in possession of 
any proof, nor soppoaed gvoimd of 
belief, that the UniM States of 
America had acquiesced in or eub- 
mitted to, or intended to acquiesee 
id, or submit to the execution of such 
parts of the decree of the '2l8t of 
Nor. 1 806, as purported to impose 
on neutral conunerce restraints in- 
consistent with the law of nations. 

" That it does not appear^ that 
the said decree, in so far itt it may 
have been supposed to relate to 
captures at sea, was in any one in- 
stance carried into execution by 
Ibe prize courts of France* or her 
allies, previous to the J 1th of No- 
vember last. 

** That on the 1 8tb of October 
]ast> the ministers of the United 
States at this court, otficiatiy ap- 
prized his .migesty'a secretary of 
state, that their gove'rametit bad re- 
ceived from that of France, satis- 
factory explanations and assurances; 
and that, in fact, the same never 
had l>een enforced against the neu- 
tral commerce of the United States. 

*' Tliat no official denial of the 
facts so asserted by tlie Amerrcsa 
ministers, appears to have been 
made on the pi^rt of his majesty's 
secretary of slate ; nor any grounds 
alleged by him, on which tlie de- 
claration of the American minisleni 
could be questioned. 

'* That under such eircumttaooes, 
the issuing the orders of coaoctl of 
the 11th and 26t)i of Noveiuher 
last (which orders pufported to 
compel the trading vesseb of the 
said United States, in ail Cbeir voy- 
ages to and from the contment of 
Europe, to toucli at the ports of 

this 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



«7 



tliid country* wtid to be there sub- 
jected, by the authority of (he Bri- 
tish govemmeDt, to maoy and 
grievous restrictions), is a manifest 
violation of the law of nations, and 
of the r^l§ aad iadependance of a 
friendly power." 

Oa the first motion being read, 
the dulbe of Mootrtise coatendeci, 
on the usual grouuds^ that the or- 
ders of council were proper, just, 
and neeessary, and concluiled by 
moving the previous question. ' 

^A short debate ensued, into 
which (coosistiiig mostly of the re- 
petitions of what had beeu said 
attain and again) we shall not en- 
ter any facther than to notice a 
shrewd anQimenl, brought forward 
by 4**^ ^^ ^ Galloway, who coo- 
tended, that the justification of mi- 
nisters might be drawn from the 
speeches of noble lords on the olher 
side of the house, who all oi them, 
without exception, made the reser- 
vation, that the mainteaance of our 
maritime rights ought to be para- 
mount to every other considera- 
tion. The orders of council he 
considered as both a just and a 
wise mea^uire, which should there- 
fore have his support. 

On lite pft^vious question, that 
the miHioos be now put, llie house 
divided. Contents 4f — Non*Coii- 
tenU(>6. - 

House of Commons, March 3. — 
Lord H . Petty^ after adverting to 
the imp«»rtance of every topic con- 
nected viith a subject of so great 
magnilude as the orders of coun- 
cil, said, that the house must be 
desirous of obtaining as much m^ 
fomnition respecting them as could 
be ^iven. Their object was to im- 
pose duties «m the re-exportation of 
certain articles, which were to be 
m|)orted into this country before 



they could be carried to the con- 
tinent ; but ivithout the co-opera- 
tion of our allies this object could 
not be attained^ and J he orders 
would be as complt^leiy nugatory 
a^ if they liad never beeu issued or 
acted upon. Tlie Amt^ricaiis, for 
instance, might carry cottouj^ and 
tlie other articles on which it was 
proposed to im(H>se a duty, to Swe- 
den ; and^ what assurance had n^t* 
nisters, that thegovernmetit of Swe- 
den, instead of imposing corres- 
ponding duties, would not avail 
themselves of the opportunity, af- 
forded by the system which we 
were adopting, to convert that 
country into a commercial 'dep6t, 
for supplying the continent with 
tlioie very articles, which it was the 
object of ministers tp prevent from 
reaching the continent. 

On this ground, lord Petty mov- 
ed, that an humble address be. pre- 
sented to bis majesty, for ordering 
to be laid before the house, the 
substance of all communications 
whidi have passed between this go- 
vernment and the powers at enmity 
with this country, in Europe, on 
the subject of' the orders m cotm- 
cd, of tlie lllh of November last,- 
previous or subsequent to their be- 
ing issued. 

Tlie chancellor of the exchequer 
informed the house, that there was 
no disinclination whatever on the 
part of his majesty's allies, (o con- 
cur in the system wliich govern- 
nienf had found ex))edienl lo adopt 
in the present period of the war ; 
and that assurances had beeu re- 
ceived from Sweden in particular, 
of the willinguess of tliat govern- 
ment, to.j;ive every facility for car- 
rying that system into full effect. 
Beside-s the measure itself was not, 
as had beeu stated, dependant for 

[G 4] eflecl 



88 



ANNUAL REGISTER^ 1808. 



effect uppn the c<M]f)ei9lien of Swe* 
dfii^ or of any other power: for its 
principle extended to.a.decIaratioDf 
that all the ports subject to the footrol 
or dominion of the enemy were held 
in a state of blockade; and tliis 
blockade might be enforced wi|h 
regard to tlie allies of tbi? country^ 
as well as neutrals. The difficulty, 
therefore,,which the noble lord had 
started, was, in the first place un- 
founded in point of fact; sid, in the 
neit place, if it did arise^we had Uie 
remedy completely iuour Q\ni power* 

A debate look place, . m the 
course of which Dr. Lawrence 
wished to know, wheti^er any com- 
munication on the subject .of the 
orders in council had been made .to 
the Dey of Algiers, who, of all fo* 
reign potentates, was the one to 
whose general policy, the present 
measure was most consonant. 

On a division ^f the hou^e, there 
appeared — iForthc question 71 — 
Against it idp. 

General Gascoigne staled, that 
he had in his baud .a petilioa "a- 
gainst the regulations of the order9 
in council, from some hundreds of 
the most respectable Q^crchants^ io 
.LiTcrpool, not V more respectable 
for t(ieir cxteilsive dealings than 
their excellent characters in private 
li^e• One half of the whole trade 
of Liverpool would be endangered 
by the new regulations. 

The speaker asked, whether it 
was a petition against the duti^ iUl 
under the orders in council. 

General Gascoigne could only 
say, that the prayer of the petition 
was not particularly against the 
duties. ^ 

The speaker slated the usage of 
the house to be not to receive any 
petition against a duty-bill. 

The chancellor of the exchequer 



too stated^ t]i«t}aM«r4i«g i^ tM 
established rules of Ibe lMH«e» ii 
was imp<HK9ible that tbo. petition 
could be rtjceivedk 

Mr.- Pons^by otoerved* tluU. 
when the chancellof pf the exche^ 
qner was first asked, iif. duties irefe 
bis object, he ansiner^* " Oh^ oo! 
it is all matter of tegula^km*— 
it rests entirely on the tog's pre- 
icogative. The duty is ooi. ^va 
object.. of the bilU" But uojwr^ it 
seems, the /chanoeU(Mr of tfa^ ex- 
chequer is driven |L^ another shift, 
and says the duty is every*. tbinf; 
aod| fof tliat reasQH, a% it ia a mo- 
ney biilf the p^|>le^ itf .E^Qgland 
must not be allowed >tQN patition 
against it; aiMi .it yvas supposed 
Uiat they would irest satisfied with 
tliis quibbling sort of acgament. — 
The .whole substaijge and desigO'Of 
the petition, as might hav^ been 
collocted from»th^. apoeob Qf fcbe 
honottiabie geatleiiian r who mnda 
the motion^ was directed f^voitl the 
ordersjo council 4md not ji^inst tlie 
paltry diuties. — Then, how .cqnld it 
be objected to on t^ gropyid of its 
bemg a petition agaimt the leaisfiMsg 
of duties? . , ,. :m . 1 

After a good deal of lartli^r de- 
bate, ithe house dWi^ed** For re* 
ceiviog the petition 80-^A§^inst it 
128. 

Next day, Mr. Tierney, at the 
request, and in the absence of gf^e^ 
ral Ga»coi^e, offered a.pietitioo 
against the ordeis of coui)cil» fram- 
ed in consequence of ,tli« rejeciiov 
of the petition from ihe m^fchanty 
of Liverpool. The petition being 
incompatibly witb th^ fora^ of the 
house, the present was fran^d to 
suit those iorfns ; an^ ^bis was the 
reason why it was signed only wiih 
(he names of the three g^ntlenieii 

-who. acted as delegates^ instead of 

' the 



r> 



HISTORy OF EUROPE. 



69 



he four lutfKlMdiiierehwts ivfao 
lad signed Ibe otlien 

The chatioeUor of the excbequer^ 
laviug heard Ihe prayer of the pe- 
iiion read* /eaired U still militated 
\i;'ain»t the fomns 6f . the house, 
IS adverting and being applieabte 
)rincipeUy» if not extbisively to 4be 
luly bill. 

Mr. Tiemiey said; it was applied 
>iinply to the orders of council, add 
li^t lie InuHbe authority of the pe- 
tit loners lo state, Ihat tbey did not 
xitition agaiast the bill, but against 
he orders, of council. 

After aot a little fertber debate, 
u which other speakers took a 
tart, on tbe cfposite sides of the 
]uestioD, the house divided. For 
receiving the petition^ 57^- Against 
il LIK "Otfa^T: petilious were pre^ 
sciUed against the biU^ with no bet- 
ter success. . 

House of Commons, : March 10. 
—A iter a long debate, the .que»? 
ion, thai tlie k^ll be now read a 
i.ird time, was carried by 140 a* 
jaiiisl 67* 

iMany w^re Ihe petitioiis prer 
«iite(I; and repeateil and long the 
liscussioiis that took place on the^ 
iibject of Ihe orders of council^ io 
ije itouse of peers, ii^hich discus- 
it)!) s were tii^ same in subslaOce 
viih those that had so often and so 
:t.«ilously occupied the house of 
ommons* . • 

The principal opponents of tlie 
1 loasnre,. were the €;^ri of Lauder- 
lale, lord Auckland, lord Erskine, 
ord Vassal Holland* and. iunl 
'jrenville. 

The principal supporters, the 
ord chancellor, the earl of .Ba-» 
hurst, and lord Hawkesbury. 



On ihe 25th of March, .the ^rr 
ders of council bill was iread and 
passed, by 52 against 15- . v . 

It was not a little curious to; ob- 
serve the difficulties to which botk 
the opponents and the $upporlen t* * 
of the orders of council biil were 
reduced ; while the former eude*- ^ 
voured to reconcile a strict a4- - 
hereoce to the principles of juslicxw 
honour, and the law of nations^ to 
the interests and exigencies of the 
state in any situation ; and the lat^ 
ter, at the saioe time Ibat they did 
not hesitate tot exercise the greatest 
^verities against unoffending neii* . 
trals, contended that tliey sUU !«*> 
spected and obeyed the law of na* 
ttons; There would liave been no 
difficulty on either side, ii the mi- 
justOriaUsts had boldly asserted* 
with Mr. Hobbes, that rpankindy 
or ^t least that nations (afid4his last 
position seem^ to be pretty near 
the trAilli) are. by nature, in a state 
of war » apd if tliejf opponents had 
raaintaiqed with tlie stoics, the 
principle. o{ fiat Ju$tltj($ .Jiua$ 
Calumm , This siibJiine doctrine 
was not, hvieed, altogether ' iucoifr- 
sistent with that of lord ' Erskine; 
who, when the' orders ia epHnciJ 
were brought into diKussion in the 
house of peers, on the 23d of 
March, recoynmended, instead of . 
domineering at. sea, a cxTxu'umamr' 
gatian of charting like that of Ihe 
tafte Mr. Howard ; and maintained, 
tlHtk an adherence to the ordera of 
cpupcit would subject Great Bf^ 
tain to the iitial, everlasting curse 
of " I was sick and ye visited me 
not*." 

This doctrine of lord £rskineV 
must be very agreeable to Buooa^ 

partat 



* Lord Erskine is a relij^ous man. See his lordi^ip's declaration on tliis point in 
ho hoose of lords, April id, 1807« Ann. Rjeo. ToI. XLIX. p. I6t. 



' ^ 



90 , ANNUAL RllGISTER, i«08. 

jmrit *: on the other hand, ^1 the WeNesley, ' by ao benewnUe geif* 

BiibHe iir|i:umentatioD of those who man (Mr. Paul) who was no longer 

atteihpted to reconcile measures of a meikiber of that house. All the 

epl»res9inn towards neutral nations evklence for supportin*; the charge, 

with the principles of ^pod faith bad be^ moved for and ^oted. 

»)d justice, ambuifteil to Ijttle An^'nqnh'y had been challen^ by 

more than this, that tlie British go> the friends of the noble nmrquis* 

'fernment would observe the law of Tlie charge originally brought for- 

aat ions tp such states us ^ere wilK ward had been abandoned: but 



in^ and able to enforce that law in 
ibetr own behalf. 

' House of Commons, Feb. 122. — 
The order of the day bavin)^ been 
^teoid; for taking certain papers rela* 



upon ttie papers that had been pro- 
duced, otiier accusations had been 
founded by a noble k>rd, and that 
ni;;bt had been fixed for the house 
to<pronoiince on the justice or in> 



live to the connections between the justice of these accusations. Seve* 
East India compuuy and the natK>b ral memliers were of opinion, that 



of H>ttde into consideration; 

Lord Folkstone moved^ - that 
these' papers should be now taken 
.into cfMi^fiderationt 

Mr. Creevey rose, to give hisne* 
gative to the proposition. - Were 
parNament to come to a decision 
upon the condiicil of the marquis 
of Wellt<sl<^. fwhich ^as Ibe' ob- 
ject of the moqi^) by that tiight's 
vote, he asserted* that it would 
commit aii act of injustice towards 
tbat noble person, and be wanting in 
Its duty both to itselfaiid the coun- 
try; and in proposing some far* 
Iher delay, he fully expected the 
8u()port of those gent k*nieu who 
bad not made themselves masters 
of the papers, who^ he was con- 



tbe house ought not to bunry a prch 
ceeding of such im^rtnuce; bat a 
large majority declared for coming 
toaii immediate decision. The de- 
bute was accordingly opened pro 
fotma> Rutins it was allawed Uiat 
it was impossible to enter into the 
nieritii tbat night, tlie luiuse was 
adjourned to the 9th of March ; 
when the order of the d«y being 
read, and the question put and car* 
ried that the debate o;i the Oude 
papers should be now resumed, 

Lord Folkstone rose*' and in a 
speech of gr^at length as well as 
animation throughout, arraignbd the 
conduct of lord Wellesley, in his 
traiisactipns with the Batx)b of 
Oude.- There was a treaty. enter- 
Tinced, formed a large mnjority of ed into in February 1798, bttween 



the house. 
' Sir John Anstrulher called the 
kitention oi the house to the pro- 
lieedittgs in question. 'Three 'par- 
liaments ago, a diarge had been 
broiight against  the ^ marqtiis of 



the^ nabob of Oude and the East In- 
dia company, abrogating all former 
treaties, and regulating the grounds 
of all -subsequent dealings -between 
the two parties. By tliat treaty the 
nabob Has certainly dqirited of all 
political 



* Had the Britisli government, a/niibt the general Imvoc of properly, and sub- 
vdrsioo of aU rigtits, taken a pr^li in still payiojc. bopaaf^ to the law of nations, Bo* 
oaapi^rte would have eu<^an^;ed them, it his admiration coutd Jbave availed any 
thing, still to maiotain tlieir moral lectitiide ; like the Portiigiieze l>oy$, in a &tory 
toid in 4^e Spectator, who accompanied a poor unrortonate 'Jew, condetnncd for 
heresy, to the place of execntiop, crying, '' Sta f utME TAxjnrE^y being a&aitl 
Itst he should renounce his faith, abd they lose their sport 



HISTORY OF. EUROPE. 



51 



mlitical poffcr, but as certainly 
[itaranteed io' tiie exercise of all 
iudiority in the 'control of hh 
ioiisehoUi afiairs, and mosf rela- 
ions of Ihe internal cBconomy of 
lis empire. The nabob's puiictaal 
>erformance of the treaty was 
>(idiced beyond conCrotversy, by the 
act, that colonel Scott was com- 
nissioncd by lord Weliesley to give 
j» thanks, for bis great punctuality 
n the payment of the kists, though 
t wa9 in geoeral said, titat there 
lad been before great arrears. In 
be earliest period of that noble 
or(l'» govemineut, lih} design «pon 
he territory of Oude betrayed it- 
itlf. There was a letter before 
he house, in which his lordship 
ets himself, at j^reat length, to 
shew the great advahtases likely to 
result to die company, from the an- 
nexation of that terrttcry to their 
possessions ;' and also of the policy 
i( corapelHng the nabob to reduce 
\i'is mihtary foree, prospectively to 
Ills more easy subjugation. 

On the 5th of November, 1 799* 
lonl Weltesley wrote a ktter to Ihe 
liabob of Oude, in which he de-' 
ciared it to be the undoubted right 
3f tlie £ast India company, to in- 
crease,, according to their discre- 
tion, the nunitwr of 'British troops 
in the nabcvb's territory. The pre- 
tence wja, the danger Vbich was 
threateiM^d by> Zeniann Shidi, a 
Persian prince. This danger, how- 
ever, was very remote, and the 
company were bound Io assist only 
in case of actual and immediate 
danger. Thirteen tliousand troops 
were sent in; and it was agreed, 
that if a greater number should be 
added,- they should be paid by the 
nabob ; but it was ^insisted on by 
lord Wellesley, that with a view to 
this very distant danger* it was ne- 



cessary that an extraordinary force 
should be at atl times maintained 
within the territory. 

Lord Folkstone proceetled to de« 
tail the various op))ressions a id ex* 
actions prticfi^d on the nabob, 
while he was com|>elled, not only 
to receive an extraordinary foreign 
force bot to pay them. By vart- 
'ou9 arts his expences were rendei^- 
ed so great,- that he w.ts at last 
worried mto a proposal of abdi* 
catuig the government, on condition 
of his son "succeeduig him. The 
Bengal ^jovemmeut jumj>eil at this 
proposal, tnit itie late confHtion 
stipulated wa« ab^iolutety and stern-' 
ly rf jected. Lord Wellesley re- 
quired of the nabob to give up all 
into the hands of the Ea^t India 
company; and wlien the itabob 
pretixt>d the coudilion on which the 
proposal was founded, he was* 
charged by lord WeilfSley witli 
haviug made the proposel'-for the 
mere- ptirpose of* vexatiouily de-' 
feirhig ttie reduction of his batta- 
lions, and' ultimately itefeating the 
proposeil' vvsteni of retbfm; and 
he was. txpi^essl-y g'fven to* •under- 
stand,* that if He 'refused <td matte 
the territorial ees ion* required, %h!e 
company could not do Iheiv duty 
if they did tirit take his country en- 
tirely into their own possession]— 
Lord Folkstone then proceedcc^'to 
give a detailed accbuut of tli>e esta- 
blishment of a police and a presi- 
dent at Oude; with the consequent 
remonstrance of the nabob, ami the 
hardships that produced them '—^ 
Lord Folkstone conclufled with 
moving a number of resolutions: 
the first of which contained a state- 
ment of the treaty to which he liad 
adverted.- • 

This question concerning the 
transaciioiis of lord Wclksley with 

the 



9d ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808- 



the nabob of 0«|d«» gave rise to a 
very if^og debale; which was con* 
tinued bv adjounmeiitslo the l^tfa 
of Mardi* 

On tlie ude»of the pnMecatioo» 
theie appeared Mr. Charles Grant, 
Mik LuthipKton^.SirThoaMMTur- 
toq, Lord MiltoD» Mr. Shendao, 
and Mr.. William Smith.-^On that 
against it, and in defence of ifae 
marquis of WeUesley» Mr. Whit* 
shed Keen, A John Anstnither, 
colonel Allan, Mr. Wallace, Mr. 
Henry Wellesl^y, lord Castlercagh, 
and «r James Hall.. , 

Colonel Allan (member for Ber- 
wick), in a maiden speech, of con- 
siderable length, demded the mar- 
quis of Wellestey with ability and 
with spirit. The other members 
also spoke warmly in his praise ; 
but that which made the greatest 
impressipn, and probably decided 
the ?ote, was, the speeich of sir John 
Anstnither, who to the weight of 
his own . character aild abilities^ 
added the advantage, on the pre* 
sent qnestion, of having resided for 
many years in a high and import* 
ant situation in Be^piL Sir John 
entered fully into the subject,, and 
iaa speech dear and convincing, 
shewed* thkt tlie conditct of iwd 
Wellesley was in perfect conformi- 
ty t^. the wishes, intentions, aixi te- 
iiour of tiiat kind of conduct ap- 
proved by hisemplo}'ers; and, tint 
t|ie security of Bengal impesioiisly 
vequired, and demanded it. 
-The qnestioa being put on the 
first resolution, the house divided. 
For the previous mefon d^l— For 
the previous question 182* 

Sir John Attstrutlier then movedj 
^ That it appeared to that honse, 
that the marquis of WeHesley, in 
his anangements in the province of 



Ottde^ was actuated by an ardent 
seal fer the serviee of hi^ cOantry, 
and an aitlent deshtt to lAromote 
the safety, interests, and ^otpetity 
of the British empu« in Indiik.^ 

On this motion the honse divid- 
ed. For the motion 189*^Agiiii»t 

itsp. 

Notwithstanding this decision of 

the house of commdns, th^ same 
question was agam bronglit forward, 
in another shape, on the 91 at ojf 
Maidi, by lord Arcbibald Hamil* 
ton, iWm moved a series of reso- 
lutions ; the purport of the htst of 
which, was, ** That it appeared to 
the honse, that the British govern- 
ment was bound in honour to re- 
consider and revise the treaty of 
ISOl, wkh the nabob of Oude, 
ivith a view to an afftuigement 
more favourable to the n^abob."— 
A short debate ensued. 

Mr. Robert Thonitdn vrss not 
fond of renewing debates nn the 
same question; birt he thought 
there was better gronod for' renew- 
ing the debate on the present ques- 
tion than any other be bad ever 
known. Tlie treaty now nmler 
discussion, be dedafed; 'did notde- 
sen'e that name; forto a tieaty, 
the assent of two parties was neces- 
sary. . The treaty whs said to have 
origimitcd in fr2endslfi|ir ; bat if it 
began in friendafhip, it had ended 
in injustice and ci^ueHy. ^ Tb^ no- 
ble marquis seemed to have carried 
to India, a temple of French frs- 
temiaation. The treaty was reallv 
a sort of Gallicanr bug; in which 
tbe marquis had squeezed the na* 
bob to death. The ^ conduct of 
lord Wellesley was also afraigiied 
by Mr. Martin and Mr. HowArth. 

Mr. R. Dundas c<>ser^d, that 
it would bt dificnlt to remind the 

r ^ treaty. 



HIvSTORY OF EUROPE, 



95 



reaty. The mo\Ae lord had not 
tated to tbt bouse^ liow.be iatend*- 
:d Ibat. tbe nabob should. be. isn 
lemuitied. If he meaat thai the 
erritor^j nifhich had been taken 
'rom hin should be restored, he 
would find it very difficult lo-traiift* 
?cr the people of India from the 
L-],ast India Gompa^y to their old 
masters. If the noble lord meant* 
that the cxunpensation should he 
luade in the form of a subsidy* he 
ouglit to ha?e stated the form of 
doing it ; and to have shewn him- 
self prepared to solve all the diffi* 
:uUi^s which must present them-* 
selvw to every one, as to the ihau^ 
Dcr of giving effect to his resolu* 
lion. The noble lord had passed 
t>vMr in silenee the force kept up od 
the frontk|s of Oude at tlie ex<» 
pence of tbe company, and tbe 
wars which, mdefeiQce of the nsr 
bobj tbe company had . entered 
into against the Mahrattas;/ which 
certainly .ought not to be set 
cutx)f view, when the justice or 
the p^Jicy, which was ohier|ed in 
re^^ard to. him, was under conside* 
ration* Qn^ division of tbe house, 
there appeared for the first reso- 
lution 20 — ^Against it 80. 

A question of a similar nature 
Mas brought before tbe house of 
conunons, May 17* — Sir Thomas 
Turton rose, to move his promised 
resolutions, respecting the deposi- 
tion of the nabob of tbe Carnatic. 
He had every disposition to think 
well of tiie politics of the marquis 
of Weliesley, who had been edu- 
cated in the same school, with Mr. 
Pitt, and bad for some, time fol- 
lowed his steps ; >but at the same 
time, he had no hesitation to de- 
clare, that if he was guilty of the 
acts- detailed in the papers before 
tbem, he was a most improper mi- 



nister for this Gonntry. When sir 
Thomas came into parllameiit, he . 
found the Carnalk qoestion still 
floating, and did every thing in his 
power to indoce some other mem* 
ber to biing it forward, preferring «» 
to be thi§ seconder rather than |the 
mover. No cboioe, however, was 
left him* The right honourable 
gentleman (Mr, Sheridan) lo whom 
he had particularly looked, had ^ 
found Jiimself, after the change of ^ 
ministry, in circumstanees that pre- 
vented his urging the question, as 
it might have greatly embarrassed 
those with wliom he acted. He 
Imd no doubt, however, that that 
honourable gentleman was con- 
vinced, that he had just grounds 
for what he bad done in the busi- 
ness. 

The honourable baronet gave ti 
brief historicai jdew of the progress 
of the company's interference ^vith 
the Carnatic, ffom the beginning of 
tbe war that ended in 1754, when 
they supported one candidate for 
the Mttsnud, in opj^osition to ano- 
ther supported by the French, 
down to the treaty of 179^, with 
Qmdut'UI Omrah, by which the 
payment of a certain kist was se- 
cured to the company. That treaty 
continued till the death of Omdut 
Ul Omrah in 1801, when those dis-' 
graceful transactions commenced 
which the honourable gentleman 
opposite (Mr. Sheridan) had not 
coloured more strongly than they 
deserved. Sir Thomas having also 
• painted them in globing colours, 
concluded with moving* a$*series of 
resolutions, containing a recital of 
facts, relative to the assumption of 
the Carnatic, reprobating the de- 
position of the nabob, and de- 
' ciaring, that the British parlia- 
ment will never countenance an act 

of 



?• 






I' 



'* 



V 



94 : ANNUAL REGISTER, J80S. 



V* 



* 



of injustice and oppressioDs in India; 
and stating the propriety of ap- 
pointiiHf a committee, to inquire in- 
to the best niemns of indetunifying 
the family of Maliomed Aly, and 
of eosMriug the aafety of our Indian 
posseMioas. 

A very long debate ensued, which 
was continued by adjournment to 
the ist of June. The defence of 
lord Well^ey, made with great 
al^ilily and eloquence by col. AUan, 
Mr. Lushingtoii, and Mr. Wallace* 
consisted chiefly of three points i 
that the nabob was not an inde^ 
pendeut prince» but our vassal; 
tbat the government of the Cama- 
tic was badly managed ; and that 
a treasonable correa^iondence had 
been carried on by Walbjah and 
Oindut Ui Omrah, with our ene- 
mies. All the resolutions moved 
by Sir Thomas Tui-tou were nega- 
tived by vast majorities. The house 
having divided on the 4th resolu* 
tion» directly criminating the con- 
duct of the marquis of Wellesley. 
the numbers' Tor the resolution 
were. Ayes 15 — Noes 124. 

Sir Thomas Tuitoo* on his re- 
tnni into the house* after this dis» 



cussion,- observed,. that the nunt' 
bers on his side viwre so few, that 
he should not now proceed to move 
his 'Other two resolutions, but would 
be content to postpone them, if Mr. 
Wallace would consent to postpone 
liis resolution of approbation. 
' Mr. Wallace said, tliM nfier the 
complete defeat Hbichthe cause of 
the honourable baronet had sus> 
tained. he -might well fofbear mov- 
ing any resolution of approbation: 
for %vhat . approbation could be 
stronger, than that testified by tlie 
n^yorities with which the resolu- 
tions had been rejectedi? Hesaw no 
reason for entering into any farther 
discussions on a future day; but 
would now read the resolution, 
with which he intended to close the 
business. " Resolved; that it is the 
opinion of this houte, tbat the mar- 
quis ford .Welleslc^ and lord Clive, 
in their conduct relative to the Cai^ 
natic, were iufluenced solely by an 
anxious zeal and solicitude to^ pro- 
mote the permanent security, wel- 
fare, ^nd prosperity, of the Britiali 
possessions in India." Which reso- 
lution waS| of course, agreed to. 



CHAP. 









HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



95 



CHAP. V. 

7u! Budget.— The Truk Budget.— Mr. PerceveVe New Pkm ^/ Esp^ 
changing Sf0ek in the Public Fttnds for Anmntiee fer Ufe. — Cefn^ 
ditiens an w/uvh u Sum of Manej/ u>u8 advanced fa Qove rmn e ni ^ Jy 
the Batik. of England. 



rH E proceedings in parlia-) 
ment, of which we have given 
^me account in the preceedmc; 
hapters, were retrospective. We 
nnie now to give a Mimmary nar- 
Mive of the most important among 
lose that were of aprospeelive na- 
ire: the roost generally interest- 
1^ to the present, and, It may he 
»resutnedy to succeeding genera- 
ions. 

Hou$e of CommonA, April 11.— 
riie chaAcellor of the exchequer 
ose, pursuant to notice^ to bring 
f»r\^'arci the B0OGBT*. Having 
:one through the various items of 
(ipply, which had been voted in the 
'resent sesBion, under the vsurious 
leads of n^vy, arniy, bai;racks, 
onimissary general's * department, 
xtraordiiiaries, ordnance, roiscel- 
aneous services, and. Swedish sub- 
Kiy, he shited, that .the whole of 
iie sums voted amounted in the 
ig?regalc to 48,653,1701. from 
vliich was to be deducted (he pro- 
>oilion to be furnished by Ireland, 
iz 5,713,6b] I. which would leave 
I sum to be defrayed by Great Bri- 
aiii of 42,933,601 1. These sums 
'* slated upon a rough estimate, 
kvhich, however it might vary from 
perfect accuracy, would yet t>e 
louiKi to correspond pretty exactly 
ivith the actual stat« of the ac- 



counts. Having gone througli tlie 
supplies, it next became necessary 
for hi^ to state to the committee 
'the ^various wavs and mean^, which 
had hitherto been provided i(^ co» 
vering these supplies. The house 
had already vdled upon malt and 
pensions three millions. The sunt 
usually voted was 2,7^0,0001.: but 
it was thought more ex|)edieut to 
take tlie amount of tlie tax at the 
round sum of three millions, which 
it produced; the effect of which 
would only be to reduce the surplus 
of the consolidated fund by the 
sum of 250,0001. the difference be- 
tween the vote oi^ three millions and 
the usual amount at which the mall 
and pension tax .was estimate^i. — 
The advances from the bank a- 
roounted to 3,500,000 L The un- 
appropriated surplus of the consoli- 
dated fund, was on the 5th of 
April 726,870 1. Upon the rough 
estimate he was warranted in taking 
the war taxes at twentv millions. 
The committee would he aware, 
that the ,diities to be levied under 
the orders of council were applica- 
ble to the war taxes, and therefore 
he felt the more confidence in tak- 
ing their amount at twenty millions. 
The lottery he should state at the 
sum of 350,0001. It would be in 
the recollection of the committee, 

that 



> i 



" A budget of papers relative to the poblic income and expenditure. 



A' 



96 



ANN tJAL REGISTER, 1808. 



were to be covered; it w|s inh 
next place, his duty lo stiiflr 
what means he pnrposed to pro^i^ 
foft the interest, charges, aad 5ii^- 
tog fond, of the exchequer biS' 
fqsded, • and of Hie propc* 
loan, wliich amotmlBrf to a svb 



dml4he torn of four millions of eic- 
chequer bills had been funded in 
the course of the present session ; 
and that in submitting that roeasnte 
to the house, he had stated that it 
waaiateDdod to issue four millions 
ofoach c yer biHs in pkwe of those 
teded,' as part of the ways and ,^0,000 1. There exiflkd at r 
mqpBs for the year. By adding to sent a sum of OS^yOOOl. appiia>i 
thoe diffartnt items the 4um of to that purpose, l>eing the sdiocs 
•kht mattioDs, which was the whoto of the short aonoit^wlntb h^* 
of what he apprehended would be follen in. There was Ukenvt. 
wanted for the serwoe of the pre^^ saving upon the management of'ir 
fSBl yenr, the aggregate amoonl* public debt, of 55, ao Of. ^^ 
wonlftbe 39,576,8701. To this new arrangcwieDt with respect tnik 
aggregate was. to beadded the sur- assessed taxes^ a sum of IQSM^^ 

esi^the consolidated fund, which woold be produced; and tlif» 
proposed ,to take at- the ami^uot 
voted bat year, fia. 3,750,000. 
which wottkl carry the ways and 
means to 4S/)76^000l. yi^kKog a 
suvplas of ways and' means alrave 
tbesupplieaof 137»000l. Tliesur* 
phn of the consolidated fund, the 
committee woald recollect, had 
been taken last year at 3,750^0001; 
but had produced a further sum 
of 726,6701. making aU together 
4,476,870 1. But the increased vote 
upoo malt and pensions woold di« 
miaish the produce of the consoli* 

dated fund, to the amount of had beenrecogwaoibyparKsmeni 
250,000 1. : and however swiguine fonnded upon the siispensios of^ 
his views might be of the state of taxation for three years, and forr^ 
the trade of the country, be coukt sorting to the war taxes to co\er 
not? but admit that, frmn the mea- the necessary chaiiges'of Ibaos. Tfer 
sores of Hie eiicfnv, and the conse* 
quences of the course in which that 
trade was now to lie carried on, 
some- reduction might take placOf 
tlmugh not to any material extents 
He was of opinion that the surplus 

might to be taken at the same a* to the house why he Itadtfaoogfit/ 
moufit as last.year, thoujsh he was necessary to depart from the pi* 
confident- that would be found lia« ciple in tlie present instancei v^ 
low what it would produce. proposing to lay on additional tat^ 

Having stated the supplies, and to the amount of abhve 300,OOOr 
the ways and means by ^ hich they and itceirlatnty Was not t^ects^^ ^ 



rangement which lie meant to pi*' 
pose, for aa iiiH>roTed mode of ct* 
lecting the duties do stamps, «o0^ 
be aalculated to yield 'QOO^Ci^ 
The whole of these sums %<i^ 
amount to 77^,000/. l>eing a snii! 
excess above the sum actitalK in- 
quired. 

He came neat to stale tbe rlf* 
nprii which he gmimded tbe i'- 
rangement he had to propose *^ 
respect to the stamp duties. TV 
couHoittee were aware that, m\^ 
coarse of the last year, a prioai* 



policy of this pnaeipte hsd ib(| 
with the concurrence of all adts^ 
tlia houses though Sbme of the (v^ 
visions of jthe- mestSHi^ foos^^ 
upon it had been canfassed. Ha«i^ 
stated this, he was bound to t%^^ 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



97 



u(l considered Ihe principle laid 
own bv the noble lord who pre- 
ecietl hiui unwise. He had felt 
ow de<iirBble it was to consolidate 
lie dific.'i:«»ut acts relative to Ihe as- 
essed lax€K and tlie stamp duties, 
iid considered tiiat a j^oocl oppor- 
tuiitv, wlieo making improved re* 
ruiatious for the collection of both« 
o make a small addition in certaiii 
te:!is. He had alrea»ly done, so 
•vith respect to the assessed taxes, 
ind he was now to pro)>o<»e a sinii* 
ar course with respect to the shmip . 
iiities. If, b)^ IhtMe means, without 
((iding considerably to the burdens 
)f the public, they could contrive 
provide for the present year, 
\w.y might iu the next and foliow- 
i»ir ye'dn resort to tlie principle 
ivhich had l>een so generally ap- 
[)roved of; unless upon a review of 
flie state of Ihe taxes, whoever 
might fill the situation lie occupied, 
'hould tie of opinion that, by rei^u^ 
aiion or modification, a supply 
:iHild be obtained without increas- 
11^ the pressure upon the public, 
ind to relieve the war taxes. 

The addition to the amount of 
tlie stamp duties, he said, would 
Liri^c front an applkation of the ad 
lalmem principle to other instru- 
ments than those to whicb it at pre* 
^ent applied. It bad on a former 
Dccasiof* t>eeu in contemplation to 
apply that principle to all convey- 
ances of real property, by making 
liie instrumeut iavali<l if the stamps 
were not of the legal amount^; but, 
;ts it would be hard to render an 
iKstruroeDt of^ no effect merely t>e» 
cause of the stamp not being of tJi^ 
legal ajuount, the design wa$ aban- 
(ioued. He did not mean to carry 
iiis provision to that extent, but 
that a specification should be made 
of the amf ttni of tlie coosideratiou^ 
Vol. L. 



and that tbe diity on the stamp 
should be in proportion. And he 
proposed h> «pj>ly this principle^ 
not only to all conveyances of real 
estates,' but to the admission to 
offices of courts and government. 
At present the dutywas 204^ ^V^^ »dl 
offices of the courts, without regard 
to the iuconie. He should pro|)ose to 
reduce the duly upon the lower offi- 
ces, and to rai^e tiiat upon the higher 
offices. Upon all offices, the Income 
of which siionld not exceed 60/. no 
duty would ati'cich; upon all over 
60/1 and under 150/. tlie duty would 
be 8/. ; upon all over 150/. and 
under 300/. it was to be 20/. ; and 
so in proportion u(K>n higher in- 
comes. It was also proposed to 
make some alteration in the duty 
on indentures, but not to carry it 
higher than it was before the 5 ear 
1804, and in some cases to reduce 
it lower. There wes hkewise some 
addition expected from the duly 
on attorneys' indentures. Th* duty 
at. present on articles of indenture, 
to an attorney of the superior 
courts, was 1 1()/., and of the infe- 
rior courts boL The same duly 
which appiie<l to indentures to soli- 
citors in chancery, should also apply 
to proctors, for he could not see 
why, when the advantage was equal, 
the parties, should not be subject to 
similar duties. He proposed that 
the duty of 55/. should extend to 
indentures to the writers to the sig- 
net in Scotland. In the duty on 
collations and donations, a small 
alteration was to take place; for 
where they gave the right as fully 
as induction and institution, tlie 
duty, which did not at present at- 
tach, was to apply. With respect 
to infeoffmeuts, a small addition 
was to be made, the duty beiug at 
present only l/^ 10«. : it was pro- 
[ H] pgsed 



98 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



posed to raise it to 3/., the duly 
applicable to another mode of con- 
^cjin^ real estates by l^e and re- 
lease. An addition was also pro- 
posed to the duty on the grant of 
honours and preferments ; the doty 
was at present but 20/. in all cases. 
In Ireland, the duty on the creation 
of a duke, inanjuis, or carl, was 
200/. ; on the creation of a visjrount 
150/.; and on the creation of a 
baron 100/. ; and be could see no 
reason why tliis country should n6t 
adopt the same rate of. duty whieb 
' existed in that. Some slight altera- 
tion was to be made in tbe duty upon 
the grant of leases of crown lands ; 
Ht present it was 20/. and wtiere tbe 
lease was beneficial, that was not 
on improper duty ; but as under 
the present regulations, tbe leases of 
crown lands were not more benefi- 
cial than those of any private indi- 
vidual, the duty ought not to be 
levied unless where the lease was 
beneficial. The public would not 
/J>e a loser by tlfis reduction, be- 
cause the party always paid less in 
proportion to the amouut of the 
duty. 

Upon the grants of money and 
pensions, it wsis proposed that the 
duty should attach upon the ad 
vahrem principle o;i the higher 
grants, though Jt would ^pply on 
a rrdaced scale to the lower. A 
duly was also to apply to policies 
^ of insurance on lives, which had 
been exempted in 1804, fhough 
there. was no reason why they should 
be so exempted. Another head to 
which he wished to call the atten- 
tion of the committee, was the case 
of promissory notes re*issuable, is- -, 
sued by persons calling themselves 
bankers. He proposed that every 
person fssuing such re- issuable notes 
fhould pay twent^i pounds a v-ear 



for a licence. The duty opon skI 

notes was at present thrw-pe? 

each, and he proposed to ni«e ti* 

duty upon all to fourpeoce e «t< 

but when the notes were pay*^' 

only in one place, the duly »m 

he sixpence each. Another alin- 

• tion was intended relative tolif 

manner of transferring the sks 

of joint stock companies. At pn> 

sent the duty ^vas collected ouhs 

proportion to the nominal tiIss. 

but it appeared to him that itsbei 

he in proportion to Ibe realvtk 

As to law proceedings, tbcy »n 

already so highly burthened, tkt 

no addition could possibly be na^ 

to tliein. There were only ^e 

small instances, which we cdi 

scarcely consider but as onibb 

In the year 1804. Thus licp 

posed a duty of one sbiUiagoc^ 

summonses l)efore a master io cbs- 

cery. With respect to probate : 

administration in Scotland, thedi 

was to apply in the same nnoss 

as in England. As to legacies, l>! 

duty applied on all above iwfl^ 

pounds, except a residue, and llifi 

the duty did not attach till tlie it 

sidue amounted to lOD/. It ^ 

proposed that the duty shoolds;' 

ply indiscriminately to residue wi 

iegucies. It remained for him W'? 

to explain how the principle b 

stated was to apply to convejawft 

The duty at present was thirty ^ 

lings on all conveyances ofiaes 

This duty be propbsed to lower « 

conveyances of smaller proper^ 

and to raise it in proportionlo tiv 

value on llie higher degrees of p 

perly, In all cases where the c* 

sideration should not exceed V^ 

the duty was to be one pound; ^ 

tween that and 300/. one pound tfi 

shillings ; between 300/. and ^'^ 

two pounds ten shtlliog.; bclvrtt* 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



99 



oo/. and 750/. five pounds; be* 
At'cii 750/. and 1000/. seven 
oiind!j ten »ln))ings ; but in no in- 
.nice to exceed one per cent, on 
M* consideration. Upon these in- 
ritnients and the re-issuable pro- 
iisM>rv notes he caIcuiiUe<i fur an 
«U<uK'e in the amount of the stamp 
ulK'«, to the extent of two hun- 
re(f thou^and pounds. And he 
.(I brou^lit this forward before 
')e recess in order that genlletnen 

ii:lit buTe the longer of>t)OftiinitT 
f considering the different parts of 
10 measure by referring to the 

heduile which they would have in 
leir bands. The chancellor of the 
\rheqaer concluded .with moving 
is first resolution, stating the nn- 
I'propriated surplus of the consoii- 
iitled fund, on the 5lh of April 
SOS, to have been 726,870/. 

On the question being put, 

Mr. fiiddttlph declared his <)pi- 
ion, that the arrangements for the 
LTvice of the present year might 
:^i ought to be made without any 
litiitional taxes. He recommended 
ic crealiou of a contingent fund 
y the sale of crown lands> to 
hicti the public might become 
nants. The snms for wbidi crown 
'Dls might be sold were almost 
'Conceivable. One handred pounds 
«(1 been deinanded of him for a 
•nl of 8s. 9d. Such parts as might 
e sold to advantage, might be dls- 
«>sed of, and the sum of 600,000/. 
>i::ht easily be created, so as to be 
^M liable after the first dividend ; 
ie stirphis of the consolidated fimd 
) be brought in aid, whenever any 
eftcieucy shodd require it. 

The resolutions moved by the 
hancellor of the exchequer being 
^reed to, bills were drawn up for 
arrying them into ^efiect, and hav- 
ig gone through the usual itages in 



both houses, were passed into laws 
by the ro^al assent 2d of July. 

House of Coninions, June 8.-** 
Mr. Fo!>ter moved, lluit the house 
should go into a commiUee of ways 
aii<l moiins. 

Mr. Is.ster briefly staled the dif^ 
fereiit heads of the sums required 
for the service of Ireland for the 
year iSoH, «niomiting in all to 
9*76*7,0001. rematking that this was 
a very large sum indeed for that 
countr}'. To meet this be enume- 
rated the following items : the or- 
dinary revenue four millions eight 
hundred thousand pounds; the loan 
for Ireland contracted in England 
two millions seven hundred ami 
eighty thousand pounds Irish cur- 
rency ; loan from the bank of Ire* 
land, one million and a quarter; 
loan proposed to l>e raised in Ire-> 
land, seven hundred and fifty thou- 
sand pounds, making together the 
sura ef 9,768,000 1. 

With respect to the loan ^ised in 
Ireland, it liad been contracted for 
in the three and half per cents, and 
at an interest not exceeding the* 
interest of tlie loan raised in Great 
Britain, viz. 41. 14s. 6^. per cent. 
The charges of interest and sinking 
fund on the (bree loans would be 
per annum as follows : 
Loan raised in Ireland £ 45,562 
Irish bank loan - - 75,900 

Loan raised in England 
for the use of Ire- 
land .... 59,900 



. Total - • 181,362 
In-order to answer this, he would 
be obliged to impose new taxes; 
but he hoped the committee would 
go along with him in thinking, 
that it would be better to raise the 
sum, not by a number of small 
taxes, but by oQe lax^ge one^ kn^ 
[H 2] ^ ? psed 



100 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



poseil in a way that would be least 
felt by the coninmnity in Jreland. 
It was well known that in Ireland, 
as well as ill England, distillers 
evaded the malt duty in a consider- 
able degree by using raw corn in- 
stead of malt. He therefore pro- 
po9e<l to extend to raw corn used 
in distillation the duties at present 
imposed on malt. It w^s also his 
intention to propose an additional 
duty on foreign spirits imported 
into Ireland. These sums, together 
with a saving in the management of 
the Irish naiional debt, would more 
than cover (he charges of interest 
and sinking fund of the three loans, 
viz. 
Extension of the malt 

duties to raw corn, 

&c. - - - £333,000 

Duly on foreign spirits 225,008 
Saving in management 

of the pubUc debt 7,500 



Total - - 5(>5,508 
There were certain arrangements 
dependent upon the measure now 
before parliament, relative tp the 
distillation from sugar, with which he 
would not then trouble the commit- 
tee. He then moved several reso- 
lutioBs correspondent to his state- 
niept, which were agreed to, after 
soi^e discussion on the terms of the 
Irjlbh bank loan, wh\ch were ob- 
jectid to by sir J. Newport and 
Mr. Parnell, and defended by Mr. 
Foslef and Mr. Perceval. 

The consolidation of the stamp 
duties was not the only financial 
scheme proposed by Mr. Percetal. 
May 1$. The bouse of com- 
mons resolved itself into a com- 
mittee to consider of enabling hold- 



ers of 3 per cent, stock to trans^ 
fer that stock to the commissioners 
for the reduction of the national 
debt, with the view of receiviusin 
its stead equivalent annuities. Mr. 
Perceval rose to propose certain 
resolutions to the committee fgr 
this purpose •. All,4iowever, that 
he intended for the present was, 
after' having briefly explained lite 
nature of his proposttic^n, to move 
the reading of the first resolution, 
pro forma, and . tlieii to propose 
that the committee should report 
progress. The committee, he observ- 
ed, must be perfectly aware that the 
operation of the sinking fiiiid had 
recently very much increased tlie 
price of stocks. There was every 
reason to believe, that by the jon- 
tinuunce of thai operation, ibey 
would still further increase in price. 
It was not to be doubted^ that, if the 
measure were consistent with pub- 
lic faitli, it would be extremely de- 
sirable to give the nation an oppor- 
tunity of discharging the ivhole of 
the national debt at the present 
price of the stocks, ' because^ that 
would preclude the eflect wincb any 
future advance in the price of 
stocks must have in retarding the 
operation of the sinking fund.— 
There were two objects .which the 
sinking fund had in view : : be one 
to provide for the final redemption 
of the national debt ; the other to 
keep up the price of stocks in the 
market, so as to enable government, 
whenever the exigencies of the state 
might require it, to make an ad- 
vantageous loan for ' the publk. 
These objects, however, were in 
some degree inconsistent., lo some 
degree they counteracted each other. 

Whatever 



* The whole of tliese retolntions the reader will find in the Appendix to the 
Cbroniclc, p. «*S. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



lOI 



iVl)atever measure raised the funds^ 
tiul tb lis . enabled goverunient to 
>orrow on the best lerniSa prevented 
he commissioners for the reduc- 
ioii of the national debt, ifrajn re- 
lucing that debt on the best terms. 
Sow the measure proposed would 
ronibine l>oth lliese objects. It 
voiild tend to increase the price of 
•tocks, and it would at the same 
irne secure the redemption at a low 
>rice, of so much stock as inisht be 
iisferrcd antecedently to the rise 



i^ 



^rudiiced. Xvery person who tran&- 
ei reil his stock to the commission* 
:rs would be entitled to such an 
lunuity as would be equivalent to 
he value of the stock and of his Hfe ; 
lie cralcnlation proceeding on the 
)rinciple that the sum \yhich he 
»vould have otherwise received a^ 
nteresty tlie additional sum granted 
is an annuity,, and the compound 
nterest on the whole, would re- 
ice ui the sum originally trans- 
erred, within the period to which 
(is life will be calculated as like- 
y to extend. Now if the stocks 
oniinued to rise, the redemption of 
hat sum could not  be effected 
uthout this measure. Tlie whole 
nerit of this plan, therefore, rested 
III the justness of the expectation 
hat the stocks were likely to rise. 
ind Mr. Perceval was ready to ad- 
nit, that if the contrary should take 
>lace, tbe measure would have a 
endency directly opposite to that 
vhich hie expected. A great deal 
>f conversation ensued about the 
>rinciple and niode of calculating 
iie vaJue of lives, and tbe probable 
ise or fidl of stocks; ^d appre- 
lensions were entertained by some 
»f the membeia, that the price of the 
Imds, instead of rising, would fall 
o consequence of a defalcation of 
reveuue arising from a stagnation 



of trade. But besides the objec- 
tions to - the measure proposed, 
drawn from the calculations of poli- 
tical arithmetic, there was one much 
insisted on of an ethical nature. 

Mr. Windham, disclaiming all 
intention of entering into any de- 
tailed observations on tbe plan in 
the present early stage of its ap» 
pearance, observed, that there was 
this' obvious and fundamental ob- 
jection to it, that it tended in a 
greater or less degree to vitiate the 
mo0kls of the lower orders of the 
people. He was afraid that too 
many piu-ents would be foulid who 
would be. very willing to sacrifice 
the future interests of their children- 
to their own immediate gratifica- 
tion. The system of annuities was 
too generally attended with such 
consequences, and he saw nothing 
in the plan now proposed, to obviate 
such effects in tlie present instance. 
Sir John Newport, too, depre- 
cated the holding out any induce- 
ments lo the lower classes to spe- 
culate in anuuitiei. If there were 
vices in a -country, government 
ought not to partake of them. In 
France, in the time of the rentes 
viagei^es, there had been many in- 
stances of persons who sacrificed 
the iqterests of their posterity for 
their own immediate gratification. 
This was not consonant to |lie feel- 
ings of th^ people of this country, 
and he should deprecate any mea- 
sure that would have the effect of 
assimilating tbe habits and mo- 
rals of this country, to those of 
France. Neither could Mr. W. 
Smith abitain from bearing his tes- 
timony to the innnoral tendency of 
this plan. He looked upon these 
annuities as a moral poison, which 
should should not be circulated. 
But Mr, Huskinson defended the 
[H 3] ^^--*^ plan 




102 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



plan of his right honourable friend. 
It gave no bonus to persons for in- 
vesting their capitals to the preju- 
^ dice of their fiiniiHes. The scale 
"was calculated upon the usual prin- 
ciples of the probabilities of life. 
And, as to the effect it might have 
oh the morals of the people, it 
should be recollected that the short 
aimiuitfes whkh had lately fallen in, 
to tlie amount of 4 or 500,000 1. 
per annum, had been in the market 
ivithout producing* any such effect, 
though upon the principles of^he 
gentlemen opposite, they were much 
more dangerous, as they required a 
greater proportion of capital to be 
sunk. 

The chancellor of the exchequer 
admitted, that for parents to pur- 
chase annuities for tlieir own lives 
to the prejudice of their clWidren 
ivould be wrong, and ought to be 
discountenanced. But would it not 
be proper for a parent to purchase 
an annuity for his child, or for his 
widow, if the circnmstances of his 
property would Tiot lidtiiit of any 
other provision? It frould be idle 
to provide small annuities, suppose 
for servants, or widows, on tlie se- 
curity of land, when the expences 
of settlement, and perhaps of re- 
covery, would render tlie provision 
pf no avail. 

The first resolution b^g read, 
vras agreed to, and the' clit^irman 
having reported progress, the com^ 
mittee was ordered to sit again on 
a day appointed. 

Ht>nse of Commons, May 27. — 
The house resolved itself into a 
cothmiCtee On tbe resotulien of the 
conimittee respecting the transfer 
of 3 per cent, stock Ayr lile annui- 
ties. Mr. Tiernej made a variety 
of calculations intended to' shew the 
inef&caey and inutility l>f the pkin. 



He objected to it as interfering 
with the sinking fimd, and' with the 
fdith of the country, pledged in 
consequence of that measure ; of 
which faith he considered it as a 
direct infraction. He dwelt parti* 
cnlarly on the extravagant induce- 
ment which Uiis measure held out to 
a man of 70 years of age, to leave 
his fkmily and relations destitute; 
seeing he could thus raise his own 
income in the proportion of 12 to 
3 ; or rastead of lOdl. could pro- 
cure for his own life 4001. per an- 
num. 

The chancellor of the exche- 
quer had no expectation tlKit Uie 
progress of the measure would be 
very raprrl. The present was not a 
plan, which he woidd have been ia- 
cluied to propose, as aflfbrdiug re- 
sources for the service of the year: 
but he was convinced from the iji- 
formatiou, and the applications he 
had already received on the sub- 

•^ject, that it wotdd be ooe of per- 
nianent advantage, and of whieli, 

. though no question of revenue were 
connected with it, the advantage 
would be generally and satisfacto- 
riiy felt.** There was nothing un- 
usual or inconsistent with political 
ceeonomy in allowing persoivs the 
opportiuiity of providing for them- 
selves in this manner. What were 
friendly societies 1 Were they cal- 
culated for ihe advantage of eitket 
the widow or the ehtklTett ] No. 
But by them part of the income 
was laid aside for the benefit of tbe 
person himseH', widioatany regard 
to* bis ftunily. 

Lord'PMty thought the pian al- 
together ob^tioiwblc i» » politi- 
cal moral, and financwl pamt of 
view. Would it be prafjer, wotild 
it not on the contrary be dangerous 
in \ht eslreme, if Uia great bulk of 

the 



HISTORY OF EUROPE, 103 

\k property of Ihw country were to lay out their capital with sccuri- 

tii'wed to be tlirowu into aonui- ly. And as a proof how much b« 

[jti? approved the measure, he proposed 

Mr. DAvie Giddy thought that tliat the annuities should be ren- 

ibe plan DOW proposed wodd ^ave dered more marketable by facili- 

ibf eicd of encouraging a greater tating the insurance of the lives of 

'ie^ree of frugality in the lower the nominees; which would be ef- 

Lh'&ii, by affording tliem an op- fected by takiug off the tax ou the 

[ :rtuoitv of applying their savings policies of ixisurance upon such 

•• ib perfect security to the increase lives. 

^hheir incomes ; and that in this Tlie resolutions were.^reed to, 

[ lat of view the benefit would and afterwards carried into effect 

i^^rbalance any evil that might by acts of parliament, 
•n^ from it. Houjse of Conimoiis, June 1. — 

Mr. Biddulph did not think there The house having resolved itself 

("^i<i be any sound objection to into a committee, the chancellor 

1 a pbn: on the contrary, he was of the exchequer recapitulated 

i-nily to its adoption; because in the various heads of supply, and 

a iree country like this, there should of the ways and means for the 

> as great a diversity as possible of year, viz. 
'AioUj affijrded to persoiis wishing 

SUPPLIES. 
\uy £17,4.96,047 

>T;y • 19,439.189 

: riiaocc -. • 4,534,571 

: ctHaneous •• 1,750,000 

^1 1 India company * 1,500,000 

^  .tisli subsidy • 1,100,000 

K^e of credit ..• • 2,500,000 

Total join! charge 48»S19>^07 

SEP ABATE CHARGES OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

1 hckncy of malt, I8O6 - • • • 275,845 

iifrest on exchequer bills, 1808 * • * 1 ,400,000 

uiieqaer bills part of vote of credit, 180f« 

Qotfuoded '••- 4»024,S00 

: ve per cents, 1797» to be paid off 153,696 

. 5,855,741 

Total supplies 54,173,^48 
'• Juct IriA proportion of supply and civil list « • • • 5,868,5 1 5 

Ul to be defiayed by Gnat Bntain ••• •»•••• 48^305,033 



[H^X 



TTAYS 



104 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

WAYS AKD MEANS. 

Duty on malt and pensions i • • • ; jf 3,000,000 

Bank advances ^ • 3,500,000 

Unappropriated surplus of the consolidated fund at 5tb 

April. •• . . . l^fy^^l^ 

Estimated surplus of ditto to 5th April, iSOp • • • • 3,500,000 

Surplus of ways and means 1 807 " -* • • 2,263,1 1 1 

War taxes • • • - 20,00().(K)0 

Lotiery ' •- 300,000 

Exchequer bills to be issued to replace bills not funded 4,500,000 

Do, for the East India company 1,500,000 

Exchequer biHs, part of 10,500,0001. <:harged cm aids 
IS09, to replace the like amount on aids 1808, which 

has bten funded • '• • • ^ l,l6l,U)0 

Loan • * • 8,000,000 



/ 



48.441,087 
Supplies 48,505,033 



Surplus of ways and means ^36,054 

He then proceeded to state to of 12,408,3751. from which, «fter 
the committee the terms on which deducing a proportion of two- 
lie had contracted for the loan. The seventeenths for Ireland^ making 
supi borrowed for England and Ire- 2,954,3751. there would remain, 
laud was ten millions and a half, of as a permanent burden upon Great 
which eight wefe for the service of* Britain, 9,454,0001. and an an- 
this country. The whole sum was nual charge for interest df 475,5361. 
to be funded in the four per cents, 'In addition to this, in consequence 
and the contractors for eviery lOOl. of the measure of funding four mil- 
advanced to the public were to re- lions of exchequer bills, there was a 
ceive 1181. 3s. 6d. stock: so that capital debt created of 4,239,2151. 
the public paid for every 'lOOl* ca- and an annual charge for interest, 
pital 4l. 14s. 64d. interest. In including the sinking fond and 
consequence of the loan of ten management, of 253,247L St 
millions and a half, there was a ca that the sum to be provided for by 
pital of debt created to the amount taxes was: 

For the interest of the loan • • • ^475,536 

For the interest of exchequer oills funded • • • • • • * • 233,247 

. Making a total of 728,783 

For this annual charge lie meant to provide in the following manner: 

•Short annuities fallen in • • • • • • 375,000 

Annual saving on the management of the debt • • • -^ • • • • • 65,000 

Increase upon the alsessed taxes • * .n. .•.««.•• • 120,000 

Stamp duties* ^ . . . . , ..«••..•••% ^ 170,000 



1^ 



Carried over ..•..* 730,000 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



105 



BroQglit forward • • • . • • • « 

Sum to be provided 



^730,000 

728,783 



The cfaaoeellor of the exchequer 
next proceeded to state the effect 
which bud been produced by the 
fiiiaiidal measures wbich he adopted 
in the course of the ytar» aud coo-' 
tended, that from funding four 
nuiiioos of exchequer bills, when 
stocks were at 63 1, and by lior- 
niuing tf'n millions and a half in 
lite four instead of the three per 
ci nts. tliere had resulted a saving to 
the public of four millions of capi- 
tal debt : and that by the single 
.iieiisure of coolraclin^ for tlie loan 
io the four per cents there was a 
saFingof 3,100,0001. capital debt; 
and also a saving in the annual 
charge, of !^000i.; beside's the ad- 
vantaee of being able to redeem the 
debt 8l comparatively a very in- 
coitflderable loss. He concluded 
his statement with moving a resolu- 
tion, that it i» the opinion of the 
conamittee, that towards providing 
the »ays and means for the year, it 
iseipedient to enable bis miyesty 
to raise eight millions by way of 
aDDoities for Great Britain^ and 
two millions and a half for Ireland, 
vhfcb \^'as agreed to. 

The attentive reader will per- 
tt'tve amon^ the different articles of 
wa\s and means one that needs ex- 
plaoatioui namely, batdc advances. 
The resolutions of the court of di- 
recloffs, on which a resolution of 
the company of the bank of £ng- 
iaod was founded, had agreed to 
Wod to the public 3,000,0001. 
without interest, during the war, on 
the condition that the balances of 
the public money should be conti- 
DtKd in the bank in the usual man« 



Surplus provided 1 ,'2 1 7 ' 

ner, tliough they should even ex- 
ceed 16,000,0001. This arrange- 
ment was first suggested by the com- 
mittee appointed in the last year to 
enquire into the means of reducing 
the public expenditure : whose se- 
cond report turne<l upon the ma- 
nagement of the public debt by the 
bank, and the manner in which the 
bank was connected with the public 
revenue, and the public expendi- 
ture. 

This subject resolved itself into 
three heads: 1st, the management 
of tlie public debt ; 2dly, the ba- 
lances of the public money in the 
hands of the bank : and 3dly, the 
unclaimed dividends. On all these 
heads the committee had brought 
to light such facts as afforded op- 
portunities of considering how those 
matters might ue conducted with a 
saving ' to the public. The com- 
mittee that had suggested the im* 
provemenis that were now to be 
carried into effect, had shewn one 
principle on which advantage might 
be reasonably claimed for the pub- 
lic. 

Mr. Pitt, in his arrangement 
with the bank, had asserted the 
right of the public. to participate in 
the advantages derived' by the bank 
from the management and balan- 
ces ; and that, whether thb partici- 
pation should be in the proportion 
of one third, one fourth, or one 
half, it would be greatly to the ad* 
vantage of the public. . This 
shewed, that not more th^n a par- 
ticipation was intended, and there- 
fore, as the, proportion of one 
third, being the middle rate, was 

what 



105 ANNUAL RflGISTER, 1808. 



V 



what was most looked to, aod. pro- 
bably considered as most equitable, 
tbat proportion was agreed to. As 
to the unclaimed dividends, this, 
like the other parts- of the present 
arrangement, originated ia the re- 
port of the^ committee of finance. 
The unclaimed dividends, accord- 
ing to the report of tlie committee, 
amounted on the 8 th of July, I807, 
to 986,5731. and at the lowest pe- 
riod of some antecedent years, they 
iMd not fallen below 900,000L This 
calcuhitioi^ liowever, had been 
taken on the day before payment. 



whereas it ought to have been taken 
the day after. But on demanding 
500,0001, of the unclaimed divi- 
dends for the public, in addition to 
376,7391- formerly advanced under 
the act of 179 ^f provision was 
made that the balance ready for the 
payment of the public creditor^ 
should not be reduced below 
100,oOOl. and according as any re- 
duction below that sum should take 
place, a proportion of; the 500,00OJ. 
should be refuuded from the ex- 
chequer to make up (he deficiency^. 



* This irrangement with the bank was stated to the hduse by the chancellor of the 
exchequer so early as the lOth of February. But as we do not wifh to jumble a 
number of heterogeneous facts togetler, in the mere order of time, but latber to 
classify the subjects of our narratiTe according to their nature, it seemed proper 
to iptrftduce this measure, not by itself^ but as forming a part of the ways and means 
fiK the service of the year. 



CHAP, 



HISTOllY OF EUROPE. 107 



CHAP. VI. 

Fiynrlihin^ State of the British Nnvif.—Armff Estimates.— The Mutiny 
BilL^Clsuse introduced for allowing an Option ofenlistiife: into the 
Army for Ufe, — Debates on the compar alive Advantages of enlistins^ 
jor limited and unlimited Service in the Ar mi/. — Other new Clau.se». 
—Estublishment ^f a Local Militi^t. — Debates thereon. — Reversion 
Bill passed in the House of Commons. — liejectrd by the Ij)rds.'-^ 
Another Reversion Bill moved by Mr. Banks in the Ihuse of Com* 
mvfis.'^Passed in both Houses, — Bill brought into the Hoffse of 
i-ommonjf by «r Samuel Romilly, for amending the Criminal Law 
reapeeting private 'Stealing in Contradistinction to Robbery. — Passed 
in that House. — Act for the better Administration of Justice in Scot- 
land.^ Annuities to tlie Judges of the Court if Session ptsiiciary, and 
Exchequer of Scotland upon the Resignation of their Ofjices. — Act for 
res^ulating the aupnentation and moelification of the stipends of the 
clf-rgy in Scotland. — Acts for making more ejfectual Provinon for the 
Building and Re-building of Churches, Chnpels, and Glebe Houses ; 
end for the Purchase of Glebe Lands, Glebe Hjuses, and Impro- 
priations in Ireland; and for enforcing the Residence of spiritual 
Pernns in Ireland, on their Benefices. — Curates Bill — Catholia 
Petitian.—Grant to Maynooth College. — An Act to prohibit the Dis- 
tillation of Spirits from Corn or Grain for a limited Time. — Debates 
thereon. — Ajjairs of Spain, — Prorogation of Parliament. 

THfilrausactionf ofgovcrnnienl, . tlie year, will be found in llie first 

for whose service the sup|>hes pdge of the Chronicle. T|ie nuin* 

lust stated were provided, naturally ^r of seamen, inclmliiig 1400 roval 

f^l) into two general heads, namely, marines voted tor the service of 

the relatioKs of government ex- 1 SOS, was 13(^000. 

teriKil and internal : tJie defence Hotise of commons, Feb. l6. — 

andsecarily of Uie country against — The house having resolved itself 

uanger from abroad ; and its inter* hito a committee of tire whole h«>use 

liii tranquilhty and general improve* lo/:onsiUer ot the army estimates, 

ni'iit. Huder the head of foreign The secretary at war-slated, that 

relatiom and the defence of the there were two atteru(io»s in the 

Ui? country, our first attentions are form of tlie esli mates for ti>e prc« 

ihie to the navy and tlie army^ sent year. The one waf», that more 

Tke flflurisbing state of the British contingeacies were ranged under 

t>an in 1808, sufficiently appears cmic general head of M^rvice than 

|roni the inrneuse sum voted for had been done in former cases; 

'M support. A parttcttlar statement ami the secoiid was, tkiat a nmu* 

of the navy, accoidiog to the re- ber of heads of ex peace, whacb it 

^CTm m^it up to the first day of had been tlie custom to range 

among 



108 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



among the extraordinarics of the 
ariny, were now re<luced to esti- 
mates. Having premised these two 
observations, he was happy in being 
able to slate to the committee, that 
at no former period had the army 
of this cotmtry k>een superior iu 
spirit and disciphne, and at no 
former time equal in numbers ; 
the whole , establishment amount- 
ing to no less than 300,000 men. 
The difference al»o between its ac- 
tual numbers and its supposed 
establishment, was less titan it had 
ever been before. TJie regular 
infantry establishment of 1807> wa» 
109,000, and that of the present 
year was 132,000; and^ the dif- 
ference between the actual uum- 
beri and this establishment was 
now only 13,000 men, whereas ]a4 
year it bad been no less than 
53,000. In cavalry there was a 
slight reduction, but it was hardly 
worth mentioning. The royal wai?- 
gon train was reduced to 500 
horses ; and though last year it was 
intended to reduce the whole 0/ 

. that corps, yet when it was recol- 
lected that these horses were actu- 
ally employed in tlie public ser- 
Tice, in the works carrying on about 
the different royal |)alacesy and on 
the military canals, and that the 
service which they performed was 
performed at a cheaper rate than 
could be done by hiriiig horses, h^ 
did not think that any reasonable 

'objection could be made to the 
nmintenance of thb body. The 
militia was nearer to its establish- 

« ment than it was last year, notwith- 
standing that 24,000 nien had been 
drafted from it into the regular 
army*' In tl^ staff there was a 
small variation, from the increase 
that bad taken place in the staff 



abroad. The volunteer corps were 
nearly in the same state in which 
they were .last year. The foreign 
corps were somewhat increased, 
from an addition that had been 
made to tlie German Legion. The 
royal military college and the com- 
passionate list were both somewhat 
augmented. After stating tKe dif- 
ferent heads of service, the secre- 
tary proceeded to compare the esti- 
mate of ex pence of each for the 
present year, with the expence of 
the same head of service for the 
fai»t year'; the general result of 
which comparison was, that the esti- 
mates for the present year exceed- 
ed that of the last by 592,0001. ; 
but after deducting from the esti- 
mates now before the committee the 
%'arious items of expence wliicli used 
formerly to be introduced among the 
extraordinarics of thearmy, the real 
difference was reduced to aorne* 
what less than 100,0001. H« con- 
cluded with moving bis resokitibns 
conformably to the estimaties. / 
Ldrd Gastlereagh stated that, of 
the two great military measures 
brought forward last session, the 
success had been most remarkable 
indeed. By the militia b^ltoting 
bill, which was to contiuue in ope- 
ration until May, it was proposed 
to raise 47,000 men for Great Bri- 
tain and Ireland ; and of these^ ac- 
cording to the last returns, no less 
than 37,000 were already raised. 
By the militia transfer bill, which 
was to continue in operation until 
Aagust next, it was proposed to 
raise 27,620; ilnd of this number, 
according to the laA retuins, 
23,689 had actually volunteered 
into the line.. So that a force of 
above 60,000 men had been raised 
within the last year, in tbftt coan- 

trv, 



h 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 109 

< 

ry, respecting Ihc capacity of which small number of 8,000 men had 
f> produce men, the house bad been added to the line; and even 
lenrcl such gloomv predictions. — that addition was, he contended^ 

Ic^ s'tated the whole amount of our owing to tho legacy which his pre- 
etritlHr military force at nearly decessors let't him in the additional 
>c>(>,000 men, which exceeded by force act. Tiie number of batta- 
4 0,000 any force tiiis country had lions now in the service, he stated 
[?ver |>ossessed ; and this excess he at 277$ which he averaged at 700 
Lilt edged to )iave been produced men each. 

through the operation of the mea- After a very lengthened conver- 
siires so violently opposed by the sation among a ^reat number of 
rij^ht honourable gentleman, dur- meml>ers, the following items were 
iiig whose stay m office only the voted : 

Numbers, Great Britain, Ireland, 

I.aud forces including various £, a, d. £, s, d* 

contingencies. -.-200,83 1 5,892,£)22 9 1 1,385,057 11 6 
lleginients in the East Indies 

-••••••••• 80,88^ 69\,525 8 9 

Troops and companies for re- 
cruiting ditto 437 27,281 12 9 

Embodied militia .-108,584 2,23^62' 4 84^,4.08 17 6 

Sfaff and garrisons 363,i^02 6 5 69,502 1 4 

Full pay to su|)ernumerary 

officers - 82,213 2 8 778 1 9 

Public departroeiits 1 88,680 19 6 8,5)2 1 1 — 

f laJf pay 209,750 20,732 8 I 

I II- pensioners of Chelsea and 

Kihnaiubam hospitals •-. . 40,960 13 10 l6,942 1*7 7 

Out-pensioners of ditto.- •• 329,6 19 9 2 .46,878 8 6 

Widows' pensions 40,495 10 6 6,000 

Volunteer corps 652,000 6U,437 

Foreign corps 22, 1 25 79^,647 3 2 70,9 1 1 3 10 

Royal military college • 21,525 17**-^ 

Royal military asylum 19,903 9 3 

Allowances to retired and of- 
ficiating chaplains 16,000 ' 2,852 5 3 

Medicines and hospital ex- 

pences • 100,000 18,676 8 9 

Compassionate list • • 13,500 

3arrack department (Ireland - * 442,262 13 6 

Commissariat department 

(Ireland) 190,253 7 4 

Total 362,661 11,672,390 2 5 3,743,704 5 10 
Deduct the regiments in the 

East Indies 30,884 691,525 8 9 

Remained then to be pro^ ^—r: ^ 

vidcd 331,777 10,980,864 13 8 3,743,704 5 10 

Rciolutions for making good these sums, moved and agreed to. 



no ANNUAL REGISTER, 1B08. 



House of Commons, March 8. — 
On the motion of the secretary at 
war, the house went into a commit- 
tee on Xho nlutinv bill./ Lord Cas- 
Hereagh' said, that to many parts of 
the military system' introduced a 
short time since hy Mr. Windham, 
he had no objection. Tlie induce- 
ment held forth to certain descri|>- 
lions of men, by the liberty to en- 
gage for limited service, and by the 
creation of limited service, he highly 

/ appro veil oC He i)a<) no objection 
to limited service ; an() he had for- 
merly 4)romoted, to a certain ex- 
tent, engagements limited in space 
as well as in time. But why should 
limited service be in a manner en- 
forced, to the -total exclusion of un- 
limited service, even when the men . 
were perfectly satisfied and desirous 
to ci\|ep without limitation? On for- 
mer occasions, the men for limited 
service were kept in separate bat- 
talions. Mr. Windham liad mixed 
them. It Has not intended to in- 
terfere with this or any other part 
of the right honourable.gentleman's 
arrangement. That gentleman had 
complained much of the change 
about to be-introduccd in the ex- 
clusive form of bis me^ni^e. But 
no military system, no --measure 
could claim an exclusive and unal- 
terable sanction. It was matter of 
very serious consideration, that the 

• 36,000 enlisted this year, would all 
be entitled to their discharge at the 
^me period seven years hence. It 
^s alsnr very material to consider, 
how this principle, if exclusively 
acted upon, would affoct bur peace 
and establishment, supposing a 
peace establishnient of 100,000 
men.^md 36,000 of these to be 
discharged in one year, and a war 
to follow in thai year or the next, 
what would be the state of the 



«v. 



country'? He maintaiaed tint tk 
enlistment for life of those who, 01 
havin;^ the 0|>tioli, should preier 
engaging for life, would not ds- 
courage others from engaging h 
years. He contended, also, lb 
Mr. Windham's plan would m 
cover its own waste and tfialoft:?- 
army in general. The ordmjt 
recruiting under this plan, wmm^tj. 
Tnorc productive than it had bee 
by muKiplying the number of n- 
cruiting parties beyond nieasw, 
and also by the threat of reductni 
held out to the 54 additional \^ 
talions, unless fhey should compl* 
their establislnnent to 400 «< 
each before six months. One p?n 
only of the riaht honourable ?tt' 
lleman's plan was not sjx»iibip«- 
and tliat was tbe permanent b&f- 
ttien of 450,0001. a year, whicH 
imposed on the country in jbejlap 
of additional pensions, an iocai- 
Ijliance which must increase c» 
tinually. These reasons, he « 
convinced; would l>e fully sufficia? 
to satisfy tbe house of the proprifi^ 
of not depriving such men as vw 
inclined, of a fair option toea!^' 
for life. He therefore moved, llu 
a clause should be introdiTccd M 
allowing that option. 

Mr. Windham admired the can- 
dour and fairness with which t^ 
noble lord had introduced into t:^ 
nmtiny bill, fi clause subversive oJ 
the system It^hich had been alanitij 
decided upon after Jong and serba 
paiiiameutary investigation ! It «s 
e«rtainly very candid in the Di>b« 
lord to give him (Mr. W.)'now, I - 
the first time, intimation of a ciaii^ 
hostik to the existing military sys- 
tem ; and that too, in such a ^^'-^.^ 
that this clause was iu a mattK- 
sprrepticiously introduced, and pro- 
posed to be made part of a ^ 

vlikk 



h 



HISTCRY OF EUROPE. 



Ill 



liich niusl» within a very few days, 
i' necessarily past into a law. The 
obic lord, however, thought it but 
t!ceiit lo affect some kind of oppo- 
iiion to the measure in arguiiicut. 
ind what was the object of the 
loble lord's reasoning? To prove 
hat the system, though sure, was 
iow in its operation. Tlie noble 
Old was contented with simply 
h\hivjr this ; and perhaps it was well 
Mdge<}, not even to try to prove it, 
•\»r, what were the facts? The pro- 
[icsiive increase of the number of 
lu'n raised, in four periods, had 
5*'cii in the following proportion : 
1,000 in the fir<t period; 13,000 
n i!ie next; 21,00O in the third; 
'til 24,000 in the. fouilli. The 
iui>le lord would-tind it difficult to 
connleract these statements ; and, 
. (Iniit!in;][ Ihfcir veillv, still more 
 Kicult to satisfy the house, that 
liov were not proofs of the ef- 
tirary of the measure resorted tf». 
-^To jsay that if « cerlain Matcm 
Alii purchase within a very luuiled 
)eriod a certain numl)er of men, 
tiie same will, in a regular pro;;res- 
iiou, be productive in a proporlion- 
ible period of lime, wus to say, 
•lit because a certain system was. 
ileclive at first, (no matter how or 
I'V w liat means) tiiercfore it would 
:<>ntiiiue to be so, and that too in 
^n increased proportion, was nut 
Hist reasoning. But k liad been 
-aid, Uiat tiie number o^, recruiting 
|»iJjlay was exlraordiiiary. Mr. W. 
•ould only sltite, that 111*6 increased ' 
luiir.berof sucli was not at ail to 
he attributed to his system, and 
Viial ll\ey could not be considered, 
JM fHcl, as in aiw great de«;ree pro- 
•^' relive. Ko number of recruit- 
'•'i^ parties, however greaJ, could 
laitc bt>ond what was required. 
Gi.uerdl Tarlelon said, that in 



any other country be would think 
the principle of limited service a 
good one; hut lie thought that it 
would be dangerous in this country, 
on account of the extent of its co- 
lonies. There was a necessity too, 
of having at all limes a large army 
in readiness to oppose those schemes 
, of invasion which Buonaparte never 
for a moment lost sight of, in the 
prosecution of the present war. 

The secretary at war contended, . 
that the house had not been taken 
by surprize by his noble friend, as 
niue days notice had been given of 
his iuteution to pmpose the dause 
wUkh was now under discussion. 
The SL'cretarv likewise insisted on 
the bad ell'ccts which would result 
fronj the di charge of a large pro- 
portion of our military 'force at 
icgul'.ir statt'd periods. 

Lord P^?lty observed, ll«t Mr, 
Windham's measure had been ap- 
proved of by a majority of the 
exisliug members of that house ; 
that it itad been tried, and met with 
the universal approbation of the 
country. — After some conversation 
ht'lwcen Mr; Windham and lord 
Casllciea^h, the comroillee divided , 
on the cla*isc — Ayes, 16*9 — Noes, 
100. 

The secretary at war then brought 
up several ne^v clauses, among which 
was one for enacting that no mas- 
ter in Scotland should be enti- 
tled to claim liis apprentice from 
the army, unless he should produce 
a certilicate, and conform to other 
regulations therein specified. An- 
other chiuse enacted, that no gene- 
ral court-martial should consist of 
less than fourteen n)en»bers, except 
in Africa or the Wc^t IncMes^ and 
another, tliat treble co^s should be 
awarded in cases of action, where 
the party complaining of a uithtary 

ofiic^ 



112 ANNUAL REGIS!I'^^l,i8p8. 



officer should be nonsuited. . The 
daased ii^ere all read and agreed to. 
Tbe imitiny biM was reported, and 
pa^s^ througli tlie usual singes. 
House of peers, March 13. — 



is^sX men would lik^^bett^ tp i^v^ 
a,repeated option, jhap to be,cQi>i. 
fined to an option once fox, jaJii, 

Tfie earl of BuckiugbaQi^iire, 
taking into consideration^ tb^ uuin* 



Tlie bouse hJ^ng Tcsolvcd itself ber of troops wanted far.colQoial. 
into a committee on the mutiny service, thought it highly- espetiieut 



biH, 

Lord Hawlteslmry briefly stated 
the object' of Hie alteration that 
bad l)een made in it. It was not 
intended that those who had enlisted 
for limited senrice should have the 
option of enlisting foi" unlimited ser- 
Viee, until the term for which they 
had first enlisted had expired; 



that a |>art of the army sboMld b^, 
enlisted for an uolinvitcd i)eriofi ; 
as, otherwise^ great difficulty, and 
expence would arUe in prqvldiof; 
that service with troops, . . ,. 
' The earl of Grosveoor thouglit 
that the objection resptcling cqIo- 
nial service, might be . obyjaled, if 
the present system was suffered to 
The duke of Gloucester urged have fair play,* by the njiimber of 



Xht. inexpediency of altering the 
system of limited service; from the 
operation of which it appeared, 
from the returns on the table, the 
most beneficial eii^s, with resi^ect 
to the recruiting of the army, and the 
prevention of desertion , had been 
derived. It was a general opinion 
among military officers^ that recruit- 
ing for military service was the best 
mode of obtaining an efficient army. 
Sacb an alteration as that now pro- 
posed^ would create gre^t confusion * 
in regiments^ in consequence of the 
different terms of enlistment ; and 
was in every point of vie% in his 
opinion; likely to be prejudicial, as 
it would tend to deetrov the system, 
now established. 



recruits wiiicb would then be ob-« 
tained. The proposed alteratioa 
be considered as an attempt jto un- 
dermine that system. 

Lord Melville took a retrospec- 
tive view of the state of tb^ arai^'t 
and of the various plaus^that hzi 4it 
diffiirent times' been resorted to for 
f^croiting it. He distikeci the fre- 
quent interference of the Tegislature 
in what regarded oiir milifarv esta- 
blishment. In his opinion it was- 
best entrusted to the qare and ma- 
nagement of the chief e?^ecutive 
magistrate ; and it was .found of late 
to improve and fiburish under the. 
auspices of the illustrious personage 
to whose hands the Boverei^u bad 
confided it. The country never had 



* Lord Bdrringdon thought it was' an army so numerous aud well ap- 
highly advantageous to have dif- pointed as* at the preseut moment, 
iftrent terms of enlisfment hi the And how^was that army acquired 1 



army aqqu^re^ 
ar^iy^ whi<cb might suit the various ' Not by any one plan or exertion ; 
caprices of men. 

Lord King feared, that if this 
alteration was suflfered to pass, every 
means would be resorted to to dis- 
courage and pMfvent, as vnucb as 
possible, tqlistment for limited ser- 
vice. As to suiting the various 
caprices of men^ lie thought that 



not by metaphysical fec'ruitiiij, and. 
a philosophical invcsi!ga(iou of tbc 
moral* habits and propensities ot 
men*; l>ut by a combinatioq of va- 
rious pislns and various ^exei;tuins 
adapted to the iialiffe anil ^(rnpKY- 
ments of men as tliey were jo be 
found, and td the vaijyi|jE Sfluiilloa 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



113 



d exii^^ncies of the countiy. Of 

the plans to which tne present 
urbhiiij; state of tlie arniy mvphk 

ascribed, the additional force 
II, and the enlisting from tlie sup- 
eraentary militia into the line, he 
ncxrived to have been the most 
ic acinus. 

It tiad been said« that the sys- 
m of limited service would in- 
(xluce a better description of men 
to the army ; that it w6uld in* 
u-e respectable farmers to pre^ 
re one of their sons to be a sol- 
trr: in short, that it would make 
e military service^ a trade. The 
ide of a 'soldier! There never 
IS and never would . be such a 
ide, in this sense of it. What 
as meant by a better sort of 
en? Was, it that they would be 
Iter or siiorter,- broader or thrn« 
^r7 This might be intelligible. 
It it was not the fact. The men 
at had hitherto formed the Bri«- 
b armies were men of stout hearts 
id habits; jiien of spirit and 
urage ; lovers of bold enterprize* 
tiese were tlie materii^ls of which 

army niii.st be coni|N>8ed«. Give 
na sucJi men, though not of the 
iter description. The worse men 
;re the fittest for soldiers. Keep 
e better sort at hcmie. On these 
ounds he must vote for the danse 
il now stood, 

Viscotmt Sidroouth agreed with 
rd Melville, as to the advantages 
trived to the ^noy from volun- 
ering from the militia, but dif* 
red from him in opinion as to the 
eseiit system of recmitiug ; which 
id procured a force better In qua.- 
y, in stature, and in morals. 

The eari of Moira compared the 
iferetit systems as affecting the 
ldier,bimselfy and his family; and 
ive a deddad opmiou in £iTourof 

Vol. t. 



Mr. Windham's. Lord Moira en- 
treated the house to weigh the mat- 
ter well before they di^ountenaiiced 
a system which within less than 
two years they had approved by so . 
great a mi^jority. 

The earl of Westmoreland de- 
nied, that there was an^ intention, 
by the clause, to put an end to the 
new system. 

Lord Vassal Holland contended, 
that service for a limited period 
was very far from being unsnited to 
our possessions abroad, particularly 
tlie East Indies ; and shewed from 
the practice of Spain, that k limited 
term of service was peculiarly adapt- 
ed to distant colonial possessions. 

The duke of Gloucester replied 
to the different arguments in sup- 
port of the chiuse; which bemg 
put, was carried; the amendment 
negatived without a division; and 
the other cUuses agreed to* In a 
few days aAer the bill was read a 
third time and passed. 

House of Commons, April 12.— 
Lord Ca^ereagh was happy to con- 
gratuhite the house, tliat by the 
success which had attended the mea- 
sures which it lud been his good 
fortune to propose to Hie house 
last year; no legislative care was 
any longer, necessary lor tlie esta- 
blishment of a regular army; to 
which an addition had been made , 
of ,40,000 men It was the duty 
of government, however, to attend 
to all parts of the military svstem; 
and to provide ellectually lor the 
maintenance and discipline, not only 
of those descriptions of force tliat 
bad always arms in their hands* 
but of those that were armed only 
provisionalljrt for the jHirpose.of 
training and dascipKne, witk a view 
to eventual emergency. An act 
was passed sometime since for the 
, [1] general 



114 AN^NI/AL REGISTER, 1808. 



geocnil training of the people. Tiie 
intention of it wzs, to enable mi- 
nisters to advise liis majesty to 
train '200,000 mtn ont of the whole 
population. Bat he cou$idet;ed it 
of iillle use to have men trained un- 
less they were Regimented. If 
trained in regiments they would be 
of real utifity. Instead of ^training 
the whole military classes, a sofli- 
cient nomber might be trained to 
cover any probable exigency that 
might be expected to arise. It was 
proposed to Irave a regular subsi- 
diery forte, amounting to six times 
th^ number of tlie militia^ as pro- 
posed by Mr. Yorlce some years 
ago. The training of the whole 
number of 800,000, as proposed 
by the trahiug act, wduld have 
been a very general hardship witl^ 
very little i)eneiit. Instead of train- 
ing the whole military chisses, insuf- 
ficient number might be trained to 
cover any probable exigency that 
might be expected (o arise. When 
1 the gross amount of the effective 
volunteers • was" compared with six 
times the amount of the militia, 
there was Tonnd on the aggregate a 
deficiency of 30,000. But when this 
deficiency came to be subdivided, an 
inequality was discovered ; some of 
the ^counties being more deficfent, 
, and some, among whfch were the 
maritime counties, less. In conse- 
quence of this inequality 60,000 
woufd be wanted to complete the 
establishment to the amount requir- 
ed.-— He proposed therefore to give 
to the crown a power to create a 
local militia, to the aggregate a* 
monnt of 60,000 in the mit instance, 
to l>e increased in ivroportiou as tlie 
volunteer ^force should diminish, 
and to supersede* t4iem totally, if, 
in the event of peace ^hefyshoidd 
withihaw tfacir service; Six- times 



the number of the militia'-woald be 
for Great Britain 330,000 men, 
the number of efietlive volunteers 
in Ireland was close on 70,000. 
Under Ibis plan therefore there 
would be a depAt of 460,000 men 
ready at a moment's notice to fall 
into the reaiments of the line and 

w I 

the militia, according as they xm%hX 
be wanted to make them up. Tbh 
local militia was to be ballolted'for 
in their different counties. Mo pro- 
portion to the deficiency of volmi- 
teers in each, from amoiig persons 
lietwcen the years of 1 8 and 35. 
Persons might be allowed to volaii- 
teer into this force ; but no sub- 
stitutes were to tie allowed, nor 
exempliohs to be inade Sut at t 
very iigh fine. Tlic officers were 
to possess the same requisites as to 
property, as those of tfie existing 
rnilitia, except in onef instance, 
namely* that whoever bad held 
the rank of a field officer in the 
army might hord the same rank here 
without regard to any stich qualiB- 
catton. Volunteer ttnrps might, if 
they ctioose, transfer tlfcrnseKes^Tth 
the approbation of his majesty into 
this local militia. ' ' ' 

The period of service during the 
year to be 28 days, exclusive of the 
days' fbV assembling, marcTiing, &cJ 
for which pay to be uHowed. The 
expence would not exceed that of 
the present volunteer establiihmenl^ 
It would not exceed 4 K per niaii 
for the year. Having a regimental 
force of 400,000 men. In additioti 
to a regular army of 500,^000! 
which might, if occ^tin required 
-be4mgmented to ^50,000,* fferliaj 
raent might rest'coiitent,' and tru^ 
tiiat the em^re was secure. Lor^ 
Castk*eagh iconclnd]fed trtth movinj 
fdt leave to bting In rbill'to maki 
belter provision finf th^^lWetna! dd 

.1 -^ -fetich 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



115 



II cc of the kingdom^ which was 
[ven. 

On the 2d of, May, before the 
rrlor of the day for Ihe second read-' 
le of the local miUUa bill was read, 
n(\ Casllcreagh begged leave to state 
vo or three additions and altera- 
otis, which he meant to introduce 
v^arin^ upon the principle of the 
ilU It was .proposed, 1st, that 
tiose who had secved personally io 
:ic militia should be exempted 
oui the ballot fox the local mill- 
u. 2dly, ihsit when any corps of 
oluuteers transferred ils services 
-cm the volunteer establishment to 
lie local militia, the officers of such 
orps should retain their rank, and 
liul all men should be admitted in* 
Ihe local nulitia without any re- 
[dtd to age ; 3dly, that when per- 
<))is clian^d' their residence from 
>nc cotmty to another they likewise 
honh) be piermitted to transfer their 
crvices to the local militia of the 
ounty in which they should reside; 
nd 4thlv, that the families of those 
len who were drawn, and unable 
support themselves, 'should re- 
eive . the same allowance which 
as now granted to the families of 
olunteers when called out on per* 
aancnt duty : this allowance to be 
*'did iu the iirst instance by their' 
es{>ective parishes, aud to be re- 
paid to the. parishes by the receiver 
:eneral of the army. 

Many objections ^^re made to 
Iiis bill ill its progress'; the prin- 
ipal of which were state<l by co- 
onel Shipley, wiio, on lord Castle- 
eagh*s having moved that the bill 
)e now., read a second. time, re-^ 
narked, that every session of .par- 
iament some new plan was brought 
orward connected with the dev 
ence of the country; aud that 
^'ver)' sUcce^ing muiiQtcr; as soon 



as be came iuto office, .set about 
• subverting the system of hb prede** 
cessor, and introducing one of his 
own. From theso^ various experi* 
ments the. country derived little ad^ 
ti onal strength, and the soldier no 
benefit at all ; but, to the authon 
of them they were a source of con* 
siderable patronage aud influence. 
The plan, indeed, which had beea 
introduced under the late adminis- 
tration, was not liable to this re» 
proach. It was projected solely 
with a view to the improvement of 
the aripy, and the good of th^ 
country ; and, on this account, be 
had most ardently wished that it 
might be. permanent, and that it 
might have prevented in future all 
new experiments of state empirics. 
Tiie measure proposed by lord 
Castlereagh.he contended, would be 
enormously expensive to the coun- 
try, most oppressive to individuals, 
and at the same time totally futile 
and useless. Was it possible that 
the public money could be more 
idly and wantonly squandered, than 
in being given. as bounties, to the 
volunteers to enier into the local 
raihlla ; by which means, from be** 
ing an useful, they would become 
altogether an useless body. The 
bill before the house was liable to 
all tlie objections to the most vi* 
gorous measures, without being 
calculated to produce any one of 
the advantages of a -measure of this 
description. It would prove inju- 
rious to the regular recruiting of 
ihe army. It was proposed, that 
the local militia slibuld be officered 
in the same way with the regular 
militia. But if it was found im- 
possible to find a sufficient nuni.- 
ber of officers properly qualified 
for the latter service, how could 
they be procured for the former 1 
[12]. He 



116 ANNUAL REGISTEB, 1808. 



He also disapnroveH highly of sub- 
irtitules tiAt bneirigaliowed^atid eoo-' 
tendefi that this prohibition Wouid 
toot only f^ve rise to iitnch fraud 
aiHi imposition, but that it aflfered a 
ttronj; iiidatement to perjury. 
' Tttc local militia bill havinjiT pas- 
«ed tdmugfa the nsuat^taires in th«^ 
house of comniODS, was brought in- 
to the house of lords, nliere, after 
smtie di^uision it wasy 21st June^ 
agi'ei'd to, * 

The principle of th* local inilt- 
tia bill for England wns extended 
tb Seotlai/d. On the motion for 
the third reading of the Scotch lo- 
cal militia biH in the hbu^ of com- 
mons, Mr; Yorke said, that he 
saw no reason why tlie training act 
should not also be adopted ii| Scot* 
land, as well as in Engl nd. 

House of ConimoiK, Jan. ^5.-^ 
Mr« Eankes, agreeably to notice, 
mse to make a motion, to which 
he did not Suppose there would t>e 
any objection, as resotiitioiis to the 
same effect bad been agreed to by 
the house last session. . 

After a few obsen ations on 4he 
lieneficial tendency of the measure, 
and even its tendency ultimatelv to 
strengthen, rather than toinl reiich on 
the prerogative of the crown, he 
moved for leave to bring in a bill to 
prevent tfie grant of offices and re- 
version! during lile, or with beuffit 
of sm^ivorship. After some con- 
versation, the (pieslion was put and 
carrietl, with the single negative of 
Mr. Wiliian) Dundftft, who had not 
been present when this question 
was last before the bouse. 

Mt. Baiikes ttien bmiight in the 
blH>tviiidi was Carried through the 
usual stages in the house of cora« 
monft, into the house of lords : 
tVbere, on the second reading, 
March \o, it was opposed by lord 



Arden, lord Reddcsdale^ the earl 
of Carlisle; and the earl of Mona ; 
and recommended by lord Boring- 
don, lord Vassal Holland, the earl 
Grev, and the earl of Lauderdale. 
Lord Arden still persisted in ron- 
sidoring the bill, as he had done 
before, when the qutetton wd^ last 
agitated as an infringement of the 
prerogative of thecrown, and zho as 
nn encroachment on the pyivilegfs 
of their lonlshipis* house: He call- 
ed to mind the measures that were 
witnessed iu this country in the 
year 1 641. 

Lord Reddcsdale, in like man* 
ner, retpiested their lordships to 
look to the beginning of the Freiicb 
revolution, and to consider \i\i2X ir* 
reparable mischief followed the 
acMce of Mr. 'Neckar to increase 
the ntimber and weight of the Tiers 
Etat, sitting andTodng in the same 
as5«mblv with the nobiltty. The 
'ffers Elai prevailed; the iiobilit; 
were soon proscribed,^ despoiled of 
their possessions, ai^ct driven iiiio 
beggary and exile. And what was 
the pretext and caiise of that vio- 
lent change ? The reform ' of u- 
buses ; the adoption of an cecono- 
mical system. That the bill was 
recommended by lord Vaisal Hoi- 
hud, and the carl Grey, as tire 
first step pf apian of pablic ceroiio- 
my. If offices were still granfed 
in reversion, it must gteiitly ertit>ar- 
rass the o|ierati6n' of any sucfi 
plan. TKe bill was snffiered to u'o 
hito a coiiimittee, l^tit on the thini 
reading it was thr^iwn oiU hv a 
great hiajority. Contents 23fif— Nun- 
contents liS. , 

House of Cothfifioos, April f.— 
Mr J Bankes moved the' i:oiiiittir- 
m^'Ut of another rev^rsaon bill, 
which had been tntroduiced an(f 
gone throu|;h soine iof the usual 

^ ' * slagea. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



117 



ages. Mn Bankes reminded Ifa^ 
>ininiltee9 thai by Jlie rejection of 
le former bill in the hpuae of lords 
ley ^^ere precliided from bringing 
trwani e^^acUy the same meastii^ 
lis session. On this account he 
ad brought in « bill with a limita* 
on in point of time. If this should 
e carried it would at least secure 
lie object, naiuely^.tbe preveiitiou 
fan> new grant duriug the liniit- 
J |kTio<l, %hich mi|(ht affect the 
roceedings of the committee of 
lunce. A« to tlie limitation of 
ine» it was, his intention that the 
[auk should be tilled up with a 
rovisiou that the bill sjiould be in 
o-ce for one ^ear from the passing 
r the act, and from the close of 
lai period to the end of six weeks, 
oni the Gompieucement of the sub* 
;queut sessiou of parliament. \ 
»ng conversatioti ensued, in \vhich 
lere was a very general . concur* 
nee in opinion, that the measure 
as good, as far as it went, though 
was much too limited. This bill 
as finally pas^ in the house of 
rds on ihe 12th of May. 

House of Commons, May 18.—* 
r Samuel Roiiiilly rose, to make 
s promised motion on the crimj« 
d law of the country. He, in 
»mnipa with oth^r.^ Iiad' alwa}-B 
mcntedy'iliat, l'>y the criminal law 

thecoutitry, capital punishments 
trre appointed to be inflicted for 

many (rtines^ He said, ** ap- 
)inied, Because, iu fact, tliey 
ere not 84> frequently executed,. nU 
uut;h no luincipk was better esla- 
islied than that the certainty, not 
e scv<rrit^ oj pimjshioejU rendered 

eflicaciousL TJi is. principle had 
ng been jnovecl^ and published to 
le world by Uie'marijuis of Bec- 
iria. But the. adniiratiou wbich 
is wotk produced inf?reat Britain, 



• • • . 

had not produced any change io 
our system, which was directly the 
reverse of that noble writer's: for 
with us puiushments were jnost. se- 
vere and most uncertain., Having / 
illustrated the truth of tlib propo- 
sition, he said, that, for the present, 
he would confinie his oliservatjons 
and his motion to one class of tho^ 
crbne«, which as he had before 
stated, seldom received the punish- 
ment the law had appointed for 
them ; a class on which the law i|]- 
flicted extraordinary severity of pu- 
nishment, withimt any well found- 
ed motive to that severity. Ht 
meant those charges where the ca- 
pital part of the charge depended 
on the amount. By a statute of 
William and Mary, privately to 
steal from a person t6 t|ie value of 
live shillings^ was, rendered capital. 
In queen Anne's reign, to steal to 
the value of forty shillings in a 
dwelling honse,was rendered capital; 
aiKl by a statute of queen Eliza- 
beth, a theft of so small a sum as 
twelve pence, under certain circum- 
stances, nmde a capital offence. 
— As tiie necessaries, the.conve- 
niencies, and the Juxuries of lite 
had become dearer, the severity of 
the laws occasioned the frequent 
npn execution oi" them. Tttere 
was another circumstance to which 
he was desirous of calling t)ie at- 
tention of the house; it was ^he 
case of perspns, who, being . ac- 
cused of crimes, stifiered impri- 
sonment, took their trial, and then 
proved jtlieir hniocence : there was 
np compensation for such persons, 
unless it could be shewn that the 
prosecution was malicious. He al- 
lowed that under the i>est systeni 
of criminal law, sus|iicion must 
sometimes li<;ht on tlie innocent 
man, and that the good of the 
[13] . public 



118 ANNUAL REGISTER, l^OS. 



public -might inquire his cotiAi^ Louse, June 24* Uie solititor ge<)€- 
nieot until hig ipnocence diould be ral projposed s^ clause, declariug 
' aacertaiued. But be coutended, that stealiog withctui a person's 
that wbeo it was sucerlaioedi the ]MK>wledge. whether privily from 
* sufierer should be coiDpeasated as * the person or Qot| as pontradistin- 
£uras it was practicabk lo com- guished from rqhbery^ should be 



pensate him. The merits of the. 
persou acquitted, and his right to 
indemnity might he determined by 
the judge before whom he was 
tried. Such a regulation would 
ptoceed on similar priuciples to those 
of ] 802, relative tp . the prosecu- 
tions by which the judge was em- 
powered, taki^ig all the circum- 



punished by banishment for life, 
to be reduced at tlie discretion of 
the judge to any period not less 
than seven ye^^rs ; .leaving it,* how* 
ever, optional with the jud^e, if 
the case should ^eem to merit it, 
to commute the puuisbmeul into 
imprisonment for any period not ex- 
ceeding three years. The bill was 



stances of the case under considera- ^passexl witii this Aineudaient. 



tion, to order the treasureir of the 
county to make such compensation 
as justice demanded. He would 
therefore introduce a similar pro- 
position into, the bill/ which he in- 
tended to pro|K>se on the subject. 
In the first place, however, he. would 



Sir Samuel KoniiUy signified, tbat 
he did not mean to pr^^s the ** ac< 
quitted person's compensation bill" 
any further, hut that, he sjiduhi 
bring it forward early in the utn^i 
session. ^ 

The necessity Mf 9ome alleraliou 



move for leave to bring in a bill to In tiie constitution of Jhe couil of 
ifepeal so mm»b of the act of jqueeu session in Scotland^ had given birili 



Elisabeth, as related to taking away 
the benefit of clergy from* penons 
stealing privately from the persons 
of otiiers. Leave was given to bring 
in the bill^ and Sir Samuel RomiUy 
met with great applause (or turn- 



to lord Grenville's bill relative to 
tbatsubject, which fell to the ground 
through the cliange of ministry, and 
the' prorogation aud dissolution of 
parliament*. A hill for the bet- 
ter administration of justice in Scot- 



ing his enlightened niind to the con- Jand, was introduced in the present 
aideration of such subjects as tltose session by tiie lord, clmncellor Et- 



on which be had that evening ad- 
dressed the house. 

Sir Samuel aUo moved for leave 
to bring in a bill to provide in cer- 
tain cases compensation to persons 
Itried and acquitted in a criminal 
court for the damages susiained by 
thjgm, in consequence of haying 
been, detained in custody and 
brought to trial. Objections of no 
inconsiderable. weight were made to 
this proposal; but leave was given 
to bring in the bill. 

In a cpmmitteo of the \vholp 



don» who, on the question for the 
second reading of the bill« Ap»il 8) 
explained its object. 

It was proposed tp divide tlie 
court of sesMon into X\yQ chambers 
of seven and. eight judges, to give 
those courts certain powers of mak- 
ii^ regulations with respect to pro- 
ceedings, and with- res})ect' to in- 
terini exixutious Vvhilst, appeals 
were pending ; and also to issue a 
couuuission to ascertain in vvlial 
cas^s it might be proper to esta- 
blish a trial by jury. He joined in 

ail 



• See Vol XLI$. Hist. Europb, p. 148. 



HISTORY OF EUBOPE. 



119 



I ibosc eii]oeiuin> which bad been 
A^^d upon the kriat by jury, and to* 
liich, ill Eiicjland, we felt Umt we 
w^d our ki^tty and oor faappi* 
ess. Biit i4 dtci not follow that it 
as equally applicable to Scotland. 
>(»r was it a politic or proper mode 
i( prcureeding to force that mode 
»f trial upon a country where, in 
ivit rases, ils benefits were not imh 
k-rstood or apprecialed. 

Lord Grenville still thought it 
\ould be.tietterto divide the court 
A' sessioo into', three clmnifoers tlwa 
wo. And, witli respect to trial by 
ury, he t1|ouxbt there ought to be 
I stronger recomiuendatiou of it io 
A\e bill Uiaii- there was at present, a 
^\ router indication of the opinion of 
lliQ legislatnlre in its favour. 

Lord Melville referred to an opi- 
nion of lorfl Mansfield, , respeoling 
a proposition *q£* lord Swiulon, to 
introduce gradually the trial by 
jury in civil cases into ScotlaaNi ; 
and saidi ttiat after tiie doubln e.\« 
pressed on thia subject, by that cmi* 
nent lawyer, iie (lortt Melville) 
might w<jll. hesitate with nespect to 
its policy. . On tbp ^Sib June, the 
bill waa read, a thisd time and 
passed. *. • . 

A law -was also passed for en-« 
abling his maj^ty to grant annul* 
ties to the judges' of Che courts of 
session, justiciary, and exchequer of 
Scotland, who might' retire after 
having ^rwed in either of these si- 
tuations ibr fifteen years, or be di»- 
qualified from the discharge of their 
duty by any* perraanefit infirmity* 
Tiie aaniuties to be equal to three 
fourths of tlieir salary. 

Ever ftiuce the breaking out of 
the French revolution, an unusiuil 
degree of attM&tion was paid by the 
higher orders, and all men of great 
propecty in Great Britain ami Ire- 



land, to the exterior of religion, 
ind the ministers of religiou» A 
bill, proposed by the joint labours 
of the bishop of London (Porteus), 
and tbe diaocollor of the exche- 
quer, was brouoht hito parliament 
for the relief and support of the 
poorer clergy. • of tiie established 
church'; the nature and object of 
which bill was explained by the 
bishop when he moved the second 
reading of the bill.(which iiad passed 
in the house of commons) on the 27th 
of J une in t li e hou 86 of lords. I f he 
were -disposed, he said, to take np ' 
their lords! ii|>s' time, he might |K>ur- 
tray such scenes of distress amongst 
poor curates, as would make upon 
their mimis a deep and melancholy 
impression* The present measure 
had for its ofaged to provide a pro- 
per person to reskie in those pa-- 
rishea wiiich were deserted by 
their incumbents, where the living 
amounted to 4001. and upwards, 
and to alfowoiA of thai income one 
fifth Ibf the support of that person 
so appmnted to do the duty. There 
were maay benefices of lOOOL 
200pL and some 50001. a year. 

But this provision of one fifMi 
was adopled oalytill it amouated 
to 250l. a^ yem*. He considei'ed 
that the living of every inciunbent 
was conditional. The canons of 
the church, and various conven- 
tions, clearly shewed that bishops 
had a rif^fat to interfere with the 
whole livittg, by taking it from the 
incumbent who neglected to, per- 
form his duly, and granting it to 
another under tlidr own appoint- 
ment 

T^ie bill was supported by lord 
Harrow by and the earl of Suffolk ; 
but opposed by the earl of Buck- 
inghamshire, the earl of Moira, 
viscOunt Sidmoutb, tbe earl of Lau- 

[14] derdale 



ISO, ANNUy4]^ :RB6t$TJBBi IWI. 



bishop of CiwiterliKry^ Ibc -biihpp of youii^ iimi». v it uras: iiii|i|iMibhfc lo 

Jlocbestar, lbebi9bo|ift>f Men^ford pvovideibr. ^ .It aboiiki'>he.fttlri*> 

and CAdidaR^natiiUelQrdfhakiwsllnu buted to timt igliit 4>f tbe e^inlno- 

Tbechi^f'gKouudftODwhHrbitwasap*^^^ dityiwhich tbe rre%er<iid)|]«^lilef. 

pO£!ed>y^?re;.thsititw«B«Tiolatipiiof tbcmselves occasione^^^ ' Ut. 9bar 

private, and of thesecunty of ecck- opposetl Ibc fc^H a§ l«yiii|f a-^ciat 

aiastical property,wbil^ it tended to weigbt on Iba powt^or 4M 4i 8ipal( 

an. iudennit^ enlargement of the bviog, at the.Mune tliit U affected 

power of the bishops, and that it the reetor with SOoel* a yearj. ia-a 

was inadequale to the acooinpltsbp very Iriiing niauncr* . - - . • 

ment of its pb|ect« . The ajp^ishop ol Canleffbary- 

Lord Moira observe^ that if this did not consider tlte nieaaace :pro«- 

biil was to be defended on the poaed as . either, oppreiriva ia ilt 

ground, that a part of tba rector'i o|i^|iation, ar a vioialtoa -of th^ 

income bad been . apportioned to interests r»f the church* TJie power 

the curate ou a former pcca8ion» ii gave to bishops was only aiaahn' 

why, then» at a future time, (^inee to .that with wliich |bry were ia^ 

according to what their lordships' veslied in the ^ariy' trnieaof Ihe 

had JMst lieard from a reverend constitutioa' of the dmr^u- He 

prelate, jHshopt cbdmed in tlie cited the case of a bishop' of -Wor^ 

point in question, an .unlimited caster,- who was rfbuked- by the 

power) another4>iU might not be in- pope for not allowfog aaafirient 

troduced, founde<l u)x>n the pn»eat, compeusatioo I9 «uratfs ^^ vicars 

ta appropriate tiie whole of 4he m* lemporai, as. they were then de^ 

cumbent's living. Even tlieact of nated in his diilcese. Bat Ibonsh 

1796 in his mind« had been Jha be was perfectly SBlis6ed wi|h the 

cause of • considerable hardships, priacipla of the btll^rtbcife «^re 

There we^ Uviti^StasJow as lOOh some of the clauses wbicli4ih«»Ihoui;hl 

and yet 75l< out vf t|iat mast ba would ba attended with -b^furiaus. 

p^d \» thadficiaiinie curate. effects^ nndiairodace v^aaAion and- 

The earl of Bucjiinghamshiia mischief. He sliould therefore vale 

observed,. that it was to he r«rol-^ that the biU be- rtfeeted.'^^Slie 

lepted that advowsons wcDe now question on f h^ third readiiH; hciag 

bought and sold in the sam^ niau« called for, the bill Mas.tbrownoat 

iier as. aiiy pther nrgoliablfs fvo^ wilhoMt a divisioan 



u  



perty. With what jinlic^^ tlien, Yet the oUfect of tlie bill wmwA 

cuuld Ihe legislature call nppn a disapproved, or ilosl sight o£. With 

l^itiiced. * di^rgyman who hfid a prospective vi^)\'tosQi»i^ftiliare:biU^ 

bought )hi# hviug on a pilculalioo Tlie eari 0/ fi«chtti|shaniHltire 

of havipgjhe services of a curate at moved, June 'srthv that tiMre be 

H, certain price; to pay. a still iai^^. laid before the house, aiV; account 

sum. of. the ntiniher. of liviagii' bejuoml 

. The ejirl of Lauderdale said,* llie amaunt of 40()l« |ier a«Miwa» 

tliat perhaps^ the great ongui of the disttngnisliing tbose where: the in* 

evil proposed to be remedied by the punibent resided, and those where 

bill, would be found in the fre- a resident cflrate was employed. 
•I^ier.ey ofbrtiinalioH, and fncafltng • Lord Harrowby ; pro|xi[5€d". aq 

' ameiidni^ii'i 



HIS-RSSTi? 01? EtJIlOl?!:. 



121 



1istiti!rtfUli»g; fte/'' Ontlie ^u^ 
>n Ih«t'th4»e words stand part of 
e bill, tlf^ Hmiae difided; Con« 
nts SS—^ll^l Cototenls 19* Next 

Lord Uwt^tfwby, pur^natit to a 
>tiee be tfeaif-gifOi the <tajF before, 
»se to atobniit ir motloh to their 
•nkhipsy Whk^ was silggested to 
iin by some obsenrotioitt that had 
eeii' nmde during the diMUssion of 
lis quetflMdti, It wM'agk^eed, and 
t>nie<t tti be Wished ^ «H bands, 
lal soniefbifi; lihonld be done 1^ 
ard» imptiMng the condition of 
le in^rior «lergy. It bad alt along 
eeii lii« opinioofthat the house was 
roceefitng td legislate on a unitlef 
p^pectklg wliich I hey had nothing 
ke adeqvate mforniation before 
bf ni. Tliis want of' due infornra- 
on be was anxious to sii|>ply. And 
i>e object of his present moliony 
'as to eodeavnar to asreriain the 
umber of fivings whieti were under' 
501. per annum; how great would 
e the samneceinary to bring tbe^ 
iiali livinga up to' idOK per au^' 
um; 'Odd how long the period of 
me, undet the present circum- 
ances; neceiiaiy • fbr the attain^^ 
Hiiit of #h«r iol]j«ctv WHIi a view to 
et at whichy he moml an hitnihle 
(idress to^lvpi nijl)«»sty/ praying he 
ould tie graciouiriy p}eas<*d lo di-^ 
tet tbat'th^re' he taid before the 
ouse, ail noeouni of Hie minrtbef of 
vings nmler I50l. 'per amufin. 

The nrchblBb'op of Cahterbitry 
fipressed liii<tteihkf^ to the noble 
Wiia £L»r:thc'paiii8 ti« Irad taken 
m iliis siih^ct; ami hiii i^diness to 
o^opeffate:«i|ith*hini ilt the prosectr^ 
ion of I bi« object; 



Tbe^rl of !Simti^T«^ gate his. 
heaity eonenrreiio^ to ^ motion^ 
So also did lord Hawkestmry, who' 
assnred his noble fritod tffmt every 
thing ihbald be ddtie b^ bim to 
give eflfeet to^hts laudable intentions 
and endeavours. - 

Nor was this kirk of Scofland 
fot|iott#n« An Act was passed for 
defining and regulating the pdwers' 
of the comtnbHion of t^inds hi aug- 
menting and niodilyiiig the'sttpends 
of the Scotch clergy. • ' ' 

An' act wasl also passed, fbr en- 
fbrctng the residence of spiritual 
persons hi fri^and on their bene- 
fices; and another to m^ikie Wre 
eflectual provbion fbr tlie building' 
and re-bttildhigof dtapefs, churches, 
and glebe houses, and fdr the pur- 
chase of glebe lands, gfebe houses/ 
and impropriations in Ireland, ' 

' Though the petiHori ' of the Ro- 
man catholics of Ireland' fbr com*' 
plete eniancipatioh fVoni all'disabi-' 
iil^es^wbati'Ver, civil* or milihuy, 
a^er f h^ usnat discnssions» ivas re- 
jected ; a grant of 9,52©?. was made 
for the Current year, for the support 
of iheRbhtan cai hnlit* co! lege ofMay- 
uooth. • f n th^ coutse at the discus- ' 
sinus iHni took plac^ on this subject. 
Dr. Doigetmn r^^d theoath of thecaf- 
tholic priests, in ordei^ to shew that 
they paid an obedience' to the pope/ 
which wasinconsistent\Vitfaftheiting^ 
sOpremacy. Tlr^ provf^ns for the 
education bf the estabfisKed der* 
gy,' he observed^ fi^ll shbrt Of thos^ 
proposed to be granted to ' the pa- 
piists. There were in the uOiVcrtity 
of; Dublin 50>i>oor scholars, wko 
got but a dinner once « dojf*, and 
71 8ekolfiri0f'iheh4m$eihiu gpt a 
dinner once a day^ but no lodgings. 

Tlie 



* The doctor, no doabt, meant one meal a day, which was. their dinner^ . Even 
be feRows sf Oxford and Cambridge, as far as we have li^en informed, dine bnt 

>nce'aday; -^ 



na ANNUAL REGISTEP,i;l908. 

T^ doctor described th^ catholics would seourci .the • ignoi«|ioe. aod 

2^ bad subjects and hostile to the prejudices of a gre9t.poi;tiou.0f the 

.fiit^e. . . , catholics. 

Mi;. Bafhan.qlyected to. the use . The ch^iicel^or of the exchequer 

of > such langiiag^ in speaking .o£ observed^ tliat theraetnoTiaLof.tbe 

four nullipus of. his majesty's si^b* catholars, which had led to the esta- 

jects. blisbment at ]^:\yiiootb» d^i9)ed no 

.The speaker declared, |hat the pecuniary aid^ • ^TJie ca|lbolics pro- 

freedoiu of debate did not pcscliide mised to defray the whole e^^pence 

such laagiuige. , themselves; aod though the ^pvem- 

Dr., Puig€na^. then, repeated his ipent aiyd parli^giepl gave them 

former seutjiueuts ; . and he ^leelared 8,<)00l. iu aid of the object, that, was 

that, if any one would move' tp, no resteoo why (he couqtry sbouid 

, vKitbdraw the pubhc aid allogelher be subject. U> constantly iucreaslog 

fron^ MaynooUi, .he \vould second demands, for a pMrpos? of wh^k 

the mptipo, ... therie wa^. no precedent 1 in any age 

The original grant to the Roman ' or coun^ry,;ttbat of educating, at the 

catholic college at Maynooth,. ^as public expei4}€« the priesthood of a 

80001. In addition to this^iim,tlie rehgioh .diffejriiig w^ly from, the 

last parliament )iad vot;ed 5000L es^biishcd one.. He thought it was 

making it> ^ isioool.t- .Before as much aa cou}4 rea^nably be 

this voter'howeyei\ could be carried asked, to educate 250 per sous at 

into effect* that parliament was dis- the public exp^ice ; who» witb 1 1 1 

8oJivedf.aod:.^ht^9 the new parlia*- educated ia;a.private mapiier, %ver<: 

inent metj hi$ nia'^ty's present an abundant ^pply.for the cMiioHc 
injnistera wished to. resqrt to . the . ministry* .It was no part of religious 

former ;Bum«. But fiodjog that the tioLeratiop, Mr. Perceval said, lo 

trustees bad. 9eted uppn the faith of make provision, for the eduealioo 

receivmg tli^ larger sum, tbfyihad, of the der^ of the tolerated sect. 

for that one year, carried intqe)^ If it were %»» tlie minivers of. ihe 

V cuUon.th^ intenlioA of tbe^rpred^-. metbodistSi<iai>abaptists,audisaade- 

^ cQssors* Th^.suju of . 9,230{: con^ manians, would ^n that groupd 

siderably AW^^e than $,00Ql. b.i*t^sHII have fttgood a eljaim-to .ed\icalu^ 

more coQsidei^y less tlianl3,0(K)l. as tlie catholic eier^y. — ^This I^ 

was a kind of eqmpromise between observation of Mr. Percevalrris no* 

QOnteoding opinions* I . .: .. ticed on account,of,the remadcable 

Mr. Graltamapd other •iqembars reply that was tmde to it by Mr. 

OH the same side of the question,. Grattau^-:-''it was true, U^ said, 

contended, tbataprovisi^i for the the ministers 9f thpse sectanans 

edacation.of 2^0 students Would be were oot educated at tlie public 

insuiiicieQt to supply, the vacancies' expence; but they were few.in nMin« 

tbat wqmM occyur in the . catbt^. ber in comparison of tlie catbolks, 

clergy fay^ deat^ or casualties $y who formed tbe great body of the 

xieducingjtbe^iantof lS,0O0Layear, people in Ireh^id.*' To what cala- 

tljougb some>< addition bad been mities. would not ctliis principle of 

ansde to that of SOOOl. the house vesting political riglits on the Sale 

basis 

• See vol. XLIX. Hisf . Eur. p. 86. ' 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



123 



ba^is of numbers lead, if it were 
pushed into all its just conse- 
quences t When the house, In the 
comrnitlee of supply, April 29, di* 
Yiiled on the question, there ap- 
peared for the larger grant of 
13,000!.— 58,— For the latter of 
*J»250l.-^93. 

Among the most important and 
penerally interesting laws enacted 
in this session of parliament, a dis- 
tinguished place b occupied by the 
art to prohibit the distillation of 
spirits from com or gttdtx for a li^ 
inited time. It may be fecoHected 
bv our readers, t^iat in. the last se^^- 
bion of the last parliament, the earl 
of Temple moved, iii the house of 
conmions, the appointment of a 
committee to consider of the possi- 
bility and prQpriety of permitting 
sugar and molasses to be uned ib 
distilleries and breweries ; not to 
1 (le exclusion of grain, but on prin* 
ciples of fair competition*. A com- 
iTiiltee was appointed; and it Was 
stated by lord Bihuing, chairman 
of the committee, in the house d( 
commons. May 19, that it had be- 
come necessary to ascertain how 
j\ir tlie restriction of the distfflers to 
1 he use of sugar and molasses would 
'.WFect the agriculture of the coim- 
try. 

This inyestigation, he stated, 
Juid led to the knowledge of facts 
which established the wisdom and 
necessity of the restriction, exclu- 
jsivelv of all consideration whatever 
nf the interests of the West India 
inlands; though the two questions 
could, not indeed be separated. 
The committee finding that this 
couirtry was generally dependent 
for a sufficient supply of corn and 
^our uijon foreign countries, an^ 

•* Vol. XUX. (1807) 



that this supply in tlie j^resent state 
of Europe was cut off, without any 
prospect of a sutiicient resource m 
the last year's crop of tbisr country, 
thought it right, as a pi^caution 
against famine, 1o stop the distilla- 
tion of corn, with a view to a ready 
and immediate,- i^s well ns a tmore 
ampk and satisfactory supply of 
sustenance for the peo{>le. He 
entered into a variety of cakular 
tions to shew, tlwt the saving hy 
the prohibition of the distilleries 
would cnver more than half the 
deficiency created by 'the stoppiage 
of importation; and more than the 
whole raipoHation of oiitsi Lord^ 
Binning concluded with moving, 
that the report of fhe committee* of 
inquiry be referred to a committee 
of the whole house; and he anti- 
cipated, from the moderation and 
good sense of the gentlemen pre- - 
sent; that the wishes of the com- ' 
tnitfee would be carried into effect. 
After a long debate <tn the question 
for the speaker's leaving the chair, 
the house divJded.-^For the speak- 
er's leaving the c^if, that is fbr 
-gdinij iiito ^ cJommitfee; 122. — 
Against it, lOS: A gr^at' alarm 
was excited amongst the agriciil- 
turisls tlnr6ughout dot- the whote 
country, and many petitions were 
presented agaitist the bill." In 
both houses c'f parliament it' was 
opposed warmly, and itot without 
plausible argtimenfs^, fhe most sblid 
of which, in our judgment; was tire 
tendency of the mea8urt**t<y prevent 
that accumulation of grain in the 
Viands of the farmers, which in Ihte 
country suppRes the place of the 
magazines eslablistied in so many 
other countrfes. It tended, if long 
cohtinued, or frequentlv repeated, 

to 

KiST. EUA. p. 14l>. 



1 



IS4 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808; 



to deprive Hm 'agricuUiirist of tlwt 
lOOtketi .wliich hy cr^atHig a de* 
niitid for wore grain than the 
mtre Attfiiport of the piptilatioo re* 
quintfs, jodiicei liiin to raise nrare : 
to wliioh saperahandanoe^ in rase 
of t coo<fMirative failure of the 
ofop, recourse can be had lor sup- 
plying tlir extreme apd claimant 
watils Mf tiie iienple. The bill, 
afWr a great struggle, was read a 
third tiwe m llie house f>f Lord^ 
and passed,, on the 2d of July. 

By this. time the object that uras 
paminbuiil to all others in Ihe pub* 
lie mind nod heart was Spain.**- 
The Spaniards roused by the per<* 
lidious.Bttd base conduct of Buorni* 
parte and his agents tinvaivls the 
l-oyah family vf Spain> lo resent* 
inent|jndiguation, hatred^ and ro- 
ven^e», bad declared in every pro- 
vince, though without previous CO0-, 
cert» simultaneously, and with one 
consent, their fixed resolution to 
avenge Ibejr wrongs/ and firee their 
country from the tyraiiuy and coo- 
tauiination of tlie French, or to 
perihh in the attempt ; and <l<^u- 
ties had come from tiie Junta and 
states of the princijpiality of Asturias, 
tofoli^it the aid of the king and - 
govemoi^tof Great Britain aud 
Irelaud. . 

|4rv Sherjdan seemed to he no 
more Mian the organ of the |>abltc 
8eutiipi(ei|ls and vows, when in the 
hoiise of commons, June 15, lie 
ros^.to calltlie attention of ihe le- 
gislature to tlie $ifiairs of Spain, 
andstheir wtii^st- exertions to* the 
assistance of llje Spaniards. " 1 
ani £|r, said lie, • from wishing mi- 
iiiUers to embark in any rash or rO- 
mai^tic enterpi 19% in favour * of 
Spain; but,, sir,, if ,tlje enthusiasm 
and animation, which now exists m 



a part' of Spain,' should spi^^ oVer 
the whole of that comitrv,, I am 
Gonvmc<*d that since tlib first burst 
of tlie Frenoh revolution, thef^ ne- 
ver existed so hafipy aii opportuni- 
ty for Great Britain to strike a bold 
stroke for the rescue of the world. 
But, sir^ it is said, ' * if you do not 
distrust the administration, why dis- 
cuss this sid>ject in parliament T 
Sir, I will tell you why. I am dis- 
|NMed to trust ^riniinist ration. But 
1 wish first to declare, that, in my 
.o|>inion, we nmst not deal in drib- 
blets: we must do nmch or no- 
thing. Why do I make this deela- 
ration? Because no cabinet which 
has hitlierto exi<ifed in this countrv 
— ^not even excepting that with 
which I had the honoor of being 
connected — ha<« pursued simply and 
plainly one clear and diiitinct ob- 
ject. , Instead of striking III the 
core of tlie eyil, Ihe adnmiistratrons 
of this countfy have liittierto coo- 
tented themselves witii - nibbling 
at the rind. In^ this cen^sure, 1 
must not include an honourable 
frieiid near me, nor Mr. Burke. 
Tliey would iiave proceeded direct- 
}y add completely to the object 
wbidi they had in view, or they 
would not have ad\*auced to it a 
step. But With' these exceptions, 
tlie ministers of Eiigladd have pur- 
sued u petty policy ; they have 
gone i|bout filching fiugar islands, 
and neglecting all that was* dtgiiV' 
fied, and all that was consonant 
to thetndy m)dersto«>d intereists 
of their countrt. I wisli *tlierc- 
fore, sir, to let Spain kno\r, 
that the condiiel which tve have 
pursued we will not perseven^ in, 
but that we are resolved fairiy 
and fully to Mand up for tfie sal- 
vation of Euro|)e« ' If & co-6pera- 



HISTORY OF EUBOPE. 



105 



on wilb. S|n^Q be eypedient, it 
lould be aa effectual C(M)p«r»* 
ojK 1 repeat, that I am far from 
roiiiptiog k^ majesty's goveni* 
lent to eui^e iii any rash ro- 
mntiq euterprize; but if, upon 
scertaining the state of the popu* 
ir niiurl in Spain, they find it is 
warmed by a patriolio and en(hii- 
ia^itic 'ardour, theii^ sir,,, all I ask 
s, iliat that feeling should be met 
lere with eorrespoiulini; eoerpy and 
ntbuskiasm. Buonaparte has hir 
Fierto run a inosl - yictorions race. 
iith«'rto be. lias bad to.coutend a- ^ 
;ain»t pf incoi witlmul dignity, and 
tiinUters without wisdom. He baa 
ou<;ht agaiost countries in which 
lie people have been inditferent as 

his success ; he has yet to learn 
vhat it is to fi^bt against a country 
II which ,tbe people are animated 
Atth one spirit to ,rest^t him. So, 
iir, sir, from bringing forwanl a 
notioQ prematurely to , embarrass 
m ni^,|est^'s goveruipcnt, I solemi>- 
y decldxe, that, if tiie opportu^ 
iilv to which I have- alhid«d of a 
■isroroMS inlerfereuce on the part of 
Bii^lund should .arise, tiie present 
Khimii>l ration shsiil have, from me 
IS cordial aud .^s sincere a sup|)ort 
IS if ihe^nian wbom 1 most loved 
veie restureil .to life and |iaw~er,'-^ 
N ilii» a vs|ia discussion 1  Let those, 
ivho think) so look at t lie present 
it ate of Europe. Will fiot llie aoi-- 
nation of the Spaoi^h mind t>e ea* 
zittd by the knowledge tba^ their 
cause ^ espoused, ,jnpi by niinisleni 
alone, -bttt.by th^ parliament ami 

1 he people oif England? If there 
be a disposition iu Sp^in to rpsent 
tiie ins|i|U^ ^i\d iu^iucie^ too euor* 
mous lo h^, described bv- language, 
IV Inch ihtfy have, endured from the 
t^^ rant of the • earlhi. . wiU not, IhaA 
«tispQsition be roused to the most 



sublime exertion, bv Ibe tigsHrraiM' 
that their ctfbrtB will be cordiaHy* 
akied by a great and powerful mi^' 
tion} Sir, 1 think this a roost in»A* 
portant crisi& Never was any tfainst 
so btave, so generous, so noble, as 
the condoet of the AsturiiuM. They , 
liavc magnanimously avowed their 
hostility to France, they have de- 
clared war against Buonapafte; 
they have no retreat ; tliey are' re« 
solved to couqner, or toi perish ia 
tlu* grave of the honour and the 
independence of their country. It 
is that the British government may 
advanoe to their assistance with a 
firmer step, and with' a bolder 
mien, that I lave been anxions to 
aflbrd this^pportunity' to the Bri- 
tish parliament, of expressing the' 
feelings which they entertain on the 
occasion. I move, sir, '' Tlmt an 
humble Arkiress bie presented to 
hb majesty, that he will be tr^ct- 
ously pleased to^irect that there be 
laid before this bouse, copies of 
such Proclamations as have been 
received by hb majesty's secretary 
of slate for foreign afiairs, an(f 
which Jiave jieen issued since the 
arrival of. the French army at Ma-' 
drid ; wbetlier by the Spanish go- 
veronient, the French commander 
in .chief, or by fiersons since claims 
ing to act on behalf of the Spanbh 
nation" ' 

•Mr.stHrrctary Canning admHt^, 
that Mr. Sheridan's 'Speech, betn|r 
moderate, caUed fWr a general dis- 
closure of the senttnients of hb 
majesty's ministers as^ might be 
made without hazard, williont a 
dfshonourahle comproinbe, and 
without exriting expe<iations, which' 
might  never be realian<l. He de-' 
clared, that hb mtge^'s ministers 
saw.^iHt a 'deep and- lively Interest, 
the uobic struggle which a part of. 

the 



126 ANNUAL REGISTER, ]fi08. 



tbe JSpanish mikiou was now making 
to resist the unesamplcd atrocity- cuf 
France, and to preserve die inde- 
pendence of their country ; and 
that tbercfBwted the strongest d»* 
position on the part of the British 
government to afford every practi- 
cable Slid in a boniest so magna- 
nimous. It. wottid never occur to 
•niintstry that a state of war existed 
between Spain and Great Britain^ 
They ishouki proceed upon the 
principle tlitft any nation of Europe 
tjiat started up with a deterniitia^ 
tion to oppose a power which, wbe* 
ther insidiously professing peace, t>r 
declaring open war, was the com* 
nion enemy of all nations, whatever 
might be the existing |)i)litical reia- 
lions of titot nation with Great Dri- 
taiu, became instantly our essential 
ally. In timt event bis majesty's 
niinisters would have three objects 
in view. Tlie firsts to direct the 
united efforts of the two countries 
against the common foe. The se^ 
cond, to direct those efforts in a way 
that should be most betteiicial to 
t|ie new ally. Tbe third, to direct 
those efforts in a manner^ condu- 
cive peculiarly to Britisli interests : 
though the last, of these objects 
woiUti be leil entirely out of the 
question when compared with the 
- otlier two. , 

To Mr. Wliitbread, who const** 
dered the third of these as narrow 
policy, . subjecting tbe interests of 
Uie great cause lo the minor con- 
«emsof Great Britain, Mr. Can- 
ning, very consistently indeed with 
what he had jnst declared^ replied, 
that in this contest in whicli Spain 
was. embarked, no interest could be 
so purely British as Spanish sue- 
oesB ; no conquest so. advantageous 
Ibr Britain, as conquering from 



France; bal it was' deemed hiahly 
impmper, not only by Mn Can* 
ning and 'Other nunUterialists, but 
by Mr. Ponsonby» and otbers on 
liisside.of the bonse, to communis 
cale \h^ information tyoved for 
to the world at tiie present mo** 
ment. ^ 

Mr. Siieridan said, that ^is only 
object was, to awaken the country 
to the opportunity, which if the ia« 
formation from Spain was true, 
might lead to the rescue of Europe, 
and to the release of oppressed 
countries 'from the gtasp of a ruth- 
less conqueror. ^.He bad no objec- 
tion to withdraw his motion, coo- 
vinced tliat much benefit might ac- 
cnid, even from ihe present discus* 
sion. 

The same interes^ng subject was 
introduced into the bouse .of peers, 
on the dOtb of June, by the duke of 
Norfolk. 

On tbe. third reading of tbe 
stamp duties bill', the duke rose, not 
to oppose the bill, but at a mo- 
ment when parlrament was voting 
supplies for the eiirrent yeai^ to a- 
vaH himself of the privilege of a 
pecrof parliament, and oflfersoaie 
advice to his majesty*s mniisten» 
which the present posture of afiaifs 
suggested to his mind. It was, 
however, by no means his wish, to 
draw any answers from the minis- 
ters, which they should not deem it 
perfectly propef and safe to make. 
The most wanton ambitk>n, the 
foulest perfidy, the most cruel op- 
pression, had lately displayed theiiH 
selres in Spain to a degree onpaial- 
leled, he believed, in any age or 
cpontry. These ^xcestes hm ia- 
spired ' the Spaniards with becom- 
ing indignadon and reseotinait, 

and^ tbev Wfre- now ^ndovouriag 

to 



HISTORY OF EUROP,£/ 



127 



resist tiic pmvcr which ' was pfc- 
THv^ to overwlidm them, Tliere 
I s n o in» d bat must wish sncffcss 
a generous and gallant people, 
ns strug!*ling in the glorious cause , 
national independence. No man, 
; was sure, could more Cordially 
isl] tliem success than he did, or 
ould more willingly concur in 
le |>ro|3cr means of promoting 
1(1 ensuring that success; but 
hat w<re the most proper ;:ondi- 
OI15, and t|ie best mode of assist* 
I!; the Spaniards ? What part were 
is majesty's ministers prepared to 
rt at so critical a juncture I They 
ad at present in this country dele- 
ft es from the brave people of 
•])ain, who seemed determined to 
lem llie torrent by which they 
verc to be swept into servitude. 
:>om these and other sources, he 
toped they might he able to col- 
(ct the best hiformation of the real 
!ate of that country, and of the 
>robabiHty of success, with which 
() bold and liazardous a struggle 
ni^ht be attended. With such in- 
brmation t>efore them, what would 
>e their conduct? This was the 
3oifit that excited his anxiety. — 
^Voidd tney hold out encourage* 
ment and assistance to the Spani* 
3rrls, who were now in arms against 
tiie invaders, before they saw any 
form of government established in 
Hic country with which they could 
communicate? -Would they make 
common cause with the patriots of 
Spain, t>efore they ascertained the 
principles on which ,they were act- 
ing, and the end which they were 
endeavouring to accomplisli ? He 
couhl not think it pohtic to embark 
in such a cause, wttliout some pre- 
vious knowledge of the dest^is of 
^le Spanish patriots; without some 



more definite determins^otr iif the 
grounds ou which they \vere pro^ 
ceeding to act. He hoped mini- 
sters would take vt lesson from past 
experience, and recollect the result 
of the iuterferen^e of this country. 
In La Vendee. He thought it hii 
duty to throw out these hints, with^ 
out expecting any detailed explana- 
tion of what might be the views and 
intentions of his majesty's govern- 
ment. 

Lord Hawkesbury, aAer bestow- 
ing due praise on the candid, and * 
cirGums|)ect manner in which the 
noble duke had delivered his opi- 
nions on a pointy of such delicacy, 
said, tltat the people of Spain had 
manifested a spirit and determina- 
tion to resist the attempts of their 
invaders, which would have done ' 
honour to the most glorious periods 
of their history, aud which, per* 
haps, were not to have been' ex- 
pected under the pressure of such 
formidable difficulties. ^ Sueh a 
scene, every man id that house, 
and in the country, must haii with 
the liveliest satisfaction. And what 
every generous heart must wish 
should be done, in support of so 
glorious a cause, hb nrajesty's mi- 
nisters "would feel it their duty to 
do. With regard to what informa- 
tion they had received of the de- 
signs or the hopes of those brave 
and resolute meu who, in defence 
of their country's independence, 
were exposing tliemselves to every 
thing that a powerful and san- 
guioary tyrant could devise and in- 
flict, it could not be expected that 
he shouhl now unfold' it. His ma- 
jesty's ministers were fully sensible of 
the extreme importance of this event ; 
and, he trusted, they would be 
found to have acted accordingly. 

House 



»■ 
t 



1*8 ANNUAL-REGISTER, 1808. 

House of Lonh, 4th July.— By indeed, tbe greater part of tbe 

virtue of a commission* tbe royal speech turned, as was uatuial» on 

assent was given to a number of the Spanish nation, loyally and no* 

bills: aiUr whidi the lord than- biy struggling against the tynuinjf 

cellor, having delivered a speech in and usurpation . of Pranoe, and 

Lis majesty's name, to both houses % therefore no longer to be conai^ 

prorogued parliament to the ?Otb dered as tht enemy, but the ally 

of August*^ The concluding, and, of Great 

* See State Papers. 



' ( 






en A p. 



WI STORY OF E^UROPE. Ifip 



CHAP. VII. 

M 

lonaparie inttmi oft tht Siibfugaiion of Spain, hy a comhined Plan of 
ircarka^ and Force, ^Divisions afti Distractions in the Royal Fa^ 
mily of Spain,— FWnehTroopi poured into Spain — Spanish Amhas^ 
mdor at Paris, returns to Madrid with Instructions from Buond" 
parte, — A On^erence between Mm and the Kin^ and Queen. — Pre* 
parafions of the Royal Family to emigrate to Mexico,— General Mu- 
rat advances with his whole Army to occupy Madrid, — Ferdinand 
Vfl. solicitcms to conciliate the Favour of Buonaparte. — Report of 
Buonaparte*s being on his way to (he ^anish Capital, — Ferdinand 
persuaded to go to Burgos to meet him, arsd drawn on to Bayonne: 
whither ail the re^t of the Royal Family of Spain are als& attracted,-^ 
Circumstances co-incident in point of Time with these Intrigues. — 
Description of the Frontier of Spain, — Fortresses and other Position^ 
occupied by French Tro&ps, — On what Pretences, ^^ Report that the 
King was preparing to leate Aranfuez, with a View to Emigration, — 
Insurrection at Aranjuez, — The Prince of the Peace arrested and 
imprisoned, — Charles IF. abdicates his Throne in favour of the 
Prince of Asturias, — Proclaimed King under the Name of Ferdinand 
VII, — First Acts of Ferdinand's Reign, — Arrival and Receptidh of 
Murat at Madrid, — An Occurrence at Barcelona of a nature most 
mspicious and alarming to the Spaniards.—rPatriotism of Count 
Espellata; Governor General of Catalonia, — Effects produced^by the 
Journey of Ferdinand to Bayonne On the public Mind, — Interference 
of Murat, at the Instigation of Buonaparte, for the RekasemtM of 
the Prince of the Peace^ — Ukiversal Joy that had been excited at the 
Imprisonment of this Favourite, — His excessive Elevation contrasted 
ivith his Fall.*- Arrival of Charles IV, dnd his QueSn at Btiyonne.-^ 
Visited by Buonaparte, 

^HE treatjof 't'ilsif, asobsetv* never be quiet so lon^ aa tKe so- 
L ed in our last volume, was vereigiity of a neighboAringv 'greaf, 
rdly concluded when Buoua- and gioribus peninsula resided in 
rte, agreeably to wiiat had been the house of Bourbon. Tbti re- 
reed oit between himself and the dnction of tlidf ndble countfjf nn^ 
iperor Atetamder, turned his eyes der his own power, appeared! to be 
the west of Europe, and resolved necessary to the- security ' of thb 
the subjugation of Spfiin and thrones he had already usifttp^d, 
»rtugal. In this, it may be pre- und even to his 'personal sAfet^, 
medy he wsii actuated by a j^s- In tbe combined plan of tretiche^ 
m still' til^re stiniuitative than his ry and force, which ' he determiired 
ual lust of conquest. His guilty to pursue for the attainment of that 
ind, though perhaps iuipenetra- object, it was his first cafe to fo- 
e by Iriie stings of remotstf, coiild' ibent discord^ in the royal family. 
VOL.L. [K] The 



i|80 



ANNUA t REGISTEil»:i808. 



'Hie prince of Aitaruis li«d traos- 
ttiitted iOibis fiither a sketch of Jthe 
adfiiinistrattQii of the prince of the 
peace, charging him with a notori-' 
ous attacliment and «ubservieDcy*to 
France* Buonaparte, appnzi^d of 
llrisi itimalafed the minister to ihc 
prOeeediDgi at the Escurial, in the 
avtuinn of 1807; and then it was 
his polic^r to take the part of the 
oppres9ed prince agaihst the loiais* 
terial oppreawr. Hesethtomlf, by 
aourijitiing the ambition of ibesou> to 
exdie ilie leMBtanent of the fttiierk 
and rendered them routnal objectsof 
niistnist, jealousy, and hatfed ;• to 
. disarm the&therlbMiitokiogprecau- 
i tions against the son, whilefae stillen- 
couffaf^ l|ie son in his views of jin- * 
mediaie sacoessiii^n; to seduce to his 
fide all^ thai was moat respectable' 
in jSpaio» or ,by infamous proposi* 
tioDS and suonisest to subject Ihem 
to popular suspicion ;• and, m a 
woid, by atriking a mortal blow at - 
the head of goTeniment»..aud .get- 
ting tntohispower* or under his jn- 
flueoect Of debasing the great lords 
to whom the public eye might, at a 
great criifii, ba natural^ turned* to 
tear asunder all tlie tnaids of the 
aocial compadt, aaud plunge the de^ 
fenoelesa nalktt toio anarchy and 
coafiiaioii* 

Buonapai^ dunng his affected 
jomwy la Italy*, towards tlie 
dose of i90r» .thought it now time 
to pmwa answer lo lettets he bad 
JMeiaad froaa the kiofi^of Spaing de- 
llSluig the partieutaia of the H^e- 
.rioua arrest and release of the 

r' ice of Ailiiria8« In bis answer, 
denied bis knowledge of that 
JljflWyr» far that be had'cTer reeled 
.iiqrl^rira«ithe|irince: though 



Ibis answer did not aiccold witblhst 
afterwards transmitted .^byBuaqft' 
parte to Ferdinand, la which he 
formally deolaresy tlial he had re- 
ceived it. He yielded his "coosdit, 
however, to the king's proposal of 
a marriage betiveauptiieth^ir ap^ 
.parent and a FreoA princess of 
Bnonaparte'a family «. well fofssee- 
ing that this would affi>rd a pretext 
for interfering in the piriyate coa- 
cems of the royal £iaBi^.a aod| at 
auy rate, that it Would ^ wtitlihold 
or withdraw their at|(eoHo»fr<HHuI« 
lerior measureafor the Mitlaieolof 
his designs in the P«i|inavfe> By 
this conduct also he «hoped* to gsia 
the goodwill of tha $fiatiish.oaiioo 
in general^ as it. hud a tendeac^.to 
convince them of the.^noerity of 
his friendship for perBOOa.to whom 
they were so firmly .attached. .It 
waib further, q^lcuiatfid to .gi^e cre- 
dit to t&^insisiuaiioiis 4>f biseaiis- 
saries . in Spain, til^Jt Buonnparte 
was leoretly iodined iQ f^imnrihe 
cause of &e, prince, of. A^tutias: 
while, througb other cbaancl^ tlie 
ministei^ and fnvoaritie, ^cdoy« the 
prince of thape^eet woope amhi- 
Hous dews must soon have b€ta 
discovered by a peiMH of ^ Buoaa- 
paite's penetratic^ .was pdvateij 
encouraged to look forward to the 
protcfstion of Fraiier» in^ .the ac> 
eompliahmeut pf >is oeiiiiridw pn>- 

jects»  ' • :;■. ,.; , -:, , 

By thiamyster^s <NNidilct Bco- 
naparte threw \)mhift$, tb^ qnefm»the 
prince of Asturia0» ^itk» Civoufitc 
into aatrtme AwtAffn And whiie 
tbf^ jwerajaWiof th^m- upd<r tkb 
distraction* the Frencl^tr^fto^. ware 

sufiefed> to.ipread tbfi¥mif!H fi^ 
a gvealpoilton ofj thiiiSimbh ter* 

. ritorj. 



tee M; JUXK. fimr» Icnar p^^are. 



»••' 



!.> L'.T 



HISTORY OF EUROPE- 



181 



}tor^% So fiir did tfak ttiAituation 
irevail in the administration- that 
)rders were issued for receiving 
)nd treating the French on a more 
ibeml scale than even tbeir own 
loops. 

Many important posts in Spain, 
IS well as the whole of Portugal, 
being now in tbe possession of the 
French, Buonaparte transmitted to 
the king of Spain a e0niplaint, that 
no further steps had been taken in 
the afiair'of the marriage of the 
leir apparent with his reJation. To 
this Charles; replied, that ;retaimiig 
Jie same sentiments, he was desir- 
:)us that Tthe marriage might take 
i)lace immediateiy. Some further 
proceedmgs were necessary to the 
iiraturalion of Buonaparte's pro* 
j«;ct, and not being willing to com- 
mit these to writing, he thought he 
couk) nol find a titter instrumeut 
ihan Don Eogeniolzquierdo, whom 
le had detained in Paris, in a state 
)f great dejectiiw and terror, art- 
ully impressed upon him, that he 
night thereby be induced the more 
fi'ectually to execute his commia^ 
ioo, by inspiring the royal patents, 
ind. the ftvourite with the -same 
eelings; laquieido was ordered to 
epair to Spain : wbieh he did in a 
ery mysfterious and preeipilate 
iianrief. ActSotdSmg 16 his verbal 
taleraenli he did not bring any 
>roposal with him m writing. On 
lis artivfid, under these circum- 
tances, at Atanju«2*, tlie fevou- 
ite cdmtnded him to the presence 
if tlie loyal^^arents. and their eoo«- 
ercneea were condtieted with so 
nnch aeefeey, that it wa^* inip^yssi* 
>te for atiy one to discover the ob- 
f'ct of hii mission. But soon after 



his departure' from thei Spanish ca-. 
pital, their majesties began to shew 
a disposition to abandon both tlie 

metropolis and the Penm$ula|. mid 
to enngrate to Mexico, s . / 

The recept exiimpie of the deter- 
minations taken by the royal (andly 
of Portugal (which, %} some have 
conjectured, was not uninfluenced 
by secret commtlnicatiotis from 
France) . induced Boonaparte , to 
form a hope that the example of 
the court. of Lisbon, in the present 
perplexing and alariiiing p<istnre of 
afiairs, migKt.be foUovyed by that 
of ^pain^ But s^arcc^ly had the 
fi(st reports gone abroad of the in- 
teniions of the royal family of 
Spain to abandon the place of their 
residence, a resokitieii unequivoK 
cally indicated by the preparations 
which were going oh, when discon- 
tent and fear wer^ exhijixiled m the 
mObt lively colouirs in. the features 
of all the inhabitants of the capital, 
and of all ranks and classes of-^er- 
>ons. .'i1iis< alone was sufficient to 
induce their majesties to refute the 
rumour; atyl to Msure^ the people 
tlurt they would not abandon them. 
Nevertheless sdch was the general 
distmst, such the magnitude of the 
evib which most have ensued; and 
such and so many the symptoms of 
a feed determination tp emigrate, 
that every .one was on the' alert, 
and alt seemed to.be impressed 
with the necessity of pvevMting a 
measure fraught with sd many mis- 
diiefs. The danger iocff ased, and 
with this- the > fears of the ^ple, 
A popahur' coimnotioil bttrsl^ forth 
at Aranj^iea, on the 17th and t^h 
of March, like a sudden explosion; 
the people b«inf actuated by alsort 

[K?] of 



* One of the roystrtthfence^Vsitntfesfir the banks >sf the Tsguti twaaty-tbi^e 
nites to the soatkward ef afadrid. 



134 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

of instinct of seif-preservatioo. liie idea, that the royal fitnifly were aU 

favonrite who/ without the title ready on the coast ready to em- 

of king,, bad exerdaed all the bark ; and that, far firom nieeting 

functions of royalty, and who &- the aligh^l^t obstacle on* the part 

voured tbeschenic of emigration, of the people, they 'would receive 

in the hope of withdrawing him- him with open arm's aa their de« 

self, and some portion, at least, of liver and gnardian angeL He con« 

his enormoos treasures from the ccfved that the nation was in the 

vengeance of an oppressed and out- highest degree dissatisfied with 

raged people, was thrown into pri- their government,! not reflecting 

son;^ Scarcely had this tempestu- that they were only dissatisfied with 

ous scene taken place, when the the abuses that had crept into the 

roy^l parents finding themselves administration of it. 

deprived of the support of their t^ The instant that tlie grand duke 

vourite, the prince of peace, took of Berg was apprized^ of the oc- 

the unexpected resolutbn which, currences at Aranjuex, he advanced 

according to Cevallos, they had for with his whole army to occupy the 

some time entertaineci, of abdicat- (»pital of the kingdom : intending, 

ing their throne t which they ac- no doubt, to profit by the occasion, 

corduigly did in favour of their and to take such steps as should 

son' and heir the prince of As- seem best calculated to reafize the 

tnrias \ Buonaparte, ignorant of plan of making himself master of 

this sudden event, and,perliaps, ne* Spain, 

ver suppodng that the Spaniards Meanwhile the mystterions ob* 

were capable of such resolution, scurity of Buonaparte's projects, 

had ordered bis brother in law, Ihe proximity of his troops, and 

styled bv him prince Murat, grand the ignorance in which Ferdinand 

duke of Berg, to advance with his ¥11, was of the real object of Buo- 

army towards Madrid, under the napart^'s 91>proach« as was given 

 o\\\, 

*. According to a F^«nch newspaper; (and it is to be recollected that no news- 
l»per it pabUsbed io fVance not correspondent to tlie idras and v'lewa of Bno- 
naparte) ooe party in Spain accased the prince of peace of entering into 
a project with tbe queen herself, with whom be was nntvenally believed to be 
a very particnlar. and most intimate favourite, for tlie ruin of her son, the heir ap- 
parent, umjer the pretence of his having engaged in a plot for the detbrpnebicnt of 
hi» ftther. The prince of Astnrias, it was added* had t>een drawn int» this eonspi- 
racy by the saiyceslions of his princess, hisown c^ousin, a daughter of the king of tbs 
Two Sicilies, by a sister of die ill4ated Maria Antoinette of France.. This prin- 
cesSt feeling tlie degraded situation in which her husband was held tlirougfa the in* 
Aienoe of the fkvonritie Godoy oypr the 8o%'ei-eign, took, it was said, Uttie pains to 
anppreis her sentiments on the sulijeet. — Her aversion to the French witioii cannot 
.be a, matter of sorprixe, when We reflect on-the indigniiies and wiseriw btongbt by 
them on tier parent?, and many other nev relatives „at Paris, at Milaa^ ind at 
Flocence. The queen could, besides, discover iii the princess of Astorias, only a 
rising ri^l and a fnfnre mistress, of whose sentiments respecting her o«m conduct, 
public aad^rivate, ihe probably was not U^orant^ Whatever may bave^lieen thf 
cause, it is knevm tiiat the queen and tbe ^ncess had . Iteen for soine time on no 
Tery amiable terms: so that when this young princess vras snatched away by death 
in tier eariy years, persons were not wanting tO' suimise Uiat sjbie bad' men aMcri^ 
flee t0 the arts of the queen, the favourite, and the French partiaaaaat Madrid, 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. # 



133 



^uly to Madrid, indvced this 
Tlnce to adopt such measures as 
ppeared best calculated to ce^- 
itiate hk good will. Not satisfied 
4tli his Imving comiiismicaied bis 
ccesaioQ to tbe tiuxme io tbe most 
riendly and affectioaate terms, the 
'in^p Ferdinaod« appoiuted a depu* 
alien of tbrte gnmdees of Spain 
o proceed to Bayoone, and in bis 
lame to compliment liis imperial 
najesty. <He also appointed aao- 
her grandee of Spain to pay a si- 
nilar compliment to the grand 
luke of Beig, wbo bad already 
xnved m tbe vicinity of Ma* 
Irid. 

One of tbe contrivances to wbich 
he Froicb agent bad immediate 
recourse, was, to assure Ibe iting, 
md to spread tbe rumour in all 
]uarter8y tiat bis imperial majesty's 
irrival in Madrid might be expect- 
mJ every moment. Under this im- 
>ression, the necessary orders were 
;iven for preparing apartments in 
lie palace, suitable to tbe dignity 
)f so Aogttst a guests And tbe 
lung wrote again to the emperor 
liow agreeable it would be io liim 
:o be personally acquainted with 
liis majesty, and to a^ure Itim with 
lis own lips, of his ardent desire to 
Jtredgthen more and more the al- 
liance which subsisted between the 
two sovereigns. , 

The grand duke of Berg had, in 



• 

the BMantime, enterM Madrid at 
tbe bead of his troops, and begun, 
without a mooKni's delay, Io sow 
the fteeds otf discord. He spoke in 
a mysterious manner ojf the abdi- 
calioB of the erown,«xecuted amidst 
the tmnults pf Aranjuec, mid gave 
k to be uwlerstood, that until the 
emperor acknowledged Ferdiaatid 
.VII. it was iniponsible f€»r him to 
take any step that slionld appear 
like en acknowledgment, and that 
he was under a necessity of treating 
only with tbe royal f&tber. This 
pretext did not fail to produce the 
elicct which the grand duke in- 
tended. . The royal parents, the 
moment they were infonQed of 
this drcumstance, availed them- 
selves of it to save the^^ favourite, 
who remained in confinement; and 
in ujiose favour Murat professed 
Io take an interest, for tbe sole pur- 
pose of flattering their majesties*, 
mortifying Feidin^d, and leaving 
fresh matter of discord between 
the parents and the son. In this 
state of things, the new king made 
bis public entry hito Madrid, with- 
o'ut any other parade than the most 
numerous concourse of the capital 
and 4ts environs, tbe strongest ex- 
pressions of love and loyalty, and 
acclamations which sprung from 
the joy and enthusiasm of his sub- 
jects — a scene, says OevaUos f, 
(wbofn, with some abridgment, in 
[K3] this 



* A letter, from the miecn to the ^nuifl duke of Ber^, iinploring bis intervention 
fur preserving the life or Godoy, aad breathing all the &nd attacbineot auil anxiety 
of an amorous old wonian, wiU be seen in Appendix to the Chronicle, p. 240. 

t £)LpoMtioo of the pi^ctic^ea an(| machinationi which led to the usorpation of the 
prown of Spain, and the meanti aciopted by the emperor of the French to carry it 
into execntion, by Don Pedro. Cevailo9, fint secretary of state, and di9pat<shel to 
liis catholic raajesw, Ferdinand VIL There is not a little reason to suspect Cevalla) 
of a vcrsatihty of character. Afier serving Charles lY. iinder the prince of the 
P«ice,.he went into the scrvicp of Ferdinand, when Buonaparte appeared to favour 
liiat y<iVDg prinoeiu He accomp«4iied his new master to Bayonne^ He was there 
Appo)ote4 to Jiegotiate wi<th the Ff eiich agent, when Ferdinand was desired to resa^ 
■* " • , his 



154 ANNUAL R;EG I STElR,lft08- 



tbii/piiit^>f «iir»»iinis ^e<feUow) 
tr^hfffand ftiid^idpressivie^'ki wrhioh 
th«<'jraimg khisr was^edi like a i«- 
tli«r 411 the ittldA t>l |ib cbil<kei>, 
cattily his cspital^ atitbengeni* 
ratot tnd ^uaidnu of the mcMar- 
ebv.' Of tto •ocoe the gfaad-duke . 
of^BiTg wfts « witncttt iMt Ikr from 
abmdoiiing Ms pltaxt, he ret^ved to 
fM^reevere ia it with greater ardour. 
The €xperHiient>iipon the royal pa- 
rent* produced the desired effect. 
B^ whilst Feniinand, Iheidol of the 
nation; wa» pveaeiit, it was impoin- 
ble to carry the plan into execution. 
It was therefore neceesarylo make 
eiTery effort to remoTe this prince 
from Madrid; . To accomplish this 
object, the grand duke< was ex- 
tremely assilluotti in spfeading re* 
poits of tbe arriva) of a fresh cou^^ 
rier irom Paris, and that the' em- 
peror might be expected ^wed/ly 
to nrri win the Spanish capital. He 
set hiuiselfi in tbe tint place, to 



indnoe' the* infant Don' *Car]oi, 
to set cml to teetive' hh impetial 
majesty N8f>ole;oo| on the so^f^posi* 
tion that his rbyal highness must 
meet faim before M ^uld liave 
proceeded twb days On his jmjtney. 
Hift majesty, Ferdinand,* aoc^d^ to 
the proposal. Tbe grtmd dafke had 
 no sooner 'succeeded in procuring 
tlie departure lof Don Cbrlos, than 
he manifested tbe mnut' aiDctotl^ de» 
site that the king sihould' do the 
same, leaving no means untried 
to persuade* his majesty to tah^ this 
step, Assonughknttiat it would be 
attended by the happiest * conse* 
queoces to the king and the whole 
kingdom. " 

At tbe same time tb^t tbe grand 
duke of Berg, the French ambassa- 
dor, and atl the other agents, of 
France, were proceeding fn this 
course, they were, on the tyther- 
baud, busily employed "wilii the 
royal parents t6 procure fW»m ihen 
^ '^ a Ibnnal 



his erowB on ^certaiv oouditiona* Bat acoordlDp^ to hSi awn etaSeneat^ beiair ftand 
too indexible a CQUiueUor, be was disiniised with mocb ias^lewe ftoip'tiie Frsadt 
^dvernment. Nevertheless, \%heu Joseph was nominated kipg, he went witii him to 
Madrid^ in the capacity of his prime minister. Then finding that tite national tide 
ef Spain -flowed with a stron;^, and, as he thoaght, with an irrwi^tilrie enrrent, cooA- 
t^ t» the ttsniper, he retanwdiiaciediately to theaerriot ofhte fenner miitnr. * W4 
^^efore .entirely ag^e in ofHuion with a writer in tbe Edioboifh Bevaew« tbst 
'^ with regard, to Cevallos liimself) it is not enough to si^, tliat aft^ all bis^pretoided 
protestations /igainst the unprincipled violence and insnltihg asorpatius oftheFrfDcIi 
eoort, he vctf iisAeef to accept of the pUoe of first minister to king Joseph Napoleon, 
and Ihait he weeifUd ^ that oflet * xheie is Mt^hoaeit man- to wham his owb 'vtMW* 
m%9l^ of these two leading facts will. not be qnite sati^t^ry^ and penfeeHy.eoBchK 
sive, as tt> the penional character of Don Pedro CevaUos.** , Yet we cawiot vfifhr 
hold, any more tbi^n this reviewer, ^' our belief from tb<^ story he tells of Aehuo* 
lence and the ontrageons tisarpations of Buonaparte. It hears tipou it the inCril^c 
charaot^r of truth. I»*porrespandB "exactly, wet oUly whh the general diirieler'of 
the persons veprSsented, but with the visible eateiior ^th^ trnsaetion it ptsfe s sa 
tm detail— barefaced an(| uubhishinf^ falsehood, and, open feroeioui vio)fluoe*"-T. 
Edinbnrgb'keview, October I808jp. %17. Hie scattered fhigments tally witli one 
anotiier, so as to form a regnlar eiRnee. It would not be credible of any one bat of 
Bnottsparle, of whom it has been said, that lie ** unites the impetuosity of the 
Ek«■cl^ the tnwcheroqs subtlety of the awdcm IftOlsi^^aad the Itoaeidasilflriss- 
0riaaiytcaq>^oftheCar8icaK* 'ItexhnchnHtaa^ woM ^eif^t^rW^ 

been mtrodnced Into a fictitioas narrative, aiming, like other fictidus,^at crecMIH^ 
by a conibmiity to what is generally knaamiafhaBiaa-natam.^JWhai>sMlt|hiiOiw 
fer/UHa phif fuam pwuoL Besides, tiie facts of any unportaaoe hi the nenatifs w 
Cevalies, are too r^ent and notorious to be disputed* 



HISTO.RY OF EUROPE^ 



135 



formal protest against the abdica« 
m of the «lt>wn« His-najcslfy. 
irdiwmA VII, beiug iueessaDtly 
^€(1 to go .to meet Ihe Frtndi 
(kperor,, piMftfuHy liesiUited be- 
ecKi tbe.^neoefsity of perforDiiug 



tliose^of the king his fether; in 
wbifib'caietiK cmpeffor wo«ld focfga 
ait cQOstdenilioBa o( wiiat had pasr 
sed* IB tno degree* hrierfer^ in tho 
internal ooocems of the kingdom^ 
and immediately nMogoiae hbiasih. 



acl of courtesy* nvbich he was^ je54;y >«s king of Spain and the In* 



sured would be attended, with 
leh adnnstagfousr results^ and bis 
luctance Id abandon iiis- loyal aucl 
:fJov«d people iin such critical dr-* 
iiustauce^ Gevalloa declares, Ibat 
tbis embarcussittg situation^ liis 
iD^tant opioioiH 9b tbe king's joai*- 
»t£r, JMr9s> that his majesty should 
)t leave his capital until he should 
Lve received certain information 
at the .emperor liad aciaaUy ar* 
ved in Spain/ and was on liis way 
k1 Qearlo Madrid ; and that even 
len be should only proceed to a 
istauce so short aa not to render it 



dies. TlieinosteatisAu:tofy«mwer 
was given, to general Savary^ andi 
the eoovemtioo was oootimied in 
teroM so flattering, ^ that aothhif 
more could have been desired. The 
audience terminated with im assui^ 
ance, on tlie part of Sav^, that 
the eflaperoc had , already left P^uis^ 
that he was near Bayonn^* and oa 
hii wayto Madrid. 

Scarcely. had general Savaryleft 
tbe audience chamber* whim be 
began to'oiake the moat urgent 
applications to the king to meet the 
emperor, assuring him that this at* 



ecessary to sleep one night out of teation would be very gratefiil. and 

\s capitah His mi^sty persisted flattering to his imperial majesty* 

»r some 4iays in .the resolution of And he affirmed so jrepeatedly» 

>t quitting' Madrid, until he should and in tfW|h positive terms, that too 



ceive certain advice of Napoleon^s 
)proacb* And he would have 
obably eontimied in.tbat determi- 
ition, had not the arrival of gene- 
il Savary a^ded greater weight to 
e reiteraticd solicitations of tbe 
^nd duke^ aad tbe ambassador 
eaQbamola. Gkneral Savary was 
inouoced as the eovpy from tbe 
uperor,aDd in.tbat capacity jie 
imanded an audience from the 
Qgt whAck was immediately grant- 
I. Savary professed that be was 
nt by tiyie ^mperprme^ly to coin- 
imcnl bis m^ies ty,.* and lo know 
betherhia sfBtimnitawitfa respect 
» France wen ' cooibrmable to 



* Frem tyaooaioas jepetitiMS of seisayi assarsaes^ a antfi acfoskMed with 
>artii tfaopsda^amlhMisn naasffSi anght have been apt te drew vcoatrary cs^-. 



emperor's arrival might be expected 
every moment, that it was irapossip 
Ide, Cevallos observes*, not to |pve 
credit to bis assertions. Tbe king 
at length yielded. The day up- 
pointed for -bis departure arrived* 
General Savary, afiecting the most - 
iteloos and assiduous attention to 
his majesty) solicited the honour of 
accompauyiog him on bis journey^ 
which, at the fiirthest, according to 
tbe information which he had just 
received of the emperor's approacl^ 
could not extend beyond Burgos. 

Tbe king, during his absence^ 
supposed to be oilly (br a few days» 
left at Madrid a supreme juntaf of 

[K 4] government^ 



.f* •*'. 



iSS ANJ&^UAL REGISTER^ 1«08. 



governraenty coDsisling of the aeece- To support his o^fn «oiisi«l«iicy» fce 

taries of slate, usually five m Dom- will probably begin by giving you 

ber, the president of which was his the title of highiiess^ kiui io five mi- 

uoole, the infant Don Antonio. — nutes he w^l give you that of ma* 

General Savar^, in a .separate car- jesty, and in tiiiiee days every thing 

nage^ folbwed the king to Burgos, will be settled, and your miuesty 



Rut the emperor ndt having arrived 
there, the king, urged by the ekmest 
and pressing entreaties of general 
Savary, proceeded to Vittoria. The 
g^eral, convinced that his majesty 
had resolved to proceed no farther, 
continued his journey to Bayonne, 



may return to Spain inMnerfiately." 
The king, after some besitaUcw, 
determined to proceed Io Bay- 

onne^. 

Scarcely had the king of Spain 
set foot on, the French territory, 
when he remarked, that no one 



With the intention, no doubt, of came to receive him, until on bb 

acquainting the emperor of all that arrival at St. Jean, de Lua, the 

had passed, and of procuring a let- mayor, attended by the muttidpa- 

ter from him, which should deter- lity, made his appearance. The 

giine the king to separate himself carriage slopped, and the mayor 

om his people. At Vittoria, his addressed his majesty in the moat 



majesty received information that 
Napoleon had arrived at Boyr- 
deaux, and was on his way to Bay- 
onne, where, in fact, he arrived 



lively expressions of joy, at having 
the honour pf being the first to 
receive a king, who was the friend 
and allv of France, Soon ^Aer be 



with his spouse, on the 15th of was met by the deputation of three 
April. While the French troops grandees* who had been sent off 



were making suspicious movements 
in the neighbourhood of Vittoria, 
general Sav^iry made bis ap))ear- 
ance in tliat city, with a fetter to 
Ferdinand, from the emperor of the 
French, dated at Bavonne, April 
i6ih\ To the contents of this 
letter, general Savsiry added so 
many and such vehement protesta- 
tions of the interest which the em- 
peror took in the wel^o of his 
majiesty and of Spain, that he even 
went so far as. to say, " I will suf- 
fer my head to be cut offf, if, within 
a quarter of an hour after your ma- 
j^ty's arrival s^t Bayonne, the em- 
peror shall not have recognized you 
as king of Spain and the Indies. 



by Ferdinand before Xa meet the 
French emperor ; and their repre- 
sentation, with respect to the intenr 
tious of Napoleon, were sot of the 
most flattering nature. He was 
now, however, loo near Bayonne 
to think 9f changing. his course; 
wherefore he continued hia journey. 
There came out to meet tbe king, 
the prince of Neufchatel» and Du- 
roc, marshal of the palace, with a 
detachment of the guard of hoooor, 
which tbe ciliaens of Bayoime M 
formed to attend hb mstjevty Na)io- 
leou, and they iuvited his miy^sty to 
enter Bayonne, .where a'place kad 
been firepared lor his Tesiidence ; 
wkich he did on the 9eth<lf April. 

Tke 



• See tliis letter in appendix to Chronicle, p. J27. : 

t The style of tlijspcotesUtiDn,<whkb tsthatof a lowbned.Raffiaar^^'4^"^'^' 
the contrast b^t^f/e^ the caart af France nadee the BeariMM».apduiiilas thein* 
giiinary Usurper. 

t Cevalios does not fail to assert lier^^ thatHuaMal step va^tplMali^kis ma- 
jesty contrary to his connsels, and those of other persons in us train, as well as io 
the supplications of the loyal city of Vittoria. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



137 



'he r^dence prepared for (he 
iiig appeared to all, mid was, in 
.*altty, but ifttle suited to the jj^uest 
ho was to occapyit. This re- 
larkable and expretaive neglect 
mned a striking contrast with the 
jidted magirificetice with which 
le kinf had prepared for the re- 
p)>tion of his ally itt Madrid. 
Vhile the kiug wa«i taken up with 
oubts concerning the meaning' of 

receptioii he so little expected, 
e was informed that the emperor 
as on his way to pay him a visit. 
lis imperial majesty arrived, ac- 
ompanied by a number of bis ge- 
efdls. The king went down to 
tie street door ta receive jiim, and 
»oth monarchs embraced each other 
nth every token of friendship and 
ifTeclion. The emperor of the 
Preoch staid but a short time with 
m majesty, and they embraced each 
^iher again at parting. Soon after, 
^larsJial Daroc came to invite the 
;ing to dine with tlie emperor, 
those carnages were coming to 
onvey the king, to the castle of 
^larrac, about the distance of a 
iiile and an half from Bavonne, 
vbere his ianperial majesty resided, 
vhicb accordingly took place« Na-' 
)oleon came as far as the stepi of 
he coach to receive his majesty ; 
ind having embraced htm again, 
ed him by the band to the apart- 
nent provided for hint. 

Leaving, for a little, the simple 
ind ill-fated Ferdinand in the hands 
y( Buonaparte, like Montezeuma in 
those of Pitanro, vre retui^nto no* 
iicf cedain ciroumstancts cotnci* 
cteat with the main aptlon in tlie 
dramaa in point of time, and cou- 
uecled with it by other relations ; 
wlticb cir^uQukiiqc;e& were i^ith^r ^t- 
together foreign to Uie deiign of 
Ctfvallos, or only glanced at in his 



exposition in an incidental and the 
slightest manner ; which was suffi- 
cient for his purpose. 

From the period of the defec- 
tion of Spain, in 1796, according 
to the treaty of Basle, from the ge- 
neral coalition of European powers 
against France, Spain had shewn 
herself so entirely submissive to the 
various rulers of that distracted 
country, as to appear rather in' the 
light of a subordinate province 
than an independent istate, and that 
even in tlie closest bonds of amity 
and alliance. Hie loss of fleets 
and colonies, the complete inter- 
ruption of all maritime commerce, 
and of all regular aiid certain com- 
munication with her transatlantic 
possessions, on which she more im- 
mediately * depended for revenue 
than any other European state in 
similar circumstances, nor repeated 
demands of pecuniary aid, ''nor the 
aggregate of^ the whole qf these 
considerations, had beetrable to 
•rousi^the Spanisfi government from 
tliis degrading state of lethargic 
subserviency. A government and 
nation that seemed so devoid of 
spirit and understanding, naturally 
tempted* tlie unbounded ambition 
of the men wim, since the end of 
the year 1 799» reigned with despo-. 
tic sway in France, Ituly^ and part 
of Germany. The treaty concluded 
• at Hlsit in the summer of 1^07, - 
as has he^n related in our last vo- 
lume, had not only terminated tha 
wai? between Russia and France, 
Init connected the emperor Alejcan- 
der with Buonaparte, by ties so in- 
timate that, instead of apprehending 
from him any obstruction or inter- 
ruption, in the execution qf l)i$ pro- 
jecls^ be de|]Mifn<kd on the watchful 
exertions of his new ally to avert 
any hostile nUem|)f, (f sutd could 

realty 



138 ANNUAL REGISTER,: 1808, 



Agreeably to the tenmrw&f tjhd» 
secret engageoietits with BiiODa* 
parte, while the flower .of -the Spa- 
. nish army bad been Dranaferred to 
the north of Oerinanyj. with a 
view, no doubt,, to the project now 
going forward^ bo<lies of French 
troops were speedily accumiuiitiied 
at different points of the northern 
frontier of Spain ; of which frontier 
it naay fee proper here to give a 
brief Jescriptiuu. . 

The noble Pehmsula, compre- 
hending. Spam and' Portugal, is 
washed on ail sides by the sea, is 
joined to France by an isthmus 250 
miles ill breadth, aclross which tbe 
line of demarcation lietween the 
countries is formed by the Pyreo- 
nees, a chain of mountains the se- 
pond for elevation in Europe, ex- 
tending frpm the angle of the Bay 
o^* Biscay in a south easterly direc- 
tion,^ to their abutment on the Me- 
diterranean. Across the Pyrenees 
frequent lateral vallies present com- 
munications between France aod 
Spain; of which, however, from 
political, but chiefly from natural 
obstacles, none Imve been made 
practicable for carriages except two; 
one at each extremity of the range. 
At the western extremity the road 
from Bayoniie follows theseacoast to 
the river Vidosspa* there separating 
the two countries^ oyer which a 
ferry carries the traveller into Spain 
at T^nm, a small open town, a cou- 
ple^ of miles below wbicli,-at the 
mouth of the Vidosspa, stands the 
town and fortress of JPontarabBt, 
one of tbe^ keys of Spain^and a 
^phce of inipoctanoe unt3 the 'ac* 

cwsion 

» In a Brendj n twiytp er, PtbroKry 1808, is an arUcls^ stating^ that flffeta is- 
perb liaiKs» richly oaparisoned, had passed fliroagli Bayonne^ in Unir wiyrl^ Ma* 
drid, sapt t>y Buonaparte as a present to the king of Spgun* 

t See Vd. XXtX. Hist. £uA. p. S78. 

» '  • > p<<y* 



really have been .apprehended, on 
his dominions, or those of- the con- 
federated states under his protec- 
tion, and, it may be added, not 
only his influence but authority. As 
h^ bad provided for security m bis 
rear, so he had smoothed the way 
before him. , His ultimate projects 
in the Peuinaula were so dextrously 
concealed or disguised* by pro-, 
fessfons of the sincerest friendship*, 
and pietended plans for (he par- 
tition and settlement of Portugal, 
thereby^ to secure to Spain, a free 
eoniMBu'nicaiion with her Atlantic 
possessions, that the prince then on 
the throne of Spaup, Charles IV. 
was far. from imaginfaig that -his 
great ally beyond the Pyrenees 
could possibly entertain any design 
hostile to the interests of hb crown 
and dominions. On the contrary^ 
Charles, by a woeful infatuation, 
was indu<^ to connect himself by 
special . treaties with Btmnaparte^ 
for the exprte purpose of lusbting 
him, ill seising, the continental pos- 
sessions of the queen of Portug^, 
with whom he had been long united 
by the firmest bonds of intermar- 
riage, consanguinity, and ancient al- 
liancef. Not only the nature and 
object of such treaties ought to 
have awakened the Spanish monarch 
to a sense of his situation, but also 
tiie circumstance that they had been 
conducted by means of a private, 
negotiator sent to the court of 
France, unauthorized and unknown 
to.^ that branch of the Spanish ad- 
ministration to v^hich all similar 
ne.gociatiQns were wont to bt com- 
municated and entrusted. 



HtSTORY OF EUROPE. 



139 



ion of't&ehoiise of Bourbon 
tb€ Ihrone of tbat tidgdonf^. 
»m the Vidossoa. the road leads 
i slanting diirectioo tp the soutb- 
it, graidually asceiidiug the moun- 
is fox fifty miles^ ^ aod then cms* 
^ tlie ridge* descfends into the 
in of the £bro, there passed, 
t either by a bridge or a ford, 
I by a ferry^ ialthough nearly 300 
les ffoio its junction with the 
.^diterraneau. From the £hro 
i road bends roiind to the wesl- 
rd by Burgos, Valiadolid, and 
2:ovia to Madrid, distant 300 
les from the frontier of France. 
le comoiunication from France 
Spain ^t the eastern extremity 

the Pyrennees, proceeds from 
'rpignan, across the plain of 
i>ussTllon to the foot of the Ddoun- 
\ns, there waslied . by a deep and 
pid torrent, then up a winding 
Key to the summit of the Gorge 
Bellegarde, which divides 
ance from Spain; and is com- 
2tely commanded by the fortress 

that name, impending over its 
'Stem side. The descent on the 
uthy shorter than that on the 
•rib, bnngs the travdler to La 
jnquera, a small.vtUage^ and the 
St place in Spain, The moun- 
ins there consbting of only one 
ige, the distance across from 
ain to plain, by the road, is only 
)oul five miles, ^rotn La Tun- 
lera the road gradually approaches 
e coast of the Mediterranean, pas^ 
3g by tigueras and Gerona to 
arcelcMia, and thence by Lerida 
id Saragossa to Madrid, distant 
y this Totite 360 miles from the 
ontier. 

Anotiwr DNicb frequented pass, 
ut tit onl^ for ivole^ and horses, is 
tuated in the road leading sondi 
om Bayonne to Madrid by Pam- 



peTuna, the sbottest course to that 
capital. ... 

In addition to the natural rani- - 
^art of the Pyrennees, the Spanish 
government ,had not neglected, in 
former tiroes, to strengthen certain 
positions commanding the hiost 
practicable entrances into the king- 
dom. Tlie fortress of Fontarahia, 
at the mouth of the Vidassoa, was 
already mentioned. Twelve miles 
farther wetsward, on a low isthmus 
between two small bays, stands Si. 
Sebastian, a nuich freq dented sea- 
port, ' It is surrounded with ivalls, 
besides whicb^ it is defended with 
bastions find half moons; and the 
lofty peninsular, aiid rocky hOI 
which, connects the isthmus with 
the main land, is crowned with an ^ 
ancient castle of great natural 
strength, commanding the , town, 
and the inlets of the ^a on each 
side. 

Access to the interior of Spain, 
by the direct Toad from Bayonne, 
across the Pyrennees \o Madrid, is 
barred by the town and fbrtress of 
Pampeluna,' situated on a* slight 
elevation, p^tly surrounded by a 
small river m the midst of a long 
plain, firom two to three nnles in 
breadth. The town is inclosed by 
slight works, adapted to the form of 
the ground : but the citadel is a re- 
gular fortress, connected with the 
town, which is well supplied with 
every thing necessary, and garri- 
' soned ; and although, at certain 
points, perhaps too near tp some 
high grounds, yet not to be car- 
ried but by a numerous attacking 
army, aAer a long and formaf in- 
vestment. 

France, by means of the fortress 
of Bellegarde, being in possession 
of the eastern pass of the Pj^ren- 
aees^ l^paia has formed at Figoeraf , 

a small 



140 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

a small town eight miles from the 
foot of the mountains, a very con- 
siderable work on a regular plan*, 
cpn^pletely conimandiag all the 
surrounding country, and qualified 
to make a long resistance to a very 
nuqKrous army* About twenty^ 
miles to the southward of Fiflueras 
stands Gerona, a considerablejtown, 
defended by respectable works, on 
an embence, washed by the river 
Ten From this place the country 
!s open all the way to Gerona, nine- 
ty miles distant from the frontier. 
Barcelona is situate on the^inargin 
of an extensive plain, is highly cul- 
tivated, and very populous. It 
bad been fortified m the ancient 
fiishiou, but the works, during the 
last century, have been much ne- 
glected. A citadel ^ of respectable 
strength was added at the north 
cast extremity of the town, ostensi- 
bly for its protection, but it was 
imagined at the time, with a view 
to repress all attempts of the 
town's people, and the inhabitants 
of the neighbouring country to 
throw off the yoke pf the house of 
"fiourbon ; against which they had 
struggled with great perseverance 
during the war of the succession. 
At the opposite extremity of the 
town rises a detached conical hill of 
considerable height, over -banging 
the sea* called Monjuich, crowned 
with an ancient castle, strengthened 
with additional works of later time^. 
This position is of great natural 
strength, commanding the town. 



the adjipining plab» ^o^ tke b 
bour ; which is formed by lU 
ing, low neck of land, lined «i 
noble mole of great fexteot,f»a 
ing space for a great numle 
vessels. The water, however, ^ 
shallow for receiving lari^ sbi|u 
war, the sand constantly scca 
lating at the entrance, as )a^ 
in all harbours destitute of a tq 
or other backwater to ketp m 
open. Barcelona contains a 
one hundred thousand iubabitiB 

Ninety miles westward frois 
celona, on the way to & 
stands Leritia, on the west 
the Segre, occupying the 
slope, and the confined saaet 
a small detached bill, 

rich and well cultivated 

imp^i 



a 

Lerida, once a place of 
while Spain was parcelled n^j 
mong a number of princes, )m\ 
ceased to be a place of modi 
sequence, and its ancient kt 
tions are now fiut basttrning tsi 
cay. Such are the priocipd 
of^^defence of the northern 
of Spain against attacks by 
The French forces asseoit 
the borders of Spain, 
a short time inactive. Ear!^ ill 
year, a corps entered 
and on the J 6th of Febni2n»< 
talqed possession of the* lomi 
, citadel of JBarcelona, mth ibe 

fir^nabie positiqp of Mosj 
t had been indus^usly 
through Spain, thaJC the h 
troops wf re destine^ to nsuA ill 

... M 



* HieftntrvsseCrifiMTMfva^ overlooked by Hiree hills, 4wa of vlaci 
vithin pinshot, and the third vcit^i tlie reach of bomlis. Any other mt^< 
have determined on fortifviii^ the&« hills ; but tlie Spaniards tliouglit that it 
lye tnore fittbplb, ia\d *cfife thfe Wme purpose, to'ToW«p t?icM." Ih tten.t- 
iflMiWwvtie i«datte4^I«W' the lire Af the foctress; and tii^iMi^*piMMir]^ 
fUidy tolevel down the third. This is a jnal exemplification cf the 6p9uk m 
, ^a«j|er, yf^c\^ lu^tct; enthusiasm with patieip^e, conatsficy^ ^ pe^ff^vciaiiee. 



HISTORY OF EUROPR 



141 



ding tiw coast against any kisiill 
m the British army cnt navy* 
vantage had been taken of the 
ional feelings to lull the Spani* 
is into seturity, by averting that 
^ great object of their- powerful 
es would be the reduclion of 
braltar, and its restoration toifs 
3ieot and natural masters. Whi»* 
rs and ^rmises too were indos^ 
>u9ly circulated of an intended 
nston of Algiers and Morocco. 
The mask was, however, soon 
oTrn aside, and the fVencharmy, 
ich had advaneed to Barcdond, 
tending only to halt for a few 
ys for refreshment, before they 
>ul(l proceed on their march to 
t southern provinces, availing 
^mselVesof the alliance between 
z two nations^ and of the un'- 
Nf>ecting c6nikknce Of the inha^ 
an (9, and even ^f the garrison oi^ 
.* place, sehsed wlthodt bloodslied; 
I without difficulty, the dlad^l; 
mjdicb, and every 6lber impotm 
: post. The garrison of Mdif* 
ch, reported to have amounted 
about sik thousand men, retired, 
1 made ivay fbr the French 
Jiout a struggle; a' fascination 
rdly Credible; and Indeed the 
ole condact of the Spanish com- 
I nde r9 at Barcelona* remains in- 
tved in mystery and suspicion. 
Tlie fortress of St. Sebastian and 
^ueras were seized bv the French 
a similar way. At Pampduna, 
wevcr, they experienced a dif^ 
ent reception. On the arrival of 
French oflieer at the he&d.of a 
dy of troops from Baydnne^ be- 
-e Fampeluna, demanding ad- 
ssion and possession of the place, 
e governor, whose garrison had 
r different reasons been much re^ 
iced, refused to comply with this 
mand, nntil order* should ar« 



rive from his own government. 
— The French commander^ then 
brought forward a body of three 
thousand men, and compelled the 
Spaniards, after a severe conjQict, to 
surrender. 

The French armies tliat had en- 
tered Spain, instead of proceeding . 
to their pretended destinatibii, re- 
mained inactive on tlie banks of the 
Ebro, many miles from Madrid. 
Messengers passmg to and from 
that place indicated the existence of 
negociataons, but their object was 
unknown. Tlie Spanish troops re* 
called irom-PoTtt^al, were rapidly 
advamcing towards the capital. The 
court seemed in the greatest anxie* 
ty and uncertainty^ the orders of 
one day beini; unifbrraly counter- 
manded by those of the following. 
The administralion of public af- 
fairs seemed to be arrested in ib 
course. 

While 'natters were in thi» states ^ 
on the 15th of March a report was 
disseminated that the king was pre*> 
parftig to teave Aninjuez fdr Seville, 
%riti| a view to emigrate to his Amt» 
rican dominions, and that the troops 
recsAleri from Portugal were des- 
tined to cover bis retreat; tliat a 
numerous council had been as^ 
sembled on the subject, in which^ 
though the opinions were nearly ' 
balanced, it had - tieen decided to 
tindertakis' the journey-; that the 
queen, and the favourite, Godoyi 
had- avowed tlieir desire to depart, 
but that the prince of Asturiaft op^ 
posed the design; The tcoopt 
quartered in Madrid^ had al the 
same tiinereceived orders to March* 
' But when the public alarm Wte 
at its heightliy' on the. iMi of 
March the king.issued a proelanui^ 
tion* thanking his subjects for the 
marks they had shewn of attech* 

ment 



142 ANNUAL.REGI:S/rfrR,. t808. 



awattO'hn peneif, a&dtexpbitted 
ib^'Obfttds of. rtbe^ French troofM, 
'mhmh had entered his doiaiiikMM 
ttith'tiie most frieocily purposes^ to 
oAsist' :in ddvendiDg tb^ cmmtfy 
against tiieeomnion enemy; The as* 
wMiiWmg of liis ^oards it was stated, 
waa solely for the purpose of pro-* 
teeting hn p^non and f8iinlj»;aQd 
not for acoompanymg hhn on a 
jonniey> which none (but eml-mmd* 
ed persons could suppose to hare 
been projected.. The > king, dosed 
Ibis Wry eifraordinary.puUication/ 
n»ith direeCing the people to icondoct 
themsslves 'Os they had > httiserto 
done- ibwanis the tfoops of ihis 
great atid^good aUy* 

On the foilomhi^ day» Mardi 
IT^h, wlien the Spanish guavds 
srere to leare Madnd«< the inhabi* 
tants crowded romnd tfaem^ beseedi- 
ihg them not to abandon their na- 
tive country, for the purpose q( se- 
curing the flight of a prinoe who 
sacrificed his subjects, to . prtf ate 
considerations. 

*' Do you thudr," said they; ''we 
hanre noimore apiiit than the peo- 
ple of UsbpnT 

Some of the mini sle rs themselfesy 
who opposed the king's ntreat^ dis- 
Uibttted' circular notices in the 
neighbouriogvillagesy inftrmmgthe 
infaabitants.of whatisas going- for- ^ 
wafd,r and' of the danger to which 
iht tountcy' woaid consequently be 
exposed. 

. On the'19tb of Mardi» the peo- 
ple poured along the road t» Acsn- 
juea. Rehn^s for the king's car-^ 
riiges had bikn provided on the 
way -to Seville. The village of 
Ataigaea was' crowded with troops ; 
*,nad}tkie baggage of the' oonrt lay 
niready packed op in the apart- 
snewli -of the Miace. The fmeed- 
ing night had- been bosHy epcal ap 



prepHraiion.- . Tb9,resid«|f9r«/iie 
prinoe 4^ |lie peaootwas^pr^ard 
b^ his proper ^njh^ (Am ^_ siioh a 
point, of. dignity hnjtwi tieea ann^' 
ed)- wilh a pecuKar; ^oantersigp, 
while those of thepfhice iMi *^ 
tber* t At'^Diqr o'clock in Ihe moro- 
ing'af.the.J9lbh:the pepei«;nihlwd 

ia.cffowdi to t^ fai^rilA'4J»^li 
biiJt. they isret^s -drivmi^ bfu^I^ Uy, bis 
fiuMb^Mrho JAtheirvtimi were^briKfo 
back byahe king^ lifdy fgwif(hi 
ibftt l|ad ranged. tbiQniielvesoa;lbe 
side of the peopkv ^Gc^'sdoen 
9veff« fecoed; the- fnrpitiuK. ?r!u 
fcprokens the apartmenM VKcie M 
wnfta{ fhe t^rmoiatv his -^sp^me, 
daughter of Don •Atttpois^'^wl 
niece to tboking^Spiip^ appear* 
ed on thestaii9,.niid wtiaeatveyffd 
by the. people with Ml the rffpoct 
due to ber birth and f^ik^Mo .tiie 
kiqg^s palace^- Jibe Awpwite kin- 
self had disappeamd,. und ihis hro- 
llier Don J>i<^o Godoy* oonwiwd- 
ant of %hfi >iQg% bo^.guardsk im 
arrested by. his own ti|OQps4 j 

Their Bia.iesties, whabifd not it- 
tirad to rest dtwiog the njgbt» awfe 
early in the morning visited, by die 
Freoeh-anabasaador, .a^d^loenafter 
appeared aproo^unetioiit^^in jn|iidi 
the unfortunate fevereigp.yratJnatfe 
to say^ Ihat.bavmg lesolHeil 1^ take 
up^ hhaself the oomniaiid of his 
forces by land aind - sei^^ he bad 
Midught it i^eper to tj^kmif^' 
dpy of th^ duties of [igei|era)i«f^iDO, 
nnd permijt bim,^ retkerW whiHever 
place be.migbt ohoo^. „.; v . 

Wfaeii tim wfis ItOjasm- m tifa- 
dridy tfie people attacked tiMeJiooses 
of Godey^ 'and of eertnu^^iiaisters 
of state attached io h^ p«it$i %nA 
destroyed the fomiUire Hq^uI e^ 
pc^tioo, on the part.of ^i«iUic;E. the 
magislinteB^ pc ^thftitwo .&fi^ft^ 
JBfients mft». SpnniBbt sew^.-.tkn 

quartered 



HISTORY OF EUROPE 



143 



iarter«d in tiie town. TltefintKe 
^the peace was at last djtsoovevtd 

a srarnet^ vdMA lie badbeof con- 
ahfct for ftMT and thir^ faoaia, and 
>nimit«ed to ^ttia dosest cofltodjr in 
te common jaih" 

III the 'tirfdsi of iheM disorders 
le kiag« 00 tke l^di of March, at 
ranju«i# ptfblisiNN) a declaration, 
•^ned^aa^ii^liali by iiimself, stating, 
rat oo aeoaont ot Ins constant io- 
miities^ and of the- necessity, lie 
It of ^WTtiidniwin^ himself from. 
le borthen of fraWic. aflairs to a 
rivafo ' li^ in a climate l>«tter 
lapted Uian thai of Madrid to tlie 
at« of ills beaUh ; \h^ bad, al^r 
le most deliberate oonsidaratfon, 
r^soKved'lo abdicate the crown in 
ivoar of his well . beloved son and 
eir, tt»e prince of Asturias. . It 
^as likewise directed* tliat this de- 
ree of k'»;ft^ and gponianeoua ab- 
ication should be nislantly and 
imctuafly obeyed by all his snb- 
cts. «^vriloB labours to shew 
lat this alKKcatmn' was, in truth, 
ee and untsofintramed. But thi^ 
» veY7'ita8oQal)ly been made a 
K^stioo. 

The first act of the new king 
erdinand VIL was to publish a 
lanifeato, dechtrin^^ bb own inno- 
?nce and -thai of bb ministers, 
kJ stating the nature of the pa- 
?rs and cypbeia found in 'his 
>artfncnt at ' the Escurial, in the 
onth of October hut. Among 
3 iirat a^ts'also, wa»one confiscat- 
g all the property of every de* 
ription; Iklonging to ttie prince of 
le peace, . ' v 

At tbe sain^ time, he appomted 
t£ duke of Infantado^ a wealthy 
id popular noMemao, of the 6hi 
ass, andpattioulailyattaehed to 
le intertatdf thenew4ovev«igtt,aAd 
f Englaifdi ta tbeiinpaslMt station' 



of thepr^ideill of tiie great coancil 
•of CaslUle, the 6rst tribunal of 4he 
kiogdom. To him also he conmiit- 
•ted the command of the Spanish Ufe 
gwids. . -Many salaries and- pen- 
sions, wipich had long r^oaMlned an- 
paid, ware> instantly dbdnsged out 
of the funds of, tbe lale favourite. 

On the 25Mi of Mardi,i Fetdi^ 
m^, already proclaimed king,- 
aiade hb public entry into AfeMlrail, 
which was by thi^ time under the 
power of the Frenoh J i . 
. Thexircunistanees tliat .induced 
fiuonaparte .to ordt^r Murat}> who 
^ coNMnandod the* . Ffondfr fohcea in 
Spain to /adivance from the Hne of 
the £bro to the capita^ have nl- 
ceady been stated in f)ur abridged 
account of the exposition of Ceval- 
lot; as well aa the mean^ by whicli 
Ike grand project- of • getting pOs- 
aesskm of -the royal family of Spain 
was eCected* « 

• The: grand duke of Berg bad, 
March ^3d» entered Madrid, <at 
the head of his army. The ca* 
valryand adivison of infantry were 
quaiiejwd, within the towo> whibt 
otb^r divisions were ^encamped .on 
the rising groianda in the neigh- 
bourhood* ' A corps. unden general 
Dupont was stationed at Segovia 
ai:4 the EscuriaL This army* which 
-amounted to 54»000 nien» accotd- 
ing to the French newspapeis >of 
that day, was received, by all ranks 
of people with tlie greatest joy. 
<* Above alt tbings» ttie Spanferds 
admired the fine oondition the 
Frencb troops were in; and parti- 
cularly the beauty of. the regiment 
of puirrassiers. The grand duke 
descended from hb. earriage at 
the Admiralty^ The governor of 
Madrid^ the grandees of Spain» and 
tbetraops in gsurrison^atJdadrM, 
presented t btmscW e s MiQiiC;1iiiii to 

W 



m4 A N Jf U A I^ 111 e f S t^ 1 jR; 1 $08. 



f9f4b6^*r(etipffC9i. ' mite ditfltt i*<^' 
ctMd tbtin wUh nmth i^M^:' 
l^viMittiiliiy 'b €Ofii|>ielelv te^^iTta-' 
UiilMd at Miidri^/' - ' ' 

^ While tke gofVfiMor and ^r)^' 
soo of yhMAi lind llie gi^dc^ of 
SfKio^ stt^nMed fo this iw*l*df self- 
degradifeio»; the-maasof lft« fHieopfe* 
ftit with paiA the sffttert^f httitdlia- 
tiM' into wliicli' Hieii* ebmitry h«d' 
fi^leii. They coaf(>* not f«^, hut' 
noMd about in groups from place^ 
to place,^ ID deiection and dinnou!» 
eonternationi hfiiomdiflf' thftt the 
vtw gamnmetkt deemed it ffe(?es- 
sary, for preventing tnmalts, and 
preiervittg the tmniqufiffity of the 
city/ to is8M orders, AprH 3tia to 
the patrolM, that Imd been esta- 
bMted on the 20th of Bfarch, to^ 
contiBue thehr r^mnds: All kee|)ers 
of paUie* houses ^vere ordered to 
•htti Iheni up before efght o^dock* 
at ni^ht. Manafaclurers atid com* 
mercial people; were ordered to 
eonttmie their people in tlieif usual 
empb^ment, to keep them con- 
stantly sA work, and to seiid the 
names of all- ^bbsenf^s' fr^tti \\mt 
usual ofiktofl to' the polite inagiiM 
tratetr*. Masters of flinitHes M'ere 
earnestly enjoineili)^ their adHce, 
and above all, by (hdr >x£in^pie, fb 
restrain' tifeir cliiklren aiid doniestlcsf 
frwn'Miiblng withero^wd^) andjoiii-^ 
ing in any uproar. ' • • 

A second dc^ee a^stih'^i Ihr iiOti-i 
lie, thar the recent rcstolbtion w«rt 
calsoikiled loceniMtdndstfen^tfieri 
th^ aWance v^h Franibe; anil ^- 
joining all p^tsotis td * tfeaf the 
FUtnoh troiOps with the greatest rc^ 
8pi*ol. Another edict expressed tli^ 
mtoiost^ slitlsftfetion at the friendly 



tttp«f«oft fi^.iniiii«^|Hlina ofdovitr jcntical 
si()U of the people into casts^ in Idd^.~ 



niMrtcfr hi Wbiiilh th« Fi«heh; trodpf 
h«f 'b*eti redpf^^d t^ tl|e Spaniard!!, 
but' th** gi^eatest regWt and sofrmv, 
at flie' <^'nd^iet of eertuhi indivt- 

* duali;; which had ar tendency to ^ 
terriipt the good understanding that 
happily ^iihsisl^d between thic na- 
tions, and tO' exiate an unjwti and 
rilUeulaiu dtitriut of xh^ designs of 
tU« Prenchtroops in'$|)ain. Such 
s^timents eitliei* expressed by 
words or deed» wci^ to be severe^' 
punished. 

It has bei^nibtfo^mly the policy 
of Buonaparle/to' recondttf the pnb- 

' lie mind of individual nations,* aild 
of Europe, tiy the execution of his 
projebts, b^ preparing it to eitpect 
them, and to cousiderfliirtgs as mat- 
ers of course, and not to feJe avouied. 
The Moniteur and other French 
ne^i-spapers represeilted the ' Spa- ' 
niards n6l only as over-joyed at lh<* 
presence of French' troops, but in 
letters pretended to have been re- 
eefvvd from inliabitants of Madrid, 
stat^ It as the bpinirtn* of th« most 
sensible S}>aniard^, t^tat th the pre- 
sent situalfon of affairs it was tJ»c 
interference of the French emperor 
albne, ^llo-^e sjieedy apprc^ch had 
been pnblicty atinmmced^ by the 
grsittd duke oif Berg; in'geheral or- 
ders to hb army) that coutd sat^ 
them; - 

Af the desire of Buonaparte, 
intimated' tb the first secretary of 
state, Don Pc'dro C<»va1los,. the 
swofd tlrat ' Fi"itict^ !•* kifrg of 
France, isui¥endcred in t^4 (AmdM^ 
battle of f»avia. In tHe reich' of tfrt: 
emperor Charles V. of Spain; 
which had'becff k<ept in' the foval 
armoury since" 1 5(?5, wai by ord^ 
' ' -of 



< 



proVmmy; tfAt itf' vHdr a ^titn^iSk^^ 
tuua%. tlau*^^«^Tise to: ll$» MMi'^fi* 



HIS-tORY OF EUROPE. 



US 



IVrdioand, on Ihc 5tb of Apnh 
fitted to \m imperial and niyni 
K'stv Napoleon, at BM^onne.-^ 
n cf)U!}equence of the roval or« 
, (it was sUiteii iti Uie Madrid 
( ttc) ifrhich was ^iveii to liis ex-* 
it i icy the marquis of Astoriga* 
otn-iiiajur to bis inHivsty, tlie 
>vi*>uiicc of tbe sword to ttie 
luiiiss of Im iiii))eri«tl lu|;lHies9^ 
LTaiid duke of Ber«j, uas ar- 
•^ed >vitb /grc^at pomp and cere- 



illV. 



riiis surrender of the sword, 
nied a prfsage, aiuf nas indeed 
iuui of enililriu of that of tlie 
wii. All the civi{ities,eoiiipUauce8» 
i salimisskioiis of tlie Spanish court* 
i not loo^ secure a suitable re* 
n of civility and complaisance, 
ilie part of their French allies, 
^>U, and invaders. 
'I'iie altercafiou and sparring, and 
Ml some, encounters that termt- 
ed iii death, wliicb, notwilb- 
iiding all the Anxious precautions 
the Spanish government, took 
ce l>etween many individuals of 
i dificcent nations^ might have 
-o accounted for from the natu- 
levity and arrogance of the 
nch character, and tlie pride of 
; Spaniards^ awakened by jea- 
i sy aod suspicion. ' 
I^ut, about the middk of March,' 
occurrence took phice at Bar- 
oua, which if the hostile desians 
(he French government could 
^sibly have appeared unequivocal 
[ore, rendered the.m ar plain fis 
on day« General Duhe'smey 
inmander in chief of fhe French 
iiy of ohservalion, of the Eastern 
rcnuees, Jiad been for some time 
rjly employed in throwing great 
antitict of ammunilion and pro* 
lona into the forts of Barcelona 
i Moiyuicb. The «otiiit of 
Vol. L. 



Espellata, ca|:]^mtt gencnil of Cats^ 
tonia^ in. a letter, dated at Barc^ 
loiiia, iStb qf March, remonstrated 
with tlie general oit^tliis sospiciooi 
and alartuitti; movement. '* Thts 
troops," said Tte,*' thai oecupied the 
citadel, and the fortress of Mon* 
.pikl), might Ikavr considered all th^ 
housts of liarceloiia as fo many 
naigaaines, ^nd the provisroos they . 
contained as their own. There watf 
no en«!my to eacite apprelteosran ; 
nor any tiling to be expected in 
Hhicfa the inhabitants of tl^e tqwu^ 
were not as mucit interested as the 
troops. in garrison. Your excel* 
lency occupied the fortresses in the 
name of the emperor and king at 
an ally; and it was only ^ on the 
faith of thb that the Spanish go^ 
▼erutnent .consented iq its occu* 
paucy. It was under the same im* 
pression, that the town opened to 
you and your people its treasurei» 
aud resources of every kind, which 
you haye received in the bosom of 
our families. The city gave you 
an honourable reception, and sliarad 
with you the provisions destined for 
their own q^e. Military law pre* 
.scribes the mode of provbidning 
prrisons when engaged m actual 
nostilitiesi or besieged, or wjien 
tlie country is tiireatened with fa<* 
miof. In snch. cases the general is 
under a necessity of taking roea^ 
sures of precaution for tlie subsist* 
ence of his troops^ by the forma* 
tion of magacinet. But, where 
circumstances of this kind do not 
exist, such measures are calculated 
only to excite suspicion and mistrust. 
Neitlier my conduct, nor.tbe con* 
' stant moderation of my troops, nor 
the favourable reception accorded 
to the French army, is calculated to 
give any ground of alarm. 
" The towA is-prg[Vtdcd with ne- 
[L], eassariat / 



U« ANNUAL REeiStfEfi, 1808. 



MC^ by the oflidal*8t9tciD«iits ftifocel 
hy> the ifiteiidaDt ; an<^ tvtii il we 
ifeiouUi Ml abort of some arliclei^ 
your exceUcRcy bas given nie tki 
iUWHS^t ^aasoraiice that prepara- 
liooi areat tbis momeot going on 
iatius porlsof Fraiire, fortiipply^ 
taf Iiii9 place witlt^provisiont free 
from all (itUies. When bis majesty 
iJie empenor and kinj^f, wbose great 
iiame inspires ua with contidence, 
at tlietaoie lime that our 'fortresses 
aro occupied by his troops, shall be 
itt^riiied of our pli«Ulit> and bo^ 
Aoucable principles, it nyill i^t be 
with pleasure Ibal he will be told, 
tiiak this city^ in r<*tttrii for its de- 
ference and ooodact^ has been 
alarin'ecl by terrible menaces and 
preparalioDe. Your eaoellency wilt 
be pleased to learn hon\ his iaipe«i 
Hal loajesly, what be Ibiaks of year 
de«^ before yotr farry tl into< exe- 
cution, aceompanying your- request- 
Mrith t:bif explanalion of . u>y senti- 
mjeotft on the subject ;■ as J also,' 
on ruy part> shall kiy ^ whole at- 
tbis matter before l^be* khig ray 
master^ without whose orders I' 
caamot accord lo yoi)r excelKmey' 
wiant 4be forts occopied by the Spa» 
;ijsb troops have not themselves* 

" If, before reoeiTing ordef^from- 
tliejennpei^r, yomrexceUeifcy slKiuld- 
see 8|iy reason ibr^lifving with pre- 
cautioOk and nbderthe influence of 
fear in forlressca to' be consideFeil,' 
at present* es forming part > of the 
city, then iiidee«i iH may he proper' 
tO'have recourse to Mie measures' 
you propose* Bat as^- at presart; 
tliere was no iieeessity for atfy sucb* 
measure, ;t wish to- itvipress your 
laiiid' with' a coaviction, tbat to- 



estaMiafa nagazioes, and fbrtocon* 
siderable def^ef provisions mtbe 
forts cannot 9en% arty, ^od ptV' 
pose : that such an iiilention is r^- 
lAarkable, caletdated to rouse at* 
teniion^y and offenefve ; and that it 
may »oCperha|is b9;io your excel* 
lency'a power, nor mine^ to remedy 
the consequences wbitb such a fer- 
mentation must excite ambng the 
inhabilatils.'' 

This teller of count Espellala, 
copies of which were handed aboat 
in Madrid, and ovet- all Spafc), inet 
with general sympalby aad vp- 
platise, and oontributed very math 
to raise and heigiiten the aaliomt 
setiliment of feaenlment and ilidig- 
naliota i^inst the F^rieb and the 
French party. 

It is one^mong the nmuerons in- 
stances of a striking coatiQst4)e« 
tween the spirit and energy of the 
Spaniel people, and the Kslessntss, 
and bKnd ImbeciKty of govern- 
ment, and too many of the liighar 
orders, which have hitlic^to been 
appanent iu tiie coarse of the Spt- 
wish f evolution. 

This is the letter Hi wtiicb'Buo- 
napart^ particuhifly aNodes; ia Wj 
letter of the l6th oT .Apri^, to the 
prtode of Asturias, io wfatch lie hz$ 
the effrontery to say : —"I iee wKh 
paid that some' persons^ at Madrid 
have disseminated' certiiinr letters of 
Hm captain geneinl of Catalonia, 
and done every ihbig to ^tcite dis- 
turbaueesamong'tbe people V 

The sta^e of aftdrsat Baneebna, 
must have been knowit to • the Spa* 
nish court a constderabie tioae be« 
f6te the departure^ of Ferdinand 
froitt bit* capital to trieet' Buona- 

parte^t 

• The 



* Fee Appendix to the Chrotriet«r, p. fSa; 



Hisrt)TiV t)T r E t/R o m:. ^ 



Uf 



Itt jKisNrdj Hk greatest cliscooleHt 
aiKJ iitelii'^t indi<rml(i0n ; whick 
nue nor appeii<«^d bytbe pn)ct»- 
vidums Ibai preceded bis pro}3;reM, 
f^C'idnnaf lliat'iit bad the moU po- 
^iitvc aiid sBtisfactorT as«urainc^i, 
M notliing but the most profoiitid 
Tt-'^)ei:l wooid be shewn |o kts f)©?*" 
c/id: nkhoub itbidi as9uraiites b^ 
7i)uiJ wster hare «ecepted tiie ettir 
ptror of tb^ French's intitsliioti) 
iriil tint whfam four or fife dsfys> 
^"^'iH tfae assistance of Ins good brd«> 
ii>»r ;aid ally, the afFail? of Spaia 
vi^uid be^9ettied^'to'hi9 owli lat^ 
'iciioB, aod also to that of his sub^ 

At Viltoria, when the ptu^h 
i^cmty^errti fmvi the aiitbortty df 
'^y* king, tfant Buooapaile was saf^ 
'led tonltet^re in those afikirs^ 
:^<■re ms a general fermeiiftiliotf 
x^!^ the lahaMantSy tiho, April 
! r, aoiMled aboift tiie ro;^ res!* 
'nee, Itt the inoat laitiuitiious maa- 
iT, giriog Tent to tbeir setithnetffs 

incut nstrainf. . 

A new proclamation was t^tied> 

^'1 (he duke of Infantatido eiv- 

^v^uiured lo hapresi the Ussertfons 

* ! it'dmed ht H, in Iiara0g6'e« t6 the 

' 1 ic He astared tliem, Itift the 

'f:.iiou of the new king was, M 

Xi^cnr lo the French emperor, 

" arrtipilby «f tli<* 8p!ln!sll pco^^ 
■■" lo {}m Freocfa troops that had 
^'H sent aoiaagthem, and to de» 
''^ tiieir imtnediate reeal. The 

'iuit was somewhat assuaged; 

►t voices- were heard here an<t 

'f^ iJHjtteftUg, *' That both the 

'■^^i and the dofce of Infantaiido 



flii^lft dd ivith Napoledii'^hatthey 
pleased ;* tlmt Spaniards woukt IM& 
ver be slaves f und llult the imtioil 
would inaibtttiii its ibdependenctf 
without them/' 

From the moment that Mdn^ 
set his foot 01^ the Spi(nish terri^ 
tory^ he did ^tt In his power toinw 
press tlie Spaniards with a ebtivio- 
tton> that lie had come Urtmng thetii 
fbr their good, b)r bringing dbdut 
certain rcfornts fin the governifteiiti 
giving it to be understood withat, 
Ihdt he was dh the side of the 
jiriuce of ;^sAutJhs, and in opposi- 
tion to 4he pfinte df the peace, who 
was LiUiversally detested; ndr tfid 
he fail to thtovir ont hliits and al- 
lusions to the infiuence of the (]ueeh 
iti the great flfiliits of the nation: 
thei^bj to ki^bte hhnself With 
the people: but,' thie to his ptit^ 
pose of division and distractiotii he 
was no sootier infbrifled 6f i^hat 
had passed at Araujuez, on the 19^ 
of March^ than he made a Aliew of 
taking a Vt^ry ivarttl interest in the 
fate of Voti^ Manuel Oddoy, wlt^ 
whom, thbuife^i persbtislljf unac^ 
qnaihfed, be had 4tept up a coufi* 
dential and iatihiate correspond^ 
ence; On ttre idibrisomneut olT 
Oodoy, the qUeea beSieg^d, as it 
wete, the grand dqtiie bt Berg, with 
one letter after another, imptorhig 
the ittterv^htion of the duke for tti^ 
daftly df the fi^voifrite's person ^ : 
Qor coUtd a person of Murat's ih- 
fomiaik>n, as weH as penetration, b^ 
ignorant tKat his interference in be** 
half of this f^vOuHte, Would be 
most a<*ee|!»taWe to her majesiy, 
and also, Mfhieh inay appcnf yo fn* 
lute genersrtion§not alittie iiiigular, 
totf.eking^ 
[L2] WhiUt 



^ %e;AfI>tildia U ibe€hran1de,p. i4i. 



148 A N N U A L TtEXS I S T E R^ 4 Wr. 



lonat he w«t io formed by ilie mi»' 
preoK Juntas tbal the cniod duke - 
9f Berg had mad^ a tomiar and * 
even ^n Imperiouf detv^aml q( the 
reteaae of Godoy. Thb ,iq9p|iqa- 
tion Ferdinand, who had loteomly 
promised lo bring .Duo Manud to 
judgfneni aceordini^ to tlie lafr«» di« 
f ectcd tlie junta to resist. Buona* ' 
parte Iwd himself, by l<Htfr, ina$ic 
a similar appticatioli to FerdiisiLiid; 
who, ill repiy> reprtsentied the. in- 
vincible necessity he was under of' 
bringibg Godoy tp trial. But if 
. his imperial msyesty should conti- 
nue to tuke an inlereit in the life of 
Don Manuel Gotdoy, he gate him 
bis word, that if the pritouer 
should, after iiiature etouioatiou 
of the charges laid sigainst * him^ 
be condemned to death, that pu* 
Dishmenl 'should be remitted, iii 
consideratioD of his majesty's iti- 
tercession^ 

' ^ When the Frencli emperor re- 
ceived thia answer from Perdioaiid, 
be flew into a great passion, and, 
witli his accustomed falsitv, tni- 
mediately wfote to tliegmnd duke 
of Berg, that tlie prince of Asturias 
Jiad placed the pris^Mier at his dis- 
posal, and ordered him (o demand 
thc^ release of Qoday, in the. most 
eiieisetic m^nnen, "lof gfund ^uke. 
Who wfts natural^ ^i^leitft aim Im- 
' petuous, sent a. very hpaghty note 
to the junta, tii which he reminded 
them, thai tlie mperor of the 
Pren^ at the same time that the 
authority of th^. prince, of Asturias 
was stated as a ground of proce- 
dure^ to theni, acknowledged no 
other'ktijit of Spain than Charles 
IV. He demanded aaiew the per* 



.- ^ 



son. of tbeprt)^ nfM^ P*^ ^^^ 

sent to Fniipev ; To this note 
Miirat. adde^ man^ verbal threats 
of forae, wbt^ bemg reported, to 
intitnidaded diem,' thai tney order* 
ed tho releaK of Oodoy, who vas 
immediately conveyed tp Bayonne. 
' Tlie junta,, to cover their own 
weakness, ;gave out in two .aa2eUes| 
extraordinary, that; Don Manuel 
had been released bj order of Ferdi- 
.nand VlU Tli^y .aUempted, by dts- 
guising and garbling, tojii»lifv such 
ansiiterpi^tationof l^is letter ; though 
nothing, cqMtd be plainer than tbat 
it srai the Ki(\S['s jnteption not to 
screen Godoy from atrial, but from| 
the last puiiisbn|«mt.iii case of con- 
demnation \ ..... 

The joy that \tas excited by |li« 
ih^prisoomenC of .. tlie priuceofj 
peace» \ii(b bis priocii^l oSicci?, m 
all Hie provinces of Spaiq, is not 
to. be described. .At Salam?!n€a, 
and several other to^ns, thebelhof 
tlie . churches were nuig; and al| 
Salamanca six hundred monks and 
asmajfiy ircentiates, danced tii'lbt 
market- placje ; yoni^g womeot insr* 
ried women, and olu' men, mhf^ 
with the monks in this extravagant 
demonstrati^o'^of their joyful trans- 
ports. The^ Spanish iiewspapers, 
which bad beguit to jtssiiipe a tone 
of great freedom, >tyled Poii Ma- 
uuel, tbe pribcH^ o/ injustice, tt)« 
geiieralia^imo of infamy, . the grand 
admiral of treason, ana Uie ruin of 
^e natiop. 

Although the history of all ab- 
solute nionarchie^' p/esenU manj 
instances of sudden and. surpriziof 
elevations to great power end 
wealth, and ^ iutideo and anc^' 
pected fails, there isperbap# mmt 

90 



* See llMamsDtssal^A^ed to the Exposition of Oeviust,' Me, XtL 



I » 



*>h5A' l^?^. ?f .P9P .¥»!wel, b}F Buonafwrte ai^ a pcrs^ of dj^ 

>y. His .jitory'l^'Vibi tiiritk^ tiiicYion anW 6i)nsfquence* 

>!' Don Rodcrigo ' Cijd^rofjd, . Tro deferntiiieu iiilerferencc' of 

« vQurTf^ 6f tke diike of Lefiti^, ^ Bu6nilpairf< f>r the libf nitioai vftbt] 

^ iiiuitttcT^ lb' Ft^fip lit. of pfiuise of ..peac^, was omiig to the 

1. ' ' .-: '^  raolutfon of the kiiis a|lc^ queej) not 

it^ priu^ebf^tte peace was ac-^ toquft ^)ain for Fnmcef though 

t<;d li^ far tjie wealthiM and called ttiiilier by buouuparte, uh^^. 

poMeHul subject hi ftirope. lesa the favourite should be 'per*.' 

ed lie hW alt t|]« power, and' mitted to do so also, and to pro*/ 

;irea( ' ineMiire all the' wealth cecrl oil his jouroey bef«)re them, 
te Spanish monarchy^* at bis *" Xing Cfttries IV. and his queen, 

iiaiid. Wliile several of the ^ Louisaj aiVived on the 27Jh of 
iiiposts hadconietol>e' alieoat- *Aprirat Burgos and on the ?Btb* 

oiii ilie crown, aW were im- al ViiCoria. A dftacbnient of the 

r iatt;d tty certain great fthiilies. body guards, to the number of one 

igh the improvident and pro- hiioured, who ' had aroonipanied 

:e favour of the court, the the prince' of Asturias to Bay.onne* 

»le tvere oppn?s$ed wilh new luippenin» to be in this town, placed ' 

arbitrary tuxes, Imrtbensoroe in themselves, according to custom, in 

I &e Weft, and rendered more so the palace to be occupied by their 

the mode of their coHectioiJ* majesties. ..0uf when the o|d king 

the ochum of the common peo- set tiis eyes on tlutn, with a degree 

i£^nist'llie prime minister aiid of energy that surprized efi^ry one, 

favourite would never have lie brdered them to be gone-** 

:gbt his fall, if tliere had not *< You betrayisd j»our truft at Aryn- 

a very general combinatioii juez, I' want none of your services, 
:st liini atnong the iu>bilily; arid 1 will have none.'*->Theguard|i 
III he so greatly eclipsed in were obliged to retire, 
uiour, patronage, and ftivour. On the Opth. of April^ their ma- 
to who|u'a predominant fa* Leslies remaned all night at Tolo^; 
ite at court if a greater tiui-> on the 3oi1i thcry came, about nooiij 
f , perlmps, tlian to the nobles to Irun» where they received letters 
fiy other country in Europe, from Bnonaparte, and two hours 
in like manner that the fall, after entered tba. walls of 0ayonne, 
isoniiient, ^ and tragical end of where they were received ^ith all 
Rcnterigo Calderotta is traced public res[>ect v^nA honour.' 
couibuiation of the nobility, bj^ Wtien the roaring of ^atiaoh aq« 
he historians; nounced the arrival 6f the old king 
•on Manuel, in his retreat, was and queen of Spain, Ferdinand^ 
•mpanied'by art Escort of two with his brotherA.Don Carlos, went 
1 red hQrsemen^.which appeared to nKel fhem', , All the- Spaniards 
'ssary for bis protection from that were at Bayonne also walled on 
fury of tlie people. ' He ar- their maje9(ies, and went thrQuah 
d at 'Bayonne, April 26*. A the cerenioiiy of kneeling and ki«s« 
le fn^ the' environs of BayOnhe ing hands. Tt vias a scene of con- 
appointed for his residence; tramt and awkwardness on both 
he .was ia all. respects t^eat^d. lides; the king seemed. ^ much 
^^'^***'^ '^ ' [L3] ^ dissatisfied 



J50 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



disipliffiad vilb them «« be bad. 
been with his body gwnb 9I Vil- 
tpri^r He, did not qpeak a word 
to any one but cooni PignatrUi of 
Fuftqtf s» nn impriBcipled dnd sup- 
ple courtier, whom Buopaparte had 
Vpointed to iniinuate himself into 
toe confidence of the prince of 
Aituri^, for the purpose of watch- 
ing and b«ti«yhig^ him. 

When the eevemony of kissing^ 
haods was over, their old majesties, 
being fiitigued,. retired to their 
lywtraents ; the prince of Astnrias 
ivaa going to follow them, but the 
Idag stopt bim, eaying, '« Prince, 
haveyoM not yet sufficiency out- 
raged my grey haita.^ The prince and 
tee Spaniards who had accompanied 
Iw to Bayonne, at these words 
wete tbundet-stmck, and with*' 
drew in great pertuibalion. At 
five o'clock, P. M. their majesties 
^ere visHed by the emperor Na« 
poleon^'who remained with tbein a 
long time. The convirrsation turn- 
ed oa the injuries that liad l>eeB 
done to the king and queen, the pe* 
rils in which. tl^y hs|d been invol- 
ved, tiie ingratitude of men on 
whom they bed lavished iavoors; 
and above all on Itie iagtalitude 
and rebellion, as they said, of their 
SOB. The oficers of king Charles's 
household, wtie appsdated by Buo- 
naparte, all of \h»m Eretichmen. 

Oq the 1st of May, the king and- 
qiteen of Spain dined at the castle 



of Marrae with Napolc6n and Ii] 
spouse Josepliina. May.' 8d, at fou 
o'clock, P.M. Josepbiaa went U 
pay a visit to the king and queen 
and $taid a long time with tjiei 
msyesties. 

Tlie nevspepers printed at Bay 
omie, under the immediate iaspec 
tion of Talleyrand %nd B«ona{Rirt< 
himself, and which came evecy.daj 
under tlie eye of ^the prtfice of As^ 
turias, took the side of the de 
throned king and ttie prince ol 
peace. Tiie Bayoone gasette 0^ 
the 25th of April, tiie day of Fer^ 
ditiaod's arrival, contained various 
statements in contradiction of ih^ 
reports iha thad been spread of th^ 
prince's having immense treasure:^ 
in forrign irnids^ ententmled th« ioi 
stances of his mal-ttdminktration^ 
admitted to many benefits- that re^ 
Sidled from iiis minlstrv; and above 
all, entered into elanorate arsru- 
meiits to shew that tlie abdication 
of Charles IV. was not.voluDtary 
hut complilsory. In this'manDer 
Buonaparte endeavoured to pre- 
pare the mind of Ferdinand and 
his party, for the catastrophe tliat 
awaited him. At Ibosaase time it 
was ibe common t<\N<' ^t the court 
ol Bayoune, and re^eoboed from 
tiieoce by the numerous emissaries 
of Buonapaite, in every province in 
Spam, that a strong tiaad sdooc 
could save Ike monai^v^ 



.••*. 



1 t 



« •• 



CHAP. 



HISTORY OF EURCrPE; ' 151 



• 



• •, 



CHAP. vm. 

I 

Me$mft€ fi^ Buetmperie to Ferdinand VII. requiring him and all 
his ramiip to renounce the Creum 0/ Spain and the IndieM^ — Con* 
feremee beUoeen Cevailbe, ihe Minuter af Ferdinand, and Cfut^npagnif, 
Bmanaprnie-a Miniiier for foreign Affairs. — Interrupted by Buont^' 
parte. — Ferdinand made seneibh that he was in a state of Arrest. ^^ 
Chariea mmounces to Ferdinand his Determination to renmmce aU his 
Rights amd those cf his FamUy to the Croum of Spam. -^Conditional 
Rensmdationof Ferdinand infavanrof his F&t her. ^Correspondence 
between Ckarks and F&dinani on this Subject. --The Queen of Spain 
iastardiging her own legitimate Son, and proclaiming her own In* 
fam^.-^AboobUt Renunciation by Ferdinand, of all his Rights to tks 
Crown of Spain. — Action and Reaction of Transactions at Bayonne 
and at Modrid. — The public Mind in a state of Agitation. — Insur- 
rectiasi amddreai^ful Massacre at Madrid — The Grand Duke of 
Berg appointed Gonemor (reneral of all Spain, and President oftne 
Suprtma Junta. — Proclamation to his Army.-^Circular Letter from, 
the General InquisUion to all the Courts of Inquisition in Spatn^r^ 
Decree for Atpembling the Notables of Spam. — Deputies from these 
to a National Junto at Bayonne. — Excuse .of ihe Bishop of Orense 
for notaitending, in Quality of a DepsUy from the Notables, this 
Asssasbly.^-The Junta at Bayonne take, the Oath of Allegiance, pre^ 
scribed by Buonaparte. — The Royal Family. of Spain carried into the 
bUerior of France*^- Resmneiation of the Spanish Crown,— Jcnrney 
of King Joseph to Madrid.'-Foh\TiCAh'HofiAhiTY»^Buona'' 
partfassario kis Right to the Croum of Spain, im ihe Score of both 
Policy andJustsotf^Indignaiion of the Spaniards, and Dejianct 1^ 
iheTyraii. 

THE. prince of Aaiuriai, iis. be Ibat bis Imperial iuaj«*ty required 

»as siiH Myletd by \lv& f i«jkJn f erriinaDcl^ in Wis own naino, and 

or Ferdinttttd, VH. Mcordiu|e to Ihe Uiat of all \iis family, U> reooimce. 

general voice of llie Sfianish oalion, tbe crown of S|)&in aod tbe ladies 

liad DO fioouer returned from din* in f»ivour gf llic dynaslv of Duona* 

nig at tins castle of Marrac to his parte. Tiiat surli a proposition 

TcsidfocQ, than general Savary came should be iDade, and that ihe bearur 

to inform bim, that the empeiHir of of such a proposition should be ttie 

the French ami kingi of Italy* - bad identical Savary, who, until that 

irrevocably deter ntii»e<l, that tflie moment bad giv^ni^sucli soleum mid 

Bourbon faaiily siiouUr no kM^r repeated assurances to U)e Spanitli 

reigp in Spain ; that it sbonbi be prince, df the honourable au4 

soccceded by. his; and, , therefore, friendly seutimeMts of Biionaparte 

IL 4 ] towards 



N 



towards Um^ ^tcucV ihe PCW >Wg* iMiwterOf IbftJPWa^ it« 

iui(f the SbapisU cbiefi^ wlib.l^^ iic^ ifi^^ which .10 lh« b^gioniogof tto 

ftmirh^' tfnd copsieruatjk>b npt .)^a ^|^ii^dii|i;i»iblp, the aecpiest tooder* 

^'describedl apd .open^dx' tbcK, ^^ ^y U»ft.iuog/<)(.S|iaiftJii ftwur 

ej'Ci to t]b« hoVrora. of iBek ^^^itua?: ^^' i)?^ uafoftuontew coniin, :Lb^ 

Hoh. 7' . ^ ,. Xyi* .Havipg •Uled'-nBowci^ 

* Babtapar(e» havipg now ib|t>wp cumst^icet -iii uroeC , ibat \kb • iaie 

lofF thje m&sk, proceeded wilhoiit kui|;:, iu bj», aiKlicntldm bed acted 

dela^ to cacry bis project into effect, entirely from Jiu oiwv frtc eboice, 

Oti ik\e following day he summoned Coyallos v^as • toi(l^ . thoi < wbtle the 

to his palace Cevallos, who, as house. of B.oifrboa reigned jn Spain 

already observed^ bad been first Fraufe :never .4»ii)d/beMeure» ra 

secretary of state to king Cliaflqs, t()e cs^se of >^ar agaip Jireakbgoat 

and now occupied the same station in ihe north of Efus^pe* 
with Ferdinand, ami was ix^ucUia; Jn opposkioA^Ko Mm^ argowrat, 

his confidence. |n the palace Ce* CevalLos re^soiwsd with jCiuunpa^n^, 

valtos nas received by . M. de or might iMVfi reasfliof ^ m in fact 

Champaeny/ Buonaparte's mibiker. h^ d<ses \u :himi?x|>$»iifioit/ as iiA- 

for foreign affairs. Cevallos b^- lowsi-^^^ver since Ibl^ ffDStosatioQ 

gan the conference with conipla\ntf of p^are btrtween the Iwo -oomi* 

of the perfidious artifices practised tries>^ $pahf had. ^dl)ered 4o> tier ee^ 

on his pyal master io inveigle iiini gafcemeuts with Frai^* wikh' my* 

into France, and added that he ba<{^ sliakeu fidelil)^ The poblirai^oiH 

been instructed to declare, M t^! du^ of Charles.! V. siii«u tb«; Afealy 

most formal manner, tbat^.he^neU^ ef'Basle^ jifforded' ^,fr^fm^r\infli 

ther would nor cqu(d renoMoc^ hit. Hiat sov^figof^hadjlpttl^ ijagardia. 

right to the crown of Spain, h\ £iy faijiily mtemsls, vfUttk^tjutem^menim 

vour of any mdividiu^l pr family opposition to ths.jn|f^fsls{Ol*ttfidr 

whateyef to this prejudice eitlier, of, domiiiiops; Ih^ttthe, ffitiidibifrh)»> 

himself, or of the other. brapfJie^ t^een Prance ami .S^mibi nn^A mmi 'f 

pf his bouse; and that ao person, o^'ttJof^^iBKlptoMtiqil oiMid^ta- 

eoufd.be called |o the i^Que^ biit^ ti<m ; th^ Uie lopp0ilphical»sdti»^ 

' by the voice of the nation jtsd^.jii liw of the t^ kjuig^i«S:Wia.bf it* 

▼niinf pf IJteiiationad rifht it p<^l 9^^f ^uficieiii lo d«qi«9smil«|slioiv 

jessed to seliect a pew fiiiiiily 10 the. ippormnt ^t was ftif Spflia tot piVK 

cirent of the eitmcliou of the ia^ Mry^^z ti / g^d umieol^diDg > %Hh 

ly tlien on the \hT6fip. ^J^9^ -^ qoly state OQ.fhe con* 

Tlie ^rench minister \a retnrilt liotolof^EMicop^ wiUi jthicb «be 

iiBt^ed op the iiecefsity of "l^ b^d djrfct and yf^ry MkMirft. re^ 

reqiiire<| renunciation^ chiefly oa latjouf. Tlie ontjly ciicipislfipoe by 

the ground that Ihe abdicatjoa w)ptch thi^ ^lity. coul^^ h^ «lai6* 

of king |Bharf«s had ngt Vbe^ii gered, would be.C9vat)epfi>:iMS tha 

spontanepMf. pfva||of 'prplested psfl i^f f mim fo, usail :tht, ittle- 

against the pppnipn, tta^t Bfio- pf^pif^ni^ |i^ 8pf»hv. 0V the. Irnm^ 

paipaile had any righf to id- of kef s^faiei0o« Sufb ji9> ttlegspl 

terfere id tba mt^al aCTanfa" might |€-opc»; an ioteseoiiiw wttli 

IWMI Sf Spam, a»< c»e4 Utp tt- M^^tj^ w^ilk h^n^^ 



f ' * * >. ? 



JMsr^f Y^ ©]? 1 V A6 P^E.- '*- tS5 




Frmce* Wl»t e^nCdfiice fiVwlH co^i^Uct ' thie _ MrgocfalioiV. "ob^ll^pi 
Europe pbre ill IreaMes with Btiq- pnti of iTerdhuinrf; aiicr inBtrucAea 
iD()aHf , (»«i% it iHftoTered llmt be, rotfeclm Ikat flu hiMer rieitlior 
b^il bMlMPn thrims^ the sacrnl fW witulH nor could constQl )o Jhe j-e« 
;!a?«titMls oAnfnicted by him tiul nlificiation of l^is rights, or'tlio&e. 
fix moDiM btf 0r^, wft|i6h«i1«s IV; of his familvi to th« throng 6riUe(rv 
ijitiinecy«tlrMycifFontamebteauf ancestors. Labnidor's . deinandi of 

Ttie roifferenee l>etween the the produdion of the I^rirncb nii^. 
Frradi tM Spaiihh mtnislers was ntstert full powers to treat with 
iotmniiivd by » cominKhd frotti him, and for an aullien^K^ted staler 
BiinnapMt^.Wha had secretly heard mentof rtie proposals of JBuoua^ 
(Wir (fkoottrse^ to attend faim in bb parte, Were<^%'aded by Cha)npiEign» 
a^Hwt There, OvAlfos tells tis» as matters 'of merely official foruw 
^ w«s f#aied by the Preach em- Champagny added an iosinuaiion^ 
pt'ror, m a tmitor to Us- former that Labr^or mighlj^ by falling in 
n^tcr Charles: beemise he was with the emperor's views, secure the 
w>«^i« the service of Ferdinand, prosperity otSpahj^aiid at thesam<; 
^^ leproaclied iothe mo9t intuit- thne promote his own private ad* 
|b^ manner, f(i»r having mamfained, vantage. Labrador required that 
^ft I fehnercfidal coiifeience %irftb Ferdinand should be in&tantly perV 
{:eaenl • MoutbioiD, that bot^'ever mitted to return to Spain, But he 
ncQMaiy' the' recognition of Fet- Was tofd, that matters could be arr 
^^Mmd'i Me t<r the throne ^f "SlJaitt' raHged brilv^ by 'the two soverei);ns,. 
nisht h« In fbe prettrtntfon bf eitherft^leliersbr in a personal in- 
anity between >t^ two ednntries, letvi^w. '• 
^ thit bit tkle was ndttobefti- TMs answer, adifed ib the other 
*iKiiaii4lqf tlictrltlibbldRigdfimy arcbiiistiEinces, left no.doubt hi tb^ 
^^ m opMa a . ' ! ' ]htiid'tirklii«; Ferdinand, that lie. 

Filidiig, biow c ver , Gevalfos in-; ^as actually under '/arrest. ,Hqw-^ 
loiUe^Si the pHndplet he pro-' ever, in order to esfabfisb l^yoiida 
faMd,ai#eareloldby^roimV dotriit the ceHainty of /this \^>i; 
twiiinpetf, BoofiapaH^ put an end Cevallos, by fiis mafiesty's order^ 
tbe iaietyiew with^ theiiie diarac-' s^iti a nou to the French minister. 
teraliceapi«sA>iii:''"^1hfeivea^ys^' for fbreigh ttffbirs, telTin/» hiiii^ tJiat 
Inn of peHer irf my tmn: yovr the king was determined to relurD 
ovfkt l«ad<m more Nberat' ideas;' to' Madrid, to tranijuiliize flie agir 
to tie Idi rigb on thepoiifit of bb- titibn ^f his bc]ove<i subjects- and 
noitr; nbd tiotlb sacfiAce tbrprb^^' to prb^id^ foif'the traiisactioii or'tlie:* 
penly of Spihl^for' tlicf ' jitlie^sts of inip^r ia'nt business of the kingdom ;^ 
the Beeiliate Fbnrily.^ • \ " • "■- assuring^ Mr.'Chaiilpaghy at'^the, 

despalriilg^^ siiircM Mil liego^' skhie rime, that he himself wouldf 
otiiov wi^ GevAHtw, ' BudikiiMrt^i i;mitikiue^, ib onler to treat with 'hii , 
i^^pared Fet^land'to^ entrtiA hils' imperisil n^jesty, on aflfairs recipro^! 
wDcfcrtil ^Ih^ ibiue' bfh^ nitniiiter;, caW a((vant^ge6u-<:. ' . ' 
Thai DO ififidMiy mgm ^' bk^ "BuduapaftcfiuDainglE^efainand in^ 
^ fleuble. 



IS4, ANNUAt JREGI-STER; IflOS. 



' flexible, had reccoirse U> pt)i«r ex- 
pedients for effeeling his ui)je4>r. It 
«ra>,witli a view ti> this, timt Uie 
6ld kiDc «fKi queen were invile<l to 
/epair to &iyonn«f, for t)i« purpose 

. of II final Arrangeiiieat of affairs, 

Scarcely .Iiad Cliarles reached 
Bayoone* wbea he uas employed 
to demand, that his sod should re- 
«ign the crpwu so lately assumed, 
signifying al the same tiine, his re* 
solution not to remount tlie throne 
himself, but . to renounce, alt his 
rights, and those of his family, in 
favour of France. . Ferdinand VII, 
overawed, a prisoner, and control- 
led by circumstances, ou the 1st of 

. May transmitted in writing a con* 
ditional renunciation of the crown 
in favour of his august father..^ In 
that paper Ferdiuand observed, 
that though his father bad person- 

. ally declared his abdication to be 
voluntary, U now appeared^ that it 
was his secret intention to resume 
tbe crown, when it sliould become 
advisable. It jdow also appeared, 
that it was not his design either to 
lemouDt tbe throne himself, or even 
to. return to his dominions; at the 
'Oame tiine, that the rightful heir 
was directed to renounce his daiois 
•to the succession. 
. Notwitlistanding tlie mexplicable 
Contrariety in Charles's conduct, 
Ferdinsind XHJBtsented to .resign all 

. present pretensions to the throne ; 
but upon certain conditions. Calcu- 
lated to prevent tlie alienation of 
the sovereignty to any foreign 
power. He proposed, that.Cliarles 
should return to Madrid, whitber 
he would attend him as- a dutifur 
aon; that the Cortes, or at least, 
l^e great council of the kingdom. 



should be aasemhleil; that Impvc- 
sent resignalioii, ' with his motives 
thereto, should be dulyand regu- 
Jaily recorded ; thatClmrles slioiild 
disiiMss from bis pveseuce tlie per- 
sons who bad so justly incurred llie 
detestation' of the uatioii; liiat if 
Charles, as it wa^^ understood, de*^ 
:clined to resume the rtiiis of o<v 
vernmenl, Feniinand wouki under-* 
take the ad mhiist ration, either in 
the uaine of his father, and as his 
lieutenant, or in his. owanaftie. 

On the following day. May 3d, 
llie old king,.ia a long answer, evi- 
dently dictated by the great usurper, 
author of the wlioie tragedy *, de- 
clared his abdiaitioa to have been 
cDnipukory, ana attributed bis pre- 
sent distressful situation to t|ie iu« 
veterate hatred of Ferdinand agaiast 
Fnince, of whicli evideuce in his 
owu letters had been .cemmaiu- 
cated, (wlucli has been above ad- 
verted to) by the emperor*- 

Chaifles concludes with assertiag 
his convii^tioo, that Ihe disordeia of 
Spain were to be remedied only by 
Buonaparte, whom, from long ex- 
perience, the aged monarck says» 
he knew to be incapaUeof fi»rauog 
any design- hostile to» the • lionour 
and. intersste.of the royal &aiiiyof 
Spaitu" 

Ferdiiiand'a veply V> this oooi* 

munication, dated tbe 4th of Mayt» 

together with many powerful re- 

presentationa to his fiUher, on tiis 

future situation of the kiagdoiOi 

eoataifls ^aoany slroug- aii^- 

tnentsfor believing tbe abdicatioH 

of the li)th' of Jkiarch to liav^ 

been voluntary ir altbntigb^ the csBr 

sequenees to be apprehended feeni 

the popidar opmaiotiQiu^ niigkt 

Lute 



* $ee A9P£nd4x to Chronicle, ip. 2d3«. t Affen^toGhKii. b<^; 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



i*5 



•ia«bid a G9min«Bidiu{ m&Moiice 
oo diaries'^ miiid. 

Oo Uie same da^'^ 4th of May, 
wiiea Uui reply iras seal by Ferdi- 
naod tokiog Charity, (ttbethcr be- 
fore or aAer it was received does 
uDt appear, aod is perfectly iinnift- 
tfrjal) aooouiiced to the council of 
CastiUe, bis abdicaijon of all his 
claims oa the Spanisli kingdoms^ in 
Urour of bis friend and ally, the 
emperor of the French, by a treaty 
Hhich had been signed and ratified^ 
and vbich stipulated for the inte- 
grity and independence of tlie Spa- 
hI^ kingdoiua^ and the preserva* 
tion of the holy catholic religion, 
m{ only as the predominant, but 
OS the sole and exclusive religion in 
Spain. He had.Uiought proper to 
srad thb letter, that they niitfht 
confonu tliemselves thereto, pub- 
i»h its contents, uiid make every 
eiertioii in favour of NapoieoQ, 
*' Diiplay/' said kin a Charles, 'Mbe 
Qlmoal frankness and friendship 
towaxds the French ; and above 
all, direel your care to preserve the 
coontiy fipom inaiirrections and tu- 
mults." 

Bal before ihb letter of abdica- 
tion should be delivere^l, he ha<i 
dispatched « proclamation, dated 
Oil (lie san\,e day, the purpose of 
^bich va8» to prepare the public 
mud, h) aeme degree, « fur what 
was so sooA to follow ; in confor- 
mity with the usual policy of Buo- 
na^arla, who, ou all occasions, was 
not less attentive to moral inBueoce 
than to (ihysical force. Charles, 
eviUeDtly adoptinp* the sentiments, 
3Bd ft ry style of Buonaparte, told 
im '' Daar ^ulgedts," thai perfidi- 
<mi mea aoagiil to mislead them, 
to um the Spaniards against the 
French, and the Frencli against the 
^paotaidt; but iIk devc)«taUoii of 



Spam, and oalaroities of ^very khul 
would be the consequence. In thi^ 
critical juncture, lie had concerted 
with his. ally, the emperor of tha 
French, measures for thenr welfare. 
All thoae who spoke agcuusl France 
thirsted for their bUioii. They 
Mere either the enemies of tlie Spa* 
uisb nation, or the agents of Eng- 
land, wlio sought, iby their in- 
trigues, to sever tlie mother coun- 
try from her colonies; to effect a 
separulion of her provinces ; or to 
involve Ihe country for a long 
course of years in trouble and dis- 
aster, ** Spaniards/' said he, •• be 
guided by -my experience, and 
yield obedience to the authority 
% whicii I derive from God, and my 
ancestors. Follow my example, 
and be assured, under the present 
circumstances, there is neither pros- 
perity, nor safety for the Spaninrds, 
but in the frieudsliip of the grand 
emperor onr ally." 

The negoriation between the 
father and the son, for the pur- 
pose of procurinvif the uncouditioual 
and alisolute renunciation of all 
right on the part of Ftrdinand to 
the Spanish throne, did not kcfp 
pace with the ardour of Buona- 
parte; who, therefore,' adopted 
measures for bringing it to a con- 
clusion in his own |)eculiar uay* 

At four in the afternoon of the 
5th of May, his imperial majesty 
went to visit the old king and queen 
of Spain. At this intecview tiiere • 
were present, besides their majes-  
tici,the Infant Dou Carlos, Godoy, 
the grandees of Spain, who had ae- 
compauied the new king in his - 
journey to Bayonne, and the Spa* 
iiish miuister Don Pedro CcvaUos. 
After u cQiiference, which was cou* 
tllmed above an hour, Ferdioand 
wus called iu by his fstth^i** ** To 

hear." 



M6r ANNUAL REG IS TEB, .1108. 



fcfprt'^^^'VCW^niliot, f < in tiyt prt* 
Kocc of Mm eiii|ierr>r|, cxpre ttjons 
fp dicgiifliiTg »iMi hunttjiiUiiiis flmt i 
due Ml record tbcm/' Tiieac«u« 
to libicb GeftJio* alliidfs. was tUis* 
TJi« qqcen^ in a tfaosport of fu- 
sion, addrcwiiiK Ferdiiiandt said. 
•* Traitor^ you have for years nic- 
cKtatcd the death of the kiug >'Dur 
father; but thanks to the vlgilanre,, 
the zeal, iiodithe loyalty, of the 
prince of tlie peace, you have not 
been able to effect your purpose ; 
neither you, nor any of tlic infamous 
traitors who liave co-operated with 
youp for the accoinpiishmeiit • of 
]foux designs. I. tell you to your 
faci^, that you are my »pn, but not 
the son «f the king. And yet, 
without having any olher rit^ht to 
the crown than those of your nio; 
ther, you have sought to tear it 
from us by force. But I agree and 
fleinaod/ that the emperor N<i|>o- 
leon sliatl be u(n|)irc between us : 
' Napoleon, to whonf we cede and 
transfeV our rights, to the- c\rlus«ou 
of our OUT) family. I r call on him 
to ponbh you and )our assuriates, 
as 90 many traitors, and abandon to 
him the whole Spaufsh nation." 

This scene of Ihb queen bastard- 
iziug her o^n legitimate sou inJhe 
firesence of tlie king, his legitimate 
father; and proclajming' her owji 
infamy before her husband, is sonic •^ 
thing so new, surprising, and singi*-; 
lar,. that it would aat have gained 
universal and undoubted credit as 
it. has doue, if it were not attested 
' by so inaay ivilnesses. It has been 
aiiflpo$c<i by some, on no inipre- 
baoie. grouiwls, to liave been not 
mcfei^an effusion of passion, i>ut. 
to-have been ureconcerted iietweeQ 
the <ytM^A ana Buonapartei 

Certainly there it notbiiig <o bad 
tK^Dcejrajvg such u wonuiu as to a}>- 



pcar any wiae foci^dibilflyi JttUb^, 
lieved, by. many that the famous let- 
ter, m whiob Ihiooaparle tells )he 
prince of Asturias^ tliat be b^d no 
right to the cro^n of Spain but 
through hjs mother, w^s not writ- 
ten on the 1 6th of April* Jbut sub- 
sequently to thb interview. It did 
not appear in the Moniteur, till 
near the midcile of May,, when it 
was published, together with the 
transactions at Bayoiine, on tbe firitt 
days of that month. If it bad beeu 
sent to tlie prince on the liSth of 
April, it must have c6me to hand 
before his arrival at Bayomie, which 
was not till the 20ih ; and if i those 
who were about tiie prince did not 
interfere for the discontinuance of 
his journey, after the receptiou of 
a letter so gross, so iiiiiolout, so im- 
moral, and so menacing,, instead 
of conuniserating their stupidity, 
we could not he|p re^rding them 
with detestation and horrof. It is 
impossible, nor would it serve any 
important end, tOt unravel zil Ibe 
intricacies of jntriifue of any. kind, 
uiurh lesstwliere tliey descend into 
profundities altogether unfatbow- 
able, or eveu to be •conjectured by 
coinuion experience and ol>serva- 
tion. What is obvious, is, tliat 
ou the side of the French court 
there was the utmost subtlety and 
blackest p<^fidy; on that of the 
Spanish cour^ if not treachery, a. 
tluptdity bordering oq ideotism. 

Tiiere seemed tp )>e no end to 
tbe queen's reproaches aml.xage,. 
when Napoleon interrupted her^ 
by saying, " No ! I cive to Fm^i* 
nand the croniru of ^aples^^and to. 
Charles that pf j^truria> with oue. 
of tiiy niece* in. inarrjage to. each. of. 
tbemn . JUet Iben) deckrar if tbey 
be: willing to accept this offer.'' 

After a abort silence/ Don Car- 
los 



»' ' « 



c 



B I s i' b ii Y o B^ EUR o PU • m- 



loj Tfpfed, ^Rinperouf, I wiV not Ihe firs* article; Chtttks" e^dej 16 
bom to be ff kfntj, bat aii infant ftf hb majej^ty, tlic EiT^jeforNatH)leoh;^ 

aH lii:i ri^litsf lo Ure l»iri»««f ^if* 
Spahi; tw\ Ihe lndi«:r, as Hiiffg« hi^d 
comr lo such a pass, Htat )je aibne^* 
cmild re-establish itkial 'ordter. 



Spain.'* F^ffiioand xvats silent. Buo* 
nnpartc, aftfr a short fiaiiise, said, 
" Prince il faut o\)\eT eiilrc la cea- 
vMi et la niorl."— Cession or death; 
ii.'d six hoars Mere allowed him 
for f oming to a dctermittation. Kiusf 
Ciiarles secondinj» the ti'reat of 
Huouapart**, ordere*! his son to 
I'lake an absolnle resijjniilioii of ihe 
crvnvii, inirter pain of heiiip: treated 
with all his hotjsehold as an uMirper 
of the tiirone, and a con.^pirator 
acuinbt the life of his father. To 
this propasitk)!^, Ferdinand bein<; 
fteMrqus not to hivoke in his niis- 
rort.Jiies Ihe number of persons 



Btit this cession Ha<( made dn thu* 
two follovnng conditiof.^* 1st, That 
the integrity of Ihe kingdom shouM 
be maii'.tained ; that ihe prhice 
whom his iniptriiil niajerty should 
think fit to a>)))oinl to ihe throne of 
Spain, should be iiKlt|«<!ndent, and 
that the limits of Spain slutuid nut 
underco any altciiJion. 2iil^, Tiiat 
the Calhoiic, Apostolical, and llo- 
n'^n, shoulu be the only religion of 
Spain, as lieretbfore, and that no 



co:nprehcnded in the threat of toleration should be granted to anj 



Ciiarlfs 'IV. af^scnted. And next 
ca\\ in a letter to his father, after 
fcratiiia: tin; circnmsiancw of con- 
straint in which J)« was placed, he 
jradc Hie resignation which wa.« 
(ommandcd*> After this, Ferdi- 
nand was deprived of his coach of 
gt^te, and sxiord of hoOQur. H-e had 
no other attendant than the coni- 
niander of the parly that watched 
him ; a jew, belonuing to the mili- 
tia or natbtral guards of Bayonne. 

On the sainc day. May 5, a 
treaty of •ttbdicalion was agreed to, 
and sig^ned by the prince of |>eace, 
on rhe flart of king Charles IV. and 
Marshal Duruc on tliat of. Buona'^ 
parte. * The iholives by which 
Charles Was actuated hi this extra* 
ordinary transaction are stated in 
tlie preamble to haif« been to save 
Spain from the a*jitatTon ^f faction, 
4nd war both internal and external, 
to presence together with the colo- 
nies Ihe unity of the monarchy, and 
to join the nieans of France with 
those of Sj^ain/ for the purpose of 
cJbi^nitj^ t maritime peace:; In 



sect of the reformed reii;:ion, much 
h'ss lo iiillilelity. This act or treaty 
of abdication and cession, as it was 
called, containcii a number of ar- 
ticles providing for the c:>lal)lish- 
meut of the king ami queen, and 
infants of Spain, within the French 
territory, and also for settling the 
liinh thev were to hold, which was 
to be the same with that which' 
tliey possessed in Spain.' By the 
acl of cession of the prince of Ar^ 
larias, sit^ncd at Payonne, May 10, 
the emperor of the French se-' 
cured lo him the title of royal. 
Iiighnes?, promised lo cede to iiim 
the domain of Navarre in Nomiacdyy 
aiid i^tatit him besides,* an annual 
revenue in money, the title of royai 
highness, tbe engagement bf their 
respective commanders in Sjpain, 
and nearly peiHioni, to Don Anlo« 
nio, ^he Uncle of Ferdinand, Don' 
Carlos, and his nephew Don Prati- 
ciKo, provide<l they should uccedt 
to Ihe treaty. 

In the Hieatltime, flteh? was, *su 

might be expected, art action and 

* • • .re*kctioB 



* See Appe0(ii% te Chronicle; p. S39. 



'15lJ ANNUAt ftEGIStE'lt, im. 



rt-jirtiofi lielween wlmf was goin*; 
«n at Baj^onne, and ivfiat cam^ 
lo pass at Madrid. The pttbj. 
Kc iftiHd in Spain had ncter oeen 
In a state or perfect tmtlqiiillity 
Binee the middle of Mafth, ^ln?b 
• ll was suspected that Charier IV. 
Ilit^Hided to remove to Sctille, m\h 
all his famWy. The deposition of 
the pfiiice of the peace, the abdtca- 
tiort cjf Charles, and the accession 
cf his sou Ferdinand, events which 
took pface on the same dav, pro- 
duced a general satisfaction tlirdugh- 
oiit the nation. Bot niultiph'ed re- 
ports of \he insolence of I he French, 
and pfirtlcirtarly the klter of !*je 
Count deEsj^Ilata, tlie governor g^- 
uerai of CafaioniH, stating the hostile 
proteedmgs-of Duhesnie at Barcelo- 
na; th^ arrival of Fliencli troops at 
Madrid ; the snr render to Mvirat, of 
\i\t sword of Francis f . ; the de- 
paiture of Ihe king for Burgos; the 
deliverance of Oodov to the French, 
and iiiiaJIv, the diftcrmiuatioi) of 
Ferdhiatid to pass tljc frontier, 0t 
to-put himself into the hands of^ific 
French at Bayoitne. All these cir- 
cti/nstanccs raised a fermentation, 
whicfi every moinent tlircatened 
some terrible explosion, and it was 
not without difficulty that the junta 
of fjoverftmeijf, at the head of which 
was Don Anf :MTi(<, were able to ca^ni 
Ihe alarms of the people, so far a4 
to restrain them from insuftmg the 
French and tre»*tiiig them with \io- ' 
lence. . 

A conrief extraordinary arfivcd 
every dVetriiig at Madrid^ wflh ncw^ 
of- the pT'oceetlings at Bayoiihe. 
This news- \K'dS hot published in tti6 
ga*c»t1*, but circulated imfler th\? 
form of letters from particular per- 
sons in the suite of the kiiifir. ^Fhlise 



bnlletifis Were at first salisfaclorv, as 
they were fu^of nothing but the 
honours done to Ferdii^ud^ and tiie 
friendly reception h^ ihet with at 
. Baydtind from Buonaparte.' By ami 
by It w^i surhnscd that affairs at 
the castle of Marrae, uore but a 
gloomy as(pect : and soon after it 
Was perfectly known that it was in- 
tended by the niler of France to 
compel Ferdinand to resign hib 
crowd. 

The courier expected on San- 
dfly the 30lb of April, did not ar- 
rive ; and the rt)ail looked for hour- 
ly, was slill dnc on the evening of 
the Ist of May, when several thou- 
sands of the inhabitants of the ca- 
pital assembled ^t the port of- fht 
Sun, and othfer streets near the 
post-office, on the look out for the 
arrival, of the po*t. The 'French 
garrison of Madrid rested all uighl 
oh their ^rins, and on Moiidav fire 
2d of May, the s(m, says an Eng- 
lishman* who w^s present, end 
whoni we here follow*", rose, on 
many an imfortnnat^ inhabitant, 
who was never to behold the dawn 
of another d»y. 

This was the dny fixed for Oic de- 
parture of the qn<?en of Etraria, 
daughter of kitig Charles-, an(J her 
son, Don jFVancrsct), for Bayonne, to 
.join the .rest of the royal fjtmily : 
for it vias ^leterinhied by Buona- 
parte, that tfot a txrancli or scion 
of that fiuniW should Vemaiii in 
Spain. Great mimbers of the peo- 
ple cfowded t*6 the place tliat \va5 
in front 6f the palate, to see her 
going away i and amotig tbe^; ma-' 
* ny wives anif children, ioh\d adi(?« 
to their husBiitds anfd ih^fi fa- 
thers, beTongi^g to tbc family iin'd 
the cScort of the* knie^h, and to he- 

i^-aif 



^ Authentic particulars of tin* events witick took plicl it Madrid, on the 2d of 
May, \ty sJi £n;;lishmau who was present. 



H iSt'dK Y dF'EU RO PE.- - is9 



^W Ibcir nnlNippy lof, in beio£;,!cft 
Wlihid, without any provision be- 
io^ made for Ihek /iihire subsist- 
««, As the first carriage drew 
»i[» to lJi€ gale, a report was circu- 
laieii by sevenrf itidiTidQals among 
the people, tliat Dob Antonio, pr?- 
ivkni o( the juiilii or provisjunal 
government, was also going to 
abanJoD tfiem. And this mistaka 
protiiiced a tumult. The populace 
cot the traces of his carriage, and 
forced it back into the court of 
\}\t palace. But, on satisfaclory 
assurances that Don Antonio was 
Bot going Id quit Madrid, tiiey pcr- 
n:ttled the horses again to be put to 
'ii^ct^ch, which drove without ob- 
'.•rccrioQ to the palace gate. In 
'le midst of this fray, ait aid de 
nam, sent by Murat, to mark and 
;:>e an account of what was going 
^ ruard,niakes hisappe2(rftiice; the 
['*' pic shewed an inclination to h¥- 
Hilt tiiis officer and treat him rudely, 
t'trt he was extricated by some 
Sp.ini?li officers whof were pifsent, 
3''rj suffered to return to* his chief. 
\t'ter this, tbe carriages with th^ 
q^«fn of Etruria, and her brother, 
'^^rt permitted to set out. T/ie 
i'fiut Don' Francisco, manifested 
uieqaivocal tears of relujtance to 
iavf the psdace. He was observed 
«^en to weep bitterly, which affected 
tile people prodigiously, and raised 
'reir indignation and restfntment to 
^'le highest pitch. At thi5 instant^ 
•i'C same aid de camp rttumed with 
^ detachment of French soldiers, 
snd inimediatdy .there commenced 
3 5ceDe of carnage andirorror. li 
•') not fijlly ascertained i^hethef 
rhe populace or the FreDch troops 
^ere the first aggressors. But the 
Freach were the first to let fly vol- 
j'^of mnsquelry, and many.inno^ 
'^t spectators were Idlted, and 



others wounded. A beautiful chiltf, 
eight years «Id,' fell dt^d at a 
window, on the first discharge^which 
was made about eleven o'clock in 
the forenoon. The Dews spread 
over the whole city with the rajM- 
dity of lightning, and io less than a'a 
bour, every individual of the lower 
classes, who * possessed the means, 
ap|)eared on the street in arms. 

At first the Spauiards had Ih^ 
best of it in I lie greater part of the 
city, although the Spanish troops 
had no share in the engagement, 
having been confined by their offi- 
cers to their barracks. A great, 
number of the French were killed, 
and their arms supplied such of the 
Spaniards ns had i:one of their own. 
But as soon as the dispositions di- 
rected by Murat began to he car- 
ried into effect, the a(lvanla<,'e was 
dccidcdlv on the side of the French. 
All the Freiich troops in Madrid 
were set ili^ molioii. Each column 
had one or more pieces of flving 
artillery nith which they scovvered « 
th^ streets as they moved onward, 
and which were afterwards placed 
at the spots from whence they would 
do the greatest execution. Tlie 
French poured vollics <»f musket shot 
into the streets as they crossed or 
passed by the ends of them, aim- 
mg particularly at the wiudotvs and 
balconies. For the Spaniards when' 
they were driven from the streets, 
retired to their houses, from whicti 
they fired on the French" columns. 
In many places, the French burst 
mto the houses by force, and put 
to the sword, men, women, and 
children. T^he place where the 
Spauiards made the most glorious 
defence was the store-house of ar- 
tillery of Montefeant HottsCt whicb . 
besides amnmuition, contained arms 
for 10,000 men. Thither Mtirat 

scot 



l«0 ANNUAL ItEGl^tES; isoe. 



fcnl a dcUidinMal to tdbc pM* 
KKioii of th« artill«i^ and animq^ 
iiiUon, but l>e found il ii«u|)JhI by 
• anuiU number of the inliabiUuiU 
of Madrid gind Spawii trtiUer^r- 
ni«n, jindtT th« coai^Band of Iwo 
brave artUlerv nfficerir of ihie namcK 
of DoaiiBfe an ^ Vete vde. A twenty- 
four pouuder dialled with (rape* 
•bot» pta^ at the gate o/ tlie 
ilore-!ioiise» in front of a lolig and 
narrow street* and duly pointed and 
levelled, made such havoc among 
the French column as it advanced 
by this street, that the commatider 
was obIi;;ed to sead to Murat» for 
a rehiibrceraenl. Two other, co* 
lumns were dispatched with Hlls|)eed 
to his succour. The French co.- 
lumus attacked this small ^arrisun 
On both flunks from the windows 
and tops of tlie adjoining houst's;^ 
and repeatedly summoned it to siur- 
render, but the brave and resolute 
comniahders refused to listen to any 
proposition of this kino^ and \their 
conslancv renmhied uusliaben to the 
last moment of their existence* 
Tcluyde was killed by a mu&ket- 
shot. Doaiz, alter bis^ thigh-bone 
was broken by a cannon ball, con- 
tinued to give hks orders as he suo* 
. ported himself leading uith his 
elbow on the ground, with tb^ 
greatest composure, till he received 
three other wounds, the. last of 
, which put an end to hit cloriouf 
career. Tlie command of the little 
arsenal now devolved on a corp«H 
ral of artillery. wbAit sensible that 
nothing good was tp be expected 
froni furthcjT resistance, offered to 
capitulate. This offer the French 
l^eneral readily accepted* . Bat 
%vbile the articles were drawn up, 
^ a Spanish officer, the nuyor of tlie 
warlike store-house, appeared on 
horseback, waving a \rhite Itand- 



herrhief, 

on which the Fi«ach ^cse aufeed 

to tahg pnmmHm<ciikf fjuce. 

Tl)c tost iMlaiiMMl % the French 
in tlifi point of attack wai Mil ex- 
actly Mcerlaaied. Jl Wttsiaduaoed 
to be verjr coneid^caMeg m Iwfoty- 
six lottods of giapMlioti were 
Bred on the &at «olum9 as it ad- 
vancefi tfaron^btbe fonf Mid mt- 
row atreet just va^tioned. la 
aboiit*iwo hoMPS the firitig. in every 
part of the town erased; wm eftct 
produced by tlie perional bter- 
position of the mfnilienof theoouB^ 
cttofCftstiUe and the other tdbiioah^ 
who flew from one sUt jt to aao* 
flier on boraeliack* aecompan^d 
by sevveral $pani^i noUemeOv witk 
some French genecala, and escorted 
by parties of cavahy, consistittg of 
Spanish bod^r goarcts and traopcn 
belniiiguig to the French in^puiil 
guards, mixed together. 

The inlmbitanis of Madriil now 
ilalterecl theonelvcs.tbiit Iha cv* 
nage was at an end. Bat in Ike 
afternoon, Munit isMied general 
orders to his aimy &r the iminc- 
diate formation of a mtfitary tri^ 
banal, of which gaoevat Grouchy 
was appointed ^ presidentr fkfort 
this tribumd aM fiersonswcre brooglit 
who ba^ been made prisoners in 
the eariy part of the day, or foaiid 
hi tlie street wi& any kind of anns 
about tbeas, or any implcmeflts 
whatever that K^ght possibly hsve 
been uiad, or'ky any constradioa 
consideicdasa weapon ; those wbo 
were foHndwith muskefts!,, swords» 
penknives, and even acisaoia, were 
ail of then considered as equally 
guilty, and onfei«d to be instantly 
shot ; and the sentence was <p&ccoted 
without a moment's delay, Seveisi 
<^tlier penoQs w^re nsMemncd io 
be shot QU the dny after the aest* 

' The 



•"Tlfc «riiW^.5rffi? ?Wnct|-irrtfllis ^6Vtrimi>rifan(i of ^f^'^ fhii'Sk' 
Mi;tiAeIf ■!tgafif!f'M3^ri<1';" oh fte "Iree may' lie condrferta' not Snly 
horritit^'WVrStrfVrWli'cAKjftDtW as Vprei)anilory iiieasiit¥, liiit an 
to\ (h'^j%? ftWwSl''ft),'00O at adual transference of all ■pother. 
moit.- iBid^trWii^ siipl^ws^ th« Biilira'f^ arrt cK'il.'to tlie" Frencii. 
iflVSjrinT'fifilroops'iit Pi^hce btfd 'As lliegrqiiTf (fuGe'was coniniaDtler 
bffh' siifferJtno' join- (tie" i>?ople, 'ift-cliier'of Ilie iroepa bHdnt>iiigto 
tmf o}*"5fllft*e'1o;coO wobfU Kis ally, the emperor of the Frnni, 
ici^Btitpfft 'But^W^Jfirfirnate, "Cliaiks jiulgei il "peeessary, lie 
i'. [Iniifll, for"'ll(e' Sj>atiisli capital, '^vs.'tb fnal^c liim |i^uteiiant general 
lhjt tfiljfttaj '^ol Hfficase; forbe- or Spab; in'ortler Id' give itfa 
vMHthtaeiO.OOoArttWpi'eiOjOTO iiliole force Wilhin liis luogdoni, 
'wnt ft«nch "irbop^ 'eilcnmped or 'for "Slic' ))reserTalJon of peace 
in TfadhftiBrttils"'' in 'tlie lerrifo^ anil 'projierly, .tlie "same direc- 
Wl»(MliatfH(T/ \Tfto^ wdiiffj, Itave ' tion :" ' plainly jtisiiiu^tiug, that 
mmfiKfflSr'iw^n'setln'motfoiii tile "Without s^uch an arraDgenient, tjic 
Mit'fcP'-wMch'-tvfluW iftVe btc(i Jfdrcesofllie (tiSereiitnalioDS niig&t 
i^fliflt^T^ diAthicffdn of Madrid, "icpeive opposite directions., Il vi9S 
' ft MJ tr^'cii -suniiised in vaHous also decreed by ibe rD\al' ^dic), 
' that the grand duke of Elcrg, in qna- 
lily of {;o*eTnOT general, alioulU be 
president of tlie junta ^v govern- 
ment. ,^ But in this the jiirita lia^ 
teen a» fpri*ard as hUirtaje^ij: for 
on tD^ same day, May 44 llie junta 
liaviiig (feclared that tlier^ was not 
B niotnenl'to be lost for .preventing 
ibe ' evils to be threatened by diu^ 
ii]iect* to 'the constituted authorities, 
liiadcn'tenderof the pre cadency of 
that cminctl to the graiKldukeof Berg, 
wfiich Was accepted. Don Antonio, 
iis'wdU as every other branch of the 
RnValfainil}, was called toBavoune. 
' Tfie' grand duke of Berg) MaJ 
6,' issued a proclamation to bu 
army.in Vhidi he sayi, tbat tbe 
" 2n of Alay had forced tlieni lit 
Antw ifle sword; that they bad^c- 
quitted fbeinselves tD liis satisfaic- 
linn, and rtiat fie Would not fail ,to 
t^pOrV tiieir praiaeVorlhy conduct 
(0 the emperor; but order and 
tranquilHty was restored ; the guil^ 
had peen punished; Ihe'inen'wbo 
had ^ been misled, acknowledged 
fbeir errors ; in short, a veil was Ig 
cover Bll'tbat \ttVi passed, and that 
[M] 



162 



ANNUAL EEGISTER, 1808. 



confidence ought now 16 return. 
He exhorted his soldiers to return 
. to their old relations of friendship 
^ith the inhabitants of the capital. 
The conduct of the*Spanish troops 
tvasVortfiy of eulogy. He bade 
the iuhabitants of IVIadrid to ban- 
ish from their ipihds all uneasiness 
and apprehension, and to ae.e 
nothing in the soldiers of the^raud 
Napoleon, the protectar of Spain, 
but friendly troops, and faithfulal. 
lies. Tlie inhabitants of all orders 
and decrees, might wear their cloaks 
according to their usual fashion. 
They would not on that account, 
pe any longer arrested, or otherwise 
molested. He also published ano- 
flier .proclamation, addressed to 
"Tlie brave Spaniards,*' to the 
same effect, but of greater length. 
tie sets out With saying, that the 
" 2d of May yfou\i\ be a day of sor- 
row to him, as it was (o them, Th^ 
'common enemy to hiiii and them, 
after behaving in such .^ manner as 
might have wearied omI'JiIs patience, 
tiad finished t|ieir,, provoking ' cou- 
dupt with exciting the people of 
Madrid and of the adjjacent' vil- 
lages to excesses, that had reduced 
to cippjoy the irresistible force u*i- 
Xlfer^iis com.mjfud. — With what hor- 
ridjoy would i^ot the enemies of 
France and Spg^iji think of tlie day 
wlieq the generous. Freoch wer<5 
of^iged to hurl: th^ joisled Spar 
liiards? Tiii^y I^opetl k> obtab 
Qth^r triumphs not less horrible in 
other pstrt9 o^ tlie.Jkiff$dom« Bujt 
their hopes... Wjpuld ^ be disapk 
pointed by, bis owH: franknes*i aifd 
|[be sotn^ jutteuient pf the Spa- 
niards. Cbarlfis *IV, .^nd his. son 
frerexiopcerting at that mpmeiit at 
Bayanne^ with the emperor Napo- 
leon, the .best measures for a«ttJing 
iht affiurs, and fixing the jgUe ^ 



Spain. Bntthe emperor ^i not 
think that he ought to delay uulil 
the decision, pf ri^at iiupoitaiit 
question, to make known, the -fteiir* 
tiineuts that glowed j^i his breiut 
ill favour of a niagnauimous iia- 
tion, uhora he wisiied to preserve 
froin the crisis of a political revo- * 
hjtion, and to establish such poli- 
tical institutions as were most atia- 
logouR to their character, fle had 
it in charge to dcdajce, in the name 
of bis imperial majesty, that tbe 
integrity of the Spanish monsM^lijf 
should be preserired inviohite, aad 
that it should not be dismfin* 
bered of the smallest portion of 
its territory ; no. not so miidi as ojf 
a single village; nor 3hould. it be 
subjected to those cputribuliom 
yvhich ^re authorized by the laws 
of ^ war in conquered countries: 
which laws could never be tWglU 
applicable to an ally, Ti^e inttr- 
ests of .the army )vhich be codit 
niaiuled, were the intpj;psts of ail 
such as bad titles, pnivileges, or 

fjrpjKrty to preserve. Tlie nobi- 
/ly> proprietors of esjates, nier- 
cliants, and mamifocturers, were 
called on to exert all their influx 
PMce for tlie £uppre^inn yof ^ir 
tion; the ministers .o^ ndigiooi 
who knew the SQcreta of con- 
sciences, and po;5sesse4 .^o great 
authority to undjecdve ' the people : 
and the civil and milit^ authori- 
ties, to recollect tl^eir* responsibi- 
lity^ and to cruah in^orreistioiy m the 
cradle. These authoigiti^» |f f^repcb 
()lood should be shed anev^ would 
be responsible, to the ^mpc^or Na*- 
poleon* wbo^ angc^r ,.or cle* 
mency had never been |i|oved in 
vain. But be proofise^ himself 
better things, hoping that, the mi- 
histecft of religion, piagtstrates, 
tbd gr^nd^s, and olbei: imbks of 

$p»in, 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



163 



9f«io, nif in short, all classes, would 
iKtke k fheir atud\ to avert those 
trouKff s tisat tnight obittnict tbe ame- 
ii'>ratioa intend^l. To all the gene- 
rals and other officers fiiiployed in 
Jl» rWrefWfl province;* of the uiorar- 
cLn, (lie hue of coiidiirt ob«»rved 
«i fbeiw'lniicbwlyoccasinii, alludfd 
K by the hTrtisriiold tr(»op-, the 
f^frwKt f)f Madrid, 9*h\ the mili- 
tdi\ m tUc seivice i»f the ct'Url, pw- 
STftled ail e%ceth*iil mo Jel for hiii* 
titkni." — it IS m*t d^Hcult to ron- 
iMur«» fH>w fhi^ cimipiinieiit would 
br frlM^ed tty llie tiojiotirahle part 
of ihe SfiHitisii ^arrnioit of Madrid, 
and the other reffuiais spfxttied. 

Oil Itic Mme dav a circular let- 
Irr «a$ afhhe*sed hv ^le council 
of sijimiie and ^eueral inq^uiHiticui, 
toallthtr o tirt^ of the khigdom. 
Tiii^ vrneratrie btxiy' hccoinins: a 
knA ki *he luuids of ftlurat, »'illt- 
Odt tM*filation or reserve imputed 
v.fr^ tbe Sfmnbh nation eakkrd the 
nmisacre (4^ the 2d of Mav, to the 
fh'ttpfe of Madrifl. ** The nidan- 
c Kil;i totiieqitciices/* sakl lliey, •' of 
tlieilfsgnief'fitl tutm'ills in thiscapt- 
t^K <*u the fid iustaul, hy the vio- 
Itiite of tbe 4)eii|)k: towards the 
\rf^l^ uf the enipiTor 'of the 
French, huvk: reiulered tjie most 
.jcMve tfvflam'e necessary on the 
jHirt 4»f all the Mft^ihtracies mid al^ 
tile »^pectmbfe liodies C'f tlie na- 
twa. ia artier to prevent the rc- 
nevtti rrf surli excessoM, ami lo 
pffv r«e tnurquiUity in ex'cry com- 
maiii^y art tutted by a due attentiofi* 
U lU »wit interests, no less than by 
t!-^ lams r»f ho^pltahty towards 
fr c III II Y tiHicei-s and sohliers Who 
ttiytr^'ntt |»erson, ami who ftp to 
'Wf mrmtnt huve jjiveii ttte slrong- 
M prouu nf ^ood order and dis- 
cM'Niie, h^ pnubhing those who 
bve bccif guilty of excesses, or 



who have ill treated any Spaniard 
in Itiii p«*rsnn or properly." Thejr 
pr<»rct»defl, in llie u««iial strain of 
llie Trejich on the satr.e suhjef^t, 
to slate ilM-ir sti^oirioii of evil in- 
tciitioiiH disguised untkr tlie inask 
uf pail ioi ism. They represented 
Ihe cot.sttpiences orhcinj» jjowrned 
hy tlie hlind iuipulsifii of tgnb* 
ranee, and tlie dreadful coiise* 
qiietires of tninuhiidus pfoceediii«;9» 
will h onU served to throw the 
country into a state of convuUinn^ 
hy tearing asunder thr»se bonds of 
associatioli on which the |)eace of ^ 
the community 4)epended, by de- 
&tro\iiig the feelinj^s oi' humanity^ 
and annihilating all contideiice iii' 
the c:overnment» to which alone it 
t>elonged to five an uniform direc- 
tion and impulse to Hie sentiment 
of patriotism. Those most ihi)>or* 
tant truths could not t>e impressed 
by any, upon the minds and hearts 
of file people with more beneficial 
effect, than hy the tnuiii^ters of the 
religion of Jesus Clirist, which 
breathed nothing but peace aVtd 
brotherly Idve among men ; and 
snhjeclion, honour, and obedience' 
to all who were in aulhorily. And' 
as the holy college ought to be 
and nlways had been the first to 
' give an exofriple to the ministers of 
|>eace ; they conceived that it ac-; 
corded with their office and theif 
duty to address that letter to the 
subordinate courts of the holy in- , 
quiskion, thial, on perusing its con* 
tewts, they Wiewise shohld co-Jbpet-' 
ale in the preservation of public 
tranquillity. And they were re- 
ouinid to notify the same to all 
the subordinate officers of their 
respective courts, and also to the 
commissioners of districts, tli9t all 
ami e\^rv one of them shoufd wirh 
all possible zeal, Tijphmcc, aiid p'rn- 
[Ms] deuc«, ^ 



164 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1B08. 



dence, co-operate for tlie altain- 
ment of so imporlant an object. 
Tbift doctrine of passive obedi- 
ence to whatever poyi'er happens 
to be uppemiost at tlw (imtf, acconts 
perfectly with that of Buonaparte, 
who, turning the tables oh tlie as- 
aertors of thejuMdivinum of here- 
ditary kings, maintains that he is corn- 



name all the decrees of Buonaparte, 
and the {;p^nd duke lof Berg, his 
lieutenant. 

The' proclamation of Mnrat to 
tlie Spaniards, May 6th, in w|uch 
he tells tlieni that the fate of Spaio 
was under the delif>eratk)n of 
their own princes, in concert with 
the greut emperor Napoleon, wilhin 



missioned by God in the course of the precincts of France, was fol- 
^ovidence to refonn the world by lowed up by another. May 19» 



new' political institutions, as plainly 
appears by hift possessiuf; '* both the 
power and the inclinaiion to sur- 
mount all obstacles*." The same 
doctrine was inculcated on -the Tus- 
cans brought under the dominion 
of Buonaparte by the archbishop 



for convening the notables, who Were 
called on to send deputies to a 
junta to be assembled at Bayoniie, 
for the purpose of settling some 
plan that might secure the tran- 
quillity and happiness cf Spain. 
And on the 25th of May a pro- 



of Florence, who, in pursuance of damation was issut^, ' id which 
a circular address from the new go- Buonaparte insinuated to the Spa- 



verhro^nt, iu the beginning of July, 
to all the prelates of Tuscany, traus- 
ndtted a pastoral letter to all the 
dergy within his diocese. *' Remem- 
ber/' the prelate writes, ** that the 
boly apostle Paul calls kings tliemi- 



niards, tfiat he had receirrd a com- 
mission from heaven to reform their 
government, and to make them again 
what thby liad been before, a great, 
and gtorious, and happy nation. 
*' Your prtnkrcs have ceded to me 



obters of God ; and the kings of their rights to the-' crown of the 
wliom tlie apostle speaks^ were no Spatns. — Your nation is old ; m 



MISSION is to restore ita youth." 
We are kiot surprized at such lan- 
guage from Buonaparte to Tnih 
and Aftibs, and other Muaaulment, 
but it was scarcely to be expected, 
one sliould suppose, that it would go 
down with the Spaniards. 

The public mind, it was presum- 
ed, was oow sufficiently prepared for 
the reception of an imperial decree, 
which was communicated to the 
council of Castille, May 29th, m- 

fomung 

^ Proclamation by Napoleon, Dec. 6, 1^06, to the people of Spain. 

t Gfamdng no doiibt at Bnomparte. * 

t In hi» procltmatiMis, on bis expedition to Egypt, he gives ont,>tiut ^ aRhi^ 
AperatioDs are directed by destiny., to whicli all things in this vast univcyBe ara sab* 
j^t. — I an terrible, as the light of heaven. — A day will come, when all the world 
will see that I an duected in my condnet by orders from above, and thiit no hu- 
Anncflbrts can prevail agamst me." See mora of this sort of preaching, by Bnona- 
partly to the Mussuhnen, Vol. XL. 1798. 



other than heathens, and adversa- 
ries to the cause of Christ f. The 
true cbristiao is the enemy of no 
man, much less of the emperor, for 
be is aware that his majesty Itolds 
his appointment from God, and 
that he miui love and honour 
him, and ofier up piayeiii for his 
preservation/^ 

The council of Casttlle too, by 
publishing and proclaiming, sane- 
ly the aathoiitgr of thev 



HISTORY OF EUROPE, 



l6S 



fonning tbe council of tbe mea- 
sures which the eniperor, by virtue 
of his ii§ht8 to the cro^n of S^uiin, 
which had been ceded to him, had 
takea for fixing the basis of tbe 
liew goveronieiit of the kingdom, 
o( which the grand duke of Berg 
uas to continue in • the meantime 
to he viceroy ; and the council 
of Castille were required to affix 
I he said imperial decree on the 
usual places, that no man might 
pretend ignorance of the same. 
T^K* decree ordered, 1 * That the 
assenibty of tlie notables which bad 
already been summoned by the 
' lieutenant-general of Uie kingdom, 
should he held on the litb of June, 
at Bayonne. The deputies were 
charged with the sentitaents, de- 
sires, and complaints of those 
they represented ; and also to fix 
the basis of tbe new government, 
for the kingdom. ^, Napoleon's 
cousin, tbe grand duke of Berg, 
was continued to fulfil tbe functions 
of lieutenant-general of the king* 
^OQ. 3. Tbe iliinisters, the coun- 
cil of slate, the council of Castille^ 
ftod all. civil, ecclenastical, and 
military antborities, wcre'^ as (kr as 
requisite, confirmed. Justice was 
to be administered under the same 
forms, and in tbe same manner, as 
usuaL Tbis decree was published 
by the coandl of Castille, as tiiey 
were ordered and directed. 

The obiect of Buonaparte in 
convoking tbis assembly, is obvious. 
Blinded as be was by the e^ttra- 
vagance of his ambition, be could 
^et discern how easily those acts 
of renancitttion om which be. liad 
fowidcd his pretensions to the 
trown ofSpain, might he evaded. 



He named, to constitute ths as- 
sembly, atK>ut 150 Spaniards of 
different classes, conditions, «nd 
corporations ; but only about 90 
were convened. A purt of these, 
representing some citit^, tribunals, 
or other public bodies, broiigbt witJi 
them instructions in the nature of 
powers given them by those whom 
they represeiHed^ but altogethvr 
insutficient to answer tbe purpose 
intended. The niititnters of the 
council were without any powrevs 
or instructions whatever; a pre- 
caution adopted by this tribunal in 
conformity to the judgment of its 
commissioners, in order to avoid 
all involuntary compromises. Most 
of the deputies had no other po vers 
than merely to take their departure, 
and many of them did not' belong 
to any public body, or acknow- 
ledged class of the community* 
Buonaparte fully expected, from the 
acquiescence of these imtividuals, 
a mask for concealing bis usurpa- 
tion, but \it was utterly deceived. 
Instead of finding wea^ men 
convenient for the designs of bb 
mercenary ambition, be was met 
by ministers incorruptible; gran- 
dees worthy of their rank, and 
representatives who were faithful 
defenders of the interests and ho- 
nour of their country*. They all 
with one accord, informed him that 
the powers they held were greatly 
restricted ; that they were not the 
legitimate representatives of Sf>ain, 
andihat they could not compromise 
lier rights. — Among the deputies 
chosen by the notables to represent 
tbeni in the junta at Bayonne^ was 
Don Pedro Qncvcdoy Qtiitano, 
bishop of O reuse. The bisliop tf\- 
[ M 3.] cused 



• 'Cxpo5iiion of t^om Ptiiro Covallos, 



166 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



cused liiinself from accep^g this 
trust in a letter to the grand duke 
of Berg, the presiilent, and Ilie 
oilier members- of the supreme 
junta of government, which was 
published in all the Spanish news- 
papers, and afforded to Buonaparte 
a foretaste of what might be ex* 
peeled from the literary genius of 
the Spa>)iards, awakened by tlie 
greatest and most animating oc-* 
casion tliat cduki be presented to 
any nation. It is fraught through* 
out with the purest morality and 
most accurate reasoning, covered 
with a veil of exquisitely fine, aud 
wtiat mav indeed be called a kind 
of sublime irony. He does not 
question, but assumes an air of be^ 
lieving, that the great .emperor of 
the Frencli is anunated with an ar- 
de«>t aeal to exalt ^pain to the 
bighest pitch of prosperity • and 
glory. 

** Bela^ 73 years of age, and 
UD^'er infirmities,' and not able in 
80 short a lime to acquire thekiiow^ 
ledge n<iCissary to come to a deci* 
•ion on the points to he, discnssecf, he 
sent flie present letter." — Tlie em- 
peror and king appeared in the clia* 
Yacter. of a guardian angel of 
peace, the protector of Spain, of 
which he had never been forgetful, 
but on mauifohl occasions had ma* 
nifested the great intere-it he felt 
in the Spanish . nation, and the 
sovereigns of Spain his allies, and 
Im coticeTn*for their advancement 
in wealth, power, and all niagner 
of prosperity. — ^The object of tlie 
junta was to remedy evils, to remove 
prejudices, and to ameliorate the. 
comlitibn of the nation and monar- 



diy of Spain. But on virhi* f a wilfl * 
tioitwas this great edtfitteto tie lioili] 
Was there any mre mcaftM of a€CM»- 
pUsliing this great ead, a|)p9ovcd 
and ratified by the nation \ Tlwia 
were malatlies of 9«eh « nature 
as only to be exaaperaled by luedi- 
cuies. Tangafd MBfti«r«' mera 
fnUltt viamm *. Tiie remedies ap- 
plied by the eqi|wnir Napoleon, 
the powerful protector of Spain, 
to the royal fiunily, had aggravated 
' the distemper so greatly, thi^ there 
were scarcely any hopes of' reco- 
very. — The remmciations of Ike 
kings at Bayoniie, and of tbe ia- 
fants at* Bourdeanx, were made by 
those princes, not in a stale of free^ 
dom, but under force and co- 
ercion. 

** That tfiose renunciations, on 
which all the authority of tlie 
emperor and king with regard to 
Spain depended, mi^ht be taiid 
and clear, and not an- object of 
suspicion to the whole wt^tmn, they 
ought io be ratified t>y the kings 
and infants of Spain» not under 
constraint and terror, but m a state 
of perfect freedom. Ami nothing 
could cotitribnte so much \0 lbs 
glory of the great emperor Napoleoff^ 
who had interested himself so moch 
in the aflairs of Spaiu an Io i^enrl 
baek its august monardu and all 
the royal family, that having a^ 
sembled the general eertes, they 
might cimsolt, deliberate freelv, 
and concert with tbeil' vassals and 
subjects 'What might l>e eypedient 
for tbc'welfare of the kiitgdoni. — 
Who liad appointed Ms serene 
highness the grand duke of Berg, 
governor of Spain 1 Was not tiie 

appoiHtiBeot 



* l,Hn»htmd touch ^mtdw(m9/U» 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



i6r 



appoiutmeixt uiade in France 1 By 
1 kiiig pious indeed^ and worthy of 
ill respect, bul not only under an 
i^cendiint iufiucnce, but under coo* 
itraint and coercion t Was ii not a 
ilrange aiMl unnatnral chimera to 
lauie for the lord lieutenant of his 
angdom, a general who commanded 
111 army that menaced and coiii- 
Hlled liira immediately to resign 
lis crown 1" lu conclusion, lie said, 
* the nation saw itself without a king, 
ii>d did not know what hand to 
turn. The reiiunciationt of its 
kings, and the nomination of a go- 
arnor of the kioj^doni, were deeds 
Jooe in France, and under tlie 
nose * of an emperor w1m> has per- 
suaded himself tliat he can effect 
(lie felicity of Spain, by giving it 
anew dynasty, deriving its oiigui 
from a family so fortunate as to 
Mk^t itself incapable , of pro- 
ducing any other princes than such 
as shall possess equal or greater 
talents for government, than the in- 
vmcible and victorious, the legis- 
l^tor> and tike pliilosopher, the 
great emperor Napoleon. He re- 
quested, with all due respect, tliat 
^vliat he considered as well grounded 
fears, might be brought under the 
consiiieratiou of the supreme junta 
of government, aiui even laid be- 
fore the great Napoleon, to be 
^veighed by the natural rectitude of 
lib disposition and purity of his 
)ieart, free from ambition, and far 
removed from all guile and poll-, 
tical artifice. And, the bisiiop 
iioped, that the emperor, after mat- 
ters should be tbua candidly cou- 



ridered, would admit that the safety 
of Spain coidd not consist in sla- 
very, and that he would not think 
of effecting her cure by putting* 
her in chains^ seeing she was nei« 
tlier in a state of lunmcy^ narjuri^ 
aiufymadi. These were sentimenU 
which be was not afraid to avow 
to the junta of government, and even 
to the emperor himself. This ex<- 
pression of them was demanded by 
his love for his country, and the 
royal family, and by his cliaracter 
of counsellor to his sovereign in 
the qnality of a bishop of Spain : 
nor did lie consider the seatimenla 
he had expressed as useless, if not 
necessary to the true glory and kli- 
city of tiie illustrious herd wiio was* 
the admiration of all £urope, and 
to whom he iuid the pleasure of 
taking the present opportunity- 
to pay tiie tribute . of his hum* 
ble, obedient, and submissive 
respects."- — Orense, 29th May, 
1€08. 

. The bp. of St« Andero*s lettef oa 
the same subject, and on the same ocr 
casion, though quite in another stile^ 
was as much admir/^d and as widely 
circulated. To Buonaparte, who 
had invited him by letter, to attend 
at Bayonne, the bishop rephed, *' I 
caunot make it convenient to attend, 
and if I could, I would not {.'^ The 
junta at Bayonne held their twelfth 
meeting on the 7th of July, the 
day appointed for the acceptafiq» 
of the new constitution. In .ifm. 
chamber where they sat, were erected* 
a magnificent throne, and a richly 
decorated altar, the service of 
[ M 4 ] lyhicb 



* So me weald say in English, The Spanish is, <* A la Tiata, imder the 

fc." 



eye." 

t Por qae no esta loca ni fuiiossu 
*f See Chronicle; p. 71. 



168 ANNUAL RE'GIBTER, 1808. 



which was performed by the arch- 
bishop pf Burgos. Joseph Buo- 
nopTarte," f o whom Napoleon bad 
transferred tbe /crown of Spain, be- 
in^ sealed on the throne, delivered 
a speech 16 the ** gentlemt^n depu- 
ties»" in Which be told them, that 
fit vna desirous of presenting^ him- 
self ih the- midst of them, pre- 
viously to their separation from, 
each other. — " Assembled,"' said 
Joseph, ^ In conslieqnence 6( one of 
ihe-extraordinary events to wbich 
all nations in their turn, and at 
particular junctures, are subject; 
and in pursuanccf of the disposi- 
tions of the emperor Napoleon, our 
illii^trioiis s brother.— Your senti- 
ments huVe been those of his age. 
The result of these sentiments will 
be consolidated in the constitutional 
act which will be forthwith read to 
yon. It will preserve Spain from 
many tedious broib, which were 
^anly to be foreseen from the dis- 
quietude with which the nation had 
been long agitated.'' He proceeded 
16 touch on the grea^ standing 
topic, tlie intrigueg of the eneHnies 
if tht eaniineni^ who hoped to 
sever Spain from her colonies :' 
but " if the SpaniardsSvere disposed 
to make the ^me sacrifices with him, 
then sHumfld Spain be speedily tran- 
quil and happy at home, and just and 
powerful abroad.**— The -act of con- 
stitution * was read over in a lou J 
▼oi(^e,andthe members of the jt\fita« 
iMi the question being put, una- 
nimously declared th^ir acceptance 
of it. 

The 'president of the junta; 
ddivered a sltoH address in an- 
nwer to the speech of king Joseph ; 



after which the several members 
took the following oath :— *' I 
st^'ear obedieiice'l»V the king, the 
cdiistitutioii, and th6 laws.*' TIjc 
junta then attended his majesty's 
levee, to pay bini their respects 
on the occasion. And his hiajesty, 
we are told, " gave them the most 
gracious reception, and conversed 
with them nearly an hour.^ The 
viceroy of Spain, Murat,' was pre- 
sent at the inauguration of king 
Joseph. He was calfed by Boo- 
naparle, and arrived at Bayonne 
on the 6t!i of July. It was deemed 
expedient by Buonaparte, before 
the departure of Jdseph for the ca- 
pital, to have sortie convehation 
with the lieutenant gcueral, ' con- 
cerning the present state of Spain 
and disposition of the Spaniards. 
Tt \Vas judged politiclil Wisdom that 
J()seph should attach- a nhraberof 
the Spanish nobility t6 Iiis inleresLs 
by appointing them to offices of 
dignity (as was conoejved) trust, aiwi 
emolument. On the '1st' of Joly, 
there was a nomination of ^igbt 
mirtisters, viz. Don Louis Msriuno 
de Urquijo, secretary of stale, Don 
PedroCcvallos, minister for foreign 
relations; Don Joseph de Aranza, 
minister for the* Indies; Admiral 
I^on Joseph Rfassaredo, miuisler 
of manue ; Don Gonsah) OTarrd, 
minister of War; DontJasparMelc- 
hibr dc Jovellanos; miuismsr of llie 
interior; the coiint Cabaifts, mi- 
nister of finances ; and Don Se- 
bastion l^muela, minister of Jus- 
tice.— Two caf^tafns of the body- 
guards, vi2. Iheduke of Park, a 
grandee of Spain; and th« duka 
of St. Germain, also a grandee of 

 Spain. 



* See State Papers^ p. $f§. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



169 



Spaia^r'I^ colooeU of Uie guards, 
%r& tiie duke of lafao|ado» colooek 
u/ tiae regiment of Spanish guards, 
and the prince of Castel-Frauco, 
colooffj of the Walloon-guards, 
eniDd officen of the crowo. The 
iBin)ttis of Ariza, great cliam- 
berlaiB ; the duke of Hijar, graud 
master of the ceremonies: aud 
CQuntFeroando Nunez, grand hunts* 
XDaiL Cbaqiberlains ; the count 
Santa CoUonoa, tlie duke of 
Ossona* count Castel Florida, and 
the duke of Solainayor» all grandees 
of Spain* 

It b paioful to observe in this list 
of oiioeis of the household, court, 
and public service of Joseph, the 
aaincs oi persons of the lirst < rank 
in the coiintrj, and even of some 
wim had iaboured long to over* 
throw ibe prince of the |ieace, and 
plice llie prince of AsturSas on the 
Ibrone of hb father* True, being 
ID the power of Buonaparte, they 
were under a. necessity of accepting 
tiie phoea appointed for them ; nor 
bad Ibey any other means of es- 
caping from the bauds of the tyrant v 
SKlbehig.serviceable lo the cause of 
tbdr country, oo any opportunity 
that migbt be ofiesed. But who 
forced tbcm to go to Bayonne? 
TbisqueatioQ recurs, notwithstaiid- 
Bff every effort to eicusetbem, 

iBunediutely after the abdica- 
tions )be royal family of Spain was 
bitcneil into the. interior ol France. 
When they bad proceeded as far as 
BourdeSittiK. May 12, the prince of 
Aiturias, and the infants Don An- 
tonio and Don Carlos, suUscribefi st 
loi^ proclamation addressed to the 
SjNioiards, in which tliey are made 
to repeat iheir former renunciations 
of all their rights of succession t^^. 
Ibe Spanish crown, 9nd to detail 



the mo^t proininent circunistantes, 
in the slate -pf the nation, as well 
as their own situation under which 
they had come to thai resolution^ 
The unhappy princes are made in 
tliat elaborate address to their coun- 
trymen, to state ill the strongest 
colours the calamities to he appie- 
hended from the enmity, but the 
mighty advantages to be expected 
from tlie frieiidslrip of France^ 
and even, what was a cruel inock* 
ery and insult to the princes — to 
hold forth their dereliction as the 
greatest possible proof of their af« 
iection for the Spanish nation. 
*' Tlieir highnesses conceived that 
tbey afforded tlie most undoubted 
proof of their generosity and a^ 
fectioii towards this nation, by 
sacrificing to the utmof^t extent of 
their power, their iudividiial and 
personal interests for its benefit, 
and liy that present instrument to 
assent, as they had already assented 
^ by a particular treaty, to the renun- 
ciation of ail Iheir rights to tlie 
throne. They accordingly released 
the Spaniards from all their duties 
reiatiug thereto, and exhorted litem 
to consult the conimon interests of 
their couutry by conducting them- 
selves in a peaceable nuinner, and by 
looking for their happiness in tlie 
power and wjse arrangements of 
the emperor Napoleon. The Spa- 
niards might be assured that . by 
tlieir seal in couformtug their con- 
duct to those arraiiizements^ tbey 
would give their prince and- the 
two infants the strongest proof, of 
their loyalty ; in hke manner as 
their royal highnesses had given 
them the greatest instance oi their 
paternal affection, in renouncing all 
their rights, and sacrificing their 
own interests, for the happiness of 

Uie 



170 ANNUAL, REGISTER, ^808. 



the Spaniards, Uie sole object of 
their wishes ." 

Tbe> king and qoeen of Spain, 
arrived on the 20tb of May, at 
Fontaiiiebieau, where he was imme- 
diately- accommodated with a com- 
plete equipage for the chase. From 
thence they removed on the 22d, 
to Compiegne. The prince of the 
peace resided now and then, when 
he did not attend tlie king and 
qiieen, in a villa in the environs 
of Paris. The queen of £truria, and 
her son, were placed under "pr^jfer 
€wre at a iiouse in the village of St. 
Mendez, near Paris. The wifor- 
' tunate Ferdinand, with his uncle 
and brother, arrived May 19th at 
Valleucy, a small town in the pro* 
vince of Berry, where they were 
lodged in a castle belonging to 
Talleyrand. 'The princes sought 
consolation in a strict observance of 
the ordinances of the catholic reli- 
gion. They attended mass twice 
every day, and enjoyed for hours 
together, the soothing strains of sa- 
Cr^ music. The incomes pro- 
mifed by treaty to the royal fa- 
mily of Spain, have not been more 
legularly paid than pensions com- 
monly are to princes in confine- 
ment or exile : which has already * 
reduced the princes to great incon- 
venience. 

King Joseph set foot on the ter- 
litory of Spain on the pth of July, 
eKorted by a guard of 4000 Italian 
troops^ and followed by upwards of 
an hmKlred coaches, carrying his 
suite, and the nicmbecs of the Qay- 
oane jiiiiia« 'tliis guard, gradually 
incr^sed, amounted^:. by the time 
J4>$eph arrived at Madrid,- .th ten 
tbousanda but his •true guard was 
an- aimjf pf eighteea thousited men. 



Under marshal Bassierea, properly 
posted for that pur|)06e. • Napoleou ^ 
accompanied Him as far ars Trua, 
twelvennles distant from the frontier. 
In all the towns and villages tl^rough 
which Joseph passed in his way 
to the capital, a sullen silence pre* 
vailed. Few of the mea vi^ent out 
of tiieir houses, or interrupted their 
ordinary emptoymenls; and some of 
the womeu appeared at the winctows 
and balconies, crying out Wra Fer- 
dimndoWt On the 20th of July, 
king Joseph mad^ his publie^entry 
into Madrid.^— On the same day 
Buonaparte, with Josephma, set out 
from B^yonne, and arrived al St. 
Cloud) on the l6th of August. 

Buonaparte hail hitlierto^ in all 
his interftreaces and aggressions oa 
indef»endeot states and ktifgiloms, 
giwn, in declarations cff * war; his 
reasons for his conduct; which, 
though they did not justify^ eicphtio* 
ed his fiews^ aiMl were a kind of 
homage to tile sentiments cf men 
and nations.^ ' While Europe was 
divided among a number of sepa* 
'rate and independent powev«i, while 
there • was a commiuitty ef states, 
2cttd a d€^ee> of pablic spirit, as 
vn\^ ai public opinion in £«MPope ; 
some degree of decent reqieet tor 
these appeared t# be, if not alto- 
gether demanded, yH decent and 
proper. After the peace of Tilsit, 
wiien the whole continent of Eu- 
rope, Spain itself not excepted, lay 
crouchingat hiafeet, he does notseem 
at first to liave tbouglit aiiy such 
management at all necessary, He 
scorned to put on even the mai^c of 
morality. — His condnct to the Spa* 
rrish nation, to whom he professed 
the greatest iirieodship, was base 
and treQi€heit>u3 beyond all exam- 
ple 



• May.l, 1810. 



HISTORY OP' EUROPE. 



171 



k m the MsTory of maifikhirf, wit- 
her in a savage, barbarous civi* 
fztd, or refined state. Yet he 
nade no apology to Europe : but 
ifterwurtis, wlien lie fouud he was 
>ppose(i bolh by the pen and the 
word with a keenness he TiHle ex- 
creted, he publislied » kind of jus- 
iticaliou of his condncl towards 
Spain, which is the most curious 
piece of what may be called poiiii' 
tal moTBlit^ or the moraifty of 
ambition, that had ever before been 
presented to the worhl. This jus- 
lirtmlioH apiVeared in the form of 
a rt'iwrt Irom the mhibters of 
external relations and of war, pre- 
sented to the conservative senate on 
the 5lh of September^ and inib- 
Ibl.ed iu the Moniletir, September 
7ili. It is dated* at Bayonne, 
April 24lh, 1 808.— Tlie substance 
of it is, ** that France was under an 
obligation to put an end to the in- 
ternal dissentions and anarchy tftat 
prevailed in Spain, in order to com- 
p«l the English government to spare 
the cffasion of human blood. This 
was for the interest atid happiness 
of Spaiif, France, the continent of 
Euro|)e, and all the world.— Of all 
the states of Europe there ^^•as not 
oue between whojre coiidilion' and 
fate, and that of France; tliere was 
80 close ami necessary connection 
as that of Spain. Spain must be 
either a useful friend to Fraiic^e 6r 
a dangeroas enemy.' 

The greatness of Lewis \X1V. 
did not begin till, having conquered 
Spain, he formed an alliance with 
the family then reignrng there, by 
>»hich means the Spanish crown 
canrt to be placed on the head" of 
his grandson. Thi« provident act 
of policy was productive of ho less 

« 



a benefit \6 tlie two cmmtrtes -f hafA 
a ce^t^Bry of peace after three cen- 
turies of war. The* bmid that 
united the two ns^tions w;is broken 
asimder by the French revolution. 
Arter the third coalhioii, Spam, at 
the same time tlmt she wasr most 
proftise in her pro(esfafions of 
friendship to France, gave se^ 
cret assurances of aid lb the' con- • 
ft^lerates, as a|»pe»red from cer- 
tain papers cnninuruicaled to the 
parliament of Enjrland. • 

In the present stale of thingt 
Spain, under so miserable a ^>vern- 
nienl, was of no service to the com- 
mon cause against England. Her 
marine was neglected; hef maga- 
zines unprovided ; m every branch 
of the administration there rer;v„ed 
tlie most horrible disorders; all the 
re5?ources of tlie monarchy were dila- 
pidated; vet while Spain nejrhcted 
her nrariii she was augmentitij* her 
force at land. These treat evrlswere 
not to be hmedied btrt by great 
diamrejf.— Tire nrarrlime nsfTurces 
of Spain wm lost to herself and to 
Fratice. Tlie country that mijjjlit 
comiiraiid the ureatcvt resources of 
this kind was that which in reality-- 
ha<l tlie least. Thev mrt^t; be Re- 
stored by good goverwtiei.l,' and" 
improved by jmficrouft aYrang<*i 
merits,. that they might be drrecRnl 
by his imperial majesty, for the al- 
raitnuent"^ that peace whirh hb- 
niHiiitv s/Jl'nndly calted fl>r, and of 
wliiclr Europe Imd io f^rm need, 
Everv thing ifiat had "a tcndcttdy to 
this end Was alk>wab*e and riglrt. 
It was trot perinilVed'tt* liis majesty 
by the interests oV eitlrer France 
or Europe, tb ' neglect the only 
mrdMSM)f U-aging a 'fcitccessftil i-^^a/ 
with Englatii*.— It was deiiKindeil 

I ' by 



• Tboag^ probably not composed till lometimc aftcrwardi. 



17« ANNUAL REO.ISTEKi 1808. 



by lb$ interests of Spaio^ as well as 
those of Frauce, thdt a stroiu^ hand 
shpuld le-estahfa'sh order m tlie 
Spanish ^veroiucot that had fallen 
into suca disgrace, and that was 
basteniog so quickly to its final 
overthroiv And ruin : that a fmnce 
who was the friend of France by 
inelin^tioo and by interesl, that haq 
nothing to apprehend » and could 
never be an object of mistrust to 
France, should consecrate the whole 
resources of Spain to its internal 
prosperity, to the re-establishment 
of its marine, and to the success of 
that cause which connected Spain 
with the continent The Work of 
Lewis Xiy. was to be recommen- 
ced. What policy advised, justice 
sanctioned/' 

The rq>orteraAer setting him- 
self to establish this point by a re- 
view of circumstances adduced to 
prove the lurking hostility of Spain 
to France, and its predilection for 
England, and, that it. was actually 
in a state of war with his imperial 
majesty, says, ** But, independently 
of these considerations, ei^istiog cir- 
cumstances do not permit your ma- 
jeslv to absttfn from intervention 
in the affiurs of that kingdom. The 
king of Spain had been hurled from 
his throne, your majesty was called 
to judge between the fatlier and the 
son. Wliat part could your ma- 
jesty take ? Could your imjesty sa- 
erilice the cause of sovereigns^ and 
suffer an outrage to the majesty of 
the tlirone t Or suftr a prince.to sit 
on the throne of Spain who was un- 
able to disentangle himself from 
the yoke of the Eiiglish any lon*rer 
than your majesty should maintain 
a powerful army in Spa^n 1 If, on 
the other hand* your nnyesty should 
determine to restore Charles IV. 
to the throne, tin's could not be 



done witliDUt overcoming very grea^ 
Tesiftance, and without a deluge 
of Flinch blood. In short, could 
yonr majesty abandon the Spanish 
nation* to its fate in the midst of ex- 
treme agitation, and while the l^ig- 
lish were busy in fomenting trouble 
and anarchy 1 Ought >our majesty 
to give up this new prey to be de- 
voured by Euglandl God forbid — 
I have irepresented the circumsiaii- 
ces that ublif^e your maje!»ty to 
come to a great determination. It 
is recommended by political wis- 
dom, authorized by ,|,ustice, and 
^y the distractions of Spain, inipe- 
rio\isly demanded. Your majesty 
Ought to provide for the spcurity «>ir 
your empire, and to save Spain from 
the influence of £u/;land." 

The minister for foreiini c^l'<i* 
tions, in another report made to 
the emperor, Paris, Septenilnrr l, 
to be communicated fo the. senate, 
says, *' If in the dispositions whit li 
\our majesty has made, the secuiiry 
of France lias been your principai 
object, the^ hiterests of Spiiin have 
not been neglected. In uniting the 
two states by the mos^intimate alli- 
ance the prosperity and the glory 
of both have been equally consnlt- 
ed; your majesty interposed as a 
mediator for the salvation of Spain, 
torn to piecea by intestine broils. 
You pouited out to the Spaniards on 
the .one hand the anarchy- with 
which they were threateiied, and on 
the other hand England ready fo 
take advantage of tiieir disorder in 
order to appropriate to herself 
whatever might suit lier conveni- 
ence. — Shall England be permitted 
to say, *' Spain is one of my pro* 
vinces," and to domineer at the 
ports of France ? If the French 
fi^ht for the liberty of the seas, 
tliey must begin with tearing Spain 

from 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



175, 



from the tyrant of the* seas.. If looiei, started up simullaneotisijii- 

iSey fi^ht for peace, they must as if v moved up by one indignant^ 

(ti'ive from S|Hiin tbe enemies of soul mto an attitude of defence 

pfacf — lo tilts contest all £urope ^d 'defiaiioty and declared ^emid 

prn> for success to France." * war against their perfidious and in* 

tbus fkr we have seen Buona* solent oppressor: an event whieik 

park carrying on his design by in- astonisbeid ali£urope, and no one, 

iru'ue and fraud ; by which lueaus it may be*presumed» nlore than the 

\y. coiiMdered it as accomplished, tyrant, who had treated them with 

But ihe S|iattiards, noi only in the so much contempt. 
jirrjviaces of Spain, but in the co- 



i.t 



• • '• t 



■• X 



K 



t •» 



CHAP. 



I 



172 



M." REGISTER, 1808. 



^ 



; CHAP. IX. 

t Ge9grapkuialt Mofal, and f^itieal. — Circnm- 
heouTiige the Spaniards in their Remtance againrt 

i 



O PAIN, in 6nmmy lang«a^, is 
O considered as consisting of one 
extensive stale or kingdom ; and so 
it is in its foreign relations, and 
sundry other points of tiie greatest 
importance. 3ut under tiie crown 
of Spain are united niany^ slates of 
kingdoms, utiich have j^radually 
coalesced into one monarchy ; each 
kingdom (formerly so called) re* 
tainiug still, together with many par- 
ticular laws and usages, a peculiar 



vy dmiTfi tiie ino^ energetic por- 
tiori of its niarinefv. . 

The other parts of Spain are vprv 
unequally distributed into those be- 
lon(;ing to the crowns of Castilie 
ami Arragon. To Castilie beloii<^ 
the kingdom of Galiicta, (lie pro- 
vinces of Btirgos, Leon, Zamora, 
Salamanca, Estramadura, Paleficia, 
Valladolid, Segovia, Avila, Tori>, 
Toledo, La Manciia, Murciii, Gua- 
dalaxara, Cuenca^ Loria, and Ma- 



and^ distinct character, and some of d'rid : to these are adiled, the four 



them separate local interests : cir- 
cumstances wbicli, no doubt, pre- 
sented to such a mind as Buona- 
parte's, hopes of being able to call to 
his aid the destructive power of di- 
vision an<l discord. Tiie northern 



ancient Moorish kingdoms, com- 
posing the provinces of Andalusia, 
namely Seville, Cordova, Jaeii, anl 
Grenada. To the crown of Arra- 
gon belong the kingdoms of Arra- 
gon and Valeulia, the count v of 



districts, containing the kin<;dom of Catalonia, and the kingdom of the 
Navarre, the' three provinccis of island of Majorca. The stales ufi- 



BiiMray, and the principality of As- 
turias, enjoy peculiar privileges, be- 
ing governed in some sort by them- 
selves, and by far the greater part 
of their contribution appropriated 
to (he expellees of their own muni- 
cipal establishments* These pro- 
vinces consisting chiefly of prodigi- 
ous trac.ts of muun tains, produce a 
race of hardy, active, and industri- 
ous people, who, for want of 'suf- 
ficient employment in the cultiva- 
tion of the ground, or in the iron 
mines with which their countrv a- 
bouQcis, have naturally devoted 
thcuiselves to the sea service in'va 
rious branches; and from those 
tracts of sea coast, the Spaihish iia- 



der the crowns of Castilie and Ar- 
ragon, had their several cortes or 
asscn^blies of representation of the 
different orders of hdiabitanLs : but 
those of the two crowns were iw- 
ver united into one body ; and, in- 
deed, since the days of Charlei V. 
who resigned the povernmeot in 
1555, the cortes were seldom cwi- 
vened. 

The government, however, thoush 
in appearance- despotic, and inde- 
pendent of the will of the nation, 
was, as is tfie ca.<«e in t vcn tljc 
most arbitrary EurupC'^n st:ites, 
tempered by a conipli( ateil system 
of -councils, in whicli if jud^nieat 
was tardy, it was commonly ju.st. 

Tiie 



HISTOBY OF EUROPE. 



175 



Thf j^rcat and jmpprt^ipt Peuin- 

wU f.f S|)ain (iiicludiug Portugal, 
UiiraHy a pari of \\\^ same coji^- 
tn, aod dkl various pedoiis suUjt'^t 
Jo tfje same sovereiijii])! vs '. nu^st at!- 
vaiit2j€ousI V sitiialed. bel w^'ea. 'iU^ 
Aiiin'icanchhe Meditcixjuicfan^ It 
cfniniaiKis the narrow Wrait of 
(;il>niltar, ll;e onlji? . c^nr luuuica- 
t' ;:i between these scaj, and occu- 
^^^^ in some resfiecls tlie centre of 
tie IiabilaUe globed 'T^ie Penin- 
>' b, a, name b^ u Uicli tbe Spa- 
nrds frequently tlesi^iiiUe llieir 
ro[iin'y, extemis, where , broadest, 
f -m uest to east, about 640 Eug- 
li-h miles : anfl /rom aorlb to souUi 
a^-^nt 540 miles. Tbe populnlion 
*>t the whole Peninsula lias been 
corijuitcd at bel^veen thirleeji and 
fiirteed millions : cf .wjliich Pprtu- 
ri *b sunposetl to contain two niil- 
i:;i:s. The rer)laintier. (/islribaled 
^\er SJ)ain will afford on'lv. abuut 
/*)Jersons for ever J square »iile, 
> hile \f}e. irihtibitants' of EnglawJ 
sre coiiinuic^d-^ to exceed 15Cti -^nd 
J*/>se"of Trahtje one huudrcfJ ond 
5»^vvr)ly, ciu a wnnlar exieui o/ ler- 
[Jtf.rv ; manv parts ^ifthe |oierior,{)t> 
in^ aLiiost destitute of, spj;in^3 'and 
f'frsjand oliiers beiu";. exceed- 
^•«iv moinit^iuQihi. . liMleetJ uo.lbtf ' 
^' t dance a^ the map of ^ Spoj^i, it 
'<;i'^ars to be a countr}- fclmped, 
•^'1 in ^ very great measure con- 
^;tiiij» in bells of mountains, rami* 
^)'!'i;from one «mothcr aud leav- 
'1' intervals of vaiious .br«iad|ii8 
^ttwecn them, yet alf of tliepi 
' : ' k ttd to t i >e sa me pv^ss . ^q ^ slock , 
Tl.c ijra coasts of Catalonia, Valen- 
t'S, Morcia, Grenada, and Anda- 
^^^h, present acmxts of ama;^g 
feriiliiy,acli%'e industjy, aiid crowd- 
ed populatioa. 

Th^ hardy, industrious, and ad- 
venturous mountaineer of ' the 



nor^li; t]ie sedate and solemn ialiii- 
bitaat of the bro«id and arid pkiins 
of .4he t>vo CastilleA aud La Maii- 
tha ; the pensive aud tacit lA'ne E»> 
trainadunm ; ttie volatile atid talka^ 
five Aiidahisiao ; the laboriotts eul-* 
tivator <»f the shores of the Medi- 
teri anean— rthese diiTereut descrip* 
tions of tbe (lopulalion of S{KUti, 
resemble eacli other in sO' (evf 
points as to B[|)pear to be. of very 
I different descent, and indeed the 
production <^f very <hfferent coun^ 
tries, and climates. - Ju one inipoi'^ 
taut particular, however, the na- 
tional cliatacter of the Spaniards 
nii^lit be traced in every comer of 
,the kingdoui. Entire and reapocio 
fnl submission to the autJiority of 
the savereigiji was every where. pre- 
dominant. For while tbe CtUOaio" 
nian was proad to think, 4h?rt- ibt 
king .was not king^ but enly Qount 
of ; Qataly^ia : and. tins fiisca^aul 
that he was only lord of his caooi)* 
tains; tliey both agreed inyidding 
^lost implicit obedienet- to hisnian- 
dates, ' when promulgated ia jtbt 
customary foriMs of each respect 
live di&trkt. That th^ Castillian 
and ||)e ArragonemK sliotild . glory 
in their submiesio^i to the. royai 
autliority, ia not surprising, as from 
I lie nii^i^. of the ^sovereigns of 
Cdsliile and A^ragon, sprar>« tlie 
family v#'^li iu tlie course of time 
becama ui()U< rs of tlie wliole coun- 
try. Ar^'aj^on and Castille had 
likewise embraced the interests of 
jthe house of Bouibon in * the dis* 
pule IV it h that of Austria in tbe be* ' 
ginning of the last century. That 
the Catulonians, however, should 
have evinced in i80S a decided at- 
tachment to tbe reigning famity, 
against wbom they had obstinately 
and loiig contended, and frcTm whom 
they had received }io tkvpurs» but 

many 



176 ANNUAL REGISTER, !»08. 



1 ^ 

•many matin of dislike, hny/jng been 
vtaariiiedy aod experienced various 
^tlier proofs of distrust from those 
In poWer— that Ibe Catalouians 
■bould manifest now a decided and 
dfleniiined atlactkmeiit to the in- 
terests of the (louse of Bourbon, 
can be attributed only to an hiveter- 
Mt» aversion to tbeif nei<*hbours on 
the northern side of the Pyrenuees, 
Kvith wliom fdr ages they had been 
In almost continued liostilily/froin 
vbose inroads and devastations they 
had often severely suffered, and 
«bose revolutionary doctrines, 
Kioral, political, and religious, 
n welt as their actions, \vere 
calculated to inspire JSpaniards with 
aversion and horror. 
- Another feature, strongly cha- 
facterfeing all the provinces of 
Spain, iind indeed alt the subjects 
0f his catholic majesty in any quar- 
ter of the world, was^ an absolute 
devotion, not onfy to tlie doctrine, 
bat to tlie policy of tlie see of 
Some. In this absolute devotion 
to tlie church, the Spaniards, with 
perhaps the exception of the Ppr- 
tngueze alone, exceed all the na- 
tions, of Europe. Tlie church or 
ieeular* clergy m Spain possessed 
immense revenues, even^ the third 
part, it has been computed, of th6 
whole land. But it would l>e ex- 
treemlv erroneous to couelude that 
those reveuneswerea|))>repriated to 
the sole enjoyment, applicatioii, or 
accunuilatioii of the several incum- 
bents. Of late years, it became the 
policy of government to grant pen- 



sions on the ricbeit ben^ces ibr tlir 
support of various public esUblish- 
ments ; so tliat even the metropolitan 
of Toledo, the most exalted .digni- 
,tary of tlie kingdom, although no- 
miwdty enjoying a revenue of per- 
haps }C 100,000 sterling, could not 
in reality, disMse of more than a 
fourth part or that sum. The open- 
iug of mads, the coustniclioa of 
bridges, the establishment of iniis 
and schools, the reparation of 
churches and cbapelsi and varioiu 
other works of public utility, which 
in Britain are carried on at the ex- 
pence of tlie state, or more frequeatlf 
of iiidividuals and associations, in 
Spain, are of^en imposed on UuMe 
enjoying large ecclesiastical posses* 
sions ; and where such duties bars 
not been imposed, the incumbents, 
from zeal to tbe public good» or 
even from a desire to imifeiUe the 
conduct of their predeceasort or 
contemporaries^ have often charged 
themselves with that perfbrmance*. 

The attachment of tbe people to 
the church and its nfaibters wu 
also warmly cherished bv the ex- 
emplary deportment of the episco* 
pal body, who from the day of 
their appointment*, immediately re^ 
paired to their respective dioceses, 
in which tlicy uniformly resided, 
there devoting tliemselves entiieiy 
to the various duties of ^ir sta* 
tion. 

Tim abUes and convents over 
Spain appiopriated to tlie receptioa 
of females, were some years ago 
calculated to contain about 34^000 

persons 



* There are not a few moniinieats of tlie pnMie spirit and munificence of the 
Roman Catholic clergy, in varioas |iartB of Britiin. Tbe oM bridge over the Dee 
was btiilt at tbe expence of the bUbop of Aberdeen. That over the Edo, a mi 
work, was constructed by the archbishop of 8t Andrews, llie nniveniW, aad m 
fibrary funds of this last mentioned city, would sot have been cneroaobtd on by 
moakish pro^Mors. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



177 



ifnons, wh!tc those for the ac- 

JiiiTFOffation of monks aiifl friaM, 
f all dcscrmfions, were inhabiled 
)*. ne.n!y double thai niuiibfr ; 
)( ^h'li lost description of |)ersouSj 
»v far tlie erealer number mi^lit 
vrt :l:ilv be coasidered as lost to 
'\^- prosperily of the Ititigdoii). 
>'it ihc Bciiediclinc, BeniarUiDey 
til ^oirie otficrs of monks, might, 
ti imuy respects be considered 
>y the poptiiatioD around, as enii- 
"n\ benct^ictori to the country. 
.' mfim! iIFy fixed, to one spot, m 
iie niidsl ;>f their possessions, tijey 
IP i'. naturally led to cullivate and 
inprove their cotiin)on heritage: 
55 i bc'ins destitute of the power of 
cnuinilalioti, they regularly ex- 
'^•MclLfl their income in tlie quar- 
er fi ora whence it w as drawn. 

On the other 'Iiand, the .great 
if^^les and proprietors of land, with 
I ury fev> exceptions) abandoning 
lie care of their yzst domains 
'> Hi^enls ahd.intendants, drained 
he couiitfy' anrf its cultivatorsj 
'' ^"Pp^y • ^«c exigencies of an 
■1*^ and ,oTl(ln dissipated life, in 
•' captial and other great towiis. 
rbis injurious dereliction of the 
oiuitr}% is, no doubt, to be attri- 
"tid hi a gr^t measure tp'the 
iroduclion of French^ manners, 
'<t<i a frivolous taste, and above 
•''» to itie jealousy entertained. 
.V the first Spanish kings of 
|<^ House of Bourbon, of the 

'i nobles of Spain, who in the 

'dr of the succession had very 

<neraHy,'Bild very naturally, ma^ 

' ^e^ted a predelictiou for all the 

tl'useof Austria. 

A great and opulent lord reu- 
^''>g const^tly oh his own domaioj 
wu au object of displeasure to the 
ourt; of dkcoiHiteiWQce, and even 
inolestation. 

Vol. t. 



;Tfie noble spirit of the Spanish 
grandees in general, sunk, in 
luxury, in do] (lice, and vice, suf- 
fered a gradual depression. They 
were neither invited nor ainbiljoiis 
to share- in the employments of 
the stale, so that with Uie ex* 
ceplion of a few ancient names io 
the church or the aimy, and still 
fewer in the. navy, the great hodjf 
of the Spanish nobility ceased to be 
of any political importance in the 
kingdom. 

tt is extremely remarkable^ thai 
it was not atuoug the great lande(| 
proprietors, who had in the con^mo^ 
phraseology the greatest stake^i 
that the patriotism of the $paniurcls 
shone forth with the greatest splen*^ 
dour ; but among the comnieccial 
class, whose property was in spme 
measure moveable, and the cle<-gy, 
who at best were only life-rei^tejcs^ 
The nobility in general, did iw^t 
seem to feel the amor, patriae, 
the attachment to natal soil, so 
strongly as the clergy of all raaks^ 
who resided in their own dio* 
ceses, parishes, and monaster- 
ies, nor even ^^ that of the poor 
peasants. 

The deep-roofed aversion already 
noticed to the French, was not con- 
fined to tlie pirovince of Catalonia, 
but pervaded all the northern 
and middle ^provinces of the king- 
dom. 

From the earliest periods, down 
to the beginning of the last century, 
the Spaniards and French were 
engaged almost without internvission 
ui hostilities. Another reason for the 
peculiar dislike of the Spaniards to 
their northehi neighbours, is fouiul 
in the national character and dc- 
poxlmeol of the JPreuch^ who not 
only affected or really felt some de- 
gree of contempt for the Spaniards, 
[NJ but 



478 ANKUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



butoommoiily took very little ptitn 
to coooeid or disguise tfaeir senti- 
nieots towards tkeiti. • In tiiis na- 
iional dislike, persons of all nations 
nvho entered Spi^in from Frafice^ 
were inn^olved, until tbeir realcouu'^ 
try was known. 

As tbe Spaniards bad their na- 
. tional aversionti ; so they had like- 
wise their national attachments. It 
woukl, at first «ght, be difficult to 
account for any partiality they 
should entertain for the British 
nation. But such a partiality they 
certainly did possess^ and were 
eager to demonstrate. Tbe two 
countries, it b true, were formerly 
closely connected by various ties, 
political and commercial ; and those 
ties, notwith^andiug the dissolution 
of the ancieut intimacy, by the ac- 
cession of the House of Bour- 
bon to the throne of Spain, still 
retained a firm hold of the steady 
and honourable character of the 
Spaniards. As men are never more 
intimately united thap by a commu- 
nity of sentiments or feelings, and 
as the Spaniards believed the Eng- 
lish to have no greater respect for 
the French nation than they had 
tberoselv<^s, this warm-hearted peo- 
ple looked on a priton as in some 
measure a sharer in his own existence. 
The Spanish traders in general, had 
an opmion that m all commercial 
transactions, no nation came so near 
as the British to their own, in (iro- 
Ikity, punctuality, and fairness of 
dealing.^ . 

On the subject of religion, the 
Spaniards sincerely lamented the 
defoctibn of the English from their 
ancient professions of faith. But 
this sorrow was attended ratlier by 
a hope that at some future period, 
might ictani to what thtf. 



con8idei;ed as the ri^t way, thao 
by any aversion to their com* 
pany, or their opinions on other 
subjects: whereas the natives of 
Ireland, formerly more numerotts 
in their service than of late yean, 
who professed to be in commu- 
nion with the church of Rome, 
were, in many instances, subject to 
the suspicion of a temporisiug 
policy. ' ' 

The fr^queot wars between Bri- 
tain and Spain, nnquestioDsblj 
kept alive a spirit of estnmgemeflt 
in the Spanish nation. But tlist 
great portion of the people who 
pretended not to inquire into the 
secret causes of political events, 
were m the habit of attributing 
those public enmities nitber to 
the predonunatmg influence of the 
French . counseli in the adminis- 
tration of national afiairs^ than to 
the existence of any just cause 
of complaint immediately between 
Great Britain and Spain. The 
epoch and the manner, however, 
of tlie commencement of tbe late 
hostilities on the part of Britain, 
had materially affected the ge- 
neral feelings of the Spanish na- 
tion with regard to their ancient 
ally. 

Although in estimating the sum of 
happiness possessed bv any nation, 
our calculations ougjit not to be 
founded mei:ely on the theoretic 
systeiii of tlieir* public consUtulioni 
yet where such a constitution is 
as perfect as humaA wisdom can 
devise, and virtue carry into effect, 
the people haye C€e(ari8 jnaihus, 
the greatest chance of happinies 
in every sense of the word. U 
may therefore appear sinprniof to 
a British stt)yect» that a,9aU^'<>o€e 
aadiiliaguished as the Spaniiids 

in 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



179 



m sdenfe* and in unra, for so 
cnoddenMe n lapse of lime as thUt 
iMftireen the abdicatiofi of Cliartes 
V. of Austria and Charles IV. of 
Bourlkm, sbdold htnre been con- 
icfiled with a mtem of govemm^ot 
presenting so few positive adrad* 
tages, and producing so many real 
evils to the various classes in, the 
state. Hie Spanish nation, bow- 
erer, bad been for more than two 
ccoUiries in a state of gradual de» 
aj, so that the deterioration was 
scarcely perceptible in its progress; 
radii was only by compneiring the 
atuation of the country at differ- 
ent periods, that its deoi^ coiild be 
Kcertained. It is not by any single 
act, Init by an accumnhition of 
fiicts, examples, customs, prece*> 
^tif and laws» that a nation loses 
its liberty. What is considered by 
liie present generation, at the worst, 
only as a mist, is seen by succeed* 
ingagesasa dark and portentous 
cload. 

The personal character, too, of 
a sovereign, or of a minister, has a 
very powerful influence in even the 
best organized constitutions on the 
happiness of a state. The general 
dispositions and conduct of some 
lale sovereigns of Spain had conse- 
quently a strong tendency to attach 
a peo^, naturally honourable and 
lova], and of great sensibility, to 
their goremment in general, and 
to incline them to attribute what 
^abips Utey endured, to the nia-< 
lign infloenceof cormpt counsellors, 
rather than to the dispositions or in- 
t^Qtions of the piibce. These obser* 



vations, however, are applicable ot»* 
ly to the mass of the Spanish peo^ 
pie; tor an improved system of 
things^ both civil and religioiis, had 
been long and earnestly wished for 
by many of the ablest and most 
enlightened individuals in the state* 
Olivers there were also who, in- 
fected with the pkiUwphum* of 
modem times, secretly longed and 
watted for a general dissolution of 
the administration in church and 
state, in order to raise in its stead 
an edifice niore conformable to 
their conceptions of a perfect go- 
vernment. 

When we reflect that all jpiU>lic 
discussion of matters relatmg to 
either religion or government, was 
almost entirely prohibited through^ 
out the Spanish dominions: and 
that men desirous of infonfiatioQ 
on these points/ had no other re- 
source than secretly to avail them* 
selves of th^ writings of authors 
Itvmg iinder more liberal systcfms of 
government,* we can easily con« 
ceive, that an aversion, and a de- 
gree of hostility too, must uatu* 
rally have been produced in the 
minds of even good men to an ad- 
ministration by which such restraints 
were- imposed on the exercise of 
the human faculties on subjects the 
most congenial and important to 
bis nature. Such- men may, for 
various reasons, carefully observa 
the rules of exterior submission; 
htA their wishes for a change must 
in the end produce an alteration in 
their language, and also in their 
conduct. In such a case, how 

[N a] faappy 



* The greater tmtt, tiyftr, of those wbo ao^ call tMnttelvcs pfaAosophars, eon- 
^Ma^MA^f 0dly as ^ jpattet ftaedoss from pr^adice, 9m4 aq ardsat ^int 
tof uaiovatioa. 



180 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



happy it U for the ^ccmntry of 
which the established ^constitution 
acknowledges the duty, aiid allows 
the me^iis of improveoient, and 
when refunnatioD ni^y supersede 
the ntoessity of revolutioo ! 
. The dread tribunal of the .inqui- 
sition in Spain, had for many years 
back, been f^radually withdrawing 
from public notice. Its powers^ 
however, though seldom exerted, 
were not dimiiiiahed. The unfor- 
tunate Olaptde, the founder of the 
establishments for peopling the 
SiEBRA MoRBNA,sttnk under thcr- 
power of the ho|y inquisition^ 
though as much probabW foe his 
pplitical as his reiigiouiofiefices. In 
the beginning of the French revor 
lution, whdi neither pains nor cost 
Was spared, clandestinely to intro- 
duce and disseminate throughout 
Spain publications adapted to ex- 
cite disorders in the state, tlie for- 
midable weapons of the mquisition 
were actively and successfully wield* 
tdf in defence of the established 
system of governinent ; for any as- 
sault on the rights of the temporal 
sovereign of the kingdom was re- 
garded as a direct attack on the 
paramount authority of the spiri- 
tual head. The alliance between 
chttri;h and state hi Spain, was ex- 
tremely close ; or rather the poli- 
tical atid ecclesiastical authorities 
were in a great measure identified* 
The kings of Spain were the great 
champions of the church, and the ! 
most brilliant aera in the hbtory of 
the Spaniards is that, when they 
pvoceeded by degrees to take pos- 
si|^|on of the munificent donations 
of the pope, with the sword in one 
hand, and the cross in the other. — 
And, in fiict, it was not less by the 
religious zeal* of '^ the missionaries, • 
Uian the heroic valour of the mili- 



tary order, that the vast tniosma- 
riue empire of Spain was esta* 
blished. 

The steady devotion of the Spa- 
niards to the church is not there- 
fore founded ina greater propensity 
to piety, than is felt by other nations 
only, but in part, by a recollection 
of former times when they were ex- 
alted to so. high a pitch t>f glory by 
the nvordof the Ifird tmd^ 6i- 
demt* The high-minded pnde of 
the Spunish nation, findiQg no sop- 
port in recent, turns to the ooiitem- 
platioa of eveiits long past; to 
the victories; of Pavia, Lepaotp, 
aaid jSt. Qttintoui, to their contents 
with the Moors, and jirith the Ro- 
mans. They had suflered many 
indignities and insults at the hands 
of Buonaparte and his agents, when 
the massacre of Madrid and the 
captivity of the To^al family kind- 
led the accumulated comestibles 
of indignation and reverse into a 
flame, which spread into every part 
oftbeempise, with the rapidity of 
lightning. There i^ no instance of any 
nation* so widely scattered, raUy^ 
ing so unaninioosly, and • with so 
much alacrity, around the standard 
of their roontry. Their motto was, 
" The Sptmish biwd akei at Ma- 
4rul, en the 2d, of: May, cfk^jor 

The flower of* theSpanisfa army 
was serving under tlie banners of 
the enemy in the north of Enrope. 
The iron frontier of Spain on the 
north east was in fbt hands o^ 
French ^rrisons. The metropolis 
and the greater paft of the interior, 
and the adjoining kingdom of t^or- 
tugal, were ocaifMed by 100,000 
veteran troops, commanded by 
able and experienced officers*. Tlie 
^Spanirfrds » Without anns,* ilrithout 
ammunition, and without II pub- 
lic 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



181 



lie treasaiy, were abandoned by 
heir government, and left wholly to 
hemseltes; and not a few of the 
;randecs and other persons' of high, 
iistinction, to whom' they might 
ook up for briaging the resources 
>f the monarchy into one uniform 
iirectioo. tb^y had reason^ though 
lot quite so much probably as they 
inagined, to consider as traitors to 
heir country. The bands of so- 
iety were broken asunder. There 
I as no visible mode of combining 
heir separate force into any regu- 
ir plan of co-operation. Yet, un- 
it^r alt these circumstances, they 
lid not hesitate to enter on a con* 
iicl with the most numerous and 
(lost warlike nation of Europe, 
heir neighbours, under the direc- 
ioD of the subtlest politicfan, and 
ir^t general of the age. Nor was 
his an arrogant and blind pre- 
ninption; a mere fit of passiou, or 
raiuic enthusiasm. An act of pas- 
ion or phrenzy may be committal 
)y a single person ; not by a great 
lalioD, wiikly spread over difie- 
ent and distant regions and coun* 
ries, and le^vt of all by the Spa- 
liards, renowned for circumspec- 
>0D, foresight, patience, and per* 
severance in designs formed on 
iue deliberation. Though deserted 
^y gOYeroment, they had confi- 
dence in the justice of their cause, 
ind in one another. It seemed to 
f>e deeply impressed, or rather in- 
born iu their minds, that however 
severe the conflict might bo, and 
''«w much soever protracted, the 
^(ar 6f Spain wou)d gaiu the a$- 
ceudant at last, and uUiihately con- 
duct ber to national independence 
und glory. 

This confidence of uUiihate suc- 
re^s, under circumstances so ^is- 
^ouraging^ is' one of the most won- 



derful, if not the most wonderful 
feature in the whole of the origin, 
and progress of the general rising 
of the Spaniards. It was not con- 
fined to one dass, sex, or age. It 
was universal. It predominated in 
the breasts of old and young, of 
tillers of tlie ground, shepherds, 
shopkeepers, monks, and women. 
The enthusiasm of the Spaniards, 
though exalted, was deliberate. .It 
was the confidence of men who had 
calmly surveyed the mighty power 
opposed to them ; wh« were pre- 
pared to encounter privatious, de- 
feats, and diiiasters ; and who were 
persuaded, that by bringing con- 
stantly into play all their means of 
annoyance, they should be able to 
exbalust and weary out, at last, the 
enemy whom they were unable to 
subdue by a durect encounter* 

The first circumstance of en- 
couragement, that would naturally 
occur to the Spaniards, was the 
geographical position and great ex- 
tent of their country. Its Penin- 
sular form (tor Portugal was not 
only a congenial and friendly 
power, but part of the saui^ couu- 
try) secured it on all sides, except 
that of the Pyrennees, a uutural 
rampart of no inconsiderable con- 
sequence, from being invaded by 
laud, and combined wilh the naval 
superiority of England, the sworu 
enemy of the ruler of l^rance, open- 
ed a safe and sure communication 
with her colonies, with Great Bri- 
tain and Ireland, with Swedeu ; and, 
in short, with every naliou on the 
face of the earth, that might be 
disposed to espouse and maiutaiu 
the cau^e of political freedom a- 
gainst unprincipled ainbitiunahd ag- 
gressiou. Although the continent of 
Europe might not dare to give any di- 
rect aid, by declaring \^'ar against 
[N3] the 



184 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



tbe coinmoii oppressor, yet in fact vemmeut had draioed those posi- 
they would, even France herself tos for provisioning the army, sent 
not excepted, contribute assistance, against Portugal in 1801, and fail- 



in an indirect and passive manner, 
by obliging; him to employ a great 
part of bis armies in watching and 
keeping them in subjection. 

The principal towns and sea- 
ports of l^paiii, isolated from one 
another, by vast distances, were 
not all of them to be occupied by 
an invading army, however numer- 
ous. In the interior, and particu- 
larly the north of Spain, tbe ground, 
in many parts, is hilly and .broken, 
rising into lofty mountains, with de<^ 
files here and there, and in some 
p^aces, even towns inaccessible to 
artiiler}'. The plains of the two 
Castilles and ^^stramadnra, are 
scarcely less favourable to invad- 
ing armies, than the rugged regions 



ed in its promise to repleni^ them. 
Nor could the farmers ever be per- 
suaded to confide tliereafter any 
portion of their grain or' forage to 
the public granaries. 

The Spaniards, of proper age, 
mii;ht form themselves at first iuto 
small bodies, and take every ad- 
vantage to be derived from local 
knowledge ; and when they should 
be under the necessity of quitting 
one district, 6r province, they might 
retire to another. They could 
break up roads, cut down bridges, 
intercept convoys and intelligence, 
fall on the enemy on his flanks ; and, 
in short, harass him hi alt possible 
ways, without allowing him a mo- 
ment's repose by night or day^. Bj 



that separate them from the rest of degrees smaller would be organized 
Spain. The excessive heat of the into larger masses, and duly traided 



climate, and the contagion of in- 
termittent fevers, would be more 
iatal to an army of strangers, than 
dfftachm^nts of natives. Tlie French 
would have to encounter a great 
scarcity of provisions and forage* 
^nd 9 diiHculty of transporting 
these from one place to another. 

In other countries Buonaparte 
bad supplied his magazines from 
the depicts of the countries he in- 
vaded, iniproyklently suffered to 
fall into his hands. In Spain, no 
audi deji^ts v^ere to be found. Out 
of evil some times arises gpod. In 
former (inies there had been in 
every village of Spaifi small grana- 
ries/ callt-d posifoSf where the farm- 
ers were obliged to deposit every 
year a certain po|-tion of tlieir har- 
^'est as a security against famine. 
1p the l^st war with Portugal gor 



until their local and nw militia 
should become equal, at length, to 
a regular army. It was a' foHun- 
ate circumstance, that the Spanish 
armies bad always been recruited 
upon limited service ; by which means 
there were spread over all the pro- 
vinces of Spain veterans who h^d 
been trained to arms, and who 
could now train others. Nor 11*35 
it the least favourable curcumstaoce 
to the cause qf the patriots, that 
both thdr kings, the old and the 
iiew» with their courtiers, and so 
many suspicious characters, were 
dancing attendance in the anticham- 
her of king Joseph, at Bayonne.— 
Add to all these favourable curcum- 
stances, that the Spaniards were p- 
tjent under hardships and priva* 
t Jons, and many of them accustom- 
ed to make long journies on foot. 

CHAP. 

* Official Paper, entitled precautions, printed and publiibed bf tbe Supreme 
Jop^ of Seville. See State PitpeiSj. p, 533, 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 181 



CHAP. X. 

ImpetwHa Jkaafe and Impotky, a$ well as Perfidy of Buonaparte*-^ 
Aatoniahment as well as Adrmratton excited by the General InsuT" 
rectiam in Spain^ — History of the Insurrection kaw divided — Before 
the EttaNMmemt of the Provincial Juntas, — After tlteir Mstabiishr 
meut : and Resolution into the Supreme Central Junta* — Tragical 
End of Saiana, Marquis Del Socorro, Captain General of Andalusia 
and Gouemor of Cadis. — Concert and Co-^yperation between the Spor 
nish Patriots and British Commanders at Sea and Land, — Admirabk 
Harmony among all the Juntas.-^Spanish Proclamations, admirable 
Composkions. — All Classes without exception enrolled in the Insurree^ 
tion, — .Grtmnsianees of Encouragement tothe Spanish Patriots inAnr 
dalusia, — UncondUional Surren£r of the French Fleet in the Harbour 
of Coda,, — Insurrection m Portugal, supported and encouraged by 
Admiral Sir Charles Cotton. — Ailiance offensive and defensive Srtweem 
Spain and Portugal. — Deputies from different Juntas in London*-^ 
Enthusiasm of Britain •» the Cause of Spain. 

JUST at the done wheo all Buo» to wear a very serious aspect Buo- 

Da|iarte'aarraugeiDeiits» relating naparte affected to regard it with 

to the settlement of Spain were indifference and contempt, and was 

completed, and waited only for the at great pains, by means of his 

sanction of the junta he had called journals, to publish that indifier- 

to Bayonne, the insurrection broke ence to the world ; apprehending, 

oat in all the provinces not imme- not without reason, tliat a serious 

dlutely under the the control of his and effectual resistance of his usur- 

arnis. What emotions must the pations in Spain, might awaken re-* 

intelligence of this have excited in sistance in other quarten. 
tiie breasts of the Spaniards at Bay- It was a saying among the aa^ 

onoe, and ^t the castle of Marrac ! cient stoics, that it was a great 

As to Buonapairte, the insurrection attainment in wisdom to know 

does not seem to have given hint when to restrain, and when to give 

at first much alarm. The sham our sentiments the impetus of pas* 

uational assembly was held at Bay- sionf* There was never, perhaps. 

oDoe; the new constitution hiid be- a eharacter that was more sensi- 

foreit; and king Joseph sent to ble of the importance of this maum^ 

Madrid, as if nothing had hap- than Buonaparte; one, more ca<* 

pcoed*. £vea after it had begun pable of simulation and dissimu-* 

{N4] lation 

* It may be fcniaiked, that it wag not till tbe SOth of July, when Josepli was 
presumed, as io fmct be did, to have entered Madrid, that Buonaparte, haviog 
completed as be conceived bis bnsioeap) qaitted Bayouae to proceed %o Paris. 



184 ANNUAL, REGISTEBj 1108. 



latioii{ who could reaiou more 
cooHVy or on some occasions^ giv- 
iDg^ loose to . all his sails, rush 
on' his object with greater ar- 
dour-. But in his conduct to* 
wards Spain he betrayed the com- 
nion' weakness of being unhinged 
by a long continue<l flow of suc- 
cess. To the emperor of the 
French, king of Italy, protector of 
the confederation of the Rhine, 
and mediator of the republic of 
Switzerland, it was plainly a mat- 
ter of indifference what individual 
collected the revenues of Spain for 
the benefit of France; except that 
a. prince of the house of Bourbon 
might have been expected to col- 
lect those of America for some 
years longer : whereas a change of 
dynasty could not fail to endanger 
that great source of supply, by in- 
citing those provinces to pursue 
their own interest and greatness, in, 
obedience to the very dictates of 
ikalure^, by asserting their inde- 
pendence. 

It b true, as above observed, 
th^Lthe guilty mind of Buonaparte 
could never be at peace, while 
tpch a crown as that of the Spaius 
i^nd the Indies, rested on the bead 
of a Bourbon. But the impetu- 
ous haste with which, aAer a long 
. scene of successful treachery, he 
threw off' the mask of friendship, 
and in violation of all tiiat. is roost 
, sacred among men, seized the per- 
sons of the royal family, was in- 
defensible on any gfouud of po- 
licy. 

. He might have gained his end by 
means, though more leisurely, more 
secure. He had gained a cofnplete 



ascendancy over the nind And can* 
duct of Ferdinand; .as is fiilK 
proved by every act of this princi 
when raised to the tbroae^' and par* 
ticularly by his,ioiimey to Bayonne. 
The power and influence of Bu<m»* 
parte, in his character of ally lud 
mediator, with so many Preach 
troops in Spain, which mightbe re* 
inforced on various prelcnces, w'as 
unlimited. It was in his power to 
occupy Cadiz, Carthaigeua, Fern)t, 
St Andero, and other ports, and 
thus to cut off all regular and snie 
communication with England. By 
bestowing a& a gift, on Ferdinand, 
the throne of hb ancestors, he nught 
have degraded him m the eyes of 
bis suUJects, compelled him to bc- 
.corne, like hb father, the miseiable 
inslrunieot of French rapacily, and 
ultimately like him to abdicate the 
throne for tjie safety of hb person* 
In a word, he might have ptmiMd 
any conduct but tha^ whidi mor- 
tally wounded the pride of every 
Spaniard^ and which every Spani- 
ard considered as a peraonallnsult. 
It must, however, be admitted, 
that the explosim^ of indignant pa* 
triotism, which burst tbrtli at the 
same moment in all tlic provinces of 
Spain, was more than Buonaparte, 
or any one could have expected. 
It seems to have astonbhed even 
the Spaniards themselves. 

The ju|ita of SeyiMe looked 
upon it to be, " as it were,- the in- 
spiration of heaven, and little short 
of mimcttloust*" Ami tlib, by 
the bye, may serve, in some de- 
gree, as an apology ibr the duke of 
Infautado, smd tlie other Spanish 
nobles, who .accompanied Ferdi- 
nand 



• Sec V0I.XLIX. Hist. Eur. p. 46. Note. 

f See Manifesto oftbe Junta of SeyiUe.— State Papers, $$6* 



HISTOKY OF EUROPE. 



184 



iaod (0 Bajaaat. Hw; might 
mve tbosgfai that all atteropts to 
•ppose BiuMiaparte woald be of no 
ivail, and tend only to inYoliw tb« 
jDtry 10 ealamity and ruin. 
The public mind was iu a state 
>f fermentation ever since the horrid 
!d of May, and commotions and 
uinults had arisen in divers places ; 
xit ii was not mtii the gazette of 
^iadrid, May tOtfa, had proclaimed 
iiroughout the lami the abdica- 
i^>Q of the Spanish crowp by Fer- 
linaod VIL iu favour of the empe- 
or of the French* that there was a 
;rtat and general eiplosion. The 
ublication of the gaaette was quick- 
y followed up by the anniversary 
^f St. Ferdinand, the tutelar saint 
)f tbe prince. May 27tli, which 
nvukencd all the seasibility of an 
irdeul, devout, and honourable na^ 
i')Q. It was on that day that the 
iisnrrection broke out in most 
p'aces. 

The history of Spain for what re- 
•^aiii5 of i%os, after the close of 
''•<* month of May, naturally di- 
V 'its itself into three periods: — 
I irat, (bat previous to the forma« 
' (m of ilie central juntas; second- 
Iv, that during the government of 
i|<c central juntas; and, thirdly, 
ti'-it under the supreme and central 
junta. 

The c?cnt8 of the first of these 
periods^ which was but very short, 
^r rather merely transient, were^ns 
I' «al, in similar cases, for the mosti 
|Kir», the effects of popular pa&^ian. 
iJui) Miqael de Saavedra, captain 
t:<5:eral of tbe province of Valentia, 
^^leie the insurrection tirst started, 
^vlio attempted to oj>posc thjc views., 
^[ the ins^Srgenta, was put to death. 
li>€ insurgents .then . .demanded, 
Uiai ail tlie goods belonging to the 
'^ench ihouki be declared to be 



forfeited, and their persons secured, 
in the citadel. A few days there- 
after they dragged the crew of a 
French ship, which, had l>eeu pur*, 
sued by an English frigate^ and. 
sought refuge on tlie Spanish coast, - 
to prison ; and on the Hili of June*- 
in a fresh paroxysm, of rage, masaa- . 
cred them. At Cuenca, tlie por* 
regidor and the intendant were 
thrown into chains, and carried off 
by a party of peasants. The go* 
vemor of Carthagena wa^ murder* 
ed. General Truxilloi governor of 
Malaga, was murdered at Grenada. 
His body was dragged through the 
streets, cut iu pieces, and after- 
wards burnt. The- French consul 
at Malaga, Mornard, and some 
French merclumts of that place, 
were secured on the 4th of June 
from the fufy of tlie people, in the 
Moorish castle of Gibralforo, A 
great quantity of arms and aramu* 
nition taken from an English priva- 
teer in 1 800, h^d been lodged in a 
warehouse in thp suburbs, to be- 
sold. On. the 2bth of June a ro- 
'port prevailed, that this magazine 
had licen purchased by the French 
consul, for the use of the .French 
army. The people of Malaga 
marched to the castle, and not« 
withstanding all the remonstrances 
of the deputy-governor, and resist- • 
ance of the guard, burst into the 
castle, pierced their victim with a 
thousand daggers, and burued his 
dead body in a bonfire made of the. 
furniture and some w/ecks of the* 
consul's house. The dep6t was 
broken open, and all that it. ton* 
tained 'destroyed. All this waf < 
dpne in spite of every effort on the 
part of the municipal government » 
of Malaga to prevent it. 

The tumult was at last quelled', 
by a singular expedient. The deao 

, a9<ft. 



U6 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



tnd chsfH^r fell on llie contri* 
^wlite of a procession, to thank 
God for their deliverance from the 
oppressor. The liiullitude imme- 
diately joined the procession, and 
tmnqttiltity was restored. The go* 
vernorof St. Lucas Barameda, was 
massacred. At Jaen, the peasants 
murdered the corregidor, and 
ptunderied the town. 

Simitar scenes were exhibited in 
Estramadora and the Castilles. At 
Badajoz, the insurrection broke 
out May SOth, and was * in an in- 
stant matured. The pdlace of the 
governor was assaulted. The in- 
surgents demanded arms, to be 
enrolled, and formed into fi regu- 
lar t>ody. The government, with 
the bi$hop, appeared at the balcony, 
exhorting the mnllitude to retire; 
|iut in vain. They overpowered 
the gnard of the palace, rushed in, 
seized the governor, and dragged 
bini as far as tlie Paltn-gate, 
where with knives, and sticks, they 
destroyed him. 

At Cadiz, May $9th, tlie people 
rose against the lieutenant general. 
Solano, Marquis Del Socorro, cap- 
tain general of the province of An- 
dalusia, and governor of the^ city 
of Cadis. The marquis, with the 
Spanish troops under his command, 
bad tieen recalled, for the purpose 
of covering the flight of Ctiarles V . 
from Aranjuez to Seville. At 
Madrid, lie fortned an intimate 
and Gonfidental connection with 
J^umt, and general O'Farrel, an 
Irbbmaa in the SpHnish service, 
but drawn over to tlie side of tlie 
Frtnch, From the moment that 
a design was conreivifd to resist 
ike prepress of the French in Spain, 
every eye was turned to Andalusia, 
admmibly situated, by its situa- 
atio«, for ro-operation with tiie 
Eo2iisb,aiid possessing the harbor 



of Cadiz, and the fbunderiet of 
Seville. Cadiz wa» <fi vided, tboogfi 
unequally, by a Prencb . party and 
the Spanish patriots. The ibrmer 
consisted of French mercbants and 
French clerks in thecountmg*li6uses» 
with Le Roy, the French consul at 
their bead; and adnnral lioailly, 
with the other ofiicers of tbef French 
fleet, which bad been moored in 
the liarbour of Cadiz ever since 
the battle of Trafalgar. Tbe lat- 
ter was composed of almost all tbe 
Spaniards, the English merehants^ 
and those also, for there were 
some of other nations. 

While the patriots with tb^ 
allies entered into a correspondence 
and concert with sir Hugb DaU 
rymple, governor of Gibr^tdr, tbe 
Eoglisli admiriil Purvis, and general 
Castaros, commander of the Spa- 
nish camp at St. Roch, for the 
purpose of acting against tlie com- 
mon enemy accorditig to circum- 
stances, the French party kept up 
a correspondence with Madrid. 
Solano came in post baste to Cadiz, 
and thunderedv forth proclaraalMNis 
against all who should have any 
correspondence with the English 
forces, while a strong detadiment 
from the main army of tbe French 
at Madrid was on its march to 
Cadiz. An immense nnmber of 
people. May 29th, conducted by 
Spanbfa oflfoers and ceMui mer- 
chants of Cadiz, assembled around 
tbe governor's palace, at Cbniana, 
a village in tbe vicinity of Cadiz, 
demanding, with loud cries, **amis 
and ammunitkm.^; Solano appear- 
ed at the balcony, and in a long 
speech tried to persuade tbe peo- 
ple that tbe power of tbe em- 
peror of the Ffencfa^ was alto- 
gether irreibtable, Wd thM; if 
they should * attempt resistance lo 
bu will by force, they would only 

precipitate 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



iSr 



>recipiMe tbcir own dettructtaD. 
Cliny h«ard Kim witli patieiioe a 
oDg duift ; but inUrnip^ him at 
ast« b^ repealiog lli^ir cry of 
' arms wnd aniiinmiitian. Long 
ive Ferdiaaod Yll/' Arms were 
>rougiit from Ibc barracks, and a 
cannon from ibe bulwarks* The 
."ates of the paJace were ioslantly 
breed : tbe^ governor's guard was 
iisamied : Solano himself^ attempts 
ing to make bis escape by the 
lops of the houses, was seized and 
dragged into the street. Even in 
t.is extremity, he prixlaimed the 
power and the vengeance of Buo- 
aaparie, and declared, " that he was 
ready to die in the cause of the 
grand Napoleon^' A person who 
was near faim, on liearing Iht^se 
^^ords, d^shfd bis brains out at 
one blow with a cluh« 

Same exce^es were committed 
in the provuices of Leiui and 
Asiurias. At Corrunna, in Guliicia, 
general Filangieri, an Italian in 
ti>e Spanish service, l)ecause be en- 
deavoured \i> Ahitigate by persua- 
sion the fury of the pea^aiiUy, 
tlioiigh he had declaied on the 
side of the tusurgeuls, would have 
b«en &bok, if an artillery officer 
bad not . stept before him, and 
given him time to take refuse in 
the convent of St. Domingo. — 
On the 1st of June, the people 
dcmaaded thai <ill tlie French re- 
plug, at Corrunna should be ar- 
rcsted« About thirty or forty 
Trench of different ranks and con- 
(iilions, were taken to the common 
goal, but tlieir property was not 
^ized. Straggling parties of the 
French, in many places were cut 

^ by. tlic. peasants^ led on by 
raonli. 

But, as already observed, the 
ffiga of mere deoiocracy was of 



extremely sliort duraUon. Tba 
aeal and efforts of unconnected 
individuidsy were quickly brought 
into unity of design and action^ 
by the establishment of provincial 
juntas. Even before the establish*' 
ment. of these, the popular re- 
sentment was in many instaucea 
calmed by the magistiatea and the 
authority of good and respectable 
men among both tlie huty and 
clergy. There b no instance of a 
popular insurrection so widely ei- 
tenrted, and provoked by such 
outrages and inaults, that was at^ 
tended with so few calamities as 
that of Spain. The bond excesses 
just enumerated, are but as a drop 
ill the. bucket, when compared with 
the torrents of innocent blood shed 
in the first ebullitions of the French 
revolution.. The excesses of Spain 
were as much underneath the en- 
ormities of Fraitce, as tlie griev- 
ances of which she had to com* 
plain, were above any that the. 
French ^ere subjected to under 
the mild and beneficent reign of 
Lewis XVI. 

What reipained to the Spani- 
ards of their ancient constitution 
o£ government, congenial with po- 
pular liberty, presented means of 
collecting the public sentiments, and 
forming a concert of will and 
power, without having recourse to 
Innovations, for the most part dai»- 
gerous, and always accompanied 
with confusion. The municipal 
government of the towns of Spain, 
Uiough com|)licated, wore in ge- 
neral an air. of popular repre- 
sentation. Wherever there. :weve 
2000 hoaseholdera, four deputies 
and a syndic were named bv tbs 
people, and formed part of tiie 
town council.-^On the 27th of 
May, there was a convention at 

SeviUe 



lis ANNUAL REGISTEB, ISOB. 



SefiHe of ; the magbtrates^ the 
<ooii8tituted aathoritiesy and the most 
mpedable of the iniiabitants of 
411 dasses. . This convention, by 
oommon consent, elected a so- 
prvme provincial junta. 

The supreme council of Seville, 
hying hold of some statutes in their 
constitution which authorised their 
rejecting the -orders of the supreme 
€0iwcil of Madrid, when that ca- 
pital should be in the hands of fo- 
reign troops, assumed an indepen- 
dent authority in the name of Ferdi- 
nand VI L Wliom they proclaimed 
lung,and declared waragainslFrauce.' 
Supreme juntas were also formed in 
the same manner, in all the other 
provinces not junder the imme- 
diate pressure of the French. But 
it was necessary, as much as possi- 
ble, to give ttie separate forces of 
all the provinces the same direction ; 
otherwise, instead of harmonious co- 
operation, they might counteract 
eadi other, and throw all things 
into confusion. The lead in the 
afiairs of the nation was there- 
fore taken by the supreme junta 
of Seville; which, with a happy 
andadty assumed, and for a time 
exercised, all the functions of sover- 
eign authority. Without entang- 
liifg themselves in any disputes 
thai might arise from the antici- 
pation of contingent eveuts, and 
diversity of opinion, concerning po- 
litical reforms, tliey declared /' Ihat 
their only object was, that Spain 
might preserve its integrity and 
independence for its lord and 
king, JPerdinand VIl. on whose safe 
return, he, with the supreme go- 
vernment, would determine what 
roi^t be his royal will, either by 
commandiiig a general assembly 



of the Cortes, or by such othef 
means as his prudence migbt au^ 
gest for facilitating the reform of 
abuses and the general happiness 
of the kingdom, securing it on 
foundations firm and i^iibject to no 
change. For the present, all the 
provinces of Spain ought to confine 
themselves to this general expres- 
sion, hereditary guectsHon, accar^ 
ding to the Jundamental law9 of 
the monarchy:' The junta of Se- 
ville was exceedingly anxious to 
counteract the madiioatioos of the 
emissaries of Buonaparte, and other 
evil-miuded persons, who endea- 
voured to propagate -a belief tiiat 
Andalusia affected a superiority 
over the other provinces. Any 
such Uiougbr, they declared, and 
repeated their dedaration, had 
been far from them. Although 
the general good of the nation had 
been their guide> and as it were the 
soul of all their actions, certain 
circumstances peculiar to Andalusia 
evinced the propriety of the conduct 
adopted by the junta of Seville* 
Veteran troops were more muner- 
ous m that province than in other 
parts, and thus an army could be 
formed in a shorter time. It pos* 
sessed the only foundery of cannon 
in the kingdom, and arms and am- 
munition in a certain degree of 
abundance. The superior opu- 
lence, and other peculiar drcum* 
stances, offered resources which 
other provinces wianWd. Tiie fa- 
mous English fortress of Gibraltar, 
was situate in Andalusia. Th<t 
fortress, and the English sqoadroa 
cruizing near tlie mouth of the 
Straits, were now happily to be 
reckoned among the « resources of 
Andalusia^. 



Various 



State Papers, p. 336. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



18? 



Viirioiu ptpviaces acquieacpxl in 
e authori^ nauiHcd b; thejuDla 
' Seville, nor wu it ever oppowd 
! any of them : thougU parti- 
lar jurtas were eslabliafaed id 
p respective promiices far maiD- 
inin^ order, and callioi! forth 
I'ir resoorcei in Hipport of the 
nim<iD cause. It wti a fine, aa 
t\l at wonderful spectacle, to be- 
M so great a nuiaber of pro- 
iices, at the rante moment, witb- 
it consulUng each irifaer, not 
il)' agreeing in opinion an the 
ejlanMeadingpolitical points, but 
to the maaner in which Xbey 
i;lit to act, forming the nine 
iht%, taking the onie meaMirea, 
i<) eslablbhing the same feriii of 
ivf^rntuent: this being the most 
\lii1)le and convenient for the go- 
■mnient of each provitice, 
Every tiling done by the Spa- 
3rdi at- this period, wore the 
"fold character of herentn and 
I'Hoin. Abandoned to tbemKlves, 
fj liad to proride agaiasi intor- 
il dininio* and anarchy, as 
rllasHtemal a^greuton. They 
frc welt aware that the eneniy 
Quid aUempt.to create diviai oat, 
y creating  dHwnity of-opinimu 
>d pietensions. All danes, there- 
"t. Here obedient 16 the autho- 
ty of the juntas, without aO much 
t liinting, for Ibe present, at any 
th(r changes than what their un- 
'tcedented and moat crittoal aitu- 
m imperiously demanded. The 
'rtcrent joatas were aaJmatMl by 
n« sprit of national indi;;natioa, 
I'd ready to adopt whatever mea- 
uTei appeared to be the retult of 
'>« greatest wisdom. All topics 
''^l m^t enlaiigte Ihcm in dis- 
■oi^i, that mislead lo coldness 
Dd nisiiust, or ibe appearance of 
t< bclwecu me prerinaal junta and 



another, or towards. anjt dcsorip* 
lion of men, were carefully avudm. 
The council of CastUle had aanc-- 
lioned all the edicts of Murat,' or 
rather his master, Buonaparte. But 
allowance was made foFlhe slate of 
coercion in' which they were. It 
was observed to them indeed, in 
different addresses, that - it might 
have become men of vir(|i<To have 
fled from Madrid,, to same of Ibe 
armed bodies of their «oiintrymen. . 
Hut when, on the restraint ben^; r^ 
moved, they threw alt their weight 
into the scale of ^e iMtriota, Ihcy 
were bailed and respected its I lie true 
friends of thetr cooatryy and all was 
forgotten. Similar. iodul^ence was 
extended to such of the Spanish 
junta at Bayonne, andnoblea Ihnt 
had accompanied Ferdinand' to 
that place of confinemoit, as 4t- 
•ertedthe causeof Jtaephai soon 
as it Win in tbeirpoWei, and joioaj 
their countrymen icarais. In truth| 
the cMreme imprudence with wfaiah 
s» great a noml?er, of persons of 
tlie firsf rank in Spain commitled 
Ulcniselves into the lianda'af such 
a character as Buooapaile, cannot 
be altogether excused. Bat It Was 
not m theif power, when once in 
his hands, to estiicate. [hemselWs, 
or to Impose any e&clual resist- 
ance to the will of the tyrant. And 
the best way to counteract Ins 
wishes and his hopes, perhaps, 
was, I-) assume an appearance of 
accecdhig to them. By flallerii^ 
him on the immensity «f his power, 
and holding forth the facility with 
which he might accomplish bis firo- . 
jeds, they might lead him hito i 
snefc, and prepare the way for hi* 
discomfiture. When we rcAect on 
Ibe smallness of the force sent into 
Spam, in comparison of tint which' 
had been led forth by fiuonaparte. 
' himself 



too ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

Wimself nttnmi Austtiai Rcitrift, d^ts and {Professors fn the utiirer- 

aiid Pruttui, it appears probable sity, which' was vt)ry natiierous. 

liial the . iioMesy and deputies at There Were *mtt less tlAn' twenty- 

Biiyttiioe, did not diseou rage, but four, aniversilies in Spain; and sere- 

iNi the ceolmry, eBoourage an idea ml of them crowded with noniberf 

which Ktms all' along to bapre been of students, little short i>f those 

tnlertainad by the tyrant, that wliat* that were wont to resort to our 

«Ter m%bt be the success of tije English universities before a st^nd- 

atunerousi amiisaries employed to tag army constantly on the increase, 

cormpt 4be penons supposed to a navy also still increasing, cofonia 

have the most inilueooe with the and commerce no lon^ter .tlioueht 

people,: the very terror of bis aniis below a gentteman, attracted so 

would be snfficient to retain the great a portion of the English youth 

Spanirii nation in awe and subjec- at an early period of Vlft (o tiie 

. tian;. and that tlie Spaniards^ like walks of business and of ambition, 

a flock of timid abe^p, would iea- Of tbe companies of stndetits, some 

iKIy ob^y any one Ijte should, ap- were dtlled the company ijfBrutw, 

poni to the throne. Persons of a otiiers the compmny if Cafo) tbe 

Hiapicious disposition, might have eomjEMn^o/'fAe\P^(»f^/f,anif by other 

tMr doubts :about the purity and allusions to the great canse of 

Intention ofboth the Bayonne junta, freedom. On their ^andardswai 

and tile grandees that accompanied inscribed Uhettypr Tkathl 

Ferdimind thithen But, what was The coura«re of this literaty dass 

good policy, there was no public is noticed in the French, us well as 

expression ofwch a sentiment. And the Spamb' accounts of oceur- 

en tbe whole, it would occur to the rences. The companies formed of 

charitably disposed and the can<tid the monka and armed peasarats, 

part of the nation, that there are bore the names of saints. Many of 

circumstannea ia which the weak^ the standards bore tlw; device of 

nc8» of hmnan nature may natu* the French eagle, terti to pieces bj 

rally look for excuse in necessity, the lion of 'Spain. Among the 

and when even virtue herself, with- higher clergy, there were many who 

out a blush, may have recourse to entered at once into tfae^miltlftry 

•imukition and dissimulation. ^irit The bishop of SI. Andero 

By this temperate and wise oon<^ wore always a cutlass at hb side. 

duct all were united in one (hiter^ Though itwasnotamong the highest 

nity. Noblemen and gentlemen,' ranks, as already noticed, that tbe 

the clergy of all conditions,' ma- patriotk; ardour was the greatest, 

nufaictttrers, artisans, and labour* there were not a ieW exceplimn. 
ers, all presented themselves veltti»- * Among 4liese, at this stage of oor 

tarilv to be enrolled in tbe public narrative, it is due to most distm- 

service. There was yet another guished talents and virtues^ to meo- 

class of volunteers, or which we tioii the Cond^ de' Mont^o, who 

'find frequent mention, not only in spent his whole tiroe» with very 

the papens of the day, publbbed in short intetvala for sleep «nd other 



varipua forms by tbe Spaniards, reftesbment, m atiiiMating^ in^ad- 
•but inthe Firendi bulletins, namely, ii^, and dheetii^ his too(litrpieii» 

tjie literary claas ; the class of stu« by writing, and by traversing'Spani 

^ ' • ia 



' HISTOHY OF EUROPE. 191 

(liff^reot direcUom, for tbe pur- indiutriouily circulated in ever; 

le of convetsing with tbe diff«- province, Iowd. ▼illage, tnd bunht. 

lit juntas and tbe indiviriuala of Sernioiu were preached by Ibe bU 

t greatnt aulboritj in tbe dif- shopi io bvour of the good.cun^ 

-ent provincea. An bast of ail- aiid exlnctii fimn Ibcin - prioM 

rable writen sprung up in Spain, and published, ..lt< iji to ba ob> 

If r« Iheir existience wa« not inia- Mned, that parochial achawb bdag 

led. Tile Spaniard, rilent by cMablisbed ihraughout' all Spain, 

ipciMtion, and conccalratng his tbe lowest of the people tboagli 

:ai, acquirei both precision of reslreiaedbylbeiMtuiBilion framn- 

ou;;lil and propriety of eipxct- discriminate readu>^',xan both raid 

in; a litconic. antithetical, and aud write. Tbe jwrias, in Ibcir 

>liii«il brevity. Mow di^rent proclamatiooa to the people, taMc 

Is fiom the loquacity, the tvr-. very j^avely(we (Jo not cay inqmli- 

a^e uf the Frencu * I Specimen* tically or improperly) of the patM- 

bpaoisb alpqtKnce, involving tbe nagc and ^rotaclion la be expected 

oirst reasoning, ia a contioued fromtiiekLADY OFTHE Pillai. 

mm of passion, will )*e found in Nor were piout frauds disdained* 

i« A|tpendix to tbe CbTOniclet, in At Valladolid, Sanigowa, V^dentia, 

paiiisb proclatiialions, and io all and Seville, oriracles wcre«ot«n«l^ 

le Spani^ slate papers. Never proclaimed, and by tlmae to wbtina 

cfore was Buonaparte treated in such proclaiiiatuns were addreued, 

icti a siylel Nopolitecircumlocu' seriously believed.. . 
oiu and reserves! no diplomatic At titc same time that Ibe juntas 

ourtesies I no profeaauiis.of high uKd all ineaos for uciting and 

onsiileratioo.1 no manigeaient or forming tbe whole raass of tbe 

aution, iadicafing doubt or Gear, male popuhition of a reasonable 
llie patriots pour oq tbe utAvtiuii age to arras, and .calliug forth aU 
tnd ptrfidums moniter midiaguised tlie resources of the peuinsula, they 
tttroach, uitqudlitieil abhorrence, recommendeii their caiiK, and had 
md menaces of revenge. recourse to tlie favour, aqd aid. and 

£ver^ incenltve thxt coutd be co-operutioD of all nations iniml- 
Jrawn from tbe religious \:liaracier cid to usurpation, and frienda to 
nf Ihe Spaniards, was employed to the rights of independent itatas 
touee llie people to anus. A pro- aud kingdoms. Tbe supreme junta 
clamation from bi.i holiness the of Asturias invited tlie Poles, Ita* 
pope, Pius VII. to tbe Spanish ca- ]iaus,8iid Portuguese, bearing amu 
lUulicj, together wilii a civil cate- in the ranks of the Frendi, to cone 
diLtiii, or brief cO)npendiumof the to their mountains, and jou the 
obligations of a good Spaniard, was staudard of freedom!. 

' As the Frrnd liai become tbe geueral lanirnage of Europe, and is that of ititaj 
fin* writers, it is, u if ouglit to be, genenlly learnt ; yet it ii riiiiculoiu to be st 
M roach paiu aixl expence u lo msn^ iilly people are, about acquirinj; tbe true 
^mo ^roimacidtfaa of French. It is quite lufficioit for most people to mKler- 
■■anditin writim;.aiidrDr all to make themMlvea uudentood in it. To beaali- 
011* i1w)it the tnie Pariiian prouimciatioD of French, i*  moit witiavaftBt Bttf- 
pliatnt m the court of Buonaparte. 

)Pp. I4»— »7. t See AppMdis to Cbnwicle, p. I«9. 



I9t AlifNUAL RfiGISTERi leos. 

' '^e junhi' of SevHle, May ^9, n^anners, and liis attafj)meat te tlie 

kntced th« ocr-optentridtt tif the prince of peace. But, -ds Hh ^nt 

French natioDy and alt the provinces rmit and adversary, general OTar- 

Vfbject i& it.— ^'' Qonie to us, and fe\, had gonf over to (he side of 

^ ahalt find vidour, generostj, die Piiench, hts auWquetit deda- 

and tme hononr.^ — The same junta, ration^ of irrecx>ncilal)ld Iiatred to 

iHy SOth, conetoded an address to tliat patty ^ere believed to be sin- 

tbe PortnsfueM ' nation in these cere. 

woidf : ** Your conotry is not in In the miean thne, in conseq'ucnce 

rr — thu danger is past. Hasten of the concert above mentioned 



to arraa for it» <*«livemnce and 'te- between general Castant)s and the 
IIOTtitioa. Share in the gloiy of patriots of Cadis on the one part, 
•etting an exarapVe to nations groan- and the cominanders of the British 
ing'qnder oppression.'' Missioners forces kt Gibraltar and in the Me-* 
wtte lent, and a secret correspon- diterranean on the other : lord Cot^ 
deilee and understanding entered linvwood arrived with ships to take 
iiit^'bV, as was affirmed by' the the ^command of the KngKsh fleet 
AUMriaus at the time, only-attempt- oQf Cadi^, and general Spencer with 
ad to be entered iiito with the court five or six Bnglish regiments from 
of ¥ienmi; "^ "" Ga>raltar, and the two Swiss legi- 
I* But it was to'.the English nation mettts of Meurbn and Wattenville. 
aiid the Spant^ "colonies that the Lbrd Cotliugwood offered his ser- 
Spauish patriots looked for the most ^ices for the reduction of tlie 
cordial, ]proinpt;and efficient assist- French fleet: but Morl^ very pro- 
ance : at^r ^ere thHr hbpesdeceived. perly detdmitned, that this Uiould 
' After the tragical end of Solano, be, exclusively^ an achievement of 
tlie lleutenancy^geiieral of Audalu- the Spaniards. The French ship« 
sia and go^en^ent t)f Cadiz were lay in die canal of the arsenal in 
conferred by (he supreme junta of stich a position, ttmt the^ were out 
Seville, tbiat now exercised all the of the reach of the ciitinon of the 
powers of government, on Don castles as well sts of the Spanish 
Thomas Morh. Moria was a per* squadron off Cadiz* But gunboats, 
son. of great talents, as welt as^ a bomb-vessels, and 'tremendous bat- 
decided and vigorous/ character, teries, constructed otit lie fsleof Leon 
With equal wisdom, promptitude, and near fort Louis, soon reduced 
. and firii)iiess, he had saved Cadiz admiral Rosilly to surrender (June 
aMi Spain from the niva^-es of the 14,) the French fleet, after offeringf 
plague in 1804, by shutting up all in vain terms of capitulation. The 
the churches of Cadi^ and its vici- French flf et consisted of five ships 
oily, in opposition to the remon* of tlie line, of seventy-four {>un5, one 
atrances of both the inonlts and the frigate, and four thousand seamen 
greater part of the secular clergy, and mariners. 
^Iio considered this a3 an act of Advice having been received, 
fticdlege, and against. the advice of that a soiall ^letacbmenl of French 
the' Spanish physicians too, who had assembled at Tivira» to eater 
niaiiitained that it was useless. He Spain by the tiver Guadiana, gene- 
had been long odious to the nobility ral Spencer, with the small detacli- 
on account of the severity of his ment under fats command, at the 

entreaty 



HISTOJIY OF EUROPE. 193 

nlrul} ttf gBHiBJ HtN^ar in>mr- denceof youraountr]!." — OnharH 

lately get uil for the Guadiana, tht HibertM, qff til T»g^, .Jk^ 

ml Unded his troops at Agamoiile. 4, 18(W. 

'hree abips bad already been sent It is icaiceljf necesaary lo mw- 
j Ibe mouth of the' Guadiana by lion, that Ihe nqble .aSattt of tiw 
diiiinl Purvii. In Gon«tqueDC« Spaniards were inftnadialcly folloif- 
f Ibese movements, the French cd by peace, banaony, and frUnd- 
«tited in all directions on Lisbon, ship itetweea that. nation and Great 
villi the eaceptioo of some weak Brilain, her alUe*. froclajnatiaH 
lelacbmeDls, left lo occupy Ibe of peace and amity uith EngleiH] 
mall forts and other posJlious on and her ally Sweden, were pub- 
hat ude of Portugal. The Port u- lished by the juntas* ; andi ai for 
;uest', atiimaled by the preseace of England, ' whatever power was tt 
Ik English, and thr exaniple, a* war with the common enemy af 
>ell as addresM* of the Spaniards, Europe, was at peace with England. 
lerv where rose against tlie It never occurred, as was declaretl 
'rcijcb. Deputations were Gent by Mr. Canning, to the English mi- 
ram eiery port of Portugal to ad- nisters, lo consiiier ourgelvet as in n 
Dital til Charles CottOD, command- stale of hostihty lo Spain. Prcli- 
ng Die DBval forces of Britain in ininaries of a new and perpetual 
'at quartet, soliciting tuccours. alliance, ofiensive and defensive, 
"lie admiral, with due fnnknest, between the (wo mttittns of Spnih 
iimediately replied : "Agreeably and Portugal, were signed at 
your desires, I send you ships. Oporto, io the name of Ferdinand 
ruops, arois, and ammunition ; VII. and tlie prince regent of Pot- 
od hare eiven orders for hoisting tugal, July 14, 1808. The bishop 
^ Hag of his royal highness the of Oporto, president of the junta 
"ince regent of Portugal, around of goverameDt of that oily, which, 
iliicli the whole Portuguese nation Lisbon as well as Madrid being fa 
tiglit instantly to rally, and lake the hands of the French, seenw to 
||> umsln % cause at once so just have taken a pattern from Seville, 
ndsoglorbus. To tecnre success, signed the treaty id the name of 
utiDiroity is Dccesuty. Unite your- the prince. — The Portuguese pr»- 
elvcs with your brave friends and vinces of Algatvtt and Alentejo 
xighbours, (he Spaniards. Siifier placed themselves under (lie guid- 
tot yonrseltes to be either intimi- ance and protection of the junta of 
lated by threaU or seduced by pro- Seville. So also did the'Caiiury isles, 
uises. From the experience of to which the junta had traiuinilled 
owe months, you roust have learnt the earliest putsible intelli(,'^nce of 
low to estimate the friendship of the turn that af^rs bad taken in 
he French. It is to the tidelily the Peninsula. They also deler- 
ud the succours of (be English, mined to dispatch envoys und com* 
econded by your own energies, missioners to iIk transmarine csta- 
Irat yoa are to owe the restoration blishmeuts of Spain in the Aurtri- 
>f vour prince, and the iodepen- cas and West Indies, and in Ana, 
Vol. L. [ ] invituig 



194 ANNUAL REGISTER; =1808. 



'«iR?iting thein;''ln umte with their 
iitfetbreii in Oil) S{Miiu/fo^ preserv- 
ing the intecrity and independency 
•of (he monarchV'ibr their lord and 
kinff Ferdinau(f VH. For accom- 
plishing this edd^ they applied to 
lord Collins[Woed for 6 passport to 
a frigate and foitr advice-boats; 
and siiso for « corvetfe to carry out 
a number of officers, whose pre- 
sence was necessary in the Ameri- 
can colonics. They preferred an 
English to a Spanish ship for con- 
veying the ofiicers, because it would 
be a proof of peace and alliance be- 
tween Spain and Great Britain. Their 
demand was immediatdy complied 
with, and ail tiie vessels, after a short 
and pleasant voyage, reached their 
destination. Vessels had been sent 
before with a number of proclama- 
tions by king Joseph; but the 
greater part af them fell into the 
hands of Pjoglish 8hi|is of war: 
the crews of one or two that reach- 
ed the coast of Spanish America, 
were imprisone<l by the colonists, 
and the proclamations of Joseph 
burnt by the hands of the execu- 
tioner. Application was also made, 
June 12, to lord Collingwood, by 
the government of Cadik, for a 
frigate to- cond act' commissioners, 
appointed by thesopreme junta of 
Sieville,. to ' England, in order to 
treat with bis iftajesty's ministers, 
on matters of great ioterest^and im- 
. portance to both*countries. As tlie 
admiral who commanded in 4lie 
port of Cadiz was one of the de- 
puties, lord Collingwood thought 
• it proper, that his departure should 
'be delayed till the surrender of the 
French ships in the harbour : with- 
in two or three days after wliicb, 
the deputies set sail in the Revenge 
frigate for England, where they 
arrived in safety on the 24tb of 



July. Lort^ before their amv^l de- 
puties had apptored in Loftdon^, 
from the principality of Astums»| 
'bearing the fic^t certain intelligfncei 
of the insurrection in Spain, and 
soliciting the md of the British go- 
vernment ; a circumstance that, not 
•uniiatu rally, led the periodical jour- 
nalists to state that the standard or 
liberty in' Spain, was first raised ioi 
Asturias. The insurrection was al-| 
most simultaneous. But, if it were 
of any importance to ascertain the 
priority of a few days, it miglit bCj 
observe<l, that the insurrection first 
broke out in Valcntia. 

Oh the gfth of June, six Spanijli 
gentlemen, having at their head the 
viscount de Materosa and Don Die;;o 
de la Vega, arrived in London, and 
they were followed by a successiou of 
deputies, or envoys from other pro- 
vinces, both Spanish and Portuguese. 
Peace was proclaimed with Spain ia 
the London Gazette of the 5th of 
July. The Spanish prisoners in our 
jails, to the number of several tbou- 
sands, were set free, cloathed, and 
sent home to join their brethren ia 
arms. The British arsenals, fleetsand 
squadrons, and treasures: all that 
Spain coatd demand, or England af- 
ford, was without ttesitation or tbe 
smallest delay liberally granted. The 
ministry were neither remi«s nor par- 
Simon ious, where to be alert and pro- 
fuse was to be universally popular, 
from the king on the throne to the 
beggar on tlie highways and streets. 
In theeauseofthe Peninsula the peo- 
ple of Great Britain and Ireland 
seemed ready to rise-in a mass, as well 
as the natives of that noble couiUn'. 
Tliey hailed the dawjn of liberty, 
and stood in admiration of the 
Spaniards. The emigrants from 
France, prone to grasp at appear- 
ances infinitely less promising, ex- 
pressed 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 195 

std Iheir lenHbifity, in extrava- rank, with these JMCConra, wilh as- 
: and poetical huigua^, but, al suratices ttiat olhers^houlti be sent 
»a me time, iiotbing more Ihan from time to tinie^aswellastroop^ 
t Ihey felt. " The Spaniards, and wfaalever llie palrfots mighl 
' said, were worthy to contend need. A promise which was fut- 
Ihe cause of liberty, law, nio- filled fititlifully. 
Ht, honour, and God. — Spain The depnlies were splendidly eo- 
^3 Ifae standard of liberty, and terlained by the cily of London, 
nature rcvivn. — The spirit of the bank, and other publie bodies, 
!y U mnte ;, the most inveterate as well as by rndivuluals of great 
-eds exiinct ; enlhusiam has ha- distinction. Subscriptions were o- 
erl the spirit of opposition ; the p^ned in London, LiverpooT, Bris- 
t of Westminster hall are asto- tol, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dublin, 
ed at seeing, for Ibe first time, Cork, Walerford, and many other 
>erfect unity of featiments, places, for supporting the cause of 
Is, and actioDi'." Spain, and several military corps, 
he first supply to Ibe Spanish militia and volunteers, oSered their 
iots, which was sent within a services. Tlie supreme junta of 
days after the arrival ofthe Asturias, did not fail, m a gazette, 
irian deputies, consisted m three dated Oviedo, June 30, to publish 
:lred thousand pounds sterling, with expressions of the most pro- ' 
uttars, five thousand muskets, found gratitude, the generosity of 
V thousand pikes, and an im- the English nation. The same sen- 
se r|uantily of powder and balls, timcnts, on varinus occasions, were 
cross's secretary was sept home, expressed with the same Wtmith 
rlher with (hrec British officers of by the other juntas. 

* L'AmWgn, No. tVf, p. 483. 



[02] 



19ff ANNUAL 



Sitvatiott o/tMe SpanUh Pre 
. turn. — PrectnUiom rteom» 
o^ SniUe.— Computation o 
Forea. — Boa their toere 
rtnder of ibr Fratfk 4rm_ 
, m rtjHiIted loilh gr*at L 
Tfte Siege raited. — Trm* 
to GeTOita.~-Rep>Jaed.—J 
— Hit Rapecittf and Cnu 
Battk t^ Cabtaan ; and 0, 
JoitphfroM Madrid. 

OF tlw fourteva (trtninci 
whir)) Spain is divi<1e<j 
in tbe b«giiiuiBg of June, afi 
VHurrerlioo had hrokcD out, 
iiMontesUbly in ike bends 
FrCHch. These were Navan 
cayi and Ihe Two CaMilleg. 
French were likewise, as a 
noticed, in possession of tli 
treu of Barcelona. A 
frao!>ht with Ihe greatest p 
prudenre, was published on t 
day of May, by the junla 1 
ville, under ll<e title of " 
CAUTIONS whicd it will b 
per to observe throughout ll 
fereiit provinces of Spain, , 
necesjily tn which tliey hav 
driven by the French, for n 
the unjust and violent poss 
which their armies are ende 
ing to lake of the kingdom* 
that paper it was observed, 
other most judicious cnunsel: 
as a combined union of plai 
the soul of every well cor 
^tterpriK, and that which 



 HISTORY OF EUROPE. W 

n^r's Brmies, to take away or cut perieuced by Sir Jolm Mnorv, did 

thrir provnioni, to attack them iitliDitely more niiscliief than good. 

mik and r«ar, and not to leave However, there certaiolj was not 

II » niotneiit of repose*. All any deticiency either in numbers, 

;ral actions to be avoided. The or individual zeal or caorage, Wliat 

iince into tbe provinces by the was really wanted, and not possible 

li and east to be blocked up ; at once to be found, was gome man 

cDlnuice into Spain to be alio of autlioriiy, talent^, aad expert- 

rk«d up acaiiul French troop* ence, pre-eminently distinguistted 

ting from Portugal. above all his compalriotst to com' 

So accurate estimate has been mand and Hirrcl the reMurccs of 

t«, or could well be made, of the country in one combined phin 

numbers of men bearing arras, of operations. On Hie oilier hand 

rans and new levies, Uttil ap- unity of daii^m. promptitude of 

red in tbe cause'of the country action, an<l aggression instead of 

li« provinces. In some, all the defence, were Pii)>bly adv'antages to 

es capably of bearing arms, the invaden. 

e enrolled from fifteen to forty- The exact number) of ^e French 

In othen. from sixteen to armies in the Peninsula, at llic lime 

V'six ; and in some, to fifty. If when the insurrection broke out, 

he enrolmriits were duly made, cannot be ascertained. The French 

alt the persons enrolled actu- gazettes sometimes exagfjeraie end  

brought into tbe field, the a- sometimes exieiiuale the uiimbcn 

int of Uie tyhole must have ex- of Ibeir soldiery, at particular 

^e^i a tnilUan. But this is scarce* places, and on particular occasiot», 

o be supposed. The numbers just as it seems to suit their pur- 

it have been fluctuating. One pose. It is certain that there were 

umslance, wholly unworthy uf at the end of Mny and beginning 

cuuae of the patriots, is not to of June, three niarslial^ of France 

pasfied without notice. Tlie in the heart of Spain ; namely, 

\inciat juntas, even the central Mural, Moncey, and Bessieres; 

ta into which these, in the pro- which supposes three distinct corps 

i» of lime and events were re- of the grand army, or nine divi- 

'ed, were in the constant habit sioiis, forming, in all, from seventy 

ncaegerating, prodigiously, the to seventy-five thousand men : to 

nbera of Ibeir fighting men. If which M;e are to add the corps o/ 

\ would have dismayed the the anny under marshal Ney, on 

nch, or inspired a general con- the frontier of the eastern Pyren- 

;uee in the Spanish nation, it nees, and occupying the tbrtresses 

•bt hsve been eicnsed, nay com- of Barcelona and Montjuich. This 

nded ; but the trick was quick- corps of Ney's may be computed at 

discovered. And those false ten thousand men. Adding to these 

ements, by misleading tlieir own twenty- thousand Frencli in Porlu- 

ieral9,aswa3aftenvardssBdtyez- gal under Junol, and fifteen Ihou- 
[O 3]  sand 

' Sir Walter B&leigti, in his History of the Wortil, layi, llut Darius mi^t luve 
[■omfilcd tlie iovadinf; Oreelu, by lilnderiDt Ibem (not to speak of food) ««ea 
in taking ibe refreitimcot'ef sleep. ' 



198 ANNUAL RE( 

saud ansilitriei, Ilaoovcriaiu, Swiss, 1 
•wt Spaniwdt, we lia«« an agjsre- i 
gate of ODC hiuidr«d aad tweoly ; 
ibotmnd mee. i 

Oftheiic 120,000 Rieii, 50,000 < 
wen eilbcr slalianed ia Madrid, or ' 
FtKatnpeil in tlie vicinity, under (be : 
order* vf Murat and uiiirtlul Mon- ' 
cey. From tliis great tiody at or 
near the capital, delaclimentt were 
MDt (o take posseasion of Cadis 
aadarVakmia. Otie of tliese de- : 
taclitaenU proceeded towardi il> 
deiliaatinn uuder tlie orders of 
the iicneral of division Diipoot : 
ibe otiier mirdied to Valeiitia, un- 
der marshal Moaocy liiuisclf. Mar- 
shal Besnerei, whose priuoipat 
force wat potted at Viltoria and 
- I'ajnpeluaa, far giiardiag tlie two 
roads to Madrid, and securing tlie 
communioilion between that capi- 
tal aud Bajoune, bad it hi duirge 
to push detaclmteiits to the right 
and left, for f>ridling as (Treat au 
extent of coHutry as pouible. 

The reduction of \he dly of Va- 
lentia, would be an in^torlaiil itep 
towards that of the ivhole province, 
and also opeaa way for combiiiiiig 
the openrtiouf of marslial Moncey 
and general Duhesiite in Catalonia. 
That of CadiE, besides the im- 
portance of ill Itarhour, ships, and 
naval aneoal, would lermiDate fi mi- 
litary line of poets from Bayoone 
by Vittorta, Burgos, Madrid, Cor- 
dova, and Seville, tliat should cuin- 
pletely divide liie Peninsula from 
north tu south, and cut off all co- 
operatioo betwceu tlie eastern am) 
web tern divisions. 
. Marshal Bessie res, who com- 
manded the iiortliern army of the 
French, was ojn^osed by general 
Cuesla,-wbo was at the bead of (he 
forces of the four westeni provinces 
of Gallida, Aituria^ Eilramadura, 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



199 



rill provincial historiaRs be wiiDt- 
ig to tniDsniit to posterity their 
iorious efforts. 

The aritiy under Dupont, when 
Ml Madrid, towards the close 
f May, amounted to 15,000 men; 
ut in its progress, it was gradu* 
ily diminished by sicliness, by de- 
^rdoD, and iiy the necessity of 
dueling out from time to time, 
arties for bringing in forage and 
provisions, the greater part of 
hich were destroyed or taken by 
arlies of armed peasants. Hav* 
ig crossed tlie mountains of More- 
a, yshWe tlie insurrection was yet 
itJiout any thing of consistency 
r form, he descended into the 
la ins of Andalusia, and on the 
til of June advanced to Cordova, 
i winch he took possession, with- 
nt nnich op|)ps)lion from the 
fvi Spanisli troofis quartered there. 
Dined by a nunilier of peasants. 
or lliree days, the city of Cor- 
}ova, was given up to pillage. 
Hie churches, afler being. swept 
>f their sacred vessels and orna- 
nents, were converted into stables. 
^" the 15lh, parties of French 
vere advanced bevond Cordova. 
3n the ifitb, the* French com- 
aanrier being informed that ge- 
leral Caslanos was marching against 
kirn, at the head of 33,000 regular 
troops, infantry, 25,000 cavalry, 
3ud a numerous artillery, besides 
^ ^eal nmnber of insurgents who 
folunleered tlieir service, retreated 
horn Cordova to Andujar; where 
lie took up a strong positicxn with 
the Guadalquevir hi front, and 
added to the natural strength of 
''^e place, deep entrenchments. 
General Castanos being unwilling 
^^ v^aMe any part of hb force 
"y attacking the enemy in his 
^nUenclitd camp, determined to 



cut off bis supplies, by cominf 
between him and another divi- 
sion of Dupont's army, posted 
under the immediate orders of 
general Wedel. General Dupont, 
in this straitened and perilous* 
situation, dispatched messenger af- 
ter messenger to Madrid, calling 
loudly for reinforcements. A divi« 
sion of 8000 men, was sent under the 
orders of general Belliard, fa- 
mous for his exploits in Upper 
Egypt, by the Sierra Morena.--* 
And Dupont, in order to facili« - 
tate a junctioh with the expected 
reinforcements, quitted his position 
at Andujar, and fell hack on Baylen. 
But Castanos posted divisions and 
detachments of his army in so ju« 
dicious a manner as not only to 
cut off all communication between 
the corps under general Wedel and ^ 
general Dupont, but also between 
this last corps, which was the most 
numerous, and Madrid. 

The deplorable situation to 
which 'Dupont was reduced, is 
thus descri,t)ed in an intercepted 
letter from him to general Belliard. 
— '* We have not a moment to lose 
for qnittiog a position in which 
we cannot subsist. The soldier 
being under arms the whole day, 
cannot now, as heretofore, reap 
the corn and make bread: for all 
the peasants have abandoned 
both their hamlets and their Jiar- 
vests. For heaven's sake, send n$ 
prompt remforcements ; in one 
word, a body of troops forming 
one compacted mass, of which the 
component parts shall be as near to 
each other as ever it is possible* 
If we suffer the enemy to keep 
the field, all the southern pro- 
vinces ancT the other troops of the 
line will hasten to take part with 
the rebels. A decbive blow in 
[0 4] Andalusia^ 



2QQ. Al^NUAX REGISTER, 1808. 



Andalusia, would contribuie greatly 
i& tba aubjugalioD of all Spaia. 
Seodmej without a monteot's. delay, 
medickaes and linen for tbe wounded: 
fertile enemy has intercepted for 
the space of a month; ail our am^. 
inunitie^i waggons, and the provi* 
sipna sent for us from. Toledo/' 
A detachment of 500 men sent out 
from the French caiap at Andiyar, 
to seek and meet Beliiard was 
cut off to a man by the smug- 
glers of tbe mountainsy who had 
formed themselves into a body, 
4000 strong, and sworn to grant no 
quarter. The same body, and 
other parties of Spaniards, haras- 
sed tlie detachment of Beliiard, in 
tlie defiles of Moreoa, night and 
day. Instead of forming a junc- 
tion with Dupottt, he was seen to 
return to Madrid with half the 
numbers with which he had set 
out. It has come to be a maxim 
and practice, that when a general 
is hemmed in into any desperate 
situation, his only chance of ex- 
trication is, to make a bold attack 
on the enemy. — On the 20th of 
July, about three o'clock in the 
morning, the army under Dupont 
attacked the Spaniards. There was 
a division of 9000 strong, under 
the command of lieutenant general 
Reding, a Swiss. There was ano*^ 
tiier division of the Spanish army 
of 5Q00, under general de Cou- 
* pigny ; a third under general de 
Pena, of 6000 : and a fourth under 
v^ general Jones, of 5000; in all, 

25,000: of these 25,000thehalf was 
peasants. The force .of Dupont did 
not exceed 8000. The brunt of the 
battle fell on the divisions of the 
generals Reding and Coupigny. 

The first shock of the French 
was so furious, tliat the foremost 
companies of the Spaniards, suffer- 



ed prodigiously. But the Spmaada 
maintBiiied their ground, alid sup- 
ported by their artillery, aCladwd and 
drove the French before them at 
aU points. Yet the CVench kept 
up the conflict, constantly renew- 
ing their assaults without any other 
interruption than what was unavoid- 
ably occftfioned by moDMntary re- 
treats, for tbe formation of fresh 
columns, till half an hour past mid- 
day. At different times they bcoke 
through the lines of defence, with 
the boldness peculiar la troops ac- 
customed to conquer, and some- 
times advanced even to the Spa- 
nish batteries. The last attack 
was led on by Dupont fairaself, 
who with the other generals |>laced 
himself at. the head of the coluroas, 
under the fire of the Spanish artillery,* 
which, on that day, was admirably 
well served, as was admitted by the 
French, who owned that they had 
forty pieees of cannon dismounted. 
^ At two o'clock P. M. the adtan- 
ced guard of the division udder ge- 
neral Pena arrived at the scene 
of action, and began to play on 
the enemy with his artillery ; when 
a flag of truce appeared, desiriog 
to treat for a capitulation. An ar- 
mistice ensued of course. But dar- 
ing this, the division under tlie 
command of general Pena, was at- 
tacked by the French division, 6000 
strong, under general Wedel, who 
xame up, while Dupont was eo- 
I gaged with thegeneraJs Reding and 
Coiq)igny, from Carolina. The 
battalion of Condova was surprised 
and taken, with two field pieces. 

The number of the French killed 
and wounded in the battle of Baylen, 
amounted, it wascompuled, to5000; 
that of the Spaniards, to 1200. The 
negociation l>etween Dupont and 
the Spanish comniander-in<bief, 

general 






* ^ jL 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 210 

nernl Castuof, did Dot laot loi«. otlwr hand, be had to miintain a 
upont wa> told at once itnt be conflict witb genera] Caro, wUo 
ust sairender at discretion : which had' follnwed the French close at 

aereed to.- Generat Wcdel'* their heels, for the defence of- Va- 
Fuion wu comprehended in the lenlta. An impetuous charge with 
pitulation ss w«tl as that of Du- tlie bayonet, made sucli havoc 
>Dt, formi^ together a body of among the ranksof the French, (bat 
^,000. It iraa agreed thai general they retired, at about eight hours 
edet's divisiou should be mbI at 'even to their camp between 
3IIK by sea, to Rocbfort. Qii>rle and Hislata, which wa» 

Hanliall Honcey was not more fortilied b^ strong eutrenchmenb 
iccestfiil in Valentin, than general and fomriilable batteries^. From 
upoat in Andalusia, though he thence he conthiuert bis retreat on 
caped capture, and made good Madrid, harassed for sonie days 
3 retreat, Ibougfa witb a heavy by general Caro, as be had been 
M in killed, wounded, and pri- on his march through the plain of 
■aera, to Madrid, lite kingdom Valeotis. Of 15,000 men, infantry, 
r Valcntia u well fortified by na- cavalry, and artillery, that marched 
at bynneana of ibe rivers Gabriel witb Moncey from Madrid, 10,000 
nd Xuccar, and by a chain of returned, and 150 waggons carry- 
leep and nigged tnountains. The ing the wounded. Fifteen hundred 
anes through these were guarded were made prisoners, and sent tO' 
y some troops of the line, and a Cartb^ena. 

msiderable body of Valentian The campaign of Arragon was 
uut^eats. ' These guards were at- still more glorious to the Spanish 
icked by Moaoey, on the 21st patriots, than those of Andalusia 
( June, and routed. — Having and Valentia. 'Arragon, situated 
roned the inonntaiRi, he marched between Madrid and the frontier 
tnisht on Valentia. ' of France, was obliged to ligfat 

On the 26lii, he was attacked at -with one reinforcement of fresh 
^aooios by general Caro, a nephew troops after another. In every en- 
'{ the illustrious general Romuias, gagement before the waits of Sara- 
ind aiiffered pretty severely, in both gossa, Palafbx was victorious. The 
^valiy and infantry. He was at- inhabitants of Ssmgossa equalled — 
-ackeO again by general Caro, be- it was not possible to exceed the 
[ween Qnarte and Midata, when patriotic heroismof theNumantiant 
l>e also sustained considerable loss, and Sagnntines. Every mode of 
NevenlMless, tbougli Ibus haras- defence and attack that human 
K<i, he continned his march, and imt^nation could devise, was 
ou the 28th, opened a heavy fire adopted, and whatever buraao cou- 
"n Valentia, of both artillery and rage could dare, was performed, 
musquctry, which was continued Saragossa, the capital of the 
^bout ceasing from mid-day to kingdom of Arragon, is situate on 
"le evening. The VaJeotians re- the right bank of the Ebro, with a 
turned liii fire witb some pieces ^ suburb on Ibe left bank, connected 
artillery planted at the gates of the with it by a stone bridge. Though 
<^ly, aai by showers of musketry, the mountains that bound the val- 
^oia the top of bouses. On the le; of the Ebio are distant, yet 
-*— -^ Sarra- 




202 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808, 



Sarai^ossa is commaoded by some 
high grouod» called Uie Torrero» 
about a mile fo the 80utfi>west. 
Tlie «*alls of Sara^ossa appeaf 
to have been conatriicted merely to 
facilitate the means of levying the 
taxes on every article brought into 
tlie town for sale. Tiie gates^ 
whicli are nine in number, are of 
the most simple construction, and 
the line between them, is in some 
places preserved by the mud wall 
of a garden ; in others, by build- 
ings, or by the remains of an old 
Moorish wall, which has a slight 
parapet, but without any platform 
even for nmsquetry. The liouses 
are three stories in height : the 
streets very narrow and crooked, 
excepting one or two market-places, 
and the street called the Corso, si- 
tuate nearly in the centre of the 
town. The population is estimated 
at about 60,000 souls. 

On the S5tli of May, the inha- 
bitants of this defenceless citv, and 
the peasantry of the surrounding 
country, rose to repel the aggres- 
si^s of the French, and to j'rus- 
ti^te the design of changing the 
dynasty on the Spanish throne, an- 
nounced in tlie manifesto of Murat» 
May 20th. The captain*general 
of Arnigon, Guillianiali, had be- 
trayed an inclination to submit to 
. the enemy. He was, ou tliis ac- 
counly seized, and thrown into pri- 
son, and the government uuaoi- 
niously conferred on Don Joseph 
Palafox, the youngest of thi-ee bro- 
thers of one of the most distinguished 
families m Arragon. This noble- 
man, at the commencement of the 
revolution, had been selected from 
the officers of the guards^ to he se- 
cond in command to the marquis 
de Castellar, to whose custody the 
Priuce of the Peace was confined 



aAer his arrest at Aranjaez.-^ 
Though he had been in the Sf)a- 
nish guards all his life, he bad 
never seen actual service. His 
time had been principally passed in 
the dissipation of Madrid, where lie 
was not a little distinguished by 
the splendour and fashion of his 
appe&grance* 

At the commencement of his 
command, the neighbouring pro- 
vinces of Navarre and Catalonia 
were in |M>sses!»ion of the French. 
The passes of the Pyrenees leading 
directly into Arragon, were open, 
and Murat, with the main body of 
the French forces, were stationed at 
Madrid. Thus surrounded by his 
enemy, general Palafox mustered 
the reg^ular troops quartered at Sara- 
gossa, amounting to $20 men ; and 
he found the public treasury of the 
province could not furnish him with 
more than 2,000 reals, a sum in 
Kfif^lish money, eqtial to twenty, 
pounds sixteen shilliugs and eight- 
|>ence.» Animated however by |Jie 
patriotism and the confidence re- 
posed in him by his countrymen, 
he did not despair of the caose of 
bis country. On the 3ist of May, 
he published a proclamation, en- 
couraging the Arragonese in their 
noble ardour, and declaring 
war against France. *' Providence 
has preserved in Arragofi a great 
quantity of muskets, animunitiou, 
and artillery. The unmerited ho- 
nour you have conferred on me, 
constrains me to dra\y aside* the 
veil that covers the most detest- 
able villany. My life, which can 
have no value in my sight but in 
as far as it may be subservient to 
yo^ir happiness and the prospeiity 
of my dear country — my life is 
the least sacrifice I can make in 
return for those proofs of confi- 
dence 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. , S 

(fcnn? and atladiinent with which of liis lirollier. and liis tmcle. 

^nn liav« honoured nw. Be as- ihe serond U was di^larcd liial 

snred, Arragoninni, doubt it not, (a«e of any vinl«nce falling on th 

lliat tny heart n not made for liar- (irecinut heads, (he n;ilion wo 

(tuiirinx a tlimt^it of crimes, nor as- c\erctsr its right uf election in 

snctaling with those who commit vour of the Archduke ClurUi, 

or protect llirm *. Some of those the n>fthew of Cditrles 111. in t 

perenns^ in whom the Spanisli na- of the' [Hiiice of Sicily, the in! 

lion plared confidence, ' some ia Don P«'drD, and other lieirs, iho 

whose hands are placed (he (mwrrs be precluded hy any circuoutan 

of gnvemmeut, are anion^ the of silualion from llie succesgi 

foremost lo labour for your ruiu, l^iis clause was disapproved 

by all 1)w means that baseness can most of tlie nlher Junius, and p 

»rc«est, and lo form trailerou>i (icularly the .junla of Seville. 

connection* tvilh the enemy of their was deemed more es|)edieiit, I 

country. I will not, however, di- the Spxnish nation shoulil av> 

wlge titeir tiBmen. Perhaps .lotiie for the present, all aoticipatii 

of the chiefs to whom 1 allude, of coiiliiigeitt cases, aa above i 

iwir that lliey are 8C<]uaii)led wiili serveif, and coidiiip ilself to m 

your fised termination, that of Hires inili^peiKably ncccisary, in I 

jour »ei<;libours the Vnkntians, prewnt juncture. 

and of all the proTJnces of SpMin, Eatly in tlie itionlh of June, » 

have chan(;ed IlKirmint^ embraced before any force could be or] 

the cause of justice, and used nlzvd fur (he defence of Arraj^i 

tlieir cfldeavoitrs for »]iakin<; off a (Ictjtclinicnl of French of 8,0 

■hill yoke which they wistied to iofHiitry, and pOO ca^*alry, iini 

hiipose on you, by means (lie most the orders of tlie )i:eiietal of di 

buse and infamous. . Fear not, Ar- sion Le Fevre, befrtm to march fri 

, rnvoniaHs! (he troop of the enemy Pampetuua, agaiust Sariagot 

HOW in Spain, cannot willistand After a .succe^iou of skiriDist 

our efforts. Let us defend the wilh the Arragonese, at Tudi: 

most just nf causes and we shall Mallen Gaul, and Alagoii, I 

be- invincible.'' French adwinced, June 14, will 

The declaration of war with a very eIidtI distance of Saracos 

wliich the proclamation concluded, where they look up a poailiou 

was reduced to ei<:lit articles. The llie valley on the opposite side 

dist made tlie «fliprror of the tiie town, lu that side uliich h 

French, all (lie individuals of his situate on the F^liri). This po 

fitmiiy, and alt his gerenils and tion was covered by rising srvui 

«litcera, persoimlly responsihte for planted wilh olive trees. Havi 

(he safety of Ibe king and thut occupied this post, they defein 

th< 

* PalileN WM among tlie niimlier of Uiosc noblein«r nlio accumpauiod Per 
■*nl VII. to Uayoniie. ;nie purity of lii> iiiiml is iindnubtril, nuil lib lense a 
["Ovlrutioa as uu<tii<:'<tion>li!f , lie may liavc ci'n^idcrrd it ptrimp ai a pnint 
lianour itat to abunJon Frrtlinnnd, evra when lie was dclcnniiii'd to rvth into l 
vm throat ot* Uiol'pi-. He had recently escaped from Eijunue,iniUedi?i;u 
'^* pnuani, to lii; coiiatFy sett near -Sartgosiu. 



S04 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



tbeir general attack on the city till 
tbe, morrow : but a small detach- 
aent of cavalry that penetrated 
into the town on the 14th of June, 
paid dearly for their rashness. 
The At ragonese had hastily planted 
some cannon before the gates of 
their city, ami also in some iavoarable 
poakioos without the town, particu- 
larly on a rising ground called the 
Torrero, and on the height near it. 
On the 15th of June, the French 
sent a detachment against the out* 
posts on the canal of Arragon, 
while their main body attempted to 
storm the city by the gate called 
Portillo. The Arragonese attacked 
almost at the moment, both in 
out-posts and at the gates of tbeir 
towuy fought without order, but 
with extreme fury. They did not 
stop to load their muskets a second 
time, but as if regardless of their 
lives, rushed on the French co- 
lumns as they advanced, with the 
bayonet and other hand weapons. 
Their artillery was served by any 
persons who chanced to be near it. 
Every one alternately commanded 
and obeyed. But all were animated 
by the same jipirit, and their efforts, 
after a most severe conflict, were 
finally crowned with success. .A 
party of the enemy that entered the 
town, were instantly put to death, 
and fjt Fevre, convinced that it 
would be in vain to persevere in 
his attack, withdrew hb troops to 
a position out of the reach of the 
Arragonese cannon. During this 
retreat, the Arragone&e took 400 
cavalry and 27 baggage waggons. 

As soon as the French were thus 
repidsed, general Pal&foz set out- 
from Saragossa, in order to collect 
reinforcements and provide resour- 
ce for a siege, and also, to place 
s rest of the kingdom in a state 



of defence, in case of the vedtidion' 
of the capital. He found from 
twelve to fourteen htmdred sol- 
diers vrho had escaped from Ma- 
drid, and he united with them a 
small division of militia stationed 
in Calatayud. With this force, in 
compliance with the earnest dnire 
of his soldiers, he determined to 
attack the French. He marched 
immediately to Epila, with the in- 
tention to have advanced from 
thence to the village of La Muela : 
by which maikeuvre, he hoped to 
place the French between his little 
army and the city of Saragossa. 
This attempt, however, was frus- 
trated bv a sudden attack on the 
part of the enemy in the nigfa^ at 
Epila, when the Spaniards, after an 
obstinate but fruitless resistance, 
were at length compelled to yield 
to superior numbers and discipline. 
The wrecks of this small force retired 
from the scene of action to Calatayud, 
and afterwards with great difficulty 
threw themselves into Saragossa. 

Meamvhile the French received 
reinforcements of troops and ar- 
tillery from Pampeluna, and be- 
gan to occupy the several military 
positions in the plain covered with 

; olive trees that surrounds Saragossa. 

They were not allowed to cany 

on these operations unmolested. 

. In a short time, however, the French 
had invested nearly one half of 
the town, and on the S8th of 
June they took possession of the 
Torrero. The battery on the neigh- 
bouring height also, which had 
been entrusted to an artillery officer, 
and 500 men, frU into their hands. 
The officer was declared a tiaitor 
to his country, for not having de- 
fended thb importaut post as he 
ought to have done, and on bis 
return into Saragossa, was imme- 
diately 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



der at Ibe Tomro Um citjr could of Loffrono. who, rouwd by 

Dol coimnuoKate wilb the couitry prewnce of an enemy, MtoB [« 

on any other Ndc than thai at the cd theoidiBary dutiei of the « 

Ebrn. to which they belonged. Two pt 

During tboe opcndioai of the of oiiuinn were procured from 

tmmy Ibts Arisgooe$« were busily rida. The eoemy drew hii 

eui|<loyed in placiug their town in sources from Pampeluoa, while 

the Iwtt possible Uate of defence ArrBgonew, now coinpietely' 

that liKir slender resources would rounded, had not one single 

virott of. Tbey lore down the trets to which they could havi 

awmiijs from their wiodowi, and coune, either for ammunition 

fiinued them into sacks, which tbey for cannon. About the latt da 

filled with sand, and piled up be- June, a powder magHzine in 

fure every gate, in ll>e form of a heart of the ci^ blew up, aiu 

buttery, dig^uj; round ^cb of a moment nearly a whole street 

them a deep trench. They broke reduced to a hnp of ruins, 

bolej in ll)e mud-walli, and inter- inhabitants bad scarcely recov 

■ue<Uale buildings, for niusquelry, from ibeir conitemation at 

and here and there, where the po- dreadful loss wben the French, 

eilion was commanding, placed bad received mortars, howii 

cannon. The bouses in the envi- and cannon, opened a destru< 

Toni of the city were pulled down fire upon the cily. The sand 

or burnt. Gardens and olive battery before the gale Ciilled j 

^ouuds were cheerfully rooted up tilh, againit wbicb Ihc atlac 

by the proprietors IheniselveA, the enemy was princi)Hitly dim 

wherever tbey impeded the defence was gallantly defended. It wi 

of the city, or covered the ap- vera! timet destroyed, anda^K 

proacb of the enemy. The exer- recomtructed nndcr llie fire of 

tiogs uf the men were animated by enemy. Here an aet of her 

women of every description, who was performed by a female 

formed Ibemselves into parties for which there b scarcely any I 

the relief of the wounded ; and for equal in history. Augusttna ! 

carryiog water and provisions to gosia, about twcnty'two yeai 

the batlenen of the gates, while a^e, a handsome young woi 

tbeif children were employed in of the tower class of the pp 

conveying cartridges maide by the whilst performing her duty of 

monks. Scarcely a day passed rying refreshment to the gatei 

without a sanguinary contest be- lived at the tiattery of the Por 

l»eeD detachraenli of the FVench at the very moment when the 

aud ArTa);ouese,Jn Ibe neighbour- of the French had abscdutely 

ing olive wood). In the last two siroyed every person that wa: 

days of the month of June, four tioned on it. Tl>e citizens anc 

hundred soldiers of the regiment dien, for the moment, he^iiab 

of Estramadura, small parlies from re-man the guns. Auguktina, i 

other corps, and a few artillery- ing forward over the wounded 

men, contrived to reinforce Saia- slain, snatched a match fron 

gosu. To Ibe arlillerymea were band of a dead artiUcryniBn, 



Q06 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



fired ofF a S6 |K>iiii(fer. Then, 
juinpmg npoo the gun, she mafle a 
solemn vow never to quit it alive 
during the siege, ainl her fellow- 
citizens, stimulated by this daring 
act of intrepidity to fresh exertions, 
instantly rushed into the battery, 
and again opened a tremendous 
fire on the enemy*. Attack was 
made after attack; Saragossa was 
more and more closely invested. 
Above the city the Ebro was ford- 
able, and below it the French, in 
spite of the efforts of the Arrago- 
nese, had constructed a bridge. 
Having by these means transported 
their cavalry to the opposite bank 
of the river, they destroyed the 
mills which supplied the town with 
flour, levied contributions in the 
different villages, and thbs cnt off 
the only communication by which 
the besieged could receive any sop- 
plies either of provisions or ammu- 
niS^n. In this critical situation, 
the active and hitelligent captain ge- 
neral of Arragon, established in 
various parts of the city com mills 
worked by horses, and ordered the 
monks to be employed, under skil- 
ful directors, in manufacturing gun- 
powder. All the sulphur the place 
afforded was put into immediate re- 
qaisition. Tite earth of the streets 
was carefully washed, in order to 
furnish saltpetre; and charcoal was 
made of the stalks of hemp, which 
in that part of Spain grows to a very 
unusual size. On this simple foun- 
dation there was formed,'' after- 
wards, a regular manufactory of 



gunpowder at 9ara|»ossa, vieMmg ' 
13arrobasof Castitfe; or*32^5K)s. 
per day. 

Towards the emi" of Jttit, the 
large population of Saragossa was 
but scatrtilj sti^Tplied witli food, and 
had but little or no hope of suc- 
cour. By the unremitted exer« 
lions of forty-six days, their sph * 
rils were exhausted; and Itieir bo- 
dily strength impaired. A despe- 
rate effort was made to recover the 
important post of the Torrero, in 
vain : after which, the Arragonese, 
despairing of being abte to make 
any sortie with effect, resolved to 
conquer or to perish wlthm the 
walls of their city. During a 
bombardment on the 2d and 3d of 
August, a foundKng hospital, which 
contained the sick and wounded, 
who from time to time had been 
conveyed there during the^iege, 
unfortunately caught fire, tkid was 
rapidly consumed. All attention 
to private property was instantly 
abandoned. Every body was seen 
hastening to tlie relief of the sick 
and helpless children : in which 
act of humanity none were more 
conspicnons than the women, who 
persisted in their humane exertions, 
equally undaunted by the shot and 
shells of the enemy, and tlie flames 
of the building before thetn. On 
the 4th of Aug. the French opened a 
tremendous lottery on the quarter of 
the city called' Santa Engracia. In 
an instant the mudwalls opposite to 
their 'batteries vanished; and thei 
qilendid convept of Santa Ebgra- 

cia 



* Mr. Vanfshan, Mow of All-Sonts College, Oxfbrit, and one of Dr. Ratdifle^ 
travellina fellows from that aiiiv«rnty, whose excellent narrative haji been oor 
principal gruide in Uiis account of the tiege of iianigossa, relates, that when he saw 
this heroine tJierr, ^ She had a small shield of hoooitr etubroidercd on the sleeve of 
her gown, With TUaragoza inscribed upon it, and was rrceiring a pension froB Iha 
govenupent| and the daily pay of an artiUeryman. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE.' 307 

t'm iras on fire' uid totteriii:; in venting; mortal contusion ttut oo 

Twa*. The FrerKli Goluiuus imine- ciirrefl to i;eiieral pjafox was, J« 

didleiy rusliixl tlirougli tliii en- \)m\i tbnMir>i Frencli ))risoiii;ri, 

Iraiicc into Uie oily, took 1 lie bat- vtii!) a rope alU<-iit:il to llieiu, 

ttt'm before the wtjaccnt gales in Hnii<l»t tlie tJi-'ai) arx) ilviiigi to re- 

inene, noti i»tier a most aan^ui- move llie boiiic* of lljsir cuunlry- 

iiury conflict, pt'uelniliiii; to llie men, liiiil bring llieiu fur buriilt 

street Cnran, nearlj-io'tlie centre of ttit ottice iiilbe execulion af whicli, 

lli« town, were iu|M>s«es»un before a> it ivas binelicial to bi>lli -^liirlie*, 

tlie day closed nf one Ualf of Sara- tlicy weie not in "lener^l nuiiojed 

fma. Tlie French jfenvrdl ibeu Soniethitii; Itio is, no ilxubt, to bt 

•feiuaiKlet] a ciit>ituiiili'in in the set down lotlicaccauiil ul' tin- syio- 

f'lllowinttnote. — QuartelGtHeral^ )wtliy of tbe I'rehcli, wiIIj I'ldr itn- 

iaula £ngraria.  ^rluuale countr^nirn. IJv lliii 

La Ctt/ntulaliOK. Tiie ansWer oieuns tbe evils «ii>iiii; fmin iIm 

immetlitOely returiieil, \ri»: — lioniblc ourniplion of snch niassei 

QHortelOeneral—Zaragxa. of dead bodies, uerc iu some (]«• 

Gucrra al Cufhilh. gree <liminiiihed, 

FitLAFox*. Tbe principal leasun for attack 

Oiiesiile oflbestreel Corsn, was in tbis sinsniar species of warfare, 

now otru)He(i by Ibe French, in from the opposite side* of ihe same 

(lie centre of wlilcii general Verdier street, of only a moderate breaillb, 

fi^t seen G;iving bis orders from the was the night. Tbe French ami 

FraiiciKsn convent. Tbe Afra- the Arraguitcse, under liie covet ol 

pintx maintained -their positions darkiiess, fi-etiuenlly dashed agjitiut 

on tbe opposite iide, llirowiD; up each others batteries across IIm 

baittries at llie a|>enui»s of the street. The slrug;^lc begun at the 

streets within a few paces of similar batteries .was often carried iato tbe 

bailCTiei of (he French. The in- houses beyond them. 

Iervctiin<r spac« was souil Iteaped On llie jib of Au;;ii^t, when llic 

up with dead, either tiirnwfi from French were e;i))?cli'il to renew 

the windows of {be tuHises ui which tbcir aTorls to obluin complete 

thry had been sluin, or kiUid in .])o»scssini) of ihe cily, lbs Arrago- 

tlie codQIcIi below. Frnin this iiese liiund their ainniuiiilino be- 

enarmousaccumulalioDuflhedead, i;iiiiiiu^ to fail. The only crj 

Iliere was Ibe utn'iost reason ti> up* that as^iled the cars of llie eallaul 

pn^Iiend a pealileitre. . To an Ar- general, as In- ruile amougst llw 

lasnnese it was almgit certain people was, thai if uinmuiiitioii 

ilealh toappenr in the middle of failed, (liey were ready to attacli 

llie ilteet. Tbe eipcdient for pre* the euciny wilh only thei^ kuive* 



Uead Qumtart, Snida EUgrmMl. 

Tlie Canitaldtioa.' 
It'id Qumiert, Sa'agotM. 

War to the Knifp. 
In rtoK rnmhikl the knife in ibc Innds of tbe Spoourdc u a veijr romiidable wea 
l"'ii- TtK UuDiani^ willi llu'ir iborl cat and thrust nvrorJi, coaqilered (be world. 



so* ANKUAL RE'C 

. AtUiiiktHhlmsiai Jwt bcforethe 
AR of irif^hr, a tonvoy of provi- 
•iriDS and tfmniunition. wMi a t^ 
inftinwAlffll afSOOO nteo, ctfmpoted 
of SpanMh tusttts, Swin, giid vo- 
InnlMn of Amstm, nnexpectedly 
thade tttdr entrance mlo tb« city; 
unrfer the comraHtid of Don Fran- 
OKit Palafox the brother of the 
i^plain genenK 

A cauncH of war held, Au- 
gust Stii, eamelothe following ever 
memoTshle resnlutlonB : " That ' 
thnie quarters of tlie city !n which 
the ArratfnnpM yet mainlained 
them, should continue to be de- 
. fended with Ihc same firmness that 
had hitherto bern sd ronspicaoas, 
— Sbontd the enemy 'flt last pre- 
▼ai), the people were to retire by 
the bridge over the Ebro, into the 
subiirhs, and having destroyed the 
bridge, to defend the >;uburbs tiir 
they PCSISHBD." This resolution 
of the E;encn<1, and his otiicers, was 
received by tlie people with the 
loudest ac'taran lions. *rhe ' most 
sanpniiary conflict had beet) con- 
tmued from street to slrieet; from 
bouse to house, ami from room to 
loom, for eleven days; when (the 
enraged populace always 'gaining 
ground hy degrees od the discipliD- 
ed troops of Ihe French) the s|>ace 

 occupied by the French was re- 
duced to about one-eighth part of 
Ihe cHy. 

The spirit displayed by the men, 
was seconded in the most admir- 
able manner by the women of Sa- 
TBgOssa. The countess Burila, a 
lady of great rank in thai country, 
formed a corps of women for the 
relief of the wounded, and for the 
purpose of carrying provisions and 
wipe to the soldiers. Many per- 
sons of Ihe most unquestionable ve- 
racity in Saragossa, declared, that 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



S09 



dM not «nel with ooe btttnHB lie- 
ine, who iiltetrd the slu^htest coni- 
pbtiil: eVefy ferliii^ wemliig lo lie 
tmllowed up in the meniory of 
itbat tticy kicl rrceiitN done, and 
ioajuft liftlred of the Freucli. 

Tin spirit of p«triol»iii wad also 
daplajed, wtth ft«««l glory* <knd not 
ittogdiwr witboiit miccess^ in the 
Mijhbonring province of Cataio* 
in. Duhfiine, the French gover- 
nor of CatikMim, Iwd been direct* 
cd lo reduce Gerona, at the same 
b'me that Lefebre was -sent against 
Stngoiia. There b one important 
obwiTttion that strikes us rm a re- 
view of the whole of tlie present 
cosiest in Spain, that when the 
Spsoiatds act in compacted and 
Lomogeneoils, though small bodies, 
when there u one definite object 
peffi^dly known to all, when they 
an tetiiated by one niiiid» knd 
hn coufidence ia each other, they 
iccomplish great and arduous un« 
derlakiogs. It is among a great 
Dunber of troops belonging to dif* 
fcreot prnvinces, in some measure 
keterogcneoot, and spread into ex- 
tensive Itoes of operation, without 
oodentandiog the general or uiti- 
mste object of the commander in 
cbicf, tiiat we find the most iatal 
ind (he most freauent failures. Ac- 
cordiD{(lyy it is in the defence of 
toKos that the courage and mili- 
ary genius of the patriots have 
werto slione forth with the great- 
nt splendour. Oerona, in the 
caropo^ of 1808, gave an earnest 
of that valour and patriotism, 
^bidi was found aAerwards to e- 
qua] those of Saragossa. Ouhesme, 
after spending upwards of a fc^rt- 
ni^ht in the sjege of Gerona, into 
^hicb he threw in one night four 
huHired bombs and grenades, was 
breed, by the vigorbas sallies of 

Vol. L. 



tiie G^ronese, and the movements 
of otiier Catalonians^ who threaten* 
ed to attack him in flank and rear» 
fo retreat to Barcelona, leaving lie* 
fore Gerona some pieces of artille* 
ry, and a conMderable quantity of 
provisions and ammuiiilion. la - 
his retreat he sustained a great lost 
both of men and baggage : in men, 
according to the Spanish accounts 
of the <tay, three thousand. For 
by this^time thi* staiidard of liberty 
had been raisefl in ivery part of 
Gatafonia; at Maure«a, Bruek, 
Mattaro, Martorell, Molinos del 
Rey, and otheV places. A preat 
number of united Catalonian |>ea* 
santry liad forliiied themselves with 
cannon, which they had faund on 
the coast, on the river Llobre- / 
gate. 

Fresh reinforcements of pea- 
sants, haying poured down from 
the mounted ins into the plains, made 
themselves masted of MoiHgat, 
cut t)ff the road between Mont);at 
and another small fort at Moncado* 
whicii they beset, securing them- 
selves with eutrenc'iments. The 
number of the patriots, in arms, 
still rallying after defeat, and in* 
creased by the junction of one 
party after another, was on the ^ 
whok! rather increased than dimi- 
nished; inwniuch that they made 
an attempt to cut off the conunu- 
nications of Figueras, and, by 
forming a cordon, to invest ami cut 
off the supplies of Barcelona: 
against which they opened some 
batteries; but they were driven 
back, and a c^mmonicatiou was 
preserved between the French gar- 
risons in the fortresses and I he coun- 
-try. Another body of peasantry, 
besides that which had alreadly 
fortified themselves on the Ltohre- 
gat, had recently foroded themselves 

[P] beliind 



210 ANNUAL RfeGISTER, 180». 



behind that river; whiph, by the 
meltii^ of the snows that had been 
for sonie days fal|ii)g. j^ the moun- 
tainsy had swelled considerably. 
They had erected, at Molinos de( 
Rjey, a battery of three guns, w|iich 
ranged the bridge that had beeq 
broken down in several places. All 
the fords of the river were be- 
fell down to the mouth of iL . Two 
flying field-piec^3 hovered on th^ 
}ine.of the insurgents. 

bo the 30lh of June^ in , th^ 
morning, the French, tMsder the oi^ 
ders of general Goulles, and briga* 
dier general Bessferes, marched 
frfHjfi Bai:ce|ona, sjg^inst. the^inaiQ 
strength pf the insurgents, whic^ 
rested on 4he right b^nk of tt|e Llo* 
bregat. Proceeding to the mouth 
of the river, they forced the .pas- 
sage, and pushing up the right 
bank, took several Cataloniaif 
posts in the rear.' IJndisciplined^ 
without a commander of any aur 
thority, or none that could inspire 
confidence ; and; surprised, p^rr 
haps withal, by this manoBuvre, 
lliough it might have been ex- 
pected,, the peasants submitted to 
• the French without much resist.- 
« ance. At the same time general 
Leckie, with a division of Frencli, 
1500 strong, assailed and took posr 
session -of the bridge of Molinos 
del Rey, with the three pieces that 
gimrded the passage way ; hot n^ 
.4vitJiout a well-fouglil battle, in 
which the loss of the French was 
computed to be .equal to that <^ 
the Spaniards. On the side of Fi- 
■gueras, general Heible proceeded 
Slither from Bellegardc against the 
jfisurgents, on the 5th of July. 
Tlie insurgents being wprsted Jn 
•a 3inart action, and dispersed^ he 
threw provisions into the place, and 
s reinforcement into the garrison. 



General Duhesme, in i]|eyen£e for 
bis repulse from Gerona, burnt 
^lany houses in thp towns .and vil- 
lages by which he passed, took 
inany prisoners, some of whom he 
I^illed in cold blood, and laid waste 
the whole plain or district within 
the jurisdiction of the citv of Bar- 
celona;' all the cultivated fields, 
villages, convents, and churches. 
. .During these operations the juDta 
of Catalonia had established Uiem- 
$^lves "at Lerida, for ,tbe cooveni- 
f ncy of communicaUon with* dra- 
gon and Valeutia. 

When general Duhesme returned 
to Barcelona, he fpund bis two 
forts in great want of both powder 
j^nd provisions. During bis ab- 
sence, about a month from Barce- 
Ion?, , it Ijad been cut, off from a 
free intercourse with the neigh- 
bouring country. ., And a vessel 
jb^dpji with pow'dt^r for tlieir use, 
aiifl another with ^ted pork, had 
b^eq taken by the j^ugKsh. Da- 
iicsine, who had abea^y acquired 
the cognomen of tlie cru^l, pointed 
the cannon of the citadel .against 
tlic imfortunate inhabitants, threat- 
ening them with death if they did 
not fi^ruish him witb^ l^^OOO ra- 
tions of provisions dailypr .and an 
e^Kcessive numbci' of pipes> of wine 
.and brandy. Undef the preleuce 
.of ciiarges or suspicions ot, an in- 
tention to rebel against tb^ emperor 
.Napoleon, he was in the.iiabit of 
carrying away, from time to time, 
the most respectable persons in Bar- 
celona, separating husbands from 
their wives, and parents from their' 
children, for the purpose of extort- 
ing ransoms for theii[ liberation. 

in the meantime the aifiairs of 
the patriot in the Doxt\i of Spain 
wore but an unfavouiable aspect, 
and a battle was fought at Medina 

del 



HISTORY OF fctlROI^E. 211 



el Rio Seco, in the province of 
.roD, nhich turiiecl the tide of 
irliine, and might have exceed- 
i:;!) damped, if not altogether 
uushed Ihe ia^urrectioD, if this 
Hvaiitageonthe sirle of the French 
ad not been CDunt^rbalaHced by 
he «veDts in the south and the east 
u,l related. 

Marshal Bessi^res at . the same 
line tbat be sent a force agaiodt 
viragossa, pnshed forwaTd coluitihs 
or the reductiiiii of Logrono, Se- 
:ori3, VaJladolid,' ^nd St. Aptdero. 
Ml these objects were easily ac- 
■omplished. Tlie raw aiid uiidis> 
'iplined levies of patriots did not 
■iiig siuluin a cotinict with tire im- 
'eluous and well-directed exertions 
>f the ' veteran and vicloclous 
Fnncli ; but consulted their safety 
)j' flight, for the most part throw- 
n^ down their arms. On the 7th 
^fiiaif, general Frere, having ar- 
rived with his column witliin a 
rjuatkr of a mile of Segovia, sent 
SB officer lo (be magistrates de- 
manding a parley. 

Tile insurgents, 3000 strong, 
vilh thirty cannons, would not 
suffer the inetsengcr lo approach, 
Imt fired on him with cannon. On 
thi; the place was taken by force;the 
resistance here was not inconsider- 
able ; a great nnniber of wounded 
anil others, fell iuto the hands of 
"le French, with all their cannon. 
The cily of Segovia, after the di- 
f«al and flight of the armed pea- 
sants, made its snbniissiohs in tlje 
manner required by the French gc- 
"ful. When general La Salle, 
June glh, was approaching Palen- 
'la, a deputation, with the bishop 
»} llieir head, brought the aubwiis- 
"on of the town. The toiyn and 
pto^te of Palenlia were disarm- 



ed. On the ISth of June, general 
La Salte advanced ' to Duenna;, 
where he for^d a junction witli 
general Merle, and from whence 
be continued his niardi to Valla- 
dolid, where' the spiril'of'insurrec- 
lion bad grown very strong,, and 
which was a great rendezvous ^f 
the patriot^ General Cuesia, with 
 7000 men rfnd six pitres of arlillp- 
rV, had taken post iit Caliezon, 'a 
small town on the Pisuer^'a, about 

* iliile miles t" the north of Vallj- 
dolid. ' General Saballiier was or- 
dered til force the position, which 
bad been reconnoitred, of the in- 
surgents, whilst general Merle was 
directed to cut off his retreat lo 
Valladolid. The firing, accordiijg 
to the French accounts, lasted biit 
half an hour, when the insurgeuls 
were completely beaten, scattered 
in every direction ou Ibc field of 
battle, leaving their artillery, 4-000 
muskets, and about oue ihousaod 
killed. 

• The gazette of Madrid, that is the 
French jfazetle, slates, thai five or 
six hundred French beat fourteen 
or fifl(|en thousand rebels. The 

'gazette of Oviedo, on the contrary 
sajs, that the nuniber of the French 
and Spaniards' ii^ lids engaj^ement, 
-was lieprly equal; but that Ibe 
■'French' lia(f Ibe advantage of a 
mure numerous 'Artillery, while the 
patriots had only fiinr camiofi i yfl 
'•that iu spile of this disadvantage on 
'the' pari .of. the Spaniards, the 
Fri'ncb ' bud left seven hundred 
dead on tlie ficlil of battle, from 
whence they carried otf theii 
wounded. 

Such ore the l^ing miracia, tlia' 
not untrequentlj 



. if be 



fill r 



for the develnpement of lime 
[ P 2 ] sometime 



SIS ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



sometimes finds himself under the 
necessity of forming bb opinions, iiml 
iTraming his accounts, not by faith 
In the reports of ihe day, but by 
an estimate of what is most pro* 
babie» and attending to conse- 
quences. 

The bishop of Valladolid, with 
llie principal clergy of tiie city, 
camc^ to meet generai LaS.iDeySup* 
plicating forgiven^ to the city 
and its inhabitjints, whijch was reft- 
dily granted. Tlie city and pro- 
%'iiice of Valladolid were disarmed. 
Teii memli^rs of the council of 
Piacentia, Segovia, and Valla<1olid^ 
were deputed to go to lib Catholic 
majesty (Joseph Buonaparte) at 

' Bayontie, there to supplicate his 
tbrgivemiess, in the act of tender- 
ing their own fealty, and that 6f 

' their fellow-cilizeus. 

Generai Merle proceeded to the 
mountains of St. Andero * : on the 
morning of the 2 1st of June, he 
fell upon the insurgent patriots, 
beaded by tlie bishop^ dro^e theni 
from all their positiaus, and took 
from them two eighteen^ pounden, 
winch, loaded with grape shot, they 
had fireil only twice. In other 
parts of ' tlie moantauious district, 
parties of the insurgents were driven 
from post to post into St Andero, 
by general Duces. On the 2Sdt 
the generals Merle and Dacos eo« 
tered St. Andero, on different sides 
of tlie town. The peasants every 
where returned to their homes. 
The city of St. Andero having 
made its submission, like Segovia, 
falentia, and Valladolid, was oblige 



ed to swear iMiy to the usurper. 
Tlius quietness was restored for 
the present to Navarre, Guipuscoa, 
and Biscay. 

A great number of patriots bad 
been assembling, A>r some time, at 
Benevento, under the standard of 
general Cuesta. In this number 
were comprehended all the Spanish 
prisoners who had been sent back 
to Spain by the ftritisk government* 
With this force, generat Cuesta 
marched on to Valhidolid, with the 
design of cutting off theeomjiiuni- 
cation between the French in the 
northern provinces of Spain, and 
those in Madrid. It was liis p!aii> 
having reduced TaH^aAolidt to ad- 
vance to Burgos. The foK?e un- 
der Cuesta, is sfated by, the Freadi 
gazette to have amooutetl to not 
less than 35,000. Mattifaaf Bi»- 
sieres, aware of the desi^ of \ht 
Sfmniards, and sensible of the im- 
portance of maifttuning the post st 
Valladolid, advanced to meet tbem 
with a force, amounting in all to 
12,000, of which 2000 were caval- 
ry, with a proportionate train of 
artillery. On the 14th of Julv, at 
break of day, he catae in sight of 
the enemy, who occupied a large 
extent of ground on the heights of 
Medina del Rio Seco. Bessieret 
attacked them drt the right. And 
at the same, time general Montoa, 
at the head of another divnion, 
made himself master of the toim 
crif Medina del Rio S^co, with fiTutd 
bayonets. All the positions of Iht 
Sp«iiiBirds were carried ; tiicy iied 
in great confdsion ; and f bey lost 

all 



* A canton or small proviaceon the coast of Biscay, between Astnria de Sa>- 
tillum. Old Cottille, and Biscay. St. Andero is one of the ^t commercial porti 
ol'^paiB, l>«iiig in the mimber of tiuM^ called ulMlitedM, thai ii^ anthonsid If 
0B4J-J an every kind of tmdey with America* 



. HISTORY OF EUROPE.' ^ 2 

ill llinr irtillm, caiKulin(r of 40 bave Mi|i|)lii<l ihat deficieacy, w 

iit^M of cannoa. Six tfaoimnd obliged to kwre the fieM of bal 

iFre roade prittnicn, accortling to the Frenclv wilb lUrleeii 

llie Fmch flccmmli, and more thrir canuoD : ihou^b it wai 9 
han 12,0p0 left on the field of the; Rlreatcd in go«d ida, a 
,M«. All Iherr baggage and mi- siterward* ntlied. 

iiary stofci fdl into llie buids of Tlie kind of order observed, 

Ik French. I^ie SwimTdi Bed lufficiently illustrated )i; Uic 

int to BeMreofo, trom wheuce, pidilv of theif retreat, ud I 

ifier I ihwt ball, tfiey conlinaed diriance to wbtch tbey letreali 

ilnlr retreat to Labenan, Leon, Op th« otlwr hand tbal Iheir ( 

iikI Aelorga. Tbey «cr« punuad aitcn i*«re not lo great as li 

>y manlial BcMicrci, who at Bene- been given out by Ibe Frenrb, t 

'eotu, July 19th, fouiid an imnicnse liwt F«ia£irceniai^ were advanci 

jOBulily of aniH aud aumunitioiv to join general Cuetia, ik rend 

{err, be received a letter of tub- cd extremely probable by the 

ubsion from ibe iutiabiUnla of treat ui Aiglit of king Joaeph Bi 

'aiiiora, aud on the ftfUowing day, napurle, on Ibe Silliof July, fri 

he 20lh, be entered lhat town, MadiiJ. 

rom wlience he proceeded to Ha- After intelligence wa* receit 

irga. At M^o^ he received a of the lurrender of Dupont * 

tputalion from Leon ; wliich city fiaylt-n, and ibe discovery liiHl 

e entered on tbe 26tti, Tlie b'- niauy nf tbc- utinisten of Jiite 

hop c-drne two iiiilei to meet liiiii, had made llieir escape from &: 

>od tfa« council appearing before drid, llie Frencli immediately I 

be g»\ea of (be city, presented the gvu to fortify lite Uetciro, £ 

tys, in toten of aubiulsiiian. besnie bad l>eea repiiUed from C 

According to certain accounls'in rona, Airagogsa ilUI held uul, 1 

Ik S)>Biiiali newipapera of tbe miec from Valencia aiid Adalu 

iHy, llie Spanisfa amiy did nSt ex- menaced the capital. The an 

«ed fourteen or fifteen thousand uf the weslern provioces, uuder f 

ifaiilHi', aiid eight hundred caval- neral Cueda, though routed a 

V. Tlie Spaoiarde, it was alaled, disper«ed by llie b^Elle of Medi 

'ere in tlie iirst oniet to fortunate del Kio Scro, ruanifeiled a deti 

s to beat ba«k Ibe Frcncb, and iiiinatiou to rally. Tlie Trent 

"kt and apike four pieces of (licrefore, iu tlie evening of t 

annoii. Bui Ibe field of battle Iweuly-iiiutb of July, liesan 

Kin; in a vast plaiu, th»palriolai evacuate Mailrid. King Joie| 

ilio were cartied by Iheir iinpetu- Hilb the last companies of t 

•uly cut «); Ibeir rank^ without a Iroopiilefi I^a<lrid on Dietueul 

uAicient nnmber of borneincH Id nintli, and touL ilie route of Seg 

1 lake head ugainU llie Fruidi ca- via, frum whence he jiruceeilcd 
''Iry, lud nuaccustonicd to aity liurgos, llie nndezvons of t 
uth prompt evobitioiM as might «h')le of his aiiny at aud in t 

{ P 3 ] vieiti 

' Weemltjed lOTneatiMi tn It< proper place, that central Dnpont, mi hb 
iv^ in Vnnce, w>* tried hy t court mvlial, caoikniiied to di-alli, aad iiu 
iituty tbol by torch light. 



!14 ANNUAL RJIGIS 

ricinity of Uadrid. Hie Freaeh royal 

csrried mhntg with tbem all Ibe ar- ipcTrflj 

Ullery anil uTiuimaitiDo, for which conuiK 

tbey could &iid means of eoovey- niardt, 

LDg; spiking Uic cannon, and de»- not pul 

troyuig tlie anuniuiitiDn they were bad pu 
abliged lo leave behind theiu. — Tlie 

rhey plundered the puhlic trea- panied 

nir>, and carried off ail tfae Jewell the S 

helonsing to tfae ctowo, aod all offices 

the plate, and whatever was moit kingJc 

tuluable in the palaces belonKiog establii 

lo Charles IV. and Feidinaad VII. Bladfii 
«r to tay of the brandiei of the 



HISTO,RY OF EUROPE. 



Erroneous Opinion of BaoWiparte respecting the Spaniardi. — i 
ous Conduct in cofufqutnce of this. — Attempt to conceal tht 
ond tlrntgfh of the Spanish Imdrrrctions front the Frenci 
man, nnd other Nations. —Liberation of the Spanish Troops 
North jof Gti-many. — Military Preparations of Austria, — Ati 
Buonaparte.^ Remonstrances nnd Esplanations. — Troops . 
Confederation of the Rhine, taken into the Pay of France, — St 
France to Supply the Place of the French Hi^iments to be . 
Spain. — Interview between the Emperor of Russia and Bvonap 
Erfitrth. — Insurrection in Portugal.^ British Expedition ti 
tvgal under tht Orders of Sir Arthur Wellealey.— Content 
Cintra. 

BUONAPARTE, reckoning that a degni much" beyond ilu 

Spain would be a very easy fimatkiam of the monks in 

conquest, tbougbt that the sp«edi- and Italy, among whom Wen 

eat way to lake possession of the times found men of leamii 

country would be, not to keep bis talents. The monks df Sp 

forces togetber in one strong army, {that is, his literary emissai 

as might hivs been necessary where conformity to bis will ant 

^^y great resistance whs Io be ex- dience to bis directions) dei 

peeled, but to push forward de- as clownish and uncouth ii 

tacbroents, as we have seen, in personal appearance, and I 

every direction. At first be affected an exact likeness tu so 

to treat the insurrection in Spain butchera. All this was oi 

with great contempt. — He was at acknowledgment of what 

uncommon pains to conceal ttie prebended from the zeal a 

real slate of affairs in Spain from ertions of that religious 

the French and the German* loo. While he laboured to penus 

He gave out, Jn bis newspapers, French, and particularly, i 

Freneb and GermaD, that all that be presumed, the Spaniard 

was most respectable in the Spa- distance from home, that ill 

nish nation was devoted, and that respectable part of the S 

even tealously, to the new dynasty nation was tiacerely attacl 

and order of affiiirs io Spain, and king Joseph, !te used meai 

UiM it was only the mere rabble fur impressing the inbabilai 

of day-labourers, peasants, and Spain with a belief thai their 

low tradesmen, under the direction trymen that bad beeu draw 

of the monks, whom be repre- the French service, were al 

Kated as liualical and igoorant to voted to him. It nu pul 
£P4] 



916 ANNUAL REGISTEE,J808. 



in the Paris newspapers, August 
] 2, as an article from Hamburgh, 
that the Spanish troops, uuder tiie 
niarqnis of Romana, had come for- 
ward of their own accord, and 
with great zeal, to swear allegi- 
aoee, and had proffered a de- 
tachment from their corps of 
picked men, to form a guard of 
bonour for king Joseph. But on 
the contrary, this gallant corps was 
no sooner informed of the forced 
abdication and captivity of tlie 
royal family, and of what was 
parsing in S|Miin, than they burned 
with ar<lrjur to join the ranks of 
their countrymen. Though sur- 
rounded by hostile battalions, 
tbey plante<l their colours in the 
centre of a circle which tliey foi:m^ 
ed, and swore On tiiefr * koees, 
to be faithful to their country. 

By a well combined plan, con- 
-certed between Keats, the British 
admiral in the Baltic, and Roniana, 
ten thousand of the Spanish troops 
atationed in Funen, Langland, Zea- 
laivd, and Jutland, emancipated 
themselves from the French vokcj 



and, under the protection of /the 
Briiisli fleet, fvere conveyed witii 
tlieir stoi;e5, arms, and artillery, to 
Spain, where they landed at Co- 
runna on the 30th of September. 
The marquis of Komana himself 
returiied home by the . w»y of 
London, where he arrived on the 
l6lhoCSepteml>er, for the purpose 
of having a conference witli the Bri- 
tish minbtry, and British mi(i4ary 
officers. But one Spanish regiment, 
near two thousand strong, in Jut- 
hind, was too distant, and too cri- 
tically situated, to effect its escape. 
And two in Zealand, aAer firing oa 
the French general Frbion, who 
commanded them, and kiUiitg one 
of his aid-de-camps by his side, were 
disarmed. While Frisiou was in 
the act of haranguing these troops 
for the puqiose of engaging them 
to declare for king Josqili, one.of 
the, soldiers, burning with indig- 
nation, and regardless of conse- 
quences, stepped forth fcom the 
ranks and fired a (Mstol at hun» which 
miiising the geneiulj lulled the aidp 
de-camp*. 

When 



* The Maiqnii de la Reraana was kept i|i profound ii^iorance of the glomoi 
cvcnlB that hu takMi plsee in lii« country, ana various attempts liad beep mad^ 
on die part ot' tlie Britiih ffovamment, to cotminiHCiite the tidings to l)ii|i, and to 
device means far liis escape vitil the troops under his command,, withOot e^^ct— 
At length a Swedish clergyman was found in whose lionoar, good aoase, sad 
enterprising disposition, \bt finnf st confidence rould be placed. This gentleisan. 
disgaised as a low and travelling tradesman, went by the way of Heligoland, and 
havina overcome manv obstacles with the utmost patience, prodeace, and forti- 
tade, at lengtii arrived at the place wheie the marquis and his troops were ita- 
tioned. Having ascertained tlie person of the marqms, he was obliged to watch in- 
cessantly fur an opportnnity of «ddre»i»ing him, witboiic exciting the sospipoB of 
the numerous j|)ies l^ whom he was sarr(»«nd«'d. Tlie venerable agent atla^t wai 
obliged, as if by accident, to jostle the marquis in tiie street, in order to atrract 
Ms attention. Having done so, he apologised, asif tgnorant of iIm^ person whom 
he addicsiedy and concluded withonermg to sell him some exeelleat eotfee. 
The BMrqius treated this offer with contempt, and si^ailied that he snpp(tf<d be 
w^ speaking to a nnuggler. The mhiister of the gospel, however, perirverrd 
hi rccominendmg his coSbe, and in the coorse of the eonversafioa, foond inefUM 
td fbtiinato Uiat he was not a smnggler but a gentleman.*—** WeiQ soon'Vee tlitt,* 
said the marquis, and tiien asjitd l$i if bt cirald speak lathi, ne niini»ter an- 



Ul^fdRY OF EUROPE. 



2l7 



Whffl the real state of affiurs ia 
Spflfu became manifest to all Eti- 
rr)[>e bv the flight of kibg Joseph 
fri»iu Mattrid, and the concent ra- 
tkm of Kie French forces on I he 
dtfiiw of B»caj, and on the Ebro, 
BmjfitffKirttr's sarcasms against the 
insurgents, and his misrepresenta- 
tioQs t»f fects, were interrupted for 
a long time, as well as his militaiy 
operations. Not a wprd was said 
oJF Spain. Even iheMonlteur was 
olciit. Tfie world entertained great 
nriosiiy to know wfaat iace would 
be pat on the flight of Joseph, and 
the inactivity of the Freticli in 
S)%in. It was given out by llie 
Frencb government at Madrid, that 
the k'mg found it neeessary to re- 
tire for a tinoe from that city^ for 
liie benefit of hia faeailh; whicli 
was every where made ^ subject of 
ridicnle. But nothing at qll was 
nul on the matter in the newspapers 
ot France, Italy, or Germany. It 
V9S evident to Buonaparte, that 
Uie Spani^ insurrection was of too 
serious and formidable a nature to 
be treated lightly in respect of cither 
words or actions. It was mani- 
festly not to be crushed but hy 
a very large force, and a larger 
one too tlian any he could march 
against it, if the Germans should 
avail tl^mselves of so invitiug an 
oocadon to throw off his yoke, and 
above all, if the emperor of Russia 
should swerve froi:9 the treaty of 
TiLiL yh^ Austrians had been 



employed for the lust three yt'dx% 
in bringing their, fiuancea into or^ 
der, and pf late in sl;rengtheQU]s|» 
their frontier, forming magaziiw^ 
aud increasing their armies^ iiir be^ 
youd'wlt^t was at all uecej^sury for 
the preservation of internal tian*' 
^ quillity, and apparently %uUi -a 
view not to mere defeucej but to. 
aggression. This diiF not escitp^i 
the observation, or fail to excitir 
the suspicions of the Frencl) goverur 
ment. A long correspondence en- 
sued on tlie subject, whiyh %ia9 
afterwards published, bJtuveeu co^mV 
Metteroich, the Austrian ambassador * 
at Paris, and Campugny, the Frent:!* 
minister bfexteruairelalium. Tiie 
French minister, cn tlie part of hi< 
niastci*! aAer calling to wind the 
moderation of the conqueror in 
Uie battle of Austerlitz, aslied the 
Austrians, what th^ ft^ared iruiM 
France, or of wliat they had t» 
complain. , If certain posts, still oc« 
cupit^i by the, French iu bilcsia, .or 
in any oilier part towards the iron- 
tiers of Austria had given untbragc, 
or caused any apprehension, they 
should beunmediatel} evacuated. — 
An uncommon degree of earnest- 
ness , on the part of Buouaf^rte to 
persuade tbe court of Vienna, that 
he did not entertain any hostile de- 
signs against Austria, is apparent 
thfoiigiiout the whole of the cor^ 
resp/c»ndence. "It is not," auid 
Buoaapartet ** any part of my poti- 
'tical system, to Uestroy, 'or even to 

humble 



vvercd m th^ a^rmative, aud a conversation ensned, apparently abont eofTce, 
» die gecturea ofnoth were calculated tq deceive ail wlio iiiiglit 6bfteHc them, llie 
Burquia was then doljr iafomed of every tbiaie tl>at had occurred in Spain, of tite 
asH»^UfU^tbe liritisli Govenuneui bad rendered, and of tlie readines:* of his Britan- 
nic m^e^ty to adopt any lueasfire tU^ nii|;ht foe tbooght praclieabte for eff(^tin;» 
ttie rescue of bimseif vid lus trooi»9, Ui^t they miglit join tbeir- ticroie con ntr^mt-a 
in Bcsiatin^ Ufe base atteoipu of i'^aoce to enslave tbem. 



S18 ANNUAL REGISTER, 4808. 



humble the House of Austria:'' 
and ill this he was no doubt^ as 
has since appeared, sincere. It 
could not be any part of his policy 
to annihilate a barrier - so conve- 
nient and necessary, against the 
power of the Russians, growing every 
day, by the natural progress of po- 
pulation and improvement, in so 
vast an empire, greater and greater. 
The Austrian minister, ou the 
part of his court, disclaimed all 
hostile designs against France, and 
explained the increase of the mi- 
h'tary force complained of, by 
the general necessity that all the 
powers of Europe now felt them- 
selves to be under, of propor- 
tioning the scale of their standing 
armies to that of their neighbours. 
The Austrians persevered in their 
military preparations.— Orders were 
transmitted from Paris to the mem- 
bers of the confederation of the 
Rliine, to call out their respective 
quota.s', which, when assembled, 
would be very powerful. Of the 
German troops of this confede- 
ration, 80,000 were taken into 
the pay of France, clothed in the 
uniform of French soldiers, and 
sent into France to garrison the 
towns quitted by French regiments 
sent to reinforce the French army 

' in Spain. In this manoeuvre it was 
his object to render it impossible 
for the German princes to revolt 
from him to Austria, while at 
the same time he stationed a force 
in France better for some of his 
purposes, such as that of enforcing 
the conscription, than that whicn 
it replaced ; in as much as Germans 
would not be so likely, as the French 
regiments, to sympathise and co- 

> -alesce with the people. But what- 
ever might be the inclinations, or 
the attempts of the Germans^ they 



were not to be considered as for- 
midable, if the emperor of the 
North, as Buonaparte had ''.flfect.d 
to style him, should abide by his 
engagements. Alexander, at this 
moment, held in his hand the 
balance of Europe, the fate of 
many nations, their conditioD, 
whether as independent states, or 
as submissive provinces of a great 
and domineering empire, probably 
for many centuries ! Into which- 
soever of the scales the Czar should 
throw his weight, that must inevi- 
tably preponderate. To confirm 
and fix the resolution of Alexaud^er 
was a matter of the last importance, 
and what Buonaparte did not think 
it prudent to commit to the 
agency of any of his minbters. 
He determined to l»ve a personal 
interview with the emperor "of the 
North; on whose mind it would 
appear he was perfectly confident 
he should maintain an ascendant. 
For on the llth of September he 
addressed, in print,^ hb soldiers as 
follows : «' Soldiers, after triumph- 
ing on the borders of the Danube, 
and the Vistula, you traversed Ger- 
many, by forced marches; you are 
now with the same celerity to tra- 
verse France. 

" Soldiers, I declare that I have 
need of you. The hideous leopard 
contaminates, by its presence, the 
territory of Spain aud Portugal* 
Let your faces strike him with 
terror, and put him to flight; let 
us carry our victorious eagles even 
to the pillars of Hercules. There 
we have an affront to revenge. 

"Soldiers, you have surpassed 
in. renown, all tl^e warriors of mo- 
dem times. You have equalled tiie 
Roman Legions, who in one cam- 
paign triumphed on the Rhine, the 
EuphniteSf Illyrium^ and the T^us. 

A durable 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 219 

durable peace and pennaDent . The iohaluianl* or Ljabon, over* 

esperily tball be the. reward of awed by tlie arm^ of JuDot, were 

lur ex).^oits. No gooti FrenchT restrained ai tirst from expres- 

dii cuu eiijoy amoiiient's repose, ling their joy, otlitrwise than in 

' laiig as the sea is uot free aad private and confiileulial coriver- 

>t'n. Klion. The public voice ofPor- 

" Soldiers, all tliat you iiave tueat wa^ first beard at Oporto. 

mdy achieved, at that rejuaiiis Tliis. tnwn, besides the circum- 

'I lo be done fitr tlie kappintM stance of beiit^ siiuate at a coruH 

the French people, and for derable ilislHnce from the force lui- 

ij ^iorj.— Be usuured, that the der Junut, gmssesied another ad- 

^iitiiibraiice of so great services vaotuiie. Il bad hrrt% occupied bj 

iiil rcntain for ever eiigraveo about three thousaud Spauisb 

1 ni) heart." When the French (roops, who bvfure their depar- 

my perfecll; sensible that the ture to Join the patriotic, stand- 

• cnch ptople ven in a situation Srd in S|tain, tonk the French |^ 

e most wretched, tttey were re- neralunder wbownrdirrs they wer4 

iuacd by this baraagiic that the and ail his staff, prisoners, and de- 

ue motive of their ruler was his livered up the eo^erument of the 

rn ghn/. It is humiliating to city to Lewis D'Oliveda, who liad 

iiuaii nature, lo (hink that bun* filled ibal office before the arrival 

I'll} of thousands of armed men, of the Frencii. The trnchery ol 

lauld hear such language, and this man, hi« attachment to the 

!rbap9 even feel a pride in ex- French, and the measures he took foi 

iiiliog, by prolonged fatigue, at reslnringtheauthnrilvortheFrencfa, 

le thk of their live*, and )ty the rouzed tlie indigiiaMon ai>d rage 

f rilice of their country, the glor^ of the [leople to surh a pitch, thai 

'a fortunate and inhuman usurper! be found it impossible to averl 

Tlie [dace appointed, for a nieet* their threatened vengeance other 

ig aad conference between Alex- wise than liy yielding up his au- 

iderand Napoleon, was ErAirth, ihoiiiy. T]iey*rose, isihofJune 

city in the circle of tlw lower in one boily, broke opirn tlie depol 

liine, belonging to the elector^e of stores, and having tuppliet 

( Mayence. They met here on themselves with arms, proreede< 

le 271b of September. But the to destroy every vestige ofFrencI 

[der of time calls our attention power, and to iniprisoo every per 

>t tlie present, to the efiorta of ion susperled of being in their in 

le patriots witli their allies in For- teres!. • Ttie bishop of Oporto 

1^1, springing from ibe same who, with most of the otiier priests 

;tuse, going hand in hand, and bad been incessant in his effort 

ating the same object in view; with to rouse 4he people lo arms,* wa 

\\iie of their neighbonring apd aj^inled governor of Ibe city, am 

indred Spaniards. ti> 



* Hie narlby buliop had not Ihongfat it bis dnty to p\j toy retard to the pai 
iial itttet of the InqHuitor Gnmal <>r all kagdnnu suit donuniooa bdoDfing |. 
(T Ctttiolic mijaty, recomnendinjE rabiniiiaioa to itie PreDcli. '' The powers tlia 
'1" pobliilKd at lisben, by Hie dii^etiim, nA doubt, of BnaH^aTte, who tMns k 



250 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1«08. 



ngdlatioai as were Te^tiiftd by 
the pecniiar ctrcunifttaiires of the 
coantry. Oporto, m this respect^ 
was Hie Seville of-Porlu|al/- The 
joBta haiiBg taken such nifasnres 
for raisiog and supportidg an annj 
as circamsianees admitted, natu« 
rally looked for 8tip|H>rt aad as* 
sistance to £Dgland: nor were their 
hopes disappointed. An arm}*, un- 
der the cammaiid of «r Arthur 
Wtllesley, destined for Portu^, 
where it ultiraately hinded, w», 
hi the first instance, oflered to tbc 
Spaniards. This amiy, coniisiiB^ 
of abont 10,000 men, set sail from 
Corky on the istfa of Julyt and ar- 
tired at Coninna oa the 20lb. 
The battle of Meditw *dd Rio 
SeeOf bad tahen place « (ew dm 
before, and the 'Spaniattls were 
rstreatidg fast m different direc* 
lions : one division of tlMn adber- 
ing to Cueata, proceeded to Sals- 
inaoca; another, dmlcr general 
Blak»» made for the maiuitaitar. 
In consequence of this inleUigeocf, 
jcomUned with his instraetioiis, sir 
Arthur Wcllesley ofiered the as- 
sistance oC the force under bis 
command to the jmta of OaHicii. 
The j\mta repliedi Ibnt they did 
not want men* and Itet tbc; 
wished for nothmg fran the Bri* 
tish f^overament except money, 
arms, and aninvDuiiion. Bnt th«y 
expremed their firai emiffictfiDa that 
his army might be*of Infinile ser- 
vice both to tHe PoHagoM; and 
their own nation> if il- 9fm tns* 

- » ployed 
. ' J I' - 

^ • : '* t( '' \> 

all ocrsMons to have SYsiled bimaeU'y as f«r as fMM^Ma, «f' tbe^teflsenee «o4 
aiiUiority of tbc clergy. He made a tool even of Pope PieA,V4l..,f<|r'4bc c»- 
tablwhir.cnt of 11;e cvneordat, and tbi^ total ftthvenipii of tbf^ ^illifua jfburch* 
Willi the aid of the Pope be erideavoiircd. to cxliilMt Iiiiu*plf to ^e Freo,ch wr 
tton in the amiable cliaracter of # true friend ao4 ^elivere^i anct' a Mai<^ j^"* 
tttclor of the C^tbohc chtut'b. «:.:.:' 



the most vfuoroot measares were 
aifopted for defending it against 
any force. General Loison^ with 
abiml :l,000 men, adranced agntnst 
4lfe insurgents as far as Amirante; 
twt on betn^'made acquainted with 
the <lefermiiied spirit of the pe<>- 
plt9 of 0|N>rto^ be retreated oa 
l.islMMi. Nearly the whole of the 
northern provinces of Portugal, 
rttSte in aritis against the French. 

. Tlie south ef Portugal was re- 
alniiiied from coming forward so 
^enei ally, or in so open a manner, 
iiy their licinity to tin* army of 
Ji^iot, and also by a strong and 
nuNierous • French party among 
lh<^ii>sd\es. Notwillistauding the 
terror, however, of J noot, a friendly 
inlC'rcourse, as has been above no*- 
l!ced, was maintained between 
Lisbon and sir Charles Cotton. 

As soon as Junot received cer* 
taiu intelligence of the Spanish 

' imurrecttoii, he ordered the Spa« 
iii.di tr«iops to be disarmed, and 
put on board tlie bulks in the Ta« 

gliS. \ 

Tlie French being expelled from 
tike n<irkhem provinces of Portugal, 
and the authority ctf the prince 
regent reestablished, provisional 
juntas were formed, similar in 
I heir character and fimctions to 
those of Spain. Of these,^ that 
of Ofiorlo exerted itself witii the 
»nobt aeal and effeef, in heighten* 
ii^ and dirccting^he patriotic en* 
tliiisiasni of the people, and-inthe 
t'stabaiahnient pf such orders and 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 






ployed to drive tbe Frcach from 
LisboQ. Ia the north of Portu- 
^l, and ooDMqoently at no great 
distance from G^Uicia, tbe Freoch 
Kere still m force. A^iost tbero, 
» tk first place, «r Arthur mi^bt 
direct his attack with every pro- 
bability of 9ttcces9« and with the 
certBintv of felieviog tbe province 
ofGailicia, if the insurrection at 
Oporto still existed, or could be 
Kviired when be reached that city. 
Six Artbur Wellesley leavinj; Cor- 
Ouiia, proceeded to Oporto. On 
bis arrival there, the bishop, who 
m tlie governor, informed him 
tlMt tbe Portuguese* force was 
tuficient to deter the French from 
mtkiag any attacks, or if not, to 
repel litem. Sir Arthur, however, 
lliat he misfit be tiie better enabled 
to juilj^e Hluit was best to be done, 
left bis forces at Oporto, in order 
to hiive a conference with Sir 
Charles Cottoo, o|f Lisbon ; with 
vltoa he consulted about tbe practi* 
cabiiily y^d the prudence of forciijg 
thf eotmnce of ttw Tagus, and at*- 
lacking tbe forts in the near vicinity 
of |l)al capitaL In tbe mean time, 
wbile he was oa bo«rd the Hiber- 
Bia* the adauKal's ship, he received 
» letter /lom general Spencer, wljo 
vas then, with about 600O men, olf 
Cadiz. This force was destined 
to be etnplpyed either in co-ope^ 
ntinK with tbe Spai^ forces un« 
<lex Castanof, in tlxeir operations 
igainit Dupoot, or in conjunction 
»iib the expedition under Sir Ar- 
^ttr Wellealey. As the junta Of 
Seville dkl not deem the aid of 
^ewra! Spencex^s corps at all nc- 
t«»ary tMards the j^duction of 
^ponfs army, and as Sir Artiior 
«^« decHedJy of'opiuion thai his 
^^n army, and that of general 
^PCQcei^ could be but of JiUle avail 



towards th^ expulsion of tlie Frcnrfi 
irom Portugal, while tliey art^ 
separately, he ffave orders to gene- 
ral Spencer to join binl. 

The English fveneral, fa^vinj^ 
made himself acqiiahited, as accu- 
rately as be could, with the nn* 
merical strength' and dis^VDsition of 
th^ French army, determined to 
land his forces in Mont lego tmy, 
where he would be able to eflPect 
a landing, and to form his army 
Into order, without any opposition 
from the enemy ; while at the szxom 
time, he would be assisted and sup* 
ported by the Portuguese ariity 
which had advanced to Cot m bra. 
Before he landed the troops he re* 
ceived advice from the British <ro- 
vcrnmeiit that 5000 men, under 
general Anstnilhcr, were proceeding 
to jom bim, and that 1C,000 more* 
under Sir Joho M<»or?, would 
speedily be dispatched for the same 
purpose. He was also informed of 
the surrender of Dupont, and that 
the army of Jcmot was considerably 
weakened by the necessity of seinf- 
big about 6000 men, under general 
JLoison, to quell an iiisurrection thjt 
bad broken out in the south of 
Portugal. This information in- 
duced Sir Arthur to disembark his 
troops without delay. Soon after 
the ' disembarkation was effectetf, 
tbe corps under general S}»HiK«f!r 
also landed. And on the 5;lh of 
August the advanced guard umrdi^. 
ed forward on the road to Lisbon. 
On the ]2th the army rt ached 
Legria. Ou the 15th the advanced 
guard came up with a paity of 
the French at Obidos, where a 
slight action took place, oecaslonrd 
principally by the eagerness < f the 
British, to attack and pursue the 
euemv. Ou the l&lh tbe armv 
halted* and on tbe next day tiie 

general 



822 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



general came to the determination 
gf attacking tTie French under ge- 
neral Laborde at Roleia. 

Rpleia is situated on an emi- 
nence, having a plain in its front, 
at the end of a valley which com- 
mences at Caldas, and is closed (o 
the southwards by mountains which 
come in contact with the hills form- 
ing the valley on the left. In the 
centre of the valley, and about 
eight miles from Roleia, is the 
town and old Moorish fort of Obi- 
dosy from whence the enemy'^s 
piquets had been driven oh the 
15th. From that time the French 
had posts in the hills on both sides 
of the valley, as well as in the 
plain in front of the ,raain army, 
which was posted on the heights 
opposite to Roleia ; its right rest- 
ing upon the hills, its left, on which 
was a windmill, and the' whole 
covering four or five p^ses into the 
mountaius on their rear. The|r 
force amounted to about 60OO, of 
which about 500 were cavalry, 
with five pieces of cannon. And 
. there , was some reason to believe 
that general Loisoo, who was at Rio 
Major on the Ib'th, would join 
general Laborde by his right in the 
course of the night. The plan of 
attack was formed accordingly, and 
the army breaking up from Caldas 
on the l/th, was formed into three 
columns; the right destined to turn 
the enemy's left, and penetrate into 
the mountains in his rear; tlie left 
to ascend the hills at Obidos, to 
turn all the posts on the left of the 
valley, and also watch the motions of 
Gen«Loi6ou; the centre column to 



'attack general Laborde's position v^ 
front *. The enemy was defeated, 
but retreated in good order. By 
this victory the road was cleared 

' to Lisbon. On the day after tbe 
battle the British' army moved to 
Lourinha, to protect the landing 
and facilitate tlie junctioq of the 
troops under general Anstrutber; 
and oil the 21st tliev resumed their 
march. \" ," 

General Junpt,. having been in- 
former! of the large reinforcemcut 
expected! under the command of 
Sir John Moore, determined to at- 
tack the British army before the reio- 
forcenient should arrive. For this 
pur})ose he left Lisbon with nearly 
tbe whole of tlie forces under Ins 

' command, and came up with Sir Ar- . 
thur on the morning of the 21st of 
Aug. A hard fought battle i ensued. 
Tlie French, with fixed bayonets, ' 
attacked the British with their 1 
usual impetuosity. Th<?y were ; 
driven back by our troops with tlie 
bayonet. They renewed their at- I 
tacks, in different columns, again 
and again, and were as often driven 
back with cooler intrepidity and 
greate^ strength of arm. At last | 
tljey fled from, the charge. In this 
battle' the French lost 13 pieces of 

.cannon, 23 ammunition waggons, 

'and about 3000 in killed, wounded, 
and missing.r One general officer 
was wounded and taken prisoner, 
and another. ifi^^s killed. Our loss 
in killed, wounded,^ and missing, 

^ ^mounted to nearly a thousand. 
After the disppsitions for the 
battle of Vimeira had been made, 



Sir H. BurrArdiarrived at the sceue 

ot 



r 

* For in account of th^ action, see Sir Arthur Wellesley's dispatches to govern- 
ment. Appondhcto Cliroiiicl^« p. (59. 
f For a particQlar aecoont dE which; see Appendix to Chronicle, p. tif . 



HISTOHy OF EUROPE. 223 

r actioQ, .but declined to teke whole of the Freiicli ami; to any 
l>oii bimxlf tbe Gomiiiand of the of the ports between Roclit'ort and 
nuy. On tb« 22d, Sir Hew Dal- L'Orieiit. Wlien tbe army arrived 
>ni|ik, who bad been called from iu France, it wat to be at iiberly to 
la situalioD of lieutenant-gover- serve again inimediulely. All tbe 
^r nf Gibraltar, to take the cum- property of tlic army, as well as 
land of all the different corps tlie personal properly of the indi- 
ct by tbe British govertiment into viduali of the anuy, y/m to be sa- 
oiliigal, reached Ciatra, the |>lace cred an'l imtoudied. It might 
) wbich the British army had either be carried off into France 
med after the bailie. Within a or sold in Portugal. In the latter 
c^ few hours after his arrival, a cast, full security was to be givea 
ag of truce catue in from Juuot, by the British to the purchasers, 
toposiiig a oeuatiofi arhoslilitie% that the properly they liad would 
larder that a coaveiitioQ might be doI be taken from them, nor they 
allied, by which theFrencb should themselves molested on account of 
t^cuale Portugal. the purchase," 

Vilteix intelligence was received Tbe whole of this convention 

I England, that in the wordiiof Sir will be found in anolher part of 

tlliur Wellesley. "The whole of tliis Tolume*. It was founded on 

ic French force in Portugal, under tlie basis of an armistice agreed 

le command of tbe liuke of Abran- Upon between Sir Ajtbur WeUeslej 

''fiperan, had sustained a sig- and general Kelterman on the day 

al defeat;" there was an universal after the battle of Viineira. But 

ipectation, that it would be Sol- tbe seventh article of that prelimi- 

iwed up with other victories, and nary treaty, stipulating , that the 

Itimately lead to »vn)e splid ad- Russian fieet should be allowed 

^"'age. either to remain in the Tagus un- 

That such an advantage bad in molested as long as it thought pro- 

ict been obtained, wjis firmly be- per, or to return home, uas after- 

eved, when, on l,he arrival of the vrards rejecteil by Sir Charles Cot- 

e\t dispatches from the army, tbe to;i ; between whom and. the Rus- 

iiiii;oflheParkandTaweigimswas sian admiral Siniavian, a conven- 

eard, and that too, «t a time of tion was agreed to for the surren- 

ligbt very uuusual, ifnotquile uq- tjerof the Russiaii fleet to the Bri- 

irecedented. But hov great was tith -fleets, on tbe 3d of Septem- 

li! surprise of tbe public whtii it her. 

■^3 underetood that the discharge : Tlw regret and the indignatioa 
'^ tbe Park ud Tower guns re- of the British nation was raised by 
atei toa ceovention, signed atCiiv- the convention of Ciulra, to a pain- 
ty, by which it was, UDOttg other ful lieight. Tiie-tliroiie was bc- 
itipulatioDs, agreed on, " Tbat thp sit^d, as it were, with petitions 
'^>gl>sh goveromeot should be at from all parts of the kingdom, 
be eipeucB of trap^rting the calling loudly for au mquiry into 

that 



**.8et AppendiistoCliniDicle, p. 167. 
t See Afpeotliz to CfarMiicIe, p. 3Ti. 



•S4 ANNUAL REGISTER^ 180S. 



t^a! tfartsaction. The answer to the 
l^ftilion from the city of (^ondcm, 
llnit for " The iiistitulion of an in- 
fl|iiir\» there was no need of their 
rjtfifereuce/* was nnh'ersally deem* 
«<t uiii^cions. It was supposed to 
Imve iif'en franied by Uie nn'f ister 
notefl for brii-kness and pcttdance. 
An inquiry tvas set on f<H)t. The 
board in their report*, after pvt«g 
a welt-armnged, and not altogether 
an iincircunistantial account of Sir 
Arthur Wellesley's •expedition, de- 
clared, •• Tlwt on a consideration 
of alt circumstance^' as'set forth 
in the report, they most humbly 
tiibmitted ttteir opinion, that no 
Inrt: er military proceeding was iie-^ 
ces^ary on that subject; Became 
aome of them might difier in their 
sentiments respecting the fitness of 
the convention in the relative sittni- 
tion of tlic two armies, it was theit* 
unanimous declaration, that un» 
qncstionable zeal and lirmnes^r ap- 
peared throughout to have been 
exhibited by lientenatit-general Sijr 
Hew Dalrymple, Sir Harry Bur- 
rard, and Sir Arthur Welteslcy, as 
well as that the ardour and gallantry 
of the rest of the officers and sol- 
diers, on every occasion during the 
expedition, had done honour to the 
troops, and reflected lustra on bb 
majesty's arms.*' 

But his royal highness the duke 
of York, in a letter to Sir David 
Dnndas, president of the board of 
inquiry, ol>8eiTed to the board, 
that in their report, their opinion 
respecting the conditions of the 
armistice and convention had been 
altogether omitted. He therefore 
thought it his duty to call their air 
Wntion to these two principal points 



in tbiv important naac. tkcrimkrifll 
and convention, amrto dhaAre thai 
they miglit be pleased to fake the 
same again into their most lenoai 
consideration, and 'subjoin to th« 
opinion they Imd already given on 
the other points, whether, aaderalt 
the circumstances that appealed id 
evkience before them, respecting 
the relative sitoation of the two 
armies, on tlie 2d<l of Angust, it 
was their opinion, thai an annii* 
lice vas adviiabte, and if so, wh^ 
ther the terms of the armtilice 
were such as ought to have been 
agreed ont And whether, upon a 
like consideralion of the lelati^ 
situation of the two armies subs^ 
quently to the armistice, and whca 
all the British forces were landed, 
it was their opiuion, that aconvcih 
tion was advisable, and if so, wbe* 
Iher the terms of that conventkni 
were such as ought to have been 
agreed upoti. The board aoet a» 
gain* The questions proposed by 
the commander in chief were pot 
to each of the memherf. Sonis 
approved the treaties in qoestioo, 
adding the reasons of ttieir ap- 
probation ; otfiersdisapprovedlbeii^ 
giving Ifae reasons of Iheir disap* 
prohatfoti. A fornml decbratioa 
of disapprobation on the partof tfas 
king, of both the annistiee and coa* 
veiition, vrith reasons, was officbliy 
communkaled to sur Hew Palrynh 
ple» 

Sir Arthur Welleslej bad strean- 
oasffy recommended a pursuit of 
the French ; and great pains wis 
taken by bis friends at hoBM, to 
screen him from the odiont of botk 
the ammtiee and cowvcntm : witb 
which SirArtilttr appeals indeed la 

have 



*^8sc Appendix to Cbnmide, p. STT. tS^Afptfiita 



p»tSt. 



• ■HISTORY: OF ElTR OPE. ^9S 

fcwc ti^itaid -aBiclrHiBgatisfection tlie eneniyt notwithstanding the sth 

to tits firKsdi in private, though he periority of cavalry. It was gene- 

M not hinted any ds^pprobation rally believed, and it wa? probably 

wiiei in conraitation with thtf other the truth, that Shr Arthur, contid- 

fcienls. Bttt iJie Iraafd unani* iog in the bravery of his troops, 

aMiriytpprtoved the jndgaeat >£ bdratd with a desire lo have ^ 

9ir HatfyBomrrd, in abstainm^ brush wkh th<» French^ bafore 

ftviafMimt *? A superior eava^ry," he should be sulMraeded ia .Uie 

ttey fiwrvedi •'retarding our ad- ooinroand by the arrival of Sk Jotin 

«■cr,^W49^ lHif» alkmred Hie ene-^ Moore. 

itv'j iulhali^ wiflMNil any degree All Spahi and Porlugali as well 

w fid^ ts ^onthnie their rHteal in as the English garrison at Gibml- 

Ike most rapid wi<Mici^^tiH fhey tar, was mdigRfnt at the Ganvention 

sMd ife.^ arrived at any. given .ef Cintra^ * •• 

nd-idvuntagvoiw pekitof nll^fnig • 'As the defeat of Juuot and tfie 

ad feimatioa : nor did Sir A. deliverance of Portugal were only 

Wdloley^ on the 17th of August, mediate, and not the ultimate obi* 

«^ the* coenfy Ittd not half th< ^ecfs of the British army/ it laan^ 

<Mhyfc«hadenlhe 91st, pufsue ed from Lisbon,.. tmt: not till tie 

2 Mfe ienonsiAeraMe and beaten S7th of October*^ neniiy two uKNitiMV 

>nsy, with any marked advaiH after the convention of Giatra; uun 

^ " • der the comnaind of general; -Hn 

fo short, Ihe report ef the hoaiti John Mbore» to theassistafice of the 

antnlodirefftceiMui* dn^ir kr»» Spanish patfiott. • The ^eaeral'a 

l^r ferif Sir Harry Burrard waa inatriietions were, to march througift 

jcitiM ander*«ll theeircumstaMcea Spain wttif hir face^towanH Bofgos^ 

a sol advaachig mtil the arrival wbidhwaa.to be the general ren>r 

^ the fcialbrcements under Sir deavous of the British troops: nol 

i^lm Neore, Sir^Arthnr WeUestey^ only of those now under the coni*i 

^ knew that ite must be speedily mand of that efficer, but jof thoae 

*Kii)^ced, judged iil is pushing with uddch He was to be reinforced! 

^'v^rdandet^Mhighimseifteaa from England^- And lie was ttf 

3t(Mk,fiwm which the enemy could comWnelris^opelMipni' wfih those 

^ etperienee, at the worst. Hid of the ccMmaBder^in eliief of' the 

™<tvMicget»f'fl repidse, instead Spanish armies. But the issuo of 

ofwaithigfbr a day or two, fot this eitpidilie'u, togMher with the 

wk an aagnientalmn of Bumber^ avditons struggle that preceded ^ 

tt would have ensured the rum of carries usmto the yeaf l$Q9u . * i 



^'oi-.L [QJ CHAP. 



326 ANNl 



tntfrvitiD ietuefit th 
Artful Po!iet/ of 
vf France and R 
hlUhment of a Cfl 
andJtrH Arts oj 
French and S'pnni 
 Suecestive EttMgi 
enter Madria.~i 
of King Ffrdinn 
trMpeciofiht Aff 
Thi^nf.—Eatt Tn 

THE two CTiiper 
met Bt Erfiirlh 
ItKin attended by a' 
And brillhint suite, i 
vereign prhices, one 
bf liigfi dutmctkm, 
day, (o do homagi 
»tnp«n>r of tire" .V 
Others wlio Qllend 
were his brother it 
Coostantine *, Ihe 
xow, and llie two i 
«ne of ^toin was I 
baasador at Paris. 
Biionaparle was con 
ttiier, Talleyrand, 
ChampagDy, secret! 
principal writer of 
the generals Lasne 
Ml oftliem bearing 
of princes, dukes, a 
in short at) the staff 
ing to the Frenc'h ar 
Bavaria. Tlie king 
princes of Germany 
most part onBuoiia| 
The Austrian gent 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



227 



hole field of Jena, tlie bnrying 
round, or ^nive, it may be called^ 
f the allv to whom lie had swum 
tenial frtendship over the ashes of 
le crfal Frederick ! What opinion 
iu5t Napoleon Uuve entertained of 
is brother emperor wlien he gave 
ill) so atfrontiog an invitation, and 
hat can tlie world and posterity 
kiiik of Aiexancfer for accepting ill 
The archdnke Constantinei while 
t Eit'urtb, appeared everyday in 
be uoiforni of the horse-guards of 
^uooaparte. it wiis the great ohject 
f Buonaparte, in the conferences 
rt(i a)nveiition at Rr forth, to conci- 
itc tiie goodwill of all parties there, 
lat he niif^bt be enabled* having 
!curcd quietness in his rear, to 
ear with all bis disposeuble force 
Q S^iu and Portugal. Insigni- 
laui as the German powers had 
L'coiue, combinations mi;rht be 
>rnied by which they might distress 
ini greatly in tl>e present moment. 
uy coQcessiony therefore, that 
Quid secure their connivance at 
is projects in the west, it would be 
ru<ient in him, in the present cir- 
imstances, to make : fully aware 
lat if he succeeded in Spain, it 
Quhl |je an easy task again to re- 
nte the countries in Germany, 
iiich he now occupied. But, at 
le same time that be found him*' 
'if under the necessity of recalling 
is troops from Germany, he wish- 
li to hide as much as |>ossible the 
cakucss therein implied, and a-^- 
ert the designs to which a full cot>^ 
iction of thai weakness mii^ht' 
ive birth. He therefore dexte- 
ou^lv coutriTeri to give the witii- 



drawing of tiis troops the appear- 
ance of being the result of a nego-i 
tiation ; an act of favour to the 
sovereigns of Russia and Prussia^ 
A negotiation was"<?fitered into at 
Erfurth, under the mediation of 
Alexander, in consequence of whicli 
Napoleon engaged to evacuate the 
Prussian territory, as soon as the 
contributions should be paid upt 
which he graciously retiiiced to 
one third of thefr total amounfi 
And he wrote ^ letter to the queen 
of Prussia, with his dwn hand, hi 
which he |>vomi«cd her the com- 
pletion of all har wishes. He also 
relaxed in tlic se\^rity of his re* 
strict ions and imposts on th^ com«<' 
merre of Holland. 

With regatd to Alexander, it was 
easy to persuade him that the in- 
surrection in Spain was only the 
natural consequence, and what was 
to be apprehended from the con- 
clusion of the treaty of Tilsit *. 
. In consequence of the confer- 
ences at Tilsit, the garrisons of 
Prussia were evacuated. And the 
veteran troops of trance began to 
march from the Oder to the Ebro ; 
while, on the other hancf, 40;000 
French conscripts were sent to Ger- 
many. — AnolhiT visible eflect of 
the uieeting at Erfurlh %vas an offer 
of peace on the part of Russia and 
France to the British govfrrnnent. 
A flag of truce, with two officers, 
one a Frenchman, the other a Hus- 
siaii, arrived October Cist, at 
Dover. The Frenchman, by or- 
ders' of lord Hawkcsbury, who 
happened then to be at Walnier 
Gastle, was detained. The Rus- 
[Q 2] sian 



H 



» 



• Tins sentiment was cxpretsed on sundry occ.isions by Alexander, after bis re- 
Jni to Petersburg. And it may be presumed, that it had been inculcated on Iu4 
iiuui miad, by the cgmpanion and guide of bin excursion to the field of Jetia. 



tU ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

ikn n^siisngef wa^ allowed to prch contendiog for tfa^ preammtion of 

c^ed OQ j)ie 22d to Loiidon. It »ll thai k dear to mWy and whoar 

yf9^ the object of Buooaparte in e?icriions io a cause so 4iiiqeitioii« 

this overture to lull tlie Britiah go- ably just^ lib majesty lias aolemiily 

Terument iuto a neglect or delay of pledged liimself to sustain V 

sending assistaoce to Spain, and to While tlie army of Fiance lay i»« 

excite a distrust of England in lier active on the ELro» and the pasaea 

allies ; for, as to any cfiect that into the inountaiiious province of 

professions and pacific dispositions Biscay, and Buoaapaste was ero* 

on the part of Buonaparte might ployed in averting danger to his 

dave on the minds of the French cause on the side of Germany and 

people, they had become stale and Russia, the provincial juntas had 

^together effette • It was proposed, leisure to resolve theraaeLves into 

t»y the overture, ta bis. Bnlapnio one supreme and central .)tmtn. 

tnsyesty, to enter into a n^otiation The situation of Jthe Spaniardiy 

for a genepil peaces in concert with when their country was aaaaikd hf 

bis ms^jesty's allies, and to treat the intrigues, tlie treachery, and 

either on the basis of tUt/mssidclis, the arms of France, was without 

or on any other basia consisteni example in their hi^ij, unfore- 

with justice. The king professed seen by their laws^ nod ia op* 

bis readiness to enter into such a position to then: habits. In such 

negotiation iu concurrence with hia circumstaacesy it was necessary to 

allies ; ill the number of whom he give a direction to the public 

comprehended the Spanish nation, force, correspondent with the will 

In the reply returned by France to and sacrifices of tlie people. Tbij 

this proposition of his miyesty, necessity gave rise to the juntas in 

the Spanish nation was described the provinces, which collected into 

by the appellation of the ** Spa- themselves the whole authority of 

nish Insurgents ;" and the demand the nation, for the purpose of ex* 

for admitting the eiLiating govern- pellmg the conunon enemy, and 

ment of Spaun, as a party to any maintaining internal order and itstt- 

n^otiation, was rejected as inad- ^uillity. But as soon as the capi- 

missible and insulting. A declara^ tal was delivered from the invaders, 

iidn, therefore, by his m^esty, was and the communication betweea 

pubJislied on the 15th of Decem- the provinces re-establisbed, it be* 

be^ concluding as follows, " His came practicable, as well as neces- 

majesty deeply laments an issue by sary, to collect the public authority, 

which the suiTerings of £urQ|)e are which had been divided into ss 

aggravated and prolonged. 9ut many, parts as there were provincial 

neither the honour or hia m^jesty» governments, into one centre from, 

nor the generosity of the Briikh whence tbe strength and tbe will of 

nation^ would admit of his^msgest/s the nation might be called into ao- 

consentiog tp commence a negor tioo. A supreme and central junta, 

tiation by the abandonmeiil of a formed by deputies nominated by 

brave and loyal people, who are the respective junta99 was installed 

at 
• iSte the Whole l>eclKration. 9Utt PsptiSi p. 964. 



HISTORY OFEUROPR 



2S9 



«l AnmJDtt, on the 25th of Sep- 
tember. The president per mterim 
^s the Tenerablc count Florida 
Bfanta. Among the members we 
iiod tiro otiirr distinguished names, 
viz. Dou Francisco Palafox, one ef 
the d(f ulies from Arragon, ^nd 
Don Melcbtor de Jovellanos, one 
of Ibe two from Asf urias. After 
Jwring mass, which was cele- 
brated by the primate of La- 
odioea, also archbishop, and one 
of the members of the junta for Se- 
ville, the fbllowmg oath, admi- 
BBlered on the holy Evangelists, 
'ws taken by all the deputies— 
" You swear by God, and all the 
Wy Bvangelists, and by Jesus 
Christ crucified, whose sacred 
«»ge is before you, that in the 
exercise of the supreme and sove- 
reign central junta, you will de- 
f<»d and promote the conservation 
*o<i advancement of our holy, Ca- 
|Wic, Apostolical, and Roman re- 
^<m ; that you will be faithful to 
^ august sovereign Ferdinand 
\il and that you will maintain his 
"gbts, and his sovereignty. That 
you will concur in the support of 
^f rights and privileges, our laws 
^ eostonis, and above all those, 
concerning the succession of the 
ragniiig family, according to the 
«^«r established by the laws afore- 
™. In short, that you will give 
joiir vole for every measure calcu- 
"^ for the general good, the 
prosperity of the kingdom, and the 
Melioration of Its customs. That 
yon wifl observe secrecy in all cases 
™re secrecy is proper. That you 
^^ protect the laws against all ma- 
leyolcnce, and prosecute their ene- 
™es, even at the ezpence of your 
f^f your personal safety, and your 
wrtune* 

The fonnula of assent was, " / 
"Ko* <*».«' The IbUowing sen^ 



tence was sbbjomed : '* If you do 
rtiis, may God b^lp you. If not, 
may he punish you, as having 
sworn in vain, by his holy name/' 
The subscriber said, Am^n. 

After a solemn Te Deum, the 
deputies walked between two lines 
of troops, to the royal palace, a 
hall of which was consecrated to 
their sessions. An Immense mul- 
titude of all ranks and descriptions 
of persons, that had assembled to 
sec this ceremony, giving way to 
the most ardent enthusiasm^ made 
the air resound with the cry of Fiea 
Fenumdo Septmo. 

On the opening of the gates of 
the palace, that had been so long 
shut, the sad solitude of the mag- 
nificent mansion of their kings, and 
the recollection of the 'epoch at 
which, and of the reasons for 
which the gates had been shot, 
drew tears from every eye, and 
an universal cry of vengeance 
against the authors of so profound 
calamities and such pungent sor- 
rows. 

The oath taken by the supreme ■' 
junta, a kind of Spanish Bill of 
Rights, they repeated, or re-echoed 
in a proclamation to the Spanish 
nation ; in which, after a variety cTf 
most judicious ol>servations, they 
say, '* Let us be constant, and we 
shall gather the fruits of victory : 
the laws of religion satisfied ; our 
monarch either restored or aveng* 
ed ; the fundamental laws of the 
monarchy restored, and consecrat- 
ed in a manner solemn and con- 
sonant with civil liberty ; the foun- 
tains of public prosperity pouring 
benefits spontaneously and. without 
obstruction ; our relations with our 
colonies drawn more closely, be- 
come more fraternal, and conse* 
quently more useful: in fine, ac- 
tivity, industry, takots, and virtues- 
[Q 3] stimulated 



v230 ANNUAL REGISTER,* 180S. 



(.slimulated and r««varded : to. sudi 

* a degree of spiendonr and fer- 

tuiie, we stiaLl raise our counlry» if 

^ive ourselves correspond with the 

niagtiif)ceat circunittlaiices thut sur- 

ground, U8« These are the views, 

. and this is the plan which the junta 

, . proposed to itseif from the first mo- 
. ment of its installation. Its mem- 
bers, charged with aii authority so 
great, and rendering themselves re- 
8|>onsible by entertainini; and en- 
couraging hopes 80 flattering, are 
tieverQieless fully aware of the dif- 
ficulties they have to conquer in 
order to realize thenu the enormi- 
ty of the weight that hangs over 
them, and the dangers to which 

• they are exposed* 'But they will 
think their fatigues, aud the de- 
votion of tlieir persons to the service 
of their country well paid, if they 
succeed in inspiring S|)aniar(ls witii 
that confidence without which the 
public good cannot be becured, 
and, which the. country dares to 
affirm, it merits, from the recti- 
tude of its principles and the pu- 
rity of its intentions \ 
. The supreme central junta was 
acknowledged by the council of 
Castille, and all the other consti- 
tuted authorities in the kingdom. 
The junta, amongst its first acts, 
appointed a new council < of war, 
consisting of five members, the pre- 
sident of which was general Cas- 
tanos. The other four members 
were Don Thomas Morla, tbe ipar^ 
quis de Castelar, the marquis del 
Pilacia, and Don Antonio .Buerro. 
Ib prosecution of ll^ir designs it 
was necessary, in Uie first place, to 
attend to the grand spring of gor 
yeniment, ..the finances. Great 
savings were made .from the si^pr 



. pression of .tlie e%pences of t)i« roy- 
al, bo.useliold, the.eiippnous sums 

} wliidh had Iteeu annually devoured 
by ljie.ins:)tiablt; av.arice and profuse 

. douatioiH of t lie favourite, and tbe 
coofisralion of the estates of those 
unworthy Si^aniardp who had 5ided 
aud .fled wi!h the usur])er from 
Madrid. These .resources sufficed 
for their first operations without 
any new taxe3 on the people, Tlie 
first efibrts of the junta were di- 
rected to the setting in motion 
all the tropps in Andalu- 
sia^ Grenada, and £>tramadura, 
as well as the new levies; to tlie 
transportation < f Dupouts army, 
agreeably to treaty; an » to the 
furnisiiiiig of the Engiish army, 
that had vanquished Jtinot, uilh 
the n^emis of murching from Por- 
tugal to jdin the Spaniards. lu 
the mid^t of these carc^ they sent 
envoys to diuiund succours from 
Bnlatn. The forces of the pa- 
triots, including now t^e army of 
Romana, and the Spanish regi- 
ments that had been ^ou6iied in 
bulks of ^hips hy Junot, were di- 
vided into three, aud disjws'd in 
such a manner as to.fqrm together, to- 
wards the end of Octolier, one grand 
army. The eastern wing was com- 
manded hy general Joseph Palafox; 
the north-western, by general Blake; 
the centre, by general Castanos.— 
The number under general Blake 
was computed at 55,000 : that un- 
der general Castanos at 65,000: 
aud that under the prders of geoe- 
xal.PaUfqx, at 20,000. General 
Castanos was commander in chief. 

JBesides these theie was a sniatl ar- 
my in Estra^nadura, and another in 
jCataiopia.. llie positions of the 
JFreu^h aiuiy rtoiaiuedi,^ with some 

* variitiion, 



* See tJie whole of this procIaowtioB* State Papery $H^ 



.HISTORY OF EUROPE. 2: 

'Briation, on the whole pretty by which the first military cw 

imch the same za in August ; its mander \o the present, and one 

i|:lit lowanis (he ocean, its left on tlie greatest of sny age, at I 

Ur^coii, ils froDi on the Ebro. head of a nnnierous, well rqni 

I wa^ strengthened from lime to ed, and veteran array, accustom 

iiiic by reinforcements from France, to contjoer, and of whicli the d 

riie de^iun of the Spaniards was, ferent ditisions were also uiidert 

'iili llw right and left Mings of orders of llie ab4c«l generals,— 

licir grand army to turn the winps would be idle in tiie present j 

if tin; French army, whilst Ciuta- riml of striking eveitta folln 

106 slinuld make a t igonius attack, ing each other in rapid succrBsic 

mil brtak through their centre. to detail the steps fay which sii< 

Buonaparte having ordered a a conimati<ler, witli such an ami 

i^ty i>f 160,000 conscripts, set through (lie boldness of his tucti* 

tnups in molinn for Spain, and, llie cunihination of hia maveinen 

iroiidtd (or all that might be dc- and the rapidity of his marclx 

liaiided by the contingencies of defeated armies scarcely yet org 

ar, set out fron> Paris for Spais nized, chiefly composed of new I 

illiout waiting for an answer to the vies, .without being proiKrly equi 

virture for a negotiation wilb the pt-'d, without regular supplies 

Itilisli goverameul, in like manner provisions, ^nd extended over li 

s be had hu^tened to meet the laree a space of ground witho 

'tiL'iians, living lord Lauderdale sufficiently strengthening the line 

> dis|iule .with his niioisleis about 'heir cointnunicalion. Agreed 

lie bii^is of, a negolialion in tlte to llie general plan of 0|>eratiD 

ulumu of ISO6. With his usual above stated, general Cagtaii 

elirily, hdving set out frOni Ram- crossed the Ebro at the three poii 

uiiilk t, October SOth, he arrived at willi only a shew of resistance, ai 

iiiMiDiie on tlie 3d <ff November, he was suffered lo push font^: 

iiii oil the 51b, accompanied by a detachments, and lake possessii 

eiiifoicenwrnt of 1.2,000 men, he of Lerin, Viana, Capporoso. ai 

uineri his hroUter Joseph at Vittdria. other French posts on the left bai 

I" Itiiie of peace Baonaparle hat of the Ebro. Hie French did n 

'fuper persons employed, to fur- oppose his onwand course lowar 

'>sli hiiH with the moit correct to- Painpeluna, any farther than w 

"e^phical maps of different ler-- nece^nry to conceal their own ph 

itones, on a gt«at scale : by wliicfa <>f operations. M»r<[ial Monce 

Mmi, being made acquainted by lite duke of Cornegliano, wan < 

lis generals with the relative po- rectei:! with the left wing of ll 

itioiia of (lie opposite aimiea, be French army to advance along ll 

s eaabled lo gi^e geuerait dircc- hxnits of tlie Alaiioii and the Ebt 

mns, cveu at a great distance.— and instead of opposing (lie pe 

llie campaign had been openid sage, by presenting a weak froi 

Kcordigg to bii directions, a few to decoy general Caslanos acre 

iB}s before his arrival. tlie EbrD. The stralaucm havii 

It would not serve any purpose succeeiled comptetely, Marsli 

Miller of. umuseQient ur iintrucUoit Ney, the duke of Btcbiogen, wi 

^ taltt into > delful of the mtfuis bis djrisiun, patiing Ibe liiMjof U 

tQ4] : Ebr 



£32 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



£bro,and daidzing forward witli great 
celerily in se()arate columas, took the 
Spanish posts at Logrono and Co- 
lahora, threw the whole couatry 
into alarm and confusioD, and cut 
off the comniuiiicakion between 
the armies respectively under the 
command of general Blake and 
general Castanos. 

lu a series of acltons from the 
3l9t of October, the army under 
general Blake was driven from post 
to^tost ; from Dnrango to Guenas ; 
from Guenas to Valmaseda ; from 
Valmaseda to Espinosa. in a 
$trong position 4liere, the Gallidan 
army made a stand, in order to 
save its magaxines and artillery, in 
vain. After a brave resistance, con- 
tinued for two days, they wer^ 
obliged to tetMat with precipitation* 
During the conflict at Espinosa, a 
detachment was sent against the 
last retreat of the Galticians, Rey- 
aosa. At break of day, Uth of 
November, they were suddenly at- 
tacked on both their rights leA, and 
centre. They Were forced to con- 
sult their safety by flight; throwing 
away their arms and colours, and 
abandonti«g their artillery. Gene- 
ral Blake, with the remains of his 
broken army,' took refuge in Astu- 
rias. What remained of the corps 
of the marfiuis -of Romaaa, that 
had formed part of the Gallician 
army, fled first to St. Andero, and 
aAerwarcb to Asturias. The 
Spaniards were pursued closely by 
marshal Soult, duke of Dalmatian 
the van of whose army entered St. 
Andero on the l6th. The bishop 
of' Si. Andero took re&g<^ in an 
English frigate. 

In the mean time Jthe Estrania- 
duran arm}', Under the tonimaud 
of the count Belvedere,' a young 
arani vras pernutted without oppo^ 



ntion, by » stratagam amflar to 
that which had 4rawn general Cas- 
tanos to the left bank of the Ebro, 
to' advance to Burgos, of which he 

5ook possession without resistance, 
iere Uie French fcH on him with su- 
perior numbers and routed hisanny, 
after a gallant resistance for twelve 
houfs, and almost annihilated it 
Tlie connt^ with the small remains 
of his army, fled to Lerma, and 
from thence to 'Aranda« 

The French, having routed and 
disparted tlie armies of the north 
of Spain, and of Estraoiadura, 
iiekt fell on the central army un- 
der Castanos ; and an engagement 
ensued at Tudela, i25d November, 
which fixed the fate of the cam- 
paign. It is thus described cleariy, 
intelligibly, ai^d, we doubt not in 
the least, faithfully, in the eleventh 
bulletin of the grand French army. 
*' On the 22d of November, at the 
break c^ day, the FVench army b^- 
gan its hiardi. It took its direo- 
lion to Calaiiorra^ where on the 
evening befiive, were the bead 
quarters of CastanoSi FinfMng that 
«own evacuated, it marched on 
Alfaro, from wheiKO Ibe enemy 
had also retreated. On the 23d, at 
break of day, the general of diri- 
sioa, Lefovre, at the' head ef the 
cavalry, and supported by the di^ 
visk)n of general |iorlat, forttiiag 
the advanced guard, met with the 
enemy. He immediately gave in* 
fotxnation to the duke of Meiite- 
bello, who found the army of the 
enemy ib se^en division^ coibisliDg 
of 45>000 n4en,4mder aims, «ilb 
its right befdre Tndehi, i*d its left 
occupying « 'league and tti haJf« a 
disposition ait&^ltikerfmdtg. The 
Arragonese were t)» the Tight, the 
troops of Valencia aiMl Ntfw €jtiitill« 
w the <»Mtre« and Ihe three divi^ 

sioDi 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 353 

US of AitdKlaaa, which genml which had been cut off fled in dii- 

jtanoB CAnimnded man especi- order to Tarragona and Agrcda. 

y, fuTined the leA. Forty pieces Five thousand Spaoiardi, all Iroopt 

umoo covered the enem/a of the line, were taken priaooers ia 

t. the punitit. No quarter was ^ven 

" At niee ia the moning the co- to an; of the peasants found in 

hds of (be French army began arms. This army of 45,000 men 

disfdiy tliensdves with that or- has been thus beaten and defeated, 

r, regularity, and coolness, whkh without our having had more than 

aiaderise velernD troops. Situa- 60OO men engaged. The battle of 

iD> were cboccn for establishing Burgos had smitten the centre of 

itlrries, with sixty |»«ces of can- the enemy, and the battle of Espt- 

■a; hot the impelaosity of the nosa, the right ; tbe battle of Tu- 

each troops, and the inquietude dela has struck the left. Victoij 

tlie anemy, did not allow time has thus struck as with a thunder- 

r this. Tlie Spaniards were aU bolt, and dispersed tbe whole 

>ciy vinquttbed by tbe order and league of the enemy." 

)TementsoflbeFrench&rmy.The By the battle of Tudela the road 

ike of Montebello causMt tbe was laid open to Madrid. On the 

Dtie to be pierced by the divi- 29th of November, a division of 

ID of generat Maurice Matthews, the French aimy, under the com- 

^ Senerai of division Leferre, nand of general Victor, duke tff 

lb iiis cavalry, immediately pas- Belluno, arrived at the pass of tbe 

il ou the trot through Ibis open- Sierra Morena, called Puerto. It 

Ti aacl by a quarter wheel to the was defended by 13,000 inea of 

«, enveloped the enemy. The the Spanish army of reserve, under 

omott when half the enemy's line the orders of ^neral San Juan, 

und itself thus turned and de- The Puerto, or narrow net* of 

aled, was that in w4iich general le land forming the pau, was inleiv 

nngeattacked the village of Cas- sected by a trench, fortified with 

late, where tbe line of Castanos sixteen pieces of cannon. While a 

3> placed, whicb did not exhibit a part of the French, advanced to the 

ptter countenance than the right, Puerto by the road, with sis piecea 

at abandoned the fidd of battle, of artillery, other columns gained 

^i« befanid it iu artillety, and the heighu on the left. A discha^ 

pt^t number of prisoners. The of musketry and cannon was maio- 

ivilry panned the remains of the tained for some little time on both 

"*i^;'s irny lo Mrilen, in the di- sides. > charge made bv general 

'tlion of San^ossa, and to Tarra- Montbrun, at the head of Ibe Po- 

'*<^ in the direction of Agreda. lishlighthorse, decided the contest. 

ata standards, thirty pieces of The Spaniards fled, leavmg behind 

"^ooi twelve colonels, three bun- tbem their artillery and standards ; 

fed offiwn, were taken. Four and, as the French Bulletin statea. 

Qoannd Spaniards were left dead their motets: but this, from sub- 

'" tbe ^Id of battle, or driven sequent events, appears not to have 

I'ltheEbro. While a part of the been truth. 

"E"iv« retired to Saragossa, the Advanced parties of the French 

<» wing of the Spanish army cavalry appe^ed on the Ist of De- 



«34 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

cem|)er9 before Madrid. At this Mr« Stuart, the Brkisti envoy. a! 
period, Ibe inhabitants of this city Madridywaspreaeot,. DooT. Morla 
, were bu»ily einplu^cd in raising pa- took the Jead» aod expatiated at 
,]i$ades» and coiwlructing redoubts, .great leogtb ou the bc^pelest state 
breatbiug a determined spirit of re- of afFairs; and urged the neoesiity 
ftistance. The enemy Has beaten of hitmediateiy capitulating for Ma- 
.back from certain gates several drid. Wbeii be aat dowo» another 
limes: bat on the thirds they u ere couocelior rose, imd reproacbeH 
•u possession of the gate of Alcaia ; Morla fot bis proposal. He said 
und also of the Reteiro, the reduction .that this advice was more suited to 
of wiiicb place cost the assailants a minister of Josepli Buouaparte, 
very dear, in the loss, it was com- than to one of king Ferdiiiaad, 
puted, of near 1000 men in killed Two days after .this discussion, Don 
and wounded. The junta then T. Morla* together with the prince 
hoisted a ubite flag. The people of of Castel Franco, to wbom the de- 
Madrid pulled down the flag, fence of the oapital bad been com- 
and persisted in their design of dc- mitted by the supreme juiOa, seat a 
lending the city ; but this enthu- dispatdi to Sir Jolm Mpore, <ie- 
aiasm soon began to subside, for scribiogtbe formidable Spanish force 
want of leaders to keep it up and to that was assembled at Madrid ; aiHl 
direct it. And when they learnt for pressing bim to advaame, with ail 
certain that the French were forti- possible expedition to the capital. 
fying themselves in the Reteiro, they If Sir John Moore had not posses- 
beg^n to retire to tlieir respective sed, In an extraordinary degree, cir- 
houses. curaspectiott, penetration, and firni- 
Ouring the night of December nets, tho solicitatioiiS'of the traitors, 
the 3d, a Spauisb officer who had andtbosetooofMr.UoaUiaiiiFrere, 
been taken prisoner in the affair of minister plenipotentiary from bis 
.Somosierra, brought a message ^m Britannic niaj(*sty to the supreme 
general Berthier, summoning for junta, but a wretched minist^cofHfar, 
the second time Madrid to surrtn- would have tluovvu bim and hi$iiilie 
der. The Marquis of Ca$tellar, army completdy i|^o the bands of 
captain general of Castille, sent in the French. . 
answer a letter to Berthier, demand- We iiudr fa^ny nii^epresentations 
ing a suspensioq of hostilities,, that in the Spauisb g^zattess a.f that tiate, 
he miglit have time for cousuking and are |Eit a;lo6^.}u.saf)ieioatattcei 
the superior authorities, But there whether to seit tVtmdown Iptbe ac- 
was no need or use in this. The^ count of folly, «^.c a tr«itarousdefti(;a 
superior authorities, who. 44>pear to lull .the. ^pi^uiards^ prone to 1^ 
plainly to have had a secret corres- so lulled, into ^':»tate of (klse securi- 
pondencewith the enemy, had al- ty and inaction; After general3l^^ 
ready come to a determination on had officially notified to Ike ceutrai 
the subject. Madrid was undoubt- junta, attoiit tbe.middle.^f October, 
edly given up through treachery, that the larmy he had b^n able to 
Wlieii.uitelligence that the French colleU: «i^ou9led \q, do more, tlmo 
had forced the passage of the Sierra from .^2 to 23,00d' men ; we Bod it 
Morena reficbed Madrid, a council slated in the Ma#id gasette of Oc- 
was held, ^t wbiicb the honourable tober m«.21at^ tl^t 7Q^P0Q meo 

. ' bad 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. !J3 

laH passed tlirmi^li (l>r town of for ^ooil Tiiith: but liavm^ agrcw 
-At Mwlritl, Nnvrmbtr liie tn the tniiveiitioii of Cinlni. (be 



:;<!, wa^ publblietl the fullowiiis obscrvtd il." Morln'a farlunc an 

vncbinatioit, " Spaiilatrfs, tli* cen- iiiililim ntnk w«re preserved to bin 

r.il juiitii of tiie t^overiiitiuut uf liie Tlie saiiii: indulgence whh sitewn ( 

iii^::'loni, after havm!; taken nil his usoirUtes, wlio baving joiue 



n its ponrr to cli;tcat tlie liiin ii) )>elTaviii^ their coiiiiirv, di 
'nemv, who, roiilinuing his allirk-^, not ilisildin to bve under tbe pt-f 
:mt iiiivanreil into tiie neiiildiour- tection of lliu nsnrper. iMorla, in 
hood of Soniosa, addresses voii for cirriiiar letter addressed to tbe Ai 
the |<nr[>os« of |)Ullin!; you on your djiiisiuii*, cudeavnnrcd to dra' 
guard a<:ain«t the intrigues vvilb tlicni nvvr to the side of king Ji 
uliicli the periidjous agents uf Nu- wph; who, he told them, was 
liok'on endeavour to BJarm and de- man of great iniiduess and bumi 
ct^JTe ymi, hy increU'ing the nuin- niiy of dis)iosition. 
her uf tbe enetny'i troops, who hard- Buonaparie addressed a man 
Ivaitinunt to SOOOmen.accoTdtii^ to festo to the Spanisli imiion, inwhic 
llie report of llie geneml whom the be promised llient all good Ibiii; 
JEiiilaliaschari^edwitltthederenceof if tliey received Josefdi for the 
tile iiniinrtaDt post of Guadarania." king sincerely and with all the 
Thcletter of themarqnisof C;is- lie-drt. — If not, he would put tl 
ttliar, sent to Bertbier in the morn- crou n mi his own bead, treat Ihei 
ill" of tlie 4lli, produced Hpfercinjv- as a coikjiu red province, and tin 
lury summons to siiTremler inime- another l.iii<;dum fir hi* brolhei 
ctijtely. In theeveniu^nflhesame for G:>d had giveu hiiu botb tl 
thy, Don Thomas Muria and Don inclination and the power to lu 
Bf'i tranduYriitle waited oil Bcrlhicr. ni oiinl all obstacles. 
und ^\ere introdnrcd by biin to Ituo- The troops that had tied frnm II 
iiap^rle: whololdtlicni.iiiihaslern Puprto, or gate of Guadaram 
cniiutenance, and in a decided baving arrived, on the 3d of D 
lone of voice, tbat if the city did cemlier, almost uniicr lite walls i 
ii')t lender its submission by five Madiid, demanded with loud cH 
Of six o'clock next morning, it to be ltd to its defence. Tlit 
would be taken by assault, and every commander. Count St. Juan, wt 
one found wilb arms in bi< hands opposed so daugcrotis an alteui^ 
put to tbe sword. The Simnisb was massacred. 
U>'«\n tn 'MatlritI were sent off in Tliou^h the prerogatives of n 
the <)ea<l of ni^bt, by the gales of lure may be often mglecttftl ( 
Sciinvin and Tudela. a^ti, in tliu progress of time ai 

^unnuparle, wilb Rfficted mag- events they s^re asserted sooner 
naiiimily, extended bis clemency later. Long bad men of geiiei 
to ll(e degraded deputation from views aud speculation regretted th 
tlic juma. To conceal tbeir con- in fair a portinn of tbu gioite, 
<^rl Hilh ))i,9i, and at tbe same abumlant in all tlie necessaries ai 
tunc lo gratify his splenetic liu* even luxuries of life, und su w< 
Kimir, \\t cuiinhigjy taunted Mot- situated for ihe commerce of t 
''' ^■•t liiti former j»eftidy hibreiiking world, as South America, abould 
tl'Ota|iiiulaiionwidiDnpt>nt. "The suHVred to languisti under aiho 
r.ii^lisli,"^idlie"arefiolreiiowDed siglil«d system of lyr^oy and < 

prcisi< 



436 ANNUAL REGISTER, 180S. 



pKSHoii. The grand interest excited 
by the state of Spain in 180S, i^uft, 
tlie consideration that it would In all 
probability sever the mother conntry 
from the colonies, and open a new 
tlieatre on theotbersideof the Allan- 
tic, that would chai^ the politics and 
improve the condition of the world. 
The balance of Europe being over- 
thrown, it was a consolation to look 
to a balance on a grand scale : a 
balance of the world. It was not 
indeed the contemplation of a 
magnificent order of affiiirs that at 
first aroused the Spanish colonies 
to the exercise 'of their fiicolties, 
but that ardent devotion to the mo- 
narch, by which the Spaniards are 
particularly distinguished, and in- 
dignation against his cruel and per^ 
fidious oppressor, ^ut it was easy 
to foresee, that the great Spanish 
continent in America with the ad- 
jacent isles, forced into a situation 
in which it was under a necessity of 
governing and acting for itself, 
would never return to such a state 
of dependence and dejection as tliat 
under which it had laboured for 
centuries, even though king Ferdi- 
nand should be restored to his 
throne, which became every day 
less and less probable. 

The central junta, in conformity 
with the uniform intentions of the'* 
central juntas, declared that the colo- 
nies in Asia and America should uot 
be considered as dependent provin- 
ces, but enjoy all the privileges of the 
metropolbandroothercountry. This 
was also declared in the new constitu- 
tion framed for Spain by Buonaparte. 

In the Canaries, in Mexico, and 
the Floridas, Cuba and the other 
islands, and throughoat the whole 
of South America, every Spaniard, 
as if animated by the same soul, 
breathed the same sentiments of 
devotion to the king and detestation 



of the monster wbo wished 16 usurp 
his throne. The ven«;eance of ma- 
ny, as is natural in burning climates, 
would have been wreeked ou un- 
offending individuals of the French 
nation. In the Floridas the French 
were so apprehensive of falling vic- 
tims to the vengeance of the Spa- 
niards, that they fled with their 
effects into the territories of the 
United States. Btit the roodera- 
tion, wisdom, and justice of men in 
authority, restrained the fury of 
the populace. The proclamations 
of the Spanish governors in the co- 
' Ionics ; for sense, reason, and justice ' 
equal those of old Spain, and for it 
fervent eloquence, perhaps even ex- 
ceed them. The proclamation of 
Marcius Somemelos, cofiiroander 
in chief of the land forces, and go- 
vernor of the isles of Cuba, in a 
prochimation 18th of July, exhorts 
the natives to repress the natural 
impetuosity of their character, and 
to let the peaceable French who 
had sought an asylum amongst them 
from oppression, find protection. 
The marquis ofVilla Vicensis, com- 
mander in chief of the marine, in 
one of the same date, says, *' Let 
us swear tliat if every Spanrard hk 
our mother country should M, 
which ought not and cannot be 
feared, Spain, notiMrithstanding tfab, 
shall not cease to exist. Is not Ibis 
country also Spain ? Are not we also 
Spaniards? Andshall not Ferdinand 
VII. and his successors reign over 
usi — Remember!— The French in 
.Cuba are not mercenary assassins! 
Not servants or subjects of Napo- 
leon." Genera! Linieres, governor 
of Buenos Ayres, a Frenchman, in 
his proclamation upon the state of 
afiairs, after recommending concord, 
saidy " Let us imitate the example 
of our ancestors in this happ^ land, 
who wisely escaped the disasteis 

that 



. HISTORY OF EUROPE. ssr 

M afflielc4 Spun in ^ war of Ibe of gonnmrat The most murk- 

Kcnstostb^awaituigthefateof the able artide in the slaleiiKiit is tbe 

lotlier couDlry, to obejf the kgiti- creation of beredilary notrilitr, 

lale aathority oecupjing the lo- which is declared to be esMnlial in 

irtigDly." Mo*lilittes were every m berediUrv monarcby. The nain 

bere ebe declared against France, drift of Buonoparte, in his intemri 

id iIk most liberal and prompt r^ulalioos, teems to he to root out 

iDlributJoBs remiUed to the pa- all metnortalsof liberty.andtoestB- 

iols in Old Spna. This ^e^r tbe btisb in Frauce a despotic govern* 

Koch.were driven out of the meni, a military cmtame, and a 

lands of Porto Rico, Deaeada, and mililary spirit. Sweden in the be- 

joric Galante. ginning of the year tnigfat have 

The great a&irs of Europe in made her peace with France and 

ius ut exhibited iu tbe coatest Rus»a. The king, with tbe general 

tlvitea Spain and Portugal, with voice of the nation, chose a braver, 

icir H\j Great Britain, on the one but more impolitic part. After the 

irtjaodtlierultr of France, aided basest attempts on lite part uf the 

I hb vassal princes and kings, on Russians, tutored, it would seem, in 

< other. Tbe asaals of other the icbool of their allies tbe French, 

'unlries sink almost into provin- to seduce the Swedish nation from 

il history. What is most promi- their allegiance to their king, and 

:nt and important in tlie history their doty to tlieir country, t and k 

Spain, Great Britain, and France, rapid succession of the most sao-' 

iriog that period, has been seen guimry battles, where the Swedes 

the present narrative. To what were bending, and ready to All, 

incerm France, however, it may never to rise again, under the over- 

: profier to add, that in tbe begin- whelmingpower of Russia, the Swe- 

ug of the year Buonaparte, as a dish government signed a convention 

eparation for the farther exien- on the 7lh of November, by which 

JDUulcoDsolidalioiiofhiseBpire, Finland, the granary of the king- 

meieil to France, and took posses- dom, was virtually given up to 

ao of the military posts of Kehl, Russia. The heroic king of Sweden 

^e»l, Cassel on the Rhine, and was not deserted in this extremihr 

lushing. It was probably with si- of fortune by his ally, Brrtain. A 

iUtviem that he established and naval force nnder admiral Kettts 

idowed a Greek bisboprick in DaU drove the Russian squadrons into 

alia. The stateof tbe French em- llieir ports, where they were held 

re Id it) uilernalas wellaseKteroal in a state of blockade. A land force 

lalions, aseshibited by the mini- of 10,00Omen,underlhecommaiHf 

m of Buonaparte, will be found of Sir John Hoore, was sent in, the 

another part of Ihb volume *. month of Hay to assist Sweden, 

Kb papers, notwithstanding their against a combined attack from 

be colourmg and misrcpresutation Rossia, France, and Denmark. On 

f facts, disclose tbe spirit and views tbe 17tbof May, thb army reached 

Oottenbu^, 
• State Papers, p. M3. 
r The bsM arts of the RimiaDs do not seem to liave been dtoitelher faiitim, 
lie lost of the Swedish foitress sod flotilla of Sweabor;, there is every reason to be- 
;'e,Ha< the effect of trocbm. Tbelbttress of SweaboTgii second only to [ho»« 
'OibtalUr aad Uslta. 



S«8 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1608. 



Gotleaburgh, but was not iiermtttcd 
to land. SirJoiiA Moore repaired to 
StiockJiolm lo comniiiitioate Ijis or«> 
ders, and to concert measures for 
the seovrit V of Sweden. He there 
founds to hif^ surprise, that thouf^i 
the Swedtsli army was qoite insufii*- 
cieut for even derenaive operalions. 
Ills majesty's thoughts M«re whoHj 
uitenk oi>'«oiique6t. It was first |iroo 
posed, that the British siKHild remain 
in their ships, till some Swedisli regi- 
ments should be collected at Got* 
tenburphy and that the combined 
forces should laud, and com|uer 
Zealand. Upon an examination of 
the plan, it was found and admitte<l; 
tJiat the island of Zealand, besides 
several strong fortresses, contained 
a regular force, far superior to any 
that could be brought to bear 
agaioiit it : and also, that the' island 
of Funen was full of Freucii and 
Spanisli troops, whidi could not he 
prevented from crossing over in 
(mail parties. It was next propos* 
«d that the British alone should 
land on Finland, storm a fortress, 
und lake a position there. But Sir 
John Moore represented, that ten 
thousand British troops were wholly 
iusufficienttoencounter the principal 
force x)f the Russian empire, wliich 
could quickly be brought against 
them at a point so ne^ir Petersborgh. 
-^Sir John escaped from the resent* 
ment of his Swedish majesty in- dis- 
guise, and conformably to hb in- 
structions, brought back his little 
army to England. In consequence 
of the disastrous and menacing as- 
pect of aiairs in Sweden, Lewis 
XVIII. of France, with the queen 
and the duchess of Angoul^me, 
took refuge, in the month of August, 
in England. 

As tlie Russians acquired an ex- 
tension of territory on the one hand 

• Sec Vol, XUX. 



by tbe acqoisilian of Switdish ftiu 
4aud, they.styi kc|H a steafly t^ 
•OB tbe long-oiedttated project of 
extending their eeiflire'fo the Bo^ 
phoros^ by the acqnisitfoii of Mo^ 
davia, Walbbliia, and -Bessarahis. 
The iHirober of their trodpaju Mo)« 
davia and- Wallachia, in tlieautuwR 
of. 1808i was raised to upwards of 
80,000 men. To face thesem great 
mmiber of TuiiiiA Ireops. marched 
from time to time from Constantino* 
pie and other phnsesi to the Danube : 
and of these I no iacoasiderable num* 
ber hud been trained hi the Euii>|icas 
manner, and taught the une of the 
bayonet. Tiie rrigmng sultan had 
been deposed; and a new one placed 
on the ihiooev uader the iniaeaot 
of Mustapha Bairactar,* a ri^* 
ous» bold, and, for a Turk, an en* 
lightened man. . Nutwithstandiag 
the many examples of the liestniD* 
lion of 4hoae<who uMempted iaao* 
Tations, hedareii, with un. energy 
that 8faewe4 no sneroy,- to gire of* 
fence Co the janissaries^, by theia* 
troduotion of important rogulatkni 
into the army, which he. procerded 
in new modelling, as wvll as increif- 
ing its numbers. Hewfl[s>equalij 
attentive to the strength and iah 
prorement of the Turkish fleet He 
demanded a certain number of 
hands^ not only fremali tradiof 
vesselsi but also from lisfaing boati. 
The career of Bairaetar, in propor* 
tion to its Vig^rand audaeily, wai 
of short duration t on. the t4tii iff 
November, ab day^hreab^i the janis- 
saries fell upiMT the siemeoi;; priach 
pal oiiiGeraof.|lie'NiaomniiOedid;* 
and maesaertd alMlie'partisaasof 
of the grand viaier 'that oaiile in their 
way. I'he Siemens were foroeil t» 
submit, af^er a long resiiitanee» Oa 
the 1 5tii, the ,|aniss&ries assanlted the 
high walls OT* tbe serag)io« \ v Iinme- 

diatelj 
Hist. £di. p. 191. 



•HISTORY OF EUBOTE. 339 

igtcW vm tb'n^ Ihe ^amd tie'im nHnirnito^ agniMt-lhe imligJoiM 

nnvkd'tlw wnrnrliiiiBte Minta* and w^tisi pfoceediag of tlw etu* 

in IV. who wasaiprhnoerllKre, penor of the Freuch lownrdi' the 

en liiinidf iip in bis own palf ae lioly kpoatolicil see. He fornMUy. 

illi ^iui>^wde[, of wtiicli he liad eKcomnMiiicated Iwrn. InpcodartM- 

iqmwly provided  large quaality tionn udHreued to tbe Spanuh, Pot- 

fSoi^Amoi, lo prvfeiri. }i» falltni tuRuese, ankl all ntliec Catttolie joh 

ive into llie handn of his rnemtei. lious, he exhorted ibem to the tie* 

iin wiM tt« Ihini Trrolulion ibut fence of Uie alliir and tin tItroDe. 

Ill IwpfMDcd at Conitaalinople in at tlie liazurd of llietr live», ai well 

ies|Mce of ciehleen moullis: lie* aa tbe expence of tlieir fortniw, 

» licforc bad ibe turbulent ini- The affecting pauage in the Evaii- 

ccilily of IbeTuriusb government geligis, deacribiitg itae rcmorte of 

reu exhibited in ao il/iking a tbe disciple and apostle Peter, at 

mwer. hia having deuicd his Saviour, waa 

III luly tlie nio>t promtnent Aiidj' and pal helically applied by 

'eiitj nrte tbe traniferetice of the tlie It a in an Catholic to Pius VII; 

ottii of Naples lo Mural, Buona' " And ilie Lord luriieil and looked 

ifle'i brollter-iu-laiT, Ibe grand upon Peter. And Pcler reinera* 

like of Berg; the usurpation of bered Ibe words of Jcehs, huw ha 

It |tapal throne, and eBoexaliot) hud auid unto liiin, Iwfuru tbe cock 

r Ronie, with all tbe cccleiiaslical crow IIhhi shall <ieuy nie (brire; anil 

atei, PlacKutia, I'arnnu, and An- Peter went out, and ivept bitlf rly.'" 

Mia, to Ibe French empire^ Tbe It seemed mailer of astoiiisb- 

itdinaU were l>iuii»liedfr>nn Rome, iiient lo many, ibat so sublle and 

lit alkiwed no iocoosidemble pen- rtifined a politician as Buonaparte, 

oua. Tlie person of his holiness slionid incur Ibe Inizard of exciting 

iis Mcured in a state of confine- tlie indignilton, and a spiiit ol' re- 

leiit. Riionaparte said, lliut be sistinice to his agi>resi>ion<>, in all Ca- 

Hly took back what had been iholic countries, by the spoliiilion 

iv«n to the cbiirck for lite support and impriionnjent of the pope. But 

Irdi^ponand promolion of piety: Buoiiapdrte's power liad by this lime 

ut 39 the mtmificent donationa risen (u so eaonnous a |>itcli, tliat 

f Ills predeceMor, Cliarlcmagne, he did nut think il necessary to ma- 

^d been uied for very dificrent uage or keep any terms with llie 

xirpoKs, it was very fit that Ibey opinions and prejudices of men or 

liouM be recalled. The kingdom nations. His geueral plan was, to 

if Christ.he observed, like a sound arm and direct one half of the 

'iiiiie, was not of this world. (vorld against the other : rutliaus 

Tile same pope, Pius VII. lint aud villains against men of good 

nd gone loicrown Napoleon at Pa- piinciples and (leaceable dispositt- 

B. and agreed to Ibe subversion of oiis and habits ; and to make every 

lie fiallican church, and the dinii- thing bend under the weight of 

lutinn of the apostolical power, by military despotism. It is a maxim 

he eitabli»b^nt of the concordat, of Machiavel's, that when a prince 

» liiis terrible crisis, asiumed the wants lo establish his power on 

»ura£e and the character of a mar- changes, he should leave nothing 

'}'• He protested, by a public of ibe old system, (lut make ull 

■Lokax:di.6i-S. 



«40 ANNUAL REGISTEE, 1808. 



things new. Buonaparte, wtio is no 
cioubt wtW acquainted with Machia* 
vel, appears nc/t to have conridtred 
himself as secure until all the ve- 
nerable institutions of society had 
lieen trodden under foot.^It u pos« 
sihle to overrun and subjugate na- 
tions, fae^ a war ag^nst both morali* 
ty and religion : but whether a vast 
empire is to he long preserved with* 
out both, is a problem that experi- 
ence has not yet resolved. The 
foiindatioa of Buonaparte's empire 
is miUtary force and ingenious con»- 
bination ; the spoib of proprietors 
distributed among military adven- 
turers ; and the efforts of states and 
kingdoms against one another, dex- 
trously turned to the destruction of 
-the whole* Bat this career of des- 
truction seems to be calcuhited, by 
its very nature, to come, at no great 
distance of time, to a termmation. 
The altar indeed was restored, 
in some ^fashion, by the coneonfot^ 
but not religion. Ludan Buona- 
parte and Poitalis, recommendmg 
the concordat to the assembly, said, 
that '* Religion was an useful instru- 
ment in the hands of government, 
as well as a consolation to toedt 
mtttib and tmaraua ecnsdeneeiJ^ 
Such a nation as the French cannot 
venerate a system of pomp and ce- 
remonv, avowedly adapted merely 
to such purposes; and considered 
by the legislature as mere mummery. 
The Roman Catholic clergy, too, 
have been vilified and brought into 
contempt ; not by the ruling powers of 
France, but by themselves : by swear- 
ing, abjuring^ and swearing again, 
according to circumstances, and by 
the btasphemous adulation of so 
many bishops and archbishops, who 



in their pastoral letters, as well as 
their sermons on pubKe occasions, 
do not hesitate to call Buonaparte a 
** MW Cyrus whom God has chosen 
and supports for the accomplish- 
ment of his impenetrable designs — 
whom God brought hadi from 
Egypt, in order to make him the 
man of his right-hand. This'is the 
doing of the Lord, and it Is wonder- 
ful in our eyes.*' 

In British fndia, tlie corapan/s 
ministers made great progress in re- 
ducing, according to directions from 
home, the public expenditure, with 
other impiDvemetits ; and in conci- 
liating tbe favour of the Penians: 
both of them subjects to wbicli our 
attention will be particularly called 
byeventsof 16Q9. 

An attempt was made by Ae go- 
vernment of Bengal to secnrethe 
possession iff the Fartugaese s€(ttle> 
ment of Macao for the prince re- 
gent, under British ptotectiott, in 
the same manner, or by similar ar- 
rangements, as Madeini had been. 
But the emperor of Cbina sent or- 
ders to the governor of the district, 
vHthin which Macao -is situated, 
not to allow the English comimny's 
sh^ to trade, until such conoessioiis 
and apologies should be made^ hr 
the attempt to station a mMttaiy 
force in that island, as might be 
amply snfficient for the porpose of 
inducing him to pardoti Aem:*- 
concessions were made to the eelU' 
tialempirf: andl harmony was re- 
established.f ^ 

The Ameiichns stiH held oat 
against the British orders in councfl : 
and Britain still held out against the 
American embaigo. 

CHRONICLE. 



* See Appemfiz V> CIvMride^p. SSik 



11) 



CHRONICLE. 



JANUART. doobtrul, however, In Hm erenlni 
of Monday, CapCaia Ljdiard sXooi 

t. ne BrUith rr^llE state of off again to the southward; whea 

AW;.— -^ the British na. a coniultatian being held, U wu 

, sceordiDg to the return; up to once mora reiolved (o bear np for 

a present day, is as follows : — Falmouth, Ranning eastward and 

icre are in commission 795 ships northward, still under the fatal 

war, of which 144 are of the persuasion that the Liiard was on 

e, 20 from 50 to 44 guns, 178 the ^lorth.west of them, they did 

g^tes, 226 sloopi of war, 227 not discorer the mistake till the 

med brigs, &e. Besides which man on the look-ont a.head, called - 

ere are building and in ordinary, oat " breakers !" The ship was 

ips which make the total amount instantaneously broached to, and 

the British navy, exclusive of the best bower let go, which bappi- 

tters and other small Tessels, ly brought her up; but, the rapl. 

iQO ships of war, including QSi dity with wJiicfa the cable had reered 

the line, 29 from 50 tA 44 guns, out made it impossible to serT* 

' 1 frigatoc, 209 sloops, 2^8 armed it, and it soon parted in the bawsca 

ies. hole. The sheet anchor was then 

ParlumlarK of the Lost 9f_ the let go, which also brought np tb« 

lion Frigate. — The following far. ship; but after riding end on for 

i:r particulars of the melancholy a short time, this cable parted frwa 

-; of this ship are given, cbieOy the same cause, about eight in tb* ^ 

I the authority of the ofhcers who morning, and the ship went plump 

?re saved : — The Anson sailed on shore, upon the ridge of laad 

am Falmouth on Christmas-ere which separates the Loc-poo] from 

r her station off the Blact (he Yby. Never did the sea mil 

□cks. as one of the look-out more tremendously high. Itbrok* 

igates of the Channel fleet. In over the ship's masn, which soos 

c violent storm of Monday, went by the board ; the main-mast 

owing about W. to S, W. she forming a floating raft from th« 

ood across the entrance of the ship to. the shore; and the greatec 

hannel, towards Scilly, made the part of those who escaped, pasted 

and's-Eod, which they mistook By this medium. One of the men 

>r the Lizard, and bare op, as saved, reports, that Captain Lydi> 

icy though^ for Falmoalb, Still ard was near him od the main* 

Vol, L. a masti 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808- 



mast ; but he leemed to haTc lost 
the use of hiB faculties, with horror 
of the scene, and soon d^appeared. 
Wc hare not room to go further 
into particulars* nor language that 
will conTey aa* adequate picture of 
the terrific view that presented it- 
self; but justice demands that we 
notice the conduct of a worthy 
member of a sect but too much tI. 
U£ed. 

At a time when no one appeared 
on the ship's deck, and it was sup. 
ipose^ the work of death had ceased, 
a Methodist preacher, Tcnturing 
his life through the surf, got on 
board, oter the wreck of the main- 
jnast, to see if any more remained . 
— soipe honest hearts followed him. 
They found several persons still be- 
low, who pould not get up ; among 
whom were two women and two 
children* The worthy preacher 
and his party saved the two women 
and some of the men, but the chil. 
dren were irretrterably lost. About 
two p,m,> the ship went to pieces ; 
when a few more men, who for 
some crime had been conGoed in 
Icons below, emerged from the 
wreck — one of these was saved. 
By three o^clock, no appearance of 
the vessel remained. She was an 
old ship (a 64, we ^ believe, cut 
down) which accounts for her beat. 
|ng to pieces* so soon on a sandy 
bottom. 

The men who survived, were 
conveyed to Uelston, about two 
miles distant, where they were taken 
care of by the magistrates, and 
afterwards sent to Falmouth in 
charge of the regulating captain at 
that port. We are aware that ge. 
neral report has stated the number 
drowned to be greater than we have 
given it: but of the missing, we 
Understand manyare deserters, who 



scampered off as soon as they 
reached the shore. Among the offi- 
cers saved, we heard of the follow. 
ing : — Capt. Sullivan, a passenger ^ 
Messrs. Hill and Braily, midship. 
men ; Mr. Ross, assistant surgeon ; 
and some others. 

Glasgow^ Jan, 2. Notice, — " In 
consequence of an application from 
a considerable number of respect- 
able gentlemen, I request a meeting 
of the merchants and manufacturers 
of this city, in the town-hall, oo 
Thursday next, at one o*clock, 
p, m. for the purpose of consider, 
ing the propriety of expressing to 
his majesty, at this important crisis, 
their firm determination to support 
by every means in their power his 
just rights and the interests of the 
British empire, and at the same 
time to congratulate his majesty on 
the vigorous and active line of con. 
duct which has been pursued in (ho 
prosecution of the war, and upon 
the brilliant successes with which 
those energetic measures have so 
happily been cro^rned, notwith. 
standing the strong confederacies 
which have been formed against ns. 
" JAMES MACKENZIE, 
« Lord Provost" 
Lotigetity. — A Mrs. Mary Trap- 
son is now living in Kent.strect, 
Liverpool, in good health and spi. 
rits, at the advanced age of IIO 
years, having been born in Scot, 
land the 1st of January, l6(|8. She 
bad lived in the reign of five ssc- 
cessive monarchs, beginning with 
king William. She bore a distiD- 
guished part in the battle of Dct- 
tiogcn, Culloden, Fontcnoy, &«• 
under the duke of Cumberland. 

Lately was shot, by George 
Pringic; atStaingale, near Danbj- 
Lodge, (the s{iorting.seat of the 

right hon. lord viscount Dowof) 

an 



CH R O N I C L E. 

eagle of the following teataik- dia Compaoy's Hrvice, has, vi^ 

Ic (KmeuiDiis: its breadth be. these feir days, airWed in U 

een the tip of the wingf tiro from India, lie intended to a 

rds ten inche*, the leogth from oier.lani), aad waj charged wii 

'bealt to tiie lip of the tail, 38 mbsioD to the King of Prustin, 

z^hL's, the eitreme breadth of the on his arrival at Bngdat, he 

I 2 j inches. When placed in an stopped, and informed Ihat he ct 

.'ct posta/c, its height two feet not proceed further. He lear 

ren incbet, its wdgbt 16 ponnds that the Persian camp, which 

ouncea; the coloar a mixed honoured with the presence of 
own and white, ihe back almoit Persian monarch, was In the nei 
^rlj white. This extraordinary bourhooJ ; and was told that 
rd has been put into a state of foreigners coold be recBiTed thi 
uscrvation by Mr. Fnuik, at oolcu tbay had previously iU 
m by- Lodge. the Fenian capital, and bfoa 
CoulincourtjtheralBanwhoseized certificates from it toentitletheo 
i Duke D'Enghiwi, has arriied at admiseiou. To the Persian cap 
, Pctersburgh, as reprocenlatife colonel M'Carr accordingly wi 

Boaapartc, where he has been and having there expluned the 

:eired with marked diatinction, tiire and abject of his mission, 

superb edifice has been purchased returned to the camp, proti 

r him by the government. with the necessary passports, 

4- The LansdowB library of ma. obtained admission. On his a 

;>cript$ has been purchased by val he learned that a French < 

rltanLeiit for the British Museum, bassy had been with the Pen 

an average of the valuation made monarch at the camp, that he 

- thre« parties, being 4,935/. concluded a peace with all bis c 

r. Planta, the principal libra/tan mici, and entered into a strict 

the Museum, estimated their va- close i^liance with France. Vo 

1 In the following manner ; thtec circumstances he was refv 
DurleighandCecilpapers, an audience in the itiiost posi 
.0 Iota, at lOf. - ^1300 terms, and returned to Baj 
!Sir Julius Cssar's papers, without hnvicg accomplished 

vols, at 10/. - - 500 object of his mission; but there 

Twcnty-»eten volumes of was not suffered to stop, or to [ 

iginal rectors of abbeys, lecute his journey from it by 

10/. . - . 970 usual way ; be was obliged to t. 

One hundred asd fifty vo- a new route, and explore a i 

DCS, at 5/. - .- 750 passage. lie croued the Caa[ 

Nine hundred and eighty. Sea, entered the terrilories of H 

e ditto, at 2/. . - lt)70 sia, and came to England lost fi 

Forty nunbcn of royal Sweden. 

lers, it Si. - - . 200 6. His excellency the mtnistei 

Eight volumes of Chinese war addrestcd to his majesty 

uvings, at 10/. - . SO emperor, on the 6th of Janus 

I the following report, relative to 

I 4£4970 measures adopted by France In 

jColontl M'Carr, ef the Kut-l*- present ciicuntitaDcei :— 

Aa3 1 



ANNUAL REGIST.ER, 180S. 



Your majtsty has ordered me to 
form the first and second corps of 
obserfation of the army of the Gi. 
ronde. The first of these corps, 
vader the contnand of general Jo. 
not, has conquered PorlJgal. The 
liead of the second is already ad- 
▼anoed to follow the fi^rst, if cir. 
comslanoes require it. Your ma. 
jesty, whose foresight nerer foils, 
wifl^hes that the corps of obserfa. 
iion of the ocean, confided to mar- 
tial Mo&cey, should be in the 3d 
fine. 

The necessity of shotting the 
ports of the ocean against our ir. 
Mcondlable enemy, and of having 
considerable means upon all points 
of attack, for the purpose of taking 
adreotage of such fortunate cir. 
cnmstances as may present them, 
let? es, in order to carry war 
into the bosom of England, Ire. 
iaad^ and the Indies, may render 
Mcessary the raising of the con« 
acription of I8O9. 

The party which prevails at Lon- 
don has proclaimed the principle of 
perpetual war, and the expedition 
against Copenhagen has revealed its 
criminal intentions. Although the 
indignation of all Europe is raised 
against England ; although France 
nefer had such numerous armies, 
this is not yet enough. The £n. 
flish influenee must be attacked 
whererer it exists, until the mo- 
ment when the aspect of so many 
dangers shall induce England to re- 
nore from her councils the oligarchs 
who direct them, and to confide 
the administration to men wise and 
capable o£ reconciling the love and 
interest of the country with the in. 
tcrest and lore of mankind. A 
Tulgar policy night have determined 
your majesty to disarm, but this 
policy would hare been a scourge 



for France. It would have reo. 
dered imperfect the great results 
which you have prepared. Yes, 
sir, your majesty, far from re. 
ducing your armies, ought to ao^. 
ment them, until Engiaird shall 
hare acknowledged the indepen- 
dence of all powers, and restored 
to the seas that tranquillity which 
your majesty has secured to the 
continent. No doubt, your ma* 
jesty must sufier in demanding from 
your people new sacrifices, and im. 
posing upon them new obligations, 
but you must also yiM to the cry 
of all the French — '* No repose 
until the seas shall be freed, and an 
equitable peace has etrtablisfaed 
France in the most just, the most 
useful, and the most necessary of 
her rights.** 

0. Southatnpton.'^yft lament to 
state, that the disease of canine 
madness still prevails la z most 
alarming degree. Two mad dogs 
went through Titch field and Stub, 
bington last week, and bit a great 
number of cattle. There is sc«irrt;ty 
a place in this neighbourhood that 
has not been infested with xMi6 dop» 
and the magistrates in the differrut 
districts have used every exerttoo 
fos the protection of the public. 
In this, town, the degs hare been 
confined for the last three months,' 
and the mayor and ibagistrates aft 
entitled to the warmest than);s 
the inhabitants, for the - vigoro 
eiertiona of their police, in paCtioi 
intp execution oraers calcnkUed t 
ensure in a great measure the safe! 
of individuals from this most terrin 
bie disease. 

On the morning of Friday ee'n 
night, Joseph Gerard, of Pfeasingi 
ton, near Blackburn, died ve 
suddenly. - He had supped with 
family on muscles the night p 




.CHRONICLE. 

c'ding his duthjKiul retired to bsd Mantua, ft cnnferenco with 

;>f)arcntly well; fae iwuke about pipe, whieh laited above t 

• ur o'clock in the morning, In the hours. 

reatest agony, and wu a corpse Parii, Jan. S3. Dtere»,~'1 

y 6ve. Ao ioquett wu hdd, CooMrralin senate aiseabled 

hen the attending sur^on dc. the number of manben present 

osed, that in hit opinion the hy art. iX) of th« aot of the com 

cath of the deceased . was owing tiitioa of tb« S%1 of Frimair, yi 

> the muscles he had eaten the 8, haring eonsidered the project 

i^ht before:- this testimony was the Mnatuiconsul turn, drawninl 

• irroboratod bj other witnesses, form pretcribed by article 47 of t 

:i(I also by the symptotRs which coD»(ilutional act of the Ifllh 'liii 

■.iiaJfy accompany those who are midor, year 16. — After faari 

<4al is generally called mufc/ea/ung, heard, on the mothei of the « 

10. Mrs. Elizabeth Williams, project, the orators of the cotni 

ijw iiTing at Brenton near Tar i. of state, and the report of the Sf 

ock in Devon, is in the lUSth eiai commission nominaited in t 

.'.tr of her age ; she has almost a silting of the 16th of this montl 

-w set of teeth. About 30 years the adoption Jtaving been ditcuss 

:o she had recoarse to spectacles, with the nomber ofrokesprescrib 

It at present makes but little use by article 56 of the organic sanata 

' them, asshecan read thesmallest cunsultum of the IBth of Them 

-int without thcii; assistance. She dor, year 10, decrees as follows: 
IS two sons I i ring, the eldest 89, Art. I. Eighty thousand coi 

id the youngest is only 70 years scripts uf the conscription of tl 

' age, but remarkably strong; he year IR09, are placed at the dispi 

.'longs to a carrier's warehouse, sal of goTemment. 



a wag- 



2. They shall be taken fro 
among the' yonths bom betWM 
the 1st of January, 1789, Md Ji 
nuary 1st, 17OO. 

4. They shall be emtrfoyet 

should there be occasion, to cnm 

plete the legions of reserro of th 

fnteiior, and the regimeot haTin 

so tame, that Qiej will e*en their deputs in France. 

out of the hands of an/ The present seaatnsconsaltnr 
shall be transmitted to hb imperii 
and royal majesty. 

The President and Secretaries, 
(Signed) 
CAMBACCRES, Arch Chancello 
of the Empire, President. 
T. HEDOUVILLE HERWITN 
Secretary. 
Seen and sealed, the Chancellor o: 
the Senate, 
(Signed) LAPLACE. 
As W 



1(1 lately took a case froi 
>n of nearly three cwt._ 
Bd it the distance of GOO yards. 
13. A coTey of partridges, consist- 
!^ of 13 birds, come daily to the 
>ur of Hrarj Wilson, esq. at St. 
deos, near Lancaster, to be fed ; 
,y lecd among the poultry, 



the docaesticks. 

1 7- Great preparations are ma- 
il^ in the arsenal of Venice' for 
e building of a considerable num- 
r of ships of the Itna and fri. 
ivf, sereral are already upon the 
"icks ; in a few years that city 
il) hBTc 10 its port a formidable 

1 8, We learn that prince Lucien 
ucinapoite bad, or his return from 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



We require and commandi (hat 
these presents, sanctioned by the 
teals of state, and inserted in the 
Bolletia des Lotx, shali be ad* 
dressed to the courts and tribunals, 
and administratrre authorities, that 
they may be inserted in their re- 
apectire registers, and obserted, 
and caused to be obserred ;, and 
our grand judge, the minister of 
justice, is charged to superintend 
the publication. (Signed) 

NAPOLEON. 
By the Emperor, the Minister Se- 
cretary of State. 
(Signed) H. B. MARET. 
Seen by us the Arch- Chancellor of 

the Empire. 
(Signed) CaMBACERES. 
By another decree of the con. 
servatory senate, in die same form, 
and in like manner signed by Bo* 
napartc, the towns of Kchl, Wcsel, 
Cassel, and Flushing, are to be 
united to the French empire. Kebl 
to the department of the Xiower 
Rhine; Cassel to the department 
of Mount Tonnere ; Wesel iu the 
department of the Uoer ; and 
Flushing io the department of the 
Scheldt. 

Holland. — Roytd Decree^ 
Louis Napoleon, 8sc, 
Considering that every Europeaq 
nation ought to co-operate with all 
its might to the triumph of the caus^ 
of the Continent, in a contest which 
will not be of long duration, and 
whose result is not doubtfal. 

Considering that our particular 
duty as well as the dearest interests 
of our people command us to ac. 
cede in all points to the desires 
of his. majesty the emperor of the 
French, our illustrious brother, and 
€Tea to surpass his hopes., 

Considering that the indemnity 
toj^ relief which our kingdom has a 



right to demand and exptot,'depettd 
entirely upon the powerful inter* 
Tention of France. 

Considering, in fine, that howc« 
Ter great the sacrifices hitiierto 
made by this country may be, and 
however painful its situation, both 
under the relations of commerce 
and those of finance, it is of much 
greater interest to dissipate all the 
doubts thatmight exist with respect 
to our intention, and to prove to 
Europe, in the most signal manner, 
our attachment, and that of oar 
people, to the common cause, have 
decreed and do decree as follows : 

Art. L From the publication of 
the present decree all the ports of 
our kingdom shall be shut against 
all ships, whatever be their denomi- 
nation. Those only arc excepted 
from this disposition (aud provi. 
sionally tilf a new order), of which 
mention is made in the 9d article. 

FL Armed ships of our allies 
are not included in the exclusion 
directed by the preceding article. 
They may enter and quit our ports, 
and Imng in their prizee, by coo. 
forming to the ordinances issued 
relative to the «ntninco and depar* 
ture of ships of war. 

IIL Ships of the allies or nea- 
tral powers, which may enter our 
ports, to avoid the danger of tbs 
eea, shall have uo commnnicatloii 
with the interior of our kingdom. 
They shall be subjected to qnaran- 
tine^ and be under the most severe 
superintendance. The commandaBt 
of the port shall make Uiem putto^ 
as soon as the weather shall pennit. 
IV. Fishing boats are under the 
direct superintendance of the civil 
and military authorities upon iii» 
coast. These authorities shall tak« 
care, on their Tosponsibility) that 
no communication talce place bj 

nfSDi 



CHRONICLE. 

•iia of tbe fisbenoen, vith the geDcriil \VluteloclL£, batoreat 
umy's sbips and other ship). Tu niirtial cuosisliag pf 21 dick 

It end, there thaJt be placed commenced at Chelsea College 

a sentinel, a solJicr oD.&oard General sir W, Meadows k 

:h ii>hing-boat. On the rctnm sident, Mai, gcafiral Monro tl 

the boat, the Mntiiiel shall nioroflicer at the loner end a 

ke his report of what has table, who will of course be 

iaeU during the fishery, contrary called upon for his opinion. 

the dispositioDs of the present The following are the nami 

cree, andtho~o9ner of the boat the oflicers composiog the c 

il crew shall be prosecuted with martial. 

the rigour of the laws. Sir \V. Mcailaws, presiden 

(iiren at Utrecht, S3d Jan, Generals Garth, Norton, 1 

(Signed) LOUIS. Monsoii, Moore, Nugent, II 

The Dutcb official gazette con- Dnndas, Pigot, Clanricard, Cu 

n; a lery strong article upon the Ogilrj, Fox, sir £. Duffc, Ht 

iduct which the Dutch com> Manners, Wclford, Garth, Si 

rcc ought to parSDB at present. Icy, and sir C. Ross. 

e follawiag are tho moat striking , 

ssages :— ' ' '. 

" Abandon common specnlation j FEBRUARY. 

not suffer yoursehes to be ez. Q. Several American vessels 

iiled with impunity from the em. been brought into Ij^horn 

•e of the seas, fit out prirstcers French priTateers, and there 

Wrest the prejr from the eaanj, demned as in the ports of Fr: 

procure pravisions, become aU "That place, as well as Curta, 

»t of the first necessity : it is in chia, and Ancona, according tc 

B enemy's ships that you ought to mours contained in (he foreigi 

-It for your colonies; it is at pers, is to be uuited to the king 

cireipeoceyou ought to furobb of Italy, 

iQr correspondents with the mor- 7. UfEcial details of the aci 

aiidisc tbay want. Recollect the at Buenos Ayrca have been { 

urageofyour ancestors; recnl- lisbed in the Madrid Court Gaz 

~t that you are fellotr.countrymen They are of great length, Lii 

Ruyter and Tromp ! Must the asserts, that the English army 

u>es be, of the least popular na- 4,000 men. It is aUo stated, 

■»!, the only ones who dare attack General Whitelockc made hi 

B Irtish io open sea { Must bis- prcscut of a sword, as an ackr 

ry say that the Danes were in ths ledghient for the humanity sh 

|th century what the Datch were by the Spanish commander to 

^c nthi Arm, Dutcbmen! English prisoners, and the wo i 

'( ail your ports be filled with ed. In retum, general Lii 

»cd TCEsels, ready to fall upon presented some valuable mine 

etnemy," and other curiosities, to gen 

'iZ. This moiniag the trial of 'VVbitelocke, 

For m account of the charjte* afcainst Cenersl Wbitclocke, wd the rest 
K tnnl, ses.Hiitory of Europe, 1807, pp. 221—3. 



9 ANNUAL UE^tSTER, 1808. 



S. It is wifti vonc&rn we ttate^ 
tlwt in eoMequeoce of tbe lots of 
the Rambler, belonging toI/eitb,iio 
leas than ] 50 ettigraoti, wbo em. 
barked at Tttarso, were dro^rned in 
her off the American coast. From 
wbenee those emigrants came, is no* 
certain ; bet it is said many small te» 
aants have been remoTcd, and their 
little farms let to sheep farmers^in the 
parishes of Fare, Lairgs Creedi, and 
Rogart, in the county of Sutherland. 
The diminution of the inhabitants 
of our r^and is at all times a sub* 
ject of regret, and the annals of our 
country cannot point out a period 
when the emigration of the High« 
landers would have been more re- 
gretted than the' present, when re. 
emits for oar standing army and 
militia are so hard to be found. From 
thirty to forty guineas, is, we iin. 
derstand, the common bounty paid 
in Scotland for substitutes, and in 
most of the counties of the king, 
dom. 

A beautiful specimen of tii^ 
gold was lately found in a tin-stream 
work in Cornwall. It is about the 
length and thickness of a little lady's 
little finger, though less r^olarly 
fbrmed, and weighs aboTe two 
ounces. Its intrinsic value Is equal 
to nine guineas ; but, as a specimen, 
it is invaluable; for though' gold 
Jias been frequently found in the 
stream-works, and that in larger 

Suantities than is generally known, 
lat is unquestionably the largest 
and most beautiful specimen erer 
found in Cornwall. 
/ Downing^rett^ Fdf. 8, 1808.<^ 
Captain Berkeley, first aid.de.camp 
t!b general Bowyer, arrivefi yester. 
day morning at the office of tis* 
count Castlereagh, otfe of his ma. 
jestf '8 principal ssq re t wi es of ttate^ 



with a tfspatdi from the geii«ra1| 
Af which the following is a copy :— ^ 
SmUaCruiy Dee. 37$ 1807* 
My JLiOidy 
Being in a state of preparatioa 
and readiness to more a suflkieiil 
force against the Danish islands is 
these seas, in consequence of year 
lordship's dispatch of^e 5 th of Sep. 
tember, no tim^was lost (after the 
arrival of his majesty's final com* 
mands, signified to me t by lord 
Hawk^sbury's letter of NoTember 
the third, in your lordships absence, 
by the Fawn rtoop of war, wbidi 
arrived early on Teesday momiag, 
the I5eh instant at Barbadocs), in 
embarking the troops at Bntbadoss 
Qd.b6ard the men-of-war appointed 
to receive them by rear-adantal sir 
Alexander Cdchrane, who immedi- 
atefy dispatched others to the is- 
lamhrto leeward to take on.bosrd 
such as were nnder ordeis in each 
of them, with dirootlevs to proceed 
to the general readesvons, Idie whole 
of which, except one hundred rank 
and file of the 90tK regimetitfrom 
St. Vincents, joined the adminl 
before, or soon after our atvlval off 
the island of St. Thomas, on tb^ 
dlst instant. It was then tbonglt 
proper to send a summons to go. 
vemor Von Scholten, in charge of 
brigadier-general Shipley, and cap. 
tun Fahie, commanding his majes- 
ty's ship Ethaiion) to snrretider As 
islands of St. Thomas, St. John, 
and their dependencies, to Ids Bri- 
tannic majesty, which he did the 
next day, on termi agreed-upon be. 
twecn him and major-gmtel Malt- 
land, and capUdn Picluttofe, of iuM 
majesty's ship Ramillles, which were 
afterwards approved of Mid ratified 
by Tear.admiral thebon. sir Alex. 
smderCodinnia andiinyself j % copy 

• of 



-CHRONICLE. 



•( whiek I iMTtt the faondiir to in- 
dose, juid hope they vill meet with 
his ovjerty't approbation. 

On the 23d, in the eTeDing, after 
Uftf ing a faiTtsoB of tiiree hundred 
Ben of the 70th regiment, with an 
officer and detachment of the royal 
artiyery, at St. Thomas's, under the 
ooamand of brigadi(^«general Mac* 
lean, whom I hire also directed to 
assume the ciril goremmcot of tlie 
same, untii his majeity's pleasure be 
tigoified thereon, we proceeded to 
Suta Cms, the admiral baring pre. 
Tioualy tent his majesty's ship £tha« 
H«n, with brigadier-general Shipley 
and captain Fahis, to summon that 
island ; vho returned the next mom. 
lag, the S4th, with a letter from the 
goremor, offering to surrender it 
tohn najesty, provided we would 
allow three IXinish officers to riew 
oa-board the ships the number of 
troops brovght against it, which we 
permitted, that-hts czcoUency's mili- 
tary honour might thereby not be 
nflected en. .These officers baring 
made thmr report to the goremor, 
ntamed early the next morningi 
tJic 95th, to the flag^ship, with a 
sMssage that the goremor was wlU 
Itag to treat for the surrender of the 
isind, when major-general Mait* 
land and captain Pidtmore were 
again sent on shore to settle the 
tmas of capitulation, a copy of 
which I abo transmit ; which being 
approrad of by the admiral and tay. 
idf, troops wer^ landed, and the 
forts and batteries taken possession 
of in the name of hb majesty the 
hiag of the United Kingdom of 
GrsatAritain and Ireland, a royal 
sskte being fired on the British 
cehmrt being boiated. 

I diottid be angratef nl In the ex- 
trame did I not stale to your lord. 
ship thegfcat and many obligatioaa 



I eottoeire myself, the oScem, and 
aoldiers, to be under to rear-admiral 
the hon. sir Alexatider Cochrane, 
tHe captains and officers of the royal 
aary^ who have antrersally afforded 
na erery comfortable accommoda.* 
tion in their power, and I am sure 
much to their own inconvenience. 

I am conriiiced, that had it beasi 
necessary to hare called for the ex.» 
ertion of the sea and land forcee 
employed upon this expedition, that 
they would have added another 
laurel to themany already acquired 
by British valour and discipKae. 

Copies of the two letters of som^ 
mons, with the answers of their 
respective governors, are herewith 
traaamitted, together with a return 
of ordnance and ordnance.s tores 
taken possession of, both at St. 
Thomas's and Santa Cruz. 

This dispatch will be presented 
to your lordship by captain Berke. 
ley, of the l6th infantry, an inteU 
ligent officer, who M^fll answer any 
question yon may be pleased to ask 
him, and 1 beg leave to recommend 
him to your lordship's notice. 

Captain Berkeley is my €rst aid« 
de-camp. 

Hen rt Bo wtbr, 
General and commander of 
the forces. 

The summons to the islands, and 
the terms of capitulation, are of 
little interest; being couched in 
the usual expressions and forms. 
^ This Gazette also contauns the 
copy of a letter from rear^dmiral 
the hon. sir Alexaader Cochrane, 
K. B. commandep-in.chief of Jhia 
majesty's ships and ressels at the 
Leeward Islands, to the hon. W. 
W. Pole, giving an account of the 
capture of the above blands. 

Hifdro^Ma^'-'-^^k. professional 
gcatlemaii, (Mr. Twemlow, of Stone 

Chair, 



to 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



Chair, n^ar Lawtpn, iii Chtsliire,> 
abeervls, to a publication last week, 
oa this sobject, that ^* caaine nad- 
ttess, during tlie last winter and this 
autunm, ha^^ been so frequent' in 
London and its neighboarhood, as 
to. cause uniTersal alarm, especially 
t^ the efficacy of the Ormskirk and 
cferj other internal remedy is to. 
tally disproved."-rHe then stater 
the case of a man being seterely 
bitten by a diseased dog, and says, 
*^^ he directly came to me, much 
alarmed; I washed the wounds with 
mariatic acid, or spirit of salt, which 
lirought on inflammation, and an 
abscess was the consequence, but 
considering the extent of the wound 
was little trouble to him. He took 
both the Ormskirk medicine and 
ash.coloured liYcrwort, to appease 
his mind. The dog bit a pig which 
went mad, and was so Tiolent they 
were obliged to shoot him.'' la a 
second case of a bite from a dog, 
the author used the same remedies. 
A third case is given as follows: 
*' John Downs, an apprentice to Mr. 
Twiss, smith, in Odde Rode, was 
bit by a neighbour's dog : be seized 
bim just above the shoe, ^nd there 
was a wound at least two inches 
long, on each side the ttndon achilm 
/if* I did not sec him until n^oro 
than twenty»four hours had elapsed. 
I washed t|pe wound with muriatic 
acid, and applied a common poiiL 
tice to prevent inflammation ; on 
the third day I repeated the appli. 
<iat!on of the acid. He took three 
or four times a day two spoonfuls 
of 9' mixture composed of half an 
ounce of the acid^ a pint of water, 
and a little syrup. No other means 
were used, very little inflammation 
succeeded, and the boy did very well^ 
Iboagh sejeral animals went mad 
|hat were bitten by. the same dog. 



This case he says was in Jane 1 SOtt* 
asd I believe the parties are all 
living. I preferred thi> moriatic 
to any other acid, in consequence 
of the old custom of dipping dogs, 
Sec. in brine, who were bit hy a ra. 
bid animal, and am confident of its 
superior success to incision, actual 
cautery, or any dry caustic, as the 
washing the Svonnd with iht acid 
finds the depth 'each tooth pene* 
tratcs* I am so confident of Jts 
success, that I fancy I should not 
feel the least uneasiness in being 
obliged to try its efficacy on myself." 
7, An inquisition was taken at 
St. George's hospital on the body 
of Mary Carpmeal, who. drowned 
herself in the Serpentine river, on 
the preceding day. The deceased, 
a fine yonng woman, 18 years of 
age, was the niecQ of the late Mr. 
Carpmeal, of Bow.stieet police 
office, and her father recently kept 
the Coach an4 Horses in Mounts 
street. It appeared in evidence, 
that the, deceased was walking in 
the Park with her ^sier and others, 
whom she had gone that afternoon 
to visit, and on a sudden she ran 
away from her companions, and in 
their sight threw herself into the 
rirer. A gentleman's servant who 
was on the spot, but nnfortonately 
could not swim, tied threo band* 
kerchiefs together to sare her^ 
which she attempted to seize hold 
of, but at length sunk. A man of 
colour plunged into the water soon 
after, and he succeeded in getting 
the body to the shore, but every 
means to restore animation proved 
unsuccessfal. It was staled that a 
love attachment had deprived the 
deceased of hec senses* Verdict*— 
Lunacy. 
A dreadful fire brokf ooi at 

the printjLng.office of M^ NichllBlSy' 

in 



CHRONICLE- 



11 



Red Lion Passage, Fleet^street. 
lerc is no certainty as to the man* 
r ia which it originated, more 
so it is' generally supposed to 
re began from a snoiT of candle 
tiog been dropped in the ware* 
om. The whole of that terj 
tensire concern is consumed, and 
laable works that haTe been ac- 
imulating for many years have 
:en entirely ^ost. Messrs. Ni- 
lois aod Son were insured to the 
noant of 1^,000/. bnt that snm is 
^ no means eqaal to cover their 
ss. There is a iremarkable cir« 
imstance rdated, which is asfoU 
»ws : A servant girl was in the 
itchen, almost snffbcated with the 
soke, and nnabie throngh terror 
3d the deprivation of breath to 
love; a fireman discorered It, broke 
pen the window, and at the risk 
f bis own Kfe sayed the giri*s. 
"he Ked Lion pablichouse, Mr. 
Edwards's Printing-office, the Scot. 
ish hospiUI, and some other ad. 
acent places, sustained partial inl 
ury. The 3d London and some 
»ther Yolnnteers mastered with 
tromptttode, and were extremely 
erviceable. 

The celebrated Major Sempte 
net with another unexpected de. 
ention on Wednesday^ in Upper 
Seymour-street, in consequence of 
m having forgotten to satisfy the 
lemands of u tradesman a few days 
since, and he met with a very un- 
expected deliverance by the liberali. 
ty of the Eari of B. The major 
called at the shop of a perfiuner a 
few day since, and looked out or. 
naments to the amount of 25 shil- 
Inigs, and requested the tradesman 
^0 gWe him the change for a 5L 
Q9te, and on his being about to do 
•^5 the major begged pardon, and 
^ith an air of affected surprise^ 



observed that his note was for ten 
pounds. By thil stratagem, which 
was so dexterously executed, the 
major obtained possession of tht 
goods, and the tradesman found 
himself duped. He howevar es» 
pied his customer on Wednesday in 
Seymour-street, and demanded hir* 
money, but the major was destitute 
of either cash or note, and he took* 
refoge in the house of a Mr. Frear^ 
to avoid the mob, and a constab1« 
was charged with him. The EarJ of 
B. was passing by, and on perceiving 
a crowd, inquired into the business^ 
and on the tradesman makiAg hit 
case known, ' his lordship paid the 
demand ; but there were other da. 
morous creditors in the street, and 
to avoid their unpleasant importn- 
nities Mr. Semplc decamped from 
the back part of the house. 
Libel on the College of Physicians* 
The King v. Hector Campbell. 
10. The defendant was brought 
up to receive the judgment of the 
court, when Mr. Justice Grose ad. 
dressed him to the following effect s 
<^ You have been convicted or a 
gross libel upon the coU^e of phy. 
sicians, a body of learned and ho« 
nourable men, acting in the die. 
charge of an important and useful 
, duty, acting also under letter^ pa. 
tent from his majesty, and con. 
finned by the legislature. Part of 
their duty was to keep from that 
loarn^ profession illiterate and pre. 
sumptuous men, and to confine the 
practice of physic to persons of 
real merit. Such a doty is not less 
advantageous to the indi'vidiial ad. 
mitted to practice, than to the pub. 
lie who arc benefited' by that prac* 
tice. That body thought proper 
to interdict you from practioe in 
consequence of your contumacious 
behaviour, and your subsequent 

conduct 



ANNUAT. RE 

Bct shewed a coiitci(ni» vafit- 
to adead the chanber ot tb^ 
To preient, therefore, a nt- 
iiMi uf such oflencei, aod to 
e that the callega of physiciaiM 
t juitiGcd in the iDterdiclioa 

lent, the court adjudge* you to 
a fine of 50/. and te be inpri- 
d threa months in the Kiog's 
:h Priton." 

ovtr, il. — Ptince Estcrbasf 
Kuile embarked here wilh tfaift 
y bagi^agc of Count Slarhem- 

yeitf.rdiyf and sailed fur Ca- 
ll two cartels aboirt four o'clock 

moruing, tiaviag a fresh viiid 
I (he westward ; they will late 
: tide in, and may be expected 
c to-morrow. 

letter from DoTer, dated Feb. 

nyi ; " This morniog, aboMt 
n o'clock, the wind blew a hur- 
le, with thick snow. Several 
ih between the snow showert 
) seen to go past with low of 
: anchors and cables. Between 

and three o'clock, an East' 
aman was teen going past, and 
tly after aootha*, with the loss 
ain-top-matt and other damage; ' 
of oar boats went oat to thdr 
tnACB. Several pieces of tim- 

and wr^ck continno to go 

vtimburgkf 13.^The Slock- 
I post of to.daj has brought 
mportant intelligence tbBt Rut. 
4W doclared war against Swe* 
: and some accounls Xate that 
Russians have already entered 
lith Kiolaod. Uoih M. Alo. 
, the Ru«an owuster, and 
tMooIke, the Danish mintsler, 
ibout to qyit Stockholm. The 
tn and staff of the Swedish 
' in Finland, bad receircd of« 
to join with all pemble cijie> 



CHRONICLE. 



IS 



mg : coacliesliaTebeen sometimes 
•[)ped for two or three days^ btit 
• mail was nefer dctainca aborc 
I ly, being always forwarded by 
.ic route or other on horseback. 
York they are completely unac- 
ainted with the cause of the de. 
ition of the mail, nor do they 
*n know at what particular spot 
nUce tfie great interruption is^ 
completely are they locked up' 
)n any interconrse with the 
ulh. 

A serious aflfmy took place at 
ad well. A drunken sailor pass. 
( bj the residence of ths Lascar 
imcD, gave one of them some of- 
ice. A quarrel ensncd, and the 
lor beat hh antagonist, who ran 
his quarters. —The Lascars, 
arly 400 In number, then sallied 
it to attack the sailor, armed with 
inlgeons, pokers, ^c. The sailor 
3de an obstinate resistance, and 
ught desperately, with a knife ia 
36 baud, and a bludgeon in the 
^her. In the scuffle the sailor 
abbed one of the Lascars ia three 
uts of his body, and finally effect- 
\ bis escape to a publichouse. 
'he Lascars then surrounded the 
ouse, and brought the sailor ovtt. 
'hej would have conveyed him to 
\\c\r quarters, where he would 
oiibtless have fallen a sacrifice to 
heir fury, had not <*^e funeral train 
'f a volunteer happened to ob- 
truct their progress. The volun- 
cers, who belonged to one of the 
^Vhitechapel cOrpsj hearing the 
lionts of the Lascars, and being in- 
^)rrQed of the cause, immediately 
^"t off the retreat of them, by push- 
^"; forward wffli fixed bayonets on 
each side the street. The Lascars 
•^mediately surrendered. They 
^crs then made prisoners in their 



cjuarters.) ceufinels being placed be 
fore the doors. 

Singitlnt* Coincidence.^-The onljr 
two mansions and estates ever vot«d 
by a British parliament for naval 
and militarr services, were those of 
•Blenheim, to John, the first duke 
of Marlborough ; and of Trafalgar, 
to the relatives of our' lamented 
Nelson. It is observable, that in 
both thfse castss the heir apparent 
died before he came of age: the 
, first marqais of Blandfdrd while at 
the university, and the first viscount 
Trafalgar in his ^Oth year. It is 
.further observable, that in conse. 
quenee of the premature decease of 
each of these young noblemen, the 
honours decreed by the nation hare 
passed into the female line. Thus 
the Churchill honours are vested in 
the Spencers, and those of Nelson 
are about to pass into the Bolton 
family. 

C0559/, Feb, 15. — A deputation 
of the Jews in the kingdom of 
Westphalia has asscmblied here, 
consisting partly of rabbis, partly 
of elders. On the 8th the deputas 
tion were introduced by M. Israel 
Jacobson, counsellor of finances, 
to the minister of state, M. Simeon^ 
and afterwards to king Jerome* 
Mr. Jacobson addressed his majesty 
in a short speech, and the following ^ 
is part of the reply which was 
made : — 

'< I am satisfied with your speeeh. 
That article in the constitution of 
my kingdom, which establishes tha 
'equality of all religions, is in pe^. 
feet unison with the feelings of my , 
heart. The hiw ought to interrupt 
no man in the exercise of his wor« 
ship. Each subject is as much at 
liberty to observe the rules of hh 
faith) as the king is to follow hit 

roligloD. 



U ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

reiygion. Tli« duties of the citizen Due in wbtch ihfi, defeQ4aiit 4sli«I« 

are the only objects which the tews leoged that ^^ lumpf^ amepmee^*' 

of the goTernmeot cao regulate." iMr. Ingleby (who had d^onuaat^ 

iT^CourtofCommonPleas. — The hiqDself emperor of ike conjurers)^ 

Tope-dancer and the coojurer 1 Price to a trial of skill in the art of de* 

T« Moritz. Mr. Serjeant Shepherd cepttons^ioxi^^^nm of three kumdred 

ptated the plaintiiTs case: it was gmneai. He had not only chal* 

1^ action^ he said, to. recoyer ten lenged him^ but had gone ftirther, 

guineas (being the amount of salary and. bid the world enter the lists 

for one mooth, at the rate of two with him — a second Buonaparte, 4n 

guineas and a half per week), from point of dec^tio»*^^AJier making 

the defendant, manager of the some farther obseriations, he pro* 

Temple ef Apdlo^ in Catherine* ceeded to prore his case, and called 

street, in the Strand. The plaintiff cridence to establish the facts of the 

is a lady eminent for her abilities engagement at the stipulated som 

as a ropemdancer J Sh^ was with her of two guineas and a half per week 

husband at Cambridge, when the — that she was brdered on the 523d 

defendant was exhibiting his woum of November to quit the theatre, 

derful performances as the emperor and never come there again ; and 

ef the conjurers^ and a&tonishing the also, that she had offered her ser. 

grave and l^rned members of that vices to fulfil, the engagement she 

University ,^the thoughtless and gay, had entered into, 
and, in short, every description of Mr, Serjeant Best, for the de» 

persons ! ! — Allured by the splendid fendant, lamented that" the case 

<^ffer of an engagement for tkree should not have fallen into abler 

months J the plaintiff and his wife hands than his. He was no inatdi 

were induced to come to London, for his learned brother (Shep. 

where, under the high-sounding herd) ; he never attended these sort 

title of Signora Belinda^ this con^ of places.; but ills learned brother 

juring manager announced his fair did, and consequently was well ac« 

client to the world ! — ^She per- quainted with their tricks and dr* 

formisd, and the consequence was, ccptions; and could of course ma« 

that crowds ran to witness her per- nage such a cause with better skiU^ 

forroaiice ; the conjurer contrired to- He had described his client wrongly 

pocket the cash ; and the public -—be was not the emperor of the 

was pleased with his deceptions* conjurers, noc|^ he wish to be so 

The plaintiff, however, now com. considered-r-ha was nothing more 

plained of a species of deception^ than a pr<^estor of the art of am* 

which he had neither inserted in his juration ! Whatever skill Buona* 

bills, nor, indeed, in the agreement parte might have in making andua- 

which he had entered into with her« making kings and emperors, pre* 

He had turned her from .the the- fessor MorUz did not wish to be put 

atre, after performing two or three on a footing with him in that re« 

weeks, and refused to fulfil his en. spect. His was but an humble i/^r- 

gagement The learned gentleman ception of the world ! With lespect 

read a rariety of hand-bilis and bills to the present action^ the lady bad 

of performance. Among them was herself to thank for the disasiissai ; 



CHRONICtE. IS 

sh^ bad dismissed fKTBetf! — Not ITie statement in nearly t ha »am« 

y that, bat sbe bad ihrast her. woris. 

into the prirMte apartnient of Mr. lerjeant Shepherd, In tb* 
''rswr Marits, while he was «d- courseof bis reply, introdaccd mat- 
ing wiik Miss Wood their odd ter which serrcd to amaic the aii- 
trra, and hatancmg accauntt ; dience. Anioog other obserratJon^ 

struck him with an nmbrella, be said, that the conduct of the em., 

abused bim in ihe gronest peror was such that no tpitnhf Akma 

ns; calling bim ^' a Itflie Ger. could put up with ! There were cert 

I humbug!"' Adding, thnt sho tain epithets, which, if applied to 

aid never enter his the.itre again, women, (hey flcrer sither forgot or 

r grace tbo Apotloninn temple forgiTe. No wora^n likes to ao. 

:h her agiie fcait. Under thc^e knowledge a masler, especially if 

isideratiuns the jary would have she were in the habit of vcqring tic 

hesitation in turning her round, breeehet ! Was it to be wondered 

i iind a verdict for the de- at then, that this lady should resent 

dant. such language f None, whatever 

Several -witnesses were callod for station of life they might fill, ap- 

I defendant. proved of degrading tcnns. That 

K Mr. Denham, one of the xocat the conjafvr was manager, she was - 

ys, stated that Signora Belinda ready to admit ; but to insult her 

d, late on Saturday evening, the with the epithet of master, was toA 

Id November, bonnced into the mnch. In observing upon the fee 

om in which Mr. Moritz and Miss timony given respecting the attack 

ood, his partner, were settling npon the ron^urrr, he said tiitt 

e accounts of the evening. That could not be serieasly meaol, for 

r. Morilx rcqaested she would she had been described as a little 

ilhdraw for a few minutes, ai he woman, not more than four feet 

as engaged. _Sha refused; and high, and the eonjnrcr was an ath. 

lenhe said, *' Am [ not yoDrtnm- Irticman, lixfetl high and upwards. 

^, and the manager, and have the (Morilz, who sat behind scrjcant 

i^htto insist upon your leaving the tibepherd, rose up, and said, 

ODto?" The Signora rejoined in ** Here I am, sir, at your service l" 

'armth, '' What ! you my mailer ! This incident excited much mirth j 

amn yon ! yon dirty Kttle German for he appeared to be a Utile man, 

umbug!" Not content with this, not more than jfrc /it', aithougb 

lie lilted op her umbrella, and possessinga pairofheaiy shoulders! 

(ruck the nianager twice, saying Mutual civilities passed hetween the 

he would not enter his theatre Serjeant and the etnperor.) 

i*atn. Mr. Moritz told hor that The learned serje^nt ihen pro- 

■er wages were not due till Mod. ceeded, and observed, that the cm. 

lay ; that if she would come then, peror, however, was defermined 

'he should have her money; and that he should not be deceived t 

iiever should enter the theatre after The exhibition of his person waa 

"•at night. He said the lady 'was certainly intended to do away any 

lotirfett^fiot iiiehe» high. imprcMion which the jury might 

Seici^ witnesses corroborated . entertain of his intention to bua, 

bag 



e ANNUAL RE 

«g ibfm I Ha vu, u fui, aa *tb- 
ittcman! Afler loiiie further ohv 
erTatiuDS, he conclnded with troat- ' 
ig that tlie^ would find a verdict for 
It client, and thereby out-oMJan 
kt tonjurrr, and trkk him at kit 
WD tricks ; for this dafeoca was a 
rick to defeat the pLuntiS's juat 

Sir James Mansfi^d wi&had that 
his uofortunate cauiehad not bean 
roDght iato court. It would ban 
lean bettor Tor these poor penooi 
bat some friend out of court had 
ndcrUkea to settle the dificreacat. 
Ictions of this nature only tarei 
he purpose af attorneys! Tha 
»rned judge then observed, thait 
rom the evidence it was clear that 
he pluotiff had dbchargad herseU 1 
r the jury believed the teitimonf 
f the defendant's wituesses, the/ 
rould find a verdict for him. Ha 
tw no reason to doubt the evi- 
ence, as the/ agreed in all tb« 
ading facts.— Verdict for the de^ 
indant. 

A prosecalion was institnted by 
le conn less idowager of iichettar, 
ir the benafit of the public, against 

porter at the White Horse Cellar, 
'jccadill/, for having defrauded her 
f the sum of 3s. 4d. in the carriage 
f a basket of fish from Dorchester, 
t appeared that frequent coa- 
lainti had been made agauiat the 
efcndant for extortion in the car^ 
iage of parcels, which he was in 
le habit of delivering, and thepar> 
et coDoerned being desirons of 
electing his malpractices, a d«> 
licate of the ticket which was sent 
'ith the basket in question, was 
qcloscd in it, stating the real charge 
3 be 6s. 6d. bnt the defendant, not 
Duwing of this, altered Us own to 
1. lOd. whidt her lad/ship'i ler- 
ant paid Urn. This was full/ 



CHRONICLE. 



17 



treafed them to dtimiss from their 
Bindf all (hey hatd heard elsewhere, 
and attend only to the eridence 
which won Id be laid before thern. 
He then stated the facts' as below 
dctaiied, and called the following 
witnesses : 

Samut'l James, a surgeon, at 
Iloddesdon, deposed, that on the 
$Oth of October he went to the 
housgi of Mr. Borebam, at Hoddes* 
doe. Oa ^ng to the house, he 
saw Mrs. Hummcrstone leaning 
a^ahist the pHlfAg near the dour ; 
ihe was then a lire, but died in three 
nioutes of a wound in the neck, 
sear the spine. 

Sarah Harris, servant of ^Ir. 
Borehaoiy said she had lired four 
Tears with him ; Simmons, the pri- 
toner, had lived there three years, 
and qaittcd it last Michaelmas ; the 
prisoner wished to marry her, but 
W mistress disapproved of it : they 
liad quarrelled before he quitted the 
>erfice*Mm which occasion he beat 
Her; and when he had doni*, he 
^d he did not care if he had killed 
Her. Ife haa often said, he would 
nakeaway with her, because she 
woitd not marry htm. 

About half paat eight in theei^n. 
Ui^ef the 20th of October he came 
to the house; she was in the kit. 
^Hea, ami heard - him coming along 
the yard; he was swearing violently. 
He came op to the window and 
'traek at her through the lattice, 
and swore he would do for them all. 
She desired him not to make a noise, 
at they had coinpany; he said he 
did not ears for the company, he 
vottkl do for them all. Mrs. Hum. 
nerstoue hearing the voice, opened 
tberooBMloor and came to the yard. 
She teld him to go awuy. He gave 
Hn a blow on the head, which 
knocked off her ^nnet ;-^she ran 

Vot. L. 



into the house, and he immediately 
followed her. The witness imnic. 
diatety heard the shrieks of murder, 
but did not know from whom. All 
the family were in the room. The 
three young ladies, Mr. Boreham's 
daughter, Mrs. Warner, the mar- 
ried daughter, Mr, Horcham and 
his wife, and Mrs. Hummcrstone. 
In a very short time, the prisoner 
came to the wash-house to her ; sho 
shut the door, and cried out rnur* 
dcr! The witness ran into tho 
Sitting-room. She there saw some 
one lying under the window; she 
immediately ran from thence down 
a passage ; the prTsoner fellowed 
her; she there met her master witli 
the poker in his hand ; in running 
haslii/, her master, who is a very 
old and feeble man, was knockCit 
down. Tho prisoner caught her 
and threw her down, and drew a 
knife on her. He threw her across 
Mrs. Warner, who was lying dead, 
as she believed. He drew the knife 
across her throat, but she guardett 
it with her hand, which was cut. 
He made a second blow, when she 
wrested the knife out of his hind. 
He immediately ran away, and she 
saw no more of him. 

Sarah .Cakcbury said she lived 
near Mr. Borcham, and heard tho 
cry of murder. She passed Mrs- 
Hummerstonc and went into the 
house; she saw Mrs. Warner lying 
dead under the window. 

George Bricton said, on the even- 
ing of the 20th of October he went 
to Mr. Boreham's, at Hoddesdon : 
finding what had been done, he wont 
in search of the murderer ; in the 
cow-house he found Tom Simmons*! 
hat ; he went in further search, but 
the prisoner was found by another 
party. 

Thomas Copperwhcat went in 

B search 



I 



1 ANNUAL RE( 

ireh of (be mniderer. He diioo« 
red Simmons concciLled under 
ne straw in a. crib in tbe farm- 
rd ; be had na bim aimuck frock 
ty bloody: the place where be 
a found was about 100 yudt fram 
e house. 

Benjamin Rook, the coroner, 
id, when Ihc eiideDce of Harris 
» ruad ta the prboaer, be said it 
u very true, he had murdered 
cm, and no one else. Ue added, 
at he did not intend to bare mur- 
!rcd Mn. Hummers ton a, but ho 
cut with an hitantion uf murder. 
£ Mrs. Boreham, Mr«. Warner, 
id Harris, tbe maid-scryant. 

The cousUble who_ carried bim 
> prison, deposed tu the tame 
feet. The prisoner also told him, 
lat when he had got Betsy down, 
E heard something flutter over his 
loulders, which made bim get up 
od run avray. 

The prisoner bobg called upon 
I know if he had any thing <o say^ 
asweicd, in « coreltn (om — No 1 

Mr. justice Heath told the jury, 
le CBEO was so very clear that it 
insi be unnecessary for him to ad- 
rcM any obscrrations to thain ; the 
risoncr, as they had heard, Itad 
■ore than unce voluDtarily goo> 
3sscd his guilt. 

The jury found him guillii ; and 
he learned judge im mediately pro. 
ounced the sentencq of the law — 
hat he should be hanged on Alan. 
Ay next, and bis body anatomised. 

It ii a matter uf curiosity to cd. 
uire what are the features which 
lark a wretch of such, abandoned 
irinciples. The pictures published 
f him in town do not by any means 
ODvey a correct iiloa uf his person.- 
'be genera] outline and character 
f his face is best refirescDted by 
iw ftfiut'face poctfut of J)iu-.rbut 



. CHRONICLE. 

surreal stores, md surgicaT inMru- (lU. 5s.) He then left the cai 
nirnts, arc auppiied boili at home lobcde>ourcMlby beariand nol 
and abroad, hy a Mr. Garniur, who but, preTiomly to which, he h 
hjs a pateut far the purpoiie, (hough rude dratring made of it, which 
I") reason bos beep assigneit fut-this preBt;nts it with pointed ears, ^ 
v:iluable Dionopolf,' Mr. C. cm. (mall eyes, harat'8 hoofs, an 
ciiti's no part of (he buiinesi him. bristly mnae, extending along 
^- If. and rcceiTCs a salary ta addi. whute of it* back. 
tiriii to hii profiti, which appear to Mad Dogs.—fkt Newbury 

iip. )ory great indeed 1 His ckarges greyhound ^moit'tore oft tbe i 
fn a yearly avccattc amount tu of a child about three yeari of i 
6j,3.tOi. 'I'ho wtulu instituttoD toon uftL-r he bit a man in the ha 
tti'mK to have been condacted in a almost through ; and it u feare< 
mo^t cKrava^ant manner, and af. has bitten many other personf-. 
liirds another instance of the mode was at length killed. Sercn ] 
)') which the public money has bfvn sons who Irate been bitten, at 
s'l'iandered. The expendicarc of Newbgry,pa:ssod through that t( 
u ine, spirits, and porter, has been In a caratait about a week »ince, 
ronbiderable; fur whose Bse, cannot their way to the satt water 
i>'j easily ascertained. A pipe of Southampton. 
»ine in tea days, at tbe York hos< Ptdcgtrian Inttl{igencei~—^ 
pital, was a comman aTeragc. Ilalifait,' of tb« Royal LancasI 
Amung the many abuses which the Militia, « ho lately, for a consic 
'<^port dtscoven, are those com' able bei, walked thiny miles 
milted in the Kccoonti of the Ply> day for twenty lacceisiTe days, 
mouth hospiial, in the years 17S0, detailed in several papers, and « 
!7!)7, and I7S8. These consist of thereby established hit f^« a 
double charge?; of alterations In pedestrian, hu now nndertakei 
'•iiichers for the purpose of intro. labour much TDore severe lb«D 
Cueing larger suns in tbe place of one he has already atchluved ; It 
>".ialler; and of false entries in the to walk Iwomilesan hour for i 
mi^nthly charge, under the head of hundred successiTc hours. 1 
' small bills." ground selected fur the perfornia 

A complete matnnoth has lattly is near Tiverton, on the road 
^etn found (though not a)iv£) in a Ilalbcrton. He went thither ii 
M'e of perfect prcserration on the postchaise, and commenced the i 
'Orders of tbe Frozen Ocean. It derlaking -at four o'clock on W 
J3S itiscoTered by Schoumachoff, a ncsday e»eniog last. This exp. 
'unloose chief, in the autumn of will occupy upwards of four d. 
'~!% in the midst of a rock of ice ; and nights Success i rely, allowi 
vit it was not till the fifth year after at no lime, more than one hour 
indingit, that the ice had racTted repose or refrohDienl. The ; 
luRidenily to disengage the u'lam. ncral opinion is very much agai 
noth, when it fell over on ill side bis winning : — considerable bets ; 
-^n a bank of sand. Scfaoumaclioff laid, and of course the odds are 
he" cut off the tusks, which he bar- bis favour. 
^'4il for goods withaRussian mcr. A melancholy instan*^ of snic 
'!-( to the value of 50 rubtei, occurred at Bristol.— -A geatlen 
B2 



20 



ANNUAL H E G I S T E R, 1808. 



of respectability^ from Bath, who 
Iiad been on a visit at a friend's 
bouse in that city, cut his throat, 
and othcrwbe lacerated himself in a 
shucking niunoer. The unfortu. 
Date gentleman had becii conhncd 
to his roorn for so'tiO days through 
Illness ; and, at ten o*clock on the 
above morning,, the servant girl, 
hearing him groan, looked through 
the key .hole of his chamber do^r, 
^nd discovered him wcltesing io his 
blood. Medical jassistaocc ivas 
procured, but the wouod& he had 
InQictcd on himself were such as to 
occasioahis almost immediate death. 
A coroner^s inquest war! held on 
the body the same day, when it ap- 
peared thii he had before, on sc. 
teral occasions, discovered strong 
symptoms of mental deraogeroopt. 
Verdict, Lunacy. — Tlie ^irceased 
was 70 years of age. ,:. 

iS^TT' Parhl ny an imperial de«. 
txeQ oC'.thoday b:;fore yestcrday,'ail 
vnirersity is established, io whkh. is 
, 9.) trusted, the care of supervising 
public instruction through the 
whok French empire. 
» The following is tho oath to ba 
(fiken by. the ncw'uobility: 

** I swear io be faithful to the 
vOmporor and his dynasty ; to be 
obedient to the ceostitutiqn, laws, 
and institutions of the empire ; to 
serve hiB .'majesty as a good, upright, 
andfaithf 11] subject ; to eilucatemy 
children inthers^mc feelings of (ide- 
lity and obedience, and to march 
ip defence of my country .as soon' as 
its territory shall be threatened, or 
as bis maj.esty shall go to the army.'' 

The King of Deirtnark.-^ The 
death of Christian the Vilth, king 
of Denmark, is announced io the 
Gottenburgh mail which arrived 
yesterday. He was born on the 
^th of JaRuary, 174^^ In tbe 



year 17G6 he was married to the 
princess Carolina Maisldai sister of 
our revered monarch. The unfor.« 
til hate history of that princei>s, 
owing, it is generally supposed, to 
tho enmity of ber step*mothcr, has 
long been a subject of regrel-in (his 
country. The late king of Den- 
mark came to England in the year 
1767* and w^ received with eyrery 
possible ilemonstration of respect by 
all ranks of people, as well as by 
the illustrious family to whom lie 
bad beea recently allied* Soon 
after his return Co Deiunack, his 
facultiesi which were nerer bright, 
sunk into a decay, which .wholly 
pioGtted him for the duties of his 
situation, and his kingdodi has ever 
siiice been governed under his name, 
without the least chance that be 
.wo)i]d be able to resume his royal 
functions. Jkfore this melancholy 
event in his life, there was nothing 
in his ciiaraeter morally or iiitei. 
lectualiy j^Iculated to excite. admi* 
Tfition or provoke .censure, 
, 19. The inhabitants of. the town 
pf Stoney Stratford were thrown 
into the utmost consternatioD Jby 
Information which arrived from 
Wolvcrton, that the three largit 
aqueduct arches under the im^ 
i^pnsely high lembar.kmcnt, mjtde 
about four years ago, for carrying 
the new line of the grand junctioii 
canal across the valley, about a 
mile below that tow.n, had fallcii 
in.; aqd that the river Quse was so 
dammed up thereby, that the town 
must shortly be entirely inundated 
to a great depth. Ibe fears of 
those who hastened to the spot, 
u ere much allayed, by fin.ding»,,that 
one of these arches, which had been 
propped up underneath with tin* 
bpr, foon after the centers were 
struck, was still st^ndina ; and that 

 ' ^ ti9 



CHRONICLE. 



21 



this one arch, owing to there being 
no food in flic rtver, was able to 
earry ofT the water as fast as it came 
down. On examining (he other two 
arches, it appeared that about 
twenty. two yards in length of the 
middle part of each had fallen in, 
and blocked up the openings, lay. 
inz the canal above in complete 
rains, emptying, it as far as the 
nearest stop.gate on each side, and 
ciposing the remains of five hun. 
drcd quarters of coke or cinders, 
which the contractors had laid on 
the arches. The cnds^ of each of 
the brokcti arches were fouhd 
standing in a crippled state. 

Lois Herquiada, for the wilful 
murder of Francisco Romftro, was 
conVeyed from the new gaol, to the 
place of execution, near Win. 
Chester. lie behaved wi[h great 
penitence, and made a confession of 
the crime for which ho was going 
to suffer. At the place of execu. 
(ion a most melancholy drcum* 
stance took place owing to the hang- 
man not understanding his duty, in 
fixing the rope on the gallows jit a 
proper lime. The rOpe was put 
round the maU^factor's neck, and 
the cart instantly moving away, be 
fell, suspended, and, in the con. 
vufsive agonies of death, his feet 
were partly on the ground ; and he 
underwent a most violent strangu- 
lation. His dying groans jmxtc 
ihockinsf. He remained in that 
situation for some time, and then 
^poke, in great anguish, requesting 
to bo put out of his misery. One 
of the javelin men took him round 
the body, and lifted him up, in or- 
der to remove the rope, which was 
ihen under his chin, to under his 
left far. He wasa^ain thrown off, 
and Was some time before death put 
1 period tabis ^uffc^ings. 



This morning a dreadfol fire 
broke out, about three o^clock, at 
'Mrs. Smith's', milliner, in Middle- 
row, Chelmsford. The inhabit 
tants of the house, consisting alto- 
gether of females, seven in number^ 
Were in a most perilous sitnationv 
They appeared at the windows of 
the second floor (for the first was 
on fire), as they had risen from 
their beds, uttering the most pier- 
cing shrieks. As the mest Tikelj 
means of rescuing them, two lad. 
ders were procfjred, and raised 
agaifLst the bunding front of the 
house; but, such was the danger of 
ascending to their relief, from the 
violence of the flames,"^ that a mo- 
mentary irresolution ensued among 
the spectators of their tremendously 
awful situation ; till, agonized by 
their screams, and actuated by the 
feelings of humanity to a contempt 
of personal safety, a young man, 
Mr. Henry Guy, and Mr. Sorrel, 
a near neighbour, made an attempt 
to J^rescrve them. The former 
succeeded in rescuing a little girl, 
about nine years old, niece (o Mrs. 
Smith. The roaid-scrvant, who had 
got out of the garret- window, and 
climbed to the roof of the house, 
was brought down by (he latter. 
Robinson, a waggoner, who first 
discovered the fire, ascended a lad. 
der. with the intent of bringing 
down Mrs. Smith ; but so extreme 
was her trepidation, that she was 
incapable of using any exertion, 
and it became necessary to drag her 
from the window by force; in 
doing which, owing to h^ convul. 
sive struggles, she fell. upon the 
pavement below, but miraculously 
HHhout having any bones broken. 
Almost at the same iustant, two 
young ladies, miss Williams a«d 
miss Wilkinson, rendered frantic 
lis b/ 



22 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



by terror, precipitated .tficmsdTes 
from the windowi into the street, 
and were so seTcrdy bruised, that 
doubt was long entertained of their 
reeovery, as well as of that of Mrs. 
Smith. Two amiable joung ladles, 
miss Woolmer, aged 19, whose pa. 
rente reside at Horncknrch, and 
itniss Ere, daaghter of Mr. C. Ere, 
of Bamish.hall, became Tictims to 
the devouring element... Not with, 
standirig the most strenuous exer. 
tions of the popnlace, and the sol. 
diera from the garrison, by six 
o'clock the houses of Mrs. Smith, 
Mr. Peck, druggist, and Mr. Hill, 
shoemaker, adjoining, were totally 
destroyed ; sfnd those of Mr. Rood, 
pl9sterer, and Mr. Nash, hair- 
dresser, were so greatly damaged 
that they must be rebuilt. 

Epitaph in Kirkeel church.yard : 
Here lie the remains of Thomas 
Nicols, who died in Philadelphia, 
March 1753. Had he lived, he 
mould have been buried here, 

9$. John Baker, James Baker, 
.Benjamin Baker, and three others, 
wero indicted for asf^aulting the 
Hot. H. Williams, and keeping him 
in imprisonment the whole of the 
night of Sunday, the ^Oth of Decern, 
ber, and making him sign a pro- 
mise to pay SI. as a consideration 
for being released. 

The ReT. Mr. Williams was cal. 
M. He was a yoting man, and 
told the following extraordinary 
tale: he said he was curate of the 
parish of Kirtford, in this county, 
and that he permitted John EUker 
to live in the Ticarage house with 
him, who, in return, performed lit. 
tie domestic senrices for him. On 
$>anday, December 20, after the 
performance of his clerical duties, 
he returned home, and hearing a 
great nobe fn the kitchen, he sent 

% 



for John Baker to coifte to him ra 
the parlour, and remonstrated with 
him. Baker npon this grew Tery 
insolent, clenched both his fists, 
and thrust them in a menacing 
manner in his face. Upon this be 
said he was alarmed, and seeing an 
old gun in a corner, which he koetr 
to be unloaded, be took it up with a 
view io defend himself, when Baker 
aeized him, and beat him to the 
ground ; he^was joined by the other 
two Bakers, who dragged him oat 
of doors to the green, on which 
there were several people, some of 
whom cried out, ^* give . il him 
well." They afterwards dragged 
him to the public.house, and made 
him sit down in a little room.' Af. 
tQt he had been there a short time, 
he ran out, and escaped about lOO 
yards; but James and Benjamin 
Baker pursued him, and forced him 
to return U> the house ; here they 
kept him all night, and suna pro. 
fane and indecent songs in Ms' 
hearing. In the morning they said 
they would take him before a ma- 
gistrate; but by his in treaties, they* 
permitted him to go home and 
change his clothes. £ldridgeand 
Hillyer accompanied him ; and 
they frightened him by felling him, 
that he had eommttted a trans- 
portable offence, by having taken 
the old gnn* He was so much 
alarmed, that he was induced to 
sign a promise to give thvm five 
poonds, if they would let bim go. 

On his cross.exammation, it ap- 
peared, that he had actually point- 
ed the gnn at Baker, and that he 
srgned the paper, which was writ- 
ten by his own dictation, as a com- 
promise for an assault, which he 
acknowledged he had^ committed 
on Baker. He also contradicted 

himself in so maj^y particulars, i^^ 

the 



CHRONICLE. - i 

.? jatj (mmedulel; found th« The River Dee office was likcwi 

i'.ontn.-.Not guilty. bTolccn open, but nolhiag stolei 

Robheij at tht Rin/al Exchange. Lloyd's Coffca-hoiue buiiig vi 

.On Satord&y se'Diiight, abuut w^ched, the thicfca did nut a 

If past three o'clock, the range of tempt it. An efioft tu break opt 

Ices In the gallery OTer the Hoyal the Royal Exchange Assuranci 

ichange were discorered, by thu oflice was made, but the vilJaii 

ifchnaa going his roimd, to be failed, Kiery escrlioii is nukii: 

ukcn open. On eiamining more to tracu the robbers. 

j«ely, he perceired ihat not one A allocking accident happened i 

the ef&cei in that part of the the Home Park, belonging to h 

lilding had escaped. Some of Iho royal highness the duke of Keu 

lors had been wrenched open witli near Kingston. As a labourii 

ows, or other burglarious implc. man wat passing through the pari 

;nts; others were found open, he was attacked by a ferocioi 

thoul any apparent marks of tIo- bull, and gored in such a mannc 

ice, the locks hating bt^en pick, as only tosurTiTeavcry short tini' 

In the nerchant.seaman's of. His royal highness gave tmmediai 

e the villains fonnd do plunder; orders to the keeper of the poikl 

<il, which had been set apart from shoot the animal, 

e fund for a payment thit morn* A remarkable occurrence too 

% to the leatncn's widows, escaped place at Spithead. A man, beloni 

eir hands, owing to the impreg- ing to the Saicettc fiigate was sei 

hie strength of the iron chest, in tcnccd to be Hugged through tli 

lich the money was contained, fleet for thicfing. The boats froi 

rom Mr> Chapman's ofBce two all the mca.of.war, as is custoraai 

larlers of a lottery ticket in the upon those occasions, were assen 

csent lottery were taken. Mr. bled ; when, at the moment tl: 

odgGs lost firom hit office two punishment was about to be it 

eccs of Irish cloth. Mr. WarU flicted, he jumped OTerhoard, an 

iby's premises were also broken was never afterwards seen. It 

ion, but tile plunderers found no. conjectured he had prcriously coi: 

mg that thoy could carry off ; a cealed some shot in his pockets, t 

le haunch of mutton, which hung prevent the possibility of risin 

> for this gentleman's Sunday's again in the water, 

nner, fortunately escapefl their The remains of Miss Eve an 

tages. Miss Woolmer, Ibe two yoong li 

The thieves also broke open (ho dies who perished in the late dreac 

rong iron chest in the counting, ful fire at Chelmsford, were on Si 

>use of Mr, Scerelan, and strewed turday se'nnight interred in on 

I the papers abont the room. Mr. grave, to the church-yard of thi 

nith lost about 40/. in cash, and town. The funeral was conducte 

M, \a bills. Messrs. Riiaz and with peculiar solemnity. Twentj 

ngcr stein lost about 9O/. in «io. four youug ladies, habited in whit 

iy. Mr. Parish lost about 40/. preceded the coflins. The pal 

nongst which was a drait for 5/. were borne by twelve young lailie 

hich the villains contrived to ge<t in white dresses and hoods, eu{ 

afore the draft could be stopped, ported by the saiua Bumber < 
il 4 joni 



24 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



young men ia black, irith white 
hat-bands. The rvia tires and friends 
of the deceased, and a numerous 
train of the principal inhabitants of 
the town, in deep mourning, fol. 
lowed. Mrs. Smith, at whose iiouse 
the fire broke ou^, died the same 
morning* Miss 'Williams is in a 
fair way of recovery; but Miss 
Wilkinson still remains in a rery 
precarious state. 

Last week a cat, in Greenock,^ 
brotight forth the most wonderful 
and perfect monster of her own 
species that is to be met with ; it' 
has one head, fouf ears, eight feet, 
and two tails: it is oiie body from 
the navel up, as. if it were breast to 
breast, and from the navel back 
forms two distinct kittens ; what is 
remarkable, the one is male and the 
other female. It has suckled for 
some days, and, from all appear- 
ance, would have lived to *matu. 
rity ; but most unfortunately for 
the admirers of natural rurioaitics, 
was deprived of its life from snpcr. 
stitious motives. It Is now in the 
possession of Mr. Gameron, a sur- 
geon therf . 

A heifer belonging to Mr. Thos. 
JameS) of Waddingtoo, near Lin- 
coln, last week produced the fol- 
lowing wonderful calf. It had two 
beads united just above the eyes, 
and perfectly formed, even the teeth 
jnrach mouth being precisely alike; 
one neck, eight leg?:, two tails, four 
3cidney^, (wo throats, one heart, 
and one liver. It was full grown, 
and of a dull colour. The heifer and 
calf were killed in the parturition. 

Alarming Fire at Brighton, — 
About a quarter before twelve, on 
Thursday se'nnight, a fire broke 
out in the lower part of an unfinish- 
ckI lodging. house, belonging to D. 
SandS; esq. on Marlborough Stey nc, 



Brighton, about three hnndrid 
yards to the north of the Prince*! 
Pavilljon. The flames made such a 
rapid progi^css in the building, 
that the whole of the lower part of 
it was completely in a blaze almost 
as /soon as discovered. By four 
jo'clock the danger was coasidercd 
at an end, though tile fire was not 
entirely extinguished until Friday 
afternoon. , 

Horrid Murder 4 — (From a Ja- 
maica paper.) << I witnessed oq 
Monday lart, in the, parish of St. 
Elizabeth, the most horrid and most 
cruel sight that probably ever was 
seen before, . Mr* James Jenniogi, 
who was settling a coffee plantar 
tion about three miles from this, 
had his throat cut; his housekeep- 
er, a Sambo woman, had bef head 
severed from her body ; their el* 
dest daughter, about eight years old, 
her throat cut ; the next boy, about 
six, his throat cut ^nd scalped ; the 
third, a sucking child, strangled ; 
and a black child, about six, bis 
throat ctit and scalped ; there is 
also one of Mr. Jennings's brown 
children missing, about three years 
old, which, there is not the least 
doubt, has shared the same fatej 
as it was seen in company with 
the others the day before by a gen* 
tlcman who lives in the neighboar- 
hood ; and the murderers, to com. 
plete their barbarity, cut the throat 
of a milcb.goat, which they left 
weltering in its blood along with 
the other dead bodies. These cruel 
and barbarous murders were covRm 
mitted on Sunday, the day before 
I saw them, and soppos^ to be 
done by six Corooiantee negro, 
men, purchased by Mr. Jenoiugs 
ab6ut six months ago. We under- 
stand that one of the above negroes 
was discovered in tiia woodij by a 

• party 



CHRONICLE. 



illy of negroM who were sent in 
ursuit of iJi«D). 'I'hey found him 
ilccp, and we nadotslautl shut him 
a the apttt ; bis hiad was afier- 
ards cot off Mtd stuck od a pole. 
lu was Trapped in the clothes of 
le unfortaoaiB womkii (hey had 
I ci'uclly tDHrdtred, and her ncck- 
icc was tied about hia ancle," 



APRIL. 

3. A/fl/ Fright.— {Extncl of a 
'I'rr from (Vvershun, ditrd April 

) " A boy, who had been watch- 
i|! crowi, on hit return home a 
:w liiyf since, left his gun in the 
nrner of th<! room. A little fel- 
™, nine years old, running into 
\e roiim, and taking the gun. ex- 
Mimfd, " Joe, 1 will shotil jou I'" 
ulkd the trigger, andwoundrd bis 
<iui<K friend in ihc hand and thigh. 

Hogt'ullemen riding piist, alight, 
d, and ga^e every asilstniice in 
lirir power. One of Ihem, fciia- 
<i<i tl.c little follow, said h'e would 
'ive him hanged ; uhich had snch 
n pli.'ct on him, that the next 
^ucninc; he was unable to rise. 
Ic rrieil, and hoped Joe would get 
>t'"cr. He wH! aisured he was 
•■niiig belter, nnd Ihat he might go 
"'■ *ee him: he did s.., and aji- 
I'ari'd mow rumposed ; hut his 
c.li[i£s Were too great for his 
'Miutb, and on "I'hnniay morn. 
■'S '"^ (lied. The vogadcd hoy is 
low iiiilkini{ about." 

■^ (J ukur, a few days since, ha. 
■'^i ticcii cited at an eviilencB lit a 
I'larler scbuiims, 6ne of ihe magii. 
''-Irs, who Irad hecn a bldcksniith, 
-''iredto know why he would not 
■■We off hishal? "U ii a pri.i. 

'i''," said the wifn«s>, " (hat (he 
■'^» and JihBrality of my country 
'"'"'ji' people of our rcli){loiu 



mod* of thinking in." *< ir I ! 
it in my power," said the nn, 
justice, '* I would have your 
woi/ci/lo your head." *' 1 thoug^ 
said Ubadiah, " that thou hi 
giTcn over toe trade of rfrit 
nails." 

e. The Royal Jennerian Sod 
have publisfaed a report on 
Gitpposed failures of Vaccinat 
at Kingwooii, io Hampshire. 1 
inquiry was conducted by a m« 
cal deputation, connistlng of Ji 
Ring, csg. vice-president ; Willi 
Blair, e-q. director ; and Dr. J 
Knowles, the resident inoculal 
asstiilcd by Dr, Fowler, an emtn 
physician vf Salisbury, and  
ployed two days at a public mi 
ing, where were also present 
rig*i( honourable Gvorgo Ri 
VVro. Mills, esq. M. P. ; S. Tan< 
esq. a magistrate ; the rev. Mes: 
Taylor, Davie, and MidiUetd 
MOISTS. Westcott and Maciiwi 
surgeons, &c. 

The following is Ihe result of 
inquiry at reported by Ihe medi 
committee to the society, and 
curded to by the other medical j 
suns present : 

" 'Ihe *nialI-por appeared 
Riiigwood about the middle 
September, and rapidly epr 
through the town and neighba 
hood, partly by means of inuc> 
tion, and partly by natural inl 

" Vaccine inocuIatioB did 
commi^'ice until the 23d of 0< 
ber; it is lheref')|c evident, 1 
ell those persona Who were va 
nated had bcivi previously cxpc 
to (he contagion of the small. po 

" Some of Ihcae persons had 
small pon at ihe same time v 
Ihe cow.pock, io consequence 
prcrious in/cclion. f n others, < 



S6 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



^^Be inottilation did not take effect ; 
•nd consequently they wer« itot 
vendered lAsusceptible of the lafec* 
ti«n of the sinall.pox. 

^ in various instances, dry cow. 
pock matter, receired from several 
quarters^ was dissolTcd in water al- 
viest boiling, preTioiu to insertion ; 
and it is probable, that on tbis ac« 
count, it frequently failed to pro. 
lincc any effect AbOTO two hoD. 
.fired persons, however, were ftuCi. 
eessfuJIy vaccinated, and have been 
protected from the smalLpox, 
fboQgh mnch exposed to its infec- 
tioB in different ways. 

*< It was asserted that the small, 
pox was more fatal at Ringwood 
•nd the neighbouring villages, to 
.those persons who were inoculated 
for the cow-pock than to others. 
Thir report appeared to be totally 
desUtttte of foundation. The mor. 
tality was indeed considerable, 
^'wing) lit some iTistances, to the 
"want of air afid cleanlinesB, and in 
others to the immoderate use of 
Bpirituons liquors, particularly at 
the time of the eruption, which 
Ikad been recommended by a thresh- 
er, who inocalates for the small. 

pox- 

** It was reported, t|iat several 
persons at Ringwood, who were 
inocukitcd with the cow.pock some 
years ago, lately had the smalLpox ; 
"but no satisfactory evidence was 
given to establish the fact, as it 
appeared either that their arms had 
not been Inspected by the inocula* 
tor after vaccirition, or that there 
was no proper scar left behind r 
or, on the- other hand, when they 
were put to the test of variolous 
inoculation, no other effect was 
produced than what Is occasionally 
produced in those who have previ. 
onsiy bad the smatl-pox^ 



<< ft was also instiionBly report. 
ed, that two persona died of the 
cow.pock (or, as it has been term. 
ed, «< the vaccine ulcer;*') b«t it u 
positively asserted by the snrgeoas 
wh6 inoculated them, that no vac 
cine ulcer, nor cow.pock, took 
place in either of those instances; 
and that ihe patients died of other 
disea8e8....onc of them of an apo. 
plexy.'» 

Anecdote of the iaie C^mten of 
Btf/^.-— The following, deserves to 
be recorded among the many cht* 
ritable actions whieh diatingoished 
the. character of the late ammble 
and regretted eovntessf of Bath, and 
will be read with pleasure by those 
who lire acquainted with her nvmew 
rona virtnes.-r^A curate in oneef 
^e parishes in ^ropshiie, (on the 
late sir William Pultency's estates 
in that county,) who had a siiiall 
stipemd with a mnmerous faailj^ 
applied to sir \7illfam fov a living, 
which was promised him, when an 
opportunity offered. Unfortunate, 
ly the baronet died sooo after, and 
this poor but worthy curate lost 
all hopes of the livings Some 
friends, however, suggested to htii 
the propriety of applying to his 
daughter, the late countess of Bath, 
and to show her the letter written 
by her father to the curate, wherctn 
the promise was made. The vene-^ 
rable pastor, in an inclement seasoa 
of the year, travelled all the way 
from his parish to London, full of 
doubts and fears ; but both were 
soon dispersed in the first interview 
with her ladyship, who, with that 
chearfttl alacrity whieh characteri. 
zed her filial affection, declared 
that it was not only her duty to faU 
fil her departed father's commands, 
but even his intentions; and without 
delay employed a confidential per« 

^ SOB 



CHRONICLE. 



fo endcavoar to procure a 
; fur the old man, prcforring 
runourable pstb of purchasinj; 

ber ample means the gift 
I occiesjastical prido migbt 
r. fused 4i0r. All methoili to 
 : : a living by piirchwe were 
ctTial ; and her laOyshlp paid 
(lie handi of the worthy curate 
Q adequate tu (he income of a 
i of 300f. per anDum, with 
li he returiit^d to his family, 
oiing blessings on the lieneyo. 
countess. 

Shipwrecked at s», by the 
iding of the ship Agatha, of 
"ck, in a storm, not far from 
id, tord Koystan, eldest sun of 
'arl of flardwicke. who would 
' been 34 yean old had he liicd 
the 7'th of May, and pramisod 
t'come an honour to his huuse. 
left Irdand abont two years 

for the continent, accompaui- 
tiy two Mrvants, both of wham 
i&licd with him. This amiable 
iccompliibed young noble- 
1 bad bt«n above four years 
Ti (his country ; and not one of 
-M by whooi ha was accompa. 
dhas snrviTed him. His tutor, 
■ate secretary, and steward, alL 
d a, RAturat dcalh jome time 
re : and hie other attendants, 
:tlher with the companions of 

'oiir, sunk with him into the 
I'riy grare. His lordship had 
ice, since he went (o the conti- 
"f, narrowly escaped being 
""nod. In (he course of latt 
nier he went down in a slodge, 
<i was rescued by a Mr. Poole, 
ho took him oQt of the ice by the 
"t of the head, for which Mr. P. 
IS handsomely rewarded by lord 
l^nlticke. By his lordship's 
I'.iih, the rerersionary interest of 
^^ earlof Hsrdwicke's family in 



the patcnt.place of clerk <^' th« 
common pleas in the court of ex- 
chequer ia Ireland ii reduced tv 
the tw.0 lUes of his lordship and 
his sou, the hon. Charles Yorke. 
There wore ou board I9 pisaen- 
gers, of, whom three were children 
anii si\ were lerfaDti; and thcra 
were nine ticlonging to the tcsscL 
The following were uashed oTar« 
board and drowned; lord Koystoa 
and two servants; colonel Polica 
and one servant ; D. T. Barclay, 

from Pelersburgh; Kenny, 

from Kiga ; Becker, from 

Hamburgh ; and one servant, ona 
nur^e, and fire of the ship's crew. 
Mr. t'ocke, of Hamburglr, and oae 
servant .maid, died on-board the 
vestcl during the night of the 7tk 
and 8lh. Of those who wer« 
brought on shore, and who like* 
wise tiled, were -one sailor and the 
Touugeit child of Mrs. Barrii. 
The others who were rescued were, ' 
the lady of colonel Pollen ; Mr. 
Molliday, from Petersbnrgh ; Mrs. 
Harris, with two children ; M. Pe- 
rcira, who was sent by the Porta- 
gucse charge des affaires from 
Petersburgh to Portngal, and who 
died the next day, in consequence 
of bis citraordinary exertions ; the 
captain of the vessel an^ servant, 
and two sailors ; in all, ten sonls. — 
Colonel Pollen, aforusaid, was the 
only son of the Uev. George P. of 
Little Bookham in Surry. He 
was in the 33d year of his age; 
and, possessing a fine and vigo- 
rous understanding, highly im- 
proved by education, and by his 
very extensive and interesting 
travels, there is no doubt, if ha 
had returned fo his Dativo country 
(as he was attempting lo do when 
thisdreadl'ul accident put a period 
to all Lis hopes), but tie woalj 
hav* 



«8 ANNUAL register; 1808. 

liate proved a distinguished orna. distance for some time; but after an 

nrent of it. Ilis fortune i^ould attack was made, the dog seized lii5 

liare been large, and his abilities master on th« body, and very much 

and his Experience would have maimed him. After hchadloo^vd 

amply qualified him for a seat in his hold, he seized Anthony by th*j 

parliament. In 17^0, on his coming hip, and the officer being withm 

of age, he opposed the interest of reach of a knife, which he took oil 

the duke of Norfolk, for the reprc- the counter of a chandler's shop, 

mentation of the populous borough he cut the throat of the dog, and 

of Leominster, which he carried by released himself. The prisoner w3k 

a majority of one. Il6 afterwards at length secured, ^he warrant of 

raised a regiment of fcnciblcs at commitment was produced, and the 

fits own expense, for the serTice of prisoner was couTicted. 

gpTcrnmcnt, and attended with it Kxtraordinaty Pcdestrianism. — 

on its being ordered to Halifax, in It has been stated that a Mr. Paut 

Nora ^cotia ; but for several years had matched himself for 100 guincaf, 

lie has been constantly travelling on the first event, and 50 guineas 

on the continent. At St. Peters, on the second, to go from' Rniglit«. 

burgh he married one of the dangh. bridge to a spot near Windsor in 

lers of sir Charles Gascoigne (sister two hours and a half, a distance nf 

to the countess of Haddington, now something more than 20 miles, and 

married to Mr. Dairy m pie), who to return to Knighttbridge in thrr^ 

was with him when the wreck took hours within twelve hours. The 

place, but who was happily saved. pedestrian started at eight o*cInrk 

p. Breaking out of Prison. — oil Wetfnef^day morning, walked I 

Claries White^ a notorious swindler, miles within the first hour, and had 

was indicted for breaking out of arrived within a mile and a half of 

Tothill.Fields Bridewell, a few Slough at the expiration of the 

weeks since, behaving been fully second hour.* lie then had two milrs 

committed for fraud. and three-quarters to walk in the 

. Tiie prisoner had been tried and other half.hour, which he did with 

acquitted on no less than four in. ease. After laying on a straw bed 

dictmcnts during the present ses« between blankets four hours, tba 

sions, by points of law ; and on'be- pedestrian started on the next match 

ing arraigned for this offence, he at to return in three hours, but the 

iirst pleaded guilty, but afterwards rain fell in torrents, andhe^ent 

recalled \ is plea and took his trial, seven milcR in the first hour with 

which disclosed some curious cir. an umbrella. He would, in fair 

cumstances. It appeared that the weather, doubtless have 'won both 

prisoner had broke out of bride- matches, but on his arrival on the 

well by forcing an iron bar, and he second, at Hounslow Heath, M'ikh 

was afterwards heard of, at Strat. wind and weather against him, he 

ford, where Anthony the officer and prudently resigned, winnjng 50 

Ihe prison-keeper oi Tot hi It- fields guineas by his day's fatigue, 

went to secure him. The Chase, — The carf of Derby 

The prisoner made a stout resist- turned out a fine stag, oh Thursday 

ance, and, together with a fero- se'nnight. The day being very fin**, 

clous bulUdog. kept the officeisata and being fats lordship^j last hmrt 

thii 



CHRONICLE. 



«I 



f^asoo, a nnmerons field or 
hmcn ajsemblod by half pa^t 

at Walton Heatli, where the 
V3S turned out, ariif went oS 
'ic iiyie, across Uox Uill, and 
Durkjiig. He then mude fur 
iiJisuv road, towaVds Brighton, 

ivhich he headed bacV,3Tid 
lakcii three inilcs on the other 
ul' Hortham, after a hard ruii 
\i<: huura and a halt. Only 
n leatlemen were in,seTeral»f 
liurses being knocked up ; one 
leai dropped down dead, and 
oihen are not likely to iurfire, 
fii allowed to be one of (he 
tnt days' sport uf the season, 
lord^ip took a chaise and four 
illortham to town. 
itelj'.arery valuable mare, be. 
ing to Mr. Padmore, farmer, 
Hawarden, ifliatshire, was 
"-nljF taken ill, after dtiabiug 
; filler in a pond, and all efforts 
;ft her to swallow any thing 
"ol iDeffecludl. She swelled re. 
kably large, and li>cd two or 
t Oiys in (he roost rsfrutiating 
ly, when she died. Oo open. 
her, nothing was found in her 
cl> (hat could occasion her 
h ; but, on cutting open the 
ll>i]>e, a large tixl was di&co. 
il aliic! — which she is sopposeil 
>"e taken into that uririce on 
Vmn the water. 

iicidc—JAr. L. an eminent 
kh^ukcr, pat an end tu his ex. 
iw on Monday last, by shuot- 
himieir with a pistol, lie rode 
>*a that morning from his rilla 
ic country, about 14 miles dis. 
^ when be reached his house 
'Ornhill, he read a letter put 

hii hands by his serraat, which 
^ei!toaffe.:tliiiBinucb. Short. 
iflernards he complained of 
ju* and inditpoutipo, and laid 



he would retire to his bodprsi)in< 
He did so, and was found there, in 
the course of the (lay, dead, with 
thu pistol lying by bim. \t wai 
supposed that the pistol was fired 
about eleven o'clock, but no rcpori 
was heard by the servants. Mr. L. il 
apjieari, was under considerable em* 
barrassuients, which were unknown 
CTeii tu his partner ur family, but 
which had occasioned a Ut^pre^siou 
of spirits that led to tho unhappy 
catastrophe. On a minute cxaminii- 
tion into his alfairs, it appears thai 
ho is minus to the amount oi 
60,000/. and upwards. One per. 



sufferer 



Qthe. 



of 36,000/. another tuenty, and 
many others in smaller suras, Mr, 
L. left behind him a letter, the ten. 
dunry of which was to excalpat< 
Mr. ('.'his partner, fr^m any blame 
which alight be imputed .to him, 
the deceased was in an extensiTc 
line of busiaeiis ; gave elegant eu- 
terlainmcnis to the nubility in th< 
country ; and had a taste fur build, 
ing. jte has left a uife, and we 
belicTe a faiiiily. The curoncr'i 
inquest has returned a Tcrdict of— 
Lunacy. 

10. VVc hare seldom witnessed a 
more tremt-ndous gale of wind than 
that which commenced on iViun- 
(lay, and raged with uucommoa 
Tiolenee from (en till near three 
o'clock. Scleral ships in the rifei 
drore from their moorings, Aboui 
one o'clock a largo sheet of lead 
was raised, by the Tiuleocc of tbi 
wind, from off the lop uf a house 
in Ludgate.hill, and thrown dowu 
on the paremeat. In its way il 
broke a part of the parapet wall, 
which fell on the ground with a 
terrible crash. 'I'he hand of Pro- 
f idence was never more visible than 
in this iHstance, for though th< 
atreei 



ANNUA LEE 

ttwaa cnmtled with pav(en$vn, 
Bone receii«d (be Ecnallcat in. 

r- 

i«M//.i»OT.— The folio wing affoct. 
■Dstanoei of the fatal' etiects of 

Gmall-pox, evince the urgent 
tssiiy of the iiioculatlon for that 
aie bciog either [trohtbitad, or 
eaal put imiler sach mlriclion, 
: the public maj no longer inf- 
lo MTerely by its contagiOD, as 
' hare recently experrenced; — 
LfBK Regis, io Dorselsbrre, a 
lleman not being able readily 
ipocure Taccinc matter, inaiated 
lavii^ his child inoculated with 
■mall-pix ; the contagion was 
eby conmiiHiicated to the inha. 
ntS) and so great was the mor. 
y ia that small town, that dxiy 
>oni lose their lives in a few 
ks. Mr. Manslteld, No. 9, 
lopshead'court, G ray V- inl^1ane, 
recently Install his four chitd- 

by the imall-[>ox. At the ' 
xri for the Ind^ent Blind, in 
jeor^c's-fieldsy two thirds of the 
cti admitted into Uiat charity 
I lost their sight by the <ioall. 

I . Murder. — At St afford ssiiKes, 
londay last, William Uavkcs. 
i was found guilty of poisoning 
master, Mr. Parker, of Swin- 

in Staffordafaire, by administer. 
o him poisutt [corronrcsobli- 
), io a cup of camomile tea. 
prisoner, when called upou for 
cfence, offered a written paper 
ein he acknowledged bis having 
nistercd the poison, without 
nowledge of any other ponun, 
Ihat he did not do it-wilh an 
tion of injorinc arty ono; ihat 
lercby mcan't it as a '' trick 

the old woman, the housr- 
er." He alto spoke very bigh- 
[ -hit VBStor'a ifitv dcoeaGcd) 



CHRONICLE. 3 

iiiisaponlkclwd, witbbit tbroat go iAo th« bed-chmiber hy m. ridt 

[> pletely ge?eretl from ear ta ear, door, which opened from a dtea: 

yin opened in his right uBi, iuid ing closet. She acconlinglj' wee 

>thcr wound ia the upper part of up agiun, and having entereil thi 

arm. Ha uud Mr. Paul! wai way, ihe fouod her master in A 

:-haaded. Ue fouod near tha sitvatioD described by the buttei 

I, a basoB, on hu dressing table, whom she called up by her ihriei 

Lrly two thirds full of blood, a and acrcams. The jury, after 

:ar, anda lancat^both of wUch ihort ddiberatioa, returned a voi 

re bloody. He lost no line in diet of— Lunacy, 

idiiig for surgeon Brodie, who Sleeptng ifraufy.— Sarah Snuti 

d atteodcd his nastar during bis tho young woman who slept ^ i 

e illness. ' CuckSeld nloe days ia August laff 

Surgeon Brodie deposed) that namely, from (iie 16th to the 45 

riug attended Mr. Paull in^ his of that month, has^since that tim 

ig ittaess, he had many opportu. had freiiuent sleeps far seTcral dai 

ies of observing both then and and nights, without the possifatlif 

iin that time the alteration which of being awakened. This eitraoi 

d taken place in his mind. Ue diaaiy female baa lately beenioaj 

IS perfectly convinced that his tied to a son of Mars, 

lullects bad undergone a material On Snaday last, Geoi^e Tap] 

r^ngement; and slated, that his aliia Godbeare, was committed 1 

ath was caused by the wounds the Devon county gaol, for the wi 

:Jch had been inflicted on Friday, ful mnrdec of Robert Leach, Tt 

le testiraaay of Mr. Brodie, as ta follonijig circuutitances which a 

c derangement of his mind, was tendedthecomnissionofthiscfiia 

lly confirmed by Mr. Fault's »s ungularly premeditated as it wi 

icnds. Aft. Sloper aod Mr, But- inbnimui, have been confirmed t: 

r. Tapp since his ap|KehenaioD. 

The servant- maid, wh^ discover ^peara, that the prisoner and t) 

I Mr. PauU in the dreadful tiiua. decoasal (the former a taylar, tl 

on doscribedt was nent called, latter a butcher,) were bath infaali 

uc said that, knowing her master taots of thft parish of Horchari 

a^ to dine out, die went to call bishop, about thirteea miles fro 

iiD, betwcM four and five. She' that cky, and lived ontenns ofU 

nocked attbe door, and was aa- greatest iatima«y. 

xt!redbyluiB,inaveryfaiQtv(dce, On Sunday, the 34thof Apri 

lathe would dug presently. i%e tiiey were seen at a public-hanse 

as much affected ut the tone in the village, and wenc obaerved < 

hich be spoke, and recollected quit it together ; after which til 

is Idta alteraUon in conduct, and Leach was raissit^. Various ei 

lore particularly what he bad said qntries were nade respecting hio; 

\i her soma days before, when, ex. but on the Friday following, 1: 

ircuing his concern for the great friends being alarmed at hit con* 

louble he bod given her, he added, nned absence, investigated tno 

' an end will be shortly put to it diligently the events which prccedi 

.11." She acquainted the butler hissuddendeparture; when astroi 

<ritb bw b*n, a«d dctecntiaed ^ supicioa fall upoa Tapp^ from I 

iavii 



ANNUAL R E C 

een the lut parson in wfcoM 1 
Y he was noticed, and frara i 
!g obsorred to have more 
ihan usual ; added to which^ 
lion wa« given by a n-.'igli- 
ist on tha Saturday preci.-- 
i 34tti of Aptil, Vapp was 
d, very late at itighl, Ai^. 
lit in his garden ; and, on 
[uestioned at the timu, hii 
[or working there at to late 
', he repliod, it wa^ merely ' 
purpoia of burjing some 
I make a encumber bed, 
these grounds, search was 
I the garden, when, uliock- 
relale, tha mangled body of 
was found, thro«a into the 
lit which appears to hais 
ireTtuusly designed for ita 
an. Tapp was immedittrijr 
ended, and, when in cnslody, 
.rWy confessed hia crime, 
lie ttated to have committed 
I following ujAnner; — That 
ralked together from the 
house to that of tha pri-. 
and, on going into the gar-' 
each complained of a pain in. 
d, and tat himself down on 
1 tree ; (hat while ho was in 
t of tying a handkerchief 
his head, Tapp came behind 
■uck hiin a violent blow with 
axe, which he had fit t,^^! tip 
purpose, repealing his blows 
had finished hiii bloody deed ; 
tor taking froui the pockets 
deceased cash and bills to the> 
t of about sixty pounds, lie 
the body into the pit ho hftd 
cd for it; — that he after- 
burnt ihe handle of the axe, 
ut tho iron part iitto a run- 
Iream to wash oif the blood, 
o burnt hiii hat, and cut off' 
irks ol blood from the tree 
heok.— On bciaj asked how 



CHRONICLE.' 3S 

MaJrid. Stamd Gaxtttt Extratr. bappicit coiueqacncM.- whertforo 

^iiunf, Jprii 53, he enjoins tbem to make (hemselret 

The board of KOTernracnt, pre- eoy, and to hope, that, before 

ided Over by hi> moit serene high, four or fiie day* are clapacd, Ihey 

npss the infaaf Don Antonio, has, iril] thank God, and the prudeoc* 

his day, re(»iTed dispatchei, with of his majesty, for the absencn, 

tie welcome intelligence, that onr which, at present, gtret them unea* 

<ird (he king safely arrired at Irun tineii." 

>a the I9(h instant, at eleren [ 

j'clock at night; and that his uia- ' '■ " 

i"(j enpected to hare, on the neit MAY. 

Iiy, the satisfaction of seeing bis From lie French Paper*. 

niimiie and faithfnl ally and friend Bayonnr, Mai/ 3. — Our newspa. 

be cmporor of the French, king per* contain the following parlicu- 

<( llaly. )an respncling the journey and ar- 

Fur this reason, and on account rlfal ofthe Prince of Peace : — 

■fthe uncommon attachment which *' The Prince of Peace was, on 

he loyal inbabitaols of Vitoria and his arrlT^l, sccompanied by colonel 

f the protinco of Alara hare ex. Maries, ajd-de-camp of his imperial 

rcssml to our lord the king, opon highness the grand duke of Borg ; 

ia setting out from that lown, his he appears to hare seflered much 

>aj«tyI]BS been pleased to issue during his imprisonment. Not a 

Ne ruMowing royal decree, which day passed by, during which per. 

^t hoard has reccired in print : — sons did not come to his dungeon. 

Copy of the royal decree issued and tell him he would soon be led 

f Ms majesty at Vttonia, on the lo the scaffold. When he was 

U'h of April, 1808. taken from prison, in order to b« 

"The king feels (he utmost gra. delivered orer to the officer who 

tilde for the citraordinary ntUch- was to take bim to Bayonne, ho 

lent of the loyal inhabitants of had a long beard; during a wholo 

lis town and of the prdvince of month ha had no clean shirt ; he 

ibra ; but is cuacemed at itjt ei- bad no person to wait upon him. 

redin; all doe boQnds, and being **On the road, he had the con. 

ib\e lo degenerate into want of tolation of receiving a letter from 

-spec), under pretence of girlng king Charles IV. and the qoocn, 

im proofs of ' (hat senlimetit. His full' of testimonies of their affec- 

aji'^ty, howcrer, being aware, tioo. It is said, that on receiving 

iJtliiisDbjectsareactuatedbytbeir the king's letter, there were the 

niler lore for his royal persot), marks of his tears. When tbo 

id by (he solicitnde to which it prince received this, he said, ' Seo 

'« rite, conceives himself bound (here, the only consolation 1 havo 

I uiidcceire all and each of them, had, this month; every one aban- 

y a-'isuriiig them that he would not doncd me e;ii:ept the king; theun. 

mlerlakc (his important journey, grateful, whom I had loaded with 

he could not depend- upon the benefits, did not dare to raise » 

nccru and cardial friendship of hii voice in my favour. The gardtdu 

ly the emperor of the French, corTu, who sold their king, will sell 

id ihat it will beatteadrd bytbe fait ion alio. I har« no otb^r an. 

Vol. L. C btlioa 



si ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



bitfon TUi\ty than to find tn asjlnm 
in France, and to have my children 
about me.* — The officer who ac. 
com pan ted faimy shewed him on the 
way the newspapers, which adirm. 
ecT that he pb^sesscd a fortune of 
500 mittton^. The prince answer. 
ei — ^ Slander will never coasc to 
sfain my actions ; yet I dare chal- 
lenge my bitterest enemies to lay 
any thing to my charge iii this re- 
spect. Nothing f'urther conid be 
found by me than the sums neces- 
sary to discharge the daily ezpences 
of a house like mine. I possess no 
funds in England, France, Italy, or 
Oenoa, and I can appeal to the 
testimoDj of the merchants of those 
countries. I harn* employed the 
benefa'ctioui which I have received 
from my sovereign in purchasing 
estates in Spain, which every one 
knows, and which have now been 
taken from me by injustice and ar. 
bitrary power. Having now wit. 
iiesscd the horrid deeds which I 
foretold, I wish now for nothing 
littt peace and repose. The ap. 
probation and friendship of Chades 
IV. are enough for my oonsci. 



ancc.' 

The following iroporUnt docu« 
ment has been published here :-^ 

^^ By authority, traTcllers and 
the public are informed, that all 
passports and other instruments is. 
sued by the Spanish government in 
the name of Ferdinand the Seventh, 
since the io^h nit. will not be ac. 
knowledged by French civil and 
military officers.'* 

?. At this period of the year it 
is very uncommon to experience 
such severity and chan(;e of weather 
as has bei:n for the last ten days. 
The fall of snow during the last 
wcckwra^ almost general through- 
cut the country. Accounts from 
C4mbrit)geshtrC} Lincolnehire, ftud 



Scotland, mention ihtkt it lay om 
the ground for two days. 

6. A litter of six young fOKet 
wTis a few days since' disobrered ift 
the ivy over one of the gateways of 
Warwick Castle. 

Neio Game Laws. — ^Many per. 
sons are of opinion, that fiddfasei, 
larkf, and sparrows, might be in. 
cinded in the class of game, with u 
much propriety tm woodcocks aad 
snipes. However this optnloii may 
b,c well or ill fonnded, those at all 
acqouDtcd with rural eooaoray, 
know that it must be as nuschte. 
TOtts to protect rabbits by this'de- 
scriptioQ' as it would be to inclode 
rats therein. Where the soil is dry 
and light, if rabbits are suffisred to 
abound^ the mischief they do is in. 
calculable, not only .by deroariog 
corn, turnips, clorer, Sec, but stiQ 
;more by undermining and thcrd^y 
destroying fences, and catiag down 
the young quick and newly planted 
trees of every description ; and it 
is only by continual attention, and 
no inconsiderable degree of bbour, 
that they can be prerenled froa* 
swarming wherever they ooce gaia 
a footing. Naturalists have caIcQ« 
Ifited that a stngle pair of rabbiti 
may, in the space of four yetit, 
increase to the astonishing number 
of 1,974,840. 

Ctnaiim, — Aon Watts, of Bury» 
in Lancashire^ eat a quan^ty of 
plums in September last, and nm/* 
ioKcd the itonct. In December iha 
began to belli, and conttnuedflo 
till January, when she firit so over* 
loaded in her stomach as to be is- 
duccd to take an emetic, and tbrev 
up a few pium.stones. She after- 
wards took several emetiei, and 
each time threw up more atones; 
the last emetic was taken on Friday 
scu'night, when she threw npsiity^ 
fouf stones, making in all one boo* 

dred 



CHRONICLE. Jj 

•ml nineljrsix stones la dis- wUb the assiatince of (wa othei 

gcil, since tlm first of Jsnuary. men, with gmt (iolence Torced hei 

Itegan to bia unwell very, soon into the yard without any clolhti 

r shc.bad swalluned thctn, and on; here a most barbarous a^sauli 

eawayasif inadecline. wai cQramitted upon her person b) 

man undertook one day last three women, aided and abettc.d bj 

k, for a small wager^ to carry several men : her bead was injuro<] 

>er to the amuuiit of lOi. in by the pin or stick shich faatttnei] 

cy from Stockport to Man. tbe door on the inside; she recciied 

Ut witliOBt resting: it weighed a wound under berrightcyei bei 

pounds; &n(l he etTectcd the right breast was very much bruisedj 

iuii!i task, with difficulty in two wbiUt her arms and le^9 and othej 

rs. parts of her body were lacerated 

I singular instance t>f canine with pins or some sharp pointed in. 

icily occurred a few dayssiace strunients^ till they were litcrallj 

[he Thames below Blackwall: covered with btood. On the nexi 

. TurnbutI, the master of a evening aa assault, very nearly sl. 

s tin; trader, kept a Newfound, milar, was again made upon her 

J dug Qtx board. Wbencrcr the. The parties otfcnding were brough' 

<i'L dropt anchor in the rircr, the before the bench or magistrates o 

; :<i)am to shuro, and generally XtnoiiDgdan on Satarday se'nnight 

Lin on board a^ain the saraceien. and were bound orcr to keep thi 

. llaTing recently attempted to peace, and to appear at the cnsuini 

to the ship in his usual way, the assizes, to answer the charge 

c (lri(ted him with so much lelo. which shall then be preferrei 

y, that he could not reach the against them. 

'•>e\ ; he was consequently forced 8. Bonaparte and the Royai Fa 

re. land, .and to the astonish- mUj/ of Spain, — The following par 

:ntofall who witnessed the i^a- ticulars respecting the Bayonm 

rAt; o( the animal, he went near usurpation, are given in a privati 

If a mile from the spot h here he letter from that city, dated Ma; 

d first started up the bank, and 8: — 

( !>wiDin)ing across the stream, *' On the first alrival here,o 

tie an^ngle, which enabled him prince Fenlinand, there were : 

I giin the ship. The master of number of prirate intcrvlens bo 
itMloj; does not say the animal is tween him and Napoleon; in thi 

miihematician, but ho asserts, first of which the emperor offered ti 

itii referenpe to this instance of h'mi the crown of Etruria, and hi 

'»;acitj-, no waterman on the river nicce'in marriage. Snhsequonlly ti 

uuld have reached, tbo ship with them, however, Ferdinand was de 

lore judgoMjnt. priicd of his carriage and of hi 

7. A.bout half past nine' o'clock guitrd of honour, remaining oal 

II Saturday night, the house of with the commandant of his priiat 
bright laardj of Great Paxton, guard, i Jewish officer of the na 
1 'he county of Huntingdon, was tional guard of Bayonne, 

i"'kt'n into, and Ann Iz2ard, his " 'J'hu object ofi these conferen 

*'ft, was dragged out ol bed by a ces seeined to be that of gaioii) 

'I'*": at prewnt unknown, who, time for tha awival ef Godoy, an 

a  . < 



36 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

of the king s^nd queen. But in the and loyalty, you h«ve apt attained 
mean^i hile Napoleon intimated to jour object ; ncitiicr ybUy nor those 
Ferdinand, that the reign of the traitors who have scnred or co-ope- 
Bourbons wa^* tkt an end; adding, rated with you in yon r base designs, 
that his and their interests were at I tell you to your face that yoa are 
Tariance, and that the continuance my son, and not the son of the 
of the sceptre in their hands could kfng. Yes, without haring other 
iio longer conduct to the developc. right to the crown than that which 
nient of his plifns, and the Tast po« you dcrife from your mother, you 
litical objects he had in view. Not- have sought to wrest it from us by 
withstanding this, however, lie force; but I will and consent thtt 
pressed Ferdinaud to accept the (he great Napoleon shall be the ar- 
kingdom of Etruria, and directed bitrator between us, in favour of 
the grandees to coonsef their prince whom, we renoanco and cede our 
to accede to his proposal. — Ferdi. right, to the ezclnsion of our family, 
nand answered boldly, ^ I will not I call upon him to punish yon and 
accept the crown of Etruria^ nor your associates as traitors, and 1 
any crown in the i<rorld, whilst na- commit the whole nation to Napo- 
ture gives me a rightful claim to that leon.' Napoleon pot an end to this 
of Spain. My only ambition Is, rage,by'saying, ^No! IgtvetoFer- 
to render my people happy ; and I dinand the crown of Naples, and to 
would choose to die in the midst of Carlos that of Etrnria, toge^er with 
my faithful Spaniards, though it two of my nieces in marriage. Let 
were my fate to wear the chains of them say if they will accede to tiiif 
scr?itnde, and to resign whatever proposal.' To this the infant Don 
would most attach me to life.* Carlos boldly answered, < Empe. 
Reproaching afterwards Napoleon ror, I was not born to be a king, 
with having deceived him, in thus in. but infant of Spain.' And ad. 
vitinghimto visit France, he answer, dressing his brother, ^ And youi 
cd> if he had not come voluntarily, my brother, and king, speak, do 
he should have made him by force, not be alarmed, defend yonr right, 
^^ On the arrival of Godoy ajid you area Spaniard ; your country 
the king and queen, who were re-* will be ready to sacrifice its blood 
ceived and entertained with the for you and its independence. Be 
greatest magnificence, the' sitting not alarmed, but let us go hence, 
of congress of the 6th of May, though it were to the ^caifold, or 
was held, at which Napoleon and perpetual imprisonment. For that 
Charles IV* presided ; present, the Providence which directs a faithful 
queen Maria Louisa, the infant nation shall, in dtic time, visit his 
X)on Carlos, Godoy, the grandees vengeance upon a faithless empe. 
of Spain/ and the first minister Zc. ror, who can thus ^disregard bii 
vallos. The queen, transported own promise, and. lay aside every 
with rage, addressed her son Fer. semblance of right and reason, 
dinand, ^ Traitor and wretxrfi, for Ah ! Fernando, who robs yoa of 
years you have been imagining and the crown of Spain? An ignorant 
contriving the dea^h of the kinf[: father and infamous mother, and 
yOur father, but\)y the vigilance cf her favourite Godoy. He, in'trurb, 
the Prince of Uit Peace, by zeal is the traitor, tho plotter of the 

death 



CHRONICLE. 



»7 



ath of jour dtber, the usurper 
the legUimate rights of your, fa- 
iy, the anUior of the calumny, 
d ao apostate in religioo. Who 
uiitcnanc(» these machinations ? 
le tyranay of aa emperor, to 
lom we have looked for protec. 
n !' And he finished by saying, 
i^apoleon^lam oo longer an inlant 
Spain, but I was born one !' " 
9. On Monday se'nnight died, to 
e inexpressible grief of the grunU 
X amaieHrsy on its road to the 
*tropo]is, where it was to be ex. 
3ited, t.he.^ remarkable Lincoln- 
Ire fat pig. This wonderful ani* 
il was the property of Mr. Gar* 
ner, of Elsham Lodge, near 
^^bgy hy whom it was bred. It 
)s at the time of its death about 
'O years and a half old. It mea. 
red in length six feet ; height two 
ct four inches ; width across the 
oulders^ two feet four inches; 
rth seTea feet ; and the circum* 
rence of Ita neck fire feet and a 
\\L It wiu supposed to weigh up. 
ards of fifty stone, and was cer. 
inly one of the greatest natural 
^rlositles qf the kind eter seen in 
lis country. 

A letter dated on Thursday last, 
t Drajton, Dorset, states, that a 
orrid murder was committeii on 
ric bodies of Mr, and Mrs. Slcdgcr, 
f Thaw Farm, two miles from 

ft -J — 

'rayton, on Wednesday morning, 
t tvvo o'clock. Three robbery 
rokc into the house and alarmed 
>H^ family, at the hour stated, and 
•'^' fiirmcr and his wife were bound 
''ujithor ia bed. Inhere was only a 
'^id-scryant, of the name of Sa- 
'^« <^ullum, in the house, and she 
''"'\ at the alarm. At four o'clock 
'* tnc morning, two .hours after the 
^^TTant had escaped, she procured 
*«istance j when the poor old man 



4 and woman were fonnd dead, and 
mangled in a shocking manner. 
Their ages amounted to 190 years ; 
they were unable to make resist, 
aoce, and the house had been com. 
pletely plundered. Oue of the 
fillains worked on the farm, ac. 
cording to the information of tlie 
servant, and he has decamped. 

Coroticr*^ lnqiitst,-^A. shocking 
accident bcfel tho lady of W. G. 
Althorpe, esq. ofClewer, Surrey,' 
last Monday night f — Mrs. AL 
thorpc, her son, and two daugb. 
ters, had returned home from a 
visit, at half alter eleven o'clock, 
when the former went into her bed* 
room, leaving her family in the 
drawing-room underneath. Tho 
shrieks of the mother alarmed her 
children, and on their hastening up 
scairs, Mrs. A* was lying on tha 
fioor with her garments literally re. 
duced to tinder. Surgical aid was 
as quick as possible administered to 
the unfortunate lady, who died in 
about three hours after the acci- 
dent happened ; she bad, it ap. 
peered, stood too close to the (ire, 
which caught her light garments, 
and which were consumed in a very 
few seconds. The verdict was — Ac^ 
cidental Dtalh, The deceased has 
left eight children to bewail hec 
loss. 

Fclint ferocity, — On Tuesday 
last, Mr. C. Burton, steward to 
John Gurncy, esq. of Itlarlham, 
perceived a lamb, which had lost 
its ewe, lying dead, with its neck 
bloody^ aud its eyes out ; it was 
quite well at dusk the preccdiodC 
evening ; he took it home, and 
found it to have a small hole 
In its ncek, about the size of a 
goose quill, and just below it a 
small place about the sijcc of asix- 
pence with the wool off* ^On look- 

C ^ ing 



St ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



- iug amongst iUe others, he found 
therp were two more liTing, and 

.following their dams wilh their 
necks bloody^ and In the same 
state 03 the dead one* The small 
ones of the other two died. la the 
afternoon, Mr. Joh.ii Scarnell, a 
near neighbour, sent down to bim 
ft large male cat, as judging him to 
be the murderer by the following 
4^ircumstanccs i Kis servants haring 
.two Irittens in the hay-loft, near 
fialf-grown, and not having seen 
them in the course of theday, one 
of the men went up to sec if he 

. could iind them, this cat was found 
lying by them; he shut the door 
and secured him. On taking tho 
\'itien$y they were found to be 
sucked just under the ear, in the 
tame way as the Iambs M'ere, and on? 
of them hafing the hind part and 
half the body, with its inside, eaten 
lip. Mr. Burton had observed, 
when the ground was covered by 
•now, the footing of a cat quite 
around the turnips, and among the 
^wes and lambs ; but yet never 
thought that a cat would interrupt 

, the lambs. 

10« Dorer.-^ A fire broke out on 
Tuesday afternoon in the warehouse 
of Messrs. Fcctor and Co. adjoin, 
ing the ordnance storehouses and 
buildings, through the carelessness 
of some pcoplie employed in coo- 
pering some casks' of turpentine 
throwing the snuff of a lighted 
candle on (he floor, ^^\\ich caught 
some oakum that had been wetted 
-with turpentine : it was prcvcnti^d 
from blazing for some time by about 
)C0 bags of wool in a loft oTcr 
where the fire commenced; but the 
ilames having at length reached 
many casks of turpentine, it burst 
forth with a fury nothing could re- 
sist. Thtt whole range of store. 



houses of Messrs. , Fcctor. whicli 

• • - ' " >• 

fronted tlie York House, are en- 
tircly dtNSfroyrd, with a very large 
qnautity of prize goods taken from 
tho Danish ships; the Orduance 
htorehouiic, at thjO buck of lite 
storekeeper's housg, is aJso enUrdy 
consumed^ and many of the ad- 
joining bnildings mnch damaged. 
A Greek bhip at the quay wa« -iiio 
damaged. Sonie of the adiouun^ 
buildings were depositories lor Mr. 
Congrcve's rockets and other cow- 
bustib1e«, which could not all ha 
got out, and sercral explusions 
iook place, the last of w hich car. 
ried away the roof, rafters, ar.J 
materials of the buildings, ar.d 
caused great alarm. No lurdier 
damage was however done^ and 
the fire was got under betwoea 
eight and nine in the evening. 
The loss is supposed to exa^d 
30,000/. 

The Duchesti, 'of York's F^U. at 
Oat lands » 
On Saturday se'n night a grand 
t^iQ was given at Oatlaods in ho. 
nour of her royal highncss*s birfb. 
day. The preparations were unu. 
sually costly.* The kin;;, (juern, 
the princes&es Au^usta^ Elizabeth, 
Mary^ Sophia, and Amelia ; (he 
prince of Wales; dukes of York, 
Kent, Clarence, Sussex^ and Cunv. 
berland, were present. Indispo- 
sition only prevented the duke of 
Cam)) ridge from attending. Their 
majesties and the princesses arrived 
about twu o'clock. . The dukcund 
duchess of Vork wer6 in waiiiog 
to receive their illustrious relatives ; 
from the bottom ,of the flight of 
Steps leading into tho gccat liall, 
the duke escorted the queen to the 
grand saloon. After Tiewing and 
admiring the in\provemcots madeoo 
the lawn, &c, the royal^^rtypar- 

took 



CHRONICLE. 



39 



rook of a most sumptuoas ban. 
quet, serfed up in a costly serrice 
of silver gilt plate. During the 
time of dinner, the duke of Vork'a 
band, in full nnifbnn, plajcd uv. 
iler the firanda on the green. The 
king wore the Windsor uniform. 
The qoeen and the princesses were 
dressed in plain white. His majes- 
ty, it was remarked , lookad un« 
commonly well, and possessed his 
a%ual flow' of spirits. Their majes- 
ties and the princesses departed 
about eight o*clock, escorted, as 
usual, by a party of dragoons. — 
About nine o'clock the fun and 
merriment took place. The duchess 
having ordered the park gates to be 
thrown open, the populace (princf. 
pally composed of the neighbouring 
peasantry) rushed in, and made the 
best of their way to the lo^er part of 
the house, wherein a fast number of 
tables were set out with hot fowls, 
veal, ham, beef, and mutton ; to. 
(;ether with abundance' of strong 
aie and porter, all arranged with 
perfect order. After partaking - of . 
this good cheer, a magnum bonum 
(about six quarts) of excellent 
punch was plated upon each table. 
The Kfely notes of the fiddle 
aroused the lads apd lasses about 
nine o'clock. The tables were in- 
staataneonsly deserted for the li- 
brary, where the duchess led off 
the first dance called the Labtfrinth^ 
with the hon. colonel Upton. Iler 
highness never appeared to better 
adrantage; she is improved in 
health, and is grown rather embortm 
point than otherwise. The very 
awkward manner in which the coun- 
try people paid their respects to the 
heir apparent (in their going down 
the dance) excited the risibility of 
the Toyal party to an extreme de- 
free. It w^ ndt until two o'clock 



in the morning that the music ceased, 
and then the company retired. 

The prince of Wales slept at 
Oattands that uight. The doke of 
York returned to town the same 
Right to attend a military eooacil. 

A similar entertainment was given 
at York House in the Stable.yard, 
the same night. 

France, — Bonaparte's Usurpation in 

Spain, 

Bayormcy Matf 1 1 . — By a treaty 
concluded between the emperdr 
Napoleon and king Charles, and 
which has been acceded to by the 
prince of the Asturias, and the 
infant Don Carlos, Don Francisco, 
and Don Antonio, who compose 
the whole of the members of the 
house of Spain, all the existing 
differences have been adjusted. We 
are still ignorant of the conditions 
of the treaty. According to the 
constitution of our government, it 
cannot be made public till it has 
been communicated to the senate* 
But we perceive by the proclamn- 
tion of the king of Spain, and that 
-of the prince of Asturias, that the 
emperor Napoleon is clothed with 
all the rights of the b^se of Spain. 
King Charles and queen Louisa 
Maria, queen Maria Louisa, and 
the infant Don Francisco, dine iOm 
day with the emperor, and set off 
to.morrow -for fiourdeaux. They 
will make this journey in four 
days, and will repair to Fontaine, 
bleau, whence they will go to Com« 
peigne. ' It is believed that this re- 
sidence has been destined by his 
majesty to king Charles, that he 
may spend the remainder of his 
days there. The prince of Asto« 
Has, the infant Don Carlos, and 
the infant Don Antonio, spent their 
evening yesterday with their majes* 
ties the emperor' and Wmprtcs. They 

C 4 wlU 




I 






I 

I- 
1 - 



* 



tl 



[•hi 



40 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



#111 spend two days mt Bourdeauv, 
and nill afterwards proceed to Va- 
lency, whence it is probable they 
ivill go to Nararre. It is bclie?ed 
that his majesty has ceded to them 
-Ihat superb domaioj and the fdrest 
•ppertainiog to it. It is said, that 
mstny Spaniards of distinction are 
<»n the road to Bayonne, where it 
appears that the emperor is aboi^t 
to hold a general junta. It ia {»e» 
aumed that he will be occupied, not 
«n]y in regulating the succession to 
the throne, but also in fiaing cer- 
tain ameliorations} which all goo4 
Spaniards call for. Erery th|ng is 
entirely tranquil in Spain. Things 
ttrc on the best footing there. 

Lord €rleniwortk^s Marriage,*^ 
Dublin^ May 14.— This morning, 
in the Court of Chancery, the at. 
torney-general (Mr. Saurin) moTed 
the court on the part of the IDarl of 
Limerick, for an attachment againsjt 
Mr. Wm. Beaumont of SackTilIc* 
street, an eminent solicitor of .that 
4:ourt,' and against his wife, Mrs. 
Beaumont, on the ground thatthoy 
bad advised and procured the mar« 
Tiage of Miss Edwards, Mrs. Be^u. 
mont's daughter, by a former has. 
band, with the noble earl'^ eldest 
son, lord Glentworth, who is a mi» 
nor of only nineteen years of age, 
although a prohibitory order had 
issued from that court, cautioning 
them against such proceeding, and 
that the same would be considered 
as a high contempt. Mr. and Mrs. 
Beaumont's affidavits were after# 
wards read, in order to oppose this 
application. Mr. B. admitted ha 
was well aware of the intimacy 
that prevailed between lord Glent. 
worth and his daoghtcr.in Jaw, but 
declared, that he had carefully ab.. 
ptained from faking any step to 
further it« Mrs, Beaumont adm^ 



ted sW waa mada Tery mifi^ ky 
the continuance of tbat intiM^, 
which had become the topic of 
public conversation ; that isb^ bdui, 
in coosequei^ce, CQnsoitcd with 
some female friends, who tboughft 
that the bustpess would be best set* 
tied by a mfirriage, and that an in- 
timation to that efi'i^t sotne^way or 
other, though npt stcictly from 
Mry. Beaumont, conveyed U> U|» 
young couple, wb^, it was admit, 
ted, were since married at Gretna. 
Green. The cause shewn iigatfist 
the attachment was aliowed as to 
Mfr. Qeanmont, and Mrs. Bean. 
mont was ordered to answer fortter 
personal interrogatories^ the Itt- 
tachment was not to issue in the 
mean time. Miss Edwanli, nofr 
lady Glentworth, is a beantiful girl 
pf 17 years of age, and is niece to 
Sir Jonas Barrington. The eourt 
was amasingly crowded. The 
duchess of Richmond was accom. 
mlbdated with a seat on the benek, 
and near her were arranged all the. 
fashion, rank, and beauty ]>tibU(i 
caa boast. The marchioness of 
Ponegal and Tbomood, lady J^liia. 
beth (.ittiehales, lady Edward So. 
mersct, lady Denny Floyd, lady 
Rossmore, lady Coia} he ^« 

Id. Subierrmean Tte^rtl — K 
letter from Trieste^ dated May 15) 
in the foreign papers, states the foU 
lowing curious particalars ; 

<^ Some time back an old Greek 
merchant died, amongst whoae p<u 
pers was fo.uncl a manuscript left 
Jitm, as some persons state, by h>s 
father^ of, according to othera, bv 
a clergyman, on hii; death.bod^ with 
particular requ^ to preserte it 
carefully. The mannscript vras br* 
dered to be translated. Ita eon. 
tents were in substance foood tp ba, 
that in 9 partMuhit ipoi near the 

town. 



CHRONICLE. *1 

, wbti^ «u nott minntelf Ute^Biid the inttstitj of her ma. 

ibed, tbero lay conceiled a lurcfay must be inxintained. Re 

quantity of money. It stated, apect md eternal gratitDde to hia, 

>n digging % goed way down, to whom she shall be indebCed foi 

woutd be found a stone pave- thtnc benefils.'' 

; below this a quantity of ba- With respect to the Prince of Ab 

lones ; Mill further down, a se- Peace, report* differ ai to tiie place 

MonepaTctncDt; and on re. fixed for his residence. One papei 

ig that, ^'well secqred wooden userts, that be U to live along witb 

, which would open into a the king and qneen of S^n, in thi 

containing the treasure. The palace of Completes; at^otheraS^ 

nior of Trleite thought proper serfs, that he is to reside at Bour. 

insmit tfaepapertotbeminister dcauz. 

ienna; but the court declined Hr. Sparks, who has t Urge farm 

iictherinquiryintutheboBinesi, near G-uildford, hod upwards 61 

fding it as a story merely cal. 300 sheep together, when beinj 

cd for the amusement of' chil. affrighted by a do^, they jumped 

Upon this some pTiTate in- into an adjoining Scid, which is on 

luals in this place subscribed a a great descent, and they followed 

uf money to defray the cipeiire each other over thcgapof thehcdge 

i.^giiif; up the spot pointed nut. so fait, that 1 S3 of them were killed, 

experiment completely aj^reed In the present high price of oats, 

1 (he dc«oriptioD i« the manu. it should be known, that barley hai 

pt: but, on reaching the door, beeii found, by repealed expert. 

as thought iKcesiary to apply racnts, to be equally wholesome, 

t:ic ^QTernor, and he has now much more nutritious, and in the 

i'lncd a cuntinel there, to pre- whole cheaper food for horses, Si 

t its being opened until the f^oa- well as other cattle, than oats. Atl 

'(if the court is further signified, who keep lar^e numbers of hor^ei 

c curiosity of erery body it e«. should make accurate comparitoni 

-d wiih respect to the contents of of the merits of those two articles 

: Tauli. We omitted to mention of fodder. 

>i between the human bones and OnThartday,theTniage of Stock. 

i)av^esto¥tirfh«m,u«refoitn<t, laud, tn Dorsetshire, was visited by 

^ic piper alto (leseribed, a bier a most afflicting (alamity, A Utt^ 

' »!Trral smalt empty ooKns.*' before one o'clock in the afternoon, 

'''Vni, Mail 15. — Great prepa. a fire brake out in the house ol 

ijns are making in Anch for the Mr. William Matbcws, which, Ir 

" 'iilion of their majeetret, who the space of about two hours, cw. 

 fspected soon to arrive there, firel/ consumed the same, togcthci 

''lie of our joarnala contains a with nine other dwellings, beinf; 

tT from Tolcda. in which the tiearty half the Tillage ; whcrcb) 

'owing expression has been par- more than lorly inhabitants wcrt 

'■'■"'y reiiiatked :„.*', The seen, bereft of their comfonahle homes. 

'y "f Spain reftnircs, that she andscattcrcd for refngeamong theii 

<'>'lil be anited to France, by bondi sympathizing neighbours. The mis- 

■' more ttiict tbw) treaties. Her fortune is supposed to have arisen 

^^^i-woaii)ii)it b»preMnediiiTio> from soma tane in the room, th« 



42 ANNUAL REG I3T.ER, 1808. 

use of which, maiij recent disasters fiam ft|^ Howel, ap DtTid^ apTer* 

^hew to be verj dangerous, unless wertb, aged lOB, He.liai been 

aiteiukd to with great care* Had tbHoe married, his first wife wai 

not a part been insured, the loss Ellen ferch WUIiam, by her he had 

If oulU hare been rainous to some, 92 children ; the seeond wife wai 

, and will now be severelj felt Catherine ferch Richard, by her hs 

On Thursday, at the poor.hoase, had ten cbiklren ; and the third wife 

.Siuke.-upon'Trent, Hannah Bourne, was Ellen ueh WilKaro^ now ttring, 

a deformed d vrarf, measuring only by her he had four children. Us 

Slo inches in height, was, after a had also two concabioes, the first 

tedioqs and difficult labour, safely was Jonet ferch. William^ by her be 

deiiTered of a female child of the had two childfoo, and the other w» 

ordinary size, measuring 21 inchfcs Lccky Lloyd, and by her he had 

^nd a half, being only three inches five children. His eldest son wai 

and a half shorter than the mother. Griffith ap William, mow lifio^ 

. The child was in every respect per. aged 81. 

feet, but atilUborn ; the mother, Uc has children's dHldreu to the 

contrary to expectation, is likely fourth generation in abundtocc. 

to do ^tlL This very singular in. His youngest son is also called Grif. 

stance furnishes the medical world fith ap Avilliam, aged two years and 

with an extraordinary, case, chat a half, now living in the said pa. 

will throw some additional light on rish; and the diff<^rence between the 

the obstetric art. two brothen' age is* 81 years and a 

16. About four months fince, half, for the eldest was of that aga 

Mr. Bartlett, of the Halfway, when the youngest was bom« His 

Houses, died suddenly, as be was eldest daughter is ci^ied AKce ferch 

going to receive his pay. One of William, aged 72 ; she has been 

his daughters, who had lost the use thrice married, and hath a name- 

of her limbs, upon seeing the dead roos ofTspr&nf* There is now iiviD^ 

body of her father brought into of the sadd old man's offspring, in 

the house, received such a shock, the said parish, 80 penons; aodat 

that, from that time, Ghe began to his funeral there were compoted to 

recover, and is now in perfect health, be about 300 persons thaCdeseendcd 

and has the full use of her limbs, from him. The said old htan wu 

Slie attributes her recovery to the of a middle stature, of good cosu 

effect produced on her frame by the plexiqn, i^ever troubled with the 

sudden death of hec father.— i/am;i. cholic, gout, okr stone, seldom sick, 

9hire Telegraph, of moderate diet, lived by tilla^i 

Acopy of a.V€ryrenHirkableintta9K€ exordsed himself modh in fiikini 

. of Old jige and a numerous Off^ and fowling, and had his sensei 

^I'^g ; taken out of' an old Ac. perfect to thelaat. 

ftster, Ldunging to the parish cf Paris^ Mety 30<— The eonserra- 

Vegaknj tvhichis a pari <^' the ttve senate has* jnsi'tbeen convoked 

Reeiory of Lkngefm^ in liorih ^r • an esiitraordiii^ry- meeting on 

IVales. Friday next. After the kspbrtant 

There died on the 11th of March, document relative to Spain, psb- 

1 ha I, in the4iarish of Tregaien, in Jishod by tha^offioial jeofiMl. there is 

the county of Anglcsea^ one WiU every reMiPi to en|ipa0e:that thii 

9 extraor. 



CHRONICLE. 



43 



fXfriOfdiotry neetitt^ Bust be 

connected nitli the stiViMrs .of that 
kingdom : «ind it is . probable th^t 
(bo treaty hy whicb. the emperor 
AdpokoQ has just acquired all the 
m'ut of the house of Bourbon to 
the throne of Spain, vill be com- 
BiHiiii-ated at this sitting to the chief 
pulilic body of the state. We are 
»Uos!>sured, (hat there will be pre* 
lented for tbc saoctiop of the se. 
sjtors, the project of a icfiatiucon^, 
iulUf relative to the union of Tu<^. 
liiny with the empire ; and that the 
goTeroment general of those de. 
pjrtiDcnts which heretofore con)« 
posed the l^ingdom of Etruria^ will 
be erected into a great dignity of 
the eopirey and gtfcn to general 
Menoii. It 18 added, that in this 
case there will bo establiBhcd ip that 
country a junta, over which'b go. 
Ternor^eneral will preside, and 
Hhich t^ill be composed of three 
rnjstcrs of requests, and an auditor 
of >tate council, performing the 
functions of a secretary.gcncral. 
I^iides the official papers relatiTe 
to Spain, published in the Moniteur^ 
and the insertion of which we have 
^'^j^un in our paper of this d^J, 
tile Moniteur has published also a 
prucUmation addressed to the in- 
b^ibitaots of Spain, by the prince 
<*f Astorias, and the other princes 
of the royal family : wherein their 
^i;;hnesses anoonnce to the Spa. 
i*i<irds, that they hare ceded all 
ti)«ir right to the crowu of Spain to 
the emperor Napoleon. Ou .the 
Ijtb iDst. the king and queen of 
^'iain arrifed with their suite at 
i^ur^eaux. A mandate from king 
Charles to the junta of the govern,. 
■^"•iit, annaonces the nomination 
^' the grand ditke of Burg, lieu* 
(enaotgeneral of the kirigdom ; 
^d a proclamation addressed t* 



the Spaniards, both dated oQ the 
4th of May ; a proclamativ^n of 
the 5th of May^ /rom the junta t9 
the inhabitants of Madrid;, a cir* 
cular (proclamation^ sent , on the 
6th by the ioquisitioxi,. to all the 
tribunals of the kingdom ; and 
finally, a letter from the king t<> 
the supreme council of Castile, and 
to the council of the inquisition. 
The first two of these pieces are to 
the tenor following :— / 

To the Supreme Junta oj ihe.Gom 
Terwfent* 

^^ naving judged it expedient to 
gire one same direction to aU the 
forces^of mir kingdom, in order to 
inaintain, s^ecuri ty. of propei'ty and 
public tranquillity against enemies, 
as well exterior as interior, we have 
thought fit to nominate our cousin, 
the grand ,duke of Berg, lieufenantr 
, general of the kingdom, who, at 
tki^ same time, comm:indii the troopi 
of our allr, the emperor of the 
French. ' ne command the counci) 
of Castile, and the captains-genefal 
and governors of our provinces to 
obey his orders. In the same qua* 
lity he shall preside over the junta 
of -the government.. 

**' .Given at* Bayonne, at the im. 
perial palace, styled the pa« 
lace oi the government, 
4th May, 1808. 

(Signed) •* I, THE KING." 
^roclaniQtisjn, 

^* Spaniards — )s\y beloved sub. 
jeets, perfidious me^ seek to mis. 
lead you. They wopid put arnis 
into yoiir hands a^ain^ tl^e F^rench 
troops ; - they seek alike ;to arm 
you against the French,* and the 
French against you. Ihe sacking 
of all Spain, calamities of ever/ 
kind, would be the result. The 
spirit of faction, the sad efi'ects of 
which 1 have already felt^ is still in 

motion. 



44 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



inotion. In tbe midst of these im. 
portatitand critical circnmstances, 
I am occupied in concerting with 
inj aRjT) the emperor of the French, 
all that concerns yoor welfare. Be. 
%rare of listening to the enemies of 
it. All those who speak to you 
against Prince, thirst for your 
blood i they arc dther the enemies 
of yoDT nation, or agents of £0^. 
land, who are busily aTailing them. 
aehes of circumstances, and whose 
intrigues would inrolTe the loss of 
your colonies, the separation of 
your proTtnces, or a series Of years 
of calamity and trouble for your 
country. 

** Spaniards ! trust to my expe- 
rience, and obey that authority 
which I hold from God and my 
fathers; follow my example, and 
tiiinlL that in the position in which 
yon stand-, there is no prosperity 
and safety for Spaniards, but in the 
friendship of the great emperor, 
OUT ally. 

^* Giten at Bayonne, from the 
imperial palace, styled Palace 
of the GoTemmcnt, May 
4th, 180g. 

« I, THE KING.^ 

Itadritl, May 20.— The king, the 
prince of Asturias, their royal 
highnesses the^infants, Don Carlos 
and Don Antonio, hare abdicated 
the crown and their right thereto, 
as appears by the following docu. 
ments, tiz. 

^< I hare thought proper to gire 
my beloTcd subjects this last proof 
of my paternal lofe. Their hap. 
piness, tranquillity, prosperity, and 
preserration, and the integrity of the 
dominions that Divine Frovidencfe 
had placed under my sway, har^ 
been the sole objects of my con- 
stant care during my reign. — Zytrj 



step and measure that bare beea 
adopted since my exaltation to tht 
throne of ixi'j bugust ancestors, bare 
been directed to those just pur- 
poses and could not be direct^ to 
any other. This day, in the ex. 
traordinary circumstances in which 
I am placed, my conscience, mj 
honour, and the good nkmc I ought 
to leave to posterity, imperiously 
require of me, that the last act of 
*my soreretgnty should be solely 
pointed to that end, viz. to tbe 
tranquillity, prosperity, security, 
and integrity of the monarchy 
whose throne I quit, to the greatest 
happiness of my subjects of both 
hemispheJreSk Therefore, by a 
treaty, signed and ratifi<»l, I bavt 
ceded to my ally ind ^ar friend, 
the ovperor of the French, all mj 
rights to Spain and the Indies, 
having stipulated that the crown 0/ 
Spain and the Indies is alwtlys to be 
independent and entire, as it was 
under my rule, and likewise tbat 
our holy religion is not only to be 
the predominant one in Spam, but 
the only one to be observed in atl 
the dominions of the monarcbj. 
Of all which you n^ill take due no- 
tice, and communicate it to alt tbe 
Councils and tribunals of the king. 
doro, chiefs of provinces, civil, mi- 
titary, and ecclesiastical, and to 
all the justices of districts, in order 
that this last act of my sovereigntj 
may be notorious to all and ererj 
one in my dominions of Spain and 
Indies : and you arc all to concar 
and assist in carrying into effect (b« 
dispositions of my dear friend, ih* 
emperor Napoleon, as they are dl. 
fected to preserve the peace, friend- 
ship, and union between France 
and Spain, avoiding disorder and 
popular commotions^ the clfect of 

nblcb 



CHRONICLE. 



' Gi*eD in Bsyoniie, in the Im. 
perUl palace of (he go. 
Tcmment, tbe Bth Ma/, 
1808. 

"I, THE KING." 

Ihe Gor^nor, ad interim, of 
tan Council of Castile. 

'■ Don t'eraandp, prince of As- 
a.s and the infants Don Carlos 

Don Antonio, graterni Tor (be 
; and constaot fidelity that all 
niards hare manifested towards 
n, with the most lurignant grief 
them ia (he present day plunged 

the greatest confusioa, and 
[^tericd with the most direful 
imitics resultiag therefrom; and 
aowing that it arises in the major 
t of (hem, from tho ignorance 
f are in of the causes of the 
iiliict their royal highnesses hare 
ii^rto observed, and of the plan 
V chalked out for the greatest 
i|iiricss of their country, they 

<!<• no less than endearoor to 
ii-criTc them, in order that its 
cullun may sulfer no impcdi- 
n>; and at the same time to 
'ify Id then the sincere affection 
>' [jiibsess for them. 
'' They canaut consequently 
'i^ mdnifesting to them, that the 
cum^tanccs in which the prince, 

ttic abdication ot the king his 
I'l^r, look the reins of govern. 
n(, manv provinces of (he king. 
^1 and all the frontier garrisons 
I'l;; ocnapied by, a great uumbcr 

1 rench troops, and more than 
^OOO men of the same nation, si- 
ii''il in tho metropolis and its 

Shboiirhood, and many other 
■1 that no other person conid 
>i'css ; all conspired to persuade 
''■'^i that being sutroanded by 



rocks and quicksands, fhey had a 
other remedy, bnt to chuae amon 
many evils, the cmc that would I 
the least produetiTe of calamity- 
as such they fixed upon a jonrac 
to Bayonoc. 

** On their royal highnesses* ai 
rival at Bayonne, the mince, the 
king, unexpectedly found (hat tl 
king hi; father had protested again: 
his abdication, prclendin); it ha 
not l>een voluntary. Not havir 
accepted the crown but in the goe 
faith that the abdication was rdlac 
tary, he had scarcely ascertatnc 
the existence of the protest, whe 
throDgh filial ret^Mct he restore 
the crown ; and sliortly after, tl 
king his father renounced in h 
name, and in that of all the dj 
nasty, in favour of the emperor < 
the French, in order that, lookir 
to the welfare of the nation, I 
should elect the person and dynti 
ty who are to occupy it hereafter. 

" In this state of things, the 
royal highnesses, considering tt 
situation they arc in, (he critici 
circumstances of Spain, in whit 
all the efforts of its inhabitant i 
favour of their rights, will di 
only be useless, but mournful, i 
they would only cause rivers < 
blood to flo>v, and cause the loss i 
least of a great part of (he provii 
ces, and of all the ultramarii 
possessions; and reflecting, on tl 
other hand, that it would be a mo 
efficacious remedy against so man 
evils, for each of their royal hig) 
nesses to adhere by himself scp^ 
raiely to the cession of their righ 
to the throne, already made by, tf 
king their father ; reflecliug alsi 
that the said emperor of thcFrcm 
binds himself in this'case to pri 
serve the absolute Independence ar 
integrity of the Spanish monarch; 



m 



ANNUAL REGISTER. 1808. 



and of aU uUraniarine possessions, 
frithout.rqscrving to himself, or 
dismembering the least pai t of iU. 
dominions ; to maintain the unitj 
of the Catholic rengion, prop«r|ijr, 
laws, and U(a|r^a, which he secures 
for the future, and on a sound ba- 
sis; also tb« power and prosperity 
of the Spaoiiih nation : — ^I'heir royal 
highnesses believe (hey give the 
<;rcatest proof of their geoerosity^ 
love and gratitude for the affcctiod 
they hare experienced In sacriOcing) 
as much as is in their power, th^ir 
personal interest for the benefit of 
the conn try, adhering as they have 
done, t)y. a particular agreement, to 
{he cession of their rights to the 
throne, absolving all Spaniards from 
their duty in this respect, and ex. 
horting them to look, to the interest 
of thtir country, rem^iuing tran- 
quil, and expecting their happiness 
from the sage disposition and power 
of the emperor Napoleon, and by 
shewing their readiness to conform 
thereto, they will give the prince 
and the two infants the greatest 
testimony of Uieir loyalty, as 
their royal highnesses give them of 
their .fatherly love and aifection, by 
giving up all their rights, and for. 
» gettingitheir own interests to make 
tbem happy I, which is thcsoleobjcct 
of their wishes. 

'' I, THE PRINCE. 

'« CARLOS. 

«' ANTONIO." 
• //i%.— Tj^rw /i/yy of Bonaparte at 

Rome, 
Rome^-^llis holiness persists still 
in the same disposition with re. 
apect to the concessions which 
have been required of him. To. 
wards the end of the lartt month, 
bis holiness addressed, through his 
Kcretary of state, the foiluvviug 



circular letter to all the cardlaals 
who had received orders to quit 
Rome, conceived in these terms :— 
^^ His holiness, our master, hu 
commanded his secretary of state, 
cardinal Doria PamGla, to make 
known to your eminencei that his 
heart has been penetrated with the 
most poignant grief, on being io. 
formed of the order given by the 
French general to so many mcm^ 
bers of the sacred college, to quit 
Rome within three days. , His ho. 
lincss, who clearly sees that thii 
measure tends to overthrow the 
empire of the church, since those 
members are removed from his per- 
son who are necessary to thedirec. 
tion of his allairs^ and at la&t bis 
minister, his vicar, cannot in coa. 
science permit this departure. He 
prohibits, therefore, every one upon 
his oath of obedience to remote 
from Rome, unless absolutely cum- 
pelled by force : and his hollaed 
foreseeing this case, that after 
having turn your eminence from 
his bosom, you might be left at t 
certain distance from Rome, is of 
opinion that you should not conti. 
nue your journey, unless compol* 
sion should be used, to the plaos 
designated to you ; in order that it 
may bo a matter of public notorie- 
ty that your removal from the head 
of the church has not been volun- 
tary, but from compulsion. Tbe 
virtues of all the individuals «bo 
have received the order to depart, 
hIooc support the afflicted soul of 
his holiness, and are a pledge to 
him, that, according to his exam- 
ple, they will support these per5e. 
cutiuns with patience, and th^t the 
sculiments of the sacred coliegr, 
far fium being weakened^ will 1m 
strengthened." 

Eitraei 



C H R O N I C L E. 



47 



act of a Letter from a Lady in 
drid to htr Brother in Dublin, 
Words cantiot describe the 
or with which we haTe been 
3unded titice Che first of this 
th ; (he approaching storm was 
cted, but on the ^, hnra^di. 
' after breakfast, it broke otrt 
te most furious manner. Our 
id T, had provided a retreat at 
coHQtry.hoQse^ about six miles 
mt, to which we were to re. 
e that very e?eolng, bat the 
n overtook us, and stopped 
joarney. The thunder of the 
lery announced the beginning 
he business, and in* a few mi. 
!s after the whole male popula- 
of the city appeared in arms ; 
rever a French soldier was dis. 
'red, he was instantly cut down 
hot ; six of them were put to 
h under our windows : the 
e was dreadful beyond descripj 
After two or three hours' 
lage, particularly in our gi^t 
ct called Alcala, a reinforce. 
it of Frenchmen poured into 
town, and in their turn became 
assailants; our doors were burst 
n by the defeated populace, and 
^n or eight of the inhabitants 
It refuge under the couches, and 
liferent parts of the house; but 
French soldiers followed them, 
in my presence they most un. 
rcifully bayoneted those who had 
^ entered the room, where I and 
children sat shivering with hor- 
• The presence of a young 
mch officer protected us ; and he 
' the humanity to continue in 
house the entire of this fatal 
y> to whom I Certainly owe the 
^^ of myself and children. All 
^ht the iohabtfanti were forced 
»nuniiiiate their windows, and- 
ieen drcadfol.looking fellows took 



entire possession of the lower part 
of the house ; they soon broke open 
the cellars, which they plundered, 
nor could the presence of tha 
friendly officer 1 have mentioned 
prevent them. The following morn« 
ing was iniked a scene of horror. 
Almost every persou that passed 
through the streets was stained with 
blood, and the dead bodies lay in 
heaps'; it was reported, and I be- 
lieve with some truth, that Mnraf, 
the French general, intended to 
ereet some works outside the town, 
to batter it to the ground, .in re- 
venge for the lives of his soldiers. 
This, however, he abandoned. 
The next day, when the tumult had 
a little abated, T. and I got some 
articles of plate and the books of 
the house, and through the inter, 
cession of our French frieod were 
sufiercd to remove to his residence 
at Ombro, where we now are with 
the children. You shall hear from 
me by the first possible conveyance. 
The chance I have of sending this 
to Lisbon is but small, but it may 
possibly reach yon." 

21. A decree was published at 
Rome, in the name of the French 
government, wJiereby the pope was' 
deprived of all his territory, be- 
cause his holiness refused to declare 
war against England at the requisi*. 
tion of Bonaparte, and under the 
pretext that the states of the church 
had been granted by Charlemagna 
for the prosperity of the Romain re^ 
ligion, and not for the assistance of 
heretics. Against thb decree the 
pope protested. 

Marihester, May 25: — Iii con. 
sequence of the rejection of the 
bill for fixing the minimum of 
wages, a very great agitation has^ 
been excited amongst the weavers 
io this town and viainity. Yester- 
day 



i 



4ft 



ANNUAL' REGISTER, 180«. 



dfty. and this day maay thousands 
of them assembled in a fieid near 
St* George's church, by Newton* 
lane, and appointed delegates to 
attend the magistrates with a state, 
nent of their gri^Tances, which 
the J assert arose not so^much from 
^ scarcity of emplojment^ as. from 
the unparalleled fed action which 
the prices of their work hare re- 
cently experienced, insomuch^ that, 
after labouring for six days, at the 
rate of fourteen or fifteen hours 
p,9r dayt they cannot possibly oam 
more than seven or eight shillings i 
A pittaoce which will not support 
nature. Their employers, on the 
contrary, insist that, owing to the 
stagnation- of trade, they cannot 
afford to pay higher prices, and 
pjomiso to increase them to the^r 
wonted standard as soon as the re* 
storatlon of peace shall enablethem. 
— *Be this as it may, a yery serious 
alarm has been excited. The pco. 
p)e ha?e this day flocked hither 
from all the circumjacent town* 
ships, Tiz« Stockport, Bolton, Bury, 
Oldham, Ashton»under.Linc, £c* 
cles^ 8lc^ and became so formida* 
ble, though certainly at first or- 
derly and quiet, that the militsiry 
from the barraclM (4th dragoons) 
Were drawn ou^ and all the volnn* 
' tecr corps assembled. Themagis* 
trates repeatedly requested the peo- 
ple to dbperse^ and used every 
possible m^aos to appease them; 
but as they persisted in their right 
to assemUe^and remained unmoved* 
on the field, the Riot Act was at 
length read, and the soldiery made^ 
several apparently furious charges, 
merely with a view to enforce com« 
pllance, at the same time carefully 
avoiding any serious injury. Not- 
withstanding this forbearance, how* 
tTcr, tbo mob parseYtred^ andcoui* 



siderable mischief hal been' done ; 
one man is killed« and many wound- 
ed. About 20 persons have like- 
wise been apprehended, and com- 
mitted to prison* The utmost con- 
sternation itill (at eight o'clock, 
pmfn,} pervades the town, and every 
one dreads the result. 

Eleven o;Ciock.-^^* Al! is quiet ; 
bnt I have been informed, that in 
the course of the evening two meo 
have been shot, who are since dead, 
and several have been woimded by 
the swords of the cavalry. Abeot 
forty prisoners hare been com- 
mitted to the Ndw Bailey.'* 

On $ato:,day morning tbc hoest 
of sir Vicary Gibbs, at Haves, io 
' Kent, was robbed iff the followrog 
extraordinary manner. Wfaenmisi 
Gibbs, daughter of sir 'Viearj; 
awoke in the morning, she diKo. 
Tered that all her clothes were taken 
away, the quilt off the bed, aad 
every thing that was portable la 
the room* On examining the pre- 
mises, it was discovered that tb< 
robbers had, by tying some burdlei 
together, made a Jadder, and as. 
cending a colonnade, which goes 
round the house, found easy access 
^to miss Gibbs^s room, and made 
' off ^ith the property without awa. 
kening her. A large stick was left 
upon the bed: 

AitoUer Sukide, — The last tea 
days have perhaps produced more 
acts of seif-destroction' than has 
rarely been heard of. There bars 
been no less than ten lecordeii, 
which have taken place In this me. 
tropolis and its environs ; and tU 
eleventh occurred on Saturday 
mornings in a geotldman,' a natrre 
of SwItaeHand, of the^name oi 
Bonvden, who has been iff this 
country from a youth, and vbo 
had consideraMe raputattioa assa 

artist, 



CHRONICLE. 

iiit, vbo titot Mmtelf wUh a foot gnards, bad also arrired > 

lol, at four o'dock. tbat morn- d%ys before ; and notwitbalan 

He bad labonred under de- the praftent time of the jcor \» 

rsiioQ of spirits during the week, the proper season for huntiDg, 

] lie had spent the CTeoing of emperor, who kaotrs the pred 

Hay with a party of friends, lion of his royal gaetts for this 

e landlad; of the house, and Mr. jojiiiient, ha] sent the whole io 

s aerrant, were alariued b^ the rial hpn ting £ tat to Foalaioebl 

al report, and on going into his • — Tbcir majesties ' reside in 

l-rouD), it was perceived that apartments intended for the 1 

: bill had enterea his left oar, and queen of Holland, and km 

d gone through the top of the under the appellation uf the po 

III. The nnfortunale man Ian* apartments. It is in the same | 

i^hei] half an hour, of the palace where Charles 

I'be following unplcasing inlellj. lodged iii 1569, wheti. he pa 

ice has beao reccired in town through Franoe to quell the in: 

in Lirerpool, In a letter from a rection at GhenL 
itleman who artircd there from The prince of Aituriaa aoti 

imerara on Thursday |ast : " I brother Don Carlos, arrired ort 

1 extreoielf sorrj to inform 70a, ]9tfa iost. at the castle of Vatei 

>t the 4th Westilodia regiment belonging to the prince of Benei 

lKk»} at Surinam, hate risen to,and situated in thedepartmci 

on their xifGcers, and murdered the Indie, at five leagues duti 

reral of them." The letter gives from the town of Loreux. 

farther pnrticnlan of this me> Several persons of the first .1 

ichotf event, but goes on to rode to Fontainebleau yestcn 

<ie, that at the time tbe wrUer to pay thoir respocts to the kin 

't Dematant, ^* there was a plenti- Spain. 

I supply of lunber and prorisions At Cardiff assizes, which te' 

im America, and that, notwith. nated on Saturday se'nnight, 1 

inding the abolition of the slarc- liam Williams, aged IQ, was t 

'ie, there were so many negrows for the wilful murder of D 

r iiic, that a market could not Williams, of Lantriisont, al 

found for them." U years of age, under circ 

Parii, Map 25. — On Monday stances of peculiar atrocity. 

nooD, the king and queen of .appeared in evidence, that the 

'Un arrired at Fontainebleau, ac- soner and the deceased were in 

mpanied by the Princo of the bits of intimacy, and that the 

nc« aud a nunteroas retinue, ter had mentioned to. oqa ol 

fttty pr(;paratian was made for playmate^, that the prisoner 

t\r reception, under the direction been guilty of a horrid 'cr 

the prefect of the imperial pa. This c ami og to the knowledgi 

<^>^nj the inspector of the house- the prisoner, be threatened to 

)ldof(hecruwo,bothofwbomhad the boy, and throw his body 

''i>«dit Fontainebleau a few days the river. The deceased res 

^larc, to give tbe necestary orders, with his grandfather, whose h 

^quaJrou of the horse chasseun, ' he left on Sunday morning, the 

'Da dciKhinqat af the imperial of Augnit last, and was traci 

VuL. L. D a 



50 ANNUAL REGlSrER, 1808. 



ft fftrm in the neighbourhood, where 
be remained piftying with serae 
boys. till ;d>ODt \i o'clock^ when 
the latter were called to diooer, 
and the deceased returned homC'. 
ward, promising to meet his com- 
panions in the eyening, but was 
never seen alive afterwards. His 
absence occl^loning alarm, search 
was made, and on the fotlowiog 
Tuesday his body was found in a 
ditch, with seV^n wounds on the 
neck, and one on the belly, all of 
which appeared to have been in. 
Micted with a sharp instrument, and 
each was stated to be mortal . On 
the day the body was discovered, 
the prisoner absconded ; but a ver. 
' diet of wilful murder having been 
returned against him, a search took 

^ place, and , the clothes he had worn 
on the Sunday morning were found 
in his father's bouse, with evident 
narks of blood.stains attempted to 
be washed out. Pursuit was im- 
mediately made after him, and he 
was apprehended at Gellygare, 
where he bad applied for wprk, 
saying he had come from Danhar. 
ry, a place about six or seven miles 
distant from Lantrissent, and had 
been employed by one Llewellifi 
Yorath, but having quarrelled vitb 
his master, had quitted his serf ice* 
A clasp-knife was found upon him 
when taken. In the prisoner's de. 
fence it was stated, that he came 

'home about twelve o'clock on the 
Suilday, eat dinner with the famUy, 
went with them in the evening to a 
place of worship^ afterwards ti. 
sited a young woman to whom he 
was attached, then returned home, 
went to bed, and followed his usual 
labour for two succeeding days, 
during the whole of which he uia- 
nilested the most perfect composure 
of m ind. The evidence having l>eeo 



summed np, the jury shortly ifter 
declared the prisoner guilty. He 
heard his fate without emotion, but 
confessed that he was guilty, and 
seemed penitent. He was eiecnted 
on. Monday last, on the New Drop, 
at Cardiff, amidst a great concoaise 
of people, who assembled on tht 
occasion* 

Cambridge^ Afiiy96.— OhThars- 
day morning, about ten o'clock, i 
terrible fire broke out at Aldrej, in 
the parish of Haddenham, in the 
Isle of Ely, which raged with great 
fury for several hours, and destroyed 
nine dwelling-houses, with barns 
and out.buil^ngs belonging. Part 
only of the property was insured. 
It was occasioned by a farmer's 
son incautiously firing at a hawk 
who was carrying off some poultry, 
when part of the wadding fell upon 
the thatch of a barn. 

Lately, in digging into a mound 
of earth jadjoining the south side ot 
the ruins of Tyncmouth Priory, a 
capacious cemetery or arched tomb 
was discovered, with several human 
bones of a large size, and skulls on 
the floor. It is not l^nown that 
the place has been opened since the 
dissolution of the prioty in 153f). 
It is to be converted into a gtio- 
powder magazine. 

The late admiral Rainier has left 
property to the amount of nearl) 
i^OjOOoL and after providing amply 
£or his near relations, he made th? 
following bequest : 

^< I bequeath one-tenth part ef 
my personal property to the chan. 
ccllor of the exchequer, for the 
•time being, towards the reduction 
o( the national debt, in acknoMr. 
Icd'gment of the generous bounty 
of the national establislnAOnt ot th« 
royal navy, in which I have ac* 
quired the principal part of the for- 

tons 



CHRONICLE. 



&1 



ne I now haTe, which has ex* 
eded my merit and pretensionf /' 
An order has been issoed to in- 
»ue the number of the royal ma. 
lei serring in the nafj, as fol. 
ws:m^i5 to a shij) of the first, 
te ; 20 to a second-rate ; 1 5 to a 
ird-race; 10 to a fonrth-rate 
d large frigates, and in proper, 
in to smaller ships. 



JUNE. 

1. The duchess of Brunswick's 
inoity.bill was read a third time, 
d passed. 

Manchatery June l.«— — *' I am 
rry to inform jou that the nume- 
us body of cotton.weaTers, in 
is town and neighbourhood, are 
t still dissatisfied with the propo- 
Is which the master manufacturers 
▼e agreed on at their meeting last 
iht at the Bull's-head inn here^ 
ntch is 10 per cent, adf ance on all 
nds of cotton goods weaving, to 
kc place this day (June 1), and 
) per cent, again adrance, to take 
ace the 1st of August next*— this 
akes a foil 20 per cent, which does 
)tiDeet the approbation of this 
eat body of useful men. Their 
^mauds arc, and they do stand out 
id persist in haTtng 6$. 8(/., to the 
>und sterling advance, an adtance 
hich is 33 l.8d per cent* so that 
itwcen the manufacturer andwca- 
'T there is just 13 1-Sd per cent. ; 
id I an sorry to add, at this mo- 
ent, not any of them will go to 
* Joom, ndther here nor in any 
»t of the neighbourhood, and 
pon a moderate calculation, there 
re not less than 60,Q6o looms, in 
le cotton trade only, standing still 
Uh is town and neighbourhood of 
w^Wc DQilto. If any of them are at 
^« shuttle^ parties rush into the 



house, cellar, or garret, and take 
it from them. This, I am sorry to 
say, is too true. Great numbers of 
wearers walk in small parties about 
the streets, and in a peaceable man. 
ner. I am happy to say all is quiet* 
— -P^t 10 o'clock, Wednesday 
night, June l.'* 

We are sorry to learn, that on 
Monday last, the market day at 
Rochdale, 19 miles from Manches- 
ter, a tumult took place amongst a 
number of working wearers, seTe* 
ral of whom were'apprehended and 
committed to the New Prison. Th^ 
mob, howcTer, in the erening, re- 
leased the prisoners, and set fire to 
the gaol, which was burnt to the 
ground. 

2. The following is a copy of th# 
bill from the wearers of Manches* 
ter :— 
" To the Publk in general^ and to 

the Cotton Manufacturers and 

Weavers, 

M A number of hand-UIls have 
been printed and circulated, pur- 
porting that an agreement has taken 
place betwixt the masters and wea« 
wers : — This is to inform the pub. 
lie, that the persons who signed, 
such an agreement (if any) yrett 
not authorised in any respect, en 
the part of the wearers, to do so^ 
and we declare fhe same null and 
void ; aoldh that nothing less than six 
shillings and eight-pence in the 
pound (being one-third in advance 
upon oar present wages) will be 
sufficient for our support ; and all 
manufacturers that will giye ,tha 
abOTc adrance, their weavers will 
immediately go to work ; that all 
^oods that maybe taken in from 
the date hereof, shall be paid for byi 
the yard, according to its length, 
breadth, and strength, aUd a list of 
the prices will be prepared for the 

. 0% use 



i 



£S ANNUAL REGISTER, 18O8. 



sse of the public is mmni as possi* 
ble* 

^^S^pKdoftbebalf of (heweaTcrs^ 

" « M. MOARAY.'V 

« MaQcbester, JonoS, ISOtf." 

• 3. Ireland. A most daring 

^ttaclc^MS reoenM/ been made by 
the Thrashers on a respectable gen- 
tleman near Balijnamore, in tho 
county of Roscommon* After ba^ 
Ting forced their way into the honse 
in the middle of the nighty the 
usual oatb was tendered to him, 
which be refusing to take, one of 
the TiUaios exhibited to his asto- 
nished eyes a dreadful machine ia 
the form of st wooLcard, filled with 
crooked iron spikes^ and a weighty 
bammer, ready to inl^x them in his 
back at one blow. It is not to be 
wondered at, that this horrid pre* 
paratioD produced his immediate 
compliance to their demand, and 
they then swore him to the fol^low. 
ing terms :^«^' 1st, Tbit he shoald 
Bot pvrdiaso titiies,. o^cept from a 
Biaister; 2dly, Thai be should pay 
fsnly the old dues to, ti^ Roman 
cleigy; Sdly, That he should not 
glTO evidence against a Thiasher in 
tbe court of justice ; 4tbljr, That 
be would bo faithful, and bear true 
allegiance, to captain Thrasher/' 
On the next morning be surrender* 
cd himself, and gave an account to 
lord Ashtown, who immediately ap- 
prehended scnreral of the miscreants, 
and lodged them in gaol. 

Madrid^. June 8.— This day was 
published, in the name of bis ma- 
jesty the emperor of France, ^c. 
a prodamatioii to the Spanish na. 
tioo. The following is a transla. 
tion of the mora important pas- 
aages: 

^^.Spaniards ! after a long linger. 
itk^ disease, your nation sunk into 
decay, I huTo seen your sufferings ; 



I wiU relteve them. Your gvs^ 
Dess makes a part of mine. 
. <^ four princes have ceded te 
me all their rights to the Spaniih 
crown. I will not reign over yoor 
proviuoes, but I will acqi^re sa 
eternal right to the love and gratu 
tttde of your posterity. 

*' Your monarchy is old ; it mast 
be renovated, that you may enjoy 
the blessings of a renovation, which 
shall not be purchased by diiU war 
or desolation. 

<* Spaniards ! I bave convened 
a general assembly of tbe deputies 
of your provinces and towns, thst 
I may know your desires and 
"wants. , 

*< I shall lay down my rights, 
and place your illustrious crowa 
upon the bead of one who reisB. 
bl^ me; securing you a constito- 
tioa, which will unite the saJutarj 
power of the sovereigii with the li- 
beetles and Irights of the Spantsh 
nation. It is my will, that nty mc* 
mory shall be blessed by your latest 
posterity, and that they shaH ssy— 
be was the restorer of our countrj. 

** Given at Bayonne, 25th Maj, 
1808." 

By virtue of a mandate of his 
imperial and royal highness the 
grand duke of Berg, dated the a2d 
instaAt, the existing commissiou of 
consolidation ef the royal Falex is 
abolished. The commis^on is is 
future to be composed of* the pre* 
sident of government, of the so. 
preme council of Castile, two. mi* 
sisters of the same council, a mif 
Bister of the council of tbelodieSf 
and of the council of the factor/, 
and a secretary* Tbe* functions in. 
trusted to tbis commissiou are to se- 
cularize and sell, as far as is seq vi- 
siter the cburcb la9ds, and to dis- 
patch all other pressing ba«ness. 

Bis 



CHRONICLE. 



S3 



Ills imperial lugliness Bas nomu 
itcd colonel Cabarrus to be in. 
ndant.general in chi^f of the con. 
lida ioi of the royal Vales^ with 
e title of master of the accounts, 
id the fanctions of miaister of the 
^mmissioQ of the gorernmcnt. 
4. Saturday was the anniTersary 
' his majesty's birth-day, which 
)mpleted his 70th year ; and, with 
le exception of hii eye-sight, his 
:neral health is as good as it has 
een at any period of his reign. 
The -morning was ushered in 
ith the ringing of bells, and at ' 
oon the Park and Tower guns 
ere fired. 

Their majesties receiYed the ja- 
ior part of the royal family at 
luckingham*honse In the morning, 
rhere they breakfasted, and con- 
ratulated their royal parents on 
fie return of the day. Soon after 
neV clock, the queen andtheprin* 
esses prepared to leaye Bucking. 
lam.house, and they arriTed at St. 
^ames*s at a qnarter past two, es« 
orted by a party of life-guards, 
iler majesty was ushered into the 
:ouncil.chamber by his grace the 
lake of Portland, with whom she 
-ouTerscd for some time. The 
princesses formed, as usual, on the 
eft of the queen, agreeably to se- 
niority. The lord . chamberlain 
"^aved his wand for the perfor. 
mance of the odCj under the direc- 
tion of sir W. Parsons. 
^nland Promissory Notes^m^^Mrl 
Huskisson moved for leave to bring 
»n a bill to restrain the circulatfon 
*^ inland promissory notes, and 
Wis of exchange of small ralue. 
»U observed, that notes were bsued' 
under twenty shillings in the pot. 
^enes and othel^ manufactories, and 
"* t^e collieries, someof whlcti were 
"ow taken and of no talue, and 



theexisdog act did not empower 
the oiTenders to he taken before a 
magistrate, and many of them were 
Ibrged. He therefore moved *' for 
leave to bring in a bill to restraia 
the negociation of promissory notes,* 
or bills of ^change) under twenty 
shillings, In th»t part of Great*Bri« 
tain called England." After a fcfr 
words from sir J.Newport and Mr. 
Pkrnel, the motion was put and 
agreed to. 

The old accustomed pastime of 
Green -meeting, was revived on Sa- 
turday se'nnight at New Morton, 
in the parish or£lle8mere, Shrews- 
bury, where the largest assemblage 
of persons met that was ever known 
in that part of the eonntry. The 
first dance was taken by Mr. N. 
Davies, gent, (who is now la his 
93d year), with all the hilarity of a 
youth ^ of 16; after the meeting 
broke up, he attended his fair part- 
ner to her home, and enjoyed her 
company many a happy hour tiU 
the moou reminded him of return- 
ing to his home. 

General Mtlhaud, who commands 
at Hanover, lu» received from fiuo* 
napartethe title of eount, and a 
pension for life of 90,000 franes« 
Similar favours have been conferred 
on numerous other French gene* 
rals* . 

Shocking Murder, — Eariy oa 
Thursday, as a man was going to 
attend some -cows in a field at the 
back of the Queen's^head and Ar- 
tichoke publlc-honse, leading to 
Camden-town^ he found a man^ 
genteelly dressed, who appeared to 
have been shot* He proved to bo 
a Mr. Joaehisi, of Prati^place, 
Camden^town. In the afternoon^ 
he went to visit Mr* Moss, who 
resides at Cumberlaad-piaoe, Lb- 
8on*green, and received some mo* 



i 



54 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



B^« When he left Mr. Moss, he 
•Aiil he was ^oiog to Salisbury* 
jriace, where he stopped to see 
some persens play at skittles till a 
late hour^ It is supposed M r. Joa« 
€lj^im was attacked by robbers, and 
ti^ai he, being a resolute, mao, had 
liesisted their attack. Id corrobo. 
r^ion of this, his stick was found 
with some large marks upon it, as 
if it had RiTeQ some violent blows. 
His watch was stolen, and it is sup. 
posed he had bank-notes about 
him to the amount of 100/. oT which 
it is conjectured the villains had by 
some means had information. On 
Thursday a surgeon opened the 
body, and found that a large bullet 
had entered the left side, through 
the ninth and tenth ribs, and passed 
through his heart. 

Friday, an inquest was held at the 
Southampton. Arms, Camdeo-town, 
on the body. The evidence went 
chiefly to establish the fact of the 
murder, but did not difier .very 
materially from the ciKumstances 
already stated. His pockets were, 
rifted, and his money was taken 
away, but his pocket- bpok, with 
5bme notes and drafts, remained in 
his pocket. On the whole evidence 
adduced, the jury found themselves 
justified in bringing a verdict of 
«« Wilfnl murder against some per- 
aen or persons unknown ;'' but at 
present we understand there is no 
due \irhatever to lead, to the detec- 
ti^n of the Tillatny. In some re. 
fptciM the fate of tliis unhappy gen. 
tieman reminda us of that of the 
wnfortunate Mr. Steele, and may 
be as long in coming to a discovery. 

Manchesiery Jum 6....The re.' 
port, mentioned, in my last, of the 
prised at Rochdale having been 
burnt, is but too true. The mob, 
i» Older to refaaasc some of their 



confederated, broke into and ic 
tually set fire to the building. Fur. 
ther mischief would probably have 
been effected, had not a detach, 
ment of dragoons from Manchester, 
and the Halifax volunteers, arrived 
in time to prevent it* Several per. 
sons are in custody, charged with 
riotous proceedings in Rochdale 
and its vicinity. At Oldham also 
some injury has been done to fac» 
tories and dwellings, such as break- 
ing windows, &c« 

Soldiers are pouring into Man* 
Chester from all quarters, though 
the town is perfectly tranquil; 
three regiments, one of cavalry and 
two of infantry, are expected in t 
day or two. I pity the publicans, 
who are likely to be severe sufferers 
on this occasion. 

< A t»pccial commission is expected 
to be appointed for trying the pri. 
soners, in order to make a strikiog 
and speedy example of the gnilty. 

7« Yesterday the magistrates had 
information where the committee of 
the weavers had assembled; the 
constables, with three companies of 
the West York militia, went and 
surrounded a' house (sign of the 
PIasterer*8 arms) in Newton^treet, 
Ancot'Street, in this town, in which 
they took 37 men, with a large 
bundle of papers. Some of the 
men were dismissed^ as not having 
any connection with the weavers. 
There are about twenty of the lat* 
ter kept in the New Baylcy prison, 
to be examined in a day or two. 
The magistrates have all this dav 
been very busy in looking over these 
papers, and to make such arrange, 
medt as may appear oecessaiy. 
The town appears very quiet, and 
many of the weavers are cqntent. 
cdly taking their work again. This 
morning I was informed| by a 

friend 



CHHONICLE. 



ieod from Boltoo, that jateriij 
noon there assembled many 
eavers, but the two troops of 
iTalrjr that itrc 'italioned there 
on dispersed them io etery dircc. 
m, pnrsuing seieral of theoi for 
ree or four miles upon the moor, 
hich is doie by the town.— P. S. 
am this moment by aathority in> 
nned} thtit information bu been 
Ten to the magUtrates of this 
tace, of there lieing an intention 
[ some of the weavers to meet at 
place called White Mofs a lew 
Jles from Manchester. TJktc is 
Dt the smallest doubtef (hdr bein^ 
loQ dispersed, as there is eyery 
lertion made according to (he nc- 
jssity of the times. 
Ashockingcircamilance occurred 
I the neighbourhood of WoUcr-  
ampton, on Wednesday se'Doight : 
Ir, Webb, of Moseley, was mar- 
led on the precedhig Sunday to an 
miable young lady of that place ; 
nd only a few hours after, he ot- 
onished the family with symptoms 
f insanity. In this sad state, he 
'0 ^V'ednesday destroyed several 
beep, and obtained a pair of loaded 
'istnls, with which he alarmed the 
icighhourhood by threatening to 
He upon many persons. He next 
'M possession of a razor, and, 
lieadful to relate, he first cat hii 
•ife's throat, and then his own ; 
ilmosl every person who attempted 
^ secure him was wounded. Nci. 
''cr he nor bis wife arc expected 
!" iccorer. 

Ust week as the carriage of sir 
fnonjaa Gooch was irarelling on 
tlie road from London to Suffolk, 
"'th four post-horses, near the I j. 
wWBtone, it orertook a cart, in 
^bich were Mr. Mead, a farmer, of 
MMildeo, bii wife, and a female 
wqwiotance. The poit-lads wish- 



ing to pass the cart, called on 
manner (hat frightened Mr. \ 
hofset insomuch that he bt 
UDgoTernable ; they still pt^rsc 
in folloiring his cart, and ke 
the same noise ; the dreadful 
sequence was, that just as thi 
riago was passing the cart, 
Mead's horse spraDg out o 
Toad, threw the cart over, and 
cipifatcd all the passiJn'ers dii 
under the wheels of the csr; 
which passed o»er the head ol 
Alead, and the breast of his  
thi-y rerrived so sBvcre an in 
that a few miiiulca after hein 
moved to the Nag's Heail, Ui 
street, they both expired, leai 
family ol nine children to la 
their melancholy titt. 

America. Fire at Trinidt 
Via have been favoured by a 
respondent with the followinj 
count of the dreadful and e 
site conflagrution of the tov 
Port d'lispagnc, in the ill. 
island of Trinidad, where < 
house has been burntto Ihe^ri 
The fire began at a chemist's 
in Frederick -street, about 
o'clock in the evening of the 
ot March ; by eleven o'clock 
street was consumed, and b 
twelve the whole (root of the, 
was burnt, extending fiom the 
ner of the old Ordnance-yard ii 
east, down to Unwin's-eorDi 
the west, czcep ting the cooimii 
general's house and stores, Ma> 
tosh's and Ciprian's brick build 
which are opposite on the 
shore, and which were save< 
knocking down the wooden b 
ings at rach end. From Uni 
comer, .the fire extended up U 
new buildings ovned by Dr. 
liams and others, to the ooi 
Brims wtck-fqaartj from whej 
9* 



• 



56 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

Tan up obliquely to the end of St. press himself to that effect. Saoiu 

ADu's-stieet, and to the market, er, as it appears, than labour nn. 

place in the east, where it stopped, der the tortures of jealousy, he 

This describes the circumference of formed the dreadful resolution of 

this dreadful conflagration ; within committing suicide, and had inilQ. 

-which there is not a house standing, ence enough orer his wife to prevail 

Such was the rapidity of the flames,, on her to quit the world with him. 

that many of the inhabitants with From the situation in which the 

difficuHy escaped with their lives, wench was found sitting, it is sup* 

The consequences that must ensue posed the fellow had assisted in her 

from the dreadful havoch; made by death before he proceeded in the 

this fire are at this time (April 3d) ezceution' of himself. The hands 

almost incalculable. It is said that of both were at liberty^ so there if 

1500 houses are consumed, toge- no room to suppose that either bad 

<her with thdr furniture and stores not coi^sented to die. They evi. 

of merchandize, supposed to be dently had been drinking, as two 

the value of one million and a half empty bottles were found near them, 

sterling, and that 10,000 people both of which had contained bran- 

are without houses, beds, clothes, dy." 
and food. France, Parii^ June 10.— In the 

Some time last year a young man Moniieur is contained the follow, 

at Lochsidc, in the parish of Blair, ing from Bayonne, dated the 4th 

gowrie, Scotland, having shot at instant: — ^< The day before yester. 

and wounded a young otter, carried day his majesty received at his le- 

it home^ where it soon recovered, Tee the doputatios o^ the grandeei 

and has now become as tame as a of Spain, and had a very long con. 

lap-dog. It follows the young man fercnce with them.'* 
'wherever ho desires it, and obeys From Madrid we learn the fa1« 

ills commands with punctuality. lowing, under the date of Uie 30th 

Lately it has been in the practice of May: 

of accompanying him to the loch *^ Y^terday the council of Cas« 

and rivers in the neighbourhood, tile held an extraordinary assembly, 

where it dives- for fish, brings them in pursuance of a comnaand com* 

±0 land, leaves them with its keep, municatedbjrtheir excellencies Don 

er, and returns in search of more. Sebastian PInucIa and Don Arias 

Social Suicide! — A letter from Mon, the seniors of the council : 
Charleston, (America) dated March ^* ^^h ^' royal highness the 

21, states as follows : grand nuke of Berg, lieotenant. 

^^ Last night a fellow belonging general of the kingdom, commands 

to Major Rouse, and a wench, his that at eight o'clock in the momoig 

-wife, belonging to Mrs. D*Azevc« of to-morrow, the SOth of May, 

da, put an end to their existence the council da assemble, in order 

by strangling themselves with ropes, to proceed to the execution of s 

It is supposed that the fellow, who decree and a proclamation of his 

^as about to go into the country majesty the emperor of the French, 

for somb time, anticipated some in. king of Italy, and protector of the 

.fidelity in his wife during his ab. confederacy of Che Rhine, 
seoce, as he had been heatd to ex. ** In this decree it has pless^ 



\' 



C H R O N I C X E. 



51 



bb imperial and royal im^esty^ by 
virtae of the rights io the crown of 
Sputt which hafe been ceded to 
him, to inform the coancil of Cas. 
tile of the measarcs which he 
has taken in order to fix the basis 
for the new goTemment of the 
kingdom. Ilis m ijesty commands 
at the same time, that his highness 
the grand duke of Berg shall conti- 
nue to fulfil the fonctioos of lieute« 
nant^encral of the kingdom; and 
he requires the council of Castile io 
pabttshand affix the said imperial 
decree, that no one may pretend 
ignorance of the same* 

'* Pursuant to this, and an ex« 
press command from his serene 
highoen the IScutenant-generaf, I 
gire your excellency notice, that 
the- court will assemble to.morrow 
morning early." 

The imperial decree itself was to 
the following effect: 

'* Ni^leon, emperor of the 
French, king of Italy^ protector of 
the confederacy of the Rhine» &c. 

^^ The king and the princes of the 
house of Spain haring ceded their 
right to the crown, as is known by 
their treaties of the 5th and 10th of 
May, and by their proclamations 
poblished by the junta and the 
cflnncil of Castile, we hare decreed, 
and do decree, ordered and ^o or* 
der as follows : 

^' Art. 1. The assembly of the 
notables, which has already been 
convened by the lieutenant-general 
of the kingdom, shall be held on 
the i5th of June at Bayonne. The 
deputies shall be charged with the 
MQtinients, desires, and complaints 
•f those tiiey represent ; and also 
with full power to fix the basis of the 
new government for the kingdom. 

'^ 2. Our cousin, the grand duke 
of Beig, shall continue to ful£l 



the fttBctidns 'pt Ueatenant^enefal 
of the kingdom^ .:t . 

<^ 3. The nunistefs^, ^hj council 
Of state, the couneiLof t^asdks, a^ 
all ciril, ecclcsiastic^^aii^ mUUsurj'f 
authorities arc, as fair aa i|; feguL 
site, confirmed* ^u^tice tl^O \^ 
administered under the aaqici forins, 
and in the same manner as\ii| 
usnaL 

*' 4. The council of . Castile jsi 
charged with the publication' of thi% 
decree, and with the ai&xing it ot^ 
all places where it may be necessa* 
ry, that no one may pretend igfio. 
ranee of tl^e same. . 

<^ Given at our unperial royal 
palace at Bayonne, the 35tla 
of May, 18Q8. 

(Signed) . *^ NAPOLEON.'* 
Extract from the Ov^edo GawU^ of 
the XUkofJung* 

^^ The governor of Carthage&ay 
who has received orders to gis«. un^ 
the place to the French, and wa% 
about to eiecute them,, exp^nem^e/d^ 
the same fate as- Alvala» Tha Al- 
mighty, who watches over the lived 
of the innocent,, and who. tcy^rds 
his loyal and p^olic people witl^ 
an eye of coip passion, , ordained 
that on the approach of the ene<v 
.my^s squadron to this port, witlk 
8000 French troqps fos disembark* 
ation, it should Call in with one be^ 
longing to the mighty island ofi tha 
ocean. The latter came up withy 
attacked, and defeated them i twok 
of their frigates and all their tmns.. 
ports were sunk^ and two ships of 
the line which rctm^jucd were boards 
ed, and Hheir creivs put to th^ 
sword. The English lost two (ri^ 
gates, and received s(yne damage io^ 
the other ships. The- engagement 
took place betiveea- Alicant and 
Carthagena on th^ ^^th of las4 
month, and lasted two days, 

"A 



SB ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



<< A French ship haviog on board 
arms, storesi and money for Car- 
thagena, belie? ing that port still in 
possession of the French party, 
entered it on the 28th, and was im- 
mediately compelled to strike. 

<^ The Andaiusians hare fortified 
the Sierra Morena with artillery." 

The whole prorince of Arragon 
is stated to be in a situation of the 
greatest ferment. The Dnke de 
rinfantado is beliefed to hare in. 
dignantly Vejeeted the proposition 
of going to Bayonne to biimble him- 
fell at the feet of Bonaparte. 

The per centage due to Mr. PaL 
ner, on tl^e > net rcTenue of the 
Post-office beyond 240,000/. from 
the 5th of April, 1793, to the 5th 
•f Jan. 1608, deducting the pro. 
duce arising from increased post* 
age and restriction iiv franking (ac 
cotding to the amount at which 
they were sererally taken), and 
also the sum of 9fi00l. a year re. 
cdted during that period, amounts 
to 69,347/. 5t. Ad. 

Mr. Hammond, formerly pilot of 
the Saturn, (a person well known 
in this neighbourhood) has ^een 
arrested in France as a spy, and 
shot, by order of the French go. 
Ternment. Other accounts state, 
that he was beheaded, and his body 
dragged round the town, the name 
of which is not mentioned. He 
had been sent from the Saturn, on 
board i*Aigle, captain Wolfe, to 
reconnoitre the . French coast,, and 
landed at a port near L'Oricnt ; he 
£ad been on shore twelf e days, and 
was preparing to come off in a boat, 
when he was arrested by two cus. 
tom^house officen. He receired a 
pension of SO/, per annum from 
our gOTemm^t, for the informa. 
tion he obtained some time since, 
by landing on the eneiiy's coast. 



He was a Frenchman by birth, hot 
had been many years in oar service, 
in the coarse of which he had more 
than once risked his life, by making 
incursions into France, and retonu 
ing in an open boat to our shipi 
off the coast. 

. An extraordinary Ca$c, — For 
some time past, a sow pig, be. 
longing to Mr. Tudor, of Leo. 
minster, has been increasing ia 
bulk, and was supposed to be 
breeding; but not farrowing with, 
in the usual time after she was per« 
ceiTed to be enlarging, and dailj 
increasing in bulk, Mr. Tudor sus- 
pected that she was not breeding, 
and consulted a medical gentleman, 
who, upon Tiewing the ammal, 
pronounced that her complaint was 
the dropsy; and las^ week, the sow, 
under the direction of an eminent 
surgeon, was tapped, and full 16 
gallons of water was taken fron 
her, and she is now rccoYering. . 

MmcheiteTf June 11.— We Is. 
ment that the refractory spirit 
amongst tl^e weavers in this towu 
and neighbourhood still exists. It 
has been continued by acts of the 
most oppresslTc kind towards their 
fellow workmen who hare been 
inclined to follow their employ- 
ment. From these, besides taking 
away their shuttles, their pieces 
hare, in several instances,, been 
cut. To prevent such daring out. 
rages, the military have patrolled 
for several miles on the different 
arenucs to the town, for the pro- 
tection of the industrious and 
well-disposed workmen. — ^Tbat tbs 
weavers are as a body, a lojal 
people, wc cannot doubt; bnt it 
seems certain that artful agenU 
amongst them hate miacd political 
sentiments with their claims, and 
have thus been the cause of conti. 

Btiiog 



CHRONICLE. 59 



moiiig A t8«ptr ttat seems to rise ishndl were to be goTemed by tbeir 
in its demaiuls, as the mamifactii* own, samelj, the Spanitb laws, no. 
xers offer conciliatioii. May they til his majetty's pleatare should be 
see their error, and retnrn to their known. It wu the custom of that 
tme interest ! Coqjd the govern, country that persons should OMirry 
Bient suffer itself to be forced by at an early age ; and the unhappy 
Tiolence into particular measures, female, who gare rise to this pro* 
there would be a proof of its in«« secution, (Louisa Calderon,) hud 
efficiency, and that it could not been contracted to a person of the 
afford protection to peaceable sub. name of Pedro Lewis ; but by tha 
j«ct8* Sncli attempts must, there, artifices of his serrant Carlos Uon» 
fore, be resisted by force. sales, she was by him seduced, and 
KiHG^s Bench, June 11. he afterwards robbed his master of 
The Ktng t. G^emor Pictoa* 2000 ducats. The robber escaped. 
This cause came on again to bo but the girl was taken up, and ap. 
tried this day, and occupied (he plication was made to the governor* 
court (whidi was extremely crowd, to permit torture to be inflicted, in 
ed the whole day), from nine order to compel her to confess what 
o'clock in the morning until eight she knew of the facts. The manner 
at night. in which this torture was inflicted, 
Mr. Garrow, in stating the case be should abstain from describing, 
en the part of Uie prosecution, ob. but the jury would have the pain to 
served, that as the evidence which hear it described by the unfortu. 
he was agun about to adduce in nate suflerer herself, corroborated 
support of this prosecution, had by other evidence. Before inflicting 
been already fully laid before the the torture, it was necessary how- 
public, he had no matter of novelty ever to fehow that the defendant, a 
to state to the jury ; and whatever British governor, had consented to 
might be the personal feelings on it. In answer to this, it wss said, 
the other side, he protested for him. that the defendant was authorized 
self, that out of this case he knew by the law of Spain in such cases ; 
nothing of the defendant, and had but in reply to this, he should show 
so other view but wishing justSce that no such law existed in the 
might be done to all parties, deter. Spanish code, that no Spanish go- 
mined on his part to do his duty to Ternor could have inflicted such a 
the public. The horrid barbarities punishment, and that it was re- 
charged against this defendant were served for governor Picton to be 
such as had never before.been char* the £rst to introduce torture into 
gad against any British governor, that island, which by the Spanish 
that of cruelly torturing a female laws could only be resorted to in 
of the tender age of fourteen years, cases of withcraft, and Louisa CJaU 
He then stated, that in the year deron was the only instance of the 
1801 the ishind of Trinidad was kind ever known' in that island, 
ceded to the British forces, under where torture was inflicted for a 
general sir Ralph Abercromby, different crime. If, however, some, 
when the defendant was appointed thing^ should be shown on the other 
governor of that island, and it was side, from the old Spanish books, 
stipulated that the people of the recofoising torture in such cases, 

3 hs 



(JO ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



Iton^ld ihaW) on flie contrary, 
that sach laws were obiotete, and 
ibat this, and this only, was the one 
^litary case where tortare had erer 
been inflicted, and he was sorry to 
repeat that it was 'first introduced 
1>y a British goternor; and he 
should farther contend, that from 
the introduction of the British go. 
Temment, all snch laws, if they ever 
did exist, most cease, and be wholly 
Toid and nugatory. 

Louba Calderon was then eia« 
■lined, and described the manner in 
which the torhtre was inflicted, in 
nearly the same way she had done 
on the former trial, with the excep- 
tion that she now gare her eridence 
in the English language, with much 
fluency and .correctness. Uavfog 
described the pike on which she 
atood, suspended l^ a rope and 
palley from the ceiling, her faint. 
ing, &c. &c. she further stated, that 
Ihc persons present were Begerot, 
the judgfe, who first applied to the 
^femor for the order to torture; 
de Castro, the escribado, or secre- 
lary to thb judge ; and Ralpho 
Shando, the algnazil or constable. 
She also stated, that when brought 
before the goTcmor, he said if she 
did not declare who had got the 
money, he would make the 'hang« 
man pass his hands OTcr her. 

Ralpho Shando corroborated her 
statement. 

The order for applying the" tor. 
fore was then produced, and ap« 
peafed in the worda following: — 
' '^ jlppliquez la quesHow^ it LouisU 
QalderonU* 

(Signed) The Gotsrhor. 

. Mr. Dallas, in statTng the case of 

the defendant, admitted the facta 

to have been fully prored ; but the 



jury were to recoflecf, 0iat die ideii 
of applying the torture did not ori. 
ginate with goremor Picton, bat 
with the judge of the conntrj; 
With respect to its set erity, lie hid 
nothing to say, but it must be rc« 
collected that the proacdifHz wii 
accused of a crime which, in this 
country, would be considered a ca- 
pital ofi^nce, and lead to an igno. 
minioos execution. In order that 
the jury might judge rightly of the 
case, it was necessary they should 
see and understand wbat the charge 
truly was. It was' not for caosiDg 
Louisa 'Caldifren 'to be cruelly tor. 
tured, but giriog an order that tor. 
ture should be applied. ' He did 
not, hdwetar, mekn to say, that if 
his conduct was illegal, he was noC 
by the laws, and in a moral point 
or Tiew, answerable ; but the im- 
prfeonmerit and serere treatnent 
were not applicable to bhu, unl&i 
the gOTemor was to be considered 
as the gaoler and executioner. Tlie 
only poiiit^ therefore, which the 
jury had to try' was, Whether go« 
Ternor Vxciotk had' ord^r^ the tor. 
ture to be applied unlawfully and 
maliciously, or otherwise ; but, in 
fisct, the malice might be df course 
inferred^ If the thing was done ilfe* 
gaily. If the law was in existence, 
hrwas authoflzed and bound bj it 
to exercise that power. 

A great number of deposltfooi 
were dieu read to prore tile Utws of 
Spain on this subject. 

After a tast body of e? idence 
being adduced, to show that tortnre 
was authorized by the Spanish Uws, 
and much argument on both sides, 
it was at length agreed that a spe. 
dal verdict should be taken ; and 
after a charge from lord Elleabo* 



•The totturd 



reu^b, 



CHRONICLE. 



61 



ioi|bi IP vUdi he bbierred, tint 
howtffm the Hm of Spain ftnliionsed 
tortttfl% mad tiwt i;overoor Pictoa 
hid not acted raalidousljr, .in hii 
opinion he had ocrted extra.judici. 
ftilj, for the dernier appeal was not 
to the governor, hut to the king of 
£iifland, and therefore the court 
would infer that he was guilty of 
the fact. 

The j«^ then returned a spe* 
cUl rerdict: That, at the iimt of 
the cession of the island of Xriot* 
iii to the British force, the law of 
Spain authorised torture, and that 
goteruer Ficton had not acted ma* 
lideasif, eiicept so far as the law 
infsried from the facts. Upon the 
other coonts of the indictment, the 
jarj found a general rerdict 'of-~ 

The trial did -not terminate until 
near e^ht o'cloelL at night. 

jffeeikig iVemtttf?e.-^We have 
already mentioned the melancholy 
bte of Lord Royston« The fol. 
lovhig letter from one of the pus» 
fleagen on-board the vessdl gives 
further particulars of this unforti^ 
aate event ;— * 

^^Memti^Jpril 13^ 180ft, N.S. 

«' On Saturday, the 3d insU N« S. 
at U o'clock at noon, we sailed 
from liebatt-with a fair wind, and 
ice for about two versts only, after 
which we ^ into clear water, and 
from that time saw no more ice. 
This bir wind continued for about 
tweaty.four hours, and carried us 
within forty Englisb miiefi of Carls- 
crooa. The ship b^an to make a 
little water the first night, but it 
was a trifle ; the second night how« 
ever iacrealt*d so mnch, that Messrs. 
Biyley, fiecher, Reony, Focke^ 
and F^ieyra, who were Ijdng upon 
haj, were obliged to move to a 
hi^Mr plaec; but as I lay in my 



kibitker, the water never touched 
me till the la^t night, when I waa 
also obliged to move. When we 
came withtn forty miles of Carls, 
croika, the wind became directwest^ 
and blew a gale: we were several 
times close to the island of OJaod, 
but could not land on account of 
the ice ; but that would not have 
prevented our attcmptiog it; had 
not the captain said that there wais 
no place for anchorage, nor' was 
there a harbour ; ^so we tacked 
about till the 6th, all the time the 
pamps going, and all hands baling 
the ship ; but we .did not gain am 
the leak, and had always four or 
five feet water in the hold* 

^* On the £th inst. at noon, colo. 
ncl Poilen asked the captain if he 
thought the ship could stand the 
sea^ He answered, that < It was 
impossible;' whence it would ap« 
pear, that had colonel P. not put 
the question, th6 ship must the 
next day have foundered with ua 
all. 

*' Upon receiving that answer from 
the captain, colonel Poilen ordered 
him immediately to put back, and 
make the first port (this was Me* 
mel); and as it blew a gale, and 
the wind quite fair, we were sure 
of reaching it early next morning* 
During the whole of the day and 
night, we were employed in clear* 
ing the ship of water, and prevented 
it exceeding five ieeU At two 
o'clock in the morning of the 7th, 
we saw the coast, and, at four« Me- 
mel. I immediately went into the 
hold) opened my desk and took out 
what money I had there, placing it 
in the pocket of my kibitker, that 
I might secure if at a momeut'e 
warning} in case of danger ; I then 
locked my desk, and kft my^sef- 
vant to put it away. 

«<Whe» 



6$ 



A N N U A L R E G I S T E R, I80S. 



^^ When I came upon deck, we 
were close to the bar| I had not 
been there fife minotes, when the 
thip struck with sach riolence, that 
the ladies and children in the cabin, 
and* the passengers in the hold, had 
JQst time to reach the deck, when 
the ship filled with water, and im- 
mediately after the rodder was 
knocked off. 

^' The women now took refuge 
hi the sailors* cabin upon deqk, 
where I also put the children. 

*^ The sea running dreadful! j' 
bigh, we were obliged to cut away 
the mast, to prevent the ship up« 
setting; (he boats were then cut 
loose and launched, and lord 
Royston, with four or five others, 
jumped into them, but were npset 
in a moment. 

'* I determined to take my 
chance with the women, and fol- 
lowed them into the round-hduse, 
where I found eleven persons; 
Mrs. Polleo, and three servants, 
M^rs. Barnes, three children and 
maid, Pereyra, and Pocke. All 
.the rest of our. dear friends, except 
those who were lost by getting into 
the boats, were immediately washed 
overboard. 

'* Shortly after, the life-boat 
tame alongside, and found the cap. 
tain and three sailors upon the 
bowsprit, who telling the captain 
of the life-boat that every one else 
was washed overboard. It put ofi", 
leaving us twelve in the round, 
house, in water up to the middle. 

<* There was only one dry bed. 
place, into which we put the chil. 
dren, but Mr. Focke prayed for 
God's sake We wonld permit him 
to go in too, as he could not en- 
dure the cold. Mr. Pereyra sat 
Ij^oa a chfs^ aad had Mrs. Pollen 



. • 



on his knees ; Mrs. Barnes sat npoe 
anothet chest, with her little one at 
her breast, the water covering the 
chests. 

<« That night we all went to 
prayers, forgave our enemies, and 
resigned onrselves to the Alnightf. 

*^ Next morning at eight o'clock, 
Anthopy, who wm out, gaveaotica 
that the lifeboat was at the bow- 
sprit. I went ou^ with Mrs. Pol. 
len and the youngest child; Mrs. 
P. with great difficulty reached the 
life-boat. I was twfoe knocked 
down by the seai, with a child m 
one arm, but sucmded in keeping 
fast hold with the other. Findmg, 
however, my strength failing mc, 
I gave the ehild to Ann (Mrs. B.'8 
maid), desiring her to remain where 
she was, till I could send one of 
the men from the IHe-boat to takt 
the child. Whether she attempted 
to follow me or not I cannot say, 
but just as I threw myself into the 
boat, the sailors called out that ths 
woman with the chilcl, and a mso, 
were washed overboard ; this -maa 
was Hearn,'Mrs. Pollen*a servant 

^< The weather was too boister- 
ous to permit the boat to remain 
long where it was ; it therefore pnt 
off with Mrs. Pollen, her servant 
Anthony, Mrs. Pereyra, and my- 
self. 

*^ When we reached the shore, I 
told the people there werestiU foor 
living persons on board, viz. Mrti 
Barnes, her two children, and tU 
third servant of Mrs. Pollen. They 
were with diilicnhy persuaded to 
return, and succeeded In savisg 
them. 

<' Mr. Focke had died duringtbt 
night, from cold, in the litUe bed* 
place before described ; the body i» 
now on shore^ qibd is lo be barisd 

to«9ierrft*t 



CHRONICLE. 



63 



to-morrow, according to the direc- 
(ioos kegare me about half an hour 
before his death. 

<' Mr. Pereyra is not expected 
to surrife this day. 

** Mrs. Barnes is laid up, ha?]og 
had her feet frozen. Mrs. Pollen 
IS tolerable, but, as you can ima- 
gine, Tcry low. We were upwards 
of forty honiy without meat or 
drink, and must hare all perished, 
had we remained six hours longer. 

^' An estafette has been sent to 
(he kmg at Koningsberg. The 
French Consul here is tery civil, 
aod has offered to do any thing in 
his power to assist ns, even to write 
to Puis for passports. 

^^ I have lost every thing belong, 
ingtome; and there is Uttle hope 
•f my recoTerlrig any thing, as the 
ship is going to pieces. Mrs. 
Barnes saved only a small truuk of 
the childrtn^s linen. 

*^The hospitality and attention 
we poor snrviTors meet with at 
this place, are beyond expression." 

LOST. 

Lord Royston, and man ser? ant. 

Colonel Pollen, and one man- 
lervant. 

Mrs. Barneses man.servant, maid< 
lerrant, and youngest child. 

Mr. Halliday's servant, Thomas 
D. Bayley, Mr. Becher, Mr. Ren* 
nv. 

Mr. Focke (died on board), and 
Ur. Pereyra (sinee dead on shore). 

▲LIVE. 

Mrs. Barnes, and two children ; 
Mrs. Pollen, and two servants. 

Mr. ilalliday, captain, and three 
tailors. 

Mancheifery Juns 15. — Parties 
of the weavers assembled yesterday 
at and near the New^cross, aiid in 
Newton fane ; but thej' dispersed 
peaceably, after bein; cautioned by 



the general sent hither to command 
the troops, sir Charles Ross, I be- 
lieve,^ who humanely advised them 
to return to their employment, lest 
a contrary conduct should subject 
them to disagreeable consequences. 
Every thing has been tranquil du. 
ring this day. 

Manchester J June Si. — Owipg 
to the perfect tranquillity which 
reigned here during the greater part 
of last week, I had cherished tho 
hope that every thing was settled^ 
and any further communication 
from me, 'on so disagreeable a sub* 
ject, rendered unnecessary. This 
hope, however, I regret to say^ 
has been disappointed. Yesterday, 
large bodies of refractory weavers 
again assembled in St. George's. 
fields and neighbouring streets, and 
not only stopped all the looms they 
found at work, but intercepted 
every weaver coming in with finish- 
ed pieces, or going out with fresh 
work, forcing the workmen to ra* 
torn from whence they came. 
Some pieces, indeed, are said to 
have been actually cut out, or de» 
stroyed in the looms. Considerable 
bodies of the above deliided arti- 
sans have likewise met in the same 
places this day, but indicated r^ 
ther a peaceable disposition. Par. 
ties of the fourth dragoon guards 
have patrolled the streets in that 
vicinity during the day; a measure 
which has probaljly prevented a 
repetition of the scenes of yester- 
day, and afforded the welUdisposed 
country. weavers a qviet ingress 
and egress. 

22. Duel e^iraordinarj/. — A 
very novel species of duel has lately 
taken place at Paris. M. de Gran- 
pree and M. Le Pique having qnar. 
relied about Mademoiselle Tirevit, 
a celebrated opera. dancer, who was 

kept 



f 



a ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

IfXTpi hy IhQ Smrner^ but bad been thaa at any period |of (he dis. 

di>coTcr«d in jOir iDtrigue with Jhe "pute. Tl^ey hare burnt in effigy 

lat^er^ a ciiailetig^ en<Qod» Being sereral -respectable niannfacturcn, 

both incn""of ^te?alked mind, thejr whom they deem' the most hostilt 

agreed to fight in balloqns, and ja to their claims^ and stop{)cd every 

pril^cr to give time for their prie. loom in that part of the town, 

paration, li ^as determined that A^hich is unfortutiately the scene of 

the' dael should take place oo that their unlawful* meetings. , Many 

day month. . Aecor4iogl7« on the pieces of different goods faaTC been 

Sd of May, the parties met at a fieJd maliciously destrovcd b j means of 

adjoining the ThuilleHes, where spirit of Titriol i>r aqua fortif, 

their respectire balloons iirere ready which they artfully cooTey to tbe 

to receive theip. Each, attended looms through the medium of a 

by a. seconds .ascended his car, tyringei from which the destroctiTS 

' loaded with blunderbusses, as pis- ingredient is squirted through tbe 

' tols could not bie expected to be broken panes in the windows; and 

' efficient an their probable situations, ^omeiimes it is dropped upon (he 

' 1^ great multitude atteodcd^ hear* bags hung over workmoA's shonU 

' ing of theballoons, but little dream- ders, containing pieces. 

' Ing of their purpose : the Parisians ' The women are, if possible, more 

' merely looked for the novelty of a turbulent and mischievous than the 

' balloon racot . At nine oNclock the men. .Their insolence to the sol. 

cords Mere cut, and the ballb^iis dicrs and special constables Is in- 

' i^sceodcd nsgetticaliy amidst tb*- to]erab)e, and they seem to be con.' 

' shouts of the spectatory* The wind fident of 'dieriving impuoitF from 

was moderate, blowing from the their sez» 'f wo men were apprr. 

ISf.N.W. and. they kept, as far as bended yesterday, and tbree this 

' co.uid be judged, withis about 80 day, and lodged in tbe New Bayley 

^ jards of each other. When they prison. One of tbe perseus cuiu 

^ had mounted to the heigbt of about oerned in burning, the prisoB at 

9pp ,yards, jyi. Le Pique fired his Rochdale has likewise Ifeen taken 

^^^ piece ipeffectualty; almost io»De« i a to ctistody, and committed toLan- 

djatelv afier,, the fire was returned caster-caat^e* 

^y IVJf/Granprec, and penetrated To such a lengtk havelbestde. 

^Iijs. adversary's balloon; the con. Ind^d men carried ^ their audacity, 

seQi^ienige of , w^iicb was its rapid that written papers were this day 

descent, ac^d M. 1>3 Pique ai(id his stuck upon this walls in l^wton* 

second wqre ^oth dashed to pieces lane, &c. threatening destructioa 

oil ahouse«tup>over whicl^the bal^ to the bouses «of all weareFS who 

'loon fell. The victorious Gran- shall attempt to throw a ahatde, 

^pree then mounted aloft in the iintii every mannfactonBr afseei to 

grandest style, and descended safe an advance of wages* 

with his second, aboot'se? en leagues Tbe military continue upo^ dnfy 

frpm the spot of ascension, night and day, and ^. Hii^stretef 

I 4im extremely sorry to say, and constables are indrfm|aUeln 

that the refractory weavers hare their exertions Id pr^ierve^ha p«b- 

'jmet again this day, and evin. lie tranquilli^. Witheac^^nof 

4^ a more turbulent disposition this town and its vidnitf^ aU is 

% * • quiet, 



CHRONICLE. 



6i 



quictf most of tbc wearers faaTing 
rt:5uraed their work. 

Singular AnimaL — A res pecc- 
able nirmer of Westrip, in the 
count J of Gloucester, has a calf, 
ftofT about seren weeks old, which 
(as bat three legs. The two fore 
.''.;;5 are perfect, bat there is only 
oac behind, which, howetcr, serres 
Mm to walk withf which he does 
''Vith as much freedom as if he pos. 
scssed the other. 

An extraordinary large fish was 
caught a few days ago, in a mac«. 
kerel net, at Mount's«bay, of a 
species to which the fishermen were 
strangers ; but we arc informed, by 
a gentleman of considerable zoolo- 
^iral science, who saw it, that it 
vas a male of the fish denominated 
the basking shark. It was full 30 
fe4?t long, and of great bulk. Its 
iirer alone was estimated at a ton 
vr eight. A man might easily haTe 
crept down its throat. The strength 
of its jaws was so great, that the 
fifherman hayitig thrust his boat- 
hook into its mouth to turn it, 
while struggling in the net, it snap- 
ped off tie shaft of it, he said, as if 
it Mere a pipcstem. A female of 
tii^ basking shark, but of less bulk) 
vras caught a fe>v years ago on the 
coast of Dorse{shire. 

Ireland, June 27. — On Monday 
9e*nnight, the scaffolding which has 
been raised roumf the spire of St. 
Vatcick's cathedral, Dublin, (in or- 
der to reach the top^ some timp 
^ince disturbed by a thnnder-storm^) 
hanog been completed to within 
'''vr feet of the ball, a thoughtless 
vrrctch, for a small wager, detor- 
mined to be 'the first who should 
nach the ball. He accordingly 
clambered up by his hands and 
knees, and, to the extreme terror 
of a multitude of ipectafors, placed 

Vol. L. 



himself astride that part of the 
spire which the storm had bent 
into a horizontal position ; he had 
scarcely done so, when, to the hor. 
ror of those below, the whole gave 
way, and, with the ball and about 
one ton of the stone-work, the 
unhappy wretch was fr^^^'P^^ted 
ill a moment : he fell upon the ifrst 
scaffold, and was carriedP^by the 
weight through the two next stages, 
when his clothes eittangUd in the 
timbers, and he was detained; the 
ball passed down to another sta^o 
of the scaffolding, and the stone- 
work, hurled from an height of 
!200 feet, was forced nearly a yard 
beneath the surface of the pave, 
ment in Patrick's.closc. The man 
soon extricated himself from his 
difficulties, descended eznlOngly to 
the street, and was carried in per« 
feet safety to (he next whiskey, 
shop, to celebrate this extraordi. 
nary exploit. The ball was put up 
in the year 1754. 

^. This morning his rerercnce 
the nuncio from his holiness ih% pope 
had his final audience of Messrs. 
Canning and Perceval. He after- 
wards took a friendly leave of his 
grace the duke of Portland and 
lord Mulgrave respectively. Be- 
tween ei^ht and nine at night, his 
reverence left town for Portsmouth, 
from whence he is to proceed with 
a very large convoy of mcrciiants, 
adventurers, and Portuguese emi- 
grants, for the Crazils, of which 
territory he is to be this metropo- 
litan. 



JULY. 

On Friday the following letter 
was sent by lord Castlcreagh to the 
lord mayor :— 

E DQ'&ningm 



66 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808; 



Dcwning^iirett^July 1, 1808. 

" Mt Lord, 

^< f hare the honour to acquaint 
your lordship, that dispatches have 
been receifed from major-general 
Spencer, dated off Cadiz the 6th 
ultimo, by which it appears that a 
Jiegociation had been entered into 
between his majesty's naval add 
military commanders off that port, 
with deputies appointed on the part 
of the profieional gorernmoat of 
Ihe province of Andalusia, assem- 
bled at Seville, the result of which 
had been forwarded for the appro- 
bation of the said government. 

*< Every arrangement had bee^ 
^aken .for the reduction of the 
French ships, and admiral Purvis 
bad been invited by the Spanish 
commanders to anchor his fleet at 
the mouth of the harbour, with a 
view to co-operate in compelliitg 
the common enemy to surrender. 

'^ It appears that the southern 
pro.vince9 of Spain had declared 
against France; and dispatches of 
the 4(h ult. received from licut.. 
general sir H/ Dairy mple, at Gib. 
takar, mention that the Spanish 
airmy before that fortress, rein, 
forced by the greater part of the 
garrison of Ceuta, had mutinied 
against the French. 1 am, &c. &c. 

*' Castlereaoii. 

'< Right Hon, Lord Ma)for." 

10. — A reo^arkable' instance of 
the fatal effects of the introduction 
of virulent animal matter into the 
human system, lately happened in 
the case of James Grey, a shep- 
berd, in the service of Mr. Arch, 
bold, of Hotton, who, in the act of 
skinning a sheep which had died of 
disease (the thorter ill) and was at 
the tune in a state of putrescence, 
accidentally cut one of his fingers 
with the knife. The effect of the 



poisonous matter was truly asto. 
nishing ; for on his going home ia 
the evening, be complained to bis 
wife '* that he had inoculated him- 
self, a[nd he already began to feel 
the bad consequences of it over all 
tbat side of his body on which the 
finger was cut.'' At five the aeit 
morning, medical assistapce was 
sent for, but no kind of relief 
, could, be giren ; and with such ra. 
jpidity did the morbific matter at- 
tack his system, that he became a 
corpse, in the highest d^ree of 
putridity, by eleven o'clock that 
day, being less than twenty-four 
hours from the intlroduction of the 
matter. 

Id. Death of the Marquis Sebmo, 
'—The death of the marquis Solano, 
late governor of Cadiz, did not, as 
it has been confidently stated, take 
place at the tillage of Chidana, 
about three leagues from CadiZj but 
at his palace, or the gOTernmeot- 
house, in that city. Solano'^ inti- 
macy with tiie French admiral, and 
his great attachment to the French 
interest, had long been the subject 
of much suspicion and diatrttst with 
several of the principal inhabttanti : 
but it was not until the reported 
approach of tht^ French troopi 
from Madrid, the arriral of which, 
under the command of Dupont, he 
anxiously looked for, that the po- 
pular indignation broke forth. Tk 
people^ in great numbers, and 
headbd by sercral Spanish officers 
and mcrchaf^ts, hating collected 
about his palace, made an earnest 
and formal demand for arms and 
ammttoition. Solano presented him- 
self at the balcony, and, in a long 
speech, eadearoured to convince 
them that the power of Boi^parta 
was irresistible, an^ that b7 having 
recourse to force^ they would ac- 
celerate 



CHRONIC L R^ 



67 



celente their own ruin. He was 
beard for a considerable time with 
great patience^ bat was at length 
oferpowered by the shouts of 
^< Arms ! ammunition ! long lire 
Ferdmaod the Seventh !'* They in. 
tilted upon admission, and endea- 
Toared to farce an entrance. So- 
lano then entreated a conference 
with any two d.elcgatcs they might 
nominate, to whooa he promised 
adoussion) profided the people 
would desist from violence. His 
request was granted. The two do. 
puties were accordingly appointci], 
and allowed to enter the house. 
The instant th^y entered the apart, 
meat in which he was, he shot one 
of them through the head with a 
pistol ; the other was seized by him 
gni his attendants, and precipitated 
from the balcony into the street. 
This desperate Tiolence,' instead of 
inspiring the populace With terror, 
as Solano ibight ha?e hoped, served 
bot to excite their animosity, and 
inflame their indignation. The doors 
were forced in an instant, all his 
guards and attendants were dis. 
armed, and Solano himself, after 
attempting to escape by the roq/, 
vas seized and conveyed for exe- 
cution to the public Square or 
place. While threatened with im« 
mediate death, such was his pcrti. 
nacity in farour of France, that he 
continaed to extol Bonaparte, ami 
menace his countrymeii with de- 
straction, for what he called their 
rebellion. Among the yarious ex- 
pression! of that nature, baring 
ferrently exdalmed that ^' he was 
ready to die in the cause of the 
great Napoleon,*' one of the per. 
sons near him was so exasperated^ 
that he struck him on the head 
with a clab, and literally beat out 
his briiins. His body was nearly 



cut or torn to pieces, and his heart 
was taken out, suspended on the 
point* of a spear or pike, and car- 
ried through Cadiz as that of ^u 
infamous traitor to his king and 
country. 

A singular iostance of the saga- 
city of a Newfoundland dog oc- 
curred a few days since on the 
ri?er. As Mr. Cook, who keeps 
a tafcrn in Cleve1and.strcet, and a 
party of friends, we^c returning 
from Richmond, where they had 
been spending the day, ,thc boat 
upset a little below Kew-bridge^ 
in consequence of Mr. C, who is a 
very corpulent man, shifting from, 
his side of the boat too suddenly. 
Having a Newfoundland dog oa 
board, the faithful animal imme- 
diately laid hold of his master, and 
took him on shore, and returned 
again with an astonishing speed to 
the bdat, and continued to go' 
backwards and forwards until ho 
had rescued six men from their 
perilous situations in less than a 
quarter of an hour, to the admira- 
tion of a multitude of spectators, 
who had assembled on the bridge. 

The following account is given 
by the gardener of the rev. Dr. 
Drake of Amersham, respecting the 
extraordinary produce of a single 
grain of wheat in the garden of that 
gentleman. ^' On the 1st day of 
August, I sowed, or rather set, a 
single grain of red wheat; and in 
the latter end of September, when 
the plant had tillered, I took it up, 
and slipped or divided it into four 
sets of slips. Those four sets I 
planted, and they grew and tillered 
as well as the 6rst. In the end of 
November I took them up a se- 
cond time,' and made thirty-six 
plants or sets. These I again 
planted, which grew till Marrh, in 
£ 2 which 



68 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



vbieh month, I, a third time, took 
up my plants, and difided them in- 
to 256 plants or sets. For the 
remaining part of the summer, till 
the month of August, thej had 
noXliiog done to them, except hoe. 
iog the ground clean from the 
weeds, till the cofn was ripe. 
When it was gathered* I . had the 
eiirs counted or numbered, and 
ibey were ^,5 11 ; a great part of 
which proved as good grain as ever 
grew out of the earth. Many of 
the ears measured six inches in 
length, some very middling grains, 
some very light and thin* This , 
was the reason I did not number 
the grains; but there was better 
than half a bushel of corn in the 
whole produce of the one grain of 
wheat in one year." 

Suap^sods, after washing, is not 
only an excellent manure, but is a 
remedy against the insects which 
infest wall, trees; it will dislodge 
and destroy the insects which^iijivh 
already formed their nests among 
the leaves, and if used early 'in the 
year, will prevent their settling on 
them. Common potash, dissolved 
in water, may be used instead of 
soap-suds, and six or eight wa« 
tc rings at the beginning of the 
spring will secure the plants from 
insects. 

Manor-house, II dyes, Middle* 
. 66'r, Jutjf 13, 1802. 
The extraordinary heat of yes- 
terday and to-day, which exce<^ds 
any ever previously experienced in 
England, induces me to send yon a 
correct account 6f it, as observed 
ill a no/th ppcn aspect at this 
hutifcit, by twu thermometers, by 
}Uii>>(U'n and Cary, quite detached. 
On Tuesday the 12th inst. at two 
P.M. botli stood at .. .87 deg. 
Atmidiiight ....«-«-«.'.69 



At half past eleven this 
morning......^ 90 

And at this instant, at 
one, have fallen to. . . .88 

The hot Sunday and Tuesday, 
in the year 1790, only amounted to 
83 degrees in open shaded sltua. 
tions. The average heat of the 
West Indies ia about 82 degrees. 

The thermometer under the 
northern entrance of the Royal 
Exchange, was Thursday at noon 
at ,87. The thermometer in the 
shade at a window in the open air, 
opposite St. Jameses park, (without 
any reflection of heat), was on 
Tuesday last, at three o^clock .P.M. 
at 88|, and on Wednesday at f)4. 
In a transparent glass thermometer 
at a window in the Strand, oa 
Wednesday afternoon, it was lOl. 
The heat of the atmosphere ia 
the north*eastern parts of Lincoln, 
on Wednesday the 13th, exceeded 
what it is stated to have be^ in 
any other part of the kiagdom. A 
thermometer, made by Nairne and 
Blunty hanging in tho shade, in a 
north aspect, at Gainsborough, at 
one o*clock in the day stood at 
nincty^four degrees (ten degrees 
higher than the meteorological re. 
cord^ of this country state it_.to 
have ever been before). Human 
efforts were pa railed under such a 
temperature, and many of the 
brute creation died. A respectable 
correspondent assures us, that '* .i 
l3-rge quantity*' of sheep was I'ouod 
dead at Burgh in tlie Marsh, and 
in the neighbourhood of SpQsby, 
which had perished by the heat. 

On Friday se'nnight, after a day 

.of the most oppressive and exces. 

sive hcat^. the neighbourhood of 

Bath was visited with, a moretre- 

mcjidous storm of thunder, i'light- 

ning, and hail^ tha^ was ever ce. 

memhcrcd 



CHRONICLE. 



-69 



membered to hare bcea expert- 
CDced. The rolling of tke distant 
thunder, and quick succession of 
the flashes of TiTid lightnio|i^, com- 
pletely illBminiag the hemisphere 
for a considerable, length of time, 
formed to the .inhabitants of that 
city a truly grand and awful spcc- 
taclip. The storm extended beyond 
liristol, in which city, haiktone^ 
^ere pickled ap of nearly an inch 
in circa nfTerence. At Ncwt'.n, 
Corston, and Kclstcnr^ A)OSt of the 
windows that lay in ttre direction 
of the storm have h^ru broken* as 
well as the glass of the hotbou:)(>s, 
i^c in the gardens of Gore Lang, 
ton, e5q. at Nowton^ and sir Cxsar 
Hawkins, ^o. at -Kets^on, where 
considerable damage has been done 
to the young plantations, as the hail 
descended in several places in large 
Viakes of two inches in thickness. 

The effects of the storm in So. 
merset and Gloncester are most 
diitressiog. Some farmers hare 
suffered damage in their corn, &c, 
^o a considerable amaunt — from 2 
<o 3) 4, and 500/. and upwards. 

14. Ltav> Intelligence. — In the 

kiag*s bench, an indictment was 

tried against Edward Brown, Ed. 

^ard W. Roberts, and Elizabeth 

Dorothy Roberts, alias Brown^ 

alisU Cole, for a conspiracy to 

cheat divers tradesmen . of ^hcir 

goods, by deceit and misrcpresen- 

tatton: — Brown took a house at 

No. 30, Great Cpram.street, Rus- 

^tl.square, and Mrs. Roberts passed 

for his wife. They had a chariot 

sod servants proper for such an os^ 

tablishment, and their habit was to 

drife to tradesmen's houses aod 

givt their orders, the mansion in 

Cdram^sireet serving as a conveni. 

CQt depdt for the articles famished. 

The ^most uniform represcntatioa 



by Brown was, that he was a wiot* 
merchant of eminence, aad carried 
on business in the city, where ha 
had a suitable counting-house; and 
that he had estates in Scotland. 
The fraud was consummated by 
confessing a jud<^meut to Roberts, 
' who having entered the house upon 
that judgment, sought to sell the 
goods in execution under iho. sba. 
rit)'*s hammer. In defence^ it'4vgt 
attempted to be shown,. that Ro- 
berts was not a party to the misrc. 
presentatinnf, and that. the con- 
fessed Judgment was givan to him 
for moneys he had lent Brown. It 
was al:»o insisted, ^hat,. notwith. 
standing Mrs. Roberts had passed 
for. Mrs. Brown, nothing criminal 
had taken place t>etweon them, and 
that she was the unseduccd wife of 
Roberts. The jury found all the 
defendants guilty. 

L(tw Report, — SJ^rriJ'x Courts 
Bedjordmrown IWsil/nf, Juhf 19. 
Critn, Con, Litrd Boring Jon v. ^ir 
.A. Paget, — iVn inquisition tu a-sscss 
damHges in the above action, was 
held this day before Mr. BurchaJI, 
the deputy, she riff of Middlesex. 
The action was brought by the no. 
ble lord, the plaintiff, a<(alnst sir' 
A. Pallet, for r rininal conversation 
with Jady i^oringdon, and tho de. 
fendant had first pleaded the. oe« 
ncral issue ; afterwards he withtlrew 
that plea, and suffered judgtncnt to 
jgQ by default. 

Mr. Parke, on the part of the 
plaintiff, addressed the jury: — II« 
stated that the noble plain li^ was a 
person of the highest rank, who 
complained against the defendant 
for one of the greatest injuries 
which a man could suffer in civil 
society. The defendant was also 
a person of high rank, and was the 
second son of a noble family, and 

£ 3 had 



70 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808, 

bad been entrusted by his floTereign came to (be knowledge of the 
-with higfi official siti|a(ions. . The plaintiff; but at last he receiTCd an 
plaintifiT and defendant had been at intimation of the freqaency of the 
college together, andwerovco-stu. defendant's visits during his abu 
dents On the same foundation, sence, which inddced him at length 
irhich .was a circumstance, as he to mention the fact to the hdy, 
thought, of great aggraration. The and enquire Into the occaston of 
lady to whom the plaintiff was them. The result of this was, that 
/united, was the second daughter of on the next day, the 10th of May, 
the earl of Westmoreland, who, at the lady quitted h^r husband's 
a very early age, attracted the hoase, and had from that time been 
affections of the plainti^. He be« liring under the protection of th^ 
canfc acqhaiivJed ! with her In the defendant:'' 'The proTince of the 
-month of May, 180^, and in the jury now''*vrai, tb determine what 
Jane folfd wing they were married ; damage ihcf would give the plain* 
'th^ lady tit that time not being tiff j as a rec^om pence for the injury 
.jnnch more than eighteen years .of sustained. R^ a^ked not Yindicdfc 
^age'. • Thcycontimied'to live tO-. damajges, for he admitted their dory 
gather in a sisitc of thetitrndst har- was not to piinish ihe defendant, 
Vnony ahd felicity, "as he should but to recompense ' the' f>1aintiff. 
profe by maiiy witnesses of the They were not the cn9iode9 mornm 
highest respectability, until the of the people, but their daty was 
period when her affections were to say what was the fit * measure 
seduced by the artifices of the de- of damages to be awarded to the 
fendant. When, or at what pe- plaintiff for the injury he had sos. 
Tlod' the criminal intercourse to«k tained, and sorely no injury could 
placed he was not prepared to be greater, nor had «Ter man 
prove; but it was remarked, that deserved it less. His lordship de- 
iately Sir Arthur Paget was Tery fied the world to show any spot on 
constant in his Visits to th4 lady, his character, either as a husband 
and those visiti^ Vfere always when or as a man ; and with respect to 
the plaintiff was from home* His his conduct to his wife, her own let- 
lordship was in the habit of strictly ters would show how fondly atteched 
attending to his parliamentary du- to him she was before her afec 
fics; and as soon as he had left the tions v^^re seduced. The learned 
liottse, the defendant came 'there; counsel here read^xtracts- from two 
teO' that he must absolutely hare hitters, dated* iw 1804 >uid 1806, 
been upon the watch, to ayail him. replete with expresifions of fond, 
self of the moment of his lordship's ness. and affection, in one of which 
absence. Lady Boringdon was also she apdlogizes for not going to 
in the habit of going to Kensington, church, according to his orders, on 
gardens in the morning, and sir the groand of her ill health ; and 
Arthur Paget as r^ularly met her in the other she lamented the delay 
there; and as soon as they met, she t>f his company for a single day. 
parted from her none and her child, HaTing concluded these topics, Mr. 
and walked away, in private with Parke said he demanded soch a 
the defendant. This intercourse Terdict, as justice^ reason^ and re. 
continued for some time before it -Itgion demanded. 

• 3 Lord 



CHRONICLE. 



71 



Lofd Amherst said he had known 
lord Bormgdon for nineteen years. 
He married llie second daughter of 
lord Westmoreland in June 1804. 
He had lived with them in great in. 
timacy, and they always appeared a 
, lery happy couple. 

The hon* George Villars said he 
married the sister of the plaintiff, 
and the families lived in great inti. 
nacy. The plain tiflf aod his wife 
appeared mutually affectiooate, 
they frequented church, and par. 
took the sacrament together. 

Dr. Vaoghaa had attended lady 
BoringdoQ in iUnass^ on which oc. 
casion the plaintiff had shown the 
solicitude and anxiety of an afi[ec. 
tionate husband. 

Sir W. Elford lired in their neigh. 
honrhood in paronshire ; he Tisited 
them^ and they appeared affection, 
ate, attunttre, and polite to each 
other. 

The rer. Mr. Hade, ticar of 
Cfimpton, in Devonshire, in the 
parish lord Bpringdon's seat was, 
said he was much with them when 
alone, and they appeared to live in 
great afTection and harmony. 

Elizabeth Croft, nurse to lady 
Boringdon's child, said the family 
came to town last January. As 
the spring advanced, they went 
every day to Kensington gardens ; 
there they always met sir Arthur 
Paget, who walked with lady Bo. 
ringdon at a distance from her and 
the- child. 

- Elizabeth Daniels, lady's-maid, 
said, sir A. Paget always visited at 
the^ house when his lordship was 
oat; he continued with her lady in 
the back drawing-room for two 
hours at a time, and went away be- 
fore his lordship^s return. 
The porter and a footman alsa 



spoke to the viiits of sir Arthur in 
his Iordship*s absence. 

Mr. Garrow then, on the part 
of the defendant, addressed tho 
jury. He insisted on (he known 
inability of sir Arthur to pay large 
damages, and attributed the lapse 
of the lady to the fashions of high 
life, which leaves .a woman expoted 
to the attacks of a seducer, and that 
she falls frequently before she is 
aware of her danger. 

The jury, after some considera*. 
tlon, found damages Ten Thousand 
Pounds. 

20. Joseph Bonaparte has at 
. length entered Spain : he was 
crowned king at St. Sebastian's on 
the ^th instant. The most gloomy 
silence prevailed during the cereu 
mony. From St. Sebastian's lie 
proceeded to Toloza, and therrce to 
Victoria, where he was again pro- 
claimed on the 10th, and intended 
to have prosecuted his route to 
Burgos. Advices from marshal 
Bessieres had, however, induceil 
him to delay his departure, and he 
remained at Victoria on the 1 1 th« 

The conduct of the bishop of St. 
Andero is highly cjctolli-d by the 
friends of the good cause. Bona- 
^parte had addressed a letter to him, 
full of promises, and inviting him 
to attend at Bayonne. The follow* 
ing is said to have been the prelate's 
answer: — *^ I cannot make it con. 
venient to attead ; and if 1 could, I 
would not. 1 judge of your since- 
rity towards Spajn by your con* 
duct towards Portugal, and oth^r 
kingdoms with which you have in. 
terfered. If you are in earnest in 
your offer to befriend the Spanish 
nation, let tho first proof be your 
liberating our sovereign and fami- 
ly, and withdrawing your troops 

£ 4 from 



72 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

* 

from amoni^ us : but this we do act <^ Jiiit as Mr. M*Leaii bad 

expect yoa will do of your own finished prayer, Mr. Gardner, the 

accord; and therefore it becomes jailor, came iatothe room to tell 

the Spanish nation to anite, as I him that it was the time, and it 

trust they will, to compel yon." was an unpleasant part of his dafy 

21. Execution of Jama QHchruU to add,, that he miist allowhimself 

—The following, particulars of the to be bound. He exprMed his 

exeeution of James Gdchrist, for ready acquiescence ; and, bdore 

'the murder of his wife, contained leaying the room, requestedthat, in 

in a letter from Glasgow, dated any future devotions, none- of ibe 

■July 21, will be founds interest, clergymen should say any- thing 

ing^-*• that looked like suspicion of h» 

*^ This unfortunate man died as guilt, or doubt of his veraoity in 

be had lived, solemnly declaring declaring his intvocence. This 

his innocence of the crime for seemed to refer to a sentence in 

which he was to suiTer. Soon af. Mr. McLean's prayer, in whiGh he 

ter one o'clock, he was attended in had alluded to the embarrassment 

his room by the rev. Mr. McLean, and perplexity which the aest 

of Gorbals, Mr. Brodie, of Dove- candid mind must feel, in 



bill, and Mr. Macdonald, of £din. ing the judgment of an uptight 
burgh. They conversed with him court, as set in 'Opposition to his 
for some time, in the course of positive and contuiued dedaraHons 
which he repeated his declaration of innocence.. The clergymen gent. 
*of innocence in this strongest terms. ly hinted to him, that it was not 
Taking up one of i\\fi books, lying their province to decide on tha one 
l)eside hira on the bench on which or the other, but to take them pre- 
he sat, and holding it before Mc. cisely as they stood. 
McLean, he said, ^ I am as inno- <* What passed in the hall may 
cent of the crime for which I am to be summed up in a few woids. 
suffer, as that book is ;' then rising After part of a psalm was sung, 
from his seat, and going to the James asked for a glass of.wue 
window of the room, he^ poured from Mr. Gardner. When the 
out some beer or porter, from a first . prayer was finished, he re- 
bottle into^a tumbler, and turning quested the attention of all present, 
'round before he drank it, he ^aid, and, in a clear audible voice, 
*^ f T^evcr did any injury in my ^ called the lord provost, and all 
life to any man." This gave Mr. who heard him, to witness at the 
McLean occasion to observe, that tribunal of God, that he was in. 
?!uch a declaration would certainly nocent of the crime for which ht 
not bear an unqualified interpreta. was to suffer.' After the second 
tion; for wc might unintentionally prayer, the lord provnsttaid him 
4nd unknowingly injure our neigh, he might still have a litUe tune 
boor : every thing wrong rn our longer, fle replied * I am igno- 
behaviour gave him a bad prece- rant of the mles of this place— I 
dent, and we might thus injure am ready — I go as a sheep to the 
him by onr bad example. He then ^langbter.' The lord provost then 
explained, and said that by injury *sn|gested that Mr. McDonald might 
be meant ^* violence." pray ifith him* James expressed 

his 



CHRONICLE. 



7S 



ris sattsfaolioft* Tlie third prayer 

• dag OTe», Mr. McLean requested 

•e wottld exCQSA him- from going to 

tne scaffold, to which Jic readily 

v^n&ented. Before leaving th£ hall, 

'*•' repeatedly declared his ioQC 

cace. fits last weirds to the lord 

rrtivost were, • My lord, you are 

i'^irt'iDg with an inoocent mau*^' 

'^ Urn appeared on the scaflbld at 
"i quarter post three precisely, de. 
rt,niiy dr<!Baed ill l»laek. There he 
acted just as he Uad done ia the 
^ill, calling attention, ajdd decla- 
ring < his innocence. aHoost in the 
^^ue w»rda. ipdoetl^- iMforc he 
left the hall, he said,. he thought it 
^is hisdn^'fto da so, af ^it might 
be the flMaos of saving jsome other 
ionoceat inaa, and a^ked permis- 
sion from the lord prorost tb speak 
to this effect. After siogiag. two 
porUona of the 6]&t and l02d 
p»alms, both selected by James 
himself, aad which he sung with a 
dear juad steady.. Toioe, he, with 
the most astooishing firmaess and 
cottposure, mounted the platform, 
^d at twoaty mioates past three 
was laDDched into eternity. Aft«r 
hanging about half an hour, he was 
cut down, and his body sent to the 
professor of anatomy for dissec- 
tion." 

224. LacoB T. Mosenau. — This 
vas an action to recover the sum 
^f 2a/. for necessaries^ &c. It was 
^ case which exeited an uncommon 
degree of interest. The plain tift^ 
% milliner and dress-maker, arrested 
the defeadant onder peculiar cir. 
ciunstances* it may be necessary 
to meotioD, that the defendant was 
the nnhappy young woman who 
received sentence of death at the 
Old Bailey, many months since, for 
porlomtng certain articles, the pro. 



perty of Mr. Tjacon. She after, 
wards receircd his majesty's ptt*. 
don. On being liberated from con. 
finement, the plaintiff arrested her 
for the above debt, contracted, as 
stated bytwp witnesses, during a 
residence at. Brighton, in the aa. 
tamn of the lust year. The learned 
judge sommed up the evidence, 
TJiejury, after a short deliberation, 
returned a verdict (or the defend- 
ant. Mr. Garrow advocated the 
cause of the latter wf th great energy 
and feeling. 

26. A singular Character, — A 
most eccentric character has lately 
appeared among the picture.dealefs 
in the garb of a Polish Jew. A 
maauifor painting and dirty canrae 
has rendered this man very conspt« 
cuons in London. ' About three .or 
.four, years since, he .filled the eaf. 
sited station, of driver of a stage, 
coach, and ho has recently driven a 
trade among the connoi^scun at 
Christie's, and other public pictoce.. 
sales, which eacites wonder.; — 
While ihe whip occopivd his am. 
^tion, he exhibited pugilistic ta. 
lents in the true Belcher style. 
Among his friends, the late George 
JVIorland stood foremost; and from 
the conversation of that celebrated 
artist, he was induced to quit his 
stable, and become a pupil in the 
school of picturcdealing. With a 
few drawings obtained from hi« 
friend Gcoi^ge, he opened a shop 
in the neighbourhood of Golden* 
square, and commenced cleaner and 
dealer.^ lie then frequented a home 
near Seven-dials, the resort of 
painters and artbts, who formed 
themselves into a society, under 
the insignia of a pallet. He ob. 
taincd his admission by describing 
Hogarth's line of beauty, and was 

duly 



74 ANNUA t REOISfER, 1808. 

dalj- efected an arflst. ' -In t&b don Michael Josepb de Asanst, 

aifylum he istadied many' feclitiictf I ministor for the IndleB; admiral 

t^rms t^eid hy the cOnnoisseor, and ddA- Joseph Massaredo, mioister of 

in a s^hort time he wai able to 'spit the 'marine } general don Gonzalo 

upon a fitthy pi^ce of 'painting with O^Farrill, minister of war ; doa 

profoand gravity^ \^ipc . it, than Gki^ar Melchor de JoTelknoi) 

shak^ hi$ head, and pronounce it a minister of the interior $• count Ca* 

tile copy of the divine original, barriiflr,' imni^t6r of finance; and 

^hich he had ieeo at Ri^e, the Sebastkn Pinuela, miuster'of jai* 

I:»onrre, th* eai-l of Wilton's, the ticfei' 

niarqnis of StafiTordys, oi' in the Captains of the BoJf^gMtrdit 

collection of sonte noblem^, who, Their exceUciiteies duked^'P^niaey 

a^ordifrtg to his information^ was grandee «f 8 pttfitt ; dokede^tr Oar- 

i^n admirer of the arts. By jn^* ifiain, ^i^nd^ of Spain, 

taisioh lie obtained some celebrity, Coloi^fifGimrds.'^^TMreiaiim 

and ntdiny pfcttore-dealers consi- IHncieadnkedeUInfantado, coioad 

den^d hfm an instrumeot rery use^ of the ^^aftlsb' guards; pri«af Csfc 

ful in their line. He was missing tel Fralic^ eoloilel of the WalloOA 

1im(yng fhe fratemity soihfe tinib gnardS'; maf^uis d'Arisa^ great 

sisrce, dating which he suffered hh chamberlaljl.7dvko deHljar, graal 

li^eard to gk'oW oter his breststj and master of the deremoiliea^ coaot 

be^ fitiulljr made his 'tnti'Se at thb Ferdinand' Nanes, grand hmniRiian; 

tiA^" at tt fore^n Jew of great eoutit Sa&tn Coloma, ehadiberiaia» 

learning * hh -garments, like the ' (All grandees of Spain.) 

frriests^ Of Hie tiibfe of Lori, are The following chambtriaias ban 

long and lobse^^atid he performs been appointed to attend koigJoCi 

the part of a Jew adihirably. It oq his jonrney to Madiid : — 
does not, fiowerer, Appear, that ' Thdir eioeltendes coont Orgai, 

any of the ti^bes of Israel bate grandee of Spain; marqaia Saoia 
acknowledged him to be a contort^ . Cros, grandee of. Spain ; doke 

and many of his old companions Dt>8attna, grandee of Spain; coont 

ai^e at a loss to determine whetiier Caslel Florida;- nod dnke Da Sola 

his disguise is occasioned by insa. Mayor, grandee of Spain, 

nity or design. He lately sat to Con^aniinople^ July 31. — This 

sereral distinguished artists (or a capital has been, siooe the evening 

figure in their historical pictures; bf the 38tb, in a state of the great- 

and, under all the circumstances of est consternation. Sultan Selim 

his Conduct, he is considered a most wished -to re*e9tablish fbe anthority 

extraordinary character. of the Porto, and to keep a weli- 

Joseph BonHparte^s Govenmeni, paid standing army on foot. It 

•^Thc French) papers state, that Jo« was tiiis which oceasioned his fall 

seph Bonaparte, in bis assumed on the 28th of May, lB07» Mas. 

character of king of Spain, has tapfaa Bairactar, pacha of Rod. 

made the following appointments: schnck, a man of the best intea. 

Ministers. '^ Their excellencies tions, proposed a plin for re-es. 

don Louis Mariano de Urqoiso, se^ tablishiag that which the ^Sik of 

cretary of statp; don P^ro Ceval. May had destroyed. . Ue came to 

los, minister for. foreign affairs; Constantinople with a corps of 

trasty 



CHRONICLE. 75 

xmij troops, CBOSed the famooft lostrocted himin thatrtofgoTerh^ 

Kamgkj-Oglou, commandaot of ment. 

the casfte of the Dardanelles, and "On the 29tb, the - unfof tonaCo 

chief author of conspiring against Selim yvttn borted «t Yoor, by the 

sskan Selfan, to b^ beheaded, the side of hU father. The pacha of 

mufd and ail the nevf ministers of Rudscfauck, the whole Of his aninj, 

thesottan Mostapha tobedepbsed, and all the respectable inhabitant! 

the aga of the j^ni^s^lcs to be of this capital, attended thtf fine. 

strangled, and the mo^t important ral. Daring thesd melancholy oe. 

posts of Constantinople to be oc- correoces^, the public tratiqniHIty 

cupped by his troops. The grand was not in the tlfghrest degree in^ 

Tizier, the new mnfti, and several terra^ted. 7h^ greater {tart Of the 

other Biembers of the divan, &ei ai^assidf of^Seilim hare bcTin exe* 

dared themselvee tiic partisatis of cuted. We knotr not whether the 

iMustapha Sairactar. ' deposed snltorn is still livfofg. SdAie 

The snftan -had no suspicion of people assert that he hat bees 

hi) project: en the contrary, h^ strangled. Mnstafiha Bairaetat hat 

tbiight bhnself &• secure, that oil tsik^n <posses6ion of the grahd s^aU 

the sth instant, he repaired id the The gtatid Vitier is ^ prisoner in 

morahig to Bittectacb. But the hia camp, for ha?iog reVealed €0 

suitan mother hkring got infonqa- the aultan mother the plan of te* 

tion of it on the 38th, Mustapha placing Seiitn on the throne. Thtfre^ 

I V. reComed with ail expedition by is ne doubt that the pacha will «ddii' 

5ea to the seraglio, whilst the pacha be appointed grftnd rizier. 
of Rodsehuck was entering it by Eleven of the pirinclpal partistnY 

iiifid. This pach» caused the new of the sultan Mastupha ti^e^fe iM 

tDQfti to inform him that Sclim day strangled in thk teitglto.' Th« 

only was lawful emperor. Mus. kisla-^ga (chief of the eunudm)- 

tipha, far from following t|le ex. who assiited in the murder of 904 

ample given on the 28th of May by lim, was executed on the 90th: > 
fils UDCIe Selim, who voluntarily 

tii'5ceaded fVom tho throne, ordered '> - wn i  r mn i  n a r 

the inner gates of the seraglio to be ' . - 

shut. The soldiers of the pacha, AUGUST. 

bowerer, speedily effected an en. 

trance, but they found the unfor«. From the Oviedo Gazette Extras 

^unateSelhn dead, and covered with ordinary. — Madnidy Aug, 2« — On 

b'uod. Seized with horror at thi§ the 39th oltiaio, about four o'clock 

^p^'ctacle, Mustapha Bairactar and in the evening, it was reported that 

the graudees of the porte, caused Joseph Napoleon was marchfaig, 

prince Mahomet, the last branch of that all the troops in the city were 

^^^ rcignhig dynasty, to be imme* following him. The report was 

Oiatelj proclaimed emperor. Thii confirmed by the movements made 

i>riflce, who is abont fifteen years by the French miilinersy and all 

^f age, has for the last fifteen those of that nation who did not 

«Dontlis been confined with the sul. bek>ng to the army. The same 

*^3 Selhn, who dnring tiiat space eTeoiof they withdrew from the 

hospitab, 



76 ANNU.AL REGISTER, 1808. 

bospitale^ and oond acted to Retirq towards the parade^ whence tbcy 

-all the infirm soldiers. They put marched off. , Scarcely did day ap« 

in -requisition all the carriages and pear, when all the people ran 

horses that' could be-fonnd, and the through the streets^ and :t he posts 

troops prepared to march. In of the guards, but nothing^ was to 

fact, thai very night, and on tlie be founds- They passed to the 

morning of the SOth, a great part Retiro, and there they found only 

of the.ariny) .^he sic^k, milliners^ a few dying wretches, and here and 

tradespeople, -&e. of the French there a dea^l body. They beheld, 

nation, Sjet oat On the whole day with amazement, the ditches, pal- 

of .the 30th f. there- -followed prepa« lisadoes, and terrible batteries, di- 

rations forthemalrch of Joseph and reeled against this city. The gun. 

the remainder of the army. He carriages were, in flames, abore 70 

dined at half pa9t four in the ixU cannpn were spiked, . and about 

ternoon,-^n order to proceed, in th^ 2000 barrels of powier throvrn 

dusk, to sleep at Chamartin. The into fi large pond.. The inhabitants 

cairiages were harnessed, and re. of Madrid, on seeing ' themselves 

paired 4o the court of the palace^ deJivered from this destfiictiTe ap* 

but the Goachmon and mnle«driTers, paratus, gare thanks to the S u preme 

and most ^f the attendants of the Being, and' immediately began to 

royal carriageS| had disappeared ; assui^e, for their badge, the por. 

on> which aCODnnt Joseph could not trait of Ferdinand VII. 

depavt that night, and was obliged The house of a supposed pauper, 

to sulspend his journey to the in Colchester, who has taken relief 

morning of the 31st, when he de- from his parish for nine yesrs past, 

parted on horseback, as he was to the sum of 4!^/. It. was latdy 

mocble to put the carriages in mo« searched under ciroumstances which 

1p0$k. The same morning, he took led to a supposition that he had 

from the stables all the mules, sufficient property to support blm^ 

bors^i and harness, and shi^me. self; when the sum of 189/. 79. &/. 

folly sold all at the lowest price, in cash, was found hoarded upon 

In. the evening of the same day, the premises, together with aeren 

they forced open the gates of the chests, each hating from three \xi 

public treasury and bank, putting sijt locks, and containing the fof. 

the people in such terror that we lowing articles :-« 32 coats, 11 jac 

pass^ a most anxious nighty thitik- kets, ^l waistcoats, , 36 pairs of 

iflg that 'a general pillage was about breeches and pantaloons, 33 pairs 

to take place. They took from of stockings, dO sheets, 6 new hats, 

those buildings above fourteen mH^ VI pairs of boots and shoes/ 7 pairs 

)ima. At two in the morning of of silver shoe and knee buckles, 

the 1st instant was heard a can. 14 silk and other handkerchiefs, 

nonade, whidi, thongh at first It &e. all of which It appeared he bad 

was taken for a fatal signal^ was regularly purchased at difiereUt pc- 

to &ct but the precursor of the rtods, land which were of the best 

br^htcat and happiest day ^t quality. 

•Tcr rose over Madrid. On this A plain ttond In CarmiTtthcB 

signal all the guards were with* church.yard covefs thb remains of 

^rawD) and alldie French filed off the once celebrated sir Richard 

Steele, 



. / . 



CHRONICLE. 



77 



t'.eje, whose house in that town is 
jff conrerted i^ito the Ivj-bu^h 



i>n. 



4* Grand Dinner to the Spanish 
' '.'putieSf by the Merchants and 
'inkers of London^ at the Cit^ of 
L'jtdoH Tavern, — ^This sumptuous 
Mitt, iodicatiTc of tbe sympathy 
. iiich England feels in the glorious 
..:.^c of Spain, vfos on Thursday 
.'lUudcd by a company of jioble* 
.. i-n and gentlemeni comprehending 
t \ ery Jarge proportion of the mer- 
• ^niWc wealth of the British me- 
trupoljs. No former occasion within 
our uiemory, ^^a» equally distin. 
:?'iiahed by the respect and,opulencc 
uf the company. It was not a' 
party meeting, for men of all par. 
ties are equally ardent and zealous 
ia the cause which has aroused the 
jicople of Spain. And we s^w,' 
therefore, embodied the heads of all 
ihe.gre.it companies of the first 
iiierconttle and banking-houses, to. 
aether with several ministers of the 
country, statesmen out of place, 
foreign ministers, and otiier ill us. 
trious characters — ail eager to tes. 
t<^' to tbe illustrious deputies from 
•5pam, the' interest which they felt 
ill the deliverance of their country. 
The company did not sit down to 
dinner till seven o'clock. There 
>^crc six tables lengthways, and one 
cross table in the large roomy in 
^vhich 328 noblemen and gentlemen 
'^t dov(n; and in the adjoining 
room there were 72, making togc- 
^ner 400 persons ; and it is not an 
^'■^ag^eration to say, that their 
uQitt'd praj3erty was not less than 
^ifleen millions of mpney. The 
flecoratiou of the head table was 
*V^*indid. 

The parterre, or sand work, re* 
presented, in one place, Britannia 
^iti'riiig her assistance to Spain; in 



another, Fame 8upporitng.a n)&. 
dallion, on which were inscribed the 
names of the different provinces of 
Spain who have stood the foremost 
in resisting the common enehiy ;^ia 
another, the figure of Time crowu. 
iog the Spanish Patriot's flag with 
laurel ; in another, th€^ figure of 
Hope leaning on. the roek of Jus* 
tice ; in other parts, the ^rms and 
standards of Spain intermixed with 
those of England, with different 
mottos, such as "• V^encer 6 Morir,*' 
^*. Success to the Spanish Heroes,'* 
&c. &c. The ornaments stood from 
seven to eight feet high, pdnrtraying 
in one part, the battle of the Nile^ 
with the blowing up of rOrient ; la 
another, trophies of flags, &c. &c» ; 
at the- tops of all, the royal stand* 
ards of England and Spain, the 
whole finished with garlands and 
bouquets of flowers, China fignres, 
vases, &c. ^c. 

Tbe dinner consisted of oner full 
service^ with removei^^tk plan of 
dinner for so large a company 
infinitely better adapted to com« 
fort than that of difision into se. 
veral courses. It was served with 
tbe regularity and alacrity of a 
private board, /here was drest for 
the day 2300lb^. weight of turtle^ 
and tbe intervals between tb6 tu- 
reens had every delicacy in season 
-<-the removes were haunches of 
venison. The dessert was extremely 
magnificent in ices and fruits^ and 
contained about 600 pieces. 

Inn.keepers and others, who keep 
horses to run this very hot seasoa 
of the year, ought to proVide the 
following medicine, 'that every 
coachman or post.boy may have 
it in readiness to give to those 
horses taken sick upon the road ;— ^ 

Recipe. — Take tincture balsam«C| 
and compound spirits of apimoniac^ 

each 



78 ANNUAX REGIS TE R» . 1808. 

ft 

each one onnce; prepared Icali, two A curioos htms ntUwrm appeared 
.dracfams ; ooe cordial ball, or, in its in a breed of three young canaries, 
stead, one ounce of/ ginger root, hatched lately at Aberdeen io a 
fresh powdered: to be giten in a breed in'g.cage. — ^The birds are aU 
pint and a half, or a quart, of cold healthy, and now fuUy fledged, hat 
water. This will greatly refresh they are entirely without feet^ 
the animal; and in general prevent Summary Execution qf Justice.'-^ 
those ill Consequences which occur On Wednesday eTening, abont se« 
daily through heat and orer^rlving. ven o'clock, as the daughter of a 
If the i>eating or palpitation of the noble peer was walking np the 
keart be seTere, add two drachms Haymarket, leaving her carriage at 
of tincture of opium to the above, the entrance into Pall' Msdl, she 
which may be repeated every two was accosted by a middle-aged per. 
konrs, if required. son in the most indecent manner. 
Brighton^ August 4. — ^A melan* She paid no attention to what he 
dioly affair took place on.board said. At last, however, he aU 
the Port Mahon gun-brig, lying to tempted to kiss her, and take other 
off the town, on Tuesday evening, indiscent liberties, when she scream- 
Mr. Thorn, the surgeon of the ves. ed, and fainted with fright. A 
eel, .who had long lieen in rather a gentleman caught hold of her and 
deranged state, committed an act supported her. The culprit wa^ 
of suicide, by cutting his throat in seized by some gentlemen who had 
a most dreadful manner with a witnessed his misconduct, and con- 
Mior. He had retired to rest in ducted to a pump, where he was 
the vessel about nine o'clock on drenched for half an hour. They 
Tuesday evening, having previously then delivered him to the mob, who 
observed io his serrant that he was introduced him to another pump at 
ill, and desired him to procure an Charing-cross, where they amnsed 
opium pill from the medicine chest, themselves by pumping- updn him 
which the man accordingly did, for an hour longer, and then al- 
and then left him. On the follow, lowed him to depart, with a nna- 
ing fDorning, on entering his mas. bcr of bruises and a broken head. 
ter'B room, he found him qnite Joseph Bonaparte arrived* at 
dead and weltering in his blood ; Madrid so early as the SOth of 
and to all appearance he had been July, seven dajs- before he was 
so for several hours, as the blood expected. He was received with 
had coagulated about him, and sullen silence; no guns were fired 
the body was cold and stiff. The by the Spaniards, nor did any spe- 
wound was Inflicted under the cios of rejoicing take place on the 
right car, towards the windpipe, occasion. The belUringers refused 
the latter not behig injured ; in their usual ofiice, which being con. 
length about four inches, and in sidered an unpardonable offence, 
depth quite as many. The body three of them were taken into ens. 
was removed from the vessel to the tody, and on the following day, 
Town-house here last Might, where after a sumniary trial, put to death, 
the coroner's inquest was held to» It is said, that a few hired tinkers 
day. V>rdict — Lunacy. His re. (menders of saucepans and kettles) 
maims will be interred this evening, appeared before the palacei and sa* 

Inted 



CHRONICLE. 



79 



luted Hi* nem sotereiga by t|ie 
noui« prodoced hy beating their 
})ots and kettles with sticks, and 
those men cried, ^' Long lite king 
Joseph.'' The people positifely 
refused to assemble on th^ occa« 
frion, and every appearance indi. 
cated a speedy renewal of the oc- 
carrcnce of the 2d of May, ^ 

1^. The following oflkial bnl. 
]etio was i^ned by oar goTernment 
on the llth inst.-: 

Intelligeaco was this morning re- 
ceiYed by gOTernmeQt from lieu- 
tenant-colonel Doyle, dated Co- 
Tunna, August 4, at midnight* The 
lleateaaiit.colonel states, that he 
bad read a letter, dated Madrid, 
27 ih July, which says, that on that 
morning thn French had com- 
menced their retreat from that city ; 
that Joseph Bonaparte had quitted 
Madrid^ and had taken away every 
thing of value belonging to the 
conrt. Every Frenchman was fol- 
lowing him, and they were taking 
the direction to Burgos. The wri- 
ter of the letter is nephew to a 
raember of the junta of the Gal. 
licias. 

The entry into, and retreat of 
the wonld-beking of Spain from 
the capital of Madrid, afford a con- 
trast at once striking and gratify, 
ing. With a parade blazoned forth 
ui the foreign papers, Joseph Bo. 
naparte enters Spain, his route is 
marked out with the utmost nicety ; 
to-day at Bilboa, to-morrow at 
Victoria ; on the 16th at Burgos, 
on the 20th at Madrid. Europe 
^ss desired to bclicre that this no. 
tice of his route was giren, that the 
inpatient Spaniards might be pre- 
pared to receive him with fdtes, 
^ith illuminations, and with all 
the pomp and circumstance which 
gtneralJy attend accessions. We 



were told, that clemency and aflh. 
bilitywere in his train, — he par. 
doned the guilty, he conversed with 
the utmost graclousness with the 
poorest of his new subjects ; his 
march was described rathei^ as the 
march of a monarch who had saved 
his country, and who, after some 
great and decisive victory, was re- 
turning in triumph to his capital, 
amid the thanks, the gratitado, and 
the benedictions of his people. He 
enters the capital on the 20th, and 
on the 27th he sneaks from it In thn 
dead of the night with fear and 
trembling ; he enters it with all Oa 
pride and retinue of an eastern 
sultan, and he is glad to depart 
with the conrt plate in his pocket 
to pay the czpences of his journey. 
On the Monday he exposes his au« 
gust person to the eager view of 
the populace, and on the Saturday 
he is glad to take away his august 
person with all possible secrecy and 
dispatch: he enters Madrid as a 
powerful monarch, he quits it as a 
putty thief. Pride and insult ac 
confpany his arrival ; fear and fe* 
lony attend his departure. Suck 
are the Bonapartes : if they cannot 
govern, they can steal ; and if they 
arc not permitted to play the parts 
of kings, they will content them, 
selves with playing the parts of 
thieves. 

l^e Pope'f Protest. — The pope 
has published a very long and einer. 
getic protest against the usurpations 
of Bonaparte, and his unprincipled 
attacks on the holy see, particular, 
ly the decree of spoliation of the 
pope's temporal states, and the 
other decree, which enjoins all car« 
dinals, prelates, and officers, hold- 
ing any employment at the court of 
Rome, who are natives of Italy, to 
return, under the penalty of their 

whole 



V 



80 ANNUAL -REGISTER, 1808. 

whole property in case of disobc- indicted for the wilful and felontovs 
(licnce. Therefone his holiness pro. mardcr of Alexander Bojd, a cap- 
tests against a law, uhich spares tain in said regiment, 1^ shooting 
not even distinguished ccclcsiasfics, him, the said Alexander Boyd, 
chos^'n to assist him in his laljours with a pistol-bullet To support 
for the church of Qod. His holi. this indictment, the first witness 
ncss at the same time strongly pro- produced was— 
tests, in the face of all the earth, George Adams, who stated, he 
dgainst the Qsurpntion of his states, has been assistant-surgeoa in the 
fie solemnly declares it to be un- 2l8t regiment since April twelve 
just, Tain, Toid, and of no arail ; months ; he knew major CampJtoll 
and that it can never truly alfcct and captain Boyd. In Jane 1807 
the imprecsriptible and legitimate they were quartered in the barracks 
rights of sovereignty and possession in the county of Armagh, side of 
of his holiness and successors for Newry. On the 33d of said month 
ever ; and if force shall deprive captain B. died pf a wound he re. 
him of its possession, he is deter- ' cei?cd by a pbtoUbullet, which pe- 
mined to maintain the integrity of netrated the extremity of the four 
his rights, because the holy see can false ribs, and lodged in the cavity 
recofcr the real possession, when it of the be>ly. On that day the re- 
may please the true and faithful gimcnt was inspected by general 
God, who fights for justice, and Kerr, ' and after the inspection ^the 
who hath inscribed on his garments general and officers messed toge- 
and forehead the King of kings ther; about eight o'clock all the 
and Lord of lords. . officers left the mess, except mayor 

Sir J., Piers, who has been so Campbell, captain Boyd, witness, 

long an exile from Ireland in conse- and a Hentenaut Hall. A conver- 

qiience of the verdict against him sation then commenced by major 

for seducing lady Cloncurry, has . Campbell, stating '^* general Kerr 

committed suicide in the isle of corrected him that day about a par. 

Man, which has been some time the ticular mode of-giving a word of 

place of his retreat. The cause of command, when he conceived he 

this unfortunate man's catastrophe gave it right ;" he mentioned how 

is of a most melancholy nature. He he gave it, and how the genetal 

had debauched the daughter of a corrected him. Captain Boyd re* 

respectable clergyman^ who, on dis- marked, ^^ neither was correct, ac 

covering his disgrace, instancy shot cording to Dundas^ which Is the 

himself;. and it was upon hearing king's order." (This ob'^crration, 

of this that Sir J. Piers put an end witness stated, was made In the usual 

to his existence by shooting himself mode of conversation.) ]Vla|or 

through the head. The unhappy ' CampbeJl said it mig^t not be ae* 

female is in a state of distraction cording to the king^s order, bat 

that threatens her life. stiil he conceived it was not incor- 

Irdand. Armagh Assizes, .rect. Captaiu B. still insisted, ^* It 

Trial of Major Campbeliy ^Ist was not correct, according to the 

Regiments — Alexander Campbell, king's order." They argued thb 

brevet' major in the army, and a some time, till captain B^ said, " he 

captain in the 2 1st regiment, stood knic^r it as well as any man." Ma. 

jor 



chrokiclt:. 



'«i 



jor C. replied, << he doabted that 

nracli.** Captaitt Bojd at length 

latd, *' be knew it belter than him, 

hi Mm take thatas he liked." Ma- 

jorCampbeli then got up, and said, 

^' then, captain Boyd, do 70a lay I 

am vrongB" Captain B. replied, 

"Ido — I know I am n:ght according 

to the king's order.'' Major C. 

then qaitted the room. Captain 

B. remained after him for some 

time ; he left ihci room before wit- 

oeiv or ileat. Hall, bat no observa* 

tion was made on his going more 

than any other gentleman that had 

dined (here. Witness and lieut. 

Hall went out together m a short 

time after; they went to ,a second 

raen-room, and there captain Bo)rd 

came up and spoke to them ; (the 

confersatioD was not admitted, as 

major CampbeH was not present at 

it) They then went ont together, 

and witness left captain Boyd at 

Heot DeiTaris*s. In about ^0 mi. 

Bates after he was called on to visit 

captain Boyd ; he went, and fovtni 

Mm sitting on a chair romiting; 

he examined his wound, and con. 

cciTed it a Tery dangerous one ; he 

surrircd it bat 18 hours; he staid 

with him till he died, during which 

time he got gradually wosse till his 

ditsohtloo. 

On his crossuexamuiation, he 
stated, there was something trri» 
tating in capiaia Boyd's manner of 
making the obserTation alluded to; 
CO much so, that he conceives ma. 
j«r Campbell could not, consistent 
with his feelings, pass it over ; but 
if a caqdid explanation had taken 
plaeo^ he docs not conceive the 
arcfaiKholy affair would have oc. 
carred* 

John Hoey staled « ' that he is 
mess.'waiter of the ^Ist regiment, 
and was so then* Ho remembers 
Vol. L. 



the night this alTair took place ; 
knew major Campbell and captain 
Boyd ; he saw major C. that night 
in a room where he was washing 
glasses ; major Campbell had quit. 
ted the room about ten or fifteen 
minutes; as major Campbeil was 
coming up stairs, capt. Boyd was 
leaving the mess-room, and they 
met on the stair.head ; both went 
into the mess-waiter's-rooaiy an^ 
there remained ten or fifteen mi- 
notes, when they separated. Pri. 
soner, in about twenty minutes, 
came again to witness, and desired 
him to go to capt. Boyd, and telt . 
him a gentleman wished to speak 
to him If he pleased ; he accord, 
ingly went in search of capt. Boyd ; 
he found him on the parade-ground ; 
he delivered the message^ and capt 
Boyd accompanied him to the niess* 
room ; no one was there ; witness 
pointed to a little room off It, as 
the room the gentleman was in ; he 
then went to the mess-kitchen, and 
in eight or ten minuts, he heard the 
report of a &hot; thought nothing ^ 
of it till he heard anotl^er ; he thea 
went to the mess.roon^, and there 
saw captain Boyd, and lieutenants 
Hall and M^Phersou ; captain B* 
was sitting on a chair vomiting ; 
major Campbell was gone, but in 
about ten or twelve minutes be 
c'ame io the room where witness 
was washing some glasses ; major 
C. asked for candles ; he got a pair, 
and brought them* into the small 
room : major C. showed the wit. 
ncss the corners of the room in 
which each person stood, which dis* 
tance measured seven paces ; he 
never saw major Campbell aft or till 
a week ago, though witness never 
quitted the regiment, and rctainfd 
bis employment. 

John M^Pherson stated, that he 
F is 



08 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1«08. 



itliMtenatitiQiudr^gimest; kaev Snrgton W. S* NiM «ms ft^^ 

major Campbell iiq4 capt, Boyd; dttced to the same. point, and like* 

yecollecU the dajr of the duel; on wbe failed. 

the evening ^f that daj, going up. JColonelPatenon,of thei^lstra* 

atairs about nine o'clock, he heafd^ gimentf was produced to tho aamo 

ms he thoug)iti major Campbell say— iMtnt, .and also failed. 

:*^ On the word of a dying man, is iBeorge Sutherland, qnarter^mas. 

orery thing fair^?*' He got up bf« ter of said regiment, was prodnaed 

fore captain Boyd replied ; he said, to the same point ; he stated he saw 

"^^ Cgv^bdl^ ffou hau hurried «#— him ten -minutes before he died ; ha 



y<ni!*re a tad mani" Witness was was in bed» agitated with pais, in 

in coloured clothes, and major C. his senses, but rolling in the Ml; 

4id not know him, hut »aid agaii^ he did not, howcTer, say to kim 

•^«( Boyd, before this stranger and he thought he was dying, 
lieut. Hall, was every thing fair ?'' Upon this a special verdict was 

Capt. B. replied— '^<Oiio«Cajn!p&e//f directed to the jury to cnqasra 

you kmno I wanted you io woit^ ami. whether captain Boyd, ten miaateB 

Aavefriends.*' Major C. thrn said, kafore his- death, and nndrr the 

^< Good God ! will you mention be« circumstances stated, must or inast 

fore these gentlemen, was not rnrery not bare known he was djlngi 



thing fair ? did not yon say yon After some short iMiberalitNi, tbey 

>vere ready P^'^-^apt. B. answered found, for the afirmativo of this 

^< yer," but in a moment after said, issne^that he mnst have known 

«< Comphellj you're a bad m4n.'* It.) The dedarmtion was then ad.. 

Capt. B. was helped into the nett mitted, but pono could l>e proved 

Toom, and mi^o^ C* lollowed, much within that place, except his asking 

agitated, and repeatedly said to . Dor major C. and his saying, ^* Poor 

capt. B. that he (Boyd) was the man, 1 am sorry for him.'' 

bappiest man of the two; ^« I am John Greenhill was produced 

(said major C.) an^ unfortunate merely to prove that mt^orG*had 

man, but I hope not a^iad one/' time to cool after the altefcntion 

Idajor C» asked capt. B. If he for. took place ; inasmuch as ke want 

gave him? he stretched out his home, dcank tea with his fsnslly, 

jhand and said, <^ I forgive you — I and gave him a box to leave with 

feel /or you, and I am sure yon do lieut. Hall, before the afhur.took 

for me. — Major C. then kft the place. Here the prosecution dosed. 

Toom. The defence set up was merely 

Duncan Dewar, adjutant of the and exclusively as to the character 

i«giment, who was with captain ofthe prisoner for humanity, peace* 

Boyd for soma time after ha was jeble conduct, and proper beha;n» 

nfounded, was produced to show our; to this several odieera of tke 

captain Boyd's firm conviction he highest rank were produced, irko 

-would die in consequence of that vouched for it to the follest ejrtnnty 

>round, in order to let In his decia* namely, colonel Paterson, of tka 

jatioathen made as evidence; but 2ist regiment, general Campbell, 

captain R, not having (before him) general Graham Stirling, captaim 

expressed such a convictieOy that Macpherson, captain Menaiis, oe» 

OTidcnca failed. lonel Gcay, and many otJieve, 

•wkosa 



CHRONICLE. 83 

v&am it wat tioneccfsary to pro. in the north«ea«t At Frenehay, 

doer, there were between 14 and 1500 

The learned judge ehargedthe panes of glass broken, a large field 

jory lit a most able manner^ reca. a( beans entirely destrojod, and 

pitnlated tfi6 evidence, and ex. many boshels of waJl.frnit picked 

plained the law on the subject most vp ; the loss is estimated at little 

fdlly and clearly. The jbry re- less than 200/. The row of trees 

tired, and in about half an hour before Mr. Tucker's house at 

Irrooght in a verdict — Gciltt of Moorend was so broken, that the 

MuRDsa, but recammendtd him to leaves and small branches lay in 

r>crcp OM tke scare of cAaracitr enfy. the road a foot deep. The win« 

lie was sentenced to be executed on dows of J. li. Lucas, esq. at Sta* 

Monday, liut respited to Wednes. pteton, and of Mr. alderman Clax. 

ilay se'nnigHt. ton, at Aldroondsbury, were most 

16. BruioL — The storm of last of them broken. 

night appears to have exceeded, In At Newton, Corston, and Kel* 

awful phenomena, any one record. . ston, most of the windows that lay 

ed for many years past. Unlike In the direction of the storiti hare 

the tempests of the milder zooes^ been broken, as well as the glass of 

(he thunder was remarked io roll the hot.housc^ &c. in (he gardens; 

in one eontinuotts roar for upwards and many windows in the mansions 

of an Kbiir and a half, during of W, 6. L^ngton, esq. at New. 

which time, and lon^ afterwards, the ton ; o( sir John Hawkins, at Kel. 

flashes of lightning followed each ston ; of James Stevens, esq. at 

other in tHe most rapid and noin- Camertoii ; and of — ^ JollilTc, 

terropted succession. 0ui the most esq. ' Amerdown. ' The ptantatious 

tremendous circumstance attending and shrubberies of Mr. Langton 

this elementat tumult was the dc. were oorcrcd with leaves and 

ttnictfre b^Lshower which accom. branches of trees, and the pines 

panted its progress. It may be and other plants in his hot.houses 

doubted, however, whether such destroyed. Iii the south and west 

a name be applicable to this ox* fro^nts of Mr. Jolliffe's mansion not 

traordtnary pbftnomcnon; since a pane of glass, was left whole; and 

the masses of ice which fell on th^ the ground was even the next morn* 

places where the tempest most log covered VvitK ice that fell. 

iiercely raged, bore no resemblance At Mr. l)ickinson*s, Kiugswes. 

to buLstones In formation or mag* ton, Somerset, the storm was tre. 

mtttde, inost of them being of a mendous. All the windows on the 

▼ery irregular and polygonal shape, south-west side of the house were 

broad, flat, and ragged ; and many - broken ; and many rooks were 

of them Ineasortng from three to picked up on the lawn, killed by 

nine inches in circumference. They the weight of the' haiUstones, 

Appeared |ike fragments of one vast Xaw Intelligence. — In the king's 

plate of lie, and broken into small bench, at Guildhall, an action of 

^as^es in its descent towards the damages, at the suit of sir Joha 

Cikrth. I'he tern pert arose in tiie Carr, knt. against Messrs. Hood 

soadi.west, and, spreading to the and Sharpe, booksellers. 

aorth-west, gradnafiy died away The plaintiff had written a va. 

F2 riety 



84 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



riety of books of tra?el8^ of wbidi 
he made a considerable emolument. 
The defendants had published a 
t>ook, called <^ My Pocket Book/* 
ridiculing the p1ainti£Ps writings, 
and in consequence of which he 
iras prejented from disposing of a 
manuscript Tour through Scotland. 
For this he sought damages, not, 
onl