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Full text of "Annual register, or a view of the history and politics and literature for the year"

i'^ws^y^iPq 










T.^C()l^Pe]3]Der. 



THE 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 



OR A VIEW OF TH 



HISTORY, 
POLITICS, 



AND 



LITERATURE, 



For the YEAR 1788. 




LONDON: 
Printed for J. Dobslev, in Pali-Mall, 1790. 



PREFACE. 

TH E war between the great Powers on the 
borders of Europe and Aiia, neceffarily de- 
manded, on various accounts, our utmoft atten- 
tion, in treating the Hiftory of the pre fen t year. 
Its importance was not only proportioned to its 
prefent magnitude, and the greatnefs of the par- 
ties immediately engaged, but to the general and 
abundant danger with which it feemed teem- 
ing. Having, in the firft initance, fpeedily ex- 
tended its baleful influence to the northern king- 
doms, it was apparently on the point of involving 
the greater part, if not the whole, of Europe in the 
calamity ; nor would it have been eaiy to draw a line 
in any quarter of the world, beyond which, from its 
nature, it was not polTibly capable of reaching. This 
war, in its ad:ual and more confined ftate, prefcnted 
a fpedlacle neither common nor incurious. It /hewed 
the extraordinary exertions which the untaught ge- 
nius of a fingle man, operating upon the defperate 
courage of a people fighting for their all, but almoil 
totally deftitiite of military knowledge, experience, 
and difcipline, were together capable of making, 
when oppofed, not only to a vail iuperiority in num- 
ber and force, but to the veteran armies of two of 
the firft military Powers in the world, v/ho have long 
been uniformly endeavouring to carry the art of war, 
in all its parts, to the higheil poffiblc point of per,- 
fediion. 

In 



PREFACE. 

In treating this fubjed, be fides giving the cleareft 
narrative of the tranfadlions of the war, which the 
imperfect and fuppreffed flate of our information 
would admit, we have endeavoured to trace thof^ un- 
avowed caufes and motives, which operated upon the 
contending parties, in urging them to that "event. 
Vv^e have likewife endeavoured to point out the dif- 
ferent degrees, in which the views and objedts of the 
two great Chriftian empires, in their combination to 
fubvert the Ottoman, mJght have affedcd the poli- 
tical interefts or endangered the fecurity of the other 
fcates of Europe ; and how far this conlideration in- 
fluenced their condudt in its progrefs. 

VVe truft our readers v/ill perceive, that neither 
the magnitude nor generality of thefe fubjedrs, has at 
all diverted our attention from our own public af- 
fiirs, nor caufed any relaxation in our endeavours ta 
give a clear and diflin^ view of them. As they are 
the objects in which, as a nation, we are mxoft inte- 
reded, and upon Vv-hich all our power and greatnefs 
depend, they mud ever hold the firft place in our 
thoup;hts and care. 

o 

This multiplicity cf foreign and internal bufinefs^ 
has not afforded room or leilure for entering pro- 
perly into the affairs either of France or the Low 
Countries; nor were they fufficiently developed, in 
the year of which we treat, to admit of any thing 
like a perfed or fatisfactory account being yet given* 



THE 



THE 

ANNUAL REGISTER, 

For the YEAR i 



THE 

HISTORY 

OF 

EUROPE. 

CHAP. I. 

Ji-etro/peSiive I'le-zv of affairs in the year 1 7 87, tvhich led to, or preceded 
the rupture betiveen the great powers en the borders of Europe a7ui Afa^ 
Ruined fate of the Tartars. Sahim Giierai, their lute khan, -uoho had 
betrayed and fold his country to the Ruffians., fiss from their dominion, and 
furrenders himflf to the grand Jigniur. i'urte makes great preparations 
for ivar. Circular kiterf-om the grand fgnior to the Jt-uen clajjcs of the 
militia. Muuro Cordato, the hofpodar oj Molda--uia, ha-ving efcaped, undsr 
a charge of treafon, ivto the R,Jian territories, is re-detnunueu by the i'ortei 
hut the court of i ^eterjburgh rtfufes to deliver him up, and treats che demand 
as an infidt or injury. Captain Pacha recaiLtd from Egypt, on account if 
the -war, to the great ^rejuaice of the empire, th return, -unth great trea- 
Jures for the pui.iic Jervice, to Conjtanti/icple. R^jjian minijicr, on ijis re- 
turn from Coerjon, j,nds a total cr^an^e in the countenance ami dijpajition of 
the Porte, and a jtt oJ p. of>of lions, lutich he had lejt to be adopted as the 
bafis of a ,ie-M treaty het-vueen the two empires, are rejeJied -TAjitb aifdain, 
AI. Bidgako-w, tht R,<.i]ian miyiilter, being fumrnotud to a grand ai'van, is 
prefented ivith a HMrutm mffrument, containing a jet of (ounter propcjn/jns. 
Vol. XXX. {A \ 'wbah 



2] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 

tvhich he is required to fign directly, as the only aliernati%'e of immediate 
*ujar. Spirited refufal of the Rujjian minifier occafeons his being committed 
frifoner to the cajiie of the Se-ven Toivers. Declaration of 'vuar againjt 
Rujfa. ^ejlion cf policy dijcujjt:d, as 'to the propriety of the Porters pre- 
cipitating a --war at this jimdure. jlftonijhment cf the court of Peterfiurgh 
at this unexpected measure. Not prepared for immediate li^ar. Long ma- 
nifefo againji the Turks. Ruffian Jhip cf 'the line ari-ven by tempeji from 
the Bhuk Sea into the harbour cf ConftantinopLe, and taken. Ill fuccefs 
of the Turks in thefen.v attempts •-which they made, toixards the clofe of the 
year, upon the nenju RuJJian frontiers. Nc^w prophet. Sheik Manfour, re- 
peatedly defeated, and his partizans fnally ruined, by prince Potemkin's 
tirmy. Turkijh -uice-admiral, though a brwve and able feaman, being pre- 
'vented by the difjmtions in his feet from perj arming any of the adions that 
ivere expecied, in the Black Sea, I'jes his head at his return. Bra've gar- 
rifon of Oczakovj, after fe-veral gallant attempts to recover Kinburne, are 
fo nearly cut off in their laji attack, that Te Deum /'/ fung for it at Pe- 
teifurgk, as if it had been a great and decif-ve 'victory. S ha bah G tier at 
appointed by tl^ Porte khan of the Tartars. Deplorable ft ate of that people. 
Unexampled depopulation of the Crimea. State cf that beautiful peninfula, 
Nati-ves fell their ejiatcs for any price they can procure, in order to abandon 
the country- A number of Englijh, confiding in the faith of the emprefs, 
become purchafers, form fcttlements, and ha-ve already ccnmienced great and 
expenfue ivurks for the culti'uation and improHjement of the country. Dic- 
tatorial po'^icers granted by the grand fignior to his jninifer and general^ 
the grand 'vizir, in order to enable him to conduct the njuar nvith effe£t. 
Indian ambafjador from Tippoo Saib treated tvith extraordinary honours and 
refpe£i at Confiantinople. Magnificent military fpectaclc exhibited by the 
gratid t'Tzir, in J^onour of the Indian eynbafjy. Turkifi? amhaf'ador at 
Spain magnifice^itly recei-ued. Wandering and equivocal conduct of that 
Cdurt 'uaith refpe£t to the nvar. Conduit of France ^with refpeit to the 
"war: declares jhe cannot take any other part in it than as a mediator. Hep 
minifter to the Porte fudioufy endeavouring to bring about a reconciliation 
hetiveen her and Ritfiai propojcs a ceffation cf arms for three months, as 
indifpenfably nccejjary to afford time for negociation ; but the di'van declare 
the propnfal inadmiffible, as being partially favourable to the enemy, and 
directly the reverfe to them. Emperor of Germany declares his rcfolutioit- 
to fupport his ally, Ruffia, -Mith 80,000 men, being the force he voas bound 
to furnifl) her ivith by treaty ; hut offered his mediation, merely to prevent 
the Jhcdding of blood. 

TH E meetings and confe- kingdom of Poland, might ferve to 
rences of great and ambitious warn mankind in fimilar cafes. It 
monarchs, have ever been deemed can therefore be no matter of fur- 
dangerous to their equals in power, prize, that the Ottoman court, which 
and terrible to their inferiors. If had already received proofs of no 
all former inftances of their nature very difmterefted difpofitions in its 
and effefl had been forgotten, the great Chriftian neighbours, fhould 
combination which defolaied the havebeen to the lait degree alarmed 

by 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



t3 



by the late congrefs at Cherfon; 
where the bands of union were to 
be cemented and drawn more ftrait- 
ly between two of the moft formi- 
dable powers in the univerle ; whofe 
ambition was at leaft equal to their 
power ; and whofe cbjeft in this 
meeting was underftood as aiming 
at nothing lefs than the fubverfion 
of that empire. 

And, as if this combination of 
the two Imperial powers of Ruflia 
and Germany had not been in itfelf 
fufficicntly alarming and dangerous, 
the poor king of Poland, who had 
already been the victim to their mu- 
tual enmity, was now, upon their 
ambition taking a new direftion, 
called to participate, in fome fmall 
degree, in the fruits of their union. 
He couxd not indeed add much, nor 
perhaps any thing, to the fcale of 
hoftile power againft the Ottomans 
by a£lual exertion; but this was 
not, in fa£t, the kind of aid which 
the great allies wanted, and wifhed 
to draw from him. Their ov/n 
forces were fufficlently numeroois to 
anfwer all the purpofes to which, 
from the nature of things, armies 
could be applied with effect. 

Poland in repofe, was equal in 
value to the aftivity of any other 
ally. By its fituation it was capa- 
ble of uniting tlie two empires in 
fuch a manner as to render their 
force one, and enable their com- 
bined or feparate armiet' to make 
their impre/hon in any one or diffe- 
rent parts of three-fourths of a vaft 
circle, by which they wo\ild then 
embrace fo great a part oftheTurk- 
ilh frontiers. Its produds were no 
lefs valuable. Befides abundant room 
for winter quarters, hofpitals, ma- 
gazines, places of refrefliment, and 
all thofe other appendages necelTary 
to grea; armies, the country was to 



be confidered as a vaft granaxy» 
teeming with every kind of provi- 
fion ; nor were its military refources 
defpicable with refpeft to men ; but 
in regard to horfes, cattle, and fo- 
rage, they were unequalled. Thus 
was Poland capable of becoming a 
moft ufeful member of the confede- 
racy; an accefiion of hoftile ftrength, 
which to the Ottomans would be the 
more intolerably grievous from the 
recolleftion, that all their late mif- 
fortunes, along with the prefent un- 
profperous ftate of their affairs, ori- 
ginated in their apparently gene- 
rous endeavours to preferve the 
freedom and independence of that 
republic, and to prevent the aliena- 
tion of her dominions, in oppofition 
to the rapacious views of thofe very 
powers, with whom (he was now to 
be leagued againft them. 

It was even rumoured at the time, 
that the king's friendftiip (limited 
as his authority is) had been fe- 
cured, in one of the conferences held 
on the memorable progrefs to Cher- 
fon, by the prefent of a very large 
fum of money (amounting to near 
half a million fterling) in Ruffian 
roubles; and although thct report 
was probably unfounded, yet it had 
fo much effect, that he was publicly 
charged, at the enfuing diet, with 
having, at that conference, entered 
into private conditions inimical to 
the republic ; a charge, to wliich the 
excellency of that prince's charac- 
ter, and his known patriotifm, would 
feem a fufficient refutation ; for al- 
though the decided part which, 
with fome apparent rifquc to him- 
felf, he has taken in fupf ort of the 
Ruffian views and intereft, undoubt- 
edly afforded fome colour to the 
charge, yet it would be more equi- 
table to attribute his condudt in that 
refpcft to his real poliiical (enti* 

i-^j 2 ments. 



4] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



merits, and rather to fuppofe that 
he confulted what he conlidcred as 
the prefent interell or the future fe- 
curity of the remains of his mang- 
led country. It ihould likewife be 
remembered, that he owed his feat 
on the throne to the emprefs of Ruf- 
fia ; and that gratitude being one of 
the moft predominant, among the 
many exxellent qualities which adorn 
his private character, he has never 
fmce omitted any opportunity of 
fliewing his fenfe of that obliga- 
tion ; and has, perhaps, in fome 
cafes, confounded the virtues of the 
man too much with the duties of 
the fovereign, under that impref- 
fion. 

We have Ihevvn In a former vo- 
lume * the very interelHng appeal, 
under the form of a declaration or 
manifello, which the grand fignior 
made in the year 17 86, not only to 
his own fubjedls, but to the whole 
race of Mahometans, fhewing the 
common danger to v.'hich they were 
liable fliortly to be expofed, and 
calling upon them, by every thing 
dear or facred to men, to prepare 
and unite, with hearts and with 
hands, in order to repel the defigns 
of their implacable enemy, whofe 
views were not directed to conqueft, 
but to extermination, and who, if 
they were permiited to fucceed, 
would Hop at nothing faort of the 
utter annihilation of the Ottoman 
name, and the extinflion of all true 
believers from the face of the 
earth. 

It is little to be doubted that an 
appeal of fo new and extraordinary 
a nature, coming from a fovereign 
fo great, and a name which had for 
fo many ages been in the higheft 
degree revered, cloathed in the moft 



pathetic language, and ftating cir- 
cumftances of fuch evident injury, 
as would have interefted the feel- 
ings of Itrangers, and even thofe of 
a different communion, muft have 
operated moft powerfully in all thofe 
wide regions where the Mahometan 
creed predominated. Such was the 
ftate of things, and fuch the feafoii 
of apprehenfion and alarm, that 
every Muftulman was already, in 
imagination, fnatching up his wea- 
pons, and rufhing to the common 
defence, when the report was fpread 
abroad of the imperial Catharine's 
intended triumphal procellion to 
Cherfon, to receive the hom.age of 
conquered nations, and to celebrate, 
with an oftentation unknown to later 
ages, the triumph of her arms, and 
her inauguration to nev/ kingdoms 
and empires. The vaftnefs and pro- 
digality of the original defign, with 
the powerful army which was in- 
cluded in it, were of themfelves 
fufficient to fpread amazement and 
terror on all fides ; but when to 
this was added the eifeft produced 
by the language of flattery and of 
vanity on the fpot, and the ampli- 
fication incident to all reports, in 
proportion to the length of their 
courfe, it is not to be wondered at 
if this fpedlacle was magnified and 
rendered more terrific in the con- 
ception of dillant and ignorant na- 
tions. 

But it was not merely the grati- 
fication of feminine vanity in cele- 
brating a triumph over a fallen 
enemy, however diftafteful and odi- 
ous fuch a celebration muft necef- 
farily be, that chiefly affefted the 
Ottomans with regard to this pro- 
grefs. A report was fpread, and 
the opinion very generally received. 



* Annual Regifter, Vol. XXVIII. Hiftorical Article, p. 151. 



that 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[J 



that the Emprefs of Ruffia's ambi- 
tion feared fo high, that the acqui- 
fition of provinces or kingdoms 
were little farther elHmated by her, 
than as they might lead to the at- 
tainment of her grand objeft; and 
that thi& was nothing lefs than the 
placing of her fecond grandfon, 
prince Conilantine, on the throne 
of the ancient Greek emperors at 
Conftantinople; and thereby elta- 
bliftiing, in her own family, two 
mighty empires, capable, perhaps, 
of fubverting Europe and Afia. 
The chriilian name of that prince 
was brought as circumftantial evi- 
dence in fupport of this opinion ; 
and the condufl of Ruffia in various 
rcfpeds, lince the conclufion of the 
peace of Kainardgi, the conditions 
of which fhe had fo frequently vio- 
lated, were brought as farther cor- 
roborations. Particularly her con- 
tinual endeavours to weaken the 
Ottoman empire, by loofening her 
dependencies on every fide, both in 
Europe and in Afia, and exciting 
the vaiTal princes to withdraw from 
their allegiance ; her debauching 
the Greeks in all places, through 
the agency of her confuls, and ren- 
dering them ripe for rebellion ; her 
infidious arts to excite infurreftions 
in Egypt, by offering to render the 
turbulent beys fovereigns of their 
refpedive provinces under her pro- 
teftion ; and her unceafing efforts 
to corrupt even thofe Muffulman 
officers, who held public employ- 
ments, civil or military, in all parts 
adjoining to the frontiers. 

The ruined Tartars too, who 
had been driven from the Crimea, 
and their other ancient feats, filled 
all places with their complaints of 
the pufillanimity of the Porte in 
thus abandoning them, and called 
loudly upon heaven and earth for 



juftice and vengeance. Now the 
intended and avowed enthronement 
of Catharine, would be affixing a 
final feal to all the ufurpations of 
Ruflja fince the peace of Kainardgi ; 
for as fuch the Porte confidered, or 
affefted to confider, the feizure of 
the Crimea, and of the neighbour- 
ing countries ; infilling, that, as they 
had only been obtained by fraud 
and circumvention, in the midft of 
peace, no claim could lie againft 
them by the laws of arms as a con- 
queft, and it would not be pretended 
that the Ruffians could have any 
prior right to them ; and as to the 
fubfequeut convention,which feemed 
to give a fandlion to the feizure, 
they afferted it was only a tempo- 
rary meafure, adopted for the pre- 
fent to divert the evils of war, until 
an equitable arrangement of frontier 
between the two empires could take 
place, the Tartars ihould be reftored 
to their rights, and their future in- 
dependence firmly eftabliflied. It 
was further faid, that it would be an 
extraordinary violation of all laws, 
human and divine, for the Porte to 
pretend to barter or affign the 
•rights and dominions of others; 
and it would render the injuftice 
ftill more flagrant and odious, if 
they concurred, in any degree, in 
ftripping the race of Timur, their 
perpetual allies, and eventual fuc- 
ceffors to the Ottoman throne, of 
the patrimony which they derived 
from their glorious anceftors. Such 
were not the principles upon, which, 
their government adled ; jullice and 
good faith, whether with refpefl to 
Muffulmans or Chriftians, were the 
invariable maxims of the Porte. 

It was a fmgular circumftancc 
with refpeft to the Crimea, and 
feemed like a dramatic fiflion for 
the punilhment of falfe ambition, 

[J] 3 that 



6] ANNUAL REGISTER, 17: 



that the wretched Sahim Guerai, 
the late Ruffian khan of that penin- 
fula, fhould have been led by fome 
fatality to throw himfelf voluntarily 
into the hands of a government, which 
he had injured in the moft fupreme 
degree, and which, he well knew, 
had ever been inexorably fevere in 
its punifliment of ftate offenders. 

This unfortunate prince, who, as 
we have heretofore feen, had dif- 
honoured the illuftrious line of 
Tamerlane, by becoming the inftru- 
ment of betraying his country into 
the hands of foreigners, and who 
had perfonally degraded himfelf by 
the acceptance of a commiffion in 
the Ruffian fervice, as well as of 
coniiderable eftates which were the 
price of his defeftion, whether it 
proceeded from any caufes of dif- 
guft which he now experienced, or 
fjom the inceffant reproaches of his 
own mind, quickened by a fenfe of 
the contemptuous flate into which 
he was funk, became fo tired of his 
new condition, that he made his 
efcape from Ruffia, and arriving, 
with a few attendants, at a fmall 
village near the borders of Mol- 
davia, difpatched, by a trufly mef- 
fenger, a letter to be delivered into 
the hands of the grand fignior only. 
In this epillle, after deploring his 
paft mifdeeds, declaring the fulnefs 
of his contrition, and imploring par- 
don for them, he farther requeued 
leave to proceed to Conftantinople, 
and to be permitted to throw him- 
felf at th'e emperor's feet. Either 
a fafe-condu£l to Conrtantinople, or 
a general indemnity from punilh- 
ment, in cafe of his going there, 
was granted ; but on his arrival, 
inflead of being permitted to ap- 
proach the throne, he was fent 
under a proper guard to the ifland 
of Rhodes,; the conllant place of 
3 



exile affigned to the depofed or 
difgraced princes of his family. 

As we fhall have no farther men- 
tion to make of this unfortunate 
adventurer, it may perhaps afford 
fome gratification to curiofity to 
relate, in this place, that, after 
fpending feveral months unmolefted 
and at large, in that beautiful ifland, 
he was fuddenly affauked, and (after 
a gallant defence, in which he killed 
three of them) cut to pieces by a 
fet of ruffians. As thefe affaffms did 
not pretend to have any commiffion 
or order from the Porte for the 
perpetration of this deed, and did 
not appear like the ufual minifters 
of julHce, it feems probable that 
they were operated upon merely by 
the rage of enthufiafm, as thinking 
him a neceffary facrifice to the mif- 
chiefs which he had brought upon 
his country and religion. 

Under the circumllances and im- 
preffions which we have mentioned, 
it will not be wondered at that the 
difcontcnt of the Porte was too 
great to be concealed, when the 
Ruffian minifter announced the in- 
tended progrefs of his miflrefs to 
Cherfon; although he endeavoured 
to foften the communication, by de- 
claring, that fome neceffary internal 
regulations were the only objedls of 
his fovereign in this vifit to a part 
of her fubjedls. The late menace 
of prince Potemkin, that he would 
march at the head of an army of 
70,000 men to the frontiers, and 
that the emprefs would attend in 
perfon, to enforce her claims, and 
to fetde all differences between the 
two empires, could not fail to in- 
creafe their mixed indignadon and 
alarm. 

An army was immediately or- 
dered to affemble in the neighbour-r 
hood of Oczakow j difpatches were 
forwarded 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[7 



forwarded to every part of the em- 
pire to prepare for war ; and the 
grand fignior himielf is faid to have 
written a circular letter to the feven 
clafTes of the militia, wherever 
fpread, exhorting them to fight va- 
liantly; declaring that thoTe who 
fell in defence of the holy law of 
their prophet, would be received as 
faints in the next world, while thofe 
who bravely vanquifhed the enemy 
ihould be confjdered as heroes in 
this. In the mean time the people 
were outrageous with government 
for its fupmenefs in fuffering t.^e 
emprefs to profecute her journey to 
Cherfon ; indeed all Europe was 
furprized at the forbearance of the 
Porte, if war was deiermined, in 
not obftrufting that boafted and in- 
fulting progreTs, or, in iadl, vain- 
glorii us triumph. 

Mauro Cordiito, the hofpodar of 
Moldavia, had long been, with rea- 
fon, fufpefted of treachery, and the 
Porte was well informed of his 
carrying on a lecret correipondence, 
through the metiium of the Ruffian 
conful, with both the Imperial courts 
of Vienna and Peterfburgh. Al- 
though this conduft had hitherto 
been pafled over without apparent 
notice, it was now thought necef- 
fary, upon the approachmg feafon 
of trial, not only to deprive him of 
the means of future mifchief, but 
to punilh his paft treachery. The 
Porte did not aft with its ufual 
promptnefs of decifion upon this 
occafiun ; for he was ilripped of his 
oifice, without fecuring fiis perfon, 
two days before the order arrived 
for his head. The wary Greek, 
well feeing bis danger, profited of 
the negleft, and, under pretence of 
an airing, accompanied by a party 
of trully friends, linely mounted, 
and all perhaps involved in it, efca- 



ped from JafTy, and arrived fafely 
in the Ruffian territories. The Porte 
reclaimed its fubjeft and offending 
fervant to be delivered up, accord- 
ing to the terms of the fubfifling 
treaties, which had fully bound both 
parties in all fuch cafes. But the 
Ruffians not only peremptorily re- 
jected the demand, but the removal 
of Cordato from his office, the de- 
fign upon his life, and the applica- 
tion for his delivery, were ranked 
W'ith the many other injuries charged 
againfl the Ottomans, and held out 
either as fufficient grounds for a 
war, or as inflanccs of the greatefl 
forbearance. 

Nothing, that did not sfFeft the 
Immediate prelervation cf the em- 
pire, could have been fo urgent or 
fo important to the Porte at this 
time as the affairs cf Egypt. The 
Captain Pacha had already fuc- 
ceeded fo far in his endeavours for 
the entire redudion of the rebel 
beys that their fituation was ap- 
parently defperate, and it feems 
probable that another year would 
have enabled him totally to over- 
throw the Mamaluc power ; wJien 
his own excellent plan for the future 
government of that coujitry, befides 
fecurity from foreign danger, and 
the elfablifhment of domeiiic tran- 
quillity, would have rendered it an 
inexhauilible mine of wealth and 
refource of flrength to its pof- 
fefTor. 

But the prefent necelfity fuper- 
feding all future confiderations, and 
the courage and condudl of the 
Captain Pacha, as well as hi/S coan- 
fel, being deemed indifpenfable in 
the intended fcene of aftion, he was 
hafiily recalled from Egy; t to more 
dangerous, if not more active fer- 
vice, and to the encounter of a mod 
formidable enern^, pofTeffing fuch 
[^J 4 long- 



8] 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



long-eftab!ifhed and immenfely fu- 
perior advantages in all the habitual 
and mechanical bufinefs of war, as 
no extent of genius and ability, in a 
fingle perfon, could in any degree 
be hoped to counterbalance. 

The old veteran received and 
obeyed the order for his recal with 
the greateft regret. Befides the 
common vexation of being deprived 
of his objedl when it itemed within 
his reach, and after furmounting 
much difficiiliy and danger in the 
approach to it, that objeft was like- 
wile of luch a nature, that while it 
held out the moft fignal advantages 
to his country, it would have crown- 
ed his name with lalting glory, as 
one of its greateft benefadors. Nor 
did it add a little to the vexation, 
that the intended war was, in the 
prefent ftaie of things, much againft 
his opinion ; he confidering it as 
too dangerous a meafure to attack 
Ruflia until the ties between her 
and the emperor were in fome de- 
gree relaxed, or that the reftlefs 
ambition of the latter had plunged 
him into a war witii fome of his 
Chrillian neighbours; which, if his 
attention was not attradled by the 
Ottomans, was an event moft likely 
foon to happen. 

But notwithftanding thefe fenti- 
inents, and the craei difappointment 
to his hopes and ambition by which 
they were more ftrongly enforced, 
the Captain Pacha immediately ac- 
commodated himfelf to his new 
fituation, endeavouring, with won- 
deiful addrefs and dexterity, to 
draw all the public benefit from the 
prefent disjointed ftate of aftairs in 
Egypt, which it was poffibly capable 
of affording; and now fupporred 
with no lefs fidelity the charadler 
of an artful politician, than he had 
ever done that of an able com- 



mander. He had indeed a nice and 
difficult part to play ; for he was of 
a fudden not only obliged to change 
all his meafurcs, but to depart from, 
every apparent principle upon which 
he had hitherto atted ; and all at 
once, without any vifible caufe or 
underftcod motive, to temporize 
with the rebel beys, whofe fubver- 
fion and ruin he had fo eagerly 
fought, and fo nearly accomplilhed. 
Yet fuch a counlenar.ce was to be 
preferved in this change of con- 
dud, as that, inftead of fufpetling 
the real caufe, they fhould attribute 
it entirely to grace and favour : for 
he was well acquainted with the 
deep defigns which Ruflia had fo 
long formed upon that coimtry, and 
of her artful intrigues and continued 
negociations with the beys, by which 
{he not only fomented their out- 
rages and rebellions, but laboured 
hard to induce them to (hake off all 
dependence on the Porte entirely, 
and to throw themfelves into the 
hands of her rival. 

As there was not leifure then for 
the intended eftablifhrnent of the 
country, which muft have included 
the final fubverfion of the Mama- 
lues, it became neceffaj-y to ftcure, 
if poflible, their fidelity during the 
approaching war, of which they 
had yet no knowledge or fufpicion ; 
otherwife, the country would be lofl 
upon the firft appearance of a Ruf- 
fian fquadron. The grand admiral 
managed chis bufinefs with fo much 
addrefs, that he not only gained his 
poi^t in that refped, but he wrought 
fo fuccefsfully upon their apprehen- 
fions, that they willingly parted with 
their treafures as the purchafe of 
future peace and fecurity. Thus 
far his condud was excellent ; but, 
according to the eftabliihed and 
barbarous cuftom of Eaftern kings 

aud 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[9 



and commanders, he defpoiled the 
country as cfFedlually as he had 
done the beys, and returned to Con- 
ftantinople, in the month of May 
1787, with fuch treafures as had 
not been brought thither for many 
years, and were alone fufficient to in- 
vigorate all the preparations for war. 
On the return of the Ruflian mi- 
nifter from Cherfon, whither he had 
gone, accompanied by the Imperial 
internuncio, to attend their refpec- 
tive fovereigns, and probably to re- 
ceive luch inftruftions for their fu- 
ture conduct as vvere fuited to the 
determinations adopted at that place, 
he found a total change in the coun- 
tenance and diipofition of the I'one, 
and foon experienced, that haughti- 
nefs in conduft, and a di^atorial 
peremptory tone, vvere fo far from 
being monopolized by the fortunate 
and the triumphant, that they might 
be luddei.ly alfumed where they 
were kail expc(fled. A fet of pro- 
portions, which he had previoufly 
laid dovyn as the bahs of a new 
treaty, and as the only means of 
eilablilhing in a permanent manner 
the tranquillity of both empires, 
being now prellingly urged, wore 
rejected with dirdain. Thefe in- 
cluded, befides the admiffion of a 
Ruflian conful at the port of Varna, 
within 120 miles of Conftantinople, 
(which had long been an objed of 
inucn folicitude) a total renuncia- 
tion of tne fovereigniy of Georgia; 
which, as that iU-defined denomina- 
tion of territory might be extended 
to all the neighbouring countries, 
as well as to Mingrolia, w-uld have 
afforded a fan*!:tion to all the pait and 
future encroachments of RuiFia on 
that hde. Another propofed con- 
dition, and IHII more hard to be ad- 
mitted, was, a new fcttlement of tne 
provinces of Moldavia and Walla- 



chia, by which their governors (ge- 
nerally called in Europe princes) 
were to hold them by hereditary 
fucceffion, and in a great meafure 
independent of the Porte. But the 
moll hngular claim perhaps of any 
was that upon Beitarabia, which, 
as having once belonged to the 
Tartar khans, Rujfia now demand- 
ed ; a principle of no very limited 
operation, and which, if purfued to 
its full length, would have made the 
ufurpation of the Crimea a lawful 
title to all the conquefts of Tamer- 
lane. 

Not fatisfied with . n - , 
this abfolute rejec. ^"S"? '^'^ 
tion, M. Bulgakow ^7^7- 

being fummoned to attend a grand 
divan, a fet of conditions entirely- 
counter, in which the relloration of 
the Crimea was the leading article, 
and including others which could 
fcarcely be fuppofed much lefs in- 
admifiible, were laid down, not only 
as the bafis of a new treaty, but as 
the only terms upon which peace 
could be preferved. At the fame 
time a written inllrument was pro- 
duced, containing thofe articles at 
length, which he was required, with- 
out farther confidera;ion, to fign 
upon the fpot. The Ruffian mini- 
ller ihewed his utter incapability of 
concluding any treaty, or figning 
any conditions, without fpecific or- 
ders for fo doing from his court; 
he therefore d'jfired time for receiv- 
ing inllruftions with refpefl to the 
generality of them ; but with regard 
to the ceilion of the Crimea, and 
the confequent annulling of the con- 
ventions concluded between the two 
powers fince the treaty of Kain- 
ardgi, he declared, with great fpi- 
rit and firmnefs, that he could not 
even venture to mention fuch a pro- 
pofal to his fovereignj and that he 



lo] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



well knew, in no fortune, and in no 
circumftances whatever, could Ihe 
ever be induced to relinquifh the 
fovereignty of that country. Upon 
this bold anfwer (it being undoubt- 
edly a meafure already determined) 
M. Bulgakow, with his fecretary, 
and two other principal ofiicers of 
the miffion, were committtd pri- 
foners to the caftle of the Seven 
Towers ; the reft of his family were 
conveyed to his country feat at Pera. 
Although the barbarous cuftom of 
imprifoning foreign minifters upon 
a rupture with their principals was 
thus far adhered to, it v/as, how- 
ever, upon ahis occafion, attended 
with circumftances of fuch unufual 
lenity, and the confinement rendered 
fo eafy to M. Bulgakow and his 
companions, that theyferveu greatly 
to foften the barbarity of the prac- 
tice, although they could not en- 
tirely change its nature, or remove 
the odium attached to it. 

The abruptnefs and precipitancy 
of the Ottoman miniflry in this tranf- 
adion, particularly as they had f rft 
agreed that M. Bulgakow fliould 
have time for receiving frefh in- 
ilruftions, afforded much ground of 
complaint to their enemies, who did 
not fail to expatiate largely upon it 
in their appeal to mankind. The 
refult of thefe proceedings was a 
declaration of war, two days after, 
againft Ruflia. Them an ifefto, which 
was upon this occafion prefented to 
the minifters of the Chriftian powers 
refident at Conftantinople, contained 
much of the matter which had ap- 
peared in the grand fignior's ap- 
peal to his own fubjefts and reli- 
gion ; excepting only that it was 
held forth in a bolder and loftier 
tone, and abftained from any ex- 
preffions impiying weaknefs or ap- 



prehenfion. It ftated the good 
faith, and the ftridl: attention to the 
terms of the treaty of Kainardgi, 
which the grand foltan had fmce 
that time uniform'y obferved ; and 
placed In oppofition to this condudt, 
the continued violation of the mofl: 
folemn ftipuktions, whetner of more 
ancient or modern date, v/hichRuffia 
had committed during that period. 
In the enumeration of the various 
inftances in which this violation had 
taken place, their inftigating the 
prince of Georgia to rebellion, and 
their fending troops to fupport him 
againft his fovereign, were particu- 
larly difplayed. As likewife, their 
depriving the inhabitants of Ocza- 
kow of the benefit of tne fait mines* 
which had not only from time im- 
memorial been open to them, but 
which were exprefsly ftipulated by 
treaty, to be held in common by 
both nations. Their corrupting^, 
through the agency of their con- 
fuls, the wayvode of Moldavia, and 
when he fled from juftice, and was 
reclaimed by his fovereign according 
to the ftipulations eftablilhed on 
both fides by treaty, their minifter 
at the Porte had the hardinefs pe- 
remptorily to anfwer, " that his 
" court would not furrender him.'* 
Her placing confuls in various 
places where they were totally un- 
neceflary, with a view to corrupt 
the fubjefts of the Porte from their 
duty and allegiance, exciting dif- 
fentions even among the true be- 
lievers, feducing fome to enter into 
her fervice, and enticing others by 
civil employments to fettle in hef 
dominions ; together with her con» 
ftant interference in the internal po- 
licy of the empire, and prefuming 
to didlate to the Porte ; infomuch, 
that when the pachas, governors, or 
judges. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[" 



judges, have, by a faithful difcharge 
of their duty, difpleafed her, fhe has 
arrogantly demanded their removal 
or punifhment. 

The complaints on the fubjecl of 
commerce were not lefs numerous. 
All the world was called upon as a 
witnels of the readinefs with which 
the Porte opened her feas, admitted 
Ruffia to an unrelirained freedom of 
commerce, and of the good faith 
with which the treaty had been ful- 
filled in all its parts on her fide ; while, 
on the contrary, the objeft of Ruf- 
iia being to monopolize all com- 
merce to herfejf, inflead of afford- 
ing advantages to the Ottoman 
merchants ilmilar to thofe which 
her own received, Ihe loaded them 
with double, and in fome cafes 
treble duties, in direft violation of 
fubfifting treaties : that with the 
fame ill faith and injuftice, when 
the fubjetfls of the Porte fold goods 
upon credit to the Ruffians, pay- 
ment was not only with-held, but, 
in contempt of all appearances of 
juftice and equity, the merchants 
were not permitted to ufe the ufual 
legal means ior the recovery of their 
property, wnich were afforded to 
all other men. To thefe commer- 
cial wrongs were added, the refufal 
to fuffer Ruffian (hips to be exa- 
mined by the proper officers, al- 
though they were known conilantly 
to convey large quantities of con- 
traband goods ; and the (hameful 
charge, of not onlv refufing entrance 
to, but of firing at and cannonading 
the Turkilli fhips, which were driven 
by ftrefs of weather, and the dan- 
ger of the feas, to feek for fhelter 
in the Ruffian ports. It reprefents, 
as a great aggravation of thefe and 
other injuries, the conftant refufal of 
redrefs, or a contemptuous filence, 
while a repetition of the wrong af- 



forded the only anfwer. Upon the 
whole, the fum of injury and infult, 
of which the Porte complained, ap- 
pears from this piece to have been 
great indeed, although the parti- 
culars are by no means flated to 
advantage. IVe are not, however, 
to rely any farther upon this kind 
of public documents, than as they 
are fupported by ellablifhed fads, 
or convey that itrong internal evi- 
dence which approaches to con- 
vidion. 

The policy of the Porte, in thus 
precipitating a war which fhe was 
fo totally unequal to, and her be- 
coming the aggreffor in it, has been 
much called in queftion, and even 
condemned. That power is, how- 
ever, not entirely deilitute of argu- 
ments, either of policy or juflice, in 
fupport of her condud. She may, 
vv'ith fome colour allege, that Ihe 
hac fuihcient grounds for belief, 
and poffibly a certainty, that her 
ruin, fo far as the intentions of her 
potent enem.ies co ild carry it into 
effect, had been determined on at 
Cherlbn. That, although it was 
certain fhe -was not in condition 
for entering into fo arduous a con- 
teft at prefent, it was no lefs appa- 
rent, that her reftlefs and ambitious 
enemies, who were conllantly watch- 
ing her movements, and prying into 
all her domellic regulations, would 
hy no means afford her leifure for 
recovering her affairs, or being in 
a better Itate of preparation : that 
their open enmity could fcarcely 
be more fatal, than the infidious 
meafures, under the covert of peace, 
which, in violation of the public 
faith of nations, they conflantly pur- 
fued to impair and weaken the em- 
pire ; that by thefe arts, they too 
well fucceeded in keeping its re- 
mote parts in a conllant ftate of 
diftractioii j 



12] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



diflradion ; and, taking advantage 
cf the difoiders which chey excited, 
while they corrupted, terrified, or 
crufned her fubjedls and vaffals, ex- 
tenfive territories were loft, and her 
moil valuable dependencies loofened. 
That they only abftained from adls 
of direft hoitility, which would ne- 
ceflarily have excited immediate re- 
fiftance, until, by making elFeftual 
refiftance impoffible, they fhould find 
s. fit feafon for force to avow itfelf, 
and to complete by war the tri- 
umphs of circumvention. That it 
was in vain to concede, and in vain 
to facrifice, fince occafional con- 
ceffion could never be oppofed with 
efFecl to an eftablifned fyftem of en- 
croachment ; and every concefiion 
file made, ferved as a ftimulus to 
increafe the luft of ambition, and 
to dlredl its views to new ob- 
jects. 

The Porte likewife knew that 
her enemies were not yet thorough- 
ly prepared for war ; that, if left to 
their own decifiop, they would not 
commence hoftilities until their pre- 
parations, both in point of money, 
and with refpedt to military pro- 
"vifion, were entirely completed ; 
that they would in the intermediate 
time ufe all their arts to mitigate, 
by poilponing, the fpirit of juft re- 
venge which animated her fubjcfts, 
and make them remit their exer- 
tions, by holding out delufive pro- 
pofals for new treaties and ar- 
rangements; whereas this fudden 
and unexpected aggreffion on their 
fide, might krve to embarrafs the 
fchemes and difturb the arrange- 
ments of the enemy. Neither had 
the Porte 3.ny thing to hazard by 
being the aggreflbr in a war, as fhe 
had no allies to whom it would be 
incumbent upon her to juilify her 
proceeding, to prevent iheir feek- 



ing a pretence for not fulfilling 
their engagements. Men's minds 
likewife ftill retained the energy 
which the grand fignior's late ap- 
peal had communicated to them ; 
it would have been unwife to let it 
wear off; a future repetition, along 
with its novelty, would have loft its 
eiTect. Nor_was the feafon of the 
year unfavourable to the Ottomans, 
in the prefent ftate of things, for the 
commencement of a war. It was 
too far advanced to admit of any 
decifive operations on the fide of 
the enemy ; but it was not fo late as 
to preclude the ?orte from profpedls 
of advantage, by fudden hoftility 
and defultory enterprize on the bor- 
ders ; while the enfuing long winter 
would afford an inrerval of full nine 
months for completing her prepa- 
ration, drawing her Afiatic troops 
into Europe, and inuring them in 
fome degree to the bufinefs of a 
camp, to order, and to the cli- 
mate. 

Upon the whole, we cannot join 
in condemning the policy of the 
Porte at this junfture, in choofing 
to encounter the doubtful fortune of 
a war. Nor is much credit due to 
the reports that the grand fignior 
had been forced into it, either by 
his iminifters, or by the mob of Con- 
ftantinople. Stung, as they re- 
peatedly had been, almoft to mad- 
nefs, the people were notwithftand- 
ing kept in order and obedience (by 
the fettled influence rather than the 
exertion of a fteady government) 
through all the moft outrageous in- 
juries and infults offered by RuiTia. 
No fuch occafions to try their tem- 
per at that particular moment oc- 
curred. And the fpirit feemed to 
have been excited by theii- govern- 
ment, as inftrumental to its own fyf- 
tem of policy, and not to have borne 

down 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



['3 



down its wifdom by the force of 
popular impulfe. 

Nothing conld exceed the afto- 
nifhment which the news of this 
, unexpeded meafare excited ?.t Pe- 
terlburgh : and the court, already 
rent, and its councils dillraded, by 
divifions, and the animolity of par- 
ties, was not a little embarralFed. 
They had fo long been in the habit 
of trampling upon the Ottomans, 
and fo long uied to their apparently 
tame fubmiifion to every kind of 
indigoity, that they feemed to con- 
fider them as a nation of abjedi 
flaves, rather than as brave men 
who were capable of afferting their 
rights, or defending tlieir country;' 
fo chat this fudden return of vigour 
and fpirit appeared almoll incre- 
dible. Nor were the finances of 
RulTia in condition for a war. The 
unequalled magnificence, or, as a 
fober financier would have termed 
it, the unbounded extravagance of- 
the court, was alone fufficient to 
drain any treafury. Their military 
eftablilliments, by fea and land, 
were like wife coo vaft for the ability 
of the people. Add to this, that 
the fubjugation of the Crimea and 
Cuban were attended with difiicul- 
ties fo far beyond what had been 
held out to the public, as to coft 
above two millions ftcrling, behdes 
the great conftant expence in pre- 
ferving and attempting to fettle 
them. Time too, which difclofes 
all fecrets, had now revealed, that 
the defperate courage of the Tar- 
tars, fighting in defence of their 
country, religion, and liberty, had 
in no fmall degree coropenfated for 
the want of artillery, difciplme, 
and proper arms, infomuch, that 
the veteran Ruffian forces, holding 
fo vaft a fuperiority as they did in 
every thing buf valour, and equal 



in that to the bell troops in the 
world, had notwithftanding met 
with ieveral feverc checks, and fuf- 
fered a very confiderable lofs of 
men in the courfe of that conteft : 
and fo great was the contempt with 
which the court regarded its pa- 
tient and long-fufiering adverfary, 
that the thinned ranks of thte troops 
had not yet been filled up by re- 
cruits. Upon thefe different ac- 
counts, war was as little welcome as 
it was expefled, in the prefent mo- 
ment, at Peterfburgh. 

The manifello ilTued by Ruflia 
betrayed no indications of confter- 
nation. It was long, and conceived 
in a lofty fpirit, fuch as might feem, 
in the eyes of an impartial judge, 
more calculated to celebrate the tri- 
umphs and conquefts of the laft 
war, to difplay the fallen ftate of 
the Porte, lying at the mercy of 
her conquering armies, together 
with the clemency and generofity 
with which flie reltored her numer- 
ous conquefts by the treaty of Kai- 
nardgi, then to juftify, or to im- 
prefs the public with ideas of the 
equity of her conduit and proceed- 
ings during the peace. The Turks 
are, however, charged with the 
blackeft perfidy in every tranfac- 
tion; all the cfrbrts made by the 
diiTerent nations of Tartars, whe- 
ther in the defence of their own 
immediate rights and poffeffions, or 
for the fuccour of their friends and 
neighbours, are brought as proofs of 
this perfidy. Though the paramount 
fovereignty of Georgia had for fe- 
veral ages been claimed and exer- 
cifed by the Porte, the Perfian be- 
ing her only competitor in that 
claim; yet the deiolation which that 
country had undergone from the 
Lefghis, in its late convulfions, is 
one of the articles of charge im- 
puted 



14] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



puted to the Turks ; who in their 
turn allege, that thefe evils were 
fuftained while, in its attempts to 
ihake off its tributary allegiance, it 
had thrown itfelf under the pro- 
teftioa of a foreign power, and was 
in a ftate of adiual rebellion againll 
its fovereign. 

The fummary execution of Gika, 
the quondam hofpodar of Moldavia, 
for treafon and treachery, is in the 
manifefto reprefented as an ait of 
the moft glaring injaftice and per- 
fidy, becaufe it was done without a 
trial; as if any could be ignorant 
that fuch was the mode of puniihing 
crimes againft the ftate, fince the 
£rft eflabiifhmcnt of the Ottoman 
governmeat; or as if it could be 
fuppofed the crafty Greeks, who, 
befides paying vaft fums of money 
for the purchafe, exhauft all tJie 
arts of intrigue and treachery in 
their competition for attaining the 
governments of Moldavia and VVal- 
lachia, fhould be ignorant of the 
tenure upon which they were to 
holu thefe dangerous offices. 

The feizing on the Crimea, on 
the iiland of Taman, and on the 
Cuban, is declared, in the apologe- 
tic part of the manifefto, not to have 
proceeded from any defire of en- 
larging the limits of the empire, 
(which is truly faid to be already 
fufficiently extenrive),but merely to 
diflodge the robbers who commit- 
ted depredations on the borders, 
and thereby to fecure lafting peace 
and amity with the Porte. The 
fucceeding convention, which gave 
a fanftion to the ufurpation of thofe 
countries, is attributed to the fenfe 
wliich the Porte herlclf entertained 
of the juftice and neceffity of the 
meafure ; it being at the fame time 
held out, either as a mark of fa- 
vour, or as a compenfation tor her 



acquiefcence, that a diftrid: on the 
left of the river Cuban was affigned 
to her by the convention. Such 
are the fubftantial and argumenta- 
tive parts of the docuinent pub- 
liftied on this occafion. Thefe are 
fupported and enforced throughout 
with abundant imputations of falfe- 
hood, treachery, contempt of the 
moft folem.n engagements, and a 
difregard to the fandtity of oaths, 
which are all charged upon the 
Ottomans, as if vices inherent in 
their nature. 

A circumftance which happened 
foon after the opening of the war, 
though in itfelf of little confe- 
quence, occafioned great joy at 
Conilantinople, from its being con- 
fidered as an indication of future 
fuccefs, and that fortune had again 
begun to look favourably upon the 
crefcent: — The Ruffian fleet hav- 
ing, in the month of September, 
been fcattered and greatly injured 
by a violent tempelt on the Black 
Sea, and having no port on the 
Afiatic fide to afford them Ihelter, 
the Dorifthenes, of 64 guns, being 
nearly difmafted, and otherwife in 
great diftrefs, was driv-en by night 
into the canal of Conftantinople; 
having paffed fo many of the forts in 
the dark, that her efcape, when fhe 
difcovered her fituation, would have 
been impoffibIe,had fne even been in 
better condition for making the at- 
tempt. It may well b^ fuppofed 
that nothing could exceed the afto- 
nifhment of the people, when day- 
light difclofed to them fo novel a 
fight, and one fo well calculated to 
excite a popular and enthufiaftic 
joy. They were however probably 
equalled on the other fide, by the 
grief and difmay of the Ruffian 
captain ; who, perceiving himfelf 
inextricably involved, adopted the 
defocrate 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [15 



defperate refolution of blowing up 
the {hip in the face of the city and 
harbour; but the crew, preferring 
the lefTer evil of imprifonment, in- 
ftantly feized his perfon, and held 
him in durance until they were 
boarded by the Turkifh boats. 
About 650 Ruffians were made 
prifoners. The fliip had been fo 
extremely fickly as to lofe 150 
men in that fliort cruife. 

The bad fuccefs which attended 
the few military enterprizes under- 
taken by the Turks to the clofe of 
the year, afforded little fanftion to 
the popular hopes that might have 
been founded on this favourable 
augury. In every attempt on the 
new Ruffian frontiers the Ottomans 
were either baffled or defeated. 
Among other fmall enterprizes, 
which could anfwer no greater pur- 
pofe than that of diftrading the 
attention of the enemy, and perhaps 
a view of familiarizing their own 
fubjefts and partizaus to war and 
danger, it was thought proper to 
bring the pretended prophet. Sheik 
Manfour, again forward on the fide 
of Caucafus. It might have been 
fuppofed that the former demonftra- 
tion of the inefficacy of his aiTumed 
fupernatural powers and celeftial 
aids, when oppofed to Ruffian arms 
and difcipline, had left behind fuch 
fore remembrancers of the failure 
and impofition, as could not but 
cfFedtually cure the enthufiafm of 
his followers. But the Sheik, what- 
ever other qualities he might be de- 
ficient in, poffefled a large natural 
ftock of courage, and it is poffible 
that the people confidered his va- 
lour more than his piety, in chufmg 
him their leader. 

However this might be, the Sheik 
being fupported by fome fmall 



neighbouring tribes of Tartars, 
and by fuch Turks as were fcat- 
tered amongft them, he entered the 
Ruffian new frontiers at the head of 
about 8,oco men, without feeming, 
from any thing that appears, to 
confider, or to make much enquiry, 
what force he had to encounter. 
It is however to be remembered, 
that in regions where the race of 
man are fo thinly fcattered as in tiie 
prefent fcene of aftion, the diffi- 
culty of intelligence muft necelTarily 
be great : it is likewife to be ob- 
fei^ved, that although the bound- 
lefs waftes of thefe flat countries, 
which fcarcely have any other 
marks of divifion than a few great 
rivers, renders them exceedingly 
favourable to predatory excurfion, 
yet the fame properties expofe the 
invader to a continual danger, 
which no forefight can at all times 
provide againir, that of being fud- 
denly furprized by a fuperior, and 
fuppofed dillant enemy. 

Prince Potemkip was in perfon 
at the head of the Ruffian army, 
which he immediately divided into 
four columns, one of which led by 
himfelf, as well as the others, but 
all purfuing different routes, ad- 
vanced expeditioufly upon the ene- 
my. If it were poffible to draw 
any fcheme of defign from, or to 
reafon upon thofe military details, 
which were occafioaally publiflied by 
the court of Peterfburgh, it would 
be fuppofed that the objeft of this 
divifion and march of the army 
was to enclofe the enemy on all 
fides, fo that not a man could efcape. 
Yet this was not done, nor, from 
what appears, attempted, although 
the paflage of two or three rivers 
feem the only obftacles which the 
troops had to encounter on their 
march. 



i6] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



^rL n. niarch. Rebinder's co- 
■ „ ' lumn, however, came f\n- 
^ gly in fight of the enemy. 

They found the Sheik himfelf, 
with about 600 Tartars, feparated 
from the reft, and entrenched be- 
hind their waggons. Thefe, upon 
the approach of the Ruffians, re- 
peated aloud a fhort prayer diftated 
by their prophet, which, with the 
defperate courage they difplayed in 
defence of their entrenchments, 
feemed to indicate that the fpirit of 
cnthuriafn> was not yet extind. It 
was, however, impoliible that their 
courage could be of any avail ; the 
trenches were carried : and we may 
judge of the defence, when, out of 
fo fmall a number, 400 were left 
dead upon the fpot. 

The Sheik was fo far from fink- 
ing under this misfortune, that, 
having coUedled all the troops with- 
in reach during the night, he bold- 
ly returned to the charge next day, 
andjwiihout regard to their artillery, 
had the hardinefs to attack the 
Ruffian camp. This mode was not 
likely to be fuccefsful, with fuch 
troops as he commanded, and fuch 
arms as they pofleffed. They were 
accordingly repulfed ;' the carabi- 
neers of Roften, the dragoons of 
Aftracan, and a battalion of gre- 
nadiers, carrying off the chief ho- 
nours of the day. It feemed rather 
lingular in this encounter, chat the 
Tartars Ihould have hoped, by a 
feigned flight, to draw an enemy, 
fo far their fuperior in the art r>{ 
war, into an ambufcade. It is 
certainly a curious, though by no 
means a pleafmg fpedtacle, to be- 
hold the vigorous though ineiFedaal 
ftruggles of brave men, againft a 
vaft fupcriority of power, arms, and 
difciplJne, 



Nor was the conteft yet ended, 
and it feemed as if courage would 
rife fuperior to difafter, or perifh 
in the attempt. The Tartars being 
reinforced, a third action took place, 
in which Major General Prince 
Ratifevv, at the head probably of 
aaother column, gained a complete 
victory. After this fuccefs,* the 
Sheik's habitation, and all the Tar- 
tar villages within reach, were 
plundered, and deftroyed by fire. 
Ten thoufand pints of butter, and 
a large quantity of barley, were the 
rural fpoil made upon this occafion : 
the cattle had probably been driven 
to a fafe diftance ; and money, valu- 
able furniture, or merchandize, 
were articles not to be looked for in 
thefe regions. 

Col. Deprarabowlfch undertook 
a laborious march of three days, to 
extend the ravages to another quar- 
ter. Here he met with a defperate 
refiftance, the Tartars maintaining 
a fevere £ght for feven hours. Gen- 
jelajin, at the end of that time, 
arrived with a large reinforcement 
to fuccour the colonel; but the 
enemy were already routed. Their 
lofs in the action, in the purfuit, and 
in the villages (the latter being dif- 
tinguilhed from that in the purfuit) 
was eftimated by the vidtors at two 
thoufand men ; their own, confider- 
ing the acknowledged length and 
obilinacy of the conflid, is rated fo 
far below every tiling that realon or 
experience could irrrbrd a fanftion 
to, that it would feem Ihameful to 
repeat it. Indeed the bloodiefs vic- 
tories of the Rviffians are apt. to 
bring to recollection tbofe of the 
Spaniards in their early wars with 
the Mexicans or Peruvians, aU 
tlKJUgh the cgmparative ftate of the 
combatants was, in all refpcds, 

widely 



HISTORY O 

widely different. Such was the 
iffue of the Sheik Manfour's fecond 
adventure in war. 

The Lefghis were llkewife faid 
to have received a great defeat 
from the RufTians, about this time, 
fomevvhere en the fide of Georgia. 
No detail or particulars of this ali'air 
were ever given, nor did the iab- 
fequent Hate of affairs on the Afiatic 
fide at all warrant the account. It is 
not impoflible that the icattered 
hordes of Tartars, who were now 
defeated, might have been con- 
founded with the Lefghis, through 
ignorance, or that thefe, being a 
more confiderable, as well as an 
unconquered nation, their defeat 
was held to be a nobler objed't of 
triumph. 

Some enterprizes which were 
undertaken by the Turks againfl: 
the illand of Taman, and the Cri- 
mea, were attended with as little 
fuccefs as the attempts of the Tar- 
tars. The captain pacha had this 
year taken the command of the fleet 
in the Archipelago, while that on 
the Black Sea was coraniitted to 
the ccndud of the vice-admiral, 
who bore the fame name and title 
which his fuperior had rendered fo 
eminent. This fecond HafTan Bey 
was deemed to be a man of great 
courage, cnterprize, and experience, 
and held to be the beft feam.an in 
the Ottoman fervice. Great ex- 
pedlations were accordingly formed 
of the happy confequences which 
would be the refult of his zeal and 
adivity. ■ Next to the defeat or 
deftrudlion of the Ruillan fleet, no 
object, on that fide, could be fo in- 
terelHng to the Pete as the reco- 
very of Kinburne. For this fortrefs 
being fituated direiflly oppofite to 
Oczakow, from which it is feparated 
only by the mouth of the Dnieper, 
Vol. XXX. 



F EUROPE. [i^ 

where, united with the waters of the 
Bog, it fails into the Black Sea, this 
vicinity not only expofed the lat- 
ter continually to the danger of a 
furprize, but being likewife a fla- 
tion for the Ruffian fleets, as well as 
a great naval and military arfenal* 
it was at all times pregnant with 
the means of war on both ele- 
ments. 

Through fome fatality, probably 
the want of a due fubordination 
being eftabliOied among the com- 
manders, fuch diffentions broke out 
in this fleet, as ferved totally to 
overthrow every defjgn of the ex- 
pedition. It was reported, that the 
failure proceeded from the mutual 
averfion and animofity which prevail- 
ed between the land and the marine 
forces ; a misfortune which has been 
productive of fimilar efieds, in fer- 
vices where order and difcipline 
were much better efrabliihed in both 
departments than in the Ottoman. 
V/hatever it proceeded from, no- 
thing could have been more unfor- 
tunate at the openmg of a war, nor 
mere ruinous than it proved m its 
fubfequent confequences. Haffan 
Bey, after fpending a few days 
fruitlefsly at O.:z3kow, returned 
without making any attempt upon 
Kinburne, and, fo far as appears, 
without any endeavour to fall in 
with the Ruffian fleet on his return. 
Nothing could exceed the rage and 
clamour of thjs people, nor the dif- 
appointment and indignation of the 
Forte, upon his bringing the newj 
of his own misfortune and difgrace 
to Conftantinople. The unfortunate 
vice-admiral was probably deemed 
a neceffary victim to the iirfl, and 
perhaps a neceflary example of ri- 
gour at the commencement of a 
war. Thus, chrougn the weak and 
cruel maxims of the Turkilh po- 

L^] iicy. 



i8] ANNUAL REGISTER, 178S. 



licy, was an excellent officer loft to 
the ftate, at a time when his fer- 
vices were likely to be more wanted 
than at any former period of its ex- 
iftence ; whereas, a proper enquiry 
into the caufes of the mifcarriage, 
with a moderate reproof, if any was 
due, to the commander, might have 
iVimulated him to the ncbleil ac- 
tions. 

In the mean time, the brave gar- 
rifon of Ocsakow, notwithftanding 
their being deferted by the fleet and 
army, were inceffant in their en- 
deavours, and fhewed an extraordi- 
nary, but ill-judged and mifapplied 
degree of enterprize and valour, in 
their efforts to Ficover Kinburne; 
either by furprize, which could 
fcarcely be expefted to fucceed, or 
by mere force of hand, v/hich was 
jflill more imprafticable. They were 
accordingly repulfed with lofs in the 
two firft attempts, but the third 
proved fatal. Th.^ garrifcn of Kin- 
burne had been conliderably rein- 
forced, when 5,cco Turkf, polhbly 
ignorant of the circumilance, having 
croffed the river fi-om Oczakow, 
made a fierce attack on the foi trefs 
before day. The garrlfon had been 
too lately alarmed to be now fur- 
prized, and maintairrcd their pofts 
well while the darknefs continued ; 
but as foon as day-light appeared, 
they quitted the defenfive, and fal- 
lying from different gates nearly 
enclofed the enemy, whom they at- 
tacked with great courage on at 
leaft three fidco. A defperate ac- 
tion enfued, in which the Turks, 
being urdoubtedly difmayed at the 
unufual danger and hopeleffnefs of 
their fituation, were routed ; after 
tvhich the fieht was changed to an 
abfolute flaughcer ; for, what with 
the grounding and other cafualties, 
iii fuch a hurry, which befel many 



of the boats; what with the eager 
purfait of the enemy, and, above 
all, the general blindnefs and con- 
fuiion which terror produced, not 
above a thoufand of the whole party 
are faid to have efcaped. A ilaugh- 
ter {o vaft, and {o totally difprcpor- 
ticned to the number engaged, fcems 
indeed rather difficult of belief; b:;t 
the fituation and circumftances of 
the aiikilants were unufually peri- 
lous. The circumftance of the two 
Ruffian generals. Beck and Suwa- 
row, being feverely wounded, feems 
to indicate that this a£ticn was not 
entirely bloodlefs to the vidors. 
Te Dcum was fung with the highell 
pomp in all the churches at Peterf- 
burgh upon this occafion, and the 
public rejoicings were fuch as might 
have been expeflied for the greatell 
vi(5lory. 

In order to facilitate its defigns 
upon the Crimea, the Porte ap- 
pointed Shabah Guerai, grandfon to 
the celebrated Crim Guerai, to be 
khan of the Tartars ; hoping that 
the opinion and popularity derived 
from his illuftrious ancellor (who 
was the laft prince of the line of 
Tamerlane that had fhevvn himfelf 
v/orthy of it) would ferve to recal 
and reunite that fcattered people, 
and inlpire them with new ardour 
and confidence to engage in the re- 
covery of their country. 

Indeed the ftate of that beautiful 
peninfula, notwithftanding the very 
pleafing profpecfls and flattering 
hopes of future ciiltivation and im- 
provement held out by its inime- 
diate mafters, was at the prcfcnl 
truly deplorable ; and, as another 
opportunity may not offer, we do 
not think it unneceffary in this place 
to beftow a (evj words upon a fub- 
jetTl fo univerfally interefting to 
mankind, as that of the extinction 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [19 



ef a whole nation, and a transfer of 
its property to ftrangers. 

We are then to obferve, diat 
through the means purfued for the 
accompiifhment and fupport of the 
late revolution, that country had 
already been fo ruinoully depopu- 
lated, as to be reduced to lefs than 
one-third of the former number of 
its inhabitants ; although including 
in that number the fwarms of ad- 
venturers, which the unheard-of ad- 
vantages held out to new fettlers 
drew from difterent countries. For 
befides the vail trafts of the coun- 
try which had been rendered defo- 
late through the flight or dellruc- 
tion of the inhabitants during the 
troubles, thofe who remained, and 
who were either fuch as had been 
feduced to take an aftive part in 
favour of the Ruffians againft their 
countrymen, or thofe, who, in or- 
der to preferve their pofTellions, 
had fubmitted quietly to what they 
were not able to oppofc, were fo 
little fatisfied with their prefent con- 
dition, that, in order to withdraw 
from it, they were felling their lands 
upon almofl any terms, as fail as 
they could obtain purchafers ; fo 
that it was eafily feen, if thefe had 
been fufticiently numerous, that not 
a Tartar of any property would 
continue in the country; the com- 
mon fort being only withheld until 
the means of emigration could be 
procured, and perhaps flattering 
themfelvcs flill (as the helplefs are 
ever prone to do) with the flender 
hope of another revolution. 

Under thefe circumilances, prince- 
ly eflates, poffeffing the greateft na- 
tural advantages, and holding out 
the moft fafcinating profpeds of 
future improvement and benefit, 
vv'ere fold at prices below any thinp- 
fcefore heard of, in any country 



that was not entirely favage. Ruf- 
fia could ill fpare wealth or inhabi- 
tants to benefit much of this fa- 
vourable occafion ; and what it 
could afford, at leaft in the latter 
refped, was chiefly drawn away by 
the immenfe confifcations which fell 
into the hands of prince Potemkin^ 
and thofe commanders who aded 
under him in the conqucfl:. This 
flate of things drew foreign fpecu- 
lators, particularly Englifh, pof- 
fefTed of money, and the fpirit of 
adventure, to encounter all the rifks 
of a difputed tenure, as well as thofe 
incident to a defpotic government 
of doubtful irability, to become large 
purchafers, on the faith, and under the 
imm.ediate protection of the emprefs. 
And thefe bringing with them, be- 
fides money, that energetical fpirit of 
enterprize and improvement, with 
that comprehenfive view of remote 
profpedb and future contingencies, 
which fb peculiarly charaCierifes 
their country, had already embarked 
in fuch great and expenfive works 
of every kind of cultivation and 
improvement, as feemed fcarcely 
credible in fo fhort a time ; and, al- 
though the rendering their own ef- 
tatcs produdlive, was the inimed:at» 
objeft, yet the effecl of their labours, 
if happily purfaed, would in time 
extend to the benefit of the whole 
peninfula. Among thefe imme- 
diate objects of cultivation, was the 
introdudtion of new fpecies of grain, 
and other agricultural products, not 
only for the home confumption, but 
with a commercial view to the fup- 
ply of foreign markets. New breeds, 
if not fpecies of cattle, were like- 
v^ife introduced, and meafures pur- 
fued for the eftablifliment of a great 
manufafture for the faking, curing, 
and barrelling of beef, and render- 
ing it a great and Itanle article of 



[^] 



exportation* 



ao] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



exportation. Mills of various kinds, 
as well for the fawing of timber, as 
for domeftic purpofes, were con- 
ilrudted ; and even the working of 
mines was faid to have been in fomc 
degree commenced. Nor was this 
all ; fchemes were in agitation, and 
plans already formed, for the great 
operations of making new harbours, 
and opening of new ports. Such 
exertions for the cultivation and 
improvement of a country, by a 
handful of foreigners far from home, 
and relying entirely on the faith cf 
2 ilrange people, and a ftrange go- 
vernment, is unquellionably v/ithout 
example in the hiilory of man. 

Sach was the llate of the Cri- 
mea at the commencement of the 
prefent war; and, if thefe fettle- 
ments fhould become permanent, 
and thefe defigns profper, and ar- 
rive at maturity, under the aufpices 
cf a fiXed and equitable govern- 
ment, it may furely excite the afto- 
iiifnment of fome future age, to dif- 
cover a colony of Englifh in fo re- 
mote a nook, fliut in fo fingularly 
as it is between Europe and Afia, 
and peculiarly cut off by nature 
from all intercourfe v/ith the wellefn 
world. 

It has happened, fortunately 
enough with refped to this cbjcdt, 
that the new khan has not been 
able, in any degree, to difturb chel'e 
lettlements; the war, however, like 
an eaftern blight, will he too likely 
in its confequences to llunt, if it 
iuould noL entirely deftroy tlieir 
growth. 1'hat prince is faid co have 
colleflcd about 30,000 Tartars in 
the neighbouring provinces ; but 
not having been able to gain any 
footing in the Crimea, and ading 
only fubordinately under the Turkifh 
banner, he has nearly efcaped all 
notice in the war. 



Although nothing could be more 
grateful to the Turks in general 
than the war, yet nothing was left 
undone at Conllantinople to increafe 
that difpofition in the people, or to 
excite a military ardour among the 
troops. The llandard of Mahomet 
was difplayed with even more than 
ufual oftentation and pomp, while 
thoufands of true Mulfulmans were 
happy in devoting themfelves to the 
war under its fuppofed facred in- 
fluence; but things had fuffered a 
prodigious change, both on the fide 
of its fupporters and of its enemies, 
fmce the days that it fpread terror 
through the nations of the earth. 
The greateft polTible exertions were 
Ilkewife ufed in all the military pre- 
parations by fea and land ; nor was 
any pains or expence fpared in fup- 
plying the arfenals, from European 
countries, with fuch materials necef- 
fary for war, as there was either 
any deficiency of at heme, or which 
were otherwife of an inferior qua- 
lity. Laro^e orders for mufquetry, 
and other articles of a fimilar na- 
ture, were accordingly difpatched to 
England ; and the diuant Ealtic>. 
through the medium of Sweden, 
fupplied fome of its cumbrous but 
valuable produfts. 

The fulcan, in order to increafe 
the opinion and reverence of the 
people for his miniiler, and the con- 
iidence of the army in his abilities, 
as well as to enable him to provide 
ii'itantly for any fuddcn exigencies 
that might occur, and to condudt 
the various operations of the war 
vach greater difpatch andeffed, en- 
trulled the grand vizir with fuch 
didlatorial pov/ers, as no jealous po- 
tentate would have ventured in any 
hands but his own. Thefe were 
committed to him in. full divan, and 
authenticated by a written decree 

palled 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [21 



pafled in all the forms of ftate, after 
which the decree was proclaimed, 
and read aloud in the moft public 
places, commanding all the fubjedls 
of the empire, of whatever rank or 
condition, to obey the grand vizir 
implicitly in all things, as they 
would the emperor himfelf. This 
demon ftration of confidence in the 
minifter, was every where received 
by the people with the ftrongeft 
marks of approbation and joy. 
Upon the fame principle, and as an 
invigorating encouragement to his 
zeal and exertion, the fulcan fent 
that commander a gold-hiked fabre 
highly enriched with diamonds; 
this magnificent prefent being ac- 
companied by a fet of inltrudions 
in his own hand, for his govern- 
ment in the conduct of the war. In 
this fenfible well-conftrucled piece, 
the emperor ftrongly exhorts his 
miniller and general, conilantly to 
maintain a clofe union and intimate 
correfpondence with the different 
balhasvs and governors, as well as 
with the commanders in actual f^r- 
vice ; and to ufe all poffible means 
for diminilhing the enormous quan- 
tity of baggage, and the inordinate 
number of domeftics, v/hich fo fa- 
tally impede the motions of the 
troops, and clog the operations of 
the Turkiih armies. 

The return of the captain pacha 
from the Arciiipeiago in the begin- 
ning of December, difFufed great 
joy at Conllantinople, and reftored 
the fpirits of the people, which be- 
gan to flag through the late difap- 
pointments. Nor was his arrival a 
matter of lefs fatisfaftion to the 
grand vizir, nor to the emperor 
liimft;if, who is faid literally to have 
received him with open arms. The 
war h.ad been declared in his ab- 
f/snce, and, as he had before, given 



hi^ oj^inion of its being premature 
and dangerous at the prefent time, 
while the union fubfifted fo cloiely 
between the two Chriltian empires, 
it was a matter of apprshenfion 
whether he would engage heartily 
in the fupport of a meafure of 
which he iiad not approved. The 
veteran, however, foon put an end. 
to all doubts upon this iubjett, hy 
gallantly making, in a truly martial 
fpeech to the emperor, an unre- 
fcrved tender of his utnioft fervices 
in endeavouring to reftore the tar- 
niihed honour of the Ottoman arms. 
He declared, that though grown 
grey in the fervice of his country, 
he ItlU felt himfelf itrong and vigo- 
rous, and that there was nothing 
upon earth he wilTied for fo palTion- 
ately, as to clofe his life with the 
glorious acl of driving the perfidious 
infidels out of their fraudulent u- 
furpations in the Crimea, and on 
the Black Sea, of replacing the 
ruined nations of Tartars and other 
Muffulmans in their ancient pofTef- 
fions, and of reitoring the khan to 
the feat nf his illuftrious anceltors, 
of which, in contempt of all laws, 
human and divine, he had been fo 
cruelly defpoiled. 

Nothing could exceed the plea- 
fure which this fpeecn afforded, nor 
the confidence and admiration of 
the man which it excited in the 
grand fignior; as the firil demon- 
llration of wldch, he immediately 
appointed him grand admiral of the 
fleet, and generalillimo of all the 
armies Co be employed on the Blacl; 
Sea. 

A new and extraordinary fpec- 
tacic was, in this feafon of danger, 
prefented at Conftantinople, which 
would at any time have been plea- 
fing from its novelty, but which at 
tills tinle was extremely gratifyinp- 

W 3 botS 



22] ANNUAL REGISTER, 178^. 



both to the court and people, from 
its fervlng to recal the flattering 
ideas of paft greatnefs and glory, 
which had now been long oblite- 
rated. This was the arrival of an 
Indian ambaffador, with a faperb 
and numerous retinue, bringing Vj^ith 
him curious and magnihcent orien- 
tal prefents, from the celebrated 



gagements, and every kind of mi- 
litary evolution took place ; while 
to heighten the contention, and 
render it the mere faithful picture 
of real aftion, prizes were held cut 
and dillributed to thofe who excelled 
in dexterity. It may well be fup- 
pcfed, that in fuch an exhibition of 
the belt horfemen in the world> 



Tippoo Saib to the grand fignior, many extraordinary feats of dexte- 



for the purpofe of efcablilhing a 
lafling league of friendfhip and a- 
mity between thofe two very dillant 
IVlahometan powers. 

The Indian ambaffador was treat- 
ed in a manner which no Chriftian 
miniiter, at any tim.e, or from any 
power, could have formed the 
fmalleft idea of from his own re- 
ception at the Porte. Nothing 
could exceed the fumptuoufneis of 
his entertainment, the honours paid 
to himfelf, or the attention fhewn 
to his numerous retinue, wlio con- 
duced themfelves with all that gra- 
vity and decorum fo peculiar to 
their country. The grand vizir, in 
the true Eiftern itile, both of talle 
and magnificence, exerciied his in- 
genuity in contriving, and fpared 
no expence in decorating and ex- 
hibiting, a grand military fpedacle 
for the entertainment of the am- 



rity were difplayed. Thefe evolu- 
tions had been preceded by a grand 
exercife of artillery, including mor- 
tars as well as great guns; and 
were fucceeded by an exhibition, 
Itill more interefting, from its no- 
velty, to the fpedtators than any 
that had yet been offered. This 
was the appearance of three hun- 
dred Indians, of the ambalTador's 
train, who, in their proper arms and 
habits, went through the military 
manouvres of their own country; 
while 200 fepoys afforded a curious 
fpecimen of the fuperiority which 
they derived from the European 
arms and difclpiine introduced a- 
mong them by Hyder Ali. 

An immenfe crowd of above 
200,oco people were alfembled upon 
tiiis occafion, and a large canal or 
river adjoining to the fcene was co- 
vered with beautiful pleafure boats 



baffador. Several detachments of highly decorated. The grand fignior 
cavalry, ccmpofed of picked men, was himfelf prefent, and faid to 
fuperb'lvdrefled and accoutred, were have been greatly delighted; and 



mounted on the finefi horfes, richly 
caparifoncd ; each divif:on repre- 
fentcd a nation, either appertaining 
to, or on which the Ottoman empire 
laid feme claim ; and each was 
dreffed, armed, and manouvred in 



the Indian ambaffador likewife ex- 
preffed much fatisfaftion, although 
it is poflible that he had beheld 
fcenes more truly military exhibited 
by Hyder. Nothing, however, could, 
upon the whole, be more fpiendid. 



the peculiar mode of its country ; or produce a grander efieft ; but 
fo that Turks, Medes, Perfians, the Eaftern nations have ever been 
Armenians, Arabs, Tartars, and eminent in the fplendour and mag- 
even Turcomans, all appeared in nificence of their public fpeftacles. 
their proper habits, and each filled The Turkifh ambaffador to Spain 
its refpedive character. Mock en- was about the fame time received, 

an4 



HISTORY OF EUROP 



[-3 



and treated with great magnificence 
by the king and court at Madrid. 
It was the general opinion that 
Spain had engaged, either by a 
private treaty or a verbal promife, 
not to admit the Ruflian fleets to 



probably before the commencement 
of the war, that her affairs wore at 
prefent fo circumiranced, that it 
was utterly impolhble for her to 
interfere in any other manner in it: 
than as a mediator. Whether this 



enter the Mediterranean ; and, if declaration v^^as fatisfaftory to go- 



we are not miilaken, fome declara- 
tion to that purpofe was announced 
to the foreign minifters at Madrid. 
But the condudl of that court be- 
came afterwards fo equivocal, and 
the different parts of it at different 
times accorded fo ill with each other, 
that it became totally inexplicable ; 
and no clue could be found to lead 
to her real defigns. It feems pro- 
bable thar, fhe adopted no fixed 
fyftem, and that her meafures would 
continue undetermined, until, per- 
haps, fome unexpected contingency 
might force her to a decifion. 
There were other caufes, befides 
the age and vveaknefs of the king, 
for this irrefolution on the fide of 
Spain. For the late war with Eng- 
land, into which, contrary to every 
principle of true policy, to the pre- 



vernment or not, ic was far from 
being {o to the people, who, con- 
fidering France as a fure ally, and 
tied down to be a friend by the 
great benefits fhe derived from their 
commerce, built much upon her 
naval affillance, in keeping the 
Rufiians out of the Mediterranean; 
and are accordingly faid to have re- 
fented the difappointment fo much, 
that nothing lefs than a firm go- 
vernment, and a vigilant attention, 
could have prevented the populace 
from proceeding to fome outrage 
againft the ambafl'ador of that na- 
tion. 

The gentleman who had dignified 
that important flation for feveral 
years pa It, as well as at prefent, was 
the celebrated, learned, and elegant 
Count de Choifeul Gouffier, whofe 



fent interelts and future fecurity of curious refearches into Ealtern an- 
her dominions, fhe had rather been tiquities, and unceafmg labour and 
dragged than led, by Bourbon con- expence in preferving memorials of 
neftions, and the predominance of the remaining veftiges of Grecian 
French counfels, had been exceed- fcience and art, widely fcattered as 
ingly ruinous to Spain. It had in- they are in Europe and Alia, are 
cumbered her with a heavy debt, every where known, and can never 
that would require many years of be forgotten, while any tafte for the 
peace todifcharge. And as, through noblelt monuments of human genius 
the exceeding impolicy and mifcon- and art fubiifts. This minifter had 
du(El of feme late kingj (although been indefatigable in his endeavours 
the faith of the prefent monarch to prevent the war, and no lefs zea- 
was inviolable) the public credit of lous fmce in his exertions to bring 
the nation had been greatly im- about a reconciliation before mat- 
paired, fhe would, under her prefent ters were carried to an incurable 
eircumftances, have found it very extremity on either fide, 
difficult to borrow money from Though all his efforts had hither- 
foreigners for the fupport of a new to been iheffeftual, he laid a new fet 
war. of propolitions, towards the clofe of 

France had declared to the Porte, the year, tending to the fame objeft, 

[B] 4 before* 



24l 



ANNU AL 



REGISTER, 17: 



before the divan. The preliminary 
article to thefe, and upon which all 
the reft depended, was a fufpenfion 
of arms for three months, in order 
to afford time for a negociation to 
take effect. The minifter lupported 
this propofition with fuch cogent 
arguments as were not eafily fet 
afide. The Itrid union fi'lifilling 
between the courts of Peterfburgh 
and Vienna, from which i^ was litde 
lefs than evident, that the latter 
would take an aftive part in the 
war— The mighty power of thefe 
empires, which feemed now to be 
at its zenith— The inability of the 
Porte to contend with them both, 
confidering the vaftnefs of their ar- 
mies, and the fuperiority of their 
dUcipline ; together with the pre- 
fent untoward ftate of things, which 
rendered her aUies incapable of af- 
fording her any affiftance. — To give 
the greater eftefl to this reafoning, 
or, at leart, to render it more pala- 
table, he {hewed that the prefent 
flate of things might not be laft- 
5ng ; the union between the two 
empires, like all things of the fame 
nature, was fubjedl to viciffitude ; 
or one or both of them might be 
attract d by other objects. While, 
in the intermediate time, the Porte 
might recover her affairs, and, by 
proper improvements and arrange- 
ments in her military force^ become 
much better prepared for war than 
ihe was at pi-elent. 

The grand vizir declared the pro- 
pofal for an armiftice to be totally 
inadmiffible, from its affording every 
advantage to Ruffia, and none v^hat- 
ever to the Porte. Their perf.djous 
enemy, whofe rapacity and ambi- 
tion were infatiable, would gladly 
put them off their guard, and amufe 
them with a negociation until her 
preparations were complete ; and 



then refume the profecution of her 
defigns, without the fmalleft regard 
to any preliminaries that were laid 
down as the bafis of an accommo- 
dation. Ht therefore could not 
confent to a fufpenfion of arms 
upon any other condition, than that 
of the French king's becoming gua- 
rantee for the ceffion of the Crimea; 
or, at Icaft, of its being reftored to 
the fame ftate in which it had been 
placed by the treaty of Kainardgi, 
fo that the khan fliould be indepen- 
dent both of the Ottomans and Ruf- 
fians. He, however, made another 
offer, as a demonftration of the mo- 
deration of the Porte; this was, 
that France fhould engage, in cafe 
of the failure of the negociation 
through the obftinacy of Ruffia, to 
prevent her fleets from entering the 
Mediterranean; but without one of 
thefe fecurities, he could not expofe 
his country to the rifque of being 
duped by the artifices of her infidi- 
ous enemies. 

The French minifter eafily (hewed 
the impoffibility of the guaranty re- 
quired; and to the caufes already 
affigned, wiiich prevented France 
from affording naval affiftance, he 
added her late convention with Eng- 
land, by which flie was reftrided 
from the equipment of any naval 
armament whatever. He then ar- 
gued, that the idea of recovering 
the Crimea by a war, was, in the 
prefent ftate of things, altogether 
futile : well, indeed, would it be if 
fhe could preferve her immediate 
poffeffions, in a conteft with fuch 
potent adverfaries ; but the hope of 
making conquefts was furely too 
vain to be (erioufly entertained. He 
queftioned likewife the jufticeof the 
Porte in renewing her claim upon 
that peninfula; fince, however in- 
jurious and unjuft the conduft of 
§ Ruffia 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [25 



Ruffia had been in the ufurpation, 
the fubfequent convention afforded 
a fanftion to the violence, and le- 
galized her tide to the pofTelllon. 

To this point the grand vizir is 
faid to have replied, that the con- 
vention was only a temporary ar- 
rangement, which was by no means 
intended to be conclufive; that if 
it had been otherwife, fo e\ndent a 
wrong and injuftice could no longer 
be fubmitted to than while fome 
uncontroulable necefiicy compelled 
an acquiefcence ; and above all, that 
the facrifice of an ancient and il- 
luftrious MufTulman nation, would 
not only be in the laft degree dif- 
honoiirable and bafe, but that the 
ceffion of a country to unbelievers, 
which had for fo many ages be- 
longed to the faithful, would be a 
diredl breach of the laws of -the 
Alcoran, under a due obfervance of 
which the Ottoman empire had rifen 
to fuch unexampled profperity and 
greatnefs. 

Religion and confcience being 
thus rendered parties on the fide of 
war, it was eafily feen that all far- 
ther difcuffion on the fubjeft of 
peace would for the prefent be ufe- 
lefs. 

The Porte is faid to have de- 
manded of M. de Herbert, the Im- 
perial internuncio, in rather a pe- 
remptory manner, wliat part his 
mafter intended to take in the war ; 
at the fame time requiring a fpecilic 
anfv/er from the court of Vienna 
upon the fubjeft by a prefcribed 
day. 

The emperor's anfvver is likewife 
faid to have been futficieutly haugh- 
ty, and to amount in fubftance to 
what follows : That he had reafon 
to expeft the Porte would have 
made the demand with more de- 
cency; that the divan could pot be 



ignorant that his Imperial majefty, 
as the friend and ally of RufTia, was 
bound by treaty to furnifh her with 
80,000 men, in cafe of a war; that, 
if tne Porte Ihould confider this as 
an aft of hoflility, he was prepared 
to abide the confequences ; but that 
if, on the contrary, they fhould 
choofe, notwlthllanding, to maintain 
the good under ftanding which fub- 
fifted between the two empires, he 
would, with pleafure, undertake the 
office of mediator, in order to pre- 
vent the cffufion of blood. 

At the fame time the greatefl: 
preparations were made for war, 
not only in Hungary and the fron- 
tier provinces, bjt in Bohemia and 
the interior countries ; and ftill more, 
particularly at Vienna, as the grand 
arfenal of fupply to all parts, through 
the medium of the Danube, and its 
concurrent rivers. Four armies were 
ordered to be alTem jled ; one at 
Carlftadt, in Croatia, under the com- 
mand of general de Vins ; another 
at Petervvaradin, in Hungary, com- 
manded by general Langlcis ; a 
third on the borders of Lithuania, 
under general Febris; and the fourth 
in the Buccowir.e, under the orders 
of the prince of Saxe-Cobourg. 
Two otner generals, ten lieutenant- 
generals, and thirty major-generals, 
were all ordered to prepare for ac- 
tive fervice in the frontier armies. 
If any thing were yet wanting to 
(hew the fixed determination of the 
court of Vienna, the meafure of 
fending general Aivinzi to aft in, 
and obferve the conduft of the Ruf- 
fian armies during the vvar, and the 
receiving a Ruffian officer of equal 
rank to aft the fame part in the 
Auftrian, would have been alone a 
fufficient explanation. 

Yet the Turks, in defiance of ex- 
perience, had ftill fuch confidence in 

th? 



26] ANNUAL REGISTER, 178S. 



the public faith of nations, as vainly 
to flatter themfelves, that, as no in- 
jury had been offered, nor wrong 
received by the emperor, but that, 
on the contrary, the greateil and 
moll: beneficial conceiTions, fuch as 
none of his anceftors ever had hoped 
for, were repeatedly granted during 
his reign, fo he would be contented 
merely to fulfil the terms of his al- 
liance, without engaging as a prin- 
cipal in the war. They were like- 
fvife fo weak as to place a truil in 
political gratitude, which no true 
politician could have done. For, 
valuing themfelves highly upon the 
inviolable faith and honour which 
they had obferved (although the 
wounds of recent hoftility were 
fcarcely vet clofed) during the dif- 
trefTes of Maria Therefa, when half 
the Chriftian princes of Europe, 
taking advantage of the deplorable 
Hate of her affairs, were leagued in 
a. combination for her deftruftion, 
when the Porte, by adling upon the 
fame principle, might have greatly 
enlarged the em.pire on the Euro- 
pean fide, befides ellablifhing a fe- 
cure barrier to her old dominions, 
and when, by fo adling, (he might 
have extinguifhed the houfe of Auf- 
tria for ever, which had for fo many 
ages been her hereditary enemy, 
yet, as fhe then facrificed all thefe 
gidvantsges, to the obfervation of 



juftice and good faith, and compaf- 
fion for the fate of an ancient and 
illuftrious family upon the brink of 
ruin, fo fhe conceived that the em- 
peror Hiould regulate his prefent 
political condudl by that difmte- 
reffed example. — Indeed, we fhall 
hereafter fee, in more than one in- 
ftance, how ftudioufly the Porte 
avoided giving any caufe of um- 
brage to the emperor, and of af- 
fording any colourable pretence for 
his becoming an aftual enemy ; fo 
that little doubt can be entertained, 
if ambition was capable of admit- 
ting any limits, but that he would 
be gratified with fuch conceffions, as 
might probably, in the main, prove 
more beneficial than any acquifi- 
tions that were to be the hard- 
fought fruits of a long and bloody 
war. 

In the mean time, the grand vi- 
zir did not fo much rely on jullice 
or gratitude, as not to ufe the great- 
eft poffible exertions to provide, on 
every fide, for defence, or for ac- 
tual war ; and he ufed fuch admi- 
rable induftry and celerity in draw- 
ing over the Afiatlc troops, and 
collecting the European, that, dur- 
ing the winter, he had formed ar- 
mies to the amount of 200,000 
fighting men on this fide of the Hel- 
lefpont. 



CHAP. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [27 



CHAP. 11. 

JEmperor. Ineffectual attempt to fiirprize Belgrade. Similar attempt on 
Gradifca defeated. Aujtriatis commence hojiilities. H ar declared at 
Vienna. Court of Warfanx) refufes a paffage to the Imperial troops, in 
the purfuit of thejr military operations. Republic of Venice adheres in- 
flexibly to her determination of not being dravjn into the ivar, and of not 
lending one of her ports to the Ruffians for the ufe of their fleets. Pro^ 
bable nuti'ves for this conduct. Her final determination being communi~ 
cated to the Emperor at Triejie, by a deputation of the fenate, is by him 
highly refcnted, and the deputies treated -xvith extraord.inary haughtinefs. He 
cpens a fubfcription for a large loan in the Lo-m Countries, but vjith little 
fuccefs. Emperor joins the grand army on the Danube, and is prefent at the 
taking of Schabatz. Prince Lichtenjlein's troops repulfed in their attempt te 
form Dubicza ; are attacked next day in their trenches ; their I'jorks </<»- 
ftroyed; and obliged to abandon the fege, a?!d repafs the Unna. Defperate 
'valour difplayed by the Turks in this campaign. Wife fftem adopted by the 
Grand Vizir in the conduct of the 'vjar. Wears out his e7ie?ny by continual 
attack, fmall aEiion, and unremitted duty. Checks at Dubicza and other 
places, change the character of the nvar, luhich becomes defenf-ve and lan^ 
guid jn the Aufrian fde. Great difjatisfadion in the camps and at Viennay 
increafed by the tardincfs of the Ridjlans, njjhofe junction had been long in 
'vain expetlcd. Not lefjened by the inno-vations a7id reforms introduced by 
the Emperor. Prince of Cobourg repeatedly attacked vjith great fury by 
the Turks. Emperor prepares at length for the fiege of Belgrade, ivhich 
bad been held out as the frj} objeil of the campaign. CclleJts a prodigious 
artillery, and thro'zvs three bridges over the Saa^vefor that purpofe. Grand 
Vizir, at the head of the grand Ottoman arrny, marches hajlily from Si- 
lijiria, to interrupt his defgn. Encamps in a mcjl advantageous pojition on. 
the Dcmzibe. Emperor breaks dovjn his bridges, entrenches his troops, and 
adds ne-zv <works to his already firong camp near Semlin. SickneJ's and a 
dreadful mortality, attended by a prodigious dej'ertion in the hnpericd armies. 
Three regimetits dra-ain J'rom Vienna, and 30,000 recruits hajlily ordered 
tc fupply thej'e hffes. Prodigious ivajle of trecfure and men in the courfe of 
the campaign. Recruits eagerly fougot in all quarters. King of Sardinia 
forbids any to be raij'ed in his dominions. Prince of Saxe Cobourg, being at 
length joined by a Ruffian body offerees under general Soltiko^w, they jointly 
commence the fiege of Choczi?n. The to-vjn, magazines, and arj'enal being 
defrayed, by a areadful fire of artillery and bombs, the Serajquier is fum- 
moned to Jur render, but reftijcs. Ruins of Choczim heroic ady defended by 
the gallant Scrafquier and his intrepid garrifon until the end oj' September. 
Grand Vizir lays bridges o-ver the Danube at Cladova, and in-vades the 
Bannat of Ternef-a:ar. Defeat of the Aufirians near Orfo-va. Continued 
hffes and misjortunes. Ttiat fine country o-uerrun and ruined. Rout of 
the Emperor's army on his retreat from Karanfebes. Marjhal Laudohn takes 
the convnand of the army in Croatia, -Mhsre be reduces Dubicza and No^vi, 

aftft 



2S] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 

after mojt ohjiinate defences. Hea'vy rains, and the approach of fwinter, 
oblige the Grand Vzzir to evacuate the Bannat. Emperor's return to 
Vienna, after ivriting a general letter to his army, Armifiice concluded 
betiueeyi the Aujlrian and Turkijh commanders on the Danuis. Matiifejto 
ijfued by the Grand Signior, to encourage the Hungarians to Jhake off the 
Aufirian yoke, occafioned the Emperor to promife them a refioration of their 
ccnjUtution and rights. Proceedings at Conjiantinople relati've to the cam- 
paign, the e-vaci'.ation of the Bannat, and the conduct of the Grand 
Vizir. 



T might have been fuppofed, from 
the tenor of the emperor's pub- 
lic and private Conduft, both be- 
fore and after his arriving at the 
fole government of his dominions, 
that he had placed the wifdom and 
a6ls of the greateft legillators and 
heroes before liim as models, by 
which he was to regulate his own 
conduct both in government and 
war, as intending, on a foundation 
thus furely laid, to raife to himfelf 
a monument of the moft lafiing 
fame. The opinions of men were 
accordingly raifed to a very high 
pitch in his favour ; his fubjeds 
warmly hoping that his reign would 
have been happy to them and glo- 
rious to himfelf: nor were foreign- 
ers at all backward in adopting 
fimiiar fentiments. 

We have fmce, however, had too 
many occafions for obferving, that 
his civil government fell infinitely 
fhort of the expeftations that had 
been formed; that his charafter as 
a legiflator, as it became difplayed, 
and the eifecT;s of his regulations 
were felt and underflood, was far 
from rifmg in the public opinion; 
and that his fubjcils, inflead of be- 
ing eafy and happy, were direftly 
the reverfe, and almoft every where 
difcontented and Vvretched. His mi- 
Ktary talents were in a great mea- 
fure yet unknown : {o that this path 
to glory being ilill open, while his 
defire of fame, and his paflion. for 



all the apparatus and organical parts 
of war were confpicuous, it was na- 
turally expeded that he would jaf- 
tify the public ellimation in ^that 
refpedl, and repair in the field the 
deficiencies of his civil charaAer. 
The fhort war in Bohemia was not 
fufiicient in any degree to develope 
his genius in this line. With one 
of the greateft and bell appointed 
armies in the unlverfe, with generals 
of the higheft form and charafter 
to condudl his operations, he was 
contented to avail himfelf of the 
peculiar fituation of the country, 
and, adopting all the caution of an 
old commander, to cover that vafl 
force by impaflable defiles, woods, 
and mountains, from the enterprize 
and ability of an enemy, who at all 
times, and in all fituations, was 
juftly terrible. Oppofed thus to the 
moll military monarch of the age, 
this caution, though it could afford 
no fcope for ability or enterpi-ize, 
demonilrated a folidity of judgment 
which by no means excluded the 
qualities of adlive genius, and which, 
if it accompanied, would materially 
aid the exertion of them. His ex- 
alted adverfary apparently juflified 
this ceridudl, from the neceffity it 
placed i,im under of adopting a 
iimilar iyilem of inadlion. And in 
the evou of fuch a conteft, to fuf- 
tain (as was the cafe) neither lofs 
nor reprcxh, was itfelf an ho- 
nour. The late conteft about the 
Schelde, 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [29 



Schelde, being terminated by nego- 
tiation, aJrorded no room for ac- 
tion. 

The Ottoman war was then to 
be the criterion of the emperor's 
military charafter. It wa^ not very 
propitious to tlie dawn of his fame, 
that he introduced this war with an 
aft of a very doubtful nature. This 
was the attempt to furprize Bel- 
grade under the covert of peace 
and good neighbourhood, and at a 
time when the Turks, to fhew rheir 
unfufpeAing confidence in the good 
faith of the Chriftianj, admitted the 
emperor's fubjeds to an intercourfc 
fo free in that city, as ia not ufu- 
ally praftiied by European Hates 
with reiped to each other, even in 
frontier garrifons of infinitely ]^{s 
importance. 

This ftep was confidered as fo fub- 
verfive of all public faith, fo de- 
ilrudlive of all confidence among 
nations, as tending in its example to 
difable mankind from holding a 
friendly correfpondence, and to lead 
them back again into all the diltrult 
and ferocity of the moll barbarous 
ages, that the exiftence of the event 
was for a long time dilbelieved. It 
was perhaps with a view of burying 
the affair m oblivion, by roufmg the 
attention of the world to a gre<iter 
enormity, or perhaps it might have 
been intended as a juftification, upon 
the principle that no fiith was to be 
kept with a people fo atrocious as 
to be the common enemies of man- 
kind, that a report was at the fame 
time railed, circumllantlally related, 
and indullricufly fpread through Eu- 
rope, that al; the Chrifliau inhabi- 
tants of Belgrade, amounting to 
about four thoufand men, women, 
and children, had been molt inhu- 
manly maffacred, in cold biood, by 
the Turkifh garrifon. 



It will not be expeded that many- 
particulars fhould come to hand of 
an abortive attempt of the Auftrians, 
the defign of which was totally de- 
nied by the aftors, when the party 
injured afi:e(fted to believe the denial, 
and from political motives willingly 
accepted the excufe that was offer- 
ed. But though neither of the par- 
ties concerned took any notice of 
the defign or attempt, it was im- 
poflible that fuch a meafure could be 
kept fecret. 

The following feems the moll 
confillent of the accounts that have 
been publilhed relative to that affair. 
That the garrifon of Belgrade, re- 
lying on the rights of peace, and, 
like other troops of their nation, 
inattentive to the rules of rigid dil- 
cipline, appeared to be wrapped ia 
the moft perfeft fecurity; that their 
unvvillingnefs to diftur'b the great 
traffic which that city carried on 
with all the Imperial neighbouring 
countries, laid them the more open 
to furprize, the intercourfe being as 
free as if no armies had been af- 
fembling, nor holtile preparations 
making. This ffate of things gave 
birth to the enterprize in queffion ; 
and undoubtedly, leaving the mo- 
rality of the aft out of the queftion, 
there were the moil urgent motives 
for carrying the meafure into exe- 
cution. For by that means, the vail 
expeuce of time, treafure, and blood, 
which the taking of a city by force, 
tha^ had for fo many ages been al- 
ternately confidered as the key ei- 
ther of Chriftendom or Turkey, 
would have been faved in the fidl 
inftancc ; and the provligious advan- 
tages to be derived from carrying- 
the war at once into the f.eart of the 
enemy's dominions, and perhaps to 
the very feat of power, inlleaJ of 
lofing time upon the frontier, was 
evident 



^o] ANNUAL REGISTER, 178S. 



evident to every capacity. It even 
feemsd poflible, if other things fuc- 
ceedcd equally, that the v/ar might 
have been brought to a glorious and 
alnaoft immediate termination. 

The plan having been formed, 
and the previous meafures conduct- 
ed with the moft profound fccrccy, 
the generals Alvin?,i and Gemmin- 
gcn are faid to have been appointed 
the principal afiors in its execution. 
The firfl: of th:?fe accordingly pafTed 
the Saave with fix chofen regiments 
of Imperial infantry, and with the 
greateft filence, on the night ap- 
pointed for the furprize. He muil 
have been then on the peninfula 
formed by the junction of the Saave 
with the Danul5e, on the point of 
which Belgrade Hands; and there 
he was to be joined by Gemmingen, 
who was to fall down the latter river 
in the veffels peculiar to it, with an 
equal number of regular forces, a 
large body of Croats, fome artillery, 
and fuch Itores or machines as might 
be neceflary for the purpofe. 

Through feme failure in the na- 
vigation, or, as fome accounts iiated, 
their falling below the town in the 
dark, Gemmingen's party did not 
arrive to fecond the attack, and Al- 
vinzi found himfelf, on the opening 
of da}', expofed without cover to the 
view of the town, to the fire of the 
batteries, and to the direft aflaults 
of the numerous garrifon. The fur- 
prize on one fide, with the difmay 
and confufion of the other, at this 
unexpecled developement, may in 
fome degree be conceived from their 
relative fituation. 

The governor, bafhaw behaved 
with wonderful coolnefs, and fhewed 
great command of temper upon this 
occafion. He fent a polite mclTage 
to the Auftrian commander, expreii- 
jng his furprize at feeing, in a. feafon 



of profound peace, fuch an appear- 
ance of troops on their territory, 
and in the precinds of a fortified 
city ; only requiring farther to know 
the caufe or motive of their coming. 
In the mean time, no appearance of 
hurry, alarm, or preparation, ap- 
peared in the city, more than if a 
body of their own troops had been 
in view ; a circumftance which 
firongly indicates that the garrifon, 
whatever opinion the Auflrians might 
have formed on that fubjeft, had not 
been at all negligent in their guards, 
and were well prepared for whatever 
might happen. 

The way being thus opened for 
an apology, Alvinzi returned for 
anfwer, that a report having been 
fpread, of a defign formed by fome 
Turkifn irregulars, to furprize the 
neighbouring city of Semlin, he had 
advanced his troops in order to 
counteraft their defign ; but finding 
now that the rumour was unfound- 
ed, he flicuid immediately v,'ithdra\T 
them. This excufe, fuch as it was, 
found acceptance, as giving full fa- 
tisfaftion ; but it would feem as if 
the confcioufnefs of their own in- 
tentions, with a fenfe of the danger 
of their fituation, had operated with 
fo much force upon the Imperial 
troops, that, placing little trull in the 
apparent moderation cf the Turks, 
they repafi^ed the Saave with fuch 
precipitation, that many men were 
faid to be drowned, and the regiment 
of Eiterhazy in particular to have 
fufrercd confiderably. 

Such was the conclufion of this 
inglorious affair. The attempt took 
place early in the month cf Decem- 
ber, and from that time the Croats, 
and other Auftrian irregulars of va-. 
rious defcriptions, began to commit 
cruel depredations on the Tu-'kilh 
borders, it might have be&o exped- 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[i« 



ed that an immediate declaration of 
war (as that meafure had been al- 
ready determined) would have been 
adopted to cover the difgrace of 
this failure and detedion. Rut, as 
if fmifter means were to fuperfede 
all fair and open proceedings, it was 
thought proper, at the very time that 
war v/as on the point of being de- 
clared at Vienna, not to wait for 
that fanclion, but to fully the fair 
name of peace by another a£l of the 
fame nature. 

This was the attempt to furprize 
and take bv ftorm the frontier for- 
trefs of Turkifh Gradifca. At this 
place the Imperial troops feemed 
determined to wipe away the dif- 
grace attending the i!! -concerted at- 
tempt upon Belgrade. Though we 
are left in the dark as to particulars, 
yet the attack and defence feem to 
have been vigorous, as the Vienna 
gazette acknowledges the lofs of 82 
men killed and 349 wounded; other, 
and later accounts, ftate the lofs as 
much greater : but all agree that the 
aifailants were completely repulfed ; 
nor did they attempt to claim any ho- 
nour from the aftion. TJiey were, 
however, more fuccefsfal in taking 
Dreffnick, and fome other fmali pla- 
ces, in one of which the garrifon were 
all put to the fword, under an impu - 
tation of treachery, in having fired 
upon a detachment which they had 
encouraged to approach the walls 
en a parole given. — Ail thefe tranf- 
actions took place without the ufual 
ceremonial of declaring war. 

This meafure was, however, at 

r u .u length adopted, ia the 
feb. loth, r ^ c .\r 

„Q ulual rorms, at Vienna, 

' ' and copies of the decla- 
ration or manifefto were prefented to 
all the foreign miniller:. It is re- 
markable that this piece does not 
contain a fingle charge againft the 



Ottomans, of the fmalleft injury' 
wrong, or even difrefpeCl offered bjr 
the-n to the emperor, or to his fub- 
jedj. All their offences are compri- 
zed in their condudl to Ruflia, ex- 
cepting only their blindnefs in not 
forefeeing the part which the flrift 
amity between him and his great alijr 
mull have induced him to take, and 
tlieir perverfenefs in not liftening to 
the wholefome advice which he fo 
repeatedly gave them to fubmit to 
her demands. Such are his grounds 
for declaring v/ar; and on thefe he af- 
ferts himfelf authorized to rely with 
the utmoft confidence on the appro- 
bation of all the courts of Europe, 
and flatters himfelf that they will 
unite in tiheir vviflies for the fuccefs 
of his arms againft the common 
enemy of ChrilHanity. 

Some time previous to this decla- 
ration, the Imperial miniiler at the 
court of Warfaw prefented a note, 
in the name of his mailer, purport- 
ing;, thai as the prefent Hate of af- 
fairs might in a Aort time render a 
palTage through the territories of 
the republic neceffary to the Impe- 
rial troops, in order to facilitate 
their junftion, or to open a commu- 
nication with thofe of RufTia, he con- 
fided in the friendfhip on both fides, 
and made no doubt but the king 
and his permanent council would 
confent to the required paffage : un- 
der a full aiTii ranee, that no violenca 
or infult thould be offered to the in- 
habitants, and that whatever they 
might furnilh to the Imperial troops 
Ihould be paid for in ready money. 

To this it was anfu'cred, that the 
king and the permanent council had 
no power or authority to grant the 
paffage demanded : that it v/as a 
matter which lay entirely with the 
general diet, and could only b-t de- 
ter.Tansd by that body : that as to 

tbjst 



32] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



the concluding claCife of the note, 
Poland could furnifh neither corn 
nor forage ; and it was hoped, that 
the emperor would find another paf- 
fege. — However vexatious this refu- 
fal was, it would have been much 
more fo, if it had not been intended 
to do that without licence which had 
been denied as a favour. But the 
republic was fcon to difplay a new 
mode of policy in her conduft, and 
it feems as if the caufe that produ- 
ced that alteration was already be- 
ginning in ibme fecret degree feri- 
cufly to operate. 

The emperor was not more fuc- 
cefsful in his application to another 
neighbour. The. two Imperial courts 
had long been inceflant in their en- 
deavours to draw the republic of 
Venice into the league, which, whe- 
ther avowed or not, undoubtedly 
aimed at the fubverfion of the Ot- 
t-oman empire. The moft tempting 
baits are faid to have been held out 
to her, of which the ifland of Candia 
and the Morea are fuppofed to be 
only parts. Her naval afliltauce, and 
the ufe of her perts, would have 
been of fuch infinite iniportanfce to 
Ruifia, in extending the line of her 
ambition to tiiat ultimate point which 
flie aimed at, that it did not feem 
they could be rated at too high a 
price : and men are not often nig- 
gards in difpofing of the fruits of 
fiiture vidlories. The republic, with 
her charafteriilic vvifdom, was proof 
to all thefe tempting offers. 

It may, however, appear ftrange, 
upon a flight view of the fubjedl, 
that Venice fhould not chearfully 
join in the overthrow of her ancient 
and dangerous enemy, more efpe- 
cially, when her taking an aftive 
Ihare in its accomplifhment would 
be produftive of great advantage to 
herlelf m the recovery of lier ancient 



poireflions. On this fubjefl It may 
be obferved, that the Turks, in the 
prefent day, are perhaps the fafefl 
and moll inoffenfive neighbours in 
Europe, of thofe po\vers that poflefs 
the means and ability of being ia 
any degree equally formidable. Nor 
had the emperor concealed his am- 
bitious views from the neighbouring 
fiates, with all the caution of a wife - 
politician. Both Venice and the court 
of Turin had long known and been 
long alarmed at the ambitious de- 
figns which he had formed on the 
fide of Italy and Dalmatia, and they 
attributed his forbearance hitherto 
much more to the confufed multi- 
plicity of his projedls than to his 
moderation. The fenate likewife well 
faw, that the fuccefs of the united 
powers would of neceffity. their mu- 
tual charader confidered, change 
their prefent interefted friend liiip 
into the moft violent and laftuig 
animofity ; but that in all cafes, whe- 
ther of their difcord or union, the 
republic would equally be the vi£lim 
to their joint or to their feparate 
ambition. 

Thefe w?re undoubtedly fome of 
the caufes, which induced the re- 
public of Venice to adhere with a 
firmnefs, confidered as little lefs than 
pertinacity, to her determination of 
obferving a ftridt neutrahty during 
the prefent war. Nor is -it much 
to be queftioned that it was with a 
view to withdraw her, at leaft in 
fome degree, from this determina- 
tion, that the emperor adopted the 
long, laborious, circuitous route of 
Trielle, as his way to join the armies 
on the Danube. If fhe could not be 
drawn to go al! the lengths that were 
wifhed, it was, however, hoped that 
fomething might be obtained by ur- 
gent and incelfant application ; and 
if every thing clfe failed, her aflign- 

in^ 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [33 



ing a port for the ufe of the Ruffian 
fleet that was preparing for the Me- 
diterranean, and to have been con- 
verted into an arfenal and place of 
arms during the war, would, in the 
fond id»as of naval dominion that 
were then predominant with both 
the allied powers, have been ccnli- 
dered as an object of the greaieft 
importance. It was probably ex- 
pected, that the near approach of fo 
formidable a fovereign to the Vene- 
tian territories, and even to the ca- 
pital, would have produced no fmall 
eifect on the conduct of the fenate. 

The republic, however, adhered 
to its former determination, which 
was communicated to the emperor 
by an extraordinary deputation at 
TrieHe. That monarch is faid to 
liave received them with inexpref- 
fible haughtinefs and difdain, and 
fcarcely vouchfafcd to liiten to the 
anf.ver. The remonftrances foon 
after made by his minifler at Venice, 
v/ere fo fully expreffive of his dif- 
plcafure, that they are faid to have 
carried more the appearance of ma- 
gillerial cenfure, than of thofe tempe- 
rate documents which are generally 
adopted in the intercourfe and dif- 
cuffions of independent ftates. 

As money is well underftcod to 
be the great nerve and fmew of mo- 
dern war, without which the moft 
numerous armies and the braveil 
troops arc totally ineffeftive, the 
emperor, notwlthftanding his gene- 
ral oecor.omy, the treafures which he 
had drawn from the church, and the 
great fum he had extorted from 
Holland, looking forward to future 
contingencies, and to the pofiibility 
of a longer continuance of the war 
than was at prefent to be expected 
in a conteft with a weak enemy, 
thought it prudent to open a fub- 
icription for a large loan from his 

Vol. XXX. 



fuhjefls in the low countries. But, 
as he had already began to break 
through moft of thofe engagement* 
which he had entered into with then* 
in the preceding year, and which had 
been the happy means of reltorin^ 
peace and harmony fo fuddenly to 
ihofe provinces, the people conceiv- 
ed fo violent an animofily againfl 
him for this final violation of all 
faith, and this flagrant avcwal t;f 
perfeverance in his original defpotic 
defigns, wldch v<'ere not to be di- 
verted even by foreign war and daii- 
ger, that, akhough the terms held 
out for raifmg the money would 
have been highly advantageous to 
the lenders, not a man could be 
found in the whole country that 
would fubfcribe a fingle florin to 
the lean. 

The emperor joined the grand ar- 
my on the Danube about the niiddle 
of April, where he found the fmall 
fortrcfs of Schabaiz invelted, but the 
attack (as it could not fail of fuc- 
cefs) deferred to fignalize his arri- 
val. He altered the difpofitions al- 
ready made by the befiegers, and, 
directing the affault to be given on 
the oppofite fide of the town, had 
the fatisfaction of feeing it fucceed, 
and the place taken by « ., , 
ftorm. The garrifon of ° '^ * 
8co men retired into the citadel, which 
not being defenfible theyfurrendered 
prifoners of war; the emperor, as a 
grace for his being prefent, permit- 
ted their wives and children to re- 
tire with their efFeds to the neareft 
Turkifn garrifon, and paid a com- 
pliment to them.felves en the bra- 
very of their defence ; a compliment 
which they had not an opportunity 
of dcferving. 

The triumph of this fmall fuccefs 

was foon eflaced by the very fevere 

check which prince Lichtenltein's 

[C] army 



34] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 

army received about the fame time 
at Dubicza. The prince having car- 
ried on his approaches regularly 
againft that fortrefs, and made a 
breach which was deemed fully prac- 
ticable, determined to carry the place 
by ftorm on the night of the 25th 
of April. But neither the order and 
difcipline of the Imperialifts, nor the 
cool determined valour incident to 
German veterans, were capable of 
withftanding the impetuous and def- 
perate courage with which, hand to 
hand, they were encountered on the 
breach by the garrifon. They were 
repulfed, routed, and purfued, with 
no fmall (laughter. 

It is farther ftated, that while yet 
warm in their fuccefs, the garrifon 
was on the fame night faddenly re- 
inforced by the arrival of a body of 
fre{h troops, which were fo nume- 
rous as to increafe their number to 
12,000 men. That then, difdaining 
to obferve any farther terms of cau- 
tion with the befiegers, they threw 
their gates open on the following 
day, and attacked the Imperialiits 
with incredible fury in their en- 
trenchments. The battle lalled three 
hours, and fuch was the fiercenefs 
and violence of the onfet, that all 
the works of the befiegers were ac- 
knowledged, by themfelves, to have 
been deltroyed in that time; and yet, 
however llrange it may appear, the 
Aurtrians are faid to have obtained 
the viflory. But that, notwithftand- 
ing this advantage, the prince, (in- 
duced perhaps by the nakednefs in 
which the deftrudlion of his works 
expofed the army) for the important 
purpofe of covering the Imperial 
borders from the infults of the ene- 
my, fuddenly raifed the fiege, and 
repafHng the Unna on that very 



-night, pofted his army on fuch high 
and commanding ground, on the 
Auftrian fide of the river, as was cal- 
culated to anfwer his purpofe. 

The lofs fuftained in thefe aftions, 
on the Auftrian fide, amounted to 
120 men killed, and 400 wounded, 
feveral officers, and fome of rank, 
appearing on both lifts. To the fall 
of the commander who led the at- 
tack, on the breach, and the imme- 
diate wounding of his fuccefi"or, a 
major-general, is attributed the mif- 
carriage in the attempt to carry the 
place. Such is the account given in 
the Imperial gazette. Other conti- 
nental accounts, however, of a fub- 
fequent date, reprefent this affair in 
a more ferious light, and the lofs as 
confiderable. An eminent French 
writer, who, from his refidence in 
Paris at the time, and flill more from 
his intercourfc and correfpondence 
in the ealtern regions, where he 
had i'pent a great part of his life 
in a public charafter *, had fuperior 
means of information, eflimates the 
lofs of the Auftrians in both aftions 
at not lefs than 2,000 men. 

It feemed rather fingular, that the 
fpirit of the Turks, inilead of being 
deprefTed by the vaft weight of this 
accumulated ' hoftility, appeared to 
rife againft it with an elaftic energy; 
fo that the news of the emperor's 
declaration was not only received 
with the greateft joy by the popu- 
lace of Conftantinople, but by the 
armies, who were to experience its 
direft effefls. Their old animofity 
to the Ruffians feemed likewife in a 
great meafure to have changed its 
objeft, and to be diredled almofl en- 
tirely againft the Auftrians. The 
attempts upon Belgrade and Gra- 
difca, ferved etjually to excite their 



» M. de PeyiTond, 



animofity 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[35 



animofity and contempt. The con- 
dud; of the emperor forfeveral years, 
in his tranfadions with the Porte, was 
reviewed and commented upon; they 
faid he had adled rather in the fpirit 
of a low trafficker, than of a great 
fovereign, in the ungenerous and 
mean advantages which he took of 
the diilrefTes of their fuuation, ever 
fmce fortune had begun to lour up- 
on the Ottoman empire, and the ex- 
tortion which he continually prac- 
tifedjin obtainine great advantages 
to himfelf and nis fubjefts as the 
price of his pretended friendlhip; 
at the fame time that he was com- 
bining with their mortal foe for their 
utter deftrudion, and now at length, 
when he found them already invol- 
ved in difficulty and danger, his com- 
mencing an unjuft war againft them, 
without being able to form even a 
pretence of any wrong or injury of- 
fered, or to affign any other motives 
than thofe of a freebooter, and of a 
common enemy to mankind. 

While the animofity againft the 
Aullrians was from thefe concurrent 
caufes rifing to the higheft pitch, a 
revolution took place in the opinions 
of theTurkifh foldiery, with refpedl 
to the military character of their 
new enemy, which was not without 
its confequences. For they had long 
confidered the Germans as the belt 
foldiers, and their country as the 
greateft military fchool in the world ; 
but conceiving, from prefent trials, 
that they had deteded a long-ella- 
blilhed error, as it funk the Auftrians 
in their efteem, fo it ferved to in- 
fpire a high confidence in them- 
felves ; and, however dangerous or 
fatal the contempt of an enemy m.ay 
prove to a general, it has an admi- 
rable efFedwhen poffeffing an army. 

From all thefe caufes, nothing ever 
CX«eecled the impetuous and dcfpe- 



rate valour difplayed by the Turks 
upon every occa/lon during this 
campaign. The firft onfet of the 
Ottomans has ever been deemed ter- 
rible, and nearly irrefiliible ; but at 
prefent they feemed to tranfcend 
whatever had been before related 
or conceived of them. It has been 
ftrongly afferted, and a great num- 
ber of concurring teftimonies from 
the feat of war give no fmall weight 
to the affertion, that nothing could 
afford a more ftriking contra/l, than 
the condud of the holUle armies, 
with refped'to humanity and gene- 
rofity, in their mode of carrying on 
the war. That Chriftian and Turk 
feemed in this refped to have ex- 
changed their nature and principles. 
That, while rapine, cruelty, devafta- 
tion, and extermination, feemed to 
be the objeds which the Auftrians 
had in view, and while fmoaking 
villages and defolated countries in- 
delibly marked their progrefs where- 
ever they made their way, the Ot- 
tomans feemed individually to be 
animated by the nobleft objeds of 
war, a paflion for glory, and an en- 
thufiaftic eagernefs for the preferva- 
tion of their country, but difdaining 
to wreak their vengeance upon the 
inoffending rulers of the plains, and 
cultivators of the fields. It is not 
eafy to determine whether it arofe 
from a relapfe into their ancient bar- 
barous policy, or from a difpofition 
to retaliate the cruelties and devafta- 
tions committed in their own pro- 
vinces i but, from whichever caufe, 
it was grievous to humanity, and 
moft unfortunate for the fertile and 
beautiful country of the Bannat, that 
the Turks tkought it at length ne- 
ceftary to depart fr5m the humane 
principles by which they were at firft 
governed. 

The grand vizir conduded the 
[C] 2 wsir 



3«] ANNUAL RE 

r.'ZT with an extraordinary degree of 
judgment and ability, fhewing that 
he not only poflefTeJ a mind 7o ex- 
tenfive as to comprehend and com- 
bine the multiplicity of objeds in- 
cluded in the widely-fpread plan of 
operation which he had formed, but 
that he had previoufly itudied with 
Ijreat care the military events of 
former wars, from whence he drew 
conclufions fo juft, and applied them 
fo happily, as to feem rather the re- 
fult of experience, or of both jointly, 
than of fludy alone ; fo that he feem- 
ed eminently qualified to avoid and 
to profit by the fatal errors of his 
late ralh and ignorant predeceflbrs, 
and to reftore 'the luftre, fo deeply 
tarnilhed, of the Ottoman arms. It 
was in confequence of this juft efti- 
mate of things, which a llrong and 
Original mind could only form, un- 
der the numerous tactical difadvan- 
tages which he laboured, that he 
ventured to depart from the old 
Turkifh fyftem, which had not only 
Teceived the fanftion of time^ but of 
a long train of former fuccefs, that 
of hazarding an immenfe army, and 
the fafety of the empire, upon the 
fortune of a fmgle field. 

He perceived that the art of war 
had been long alliduoufly ftudied, 
as a fcience of the greatell difficulty 
as well as magnitude and impor- 
tance, by the Europeans, who had 
accordingly carried it to a height 
of perfection before unknown ; that 
they had reduced their various theo- 
ries into praftice, and were continu- 
ally fmproving upon and correcting 
them by experience, fo that all the 
modes and praftice of war had un- 
dergone a total revolution, even 
among themfelves, within a century ; 
while, on the contrary, his nation, 
without the fmalleft attempt at im- 
provement* had during that time 



GISTER, lyn. 

been continually declining from the 
feverity and excellence of their own 
ancient difcipline ; fo that their ar- 
mies in the late war had fallen into 
the molt abjeft contempt. He faw 
that the prefent conltitution of the 
Turkilh armies did not admit the 
poffibility of their being placed upon 
an equal footing with the Europeans 
in point of difcipline, and that no ex- 
cefs of valour, or fuperiority in num- 
ber could fupply that deficiency, in 
thofe general field battles, where the 
multitude of the combatants is fo 
certain a fource of diforder, that it 
can fcarcely be prevented by the 
greateft generals, fupported by the 
molt experienced ofhcers and the 
bell regelated troops. But above 
all he dreaded, in fuch a conflift, the 
immenfe artillery of the Europeans, 
and the prodigious fuperiority which 
they poficfTed in the management of 
them ; and he knew that his prefent 
enemy placed fo unlimited a truft in 
thefe deftruftive machines, that he 
went far beyond all former exanjple 
in the number of them which he 
brought inte ufe, fo that his different 
parks in Hungary, and along the 
frontier provinces, were fuppofed not 
to contain lefs than 2,000 pieces of 
field artillery. 

On thefe various accounts, the 
grand vizir determined to render 
the prefent campaign a war of de- 
tachments and poits only, unlefs any 
great advantage Ihould be obvious 
to his judgment in an occafional de- 
viation from this general rule. By 
this means he intended to train his 
troops by degrees to war, to obe- 
dience, and to difcipline ; to give 
them continual opportunities of iig- 
nalizing and confirming their cou- 
rage in fmaller and greater encoun- 
ters with the enemy, until by habit 
they came thoroughly to know and 

f 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [37 



to defplfe him ; that in fuch a courfe 
of aftion they would proiit as much 
by occafional defeats as by uninter- 
rupted fuccefs, and become inured 
by degrees to every kind of fervice. 
Thus he like wife intended to wear 
d«wn the enemy by continual at- 
tacks, and not lefs by the fevere un- 
remitted duty which i'uch a fyilem of 
conftant and undeciiive warfare mull 
occafion; nor did he build a little 
upon his knowledge of the exceilive 
fiiltrinefs of the climate, and the 
extreme infalubrity cf the regions 
which were the feat of war; evils 
vyhich he knew his fouthern troops 
were much better able to refift than 
the Germans. What he confidered 
as the perfedion of his fyftem was, 
that it could not be attended with 
any material lofs, and could not pof- 
fibly commit the fecuricy of the em- 
pire to any hazard : a mere wafte of 
men being never an objcdl of much 
confideration in an Ottoman army ; 
for, depending more on enthuaalm 
than on difcipline, its foldiery is re- 
placed without difEculty, and loft 
without danger. 

With thefe and fimilar views the 
grand vizir took the command of an 
army of 200,000 men, at the open- 
ing of the campaign, with whicn he 
encamped at Silii'Via in Bulgaria, 
and from thence difpatched a conti- 
nued fuccefiion of detachments to 
feed the war in all its parts, tlirough 
a line of frontier, that nearly reached 
from the borders of the Adriatic to 
the confines of Poland. 

While the grand vizir was thus 
exerting the refources cf an inven- 
tive mind, by introducing fyllema- 
tic al terations, founded tn a j udicious 
view of the objeft to which they were 
to apply, the fame fpirit of innova- 
tion, which fo ftrongly marked the 
emperor's civil governsneHt> fogn 



began to appear no lefs prevalent in 
his military arrangements. Reforms 
were inceffant; and his fondnefs for 
entering into the detail and minutiae 
©fall things, if it had not even been 
the fource of frequent error, difap- 
pointment, and difficulty, would, not- 
v.ithftanding, feem incompatible with 
that attention to higher duties and 
more important objefts, which the 
government and condudl of vaft ar- 
mies necefTarily require. It was faid, 
that the emperor, mifled by fome 
profpedl of partial oeconomy, was 
induced to break through the con- 
tradls for bread, forage, and other 
effential articles of provifion, entered 
into with feveral Jew and other mer- 
chants, whofe wealth was a fecurity 
for their pundluality. This errone- 
ous ftep, accompanied with an abor- 
tive attempt to fimplify the modes 
of fupplying the armies, and to place 
that department entirely under his 
own eye, not only excited the great- 
eft difcontent amongft the troops, 
v/ho were continually mortified by 
the failure which they experienced 
of the moft common necelTaries, but, 
it is faid, that they were at lengtk, 
towards the clofe of the campaign, 
reduced to abfolute fcarcity and dif^ 
trefs, through the want of the moft 
indifpenfable articles of provifion. 

His regulations in matters of lefs 
importance were capricious and fm- 
gular. A number of French, Spa- 
nifti, and Englifh young noblemen 
or officers, being defirous of fignali- 
zing their valour, were allured by 
the magnitude of the conteft and 
danger to offer their fervices as vo- 
lunteers ; but, to their alloiiifhment, 
they were peremptorily and indifcri- 
minately rejedted ; a public order 
was at the fame time iflued, that no 
volunteers whatever ftiould be recei- 
ved in the Imperial armies: as if 
[C] I confieious 



38] 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



confclous of fome important fecrets 
and new difcoveries in the art of 
war, which he was apprehenfive that 
other nations would fuddenly adopt, 
and difpute the invention and Ihare 
the advantage. In purfuance of the 
fame principle, all perfons, whether 
immediately belonging to the at- 
jnies, or appertaining to the civil 
duties of the camps and fupplies, 
were forbidden, under the feverefl 
penakies,from communicating, in the 
correfpondence with their friends, 
any account or circumftances what- 
ever, good or bad, relative to the 
ftate of things or to the tranfadions 
of the war ; while, to give full efted 
to this prohibition, all private let- 
ters were deftined to the infpeftion 
of inqulfitors appointed for the pur- 
pofe, before they could be forwarded 
with fafety by any mode of convey- 
ance : as if it had been fuppofed 
poffible, that the actions of half a 
million of combatants could by any 
means, or in any degree, be kept fe- 
cret ; or that any fyftem of conceal- 
ment, or extravagance of power, 
could prefcrve the errors of fove- 
reigns, any more than thofe of other 
commanders, from, becoming fub- 
jefts of public inveftigation. 

Another edict favoured more of 
jnjuftice and cruelty; for it ordain- 
ed, that all Chriftians taken in the 
Turkiih armies fhould be condemn- 
ed for life to the gallies. Few are 
ignorant that more than a moiety of 
the Ottoman fubjefts are Chriftians; 
that feveral of their vaffal princes 
are likewife Chriftians; it muftfure- 
ly then be a novel fyflem of cafuiftry, 
and a perverfion of all moral laws 
and obligations, which would render 
men culpable, and amenable to the 
pen;;l laws of foreigners, who had 
no authority over them, for fighting 
jn defence of theirnaturalfovereign 



their country, and their property, 
whatever their peculiar modes of 
faith and religious worfhip might 
be. . The preference which the 
Chriftian inhabitants of the frontier 
and difputed provinces have fo of- 
ten given to the Turkilh govern- 
ment, rather than to that of the 
neighbouring flates in their own 
conrimunion, has been frequently at- 
tended with much lofs to the latter 
in their wars with the Porte ; and, 
though this circumftance affords no 
demonllration of the goodnefs of the 
Turkifh government, it, however, 
affords a Itrong prefumption againft 
thofe which they abandoned. It 
feems to have been a great obje£l 
with the united Im.pcrial powers, 
that this war fhould afTume the cha- 
radler of the ancient croifades ; and 
that it fhould particularly be fo con- 
fidered by the Chriftian fubjefts of 
the Porte ; though it may be doubted 
whether the means were conducive 
to the end, admitting the wifdom of 
the ultimate policy. 

The firft confiderable action which 
took place after the repulfe at Du- 
bicza, was an attack made by the 
Turks upon the prince of Saxe 
Cobourg, who commanded in the 
Buccowine, and having crofTed the 
Niefter, with an intention of efta- 
blifhing himfelf in fuch a manner in 
Moldavia, as to cut off all fupplies 
from the garrifon of Choczim, occu>- 
pied, with a confiderable body of for- 
ces, the heights of Rohatin. The at- 
tack was furious, and, notwithftand- 
ing the havock made by a powerful 
artiileryjudicicully planted, was fup- 
ported with unremitted vigour for 
three hours, until the arrival of a re- 
inforcement to the prince obliged the 
enemy to retreat. But the Turks 
being likewife foon after reinforced, 
renewed the attack again in the 
eveningj 



HISTORY O 

evening, and the night was fcarcely 
fufficient to feparate the comba- 
tants. 

The night, however, procured on- 
ly a Ihort celTation, for the mutual 
animofity was fo implacable, that it 
feemed as if nothing lefs than the 
total deflruclion of one army could 
allay the rage of the other. The 
battle was renewed next morning, 
and, for that and the two following 
days the ceffations were fo (hort, 
each fide being frequently relieved 
by frefh detachnrents, that it feemed 
little lefs than a continued adion. 
The fuccefs was various, fometimes 
appearing on one fide and then on 
the other : the lofs of men on the 
fide of the Turks was (from the 
carelefs and rafh manner in which 
they expofed themfelves) prodigi- 
ous, nor could it be fmall on that of 
die Aultrians ; and the adverfe ar- 
mies at length parted, without any 
decifive advantage gained by either. 
It was reported that an Auitrian re- 
giment was entirely cut to pieces ; 
but this was a loole account, and the 
particulars are defectively given. 

The intrepidity and enthuuafm of 
the TurkiOi cavalry, upon this and 
other occafions, excited the alio- 
nifliment of all beholders. They 
frequently, as if it had been an acl 
of mere (liow and bravado, unat- 
tended with danger, rode up full 
gallop, without cover, and uniup- 
ported by infantry, to the mouths 
of the enemy's artillery, where they 
were fwept away by their difcharge, 
without a pcfiibility of fuccefs or be- 
nefit. Tiieir infantry Hkewife, who 
had long been out of repute, beha- 
ved with great valour, and made 
litde of encountering the Aultrians 
hand to hand with fpears, oppofed to 
their muflcets and bayonets. As they 
placed but litde truftin their own ar- 



F E U ROPE. [;^9 

tillery, and indeed received but little 
benefit from it, fo they atFecled to 
defpife equally that of the enemy, 
notvvithllanding the repeated expe- 
rience which they had of its fatal 
eiFefts. 

The valour difplayed by the 
Turks, occafioned as total a revo- 
lution in the fentiments entertained 
by the Auftrians with refpecl to the 
military character of their enemy, 
as that which the latter had already 
undergone with regard to them ; 
and this by degrees produced no 
fmall change in the afpedl and even 
nature of the war. They had con- 
fidered the Ottomans as nothing 
lefs than foldiers, as a tumultuous 
rabble deftitute of fpirit as well as 
difcipline ; while, proud of their own 
military charafter, of their artillery, 
of the excellency of their officers, 
with the ability and experience of 
their generals, they could dream of 
nothing bot bloodlefs vidlories, of 
fortreflTes furrendered at the firft 
found of a trumpet, and kingdoms 
fuing for mercy. But this illufion 
being difpelled, the prejudiced opi- 
nions of the Auflrian foldier took a 
contrary diredion, and the Turk, 
whom he before defpifed, appeared 
to him the moft terrible of all ene- 
mies. Nor was this confined to the 
foldiers, the officers became circum- 
fpeft and cautious, and both were 
happy if they could maintain them- 
felves in their polls, without indulg- 
ing a difpohtion to feek for adven- 
tures. By tliis means the war, with- 
out any cxprefs orders for the pur- 
pofe, became defenlive on the iide 
of the invaders, and the fpirit of 
enterprize appeared only on the 
other. 

In the mean time difcontent, dif- 
like to the war in general, as well as 
to its conduit, and execration ( i the 

[C] 4 RuSans, 



4o] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



Ruffians, who, though its authors, 
feemed to leave the emperor to fuf- 
tain its whole burthen and danger, 
became general, both in the armies 
and at Vienna. For the emperor's 
{yO-tm of concealment could by no 
means prev'eiit the inhabitants of 
the capital from being informed of 
the real ftate of things, which ne- 
ceiTariiy rendered the fplendid vic- 
tories, announced in their gazettes, 
iubjecls of ridicule. The emperor 
himfelf (vvhofe charafleridic it was 
to adopt meafures precipitately, as 
haftily to relinq.uih them, and to be 
foon overpowore.i by unexpedted 
difficulty) was already fuppofed to 
be fick of the war. The dilatory 
flownefs of the Ruffians, whom he 
cxpefted to aft as principals, and 
the unfatisfaftory caufes which they 
afilgned for their inaftivity, filled 
hirn with doubt and jealoufy ; he 
could not help apprehending that 
he was become the dupe of their 
fclhih ambition ; a moil provoking 
circumftance to a mind that flatters 
itfelf with being beyond the reach 
Qfimpcfuion. The expences of the 
war too, notwithftanding all his re- 
gulations and retrenchxTients, were 
fo enormous, as far to exceed all 
previous calculation. Nor was the 
expence the only caufe of anxiety, 
t)Ut Italy, Germany, and the ad- 
joining countries feemed unequal to 
the lupp'y of the immenfe quanti- 
ties of provifion which were necef- 
fary to the fupport cf fuch vail ar- 
mies, incladmg iheir very numerous 
cavalry, and the ii^.fi-.iite number of 
horfes neceHary for their artillery 
and baggage. For, although the 
countries whicii were the fcene of 
adtion are interfered by fome bf 
the n obi eft navigable rivers in the 
world, yet the number of baggage 
waggous exceeded 7,000, and no Icfs 



than 2o,Goo horfes, and 1 2,000 oxen 
were ufed in their conveyance, be- 
fides the army of waggoners and 
attendants neceflary to their govern- 
ment. 

From the united operation of all 
thefe caufes, the diffatisfadlion and 
chagrin ( f the emperor became too 
great to be concealed, and to that 
eiFeft may probably with truth be 
attributed (at leall in the firft in- 
ftance) tiiat fatal change which he 
began to experience in his health. 
If inch were the untoward efFedls 
which the war, the creature of his 
fondefl imaginations, had already 
produced on the fovereign, we may 
from thence form fome conception 
of its operation upon the troops, 
who found themfelves difappointed 
in all the hopes of honour and pro- 
fit, which they had eagerly formed. 
Soldiers at all times, however faulty 
in themfelves, impute, and generally 
with no fmall degree of juftice, all 
their misfortues and difgraces to 
their commanders. This was now 
fully verified, and murmurs, com- 
plaints, and difcontent, were fpread 
through all the ranks of the Impe- 
rial armies. 

The capture of Belgrade had been 
held out, even before the armies took 
the field, as the firft great objeft of 
the campaign, and vail preparations 
were early made for that purpofe. 
This idea was fo ftrongly imprefled 
on the public, that alraoft every 
week brought premature accounts 
from Vienna of the fiege being al- 
ready commenced^ Whether it pro- 
ceeded from any indeciiion in coun- 
cil, irrefolution in condutt, or a con- 
tinual expeftarion that me Rullians 
would have made To vigorous an 
imprefiion as to divide and weaken 
the enemy's grand force, before this 
bold eftort was made, does not ap- 
pear 3 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[4 



pear; but, whatever the caufe was, 
the affair lingered ibangely. The 
complaints and difcontents that were 
now i'o prevalent, both at Vienna and 
in the army, probaoly induced the 
emperor to renew the delign, and to 
adept meafures with vigour and ap- 
parent determ nation for carrying 
it dire<ftly into execulion. Three 
bridges were accordingly thrown 
over the Saave, about the end of 
May ©r beginning of June, and an 
enormous train of battering cannon, 
with a profufion of all thofe engines 
which modern pradlice has introdu- 
ced for the deftrufticn of towns, and 
which render a long defence of the 
llrongell: fortrelles impracticable, 
were brought forward from Semiin 
aod other neighbouring garrifons. 

The defenfive fyRern adopted by 
the grand vizir, by no means inclu- 
ded a quiet fubmiflion to the lofs of 
Belgrade ; on the contrary, the prc- 
fervation of that place was one of 
the few objefts which he deemed 
worthy of encountering the greatefl 
hazards for. He accordingly quit- 
ted Siliilria with the grand army, 
(now fuppofed to amount to about 
80,000 men) and advanced with 
haily ftrides for its protection. 7 he 
military world were not a little fur- 
prized at the judicious and excellent 
pofition which he chofe for that pur- 
pofe, and which they faid would 
have done honour to the lirft gene- 
ral in Europe. Encamping, with the 
Danube extended along his whole 
fri^nt, his left was fully covered by 
Belgrade and the Saave, as his right 
was by the forirefs of New Orfova, 
his tear b.ing as eftedlually fecured 
by the neighbouring Turkifh garri-^ 
fons and polls, which on that fron- 
tier ground were every where fpread. 
While thus unafiallable himfelf, he 
in a great meafure commanded the 



courfe of both rivers ; ?nd had it in 
his power to invade the enemy's 
territories in any direftion, as the 
occafum might offer, and profpedls 
of advantage invite. 

This movement and pofition pro- 
duced an immediate change in the 
emperor's plan of operation- The 
bridges over the Saave were haftily 
demolilhed, the Imperial camp at 
Semiin fortified on all fides, and 
every where covered by a prodigi- 
ous artillery ; and the war became 
now avowedly, as well as in faft, 
defenfive. It was impofTible that 
two fuch armies could fubfiil within 
fo narrow a compafs, witnout feve- 
ral bloody encounters taking piace 
between their detached parties. Of 
thefe we have i'ew particulars, and, 
as thf^y produced no other efied than 
the lofs of a great number of men 
on both fides, the deficiency of fuch 
details is little to be regretted. The 
Turks boafled of a vidory obtained 
by the bafha of Bofnia over a body 
of 20,coo Auilrians, who, in their 
attempt to pafs the Saave. were faid 
to have been defeated with the lofs 
of half their number. As no notice 
whatever had been taken of any fuch 
adion in the Vienna gazettes, the 
account feems difticult of credit ; 
and yet it mull be allowed that the 
Turks fhew no great talent for the 
framing of gazettes, and that they 
are far from being fo great boaflers 
as fome of their n:;ighbours. 

But a more dreadful, as a more 
irrefiflible and deftrudive enemy 
than the Ottomans, had for fome 
time been fpreading delolation thro' 
the Imperial armies. It is well 
known that the Danubian lower pro - 
vinces are not only by far the moll 
unhealthy, and the moil particularly 
deflrudlive to armies, of any part of 
the temperate regions of Europe, 

but 



42] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788, 



but that they vie in this refpeft with 
the mofl deadly of the tropical cli- 
mates. Heat, moiftare, and putrid 
exhalations, produce the fame effed: 
in all; but to thefe is added, in the 
countries which were now the fcene 
of adlion, the mifchiefs proceeding 
from the exceeding -fliarp, cutting 
winds that blow at night over the 
fnowy or frozen tops of the Carpa- 
thian mountains, and which fuddenly 
flrike a mortal chill into the human 
body, at the inftant that it is already 
fainting, and feems nearly diflblved 
by the intenfe heat of the preceding 
fun. The Hungarian camp-fever 
}ias accordingly been long confidef- 
ed by phyficians as a fpccies of pef- 
tilence, and by no means the lealt 
deleterious of the clafs ; while Hun- 
gary has ever been confidered, fmce 
their (irft obtaining a footing in it, 
as the general grave of the Ger- 
mans. It happened llkewife, moft 
unfortunately for the fufferers, that 
the heat of the prcfent fummer ex- 
ceeded, by many degrees, any thing 
that had been before known even in 
thofe fultry regions, infomuch that 
it was not unufual for men, horfes, 
oxen, and other animals, to drop 
dead in the fields, through the mere 
effe£t of expofure to the burning 
fan. 

^'arious caufes concurred, which 
mull have predifpofed the Imperial 
armies to tiie reception and genera- 
tion of difeafes, even in a temperate 
climate. Of" thefe, ill fuccefs, and 
general difcontent, ihould not be the 
lall enumerated. The inactive in- 
dolence unde^ which the grand army 
at Semlin was fo long fuifered to 
languilli, cocped up within the con- 
fines of a camp, produced exadlly 
the fame effeds with the unremit- 
tiiig duty and excelTive fatigue to 
which the detached bodies were ex- 



pofed by the boldnefs and aflivity 
of the enemy ; for, though the health 
and lives of foldiers undoubtedly 
depend upon adlion, yet it fhould be 
limited in degree to produce that 
effecl. 

Putrid fevers, and dyfenteries of 
the^ moll malignant kind, fpread 
their baneful influence through all 
the Imperial armies. Officers as 
well as foldiers became victims to 
the reigning difeafes ; feveral of tlie 
generals were obliged to retire from 
the fervice, and were carried, more 
dead than alive, with fmall hopes of 
recovery, to their refpcftive coun- 
tries. As the feafon advanced, the 
fcene became daily more deplorable, 
and the mortality in the courfe of 
the autumn was dreadful. Difcon- 
tent and complaint became univer- 
fal: the foldiers faid publicly, and 
perhaps jullly, that it were better 
and more honourable to lofe 50,000 
men in a battle, with their fwords 
in their hands, than to perifh thus 
miferabiy in the inleclion and poifbn 
of hofpitals. Defertion likevvife, the 
unfailing concomitant of fuch a Hate 
of things, became prodigious. Thofe 
fly from difeafe who would difdain to 
flirink from the fvvord. By thefe 
means one of the fineft armies in 
the world, and the moil nobly pro- 
vided for war ^t the opening of the 
campaign, was fuppofcd to be redu- 
ced, before its ciofe, to lefs than one 
half of the number of its original 
combatants ; the red being either 
totally loll by defertion, mortality, 
and the fword, or rendered incapa- 
ble of prefent fervice by diieafe. 

Although the emperor, through 
his reliance on the faith of the king 
of Fruffia, and the pacific aipcA of 
the German confederacy, (whofe 
band of union being only the pre- 
fervaticn of the conftitution of the 
empire. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[43 



empire, and the proteftion of its 
members in their refpeftive rights, 
did not at all extend its views to the 
aggreflion of others) had already 
llripped the interior provinces of their 
troops, in a degree which would not 
have been generally deemed prudent 
or fafe ; yet in the prefent untoward 
circumftances of ficknefs, and of the 
great decreafe which was daily taking 
place in his force, he found himfelf 
under a neceifity of drawing three re- 
giments from the garrifon of Vienna 
as an immediate fupply, and at the 
fame time to iflue orders to the here- 
ditary countries, to difpatch 30,000 
recruits with the utmoll expedition, 
to iill up the vacancies. 

This was, however, only a prelude 
to the immenfe fupplies of men, 
which the infatiate cravings of the 
war demanded almoft in its outfet; 
for it was eftimated that between 
eighty and ninety thoufand recruits 
were drawn from their refpedlive 
countries in the courfe of the year. 
As this enormous confumption of 
men, though rendered prompt in the 
fupply through the coercive efFecl 
of the military confcriptions, could 
be ill borne by countries which are 
far from being in a high ftate of 
population, no pains or expence were 
fpared to procure recruits from the 
neighbouring ftates. The king of 
Sardinia, upon this occafion, afforded 
an inllance that he was by no means 
difpofed to further the ambitious 
views of the united Imperial courts; 
that he regarded their projeds ra- 
ther with jealoufy, if not apprehen- 
fion ; and that a crufade againft in- 
fidels was by no means the aftaating 
principle of the day. That prince 
abfolutely prohibited the Auftrian 
recruiting parties from entering his 
dominions, and took fuch effedlual 
ineans as prevented a man from be- 



ing drawn from them for the pur- 
pofe of the war. 

Although the failure of the Ruf- 
fians, in not joining the prince of 
Saxe Cobourg, had hitherto occa- 
fioned the war to languifh a good 
deal on the fide of the Buccowine, 
and in the adjacent Turkifti provin- 
ces, which, by the ceffion of that 
diflrid: to the emperor, were laid 
continually open to invafion, yet it 
had not been entirely deftitute of 
event, nor of a variety of fmall ac- 
tion. The Turks had early and fud- 
denly loft the province of Moldavia, 
along with Jafiy its capital, through 
the treachery of its hofpodar ; but 
it had been fince almoil as fuddenly 
recovered, through the fidelity and 
vigorous adivity of prince Mauro- 
jeni, wlio had been lately appointed 
by the Porte to the government of 
Walachia. The mountainous bor- 
ders of Trarfylvania were likewife 
the fcene of many bloody afticns 
without glory or name, through the 
defperate bat inefFedual efi-orts of 
the Turks to penetrate the natu- 
rally difficult, but llrongly fortified 
and well defended defiles, which 
lead into that iron-bound country. 

The reduftion of Choczim was 
the firft great objedt of the cam- 
paign, with the imperial courts, on 
the fide of Poland and the Bjcco- 
wine. Few fortrefTes have been con- 
flrufted, fince the ufe and effea: of 
artillery were underflood, which, 
from their evil fituation, are render- 
ed fo totally incapable of defence as 
this place. For, hanging on the fide 
of a hill over the Nielter, which 
alone feparates it from Poland, the 
llreets, hoafes, and even the move- 
ments of individuals, are generally 
expofed, through the greater part 
of the town, to the full view and the 
direft fire of whatever enemy is 
liationed 



44] ANNUAL REGISTER, 178S. 



ftationed on the oppofite f:de of the 
river. If Poland, indeed, had been 
able to fupporc its iieutrali:y, and to 
indintain its independant rights of 
dcminion and fovereignty, the at- 
tacks cf the town being then of ne- 
cefFity confined to the Moldavian 
fide of the river, where ihofe dif- 
advantages to the befieged do not 
fiibfiii, the town might have been 
capable cf a good defence. 

The prince of Cobourg, in his 
impatience at the delay of the Ruf- 
fians, inaJe f^veral delultory attacks 
uprn C^icczim, with baticri.;s cf 
heavy ariiliery and m.crtars, from 
the Folifti iide of the river, which, 
from the fuuation of the place, could 
Ticc but occafion damage. In the 
lail (f thfcfe, having made ufe of the 
Poiil'h town of Brana as a cover for 
his batteries and for the men who 
woiked them, the ferafquier who 
cemmanded Choczim, upon this ap- 
plication of a neurral place to the 
ofFenfive purpofe of his enemy, di- 
rected, according to the eftablifhed 
rules of war, his fi^.elis, and the fire 
of his artillery, with fuch eftecl a- 
gainft it, that the uni'ortunate town 
was in a few hours reduced to 
afhes. 

A Ruffian body of forces under 
general Sokikow, havir.g at length 
joined the prince of Ccboarg in the 
beginning of July, preparations were 
then ferioufly made for commenc- 
ing: with their united force, the fiege 
of Choczim in form. Although the 
principal aud efrettive attacks were 
carried on from the Polifh fide of 
the river, they were new enabled to 
take fuch poffefficn of the country 
on the Moldavian fide, as entirely 
to enclofe the place, and fhut it in 
from the poffibility of fuccour or 
fupply, excepting through the inter- 
I 



vention of an equal or fuperior army, 
which the Ottomans were utterly in- 
capable of coileAing in that quar- 
ter. 

During the night of the 20th of 
Jvly, thiee Aulbian and twoRuflian 
bartcrif's were opened pgainft Choc- 
zim, and were feconded at break of 
day by ethers eredlcd in the ruins 
of Braha. The firing continued 
withoutintermiinon for fevera.1 nights 
and days, and the number of Ihells, 
carcafes, red-hot balls, and Other 
modern inllrum.ents of deftrufiion, 
thrown into the town, was faid to 
exceed credibility. The fuuation of 
the place v/ill in a great degree ex- 
plain the cfFed; of this terrible fire, 
v^hich was rendered more dreadful 
by the correfpondent internal flames 
that were at the fame time con- 
fuming the town. All the houfes in 
its upper part, the principal maga- 
zine, the corn-mill, the arfenal, and 
every thing within the direftion of 
the enemies fire, was reduced to 
afhes ; the very pallifadoes on the 
fide of the fortrefs towards the river, 
and the gabions on the top of the 
baftions, were all confumed. 

The befieging generals, who (as 
d'd the reft of Europe, when they 
heard the circumftances) confidered 
the town as already in effed taken, 
ceafed the fire of the batteries, and 
fammoned the gover- j.j 5^^. 
nor to lur render ; v/ho, -^ ' 
inftead of an immediate compliance, 
as was expefted, demanded three 
days time for deliberation, and for 
confuking his officers and foldiers 
upon a queftlon in which they were 
all fo deeply afFefted. As there was 
no profpeit or apprehenficn of any 
relief from without, and as the de» 
ftrudlion of the magazine feemed tQ 
render any longer defence of the 

town 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[45 



town impoffible, no difficulty was 
made of complying with this requi- 
fition. 

But the intrepid ferafquier, in {lead 
of amufing himfelf in framing ar- 
ticles of capitulation, determined to 
make the beft poflible ufe of the 
time allotted, by a i'triift inquifition 
into the ftate of his defences and 
refources ; the refult of which fnould 
alone influence his further conduct. 
The powder magazine had fortu- 
nately efcaped the danger, and mea- 
fures were taken for its future fe- 
curity: the works of the fortrefs 
were found not to have fuftained 
any eflential injury; he knew that 
many of the hard and heavy articles 
in the arfenal might be recovered 
from its ruins ; and he faw that the 
garrifon would no longer be inter- 
rupted and dilireiled in the per- 
formance of their duty by the burn- 
ing and falling ef houfes. 

But this favourable ftate of things 
could afford little fatisfadion, while 
the cruel doubt remained, whether 
any means of fupponing human life 
were ftlU exifting within the walls. 
The ruins of the magazine formed 
an immenfe pile of rubbilh, and the 
only hope was, that this might pof- 
fibly cover the treafure of proviilon 
which was fo much wiihed and want- 
ed. This hope was not entirely 
vain. The falling in of the build- 
ing had checked the adion of the 
fire, lb that confiderable quantities 
of meal and grain were found un- 
confumed, although much damaged 
and fpoiled. The balha, upon this 
difcovery, returned for anfwer to the 
fummons, that he did not, upon due 
enquiry, find that he was under any 
necefTity of furrendering the for- 
trefs ; and that his brave garrifon 
had unanimouily declared they would 
periih to a man, fo©ner than ever 



confent to a furrender, while a pof- 
fibility of defence remained. 

This unexpected anfwer was con- 
fidered as the efFe(ft of abfolute mad- 
nels ; for, as the provifions were fup- 
pofed to be endrely confumed, a 
frantic enthufialm, even under the 
blind dominion of predeftination, 
was not deemed fufficient to account 
for fo defperate a refolution. No- 
thing then could exceed the public 
a'ronifhment at finding, tnat the 
fmoaking ruins of a dcmolilhed 
town, with its a.i-fenal and magazines 
deftroyed, were molt gallantly and 
effedualty defended for two long 
fucceeding mc.-ith:. ; and then only 
given up in confequence of a moil 
honourable capitulation. 1 heir bad 
and fcanty fare, jflined to the in- 
celTant duty, exceifive fatigue, with 
the hardihips and incommodities of 
every kind v/hich they endured, had 
in that time reduced the garrifon 
rather to the appearance of fkele- 
tons, than of foldiers engaged in 
the performance of brave fervice. 
It feemed as if the inhabitants wifh- 
ed to participate in tiie character of 
the garrifon ; for, under the preffure 
of mifery lliiL more extreme, with- 
out any other refource for food than 
the precarious fupply of damaged 
and unwholefome provifion, which, 
with infinite labour, and frequent 
dilappointxiient, theyfometimes drew 
from the ruins of private houfes, 
and although they perilhed at the 
general rate of about twenty in a 
day, through mere want, yet not a 
murmur was heard, nor a wiili ex- 
preiTed for the giving up of the for- 
trefs. 

It was only on Michaelmas day, 
1/88, that the heroic ferafquier, 
with his famifhed but unconquered 
garrifon (amounting to about 2,800 
men) and bearing Si the oltenfibie 
iionours 



46] ANNUAL REGISTER, 178?. 



hcnours of war, marched out of that 
fortrefs. 

The ftate of aiFairs, and the afpeft 
of the war on the Danube, had un- 
dergone a total change long before 
4;his period. The grand vizir, in- 
ftead of following the quiefcent ex- 
ample fet by his adverfary, foon 
adopted meafures which fpread dan- 
ger and tumult on all fides. Having 
laid bridges over the Danube at 
Cladova, he puflied large detach- 
ments to the other iide, with a view 
of invading the Bannat of Temef- 
war, and of thereby reducing the 
emperor to the dilemma, either of 
feeing that fine province ruined, or 
of abandoning his ftrong camp at 
Semlin, and expofmg his army to 
the continual attacks of the Turkifh 
cavalry, in a dry, firm, open coun- 
try, where the hills being interfedled 
by large plains, was peculiarly adap- 
ted to their adling with advantage. 

The Bannat of 'I'emefvvar is at 
all times difficult of conqueft, thro' 
the prodigious ftrengch of its ca- 
pital, its inland fituation, its remote- 
nefs from the Ottoman refources, 
:ind, above all, by its vicinity to the 
ftrong holds in the mountains of 
Tranfylvania, which would fubjeft 
the befieging army to continual at- 
tack, furprize, and danger, befides 
the impoflibility of protedlng its 
convoys, with fo powerful an army 
as the emperor's in its rear. But 
the country, poffelfing no other for- 
trefs of note, is liable to be ravaged 
by any army that is mailer of the 
field, and fecure on the Danube. 
This was accordingly the grand vi- 
zir's objcd, who had no thoughts, 
in the prefent ftate of things, of in- 
volving himfelf in tedious fieges ; 
and who, well knowiag, that from 
the extreme fertility and high cul- 
tivation of the Bannat, nothing 



could be more diftrefling or grievous 
to his enemy, he had no doubt but 
it would be the means of drawing 
him out of his faftneffes, and had 
then to hope, that he might be 
drawn into fome fituation, which 
would afford an opportunity of at- 
tacking him with unforefeen and un- 
hoped-for advantage. 

Nothing could fpread a greater 
confternation and dlfmay through, 
the Imperial armies, the bordering 
provinces, and even the city of Vi- 
enna itfelf, tlian this bold invafion 
of the Bannat. It was fo fudden, 
fo unthought cf, fo fubverfive of all 
the fanguine expedlations formed of 
the war, and of the confidence placed 
in the magnitude and excellence of 
their armies, that the people were 
thrown into a confufion and difmay 
as violent as if the enemy were al- 
ready at their doors. 

Strong detachments were imme- 
diately difpatched from Semlin to 
counteract the enemy, and endea- 
vour to iave the Bannat ; while the 
grand vizir fent continual rein- 
forcements to maintain the fuperi- 
ority which his troops had already- 
obtained. Thus by degrees, each 
movement on one fide begetting a 
fmiilar on the other, both the grand 
armies were at length drawn from 
their refpedtive camps, and involved, 
with their commanders, in the Ban- 
nat. General Wartenlleben held the 
principal command in that province 
before the arrival of the emperor ; 
and even after, he Hill continued in 
the command of a feparate army, 
until he was at length driven, whe- 
ther by the defperate courage, the 
fuperior force, or both conjointly, of 
the enemy, from the ftrong fituation 
which he pofiefi'ed on the heights of 
Mehadia, whereby that city was 
loft, and he was obliged to take 

fhelter 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



I47 



fhelter under the wings of the grand 
army. 

The Auftrian affairs feemed ap- 
proaching to a very alarming crifis. 
Not only the fplendid views of con- 
queft, which were beheld in the ima- 
gined partition of a tottering em- 
pire, had totally difappeared, but 
had left in their place the fad and 
gloomy reverfe of a difcontented 
and impoverillied people, an exhauft- 
ed treafiiry, and an army thinned 
by peftilence and defertion. The 
hrli; campaign of an invafive war 
had already produced an imprefiion 
on the territory of the invader. In 
this fituation it is nor furprifing that 
that overweeing conf.dence in pri- 
vate opinion, which, amidft the 
flattery of courtiers, and the calm 
of peace, is ealily generated in the 
mind of an arbitrary fovereign, 
Ihould be a little abated. And it is 
not improbable that the emperor, at 
length, thought it time to rel'ort to 
the more experienced and approved 
talents of a fubjedl. An event now 
occurred, which gave a favourable 
occafion for the introduftion of new 
councils. 

Prince Lichtenftein's health had 
been fo totally deranged by the de- 
llruftive effeft of the climate and 
feafon, that he was obliged to refign 
the command of the army on the 
fide of Croatia, and was with diffi- 
culty conveyed in a litter on men's 
fhoulders to Vienna. 

Marlhal Laudohn was, with fome 
difficulty, drawn from his retirement 
to take the command of that army. 
The great name of that veteran 
commander, perhaps' not lefs than 
his meafures and abilities, ferved 
to infpire the troops with vigour 
and confidence. Under his aufpices, 
foiture, which bore fo gloomy an 
afpeti in all other parts, began to 



fmlle on the Auftrian arms in that 
quarter. Indeed, fuch a gleam of 
fun-fhine was at that time ablolute- 
Iv neceiiary, to prevent the fpirits of 
the Imperial armies from entirely 
finking uuder the torrent of ill fuc- 
cefs, by which they were on every 
fide nearly overwhelmed. 

Marfhal Laudohn 's fir ft enter- 
prize was the liege and reduction of 
Dubicza; which was fo obflinately 
defended, that the miferable remains 
of tiie garrifon, when it was taken, 
amounted only to 366 men ; and 
they were then compelled, it was 
faid, to furrender at difcretion, thro* 
the intolerable ilench of the bodies 
of their unburied fellows ; they be- 
ing fo conliantly occupied in the 
defence, as not to find time for their 
interment. Laudohn fhewed all the 
humanity, upon this occafion, becom- 
ing the charaCte;- of a great general, 
who revered gallantry even in aa 
enemy, and who had himfelf expe- 
rienced all the viciffitudes of war- 
The Turkifh women and childrea 
Wife permitted to depart with their 
efFefts, and a part of their own gar- 
rifon allowed to efcort them, upon, 
their bare parole of return, and far- 
readering prifoners of war. 

This place was taken on the 26th 
of Auguft ; and he proceeded di- 
reftly from thence to the fiege of 
Novi, a ftill flronger fortrefs, and 
where he experienced the fame ob- 
ilinacy of defence as before. The 
balha of Travenick made a bold 
attempt to raife the fiege ; but he 
being defeated, and what appeared 
to be a pradlicable breach made, M. 
Laudohn thought himfelf warranted 
by thefe circum fiances to attempt 
carrying the place by afi'ault, on the 
night of the 21ft of September^; 
but the place was fo bravely de- 
fended, that the Auf^rians were re- 

pulfed 



4SJ ANNUAL REGISTER, 1^88. 



pulfed with lofs, and obliged to re- 
commence the fiege in form. They, 
however, rsinewtd their operations 
with fuch vigour, that, having formed 
lodgmt-nts on the breach and on the 
curtain, and brought cannon from 
bo;h to play upon, the town, this 
compelled the garrifon, on the 3d of 
October, to hang out a flag of truce, 
and defire a capitulation ; but this 
requifition was rejedled, as being 
made too late, and the garrifon was 
obliged to furrender at difcretion. 
The remains of the garrifon are faid 
to have amounted to about 600 men, 
but we are not informed of their 
original ftate ; and forty pieces of 
cannon were found in the fortrefs. 
Marfhal Laudohn made no harfh ufe, 
nor took no undue advantage of the 
circumftances of the furrender; no 
plunder was permitted, and the gar- 
rifon were well treated. 

That general then fat down be- 
fpre Turkifh Gradifca*, with the 
capture of which he intended to 
elofe the campaign ; but the autum- 
nal rains came on with fuch violence, 
that the Saave overflowing its banks, 
foon deluged the adjoining country, 
in a degree that obliged M. Lau- 
dohn to raife the flege. 

During this period, the war in the 
Bannat raged with the utmoft vio- 
lence ; torrents of blood were flied 
en both fides; much deiperate va- 
lour difplayed on the one fide, and 
many brave adlions performed on 
the other ; v/hile a very great part 
of that fine but unfortunate coun- 
try fuftered all the defolation and 
ruin that fire and fword, under the 
dominion of vengeance and animo- 
fity, could inflift. 



The firft aftion of which we have 
any knowledge in the Bannat, was 
very unfortunate to the Imperialifts, 
and took place about the 7th or 8th 
ofAuguft. General Papilla had the 
command of a large divifion of the 
grand army in the neighbourhood 
of Old Orfova and Schuppaneck, in 
the fouth-eaft angle of the province, 
adjoining to the Danube, and to the 
borders of Walachia, the camp at 
Semlin being more than two long 
marches to the weft. In that fitua- 
tioa he was fuddenly attacked, the 
Aiiftnan accounts fay on three fides 
at once, with fuch irrefiftible impe- 
tuofity, by the Ottomans, that th« 
troops feem to have been fo con- 
founded and aftonifhed by the ra- 
pidity and violence of the lliock, as 
not to have power or recollection 
for defence ; for one of the fame 
accounts ftates, that they did not fire 
alliot; and yet the attack was made 
by day, aud no furprize was pre- 
tended. 

It is certain that the defperate 
fury difplayed by the Turkifli ca- 
valry, upon this occafion, exceeded 
any thing that had been ever before 
known even of that impetuous body, 
and that every thing was borne down 
before them, almoft inftantaneoufly. 
Two battalions of Reifky were cut 
to pieces in a moment; other divi- 
ficns of the troops, broken and rout- 
ed, fled into the neighbouring defiles 
for fhelter, but, being unable to re- 
cover fo fuddenly their order and 
courage, were purfued with a dr,ead- 
ful flaughter. Thirteen pieces of 
cannon, with all the provifion wag* 
gons, the tents, and baggage, with 
their horfes, became a prey to the 



* This fortrefs has in preceding inftances been fo confounded with Dubicza, 
^oth by the Vienna and Englifii gazettes, that we have, more than once, been at 
a lofs to know which was intended ; but here the name and defcription agree. 

vigors. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE; [49 



vjliors. No ftatcment is given of 
the force on either fide in this ac- 
tion, and the ]ofs on one was too 
great to encourage the Vienna ga- 
zettes to inake Sny elVimate of it. 
Orfoya, with feveral fmall neigh- 
bouring places, were fet on fire and 
dellroyed by the enemy, either dur- 
ing or after the purfuit. The grand 
vizir himfeifcnmnianded the Otto- 
mans in this battle ; as he did in the 
fabfequcnt purfuit and attacks qf 
the emperor's army on its route to 
Wejilcirclien. 

The immediate confequence of 
this misfortune was the emperor's 
quitting the camp at Scmlin, and 
advancing, in company with Mar- 
ilial Lacy, and wiih the remainder 
of the grand army (elHmated now 
at 40,000 men) through tlie Bannat 
to the northward, in a line which 
would fecure his communications 
both with Temefwar, and with the 
borders of Tranfylvania; where, al- 
though general Fabris was already 
hard preffed by the enemy, the 
mountains, and the ftrong fortrefs of 
Arad, would aftbrd great refources 
in the worll cafes that might hap- 
pen. But another principal objedl 
of this movement was, the drawing 
off, or fupporting, as the occafion 
might require, the corps command- 
ed by general Wartenileben, which 
occupied a very advantageous camp 
on the heights of Meadia, lying 
above that city. This pod lies on 
the borders of VValachia, and con- 
fequently on the right. of the em- 
peror's line of march. The firft 
fecure poll which he had in view to 
occupy on this route, was that of 
Weiflcirchen, the fituation of which, 
from its being overlooked in the 
maps, we cannot pretend to defcribe. 
On this march (which feems to 
have taken up a greater number of 
Vol. XXX. 



days than the ejctent of the country 
could well require) the Imperi.al 
army -was clofely purfued and in- 
ccHantly harafled on all fides by the 
grand vizir ; who, though by the fu- 
periority of their artillery and difci- 
pline he was repeatedly foiled in 
his attempts to break ii) upon the 
main body, yet was too frequently 
fuccefsful in his attacks on the wings, 
and thofe outlying parts which the 
nature of the ground fcparated in 
any degree from the iuccour of 
their fellows. On one of thefe oc- 
cafions, two battalions of Breachan- 
ville were unfortunat^'ly cut to 
pieces, fcarcely a man efcaping ; for 
it is faid the Turkifli cavalry, in the 
violence or fury of their zeal, had 
for fome time entered into a refo- 
lution neither to give nor to take 
quarter. The army at length ar- 
rived at Weifrcirchen, . 
where it had fome little ^"S- 2o:h. 
time to paufe and to recover from 
its fatigue. 

In the mean time the ferafquier of 
Georgia, who was properly the grand 
vizir's lieutenant, and commanded 
a feparate corps of fixteen or eio-h- 
teen thoufand men, moilly cavalry, 
made repeated efforts to diflodge 
general Wartenileben, who com- 
manded an inferior force, from his 
advantageous poft on the heights of 
Meadia. One whole day was nearly 
fpent in conthiual aflion, if it might 
properly be called aftion, where the 
T-urks were fo prodigal of life, and 
fo inartificial in their attacks, that 
the Auftrian infantry, covered by 
their redoubts, had little more to do 
than to mow them down by whole 
ranks with their grape-fhot. 

Notwithflanding the fevere lofs 
on this day's encounter, the feraf- 
quier attacked, with unabated vi- 
gour, the rtrong redoubt and defile 
[^] of 



5ol ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



of Burfa, on the following evening ; 
the pofleffion of which would have 
greatly facilitated his main objeft. 
Though he was repulfed with lofs 
in this attack, yet perfeverance at 
length fucceeded, and the pod, not- 
withftanding a moll: valorous de- 
fence made by the Auftrians, was 
carried without much ikillor addrefs, 
by the joint operation of numbers 
and refolution. 

The emperor, after five days flay 
at Weifkirchen, proceeded towards 
Karanfebes, which lies on the eaftern 
fide of the province, and confider- 
ably more to the northward than 
Meadia. This pofition he confider- 
ed as equally calculated for the pro- 
tedlion of Tranfylvania, and the fup- 
port of general Wartenllsben ; while 
the fituation was ftrong, and in other 
refpefts advantageous for a camp. 
But the lofs of Burfa had rendered 
Warteiifleben's fituation very criti- 
cal, who, even before that event, had 
looked anxioufly for the relief or 
reinforcement which he daily ex- 
pedled from the emperor. The in- 
cefi'ant exertions of the ferafquier, 
who was no lefs prodigal of the lives 
of his fcldierb than they were them- 
felves individually, foon increafed 
that general's difficulties to fuch a 
degree, that it required no com- 
mon degree of ability and dexterity 
to extricate himfelf from the danger, 
before the toils were entirely clofed. 

For, befides continual alarms on 
every fide, a body of Turks, with 
incrci iule labour and perfeverance, 
dragged a number of heavy cannon 
to tne top of a hill or mountain, 
which overlooked and commanded 
the Auflrian camp, and which was 
fo fteep, and confidered as being fo 
utterly irrpradlicable, that any fug- 
geftion of fuch a meafure would 
have been previoufly treated with 



ridicule. This unexpeded llroke de- 
termined general Wartenileben's 
conduft. He abandoned his camp 
that night, and, purfu- ^ j^^ 

mg the route to Ka- ° -' 

ranfebes, in order to join the empe- 
ror, conduced his retreat fo ably, 
as to fuffer no extraordinary lofs. 
He was, however, obliged to aban- 
don Meadia, with its dependent 
towns or villages, together with fome 
magazines of provifion and ammu- 
niiion, to the enemy. The Turks 
purchafed their fuccefs dearly, thro' 
the great number of men which 
tliey threw away in their various 
dcfperate attacks. 

About this time, the Turks took 
a tovyn or place called Mitroufld (of 
which we have no knowledge) after 
a very brave delence, and with an 
avowed confiderable loi's of men. 
A famous cavern, fituated in an im- 
practicable defile covered with moun- 
tains, and called the Veteranfchi- 
hole, from general Veteran! of the 
laft century, by whom it was firfl 
fojtificd, was, after a moll oblHnate 
refinance made by a handful of 
men, at length compelled to furren- 
der. The grand vizir was fo much 
charmed with their gallantry, that, 
befides granting them an honour- 
able capitulauon and fafe convoy, 
he defired to fee the brave major 
who commanded, and his fellow 
officers, upon their coming out. The 
Ottoman treated them with great 
liberality, and declared to them, at 
parting, after a fumptuous regale 
and much praife, *' That it vv^as with 
" the greatelt regret the Ottomans 
" found themfelves forced into a 
" war with the emperor, after hav- 
" ing, by the moft religious ob- 
" fervance of treaties, given the 
" fullefl proofs of their being honeft 
" and peaceable neighbours," 

Vipalanka, 



HISTORY OF EUllOPE. [51 

fma'l al;irxn and diilurbar.cc Li the 



Vipalanka, a place of more irr- 
portance than any of thefe, and ly- 
ing far in the rear of both armies, 
near the Danube, waslikewife about 
this time taken by the Turks, whofe 
fuperiority was every where mani- 
feil. During all thefe tranfaclions, 
the war was carried on with great 
vehemence on the borders of Tran- 
fylvania, where, though the fuccefs 
Was variou?, and theconteft^ bloody, 
yet general Fabris, though much 
inferior in force, made fach good 
ufe of his artillery, and defended 
the mountains and pafles with fo 
much ability, that the Turks were 
at no time able to eilablifh them- 
felvcs in the interior country. 

The emperor, being joined by 
general Wartenflcben, fixed his camp 
in the valley of Karanfebes, which, 
from other circumftances, as well 
as its being ccntradJllinguifhed from 
the plain of the fame name, we 
conceive to be fituated in a gorge 
of the mountains, and to be itrongly 
fecured on two, if not on three fides 
by them. 

The grand vizir being likev/ife 
ftrengthened by tlie junftion of the 
feraiquier's forces, loll no time in 
prefling hard upon the Imperial 
army, and difphr/ed no lefs boidnefs 
than ability ia the choice of the va- 
rious ports which he occupied on all 
fides, in order to render their prefent 
fituation untenable, and to throw 
fuch difficulties in the way, as fhould 
diiable them from abandoning it 
v/ithout danger and lofs. 

In the profecution of this plan, 
the Turks erefted leveral batteries 
of heavy cannon and mortars on the 
adjoining mountains, in fight of the 
y\uftrians ; who, from the height and 
fteepnefs of the hills, were not able 
to interrupt their operations. While 
tjie fire of thefe batteries caufed no 



camp, a bold attempt ^^ ^ , 
was made, by a confi- " P'" t * 
derable body of Turkifh infantry and 
cavalry, to turn the Auftrian left, and 
to attack the army in the rear* 
Though tills attempt did not entirely 
fucceed, and that the Turks were 
faid to have been repulfed with 
great flaughter, yet other accounts 
gave a very difT.^rent fcatement of 
the affair, reprefenting the Imperial 
right wing as being by fome circum- 
ftance rendered incapable of fuc- 
couring the left, by which the latter 
fuffered extremely. 

On vviiich fide the faft lay, in this 
inftance, is of the lefs ccnfequence, 
as within a week the Imperial army 
found itfelf involved in fuch diffi- 
culties, as to be under a neceffi'.y of 
abandoning its camp in ^ n 

the valley of Karanfe- ^^P^-^Ht. 
bes, of defcending into the open 
plain, and of being fubjeded to tiie 
vehement purfuit of a victorious 
enem.y, on its march to Lugos, a 
place more to the nortnward than 
that which they had quitted. No- 
thing could be m.ore unfortunate 
than this retreat, nor difgraceful to 
a veteran difciplined army than the 
panic which feemed to pefvade all 
its parts. Two columns croffing or 
meeting in the dark, each miftaking 
the other tor the enemy, fired, and 
it was laid that 1,400 men were fa- 
crificed before the error was de- 
teifted. The terror, diforder, and 
confufion were fo great, that the 
batmen thro'.\ing the loads from off 
their horfes, and the waggoners 
taking theirs from the carriages, 
made their efcape different ways, as 
their fears direded them ; u'hile the 
plain was ftrowed with baggage and 
carriages, which fell, without trou- 
ble, into the hand* of Uie enemy. 
[D] 2 The 



52] ANNUAL REGISTER, 178S. 



The Turks boafled, in their ac- 
count, of a complete victory gained 
after an obiHnate lliruggle ; of a 
bloody purfui: of three hours ; and 
reprefent the artillery, arms, bag- 
gage, and accoutrements taken, as 
the fruits of both. V/hatever truth 
may or may not be in this relation, 
it is certain that nothing can carry 
flronger marks of a complete rout, 
than this unfortunate affair does, 
even in the AuHrian accounts of it. 
It was eftimated that the emperoi- 
had not loll lefs than 5,000 men, 
between the time of breaking up his 
camp at Karanfebes, and the arrival 
of his army at Lugos. 

This afi'air nearly clofed the cam- 
paign in the Bannat. The Impe- 
rial army, from the vicinity of Te- 
mef^var and Tranfylvania, was in 
tolerable fecurity, and the latenefs 
of the feafon began to alTcft the 
enemy. The autumnal rains came 
on with a violence icarcely known 
before ; and, befides rendering many 
parts of the country imprafticable, 
ruined the Turkilh horfes in fuch a 
manner, that 6,coo of their cavalry 
were difmounted, and forced to ferve 
on foot. The Turkilh troops are 
ill calculated, either by nature or 
circumftance, to withftand the ex- 
tremities of cold and wet. The 
grand vizir had befides loft a pro- 
digious number of men, in the re- 
peated bloody exertions of this fhort 
campaign. He could not retain his 
new pollcffions in the Bannat, none 
of which were of any confiderable 
ilrength, without the continuance 
there of the whole army, which, be- 
fides the difliculties and inconveni- 
ences arifmg from the diftance of 
their magazines and refources, would 
be a means of expoUng Belgrade 
and the Danubian provinces to great 
danger during the winter, when fud- 



dcn movements would be imprafti- 
cable, and the troops he commanded 
very unfit for ad'Hon. 

From thefe, and probably other 
caufes and motives, particularly that 
of maintaining an uninterrupted 
communication with the court, and 
of fupporting his intercft in the Di- 
van, the grand vizir com.menced hii 

march for Belgrade. ^r, , 
n-u 1 1 ] c .1 • Oa.. 20th. 

1 he knowledge or this 

movement alarmed the emperor fo 
much for the fecurity of his Itrong 
lines atSemlln, that he immediately 
marched with the utmoft expedition 
the fame way for their protedtion. 
In this courfe he endeavoured as 
much as was poflible (but without 
much effedl) to Tiarafs the vizir's 
army on its march. Some fucceffes 
were however claimed j and one of 
them, as recorded in the Vienna 
gazettes, was attended with fuch 
particular circumllances, that they 
may perhaps krve. to cxcufe its in- 
fertion. An Auftrian divifion hav- 
ing come up with a body of the re- 
tre?ating enemy, which they attacked 
wdth great fury, were fo roughly 
received, that a battalion of chafleurs 
was cut to pieces ; they, however, 
prevailed, repulfed and drove the 
enemy ; when, ftrange to relate ! the 
vanquifhed Turks carried off with 
them in their rout, the baggage, 
horfes, and pontons of the purfuing 
vidlors. Such is the ilate of infor- 
mation obtainable from authorized 
gazettes, in a war of concealment I 

The emperor foon after departed 
for Vienna, a meafure which die bad 
flate of his health had long before 
rendered neceffary. All the fruits 
which he derived for the immenfe 
expences, a walle of men almoft un- 
heard of, and the ruin of one of the 
fineft and moll rifing provinces in 
his dominions, from this very bloody 

and 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[53 



and deftrudlive campaign, were two 
or three infignificant places on the 
frontiers of Croatia, with the for- 
trefs of Choczim, in Moldavia, and 
fome parts of the adjoining- country, 
which he held in common with the 
Ruffians. For thefe, it may be truly 
faid, that he befides bartered his life, 
and facrificed, in no fmall degree, 
that very high military character 
and reputation which his armies be- 
fore poflefled. 

As this fovereign was fingular in 
many things, if not all, he is faid to 
have written a general letter to his 
armies at the clofe of the campaign. 
In this epilHe, he by no means fcat- 
tered indifcriminate praife; for, while 
he generally and highly applauded 
the condudi of the cavalry, he was 
rather fevere upon the infantry, 
whom he reproached with not dif- 
piaying that celerity and vigour of 
exertion, which were alone capable 
of repelling the impetuous attacks 
of their enemies. He likewife com- 
plained much of the jealoufy which 
prevailed among the commanding 
officers, and to which he attributed 
many mifcarriages. 

As the grand vizir knew they mull 
of neceffity be facrificed, he left but 
flight garrifons, in general, in thofe 
places which he polTefled in the 
3annat ; fo that they were foon and 
eafily recovered. But Vipalanka, 
which was of greater importance, 
and lay within his reach, he certain- 
ly intended to retain, and fhould 
have provided better than he did 
for its defence. Perhaps he relied 
more than he fhould upon the want 
of vigour which had long appeared 
in the operations of his enemy ; for, 
though the garrifon confifted of a 
thouiand chofen men, that number 
was inadequate to the purpofe. This 
j-emifTnefs did not efcape the vigi- 



lance of count Harrach, who, foon 
after the emperor's departure, at- 
tacked the place with fuch vigour 
and effed, that the garrifon, after 
the lofs of a fifth of their number, 
were obliged to furrender at difcre- 
tion. This occafioned the renewal 
of an obfervation which had been 
before frequently made, viz. that 
the Imperial generals were much 
more fuccefsful in the abfence than 
under the eye of their mailer. It 
was likewife obferved, that all thofe 
commanders who, like Laudohn, 
were of fufficient importance to de- 
mand attention to their propofals, 
were uniform in their endeavours to 
obtain commands diftinft and remote 
from the grand army. 

It is very fmgular, at leaft appears 
fo in the view which can yet be 
taken of affairs at this diHance, that 
marihal count Lacy, who had ac- 
quired fuch high reputation and ho- 
nour, in former wars, as to be con- 
fidered among the firft generals in 
Europe, is fcarcely ever mentioned 
in the tranfadtions of this campaign, 
any other than as companion, or, as 
it would feem, as private fecretary 
to the emperor. 

An armiftice was concluded in the 
month of November, for an inde- 
finite term, between the Aullrian 
and the Ottoman generals ; but the 
contracting parties were each bound 
to give ten days previous notice to 
the other of their intention, before 
they in any degree renewed hofti- 
lities. Indeed the exceffive feve- 
rity of the winter, which occafioned 
fuch havock among men and other 
animals in moll parts of Europe, 
rendering it nearly impoffible for 
either to fubfift in the open air, 
feemed to fuperfede for the prefent 
the neceffity of a formal armillice ; 
and as it was, produced the moft 
[D] 3 > deplorable 



54] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 

deplorable effedls upon the poor re- 
lics of the war, en their way to 
quarters of refrefhment; fo that the 



calamities of this very hard cam 
paign did not end with its adlion. 

As the prefent grand llgmor mix- 
ed more in the politics of Europe, 
and undcrllood them better, than 
molt of his predeceuors, fo he was 
not inattentive to the numberlefs 
caufes of diflike atid difcontent, 
which the emperor's harfh and ar- 
bitrary meafures, in the government 
of Hungary, had afforded to that 
brave nation; for he had carried his 
contempt of all legal forms, con- 
ventions, and obligations, to fuch an 
extent, that he -not only difdained 
to receive the kingdom upon the 
eafy condition of being crowned in 
it, (for want of which he was tlieir 
•fovereign only by force, but not 
conftitutionally) ; but he had fent 
their ancient crown and regaiia to 
Vienna, as if they had been the 
fpoil and trophies of a conquered 
nation. The grand fignlor accord- 
ingly publifhed a maniieiio, before 
the clofe of the campaign, calling 
upon and inviting them, as a people 
fo long renowned for valour, to affert 
their liberty in ihaking off the Au- 
ilrian yoke ; affuring them withal, 
of the fulieft protection in their pre- 
fent, and the molt perfect reltoration 
of all their ancient rights and privi- 
leges, both civil and religious. 

This manifetto, though it anAver- 
cd no immediate purpofe to the 
Ottomans, produced an excellent 
effe(fl upon the emperor ; who, at 
thiscrifis, found himfelf fo feriouflv 
alarmed by it, that he haftily iffued 
a proclamation, in which he bound 
himfelf to the Hungarians for the 
reitoration of their ancient confti- 
tution, and of all their peculiar rights 
and privileges. Nor did the im- 



preffion now made foon wear away, 
for on his death-bed, and only a 
few days before his deceafe, he or- 
dered the conteited crown and rega- 
lia to be fent back from Vienna to 
Buda. Happy would it be to man- 
kind, if the approach of death, or 
any other caufe, could always pro- 
duce fo falutary an effect upon their 
oppreffors. 

The people of Conftantinople had 
been fo long ufed to hear of nothing 
but defeat and misfortune from their 
armies, that they were not difpofed 
to give much credit to the favour- 
able accounts which they had from 
lime to time received of the pro- 
grefs of the campaign. But when 
the victory near Karanfebes, with 
the conlequetit ruinous retreat of the 
Imperial army, were confirmed by 
the fight of trophies, and by a detail 
of preceding and fubfequent circum- 
llances, nothing could exceed their 
joy, nor, fo far as the gravity of their 
manners admit, their expreffions of 
it. The grand fignior was publicly 
faluted by the mufti, clergy, and 
courtiers, with the title of Gazi, or 
conqueror ; and that pleafmg found 
reverberated through the metropolis 
by the joyful acclamations of the 
people. To give full effeft to this 
honour, the title was recognized and 
confirmed by a religious ceremonial, 
fimilar to a general thankfeiving- in 
Chrifcendom, v/hich was celebrated 
in all the mofques of the empire. 

In a direft inverfe ratio to the joy 
and triumph which took place upon 
this occafion, was the fudden de- 
jeftion, liopeleffnefs, and difmay, 
which feizcd the people, when the 
news foon after arrived, that the 
grand vizir had abandoned the Ban- 
nat, and thereby, as was fuppofed, 
not only cowardly refigned all the 
palt advantages of the war, but even 
facrificed 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[55 



facrificed its future fortune. The 
account of the lois of Vipalanka, 
which foon fucceeded, increafed the 
public indignation to fuch an ex- 
treme, that, had the grand vizir been 
on the fpot, he probably would hav^e 
fallen a viclim to the vengeance and 
fury of the people. 

An ignorant court and divan, who 
were little better judges of military 
affairs than the populace^, and who 
were likewife operated upon by pri- 
vate views and cabals, adopted, or 
feemed to adopt, all their prejudices. 
The grand fignior alone continued 
firm in the opinion he held of his 
general. From this, however, pro- 
ceeded the ruin, which not long after, 
under a new, ^iddy, and inexpeui- 



eaced reign, fell upon that great 
commander, and which nearly in- 
volved in his fall the deftruftion of 
the empire. He mull have been, 
indeed, a truly great man, who, def- 
titutc himCelf of all experience in 
war, and at the head of raw undif- 
ciplined forces, who had never be- 
fore feen the face of an enemy, 
could, by the mere force of his ge- 
nius, have ufed fuch aftonithing ef- 
forts for relloring the charader and 
honour of the Ottoman arms, and 
for aoain exalting- the fallen fortune 
of the empire. His military errors 
(if any) were few, and his evacuat- 
ing the Bannat can never be ad- 
mitted amongft them. 



m4 



CHAP. 



56] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788, 



CHAP. III. 

Preparations of R'lJJla for condiilihig the vjar, direSled to the fide of the 
Black Sea. Suppojed caiifes or moti-jes for her failure of co-operation nvith 
the Auftrians on the Danube. Po-zverful fquadron equipped for the Medi- 
terranean. Lf^ht fqiiadron or flotilla, under the conduci of the Prince of 
haf'au, prepared on the Black Sea. Allied empires fectn to haye relied too 
much upon the fuppofed ftipinenefs of other pcvjers, in the adoption of their 
prefent ambitious atjigns. General apparent dijpo/ttion of the po^wers and 
fates of Europe ivith refpeci to the 'ivar. Italian fates. Spain. France, 
Northern po^K^ers. Holland. PrvJJia. England. Great difap point ?nent 
to RuJJta, and check given to the Mediterranean expedition, through the de- 
clared yieutralily of England and Holland, and the reflraint laid Jipon its 
feamen and Jhipping from entering into foreign fer'vice by the former. 
Sixty Britijh oficers i?i jhe Rujjtan nwval fer'vice go in a body to lay do-uon 
their com7niJJtons., iipcn the appointment of Paul Jones to a command in the 
feet at Cronftadt. Th it ad'venturer fent to the Black S'ea. Faji Ri^an 
army appears on the borders of the Bog. General Soltiko-M marches to join 
the prince of Cobourg, Prince Potemkin ad-uances to befiege Oczakoiv; 
Several engagements bet-^veen the Ruffian and Turkijh fotiflas at the mouth 
of the hieper, in ivhich the latter are conflantly defeated. Siege of Ocza- 
kotij commenced; flotilla deflroyed, and to^^vn bombarded by the prince of 
Najfaii. Unufual length of the fege and chftinacy of the defence. Winter 
approaches, and little progrefs yet rnade. Excefji've coldnejs cf the nvinter 
reduces the beflegers to great diflrefs. Ruflian cavalry, incapable any longer 
of enduring the extremity of the ^weather, defert their infaniry, and abandon 
the fege. Mutiny apprehended in the cainp. Prince Potemkin, as the lafl 
refort, orders a general bombardment and cannonade nx>ith red-hot balls. 
Shell falls upon the grand po^vjder magazine, ivhich blonjus up i<jith fa 
terrible an explcfon, as to deflroy a great part of tbe nvall. Long and bloody 
engagement in the flrects and houfcs. "To'ivn taken loith dreadful flaughter. 
Great defegns of Rafia againft the Oitsman empire interrupted by the nuar 
nvith S-iveden. Caujes and moti'ves n.\jhich operated upon the Svjedijh fo-ve- 
reign in adopting that unexpected meafure. Army fent to Finland : fleet 
fails from Carlefcroon. Note prefented by the Ruffian 'minifler at Stockholm, 
greatly refented by the king. Anf\:cr to it. Circular note to the foreign 
miniflers. Cou?it Raza?nov:Jki ordered to depart the kingdom. King pro- 
ceeds to Finland. Hoftilities commence, Rufjlan 7nanifcflo. Se-vere na'val 
atlion betnveen the Rufjians and Swuedes. Viclo-ry claimed on both fdes. 
Great ■valour drfplayed by the Sivedes, nvho nvere much inferior in force. 
Admiral Greig attacks the S-iveder in the road of Sn.veabu.rg, and burns a 
foip of the line. RuJJians become maflers of the midland feas ^within the 
Sound; take a S-vjedifro flotilla laden ivith pro'viftons for tbe fleet and ariny, 
Joy at Peterflurgh. Honours paid to admiral Greig. Emprefs 'writes, a 
letter to him nvith her onvn hand. His death and pompous funeral. De- 
linquent Djflcers, ixiho had been fnt home in irons for mifoehaviour in the 
"2 late 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[57 



late fea fight, cQnde77uied for life to the gallics. S^vedi/h matiifefio. Great 
difappQtntments and mortificatiotis experienced by the kingr through the dif- ^ 
affeclion of the principal ojjlcers of the army, ivhich renders the campaign 
ineffedi'VJ on the fide of Finland. Obliged to abandon the army to the 
<(i)e cf his brother the duke of 0/hogoihia, and to depart fuddenly hi?nfelf 
from Finland, in order to oppojc the irruption of the Danes on the fide of 
' No7-~-v:ay. 



"^ HOUGH the warlike prepa- 
rations cf Rullia v.'ore vail, 
and theexpences, in any other coun- 
try, and anv other form cf govern- 
ment, would have been enormous, 
yet the movements of her armies, 
as we have ah'eady feen, were ex- 
tremely flow. It is impofUble to 
determine, with any precifion, what 
the concerted arrangements tor the 
operations of the campaign, between 
the Imperial allies, might have been; 
but it is evident, from the difap- 
pointment, vexation, and complaint, 
which prevailed both at Vienna and 
in the grand army, together with 
the anxiety and chagrin which ap- 
peared in the emperor himfelf, thro' 
the tardinefs of the Ruffians, that a 
ftrong co-operation of their force 
was eagerly expelled on the borders 
of the Danube. 

WJiatever ground there might 
have been for this expedlation, it 
appears now clearly from the event, 
that Ruflia directed her views prin- 
cipally to her own feparate aggran- 
dizement, by enlarging and lecur- 
ing iier poffellions on the Black Sea, 
in iuch a manner, as to form there 
fuch a body of power as could not 
hereafter be ihaken; this being the 
grand magnet which, with little in- 
terruption to its power, had attradft- 
cd the views of that empire from 
the days of Peter the Great to the 
prefent. Nor fliould we attribute 
too much to felfifh and intcrefted 
motives her ccnduft in the prefent 
inftance ; and Hill lefs confider it as 



a fhameful derclidion of her ally. 
For undoubtedly Ruflia fuppofed, 
as the reft of the world did, that the 
emperor, vj\l\\ the vail: force in his 
hands, ?vA the admirable nature of 
that force, confifting in tried and ex- 
cellent armies, was not only fully 
competent to maintain the war on 
the Danube with efteft, but was 
likewife capable of making fuch an 
irruption into the Turkifh domini- 
ons on that fide, as might have 
fhaken the Ottoman empire to its 
centre ; more efpecially when fhe 
reuefted, that, as her own powerful 
armies would at the fame time be 
making a deep imprelfion in other 
parts, that would produce, by divid- 
ing the force and diftradting the 
councils and attention of the enemy, 
perhaps a greater cffeft, than a di- 
reft co-operation in the fame iield. 
It may therefore be prefumed, that 
any room which Ruffia afforded for 
fuch an expeftation, though it a- 
moantcd even to an abfolute en- 
gagement, was intended merely to 
chear up and to encourage an un- 
fledged warrior, until he had felt 
his own fl:rength, was grown warm 
by aftion, and become Cinguine from 
fuccefs. 

But if Ruflia was flow in her 
movements by land, Ihe was by no 
means flack in her naval prepara- 
tion, which was fo favourite an ob- 
jeft, that no labour was deemed a 
toil, nor no cxpence a wafte of trea- 
fure, in its purfuit. For, befides 
th;it the fca prefented the Ottoman 

weak 



58] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



weak fide, and that one decifive 
aftion on that element would more 
fatally aiFeft the fecurity of the 
Turkifh empire than the lofs of half 
a dozen battles by land, Egypt, 
and the beautiful iflands of the Ar- 
chipelago, held out fuch a variety 
of fafcmating objeft', and fo appa- 
rently eafy of attainment, that it 
would require no common degree 
of political temperance and lelf- 
denial to withftand the temptation 
of feizing them. It need fcarcdy 
be obferved, that all the Ottoman 
poffeffions on the continent of Eu- 
rope muft, after fuch an event, lie 
at the mercy of Ruffia. 

A powerful fleet of eighteen fail 
of the line, moftof them heavy fliips, 
of high rates, and great weight of 
metal, together with a cloud of fri- 
gates, and other fmaller and lighter 
veffels, fuited to the nature of the 
feas, and intended fervice, were ac- 
cordingly equipped, and deftined for 
the Mediterranean. As the cele- 
brated count Orlow, who had ac- 
quired fo much glory in the laft 
war, and who had the addition of 
Chifme to his title, in commemora- 
tion of the remarkable deAruftion 
which then befel the T urkilh fleet, 
iiii a port or bay of that name, on the 
coaft of the LefTer Afia, had now 
declined, from fome caufes not ge- 
nerally known, to take upon him 
the command of this expedition, 
that important trull was committed 
to the charge cf admiral Greig, a 
Scotfman, and a brave and diitin- 
guilhed feaman, who, in a ftrange 
country, without fortune or interell, 
had rifen, merely by his fuperior 
merit, from the humbleft walks of 
life to his prefent exalted fnua- 
tien. 

Anothernaval armament was pre- 



pared, with no lefs induftry, for th? 
fervice of the Black Sea; but, Ruffia 
not being able to cope with her ene- 
my there, in the number or llrength 
of line of battle (hips which Ihe 
could bring into action, intended to 
fupply this dtfed by the conftrudlicn 
of a numerous flotilla, compofed 
of frigates, gallies, gun-boats, and 
various defcriptions of light veflels, 
calculated to ad near the Ihores, in 
a depth of water which would not 
admit the approach of capital (hips. 
It was, however, principally intend- 
ed for the fecurity of Kinburne, by 
rendering uhe entrance of the Nieper 
inacceffible to the Turkifh fleet ; 
which was the more eafily accom-. 
plifned, as the navigation is at all 
times dilficult, and particularly dan- 
gerous to bad feamen, from the 
num.ber of fhoals with which the 
river is incumbered, together with 
the narrowneis of its channels, and 
variety of the currents. As thefc 
veffels were not, on this fervice, liable 
to be expofed to the dangers of feas 
ard {forms, they were accordingly 
fortified with a tremendous artillery, 
compofed of heavy battering can- 
non, and of large mortars : and, be- 
ing befides excellently ftored with 
able feamen and veteran foldiers, 
they were eminently fitted for the 
defigned purpofe. The prince of 
NafTau, wh® we may remember to 
have heard of in the lail: war, both 
in the French unfortunate attempt 
on the ifland of Jerfey, and in tiie 
flill more difallrous attack of the 
combined nations, of France and 
Spain, on the fortrefs of Gibraltar; 
and whofe uncommon rage for ad- 
venture, and eagernefs to fignalize 
himfelf, have led him almoft to every 
part of the woi Id, where any fervice 
was to be performed, or danger en- 
countered j 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



lS9 



countered ; was appointed to the 
command of this nava.1 armament 
on the Black Sea. 

It would feem as if the unaccount- 
able fupinenefs with which Europe 
looked on, as if totally unconcerned, 
at that dangerous precedent, and 
atrocious aft of fraud, perfidy, and 
violence, thedifmemberment of their 
neighbour kingdon of Poland, had 
milled the united allies of Au- 
Jlria and Ruflia in their prefent fyf- 
tem of policy, and that they took it 
for granted, that the fubverfion of 
an ancient, and one of the greatell 
empires in the world, with the ap- 
portioning of its vafl: members and 
fpoils to their mutual aggrandize- 
ment, would have been beheld v.'ith 
the fame indifference in the prefent 
day, which had prevailed on their 
iirll efTay at partitioning countries 
in rhe former memorable inftance. 

But things were now changed, and 
the minds of men and of nations 
were not afleep; or, what amounts 
to the fame thing, were not fo en- 
tirely occupied by mean concerns, 
or felfifli petty defignc, as to over- 
look affairs of the greateft moment. 
Th^.t fupinenefs, to which both great 
communities and the moft watchful 
individuals are at particular periods 
fubjeft, may, perhaps, with pro- 
priety, be as much confidered as an 
epidemical difeafe of the mind, as 
thofe wuich rank under the fame 
defcription are with refpect to the 
body. Some of the principal pow- 
ers in Europe had long fince looked 
back with wonder and regret at their 
own inertnefs upon that occafion. 
The insupportable haughtinefs and 
arrogance of one of the allied" pow- 
ers, which was difpnfed to diftate to 
all mankind in their moft fecludtd 
concerns, together with the felfifh 
policy and known duplicity of the 



other, ferved likewife to rouze that 
general attention, and to awaken 
that jealoufy, which their power and 
union alone fiiould have been fully 
competent to excite, without any 
auxiliary aid. England too, had 
had full leifure to ruminate upon, 
and fufficient caufe to reprobate, 
that abfurd and blind policy, under 
the influence of which fhe had drawn 
an uncertain ally, and an ever to be 
fufpefted friend, from the b ttom of 
the Bothnic gulph, to eft.biifti a 
new naval empire in the Mediter- 
ranean and Archipelago ; a meafure 
which, if it could have taken effedl, 
that not on y would have proved in 
the end ruinous to England herfelf, 
but which would have involved, 
while it could laft, all the valt fur- 
rounding regions of Europe, Alia, 
and Africa, in contmued broils, 
troubles, and wars. 

The allied empires accordingly 
now experienced a very general 
coldn r-fs, with an implied or declared 
difapprcbation, with refpect to their 
claims, pretenlions, and defigns, in 
almoit a!i the courts of Europe. 
The republic of Genoa was almoft 
the only exception ; fhe, befides a 
confiderabie loan, granted the ufe of 
her ports to Ruffia, and engaged to 
furniih the Mediterranean fleet with 
ftores and fupplies. We have aU 
ready feen the determination of Ve- 
nice with rei'pecl to the war, and the 
refufal of the king of Sardinia to 
permit recruiting in his dominions* 
The new commercial treaties which 
Ruffia had entered into with Naples 
and Portugal, whatever future be- 
nefits they might poflibly afford in 
feafons of peace^ could tell bur little 
with refptci to the war. But Spain, 
which was of much greater imoort- 
ance than both together, had a 
Turkifhambaffador thenat her court, 

who 



6o] ANNUAL REGISTER, 17; 



vvho was treated with the greateft 
honours, and was not only herielf at 
all times avowedly inimical to the 
Ruffians obtaining any footing what- 
ever in the Mediterranean, but, it 
was now univerfally believed, would 
have reflfted the paflage of their 
flee: through the llreights by force 
of arms; and nobody was Ignorant 
that her fleets were far fuperior, both 
in number and goodnefs, to thcfe of 
Ruffia. 

With refpeft to France, ftie made 
no fecret of her difpofition, nor 
could any doubt be entertained of 
it though ihe had. An uninterrupt- 
ed alliance for between two and 
three centuries (a duration offriend- 
ihip fcarcely to be paralleled be- 
tween nations upon any equality of 
power) a moft advantageous com- 
merce, amounting nearly to a mo- 
nopoly, through that period, toge- 
ther with many particular acts of 
friendfnip, and mAny eflential poli- 
tical fcrvices in feafons of great oc- 
calion, were, exclufive of that juft 
policy, which had long induced her 
to regard with a jealous eye any 
augmentation of power to Rufiia, 
tlie ttrong ties that bound France 
to the Porte. It was then eafily 
ieen, that nothing lefs than the de- 
ranged prefent lliate of her own 
affairs, could compel her to be a 
<juiefcent fpeftator to the ruin of the 
Ottoman empire. 

As to the northern powers, Swe- 
den ordered the il:ri6teli; neutrality 
to be obferved, and forbid her fea- 
men, and fubjefts in general, from 
entering into the fervice of any of 
the belligerant powers. Denmark 
was filent, and the part f?ie was dif- 
pofcd to take not yet underftood 
by her neareft neighbours ; but, al- 
though fhe was known to be a good 
deal in the hands of Ruflia, yet it 



was not believed that, under the in- 
fluence of a wife political forefight, 
fhe could really wifh auy farther 
aggrandizement of that overgrown 
empire, whofe colofial power had 
already rendered the independence 
and liberties of all the nations of the 
nordi extrcm.ely precarious. 

Holland, the open mart of all na- 
tions, whether friends or enemies, 
for all commodities, lent fome mo- 
ney to Ruffia ; but this was no pub- 
lic aft, and the loan dragged on 
but heavily even with individuals. 
With regard to the political fen- 
timents of that republic, nobody 
would venture to fufpedl her prefent 
government of being at all favour- 
ably dil'poi'ed to thofe fchemes of 
ambition and conqueil adopted by 
the allied empires. 

The Pruflian monarch, both from 
fituation and power, feemed alone 
capable of dilturbing the views, and 
even of entirely fruftrating the de- 
figns of the allied empires ; nor was 
there more than one fovereign in 
Euiope, to whom, any great acceflion 
of dominion to either would have 
been fo immediately dangerous. 
And, though he was not perhaps 
competent fmgly to maintain a con- 
tell againll: their vafl united force, 
yet, in a caufe which affefled fo 
many other intereib as the prefent, 
he could not long fail of effeftive 
alliances. His policy was, however, 
too deep to be yet fathomed. Col- 
lected in his redoubtable native 
force, which rendered him fuperior 
to apprehenlion and circumftance, 
he coolly furveyed the gathering 
tempeft, and waited to behold it 
bur it, with a fleady eye, and an un,- 
daunted countenance. The empcr 
ror had done as much, as the habir- 
tual ftiffnels and pride of the court 
of Vienna, joined to his own incur- 
able 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[oi 



?ble animofity, could well admit, in 
order to procure the quiefcence and 
good neighbourhood of Fruffia dur- 
ing the war. But the luperior 
haughdnefs of his great ally dii- 
dained to ftoop to temporizing mea- 
lures, or to conciliatory exprcffions. 
It feemed as if ilie rather wifiied, 
that Pruflia was confidered as not 
of fuiiicient. importance to come 
within her elHmate of things, than 
that it fi:ioidd he at all regarded as 
interfering; with her views of ambi- 
tion, or as capable of difturbing 
her calculations of conqueft and do- 
minion. Perhaps it was thought 
that all the fpirit and wifdom of that 
kingdom had fled with the immor- 
tal Frederic. 

Such was the afpeft of public 
affairs, and fo little favour did the 
coiniten.ance of moft of the Euro- 
pean powers exprefs to that war, 
which its partizans warmly hoped, 
and many others expefted, would 
have terminated in the final fubvcr- 
fion of the Ottoman empire. 

The difpofition of the firfl mari- 
time power in the world was Ilill 
nnknown; and upon that much de- 
pended. We have feen that the ex- 
pedition to the Mediterranean was 
a moil- favourite objei^t with Ruffia ; 
but it was not its being merely a 
favourite that rendered it of import- 
ance ; it was confidered as the moil 
efredlive, if not the moll potent arm 
ef the war, without whofe aid no 
other exertion could be deemed ab- 
folutely decifive. Yet it was fcarcely 
poflible that this expedition could 
iucceed, in almoll: any degree, with- 
out the concurrence, favour,' and 
even affiftance of England. With 
an equal difregard of futurg confe- 
quences, and contempt of former 
favours and fervices, Ruflia had, for 
/everal years, heaped difobligation 



upon difobligation, in her tranfac- 
tions with Great Britain; and even 
now, when fo much was immediate- 
ly at flake, (he ilill refufed to renew 
the commercial treaties which had 
fo long fubfilled between the two 
nations; at the fame time that fhe 
was running about all Europe to 
form commercial engagements with 
ilates, who from nature, fituation, 
and clrcnmilances, were incapable 
of receiving or communicating any 
benefit from the connexion ; and 
that the Engliih merchants, without 
the iecurity of a treaty, were Hill 
the great iupporters of the manu-. 
failures and commerce of that em- 
pire. Yet, ilie expelled, that 

England woultl. again become the 
dupe to her ambition ! 

In this confidence, pilot-boats 
were engaged in England, to wait 
in proper llations for the arrival of 
the Rulfian fleet ; to guide them in- 
to thofe ports, which, being the fla- 
lion of the royal naval arfenals, 
could the more cxpeditioufiy fupply 
them with all manner of itores and 
provifions, and, at the fame time, 
moil efFedually facilitate their equip- 
ment for the Mediterranean fervice. 
Theie objects being attained, the 
pilots were to condud them through 
the channel, and then to be replaced 
by a new fet, equally verfed in the 
navigation of the more diitant ieas 
which they were to encounter. 

In the mean time, feme merchants 
in London, as agents to the court of 
Peteriburgh, had agreed for the hire 
of eighteen large ihips, of four hund- 
red tons, or upwards, to ferve as 
tenders to the Ruiiian fleet, in the 
conveyance of provifions, ilores, 
arms, artillery, and ammunition. In 
this promiling train feemed the ilate 
of preparation for the expedition, 
when a proclamation in the London 
Gazette, 



62] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



Gazette, prohibiting Eritifh featnen 
from entering into any foreign fer- 
vice, threw a fatal damp upon the 
defign. This was attended with a 
notice to the contradlors for the ten- 
ders, that the engagement for fup- 
plying them muft be renounced ; 
that the (hips would not be permit- 
ted to proceed ; and that govern- 
ment was determined to maintain 
the llriftefl: neutrality during the 
war, with refpect to ail the hoftile 
powers, and confequently fhould af- 
ford no aid whatever to any of them. 
In the hope of remedying in fome de- 
jgree this grievous difappointment, 
or at leaft of putting the better 
countenance upisn the buiinefs, and 
afFefting not to regard it, RuiTia ap- 
plied diredlly to the republic of 
Holland for the hire of a number of 
large tranfports to anfwer the fame 
purpofe; but here the difappoint- 
ment was renewed, that government 
not only abfolutely refuhng a com- 
pliance with the requeft, but de- 
claring its fixed determination to ob- 
ferve the ftricleft neutrality through 
the courfe of the war. As this re- 
jeftion v.'as attributed folely to the 
influence of Great Britain at the 
Hague, fo it was addedto the black 
catalogue of her political fins, and 
ttored up for future remembrance. 

Though nothing could exceed the 
vexation which this difappointment 
occafioned, nor ferve more effec- 
tually to exafperate the court of 
Peterfburgh, yet it happened, fingu- 
larly enough, that few things could 
have been of more eflential fervice 
to her than the failure. For, had 
that fleet proceeded on its intended 
courfe to the Mediterranean early in 
the fummer (as was intended, and 
the fervice required) the remaining 
part of her marine force, her great 
naval and military arfenals, her 



ports, her golden acquifition, the 
province of Livonia, and her capi- 
pita] itfelf, would have been all ex- 
pofed to great rifque and apparent 
danger, in confequence of the rup- 
ture which foon after took place be- 
tween her and her jealous and eyi'~ 
afperated neighbour, the king of 
Sweden. Thus:, it not feldom hap- 
gens, that the favoured children of 
fortune are greatly ferved by her in 
ipite of themfelves, by her over- 
ruling and counteracling thofe ill- 
laid defjgns, which the blindefs of 
their paflions and violence of their 
defires have given birth to. 

Although the Ruffian fleets ap- 
peared powerful and formidable, 
from the number of ihips, men, and 
guns of which they confided, yet 
one defeft prevailed, which was 
nearly an irremediable fource of 
wcLknefs. I'his was the want of 
native oflicers of fufficient ability 
arJ experience to conduft their 
operations with judgment and efteil. 
It was not pejhaps in the nature of 
tilings that thii want could be fully 
fupplied by foreigners 3 it was, how- 
ever, the only rciource; and thecon- 
clufion of the American war afforded 
a confiderable fupply of young Eng- 
lifli cfiicers, whole minds were too 
aftive to live out of adlion if it could 
any where be found. Few, if any, 
of thefe, had rifen to any higher 
rank in iheir own fervice than that 
of lieutenant, fo that the command 
of fingle fhips feemed the highefi: 
advancement they could yet be 
competent to. They were, how- 
ever, of the utmoft importance ta 
RufTia in the prefent ftate of things, 
and Great Britain, notwithftanding 
the jealouiic'fubfifting between both 
courts, refrained from proceeding to 
the extremity of recalling them. 

This known paucity of comman- 
ders 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



ders could not fail to attraft the at- 
tention of foreign adventurers, who 
had acquired any experience and re- 
putation in maritime affairs. Of 
this number was the Englifh pirate 
and renegndo, Paul Jones, who had 
rendered himfclf fo notorious in the 
American war, by the mifchiefs 
which he did to the trade of his 
country, and whole defperate cou- 
rage, which only ierved to render 
his atrocioufnei's confpicuous, would, 
in a good caul'e, have entitled him 
to honour. 

This man could not but expe- 
rience the common fate incident to 
his charader; and, finding that he 
did net meet the confideration vvhich 
he expected in America, he made a 
tender of his fervices to the court of 
Peter fburgh, where they fcem to 
have been joyfully received, for he 
was immediately appointed to a 
high command in the grand fleet 
which was under equipment at Cron- 
fladt. The BritilTi ofncers, full of 
thofe national and profiiTsOnal ideas 
of honour which they had imbibed in 
theirown country and lervice, confi- 
dered this appointment as the higheft 
affront that could be offered to them, 
and a fubmilTion to it an acl of fuch 
degradation, that no time or circum- 
ftance could wipe away the difiio- 
nour. They accordingly went in a 
bodv, to the amount of above three- 
fcore, without a fingle diffentient 
lagging behind, or he'itating on the 
account of inconvenience or perfonal 
diftrefs, to lay down their commif- 
lions, declaring at the fame time, 
that it was impolfible for them either 
to ferve under, or to act with, in any 
manner or capacity whatever, a pi- 
rate or a renegade. 

Nothing could have been more 
vexatious or more embarrafling to 
the court of Peterfburgh, at the pre- 



[63 

fent critical period, than this fpirited 
condudl of the officers. Punftilios 
of honour, operating in the face of 
command, was a thing unheard-of in 
that fervice. No Ruffian, under the 
firil rank or order, would dare to 
infinuate fuch an idea. As it was, 
it could not be confidered as lefs 
than a direft infult to the court, and 
any fubm-ilFion to it as a grievous 
derogation from its dignity. It 
would befides eftablifh a precedent 
v.'hich may be troublefome or dan- 
gerous v/ith refpeft to her own fub- 
jedls. Happy it was that the offi- 
cers were not the fabjefls of a fmalf 
ffate, and that this did not happen in 
a feafon of peace, when their fer- 
vices might be difpenfed with. Un- 
der thefe united circumftances, a fen- 
tence of ferving for life before the 
maft, would have been deemed a le- 
nient punifhment for their conta- 
macy. The neceffity of the time, 
however, prevailed. The appoint- 
ment of Paul Jones to a command in 
the Cronftadt fleet was recalled; 
and that adventurer (whofe charafter 
of an impetuous courage had mada 
an impreffion on the court far be- 
yond its real value) was difpatched 
to the Black Sea as fecond to the 
prince of Naffau. 

In the mean time vaft armies were 
preparing for the field. Nothing 
that tended to infure the moit de- 
cifive fuccefs, could be withheld 
from the grand favourite, prince 
Potcmkin, in vvhofe department the 
war lay. It was even expeded, that, 
in the diflribution of kingdoms and 
empires, a fovcreign dominion, un- 
der whatever title, would be allotted 
to his fnare. Thofe Ruilians, who 
confidered themfelves as patriots, en.- 
tertained in the mean time the moft 
ferious apprehenfions of the confe- 
quences which might enfus, under 

certaia 



64] ANNUAL REGISTER, 178&. 

certain poffible and natural circum- 
ftances, from fo vaft a power being 
lodged in tiie hands of a fingle, manv 
as he already pcficffed. With refpect 
to the war, nothing could exhibit a 
more forbidding or a more deplorable 
afpedl than the intended fcene of ac- 
tion. Famine, peitilence, with all the 
dcfolation and calamity of a long and 
moll cruel war, had laid waile the 
Tartar countries, and ravaged both 
the Ruffian and 'f urkifa borders, fo 
that all the provifion for the armies, 
the hnglc article of green forage 
excepted, was to be brought from an 
imraenfe diftance. 

, o L In defiance of thefe 

June 1 8th, ,-„• , • ,,,, ,- 

■' yo dimcultics,avauRu;- 

' ■ Tian array, eftimatcd 
at 150,000 men, appeared on the 
banks of the river Bog, adjoining to 
the coniines of Poland, Turkey, and 
Tartary, and on the way to the 
Black I?ea, undtf the orders of 
jprince Potemkin and general Ro- 
manzow; thefe being aflifted by 
prince Repnin, general Soltikow, 
and other commanders of note. This 
great force was fupported by a field 
train of 137 pieces of artillery, be- 
fides a valt park of heavy balrering 
cannon and mortars, dellined for the 
fiege of Oczakow; and furniihed 
with that exuberance of powder, 
ball, Ihells, and all manner of mili- 
tary machines, which are the ufual 
concomitants of a Ruffian army, 
particularly when engaged, as at 
prefent, upon favourite fervice. 
A large portion of this army, under 
the command of General Rijman- 
7.0W, was deiigned to command re- 
fped on the fide of Poland and Li- 
thuania, and to furnifn a ftrong fe- 
parate command under general Sol- 
tikow, to fupport the Auftrian com- 
mander prince de Cobourg, on the 
fide of Moldavia, with a view firll 



to the fiege of Chockzim, and after 
that capture, to the conqueft of the 
whole province. Thisaffigumentof 
tiie aftive and principal iervice to 
prince Potemkin^ was fo decilive a 
vidory over his great rival> and 
compeutor for honour ^and favour,- 
general Romanzow, and fo grievous 
a mortification to the latter, that it 
has fmce occafioned his refigna- 
tion. 

In the mean time, tlie captain 
pacha having taken the command 
of the Turkifh force on the Black 
Sea, appeared with a numerous fleet 
at the mouth of tlie Nieper, where 
the fervice grew warm between him 
and the prince of Nafiau, who, with 
his flotilla of gallies and light vef- 
fels, oppofed, with great fuccefs, the 
attempts of the enemy to become 
mailers of that river. 

Two, if not three, dcfperate and 
bloody engagements took place be- 
tween the hollile armaments, in that 
broad lake which is form.ed by the 
Nieper and the Bog, before their 
juniStion with the Black Sea, and 
which is itfelf fo conliderafele a 
piece of water, as to be diftinguifh- 
ed by the name of the Liman Sea. 
In all thefe the Ruffians were fo 
highly fuccefsful, as to afford occa- 
fion for finging Te hcMn twice, if 
not oftener, both at Peterlburgh and 
in the army of prince Potemkin. 
The Turks difplayed as delperate a 
valour in thefe amphibious engage- 
ments (which could fcarcely be con- 
fidercd as naval) as their brethren 
had done by land, on the borders of 
the Danube ; but, through that fatal 
indolence which has fo long marked 
the couduft of that government, they 
v/cre totally ignorant of the naviga- 
tion of a river, which had for fo 
many ages been in their pofTeffion. 
The Ruffians were lil^wife fuperior 

to 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[65 



to them in point of feamanfhip ; flill 
more in the conllrudion and fitnefs 
of their veflels for the fervice ; and 
above all in the management of their 
powerfal artillery. 

A loofe relation of one of thefe 
aftions, taken from accounts which 
ever fludiiiufly abftain from any- 
thing that carries the appearance of 
perfpicuity or precifion, will, how- 
ever, ferve to convey fome general 
idea of the whole, or at leail of the 
nature of the fervice. 

We are not certain whether it 
was in the firft or the fecond engage- 
ment, that the captain pacha lay 
with his fleet of line of battle Ihips 
on the Oczakow fide of the river, 
but llretching between that fortrefs 
and its mouth. The prince of Naf- 
fau's flotilla occupied the flioals and 
channels of the broad water in front, 
which extended to the Kinburne fide. 
The Turks having failed in all their 
attempts to cannonade the Ruflian 
light fleet, with any effect, from their 
great fliips, the high admiral endea- 
voured to remedy this defeft, by 
haftily forming a fimilar light arma- 
ment to engage them upon equal 
terms. For this purpofe he col- 
lected all the fmall veiTels that were 
within his reach, which, with the 
boats belonging to the fliips of war, 
the frigates, and perhaps fome gal- 
lies appertaining to the fleet, formed, 
all together, an armament far fupe- 
rior in number to that of the prince 
of Naflau; but as far inferior in 
point of conftruflion and equipment. 
The viclory, however, as we fliall 
fee, did not depend upon either, but 
upon the ignorance of the Turks 
with refpedt to the river and its na- 
vigation. 

The great admiral, with his ufual 
eagernefs and accuftomed intrepi- 

VoL. XXX. 



dity, took the command of this ar- 
mament himfelf, and direded the at- 
tack in a frigate, with his ftandard 
difplaycd. The Ruflian armament 
was very advantageoufly polled, be- 
ing drawn up in a line near Ivin- 
burne, where, befides the difiiculties 
of the approach, they were in a great 
meafure covered by the cannon of 
the fortrefs. The Turkifli veflels 
foon began to flick in the fands, and 
were at the fame time wofully torn, 
by the incefl'ant and excellently di- 
reded fire of their enemy. The 
grand admiral's frigate, in his ea- 
gernefs to bear down upon a vexa- 
tious enemy, who feemed fo nearly 
within his reach, ftuck fo fafl, that 
flie could never be got ofi"; and, 
whether it proceeded from a rafli 
obllinacy or not, continued for feve- 
ral hours in that pofltion, equally ' 
expofed to the fire from the tow'a 
and from the veflels. At length, 
though the frigate was on fire, he 
was not brought oft' until fne was 
nearly burnt to the water edge. 
A fignal inflance of intrepidity was 
then flievvn by a Ruflian, who 
boarded her in that ftate, and carried 
off^the ftandard juft before flie blew 
up. 

Five other veflels, including a fe- 
cond flag, were burnt, and two 
taken ; the remainder of the fcat- 
tered flotilla fled for ftelter to the 
fliips of the line. Three or four 
thoufand prifoners were faid to be 
taken ; but the lofs of veffels holds 
no proportion to fuch a number. 
The grand admiral was, however, 
obliged to proceed to the port of 
Varna with the fleet, either to refit, 
to take in fupplies, or both; but he 
foon appeared again in the Nieper. 
— In another adion, fimilar to this, 
and which feems to have been pre- 
[■£] vious 



66] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1773. 



vicus to it, two Turkifn veffels were 
blown up, one i'unk, and the reft 
routed. 

Ai. if the Ruffian details of mili- 
tary tranfaftions had not at all 
times been fo obfcure and imperfedl 
as to require every poflible auxiliary 
aid that could be obtained for t»heir 
elucidation, fo that court, as if fafci- 
nated by the wifdom of the em- 
peror's fyftem of concealment in 
war, adopted herfelf the fame prin- 
ciple. A decree was iffued at Pc- 
terfburgh, llriftly forbidding, under 
the heavieft penalties, all merchants 
and others, but particularly includ- 
ing Jews and foreigners, from tak- 
ing any notice whatever of public 
affairs, of the war, or of any mat- 
ters relative to the ftate or tranfac- 
tions of the fleets or armies, in the 
letters which they difpatched to their 
foreign ccrrefpor.dents. 

. , It was after the re- 
J ^ y * turn of the capain pa- 

cha from Varna, that prince Potem- 
kin invefted Oczakow; bur, as his 
battering artillery were not arrived, 
he could not yet commerce a regu- 
lar fiege. His held artillery, though, 
running from 14 to 24 pounder.-, 
he erefted batierles againli the 
town, and againrt the Tuvkilli light 
fleet of gallies and gun-boats, which 
were now under the batteries, with a 
view equally of receiving protedion 
and of communicating aiTiilance. 
While the town and the fleet were 
warmly engaged on the land flde, 
the prince of Nafl'au increafed their 
peril and dilmay, by a fierce attack 
with eannon and mortars on the fide 
6f the Liman. Thefe attacks were 
all conduced in the night, and, from 
its nature, nothing could be pore 
dreadful than the conflift, which 
ra"cd without intermilfion for eight 



hours. In that time the Turkifh light 
marine was totally deilroycil ; and the 
number of veflTels and of guns which 
they are faid to have loft (tne latter be- 
ing rated at a thoufand) appears al- 
moft incredible. It is likewife ftated, 
that during this deftrudtion of the 
fleet, the prince of Nafiau bom- 
barded the town with fuch vigour 
and efl-'ed, as to reduce its upper 
part nearly to alhes; a circumitance 
that ill accords with the long and 
obflinate defence which it continued, 
to make fer fo many months after. 

Oczakow was garrifonedby about 
twenty thoufand choice troops, and 
the vigour, obftinacy, and perfe- 
verance of the defence, fully jufti- 
fied that character. Every foot of 
ground was bravely difputed, gene- 
rally maintained, and if loft, dearly 
purchafed by the befiegers. The 
fallies of the garrifon were frequent, 
not feldom fuccefsful, and, with what- 
ever judgment they were conducted, 
were ever dangerous to the enemy, 
and defperately fupported. In the 
firft grand attack upon fome of the 
outworks, letters from feveral neu- 
tral places reprefented the befiegers 
to have been repulfed in a manner 
fcarcely fliort of a defeat. The fup- 
pofed fuccefles, pubhflied in the Ruf- 
fian gazettes, were evidently in- 
tended to ftifle the murmurs of the 
people at home, and to obviate the 
complaints and reproaches of their 
allies ; while the continuance of the 
fiege afforded a filent but unanfwcr- 
able refutation to them. 

It was indeed little confiftent with 
the modern compendious method of 
taking fortreflTes (which has caufed 
fo great an alteration in the nature 
and circumftances of wars, and by 
which they feem almoft to be conh- 
dared as taken from the time the 
trenches 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[67 



tVeuches are opened) to iVe fo great 
a force, ib vaft an artillery, iuch 
able generals, veteran troops, and 
expert ergineers, for fo long a time 
baffled liy a fingle infulated place, 
detached from all hope or pofiibility 
of fuccour. 

Winter approached, the comba- 
tants on the Danube were retiring 
into winter vjuartcrs, and notiiing 
was done at Oczalcow, where the 
profpeds of taking the place ieemed 
to be as remote as they had been on 
the firll day of opening the fiege. 
This wa.^ inconceivably diftrefling to 
prince Potemkin, whoie honour, and 
perhaps fortune, were flaked on the 
event. Nor was it much Itfs dif- 
trefling to the court of Petcriburgh, 
who felt that the charafter and ho- 
nour of the empire would be deeply 
affefted by a failure in the only great 
objedl of the campaign. 

In the mean time the infufFerable 
cold of that dreadful winter, which 
made fuch havock among men and . 
animals through the greater part 
of Europe, began to be felt with 
jrrefiilible efted in the camp. This 
Was rendered more intolerable by 
the fcarcity of fire-wood in that bare 
and bleak region ; a want, which 
the length of carriage, and other 
difficulties, defied all human induf- 
try to remedy. It feemcd as if this 
fcourge of nature mull have been 
(decifive in its efFefts. The Ruffian 
cavalry, in defiance of the inHuence 
of their commanders, of the feverity 
of their difcipline> and of the allure- 
ment of an immcnfe expecled plun- 
der, deferted the camp. The infan- 
try, fmkirtg under the fame infup- 
portable dillrefs, and difpiritjd by 
the lofs of their fellows, could fcarce- 
ly be retained to their duty. It was 
in this deplorable rtate of affairs, 
when rout and difgracc appeared 



little lefs than inevitable, that the for- 
tune of Ruffia feemed to riA" fuyerior 
to all difScultics, and, by a moil for- 
tuitous circumilance, to cover her 
arms with glory and vidtory. 

Piince Potenikinj as p, , 

the lalt eftbrr, ordered, ^^^' *7^"* 
a dreadful general bombardment, 
ard cannonade of the place with 
red -hot balls, to take place. One 
of thcf'e fell upon the grand pow- 
der magazine, wtich, b^irtg IHII am- 
ply provided, blew up with fo ter- 
rible an explofion, as to deraolifli 
too great a portion of the wail to 
admit of the fortrcfs heing any longer 
tenable. The Turks, notwithlland- 
ing, defended both the breach and 
the flreets with the moll dcfperate 
valour, and the brave aga, who com- 
manded them, diidaining to I'urvivs 
his men, rejedled all ofters of quar- 
ter, and wa3 of necelTity cut to pieces. 
The flaughter was great, but no two 
of the publiflied accounts agree in 
their elHmate of the number flaiii 
en either fide. That publiflied at 
\'ienna, under the fandtion of prince 
Galliczin, and which enters into 
fuch particularity as to mention pre- 
cife numbers. Hates that 7,400 
Turks were killed in the adtion, or, 
as it is called, in the field, be fides 
thofe that were /.'(//v. Y in the houfes. 
The flaughter was evidently great, 
as the number of Turkifli military 
prifoners made, of fo great a garri- 
ion, was fbme hundreds under three 
thoufand. I'he governor baflia, not 
holding the fame contempt of life 
difplayed by the intrepid aga, was 
of that number, and, to the great 
chagrin of prince Potemkin's nume- 
rous enemies, ferved 10 grace his 
triumpl)ant return to i^eteriburgh. 

The lofi of the Ruffians in this 

final afTaulr, is generally cflimated at 

about 4,000 men killed or wounded, 

[£] 2 and 



68] ANNUAL RE G I S T E R, 1788. 



and near 200 officers are included in 
the former lift : fo that the aflion mufl 
have been exceedingly hard fought 
and fevere. It feems a fingular cir- 
cumflance of fatality with refpedl: to 
Oczakow, that it was loft in the year 
1737, exadly in the fame manner, 
by the fall of a fhell, and the blow- 
ing up of the powder magazine ; and 
that too at the critical period when 
the celebrated marfhal Munich (who 
was likewife a didineuifiied favourite 
of fortune) would nave been ether- 
wife obliged to raife the fiege with 
difgrace, and that his retreat, in all 
its confequences, would have been 
probably attended with the lofs of 
half his army. The carnage was, 
however, greater' in the former in- 
flance than even in the prefent ; 
6,000 Turks having periihed in the 
cxplofion, and the whole lofs on their 
fide falling little fhort of 2C,coo men, 
Oczakow, independent of the va- 
lue it derived from ftrength and 
fituation, feems to have been of much 
more confideration as a trading 
town, than it was ufually regarded 
in 'this part pf the world ; for the 
number of inhabitants now made 
prifoners exceeded 25,000; a de- 
gree of population which affords uo 
fmall indication of former profpe- 
rity- Such are the fatal ravages of 
unpitying war 1 As this event took 
place on the felVival of St. Nicholas, 
the great patron of the RuUian em- 
pire, fo the fuperllition of the fol- 
diery and common people attributed 
the guidance of the fortunate fhell 
entirely to their tutelary faint, who, 
they fuppofed, had thus gained a 
complete vidtory over Mahomet. 
If the occafion had been lefs doleful, 
it might have. been rather a laugha- 
ble circumfiance to obferve, that all 
the letters from Oczakow, however 
they difagreed in other things, took 



particular notice, and feemed to lajf, 
fome emphafis upon the recital, that 
four thoufand very fine women were 
included among the prifoners. 

It was during the progrefs of thefe 
hoftilitics with the Porte, that RufTia 
found herfelf fuddcnly involved in 
a new and unexpedled war ; the pof- 
fibility and confequences of which 
were certainly not taken into ac- 
count, in her original calculations of 
conqueft and fchemes of aggran- 
difemcnt. For though the world, as 
well as ihemfelves, had long known 
the dilialle which prevailed between 
the courts of Peterlburgh and Stock- 
holm, and faw that pubHc jealoufies 
were by degrees ripened into perfo- 
nal diflike, and even an apparently- 
fixed animofity between the fove- 
reigns, yet nobody imagined, or in- 
deed believed, that, confidering the 
prodigious difproportion of their 
power, Sweden could have ventured 
upon entering into a direft war with 
RufTia. 

The king of Sweden had fpirit, 
perhaps it may hereafter be confi- 
dered as fagacity and wifdom, to fee 
things in a difierent point of view. 
He might have been taught (if all 
more remote hiflory had been ex- 
tinft) from the numerous examples 
afforded by his uncle, the hero and 
founder of the Pruffuin empire, how 
to dilHnguifli between great difficul- 
ties and abfolute impcffibilities ; he 
might likewife have learnt, from the 
fame fchool of knowledge and expe- 
rience, that there are certain critical 
fituations, when it becomes wifdom, 
and is confonant to the flriclefl lavi'S 
of calculation, to commit every 
thing to the hazard of a fmgle great 
exertion, rather than to wait for that 
irretrievable liate of things, when it 
would be impoffible for any exertioni 
to produce a fmgle favourable caft. 

A* 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [69 

efteifl of power, in dazzling and fub- 
duing the weak and the timid; b/ 
her money, which could not fail to 
operate with great efted, upon a 
very numerous, poor, and fadioua 
nobility ; to this head may be re- 
ferred the facility with which her 
vail military ellablifhments enabled 
her to provide for all thofe, and even 
for their relations and friends> whofe 
zeal for her fervice rendered them 
obnoxious to their country. The 
vicinity of Ruffia too, with that over- 
reaching aifeftation of frlendlhip and 
good neighbourhood, under the co- 
vert of which llie endeavours to be- 
come a party in the affairs of all her 
neighbours, together with the com- 
mon ties of language, religion, blood, 
and various other connexions, fub- 
filling between the fubjugated Swe- 
dilh provinces, and thole Hill retained 
by that crown, afforded her continual 
opportunities of being minutely ac- 
quainted with the moll fecret affairs 
of that country, of knowing the ex- 
atl Itate, views, and value of parties, 
and of knowing all thofe men' who 
were the fitted for the purpofe, and 
the moft liable to be pradifed on, 
in order to make them profelytes to 
her views. 

The great revolution in the go- 
vernment of Sweden, effedled by the 
prefent king, tended greatly toleffen 
this finiiler influence; but the evil 
was too deeply fixed to be foon era- 
dicated, and the bold intriguiiig dif- 
pofition of the Ruffian miniflers at^ 
Stockholm, who, prefuming too much^ 
on the greatnels of the power by 
which they were fupported, difdain- 
ed to fubmit to thofe nice regula- 
tions, which the wifdom of ages and 
nations have eftabliflied as laws to 
govern the conduft of the diploma- 
tic body during their miffion in fo- 
reign courts. By this means a firong 



As a nation, Sweden had the 
greateft caufes of refeniment againft 
Ruffia for part injury and lofs, at the 
fame time that flie had every thing 
to dread from her prefent overgrown 
power and boundlefs ambition, which 
was as little qualified in the wanton 
difplay, as it was ungoverned in the 
adlual exertion. It was impoffible to 
behold the rich province of Livonia, 
with the adjoining valuable ones of 
Efthonia, Ingria, and Carelir., be- 
fides a great part of Finland, in the 
hands of ftrangers and enemies, 
without the deepefl regret ; or could 
a Swedilli patriot behold, without a 
degree of indignation equal to the 
regret, his countrymen perifhing all 
round him for want of bread, while 
the firft of thefe provinces could 
moft abundantly have fupplied their 
wants : Thefe loffes were embittered 
by the recollection of particular in- 
juries and extraordinary cruelties^ 
The favage war carried on by Peter 
the firft (it may be faid againft hu- 
man nature) in the bowels and low- 
eft caverns of the earth, for the dc- 
llrudion of the Swedifh copper and 
iron works, and rendering the ruin 
irretrievable, by breaking down the 
mounds that prevented the v/ater 
from overflowing the mines, was, 
fo far as human power and malice 
could apply, entailing mifery and 
want through all generations upon 
a people, whofe harvefts and means 
of life were produced in thofe dark 
regions. 

Yet, In defiance of thefe, feem- 
ingly incurable, national animofitics, 
Ruffia has conftantly found means to 
maintain a ftrong and numerous par- 
ty in Sweden, who were ever ready 
to facrifice the interefts of their 
country to her lelfilh and dangerous 
views. This ffie has accompiiliied 
hy various m.eans, by the comman 



[^] 3 



foreign 



7o] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



foreign faftion, though feemirgly 
cemented by conftitutional princi- 
ples, and looking oiily to domelHc 
regulation and concerns, was con- 
ftantly nurfed and lupported in the 
kingdom, who, diredly inimical to 
the icing, and to the new form of 
govfc:nment, were no iefs fo in ef- 
fe£t, whether intentionally or not, to 
the real intereits and fecurity of their 
country. 

That fudden and unforefeen revo- 
lution in the government of Swe- 
den, was the fource of all ue cool- 
nefs, jealoufy, and dilhke, \v;;ich has 
fiuce taken place between the courts 
of Peterfourgh and Siockl.olm. 
Noticing could \ie more dire«Stly 
contrary to the" views of Ruilia, or 
fubvtriive of ttie policy which fhe 
has purfued during the greater part 
of the prefenr century, than that 
Swelen fhould ever again recover 
her former rank among nations, or 
any part of that weight and influ- 
ence wh'.ch fhe once held in che po- 
litical f. H- of Europe. A nominal 
kin? without power or effecl, with a 
rsation conftantiy rent and diftraftcd 
by jarring fadlions, any of which fiie 
might occafionally fupport againll 
the other: as beil fuited her imme- 
diati' purpcfes, would, in procefs of 
time, afford her fuch continual op- 
portunities for interference and re- 
gulation, and fuch frequent pre- 
tences for fending armitJ into the 
country to fupport her decihon.-., thac 
all the fubltantial benefits of con- 
^ quell would thus be obtained, wich- 
'''out the odium and jealoufy ever in- 
feparable from that terra. Nor 
might it be entirely overlooked, 
that dependent kings, as well as 
dependent princes, would be necef- 
fary appendages to the fplendor, as 
well as gratifications to the vanity 
pf an imperial court. 



The revolution deftroyed all 
fchemes of this nature, however 
fondly entettained. It is now well 
known, that nothing leis than the 
various calamities, occafioned by a 
long foreign war, a dangerous re- 
bellion at home, and the cruel ra- 
vages of the peltiiencc, all of whicK 
about that time afflicted RulTia, 
could have prevented her from tak- 
ing a direcl and deciiive part in 
overthrowing, as fhe had not time 
to prevent, the fyilem of govern- 
ment then eftabliihed by the king of 
Sweden. It \vas,however,fllIl perhaps 
cxpefted, that a young prince like 
Cuilavus, feeling iiimfelf yet weak, 
zvtC' not fully afTured in his new ac- 
cefllon of power, would have gladly 
applied to his great, wife, and pow- 
erful neighbour, for her approba- 
tion and confirmation of it. That 
by becoming her pupil in the art of 
government, an eafy way would be 
chalked out to him, for reaping all 
the fruits of her wifdom and expe- 
rience, and at the fame time, of free- 
ing himfelf entirely from all the 
trouble, care, and aanger, incident 
to that moll: arduous of all human 
taflcs ; and that by this means, tho' 
the old fyftem of policy was chang- 
ed, the fame ends would be obtained 
under the new. But the new king, 
feeming to partake largely of that 
vanity common to young men, of 
holding a good opinion of his own 
abilities, went on boldly with the bu- 
fmefi of regulation, government, and 
legiilation, without requiring any fo- 
reign advice or aiTiftance. 

Every bcdy, however, e.xpected, 
that the vifit which the king not 
long after paid to the court of Pe- 
terfburgh, would have amply atoned 
for this inattention or neglecf, which 
might well be imputed to the gidJy 
eiteft, that a fudden accellion of 

power 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



f7' 



power is liable to produce on a 
vouthful and inexperienced mind. 
The world is flill to learn the nature 
or dellgn of the conferences which 
took place on this occafion ; for, whe- 
ther there were witneifes or not, the 
fecret has been inviolably preferved 
on both fides ; it is, however, evi- 
dent from the refiilt, that the fenti- 
ments, ideas, or principles of tlie 
6mprefs and of the king did not 
accord in all refpeds, although the 
ground and matter .of difference are 
unknown. For the king fuddenly 
departed from the court of Peterf- 
burgh, it was faid, without taking 



dered as the peculiar charafteriftic 
of the prcfent reign, and an endea- 
vour to provide againlt that evil, as 
the firft and lail objeit of the king's 
attention and care. He endeavour- 
ed, but in vain, to imprefs Denmark 
with the fame fentiments ; although 
the only favour which, under a cer- 
tain confurnmatlon of things, that 
kingdom could in vvifdom hope for, 
would be that fimple one, of being 
the lall that was devoured. The de- 
figii of fubverting and partitioning 
the Ottoman empire, with the vaft 
military preparations for carrying 
the defign into aft, could not but 



leave, while the expedition which increafe in the higheil: degree the 
he ufed in returning to his own do- king's appr.henfion and alarm. He 



minions carried almofr the appear- 
ance of precipitation; and from that 
period, the breach between the two 
courts, inllead of doling, has been 
continually growing wider. 

The effefts produced by the re- 
volution, fully julliiied the appre- 
henfions entertained from, and the 
averfion conceived by Ruffia to that 
meafure. A prompt, firm, execu- 
tive government, union and decifion 
in the cabinet, with a tolerable de- 
gree of apparent harmony between 
the king and the deliberative orders 
of the llate, fucceeded to anarchy. 



faw, hy the la it war, the inability of 
the Turks to oppole the power of 
Ruilia only, how then could they be 
fuppofed capable now of refilling 
the immenfe combined force of both 
empires f If Ruffia was already too 
formidable for the repafe and fafetv 
of her neighbours, how mull: fhe 
appear when cloaihed and armed in 
the Herculean fpoils of the Ottoman 
empire ? 

It is ilated, in a pamphlet faid to 
have been written by himfelf on the 
fituation of public affairs, that the 
king- of Sweden had early endea- 



weaknefs, and difcord. Inflead of voured to avert the impending 



that wretched ilate of civil and mi 
litary affairs, which brought fuch ruin 
and difgrace on Sweden, in the un- 
fortunate war of 1740, and the fuc- 
ceeding ignominious peace, ihe now 
Ihewed a good and well-fupplied ar- 
my, with an excellent fleet, and fuch 
a well-regulated llate of finances, 
as would give energy to both in cale 
of emergency. 

A deep fenfe of the fuppofed dan- 
ger to which the liberties of the 
north are expoled by the power and 
ambition of Ruffia, may be^confi- 



Itorm, by offering his mediation to 
reconcile the diiFerenccs between 
Ruffia and the Porte ; an office he 
was peculiarly qualified to fucceed 
in, from the long ellabliflicd frlend- 
(hip fubfllling between Turkey and 
Sweden. The contemptuous fcorn 
with v.'hich the propofal was re- 
ceived, and the difdainful manner 
in which it was rejected, fCwms to 
have been fcnfibly fcl; by the royal 
writer. A iimilar propofal made by 
Great Britain, fupported by Pruffia,. 
was fcarcely better received. To 
[E] 4. this 



72] ANNUAL REGISTER, 17I 



this pertinacious adherence to her 
ambitious defigns, the king diredly 
attributes the fubfequent meafures, 
which, he fays, he was under a ne- 
cefTity of adopting on the principle 
of defence. 

Common danger, the grand ce- 
ment between the moft heterogene- 
ous characters and diftant na'ions, 
had many years fmce laid the foun- 
dation of a ilrift ofFenfive and d^^fcn- 
five treaty between Sweden and the 
Porte. Ruliia, by name, was the 
avowed and only objeft of this trea- 
ty, which was concluded in the year 
1759, and by which the contracting 
parties were mutually bound to af- 
iift each other with their whole force, 
in cafe of either -being attacked by 
her. The weaknefs and timidity 
of the Swedifh government occafi- 
oned their evading the performance 
of thefe ftipulations in the laft war 
between the Ruffians and Turks, 
under pretence that the latter had 
been the aggrefTors. The good 
correfpondence which had fubfifted 
between both courts, ever fince the 
reign of Charles Xll. was, notwith- 
fcanding this failure, flill continued. 

It would add little importance to 
the fubjecft, if we were able to in- 
form our readers, whether Sweden 
or the Porte made the firli: overtures, 
upon the approach of the prefent 
Hate of things, for the revival and 
giving efficacy to this treaty. In 
fact, the danger was fo common to 
both, that it was not eafy to fay 
which was the leaft affedled by it, or 
which it behoved moft 10 make every 
poffible provifion to oppofe it. How- 
ever that was, the king of Sweden 
began to arm by fea and land in the 
fpring of the prefent year; while 
Ruffia feemed to furvey his motions 
with fuch fovereign contempt, as 
not to deign to m.ake any enquiry 
6 



into their caufe ; (he, however, did 
not negleft to repleniffi her maga- 
zines on the fide of Finland, and to 
order fupplies of troops to that 
country. In thofe regions whofe 
principal produfts are, in the beau- 
tiful language of the poet ; 

" Iron and man, the foldier and his 
" fvvord," 

money being always a fcarce com- 
m.odity, becomes an indifpenfably 
neceffary ingredient in the hands of 
thofe who wifh to give energy to 
both. This fcems to have been 
adopted by the Porte as a ftate 
maxim ; for the watchful jealoufy of 
Denmark, with refpefl to her neigh- 
bour, had difcovered, pretty early 
in the year, and publifhed to the 
world, that a foreign ftiip, fuppofed 
to be Spaniih, had paffed through 
the Sound, in her way to Stockholm, 
with a large quantity of coined filver 
on board, laid to amount to 2,400,000 
rixdollar; (which we eftimate at a- 
bout 400,000 Englilh gulneab) and 
which was farther faid to come from 
the Levant. 

But though Ruffia did not feem to 
take any direft notice of the arma- 
ments preparing in Sweden, fl^e was 
indefatigable in the exertion of her 
ufual artifice and fpirit of intrigue, 
to foment fuch dilfentions between 
the people and the fovereign, as 
fhould not only render them ineffec- 
tive, but might pcffibly produce a 
very different ftate of things. The 
accompliftiment of this defign could 
not appear difficult to a power fo 
thoroughly acquainted with the in- 
ternal ftate of aft'airs in the country. 
For, however matters were outward- 
ly glolTcd over, and however fmooth 
they appeared to the eye, there ftill 
remained in the kingdom a power- 
ful and numerous pnrty (including 

jnoli 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [yj 



mod of the ancient nobility, with 
their numeious friends and parti- 
zans, with a great number of mili- 
tary officers, of all degrees of rank 
and condition) who, being utterly 
adverfe to the late rev^olution, and 
to every principle upon which it was 
founded, were neceiTarily little fa- 
tisfied with its fruit in the prefent 
order of government ; however they 
might poffibly elleem or approve of 
the king perfonaliy. Thefc men 
had no manner of natural predilec- 
tion for Ruflia, but indeed the very 
reverfe, only fubmitting to her in- 
fluence, through the hope of reco- 
verlncr, by her means, their favourite 
form-of government. Another, per- 
haps, more numerous body of men, 
under the affumption of the fame 
livery, and of holding the fame pa- 
triotic principles, were undefervedly 
claffed wich thefe, and, though their 
fecret views were very different, 
contributed much to render the ge- 
neral mafs of oppofition to the court 
formidable. Thefe were the direft 
partizans of Ruflia, who, corrupted 
by her money, or debauched by the 
various means which her greatnefs 
and vicinity afforded, were ready to 
embark in all her fchemes, without 
regard to the intereih or fecurity of 
their country. 

The power of commencing a 
war, without the authority of the 
ftates, was not, according to the 
llridnefs of the conilitution, lodged 
in the hands of the king of Sweden. 
An innovation in that refpeft could 
not accordingly but afford a colour- 
able pretence to the oppofition for 
endeavouring to counterad the views 
of the court, by exciting a jealoufy 
and raifing a clamour among the 
people, and an opening for the di- 
reft interference of Ruffia, in the 
^pport of objeds fo oftcnfibly dear 



to her as the conftitution of Sweden 
and the liberties of that people. 
This opening was feized, and occu- 
pied with great vigour and induftrv, 
and foon rendered a ftrong ground 
of offenfive and defenfive operation 
againll the king ; upon whom the 
fame game was attempted to be 
played, by which Ruffia had for- 
m.erly fo fuccefifully diftraded and 
embittered the reign of his father, 
as to bring that prince to the aft of 
religning that nominal fhadow of 
royalty which they allowed him to 
poffefs. Without paying any re- 
gard to the change which the revo- 
lution had wrought in the govern- 
ment, the prefent fovereign was re- 
preiented, andaffedledly confidered, 
as a mera cypher in, and inftrument 
of, the llate ; who, poffefling no au- 
thority in himfelf, but what he vio- 
lently and arbitrarily wrelled from 
it, in defiance of the confl;itution, it 
became therefore the firfl duty of all 
true Swedes to refill fuch dangerous 
affumptions of power to the ut- 
molh 

To prevent the Danes from tak- 
ing umbrage at the great armaments 
he was making, and relying upon 
the near ties of blood and affinity 
which united both the royal houfes, 
as well as the evident common intcr- 
efts of both nations, uhich, under 
the immediate preffure of affairs, 
feemed to require their being joined, 
in the llrifteit bands of political 
union, the king of Sweden thought 
it fitting, along with an amicable 
affurance that he harboured no de- 
figns contrary to the friendfnip fub- 
filling between Uiem, to communi- 
cate to the court of Copenhagen the 
real motive for the mealures he was 
purfuing ; and which he ftated to be 
confined merely to felf- defence, 
againll the vaft military preparations 

and 



74] ANNUAL REGISTER, 178I?. 



and dangerous deligns of Ruflia ; as 
well as to fulfil the engagements by 
which Sweden and the Ottoman 
Porte were bound for mutual fecu- 
rity. 

As the king was thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the unbounded influ- 
ence and the unconcealed afc:.n- 
dency, which Rufiia has maintained, 
during the prefent reign, in the 
public councils, and even in the pri- 
vate condudl of the court of Copenr 
liagen, he feems to have built too 
much upon the efficacy of friendfliip 
snd family ties, or even upon the 
influence of a found and wife policy, 
5n making this communication, if 
he really expected (which ftems to 
have been the cafe) that it fhould 
be made a fecret. It was iinme- 
diately difclofed to the court of Pe- 
terfburgh ; and this difclofure was 
the means of foon bringing things 
to a remarkable crifis between the 
king and the Rufiian minifter at the 
court of Stockholm. 

The king fell into another error, 
of much greater confequence, upon 
this occafion. As truft begets faith, 
in any fituation proper for its pro- 
dudion, it was undoubtedly upon 
that principle, that, to fhew his en- 
tire confidence in the good faith, ho- 
nour, and friendfhip of Denmark, 
he ventured to Ibip the frontier pro- 
vinces of Sweden, bordering on Nor- 
way, fo entirely of their troops, 
(which were fent to the reinotcll 
boundary of that large country, in 
Finland) as to leave them alaioft to- 
tally defencelefs, thereby e.-.prfmg 
fome of the bell parts of the king- 
dom to fudden ravage, and the city 
of Gottenb-ugh, fo far fupcrior to 
any other it contains, with refpecb to 
commercial confequence and wealth, 
to the danger of abfolute ruin. 

Count Razamowiki, the Ruffian 



minifier at Stockholm, was deeply 
initiated in all the intrigues, defigus, 
and political myfteries of' his court; 
at the fame time that he derived from 
nature and habit no fmall portion of 
that haughty and overbearing fpirit, 
which marked her conduct in all 
tranfaftions with her weaker neigh- 
bours. He is charged with even 
exceeding his predecefTors, in the 
contempt with which he trampled 
upon the general laws of nations, 
with refpeft to the conduct prcfcrib- 
ed to public miniilers in their mif- 
fion at foreign courts ; with paying 
no regard even to outward appear- 
ances; and with carrying on his in- 
trigues of feduiSlion and corruption, 
in forming fadions againfl: the ftate, 
openly, and too fucccfsfullv, in the 
capital, and under the eye of the fo- 
vcreign at whole court he refided. 

Although the preparations for war 
made by Sweden were fo obvious to 
all the world, that nobody doubted 
her objedl in arming -, that an army 
of 35,000 men was aflembling, in 
order to embark for Finland ; that 
the king was on the point of fetting 
out for that province ; and that the 
fleet was on the point of failing 
from Carlefcroon ; yet no public 
notice had been taken of any of 
thele proceedings by the court of 
Peterfburgh, until the notification 
communicated by Denmark. 

Jn confequence, however, of that 

intimation, the Ruffian minifter at 

Stockholm prefented a ^ „ , 

r ,. ^ • , une 1 8th, 

relcript or memorial •' 

of a Angular nature to the Svve- 

dilh miuillers. This piece feemed 

to be direded to every man in the 

kingdom excepting the king him- 

felf, to whom alone it fliould have 

been direded. It is addrefl!*ed in 

fpecific terms to Uie miniilers, and 

to all who have any Ihare in the ad-. 

miniftration 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[75 



miniflratioii of tlie country ; to all 
of whom, a. vvell as to the nation at 
Jarcje, the greateft regards are pro- 
feiled, and the ftrongeft defire of 
preferving their tanquillity declar- 
ed ; but a marked dilliNftioa is made 
between t!ie king and the jaation, 
who feem to be regarded as feparate 
and UBConneclcd uiterefis. 

This document was warmly re- 
fented by the king. It produced a 
direct anfwer, and a circular note 
which was prel'ented to all the fo- 
reign minifters. In tjiefe pieces he 
feverely reprehended the perfonal 
infult offered to himfelf, in the inii- 
dious dilUnftion made between him 
and the nation, which he, liowever, 
rsprefented as only a continuation of 
the fyilen* long conftantly purfued, 
and particularly adopted by the pre- 
fent minilier, of e.xcitiag dillention 
and difcord in the flai;% and fpread- 
ing their dangerous cffefls through 
the kingdom. He feem? rather dif- 
pofed in general, at leal! in terms, 
to confine the charges of infidious 
defigns and endeavours hollile and 
dangerous to the tranquillity of the 
na.ion, of w tiling to renew the for- 
mer anarchy, and of thjs Ia!t wound 
to his dignity, by an appt al to all the 
members of the adminiltration and 
to the nation at large aga.inll their 
fovereign, to the agents, than to 
their principal ; reicrving hi.mrelf, 
until his arrival in Finland, for an 
explanation with the court of Pe- 
terlburgh. lie at the fame time or- 
dered count Rafamow/ki to quit the 
kingdom, as he could no longer treat 
with, or acknowledge him as a pub- 
lic minilier ; premiiing, that he 
ihould be allowed a week to prepare 
for his departure, and that full at- 
tention fhould be paid, in providing 
proper vefTels, and all other conveni- 
ences for his conveyance. 



The Ruflian minilier was not at 
all difpofed, at this interelling pe- 
riod, to quit the proper fphere of 
his action, to leave unfiniihed thofe 
fchemes which were yet only in 
train, or to truft entirely to others 
the execution of thofe which had 
been already determined upon. He 
refufed to obey the order for his 
departure, appealed loudly to the 
law of nations, talked largely, as 
ufual, of the power, greatnefs, and 
dignity of his principal, and declar- 
ed finally, that he ihould obey no 
orders, nor receive any inllrudlions 
whatever for the regulation of his 
conduct, from any other than his 
own court. It does not appear that 
the foreign minifters refident at 
Stockholm, afforded the fmalleft 
fanclion, by countenance or other- 
wife, to the conduft of count Raza- 
mowlki in any part of thcfe tranfac- 
tions. 

The king's fudden departure to 
Finland occaiioned the adjuftment 
of this troublefome affair to fall up- 
on the regency, who were appointed 
to the government of the kingdom 
during his abfence. The regencv, 
to prevent the difagreeable neceffit/ 
of being urged to greater extremi- 
ties, placed a guard upon the ambaf- 
fador's houfe, who, llrialy prohibit- 
ing all intercourfe, by letter or other- 
wife, between the confined familv 
and thofe without, and denying all 
accefs of proviiions or neceflaries 
for their fupport, this fort of fiege 
compelled,without abfolute violence, 
the minilier to accept of the means 
which were provided for his con- 
veyance to Peterlburgh. 

Hoililities were commenced be- 
tween the Swedes and Ruffians, in 
Finland, a few days af- t 
ter the king's arrival in i""^^ ^iR. 
that province. £ach fide charged 

tht 



76] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



the otlier with the firfl; aggrefiion, 
and it would be of little u(e to enter 
into the merits of the queltlon; the 
hoftiiity was confidered and treated 
by each as a declaration of war. 
The Swedes were generally fuccefs- 
ful in the frnall aftions and fkir- 
mifiies that now took place, taking 
feveral places of no great confe- 
quence, befieging others of greater, 
and felzing fome ftrong polls and 
difficult defiles, which might ferve 
to facilitate their further operations, 
in a country which nature had ren- 
dered in all refpefts fo extremely 
imprafticable. 

This commencement of hoilility 
fpeedily brought forth the mani- 
fefto or declaration of war from the 

^, court of i'eteriburph. This 
"^ piece-was couched, m what- 

ever related to the Svyedifli nation, 
or in which the public in general 
ieemed concerned, in terms of the 
greatelt moderation ; and breathed 
throughout a fpirit of candour and 
equity, abhorrent of violence, in- 
juilice, and war, which had not al- 
ways adorned fimilar documents 
from the fame quarter. It like- 
wife abftained from thofe odious 
afiTumptions of power, greatnefs, 
and fuperiority, which had often 
been fo painfully endured in other 
cafes. Their place was fupplied 
with advantage by a long jullilica- 
tory detail of the emprefs's condudt 
v/ith refpetl to Sweden for twenty- 
fix years paft, fairly inferring, from 
the equity, kindnefs, and iriendlhip 
that attended her commerce with 
that nation through fo long a pe- 
riod, the purity of her prefent as 
well as pall intentions. This ftate- 
ment likewife afibrded an opportu- 
nity, which was well taken, of over- 
throwing the ill-founded pretence 
adopted by the king, chat the ap- 



prehenfion of an immediate attach 
on his own dominions, had urged 
him to the necelTity of the prefent 
proceedings. This was refuted by 
an appeal to the common fenfe of 
mankind, whether, after an obferv- 
ance of peace and good neighbour- 
hood, through all the opportunities 
for a contrary conduft which folong 
.1 period ciFered, it could be ra- 
tionally fuppofed that Ihe would 
choofe the prefent moment, when 
ilae was already deeply engaged in 
war with a powerful eiiemy, wan- 
tonly to involve herfelf in ano- 
thtr. 

But with refpeifl to the king him- 
felf, as diilinfl from the nation, a 
mixture of the moft violent perfonal 
animofity, and of the mott fovereign 
contempt, is every where appa- 
rent. An uneafinefs or reftleflnefs 
of mind, arifing from envy and 
jealoufy of the power of others, a 
fort of weak and boyifh ambition, 
feem to be confidered as the fources 
of all his adions. A contempt of 
that good faith which ought more . 
particularly to aftuate the hearts of 
ibvereigns, is implied in one part, 
and a breach of faith, that marked 
his whole conduft, direftly charged 
in another. A praftice of falfe and 
infidious imputations, is fo lirongly 
applied as not to be miilaken ; and 
fome odd or ludicrous cxpreffions, 
fuch as wifi"iing to gi^ve alight io his 
fnj/ioris, are made ufeof — Particular 
care is taken to remind both the 
king and the nation, that he was 
bound by a folemn compaft not to 
undertake any war without the con- 
fentof his fubjeds. 

So near an approach of an enemy 
could not but greatly alarm the ca- 
pital, where the voice of war, ex- 
cept in ifl'uing its decrees againft 
remote nations, had never before 

beea 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[77 



been heard, from the firft laying of 
its foundations by Peter the Great. 
Troops were drawn from all quar- 
ters for its proteclion, and every 
poflible meafure adopted to fecure it 
from the efFedt of any fudden attack, 
to which, from fituation, it * was 
fo much expofed. The younger 
branches of the Imperial family 
were removed to Mofcow ; but the 
emprefs, with her ufual magnani- 
mity, waited unappalled to face the 
tempeft. All the Coflacks within 
reach were haftily c.ollefted to be 
turned loofe, as opportunity ferved, 
upon the Swedifii provinces; and 
admiral Greig failed with a ftrong 
'fleet from Cronftadt, to counteract 
the defigns of the enemy by fea, on 
which fide only, they could yet me- 
nace Peterfburgh. 

The gulph of Finland was too 
confined a theatre of aftion, for two 
holtile fleets to manoeuvre long with- 
out an encounter. That of Sweden, 
commanded by the duke of Suder- 
mania, the king's brother, confifted 
of fifteen fhips of the line, but in- 
cluding no high rates, and confe- 
quently no fuperior weight of me- 
tal ; the highell rates were one of 
feventy, and three of fixty-eight 
guns each, the other eleven being 
only of fixty guns each ; a rate 
nearly exploded from the Englifli 
line of battle. 

On the other fide, the Ruflian 
fleet, under admiral Greig, amount- 
ed to feventeen fail of the line, in- 
cluding in that number feveral great 
fhips, with a proportionately heavy 
weight of metal ; the admiral's fliip 
carrying loS guns, eight others 74 
each, and the remaining eight 66 
guns each ; pofiTefling upon the whole 
a fuperiority of 294 pieces of can- 
non ; while that in the weight of 
metal was perhaps of greater mo- 



ment than what proceeded from 
the exceCs in number of either the 
fliips or the guns. To counterbalance 
this in fome degree, the Swedes had 
five large frigates of 40 guns each, 
v/hich, admiral Greig obferves, car- 
ried heavy metal, and fought in the 
line. The number of fmaller fri- 
gates, on both fides, was pretty 
much on an equality. 

The hoftile fleets came in fighv, 
or rather approached each other, in 
a fjg, off the ifland of Hoogland. 
No icene was ever lefs calculated 
for the adion and evolutions of two 
fuch numerous fleets, compofcd of 
great and heavy fliips ; a narrow 
iea, every where ftudded with in- 
numerable iilands, rocks, and flioals, 
intermixed with deceitful channels, 
and rendered mere dangerous by 
violent, irregular, and jarring cur- 
rents : nor were the climate and face 
of the heavens more fr.vourable : 
overcall ficies, a frequently foggy, 
and generally hazy air, with fud- 
den tempeiluous fqualls, and unex- 
peded dead calms, were among the 
incommodities which feemed to fet 
feamanfliip and naval &ill at de- 
fiance. Indeed fach an exhibition, 
in fuch a fituation, feemed fcarcely 
lefs than an outrage upon nature. 

The Ruffians, along v/ith their 
great fuperiority in force, had like- 
wife the advantage of the wind, 
while any lafled, for at one time it 
feems to have fallen to a fl:ark calm. 
The action did not commence until 
five o'clock in the afternoon ; and 
fo great was the fury of the com- 
batants, that in two hours fo many 
flbips were difabled on each fide, 
that they were mutually obliged to 
lie by and refit, in order to prepare 
for a renewal. At eight o'clock 
the battle was renev\'ed v.ith appa- 
rently a frelh acceflion of rage en 

botiL 



78] ANNUAL REGISTER, 17I 



both fides. Nothing oould exceed 
the dreadful violence of the adion, 
or tlie fury and determined ohfcinacy 
with which it was maintained. Na- 
tional pride, animofity, a fenfe of 
former glory, with a deep recollec- 
tion of paft injuries, operated upon 
the Swedes with all the force which 
their combination \sas pofhbly ca- 
pable of exciting. The darknefs 
was fo great, that the knowledge 
of each fhip was in a great meafure 
confined to her own fph'ere of ac- 
tion ; fo that ignorant of, and inat- 
tentive to, what was pafling elfe- 
where, (he fought as if all depended 
opon herfelf individually, and as if 
victory or deilru£lion were the only 
alternatives. 

The Swedes feem to have had 
much the advantage in this latter 
adion, to which the unequalled ex- 
ertions of the gallant count Home, 
in extricating the duke of Suder- 
mania, when furrounded and over- 
laid by a great fuperiority of hoflile 
force, not a little contributed. Every 
body regretted that neither this 
nobleman, nor his two brave afibci- 
ates, the firlt and fecond captains, by 
whom he was nobly leconded, fhould 
have furvived to enjcy that glory 
which they fo heroically purchafed. 
Two hours limited the adion of this 
bloody encounter, like the firft. A- 
bout ten o'clock, the diforder and 
confufion, together with the totp.l 
ignorance on each fide of their 
friends or their adverfaries Hate, all 
produced by the darknefs, with the 
fevere Ic^s and general damage 
which the fhips fuftained, obliged 
the exhaufted combatants to with- 
draw from the fcene of aflJon, 
Many of the Swediih Ihips had like- 
wife expended all their ammuni- 
tion, and there was not a fufficiency 
left, in any part of the fleet, to afford 



them an adequate fupply for ffefil 
adventure. 

The victory, as is ufually the cafe 
in adlions not apparently and abfo- 
luteiy decifive, was claimed by both 
fides ; and each had an honourable 
trophy to (hew in fupport of its 
claim. The Uladiflaff, a flag-fhip 
of 74 guns, and 783 men, com- 
manded by brigadier Berger, was 
taken by the Swedes, having flruck 
to the duke of Sudermania. On 
the other hand, the Prince Guflave, 
of 68 guns, likewife a flag, and one 
of the beft fhipb in the Swedifh fleet, 
commanded by count Wachtmcifter, 
after having bravely fought until ihe 
was rendered entirely defencelefs, 
and nearly immoveable, was taken 
by the Ruflians. The lofs of men 
on both fides mufl have been, greats 
and, from the nature and circum- 
ftanccs of the a6lion, was probably 
pretty equally balanced. Two hun- 
dred men had been killed cr wound- 
ed in the ftiip taken by the Swedes ; 
and the R.aflians fay, that the lofs in 
the fhip taken by them amounted 
to three hundred ; the difference un- 
doubtedly proceeded from the defpe- 
rate refiliance of count Wachtmcif- 
ter, Admiral Grei^- is faid to have 
declared, in the account publifhed 
by acthuiity at Peterfljurgh, " that 
he never faw a fight better fufiained 
than this was on both fides." This, 
however, accords but badly v/ith the 
number of delinquent ofhcers (of 
whom feventeen were captains) load- 
ed with chains, who he feni home 
in a frigate, for ill behaviour in this 
aftion. 

The duke of Sudermania takes 
notice in his public letter, that the 
Ruflian fleet being intended for the 
Mediterranean, no expence was 
fpared In itj preparation; that no- 
thing could accordingly exceed the 
completenefs 



HISTORY O 

complctenefs of its equipment ; and 
that the weight of its metal was 
great and unufual. It feems, upon 
the whole, that the Swedes, in the 
brighteft period of their glory, had 
never difplayed greater gallantry by 
fea or land, than they did in this en- 
gagement. Their princely com- 
mander merited more glory than he 
really obtained, for the conduft as 
well as intrepidity which he fo emi- 
nently difplayed in this his firll ac- 
tion. 

For the vaft fuperiority of power 
on the fide of Rufiia enabled her, in 
a few days, to carry away all the 
fruits of vidlory, and to weaken, if 
not to cancel, that praife, which, in 
defpite of fortune, and independent 
of circumllance, ihould ever be the 
meed of diftinguilhed valour, when 
illuilrioufly exerted in the caufe or 
defence of its country. Admiral 
Greig, from the acceffion of frefh 
fhips, and the nearnefs of the great 
naval magazines and arfenals, was 
enabled, in Icfs time than feemed 
credible, to put again to fea with 
greater force than before. He came 
fuddenly upon the Swedes in the 
roadof Sweaburg, in Finland, where 
they were as inapprehenhve of at- 
tack, as they were from fituation and 
circumltance incapable of defence. 
He attacked them furioufly in this 
moment of confternation and fur- 
prize, and during the diforder oc- 
cafioned by their endeavours to get 
within the proteftion of the forts. 
The Guftavus Adolpluis, of fixty 
guns, feemed a facrifice deftined to 
the lecurity of the reft; ftie was 
taken and burnt by the Ruflians. 

From this time to the end of the 
campaign, the late victors continued 
)liut up in the harbour of Sweaburg, 
being precluded even from the 
means of re-equipment, while the 



F EUROPE. [79 

Ruflian fleet rode the triumphant 
miltrefs of ail the feas within the 
Sound ; nor was it long before a 
numerous flotilla of fmall vcfiels, 
laden with provifions for the army 
in Finland, as well as for the fleet> 
through the fatal lack of protection, 
became a prey to the enemy. 

The joy which this fudden turn 
of alFairs occafioned at Feterfl)urgh, 
may be eflimated from the panic 
which had fo lately, for the firll time, 
feized that capital ; and the import- 
ance in which the fervice was con- 
fidered by the court, was fully (hewn 
by the favours which the emprefs 
conferred upon admiral Greig. A 
letter, written to him with her own 
hand, was filled with praife and ac- 
knowledgment ; and this honour 
was fucceeded or accompanied by 
the fubftantial benefits of a conflder- 
able fum of money, and of a good 
ertate in Livonia. This command- 
er, who was Angularly fortunate in 
his life, feems to have been no lefs 
fo in its period, which took place 
before the clofe of the year, when 
he was loaded with all the honour 
and favour which he feemed well 
capable of receiving. For by this 
means he not only elcaped the com- 
mon danger of a reverfe of fortune, 
to which military character and ho- 
nour are fo particularly liable ; but 
he efcaped the more certain and 
fatal effefts of that jealoufy, envy, 
and malevolence, which the various 
circumftances of his being a fo- 
reigner, without weight or natural 
incereit in the country, his fudden 
rife, and the great.nefs of his favour, 
all ferved eminently to expofe him 
to, and which long experience has 
Ihewii to be either interwpven in 
the nature or cor.fequences of the 
fyilem adopted in that court and 
fervice- The diftinftion and honour 

paid 



So] 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



paid to him did not end with his 
life. His funeral was, by the cx- 
prefs orders of the emprefs, cele- 
brated with the greateft pomp, be- 
ing decorated and adorned by all 
thofe appropriate naval and military 
honours, which the martial nations of 
Europe have afligned as thelaft tri- 
bute to the memory of the brave. 

The wretched officers who had 
been fent in chains to Cronftadt 
were, without any form of trial, or 
public enquiry into their conduit, 
condemned to that deplorable ftate 
of exiftence, in which death would 
have been the firft of mercies, of 
ferving in the gallies, and of wear- 
ing iron collars round their necks 
for life. So much attention was 
paid to their families, as not to pub- 
lifh their names. 

J , .1 The king of Sweden's 

J ^ ■ manifefto, which was 
publifhed after his arrival in Fin- 
land, but fome time later than the 
Ruffian, was fraught with much fe- 
vere charge againll the condudl and 
"views of the court of Peterfburgh, 
for a feries of paft years; and the 
effedl heightened, where the charge 
is deficient, by the bitternefs of im- 
plication, which leaves more to be 
conceived than diredlly meets the 
eye. But the fcolding of fovereigns 
affords no more pleafurc or edifica- 
tion than that of common people ; and 
nioft of the real caufes of complaint 
we have already gone over. The de- 
figns and attempts of Ruffia upon the 
province of Finland, which are here 
delineated, being new ground, yet 
untouched upon, we fhall here lay 
open. That power is charged with 
having, almoll continually, ever 
fmce the conclufion of the peace at 
Abo, endeavoured to debauch the 
Finlanders from their connexion 
with Sweden, under the fpecious pre- 



tence of rendering that great dutchy 
independent, under which it would 
have experienced the fate which 
Courland already has done, of be- 
coming a feudatory province to 
Ruffia. The failure of thefe pro- 
jedls, which is attributed only to the 
integrity and attach ment of the peo- 
ple, feemed to damp the defign for 
a time ; but the defedlion of an of- 
ficer of high rank, v/hom fhe found 
means to draw into her fervice, and 
who had been long entrufted by the 
king in commands of importance 
in Finland, is faid again to have 
rouzed all the ambitious projects of 
that court. That fhe has accord- 
ingly laboured inceffantly fmce to 
excite a fpirit of diflention and re- 
volt among that people, and had 
even fent a general officer privately 
into the country, to reconnoitre the 
pofls, and to found their difpofi- 
tion. 

The kingof Svv'eden'was defllned 
to m.eet with the greatef: difappoint- 
ments, ?nd to experience the mofl 
grievous mortifications, in his en- 
deavours to emancipate his country 
from foreign interference and con- 
troul, to redeem, in fome degree, 
her antlent glory, and to enable her 
once more to hold her former rank 
among nations. But the flar of 
Ruffia was IHU predominant, while 
that of Sweden was not only ob- 
fcured for the prefent, but afforded 
too much room for apprehenfion, 
that it was upon the point of fetting 
to rife no more. 

Thofe machinations and intrigues, 
of which the king complained fo 
much in his manifeiio, had taken 
much deeper root, and their efFeft 
was much more widely difFufed, 
than he was yet aware of. A coun- 
ter revolution, by which the antient 
forms of government would be pre- 

fervcd. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[8 c 



ferved, the ambition and venality of 
the nobility gratified, while the na- 
tion was in fafl governed, as Cour- 
land long has been, by a foreign 
miniller relident in its capital, was 
the grand and determined objecl of 
Ruffia; and her meafures were fo 
laid, that fhe probably calculated to 
a certainty upon the event. For 
Ihe was feconded in the open and 
avowed part of her views (which 
went no farther than the reftoration 
efthe former government) by much 
the greater part of the antient no- 
bility, with all the influence which 
fo numerous, and eminent a body 
neceffarily pofTefTed ; to which were 
to be added the infinite number of 
others, who, from various caufes, 
were inimical to the late revolution, 
and confequently to the f/ftem of 
government founded upon it. 

It was faid, and feems probable, 
that a counter-revolution was only 
part of the objeft, that no modifi- 
cation would be admitted, and that 
nothing lefs than abfolate dethrone- 
ment could afford fatisfadlion. That 
the king's croffing, at fo critical a 
period, the favourite views of his 
great adverfary, the contemplation 
of which had long afforded the moil 
fublime gratification, had created a 
perfonal animofity beyond all bound 
and meafure, and which the moft 
fignal vengeance could fcarcely be 
fufhcient to allay. It was even ru- 
moured (and rumour is not always 
unfounded, particularly in defpotic 
governments) that, in the height of 
rerentment, an idea was once enter- 
tained of reviving the title of the 
grand duke to the crown of Sweden, 
as fuccelTor to the late unfortunate 
emperor Peter the Third, who had, 
unhappily for himfelf, relinquilhed 
that quiet and fecure inheritance, for 

Vol. XXX. 



the delafive profpeft o{ fixceedlng 
to the unftable and bloody throne 
of a vafl, but disjointed and difor- 
dered empire. 

However that was, the excellently 
confl:ituted, difciplined, and well-ap- 
pointed army, which the king com- 
manded in Finland, rendered Hill 
more formidable, by the native un- 
conquered courage of the troops, 
and the fingular intrepidity of their 
royal leader, would have been able, 
if nothing finifler intervened, _and 
that no internal unfoundnefs vitiated 
its compofition, to carry difmay and 
terror to the gates of Peterlburgh ; 
nor could the wifeft forefee what re- 
volution in public affairs fuch an 
event might not have occafioned. 
But, inftead of the gratification of 
thefe flattering ideas, the king foon 
difcovered that he could place no 
confidence in his army; that a gene- 
ral difaffeftion was fpread among his 
officers, efpecially thofein high com- 
mands, and of the moft noble fami- 
lies; that they were not only de- 
termined to counteradl all his de- 
figns in the field, but that feveral of 
them carried on a traitorous corre- 
fpondence direflly with the enemy, 
while a greater number (and un- 
doubtedly tlie honeftefl part) declar- 
ed openly, that they could not, with- 
out a violation of their confcience, 
and the oaths they had taken to 
their country, draw their fwords in 
a war, undertaken without the con- 
fent of the ftates of the kingdom, 
and of courfe contrary to the con- 
ftitution. 

This unexpedled difgraceand mif- 
fortune, Guftavus was doomed to 
encounter at the fiege of Frederic- 
fham, where the officers, refafing to 
lead on the troops to the attack, and 
he appealing to the latter, on v/hom 
[/] he 



/ 



82] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



he ftlll relied, to his utter aftonlfli- 
ment and difmay, they generally 
laid down their arms. While the 
king feemed inextricably involved 
in thefe difficulties and dangers (for 
even the fafety of his perfon, in his 
own army, appeared to be fufficient- 
ly problematical) and that the feeds 
of diflention and difaffeftion were 
equally (hooting up in the capital 
and other places, the violent irrup- 
tion of the Danes from the fide of 
Norway, into the richefi: provinces 
of Sweden, feemed deftined to over- 
whelm him entirely. Under this 
addiional preffure, he was obliged 



to abandon the army in Finland, in 
its prefent uncertain and disjointed 
ftate, to the care of his fecond bro- 
ther the duke of Oftrogothia, while 
he undertook himfelf a perilous voy- 
age by fea, expofed to the greateft 
of all dangers, that of being cap- 
tured by a moft cruef and impla- 
cable foe, from whom deliverance 
could fcarcely be hoped ; and, after 
a fevere circuitous journey by land, 
proceeded to the fouthern extremity 
of hi« dominions, to oppofe, without 
troops or means, a new and very for- 
midable enemy. 



C H A P. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[83 



CHAP. 



IV. 



Cau/cs of the early meeting of parliament declared in the king' s fpeech ; dif~ 
putes in the United Pro-vinces ; i7itended interference of France ; declaration 
of the court of Great Britain; treaty n/jith Heffe Caffel; fucccfs of che 
P ruffian forces; fined accommodation ; fpeech of lord Fielding upon the 'works 
of Cherburgh ; of Mr. Fox upon continental alliances ; upon the difpofttions 
ef the French court; upon the fuhf diary treaty; the increafe of the army; 
and the appointment of admiral Pigot. Mr, Pittas reply to Mr. Fox on 
thofe fubjehs. Speeches in the houfe of lords; of the bijhop of Llandaff, upon 
our right of interference in Holland, and upon the balance of poixer ; of lord 
Stortnont, upon the fame fubjeSl, and the negligence of minijiers. Addreffes 
in both houfes, nem. con. State papers laid before parliament. Mr. Fox 
complains of the retention of the French notification ; anf'vcered by Mr. Pitt ; 
jnotion for an addrefs for that paper negatived. Debate on the fubfidiary 
treaty; objections of Mr. Fox; Mr. Pztt's defence. Opinion of Mr. Burke 
upo?i foreign alliances, and upon t/:e merits of the treaty. Debate on the 
augmentation of the land forces ; ohjeiled to by Mr. Fit%patrick and Mr. 
Fox ; defended by Mr. Pitt. Debate on the ordnance ejiimates ; on the plan 
of fortify i?ig the Wefi India ifands ; on the go'vcrtiment ?nanufaSIure of 
gunpO'-wder ; on the ne^w corps of artificers. Accoimt of the impeachment of 
Mr. Hafiijigs and Sir Elijah Impcy in the fe-venth chapter. 



Nov 27th -T^HE Interval be- 
' a X tween the pro- 

' ' * rogation of parliament, 
on the 30th of May 1787, and its 
fubfequent meeting on the 27th of 
November following, was not diftin- 
guifhed by any remarkable domef- 
tic occurrences. The fpeech from 
the throne contained a very full and 
explicit declaration of the reaions 
which induced the king to alfemble 
the two houfes at fo early a period. 
He informed them, that the difputes 
which fubfifted in the republic of 
the United Provinces had become fo 
critical as to endanger their coniHtu- 
tion and independence, and thereby 
likely in their confequences to affedt 
the interells of his dominions — That, 
upon this account, he had endea- 
voured by his good offices to main- 
tain the lanxful government in thofe 
countries, and had thought it necef- 
fary to explain his intention of coun- 



terafting all forcible interference on 
the part of France — That, in con- 
formity to this principle, when his 
. molt Cliriilian majefty, in confe- 
quence of an application for afliiU 
ance agalnfl the king of Pruffia, 
made by the party which had 
ufurped the government of Holland, 
had notified to him his intention of 
granting their requefl, he had de- 
clared that he fhould not remain a 
quiet fpeflator, and had given im- 
mediate oiders for augmenting his 
forces botli by fea and land — and 
that, in the courfe of ihefe tranfac- 
tions, he had thought proper to con- 
clude a fubfidiary treaty witfi the 
landgrave of Hefie Cafrel — That 
the rapid fuccefs of the PrulTian 
troops having foon after enabled 
the provinces to re-ellabliih their 
lai.vful government, and all lubjeds 
of conteft being thus removed, an 
\_F'\ z amicable 



84] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788, 



amicable explanation took place be- 
tween him and the moft Chxnftian 
king, and both parties had engaged 
to difarm, and to place their naval 
eilablifliments on the fame footing 
' as at the beginning of the year. 
His mnjefty next acquainted them 
with the friendly affarances he con- 
tinued to receive from all foreign 
power?, and with the war that had 
unfortunately broken out between 
Ruffia and the Porte. He further 
informed them of a convention, ex- 
planatory of the thirteenth article 
of the laft peaccj which had been 
agreed upon between him and the 
French king; and that he had or- 
dered copies of the feveral treaties 
and declarations, before referred to, 
to be laid before them. 

He then proceeded to inform the 
houfe of commons, that the ufual 
eflimates, together with an account 
of the extraordinary expences lately 
incurred, would be laid before them; 
and told them, that though he was 
always defirous of confining the 
public expences within the nar- 
lowefl: limits, which a prudent re- 
gard to the public fafety would per- 
mit, yet he muft at the fame time re- 
commend to their particular atten- 
tion to confider of proper means for 
maintaining his dittant poflefiions in 
an adequate pollure of defence. The 
fpeech concluded with fome general 
refieftions upon the flourifhing Hate 
of commerce and revenues, the ad- 
vantages to be expefted from the 
continuation of public tranquillity, 
and the ftrong tendency wliich, 
he was perfaaded, the zeal and una- 
nimity fliewn on the late occafion 
would have to fecure it. 

An addrefs in the ufual form was 
mov'ed in the houfe of common?, by 
the honourable Mr. Ryder, and fe- 
condud by Mr. Brooke, member for 



Newton, Lancalhire. The fubdancc 
of the addrefs met with the general 
concurrence of the. hoiafe ; but a Ihort 
debate took place upon a few to- 
pics arifing out of it. Lord Field- 
ing, after exprefiing the ftrongeft 
approbation of what had been done 
by his majefty's minifters upon the 
late occaiion, fuggefted a doubt, 
which had arifen in his own mind, 
whether or not they had fully availed 
themfelves of the favourable oppor- 
tunity that had prefented itfelf, and 
whether they might not, atid ought 
not, to have gone farther, and done 
more for the future fecurity of this 
country againft the ambition of 
France. The objed, he faid, which 
he had particularly in his view, was 
the demolition of the ftupendous 
works that were projefted and car- 
rying on at Cherburgh.— He ftated 
at large his opinion of their vafl: im- 
portance, not only as rendering our 
rival more formidable in herfelf, but 
as being evidently in their defign 
hoftile to this kingdom. He con- 
ceived, that as the manifeft fuperi- 
ority of this country had put it within 
our power to enforce, fo the great 
expence, which we had been obliged 
to incur, would juftify the demand of 
fome compenfation from the French 
court. The objecl he alluded to had 
been fliamefuUy overlooked, or cor- 
ruptly relinquifhed, in the laft treaty 
of peace; and he therefore defired 
to enter his proteft againft asy con- 
ftru«flion of his vote, that fhould 
pledge him to approve of tlie, mi- 
nifter's condufl, if it hereafter ap- 
peared that he had again neglefted 
this important objedl. 

Mr. Fox followed lord Fielding 
in expreffing the fuUeft approbation 
of the meafures that had been lately 
purfued, and took credit to himfelf, 
as one of thofe who had been inva- 
riably 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[85 



riably of opinion that this country 
ivas at all times deeply interefted in 
the fituation of affairs upon the con- 
tinent, and ought, whenever the oc- 
cafion required, to take an adive and 
vigorous part in preferving the ba- 
lance of power in Europe. This fyf- 
tem had been ridiculed by his adver- 
faries, upon former occaiions, as 
wild and romantic, and he had there- 
fore a peculiar fatisfaclion in finding 
it recognized in the fpeech from the 
throne, and purfued at a time wnen 
the heavy burdens, which had been 
laid upon the people, made it fo ex- 
tremely defirable to avoid every un- 
necefTary occafion of expence. Per- 
haps, he faid, it might have been 
better, and the whole of the expence 
lately incurred avoided, if thefe prin- 
ciples had been earlier adopted and 
a6led upon. 

Having expreffed his approbation 
of the fubftance of the fpeech and 
addrefs, he begged leave to make a 
few remarks upon particular paf- 
fages in them. He obfcrved, that 
it was afTerted, that the French king 
had notified his intention of afTiftlng 
the ufurping fadion in the province 
of Holland; but, upon looking into 
the counter-declaration, he found it 
roundly ailerted that the court of 
France never had fuch intention—^ 
rhis matter, he conceived, wanted 
explanation ; not that he had any 
doubt of the real defigns and in- 
tentions of the French, or that he 
fhould have trufted to their declara- 
tions, had they been pofitively made, 
but on account of the apparent con- 
tradidlion which the two alTertions 
implied. He then reminded the 
houfe, how frequently he had 
warned them of the perfidy and 
treacheroufnefs of France, when the 
commercial treaty was under difcuf- 
fion in the laft feffion, and that, ens of 



the principal arguments in fupport of 
that treaty was drawn from the 
friendly difpoiition of that nation, 
and the probability of its being con- 
firmed and perpetuated by a free 
commercial rntercourfe. He had 
been thought too fevere and uncan- 
did in the diltruft he had exprelled of 
thofe friendly profeffions; but the 
event had fully juftified him. Within 
one year from the conclufion of that 
treaty^ our new; friend, our faithful 
commercial ally, had engaged to 
fupport a party, ufurpers too of the 
lawful government of their country, 
v.'ho were well known to be hoftile 
to the effential interefls of this na- 
tion. 

Widi refpect to the fubfidiary 
treaty v/ith HeiTe CafTe], he thought 
it ncceflary to defer the dit'cufilon of 
it till the houfe was in pofieflion of 
fuller information. He approved in 
general of the principle of fuch 
treaties, fo far as they enabled us to 
reduce our military eitsblifhments at 
home, and to apply the public trea- 
fure to the increafe of our naval 
ftrength, the natural force of Great 
Britain. It remained to be feen 
whether this was defigned to be the 
eiFed of the prefent treaty, as like- 
wife whether it was merely intended 
to anf.ver the temporary purpofe of 
prefent neceiTuy, or was a part of 
fome general plan founded upon a 
permanent balls, and which, though 
It added fomewhat to the national 
expence, was convertible to the na- 
tional fervice whenever occafion 
fhould require. Such a plan he 
fhould expeft from hismajeiiy's mi- 
nifters. as one of the beneficial ef- 
feds of the refloration of the inde- 
pendence of the United Provinces, 

The agreement that had been en- 
tered into for mutually difarming, 
required alio further explanation.-— 
IF] 5 The 



86] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



The propriety cf fuch an engage- 
ment would greatly depend upon 
the real and effeftive Hate of the na- 
val eftablifhments of the two coun- 
tries at the beginning of the year 
mentioned, and upon the conllruc- 
tion that was put upon it with re- 
fpect to any future occafions for in- 
creafmg it. One thing he remark- 
ed, that the fpeech ftated that the 
forces of this country had been aug- 
mented both by fea and land ; 
whereas in the agreement it ap- 
peared that the naval eftablifhment 
only was to be reduced. He con- 
cluded therefore from that circum- 
ftance, and more particularly from 
that part of the. fpeech where the 
attention of the houfe was called to 
the proper means for maintaining 
our diilant pofTcfT'or.s in an adequate, 
pofture of defence, that it was the 
intention of government to increafe 
the land force of the" nation. If 
any circum fiances had arifen which 
demonflrated the neceffity of fuch a 
m.eafure, they would doubtlefs be 
laid before the houfe, which would 
then judge, whether the prefent 
peace eftablifhment, which, having 
obtained the fantflion of parliament, 
ought to be prefumed to have been, 
at Jeaft oiiginally, adequate, was in 
fad now adequate to its purpofe or 
not." 

Mr, Fox concluded with compli- 
menting the minifter) v.ho had the 
diretlion cf our naval affairs, for the 
choice he had made of an officer to 
command the grand fleet upon the 
late occafion. Thir, he trufted, 
would be a full anfwer to the ca- 
lumnies of thofe, who had objeded 
to thp^oraination of admiral Figct 
to the command of the Weil India 
■fl'e'et in 1782, fince it proved that 
tie perfons, who were now at the 
head' of the admiralty, entertained 



as high an opinion of that officer's 
charafter and profeffional abilities, 
as he and thofe connected with him 
had done. 

Mr. Pitt followed Mr. Fox; and, 
after expreffing his fatisfaftion at 
the unanimity which prevailed in 
the houfe, gave a fhort reply to the 
obfervations made by the latter gen- 
tleman. With refpeft to continental 
alliances, he faid, that he perfedly 
agreed with him in the general prin- 
ciples he had laid down ; that the 
right honourable member, by claim- 
ing them as exclufively his own, had 
bound himfelf by the Itrongeft tie to 
maintain and fupport them ; and 
that he fhould not, therefore, en- 
deavour to weaken that tie, nor at- 
tempt to m.ake him lefs in love with 
them, than he appeared to be at 
prefent, by affuming to himfelf an 
equal honour in having long fince 
adopted them. He alio affured the 
houfe, that all proper fleps had been, 
and would continue to be taken, for 
the purpofe of fecuring, by a flrid: 
alliance with the United Provinces, 
all the advantages which could be 
derived from the late fuccefsful ex- 
ertions. 

With regard to fubfidiary treaties, 
he did not entirely agree in the doc- 
trine that had been laid down, that 
they were only to be juftified upon 
a fuppofition of their enabling this 
country to reduce our own military 
eftablilhment, or to increafe our na- 
val force. He fhewed that the latter 
meafure might, under marycircum- 
Ilnnces, be neither fafe nor expedi- 
ent ; and yet at the fame time it 
might be highly advantageous to 
have reccurfe to the former. The 
treaty with the landgrave of Heffe 
Cafiel, he faid, had been entered in- 
to merely on the fpur of the occa- 
fion, but it had fmce been enlarged, 

aiid 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[87 



and put upon fuch a footing as would 
make it ufeful upon any further e- 
mergency ; and he did not doubt, 
when it fliould come to be difcufled, 
but that it would meet with the per- 
fe6l approbation of the houfe. 

Upon the propofed increafe of the 
military eftablifhment, he obferved, 
that the right honourable member 
had fuggefted a ground of difcuffion, 
which he fhould be extremely un- 
willing to enter upon ; and that he 
fhould always be averfe from the 
praftice of confidering how far mea- 
sures propofed to be adopted, might 
have a tendency to juftify or con- 
demn fuch as had already been pur- 
fued. Such a pradlice would fet up 
a dangerous influence over miniflers, 
and might be a temptation to them 
to perfevere in errors of their own, 
left they Ihould appear to acknow- 
ledge them, and to abandon the mOil 
prudent inftitutions of their prede- 
celTors, left they fhould bear tefti- 
mony to their wifdom. He there- 
fore did not conceivs it neceffary to 
enquire whether the prefent ella- 
blilhmen: had been too fmall origi- 
nally, or whether a change of cir- 
cumftances had made it fo: all that 
would be necefTary for their conli- 
deration was, what degree of force 
was aSually necefTary for our de- 
fence. Meafures of this nature were 
unavoidably adopted by parliament, 
in a great meafure, upon the credit 
of the executive government. They 
were therefore to be confidered as 
the meafures of minifters ; and, whe- 
ther he had himfelf made the origi- 
nal arrangement, or had found it, 
as in the prefent cafe, made to his 
hands by a preceding adminiftration, 
he Ihould never, t© avoid the ac- 
knowledgment or detection of an 
error, incur the guilt and danger of 
continuing it, after he had found it 
to be fo. He did not heficate to ac- 



knowledge, that the late important 
crifis had led him to look more care- 
fully and minutely into the ftate of 
our feveral eftablifhments, than he 
before had occafion to do ; the con- 
fequence of which was a firm per- 
fuafion, that, in the prefent fituation 
of the country, they were not ade- 
quate to their objeft, that is, to the 
keeping our pofTeffions in fuch a Itate 
of fecurity, as to leave no reafonable 
room for anxiety on their account, 
without appropriating to their de- 
fence that force, which, in cafe hofti- 
lities fhould at any future period be- 
come unavoidable, the immediate 
objedl of the war might demand. 

In the houfe of lords the addrefs 
was moved by the earl of Harrington, 
and feconded by lord Bulkeley. Af- 
ter which the bifhop of LlandafFrcfe 
to exprefs the fatisfadion he had felt 
in feeing the republic of the United 
Provinces again united in their views, 
as he had always confidered them to 
be infeparably united in one common 
intereft with Great Britain. One dif- 
ficulty, which he conceived to be of 
fome importance,had occurred to him 
in weighing the fubje.^:, and he beg- 
ged leave to ftate it to their lordfhips. 
It was, on what principles of the 
law of nature and nations had Great 
Britain and Pruffia a right to inter- 
fere by force in fettling the internal 
difputes of an independant ftate ? 
Was it a right which every individu- 
al poftefTes, of affifting thofc whom he 
fees opprefl'ed bv unjuft force ? No: 
that would be to take the queftion 
for granted, fince the opponents of 
the itadtholder will not allow tliat he 
was opprcifed by unjuft force. Was 
it the right of afTiiling the majority 
of a country to recover their ancient 
civil conftitutlon from the incroach- 
ments and ufurpatio'.i of a faction? 
He hoped thefadt would b;ar out fuch 
a juftitication ; but he was not well 
i^F] 4. enougli 



8B] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788- 

enough acquainted with the wifhes 
of the majority of the Dutch nation 
upon that head. Upon what other 
ground did he approve of our late 
interference ? It was on the ground 
of felf-prefervation ; for if France 
had gained Holland, we had been 
undone. When it is faid that Hol- 
land and the other ftates of Europe 
are independant ftates, the propofi- 
tion is true only on a certain consi- 
deration: for they all depend one 
upon another, like the links of a 
chain J and it' is the bufmefs of each 
to watch every other, left any one 
become fo weighty and powerful as 
to endanger the fecurity or political 
importance of every other. 

The biftiop of Llandaff" was fol- 
lowed by lord vifcount Stormont, 
\*ho, after joining in the general 
approbation of the late meafures, 
reminded the members of admini- 
llration of their credulity and blind- 
3iefs, in trufting to the friendly dif- 
■pofition of the court of France ; and 
"of the ill-humour with which they 
3iad borne the warnings and cautions 
*hat had been given them, when the 
commercial treaty was under dif- 
cuflion. It now remained no longer 
a fecret, that the cabinet of Verfailles 
%vas at that very period exerting every 
engine of intrigue to ruin our inte- 
Tefts in Holland, and to poffefs itfelf 
of an abfolute control over the Uni- 
ted Provinces. To judge from the 
language of the fpeech, one would 
be led to fuppofe that the difturban- 
ces in Holland had originated within 
a ftiort time preceding the late re- 
volution : whereas in fadl, admini- 
ftration had, with an unpardonable 
fupinenefs and indifference, fufFered 
the ftadtholder to be driven from 
the Hague, to be diverted of his moft 
eflenti^l rights, and his authority to 



be nearly extirpated, before they 
took any fteps to relieve him; and, 
if this country had now recovered 
her ancient influence and connexion 
with the United States, it was rather 
to be attributed to fmgular and un- 
forefeen occurrences, than to the 
wifdom and forefight of minifters. 
— The addrelTes were finally agreed 
to, in both houfes, nem. con. 

On the twenty-ninth, -j^ , 

the chancellor of the ^ov.29tii. 
exchequer, by his majefty's com- 
mand, prefented the following pa- 
pers to the houfe * : — A copy of the 
declaration and counter-declaration 
ligned at Verfailles on the 27th of 
Odlober, 1787: — A copy of the 
treaty with the landgrave of Heffe 
Caffel, figned on the 2Sth of Sep- 
tember, 1787: — A copy of the con- 
vention between his Britannic ma- 
jefty and the moft Chriftian king, 
figned at Verfailles on the 3 1 ft of 
Auguft, 1787 : — and. An account of 
the expences incurred by the late 
armament, amounting, for the land 
forces, to £. 59,878 ; for the naval 
department to £. 175,407 ; for the 
ordnance to j^. 18,300; for fecret fer- 
vices_^. 83,166: in all to j^. 336,751. 

Upon the produftion of thefe pa- 
pers Mr. Fox remarked, that two 
papers were omitted, which he con- 
ceived to be very material for the 
information of the houfe upon the 
fubjeft appointed for their difcuf- 
fion, namely, the notification made 
on the i6t'h of September by the 
French minifter, announcing that 
fuccours would be given in Holland ; 
and the refolutions imparted by the 
king of Pruffia, and alluded to in the 
counter-declaration. Mr. Pitt faid, 
in reply, that the notification in 
queftion was mixed with other mat- 
ter, in an official difpatch received 



l-zQ State Papws. 



by 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[89 



by the French minifter in London 
from the court of France, and read 
by him to the minifters of this coun- 
try ; they had afterwards indeed pro- 
cured a copy of this paper, but 
that no further information, refpedl- 
ing the objeft to be difcufTed, could 
be obtained from it, than what was 
contained in the fpeech from the 
throne, and that the other parts of 
the difpatch were of a nature that 
made them extremely unfit to be 
laid upon the table of the houfe. 
With refpeft to the refolutions no- 
tified by the king of Pruffia to the 
court of Verfailles, he fhould be 
ready to ftate them to the houfe 
when called upon, but he did not 
conceive there were any reafons that 
could make it neceifary that they 
fhould be laid upon the table. This 
account not appearing fatisfadtory to 
the members in oppofition, Mr. Fox 
moved the houfe, on the Monday fol- 
lowing, for an addrefs to his majefty, 
" that he would diredt copies or 
extrafts from any notification made 
by the court of France, of the inten- 
tion of the moft Chriilian king to in- 
terfere by force in the affairs of Hol- 
land, to be laid before the houfe." 
He contended, that, parliamentarily 
fpeaking, the houfe had not any 
proof before them, that the court 
of France had ever had any inten- 
tion of interfering in the affairs of 
the Dutch provinces; that, on th? 
contrary, fuch intention was exprefsly 
difavowed in the counter-declara- 
tion ; and, confequently, that the 
houfe could not with propriety pro- 
nounce their approbation of the late 
armaments, or provide for the ex- 
pences thereby incurred, while there 
appeared, on the face of the evi- 
dence laid before them, a b.'-oad and 
grofs declaration that there never 
had exilled a reafcn for thofe pre- 



parations, and that declaration fo- 
lemnly made in a public inllru- 
ment. Mr. Pitt, on the other hand, 
infifted, that the intimation of the 
faft conveyed in the fpeech from 
the throne, was fufficient for the 
houfe to ground their proceedings 
upon, iince no perfon, he believed, 
would venture to fuggeft a doubt of 
its reality ; and that, with refpedt to 
the apparent contradidtion fo often 
alluded to, it doubtlefs would admit 
of explanation. In the paper moved 
for, the king of France had not ex- 
prefsly declared, that he would in- 
terfere in the internal concerns of 
the United Provinces by force ; but 
that the ftates of Holland having, 
on the approach of the Pruffian ar- 
my, applied to him for afiiltance 
againft that armament, he had de- 
termined to afford them affiilance; 
a meafure, which though not im- 
plying in terms a diredt intention of 
uling force, appeared to his ma- 
jefty's fervants fufficient to juftify 
the preparations that had been made. 
After a fiiort debate, Mr. Fox's 
motion was negatived without a di- 
viiion. 

On the cth of De- t^ , 

cember, the day ap- ■> 

pointed for taking into coniidera- 
tion the fubfidiary treaty with the 
landgrave of Hefie Caffel, Mr. Pitt 
role and moved, " That a fum, not 
exceeding ^.36,093, be granted for 
the fubfidy to the prince of Heffe 
CalTel, for the year 1788." Mr. Fox 
obferved, that before the houfe con- 
curred in this vote, it was necsffary 
they fhould receive fome farther in- 
formation, than they had hitherto 
been favoured with, refpefting the 
general plan of foreign alliance 
which government intended to pur- 
fue. It was from its reference to 
and connexion Vvith fuch a plan, that 

the 



9o] ANNUAL REGISTER, 17! 



the merits of the treaty In queftion 
eould alone be fairly decided upon ; 
and, though he was ready to vote 
the fubfidy required, as a part of 
that plan, yet if, for reafons which 
fee allowed might exift, no further 
communication could at prefent be 
made, he hoped that he ihould not 
be confidered as pledging himfelf, 
by fuch a vote, to fupport any future 
meafure that might be propofed as 
a confequence of the Hefiian treaty. 
He then proceeded to make a few 
remarks upon particular parts of the 
treaty. He objected to the limita- 
tion, by which the Heffian troops 
were to be employed in no part of 
the Britiili dominions, except Great 
i^ritain and Ireland ; the reverfe of 
this arrangement he lliould have 
thought more advifeable, becaufe he 
conceived there was little probability 
of thofe troops being required to 
fcrve in thofe iilands, but they might 
be of great fervice in Gibraltar, 
.America, or the Weft Indies. 

Mr. Pitt, in reply, repeated what 
he had faid on a former day, that 
the Heflian treaty formed but a part 
of a general fyftem, which it would 
doubtlefs be improper for him at 
that time to detail, but which, he 
was confident, would be entitled to 
the approbation of the houfe. In 
defence of the ftipulation of not em- 
ploying the fubfidiary troops beyond 
fea, he intimated, that the fervices 
jnoll: probably to be expefted from 
them would be upon the continent, 
where the part we had lately taken, 
and the connexions we had formed, 
nught, in cafe of a rupture u'ith any 
foreign power, afford us an oppor- 
tanity of employing them with fin- 
gular advantage. The only queftion 
iherefore, which he conceived to be 
before the houfe, -was, whether it 
was aivifeabie fyr this nation to 



give the landgrave of Hefle Caflet 
^^.36,000 a year by way of a retain- 
ing fee, to hold him in our interefts, 
and for an afliftance, in cafe of need, 
of 12,000 troops, without any de- 
fignation of the place or manner in 
which thofe troops were eventually 
to be employed. 

Mr. Burke followed Mr. Pitt, and 
exprefied his entire approbation of 
the fyftem of meafures that had late- 
ly been purfued,with refpeft to Hol- 
land, and the renewal of continental 
connexions. Subfidiary treaties, as 
applicable to and a neceffary branch of 
fuch a fyftem, he confidered as mea- 
fures generally advifeable, and pecu- 
liarly adapted to the circumftances 
of this country. But, in proportion 
as fuch a fyftem was in itfelf prudent 
and advifeable, it ought to be con- 
ftrudled and put together with the 
moft wary caution, fo that all its 
parts fhould fit and adhere clofely 
together, and by its ftrength and fta- 
bility infure the good efpeds that 
were to be expefted from it. The 
utmoft care ought to be taken 
to prevent fuch excellent fyftems 
from being difgraced and difcre- 
ditcd by imperfeftions and mif- 
chievous confequences refulting from 
the want of forefight in their ori- 
ginal conRruiftion. It was thefe mif- 
chievous confequences that had put 
many great and good men out of 
humour with continental alliances ; 
and therefore, in proportion to the 
real policy of the meafure itfelf, a 
provident regard ought to be had to 
the prejudices of mankind, in order, 
at leaft, not to make them lefs fond 
of them. 

With regard to the prefent treaty, 
the whole efFeft of it was not, as had 
been ftated, merely the giving the 
landgrave of Hefle Caflel a retaining 
fee of 36,000 1. per annum. The 
landgrave 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[91 



landgrave was too wife a prince to 
engage to furniih Great Britain with 
iZjOOO men for fuch a confideration. 
The quantum of banco crowps was 
not the only, nor, in fadt, the molt 
confiderable advantage to be even- 
tually derived from the treaty by 
him. By the treaty this country 
flipulated to guaranty the dominions 
of the landgrave, and might there- 
fore be involved in a war, in confe- 
quence of that ftipulation. Should 
that event happen, inftead of re- 
ceiving the aid of iz,ooo troops, 
we might have to aid that prince 
with 100,000. It required there- 
fore more confideration, to form a 
judgment upon the balance of ad- 
vantage and difadvantage likely to 
refult from the treaty, than might 
at firft be imagined. He took it for 
granted, that minilters had taken 
the neceflary meafures to guard 
againft the landgrave's being in- 
volved in, a war on account of the 
prefent treaty, or to provide for his 
fupport in cafe of an attack. If 
this fyftem of our continental con- 
nexions (of which he took the pre- 
fent treaty to be only a fmall part) 
was not formed v.'ith a provilion for 
that event, the fyftem was an inade- 
quate and bad fyftem, and of con- 
fequence the treaty a difadvanta- 
geous treaty. Mr. Burke followed 
up thefe general remarks, with a 
view of the ftate of our alliances, 
and of the balance of power in Eu- 
rope, and concluded with making a 
few obfervations upon the introduc- 
tion of foreign troops into this ifland. 
He reminded tlie houfe of the jea- 
loufy that had always manife!led it- 
felf in this country upon that fub- 
jedl; and particularly in the year 
1755, when Hefiians were laft em- 
ployed in England. At that period, 
the popular alarm had increai'ed to 



Dec. icth. 



fuch an height, that the dread of the 
danger that threatened at the time, 
an invafion, was much lefs than the 
dread of the means that were re- 
forted to for its prevention. Mr. 
Burke begged to be confidered, in 
the mention of thefe fads, rather as 
the narrator of jealoufies which had 
prevailed, and at the fame time were 
certainly to be confidered as cha- 
radleriftic feelings of the nation, than 
as the foreteller of their revival, in 
confequence of the prefent treaty. 
The motion was agreed to, nem. 
con. 

On the loth of the 
fame month, the Secre- 
tary at war brought forward the 
augmentation of the land forces, 
which he faid was propofed to be 
efFefted by re-eftablifhing the third 
and fourth battalions of the lixtieth 
regiment, and increaiing the num- 
ber of men in the regiments on the 
Weft India fervice; the augmenta- 
tion amounting in the whole to 
3,064 men. At the fame time he 
informed the houfe, that his maje.fty 
had been gracioufly pl»afed to de- 
clare, that, as his houfehold troops 
were not, in proportion to their ex- 
pences, fo materially conducive to 
the ftrength and fecurity of the 
kingdom as the other forces ; and, 
as the augmentation propofed would 
be the caufe of laying additional 
burthens upon his fubjeds ; he was 
willing to contribute his fhare, by 
facrificing ornament to fervice, in 
fuch a redudion of his houfehold 
troops, as (hould be deemed necef- 
fary and proper. 

Thefe propofitions gave rife to a 
long and interefting debate. It was 
argued by colonel Fitzpatrick and 
IVlr. P'ox, that the peace eftablifh- 
ment of the army, as fettled by the 
adminiltration of 178c, had been 
adopted 



92] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 

adopted upon a view of the com- 
parative ftate of our foreign pofTef- 
iions, at the conclufion of tiie peace 
of AJx-la-Chapelle, in 1749^ and at 
the peace of 1762, and of the elta- 
blifhments that were thought ne- 
ceffary at thofe two periods. It had 
been held in the yezr 1763, when 
the whole of North America was 
in our hands, that the eUablifhrnent 
ought to be larger than it was in 
1749, ^"h^^ 2 great part of Loui- 
fiana, part of Nova Scotia, and all 
Canada, were in the hands of the 
French. In the eilablifhment, there- 
fore, of 1783, when we had loft 
thirteen entire colonies, and alfo the 
ifland of Minorca, a medium had 
been taken between the eilablifh- 
ments of 1749 "^^^ 1762; and this 
eftablilhment, allowing the force of 
the argument upon which it was 
founded, might certainly have been 
o/rje6ted to (and in fail it had aftu- 
:Jly been objected to by a confiden- 
tial friend of the prefent minifters) 
as too large and expenfive for the 
reduced flate of the empire. On 
what grounds therefore were they 
now called upon to vote it too fmall 
and ccntradled ? Minifters had de- 
clared, that, upon a minute inquiry 
into the Hate of defence of our 
weftern poffeflions, they had found 
them fubjeBs rather of anxiety than 
comfort : and that this opinion had 
been coniirmed by the reports of the 
officers commanding in the Weft In- 
dies, who had been feverallyconfulted 
upon the force which each thought 
requifitefcr the fecurity of the illand 
he commanded. 

Upon the firft of thefe points, it 
was urged, that, unlefs pailiament 
meant to refign, in compliment to the 
prefent adminirxration,all pretenfions 
to inveftigation, check, and controul, 
they were bound to proceed up- 



on more folid ground than the mere 
words of miniliers, before they au- 
thorized an innovation fo burthen- 
fome in the expence, and odious to 
the fentiments of their confatuents. 
Many cafes there undcubtedly were, 
in which it was both wife and necef- 
fary to place a full conridence in 
minifters. Such a proof of tlieir 
confidence they had lately given, in 
voting 80,000 1. for the fecret fer- 
vice money expended during the 
late tranfaftions on the continent. 
Even in the prefent cafe, had the 
augmentation propofed been tem- 
porary, and the minifter had declar- 
ed, that he had reafons fufiiciently 
cogent, but which he could not at 
prefent fafely explain, for demand- 
ing it, they might have been in- 
duced, without betraying their truft, 
to have given him credit for the va- 
lidity of thofe reafons. But in a 
meafure fo important, in every point 
of view, as the prefent, and which 
was meant to be permanent and 
unalterable, they were bound in duty 
to call for the reafons upon which it 
was grounded, and to examine them 
with the utmoft care and attention. 

With refpedl to the fecond point, 
the opinions of our commanders 
abroad, it was contended, that they 
by no means afforded a fatisfaiStory 
gromid for increafmg car prefent 
eftablilhment. It was obvious that 
each commander of an ifland would 
demand as large a force as he 
thought adequate to his defence on 
his own particular fituation, and 
would govern himfelf, in fuch requi- 
fjtion, merely by a regard to his own 
refponfibility ; whereas, in judging 
of an adequate peace eftabliflimenc 
for all the poffeirions of Great Bri- 
tain, the whole would depend upon 
a general view of all its parts, and 
their relative exigencies. 

Am', 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[93 



And, as the houfe was thus left 
without any folid foundation upon 
which they could ground the vote 
propofed, fo neither was there any 
rational fp?culation upon it could be 
fupported. The late tranfaftions up- 
on the continent, upon which fo 
much applaufe had been defervedly 
beftowed, were chiefly entitled to it 
upon the account, that by creating a 
diverflon for France nearer home, we 
thereby weakened her power of hoftile 
attack abroad. It would naturally 
be expeifled that fuch a circumRance 
would enable the houfe to fave the 
money of their conftituents, and to 
leffen their peace eftabliO^.ment, in- 
ftead of inducing them to augment 
it. For whence arofe our appre- 
henfions ? If for our new friends, 
if the neceflity of increafmg our 
army, and taking the Jafl: (hilling 
out of the pockets of their confti- 
tuents, arofe from our late alliances, 
greatly and univerfally as fuch alli- 
ances and connexions had hitherto 
been applauded, they ought for ever 
to be abandoned and abjured. In 
fhorr, if thofe tranfactions fliould be 
found to terminate in the difarminc- 
of our naval armament, as llipulat- 
ed in the agreement with the French 
king, and in adopting the propofed 
augmentation of our land forces, 
France, and not we, would have 
caufe to triumph in the event. She 
would obtain a great and a rational 
objeft : ihe had at no time been 
unwilling that we fliould augment 
our army ; ftie knew that it was the 
increafe of our navy only that fhe 
had to dread. 

In the lall place, much was faid 
upon the policy of ceconomy ; and 
it was contended, tjiat it was by a 
judicious faving of our refouices 
alone, that we could enable our- 
felves to meet a war with probabi- 



lity of fuccefs. The example of 
France was Itrongly urged. She 
had an effedive army of i6o,cco 
men, a powerful marine, and her 
frontier towns Itrongly fortified, and 
in complete repaii-. What then 
could have induced her to fubmit to 
the difgrace refulting from her late 
conduit, but her inability to go tt» 
war, in confequence of the mifcrabic 
Itate of her finances, exhaufted by 
the impolitic extent of her military 
eitablithments. Mr. Fox declared, 
that when, in oppofuion to m.any of 
his own moft refpeftable friends, he 
fupported lalt year the propofition of 
not calling out the militia fo fre- 
quently as ufual, he did it entirely 
from a confidcration, that the ceco- 
nomy of the meafure would be a 
greater national advantage, than any 
benefit that could refult from con- 
tinuing to embody them fo fre- 
quently as had been done before : 
but he did not therefore approve of 
fupplying that force by the intro- 
duction of foreign troops into this 
country ; and he thought it rather 
extraordinary, that the fon of lord 
Chatham, who had been a ftrenuous 
advocate for the militia, and for a re- 
duced land but a ilrong naval force, 
fhould countenance the introdufiion 
of mercenary troops in preference 
to CLiJling out the militia, and con- 
fent to a ilipulatioa with France, to 
reduce the naval armam.cnts of the 
country, and then come forward with 
a propofition for an augmentation of 
the army. 

The propriety of the augmenta- 
tion propofed was principaJIy de- 
fended by Mr. Fitt. With refpe£t 
to the unlimited confidence which 
the houfe liad been fo zeajoufly cau- 
tioned againit repofing in minillers, 
he acknowledged, that the occafions 
for luch confidence were always to 

be 



94] ANNUAL REGISTER, 17! 

be lamented, as well by thofe who 
were to grant it, as by thofe, wlio, 
in confequence of the grant, were 
obliged to take upon them a deep 
and extenfive refponfibility. That 
fcch occafions, however, might oc- 
cur, he prefumed, would not be 
denied ; and he contended that the 
prefent was of that nature, fince it 
was obvious, that it would be highly 
improper for him to enter into any 
detail refpeftlng the defence of our 
dirtant polTeffions, or to proclaim in 
what particulars the iflands were 
thought vulnerable, unlefs firength- 
ened by an additional force. 

The objedions that had been 
made to the opinions of ofRcers com- 
manding in the Weft India iflands, 
had proceeded upon a falfe fuppo- 
fition. Their opinion had never 
been afked upon the whole force 
necelTary for the defence of all our 
foreign poirefTions, nor was it ever 
intended precifely to calculate the 
whole, by the mere addition of what 
was required for each part feparate- 
]y; but government, after having 
afcertained, through the knowledge 
and experience of thofe who had 
been on the fpct, what might be 
confidcred as a force adequate to 
the defence of each individual ifland, 
would undoubtedly form a general 
plan for the proteftion of the whole, 
with a due regard to the relative 
circumftances of each, and to a vari- 
ety of other confiderations, which it 
would be neceffary to take into the 
account. And furely it was ridi- 
culous to fuppofe, that government 
Ihould be able to form a compre- 
henfive permanent eftablifliment for 
this purpofe, by mere inftinft, and 
without any previous confuUation 
with fuch pcrfons as were moil, able 
to furnifii them with the information 
that was necefiary in the detail. 



The arguments taken from the <* 
late events on the continent were, he 
contended, inapplicable to the matter 
in queftion ; fince, whatever conclu- 
fion was drawn from them, the ne- 
ceffity of having our diftant poflef- 
feffions at all times in a pofture of 
defence, and fecure againft furprize, 
would remain the fame. It had 
indeed been infmuated, that he had 
ihewn a prediledlion for defending 
them by a land, rather than a naval 
force. This was an argument adapt- 
ed to the prejudices, he was ready 
to admit, the laudable prejudices,of 
that houfe ; but he was. convinced, 
that, upon examination, it would ap- 
pear merely calculated to ferve a 
popular turn. He fliould take it for 
granted, that the Weft India iflands 
were objedls of fuch importance to 
this country, as to make their fecu- 
rity a matter of the firft conlidera- 
tion. There were but three ways 
by which this could be attempted : 
either by keeping a large ftationary 
fleet in the Weft Indies; by fead- 
ing out fuccours on the profpe6l of 
any rupture ; or by keeping a mili- 
tary force upon the iflands, equal to 
their defence againft fudden fur- 
prize. Experience had proved that 
a naval force alone could not proteft 
them, fince, with a large fleet in the 
Weft Indies laft war, fometimes fu- 
perior to that of the enemy, the 
French had wrefted feveral of the 
iflands from us. With regard to 
the fecond expedient, to fay nothing 
of an attack without a'previous de- 
claration of war, it might happen 
to be inconvenient or unfafe to de- 
tach any part of our force from 
Europe ; and if it were not, our 
fuccours, from a variety of caufes, 
might not arrive in time to prevent 
the mifchief. The laft therefore ap- 
peared clearly to him the moft eli- 
gible 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



\.9S 



glble mode of accomplifhing this 
objeft, and the more fo, when it was 
confidered, that, from the difperfion 
and diftance of the iflands, and the 
peculiarities of that climate, with 
refpedl to winds and currents, it 
would fometimes be abfolutely im- 
poffible for a fleet to afford that 
ipeedy relief which the occafion 
might require, unlefs there was a 
fufficient military force upon the 
ifland to fecure it from furprize. 

Upon the fubjeft of osconomy he 
obferved, that his opinions were well 
known upon that article, and that, 
from the fituation he held in his 
majelty's fervice, no one could be 
more anxioufly interefled in it than 
he was. But, he contended, that 
every moderate expence, by which 
Ae continuance of peace could be 
more firmly infured, was true ceco- 
nomy, and the beft ceconomy this 
country could purfue. It was upon 
this principle, and after a due con- 
fideration of the prefent ftate of our 
finances, that it appeared to him 
well worth our while to lay out 
80,000 1. annually, the fum which 
the propofed augmentation would 
coft, for the purpofe of keeping our 
diflant pofTefTions in fuch a confrant 
psfture of defence, as might deter 
any hoftile power from attempting 
to wrefl them by furprize from us : 
to adl otherwife, to tempt an attack 
by leaving them expofed and de- 
fencelefs, would be to be fp?i.ring of 
our wealth, and lavifn of the prof- 
perity of the Britilh empire. 

It having been remarked, in the 
courfe of the debate, by general 
Burgoyne, that the plan of augment- 
ing the forces in the Wefl indies, 
feemed neceflarily to imply a cor- 
lefpondent fyitem of fortifacatlon in 
that quarter, and that feme expla- 
nation of the intentions of govern- 
t 



ment upon that point was requifue 
for the information of the houfe ; 
Mr. Pitt avowed that fome addi- 
tional fortifications, upon a moderate 
fcale, and with a view to render the 
military force more eflicieai, was 
intended, and was fo connetfled with 
the plan of augmenting the land 
force to be ftationed there, that it 
might be confidered as an indifpen- 
fable part of it. For the propriety 
of this meafure, they had not only 
the fandion of a board of Englifb 
general officers, but that of the moft 
eminent French engineers ; fince not 
only every ifland belonging to that 
nation was fortified, but they alio 
had begun to fortify thofe they took 
from us in the lafl war, as foon as 
they came into their hands. 

This avowal of Mr. Pitt's, called 
up Mr. Fox again, who urged, in the 
mofl er.rneft manner, the neceffity 
of a more full and accurate invefti- 
gation of the fubjedl, before they 
proceeded to authorize a meafure, of 
the extent and expences of which 
they were left in total ignorance. Mr. 
Pitt aiTured the houfe, in reply, that 
the whole of the expence of the in- 
tended fortifications would not ex- 
ceed 2co,oooI. ; that the works 
propofed would necefTarily take fome 
years in completing ; and confe- 
quently, that the additional annual 
expence to tiie nation would be very 
trifling. 

A divifion at length took place 
upon the motion, that 315,86^1. 
be granted for the forces for the 
plantations and Gibraltar, for the 
year 1788; when there appeared, 
ayes 242, noes 80. 

The eflimates for the ordnance 
were afterwards broujrht forward ; 
and a motion being made, that the 
confideration of them ll.ould be ;-d- 
jcurned to the next day, Uie fame 

was 



^6} ANNUAL REGISTER, 178I 



was reje£led by a large majority ; 
and a gfant for the amount of the 
elHmates was voted without debate. 

, T>. The latenefs of the 

i7tnDec. , ^ u- i. .1 j 

' hour at which the ord- 

nance eftimates were voted, having 
prevented the difcuflion of them 
upon the loth, Mr. Sheridan took 
occafion to introduce that fubjedl 
again into the houfe upon Monday 
the 17th. The intention of govern- 
ment to fortify the Welt India 
iflands had, he (aid, been candidly 
avowed, and the limits of the ex- 
pencc, in a loofe way, afcertained. 
But, he conceived, that before par- 
liament gave its final fandlion, either 
to the propofed augmentation of the 
army, or to eftimates of the ord- 
nance, it was neceffary they fliould 
underftand more accurately the pro- 
pofed extent of the fyftem of fortifi- 
cation to be adopted for the Weft 
Indies. They had been reprefented 
as neceffary to give efficiency to troops 
tliat were to be ftaticned there, and 
perhaps, the next year, the houfe 
might be called upon to vote more 
troops as neceffary to give efficiency 
to the fortifications. In a report of 
the board of ordnance, laid upon the 
table of that houfe in the year 1783, 
by the prefent mafter- general, the 
duke of Richmond, his grace had 
fuggefted a fyftem of fortification, 
both at home and abroad, which, fo 
far as related to the former part, had 
been fully difcufled in that houfe 
and rejedled. The prefent propofal 
of fortifying the Weft Indies, was a 
part of that original plan, and not, 
as the minifter had pretended, a new 
idea arifing out of new circumftan- 
ces. In order, therefore, to roufe 
the houfe to a due attention to the 
important fubjects before them, he 
Ihould move, " That there fhould 
" be laid before the houfe, an efti- 
" mate of the cxpence of compleat- 



" ing the fortifications intended in 
" the Weft Indies, with an account 
" of the number of troops neceffary 
" to garrifon the whole." 

Mr. Sheridan obferved, that there 
were fome other articles in the ord- 
nance eftimates which required ani- 
madverfion. Amongft the reft, a 
charge of £. 10,000 for the pur- 
chafe of powder-mills at Wakham 
Abbey, upon a projeft of govern- 
ment's manufafturing powder there 
for its own ufe ; a projeft which, he 
thought, in every point of view, ab- 
furd and impolitic, as it tended to 
diftrefs and perhaps deftroy the gun- 
powder manufaflures of the country, 
to fubftitute an unfair monopoly in 
the hands of government, and as the 
expence attending the eftabliftiment 
was fo enormous, that every pound 
of powder coft four times the price 
at which it was fold by the manu- 
fadlurers ; a fadl that had been al- 
ready afcertained from the expe- 
rience of the royal powder mills at 
Feverftiam. 

Another moft fingular and extra- 
ordinary projeft was, that of raifing 
a corps of artificers, to confift of 
600 men, and dividing them into fix 
companies. Mr. Sheridan ridi- 
culed with great fuccefs the idea of 
putting artificers under martial law, 
and fubjedling them to military dif- 
cipline, — He did not conceive, he 
faid, that men, capable of earning 
half a crown a day, would enlift as 
foldiers, and work in their refpedive 
occupations, at one-third of thatfum, 
for the mere douceur of military 
difcipline. With regard to the 
ceconomy of the meafure, he re- 
marked, that in the report of 1783, 
before alluded to, the mafter-generaJ 
had ftated, that, by fuftering lome of 
the artificers at Woolwich, Sheer- 
nefs, &c. to be put into companies, 
the artillery would never want arti- 
ficers. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[97 



ficers, and a faving of £. 15,000 
wouid be made to government. Be- 
fore, therefore, any new plan of 
raifing a diftindl corps ©f artificers 
was authorized, it would be proper 
to know wliat the faving made in 
confequence of the original plan had 
amounted to; becaufe, if no great 
faving had been made, the plan 
now propofed would evidently be at- 
tended with additional expence to 
the public. 

The chancellor of the exchequer 
replied, that he muft necefiarily re- 
iift the motion which had been 
made, becaufe it was obvious, from 
the nature of things, that it could not 
at prefent be complied with. He had 
mentioned before what he thought 
nearly would be the grofs amount 
of the expence, and fo foon as the 
particulars could be eftimated, they 
would, without doubt, be i'ubmitted to 
parliament. — He laid, the rejcdlicn 
of the general fyilem of -fortifica- 
tion propofed by the mailer-general 
of the ordnance, upon which occa- 
fion he had the misfortune to difTer 
in opinion from one half of the 
houfe, by no means involved all the 
parts of it in the fame condemnation ; 
lince many of the principles admit- 
ted by thofe, who oppofed the general 
fyftem, would apply to the fupporc 
of that at prefent in agitation, and 
there were befides others in its fa- 
vour of Ibund policy and unquef- 
ticniible wifdom. 

. With refpeft to the other topics 
that had been touched upon, they 
would, no doubt, be fully difcuiied 
en fome future day. At prefent, he 



fhould only remark, that the mea- 
fure of taking additional powder- 
mills into the hands of government 
was highly expedient, as well for the 
purpofe of trying experiments in the 
manufacture, and endeavouring to re- 
move the caufe of thofe complaints, 
which it was well known the gun- 
powder fervcd laft war had occa- 
fioned, as to guard againlt the confe- 
quence of finding themfelves, on an 
emergency, v/holly at the mercy of 
the manufacturers. The primary ex- 
pence of the ellablifhment would ne- 
ceffarily be great, but in future very 
inconfiderabie when weighed againlt 
its utility and importance. 

Mr. iShcridan, with the confent of 
the houfe, withdrew his motion. 

Upon feveral days, which inter- 
vened in the courfe of thefe and th& 
fubfequent debates of the prefent 
ieiiion of parliament, the impeach- 
ment of Mr. Hailings continued, ia 
various iliapes, to occupy the atten- 
tion of both houfes of parliament.— 
Articles of impeachment againft nr 
Elijah Inipey were alfo bi-ought: 
into the houfe of commons by iir 
Gilbert Elliot, on the 12th of De- 
cember, and proceeded upon in part, 
at various times, during the courfe 
of the feilion. But as thefe form 
fubjofls diliincl from the ordinary- 
proceedings of parliament, wc lliall 
throw them into a chapter by them- 
felves, and give our readers, at the 
end of our parliamentary hillory, as 
full an account of tliem as the na- 
ture and li.mits of this publication 
wiU admit. 



Vot. XXX. 



m 



CHAP* 



98] ANNUAL REGISTER, 178B;. 



CHAP. Y. 



Cafe of the late promotion of officers to the flag ; 7notinn relaiiue thereto. By 
lord Ravjcion ; defended by lord, hoive, as expedient and agreeable to prece- 
dents ; the motion fippor led hy lord llanvke ; objei'ted to by the earl of Sand- 
nuich, on the gentrai grcuiid of inexpediency. His account of the efablijh- 
mrnt of the fuperanmiazed lift ; anfv:2red hy lord Raivdon; motioji rejeded* 
Mr. Bajlard^s motion on the fame fuhjcSi in the houfe of commons; oppofed b^ 
Mr . Beau fey and Mr . Pitt; different opinions of na'vul off.cers ufcn the fubjeit; 
mcti&n =i>jithdr.a^jjn. Second motion of Mr. Eaj}ard,for a co?nmittee of en- 
quiry ; derail of the cafes of the rejected captains ; defence of the board of 
admiralty ; the promotion defended by captain Berkeley ; " condemned by Mr. 
Fox; opinions of fc-verul 7uilita"y cjncers \ of country gentlemen; charge of 
partiality againji lord Honxie ; denied by hisjriends ; motion rejeiied by a ma- 
jority of only 16. 'Third motion, on the fame fubjed, ky Mr. Bafard^ 
fpeakers in the debate ; rejeiied by a majority of 49. Debates on the India 
declaratory bill;- occajion of bringing in the bill; objected to, upon the general 
principles of declaratory bills, as unparliamentary, unjuji, and as a dan- 
gerous precedent ; motion for bringing in the bill defended by Mr. Pitt, on the 
plea of 7ieceffity ; anfivered by Mr. Flood; India company heard by counfel ou 
the feccnd readitig ; bill oppofed on tvjo grounds ; \Ji, as not containing the 
true fenfe of the original a£l of ijSt^.; zdly, as -vefting an arbitrary poiver 
in the board of controul, and authorizijig a tneafure itijurious to the company ^ 
ajid dangerous to the conjlitution; defence of the bill againji thefe objeSlions; 
Mr. Pitt's conduct cenfured by fe-veral of his friends ; motion for committing 
the bill carried by a ?najority of 125 to 182; bill re-ccmtnitted and 
amended; debate en the third reading ; names of fpeakers; paffed by a ma- 
jority of ^^, Bill debated in the houfe of lords ; fpeech of the tnarquis of 
Lanfdovjn; paffcs by a tnajority of-ji to 285 proteji entered. 



THE firft objeft of impor- 
tance, which engaged ihe at- 
tention of parliament after* the re- 
cefs, was the promotion of flag of- 
hcers in the navy, which had taken 
place en the 15 th of Sept. preceding. 
In order to enable our readers to 
enter more accurately into the me- 
rits of the difcuffion, it may be ne- 
cefTary to jlatc, that by an order of 
council, dated in the year 17 18, and 
addrcfTed to the lords commiHioncrs 
of the board of admiralty, they are 
direded to proceed, in the promo- 
tion ef oPiicei'i to the rank cf ad- 



mirals in the navy, according to the 
feniority of fuch officers upon the 
lift of captains, regard only had to 
their being duly qualified for the 
rank to which they fhall be pro- 
moted. By a fubfequent order of 
1 747, the lords of the admiralty are 
authorized to fuperannuate fuch 
captains of long and meritorious 
fervice as fhall be difabled from 
ferving as admirals, by age or infir- 
mity, under the title of admirals 
upon the fuperannuated lift;, or, as it 
is commonly called, tlic lift of yel- 
low admirals. 

In 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[99 



In the promotion made by the 
board of admiralty at the time 
abovementioned, in which fixteen 
captains were promoted to the flag, 
upwards of forty captains had been 
paffed over, the greateft part of 
whom had the offer made them of 
being put upon the fuperannuated 
lilt; but, conceiving themfelves en- 
titled, from their pail, and their ca- 
pacity for future fervice, to the rank 
of acting admirals, they refui'ed the 
retreat that was offered them, and 
had endeavoured, but without fuc- 
^ cefs, to obtain their re-ellablilhment 
from the board of admiralty. 

This partial promotion had occa- 
iloned a great and general difgufl:, 
and efpecially araongft the officers 
of the navy, who were alarmed to 
find that the expedations of reward 
for the longell: and moll: meritorious 
fervice, were to be dependent upon 
the caprice of the firil lord of the 
admiralty; and it was therefore 
thought a proper fubjedl for parlia- 
mentary animadverfion. Accord - 

Feb 20th ^"2^^' °" Monday the 
20th of February the 
bufmefs was brought forward by 
lord Ravvdon, in the houfe of lords. 
He dated the circumftances of the 
late promotion, as we have juft re- 
lated them, and llrongly infilled 
upon the acknowledged and indif- 
putable merit of the officers who 
had been palled by. This i?egledt, 
he contended, was contrary to the 
eftablifhed practice of the fervice, 
and was without a precedent. At 
the fame time, he faid it was not his 
intention to impute improper hio- 
tives to any one, and he had there- 
fore framed his motion in fuch a 
manner, as he hoped would appear 
perfeftly inoffenfive and unobjec- 
tionable. He conceived the fubjedt 



to be of the utmoft importance to 
the naval fervice of this country, and 
had no doubt but that their lord- 
fhips would become the protestors of 
the many brave and deferving of- 
ficers, who could not but confider 
themfelves as injured in their jult 
expedations, and degraded in the 
eyes of their countrymen — He fliould 
therefore move, " That an humble 
" addrefs be prefented to his raa- 
" jefty, praying that he would be 
" gracioufly pleafed to take into his 
" royal confideration the fer vices of 
" fuch captains of his jriajelly's i\a- 
" vy as were paffed o>cr in the laft 
" promotion of adriiirais." 

The motion being feconded, lord 
Howe immediately rofe to.jullify 
his own conduft. After dating the 
feveral orders under which the board 
of admiralty acted, and the practice 
of the board at various periods, he 
faid, that he fuppofed it would bj 
admitted, that the board was noc 
flridly bound to promote captains 
according to their feniority upon the 
lift, but was entrufted with a difcre- 
tionary power, for the ufe of which 
they were doubtlefs refponfible— 
But at the fame time, he was re- 
fponfible for the good condudt and 
well-being of the fervice ; and with 
the refponfibility, he muft neceflarily 
be entitled to exercife his own judg- 
ment and difcretion in every branch 
of the executive duty of the admi- 
ralty board ; and therefore it was 
incumbent on every man, fcanding in 
a fituation limilar to his, to be care- 
ful in the promotion of officers, and 
more efpecially in the promotion of 
captains to flags. It was painful for 
him, undoubtedly, in the exercife 
of his difcretion, to fet officers afide; 
nor could he in a public aflbmbly 
Hate the particular reafons which 
[C] 2 operated 



loo] ANNUAL RfeGIStiiR, 178! 



iDperatcd on his judgment in the late 
promotion of captains to the rank of 
admirals. It would be invidious in 
iiim to explain them unneceffarily, as 
it would be cruel in the houfe to de- 
fire him to make fuch declaration. 
He had aded to the bell of hisjudg- 
inent, and with the llrideft impar- 
tiality. 

With regard to the nature of the 
reafons wliich might direft the judg- 
;!Tient of a firft lord of the admiralty 
to pafs over any number of captains 
in a promotion to fiags, the houfe 
would have the goodnefs to recollect 
that there might be feverai. Thofe 
who were likely to be entrufted with 
the care of our fleets, ought to be 
men not only of firm minds, but 
poifefTed of bodily ftrength, to 
enable them to endure the fatigues 
of the hard fervicc they might have 
£o fuftain. Officers who had ferved 
ably and mer- toriouily all their Jives, 
might not appear, to the judgment 
of a firil lord of the admiralty, to be 
fit to be entruiled with the care of a 
f.ect. The noble lord who brought 
the motion forward knew that in 
the army the fame obfervation ap- 
j-jlied. A ferjeant of grenadiers, 
though an able and excellent foldier, 
might not be qualified to command 
ii body of troops on a forlorn hope. 
Thefe, arid other cor.fiderations, had 
jicceiTarily operated on his judgment 
in the late promotion. If the houfe 
thought proper to take upon them- 
felves the promotion of military of- 
ficers, he fliould feel himfelf eal'ed of 
the greateft caufe of anxiety in his 
fttuation, and of courfe efcape from 
the painful refponfibility of ofnce. 

Had the officers who were paiTed 
over fucceeded their rank, as had 
been fuggefted, and not been called 
into fervice, as would probably 
Itftve happened, they mull have gone 



through the fuperior degrees of' 
promotion, that of vice-admiral, ani 
of admiral, before the ofHcers from 
whofe fervice the country were to 
derive advantage ; and thus the of- 
ficers who did not ferve, would have 
flood in the way of thofe who did 
krve. He appealed to the houfe 
whether fuch a circumftance would 
have been fair or warrantable. 

He then llated to the houfe ths 
nature of the eftablifiimcnt planned 
by the board of admiralty in 1747? 
for the maintenanee and fupport of 
fuch officers as were pafTed by in A 
promotion of captains to flags. In 
order to make a fuitable provifion 
for them, and to enable them ta 
fpend the latter years of their exift- 
ence in eafe and retirement, that liii 
of rear-admirals upon half pay (ot 
as they were commonly called yet- 
low admirals) was ellablifiied, and 
all upon it received ^T. 320 a year. 
If the fuperannuation pay appeared 
too fmall, it ought undoubtedly to be 
increafed. He concluded with re- 
marking, that the late promotion, if 
it Hood in need of the countenance of 
a precedent, was not withourt that 
fupport ; and he inftanced a promo- 
tion of the fame kind made hy the 
late lord Hawke. 

Lord Hawke rofe to vindicate the 
ccnduft of his father, and denied that 
it was a precedent in point, becaufe 
that promotion had taken place with 
the approbation and fanftion of par- 
liament. He reprobated that fyf- 
tem of naval diliinclion which over- 
looked the veteran officers in order 
to get at the man'whohadthe chance 
of being the longeft livef. It was 
a fyilem which every man, who had 
at heart the honour of the fervice, 
nnift view with indignation. He 
would, therefore, give the motJon 
his mofl cordial fupport. 

Tkc 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ici 



The earl of Sandwich, in a long 
^jnd able fpeech, gave his reafons 
for differing in opinion from the no- 
ble lord who had brought forward 
tJie motion. He thought it ex- 
tremely improper for that houfe to 
tuerfere with the executive govern- 
inent. They had much better leave 
ic to itfelf, and thole noble lords 
uho would ad vile the houfe to accede 
to the prcfent propofition, he was 
perfuaded, were not aware of the 
infinite mifchiefs which might en- 
fue. The parliament of Great Bri- 
tain Hood high in the opinion of all 
Europe; it had acquired abundant 
credit from the propriety of its pro- 
ceedings, from confining itfelf to its 
proper province, and from not af- 
fuming offices and functions which 
^id not belong to it, but leaving 
them where tiie conltitution had 
wifely placed them, in the hands of 
the feveral departments of the exe- 
cutive government. Let their lord- 
fnips for a moment confider the em- 
barraffments which muft be felt, if 
promotions of admirals were to be 
made by the two houfes of parlia- 
ment. The idea was revolting and 
jnonflrous in the extreme. A wact 
of knov/ledge of the qualiiicaticms 
of the different candidateSf would 
prefent itfelf in the firlt inftance, and 
the influence ufcd to obtain promo- 
tion would be at once mofr abfurd, 
and moit ridiculous. Let parlia- 
meiit placs a due confidence ia the 
iirft lord of the admiralty, and fuf- 
fer him to exercife the difcretion 
that belonged to his fuuation, un- 
molelted by their interference. The 
feiponfibility lay with that officer 
and the board ; and there the dif- 
cretion ought to reil likewife. When- 
ever a complaint was formally made 
of breach of trull, or improper con- 
4^tS^ in any rcfponfjble member of 



adminiftration,the houfe had a right 
to inlHcute an inquiry, and, upon fuf- 
f cien: proof of the fads alledged, 
to addrefs his majefly to remove the 
rhiniiler fo mifcondu(rting himfelfl 
T/jiU was the conftitutional power of 
parliament;, and on-e of its moft im- 
portant and falutary privileges ; but, 
it was widely dilHnit from that ei' 
the other houfe taking upon them- 
felves to exercife the fundions of the 
fxecutive government. 

For his ovi'n part, he would not 
enter into any difcullion of the lace 
promotion of captains to flags, be- 
caufe he did not think that houfe 
the proper place for fuch a difcuf- 
fion ; but, having himfelf had a fhare 
in forming the eftablilhment which, 
in vulgar words, was termed the 
lifi of yellow admirals, but the true 
name of which was the fuperannuat- 
ed lift, he would ftate to the houfe 
the origin of the ellablilhrnent. It 
had bjcn found, at differeut periods, 
extremely inconvenient and detri- 
mental to the fervice, that promo- 
tions to flags fliouid be governed by 
feniority. In the year forty-feven, 
a promotion to flags was neceffary, 
and thof« then ai the I?oard wej! 
knew that there were on the lift of 
cr^ptains leveral officers in aiuperior 
degree qualified to convmand fleets ; 
but the difficulty was how to come 
at them, without loading the public 
with an amazing and intolerable ex- 
pence. In concert, therefore, with 
two noble lords, the late duke of 
Bedford, and the late lord Anfon, he 
had taken his ftiare in planning the 
fuperanni;ated lift, and he had been 
the per Am in whofe hands it hac} 
principally b^en brought to bear. 
The objed of it v,'as to provide ?.ii 
income for fuch captains as, in a 
promotion to flags, the board pf 
admiralty did not appoint admirals. 



mi, 



102] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



not meaning to call them out into 
farther fervice. At the time of in- 
Hituting the eftablifhment, the ob- 
jeft was to make eight adniirals 
.only, and in order to that, nineteen 
captains were paffed over ; and yet 
there was no complaint then, no 
motion before that houfe to addrefs 
his majefty on the fubjefl, nor any 
idea of injuftice or partiality enter- 
tained. The eftablifhment of the 
fuperannuated lift had been origi- 
nally received with univerfal ap- 
plaufe, and generally confidered as a 
hum.ane and benevolent inftitution. 
Thofe captains who were put upon 
it were not ftigmatifed, as a noble 
lord had contended, nor in any de- 
gree difgraced ; but it was an ho- 
nourable recreat from fervice. The 
noble lord had alfo ftated, that the 
late promotion had been altogether 
without a precedent. No fuch thing. 
There were a great number of pre- 
cedents for it. In Ihort, there was 
fcarcely a precedent to the con- 
trary. 

Befides, what did the prefent mo- 
tion m.ean ? It defired his majelly 
to take the cafe of the officers, in 
whpfe b3half the motion was made, 
into his confideration. That had 
been done already. Was it his ma- 
jefty's better confideration of the 
cafe of the officers that was defired 
by the motion? If fo, let their lord- 
Ihips conlider, for a moment, the 
grofs impropriety of their interfer- 
ing with the prerogative in a cafe of 
that, nature. If they did it in one 
inltance, they would be called on to 
do it in another, and what infinitely 
mifchievous confequences might not 
fuch an unwife confufion of the dif- 
^inftfunclions of the different branch- 
es of the Icgiflature lead tc ? He con- 
9'uded with remarking, that with 
regard 19 the noble viicount's rea- 



fons for having paffed over fome 
captains, undoubtedly it muft have 
been painful for him, as a profef- 
fional man, to have confidered it as 
his duty fo to regulate the promo- 
tion ; but, whatever had been the 
reafons by which either the noble 
vifcount, or any former lord of the 
admiralty, had been governed, it 
would prove in the higheft degree 
improper publicly to ftate them. It 
was not in human nature for any 
man to think himfelf infufficient ; 
and, undoubtedly, one officer be- 
lieved himfelf to be as fit for an ad- 
miral as another. Would it, there- 
fore, be humane, or even juftifiable, 
for a firft lord of the admiralty to 
fingle out and charafterife what he 
held to be fuch difqualifications, as 
rendered it incompatible with the 
good of the fervice for fuch and 
fuch captains to he promoted to 
flags ? 

LordRawdon contended, in reply, 
that the motion did not interfere with 
the prerogative, or affume the ex- 
ercife of the funftidn of military 
promotion. Had it been of that 
tendency, he was ready to admit it 
would be highly indecent and im- 
proper. It only defired his ma- 
jelly to take the cafe of feveral me- 
ritorious and able officers into his 
royal confideration, upon th3 pfe- 
fumption, that, in the late promo- 
tion to flags, their merits had been 
overlooked.' He then fiatea a cafe 
in the reign of queen Anne, when 
the captain of admiral fir George 
Rcoke's fhip,who was then at Portf- 
mouth, juft preparing to fail on an 
important expedition, was paffed 
by ; fir George Rooke, thereupon, 
wrote to prince George of Den- 
mark, remonftrating againfl: fo grofs 
an act of injullice to his captain, nor 
would lie fail before jullice was done 

him.. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [103 



him, and he was reftored to his rank. 
With regard to the nineteen captains 
that the noble earl had faid were 
Superannuated, to make eight admi- 
rals, the noble earl had net Hated, 
whether they had withdrawn them- 
felves from the fervice or not. He 
had, therefore, a right to conclude 
that they did withdraw; and it was 
on all hands admitted, that fuch cfif- 
cers as had withdrawn themfelves 
from the fervice, had no claim to 
farther promotion. But, was that 
the cafe with the ofRcers in whofe 
behalf he had niade the motion then 
upon the table } Direftly the re- 
verfe. They were all officers lately 
in fervice, and ready and willing to 
be employed again. They were 
not men liable to be fet ande upon 
•fo harih an imputation as incapa- 
city. The noble vifcount had aiked, 
if a ferjeart of grenadiers, though a 
brave foldier, was ii: to command on 
a dangerous enterj^ize ? Were the 
cafes in the fmaliell: degree analo- 
gous ? Surely not. The officers for 
whom he then contended had actu- 
ally been in command often. They 
were looked up to by their whole 
proteiTion as ohlcers of the firft abi- 
lity, and as fit for command as any 
naval characters whatfoever. In the 
higher ranks of the army, officers 
always role by feniorlty, colonels 
became major - generals, and fo 
OB ; and, unlefs there was fbrne 
tiain in an officer's chara£ler, which 
rendered him unworthy of promo- 
tion and unfit for rank, he faw not 
the inconvenience that could arif^; 
from the fame practice obtaining in 
the navy. The noble earl's argu- 
ment went fo far as to fnut the d;>cr 
completely againll inquiries into the 
conuudl of a firft lord of the admi- 
ralty, on any occafiun ; a principle 
>vhich he hoped he lliould never fee 



the hoafe adopt, fince it was poffible 
for a marine minifter to ad as detri- 
mentally againft the intereft of hi:3 
country, by abuling his authority, 
and purfuiiig improper mcafures, as 
the minifter of any other depart- 
ment in tlie 'Hate. 

After a fhort reply from lord 
Sandwich, in which Tie dated that 
the promotions in the army were not 
attended with any additional ex- 
pence, whereas in the navy, where 
we had already near fixty admirals, 
the promotion by feniority would 
entail on the public an enormous ex- 
pence— the motion pa^Ted in the ne- 
gative without a divifion. 

The fate of lord Rawdon's mo- 
tion did not prevent the fame quef- 
tion from being agitated in the houfe 
of commons. A motion was made 
on the day foilowiog, by Mr. Baf- 
tard, for an addrefs to the kii::g to 
confer {ome mark of his royal fa- 
vour upon captain Balfour and cap- 
tain Thompfon, v/ho had received 
the thanks of the houfe for their 
behaviour on the izch . •. , 
of April 1782. Thefe ^P''' '^'^' 
officers, Mr. Ballard faid, he had 
feparatcd from the rell, merely on 
account of the peculiar circum- 
Itance alluded to in the motion ; and 
that he meant to include all the 
other officers, who had been paffed 
ever in the late promotion, in another 
motion, which he Ihould make fur 
that purpofe. Mr. Ballard, after 
urging the arguments thst had been 
ufed or. the fame fide in the iioufe of 
lords, llrongly contended thr.t the 
houfe of commons was confidered 
to be in a peculiar manner the 
guardians of the intereils and honour 
of naval officers; and he quoted to 
this purpofe a foeech made there on 
a former occafionby the prefent fiilt 
lord of the admiralty, in v/hich he 

[G] A. ' ajTcrted, 



iC4] ANNUAL JIEGISTER, 17I 

ailerted, that the proteftion of that 
houfe was what officers always look 
up to, and what contributed eilcn- 
tially to keep up a fpirit of emula- 
tion amongft theip. He remarked, 
that public opinion was the principal 
aim and objecl of every officer ; 
that their exertions would always 
be proportionate to the interell 
\vhich the nation took in their cha- 
racters and welfare ; and that, if the 
people fnould ever ftiew an indiffer- 
ence towards thefe, the ardour of the 
fervice would link accordingly. 

The motion was cppofed by Mr. 
Beaufoy, and the chancellor of the 
exchequer, on the fame ground as 
v/as taken in the other houfe. A- 
mongrt the naval officers, members 
of the houfe, who' took a part in the 
debate, fir George Collyer and cap- 
tain Macbrlde declared, that nothing 
fhort of ruin to the fervice mull fol- 
low, if fuch a fyllem of promotion, 
as the laft, was to continue ; and, on 
the other hand, lord Mulgrave and 
Jord Hood were of opinion, that the 
interference of the houfe might in 
the end prove more detrimental to 
the fervice than advantageous. On 
all fides it feemed to be admitted, 
that feveral of the officers who were 
paffed over, did not appear, to com- 
inon judgments at leail, in any re- 
fpeft disqualified for the rank to 
which, in the ordinary courfe of the 
fervice, they were entitled. Mr. 
Ballard finding, hovv'ever, that the 
mode in v/h:ch he had brought the 
fubjecc forward, was not generally 
agreeable to the hoafe, withdrew 
his motion, with a promife of bring- 
ing it before them in fome other 
in ape. 

A., •' ,0,' Accordingly, on the 

'^ ibth of April, he mo- 

ved, " That the houfe do refolve it- 
** felf into a committee of the svhole 



" houfe, to enquire into the condud^ 
*' of the board of admiralty, touching 
" the late promotion to the flag.'* 
As this motion went to a direct 
charge of minifterial mifcondudt a- 
gainll the hrll lord of the admiralty;, 
and was free from the objeftion of 
interfering improperly in the func- 
tions of the e:vecutive government, 
it was heceflary to meet it upon the 
diftincl merits of the cafe. 

In fup'port of the prefumption of 
m'fconduct, Mr. Ballard Hated the 
cafes of captains Balfour, Thomp- 
fon, Uvedale, Shirley, Bray, and 
Laforey ; and feveral ochers were 
mentioned in the courfe of the de- 
bate. The firll of thefe officers had 
diilinguifiied himfelf, in company 
Vv'ith captain Laforey, in the war 
before the laft, by an enterprize 
which required equal Ikill and bra^- 
very, the cutting out two French 
fhips of the line in the harbour of 
LoulODOurg. . He had fince conti- 
nucdto ferve his country with credit 
in the late v/ar, and was declared 
by feveral officers, members of the 
houfe, to be well qualified, fo far as 
they could judge, for promotion to 
the flag. The fame general tefti- 
mony was borne to the charafter of 
the other officers. It was farther 
ftated, that he had written to the 
board of admiralty to be informed 
of the reafons for which he was 
pafl'ed over in the promotion, but 
had been refufed an anfwer. Ad- 
miral fir Edmund Affleck declared, 
that he had been acquainted with 
captain Thompfon nearly forty 
years ; that he knew him to be as 
honeu a man, and as brave and Ikil- 
ful an offi.cer. as any in the fervice ; 
that he could not account for his 
having been pafled by, and was as 
much furprifcd at it as he fhould 
have be?n to have been paflTed ioy 
himfelf. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [io$ 



himfelf. Captain Uvedale had alfo 
ierved with confiderable reputation. 
In the late war he had been ap- 
pointed by lord Rodney to the com- 
mand of a part of the fleet, for the 
purpofe of drawing out the fqua- 
dron of Monf. de GrafTe, and by 
that means affording an opportu- 
nity of bringing on a general action. 
This irhportant fervice, which re- 
quired the exertion of all the fn:ill 
as well as bravery of a commander, 
he fuccefsfuUy performed. Captain 
Shirley had alfo commanded feveral 
fell of the line, and had received 
the approbation of the admiralty. 
He had alfo applied to the board, on 
the late occafion, to have his claims 
exhibited to the council ; but the 
iirft lord refufed to lay his cafe be- 
fore them. The cafe of captain 
Bray was fmgular : he had been 
employed during the late war in the 
imprefs fervice, and, upon his appli- 
cation to the board for a flag, he 
had been advifed by lord Howe, on 
account of his advanced age, to give 
up his claim to rank, and to apply 
for fuperannuation : this advice he 
had accordingly followed, but it 
was afterwards difcovered that he 
was precluded from being put upon 
the yellow lilt by the ord&r of coun- 
cil of the year 1747, which exprefsly 
excepts captains who had not been 
fent to fea during the war. Upon 
this cafe it was llrongly argued by 
captain Macbride, that if the orn- 
ccrs who are employed in this dilH- 
cult and difagreeable, though efl'en- 
tially important fervice, were to be 
confidered as thereby forfeiting 
their claim to rank, none but thole 
of the lowefl characters would un- 
dertake it in future. Captain La- 
forcy had been fet afide merely on 
account of his having, Ibmc time be- 
for^, accepted the •appointment of 



naval commilfioner at Antigua ; al- 
though at the fame time fir Ctiarles 
Middleton, late one of the commif- 
fioners refident in London, had been 
promoted to the flag. 

In order to obviate the unfavour- 
able conclufion which thefe cafes 
feemed ftrongly to fupport, it was 
argued by the chancellor of the ex- 
chequer, in defence of the admiralty, 
that none of the circumllances al- 
ledged amounted to more than a 
negative proof, that the ofiicers in 
queftion were not difqualified for the 
rank for which they contended : but 
that, where a feledlion was to be 
made (and that a fekQion was ex- 
pedient would appear, not only from 
the uniform praclice of the navy, 
but from the great expence and 
fundry inconvenience? which would 
unavoidably refult from an over- 
loaded lift of flag officers) it was 
neceiTary that a dilcretionary power 
of making that fele^lion fliould be 
lodged in the com.miiriOncrs of the 
board of admiralty. He admitted 
that they were refponfiblc to parlia^ 
ment for the ule of that difcretion, 
and that whenever a cafe was made 
out llrong enough to warrant a fuf- 
picion of fuch abufes as deferved 
cenfure or puniiliment, it was the 
indifpenfable duty of the houfe to 
proceed to inquire. But he denied 
that fuch a cafe had been made out. 
It had not been alledged that there 
was any cfticer of incompetent me- 
rit amongft thofe who were promot- 
ed, on which a charge of partiality or 
corruption could be founded. It had 
not been alTerted that the firft lord 
was actuated by any malice or other 
finiller motive towards thofe who 
had been palled over, upon which 
he could be charged with injultice 
oT opprelFicn. The point to be de- 
cided by the houfe was, whether tlK;/ 
^ Gould 



3o6l ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



ceuld infer, froir. the ftatement of 
<:ares they had heard, that ihe judg- . 
ment of" the noble vifcount, upon 
profcllions.1 merits, was not to be 
trufted, but ought to be corredled 
by theirs ? Such a cafe iTiight un- 
- doubted ly occur ; but he warned the 
hcufe of the mii'chicfs that would 
inevitably arife from opening their 
dcors, without the moft palpable 
and urgent neceiiity, to the diicuf- 
iion of profefTional qualifications, and 
the arrangement of military pro- 
motion?. He then proceeded to 
make a variety of ingenious obfer- 
vations upon the feveral cafes chat 
3iad been itated, wiih a view to take 
off the impreflion which they f^emed 
to have made upon the houle. 

The only na^'al otHcer who, upon 
this occafion, fupported adminiitra- 
tion, was the honourable captain 
Berkeley ; who lamented that iuch a 
queliion ihould have been brought 
before the hcafc ; but faid, that as 
it was, he muft declare his opinion 
to be, that the houfe ought rot to 
interfere, but to leave the difcretion 
unclogged where the refponfibility 
■was placed. 

In reply, to the arguments of Mr. 
Pitt, it was urged, by Mr. Fox, 
that the rank of admiral might be 
jconfidered in two views ; that the 
principal view undoubtedly wai pro- 
fpeftlve, and to future fervices ; and 
an this view a more ftrisTt feledion 
was proper and jufufiable : but it 
might be confidered alfo retrofpec- 
tively, as an hono^ir and reward for 
paft fervices. In the latter view, 
the late promotion could not be de- 
.fended a m.cment, it was mod fcan- 
dalouHy partial and unjail. And, as 
a proof that the admiralty had con- 
iidered it in this point of view, he 
mentioned tise promotion of fir Jolm 
Lindfay, who, though ur.quefticna- 



bly an cfHcer of the firft reputation 
in the navy, was well known to be 
in io deplorable a ftate of health, as 
to leave no room for the expecta- 
tion of future fervices. As a far- 
ther proof, he Hated, that as there 
were tweniy-four admirals on the 
old iifl fit for fervice, and no fervice 
very likely to be wanted foon, the 
late promotion could not be juilified 
on the principle of Hate neceffity, 
and mult therefore come under the 
notion of honorary reward and emo- 
luments ; and under that conftruc- 
tion, no one, he again repeated, 
couid hefitate to pronounce it par- 
tial, capr-icious, and oppreffive. But 
h^ alfo contended, that where, in ad- 
dition to negative merit, fagnal and 
approved paft fervices could be 
pleaded, there was a fair claim, even 
on the former groimd,tothe highell 
ranks in the fervice. At lealt, he 
faid, a contrary determination would 
do infinite miichief, by checking the 
ardour and damping the fpirit of en- 
terprife amongit our officers. 

in this arguinent he vvas joined 
by fir George Oihorne and feveral 
other military ofiicers. The houfe 
ought not, faid that gentleman, to 
imagine, that men led by their ge- 
nius, and qualified to follow the mi- 
litary profeflion in either fervice, 
looked to the number of pakry flill- 
lings they were to receive per day, 
as a compenfation for their laborious 
life and perilous fervices. There 
was not a man, he would venture to 
fav, that ever got a commiflion in 
the navy, who did not alfure him- 
felf, that, by a continued feries of 
honourable and meritorious conduft, 
he fiiould obtain a flag. It could 
not, therefore, but prove a deep and 
cutting mortification for any man, 
confcious that he did not delerve it, 
to find that he was put ande in the 
9 day 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[107 



day of promotion. Military men, 
from the nature and danger of their 
profeffion, muft be allowed to feel 
more poignantly, and with more 
nicety and quickncfs of animation, 
than thofe accuftomed to the frigid 
rules of civil office. To fuch feel- 
ings he had ever been accuftomed, 
and he truftcd they were feelings 
neither mifbecoming a gentleman 
nor an officer. The power of fet- 
tling promotions and appointing to 
command had ever been lodged in 
the board of admiralty ; but if ei- 
ther were wantonly and capricioully 
excrcifed, that houfe would aft 
wifely and with becoming dignity 
to employ its conftitutional func- 
tions of enquiry and controul. 

Admiral fir Peter Parker re- 
marked, that he faw no reafon for 
fcleftion at prefent in a promotion to 
the flag. Formerly, when we had 
only nine admirals, a feleftion was 
indifpenfably necelTary; but now, 
when the lift of admirals was fiftv- 
f'^ven, furely a fufficient number fit 
for any fervice might be found at 
all times. He fpoke of the peril 
and fatigue of a marine life, and 
faid, if neither honours nor emolu- 
ments were given to officers, who 
had behaved merltorioully, and gal- 
lantly diltlnguiihed themfelves, he 
feared the thanks of the houfe 
would be conf:dered only as an 
empty compliment. 

Several of the country gentlemen 
fupported Mr. Baftard's'motion, and 
declared, that they did not think the 
paltry confideration of a few thou- 
lands a year, which they • under- 
lloc^d was §11 the faving that would 
be made, could at all juftify the 
cruelty and hardfnip with which 
they thought many deferving of- 
ficers had been treated. An at- 
tempt was alio made 10 fix a charge 



of partiality upon the fird lord of 
the admiralty, by remarking tlut 
there was a marked negleft, in the 
late promotion, of the officers who 
had f^;rved their country fo gal- 
lantly under the aufpices of lord 
Rodney. This was warmly denied 
by Mr, Strachey, who appealed to 
the lift of the late promotions. The 
queftlon being put, the houfe di- 
vided, ayes 134, noes 150. 

The fmallnefs of the majority by 
which the minifter defeated this en- 
quiry, encouraged Mr. Baftard to 
make a third attempt. 'On Tuefday 
the 29th of April, after . ., , 
a fhor: fpeech,in which ^P™ ^9^"- 
he faid, that the arbitrary powers 
claimed by the board of admiralty, 
having in forae meafure received 
the fanftion of the houfe, he hoped 
that, in order to prevent the mif- 
chievous confequences that might 
enfus, they would at leaft adopt 
fomc permanent principle as a rule 
of fervice, to which officers might 
truft. He moved the following 
refolution, " That it is highly in- 
" jnrious to the fervice, and unjuft,, 
" to fet aiide from promotion to. 
" flags, meritorious officers of ap- 
" proved fervice, who are not pre- 
" eluded by the orders of his ma- 
" jefty in council."— The motion 
was feconded by fir William Molef- 
worth; and, after a debate of feveral 
hours, (which was fupported on the; 
one fide by fir J. Miller, captain 
Bertie, general Norton, Mr. Mar- 
tin, Mr. Loveden, Mr. Drake, &c. 
and on the other by Mr. Grenville, 
lord Apfley, and admiral Hood) the 
houfe divided upon the previous 
queftion, noes 220, ayes 169. 

During the time that the condudl 
of the board of admiralty under- 
went thefe difcufficns in the houfe of 
co.Timons, another fubjed was intro- 
duced 



lo8] ANNUAL RE G I ST ER, 1788. 



duced by the chancellor of the ex- 
chequer, which gave rife in both 
^oufes to feveral of the warmeft and 
niOil interelling debates of the pre- 
sent feffions of parliament. The 
cafe was briefly this. During the 
apprehenfions, which had exifted in 
the courfe of lail: year, of a rupture 
with the court of France, govern- 
snent had taken a refolution offend- 
ing out four additional regiments to 
India, on board the company's fhips, 
for the proteftion of our poficffions 
in that quarter; and the propofition 
'had been received with general ap- 
probation by the court of direflors. 
'But in the mean time the ftorm hav- 
ing blown over, and government 
ilill adhering to their refolution of 
fending out the four regimetits, with 
a view to form a permanent efta- 
■bliGiment of his majelty's troops in 
India, a (^ueftion had arifen refpedl- 
ing the expence of fending them 
out, and of their future payment. 
By an aft, which palled in the year 
178 1, it was llipulated that the cona- 
pany fhould be bound to pay for 
fuch troops ojzly as were fent to In- 
dia upon their requifition, and upon 
this adl the directors had refufed lo 
charge the company with the ex- 
pence of the troops in queftion. 
JBut it was contended by the board 
«f control, ertablifhed in the aft of 
1784, that the commiffioners ©f that 
board were inverted with a power of 
direfting, in cafe of a refulal of the 
company, fuch expence to be de- 
frayed cut of the revenues arifmg 
from their territorial poiTclTions. 
Upon this cafe the court of di- 
reftors had taken the advice of fe- 
veral eminent lawvers, who were of 
opinion that the board of control 
was not inveiled, by the aft of 1784, 
with the power contended for; and 
the direftors had aecOidinHv r;:- 



fufed to take the troops on board th^ 
fhips that were about this time to 
lail for India. ' 

Upon this ground Mr. Pitt moved 
the houfe, on the 25 th of February, 
for leave to bring in a bill for re- 
moving the doubts in quellion, by 
declaring the intention of the le- 
giilaturc, in the aft of 1784, to have 
been agreeable to the conftrnftion 
put upon it by the board of control. 

He ftated to the houfe, that 
though the names of feveral refpec- 
table gentlemen of the profelTioii 
were fubfcribed to the opinion which 
had been given to the court of di- 
reftors, yet he was at a iofs to ima- 
gine on what principle thofe doubts 
were entertained, fmce in his mind 
nothing could be more clear than 
that there was no one ftcp that could 
have been taken, previous to the paf- 
ling of the aft of 1784, by the court 
of direftors, touching the military 
and political concerns of India, and 
alfo the coUeftion, management, and 
application of the revenues of thp 
territoiial poflefiions, that the com- 
miffioners of the board of control, a^ 
it was commonly called, had not . 
now a right to take by virtue of the 
powers and authorities veiled in 
them by that aft. In this opinion 
Mr. Dundas, chairm9.n of the boar4> 
declared his concurrence; and added, 
that if it flioi;ld appear to them ne- 
ceflary, for the fecurity of our pof- 
feffions in India, they had a power to 
apply the whole of the revenues of 
India to that purpofe, without leav- 
ing the company a fingle rupee for 
their invellments. As doubts, ho\v- 
ever, had been entertained, he 
thought the beft way of meeting 
tlio^e doubts was by the authority qF 
a fpecial aft of parliament. 

The motion was ftrongly oppofed 

i'l the ourfetj as being cxcremely ui;- 

parliameiitary, 



HISTORY OF EUJiaPE. [lo^ 



parliamentary. It was argued that 
the opinions of counfcl, taken per- 
haps upon a falfe or imperfedl Itate 
of the cafe, was not a fit ground for 
the introdudtion of a declaratory bill: 
thatif fuch a pradice were to obtain, 
it was obvious that declaratory afts 
might be multiplied ad Inf.nitum : 
that the legiflature ought never to 
have recourfe to fuch an expedient, 
except when either the wording of 
an adil was evidently fo ambiguous as 
to ftand in need of explanation; or 
uhere, in confequence of the clafh- 
ing judgments of courts, or doubts 
expreffed by judges from the bench, 
it became necefl'ary for the legifia- 
ture to propound anew its own 
meaning :— in all other cafes, parlia- 
ment by interfering would quit its 
legiflative and afTume a judicial ca- 
pacity, and, in the prefent inllance, 
would decide in a caufe, in which it 
is in feme refpefts interefted as a 
party, and was to be a gainer by its 
own decifion. It i,s a difpute be- 
tween the crown, or the public, and 
an individual, upon a pecuniary 
tranfaftion — the king infifts upon a 
certain fum of money from the com- 
pany, upon certain pretences — the 
company admit a fum to be due, but 
not tlie amount demanded; here is a 
clear and firnple quellion on which 
an inUe might be tried in a 
court of law. If the miiiifter, in- 
itead nffubmittlng the claim of o-o- 
vcrnment to a legal deciiion, was 
Tefolved tdfuperfede the queflion by 
an extraordinary declaration of par- 
liament, what was it but to declare 
tliat he chofe to remove the caufe 
from the courts of law, where he 
knew he could have no undue ia- 
flue ce, into the two houfes of par- 
liament, where he knew that he had : 
•"^fuch a pr«ceeding was a manifell 



and violent oppreflion of the fub- 
jeft. 

It wais further argued, that th^i 
meafure propofed was liable to many 
ferious political objeftions, and might 
be ufed as a precedent for the v.'orft 
purpofes. A minifter, it was faid, 
has nothing to do but to propofe 
and bring in a bill for granting new 
powers, in doubtful and ambiguous 
words, under reftraints indiltmdtly 
defined, and with claufes that had a 
double afpedt. He had nothing to 
do but to introduce this bill with ge- 
neral declarations of the moderate 
principles upon which it is formed, 
and of facred regard to the rights 
which it is intended to control. By 
this affected moderation, the confertt 
of the parties concerned in the biK 
might be obtained, and the alarm, 
and unpopularity of a violent and 
odious meafure might be prevented: 
and when greater powers are af- 
fumed, than thofe, wh6 are affefted 
by them, fuppoied they were fub- 
jeft to, and rcfillance is made to the 
exercife of thofe f>owers, then the 
propofer fweeps away all abjedtiotis 
and doubts by an high over-ruling 
llretch of parliamentary authority, 
and declares that what he contends 
for was and is the law of the land. 
It was evident that fomething of this 
Ibrt had happened \s\ the matter in 
quellion : that the company hid 
been induced to confent to the a'dl 
of 1784 upon pretences, which now 
proved to be deluiive ; and that 
the miniller, having obtained that 
confent, was refolved to put his ovva 
conflrudtion upon it, contrary to- the 
original intention of the party con- 
cerned. 

In anfwcr to thefe arguments it 

was urged, that, allowing the juf- 

ticc of the general reafoning upon 

declaratory 



no] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



declaratory bills, the meafure pro- 
poled was juftihed by the neceffity 
of the cafe, which did not admit of 
having rec5i:rfe to a judicial deter- 
mination ; that the delay of fending 
out the troops might polfibly be 
dangerous; that the company's 
ihips, in which it was intended to 
embark them, could not be detained 
much longer; and that the expence 
of providing tranfports fpeciaily for 
the purpofe, upon whomfccver that 
expence fhould finally be adjudged 
to fall, would be enormous. 

Willi refpeft to the argument 
drawn from the fuppofed confent of 
the company to the ad of 1^784, 
under a conllruifdon difrcrent from 
that which was now contended for. 
It was denied by Mr, Pitt, that the 
confent of the company had ever 
been formally given. They had 
indeed agreed to the general prin- 
ciples, upon which the bill was to be 
formed, but it was well knov/n, that 
they had ultimately difapproved of 
it. 

Mr. Flood, in reply to the for- 
mer of.thefe arguments, obferved 
that the necefiity of the cafe was by 
no means made out : that the regi- 
ments, which were faid to be ne- 
ceffary for the defence of India, 
might be fent out, and it might be 
detejmined hereafter, by whom the 
expence of tranfponing and paying 
them ought to be defrayed. The 
houfe therefore ought not by its 
interference to intercept the queftion 
on its way to a tribunal, where it 
might be judicially determined ; and 
it ought ftilljefs to interfere in the 
prefent cafe, becaufe it was an in- 
terefted party, and was about to 
give judgment in its own favour, to 
ipare its own pocket. He confi- 
dered parliament and the company in 



the light of landlord and tenant'; and 
the charter, modified by the afts of 
1 78 1 and 1784, as the leafe; and 
confequently, that it was extremely 
unfit cither party fhould be the 
judge on a queftion aftefting that 
leafe. 

After a long debate, the motion 
for bringing in the bill was carried 
without a divifion ; and on its fe- 
cond reading, upon the 3d of March, 
the Eaft India company were heard 
by their counfel, Mr. Erfldne and 
Mr. Rous, againft the bill, at the 
bar of the houfe. Upon this occa- 
lion, and in the feveral debates which 
followed, the merits of the bill un- 
derwent a full and accurate difcuf- 
fion. Thofe whooppofed it, found- 
ed their objcflions principally upon 
two grounds; ift. That the con- 
ftrudlion attempted to be put upon 
the aft of 1784, was not its true 
and juft conftruftion; and 2dly,That, 
allowing it to admit of fuch con- 
Itruclion, the powers it vefted in 
the board of control were' inju- 
rious to the rights and interefts of 
the company, and of a dangerous 
political uature, and therefore ought 
not to be confirmed. 

In fupport of the former propofi- 
tion, it was argued, in the firit place, 
that the charter granted to the com- 
pany having been purchafed for a 
valuable confideration, every ftatute 
diminilhing their rights and privi- 
leges ought to be conftrued, like- 
penal laws, in their raildeft fenfe, 
and fo as to infringe in the leaft 
poffible degree upon thofe privi- 
leges : that in ambiguous cafes all 
afts of parliament ought, if polTible, 
to be taken in that fenfe which 
make^ them confiftent with each 
other; and coniequently, that 
whereas in the aiit of 1781, confirm.. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [115 



ing their charters, it is expreQy fli- 
pulated, that the company ihouid de- 
fray the expence of no troops but 
fuch as were fent to India upon their 
own requifitioii, the ad of 1784 
*ought to be conllrued in fuch a 
manner as to make it confiilent with 
the preceding ads, which could not 
bj confidcred as repealed in the ad 
of 1784 by mere implication, a di- 
red ah.d exprefs enading bill or 
ciaufe being necefi'ary for that pur- 
pofe. 

Secondly, it was argued, that the 
beli: and fafell mode of expounding 
a llatute was, to explain and illuf- 
trate one part by others of the fame 
rtatute; a mode ofexpofition which 
would evidently bell explain and dil- 
cover the meaning and intent of the 
makers.. In the ad of 1784 the 
board of commiffioners " are au- 
" thorized and impowered, from 
" time to time, to Ihperiatend, di- 
** red, and control all ads, opera- 
" tions, and concerns, which in any 
" wife relate to the civil or military 
" government or revenues of the 
** territorial poffeflions of the com- 
" pany, i?i the mannsr in the fald aii 
" direSIed,^' and " the court of di- 
" redors are required to pay obe- 
" dience to, and to be governed and 
" bound by, fuch orders and direc- 
" tions as the laid coart fnail rc- 
" ceive from the laid board.'" — 
Upon thefe claufes the new powers 
claimed by the board of control 
refted ; and, taken by themfelves, 
they certainly admitted of tae unli- 
mited confhiidion intended to be 
put upon them. Bur, by fubfequent 
claufes, they appear evidently 10 be 
rellrided to certain ads. In the 
eleventh fedion it is enaded,. " that, 
" in order that the faid board may 
" be duly informed of all the tranl - 
*' adions of the faid company, rsla- 



" tive to the management of their 
" concerns in India, the court of di- 
" redors fhould deliver to the board 
" copies of all minutes, &c. and of 
" all diipatches vs'hich they fuall re- 
" ceive from their fervants in India, 
" and alfo of all letters, orders, or 
** iuihudions propofed to be fent tu 
" any of their fervants." — It then 
follows, " that v.'ithin fourteen days 
" after the receipt of fuch letters, 
" .Sjc. the commiffioners Ihould re- 
" turn tiiem to the diredors, cither 
" with their approbation, or their 
" reafons for difapproving and 
" amending them, and the diredors 
" arc bound to pay obedience to 
*' fuch orders fo amended or ai- 
'•' tered: and if, within fourteen days 
" after requifition made, the court 
" of diredors fliall negled fo to do, 
" it /hall and »iay be lazvfuJ for the 
" faid commiffioners tp prepare 
" and fend to the diredors any or- 
" ders or inlU-udions to any of 
" their governments, concerning 
" the civil or military govern- 
" ment o: revenues of the Britifh 
" territories in the Eafl Indies ; 
" and the diredors are in fuch cafes 
" required to tranfrait difpatches» 
" in the ufual form, purfuant to 
*' the tenor of fuch orders," Sec. 
From thefe latter claufes it was ar- 
gued, that if the commiffioners 
were inverted with the abfolute and 
pofitive authority contended for, and 
if the diredors were bound to pay 
implicit obedience to their orders in 
all cafes, it was abfurd to fpecify 
ccrtcu-u cafi in which it might h la^^ 
fid for them to fend orders and in- 
itrudions to the com.rany's fervants 
in India without the confent of the 
company; and confcquently that it 
was evident, from thfc whole tencr 
of the claufes takea together, that 
thv power vcHed in the commif- 
fioners 



iii] ANNUAL ItEGlSTER, lySS. 



ioners was no other than a power 
of fuperintendency and controJ over 
the tranfaftions of the company in 
their management of their atfairs in 
India; a power of altering and 
amending their orders and inltruc- 
tions, and, in cafe of negleft in the 
direftors, of carrying fuch orders fo 
amended into execution; and not 
a power of originating meafures, in 
oppofition to the chartered and ili- 
pulated rights of the company. 

Thirdly, it was llrongly contend- 
ed, that the language of the mi- 
nifter, when he brought in the bill in 
1784, coincided in the moft exprels 
manner with the conftruftion here 
pat upon it; and Mr. Pukeney and 
fome ether members, who ufually 
TOtcd with him, declared, that they 
Supported him at the time from a 
perfuafion that fuch was the inten- 
tion and meaning of the aft, and 
that otherwife nothing fhould have 
induced them to vote for it ; that 
the conllruiftion attempted to be put 
upon it by the declaratory bill, 
made it equally obnoxious with the 
celebrated bill rejected by the lords 
in 1783, with only this difference, 
that what the one had for its pro- 
fefled objed. openly, and without 
difguife, the other was attempting 
to effedt by fraud and diliimulation. 
Mr. Fovvis argued, from the various 
amendments which the aft received 
in its paffagc through the houfe, that 
no fuch ideas of its extent, as were 
r.ow endeavoured to be efcablillied, 
were then entertained of it, much 
lefs expreffed, arid that if thc}' had, 
it mult have been rcjefted. Mr. 
Baring, one of the directors, de- 
clared, that it was generally Ul^der- 
liood at the time, by that board, to 
be utterly incapable of the unlimited 
conftruftion now put upon it. And 
colonel JBarre declared, that, hav- 



ing afked one of the diredlors, why 
they had fuffered the bill to pafs un- 
refilted, and with the fandlion of 
their concurrence, the direftor had 
admitted with him, that the bill 
darkly and tacitly conveyed power* 
to the board of control as hoftile to 
the rights of the company as Mr. 
Fox's bill, but that they had a con-i 
iidence in the adminillration which 
introduced it, and had no doubt of 
their exercifing 'thofe powers with 
gentlenefs and moderation. 

'Upon this ground Mr. Fox and 
his friends took occafion to triumph 
upon the complete juftihcation, 
which the meafure he had formerly 
propofed, had now, they faid, ob- 
tained by the tacit confeffion of his 
adverfaries themfelves. It is with 
great pleafure, fkid he, on the clofe 
of one day's dcbate,thatl haveheard 
(for I muil have been gifted with 
extraordinary feelings indeed, if I 
had not been peculiarly gratified at 
hearing) a complete and able de- 
fence of almoil every principle of 
my own bill from the mouth of the 
right honourable gentleman (Mr. 
Pitt) ; at hearing almoil the whole 
of that meafure maintained and fup- 
pcrted with an irreliftible eloquence, 
and in a flow of language peculiar to 
himfelf. It will now no longer be 
clamoured through the country that 
I am the violator of chartered rights, 
or the ufurper of the powers of the 
Ii';dia company. Had the right ho"- 
nourablc member afted in the fame 
open and fair way in 1783, all that 
abufc which I have fullained, all 
that clamour that has been excited, 
all that popular phrenfy which dif- 
graced the kingdom from one end 
of it to the other, never would have 
been provoked. He would then 
have faid, " You take away the 
" company's charter, there I am 

«"'witli ' 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [113 



*' with you ; the flagrant abufes the 
*' company have made of it, could 
** not have been put an end to, un- 
" lefs you did fo 1 You fufpend all 
** their rights; there again I am 
" with you ; the fufpenfion is necef- 
" farv for their ialvation! YouafTume 
" the complete managementandcon- 
" troul of all the company's affairs, 
" civil and military, and the difpo- 
" fition and application of all their 
*' revenues; in all this you do right; 
*' fuch an aiTumption is requifice to 
** give effedl to your fyltem ! But you 
*• put thefe powers into the hand of 
" a board of commiffioners ap- 
*'^ pointed by parliament ; there you 
" do wrong, and there 1 am not 
" with you. I contend that a board 
« of control, appointed by the 
*' crown, is the proper board to en- 
" truft all thefe powers with." 
Upon that fingle point ought to 
have refted the whole difpute, for 
that is the only effential difference 
between the tvvo bills. 

In the laft place, it was contend- 
ed that the board of control ideif 
did not underfrand the act as con- 
veying to them the unlimited powers 
they now claimed under it. The 
counfel for the company offered to 
produce evidence at the bar, to 
prove, that, for two years and more 
after the pafling of the aft of 1784, 
the commiffioners of that board had 
afted upon the ftatute of 178 1, and 
particularly in the year 1786, when 
they admitted that they had no 
power to fend out any of his ma- 
jefly's troops to India without the 
confent of the company; which 
{hewed that they confidered the fla- 
tute of 1 78 1 to be unrepealed, and 
confequently the terms of the com- 
pact therein ftipulated to be ftill in 
force. 

In fupport of the fecond propofi- 
VoL. XXX. 



tion, upon which the oppofition to 
the bill was founded, it was argued, 
that the power contended for bv the 
board of control went to the total 
annihilation of the court of direc- 
tors, and even of the property of 
the company : for that, the terri- 
torial revenues being in many in- 
Itances unavoidably implicated in 
their commercial concerns, the ab- 
folute control over the former, as to 
their application and expenditure, 
would necefiarily carry with it a 
control over the latter, and might 
be ufed to fuperfede the power of 
the direftors over the only branch 
of the company's affairs that was 
left to their management. And fur- 
ther, that, as the lettlemcr\ts abroad 
had a power of drawing upon the 
treafury at home to the amount of 
one million, the board/ of control 
would not only have their Indian 
treafuries, but the treafury in Lea- 
denhall-flreet at its difpofa!. 

Secondly, it was faid, that the 
meafure itfelf, of fending the four 
regiments to India, was not lefs in- 
jurious to the rights and interells of 
the company, than the unlimited 
power under which it was to be 
executed. Colonel Barre, colonel 
Fullarton, Mr. Baring, Mr. Pake- 
ney, and feveral other members, 
were decidedly of opinion, that it 
would have been both a more jufl 
and more ceconomical -meafure, ei- 
ther to have; fuffered the company 
to raife four regiments, or to have 
fent over the 2,400 men which were 
wanting to complete the king's re- 
giments already in India : — more 
oeconornicai, becaufe in the one cafe 
the company's troops are, and would 
be, maintained at infinitely lefs ex- 
pence than the king's ;— in the other, 
the company would b^ free from 
tae additional burden of all the of- 

{H] Acer 



114] ANNUAL REGISTER, 175 

iicers of the four new regiments : — 
more juft, becaufe in the former 
cafe the company would have en- 
joyed the patronage of the troops 
they were to pay, and might pro- 
vide for many of their own deferv- 
ing officers, 6co of whom were liv- 
ing in very diftrefled fituations in 
India, who hnd been reduced at the 
late peace. The mcafure was a! To 
€oademned as being impolitic, and 
tending to produce confufion in the 
company's government in India, by 
putting the power of the fword into 
two ha^d^;, and by creating jcalonfy 



and difguU in the minds of the offi- 
cers in the company's fervice. 

As a corollary from thefe argu- 
ments, it was contended in the third 
place, that adminiftration could have 
no other inducement to adopt the 
meaiure propofed, than a view to 
the extenlion of their own influence 
and patronage, at the expcnce of the 
India company. As a conclufive 
proof of this allegation, colonel 
Earre referred the houfe to a paper, 
ftating the conteft between the court 
of diredlors and the board of con- 
trol, relative to the fettlement of the 
peace eflabliOiment of the company's 
troops in India, which the former 
iviOied to have kept up to a cer- 
tain number, whilit tlie latter con- 
tended for a greater redu61:ion. 
Now that very board comes for- 
ward of itfelf, and propofes to fend 
four king's regiments in audiuon to 
that very eilablilhment, which they 
had contended, with the laii degree 
of obitinacy, was too large, and 
ouo-ht to be reduced. But, he 
added, 1 have long feen, and I now 
lee more diftinftly, a fyflem of pa- 
tronage, a fettled and regularly di- 
gelied pl-va at the bottom of the 
whole bufinefs. It was, he too 
plainly perceived, a regular pro- 



grcfTive plan to grafp all the patron- 
age of the India company ; and the 
declaratory bill then before them wab 
only one ftep more towards its com- 
pletion : he therefore conjured the 
houfe to be aware, and look about 
them ; and declared, that if the pre- 
fent bill pafl'ed, a fatal ftab would, 
in his opinion, be given to the con- 
ilitution. It was alibflrongly urged 
by Mr. Sheridan and Mr. Fox, that 
the power of an abfolute control 
over, and of a difcretionary appli- 
cation of the territorial revenues of 
the India company, amounting to 
near nine millions llerling, a? claim- 
ed by the board of control, was ari 
obje<^l of fo enormous a magnitude 
as to require no common degree of 
caution before it was fan£tioned. 

LalUy, doubts were ftarted, whe- 
ther the power claimed by the board 
of control, of keeping an army of 
the king's forces in India to any 
amount they chofe, and appropriat- 
ing the revenues of the company to 
their payment, was confiftent with 
the principles of the confiitution. 
It was ftated, that the raifmg and 
keeping a ftanding army in time of 
peace, is declared by the bill of 
rights to be unlawful, but with the 
addition of thefe words, '-within this 
ki'iviiom. This declaration was g-e- 
nerally fuppofed not to extend to 
the keeping an army out of the 
kingdom, in any of the dominions of 
the crown ; and accordingly, in the 
eliim.ates for the plantations, the 
number of troops was not voted, 
but the money for their raifing and 
maintaining was granted; parlia- 
ment not being afraid of the crown's 
keeping a ftanding army there be- 
yond the number which could be 
raifed and fubfilled by the money " 
voted for that fervice ; the crown 
having no revenue in the plan* 
X tations. 



tllSTdRY OF EUROPE. [125 



(:auons. Bat in the 12th of Wil- 
Jiam the Third, a jcaloufy having 
arifen refpedting the army in Ire- 
land, where the king had a reve- 
nue for its fupport, parliament li- 
mited the number which was to be 
kept there. There appeared the 
lame ground of jealoufy in the pre- 
fent cafe ; there was a revenue at 
the difpofal of the king's niinillcrs, 
for railing and paying an army 
without confent of parliament, and 
confequently the power claimed by 
the board of control was a dange- 
1-ous departure from the principles 
iof the conftitution. 

Such were the principal arguments 
ufed by thofe who oppofed the paf- 
fmg of the Declaratory Aft. On the 
other fide, it was contended, that 
with refpeft to the conftruftion of 
the aft of 1784, confidered in the 
light of a penal law, the principle 
laid down could only be admitted 
fo far as was confillent with the 
fpirit and exprefs objcfts of the aft 
itfelf ; that it would be abfurd to put 
a fenfe upon an aft that would de- 
feat the main ends for which it was 
palled ; and that, with regard to the 
aft of 1781, fuch parts of it as were 
inconfillent with the provifions of the 
fubfequent aft, were, ipfo fafto, vir- 
tually, though not exprefbly, re- 
pealed. ■ 

In oppofuion to the fecond argu- 
ment, drawn from the particular 
cafes fpeciiied, in which a power of 
Originating meafures, and carrying 
them into execution, was veiled In 
the board of control,, the avowed 
and exprefs defign and intention of 
the aft in general, and in all its 
parts, was (IrOngly infilled upon. 
Its exprefs objeft, it was fald, was 
to take the entire management of 
the territorial polTeflions, and the po- 
litical government of India, out «f 



the hands of the company, leaving 
them only the direftion of their 
commercial concerns. The board 
of control was in future to be r«- 
fponhble to the public for the prof-* 
perity, defence, and fecurity of our 
Indian pofFeflionSjand was the re f; re 
to be invefted with all the powers 
and authority neceliary for the due 
difcharge of the important duties 
delivered over to it. Thefe powers 
were given in general terms, and 
the mode of exercifing them in par- 
ticular cafes was fpecilied ; in fome, 
they had a negative upon the 
orders of the direftors ; in others, 
where a difference of opinion arofe, 
it was enafted, that the board 
might enforce the execution of its 
own ; and could any man be abfurd 
enough to imagine, that if the di- 
reftors were at any time xp fold their 
arms acrofs, and remain in a ftate 
of inaftivity, that the board were 
not authorize*! and bound to iffue 
fucli orders as the exigence of the 
cafe might require ? In the inftance 
then before the houfe, could it be 
fuppofed that parliament intended 
to leave to the ccfmpany, who it 
might be expefted, frOm the fliorC 
duration of their charter, would it- 
tend chiefly to their own immediate 
pecuniary interefts, the entire dif- 
pofition of their revenues, without 
enabling the board of control, who 
were refponfible for the defence and 
permanent fecurity of the whole, to 
appropriate fuch part of them as 
(hould be thought neceflary for thofe 
purpofes ? 

With refpeft to the language faid 
to have been held by adminillration, 
v/hen the aft of 1784 was broughe 
into parliament, Mr. Pitt denied, in 
the moft pofitive manner, that he 
had ever given, by any declarationj 
of his, leafon to fuppofe that the 



ii6] ANNUAL REGISTER, 17S8. 



aft was intended to bear any other 
conftruftion, than that which he now 
contended for. Ke particularly re- 
membered an exprefiion, which, tho' 
ridiculed at the time, would clearly 
explain the ideas he had formed upon 
the fubjeft, when he termed the 
board of commiilioners, as confti- 
tuted in the bill, a board of aSive 
tontrol. With refpeft to what might 
have been the intentions of other 
gentlemen in fupporting that mea- 
sure, or tiie expedlations of the court 
t)f direftors, he did not apprehend 
that the merits of the prefeat quef- 
tion were at all concerned in them. 

As to the opinion which the board 
of control itfelf was aiTerted to have 
entertained of the linuts of their 
own authority, if was alfo argued to 
be foreign to the quelHon. Mr. 
Dundas, however, denied, that any 
proofs exifted of their having ad- 
mitted their want of power, in the 
■manner that had been Ilated ; and 
the counfel for the company offering 
to produce certain papers as evi- 
dence of the faft, at the bar, a fhort 
debate enfued upon the propriety of 
producing fuch evidence, and the 
■ouellion being put, its produdion 
'was negatived by a majoriiy of 242 
■to 118. It was urged on the other 
hand, in fupport of the power claim- 
ed bv the board of control, chat ihey 
had in feveral Initances exercifcd it 
to the extent no^^v contended for. 
That particularly in the year 1785, 
when it was well known that' the 
company's treafury in India was not 
only inadequate to the payment of 
the current demands, but fcarcely 
contained a fufficlent fum to pay tht 
• arrears of the army, the commif- 
fioners for India immediately fent 
an order for the payment of the 
troops in the firft inftancc, and to 
poApone ^U other demands. It was 



well known that the army was at 
this time ripe for a mutiny, and tha£ 
in all probability fuch a misfortune 
might have happened, had not the 
board of control taken the ftep they 
did ; a ftep which they could not 
have taken, had they not been veft- 
ed with a power to apply the terri- 
torial revenues as they thought pro- 
per. In fail, fuch a power was in- 
difpenfably neceffary to be given to 
thcfe who were to be refponfible for 
the fafety of India, and without it 
the board would have been a nuga- 
tory and inefficient body. 

Upon the fecond head of argu- 
ments ufcd in oppofition to the bill, 
it was faid in the firft place, that the 
power given to thd' board of control 
over the revenues of the company, 
as explained by the declaratory ad, 
was almoll univerfally admitted by 
both fides of the houfe to be necef- 
fary for the purpofes for which it 
was conftituted, whether fuch power 
was aftually given in the original 
bill or not ; and that, with refpedt to 
the poffible abufe of that power, it 
was fufficient to anfwer, that; the 
board was refponfible to, and under 
the controul of parliament. The in- 
confiftcncy of thofe gentlemen who 
brought in and fupported the rejeft- 
ed bill of 1783, who condemned the 
bill of 1784 as impotent and ineffec- 
tual, and now condemned the exten- 
fion of it as an unjufl violation of 
the company's rights, was Ilrongly 
animadverted on. 

With regard to the ceconomy and 
policy of the meafure offending out 
the four regiments to India, it was 
admitted that the company's troops 
were raifed and maintained at a lefs 
expence ; but in the prefent cafe 
great expedition was required, and 
this could only be efpedled in the 
mode adopted. The impolicy of 

having 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [117 



having two armies in India, in two 
diftindt fervices, was alfo admitted, 
and Mr. Pitt avowed his opinion of 
the expediency of incorporating 
them into one ; but that, he faid, 
ought undoubtedly to be the king's ; 
and he did not fcruple to declare, 
that it was not without a dillant 
view to that meafure, that govern- 
ment were defirous of increafing 
the permanent eftablifliment of the 
king's forces in India. As to the 
additional patronage which would 
thereby accrue to the crown, he 
protelted in the moll folemn man- 
ner that his condudl was in no de- 
gree influenced by that confidera- 
tion ; and faid, that in order to lefTen 
the hardlhips of the half-pay offi- 
cers in the company's fervice, it 
was the intention of government to 
divide equally the new commiflions 
with them ; a proportion which he 
hoped would not be thought unrea- 
fonable,when k was confidered, that 
there are upwards of 2,000 officers 
in the half-pay in the king's fervice, 
many of whom had even a claim 
upon the Eafl: India company from 
their fervices in that country in the 
laft war. 

Upon the great conftitutional 
quelHon of flanding armies, Mr. 
Pitt remarked, that there were great 
inaccuracies in all the exifting lav/s 
relative to that fubjedl. The bill 
of rights, he faid, was not very ex- 
plicit : it hardly Itated the illegality 
of a Handing army within the king- 
dom, but was filent with refpeft to 
an army cut of the kingdom. The 
mutiny aft was drawn up ftill more 
loofely ; and he hoped that one good 
efFeft attending the prefent difpute 
would be a revifion and emendation 
of the law upon points fo deeply 
affefting the conftitution ; and he 
promifed his affiftance and fupport 



in fo neceflary an undertaking. In 
fhort, he declared his readinefs and 
moll earnell wifhes, that every guard 
and check that could be devifed 
fliould be adopted. If any danger 
was apprehended from the bill be- 
fore the houfe, relative either to the 
augmentation of the army, or the 
patronage of India in general, he 
was ready to receive any claufes 
that might be offered, from what- 
ever part of the houfe they might 
come, from whatever individual, or 
accompanied by what language- 
they might, for guarding in the moll 
effectual manner againll it. 

Notwithftanding the moderate 
and conciliating language ufed by 
the miniller in defence of the decla- 
ratory bill, the unfavourable recep- 
tion it met with in the houfe, and 
even from many of his ovVn friends, 
was apparent through the whole 
progrefs of it. Some of thefc lat- 
ter fuggefted their apprehenfions, 
that he had been led into this mea- 
fure by perfons of whofe principles 
they did not much approve, and 
with whom they were forry to fee 
him fo intimately connected. One 
gentleman, fpeaking of him, faid, 
that he was fure his covfdence had 
been furprifed ; an expreiiion whicln 
gave occalion to Mr. Sheridan to 
remark ; " that, without doubt, his 
" original crime had been, that he 
" had connected himfelf with thofe 
" from whom no good counfel could 
" come ; and that, lamenting as 
" they all mud do, the confequences 
" of his want of vigilance, and the 
" misfortunes of his connexions, it 
" was earnellly to be wifhed, either 
" that his confcience would keep a 
" better look out, or that he would 
" keep better company." On the 
motion made on the 5 th of March 
for committing the bill, there wrr« 

[if] 3 roe* 



ii8] ANNUAL REGISTER, '1783. 



noes 125 to ayes 182. And on the 
7th, when the report was to be 
brought up, though Mr. Pitt de- 
clared, that, for the purpofe o{ hav- 
ing further checks, to prevent troops 
being fent to India without the ap- 
probation of parliament, and to pre- 
vent the improper application of the 
territorial revenues, he fhould move 
for its re-commitment, and that the 
committee fliould be inftrucled to 
receive claufes for the faid purpofcs, 
the queftion for bringing it up was 
carried by a majority of only 67. 

Upon its re-commitmcnt, on the 
loth, the chancellor of the exche- 
quer moved the claufes before al- 
luded to. The firfl: was to limit the 
r^umber of forces, for the payment 
of which the conimiihoners of the 
board of control were empowered to 
iifue their orders, to 8,045 ^^'^ ^^ 
his majefty's troops, and 12,200 of 
the European forces in the compa- 
ny's fcrvice. The fecond was to 
prevent their increafnig the efla- 
blidied falary of any office in the 
lervice of the company, unlefs fuch 
increafe fliould be propofed by the 
directors, and laid before both houfes 
of parliament. The third was to 
prevent the commifiioners from or- 
dering the payment of any extraor- 
dinary allowance to any perfon, on 
account of fervices performed in 
India, except as is excepted in the 
preceding claufe. The fourth and 
laft was to oblige the direftors to 
lay annually before parliament an 
account of the produce of all their 
revenues, and of their difburfements. 
Thefe claufes were agreed to witl^r 
put debate. 

On the third reading of the bill, 
upon the 14th of March, it again 
underwent a long difcuflion, in which, 
in addition to the arguments before 
prged. Sir Grey Cooper contended. 



that the bill had come out of the 
committee more unparliamentary ia 
its form than it was before. He faid, 
that no precedent had been adduced 
of ena6\ing claufes being added and 
annexed to declaratory bills ; and that 
he would venture to affert, that it 
was incongruous with the ground 
and principle of declaratory laws, 
to fuperadd to the declaration of 
iv/jat ■T.vas and is Inzu, explanatory 
claufes, qualifications, and rellraints. 
What was it but to fay, that the 
power declared to be in the com- 
mifiioners was Jirjf njejled in thetn by 
laixi, provided certain things be 
done, and certain conditions ob- 
ferved by them, which ivere not la-iv 
before. The claufes propofed by the 
miniiler, to cover his rear, were /r^- 
pojlerous u\ the corrett fenfe of the 
word ; they were in their nature an- 
tecedent to the declaratory bill, and 
ought to have made a part of the 
adt to be explained, if the aft in- 
tended to give the extraordinary- 
powers which the declaration af- 
fumed, but which the omifllon of 
thefe claufes clearly prove that ic 
did not. 

Befides the* gentlemen whofe 
names have been already mention- 
ed, the bill was oppofed by Mr. 
Wyndham, Mr. Anftruther, Mr. 
Francis, Mr, Baflard, Mr. Martin, 
&c. ; and defended by Mr. counfellor 
Scott, Mr. Hardinge, Mr. Rolle, 
Mr. Thornton of the court of di- 
redlors, Mr. Addington, and lord 
Mulgrave. The bill finally pafied 
by a majority of 54, and was or- 
dered to the lords. 

On the 17th of March, the day 
appointed for its fecond reading, 
lord Portchelter propofed, that, be- 
fore they proceeded farther, thq 
opinion of the judges fliould be ta- , 
ken upon the conftrudion of the aft 
• ■ oi 



II ISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[119 



c>f 17S4; and he moved a quelrion 
for that purpofe. This motion was 
oppofed by lord Hawkclbury and 
the chancellor, as tending to pro- 
duce unnfceiTa-ry delay, at a mo- 
ment when the company's Aip?) were 
<letained in port at the enormous 
expence of three o-r four hundred 
pounds a day, and might, if they 
waited the ifl'ue of the mode of pro- 
ceeding now recommended, lofe their 
voyage for the prefetit year, k was 
urged in vain, on the other fide, that 
declaratory bills, being of the nature 
of judicial a£ts, ought to be proceed- 
ed upon with mere than ordinary 
delay and deliberation ; and that in 
the prefent cafe efpecially, in which 
the private rights of individuals were 
materially aftecled, ccnfiderations 
that were merely political ought not 
to be allowed any weight. The mo- 
tion v.'as rejected by a majority of 76 
to 30 ; as was alfo a motion made 
by the duke of Norfolk, for defer- 
ring the fecond reading to the 
Thurfday following, agreeable to 
the prayer of a petition which he 
prefented from certain of the pro- 
prietors of India ftock. 

In the debate upon the main quef- 
tion, the bill was attacked and de- 
fended upon the various grounds on 
w.iich it was difcufTed in the houfa 
of commons. The debate was doled 
by the marquis of Lanfdown, \jho 
took a large view of the bill with 
refpect to its declaratory operation 
and its general political principles. 
He expreffed the utmoll ailonifh- 
ment, that any one, who recolleded 
what had pafl'ed in that houfe in the 
years 1783 and 1784, could. contend 
for a moment that the principles of 
the prefent bill were contained in 
that of 1784. Their lordlliips had 
fefiUcd W fufFer tixe bill of 1783 to 



be fent to a committee, becaufe it 
was bad in its principle ; and yet 
the ad which they afterwards palled 
in 1784, as now intended to be ex- 
plained, manifellly holds one and 
t!;e fame principle. The preference 
of the latter to the former could not 
have been given on account of its 
particular provifions. He, at leaft, 
ihould have preferred that which 
gave the government of India to 
parliamentary commilFioners for four 
years. It would now have expired. 
But it the power propofed fhould once 
be given to the crown, what time 
and exertion would not be required 
to recover it, or to keep within due 
bounds the influence of the crown, 
when all the patronage of India uas 
added to influence it already pof- / 
fefTed ? If it was capable of eredting 
a fourth ftate, and overturning the 
conrtitution in fourth hands, hew 
much more capable of mifchief 
would it be, when united in one of 
the three eltates, and that the crown, 
there being eleven millions llerling 
per annum to adminiiter? After fif- 
teen years oppofition, and a concur- 
rence of many favourable circum- 
ftances, ail that the virtue of par- 
liament could effect, in redudion of 
the influence of the crown, had been 
the abolition of the board of green 
cloth ; and fmce that reduftion, the 
crown had got on fafter than ever. 
To what then were they to look for 
the fafety of the conltitution, when 
the crown ftiould acquire fuch an 
acceffion of influence as would con- 
trol parliament itfelf ? 

As a proof that minifliers had 
infidioully concealed their defign, 
if they had ever really conceiv- 
ed an idea of confiruing the act 
of 1784 in its prefent extent, he 
quoted a pamphlet publiflied by Mr. 
[H] 4 Pulteney 



120] ANNUAL REGISTER, 178S. 

Pukeneyat the time, which admini- 
ilration avowedly clifperfed all over 
the kingdom, as containing lenti- 
ments which they wifhed to be con- 
fidered as the principles of their 
condud. The part which Mr. Pulte- 
ney had taken upon a late occaiion^ 
clearlv proved the fenfe he had of 
the conltruclion of that aft. In cor- 
roboration of this argument, his 
lordfliip alfo adverted to another 
tranfaclion, which had taken place 
during the pafiing of the aft, when 
a claufe, exprefsly empowering the 
board of control to originate dif- 
patches, was, upon the remonltrance 
of the direftors, that fuch a claufe 
amounted to a total afTumption of 
their rights, given up and omitted. 

With refpeft -to the particular 
ireafure which the bill defigned to 
enable government to carry into 
execution, he conceived it to be not 
only unjuil to the company, by filch- 
ing patronage at their expence, and 
to their military officers, by throw- 
ing them back in their promotion, 

but indefenfible upon any military 

or ceconomical principle. The latter 

he proved by a variety of calcula- 
tions ; and as to the former, he faid 

the policy of having many officers 

and few men was exploded through- 
out Europe, and v/as only calculated 

for patronage. 

His lordfnip concluded with ob- 

jefting to the bill, as in fome mea- 
sure deciding a point purpcfely left 

fufpcnded hitherto, the public right 

to the territorial polTefficns in India. 

He allowed that fome decifion upon 

the fubjeft mull: foon be made, and 

a general fyftem for the government 

of India adopted. He was ready to 

enter into a cool and difpaffionate 

difcuffion of that moft important 

jiiCafure, but he did not think that 



they ought to place fo implicit a 
confidence in the profound wifdom 
and great experience of his majelly's 
minillers, as blindly and precipi- 
tately to adopt all their projefts. I{ 
it be necefTary to fend four regi- 
ments to India, a fhort aft might 
pafs for that purpofe, and the reft 
be referved for a more mature de- 
liberation. 

In the committee feveral amend- 
ments were propofed, but rejefted ; 
and on the 19th of March, upon its 
third reading, the bill was again de- 
bated by the lords Camden, Coven- 
try, Hopeton, and the lord chancel- 
lor, on one fide, and lord Lough- 
borough, lord Grantley, lord S tor- 
ment, lord Carlifle, and lord Kawke, 
on the other. The argument prin- 
cipally infilled on by the former 
was, that the aft of 1784 authorifed 
the board of commiflioners to dire&, 
as well as to control, all afts, ope- 
rations, &c. and they contended that 
the limiting words, " in the t7ianner 
hereinafter defcrihed,''^ had merely a 
reference to the fubfequent claufes, 
but did not take away the general 
power of fuperintendence and di- 
rcftion in all cafes not fpecified. It 
was alfo faid by the chancellor, that 
the power given to amend and alter 
difpatches,admitted in terms a power 
to add new matter to them. Vv^ith 
refpeft to the omiflion of the word 
revenues, in one of the general 
claufes, giving a power of fuperin- 
tendence and direftion, it was faid 
that it might either have been omit- 
ted by accident, or, waving that 
ground, was fubftantially included 
in the words ciiiil and 7;iilitary con- 
cer7is. The validity of thefe infe- 
rences was denied by oppolition ; 
and the example of our own confti- 
tution was brought in oppofuion to 

the 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [121 



the bft, in which the right of ap- 
propriating the revenue is not a ne- 
cefTary coafequence of the power in 
civil and military affairs. On the 
divifion, there appeared contents 71, 



not contents 28. A ftrong proteft, 
(which the reader will find amongll 
the Itate papers of this volume) was 
entered againft the bill, and figned 
by fixteen of the dillerjtient peers. 



CHAP. VI. 

f&e claufe in the mutiny bill, for incorporating in the army the nenu corps 
of military artificers, ohjeded to in the hoife of commons, and carried upon 
a di-'yijion. Debate upon the fame in the houfe of lords. Duke of Rich' 
mond's account of the veiu-efiablijhed carps ; fupported by lords Cathcart 
and Raxvdcn ; oppofed by the duke of Manchcjier, lords Portchejler, and 
Carlifie. Debate on the bill for preventing the exportation of iajooI. 
Arguments adduced by the manufaiiurers in fupport of the bill ; oppofed 
by the country gentlemen. Speakers upon the qucjiion. Chancellor of the 
exchequer decides in favour of the bill'y carried by a cojfidcrable tnajo- 
rity. Budget opened. Flourijhing fate of the finances. Services voted ; 
and the annual diminution of the national debt provided for --without any 
additional tax. ProgreJJive improvement of the revenues, a-nd increafe cf 
conwierce. State of the finances controverted by Mr. Sheridan and Mr. 
-Fox. Further debate upon the report cf the budget ; remarks upon it by 
fir Grey Cooper. Bill for better regulating the trials of coniefted eleiiions 
brought in by Mr. Grenville ; objeiis of the bill ; pof'ed -with general 
approbation. Motion by Mr. Fox for the repeal of the Jhop-tax. Addi-- 
tional arguments for the repeal; oppofed by Mr. Pitt; rejected by a mU" 
jority of 43. Particulars relating to the quefiion of abolijhing the flave- 
trade. Petitions prefented againfi it. Committee of privy- council ap- 
pointed to enquire into it. Motion by Mr. Pitt, that the houfe ^would 
take it into ccnf deration early next fejicn. Delay oppofed by Mr. Fox 
and Mr. Burke ; and the reafons adduced by Mr. Pitt folemnly protefied 
againfi. Bill propofed by fir W. Dolben, for regulating the tranfporia~ 
tion cf fiaves from Africa to the IVeft Indies ; objecls of the bill ; op- 
pofed by the merchants cf Liverpool and London. Coutifel heard againjt 
the bill. Paffes through both houfes, and receives the royal afjent. Com- 
penfation voted to the American loyalifis ; principles upon vjhich it ivas 
to be apportioned, explained by Mr. Pitt. Cafe of Mr. Harford reconi' 
mended by Mr. Fox ; amendment acceded to by Mr. Pitt. Aci paffed for 
granting an annuity out of the Derv^entvjater efiate to lord Nevjburgh. 



HAVING given our readers, 
in the two laft chapters, an 
account of fome of the principal de- 
bates which occurred in the prefent 
feflion of parliament, we fhall now 
revert to feveral other fubjedls of 



importance, which occafionally en- 
gaged the attention of both houfes 
during the fame period. 

On the 1 2th of ,, , ^i 
n/f u .u * f March izth. 

March, the report of 

the committee on the mutiny bill 

was 



I2i] ANx\UAL REGISTER, 1788. 



was brought up, and, on reading 
tiie claufe for incorporating in the 
army the newly - raifed corps of 
military artificers, the fame was 
Itmngly objcded as a dangerous in- 
novation, and as militating againll 
the moli favourite printiples ot the 
corillitution. 1 he fame fyftem, it 
was faid, might next be extended to 
fliipvvrights, and fo to every other 
dcfcriplion of perfons in the fervice 
of the executive government; and 
therefore the houfe v/as called upon 
to repel fo alarming an innovation 
in limine. In defence of the niea- 
fure it was urged, that it would be 
attended with an annual faving of 
jT. 2,oco, upon an expenditure of 
£^. 22,000 ; and that it vva^ necelfary 
to extend the military law to the 
corps in queftion, as the only means 
of keeping them together, and pre- 
venting their defertion of the pub- 
lic fervice in time of war. 

This difpofition to adopt a new 
principle of expediency and octono- 
my, upon a fubjedt v/hich went to the 
diminution of the liberties of the 
fubjed, inflead of the old principle 
of adual necellity, was feverely re- 
probated. Several country gentle- 
men declared, that if the houfe 
fhould agree to put 60c Englifhmen 
under martial law, merely for thepal- 
try ccnfideration of faving/". 2, 000 
per annum, they would betray their 
conlHtueiits, and would be devoid of 
thofe feelings for the conditation, 
which ought to make their dilHn- 
guifiiing character. It was denied, 
that any neceffity for fo extraordi- 
nary a furrender of the liberties of 



time of war. The fenfe of the houfe 
being taken on the claufe, there ap- 
peared ayes 1 14, noes 67. 

The iame fubjccl was again dif- 
cufled on the third reading of the 
mutiny bill, when it was afked, whe- 
ther any part of the corps was al- 
ready enlilkd and embo'iied ? This 
queiiion being anfwered in the affir- 
mative, it was ftrongly contended, 
that the authors of the meafure had 
been guilty of an illegal ad, in raif- 
ing a body of men without the con- 
lent of parliament ; and that it was 
a violent and arbitrary meafure to 
lubject thole men to military law, 
who, at the time of their enlifting, 
were evidently not included in the 
Jiiutiny aft. On the other hand, Mr. 
Pitt contended, that, by a liberal in- 
terpretation of the king's preroga- 
tive, government was authorifed, on 
the late alarm of war, to raife the 
corps in queflion : and fir Charles 
Gould, the advocate-general, main- 
tained, that every fo'dier enlifted 
became, ipfo fafto, fubjed to be tri- 
ed by martial law. The houfe a- 
gain divided on the qiieilion, ayes 
142, noes 70. 

Upon the commitment of the bill 
in the upper houfe, the duke of 
Manchefter rofe, and declared his 
intention of oppofmg the novel 
claufes that it contained. He was 
an avowed enemy, he faid, to the 
extenfion of military law, unlefs in 
cafes of abfolute neceffity ; and that 
the prefent bill went unnecefiarily 
to extend that law, by making a 
number of artificers fubjed to its 
fevere effeds, who had hitherto en- 



a part of the community was made joyed their liberty in common with 
out ; it having never been aflerted, their fellow fubjeds. Could it be 
nor being indeed true in fad, that proved necelfary for the fafety of 
there was any difficulty in procuring the kingdom, he Ifiould not enter- 
(trtiiiceib for the ordnance fci vice in tain the Icall objedion to the en- 

erea!<3 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [123 



create of the army ; but in a time 
of profound peace, t!ke adoption of 
a meafure of fo fingular a nature as 
the prefent called tor jealoui'y and 
caution. 

The duke of Richmond entered 
into a full explanation of the plan 
of which he had been the author. Jt 
had occurred to him, he faid, that 
the formation of a regular corps of 
artiiicers, who would, in future wars, 
be applicable to any fervice, when 
wanted, eiiher at home or abroad, 
could not but be attended with very 
beneficial confequences. In all the 
armies abroad, fuch a corps made 
p^rt of thofe armies, and, as their 
ucility was unquelHonable, he had 
concluded that there ought to be 
fuch a corps in our army, and there- 
fore he had confidered it as his du- 
ty to fubmit the proportion to his 
ijiajefty, who had approved of it, 
and it had been fjnce laid before the 
houfe of commons, and voted by that 
branch of the legiilature. With re- 
gard to putting them in the mutiny 
bill, being a part of the army, en- 
lifted regularly as foldiers, like other 
foldiers they ought undoubtedly to 
become fubjefted to the fame law, 
as the policy of the ftate had confi- 
dered it as right that all foldiers 
fliould continue in fuch a ftate of 
fubordination. At the fame time, it 
was not to be confidered as any 
hardlhip, fince no fpecies of trial, 
however popular it might be, was, 
he believed, more fair and candid 
than trials by court martial. He 
added, that the corps of artiiicers 
propofed to be formed, was not only 
highly ufeful, but, at the fame time, 
io far from being an additional ex- 
pence, they would prove a faving, 
becaufe the difference between get- 
ting fuch a number as heretofore, 
and having them formed into a re- 



gular corps as intended, would ren- 
der the ufual expence lefs by two 
thoufaud pounds. Excluhve of the 
corps of artificers, the corps of en- 
gineers, and the gunners, and quar- 
ter gunners, were likewife inferted 
in the mutiny bill, which, undoubt- 
edly, they ought to be, as they were 
a part of the army. 

Lord Porte hefter objefted princi- 
pally to that part of the new efia- 
bliftiment which fubjeded the artiii- 
cers To the arbitrary punifhment of 
the mafter-gencrai of the ordnance. 
In one inft.iuce they might be redu- 
ced for want of fkiil, of which the maf- 
ter-general was made the fole judge, 
to the rank of labourers, and there- 
by be deprived of one-third of their 
pay; and in another, he was alfo the 
fole judge of the quantum to which 
their pay fhould be reduced in cafes 
of idlenefo or miibehaviour. 

Lord Carliile ridiculed the flrange 
reafbn given for adopting the new 
projert, that it would be a faving of 
£. 2,coo a year. If their lordfnips 
were to be governed by fuch argu- 
ments, they would be led into {o 
abfurd a matter as the calcula- 
tion of what the furrender of the 
rights of the fubjetl was worth 
per man ; and, if the rights and 
liberties of 600 artiiicers were 
worth juft_^. 2,000, they would fee 
that the noble lord valued the 
rightr- of every individual exactly at 
j^'. 3. \os. each. 

Lord Cathcart and lord Rawdon 
were ofopinion, that the plan form- 
ed by the noble duke would be at- 
tended with many confiderable mi- 
litary advantages : and the queilion 
being at length put, the ciaufe vv'as 
carried without a divirion. 

A bill, which was brought into 

tl»e houfe of commons about this 

lime, at ;hc requeft of the woollen 

niap.uf^iturers. 



124] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



manufadlurers, for amending and 
rendering more eiFecbjal the exill- 
ing laws againll the private expor- 
tation of wool, met with a warm 
oppofition from a numbi:r of coun- 
try gentlemen, v^ho conildered it as 
an unnecefTary and unjuft: attack 
upon the landed intereft. The prin- 
cipal facl, upon which the manufac- 
turers reded their caufe, was, that a 
quantity of long or combing wool, 
to the amount of 13,000 packs, was 
annually fmuggled to France ; and 
from this fad the following infe- 
rences were drawn : firft, tliat the 
wool-growers were by this means 
enabled to keep up the price of 
wool in this country beyond its juft 
ftandard, to the ^reat detriment of 
our ftaple manufa£lure ; fecondly, 
that there enfued a lofs to this coun- 
try of the furplus of the value of the 
manufaftured articles over the raw 
material, and of the increafed popu- 
lation which the employment of an 
additional number of manufadurers 
would produce ; and thirdly, that 
tlie fmuggled wool being an article 
necelTary to the French manu- 
fafturers, it enabled them to rival 
ours. 

In reply to thefe arguments, it was 
contended, that fuflicient evidence 
had not been produced of the quan- 
tity fuppofed to be fmuggled. That 
from an accurate account of the en- 
tries made in the French po/is, it 
did not appear that fo much as 
i,coo packs had been imported, on 
an average of fix years paft. That 
probably the whole quantity fmug- 
gled had not been entered, but that 
it was impofTible to conceive that it 
could amount to any thing near the 
quantity ftated by the manufac- 
turers. That even admitting it 
amounted to 10,000, yet, as the 
whole produce of this country was 



calculated at 600,000 packs, the" 
quantity fmuggled was not an objedl 
of fuch importance, as to make it 
neceffary to fubjeclthe wool-growers 
to the hardfhips and vexatious re- 
ftraints which the propofed bill 
would lay them under. 

With refpeft to the iirft inference, 
it was denied that the price of wool 
was kept up beyond its juft ftand- 
ard, and, as a proof that the manu- 
fadlure was not injured by it, the 
increafe of the value of woollen 
goods exported, from the year 1776 
to the year 1787, was Ihewn to be 
in the proportion of nearly one- 
third. Upon the fecond inference 
it was faid, that, admitting the 
quantity of wool ftated to be fmug- 
gled into France, it did not follow 
that our manufafturers would work 
up that additional quantity above 
what they now do, merely by pre- 
venting its making its way thither. 
On the contrary, unlefs it be firft 
proved, which had never been even 
aflerted, that, in confequence of the 
exportation, the manufaflurers are 
in want of materials to work upon, 
it was fair to conclude, that the 
quantity exported was a mere fur- 
plus, and that the Britifti manufac- 
turer would not work up a fingle 
pound more, though the whole 
fnould be kept at home. As to the 
third inference, it was argued, fron^ 
the flourilhing ftate of our manufac- 
tures, that we certainly had not fuf- 
fered from the rivalftiip of the 
French. But waving that ground, 
it was faid, that a mifchief of another 
kind might arife from the total pre- 
vention of the exportation of our 
long wool to France ; for, if the 
French manufadlurer mitjl have wool 
of that quality, and cannot get it 
from us, what Ihould prevent them 
from getting our beft fheep, and 
producing 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [125 



producing it themfelves ? It could 
not be doubted but that, by appro- 
priating ten thoufand pounds a year 
for buying Englifh fheep at a very 
high price, ihe might have the 
choice of the beft fheep in England 
fent over the channel ; and, as fine 
wool bore double the price in France 
to what it does in England, this 
might be well worth her while. 

In addition to thefe arguments, 
it was urged, that it was equally il- 
liberal and unjuft in the manufac- 
turers to. expect to have a monopoly 
of the Englifh wool, and at their own 
price too, which would undoubt- 
edly happen, and leave the wool- 
growers entirely at their mercy, if 
all poffibility of exportation was cut 
off. That this pollibility was con- 
tended for, not from any material 
advantage that they derived from 
it, but as a check upon the avarice 
of the manufacturer ; that they 
well knew they hvad a common in- 
terell with the Bri^ifh manufadurer, 
but that this avarice might defeat its 
objedl, fmce, in proportion as the 
price of wool fhould be reduced, the 
holder of land would have the lefs 
inducement to rear that kind of flock 
which produces it. 

Thefe replies were ingenioufly 
combated by the fupporters of the 
bill. It was faid, that the reftraints 
propofed to be laid upon the wool- 
growers would not materially afFedl 
their interefts at all, and therefore 
could not be confidered as injurious 
and opprefTive ; for that the value 
of the wool of a fheep bore fo fmall 
a proportion to the value of the flefh 
of the animal, that it clearly proved 
that the culture of wools was by no 
means the firfl objeft with thofe who 
kept fheep. That this fafl alfo ob- 
liated another difficulty that had 
been ftarted, namely, that a decreafe 



in the price of wool might operate 
to the decreafe of the quantity pro- 
duced. On the other hand, that, 
from the fl jduating nature of trade 
and manufadures, great danger was 
always to be apprehended from any 
difcouragemcnt that was thrown 
upon them, and that any miichief 
that fhoald happen to thefe, would, 
in the event, be doubly felt by the 
land-cwner, fmce a decreafe of the 
population of the country would ne- 
ceffarily lefTen the confumption of 
the provifions, which he fupplies, 
and confequently would lower the 
value of fheep, an effeft which he 
\fould feel much more feverely than 
any trifiing reduction in the price of 
wool, which could be occafioned by 
enforcing the prohibitions againll 
fmuggling it out of the kingdom. 
The prelent bill, it was alfo con- 
tended, was confonant to the exit- 
ing laws, and was only defigned to 
carry into mere effeftual execution, 
thefe principles of policy, refpeft- 
ing the exportation cf wool, by 
which this country had for fo many- 
years been governed, and under 
which both our mrmufafturers and 
our wool-growers had fiourijhed and 
grown rich together. 

The principal fpeakers in favour of 
the bill were, Mr.Duncomb, Mr.Ho- 
bart, Mr, Stanhope, Mr.Huffey, Mr. 
Windham, and Mr. Addington; and 
on the oppolite fide, fir John Thorold, 
Mr. Harrifon, Mr. Honeywood, Mr. 
Marlham., Mr. Powis, Mr. Pulteney, 
and fir Peter Burrel. — At length the 
chancellor of the exchequer rcfe, 
and, after a few obfervations upon 
the various arguments that had been 
ufed, declared, that as it was admitted 
on one hand, by the oppofers of the 
bill, that the wool-growers had but 
little advantage to expect from its 
rejedion, and it was contended on the 

other. 



126] ANNUAL REGISTER, 178S. 



other, by the friends of the bill, 
that the manufaciurers had much 
to fear, he thought it mort wife, in 
fuch a cafe, to go with the fears 
that were real, than with the hopes 
that were avowedly little, and there- 
fore he thought it right to let the bill 
go to a committee. On the divifion 
there appeared, ayes 112, noes 47. 
On the 19th of May, the bill was 
read a third time, and paiied by a 
coniiderable majority. 

T.J , On the cth of May, the 
May cth. , ,- 1 • r 1 j • 

^ -' houle being relolved into 

a committee of ways and means, 
Mr. Pitt opened the budget for the 
prefent year. He firll (iated the fe- 
veral articles of fupply which had 
been voted for the fervice of the 
current year, and which amounted 
in the whole to 5 >7 79^365 1. 

In this account, it was to be ob- 
ferved, that, hi the navy, there was 
an increafe, beyond what would be 
thencccffary peace ekabhfnment, of 
446,000!. ; in the army there was 
an increafe of 233,000 1. ; and in the 
ordnance there was an increafe of 
6i,ocol, Thefc increafed demands 
were occafioned by the circiuntbince 
of our putting the diilant poiTcf- 
fions of the country into a itatc cf 
more complete defence, and were 
liot then to be confidered as the 
permanent nccelTary expence.s of the 
country — and to thefe there were 
feveral fums to be added which 
could not occur again, or at Icatl 
could not make a part of our fettk'd 
yearly expence. Such was the fum 
for the relief of tha Icyalilb, the 
expence of the late armament, and 
the vote for the payment of the 
debts of his royal highncfs the 
prince of Wales. T'hefe iums, added 
together, amounted to 1,282,0001. 
which was to be confidered as extra- 
ordinary, and was confequenily to be 



ded lifted from the fettled regulzr 
peace eitabhfhment of the country. 
It had been confidered as wife to 
put every part of the Britiih domi- 
nions 'into fuch a poflure of defence 
as to afcertain to the country the 
blefiirigs of peace, and he had the 
happinefs to fay,' that though they 
had thus incurred an extraordinary 
expence of more than i, 200,000 L 
the receipts of the country had fully 
aniweredit, and that without abating 
from the plan, which the houfe, 
in its wifdom, had eilablifhed for 
the diminution of the national debt. 

Mr. I'itt then liated the A'ays and 
means that had been voted for de- 
fraying thefe expences, from Which 
it appeared that there was a cleaf 
furplus of 27,000!. Tlie extraor- 
dinary expence would, he feared, 
endure for two years more— It 
would take fo long before they 
could be certain of coming to the 
permanent peace eilablilhment. 
Torhaps he might Hate the farther 
extraordlnarv expence that the na- 
tion was likely to incur, for excefs of 
navy, excefs of army, excefs of 
ordnance, and indeed for every 
other ;nii';ie, except one, of a ma- 
terial nature, at a million, or a mil- 
lion and a half; and for this, lie 
thought, there were ample refourceff 
jn the revenue, as there had been 
pro', fd to be for the large excefi irf 
the prelcut year. 

The other article of extraordinary 
expence which he meant was the 
fatisfaition to be made to the Ame- 
rican loyalifts. The commlflioners 
had now nearly wound up the v. hole 
of the claims, and it appeared that 
there was property loll, which the 
commillioifera had afcertained, and 
agreed to liquidate at i,86o,oool. 
There might yet remain 2 or 
3COJ.OC0I, to be afcertaipcd. This- 

wa* 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [127 



was to be confidered as lofs of pro- 
perty. There were alfo claims of 
Jofs of office, which the houfe would 
t^ke into their confideration, and act 
upon as tlieir gencrohiy might in- 
cline them — But, itating the whole at 
2,ooo,ocol. or 2,1 00,000 1. the houfe 
would fee that 5 oo,oool . had been paid 
thern,and there was Itill 1,500,000!. 
or i,6oo,cool. to be paid. He was 
authorifed to fay, that they would 
be well pleafed to have this fum 
paid th.'m by inftallments, and that 
the payment fnould commence next 
year; and he meant to propofe that 
the profits of a lottery, to be ella- 
blifhed annually, untii their claims 
were fully liquidated, fhould be ap- 
plied to their relief. A lottery for 
feven or eight vears would fuliv 
mifwer this exigency, provided that 
the bargain Jhould every year be 
rendered as profitable as it had for 
the lall year, and for the prefent. 
He had made the bargain on a 
competition among differeiv; bid- 
ders, and the profit would be about 
260,000!. a year. Gentlemen 
might be aflonidied at this circum- 
l>ance, but fuch was the rage and 
madnefs for this fpecies of gambling, 
and fucU was the bargain that he 
had made. 

The probable ftate of our reve- 
nue, and the certain amount of our 
expepce, were matters which came 
next in ord«4-, as, undoubtedly, it 
would be requifite to prove that we 
ought to have confidence in our 
fituation. That we (houM invaria- 
bly proceed in applying the million 
to the diminution of our debt, was 
a propofition which he would not 
detain the houfe for a moment in 
dilculHng, as it had already fo 
forcibly demonilrated its unlity. 
The million wa?, therefore, added 
to the pernianerit efiab 1^1. meat of 



the country; and, as the houfe had, 
in its vvilUom, eftablilhed a more 
extenfu'c fyilem of defence than 
was in contemplation two years 
ago, he v/ould llate the permanent 
peace eilabliOiment of the country, 
inftead of 15,478,000!. as. calculated 
by the committee, at 15,500,000!. 
The produce of the laft year's re- 
venue, up to the period ending the 
5 th of April, was 15,792,000!. which 
was i6S,oooI. more than was ne- 
ceflary, even by the increafed eila- 
blilhment which the houfe had 
thought it wife to adopt, and which 
political circumftances had rendered 
requifite. 

Arguing, therefore, from the ex- 
perience of laft year, we had the 
lairetl ground for confidence, that 
we fnould not only enjoy ample 
funds f> r the liquidation of every 
expence, but alfo for carryingonthe 
great purpofe of the late arrange- 
jnent, the extindion of the capital of 
our debt. But perhaps it might be 
argued, that it was not a fair mode 
of ftating our fituation, nor a ra- 
tional gruund of confidence, to ar- 
gue from the evidence of one year 
only. He begged leave to remind 
the committee, that the lall year 
ha-d many unfiicndly circum'lanccs 
in it, particularly the interruption 
which our commerce naturally re- 
ceived in the late alarm of war: 
but, even in looking back to the 
average of the lall three years, they 
found the calculation (Irongly coi- 
firmed, though certainly the furp'us 
was not fo favourable. Yet we had 
other very eftential grounds of con- 
fidence — Various branches of re- 
venue were improving, and many 
more were fufceptible of improve- 
ment. The farming of the poll- 
horfe duty brought an accelnon of 
£. 3C,ccc to the funds. Af^other, 

and 



128] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



and probably very confiderablci ac- 
ceffion would arife from feme regu- 
latious which he had it in his viev/ 
to propofe for preventing the frauds 
committed on the revenue in the 
tobacco duties. 

The progreflive improvement of 
a country in peace, and particularly 
of fuch a country as England, was a 
material objedt, and this was not a 
fubjedt of mere fpeculaticn. From 
the experienceof four years we were 
able to form fome eflimate. The re- 
ceipt of the permanent taxes in the 
year 1787, exclufive of the land and 
malt tax, had been /■. 1 3 ,000,000. 
The receipt of the taxes in the 
year 1783 had been £. 10,1 84,000* 
Thus there was an increafed re- 
venue of three millions, of which not 
more than one million and a half ac- 
crued from new taxes. In the trade, 
the navigation, and the fisheries, the 
progreffive improvement bore an ex- 
atl proportion to the increafed re- 
venue. 

In the year 1772 

our imports were £. I4,5C0;000 
Our exports - - 16,000,000 

In 1787, 
The imports were a- 

bout - - - _ 15,800,000 
But the exports were - 16,600,000 

perhaps it might be faid, that in 
this comparative llatement the ba- 
lance was agair.il us in the latter 
year; but the increafe of the im- 
ports arofe from the increafe of the 
home confumpcion of luxuries — -It 
proceeded from the beneficial im- 
port of raw materials ufed in our 
manufadtures ; and it might be con- 
iidered as a very pleafing circum- 
ftance attending the increafed im- 
ports, that they chiefly came from 
a part of our own empire — they 
came from Ireland. 



In like manner our navigation 

had increafed. 

The Newfoundland fifh- ^ ■ , / 

J xlutntali. 

ery, in 1773, produ- ^-' 

ced - - _ - _ 516,000 

In 1786 it produced - 752,000 



In 1773 the tonnage in 

the Greenland filhery 

was ----- 27,000 
In 1786 it was - - 53,000 



The fouthern whale-fifliery, a new 
and very valuable branch of trade, 
which he only took up at the be- 
ginning of the laft war, had alfo 
equally profpered. 

In this flfht-ry, in 17S5, there 
were employed 18' ihips, producing 
l- 29,000. 

In 1787 there were employed 38 
fhips, producing £. 107,000. 

He concluded with obferving, that 
he mentioned thefe circumfcances to 
prove that our improved condition 
came from no forced revenues, but 
was the fair and actual refult of in- 
creafed commerce. We had thus 
afcertained a furplus after having 
appropriated a million to the pay- 
ment of our debt. We had given 
great additional llrength to our fo- 
reign poffeffions, and, in doing this, 
we had not overlooked that which 
was the favourite fervice at home. 
No lefs than feven millions had, in 
the courfe of four years, been ex- 
pended in the improvement of the 
navy ; and he took upon him to fay, 
that it had been applied with as 
much fidelity as it had been voted 
with judgment. There were, he 
would pledge himfelf to prove, 30 
(hips of the line, and 35 frigates, 
built or repaired, more than there 
were in the firli: four years after the 
peace of 1763. In addition to this, 
we had abfoluiely and for ever ex- 
ting uilhed 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



feinguifhed two millions and a half of 
our debt. 

Mr. Sheridan followed Mr. Pitt, 
and remarked, that, however invi- 
dious it might feem to flart objec- 
tions to fo flattering a ftatement of 
the revenue and increafmg refources 
of the country, as had been juft 
given by the right honourable gen- 
tleman, it was necefTary todifpel the 
delufion under wiiich this country 
Jiad been acting for feme time, and 
to dete£i the fallacies by which it 
was ftill attempted to impofe on the 
public, and continue that delufion. 

The real qucftion before the com- 
mittee was to confider, whether our 
ifeceipt was equal to our expendi- 
ture. The annual expenditure for 
the peace eilablilhment, as now 
ftated by the right honourable gen- 
tleman, was to be in future 
£. 15,500,000. This might, there- 
fore, be confidered as ground to 
argue from, fince, however much it 
miebt exceed that fum,' it could not 
reaTonably be expefted to fall /hort 
of it. In order to make up an in- 
come equal to this expenditure, by 
taking the receipts, not on an average 
of feveral years but one year only, 
and making up the accounts from 
..-April 1787 to April 1788, inltead 
of from January to January, a re- 
venue was produced on paper of 
^.15,792,000. Mr. Sheridan con- 
tended againft the accuracy of this 
ftatement, and faid, that taking, as 
he ought to have done, the average 
of 1706 and 1787, the produce of 
all the taxes would have appeared to 
be no more than ^. 1 5,25 0,000, which 
would have fallen Ihort of the ex- 
penditure, as now ftated, _^. 3 50,000. 
This was as near the truth as could 
reafonably be prefumed, from the 
circumftances of the country and of 
the revenue, fince the peace; and 
this was the firuation which the com- 
Yoi. XXX. 



[129 

mittee was bound in duty to meet 
and to provide for, inltead of en- 
deavouring to impofe on themfelves 
and the public, and delaying to 
apply the remedy till it might be too 
late. 

Another clrcumftance he felt him- 
felf obliged to controvert was, the 
means by which the right honour- 
able gentleman made up his efti- 
mates of the expenditure. \^niile 
he added to the eftimates of the 
army, he allowed no addition to the 
eiHmate of the navy. Was it really 
his opinion, that the expence of tha 
navy, in 1790, would not exceed 
j(^. 1,800,000 ? For the ordnance 
indeed he allowed ^.10,000, but 
took no notice c^ the expence of for- 
tifications, winch, in the Weft Indies' 
alone, he had formerly (iated would 
amount to between two and three 
hundred thoufand pounds, and, tak- 
ing fortifications, as it was moft rea- 
fonable to do, at the largeft eftimate 
(for they feldom fell Ihort in point 
of expence, whatever they might do 
in point of utility) there would be 
wanted £. 300,000 for the Weft In-" 
dies alone, and on the whole from 
£. 700,000 to £_. 8oO;OOo. He ob-' 
jecled aUo, to the eftimate for mif- 
cellaneous fervices, which he con- 
tended muft exceed ^.74,224, the 
fum-to which it was made out. 

Mr. Fox begged leave to re- 
mind the chancellor of the ex- 
chequer, that when the ways and 
means were agitated lalt year, he 
then declared, that it was not up- 
on any account fair to eftirtiate 
our permanent refources from the 
produce of any one year. But in' 
the prefent inftance he had taken 
but one year, and that ending the 
5th of April laft, becaufe it was 
found to be more produdlive, and, 
confequently, more adapted to his 
purpofe, than to take it, as he had 
[I] 4on^ 



ijo] ANNUAL REGISTER, 17B8. 



done the former year, ending the 
5th of January. For his own part, 
he had no fcruple to fay, whatever 
odium might attend tlie afl'ertion, 
and however unpopular it might be 
to hold out an unpleafing piifture of 
our ficuation, that our revenues and 
refources had been placed in a point 
of view as much too fanguine, as our 
expences had been eltimatcd too 
low. He warned the committee of 
the mifchievous confequencesof fuch 
fallacy, and remarked, that this 
was, precifely, the delufion that had 
reduced the finances of France to 
the low ftate in which they now 
were. 

After a fliort converfation re- 
fpeding j^. 500,000, ftated by Mr. 
Fitt, as a part of his refources, to be 
due to the public from the Eaft In- 
dia company, the ufual refolutions 
were moved and carried. 

On the following day, the report 
of the refolutions being brought up, 
fir Grey Cooper entered into a mi- 
nute examination of the elUmates of 
the national expenditure and in- 
come, as flated by the chancellor of 
the exchequer. The former was 
taken from the ellimate of the peace 
efiablifhir.ent, made by the com- 
jwittee of accounts in 1786, and to 
this was added the expence of the 
augmentation lately voted in the 
military eftablifhments. The fad, 
however, was, that the expenditure 
•Fxceeded the eftimate of the com- 
mittee near two millions ; but the 
right honourable gentleman had af- 
ferted, with apparent confidence, that, 
notwithftanding the extraordinary 
and particular excefs of this year, 
there was a reaionable ground of 
hope, that the fervices of the navy, 
virmy, and ordnance, and the mif- 
cellaneous account, would, at the 
clofe of the year 1 790, be reduced to 
the limits propofed by the commit- 
tee, in their report of 1786. Sir 



Grey endeavoured to prove, from 
feveral circumitances in the ac- 
counts of each fervice, from the 
gradual increafe of their expence, 
and particularly from the enormous 
navy debt remaining behind, that 
thefe hopes of reduftion were vain 
and delufive, and that there was the 
ftrongeft probability that cur adlual 
expenditure would continue to ex- 
ceed the expenditure elHmated in 
the report, by a fum of not lefs than 
£. 900,000. 

With refpeft to the public income, 
fir Grey contended, that an average 
of feveral years ought to have been 
taken, and that the produce of a 
fingle year was not to be depended 
upon. That, particularly in the ex- 
cife, the articles which compofe that 
immenfe revenue were variable in 
their produce, and fubjeft to dimi- 
nution or increafe from accidental 
caufes, which could not be forefeen 
nor calculated. He inllanced the 
duty on malt, which in the year 
1782, on account of a bad crop of 
barley, fell Ihort of the duty in 
1783 upwards of j^. 900,000. From 
thefe, and feveral other circum- 
ftances of a fimilar nature, he con- 
cluded, that a confiderable defi- 
ciency of ways and means would be 
found on the 5 th of April 1789, in- 
dependently of the probable failure 
of the j^. 500,000, ftated to be due 
from the Ball India company. 
TheTe arguments were controverted 
by Mr. Steele and the chancellor of 
the exchequer; and the refolutions 
were agreed to without a divifion. 

Early in the felfions Mr. Gren- 
ville gave notice to the houfe, that 
he fhould beg leave to propofe for 
their confideration certain amend- 
ments and additions to the bill 
brought into parliament by his fa- 
ther, for the better regulation of the 
trials of controverted eleftions. He 
thought the prefent feafon the moft 

proper 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [131 



proper for difcuffing and deciding 
upon fuch a fubjeft, when there was 
no petition complaining of an undue 
eledion before the houfe, and when 
the minds of the members were 
tiierefore perfeftly cool, and open to 
impartial deliberation, According- 

Mt ft h '^'* °" ^^*^ ^^^ °^ May, 
he moved the houfe for 

leave to bring in a bill for the 
purpofes abovementioned. He ex- 
plained, in a Ihort fpeech, the 
objedls which his bill had in 
view, and the means he propo- 
fed for obtaining them. He ob- 
lerved, that when the exifting a^ 
had paiTed, the houfe well knew that 
the great aim of it had been, to 
talae the trial of petitions on con- 
troverted ele£lions out of their 
hands, and to place them in a com- 
Riittee fo conflituted as to be moil 
likely to do ftridl and impartial 
jullice to the parties : that end, it 
would be agreed on all hands, had 
been fully anfwered ; but the opera- 
tion of the ad had been attended 
with certain well-known inconve- 
niences, to guard againfl: which, fuf- 
ficient care had not been taken when 
the bill was in agitation, fo much 
had the attention of the author of it 
been bent on atchieving his main 
purpcfe. He had revolved in his 
mind the moft praflicable means of 
removing thefe inconveniences, and 
two modes had fuggefted them- 
fclves; but then, as thefe could not 
be effefted without very materially 
altering the moft eiTential forms 
prefcribed by the aft, he believed 
the houfe would be inclined to join 
with hun in opinion, that it would 
not be prudent to attempt to meddle 
with the frame of a law, from the 
execution of which fo many and 
fuch elTentially advantageous confe- 
«[uences had been derived. Upon 



mature refleftion, therefore, he had 
determined to let the forms pre- 
fcribed by the afl rf-m.ain undif- 
turbed ; but there were o^jher incon- 
veniences, to which the acl had given 
occafion, which might, in his opi- 
nion, be touched without alarm, and 
removed without danger of any fort 
of injury whatever to the general 
operation and efFcft of the aQ. Ever 
fince the bill had paffed into a law, 
it v/as obiervable, that an infinite 
number of petitions, complaining of 
undue eledtions, had been prcfented 
in the iir^ feflion of every parlia- 
ment. Many of thofe petidous, af- 
ter having taken up much of the 
time of the houfe, had proved frivo- 
lous. He fhould propcfe, therefore, 
to empower the committee to ad- 
judge, that the party prefenting an 
eledion petition, that fhould turn 
out to be frivolous, Ihould pay rea- 
fonable cofls, and to empower them 
in like manner to oblige tl.j party 
offering a frivolous defence or an- 
fwer to a petition, to pay reafonable 
colls. This was merely an a£l of 
jullice, and yet, he added, he be- 
lieved fuch a regulation would fave 
much expence to individuals, and 
much time and trouble to the houfe. 
Another very material inconve- 
nience, in his mind, called equally 
for a remedy, and that was the 
want of a rule being laid down to 
eitablifh the rights of election, 
to afcertain them, and to render 
them immutable in future. At pre- 
fent, it was no uncommon thing to 
have two gentlemen fitting in that 
houfe as reprefentatives of the fame 
borough, on different rights of elec- 
tion. In order to remedy this, he 
meant to annex certain proviiions to 
his bill, which he flattered himfelf 
would anfwer the end propcfed, an<f 
afcertain the rights of €l«£lion for 
11] 2 the 



132] ANNUAL REGISTER, 178S. 

the future. — The bill was imme- equally according to their trade, btlt 

diately brought in, and read a iirll according to their houfes, thus ren- 

time, and ordered to be printed ; and, dering it a mere houfe-tax, and not 

after going through the ufual forms a (hop-tax j and charging the man, 

in both houfes, received the royal who had only the ftiop, for that hoafe 



affent. 

In our lafl volume we have given 
an account of the motion made by 
Mr. Fox for the repeal of the Ihop- 
tax, and of its rejeftion by no very 
confiderable majority. Petitions a- 



which he did not occupy. Thefs 
objeftions, he faid, were not con- 
fined merely to London and Wcft- 
minfter; they extended to every' 
city and town in England, and par- 
ticularly Bath; in which place he 



gainll it were again prefented early initanced one poulterer, who paid 

in the prefent feffion^ by the cities of but 19 j. fhop- tax, while another paid 

London and Weftminfter, and feve- £. ^. As.; alfo three filverfmiths, 

ral other towns and corporations; one of whom paid _^. 8, another ^^.4* 

and jVIr. Fox was again requeued to and the third only^^. i. 5 j. There 

fupport their caufe in the hcufe of were many other inftances, he faid, 

commons. Accordingly, on the 1 3 th of the like nature ; 



ungiy, on tne 1 3 
of March he renewed his motion 
for the repeal ; and, after arguing 
upon the grounds v^hich he had 
taken lad year, he faid, that addi 



from which, as h« 
did not mean to trouble the houfe 
more at large on the fubje<Sl, h« 
would draw thefe general fafts — 
that though mere complaints were 



tional circumftances had occurred, no ground for a repeal, as it was na- 
which fupported him in his endea- tural for thofe that paid any tax to 



vour to obtain a repeal of it. There 
had been laid before that houfe a 
petition of a moil extraordinary na- 
ture indeed — a petition from thofe 
commiffioners who "were appointed 
iindcr the ad: to collcil the tax; 
and who, (Iruck with convielion, hy 



wifn to be freed from it; yet, as 
thofe who did not fuffer by it, but, 
on the contrary, were gainers by its 
continuance, were ready to bear wit- 
nefs to its inefficacy, its partiality, 
and its oppreffion, it ought to be re- 
pealed as fpeedily as poffible. He 



the experience they mull neceliarily had, he faid, fpoken more fully 

iiave acquired^ of the crueity and in- on a former day refpefcing the in- 

Jullice, partiality and inefficacy, of jullice of this aft; it was, therefore, 

the aft, and witnefling the number- fufficient barely to ftate now, that 

iefs inftances of its ill effefts, in the the evils then complained of full ex- 

courfe of executing their office, had ifted without diminution. He con- 



jiow thought it their duty to come 
forward, and decidedly to bear tefti- 
jnony againft it. It was objeftion- 
able, as it included within its opera- 
tion thofe who were never intended 
to be its objefts ; he meant the 
bankers, a clafs of men furely never 
before fufpefted of keeping retail 
iliops. It was objcftionable, becaufe 
^t was unequal in its operation, rat- 
ing thofe iai the fanas bufinefs not 



eluded with moving for a tot^ re- 
peal of the tax, as it originally flood, 
and alfo of the bill paffed in expla- 
nation of it. 

Mr. Pitt faid, difagreeable as it 
was'^o him to oppofe the withdraw-^ 
ing of aay ofFenfive meafure, yet 
having, as a part of that fyftem for 
fupplying the exigencies of the ftate, 
which he had adopted on coming 
iato office, tried this tax, and not 

having 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [133 



having hcarc! any thing to induce 
him to alter his opinion (for he did 
not confider the evidence he had 
heard as concluiive, becaufe, if in- 
conveniences were afufficienc ground 
for repeal, not a fingle tax would be 
left unrepealed) he could not think 
of parting with it. He then brielly 
examined the objeftions that had 
been fcarted; and infilled that the 
tax was paid by the confumer, as 
the Ihopkeeper certainly charged it, 
in common with all his other ex- 
pences, upon the retail. As to the 
inequalities mentioned, they were 
but few in number, and by no means 
afFcfted the general principle of the 
tax. 

Upon a divifion, the motion for 
the repeal was negatived by a ma- 
jority of 43. Ayes 98, noes 141. 

The trade carried on by this 
country, and other European na- 
tions, upon th^e coaft of Africa, for 
the purpofe of purchafmg negro 
Haves, to be employed in the culti- 
vation of the Well India iilands, and 
certain parts of the continent of 
America, does not appear, till of 
late years, to have been confidercd 
with that general attention, which a 
pra£lice fo abhorrent in its nature 
to the mild principles of modern po- 
licy and manners might have been 
expected to excite. This may pro- 
bably have been owing, partly to 
the diflance of the objed', which 
tended both to conceal the iuifcrings 
and to leflen the fympathy of the 
public for the unfortunate fufferers ; 
partly to the connivance of poli- 
ticians, unwilling to examine too 
feverely into the neceffity of the 
means, by which diilant colonies were 
enabled to pour luxury and wealth 
into the mother countries. The 
firll public attempt, we believe, that 
lij-as made to put a flop to tliis traf- 



fic, was by the Quakers of the 
fouthern provinces of America, who, 
foon after the efiablifhment of their 
independence, not only prefented for 
this purpofe a ftrong and pathetic 
addrefs to their fevcral legiHative 
aiTemblies, but aiftually proceeded, 
as is faid, in many inftances to eman- 
cipate the Haves that were in their 
poffeffion. The meafures taken by 
the American legiilatures, in confe- 
quence of this application, are be- 
fore the public. In Great Britain 
the fame fed appears alfo to have 
taken the lead, and, after the ex . 
ample of their American brethren, 
prefented lafl: year a fimilar petition 
to the parHament of this kingdom. 
The caufe foon after became ex- 
tremely popular, and was taken up 
with great zeal and earnefluefs by 
various defcriptions of people. A 
Ibciety was formed, and a confider- 
able fum of m.oney fubfcribed, for 
the purpofe of collcciing information 
and fupporting tlie expence of an 
application to parliament. A great 
number of pamphlets were pub- 
lifhed upon the fubjedl; feveral emi- 
nent divines recommended it from 
the pulpit and in printed difcourfes ; 
and in the prefent feffion petitions 
were prefented from the two uni- 
verfities, and from feveral of the 
moil confiderable towns and copora- 
tions in the kingdom. 

In the mean time, his majelly's 
minillers thought it proper to inlli- 
tute an enquiry, before a committee 
of the privy council, into the fafls 
and allegations contained in the re- 
prefentaticRs of both parties upon 
the fubjeft ; and the gentleman (Mr. 
Wilberforce) to whom the condudl 
of the bufinefs in the houfe of com- 
mons had beer, by a fort of general 
confent, afligned, having been pre- 
vented, by the bad Hate of his health, 

[/] 3 from 



i] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



from bringing it before the hcufe, 
, , , Mr, Pitt rofe in his 

^^y9'^- place, on- the 9th of 
May, and, after mentioning this 
circumftance, moved the following 
refolution, " That this houfe will, 
" early in the next feffion of parlia- 
" menr, proceed to take into con- 
** fidcratlon the circumflances of the 
*' Have trade, complained of in the 
*' petitions prefcnted to the houfe, 
f and what may be fit to be done 
*' thereupon." lie added, that, be- 
fore that time, the enquiry infti- 
tated before the privy council would 
be brought to fuch a ftate of ma- 
turity as to make it lit that the re- 
fult of it (hould be laid before the 
hcufe, to facilitate their invelliga- 
tio:i» and to enable them to proceed 
to a decifion, founded equally upon 
principles of humanity, jullice, and 
found policy. 

Mr. Fox and Mr. Burke exprefs- 
ed their forrow on account of the 
delay that had already taken place, 
and their extreme diiiatisfaflion with 
the reafon laft given for putting off 
the bufinefs to the next felfion. 
They both declared that they were 
willing and prepared to have under- 
taken the bufmcfs themfelves, and 
liad given way to another honour- 
able member, not only from a de- 
ference to his abilities and his known 
humanity, but on account of the 
weight and influence he was fuppof- 
cd to have with his majefty's minif- 
ters in that houfe. They lamented 
the caufe of his abfence, but ihought 
that earlier notice might have been 
given, in order to have enabled the 
hOufe to come to fome decifion, as 
v.'ell for the fake of the planters as 
the fiaves, to both of whom the 
protraftion of the bufinefs might be 
attended with infinite mifchief. But 
what called for their more particu- 
lar reprobation was, the other ar- 



gument ufed as a ground for delay, 
namely, the expedlation of a report 
from the privy council. Againft 
this doftrine they defired to enter 
their moll: folemn protell. It wa$ 
the duty, they faid, of that houfe to 
advife the king, and not to alk his 
advice. This was one of the mod 
efientid principles of the conftitu- 
tion, and could never be departed 
from without ellablilhing a prece- 
dent that might lead to the moft 
fatal abufe. They therefore cau- 
tioned the houfe, as they wiOaed to 
preferve their fundlion?, their ho- 
nour, and their dignity, to beware 
of committees of the privy council. 
They lamented that the privy coun- 
cil, who had received no petitions 
from the people, fhould have infti- 
tuted an enquiry, and that the houfe 
of commons, whofe table was loaded 
with petitions from every part of 
the kingdom, (hould not have inftl- 
tuted any enquiry at all. If they 
fuffered the bufinefs of the houfe to 
be done by the privy council, they 
were abdicating their trull, and 
making way for an entire abolition 
of their fun£lions, which, they could 
not help remarking, the houfe had 
of late, under the prefent admi- 
niftration, been too much in the ha- 
bit of furrendering one after ano- 
ther. If the houfe negletled the 
petitions of their conflituents, the 
confequence would be, that the 
houfe muft be abolifhed, and the 
privy council fubftituted in its ftead ; 
and his majeily's minillers, inllead 
of confuking that houfe, and giving 
them an opportunity of exercifing 
their fundions of deliberation, would 
determine all public meafures elfe- 
where, and bring down the edids of 
the privy council to the houfe to re- 
giiter. 

A general converfation after- 
wards took place, in the courfe of 

whichj 



HISTORY O 

which, Sir William Dolben begged 
leave to lay a word or two, on a mat- 
ter that, in his mind, was a moft 
crying evil, and called for an im- 
mediate remedy of fome fort or other. 
He neither alluded to their fufFerings 
at home from the hands of their cruel 
countrymen, nor to their fufFerings 
from their unfeeling mafters, the 
planters in the Weft India iflands, 
but to that intermediate flate of ten- 
fold mifery which they fuifered in 
their tranfportation from the coait 
of Africa to the Well: Indies. He 
entered into a ihort detail of the 
horrors of that dreadful paflage, 
which, he faid, was fcarcely lefs fa- 
tal in its cfFedls upon the Britifli fai- 
lors, than upon the wretched flaves 
themfelves ; and he declared himfelf 
ready to call evidence to the bar to 
prove the faft. This, he faid, called 
aloud for a remedy, and that remedy 
ought to be applied immediaVely. 
If they did not apply fome remedy 
without delay, between the prefent 
feiTiou and the beginning of the 
next, ten thoufand lives would be 
loft. He wifhed, therefore, that this 
grievance were taken into confider- 
ation, independent of the general 
queftion ; and that fome regulation, 
fuch as reftraining the captains from 
taking above a certain number of 
flaves on board, according to the 
fize of their veffels, obliging them 
to let in frefli air, and provide bet- 
ter accommodation for the flaves 
during their paffage, and fuch other 
regulations as fliould fuggeft them- 
felves to the houfe, fliould be a- 
dopted. 

This propofition meeting with 
the general approbation of the houfe. 
Sir WilliamDolben moved the houfe. 
May 21ft. op the 21 ft of M^y, for 
' leave to bring m a bill to 

Regulate the tranfportation of the 



F EUROPE. (135 

natives of Africa to the Britilh 
colonies in the Weft Indies. The 
regulations of the bill,- he faid, 
would regard the number of Afri^ 
cans put on board each fliip, li- 
miting that number in proportion. 
to the tonnage of the veffel, in or- 
der to prevent their being crowded 
too clofe together ; fecuriiig to them 
good and fufficient provifions, and 
other matters equally conducive to 
their health and their accommoda- 
tion. He declared he fliould not 
have thought of bringing in the bill 
at that late period of the fefFion, were 
he not convinced of the exjftence 
of the grievance to a confidcrable 
extent, and fatlsfied, that, by ap- 
plying an immediate remedy, fome 
thoufands of the unhappy perfons 
lives might be faved before the next 
fefllon of parliament. There was 
befides, he faid, undoubtedly a pof- 
fibility (and a bare poffibility was 
fufficient ground for the argument 
he meant to ftate) that, in confe- 
quence of the refolution lately come 
to by the houfe, thofe perfons who 
carried on the branch of the flave 
trade to which the bill flated in the 
refolution referred, might, from the 
knowledge of the intention of the 
hmife to examine the fubjeft of the 
flave trade fully next fefllon, put the 
natives of Africa into a worfe fitua- 
tion, during their tranfportation to 
the colonies, even than they were 
in before, by cramming additional 
numbers on board their vefi'eh, in 
order to convey as many as poffible 
to the Weft Indies, before parlia- 
ment became ultimately to decide 
what was moft fit to be done upon 
the genepa.! fubjeft of the fl.ave 
trade. Certainly, therefore, the pof- 
fibility that fuch a confequence might 
grow out of their late refolutions, 
during the intervening months, be- 
U] 4 tween 



i:6] AxNNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



fween the end of tke prefent and the 
commencement of the next ieuioa, 
was a good and fuincient parliamen- 
tary ground for them to provide 
imniediate means to prevent the ex- 
illence of fjch an evil, and pveferve 
the natives of Africa from being 
"made to fulT^r greater hardfhips in 
their pafiage to the Well: Indies, for 
the fucceeding months, than they 
had felt before. 

May 26th. Onthez6thofMay, 
•' a petition was pre- 

fented from the merchants and 
other inhabitants of the town and 
port of Liverpool, itating, that 
the fuppreffion of the flave- trade 
would be attended with consequen- 
ces little {hort of ruin to many of 
the petitioners, who, under parlia- 
mentary faith, had embarked in the 
trade, and inveiled their whole pro- 
percy therein; would be highly in- 
jurious to the intereft and public 
revenues of this country; and ope- 
rate as an efFeftual bar to future 
commercial emulation and enter- 
prize ; and therefore praying, that 
they might be heard, by their coun- 
fel, againft the abolition or rellric^ 
tion of this trade, before any refo- 
lutions, or a bill, be pafied by the 
koufe, upon a fubje£t of fo much 
national importance, in which they 
are fo peculiarly fuuattd, and i'q 
greatly concerned, 

-r 1 Accordino^Iv, on the 2d 

Tune 2a. f T ■ ,° ', r ) • 
•^ of June, the houfe being 

in a committee upon the regulating 

bill, the counfcl for the petitioners 

appeared at the bar, and examined 

federal witnefTes, for the purpofe 

©f fhewing that the hardiliips, al- 

ledged by thole who brought in 

the bill, did not exill, and that 

fhe redudion of the number of 

■flaves allowed to be put on board 

^ach veffel* in propcxtion to its 



tonnage, would go the length of 
ruining the trade altogether.— The 
evidence appears to have had no 
other efFedt upon the comniittee, 
than that of inducing them to allow, 
inftead of one ton to each man, as 
was firft intended, a fmall redudion 
proportionable to the different t^ur- 
thens and accommodations of the 
veiTeJs. 

The bill having gone through the 
houfe of commons, was carried up 
to the lords, where it alfo palTed, 
after having received feveral amend- 
ments ; feme of which being thought 
to trench on the privileges of the 
lower houfe, a new bill was brought 
in, which paiTed both houfes, and 
received the royal ailent. 

At the fame time that the legifla- 

ture was thus laudably employed iu 

endeavouring to alleviate the raife- 

ries of this unfortunate delcripcion 

of their fellow-creatures, they were 

not inattentive to the fituation of a 

clafs of fufrerers nearer ■, o^, 
1, /-. .u o 1. r June OTh. 

home. On the 8th of •' 

June the chancellor of the ex- 
chequer called the attention of the 
houfe to the compenfation which 
was intended to be made to the 
American Loyalifis, on account of 
lofies fuitained by them in confe- 
quence of their adherence to this 
country during the late American 
war. He was of opinion, that they 
could not call upon the houfe to 
make compenfation for their lofies 
as a matter of flricl: jullice ; but they, 
moil undoubtedly, had llrong claims 
on their generofity and compafhon. 
In the mode, therefore, that he 
fhould propofe for finally adjulHng 
their claims, asd the various quotas 
of compenfation that fiiould be made 
to the various claflcs of loyaliils, he 
had adhered to this principle, rather 
than to any Ibict claim of right. 
Having 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [137 



Having premifed this, Mr. Pitt Ha- 
ted tiie dlfterent delcfiptions of !oy- 
alifts who had preferred their claims 
before the commifiicners appointed 
to enquire into American claims ; 
and divided them into four clafles. 
]n the firl]: clafs he confidered nnd 
ranked all thofe who had refided in 
America at the commencement of 
the war, and who, in purfuance of 
their principles of loyalty and adhe- 
rence to this country, were obliged 
to abandon their eilates and their 
property in America, which were, in 
confequence, feized and contifcated 
by the Americans. The mode he 
meant to adopt with refpedl fo this 
clafs of loyalilis, whom he confider- 
ed as having the ftrongeit claims of 
any defcription of loyalifts, would 
be to pay ihofe, whofe claims were 
fo fmall that any deduction from 
them would materially attetl their 
means of exiitence with any fort of 
comfort, the full amount of their 
claims. He fhould pri)pofe, there- 
fore, that all fuch loyaiUts fhall re- 
ceive the full amount of their iofies, 
as far as the fame do not exceed 
the fura of ten thoufand pounds, 
i;nd fhall alfo receive, where the 
i!.mount of fuch lofles fhall be above 
ten thoufand pounds in the whole, 
and not above thirty - fve thou- 
fand pounds in the whole, ninety 
pounds per centum of fuch part of 
the faid lofi'es as Ihall exceed ten 
thoufand pounds ; and where fuch 
loffes fnall be above thirty-five thou- 
fand pounds, and not above fifty 
thoufand pound?, eighty-five pounds 
per centum of fuch part of the faid 
lofTes as fhall exceed ten thoufand 
pounds; and where the fame fhall 
be above fifty thoufand pounds, 
eighty pounds per centum of fuch 
part of the faid lofTes as- fhall be 
above ten thoufand pounds. He 



afligned as a reafon of propofin"- 
that the fifteen per centagc ihould 
be deduffed from the excefs only of 
the loyalilb claims over and above 
the firft ten thoufand pounds, that 
if fuch a rule were not laid down, 
and the fiftfen per cent, were de- 
duced from the firft ten thoufand 
pounds, it might happen that thofc 
claimants, whofe claims amounted 
to a trifling fum above ten thoufand ,■ 
pounds, would receive a lefs com- 
penfation than thcfe whofe claims, 
though they did not amount to quite 
ten thoufand pounds, amounted to 
very near that fum. 

The next clafs of claimants in- 
cluded thofe who, having refided iu- 
England during the war, had exhi- 
bited claims on the fcore of the lofs 
of property in America. Thefe cer- 
tainly had not the merit of the for- 
mer clafs, becaufe they could not 
pretend that they had been driven 
from America, but had made their 
option; and it was natural to fup- 
pofe, that they chofe that, which, in 
point of advantage and fatisfadlicn, 
was the beft for themfclves. At the 
fame time, however, that this re- 
mark was neceflary, he was far from 
thinking, that, becaufe they chofe to 
remain in England, and protedl their 
property here, they were not entitled 
to expect fome compenfation from 
that houfe for the lofs of their pro- 
perty in America. They undoubt- 
edly were ; and he fhould propofe, 
in like manner as he had propofed 
with refpeft to the former clafs, that 
all the claimants of this fccond de- 
fcription, whofe claims were under 
ten thoufand pounds in amount, 
fhould be paid in full ; but that, 
from all whofe claims amounted 
from ten thoufand pounds to thirty 
thcuflmdj a deduction fiiould be made 
of twenty per cent, and a farther 
additional 



138] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



additional deduction of twenty per 
cent, in progreffion, upon every ad- 
ditional tifty tfioufand claiiTied, Ap- 
plying this fcale to the claim of 
I\:r. hVirfcrd, which was, as it Itood 
liauidated by the corrJiniiTioners, two 
hundred and ten thouiand pounds, 
the fi-.m to be paid to him, after the 
feverai dedutlions, would be found 
to be fifty tho'.fand pounds, which, 
confidcring all the circumilances of 
the cafe, v;ns, he thought, a very 
handfome ccmpenfation for that 
lioufc to make. Em Mr. Harford, 
he underficod, had two other claims 
upon .America, for debts often thou- 
fand pounds each. He meant, there- 
fore, that Mr. Harford fhould re- 
ceive the fail amounts of thofe fums. 
The next clafs of claimants, were 
thofe loyaliils who, having either 
enjoyed places, or exercifed profef- 
fions, in America, had, by being 
driven away in confequence of their 
Joyalty to this country, lofl their in- 
comes. With regard to thefe, it was 
to be confidered, that though they 
had been driven from America, they 
were able to obtain frefii incomes in 
this country, by exercifing their ta- 
lents and their induftry in diiierent 
ways; he fhould not, therefore, pro- 
pcfe to give them equal incomes to 
thofe they had been deprived of, by 
way of penfion, but was of opinion, 
that they ought to confider them- 
felves as liberally dealt by, if all who 
had been deprived of incomes, not 
amounting to more than four hun- 
dred pounds a year, were put upon 
half-pay ; and others, whcfe incomes 
in America had amounted higher, 
(and fome,he faid, amounted as high 
as fifteen hundred pounds a year, 
and one as high as three thcufand) 
ftiould be paid forty pounds per 
centum for every one hundred 
pounds of fuch income above four 



hundred pounds, where the value 
does not exceed one thoufand five 
hundred pounds per annum in the 
whole ; and where the value does 
exceed one thoufand five hundred 
pounds per annum in the whole* 
then in the proportion of thirty 
pounds per centum for every one 
hundred pounds exceeding four hun- 
dred pounds per annum. 

With refpea to the Wefl-FIorida 
claimants, he fnould propofe to pay 
them the full amount of their claims, 
becaufe they flood in a very different 
predicament from the American 
claimants, having, in confequence of 
a peace, which ceded Florida to 
another power, and which that houfe 
had agreed to, been obliged to quit 
their habitations and property in 
Wefi Florida. 

Having explained thefe feveral 
points, and itated that the total 
amount of claims was two millions 
odd hundred thoufand pounds, ex- 
clufive of the four or five hundred 
thoufand pounds that had been al- 
ready advanced at different periods, 
he faid he fhould move a general 
refolution for the amount of that 
fum to be ifTued in debentures, 
bearing three and a half per cent, 
interefl, which would, he thought, 
be nearly equal to a ready-money 
payment ; and he had, on a former 
occafion, hinted his idea of propof- 
ing, with the approbation of the 
committee, that the whole fum fhould 
be paid off by inftalment, by means 
of a lottery, till the whole fhould be 
cleared. I'hat, however, was matter 
for farther confideration ; it was 
fufficient for the prefent to move, 
" That 1,228,2391. fhould be voted 
" to the feveral American claim- 
" ants for loffes, &c. and 113,952]. 
" 14 s. |d. to the Florida claim- 
" ants," 

Thefe 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [139 



Thefe propofitions (that relating 
to Mr. Harford only excepted) met 
with the general approbation of the 
houfe. Sir Matthew White Ridley, 
|Wr. Fox, and Mr. Windham, were 
of opinion, that the fcale adopted 
for the fecond clafs, and which de- 
parted from the principle of the tirft, 
bore hard upon Mr. Harford ; and 
that it would be more equitable to 
revert to the principle of the iirft 
fcale, only doubling the proportions 
of the per centage to be dedudbed. 
Upon fuch a fcale, the compenfa- 
tion to Mr. Harford would amount 
to 70,000!.; and to this amendment 
Mr. Pitt readily affented. 

About this time a bill was alfo 
brought into the houfe of commons, 
for granting to the earl of New- 
burgh, grandfon of the late Charles 
Radcliffe, and the heirs male of his 
body, a clear rent-charge of 2,500 1. 
out of the eftates forfeited by the 
earl of Derwentwater, and fettled 



upon Greenwich hofpital. The hard- 
fhip of lord Newburgh's cafe, whofe 
father was an infant at the time that 
his family were engaged in the re- 
bellion of 17 15, had often induced 
parliament, from time to time, dur- 
ing the late and the prefent reign, 
to grant certain fums of money for 
his relief. In the a6t parted in the 
twenty-fourth year of the king, for 
reftoring the forfeited eftates, that 
of the Derwentwater family wa's not 
included, but an intention was then 
declared of making a fpecial provi- 
fion for the cafe. The only diffi- 
culty that occurred was the dimi- 
nution which the grant would occa- 
iion in the hcfpual fund, and it 
was propofed by lurne member, that 
the public {hould make it good ; but 
this proportion was overruled, as 
alfo another, to add 200 1. to the an- 
nuity, and the bill parted as origi- 
nally fran>9.d. 



€ H A P. 



i4o] ANNUAL REGI S T E R, 1788. 



CHAP. 



VII. 



Prcceedings upon the impeachment of Mr, Hajiings. His anfiver deli-vered 
at the bar of the houfe of lords ; fcnt to the com/iiofis ; replication cf the 
commons- Managers appointed. Debate upon the rejection of Mr. Francis. 
^Trial commences Feb. l^th. Coiinfel for the defendant. Affijlant counfel 
to the managers. Firf and fecond days confumed in reading the articles and 
anfzvers. Third day, Mr. Burke begins his opening of the charge, and ecu- 
eludes on thefixth. Propcfalfrorn the managers to hear each article of charge 
and the defence, fingly. Objc^ed to by the defendant's counfel, and decided 
in the negative by the houfe cf lords. Seventh day, ohferarations by Mr. Fox 
CK the decifon of the peers. He opens the Benares charge. Eighth day, Mr. 
Grey jlates and applies the evidence to be adduced. Four follonjoing days 
taken up in reading e'vidence, and examining ^witneffes. Debate upon 7nat- 
ters of e-vidence. Thirteenth day, Mr. Anjiruther fans up the e'vidence on 
the Benares charge. Fourteenth day, Mr. Adam opens the fec:nd charge, 
relative to the princefes ofOude. Fifteenth day, Mr. Pelham Jlates the e'vi- 
dence. Sixteen foUc-wing dsysi evidence heard and cxa7nined. Thirty -fecond, 
thirty -third, and thirty-fourth days, Mr. Sheridan furns up the evidence, 
^rial adjourned to the next feffion. Debates in the hoife of commons upon the 
expenccs incurred in confequence of the impeachment. Account of the proceed- 
ing upon the impeachment of Sir Elijah Impey. Six charges exhibited againf 
him by Sir Gilbert Elliott. Sir Elijah heard at the bar in his defence upon 
the fir jl charge, relative to the puttifig hundcomar to death. Evidence pro- 
duced. Mr. Francises 'vindication of hi?nfelf againfi injhiuations of Sir Elijah 
Jmpey. Debates on the frjl charge. Rejected. Conjideration of the other 
(barges deferred. 



Dec. 5th, A T the clofe of the 
Jf\_ parliamentary hif- 
tory of our lalt volame, we brought 
down the impeachment of Mr. Haf- 
tint^s to the order with which he was 
ierved, by the houfe of lords, to put 
in his anfwers to the charges exhibit- 
ed againft him by the commons, on 
the firit Tuefday after the next 
meeting of parliament. The fame 
being accordingly delivered by him 
at the bar, a mefTage was fsnt to 
the houfe of commons, on Wed- 
r.efday the fifth of December, to 
inform them, ♦' that Warren Haf- 
^ tings, efq; at their bar, had de- 
*' livered in anfwers to the articles of 
*' impeachment charged againft him 
" by the honourable the houfe of 
" commons, and that the lords had 
** fent a true copy of the faid an- 



" fwers, for the ufe of that honour- 
" able houfe." 

The anfwers being read fliort, pro 
forma, Mr. Eurke moved, "that the 
" faid anfwers be referred to the 
" confideration of a committee ;" 
which having been agreed to, and 
Mr. Burke being named by the 
chancellor of the exchequer as the 
firft member, Mr. Burke then named 
Philip Francis, efq; and, upon the 
queflion being put, the houfe di- 
vided, ayes 23, noes 97. 

Mr. Burke, upon this, rofe and de- 
clared, that of fuch material aflift- 
ance had they deprived him, in re- 
jecting Mr. Francis, that he fcarce- 
ly knew how to proceed, and felt the 
caufc to be in fome degree damned 
by the recent aft of the houfe. He 
rcH^iaded them of the ferioufnefs and 
folemniiy 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [141 



folemnity of the whole proceeding, 
a proceeding which, after deep and 
frequent deliberation, had been 
brought ilep by ftep to its prcfent 
advanced llage, and ought to be con- 
tinued during the remaining part of 
its progrefs with equal fteadinefs 
and uniformity. He admonillied 
the houfe, that their condudl in this 
very important and grave tranfac- 
tion was a matter moll highly inte- 
refting to the national character, and 
that, confequently, they were ame- 
nable, for every one of their pro- 
ceedings refpefting it, at the high 
and awful tribunal of the public and 
the world at large. He prefTed them 
to confider of the dangerous effed of 
their appearing in the frnalleft de- 
gree to prevaricate in the courfc of 
the prcfeciuion, and urged the ma- 
nifeil injury and injuftice of chang- 
ing their committee, and rejecting 
any one of the members of the for- 
mer committee without a reafon 
previouHy aliigned. The only pre- 
fumeable reafons for rejeifiing any 
cne member of the former commit- 
tee could be no other than two ; 
either a general difqualiticaticn on 
general grounds, or a perfonal dif- 
qualification from inability or un- 
fitnefs to aflift in conducing the pro- 
fecut^on. Doth thefe quellions had 
been already decided, and the houfe 
would have a«5led wickedly and 
weakly in fuffering his honourable 
friend to take fo great a part in the 
proceeding hitherto, and to have 
adopted his ideas, if they had judged 
him to be difqualified to take a 
Ihare in the bufmefs. The fail was, 
his honourable friend was moft emi- 
nently qualified to affill in the pro- 
fecution; for through his fuperior 
knowledge of it had all the charge 
relative to the revenues been made 
out and eftablifhed, and fo greatly 
4ad he himfelf been aided and af- 



filled by the information which he 
had received from his honourable 
friend, that he in his honour and 
confcience declared, he felt himfelf 
difqualified from conducing the re- 
mainder of the profecution fafely 
and fecurely without him. It was. 
for this reafon, eflential to himfelf, 
and effential to the houfe, and their 
joint credit, that his honourable in.. 
ftruftor and afibciate (for fo he might 
jalily term him) fhould contmue a 
member of the committee. vVhy 
the houfe had by their recent vote 
thought proper to rejeft the future 
affiilancc of his honourable friend, 
he was utterly at a lofs to guefs ; — 
that thofe members who had uni- 
formly expreiTed a difinclination to 
the profccution, and in almofl; every 
ftage of it endeavoured to put a flop 
to it, fhould have made a part of 
the majority on the late divifion was 
natural enough, becaufs nothing 
could be more confident than for 
thofe who had declared themfelves 
adverfe to any profecution, to en- 
deavour to take away the means of 
purfuing it, when once a profecution 
was inllitutcd ; but for many of the 
gentlemen of another dei'criptlor, 
who had cordially co-operated and 
affirted in the inveftigation, pre- 
vious to the matter's having af- 
fumed the regular Ihape and form 
of a criminal procefs, to concur ia 
a vote wliich embarraffed and wea- 
kened the caufe, and endangered its 
ultimate event, was to him a circum- 
ftance altogether unaccountabJe. 
The committee then naming, was 
not the committee of managers, and 
therefore not of equal importance ; 
buc fo fully was he convinced of the 
great utility and importance of the 
afliftance of his honourable friend, 
and that he fliould fee! himfelf, who 
knew the fubjeft as well as moll men, 
fo exceedingly crippled and enfee- 
bled 



Ui] ANNUAL REGISTER, i78g. 



bled without the advantage of his 
honourable friend's fuperior inform- 
ation, that when the day for naming 
the next committee fhould come, he 
would again appeal to the fenfe of 
the houfe, and try to have his ho- 
hourable friend reinilated. 

Mr. Fox followed Mr. Burke, and 
appealed feriouily to the gentlemen 
on the other fide, upon one particu- 
lar refulting from their late vote, by 
which they had thrown fo great a 
difcountenance on the profecution ; 
and that was, the neceffity of filling 
the chafm in the committee, which 
they had cccalioned by rejeding 
the only member who, from every 
ccnfideration, appeared to be the 
moft proper to be upon it. Mr. 
Fox, therefore,' fubmitted it to the 
confideration of the other fide of the 
houfe, whether It would not be right 
and becoming in them to fupply the 
vacancy, by naming from am.ong 
themfeives ibme peribn of acknow- 
ledged information upon the fubjed. 
He fuggeiled the right honourable 
gentleman at the head of the India 
board; but faid, that he would agree 
to the nomination of any other well- 
informed gentleman, whom the otlier 
fide of the houfe might confider as a 
proper perfon for their acceptance. 
No notice being taken of this ad- 
drefs, Mr. Burke proceeded to no- 
minate the committee, which cou- 
fifted of the fame perfons as the 
former, with the addition of Mr. 
Wilbraham, Mr. Fitzpatrick, and 
Mr. Courtenay. 

Mr. Burke then moved, " that 
" the Committee be armed with the 
'* ufual powers," which was agreed 
to. 

On the Friday follow- 
ing, Mr. Burke brought 
up from the committee a replication 
to the anfwers of Mr. Haitings, in 
which the coaimons, in the ufual 



Dec. 7th. 



form, aver their charges agalnft th^ 
faid Warren Haitings to be true; and^ 
that they will be ready to prove the 
fame againft him, at fuch convenient 
time and place as fliall be appointed 
for that purpofe. The replication 
was ordered, the next day of fitting, 
to be carried by Mr. Burke up to 
the lords, who appointed Wednefday, 
the 13th of February, for proceed- 
ing upon the trial in Weftminfter- 
hall. 

On the eleventh, the -p. . 

houfe proceeded to ap- ^^' ^^ ' 
point the members of the committee 
above-mentioned to be managers of 
the impeachment ; upon which oc- 
cafion, Mr. Fox mod earnell^iy im- 
plored the houfe to re-confider the 
vote of a former day, by which they 
had excluded from the committee 
of managers an honourable friend 
of his, whom they had approved of 
as a member of the committee to 
whom the drawing up of the articles 
was entrufted. Mr. Fox obferved, 
that there muft indeed be ilrong ar- 
guments adduced to prove the fimefs 
of the honourable gentleman to fit 
as a member of the one committee, 
and his unfitnefs to fit as a member 
of the other. They were not now 
afling as the judges of Mr. Haf~ 
tings ; they were not even fitting iu 
character of a grand jury to decide 
whether or not a bill of indidment 
v/as to be found againft him; they 
were becom.e his profecutors; in that 
capacity they had committed them- 
feives, and would aft with the ut- 
moft inconfiftency if they failed to 
avail themfeives of every circum- 
ftance, and of every affillance that 
might give elFeft to their profecu- 
tion. Whatever objcftion might be 
urged to Mr. Francis as the judge 
of Mr. Haftings, there could be no 
poffible objeftion to his appearing as 
his accufcr. To the character of 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [143 



an accufer, innocence and integrity 
were indifpenfably nccefTary. It 
was requifite that he who preferred 
an accufation againll another fhould 
himfelf be blamelefs, and his repu- 
tation unfufpeded. That his ho- 
nourable friend poffeiTcd this repu- 
tation was well known to all who 
heard him. All knew that he had 
been fent out to India, as c.ie of the 
tupreme council, on account of this 
reputation, and returned with the 
approbation and the confidence of 
his employers. But in fuch a cafe 
the te.^Jmony of his friends y^ould 
be incomplete, unlefs corroborated 
and confirmed by the teftimony of 
his enemies. This teftimony his 
honourable friend had alfo obtained. 
By a ileady and confiftent iiolHlity 
to the malverfaticns and corruptions 
of other?, he liad provoked the 
moil rigid fcrutinf' into his own 
conduct while in India, and ftnce 
his return he had courted, not Ihun- 
ned, inquiry. Had any difcoveries 
of mil'condadl on his part been to 
be made, they would long fince have 
been before the public, fmce they 
muft have come within the know- 
ledge of thofe who were viell dif- 
pofed to bring them to light. It 
waj, therefore, fair to conclude, that 
his character was unimpeachable, 
fmce it had not been impeached, 
and that he poilefled that innocence 
and integrity of life and condud 
which qualified him to come forward 
as the accufer of another. It was 
fit alfo that an accufer fhould pof- 
fefs talents. What the natural abi- 
lities of the honourable gentleman 
were, it was needlefs to ftate where 
they were fo well known. What 
hii acquired abilities on the fubje(fl 
of the profecution were, muli be 
equally evident from the opportuni- 
ties he had enjoyed. It was much 
to have been in India ; it was much 



to have been acquainted with the 
evaficns ar.d tergivcrfalicns under 
which Mr. Haltings iiad been accuf* 
tomed to fcrecn his conduft. When 
Cicero came forward as the accufer of 
Verres, what were the arguments he 
advanced why the profecution Ihould 
be committed to him? " Becaufc," 
faid he, " I am acquainted wiih the 
*•' evafions and fophillry of his ad- 
" vocate Hortenfius. I am accuf- 
" tomed to combat and to overthrow 
" them." Nor was it lefs requifite 
that an accufer ftiould entertain no 
partiality in favour of the accufed; 
and not only that he fhould entertain 
no partiality, but that he fhould not 
be indifferent as to the event of the 
profecution; but that he fnould be 
animated with an honeft indignation 
againlc the crimes and the criminal 
whom he attempted to bring to juf- 
tice. In the cafe of a profecution 
for murder, where the fon of the per- 
fon faid to have been murdered v/as 
the profecator, he m::de his charge, 
and produced his proofs, with fuch 
feeming ccldnefs and indifference, 
that the judges flopped him by ask- 
ing, " Were the fafts you all edge 
" true? was this man rcaily the 
" murderer of your father? ifyoa 
" indeed believed him luch, you 
" could not poflibly go o;i i:i this 
" unaf^ecled and impartial manner. 
" While, therefore, you addrefs us 
" in this trim language, we can give 
" no credit to what you fay." Such 
had adually been the anfwer of Mr. 
Railings to the remonftrance of die 
court of diredijrs, " If you actually 
" difapprove of my condud, you 
" could not poflibly addrei's me in 
" fuch gentle terms." There was 
no fuch thing known as an impartial 
profecution in this country; fur, al- 
though all profecutions were cem- 
menced in the king's name, it was 
always the party injured that came 
forward 



144] ANNUAL REGISTER, 17! 



forward in fupport of them. If they 
demanded impartial accafers, who 
were acquainted with the {uhjeO: 
of the Accufation, where were they 
to be found ? Not in India, for it 
afforded not a man who could be 
faid to be impartial in this caufe. 
jAnd by whom was Mr. Hallings to 
D« accufed, by thofe who had fup- 
ported his meafures, or thofe who 
had oppofed them; by his friends, 
or his enemies ? There were not 
many accufers from India. He knew 
but few from that quarter who could 
dare to auume the charaftcr, or whofe 
own conduft v\'Ou!d ftand the teft of 
enquiry. Under thefe circunillances, 
to exclude from the committee the 
perfon likely to be the moH: dan- 
gerous accafcr, ^culd have a very 
. fufpiclous appearance. The lioufe 
would appear to prevaricate, and 
mult depart' from a chajge which 
they had already adopted. He had, 
with infinite application and ability, 
brougjit forward the charge of 
abufes in the adnvnillration of the 
revenues. By means of his local 
and perfonal knowledge, he had de- 
Teloped the whole myftery of cor- 
ruption; he had enforced it on the' 
convi(5tion of the houfe; he had per- 
fuaded an unwilling audience, for' no 
man is willing to become an accu- 
fer ; and would the houfe, now that 
they had adopted the accufation, 
and made it their own, prevent the 
honourable gentleman from fapport- 
ing'it at the bar of the houfe of lords, 
when he alone could fupport it with 
effea? 

The fole argument which he had 
ever heard agamft the appointment 
of his honourable friend v/as, that 
he had once had a perfonal quarrel 
with Mr. Hallings. Of what weight 
was this ? He was not to be the 
judge, but the accufer, of Mr. Kaf- 
tings; and cct the only accufer, but 



an accufer joined with others. Was 
he fappofed of fuch authority as to 
infliience the judges ? Was the 
whole committee of fuch authority ? 
The lords would fit to pafs fentence 
on their honour, like a jury on their 
oath, and Heaven forbid that the u- 
nited authority of the commons of 
England fhould influence their de- 
cifion. 

Mr. Fox then moved, " that the 
" name of Mr. Foancis be added to 
" the committee." 

Mr. V/indham, after a fhort fi- 
lence, followed- Mr. Fox-, and ex- 
preiTedhis furprizethat no argument 
had yet been offered to jullify the 
rejection of his honourable friend. 
As gentlemen had been fofparing of 
their reafons, he would endeavour 
to flate every po.Tible ground on 
. which an objeclion could be made, 
in order to prove to the houfe how 
impofTible it was for them., if they 
•were fincere in the profccution, to 
refufe to give their managers the 
^benefit of the abilities, the zeal, and 
the diligence of the honourable gen- ' 
tleman. There , could not, as his 
right honourable friend had obferv- 
ed, and proved from recapitulating 
'facls of the mofl public notoriety, 
be Oiiered any objeftion of a per- 
fonal nature againft Mr. Francis, 
for his integrity -.vafcminently con- 
fpicucus. Thofe, therefore, who had 
objeftions to make, muH fupport 
them by proving, firft, that private 
animofjty was a proper difquahfica- 
ticn ; and, fecondly, what he be- 
lieved was- nearly as" difficult to be 
proved, that Mr. Francis entertained 
that fentiment of perfonal animoHty 
towards Mr. Hafdngs. The idea of 
fuppofing that an accufer ought to 
be free from refentment, was, he 
conceived, on the principle that he 
ought to be impartial. This, he^ 
contended, was perfectly abfurd, and 

- could 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [145 



could only be maintained by a per- 
verfion and confounding of the func- 
tions of an accufer with thofe of 
a judge, and requiring from both 
parties what v/as only to be expeded 
in the latter, and what indeed was 
defirable in him only. The very 
efl'ence of the character of an ac- 
cufer was zeal for the proof of his 
accufation, and the conviftion of the 
accufed; and it was of no confe- 
quence to the trial whether that zeal 
proceeded from perfonaianimofity, or 
any other motive. It was, perhaps, 
by confounding the functions of a 
witnefs and an accufer that gentle- 
men were induced to entertain fo ill- 
founded an idea, that private re- 
fentment unfitted a man for the cha- 
rafter of an accufer. An idea, which 
could only be fupported by imagin- 
ing that a judge would take for 
granted the bare affertions of the ac- 
cufer; but no judge would give any 
credit whatfoever to the ilatementof 
the parties or their advocates, unlefs 
fubllantiated by proof. Even a 
witnefs was not difqualified on ac- 
count of partiality; for, in fadt, 
every witnefs was in fome de- 
gree partial. If the judge per- 
ceived more than an ordinary de- 
gree of animofity on one fide, or 
favour on another, in a witnefs, his 
bufmefs was to examine him with' 
greater caution : but he could not, 
for that reafon, rejed him entirely. 
The next thing to confider, was, 
whether the honourable gentleman 
(Mr. Francis) laboured under this 
impreffion or not ? This, he de- 
clared, he could fee no reafon for 
imagining ; for, unlefs the necefTary 
confequence of a duel was a perpe- 
tual enmity, it was impofiible, from 
any thing which had appeared to the 
hoafe, to take it for granted that it 
fubfifted in the prefent cafe. He 
ftated, that the oppofiiion" of Mr. 
Vol. XXX. 



Francis to Mr. Ha Slings had com- 
menced long before the duel, even 
from the time of his arrival in India: 
he had been entrulled by the public 
with an important charge ; he favv 
the public wronged by Mr. Haftings, 
and he determined to do jullice to 
his matters, by bringing the delin- 
quent to an account for his malver- 
fation : the delinquent quarrels with 
him, and they light; and, for that 
reafon, merely becaufe a private in- 
jury is fuperadded to public offences, 
the public are to lofe the means of 
bringing to punilhment the perfon 
who has violated the truft they have 
repofed in him. — All this heap of 
abfurditymuft be maintained, before 
any reafonable ground could be laid 
for the rejection of Mr. Francis. 
Motives of delicacy had been fug- 
gefted— and no man, indeed, could 
impute any blame to thofe who in- 
dulged themfelves in the niceft feel- 
ings of delicacy, or who carried the 
pundlilio of honour to the higheft 
pitch, provided that they did not 
fuffer thofe minor virtues to get the 
better of higher duties ; for* then 
they became dangerous and vicious, 
inllead of being meritorious. Bat, 
in this cafe, the houfe could not give 
way to any fuch feelings of delicacy, 
without abandoning the great and 
important bufmefs wiiich they had 
undertaken, and which they v/e«e 
bound to bring to perfeclion ; ntt 
from motives of pride, and feelings 
of delicacy, but from every tic of 
duty, and every ob'igation of wifdom 
and virtue, and true honour. 

Mr. Pitt, in anfwer to T/Ir. Wind- 
ham and Mr. Fox, contended that 
the prefent was not a quellion of ar- 
gument but a queition of feeling. 
It v/as not necefiary to fcrutinize 
v.'hat were the feelings of gentlemen 
on the other fide : but, in return, they 
were entitled to the enjoyment of 

[A'] their 



146] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



their own feelings undifturbed ; and 
if gentlemen did feel that there was 
an impropriety in their chufing a 
certain gentleman to reprelent the 
houfe of commons in the profe- 
cution of their impeachment, was 
it therefore to be imputed to them 
that they were flack in the profe- 
cution, or that they were defirous to 
crulh it ? Might it not be fairly faid, 
that, in their earneftnefs for the fuc- 
cefs of their impeachment, they 
chofe to take from it every appear- 
ance of improper motives ; and that, 
in order to prevent even the fufpicion 
of any fuch exifting, they had de- 
clined to appoint as their reprefen- 
tPctive the only perfon in the houfe 
who had, upon a former occafion, 
been concerned in a perfonal conteft 
with Mr. Haftings. The argument, 
that the profecution would be injured 
by the abfence of this honourable 
gentleman, could not be juflly enter- 
tained for one moment. To look 
at the abilities of the gentlemen who 
were to manage the profecution, was 
fufficient to give the houfe confidence 
in its management ; and befides, the 
honourable gentleman was Itill at 
hand ; and, in addition to all the ma- 
terials with which he had already 
furnifhed them, could be confulted, 
or even examined at the bar. They 
fcad loft only his eloquence, of which, 
diftinguifhed as it was, they were not 
in want. 

Mr. Pitt was fupported by Mr. 
Grenville, who obierved, that the 
prefent queftion was not an invefti- 
gation into the character of the ho- 
nourable gentleman, but merely an 
inquiry whether, under the peculiar 
circumftance in which he ftood, as 
having had a perfonal quarrel with 
Mr. Haflmgs, and as being the only 
individual in the houfe who was fup- 
pofed to have a perfonal enmity to 



him, it v/as right in the houfe to 
chufe him as one of their reprefen- 
tatlves for managing the impeach- 
ment. For his own part, he had no 
hefitation in faying, that in fuch cir- 
cumftances, the houfe ought not to 
feleft him as a perfon peculiarly fit 
for fuch a truft. 

Mr. Francis then rofe, and ex- 
prelfed his fatisfaftion at what he had 
heard from the other fide of the 
houfe, as it had relieved him from 
great anxiety. I now underftand, 
he faid, what the objedlion is, and 
what it is not : — It is a fcruple that 
regards a point of honour : — It is 
not an imputation : — It is not a re- 
proach. It has been formally and 
explicitly ftated to you, by great au- 
thority, that the point in debate is 
not a queftion of argument, but of 
feeling. Tliis is the avowed prin- 
ciple on which the motion is oppofcd. 
I do not mean to objeft to this ftatc 
of the queftion, or to any otjier, on 
which any gentleman may choofe to 
confider it. Allow me only to ex- 
prefs my hopes, that gentlemen,, 
who are fo properly and honourably 
careful of their own feelings, will 
not confine their attention to them- 
felves, but have fome confideratiun 
and tenderncfs for the feehngs of 
others. 

It would be a poor and ufelefs af- 
fedation in me to pretend, that I re- 
ceived the vote, which pjiilld a few 
days ago, with indifference, or in- 
deed without ferious concern. 1 
could not but be fenftble of the turn 
that would be given to it, and of the 
impreffion it would probably make 
abroad to my difadvantage. I could 
not fee myfelf e.xcluded from fharing 
in the labours of my honourable 
friend, without looking back to the 
fituation, in which I was forced to 
abandon him, with the deepeft re» 

gret. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[147 



gret. His abilities are equal to the 
tafk he has uodertaken, if any hu- 
man abilities are equal to it. Of 
this heavy burden he muft now fup- 
port my fhare as well as his own. 
Setting afide the fingle confideration 
ef the ailiftance I owe to my ho- 
nourable friend, what can I defire 
better for myfelf than to bg excluded, 
without difgrace, from any farther 
concern in this toilfome, invidious, 
and mofl: unthankful office ? My ob- 
jeft, as far as I had any perfonal ob- 
jeft in the profecution of Mr. Hall:- 
ings, is accomplifhed. The houfe 
have approved and confirmed the 
principles of my oppofition to him, 
and adopted my opinion of his con- 
dutl. In condemning hint they have 
acquitted ?ne. I am now difcharged 
from the condusSt of a caufe, which, 
of my own accord, undoubtedly, I 
(hould never have abandoned. If 
it fhould fiil hereafter, I lliall have 
nothing to anfv/er for. — Mr. Francis, 
waived entering into the arguments 
which ought to induce the houfe to 
reject or to agree to the motion; 
but at the fame time, he faid, though 
I have no manner of anxiety about 
the conclufion, I fhould be regard- 
lefs of the truth, and carelefs of my 
honour, if 1 fuffered the premifes to 
be taken for granted. I deny that 
r am, or ever was, the enemy of 
Mr. Haftings, in that perfonal fenfe 
in which it is imputed to me. He 
then gave the houfe a fhort account 
of the public difputes that had fub- 
filled between him and Mr. Haft- 
ings, and of the provocation that 
brought on the duel. He added, 
it is but jufiice to him to fay, that 
he behaved himfelf perfectly well in 
the field. It was my lot to be dan- 
geroufly wounded. h% I conceived 
immediate death inevitable, I thouf^ht 
•f nothing but to die in peace v/ith 



all men, particularly with Mr. Haft- 
ings. I called him to me, gave him 
my hand, and defired him to ccnfider 
in what fituation my death would 
leave him. By that aftion, and by 
tliofe words, undoubtedly I meant to 
declare that I freely forgave him 
the infult he had offered me, and the 
fatal confequence which had attend- 
ed it. I meant that we fhould ftand 
in the fame relation to each other, 
as if the duel and the caufe of it had 
never happened. But did I tell him, 
that if I furvived, I would renounce 
the whole plan and principle of my 
pubhc life ; that I would ceafe to 
oppofe his meafures ; that I would 
defert the charges, which I had al- 
ready brought againft him, or not 
profecute him by public impeach- 
ment if I could ? On my return to 
England, I found tliat a parliamen- 
tary inquiry into the late tranfaftions 
in India was already begun, and I 
. was almoft immediately ordered to 
attend one of the committees em- 
ployed upon that enquiry. Ofthofe 
gentlemen, who think that I ought 
not to appear againft Mr. Haflings, 
I beg leave to afk, in what manner 
I ought to have afted? Could I, 
without treachery to the public, re- 
fufe to give evidence or information 
necefTary for the public fervice, when 
it was demanded of me by the au- 
thority of the houfe of commons ? 
If not, the fingle queftion is, in what 
form and manner did it become me 
to appear and aft as the accufcr of 
Mr. Haftings ? And am I thought 
to have a£teddifhonourably,becaufe 
] declared myfelf a public refpon- 
fible accufer of Mr. Haftings ? be- 
caufe I ftood forward in the charge, 
and hazarded all thofe confequences 
of obloquy, retaliation, and revenge,' 
which a public profecutor muft en- 
counter, but which a fccrct fkulk- 
[A'] z ing 



148] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 

ing accufer may very eafily avoid ? 
I do not mean to fay, that the cir- 
cumftance of my having had a duel 
with Mr. HaftingSj never occurred 
to me as an objeftion, which poflibly 
might have weight with others, 
though it appeared to me of no ccn- 
fequence. It did certainly occur to 
me as a doubt, on which I ought 
not to truft entirely to my own judg- 
ment, and I therefore took the ad- 
vice of perfons upon whofe judg- 
ment, in points of this nature, I could 
rely. But there is an authority te 
the fame effedl, which 1 am able to 
produce, and which, though nega- 
tive in its form, 1 doubt not will be 
deemed equivalent to any pofitive 
opinion whatever. I have now been 
engaged above two years in conftant 
intercourfc and connexion with twen- 
ty gentlemen of the firft character 
in this kingdom, and in conftant 
converfation with them on the fub- 
je(Sl of this impeachment; I mean 
particularly the gentlemen who 
compofe the prefent committee, as 
well as many others. I appeal to 
their teftimony. Did any of thefe 
gentlemen ever, direftly or indi- 
reftly, fignify to me a doubt about 
the propriety of my condudl? If 
they did, I call upon them now to 
declare it. Is it a thing to be be- 
lieved, that if they had felt a fcrupje, 
in point of honour, on this fubjecl, 
they would never have exprefled it 
to me, or that they would have a6ted 
with me, if I had known and difre- 
garded their opinion f 

Thirteen years, he faid, are row 
clapfed, fince I firft was connefted in 
office with Mr. Haftings. Six of 
them were wafted in India in perpe- 
tual contelt with him. Seven years 
ago I left him there, in poiieiTion of 
abfolute power. In all that time no 
charges have been produced againll 



me. Yet, I think, it cannot be 
faid that I have been particularly 
cautious not to provoke hoftility, or 
that there is no difpofition to accufe 
me. If now, or at any other pe- 
riod, I fhould be obliged to change 
place with Mr. Haftings ; if here- 
after it fhould be my lot to be ac- 
cufed, I fhall afTuredly never objed 
to his being my profecutor; for 
though, by removing a powerful, a 
well informed, and, in the fenfe of 
the prefent argument, an inveterate 
accufer, I might provide for my 
fafety, my honour would be loft. 
Let thofe gentlemen, who are trufted 
with the care of Mr. Haftings's ho- 
nour, confider what they are doing, 

Mr. Francis concluded, by decla- 
ring, that if the houfe fhould think 
fit to em.ploy him, he fhould endea- 
vour to execute their commands with 
induftry and rigour; if not, he fhould 
receive with pleafure his difmilTion 
from fo vexatious, fo laborious, fo 
invidious, and fo unprofitable a fer- 
vice as this has been: and immedi- 
ately left the houfe. 

The queftion being foon after put, 
there appeared, noes iz2, ayes 60. 

In the mean time, committees 
were appointed by both houfes to 
fearch the records of parliament, for 
precedents relative to the mode of 
proceeding in trials by impeachment, 
and the neceffary orders were made 
for their accommodation in V/eft- 
rcinfter-hall, for the admifTion of fpec- 
tators, the attendance of witnefTes, 
and other matters refpefting the re- 
gularity of their pro- p^^_ .^^ 
ceeding. On the 13th -* 

of February, the trial commenced, 
with the ulual formalities, an ac- 
count of which, the reader will find 
in the Chronicle for the month. ^ 
The counfel who appeared for the 
defendant were, Mefl". Law, Flumer, 

and 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [149 



and Dallas. The afllftant counfel 
for the commons. Dr. Scott and Dr. 
Lawrence, MefTrs. Mansfield, Pigott, 
Burke, and Douglas. 

The two firll days were confumed 
in reading the articles of impeach- 
ment, and the anfwers of Mr. Haf- 

r? u u tinps. On the third, 
Feb. 15th. , ^ . ^c 4.U 
^ the anxiety or the 

public to hear Mr. Burke was fo 
great, that the galleries of the hall 
were full before nine o'clock. About 
twelve the peers were feated, to the 
number of 164; and, the managers 
being called upon by the chancellor 
to proceed, Mr. Burke rofe, and 
faid, that he flood forih by order of 
the commons of Great Britain, to 
fupport the charge of high crimes 
and mifdemeanors, which they had 
exhibited againft Warren Hallings, 
el'q; and that he had a body of evi- 
dence to produce to fubflantiate the 
whole and every part of thofe 
charges. 

That the gentlemen joined with 
him in that duty, had inllrufled 
him to open the caofe with an ac- 
count of the grounds upon which 
the houfe had proceeded, and with 
a general view of the nature of the 
crimes with which they charged 
him, together with an explanation 
of fuch concomitant circumfrances, 
relative both to the crimes them- 
felves and the manners of the peo- 
ple amongft whom they were com- 
mitted, as were necefl'ary to eluci- 
date the charge. 

After fome general obfervations 
upon the quality of- the caufe, as 
leading to a decifion not only upon 
fafts, but upon principles; as in- 
volving the character and honour 
of Bridfh government, and, in an 
efpecial manner, the credit, and 
even the future exiitence of that 
high mode of parliamentary pro- 
ceeding (of the fpiiit and ' eii'efts 



of which, in the Britiih conftitutlon, 
he gave a concife and pointed de- 
fcription) he adverted to the grounds 
upon which the commons had pro- 
ceeded. The dreadful diforders of 
our Indian government were ac- 
knowledged. It was not, he faid, 
till after every mode of legiflative 
prevention had been tried without 
effect, till they found, during a 
courfe of fourteen years, that en- 
quiries and refolutions, and laws 
were equally difregarded, that they 
had had recourfe to a penal profecu- 
tion ; and he trufted that it would 
be found they had made fuch a 
choice, with refped both to the 
crimes and tlie criminal, and the 
mode of proceeding, as would re- 
commend that courfe of jullice to 
pofterity, even if it had not been 
fanftioned by the practice of our 
forefathers. 

Mr. Burke then gave an account 
of the previous proceedings in the 
houfe of commons, in which, he faid, 
every precedent that could be fouhd, 
favourable to the party accufed, and 
fome meafures even of an unufual 
kind, had been adopted; and that 
it v/as chieny upon the fads ad- 
mitted by the criminal in his de- 
fence, and the principles therein 
maintained by him, that they pro- 
ceeded, and proceeded v/ith confi- 
dence, to that bar. He then Itated 
the quality of the crimes charged, 
v.'hich, he faid, were neither the 
lapfes of human frailty, nor had 
arifen from the exigencies of an 
overruling necelTity. They were 
crimes originating in paffions which 
it was criminal to harbour, and fuch 
as argued a total extindtion of moral 
principle: crimes committed upon 
deliberation, againft advice, fappli- 
cation, and remonllrance, and againft 
the diredt commands of lawful 
authority. As to the criminal, he 

[K] 3 faid. 



i5o] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 

faid, that they had made choice of nation, as if availing itfelf of peca«> 

no puny offender, but the firll in liar fcholallic diltinftions, abhorrent 

rank, authority, and ftation ; under to the common fenfe, and unpropi- 

whom, as the head, all the pecula- tious to the common rights of man- 

tion and tyranny of India was em- kind, in order to cover our partici- 

bodied, difciplined, and paid, and pation in guilt, and our common in- 

in ftriking at whom, therefore, they tereft in the plunder of the Eaft, 

would ftrike at the uhole corps. Having gone through thefe pre- 

Mr. Burke next proceeded to liminary points, Mr. Burke pro- 
Hate the nature of the evidence* ceeded 'to open the matter of the 

which they had to produce in fup- charge. — He ftated, that the powers 

port of the charge. Of this, he delegated to Mr. Haftings by the 

faid, that notwithftanding the enor- India company, and which he was 

mous power poflefled by the cri- charged with having abufed, were 



derived from two fourccs ; the char- 
ter granted by the crown under the 
authority of parliament, and the 
grant from^ the Mogul emperor of 
the Dewanne, or high fte'..ardfhip 



mmai, notwithftanding his induf- 
try in deftroying recorded evi- 
dence, and the influence he had 
over living teftimony, there remain- 
ed fufficient to fatisfy, in almoft 

every inllance,_ even the precifion of Bengal, in the year 1766. He 

which prevailed in the inferior here combated an opinion that had 

courts of law; bat he contended, been induftrioufly circulated, that the 

at the fame time, that they were ads of the fervants of the company 

not to be bound by the coniined in India, were not cognizable here, 

rules and maxims of evidence which He proved, that in the hrft cafe they 

prevailed in thofe courts, nor by were refponfible to the parliament 

any other than thofe of natural, of Great Britain direflly ; that un- 

immutable, and fubftantial juftice. der the fecond they were refponfi- 

He claimed this as the right of ble for the good government of the 

the commons of Great Britain, and country immediately to the Mogul 

the law of parliament : as indifpen- emperor, by the condition of their 

fable from the nature of the caufe, and grant; and that, upon the annihila- 

due to thofe fufFering nations who, tion of his power, the duty Hill 

feparated from us by nature, and remained, and their refponfibility 

differing in language, manners, and was thrown back upon the country 

opinions, had no intereft or concern from which their original power 

in the technical dillindtions of our flowed ; Great Britain, when it af- 

municipal law, but as they might fented to that grant of office, and af- 

be abufed to the denial of fubftantial terwards took advantage of it, be- 

juftice ; and laftly, as highly ne- coming virtually a guarantee for 

cefTary to prevent the difgraceful the performance of its duties. The 

imputation which might fall either people of India, therefore, came in 

upon that high court, as if ccr- the name of the commons of Great 

rupted by the wealth of India, or Britain, but in their own right, to 

upon the laws of England, as if im- the feat of the imperial juftice of 

potent in the means of puniftiing fuc- this kingdom, from whence origi- 
cefsful fraud and oppreffion ; or upon nally all the powers, under which 

the charader of the whole Eritifii they have fuffered, were derived. 

Having 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [151 



Having fettled the point of re- 
-fponfibilicy, Mr. Burke briefly ilated 
the feveral powers granted to the 
company, from its firil eitabliiliment 
in the reign of queen Elizabeth, 
and the means by which it roie to 
the exalted fituation of dominion 
and empire in which it now ilands. 
In its external arrangements and 
conftitulion it however flill re- 
mained upon a mercantile plan. 
In this fyftem he firlt took notice of 
the regulation, by which all their 
fervants are obliged to go through 
a regular gradation of ottices, from 
the loweft to the higheft ; ftated the 
advantages arifing therefrom, and 
the mifchievous effeds of the total 
difregard which Mr. HalHngs paid 
to the fpirit of this order, whenever 
it fuited his own views. 

The other circumllances arifing 
out of the conilitution of the com- 
pany's government in India, upon 
which, he remarked, were princi- 
pally thefe — The ty'prit du corps, 
which neceffarily prevailed in a body 
of men, who were all pofTefied of 
office, without check or control up- 
on the fpot, having one common 
intereft, and that intereil feparated 
from the intereft both of the coun- 
try which fent them out, and of the 
country in which they afled ; — the 
high and important trulls, which were 
held by them under infignificant 
names, and the inadequacy of their 
falaries to the real dignity of their 
employments, circumftances, which 
made it next to impoflible, for men, 
whofe objeft was an early enjoyment 
of their fortunes at home, to remain 
incorrupt in that fervice : — lallly, the 
youth of the peribns fent out to India, 
and their immediate acceffion to em- 
ployments of boundlefs power, and 
particularly to high judicial powers, 
which, under the new regulations 



planned by fir Elijah Impey, were 
exprefsly directed to be conferred 
on the junior fervants of the com- 
pany. Of thefe feveral circumftan- 
ces, Mr. Burke fhewed that Mr. 
Hafiings had criminally availed him- 
felf ; and that he had been thereby 
enabled, as it were, to embody a- 
bufe, and to put himfelf at the head 
of a regular fyftem of corruption. 
To thefe he added, the covenants 
entered into with the company by 
their fervants, and fiiewed in what 
manner they had alfo been pervert- 
ed, by Mr. Haftings, into a means 
of fupporting the fame corrupt con- 
federacy. 

The laft inftrument of fraud and 
oppreffion taken notice of by Mr. 
Burke, was the Banyan ; of the na- 
ture of whofe office, as it was cal- 
culated both for the pradice and 
concealment of every fpecies of ty- 
ranny and peculation, he gave a de- 
taileddcfcription.,He then adverted to 
one inftitution, taken from the mer- 
cantile conftitution of the company, 
of confummate wifdom, and which 
might have proved a powerful cor- 
redlive oi all the other abufes to 
which their fervice was in its own 
nature difpofed : this was the obli- 
gation which their fervants were 
under, by exprefs covenant, to keep^ 
a journal of all their tranfaftions, 
public and private; a letter-book, 
in which all their letters were to be 
entered; and laftly, to keep a written 
record, not only of all the proceedings, 
refolutions, and orders, made in their 
councils, but alfo of the arguments 
ufed and the opinions delivered by 
each feparate member. Mr. Burke, 
after ftating the importance of this 
great inftrument of correction and 
control, charged Mr. Haftings with 
having endeavoured to deftroy or 
render it of no ^fiZ^, by introducing 
[/i] 4 adif- 



152] ANNUAL REGISTER, 17I 



a diftindion between public and 
private correfpondence; by difpenf- 
ing with the orders ot the company, 
in boards appointed by his own au- 
thority ; and laftly, by the actual 
fpoliacion and deiiruftion of part of 
the company's records. 

Having gone through the confli- 
tution of the company, and marked 
the abufes of the powers which Mr. 
Hallings derived under it, he pro- 
ceeded to the powers with which tlie 
company were invefted by the char- 
ter of the Mogul emperor, and 
which were alfo delegated to him. 

The inhabitants of India, who, in 
confequence of that charter, became 
virtaallyfabjefts of the Britifh em- 
pire, are, he faid, of two defcrip- 
tions ; the firft were, the Hindoos or 
Gentoos, the original inhabitants of 
Hindoilan. Of this people, their pe- 
culiar culloms, manners, and religion, 
and of the beneficial moral and ci- 
vil efteds arifmg therefrom, as they 
appeared in tiie fin1: period of their 
hiitsry, he gave a concife account : 
adverting, as he proceeded, to the 
juft policy which thefe circumftances 
iKould have diftaced to our govern- 
ment, and pointing out the new fources 
of tyranny and oppreflion with vvluch 
they had fjrnifi^ed Mr. Hallings. 
Having Hated "the happy and flou- 
riihing condition of India under the 
original native government, he con- 
tinued their hlftory through the fe- 
veral revolutions that took place, 
from the irruption of the Arabians, 
foon after the time of Mahomet, to 
the ufurpacion of Verdi AH Khan, 
and the ellabliniment of the Englifli 
power in 1756: and he proved, in 
oppofitlon to the argument urged by 
Mr. Haftings, in his defence, viz. 
^' that the native princes held their 
dominions as mere valTals under 
their conquerors," that neither undey 



the government of the Arabian HOr 
Tartarian invaders, nor of the ufurp- 
ing foubahs and nabobs, were the na- 
tive princes and zemindars difpoffeli- 
ed of their eftates, and the jurifdic- 
tions annexed to them ; but that, up to 
the lalt unfortunate period, they pre- 
ferved their independent rank and 
dignity, their forts, their feignoi ies, 
and always the right, fometimes alfo 
the means of proteding the peo- 
ple under them. Here Mr. Burke 
Ciofed his iirll day's fpeech, which 
lafted upwards of three hours. 

Mr. Burke began his r^ , ^ l 
r J r u -i Feb. l6th. 

lecond Ipeech v."th an 

animated defcription of the bleffings 
which it was juft to expert that In- 
dia would derive from the increafing 
power and influence of the Britilli 
fettlements in that part of the world. 
Thefe expectations, he faid, had 
proved deJufive, and it becomes us 
therefore feriouily to think how the 
mifchief was to be repaired. To 
obtain empire, had been a com- 
mon thing ; to govern it well, had 
been more rare ; but to chaftile, by 
its juftice, the guilt of thofe who 
had abnfcd the power of their coun- 
try, was, he hoped, a glory referved 
to this natiori, this time, and that 
high court. 

He then refumed the hiftory of Ben- 
gal from the ufurpation of Verdi Ali 
Khan; Vv'hofe fucceffcr, SerajahDow- 
lah, by attacking the Englifh fettle- 
m.ent at Calcutta, brought upon him- 
felf the refcntment of this country, 
and was dethroned by lord Clive. 
Meer Jaflier, a treacherous fervant 
of Serajah's, was placed upon the 
throne, and for this ferviceMeer^f- 
fier engaged to pay a million to the 
company, and upwards of another 
million to individuals in their em- 
ployment. This dangerous example 
difcovered the facility with which 
fgYoltitions 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [153 



revolutions might be cfFefted in In- 
dia, and a certain fource of enor- 
mous emolument to thofe who had 
the diredion of them. Accordingly, 
lord Clive had no fooner quitted In- 
dia, than his fucceflors projefted an- 
other revolution, bv' which iVIeer 
Jaffier was to be depofed, and Cofiim 
Ali Khan, his fon-in-law, a man of 
an intriguing and ferocious charac- 
ter, was to be placed in his room. 
In this drama, Mr. HalHngs, who 
was then refiJent at the foubah's 
court, and whofe co-operation, in 
betraying that prince, was abfolutely 
neceflary, made his firft public ap- 
pearance. 

Whillt this projeft was ripening 
for execution, an under-plot was 
brought upon the ftage, in v/iiich 
Meer Jaffier propofes a plan to the 
Englifh commander in chief, and 
through him to the council, for 
getting poiTeffion of the perfon of 
the Shah Zaddah, or eldeft fon of 
the Mogul, and putting him to 
death. This proportion was, oflen- 
fibly only as was afterwards alle- 
ged, acceded to ; an inllrument 
was drawn up, in v/hich the reward 
to be given to the affaffin was fpe- 
cified, and the feals of the nabob, 
of his fon, and of the company af- 
fixed ; from v.-hich circumllance, it 
obtained the name of the ftory of 
the three feals. In an enquiry which 
was afterward made into this tranf- 
adion, at Calcutta, by order of the 
court of direftors, (but which Mr. 
Burke endeavoured, by a variety of 
proofs, to Ihew was clearly collulive) 
the Englilh party was honourably 
acquitted. This whole bufmefs, in 
which Mr. Hailings appears fome- 
times as an accomplice, and finally 
as a judge, is recorded in the ap- 
pendix, N* 10, to the ,^rft report of 
she Indian Committee, which fate in 



1773 ; and Mr. Burke called the at- 
tention of the court particularly to 
it, as exhibiting a ftriking inftance, 
not only of the horrible condition 
of the company's government in 
India, at that period, but of the col- 
lufive pra£lices and dangerous com- 
binations by which every attempt to 
correftit was fruftrated. 

Mr. Burke then proceeded in his 
account of the main revolution, re- 
lated the ftory of the extraordinary 
death of the foubah's eldeft fon, by 
which a material obftacle was re- 
moved, and finally, of the depofi- 
tion of Meer Jaffier, the advance- 
ment of Cofiim Ali, and the rewards 
paid to the company, and their fer- 
vants, for their fervices in this 
complicated aft of treachery, vio- 
lence, and injuftice. He then ad- 
verted to the coniequences of this 
revolution upon the miferable na- 
tives, who were harrafted and op- 
prCiTed in the moft cruel and out- 
rageous manner, by the tyrant we 
had fet up, in order to make them 
contribute to compenfate him for 
the revenues of the provinces he 
had ceded, and the money he had 
given to the company. He con- 
cluded this part of his fpeech with 
reminding the court, that the ads 
of this nefarious tyrant were a- 
mongft the examples and precedents 
by which Mr. Haftings, ^in his de- 
fence, 'had chofen to juftif;/ his own 
conduct. 

The hifiory of a third revolution 
followed, in which Cofiim Ali Khan, 
who foon after made war upon the 
Englifh, with circumftances of the 
moft ftiocking cruelty, was worfted, 
and Meer Jaffier reftored to a no- 
minal authority, but not without the 
ufual ceremony of further conccf- 
fions to the company, and rewards 
to individuals. 

From 



154] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



From the fale of kingdoms and 
priflces, which began to grow too 
rank and notorious, they proceeded 
to the fale of prime minifters and 
omcial departments. There were 
at this time, at the court of the foubah, 
two perfons of great confideration, 
the moil eminent of their refpeclive 
denominations, the one a Gentoo, 
called the great rajah Nundcomar, 
the otheraMahomedan, called Ma- 
homet Reza Khan. The foubah, 
who had fome jealous fears of the 
latter, on account of his high birth 
and authority, which, in cafe of any 
civil commotion, might poilibly lead 
kim to afpire to the oflice of foubahdar, 
attached himfclfflrongly to Nund- 
comar, whofe religion difqualified 
hiva from becoming his rival, and he 
appointed hirh to be his naib or de- 
puty. Of this competition the Eng- 
Kfh council, in whom all the efficient 
power reiided, were refolved to pro- 
fit. The office was put up to auc- 
tion ; both parties bid largely, bribe 
was oppofed to bribe, and ac length 
they took the money of Mahomet 
Reza Khan, which amounted to about 
Z20,cooI. deeming him more likely 
to keep the nabob in a fitter condi- 
tion for future exadlions. The na- 
bob foon after died, a vidim to this 
lafl and the other infults and oppref- 
fions he had fuiFered. His fucceiTor, 
from the fame policy, manifelting the 
fame attachment to Nundcomar, he 
was brought down to Calcutta, where, 
afterwards having the weaknefs to 
become the firft informer againllMr. 
Mailings, he was made the liril exam- 
ple, was charged with having been 
guilty of forgery, and was hanged. 
Whilll thefe tranfaftions were car- 
rying on in India, the diredlors, fore- 
feeing that unlefs a Hop was fpeedily 
put to the mal-pradtices of their 
fervants, they might end in the ut- 



ter deftruflion of the company, {ent 
out lord Clive with full authority to 
redrefs and to reform. To ilrike at 
the root of the evil, their fervants 
were obliged to enter into new co- 
venants not to receive any prefents ; 
and lord Clive, with admirable wif- 
dorn, put a bound to their afpiring 
fpirit, limited the conqueib of the 
company, gave peace to its enemies, 
provided generoufly for its allies, 
made an honourable fettlement with 
the mogul, and finally left the com- 
pany in poiTcffion of the dewannee 
or high-ftewardfhip of Bengal, by 
which they obtained the intire dif- 
pofitlon of the revenue: the forms 
of royalty, and the adminiilration of 
criminal jullice, were left to the fou- 
bah, with a revenue of 500,0001. and 
the colleclionof the revenue remain- 
ed in the hands of the deputy foubah, 
Mahomet Reza Khan. Two ccm- 
miiTions were afterwards appointed 
by the company for the purpofe of 
carrying thefe regulations into fur- 
ther eftecl, neither of which reached 
India; and in 1773, a council was 
nominated by parliament, at the 
head of which Mr. Hallings was 
placed, as governor-general. 

When this government was fet- 
tled, Morfhedabad Hill continued the 
feat of the native government, and 
of all the colledions. The com- 
pany had a refident at the durbar 
or court of the nabob, as a controul 
over the native colle(ftor, and this 
was the firlt ilep to our alTuming the 
government in that country, which 
by degrees came afterwards to be 
eftablilhed, and fuperfeded that of 
the natives. — The next Hep that was 
made, was the appointment of fu- 
pervifors in every province, to over- 
fee the native colledlors. — The third 
was to eftablilh a general council of 
revenue a: Morfhedabad, to fuper- 

intend 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [155 



Intend the great ftcward Mahomet 
Reza Khan ; and in 1772 that coun- 
cil was fupprefled by Mr. Haflings, 
and the whole controul brought to 
Calcutta ; Mahomet Reza Khan was 
turned out of all his offices, for rea- 
fons, and upon principles, which iii 
the courfe of the trial would appear ; 
and at laft the devvannee was en- 
tirely taken out of the natives hands 
in the firft: inilance, and fettled in 
the fix provincial councils. There 
it remained until the year 1781, 
when Mr. Haftings made another 
revolution, took it out of their 
hands, and put it in a fubordinate 
council, the authority of which en- 
tirely veiled in himfelf. 

Having ftated thefe revolutions, 
and the abufes that grew out of 
them, and flievvn in what manner 
the native government had almofl 
totally vanifned in Bengal, or was at 
leaft reduced to fuch a fituation, as 
to be fit for nothing but to become 
a private perquifite to peculators, 
Mr. Burke proceeded to the Englifli 
government, in which Mr. Hailings, 
lirft as prefident appointed by the 
company, and afterwards as gover- 
nor-general nominated by parlia- 
ment, had the principal fhare. — It 
yas for crimes committed in thefe 
two Rations that he now Hood ac- 
cufed. Before he entered upon the 
confideration of the crimes them- 
felves, he thought it neceflary to 
make a few obfervaiions upon the 
tell by which his conduit ought to 
be tried, and upon the principles on 
which Mr. Hailings had founded his 
defence. 

The rule, he faid, by which their 
lordfhips would try him, was this,. 
What fhould a Britilh governor, aft- 
ing upon Britilh principles, in fuch 
a fituation, do or forbear ? If he has 
done, and if he h^s forborne, in 



the mianner in which a Britifh go- 
vernor ought to do and to forbear, 
he has done his duty and is honour- 
ably acquitted. — But Mr. Hailings 
had recourfe to other principles and 
other maxims. He afferts, in feveral 
of his letters to the Eafi; India com- 
pany, and in a paper called his De- 
fence, that adions in Afia. do not 
bear the fame moral qualities, as the 
fame actions would do in Europe. 
After treating with fome humour, 
and laflly fblemnly protelling againft 
this geographical morality, Mr. 
Burke entered into a large and fe- 
ri€us difcuflion of the other ground 
on which Mr. Haflings refted his 
defence, namely, that the Afiatic 
governments were all defpotic— that 
he did not make the people fiaves, 
but found them fuch — that the fo- 
vereignty he was called to exercife 
was an arbitrary fovereignty, and 
that he had exercifed it, and that no 
other power could be exercifed in 
the country ; — " that the whole hif- 
" tory of Afia was nothing more 
" than precedents to prove the in- 
" variable exercife of arbitrary 
" power ; — that fovereignty implied 
" nothing elfe, from Cabool to Af- 
" fam ; — and that Verdi Ali Khan, 
" and CofTim Ali Khan, fined all 
" their zomindars, on every pretence 
•' either of court necefhty or court 
" extravagance," 

In oppofition to this defence, Mr. 
Burke undertook, firft, to fhew that 
the claim of abfolute power was ut- 
terly inconfillent with all legal go- 
vernment; that the legillature had 
it not to bellow ; that the company 
could not receive, and had it not to 
give i that it could be acquired nei- 
ther by conquefl, fucceiTion, nor 
compaft; and that they who give, 
' and they who receive, it are equally 
criminal. That this idea of arbi- 

tiary 



156] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 

trary power had arifen from con- 
founding it with the prerogative ne- 
ceflarily inherent to the fupreme 
power of being unaccountable, i. e. 
not fubjeft in any ordinary way to 
penal profeciition for its afticns. 
That the intermediate arbitrary 
power claimed by Mr. Haftings, by 
which the people below were to be 
fubject to him, and he irrefponfible 
10 the power above, was an infolent 
extravagance that could not be lif- 
tened to with patience. 

In the fecond place, Mr. Burke 
denied that the governments of Afia 
were in faft of the kind defcribed 
by Mr. Ilaflings, " in which the 
** power of the Sovereign was every 
** thing, and the rights of the fabject 
♦* nothing." Every Mahomedan go- 
vernment muft be a government by 
law, by the laws of the Koran, which, 
fo far from countenancing arbitrary 
power, are in many parts expref.ly 
direfted againfc all opprefTors. The 
interpreters and confervators of this 
law are made independent of, and 
fecure from tlie refentments of the 
executive power. In the Turkifh 
government, the grand fignor is fo 
far from poffeffing arbitrary power, 
that he cannot impofe a tax, he can- 
not touch the life, property, or li- 
berty of his fubjeiSts, he canr.ct de- 
clare war or peace, without what is 
called a fejta, or fcntence of the 
law. With rcfpeft to the Indian Ma- 
iiomedan governments, Mr. Ball- 
ings had aiiertcd, that the iniliciites 
of Genghis Khan and of Tamerlane 
are formed on arbitrary principles. 
This affertion, fo far as a judgment 
could be formed from the ten pre- 
cepts of Genghis Khan, was totally 
unfounded; and as to the latter, Mr. 
Surke read feveral pafiages from the 
tranflation of his Inflitutes, which 
were of a fpirit the very reverfe. In 



addition to thefe, Mr. Burke gave a 
ihort account of the civil jurifpru- 
dence of the Mahomedans, and cited 
two cafes, in one of which, a gover- 
nor, who had levied an arbitrary toll 
upon a market, was put to death 
with tor'.iir-j ; and in the other, a mi- 
nifter was publicly difgraced, and 
ftripped of all his offices, for the re- 
ceipt of prefents. Nor could Mr. 
Hallings, he faid, find fhelter in the 
Gentoo laws. He had himfelf been 
the means of furnifhing us with con- 
fiderab'e extrafts from their written 
body of law, which appeared to pro- 
fcribe every idea of arbitrary will in 
magtftrates. 

Mr. Kailings's next attempt was 
to jullify himfelf by the examples 
and praftice of others. But who 
were they ? Tyrants and ufurpers. 
He makes the corrupt prafiices of 
mankind the principles of his go- 
vernm.cnt; he collecb together the 
vicious examples of all the robbers 
and plunderers of Alia, forms the 
mafs of their abufes into a code, and 
calls it the duty of a Britifa gover- 
nor. — Mr. Burke then- made a few 
obfervations upon the plea of his 
having left England early in life, 
uninllrucled in juridical knowledge, 
and of his having aded in a fitua- 
tion where he could not have that 
aiiiftance which miniilers in other 
fituations ufually derived from the 
knowledge and information of others. 
This, Mr. Burke faid, might have 
been fome excufe for mifconduft of 
another kind, for a lax timid exer- 
cifeofduty; but that a bold, pre- 
fuming, ferocious, adtive ignorance, 
like his, was in itfelf a crime. Be- 
• fides, added Mr. Burke, there is not 
a boy, who has learned the firlt ele- 
ments of Chriftianity in his cate- 
chifm, who, if thefe articles of 
charge were to be read to him, 

would 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [157 



would not know that fuch condud 
was not to be juftilied. 

Laftly, Mr. Ballings had urged, 
that after the commifilon of many of 
the faifls with which he was charged, 
parliament had re- appointed him to 
the fame truft, and thereby virtually 
acquitte'd him. If indeed, faid Mr. 
Burke, they had re-appcinted him 
after they had knowledge and proof 
of his m'ifconduft, the public would 
have reafon to reprobate their con- 
dudl, and there would be an inde- 
corum in their profecution. But 
they were guiltlefs of that charge ; 
they v/ere at the time almoll uni- 
verfally ignorant of his crimes. Not 
that the pica would avail him, if it 
were as he alledged ; fince the great- 
eft part of the enormities charged 
were committed fmce his laft ap- 
pointment. The thanks which he 
had alfo pleaded, of the Eaft India 
company, v\ere, Mr. Burke faid. 
Hill of lefs avail, fince, though they 
had given him their thaiiks fur his 
fervices in the grofs, there was 
fcarce one a6l, in that whole body of 
charges, for which they had not 
dillindly cenfured him. Mr. Burke 
here concluded his fecond day's 
fpecchj which lailed upwards of four 
hours. 

pu „.}, On the third day, Mr. 
' ' Burke began his fpcech 
by remarking, that though the na- 
ture of the caufe whicii he had 
to open, might require that he 
Ihould proceed to clafs the feveral 
crimes with which the defendant 
was charged, to fhew their feveral 
bearings, and how they mutually 
aided and grew out of each other ; 
yet that a praflical regard to time, 
to vvhich it was neceiTary they fhould 
fubmit, would induce hira to abridge 
that plan, and bring it within a 
narrower compafs. Ihe firft thing. 



therefore, that he propof>.^d to fhew, 
was, that all the crimes charged up- 
on Mr. Haftings, had their origin 
in what was the root of all evil, 
avarice and rapacity. This bafe 
and corrupt motive pervaded fo iu- 
tirely the whole of his ccnduft, that 
there was not one article of the im- 
peachment, in which tyranny, ma- 
lice, cruelty, and opprefTion were 
charged, which did not at the 
fame time carry evident marks of 
pecuriiary corruption. He had noc 
only governed arbitrarily, but cor- 
ruptly ; was a giver and receiver of 
bribes, not accidentally, but upon a 
regular fyftem formed for the pur- 
pofe of giving and receiving them. 
The principles upon which he acled, 
and upon which he had prefumed to 
vindicate his condufl, (principles 
of arbitrary power) he knew anil 
forefaw led to corrupt and abufive 
confequences ; and thefe he appears 
to have thought hlmfelf bound to 
realize. The merits he had plead- 
ed were not that he had correfled 
the abufos, or prevented the evils 
of an arbitrary government, but 
that he had fqueezed more money 
out of the inhabitants of the coun- 
try, than any other perfon could by 
any other means have done. 

After fome general obfervations 
upon the difgrace and infamy which 
fuch a fyftem tended to bring upon 
the nation, he proceeded to ftate 
the fenfe that had been expreffed, 
and the precautions that had been 
taken again (1 it, both by the com- 
pany and the legifiature. He proved 
at large, that Mr. Haftings was 
bound by every obligation that can 
bind mankind; by the duties of his 
official fituation, by the moft ftrong 
and exprefs particular covenants, 
and by the pofitive injunftionsofthe 
legiflature, not to take prefents, ei- 
ther 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



158] 

ther for himfelf or for the com- 
pany, direftly or indireftly : and 
that, as he was perfonally bound, fo 
it was alfo his duty to keep a watch- 
ful eye over all the other fervants 
of the company, and in general over 
all perfons that a£led under their 
authority or farnStion: that he be- 
came doubly refponfible, when he 
took upon himfelf to remove perfons 
from their fituations, and place 
others of his own recommendation 
in their flead ; and ftill more highly, 
when thofe perfons fo fubftituted 
were of notorious evil charafter. 

Mr. Burke then proceeded to 
exemplify thefe general heads of ac- 
cufation. He firft took notice of 
the general confifcation of the ellates 
of all the ancient nobility and free- 
holders of Bengal, which took place 
in the year 1772, by which they 
were oblip-ed to recognize them- 
felves as mere farmers under go- 
vernment, and bid for their eitates 
at a pretended pubKc, but what in 
reality, he faid, was a private cor- 
rupt audlion, againfl all adventurers 
that came. The pretence for this 
dreadful a£l of tyranny was, the 
augmentation of the revenues of 
the company, which arofe from a 
fort of quit-rent out of thefe eflates, 
the real value of which it >vas there- 
fore thought proper, by this mode 
of auction, to afcertain. The 
firft confequence was, that thefe 
farms fell, for the mofl part, into 
the hands of the banyans of the 
company's fervants, and their dele- 
gates; the banyan of Mr. Haftings 
himfelf, Cantoo Baboo, obtaining, 
contrary to an exprefs regulation, 
farms which paid a revenue of 
£. 1 30,000 a year to government. 
The fecond confequence was, that 
at the end of five years, there was 
a defalcation of this exailsd reve- 



nue, amounting to £. 2,050,000. — 
This opened a new fource of cor- 
ruption, in the remillion and compo- 
fitions that were neceflary to be 
made of that immenfe debt. The 
next fcene of peculation, which fol- 
lowed clofe upon the former, was 
the fale of the whole Mahometan 
government of Bengal, the offices 
of juftice, the fucceffions of fami- 
lies, guardianfliips, and other facred 
trulls, to a woman, called the Munny 
Begum. 

Having gone through thefe feve-. 
ral inftances, which were in them- 
felves ftrong prefumptive proofs of 
corruption, he flated that Mr. Haf- 
tings had been pofitivcly charged, 
on the oaths of federal natives, with 
having taken money corruptly, and 
contended that his conduft under 
thofe charges amounted to the 
llrongeft prefumptive evidence of 
his guilt. He entered into a mi- 
nute account of the means ufed by 
Mr. Haftings to defeat the enquiry 
which the diredors had ordered to 
be inftitiited into the mifconducl of 
their fervants ; and this led him to 
the iiory of Nundcomar, and the ef- 
fc&s which his fate produced, in put- 
ting a flop to all further difcoveriej 
of Mr. Haftings's peculations. The 
other charges Mr. Haftings fufFered 
to remain on the records of the com- 
pany, without ever denying them, or 
taking a fingie flep to deteft them» 
Soon afterwards very ferious enqui- 
ries having begun, in the houfe of 
commons, into the peculations of 
the company's fervants, he changed 
his mode of proceeding, and at- 
tempted to conceal his bribes, firft: 
by depofiting large fums of money 
in the public treafury under his own 
name, and then, upon the difcovery 
of any particular bribe, alledging 
that he had received it for the com- 
pany's 



^ 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



pany's ufe. Upon this condii(fl Mr. 
Burke obferved, firft, that fuppofing 
the allegation true, the thing was 
abfolutely illegal ; that it tended to 
the utter difgrace of government, by 
eltablifhing the corruption of the 
firlt magiftrate as a principle of re- 
fource for the neceffities of the com- 
pany, and to the ruin of the coun- 
try, by licenfing governors to ex- 
tort from the people, by bribery and 
peculation, whatever fums they 
pleafcd above the taxes and public 
imports levied upon them. But fe- 
condly, he obferved, that through 
the folly and imprudence which 
ufually attends guilt, he had given 
fuch falfeand contradiftory accounts 
of thofe money tranfadlions, as 
amounted to the ftrongefi: prefump- 
tive proof that they were in them- 
felves fraudulent and conupt. 
Having expofed feveral of thefe 
falichoods and contradiftions, he 
proceeded to the third great adl of 
Mr. Haftings's corrupt government, 
the abolition of the provincial coun- 
cils, and the meafures taken in con- 
fequence thereof. 

Thefe councils, fix in number, 
were inverted with the ordinary ad- 
minirtration of civil jurtice in the 
country, and with the whole of the 
collection of the revenues, account- 
able to the fupreme council ; and, 
during a period of nine years, had 
approved t-heir utility. But no 
fooner did Mr. Haftings obtain, by 
the death of General Clavering and 
Colonel Monfon, and the abfence 
of Mr. Francis, the entire authority 
of the fupreme council, which then 
confifted but of himfelf and Mr. 
Wheler, than, without charge or 
complaint, he abolifhed, at one 
ftroke, the whole of that crtablifli- 
ment, and verted all their powers in 
a new council of four perfons, chofea 



ti59 

by himfelf, and rendered, as to any 
effectual purpofe at leaft, indepen- 
dent of the fupreme council. 

The new council had given tliem 
by Mr. Haftings, for their dewan or 
fecretary, a man, at the found of 
whofe name, faid Mr. Burke, all 
India turns pale, Gunga Govind 
Sing ; a man, of whom there wa« 
not a friend, there was not a foe of 
Mr. Haftings, that did not agree fa 
pronouncing to be the moft wicked, 
the boldert, and moft dextrous vil- 
lain that ever lived. The nature 
and importance of this office of fe- 
cretary, Mr. Burke ftated from the 
report of the council themfelves, by 
which it appeared tJiat the whole 
power (a power, as_they ftate it, of the 
moft alarming and terrible nature) 
would in effeiil: center in him, and 
that they would be little more than 
mere tools in the hands of their de- 
wan. In fliort, he fliewed that the 
whole public adminiftration of the 
country had been overturned, the 
company burdened with penfions 
for the perfons difmifled, and with 
£. 62,000 per annum for the new 
appointed council, for the purpofe 
of eftablilhing Mr.Haftings's fiicnd, 
Ganga Govind Sing, fuch as hs 
was, and fuch as Mr. Haftings knew^ 
him to be, in the abfolute and un- 
controlled porteffion of the govern- 
ment of the country. 

Mr. Burke then fhewed, that in 
this fituation Gunga Govind Sing 
maintained a clofe and fecret cor- 
refpondence with Mr. Haftings, and 
was in faft his bribe agent. This 
he proved from an official account 
of Mr. Larkin's, the company's 
treafurer at Calcutta ; by which it 
appeared that a cabooleat, or agree- 
ment to pay four lacks of rupees, 
£. 40,000, had been received from 
Dinagepore, through the hands of 
Gunga 



i6o] ANNUAL R E 6l ST E R, 1788. 



Gunga Govind Singj £. 30,000 of 
which had been paid; and it appear- 
ed that Mr. Haftings had exprefTed 
his refentment againft Govind Sing 
for keeping back the remaining 
£. 10,000, As this was not an or- 
dinary article of revenue, but ac- 
knowledged to be a prefent, with- 
out any account of the per(on from 
whom, or the caufe for wliich, it was 
given, the only way of coming to 
any conclufion on the fubjeft, was 
to fee what was the llate of tranf- 
adlions at Dinagepore at that pe- 
riod; an enquiry which would de- 
velope the dreadful confequences of 
that fyftem of bribery and corrup- 
tion which had been eftablifned by 
Mr. Kaftings. 

The country of Dinagepore, with 
its dependent territories, iVJr. Burke 
ftated to be nearly equal to all the 
northern counties of England, York- 
fhire included. A ftjort time before 
die period at which the prefent ap- 
pears to have been made, the fuc- 
ceffion to the government had been 
in litigation between the adopted fon 
of the late rajah, an infant, and the 
rajah's half brother. The caufe 
had been decided, by the governor 
general in council, in favour of the 
adopted fon. If the prefent was 
fuppofed to have been given in con- 
fideration of that judgment, whe- 
ther it was right or wrong, it was 
corruptly taken by Mr. Haftings, 
as a judge in a litigation of inherit- 
ance between two parties. And 
what, on fuch a fuppcfidon, rendered 
the cafe more flagrant, was that the 
prefent came through the hands of 
Gunga Govind Sing, whofe fon was 
regiftrar- general of the province, 
and had in his cuftody the docu- 
ments upon which the legal merits of 
the caufe might depend. The per- 
Ibns in employment under the rajah 



at the fame time were turned out of 
their offices, and the gitardianfhip 
of the infant given to the brother 
of the wife of the late rajah. Soon 
after, without any proof, that ap- 
pears, of mifmanagement or negleft, 
the guardian was difplaced by Gunga 
Govind Sing, and the rajah put 
into the hands of a perfefl ftranger, 
called Debi Sing. From the fequel 
of the hiliory, Mr. Burke appeared 
to tliink it moft probable, that the 
prefent was made hy Debi Sing in 
confideration of this appointment. 
Not long af:er this, through the i-e- 
commendation of the fame Gunga 
Govind Sing, the revenues of all 
the rajah's provinces were given in 
farm to him. 

Mr. Burke then proceeded to ftate, 
that this perfon, in the univerfal opi- 
nion of all Bengal, was fecond only 
to Govind Sing, and that Mr. Haf- 
tings was perfeiSlly well acquainted 
with his charafler, and has fmce re- 
corded, that he knew Debi Sing to 
be a man completely capable of the 
mofl: atrocious iniquities that were 
ever charged upon one man. He 
then gave his hiftory at large, of 
v/hich the following were the princi- 
pal traits : — He was a banyan, and 
early in life had been in the fervicc 
of Mahomet Reza Khan, through 
whofe intereft he obtained the col- 
le(^ion of the province of Purneah. 
The revenues of this province, un- 
der his management, fell in one 
year from 160,000 1. to 90,000!.; 
and it v/as finally left fo completely 
ruined and defolated, that a com- 
pany of Indian merchants, who had 
taken it at a reduced rent, when they 
came to view it, fled in a fright out 
of the country, and gave 10,000 1, 
to be releafcd from their bargain. 
This was ihe firft opportunity he had 
of fhewing how deferving he was of 
greater 



HISTORY O 

greater trufts. He was however dif- 
ciiarged from his management by 
Mr. Haftings, with a itigma upon 
Jiim for his mifconduft. Thus llig- 
marized, he had lUJl the infiuence 
to procure the office of Dewan to 
the council of Moorfhedabad, the 
principal of the fix provincial coun- 
cils. Here he became the keeper 
of a legal brothel, and, by minillering 
to the pleafures and debaucheries of 
the young gentlemen who compofed 
that council, and abufing their con- 
£dence in hours of diiTipation, he ob- 
tained the fuperintendanceof a great 
number of diilricls, all of which, as 
he had done before, he grievouAy 
opprefled and defolated, incurred, 
large arrears of payniencs, acd in 
one ofthofe places, for his peculations 
he was publicly whipped by proxv. 
Having thus proved himfelf a kind 
proteftor of the people, a pru- 
dent farmer of tevcnue, and a fober 
guardian of the morals of youth, he 
yvas thoughtqualilied to be appointed 
tutor to the young rajah, and to have 
the whole adminiilration of his ter- 
ritories, and the collet^ion of his re- 
venues, committed into his hands. 

The confequences were fuch as 
might inevitably be expedltd. Mr. 
Burke here opened fuch a fcene of 
horror, of outrageous violence upon 
the property,and of unheard cruelties 
and nefarious barbarity upon the 
perfons cf the wretched inhabitants 
of thofe provinces, without regard 
to fex or condition, as overcame the 
fenfibility of feveral of his audience. 
The fa£ls were taken from the re- 
port of Mr. Patterfon, who, when 
the provinces, in confequence of 
thcfe cruelties and oppreffions, barli 
out into a fort of wild uproar and 
rebellion, which caufed fome alarm 
at Calcutta, was fent up to make an 
enquiry into the ftate of tranfaftions 
Vol. XXX, 



F EUROPE. [i6t 

there. — Mr. Burke was proceedino- 
to Hate the conducl of the governor 
general, in confequence of this re- 
port, when he was taken ill, and 
obliged to put erf the conc'ufion of 
his 'fpech to the next day. 

He then began, byre- p , 
capitultting the objefts '9^"' 

he had in view in the feveral matters 
that he fubmittei to the court the 
day before I viz. that Mr. Haftings, 
by dellroying the provincial coun- 
cils, which formed the whole fubor- 
dinate adminillration of the Britifh 
government in Bengal ; by deleo-at- 
ing their powers nominally to a com- 
mittee of four perfons chofen by 
himfelf, but in faft to a fccret age.at 
of his o^vn, their dewan or fecrecary; 
by making this board, which had 
the whole marragemept of the reve- 
Bues, independent of, and unaccoun- 
table to, the fupreme council, and by 
concurring in the appcint-iicnt of 
perfons cf infamous characlers to 
oitices of the higheli trull, had made 
himfelf refponfiblc for all the mif- 
chiefs that flowed from thofe acts : 
that the afts themiclves had, from 
the circum!lances attending them, 
the ftrongelt prefumptive proofs that 
they were in the iiril intention cor- 
rupt, and that this prefumption was 
ftrongly confirmed by the fubfequent 
conduiifi of Mr. HalHngs, particu- 
larly in the cafe of Mr. Patterfon, 
which he proceeded to relate : 

The report, with an immenfe body 
of evidence, being tranfmitted to the 
committee, inftead of giving that 
credit to Mr. Patterfon, which per- 
fons adling in a public truib and 
under the exprefs orders of govern- 
ment, are entitled to, they received it 
v/ith great coldnefs and vifible dif- 
guft; inftead of proceeding to ad: 
upon the report, by calling the delin- 
quent to an account, Mr. Patterfon 
[L] was 



i6i] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



was converted into a voluntary ac- 
cufer of Debi Sing, and direfted to 
make good the charges, which he 
had brought, by evidence upon oath ; 
and finally he was himfelf accufed 
by Debi Sing (whofe boldnefs in- 
creafed with the protection he ob- 
tained) of falfhood and forgery, and 
was put as a criminal upon his de- 
fence. Under fuch circumflances, 
Mr. Patterfon was fent back to that 
country, in which he had before been 
received as carrying the whole power 
of a beneficent government, to fee 
whether, among a ruined, dejedled, 
undone people, he could find ccn- 
Hancy enough to ftand to their for- 
mer accufaiions againft the known 
power of their former opprefibr. Jn 
the mean time Debi Sing was fent in 
cuflody to Calcutta, not upon the 
charges contained in the report, but 
for other offences. Here he re- 
mained fome time a prifoner at large, 
andpt laft, a new comm'flion being 
appointed to proceed to Rum pore, 
and enquire into the charges againft 
Mr. Patterfon, he was fent for by the 
commilTioners, and adlually fat with 
them, whilfl: Mr. Patterfon was ex- 
cluded from all their deliberations. 
Four years had thus paffed, during 
which Mr. Patterfon remained in a 
ftate of affliftion and continual con- 
tlift. Debi Sing remained a prifoner 
at large, with every mark of protec- 
tion and authority, and the people of 
Rumpore, which, faid Mr. Burke, 
15 a confideration of much greater 
importance thjm Debi Sing, or even 
than Mr. Patterfon himfelf, remained 
totally unredrelled, remain fo to this 
day, and will remain fo for ever, if 
yourlordlhips donotredrefs them. 

After fome further obfervations 
upon the refponfibility of Mr. Haf- 
tings, as arifing from the abolition 
ef die provincial councils, and the 



conftitution of the new committee of 
revenue, by which he deftroyed 
every check and controul, and deli- 
vered the whole into the hands of 
his bribe agent, Gunga Govind 
Sing, he adverted to the defence 
fet up by Mr. Haftings, that thefe 
prefents were never received for his 
private emolument, but for the ufe 
of the company, and that it was the 
bcft method of fupplying the necef- 
fitles of the company in the prefTing 
exigencies of their affairs. With 
refpedl to this fyilem of prefents, by 
which bribery was to be made a fup- 
plement to exadtion, Mr. Burke firft 
obferved, that however promifing it 
might appear in theory, it had not 
anfwered in practice; and that he 
fhould prove, that wherever a bribe 
had been received, the revenue had 
always in fome proportion, and often 
in a double proportion, fallen into 
arrears; and fecondly, he called the 
attention of the court to all thofe 
dreadful confequences which attend- 
ed this clandeftine mode of fupply- 
ing the company's neceiTities,, as it 
was praftifed by Mr. Haftings. 

Mr. Burke concluded this part of 
his fpeech with defcriblng the laft 
parting fcene between Mr. Haftings 
and Gunga Govind Sing; a fceiie 
in which he appeared as an accom- 
plice in the moft cruel, perfidious, 
and iniquitous tranfadion, that, 
he faid, was ever held forth to the 
indignation of mankind. When Mr. 
Haftings had quitted his office, and 
was now embarked upon the Ganges 
to fail for Europe, he writes a letter 
to the council, in which he fays, 
" the concern I cannot but feel, in 
" relinquilliing the fervice of my 
" honourable employers would be 
" much embittered, were it accom- 
" panied by the rcfieftion, that I 
« have neglefted the merits of a man 
♦* wh« 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [i^^ 



«' who deferves no lefs of them than 
" ofmyfelf, Giinga GovindSing." 
Upon this fingular recommenda- 
tion, Mr. Burke firft cbferved, that 
with refpcft to the circumflances of 
the perfon whofe merits Mr. Haf- 
tings was fo fearful of leaving unre- 
warded, he was notorioinly known to 
have amafled upwards of three mil- 
liorts fterling. With regard to his 
public fervices, Mr. HalHngs flates, 
that he had ferved the committee of 
revenue as dewan from its firft infti- 
tution to that time, with a very fhort 
intermiflion. Of this oltice, and of 
his fervices therein, Mr. Burke faid 
he had already given fome account; 
with refped to the intermiflion, Mr. 
Haftings had omitted a material cir- 
cumftance, namely, that it was occa- 
fioned by his having been turned out 
of his office for a fhort time, upon 
proof of peculation and embezzle- 
ment of the public money. Other 
public fervices, Mr. Haftings had 
not mentioned any, and the records 
of the company were equally filent. 
What his fecret fervices were, was a 
fubjefl which, however it might leave 
room for conje£lures,was involved in 
the fame filence and obfcurity. 

From fervices, Mr. Burke pro- 
ceeded to confider the reward pro- 
pofed ; and this was, that a grant of 
certain domains, the property of the 
young rajah of Dinagepore, from 
which country Mr. Haftings had 
received the prefent of 40.000 1. 
Ihould be confirmed to the fon of 
Gunga Govind Sing, through whom 
that prefent had been conveyed. 
The circumftances of this cafe were 
briefly as follow. The fon of Go- 
vind Sing had been appointed re- 
giftrar of the provinces of Dinage- 
pore, SiC. by virtue of which of- 
fice he had the guardianftiip of all 
the tenipocalties of the j-ajah. 



and the execution of the laws be- 
longing thereto. In this fituation> 
he had obtained a fraudulent grant 
of a part of the rajah's zemindafy 
to an immenfc amount, contrary to 
law, which makes the ads of all mi- 
nors void, the rajah being at this time 
but nine years old, and contrary to 
the cuftom of the country, by which 
no zemindar can alienate any part of 
his territory without the confent of 
the government under which he 
holds. To cover this proceedinp-, 
the confent of one of the neareft rela- 
tions of the rajah was procured. Such 
was the grant which IVIr. Haftings, at 
his parting, recommended to the fu- 
preme council for confirmation. He 
was no fooner gone, than the other re- 
lations of the rajah took courage, and 
applied to the council to Hop the 
grant. They proceed to enquire. 
The perfon who had confented for 
the rajah was brought down to Cal- 
cutta, and declared, that he had been 
induced fo to do by the threats of* 
Gunga Govind Sing. Being thus 
prefTed, Gunga Govind gave up the 
points of cuftom and law, and ap- 
pealed to the arbitrary authority of 
the council. In an addrefs pre- 
fented to them, he ftates, that their 
power in all fuch cafes was unlimit- 
ed ; that they .might aft in it as they 
pleafed ; that they had frequently 
ieparated zemindaries from their 
lawful proprietors, and given them to 
others, ivithoui right, title, or ^ur^ 
chafe', he cites the example of a ze- 
mindary given in this way, by Mr* 
Haftings, to the fonof Cantoo Baboo, 
his banyan, and prays that he may 
have the fame favour fhewn to him, 
that had been fhewn to others. 

After fome obfervations upon this 

addrefs, in which he fhewed, by other 

inftances, that this pradlice had gone 

to a very great length indeed, Mr. 

[L] :j Burke 



164]' ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



Burke gave a fhort account cf an- 
other tranfaftion of Mr. Hallings, 
exadtly fimilar in its principles, ope- 
ration, and confequences, to that of 
Dinagepore — the lettlement of the 
kingdom of Bahar. Here was the 
fame feledion of the moll notorious 
wicked men, the fame prefent taken, 
the like ruin of the country, and de- 
falcation of the revenue. The pre- 
tence was alfo the fame, viz. the 
increafe of the public revenue; but, 
faid Mr. Burke, I hope your lord- 
Ihips will confider this monftrous in- 
creafe of rent, given by men of def- 
perate fortunes and charaiSlers, to be 
one of the grievances, inllead of one 
of the advantages of this fyilem. 
For when the limits, which nature, 
juftice, and reafon prefcribe to all 
revenue, are tranfgreffed, the confe- 
quence, will be, that the worft man of 
the country will be chofen, as Mr. 
Haftings has actually chofen the 
worft, to effefluate this work, becaufe 
it is impoffible for any good men, 
by any honeil means, to provide at 
once for the exigencies of a fevere 
public exadtion, and a private rapa- 
cious bribe given to the chief ma- 
giftrate. He muft have profit both 
upon the revenue to be paid, and the 
bribe to be given. Oppreflion, cruel 
exadtions, rack and ruin on the te- 
nant, mull be the confequence of 
that fyilem. — Therefore, fays he, 1 
charge Mr. Haftings with having 
deftroyed the whole fyilem of go- 
vernment, which he had no right to 
deftroy, in the fix provincial coun- 
cils, for private purpofes.— I charge 
him with having delegated away tliat 
power, which the adl of parliament 
had diredled him to preierve una- 
lienably in himfelf — I charge him 
with having formed a committee to 
beinllruments and tcols, at the enor- 
mous expenceof62,cccl. per annum. 



— I charge him with having appclflf 
ed a perion dewan, to whom thefc" 
Engliihmen were to be fubfervient 
tools, whofe name, by his own know- 
ledge, by the general voice of 
India, by recorded official tranfac- 
tions, by every thing that can 
make a man known, abhorred, and 
detelled, was Ilamped with infamy ; 
with giving him this whole power, 
which he had thus feparated from 
the council general, and from the 
provincial councils. — I charge hirn 
with taking bribes of Gunga Govind 
Sing. — I charge him that he has net 
done tliat bribe duty which even fide- 
lity in iniquity requires at the hands of 
the worll of mea. — I charge him with 
having robbed thofc people of whom 
he took the bribes. — I charge him 
with having alienated the fortunes of 
widows. — i charge him with having, 
without right, title, or purchafe, taken 
the lands of orphans, and given 
them to wicked perfons under him . — 
I charge him with having committed 
to Debi Sing, whole wickednefs was 
known to himfelf and all the world, 
three great provinces, and thereby 
with having waited the country, de- 
llroyed the landed intcrefl, cruelly 
harralTed the pcafants, burnt their 
houfes, deftroyed their crops, tor- 
tured and dilhonoured their perfons, 
and deftroyed the honour of the 
whole female race of that country. 

Mr. Burke then concluded with a 
fhoft peroration, in which he de- 
fcribed the nature of the caufe, the 
crimes, the criminal, the profecutor, 
and the court, in all its conftituent 
parts, in a ftrain of the grandeft elo- 
quence. He ended with words to 
this eH'ci^ : — therefore it is with con- 
fidence ordered by the commons, 
that I impeach Wairen Haftings, 
efq; cf high crimes and mifde- 
mcanors J 

I impeachf 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[i6j 



r Impeach him in the name of the 
commons of Great Britain in par- 
liament airembletl, whofe parliamen- 
tary truft he has betrayed. 

I impeach him in the name of 
;ill the commons of Great Britain, 
whofe national charafter he has dif- 
honoured. 

I impeach him in the name of the 
people of India, whofe laws, rights, 
and liberties he has fuhverted, whofe 
properties he has dellroyed, whofe 
country he has laid walte and defo- 
late. 

I impeach him In the name of hu- 
man nature itfelf, which he has cru- 
elly outraged, injured, and opprelTed 
in both {exes, in every age, rank, 
Atuation, and condition of life. 

As foon as the agitation which Mr. 
Burke's fpeech produced in the minds 
of his hearers had a little fubfided, 
Mr. Foxrofe, and ftated, that he was 
direded by the committee to fubmit 
to their lordfliips, that it was their 
•intention to proceed to a conclu- 
fion, on both fides, upon each ar- 
ticle feparately, before they open- 
ed another; that Is, to open and 
adduce evidence to fubltantiate one 
charge at a time, to hear the prifon- 
er's defence and evidence upon that 
charge, and afterwards to reply; and 
to proceed io the fame manner in all 
the other articles. 

The lord chancellor called upon 
Mr. Haitings's counfel to know whe- 
ther this mode would be agreeable 
to them; and upon their anfwering 
in the negative, his lordfhip addrefT- 
ed himfelf to the committee, . and 
faid, that their lordfhips would be 
glad to know the reafons which in- 
duced the managers to call upon the 
court to adopt that mode. Mr. Fox 
immediately ftated, that in a caufe 
of fach magnitude, variety, and com- 
plexity, the mode propcfed appeared 



abfolutely neceffary, and was calcu- 
lated to prevent confulion and ob- 
fcurity, to aid their lordfhips me- 
mory, and to enable them to form a 
more clear and dilHndt view of the 
merits of the charge and defence, 
upon each article, than could pof- 
fibly be done by any other mode of 
proceeding. He mentioned the cafes 
of the earls of Strafford and Middle- 
fex, as precedents of the mode con- 
tended for by the managers. 

The counfel for Mr. Haftings be- 
ing called upon for their objedions, 
ftated, that the mode propofed was 
contrary to the praftice of all courts 
of juftice, and was inconfiftent with 
all principles of equity, as it fubjed- 
ed the defendant to many obvious 
and moft material dlfadvantages. 
With refpeft to the precedents ad- 
duced, they contended, that in both 
cafes the proceedings were regulated 
by mutual confent of the parties. 

Mr. Fox replied, and endeavour- 
ed to prove that the mode propofed 
did not fubjeft the defendant to any 
unfair difadvajitages; and, in fliort, 
that neither the profecutors could 
obtain juftice, nor the prifoner have 
a fair hearing, nor the court dif- 
charge its duty, unlefs the charges 
were feparated, and both parties 
heard upon each fingly. The lords 
then withdrew to their houfe, and an 
order was made that they fhould be 
fummoned, to take the matter into 
their confideration, on the Thurfday 
following. Upon that day the lord 
chancellor left the woolfack, and, 
after pronouncing a fine eulogium 
upon the fpeech made by Mr. Burke 
in opening the impeachment, decla- 
red, that if the crimes charged upon 
the defendant could be brought home 
to him by proof, no punifhment their 
lordfhips could inflid would be ade- 
quate to his guilt. Their lordfhips 
[L] 3 all 



i66] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



all knew the efFeift which the de- 
fcription of them had had upon his 
auditorsj many of whom had not, 
to this moment, and perhaps never 
would, recover from the fhock which 
they felt at the relation. But, in 
proportion as he was ready exem- 
plarily to punifh Mr. Haftlngs, if he 
really was guilty, he thought it right 
to purfue the moll; equitable methods 
of afcertaining his guilt, or of clear-, 
ing his innocence. What the counfel 
of Mr. Haftings claimed, was no 
indulgence, but a right. His ima- 
gination could not go to any other 
pofnble mode of defending Mr. 
Haftings, than that which his coun- 
fel had propofed, namely, that the 
managers Ihould complete the whole 
of their cafe, before Mr. Haftings 
faid a word in his defer.ce. if the 
articles were totally unconnedted 
with one another, Mr. Haftings 
could not, with any regard to his 
own cafe, fay a word till the profe- 
cutior was clofcd; but the fa£t un- 
doubtedly was, that the ai tides were 
fo intimately blended, thathp defied 
any man living to feparate them. 
They comprize the vvhole of Mr. 
Haftings's governii:!ent for a long 
feries of years, ar.d the merits or 
demerits of particular parts might 
depend upon the various relations 
they bore to each ether. The right 
honourable manager had very pro- 
perly opened the charges upon this 
idea, and he could not fee for what 
reafon they now wiflied to abandon 
it. The defendant muft neceiTarily 
wait until the criminal matter, fo 
opened, was put into fuch fhape, 
that he cpuld fairly meet it, and re- 
ply to it. He concluded with de- 
clariiig, that, as he was bound in 
confcience to proteft Mr. Haft- 
iilgs if iunocentj and to punifh hiin 



feverely if guilty, he never could 
confent to a mode of procedure, 
unfair to the defendant in the 
higheft degree, and contrary to the 
fundamental principles of juftice. 

The chancellor was fupported by 
the duke of Richmond, who argued 
chiefly upon the praftice of the 
courts below, which he contended 
were founded upon principles of 
equity, and upon the prefumption 
adopted by our laws, of the inno- 
cence of the perfon accufed before 
his conviftion. 

Lord Loughborough replied at 
great length to the chancellor. He 
denied that all the charges were fo 
infeparably connerted as to render 
it unfafe for the defendant to anfwer ■ 
them in the mode propofed. He 
inftanced that of Benares, which con- 
tained fundry criminal allegations, 
totally unconnefted with the other 
articles, and contended that there 
could not be the fmalleft objeftion 
to their confidering that article fe- 
parately and diftindly from the 
others. Whether the fame rule 
would apply to the other articles, 
might be a matter of future confi- 
deration. He declared that it was 
impoffible for their lordfhips to a- 
dopt the mode wifhed for by Mr, 
Haftings, without abfolutely difa- 
bling themfelves from doing fub- 
ftantial juftice, He contended, that 
the analogy between the prefent 
cafe, and that of indidments and in- 
formations, was not conclufive. He 
explained the grounds upon which 
the equity of the forms for regulat- 
ing trials by jury refted, and proved 
that they were not applicable to the 
proceedings of the courts of parlia- 
ment, which he contended were not 
to be fhackled down by the rules of 
the fourts below, but had aright to 
Confult 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[167 



confult their own convenience, fo 
far as that was confulted with the 
view to the clearer compn i.enficn 
of the cafe, and did not violate the 
fubftanti-il rules of juflice. 

He then moved, ic agree with 
the propofition, as ftated by the ma- 
nagers for the commons. 

Lord Stormont, in reply to lord 
Loughborough, declareci, that, after 
the full ill coufideration he hn.d been 
able to give the cafe, he had not a 
doubt left on his mind as to the im- 
propriety of the mode propofed by 
the managers to that houfe. It was, 
in his opinion, overturning every 
precedent that houfe had before 
adopted, and depriving Mr. Rail- 
ings of a privilege he had a right to 
demand ; depriving him of a right, 
which the immutable and eternal 
laws of juftice gave him, to make 
choice of that mode of defence bell 
calculated to the nature of the 
charges alledged againil him, and 
the peculiar Situation in which he 
ftands. No rank, no charafter in 
that houfe, however eminent, or 
however innocent, but might be an 
objeft, at fome future period, of an 
impeachment; might be placed in 
the critical fituation in which Mr. 
Haftings then llood. He therefore 
warned them to be cautious in a- 
dopting a mode of proceeding, by 
which they not only bound them- 
felves, but pofterity. The decifion 
of that night would be handed 
down as an invariable rule in future; 
and he therefore again warned their 
lordfliips to be cautious in that deci- 
fion. 

Lord Grantley followed lord 
Stormont, and fupported the prac- 
tice of the courts below, as applica- 
ble to the prefent cafe, againlt the 
objedions of lord Loughborough. 
After which the chancellor a?.iin 



left the woolfack, and declared that 
he had not heard any folid argu- 
ment, to induce him to aff<?nt to the 
extraordinary propofition which had 
been made. It was the duty, he 
faid, of a judge to do juilice, with- 
out any confideration of convenien- 
cy, and to do juftice according to 
the laws of England. With refpe6t 
to the law and ufage of parliament, 
of which he had heard fo much, 
the chancellor utterly difclaimed all 
knowledge of fuch law. It had no 
exigence. In times of barbarifm, 
indeed, when to impeach a man was 
ruin to him by the ftrong hand of 
power, by tumult, or by faction, the 
Jaw and ufage of parliament were 
quoted in order to juftify the molt 
iniquitous and atrocious a(5ls. But 
in thefe enlightened days he hoped 
that no man would be tried but by 
the law of the land, which was ad- 
mirably calculated to proteft inno- 
cence and to punifh guilt. But, if 
we talk of the law and ufage of 
parliament, and are bound by it, 
what injuftice (hall we not commit.? 
If we go back into our hiliory, 
we find that counfel was not al- 
lowed in an impeachment for mif- 
t'emeanors. There was not a fin- 
gle impeachment, during the lafl 
century, in which there were not the 
flrongeil marks of tyranny, injuf- 
tice, and opprefTion ; and even the 
impeachment of Sacheverel, in the 
prefent century, contained an in- 
Itance of injuftice, which he trufted 
never would happen again ; whea 
the houfe of lords determined upon 
a point of law contrary to the una- 
nimous opinion of the judges. In 
the pref^jnt impeachment, he truiled 
their lordfhlps would not depart 
from, the known, eftablifhed laws of 
the land. The commons might ina^ 
peach, their lordfnips were to try _ 



i68] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



the caufe ; and the fame rules of 
evidence, the fame attention to the 
laws, which obtained in the courts 
below, would, he was confident, be 
preferved by their lorddiips. 

The duke of Norfolk defend A 
with great ability the propofuion of 
the managers ; and particularly in- 
fifted upon the argument, that, as 
the commons pofTtfrt'd the right of 
bringing up each article as a fepa- 
rate impeachment, cr frefti articles 
arifing out of the defence, if they 
thought proper, they had virtually 
the power of compelling the iioufe 
to adopt the propofition they had 
made, and that it was therefore 
more decent and manly to accede to 
it in the firft inftance. 

The houfe then divided, and there 
appeared, contents 33 ; not con- 
tents 88, 

A protef^ was entered againft this 
determination, which the reader will 
fnd anion git the State Papers. 

■Her 1 7th ^" ^''^^y ^^^ '7th, 

i.ec. I7tn. being the feventh day of 

the trial, as foon as the peers had 
taken their feats in the hall, the lord 
chancellor informed the managers, 
that they were to produce the whole 
of their charges, with the evidence 
in fupport of each, before the pri- 
foner fhould be called upon for his 
defence. The managers hereupon 
retired for a fliOrt time, and being 
returned, Mr. Fox addrelTed the 
court, and faid, that the managers, 
though they greatly regretted the 
decifion which had juft been com- 
municated to them, were ftill deter- 
mined to proceed, having too much 
confidence in the juuice of their 
caufe to {brink from any di.^culty. 
He was however direfted by the 
committee to affert, what the inac- 
curacy of their lordfnips order might 
leave room for doubting, the un- 



doubted right of the commons to 
bring up new articles of impeach- 
ment at anytime; whilft the pri- 
foner was making his defence, or 
even when that defence was con- 
cluded; and that fuch articles Ihould 
be allowed to form a part of the 
profecation. He hoped that it was 
not intended in any manner to ob- 
jeft to this privilege ; and, after 
paufing here a fliort time for a re- 
ply, he proceeded to make fome ge- 
neral obfcrvations, firft, upon trials 
by impeachment, which he confider- 
ed as a dillinguilhing feature of the 
Britiih conftiiution, and upon the 
laiv and ufage of parliament, which 
he warmly coniended, in oppofition 
to opinions held elfewhere, was one 
of the m.oft important and valuable 
branches of the law of the land j 
and lecondly, upon the peculiar cir- 
cumftances of the impeachment they 
were then proceeding upon — an im- 
peachment, which, he faid, did not 
originate, as had ufually happened, 
from the violence of power, from! 
fudden rcfentment, nor from party 
interells, but had been the refult 
of feveral years deliberation ; was 
brought forward by perfons weak 
in point of influence and authority in 
the houfe, and had finally united the 
moft adverfe parties, who forgot 
all former animofities in adverting 
to juftice ; who had nobly laid 
afide the contefts for power, to at- 
tend to the caufe of humanity, and 
had turned thofe arms, which they 
had wielded fo ably to mutual an- 
noyance, againft the common enemy 
of truth, jullice, and honour. 

After an exordium to this pur- 
pofe, Mr. Fox, in a fpeech which 
lafted five hours, opened the Benares 
charge, down to the cxpulfion of 
the rajah Cheit Sing; and the next 
day of fitting, Mr. Grey refumed 

the 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [163 



tiie fubject, and enforced the remain- 
ing pare of the charge. Evidence 
on the part of the commons was 
then produced at the bar, under the 
direftions of Mr. Aiiilrucher ; and 
the four foUowing days were taken 
up in reading papers and examin- 
ing witneffes. Several objections, 
made by the counfel for the defend- 
ant, to certain parts of the evidence, 
were over-ruled by the court; but 
on the eleventh day, a Mr. Benn 
having anfwered a particular quef- 
tion in the negative, Mr. Anilruther 
aflced him. Whether, when examined 
before the houfe of commons, he 
had not anfwered the fame queftion 
in the affirmative ? This quefcion 
was objected to, and the lords i.m- 
mediately adjourned to their houfe, 
wliere a difference of opinion arif- 
ing, their decifion was not announ- 
ced till the next day of fitting. The 
lord chancellor then informed the 
managers, that their lordihips had 
determined, that it was not compe- 
tent to the committee to pat the 
quelUon objefted to. The mana- 
gers immediately retired, and, upon 
their return, Mr. Fox addreiTed the 
court, and faid, that he was direded 
to acquaint them, that the managers 
in acquieiciiig in the decifion of 
the court (which they were induced 
to do, from a dcfire of preventing 
delay, and becaufe the quellion was 
of no material confequence to the 
caufe) had inllrufted him to exprefs 
their dired and pofitive diiTentfiom 
the principle upon which it was made. 
At the fame time, they could not 
help expreffing alfo their furprize, 
that their lordihips, who in the outfet 
had manifefted a difpofition to be 
governed and direfted in their pro- 
ceedings by the practice of the 
courts below, fhould in this particu- 
lar inllance think it nsceflary to de- 



part from the known, conftant, and 
uniform pradVice of every court of 
law in the kingdom. — The evidence 
being at length concluded, Mr. An- 
ftruttier concluded on the part of 
the commons, by fumming up and 
obferving upon the vyhole. 

On the 15:0 of Apx-il, the four- 
teenth day of the trial, Mr. Adam 
opened the iecond charge, relative 
to the prlnceifcs of Qade ; and on 
the fifteentii, Mr. Pelnam refumed 
the fame fubjedt, in refutation of the 
defence delivered in by Mr. Mail- 
ings. The fixteen following days 
were taken up in reading and exa- 
mining evidence ; and on the thirty-- 
fecond day of the trial (Tuefday, 
June the third) Mr Sheridan be- 
gan to fum up the evidence, and to 
apply it in proof of the charge. His 
fpeech, which was delivered to an. 
uncommonly crowded audience, was 
continued the two following davs ; 
and on Friday, the fifteenth of June, 
being the thirty-fifth day of fitting, 
the court adjourned to the firfl Tuef- 
day after the next meeting of par- 
liament. 

During the progrefs of the trial, 
a motion was made in the houfe of 
commons, « That an account of the 
" monies ilTued from the Exche- 
" quer, for the difcharge of the ex- 
" pences incurred in the impeach- 
" ment of Mr. Haftings, fhould be 
" laid befor.? the houfe." This 
motion was made by Mr. Burgefs, 
member for Helftone, and was but 
flightly objefted to by the mana- 
gers, who faid, that they confidered 
it merely as an attempt made by the 
friends of Mr. Haftings, to vex and 
impede the committee in the pro- 
fecution of the laborious and im- 
portant duty impofed upon them. 

On the 9th of May, the account 
having previoully been laid upon 

the 



170] ANNUAL REGISTER, 178! 



the table (which, exclufive of the 
building erected in VVellininfter HalJ, 
amounted 104,300!.) Mr. Burgefs 
again rofe, and obferved, that the 
account delivered in from the trea- 
lury not affording the houie the in- 
formation he deiired, refpefting the 
manner in which the fums iffued 
were expended, he fhould now move 
that the folicitors to the impeach- 
ment ihould lay before the lioufe, 
a particular account of the expen- 
diture of the fums advanced. This 
jTiotion was fupported by the chan- 
cellor of the exchequer, whofe con- 
duft on this cccafion was refented 
, with fome warmth by the managers, 
as tending to difcountenance, by in- 
vidious infinuations, a mcafure in 
which he had himfelf concurred. 
The motion pafled without oppofi- 
tion, and the accounts were pre- 
fented the next day to the houfe by 
Mr. Burke. No further notice was 
taken of this bufinefs till the 20th 
of May ; but, various reports hav- 
ing been induftrioufly fpread out of 
doors, that exorbitant fees were 
given to the counfel of the profe- 
cution ; that expcnfive entertain- 
ments were provided for the ma- 
nagers at the public expence ; and 
others of the like nature ; Mr. Bur- 
gefs was called upon by the mana- 
gers to proceed in the enquiry he had 
inflituted. He accordingly rofe and 
obferved, that the account produced 
was ftill too general for the purpoie 
of affording the information he ex- 
petted ; and he fhould therefore 
move, " That the folicitors fhould 
*' give in an account, ifating fpeci- 
*' fically to whom, and on what ac- 
" count, the fever al fi:ms expended 
f had been paid." He was fecond- 
ed by fir William Dolben. The 
managers declared, that, as far as 
jie^arded themfelves, they Lid not 



the fmalleft objeftion to every mi- 
nute item of the charges incurred 
by the profecution being made as 
public as poflible, but there were 
grounds of argument extremely for- 
cible, and extremely obvious, that 
would prove the prefent motion to 
be in the highelt degree improper 
and unwife. The houfe had fo- 
lemnly determined, that Mr. Raf- 
tings fliould be impeached, they had 
appointed a committee of managers, 
and armed them with a variety of 
powers, above all, di reding them to 
aft as a fecret committee; and now, 
in the progrefs of that very pro- 
ceeding, was the houfe about to 
demand a public difclofure of all the 
private grounds of their conduft. 
Such a meafure was unprecedented, 
and in no great public profecution had 
ever been attempted or dreamt of. 
With regard to the charges already 
incurred, they afferted, that they 
were remarkably moderate; that the 
fees paid to their counfel were fhame- 
fully inadequate to the fervices 
performed ; and that, fo far from 
any unnecefTary expence having 
been gone into, they were perfuaded 
much ufe might have refuhed from 
tlill greater expences, had the com- 
mittee thought the circumftances, 
that charafterifed the profecution, 
fuch as would have rendered it pru- 
dent in them to have incurred great- 
er expences. They adverted to the 
particular temper and fentiments of 
the houfe in regard to the profecu- 
tion, and remarked, that it behoved 
them to aft with extreme caution, 
and to take care fo to conduft them- 
felves, as not to give jull caufe of 
offence, or of folid objeftion, to any 
of the parties which it was well 
known fubfiiled in the houfe. This 
had been their rule, and had it not 
rigidly b$en adhered to, much larger 
expeDces 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [171 

fervices ordered already were unne- 
cefTary, they wouM have it in their 
power to direct that no more iucli 
fervices fhould take place in future, 
and that power, the houfe would fee, 
relied with them {elves only, and 
could not be exercifed by the board 
of treafury. With refpedl to the 
charges already incurred, he was far 
from meaning to fuggell that any 
unneceffary fervices had be^n or- 
dered, or that any expence could be 
too great, that was really likely to 
conduce to the objeft in queflion. 
The houfe then divided, ayes 60, 
noes 19 ; the managers having with- 
drawn without dividing. 

The papers being accordingly- 
laid upon the table, Mr. Burgefs 
was again called upon, on the 30th 
of May, to Hate his objeftions to 
the houfe, if any ftill remained upon 
his mind. He anfwered, that, in his 
opinion, he had fufHciently done his 
duty in calling for the papers. They 
were now before the houfe, and an op- 
portunity was open to every gentle- 
man to form his fentiments upon the 
fubjedc. What his doubts were, he 
imagined, muft fuggeft themfelves 
to every gentleman who read the 
accounts, and therefore he left to 
perfons, who had more weight and 
authority in that houlc than he had, 
to take the matter up; but if no 
other perfon fliould, and the houfe 
fhould call upon him to bring the 
fubjeft forward, he was ready to 
obey their commands. 

Upon this it was ob'erved, that 
the way, in which the matter had 
been treated, was a little extraordi- 
nary. The honourable gentleman 
had exprefled doubts upon one of the 
heads of the general account, but 
had alledged he could not fay whe- 
ther thofe doubts were well founded 



expences might have been incurred, 
and incurred ufefuliy to the profecu- 
tion. Secret fervices, for inftance, 
might have made a large head of 
expence ; and, if gentlemen gave 
themfelves time for refledion, they 
would fee, that in a profecution of 
the nature of that in qucllion, there 
might be much occafion for fecre: 
fervices. After all, it was obferved, 
the managers had in reality little to 
do with the object of the motion. 
For the fervices ordered, they were, 
undoubtedly, rcfponfible ; but not 
for the application of the money 
ilTued in confequence. To fuper- 
intend that, belonged to the lords of 
the treafury, who alone were refpon- 
lible for it. And they believed it 
would be impciTible to .^nd a prece- 
dent, where a committee of mana- 
gers of a public profecution, carried 
on by the orders of that houfe, were 
expeded to execute the office of 
clerks, and examine and check their 
folicitors bills. 

Mr. Sheridan hum.oroufly re- 
marked, that if the houfe chofe, they 
might refolve that no counfel Ihould, 
in future, be allowed rhe managers ; 
if io, it would be neceffary for them 
to move, that the attorney and foli- 
citor genera], together with the maf- 
ter of the rolls, be added to the 
committee of managers. Or, if the 
Jicufc thought proper, they might 
refolve, that the managers Ihould 
pay the expences of counfel them- 
felves. in that cafe, he hoped the 
houfe would have the goodncfs to 
add Sir Sampfon Gideon to the com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Pitt again fupported the mo- 
tion, and declared, he thought it 
right that the houfe (hould have the 
account moved for, becaule, if they 
p.:ould be of opinion that any of the 



(« 



172] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



or not, before he faw a iTiOre parti- 
cular ftatement of the items of the 
accounts ; that particular liatement 
had now been prefented fome days, 
and the honourable gentleman had 
p.ow declared, he ftill entertained his 
doubts, but that he left it to other 
gentlemen to move the difcufiion. 
The honourable gentleman fliould 
cither aft upon his doubts, or get 
foms other gentU-jiiani to take his 
doubts up for him, and act upon 
them. From what had already 
paiTed in that houfe upon the fubject, 
the matter ought not to drop vvitli- 
out a farther invefiigation. 

Mr. Burgefs then gave notice^ that 
he fhould ma'ce a motion on the 
;fubjed the Friday following. 

Upon that day he ftated to the 
houfe the foHowing doubts, which 
,Ije entertained upon the fubjeft; 
a doubt whether the houfe had 
authorized the managers to employ 
counfel ; a doubt whether there was 
any precedent for their employing 
counfel ; and, in cafe the houfe had 
not authorized them to employ 
■pounfei, and that there was no pre- 
cedent for it, a doubt whether there 
was any peculiar circumftance of 
difficulty, in the nature of the pre- 
fent prpfecuticn, that made the af- 
fiftance of counfel necefiary ? After 
which he adverted to fome inaccu- 
racies in the account itfelf, and con- 
cluded with moving, that the folici- 
tors fhould from time to time prefent 
an account of the c^-pences incurred 
at the bar of the houfe. 

The managers obferved, in reply, 
that though no precedent Ihould be 
found for employing counfel in an 
impeachment, ©n the part of the 
commons, yet that the prefent was 
a fingular cafe, in which the ma- 
nagers were left without the advice 
aifd affiftance of the great crown 



cfEcersofthe law; and that, though 
they had the utmoft confidence in 
the legal knowledge of feveral of 
their own committee, yet they did 
not chufe, in a caufe of fuch magni- 
tude and importance, for the proper 
management of which they were re- 
fponfible, to proceed without the 
fandion of pcrfons learned in the 
profeliion. And, Mr, Pitt having 
exprelfed a doubt refpcdling thene- 
celTity of employing two civilians, 
it' was anfwcred, that the nature of 
the caufe rendered their afiiftance 
peculiarly ncceflary ; and that one 
of the gentlemen employed was moll 
eminently ufcful, not becaufe he ex- 
celled the other in abilily, afliduity, 
or profeflicnal (kWl, but for his dee|) 
and perfedl knowledge of the fub- 
jcd. With refpefl to any fuppofed 
errors in the account:), it was pro- 
pofed that the folicitors fliould be 
called to tiie bar and examined re- 
fpefting them ; but, after a fhort 
converfation, the previous quelHon 
was moved, and carried without a 
divifion. 

The proceedings of the houfe of 
commons upon the impeachment of 
fir Elijah Impey, commenced early 
in the prefent iellion of parliament. 
On the 1 2th of December, fir Gil- 
bert Elliot prefented to the houfe 
fix articles, containing charges of 
various high crimes and mifde- 
meanors, upon which he had be- 
fore fignified his intention of mov- 
ing for the impeachment of fir Eli- 
jah Impey. Upon this occafion, 
fir Gilbert Elliot addrefled the houfe 
in a fpeech of confiderable length, 
which in the llyle of perfuafive elo- 
quence was perhaps never exceeded 
in either houfe of parliament. He 
began by exculpating himfclf from 
the imputations which ufually at- 
tach to the office of an accufer, that 

he 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. fiyj 



he was afluated by a natural male- 
volence of temper, by uerfonal re- 
fentments or interclls, by the fpirit 
and paiTions of party. With refpeft 
to the lall, he llated, that fir Elijah 
Impey had been declared a public 
culprit by the voice of parliament 
itfelf, before the parties, into which 
that houfe was at prefent divided, 
had an exiftence ; and that the pro- 
ceedings in which this accufation 
originated, had been carried on by 
perfons of all defcriptions, and were 
countenanced by every one of the 
adminiilrations which had fucceeded 
each other in the courfe of the lall: 
fix years : that accordingly he had 
the fatisfaftion to receive from all 
quarters, from perfons of all per- 
fuajions and coaneitions, the moit 
direft approbauon of the meafure 
he was going to propcfc. 

Having gone through thefe pre- 
fatory matters, and congratulated 
the houfe upon the proofs they had 
given, that the grievances of India 
were not only fit objefts of their in- 
quiries, but that their redrefs was 
the beft objedt of their power, he 
adverted to certaSi principles, which, 
for obvious ends, iiad been induf- 
trioufly difieminated abroad, and 
had even been maintained in that 
houfe : — that India v.as indeed op- 
prrj/'ed, but that it nj:ai accujiomed 
to opprejjion ; and that it muji be 
opprejjed or abandoned." Thefe 
fcandalous pcfuions fir Gilbert 
warmly controverted ; and laid 
down, in oppofition to them, what 
he thought nature and experience 
warranted him to affirm — that Ir.dm 
muJi he redrejfed or loji. This topic 
led him to fpeak of the exertions 
that had been lately made in the 
houfe of commons, and particularly 
of the merits of Mr. Burke, in a 
ilyle of the raoft elegant panegyric. 
I 



It is impoflible, he faid, to look 
back without exultation and joy on 
the variety, as well as the degree 
cf ability, which this houfe has 
furnifhed to this great work, and 
which in fome inftances has fo far 
outllripped ai! former examples of 
genius and of eloquence, fo far fur- 
pafied the bounds, till that occalion, 
known or even imagined, of the 
human faculties and mind, that one 
could alniolt believe, fome favouring 
and approving power were furniOi- 
ing means proportioned, adequate 
to, worthy of, the noble purpcfe. 
The houfe will, I know, forgive 
me, for this tribute to the talents 
and the virtues of my country ; but 
I can hardly think I ihould be for- 
given, if, in the general admiration 
of fo much excellence, I did not yet 
felecl from the reif, one fingular in- 
dividual, whom the ^t'N, qualified 
by nature for a general competition 
with his genius and his virtues, will 
yet, I know, be foremoft to applaud 
me for placing, £rft, and alone, in 
this generous labour, the author, 
the founder, the animating fpirit, 
the vital principle of this reform. 
I need not. Sir, name him, whom 
we have feen for years devote the 
noblell talents, genius more than 
human, the profoundeft wifdom, the 
moit exhauHIefs labour — Him, whom 
we have feen for years, i'acrifice the 
charms of private life, the lures of 
fortune, the aims of ambition— 
whom we have feen provoking, nay, 
courting the dangerous and impla- 
cable enmities of wealth and great- 
nefs ; enduring patiently the fcoiF 
of a corrupt and vulgar public; 
nay ftruggling with that which mult 
have broken all other fpirits, fuf- 
tained by a weaker principle, or a 
meaner view, llruggling with the 
dulnefs and the apa;hy even of the 

virtue 



174] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



virtue of this a^e. Need I name 
him who has adted this great part 
under our eyes, in one uniform, one 
only, one fimple, bur grand piirfuit, 
the'happinefs of mankind. Tiianks 
then to him, thanks to this houfe 
which has rot difdained to liilcn to 
his voice ; which has received from 
him, and has at length put into 
the hands of Britain, the clie both 
of its duty and of its iiiterelts. 

Sir Gilbert Elliot ^hen irjid down 
a fecondprirciple, viz. that the only 
means left cf refor7mng Indian ahufe, 
ijuas the punijhment, in fome great and 
pi^-ai infiances, of Indian ddinquency. 
This propofition he endeavoured to 
eftablifh with great ingenuity, by 
comparing the different force and 
efRcacy of laws, a; arifmg from their 
penal fanftions, when applied m our 
own internal adminiftraiion, and in 
the governm -it of dil^ant noffeffions. 
At home, where gover ■'.ment had in 
fight, and was in contact with the 
governed, their execution was eafy 
and certain ; but in di remote do- 
minions, we had to labour with all 
the diiticuicies that abfence, diftance, 
ignorance could oppofc. Againit 
this evil no perfc£l remedy could 
be found, as experience had fully 
proved. Every refource o\ legif- 
lative re«^ulation had bean txhaulted 
in vain: no device had been left un- 
tried, except the fimple expedient of 
diftributing reward to meiir, and 
pains to guilt: the exemplary ua- 
nifhment o:'dete£led crimes was the 
only means left of convincing our 
dillant fubjefts, that though diftance 
might delay, it could nor. finally avert 
the cognizance and pena.ties of juf- 
tice. 

Having eilablirn-^d this general 
principle, that the puniihment of In- 
dian delinquency wat a neceffary part 
of any fyltem for the redrels of that 



country, fir Gilbert proceeded to the 
immediate objedts of his charge. 
He began by ftating the nature, the 
occafion, and the purpofes of the 
commiffion under which fir Elijah 
Impey was fent out to India, as in- 
volving circumftances which were 
ftrong aggravations of his guilt, and 
added infinitely to the ncceffity of 
its punilhment. He (hewed, that in 
the two grand objefts which were 
committed to liis charge, the protec- 
tion of the company from the frauds 
of its fervants, and of the natives 
from the opprcflion of Europeans, he 
had, by corruptly changing fides, 
added his new powers to the very 
force they were intended to controuJ, 
and taken an adlive part in the op- 
prefiions which it was his duty to 
have avenged. Sir Gilbert here 
took occafion, in an animated addrefs 
to the gentlemen of the law, to 
which body he had once belonged, 
to call upon them to reclaim the for- 
feited reputation of their profelTion, 
and to throw off from the nation 
and themfelves the guilt of an indivi- 
dual, by bringing him to punifhment 
for crimes which! he had committed 
in their name. 

After he had difcuffed thefe feve- 
ral topics, fir Gilbert acquainted the 
houfe, that he had prepared and re- 
duced into writing the feveral diftindi 
articles of acculation, which he 
'hould immediately prefent to the 
houfe, and move to have them read. 

The firft related to the trial and 
execution of the Maha Rajah thind- 
comar. 

The fecond, to the condud of fir 
Elijah Impey in a caufe commonly 
known by the name of the Patna 
caiijc. 

The third is entitled, Extenflon of 
fiirifdiSion, and comprehends vari- 
ous inilanccs, in which the jurifdic- 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [175 



tion of the court was extended ille- 
gally and oppreffively.both as to per- 
sons and fubje^l matter, beyond the 
intention of the a£l and charter. 

The fourth charge is entitled. 
The Cojjjurah caufe, and belongs 
alfo to the clafs of offence contained 
in the third charge, being another 
inftance of illegal extenfions of ju- 
rifdidion; but it was diftinguifhed 
by fach circumftances of peculiar 
violence, and led to confequences fo 
important, as to become properly 
the fubjeft of a feparate article. 

The fifth charge is for his ac- 
ceptance of the office o( judge of the 
S udder De 'lannee Adauhit, which was 
contrary to law, and not only re- 
pugnant to the fpirit of the ad and 
charter, but fundamentally fubver- 
live of all its material purpofes. 

The fixth and laft charge relates 
to his condudl in the provinces of 
Oude and Benares, where the chief 
juftice became the agent and tool of 
Mr. Mailings in the oppreffion and 
plunder of the Begums. 

Such are tlis charges, faid Sir 
Gilbert Elliot, which I have thought 
it my duty to prefent at this time to 
the houfe. I will venture to fay, 
that there never was an accufation 
which became better recommended 
to your enquiry and inveftigation; 
and it is matter of the moft fubllan- 
tial comfort to my mind, that in 
accufing a fellow-citizen of crimes 
fo atrocious, I do not trull to my own 
vain imagination and opinion, but 
am prompted in every line by the 
previous judgment of this houfe of 
parliament, and of every authorita- 
tive body by whom the tranfaftions 
were cognizable. 

The conduft of the fupreme 
court, and efpecially of Sir Elijah 
Impey, had been the fubjeft of com- 
plaint and accufation in India from 



the firll months of its inditution. 
He was accufed, by a majority of 
the fupreme council, of one of the 
moft atrocious offences that was ever 
laid to the account of man ; and 
this made the fubjeft of the firjl 
charge. Parliament judged it pro- 
per, on the report, made by the fe- 
ledt committee, of the Patna caufe, 
to e.vprefs its fenfe of the injuftice 
and oppreffion of that judgment, by- 
delivering the defendants from its 
confequences, and ordering an in- 
demnification for the lolTes and in- 
juries they had fuftaincd under it. 
Parliament has not only granted the 
indemnity defired by the members 
of council, for refifting the adts of 
the fupreme court, but has exprefsly 
abridged that court of the extrava- 
gant and oppreffive, as well as mif- 
chievous jurifdidlion claimed in the 
inilances comprifed in my third 
charge; and thefe were fimilar, 
though fomewhat inferior to the pre- 
tcnfior.s which produced the fmgular 
occurrences in the CoJJijurah caife, 
detailed in the fourth charge. The 
houle recalled fir Elijah Impey from 
his of ice of chief juilice, exprefsly 
for having accepted that of judge 
of the S udder Dewannee Adaulut,. 
which is the fabjeft of the ffth 
charge. And Mr. Haftings was at 
that moment under the profecutloa 
of this houfe, by impeachment be- 
fore the lords, for the very crime, in 
which the f.xth charge accufes fir 
Eliiaii Imp^y as accelTary. 

Sir Gilbert Elliot concluded his 
fpeech with an animated recapitula- 
tion of the nature of the crimes which 
he brought in charge, of the duties 
of the body before whom he brought 
them, and of the peculiar circum- 
ftances of the perfons fuffering, and 
of the perfon by whom they were 
opprefTed, 

The 



476] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 

The charges being received and 

laid upon the table, they were, upon 

a motion, read by the clerk, in (liort, 

fro forma, after which, iir Gilbert 

moved that they Ihould be referred 

to a committee. This was objefted 

to by Mr. Pitt, who fuggefted that 

the charges ought in the firfc place 

to be printed, arxi then referred to 

a committee of the whole houl'e. 

This mode of proceeding was after- 

„, I wards adopted, and the Ath 
Peb.Ath. r r- k c J r 

^ or February was hxed for 

the committee. On that day a pe- 
tition was prefented from fir Elijah 
Impey, praying to be heard in an- 
fwer to the charges which had been 
exhibited again it him. He was ac- 
cordingly called to the bar ; and 
after he had been heard for a con- 
fiderablc time, in anRvcr to the 
firll article, the committee was ad- 
journed to the Thurfday following. 
— As the limits of this work do not 
admit of our entering into a detail 
of the fafls and arguments that were 
urged either in the accufation or in 
the defence, we mull be content with 
barely ftating the proceedings of the 
houfe, together with fuch matters as 
were accidentally connefted with 
the/n. 

As foon as fir Elijah had with- 
drawn, a queflion arofe relative to 
his delivering in a copy of his de- 
fence to be laid upon the table. 
Being again called in, he was aiked 
if he had written minutes of what 
he had faid, and whether he was de- 
iirous of delivering them x.p the 
houfe } His anfwer, which was in 
the negative, drew fome obferva- 
tions from Mr. Burke and Mr. Fox; 
who remarked upon the want of 
fairnefs and candour in fuch a refu- 
fal, and upon the obvious inconve- 
nience to which it would fubjacl: the 
houfe. The next day up^n whkh 



the committee fat, before fir EHjal? 
Impey was called in, Mr. Francis 
rofe to take notice of a ferioiis 
charge, which fir Elijah had brought 
again!} him on the former day. He 
had declared, that he was in poffef- 
fion of a paper, purporting to be the 
petition of Nundcomar againft the 
judges of the fupreme court, which 
was prefented to the coupcil before 
his execution, and which Mr. Fran- 
cis had concurred with the rcfl; of 
the council, in declaring a falfe libel, 
and in ©rdering it to be burnt, the 
entries of it to be expunged, and the 
tranflations deftroyed. Mr. Francis, 
in order to defend himfelf againft 
this charge, moved, that fir Elijah 
Impey Ihould be required to deliver 
the paper to the houfe. This mo- 
tion was Urongly objeded to by the 
chancellor of the exchequer, the fo- 
licitor-general, the mafter of the 
rolls, and other gentlemen of the 
robe; and fupported by Mr. Fox and 
Mr. Burke. At length it was thus 
amended ; " that the fpeaker fhould 
" afic fir Elijah Impcy, if he had any 
" objeftions to produce the paper 
" in quelHon." Sir Elijah be- 
ing called in, anfwered, that he 
had no objection. Being then or- 
dered to proceed in his defence, he 
begged leave to claim the protec- 
tion of the houfe againft a variety 
of libellous public prints, which 
were daily circulated to injure him. 
He was directed to produce thofe li- 
bels the day following; when, upon 
the motion of Mr. Grenville, they 
were declared to be " fcandalous~ 
" and feditious libels upon the houfe, 
" and tending to prejudice the 
" minds of the public againft an 
"' accufed individual;" and an ad- 
drefs was prefented to the king, to 
direft the attorney-general to profe- 
cute the publifhers thereof. After 

a ihor; 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [177 

•i .liort debate, in which feveral upon points of order ; in which the 

nembers oppofed the mode of pro- gentlemen of the robe flrenuoufly 

lecution, as tending to bring the pri- contended for the technical precifion 

vileges of the houfe before the courts of legal forms, and were generally 

below, and recommended it to the oppofed with fuccefs by Mr. Fox, 

houfe 10 take the punidiment into upon tjie ground of their being inap- 

their own hands, the motion palled plicablc to the kind of proceeding 

by a large majority, in which they were then engaged. 

Sir Elijah Impey then proceeded On the 20th, Mr. Rous, another 

in his defence, and, having gone member, was alfo examined in his 

through the firll article, he begged place. 

leave to fubmit to the houfe, that On the 27th of February, Mr. 
his mind had been fo ilrongly af- Francis made his defence to the 
feded, and even his health fo much committee againft the charge be- 
impaired, by the anxiety and horror fore mentioned, which fir Elijah 
he had felt at being charged with Impey had brought againil him. 
having committed a deliberate legal Afier acknowledging the facl, and 
murder, that he feared he Ihould be explaining the motives upon which 
unequal to the exertion of entering he at that time avitcd, he reminded 
into his defence againll the other ar- the committee that this tranfaftion 
tides, before he was acquitted of the had psfled in the fecret department 
iirll. That the reft he confidered as of government; that the informa- 
fo light in comparifon of this, that tion pofleiTed by fir Elijah was there- 
he had fcarce any objection to their fore a poi/.ive proof of collufion be- 
going, without further difcuflion, to tween him and Mr. Mailings, who 
the lords, if this were decided againft had evidently betrayed his col- 
him. To tliis requell fir Gilbert leagues and his trull to the chief 
Elliot exprefled his confent. — On the juftice. 

jith of February, and the two On the zSch of April, all the evi- 

following days on which the com- dence being gone through, fir Gil- 

mittee fac, Mr. Farrer, a member of bert Elliot began his reply * to the 

the houfe, and who afted as counfel anfwer of fir Elijah Impey. After 

to Nundccmar upon his trial at Cal- a fpcech of confiderable length the 

cutta, was examined in his place, committee was adjourned to the 7th 

Much debate arofe in the courfe of May, when fir Gilbert refumed 

of his evidence, (which was not his reply, and finifned it on the 9th, 

given in the way of queltion and an- which was the next day of fitting. 

Ivver, but in a conunued narrative). The defence of fir Elijah was 

under- 

* Sir Gilbert lEllIot, towards the conclufion of his fpeech, read the following 
account of the execution of NunJcomar, written by ihe ihcriti:" who attended 

on the occafion " Hearing that fame perfoiis liad fuppoicd Malirajah Nund- 

" comar would make an addrefs to the peojjle at his execution. I have committed 
" to writing the following minutes of what pafled bodi on that occafion, and alfo 
" upon my paying him a vifit in prilbn the preceding evening, while both are 
** frefti in my remembrance. 

" Friday evening, the 4.th of Auguft, upon my entering his apartments in the 
" iail, he arofe and fainted me in his ufual manner : after ,>x were botii feated, h." 

Vol. XXX. iM] " fpokc 



178] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788, 

undertaken by fir Richard Sutton, chequer. The motion was fupport- 
vvho was fupported by Mr. D. Pul- ed by Mr. Fox, colonel Fullerton, 
teney, the folicitor and attorney ge- and Mr. Burke; and, upon a divifion, 
neral, and the chancellor of the ex- there appeared, ayes 55, noes 73 

On 

** fpoke with great eafe, and fuch feeming unconcern, that I really doubted whe- 
•' ther hewas fenfible of his approaching f;;te. I therefore bid the interpreter in- 
" form him, that I was come to fhew him this laft mark of refpe6^t, and to aflure 
" him that every attention fliould be given, the next morning, which could 
*' afford him comfort on fo melancholy an occafion j that I was deeply con- 
*' cerned that the duties of my office made me of necefllty a party in it \ but 
" that I would attend to the laft, to fee that every defire that he had fliould be 
" gratified j that his own palanquin, and his own fervants (hould attend him, 
" and that fuch of his friends, who I nnderftood were to be preicn',, (hould be 
*' prote6led. He replied that he was obliged to me for this vifit, that he thanked 
" me for all m.y favours, and intreated me to continue it to bis family ; that 
" fate was not to he refifted, and put Ins finger to his forehead — ' God's will 
*' muft be done.' He de fired I vvouki piefent his rtfpefls and compliments to 
*' the general, colonel Monfon, and Mr. Francis, and pray for their protection 
*' of rajah Goin«a/s ; that thev would pleafe to look upon him now as tl.e head 
*' of the bramins. His compofure was ■ onderful ; not a figh elctijtfd him; 
*' nor the fmnlleft alteration of voice or countenance, though I underftood he had, 
*' not mav:y hours before, taken a folemn leave of his fon-in-law, Roy Radicum. 
" 1 found myfelf fo much fecond to him in firmnefs, that I could ftay no longer. 
" Going down flairs, the jailor informed me, that fince the departure of his 
" friends, he had been writing notes, an<i, looking at accounts in his ufual way. 
" I began now to apprehend that he had taken his refolution, and fully ex}ie6ted 
" that he would be found dead in the morning ; but on Saturday the 5th, at 
" feven, I was informed that every thing was in readinefs at the jail for the 
*' execution. I came here about half an hour pail feven. The bowlings and la- 
*' mentations of the poor wretched people who were taking their laft leave of him 
<' aie not to be defcribed. I have hardly recovered the firft ftiock, while I write 
" this, above three hours afterwards. As foon as he heard I was arrived, he came 
*' down info the yard, and joined me in the jailor's apartment. There was no 
** lingering about him,-no affefted delay. Hecamechearfully into the room, made 
*' the ufual falaam, but would not ft till I took a chair near him. Seeing fome- 
*' body look at a watch, he got r.p, and faid he was ready, and immediately 
*' turning to three bramins, who were to attend, and take care of his body, he 
*' embraced them all clofely ; but without the leaft mark of melancholy or de- 
*' preffion on his part, while they were in agonies of grief and defpair. I then 
" looked at my own watch, told him the houi- I had mentioned was not ariived, 
*♦ that it wanted above a quarter of eight, but that I fliould wait his own time, 
*' and that I would not rile from my feat without a motion from hiin. Upon 
*' its being recommended to him, that at the place of execution he would 
*< give fome fignal when he had done with this world, he faid he would fpeak. 
*« We fat about a quarter of an hour longer, during which he addreficd himfelf 
*' more tlian once to me ; mentioned rajah Gourdafs, the general, colonel Mon- 
*< fon, and Mr. Francis, but without any feeming anxiety : the reft of the time, 
«« I believe, he palTed in prayer; his lips and tongue moving, and his beads 
♦' hanging upon his hand. He then looked to me and arofe, fpoke to fome of 
«< the Servants of the jail, telling them that any thing he might have omitted, 
*' rajah Gourdafs would take care of; then v/alked chearfuUy to the gate, and 
'• feated himfelf in his palanquin, looking around hira with perfeil unconcern. 

« As 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [179 

On the 27th of May, the day ap- fpeaker do now leave the chair, the 
pointed for the committee to fit fame was oppofed by the attorney 
again, upon the ufual motion that the general, on the ground that the next 

article, 

** As the deputy flierifF and I followed, we could make no obfervation upon his 
" deportment, till we all arrived at tlie place of execution. The crowd there was 
<< very great, but not the leaft appearance of a riot. The raiah fat in his palan- 
" quin upon the bearers flioulders, and looked around at iirft with feme atten- 
*' tion. I did not obferve the fmalled difcompofure in his countenance or man- 
*' ner at the light of the gallows, or any of the ceremonies pafllng about it. He 
" afked for the brainins, who were not come, and fhewed fome earneitnefs, as if 
" he apprehended the execution might take place before their arrival. I took 
•' that opportunity of alluring liim, I would wait his own time, • it was early in 
*' the day, and there was no hurry j' the bramins foon after appearing, I offered ta 
*' remove the officers, thinking that he might have fomething to fay in private, 
" but he made a motion not to do it, and faid, he had only a few words to re- 
" mind them of what he had faid concernmg rajah Gourdafs, and the care of 
" his zenana. He fpoke to me, and defired that the men might be taken care 
" of, as they were to take charge ot his body, which he defued repeatedly might 
" not be touched by any of the by-ftanders ; but he feemed not in the leaft 
*' alarmed or difcompofed at the crowd around him. There was fome delay in the 
*' neceffary preparations, and from the awkwardnefs of the people : he was no 
" way delirous of protrafling the bufmefs, but repcatedlv told me he was ready. 
*' Upon my afking him it he had any more friends he wifhed to fee, he anfwered 
" he had many, but this was not a place nor an occafion to look for them. Did 
" he apprehend there might be any prefent, who could not get up for the crowd ? 
" He mentioned one, whole name was called ; but he immediately faid, ' it was of 
•• no confequence, probably he had not come.' He then defired me to remember 
" him to general Clavering, colonel Monfon, and Mr. Francis, and looked with 
" the greatell compofure. When he was not engaged in converfation, he lay 
" back in the palanquin, moving his lips and tongue as before. I then caufed 
" him to be afked about the fignal he was to make, which could not be done by 
" fpeaking, on account of the noife of the crowd. He faid he would make a 
" motion with his hand ; and when it was repreftnted to him, that it would be 
•* neceffary for his hands to be tied, in order to prevent any involuntary motion, 
" and I recommended his making a motion with his foot, he faid he would. 
•' Nothing now remained except the lafl painful ceremony. I ordered his palan- 
" quin to be brought clofe under the gallows, but he chofe to walk, which he did 
" more ereft than I have generally feen him. At the foot of the fleps which led 
*' to the Itage, he put his hands behind him to be tied with a handkerchief, look- 
" ing around at the fame time, with the utmoft unconcern ; Ibme difficulties 
" arifmg about the cloth which fliould be tied over his face, he told the people 
" that it mull not be done by one of us. I prefented to him a fubaltern fepoy 
" officer, who is a bramin, and came forward with his handkerchief in his hand, 
" but the rajah pointed to a fervant of his own, who was laying proftrate at his 
*' feet, and beckoned liim to do it. He had fome weakncl's in his feet, which, 
" added to the confinement of his hands, made him mount the fteps with diffi- 
" culty. But he (hewed not the leafl reluctance, fcramhling rather forward to 
" get up. He then ftood ere£l on the llage, wliile I examined his countenance as 
«' ItedfalHy as I could, till the cloth covered it, to fee if I could obferve the 
«' fmallelt fymptom of fear or alarm, but there was not a trace of it. My own 
« fpirits funk, and I ftept into my palanquin ; but before I was well feated, he 

[M] z « had 



i8o] ANNUAL REGISTER, 17S8. 

article, of thePatna caufe, was at that verfatlon, the motion was negatived^ 

time depending, and likely to come and the farther confideration of the 

fpeedily to a hearing before the charges put off for three months. 
privy council. After a fhort con- 

*' had given the fignal, and the ftage was removed. I -coxild obferve, when I 
*' was a little recovered, that his arms lay back in the fanse pofition, in which I 
*' faw them firll tied, nor could I perceive any contortion of that fide of his mouth 
*' and face which was viable. In a word, his ilcadinels, compolure, and relblution 
" throughout the who'e of this melancholy tranfa£lion, were equal to any ex-im- 
** pies of fortitude I have ever read or heard of. The body was taken down 
" after hanging the ufual time, and delivered to the bramins, for burning." 

While this tragedy, faid fir Gilbert, was a6ling,thefurrounding multitudes were 
agitated with grief, fear, and fufpence. With a kind of fuperfiitious incredulity, 
they could not believe that it N^as really intended to put the rajah to death ; but 
when they faw him tied up, and the fcaffold drop fiom under him, they fet up an 
univerfal yell, and, with the moft piercing cries of horror and difmay, betook 
themfelves to flight, running many of them as far as the Ganges, and plunging 
into the water, as if to hide themfelves from fuch tyranny as they had witneffed, 
or to wafh away the pqllution contrafted from viewing fuch a fpeftacle. 



CHAP. 



iliSTORY OF EUROPE. [i8i 



CHAP. VIII. 

Some ohfertvtxtions on the probahle, as <wcll as ojienfibh caii/es and moti'vss; 
ivhich induced Denmark to take part n.vith Ritjjia in the nvar againji S'we- 
den. Great attention paid by the King of Sv:sdcn, to rcmo-ue all traces of 
the jeahufyi -ivhich fame ails at the commencement of his reign had excited on 
the fide of Denmark', and to reneav and cement the grcatcji friendfiip he- 
tiucsn both kitigdojns. His uncxpeBed vift at Copenhagen, near the clofe 
of the year 1787. Fails in his endea-voiirs to render that court a con-vert t& 
his political opinions, and a party in his defgns. Farther applications of 
the King to Frince Charles of He ft: , and to the Prince Rcyal of Dcmnarki 
tipon their arrival in Nor^vay, prove equally ineficacious. Notice given by 
the court of Copenhagen to the foreign minifers (i<:hile the King of Bvoedin 
noas conduSling the campaign in Finland) of her determination tofupply Ruffia 
*ivith a con fider able auxiliary force, Hajiy return of the King from Finland. 
Critical and dangerous fate of his affairs. Mutinous army in Finland fend 
ii deputation to Peterfnirgh, after the King's departure, and ivithcut his coii- 
fcnt, to conclude an armijtice ivith the Emprefs. Sudden arrival of the King 
at Stockholm, prevents the mecfures purjucd by the fenate,for convening a dieti 
from taking ejfed. Enthufafm of the citizens, upon the King's entrujiing tk* 
defence of the capital, and the protedion of the court, to their courage and 
loyalty. Memorial to the court of Copenhagen. Anfv:er by Count Bernftorjf. 
Fortunate event for the King, that the ne-v^h -allied Povjers of England, 
Prujjia, and Holland, nvere not dijpofed to fuffer Svueden to be crafted by a 
combination of hoftile povoer. King indefatigable in his endeavours to pro- 
'videfor rcfjling his nen.<j enemy. Proceeds to Dalecarlia, and obtains an aid 
of 2,000 volunteers from that brave people. Prince Charles of Heffe invades 
Svjeden en the fde of Nor v.' ay, at the head of a body of 12,000 auxiliaries. 
Takes Stromftadt, Vdde-valla, and other places. Surrounds a fmall body of 
S-vjediJh forces under Col. 7ranefeldi tvho, after a fight engagement, are 
forced to furrender prifon»rs of vuar. Advances toivards Gottenburgh. 
Governor of that place fum?nons a meeting of the inhabit ajits, nt vuhich it is 
agreed upon to furrender. King arrives unexpectedly, difplaces the Governor, 
and bri-rigs the inhabitants to a determination to defend the city, at all 
tifques, to the laji extremity. That place fill in great danger, and the 
King's ftuation very critical, nvhen the timely and happy intervention of the 
mediating Povjers prevents the dreaded efeits. Mr. Elliot, the Britijh mi- 
nijier at Copenhagen, paffes ov:r to Svjedenj as delegate from the allied 
Povjers, ajid by his zeal and ability procures an armiftice for eight days. 
Mr. Elliot is joined by the Baron de Borcke, minfter from the King of Pruf 
fa. Second armijlice pafed for a month ; and a third, after many diff.cid- 
tieSfforfx months. Danifh army luithdravjs into Noriuay. 

THERE feems no fmall rea- notwirhftanding the near ties of blood 
fon for fappoiing, although it and affinity between the royal hou- 
could rvot be oftenfibly avowed, that, ks of the two northern kirgdoms, 

[M 3] yet. 



182] ANNUAL RE 

vet, that the court of Copenhagen 
uas little lefs difpofed to willi for and 
to accelerate a revolution in the go- 
rernment of Sweden, than even that 
of Peter (burgh : although it was ea- 
fily feen, (the king's temper and 
charader confidered) that fuch a 
meafure could not be acconipliibed, 
without the molt imminent danger 
to his perfon, and a great hazard of 
very ruinous confcquences to his fa- 
mily. 

This difpofition, however, is not 
entirely, nor perhaps in any great 
degree, to be attributed to that inve- 
terate animofity, which for feveral 
ages has been i'o d< eply rooted be- 
tween the Danes and the Swedes. 
The king of Sweden himfelf, mod 
unadvifedly, as being totally incon- 
^iftent with that fyfiem of policy, 
which feenis in other refpedls to have 
been the great object of his hfe, in- 
dicated, foon after the commence- 
ment of his reign, difpofitions fo ini- 
mical to Denmark, as feem fully to 
juilify her in adopting fuch meafures 
of fecurity, and of forming fuch al- 
liances and connedions, as were befl 
calculated to counteract the appa- 
rently dangerous ambition of fo rear 
a neighbour ; v^ho feemed watchful 
to take an unneighbourly and unfair 
advantage of any circumltance that 
might embarrafs her affairs, or mif- 
fortune that might weaken the ftate. 

It appears, if we credit the ftate 
of the matter given by the Danes, 
that the very year in which the king 
of Sweden accompliflied the revclu^ 
tion in the government of his own 
country, he direded his views to the 
production of one of a different na- 
ture in Denmark, which, without 
meddling with its government, would, 
by a fatal feparatlon of its parts, 
have reduced the power and conle- 
quencc of that country in the fyftemi 



GISTER, 1788. 

of Europe to nothing, and rendered 
its future exiftence, in any degree, as 
an independent ftate, extremely pre- 
carious. This was by an attempt 
to feparate the antient and exten- 
five kingdom of Norway from that 
crown, to which it had for feveral 
centuries been fo clofely united, and 
which would have rendered the 
name of a kingdom fcarcely appro- 
priate to its remaining weak and 
disjointed dominion. 

It has unfortunately, and by a 
ftrange perverfion of reafon and po- 
licy, been nearly the conftant fyftem 
purfued by the court of Copenhagen, 
through a courfe of ages, to rule Nor- 
way with a harfh and unfeeling hand, 
and to afford too much room for com- 
plaint to that people, on whom its 
ftrength and power fo much depend- 
ed ; infomuch that they feem to have 
been generally treated and confi- 
dered rather as aliens, than as fub- 
jedts, and equal members of the 
fame general dominion and govern- 
ment. How far thefe caufes of dif- 
affeftion continued to operate in the 
prefent inftance, we cannot pretend 
to determine, but it is clear from the 
event that great difcontents ftill pre- 
vailed in that kingdom; for the new 
Swedifhfovereignis not only charged 
with fomenting them, with a view to 
exciting a general infurreftion, but 
with marching an army, in the year 
1772, to the frontiers of Norway, 
under the intention of abfolute inva- 
fion, in fupport of the infurgents. 
The difcovery of the plot, the taking 
of the cyphers under which the cor- 
refpondence was conducted, along 
with the immediate meafures which 
were purfued for placing that coun- 
try in a proper ftate of defence and 
refirtance, are alledged to be the 
caufes which difconcerted this prp- 
je£t, and prevented, at leaft, a hof- 

tile 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



tile attempt, for carrying the defign 
into execution. 

If this charge be well founded, as 
it feems to br, it could not be ex- 
pedted that tii.: court of Copenha- 
gen would ar'.iwards place much 
confidence in the faith or friend ihip 
of a prince, who had afforded fo 
early and fo glaring a teiUmony of 
his being little bound by either; 
ncr is it to be wondered at, that, fo 
circumllanced, flie fhould be lels ap- 
prehenfive of the diltant power of 
Ruffia, forrriidable as it is, than of 
the reltlefs fpirit and watchful encer- 
prize of a lefs potent power, whofe 
vicinity enabled him to be at all 
tinjes troublefbme, and might, in cer- 
tain fuuations, hare afforded him 
opportunities of being highly dan- 
gerous. Ruflia was likewife the na- 
tural check upon his ambition, and, 
almoil:, the only one that could be 
effeclive in cafes of fudden emer- 
gency. To thefe caufes and motives 
for Denmark's throwing herfelf into 
the arms of RulTia in preferejice to 
Sweden, is to be added, and particu- 
larly remembered, the fignal obliga- 
tion by which (he had been recently 
bound to the emprefs, for the Angu- 
lar ceffion which fhe made of her 
fon (the great duke's) patrimonial 
rights and inheritance -a the dutchies 
of Slefwickai.d Holftcin; which may 
well be confidered as a free-gift, 
the miferable county of Oltlenburgh, 
though the original natal iVrat of the 
Danifh fovereigns, rot warranting 
the name of an exchange. Few ac- 
quifitions, if any, could be of equal 
importance to Denmark with this 
ceflion * ; for, befides the very coa- 
fiderable acceflion of power and re- 
venue which it afforded, with the be- 



[»S3 

nefit of thereby rounding and com- 
pleting her German dominions, it 
was of Hill much greater advantage, 
in precluding thofe frequent litiga- 
tions and wars, in which the llrange- 
ly mixed ibvereignty in thefedutchies 
had fo long involved the poirefTors; 
and which would in future have be- 
come every day more arduous and 
dangerous, as the fovereigns of Ruf- 
fia would have been the oppofite 
parties in the contention. 

A flricl: alliance between Ruflia 
and Denmark took place upon this 
occafion; and It is ftated, that by 
fome articles of the treaty then con- 
cluded, which do not appear to have 
been publilhed, the latter was bound, 
in certain cafes therein fpecified, to 
fupply RufTia with 12,000 auxiliary 
troops, together with a naval aid of 
fix Ihips of the line. Undoubtedly 
the court of Peterfburgh was equally 
bound, in oppofite circumftances, to 
afford an aid to Denmark commen- 
furate to her power. Thefe tranf- 
adlions took place in 1773, the year 
immediately fucceeding the alarm, 
occafioned by the alledged attempt 
or defign upon Norway. Thefe fpe- 
cific conditions, whether fupprefTed 
parts of the treaty then communi- 
cated to the public, or included in a 
feparate one, Vv'ere evidently kept fe- 
cret, as the king of Sweden declares, 
in a public document, that he never 
heard of them, until the public notice 
given by Denmark of their intended 
fulhlment ; while he feems, upon the 
whole, rather to doubt their exift- 
ence. 

Whatever political errors the Swe- 
diiTi fovereign might have committed 
in his early ccndufit with refpeft to 
Denmark, it feems probable that he 



* For the particulars of this traiif;ift;onj fee Annual Regifter for 1773, vol. xvi. 
Hift, Alt. pp. 4, 5, and 31. 



[M] 4 



afterwards 



1S4] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



afterwards fmcerely repented the 
hr.fty and unguarded loofe which he 
then gave to his imagination or pai- 
fions ; and he has fince endeavoured, 
by a courfe of the moft friendly at- 
' tcntions, to corciliate matters, and to 

■ wear off all remembrance of them. 
It fecrns more than probable that 
his political fyftem was not then 
formed, and that it was not abfo- 
Itftely decided untilhis return from 
the vifi: to Peterlburgh. 

Upon the Ottoman war, the ap- 
proach of the prefeni ftate of affairs 
in the north, and his own determi- 
nation to renew or confirm the an- 
tient alliance with the Turks, he 
parucularly laid hitifelf out, with the 
utmoft affiduity, not only to gain 
the friendfhip ef Denmark, but to 
feCLire her effedtually, by m.aking 
her a convert to his oun opinions 
and principles. The fudden and 
unexpeded viiit, which, towards 
the clofe of the year 1787, he paid 
at the court of Copenhagen, and 
v/hich was fo devoid of all etiquette 
and ceremonial, as to refemble the 
free intercourfj between common 

■ neighbours, was a matter which 
excited, at leaft, the obfervation and 
curiofity of ail the courts of Europe, 
r-nd occr.lioned much general poli- 
tical furmiie and fpecuiation. The 

' king of Sweden's objeCt in this vifit 
• was to imprefs deeply on the court 
of Copenhagen the fame appre- 
henfions which he entertained him- 
felf, of the danger arifing from the 
overgrown- power, the iniatiate 
ambition, the infidious intrigues, 
and the over-reaching conduit of 
Rufiia ; that the danger was com- 
mon to both the northern king- 
doms; that riothing lefs than the 
c'.ofell union and fnendlbip, which 
their interefts required to be indif- 



foluble, along with the mofr fpce- 
dy and vigorous mutual exertions, 
could poffibly avert, or even ward 
it off for any confiderable time. 
He ftated, that if Rufiia fucceeded 
in her prefent ambitious defign, of 
overthrowing and partitioning the 
Ottoman empire, her power would 
then become fo vafl:, that all efforts 
on their fide to contronl or rettrain 
it, would not only be futile, but adls 
of abfolute lunacy ; for they could 
afterwards only hope to fubfill as 
miferable dependents on her cle- 
mency. 

He endeavoured to fhew, that this 
was the proper and fortunate fea- 
fon, while Ruflia was involved in 
the heavy war which her ambirion 
had fo long been feeking, and be- 
fore her adverfary was weakened by 
any heavy blow, to clip her wings 
in fome moderate degree, to clla- 
hlifh fome fecure boundary againil 
her future rapacity, and to check 
that inordinately haughty and do- 
mineering fpirit, with which, with- 
out regard to propriety, decency, 
or jullice, £he had fo long infulted 
and annoyed her neighbours. The 
king concluded, that as the royal 
families of both kingdoms were 
nov/ happily united in blood, that 
as the ancient caufes of jealoufy 
and animofity between their coun- 
tries were fo totally pall away that 
they could fcarcely ever again re- 
cur, that as even the afperities 
which former unhappy contelts had 
left behind were worn away during 
fixty years of unremitted peace and 
friendlhip, and more efpecially, as 
the total change, which had taken 
place in the affairs of the north, now 
rendered the interefts of both na- 
tions common, and their dangers as 
well their interefts the fame, fo he 

could 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [185 



could conceive no folid objcdlion 
that could be made to that lalUng 
union which he now propofed. 

The king of Sweden fupported 
thefe various topics with all thofe 
powers of elocution by which he 
is fo eminently dilHnguilhed, and 
which have wrought mch wonders 
in the popular aflemblies of his own 
country. But here they failed en- 
tirely of their wonted eiFecl; fo 
much does that, in all things, de- 
pend upon time, place, and circum- 
ftance. 

The court of Denmark could 
not perceive any of thofe dangers 
which fo deeply affefted the king's 
mind ; and they accordingly treat- 
ed, and feemed to confider them 
as entirely vifionarv, and mere 
creatures of the imagihation. They 
lamented that he fhould fufFer his 
tranquillity to be difturbed by fuch 
unfounded apprehenfions ; and Hill 
more, that he fhould entertain even 
an idea- of involving himfelf in fo 
unequal, and fo inevitably ruinous 
a contell as a war with Ruffia. 
That, though all the world acknow- 
ledged the valour, which had in all 
ages dilllnguifhcd his fabjecls ; that 
though the excellent condition of 
his fleet and army at the prefent day 
were no lefs known; and that none 
would queftion the heroifm of his 
own charafter ; yet, that the difpa- 
rity of power was too vail to admit 
of its being fjpplied by any exertion 
of virtue or heroifm. That although 
it was pofTible that his arms might 
be fuccef.sful in the beMnnino; of the 
ccntefl, before his great adverfary 
had time to recolledt herfelf, yet he 
mull foon afterwards be fo totally 
overwhelmed by the fuperiority of 
her power, and the exten/ivenefs of 
its application, that his country 
would be expofed to abfolate ruin. 



and his perfon, from his fpirit, va- 
lour, and the vexation arifing from 
fo grievous a profpe(fl, to the moll 
imminent danger. They reqaefted 
the king to reflefl on the prefent 
profperous ftate of his country, 
flouriuiing in all the arts, and under 
all the bleifings of peace ; and to 
oppofe to that the dreadful pidure 
of cities fmoking from their ruins, 
of provinces defolated by an unfeel- 
ing and cruel enemy, and of fertile 
and cultivated plains, deluged with 
blood, and fpread with carnage; 
and they adjured him, by all the ties 
of blood and friendfhip, to fpare 
them, as well as himfelf, from the 
mortiiicacion and grief of beholding 
fuch deplorable fcenes of calamity. 

To calm the king's mind, and 
entirely to remove his apprehen- 
fions, Denmark propofed to under- 
take the office of mediator, and of^ 
fered to engage that Ihe would re- 
concile all differences, and remove 
all jealoufies, between him and Ruf- 
fia ; and that the tranquillity of the 
north fliould be placed upon fuch 
folid foundations, as not to be fhaken 
by any common occafion, or difturb- 
ed by any occurrence that could be 
forefeen and guarded againll:. The 
court of Copenhagen opened, and 
explained at the fame time, the pa- 
cific rules fns had adopted for her 
own condud; and, while fhe de- 
clared her own wifh and intention 
to preferve uninterruptedly the peace 
of the north, ihe offered to o-uaran- 
ty t.ie lame pacihc mtenticns oa the 
part of Ruiua. 

Thde arguments, reprefentations, 
and propoials, produced no effefl ; 
the king had already determined on 
the meafures which he would purfue, 
and no converfion was made on ei- 
ther fide. 

We have had heretofore much fa- 
tiifafliorx 



186] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



tisfadion in announcing to the public, 
the early talents, endowments, and 
opening virtues of the prince royal 
of Denmark. This prince has fince 
fo fully juftified our opinion, and 
anfwered the fondeft hopes and 
warmell; wiflies of his country fo 
effectually, that he ranks highly al- 
ready among the moft hopeful and 
illultrious charatlers of the age. — 
The king, his uncle, difplayed his 
ufual addrefs, upon this and other 
occafions, in endeavouring to attach 
the prince to him in the clofelt ties 
of friend fhip and afteSion; and it 
would have been no wonder, in 
fuch circumfta'ices, and at fuch a 
time of life, if political opinions, at- 
tachments, or. even prejudices, had 
given way to thofe impulfes of the 
heart, which are then fo powerful. 
But though the prince is faid to 
have regarded the eminent qualities 
of his uncle with the greatelt admi- 
ration, and to have entertained the 
tenderell affedion for his perfon, 
thefe imprefiions do not feem to 
have produced the fmallell effeft 
upon his public condud. 

It appears that France had ori- 
ginally furnifhed money for the 
equipment of the Swedifh fleet, 
and, when this refource failed, that 
the military preparations by fea and 
land were iliil enlivened by larger 
remittances from Conftantinoplc. 
During this procefs for war, the 
court of Copenhagen made frequent 
amicable remonftrances to the king, 
endeavouring, upon the grounds we 
have feen, to difiuade him from his 
defign ; but, if every thing elfe fail- 
ed, to prevent, if poiiib'e, his ftrik- 
ing the firft blow. Thefe official 
applications were fupported by a 
letter from the prince royal, in 
which, as well as arguments, the 
nioft earneit and affeftionate en- 



treaties were ufed to engage the 
king to relinquifh his defign. 

Prince Charles of Ilefie, the vice- 
roy of Norway, and brother-in-law 
to both kings, having arrived at his 
government in the beginning of 
May, was fome time after joined by 
the prince royal, who had gone 
thither to review the troops. The 
king of Sweden, who was then upon 
the point of his departure to Fin- 
land, immediately difpatched Gene- 
ral Duwal, with the ufual compli- 
ments to the prince royal upon his 
arrival, together with an urgent 
letter upon the fubjedt which had 
already been fo much difcuffed : 
Duwal was accompanied by the 
king's aid-de-camp, M. Borgen- 
flierna, who was charged v;ith a 
fimilar commiflion and letter to the 
prince of Hefie. The following 
extraft from the letter to prince 
Charles of HefTe, will afford fome 
general idea of the tendency and 
objed of both: — " I adjure you, 
" Sir, not to lofe a moment in uni- 
" ting Sweden and Denmark for 
" ever. No man is more equal to 
" the talk than you, nor fees better 
" the neceffiry of it ; and the more 
" fo, as this inftant will decide e;« 
" ther our entire union, or a laffing 
" enmity. In this critical moment 
" it is indifpenfably neceffhry to 
*' chccfe one of us for an ally. I 
♦' fliould defpair, if forced to wage 
" war with the prince royal, v/hom 
" I love, and with a nation, which, 
" during jv.y flay among them, has 
" given me fo many marks of its 
*' attachment. But I am not afraid 
" of being taken unawares. My 
" army is fo conftituted, that I can, 
" within a month's time, replace in 
" Sweden all the troops I have led to 
" Finland,andthenitwillbe ftronger 
« than any you can oppcife. " &c. &c. 

The 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[.87 



The prince ftated, in his anfwer, 
that, not being in the king of" Den- 
mark's cabinet council, nor at nil 
entrulled with the fecrets of Hate, 
he was not only totally incompe- 
tent to the giving, but to the form- 
ing of any opinion upon public af- 
fairs. He likewife anfwered for 
the prince royal, tliat, with all the 
fentiments of the highcft refpedi; 
and attachment, which he entertain- 
ed for his majeily, he could not per- 
mit himfelf to decide on an affair 
of fuch importance, efpecially dur- 
ing his abience ; and that he mull 
refer the whole to the council of 
(late of the king his father. The 
prince of HefTe, however, afiumed 
the privilege of a friend and rela- 
tion, in endeavouring to perfuade 
the king to relinquifh his prefent 
defign, flating in ftrong colours, 
and in the moll pathetic language, 
the dreadful and fatal confeqLJcnces 
which he apprehended from his per- 
feverance. 

It feems remarkable, that in this 
correfpondence, the grcatcll dif- 
like, and even horror, was expref- 
fed on both fides, at the idea of 
fighting againll each other, while, 
from any thing we can yet fee, there 
was no ground for any fuch appre- 
henfion ; fcr it does not appear that 
Denmark, in any part of thefe 
tranfadions, gave the fmalleU no- 
tice of the conditions by which (he 
was bound to afiift RufTia; and her 
obferving a neutrality could afford 
no rational occafion for war to 
Sweden, fo ill as (he cauld afford 
to increafe the number of Jier ene- 
mies. The prince of Denmark 
foon afforded a memorabk inllance 
of the little efFedl which the per- 
fbnal applications of the king of 
Sweden had been able to produce 
upon his political condu^ ; for, 
4 



upon his return to Copenhagen, he 
gave his decided, and probably de- 
cifne, fufFrage in council, for main- 
taining the treaties with Ruflia, 
and fulfilling their conditions. This 
idti is communicated by prince 
Charles of Hefle, who, without any 
abfolute avowal of his own fenti- 
ments, evidently held the fame opi- 
nion and principle. This meafure 
is faid to have afforded an oppor- 
tunity to the king of Sweden, of 
iiifmuating fome ambiguity or ob- 
liquity to the condud of the prince 
royal, in this bufmefs ; an imputa- 
tion v.'hich we fhould be forry was 
founded, with refpedl to fo young 
and lo hopeful a prince, however 
the caufe might feem warranted by 
example, or difguifed under the in- 
fidious garb of policy. It is nor, 
hou^ever, to be queftioned, but that 
the Swediih fovereign was exceed- 
ingly difappolnted, if not abfokte- 
iy deceived, with refpeft to the 
conduct of Denmark ; that though 
he failed in engaging her to fup- 
port him in the wcr, he had n®t, 
at leall until very latterly, totally 
foregone even that hope ; but that 
he had placed, in the worll flate 
of thiags that could happen, a firm 
reliance on her taking no part 
againft him. If this opinion was 
at all, in any degree weakened, it 
was not until his meafures were fo 
far advanced, that it was too late 
to hefitate, whatever hazard or dan- 
ger he might incur by proceeding 
farther. 

While the king was deeply in- 
volved in all the trouble and dan- 
ger, occafioned by the refraftori- 
nefs, or rather the revolt of his army 
in Finland, the court of Copenhagen 
ifTued a public notice . 
to the foreign minifters, ^"g- ^9^". 
and among the refl to the Swedifh, 

who 



i88] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



who was moft immediately con- 
cerned, of the couditions by which 
fhe was bound to Ruffia, to (apply 
her with a confiderable auxiliary 
force by fea and land, and of her 
own determination to fulfil thofe 
conditions. The plan of operation 
laid by the allies was, that prince 
Charles of HefTe Ihoald, on the 
24th of September, invade Sweden 
on the fide of Norway, with tlie Iti- 
pulated number of auxiliary forces ; 
and, as Denmark was very anxious, 
through her apprehenfion of other 
powers, to avoid being ccnfidered 
as the aggrefTor in a direct war 
again !l Sweden, and as the hcftile 
jnvafion of a country carried more 
the appearance of a principal than 
of an auxiliary, and was in reality 
rather a novel mode of proceeding, 
fo, to prevent the efFc£l, the prince 
of Heffe was appointed a field- mar- 
ftial in the Rulfian fervice, whereby 
he feeraed, to aft under the imme- 
diate orders of the emprefs, and to 
be difcharged from the controul of 
his own court. 

This unexpe>£led denunciation af- 
fefted the king like a thunder- 
iiroke, and indeed rendered his fi- 
tuation truly critical, and his affairs 
apparently defperate. Nothing could 
exceed the refentment which, upon 
this occafion, he conceived againfl 
his new adverfaries, and he is faid 
to have declared, that he confidcr- 
ed the Danes as more infidious 
enemies, and as more implacable 
in their animofity to Sweden, than 
even the Ruffians. Hat, previous to 
his receiving the Daniih notification, 
the unexpected and unfortunate turn 
v.hich affairs had taken in Finland, 
induced the king to difpatch an ex- 
prefs to Copenliagcn, eamefiiy fo- 
■ liciting tha,t court to become a me- 
diator between him and RufTia, and 



leaving, in a great meafure, to itfelf 
the terms upon v/hi'ch peace might 
be concluded. It is faid, and feems 
probable, tliat this exprefs had not 
arrived at Copenhagen, until the Da- 
nifh public notification of its inten- 
tions had been already ilTued; but,- 
as this fad did not im.mcdiately ap- 
pear, it is no wonder that the fup- 
pofed conduct of that court in the 
affair {hould ferve highly to incenffe 
the king. 

It could little be hoped, tha;t the 
duke of Oflrcgothia fhould be able 
to remedy thole evils in the army, 
or to recover that authority, which 
the king himfelf could not prevent 
or retain. The mutinous officers 
fent, without his confent, a deputa- 
tion of their body to Peterfburghy 
to propofe,- direftly to the emprefs,- 
an armiilice. It may be eafily ima- 
gined how well, and with what fa- 
tisfadlion they were received ; and 
how readily their propofal was com- 
plied with. It was playing her 
own game diredlly into her handst- 
and feerned nearly a confum.mation 
of all her intrigues and projeds. 
The duke, with a view of conceal- 
ing in fome degree from foreigners, 
and perhaps from the people of his 
own country, the wretched ftate of 
difafFeftion and anarchy which pre- 
vailed in the army, fsgned the ar- 
miftice as if it had been an aft of 
his own liking or ccnclufion. Ge- 
neral Platen, who commanded a 
body of troops on the fide of Care- 
lia, afforded an honourable inftance,- 
upon this cccafion, of his integrity, 
and of his unalterable fidelity to his 
fovereign. Difdaining to fubmit to 
the epidemical difeafe of the time, 
he not only refufed to fign or agree 
to the armiflice, as an inflrument 
executed without the king's appro- 
bation or leave, and to which he 

knew 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [189 



knew »he fignature of his general, 
the duke, had been extorted ; but 
he refolutely refuied to deliver up 
or evacuate feme Rufiian polh 
which he had taken, and which he 
accordingly prelerved through the 
winter; the Ruffians, probably, not 
choofing to difturb the harmony 
eftablillied with the clhcers, or to 
provoke the national Ipirit of the 
troops, by any attempt to recover 
their: . 

Nothing could be more calami- 
tous, or apparently hopelefj, than 
the afped of the king's affairs up- 
on his return from Finland. For- 
tune had not only dcferted, but 
feemed totally adverfe to him in 
every thing, and ruin appeared 
opening on every fide, Ti»e con- 
tagion from the army had fpread 
through various parts of the Idng- 
dom, and infeftpd even the capital; 
while the nobility feemed fait ap- 
proaching to the recovery of that 
power and confcqucnce in the 
kingdom which they formerly pof- 
fefled. The fenate, once the fource 
of all power and governmejit, and 
long fo formidable to fovercigns, 
whom it ruled with a harfh and un- 
gracious hand, inflead of being 
ruled by them, although it had 
been found necefl'ary to preferve its 
name and form under the new con- 
flitution of 1772, yet was fo totally 
changed in its nature, as to be ren- 
dered a mere cypher in the ftate, 
and placed almolt entirely under the 
king's direftion. But by a ilrange 
overfight, which can only be attri- 
buted to the hurry of the occafion, 
the royal preftnce was neceffary to 
render its controul operative, and 
no proviiion was made for a fubili- 
tute to act as a check upon th^ pro- 
ceeduigs of that body, in cafes of 
f he king's abfeiice. 

-X 



It would be little confiflent with 
the nature of man, if the fenate, 
feeling itfelf free from conllraint, 
was not eagerly difpofed to refume 
and to difplay its antient authority. 
All the circumftances of the time, 
the precarious and deplorable ftate 
of the king's affairs, who feemed 
more than tottering upon his throne, 
along with the prevalent difpofitior, 
which was mote particularly fpread. 
amonglt the nobility, concurred in 
infpiring that body with confidence. 
They accordingly took meafures, 
Vvithout confulting the king, to af- 
femble, in diet, the Hates of the 
kingdom, under colour of the de- 
ranged and dangerous ftate of pub- 
lic affairs, and of the difcontents and 
diforders which prevailed in the 
nation. 

The fudden arrival of ^ ^ 

the king at Stockholm, ^^P^' ^*^* 
totally overthrew this defign, and 
difturbed the fenate reluctantly from 
that ftiort dream of power which 
they had fo pleafmgly enjoyed, Ti:e 
meafare of calling a diet was, for 
the prefent, totally quafhed ; and the 
king, well knowing that the no- 
bility (who were numerous and 
powerful in the capital, which was 
the great feat of their cabaJs) were 
generally inimical to his interefts, 
he threw himfelf entirely into the 
hands of the burghers and people at 
large, over whom he had ever pof- 
fefied a great afcendency. As an 
indication of his eptjre reliance on 
their fidelity and affection, as well 
as a flattering teftiaionial to the 
confidence which he placed in the'r 
courage as well as loyalty, he im- 
mediately, without wailing for any 
frefti confirmation of his fentiments, 
or fhewing any apprehenfion of the 
change which the untoward ftate of 
his affairs, and the iutrigues of his 
enemies. 



190] ANNUAL REGISTER, 178^. 



enemies, might have wrought on 
theirs daring his abfence, difpatch- 
ed the few regular troops that were 
in Stockholm and its environs to 
the fouthern frontiers, to make head 
againft the invafion of the Danes. 

Having then fummoned an af- 
fembly of the citizens, that elo- 
quence which failed at the court of 
Copenhagen, here produced the 
happiell effefts. He declared, that, 
repofing the moft unlimited confi- 
dence in their affeftion, loyalty, and 
courage, he, in this feafon of dan- 
ger, whilfl he was himfelf called 
away to oppofe his new enemy in a 
diftant part of the kingdom, (hould 
entruft to their care all thofe things 
the moll; immediately dear to him, 
the defence and prefervation of the 
capital, and the protedlion of the 
queen and royal family; he confider- 
ing thefe facred depofits as far better 
fecured in the curtody of their fide- 
lity and affeiTtion, than under the 
proteftion of any military force 
whatever. 

Nothing could exceed the enthu- 
fiafm with which this fpeech infpir- 
ed the alTembly, nor the eagernefs 
with which the citizens armed and 
embodied themfelves ; manning the 
various batteries and works, and 
chearfully e>:ecuting all the fervice 
and duty hitherto performed by the 
garrifon. This enthufiafm fpread 
with the greateil: rapidity through 
the loweft orders of the people, who, 
little reftrained by difcretion or pru- 
dence in the manifeltation of their 
zeal, and conceiving the greateft 
enmity againft the oiiicers lately re- 
turned from the army in Finland, 
whom they iudifcriminately confi- 
dered as recreants and traitors, it 
became unfafe for military men to 
appear in public with any of the 
emblems of their profelfion. 



The kmo; returned at ^ ^ , 
^! • ^- r . Sept. 1 ith. 

this time an anfwer to ^ 

the notification which he had re- 
ceived from the court of Copenha- 
gen. In this piece, after expreffing 
his concern and aftonifhment at the 
unexpefted part taken by the king 
his brother-in-law, and touching, 
as it were incidentally, but feel- 
ingly, the facred nature of the ties 
by which they were perfonally 
united, he recurs to the long period 
of peace and friendlTiip, which, 
without the fmalleft interruption, 
had for more than fixty years hap- 
pily fubfifted between their refpec- 
tive nations ; a duration of tran- 
quillity without example in their 
annals ; declaring his own conftant 
endeavours, not only to preferve 
the harmony between them undif- 
turbed, but to cement it more clofe- 
ly, and render it perpetual. 

After declaring his ignorance of 
the engagements fubfiiling betweea 
the Danifli fovereign and Ruflia, 
and infinuating a breach of confi- 
dence in the form.er, after he had 
repofed in him the truft of pre- 
fcribing the terms of a peace with 
the emprefs, he prefled him clofely 
for a diretl explanation of the mea- 
fures which he now intended to 
purfue ; whether he intended to be- 
come the aggreflbr, in a dired war 
againft Sweden, or only to aft as an 
auxiliary, in furniOiing a ftipulated 
number of fhips and troops to ferve 
iu the fleets and armies of Ruffia ? 
In this latter cafe he fliould only- 
have to regret, that his brother-in- 
law fhould take fo difagreeable and 
unfriendly a part. But if, on the 
other hand, he fliould depart from 
the rules adopted by all nations 
with refpedl to the furniftiingof aux- 
iliary troops, and render himfelf a 
direft aggreilor, by fending his fhips 

and 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [191 



and troops, totally unconneded 
with, and at a great diftance from 
the Rufiians, to attack and invade 
the Swedifh territories, he mull in 
every fenfe confider the peace be- 
tween both nations violated, war 
actually commerced, and ad in all 
things accordingly. I'he king did 
not fail to throw out a hint, with 
an appearance of confidence likely 
to give it eft'ecl, that there were 
other povvers, who would not remain 
indifferent fpedators to thofe dames 
of war which threatened to fpread 
calamity and defolation through all 
the nations of the north. 

Count Bernllorff, the Danilh mi- 
ni Rcr of li:ate, and at lealt the 
cllenfible agent in ail public affairs, 
fufficiently ihews, in his anfwer to 
this memorial, the anxiety of his 
court to avoid entering into a direct 
war with Sweden, and perhaps ftill 
more of incurring the imputation of 
being the aggreffor. He vindicates 
his mafter from the charge or in- 
iinuation of betraying the confidence 
repofed in him by the Swedilh fo- 
vereign; lliewing (which Vv'as pro- 
bably the fadt) that the overtures 
made by the latter towards peace, 
did not reach his hands until the 
notification of the 19th of Auguit 
was iffued. That his majelly was 
ftill ready to concur, with all poflible 
zeal, in the views and meafures of 
thofe friendly powers who wilhed 
for the reftoration of peace. 

The Danilh miniller Hated, that 
it was not in the power of the king 
his mafter to alter the deftination of 
thofe auxiliary fucccurs, which, ac- 
cording to the itipulations of treaty, 
he had furniftied to Rufiia. That 
they were already at the free dif- 
polal of that power ; and that, as the 
theatre of war was not confined to 
Finland, the king was not at liberty 



to adopt new explanations entirely 
oppoftte to the fenfe and words of 
his avowed engagements. M. Bern- 
ftoriF labours much to fhew, that 
the auxiliaries furnifhed to Ruffia 
afford no juft or folid foundations for 
quarrel or war between Sweden and 
Denmark ; they Ihall be ftriiSIy li- 
mited to the ftipulated number; the 
king himfelf has no Ihare in the 
conteft ; his only objeft is the refto- 
ration of peace ; the other forces of 
his kingdom Ihould take no fhare in 
it, unlefs he and they were com- 
pelled to that necefilty by Sweden ; 
but at all events he muft fulfil the 
engagements with his ally. — It 
might be thought, upon the whole, 
that Denmark had a great inclina- 
tion for a litde bye fighting, as 
matter of peaceable amufement; 
but tl>at flie did not at all wiib to be 
liable to the confequences which 
were likely to be incurred hy the 
indulgence. 

Happy it was for Sweden, or at 
leaft for the king, that at this mo- 
ment of iuch imminent danger, there 
were other powers who were not 
indifi^erent to the confequences of 
that country being overwhelmed by 
Rufiia and Denmark, whereby every 
idea of any future balance of power 
in the north would be totally de- 
ftroyed. It was the more fortunate 
at this feafon, as the afi^airs of 
France were getting into fuch a 
train, as rendered the expeftatioii 
of her being able, in any degree, to 
fupport her ancient ally, every day 
more precarious. The new treaty 
of alliance concluded between Great 
Britain and PrulTia, and the iirlCi 
union already cemented between 
them and Holland, formed fo power- 
ful a counterpoife to the dangerous 
alliance between the two empires of 
Germany and Ruffia, as feepied ca- 
pable 



192] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



pable of being an infuperable bar 
to the piogrcls of their ambitious 
defigns. To render this balance 
the more completely effeaive, it 
was necelTary, in the firfl inilancc, 
to prevent Sweden from being too 
much weakened, and, above all 
things, any revolution from taking 
place in its government; and, fc- 
condarily, to prefer ve the Ottoman 
empire from fubverfion or abfciute 
ruin. We here fee how, through a 
fudden turn of public affairs, thefe 
powers found it necelTary to put 
themfelves in the place of France, 
to fupply her imbecillity by fup- 
porting her alliances, and to take 
up that fyftem of policy which ihe 
had fo long purfued. Such were 
the motives which induced England^ 
and Pruffia, to become arbiters of 
the peace and protectors Of the 
liberties of the north, fo far as the 
prefervation of fome equipoize in 
the Itate of power there, might tend 
to produce that efredl. Such like- 
wile are the motives that muii; ever 
operate upon all ftates in taking 
fuch a part; for the Utopian ideas 
that nations will encounter the evils 
and dangers of war, upon the dif- 
jnterefted principle of preferving or 
reftoring the liberties of others, 
mull be confidered »by all fober 
politicians, as well as philoibphers, 
as " the dreams of men awaks." 

The king of Sweden was inde- 
fatigable in his endeavours to pro- 
vide for the defence of his king- 
dom; but the defeftion of his army, 
and the divifions among the people, 
rendered his means fcanty indeed. 
In this paucity of refource, having 
firft difpatched orders to Fomeranif., 
to drav/ over, to Calmar, all the 
troops that could pcffibly be fpared 
from that province, (which were 
cot many in number, and muft be 



late in adion) he determined to 
apply to the zeal and loyalty of the 
Dalecarlians for fuccour in his ex- 
tremity. Thefe people were highly 
celebrated for the brave, generoui, 
and effedlve (hare which they took 
in that memorable revolution, by 
which Guilavus Vafa freed his coun- 
try from the unequalled cruelty of 
the Daiiifli defpotifm, which had 
already not only maflacred the citi- 
zens of Stockholm, but nearly ex- 
terminated the whole race of the 
ancient nobility. The Dalecarlians 
are a fierce, rough, ignorant, and 
honelt people. Buried in the bowels 
of their rocks and mountains, and 
fecluded in a great meafure by na- 
ture from anv commerce with the 
rell: of mankind, they fcarcely knew 
any thing of what paffes in the 
world; but, holding the greatell 
veneration for royalty, they have 
ever been diltinguiOied for the moll 
inviolable loyalty and attachment to 
their fovereigns ; while their native 
courage, operating upon this difpo- 
fition, i'eems to convert it into a 
principle of heroic chivalry, from 
the readinefs with which they aban- 
don their mines and foreils, upon 
any occafion which requires their 
aflillance. 

Guftavus having fettl^ed affairs in 
his capital, more to his fatisfaction 
than the fliortnefs of the time could 
well feem to admit, fet g , 

out, with his ufual cele- ^ ' 
ricy, for the province of Dalecarlia. 
Here he followed the example, and 
perhaps traced the footfteps of his 
great predeceffor and namefake ; 
defcending to tl^ bottom of their 
deepeft mines and caverns to vif.t 
the people. The fecond appearance 
of a king in ihefe fubterraneous 
regions, and he coming likewife to 
folicit their aid, recalling all the 

ideas 



I l«» » ,ll J I " '■ —I »» 



•mm ii >^ — 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. ^[19^ 



ideas of their traditionary glory, 
was in the higheft degree flattering 
to their minds ; and the enthufiafm 
was fo great, that the royal elo- 
quence, which, however, was not 
fpared, feemed totally unneceffary. 
Every man was eager to become 
one of the king's guards, hoping he 
fhould afford an eminent inftance of 
his loyalty and afFeftion, by dying 
in the defence of his fovereign. Aa 
explanation was therefore necelTary, 
in which the king allured them, that 
he relied too firmly on the affec- 
tions of his fubjects, ever to ufe any 
guards for the proteftion of his 
perfon. That they would all be his 
guards in the day of battle; but 
that the fervice required, in which 
he and they Ihould be equally com- 
petitors for glory, was to repel the 
daring invafion of the Danes ; a 
tiation to whom they bore the moll 
incurable animofity. The king li- 
mited the aid which he received to 
3,000 men ; and thefe formed a 
grotefque appearance. Some, whofe 
families had preferved the rufty, 
uncouth weapons of antiquity, glo- 
ried in the poffeflion, and fancied 
themfelves thoroughly equipped for 
war; but the greater number had 
no other refcurce than thofe rulHc 
inftruments of labour ufed in the 
mines or in hufoandry, which feem- 
ed the beft calculated for their pur- 
pofe. They, however, felt in their 
own minds that undaunted cou- 
rage, which dlfdained to call: away 
a thought upon any fuperiority of 
weapons. 

The Itipulated number of Nor- 
wegian troops being alTembled on 
{he borders, and the other necef- 

Q„r.t -7 ^r^ ^^^'y preparations made, 
fecpt. 24vn. p^j^^^ Charles of Hefie 

invaded Sweden on the day fixed 
Vol. XXX. 



and publicly notified. He was ac- 
companied by the prince royal of 
Denmark, who, determined upon 
ferving this campaign as a volun- 
teer, and of acquiring the firll rudi- 
ments of war under his uncle, had 
for fome time been abfent from 
Copenhagen, in order to evade the 
anxious folicitude of the court to 
diiluade him from his intention, if 
it had been knovm or fufpedled. It 
is but jufllce to the commander in 
chief to obferve, and the prince his 
nephew in every inllance merits 
likewife a full fhare of the pralfe, 
that no invading army perhaps ever 
entered any country under fuch 
ll:ri<5l regulations, and wife precau- 
tions, to prevent almoft the podibi- 
lity of any outrage, infult, or injury 
being offered to the inhabitants, 
as upon this occafion. The ex- 
cellent difclpline,of the Norwegian 
troops, and ftill more the native 
honefty, few wants, and temperate 
habits of the hardy, laborious coni- 
inon foldiers, feemed in a great 
meafure to preclude the necefiicy of 
this care; a more ftriking inllance 
of which needs not to be given, than 
that when, hungry and tired after 
a long march, they entered houfes 
that v/ere abandoned by the inhabi- 
tants, their continence would not 
admit of their touching the vifluals 
that lay before them, ncr w^uld 
they take fo much as an egg until 
it was purchafed and paid for. la 
the fame laudable fpirit, the prince 
of Heffe Uridlly forbade the Nor- 
wegian peafantry from marauding 
upon (according to the cuflom of 
former wars) the Swedifh borders; 
nor were any vagrants, upon any 
pretence, allowed to attend or follow • 
the army ; nor did he levy any con- 
tributions from the inhabitants, but 



19^]* ANNUAL REGISTER, 178S. 



all the fupplies for the army were 
either paid for in ready money, or 
in bills equivalent to money. 

The invafion of the Danes was 
along the fea-coart, from Frederick- 
ftadt, and the country was fo cover- 
ed with rocks and mountains, and 
fo interfedled by kkes, channels, 
and inlents from the fea, as well as 
deJiles, fcarcely practicable to any 
but the inhabitants of the country, 
or their neighbours the Norwegians, 
that the invaders feemed to have 
Sufficient difficulties to furmount in 
their march, without any interven- 
tion of an enemy. In two days 
after the entrance of the prince of 
HelTe into Sweden, tha port town 
cif Stromrtadt fell without oppofition 
into his hands, where he found a 
royal magazine of provifions, to him 
of great importance, and which 
afforded the army a plentiful fup- 
ply of thofe ever-welcome articles, 
bread, beer, and brandy. 

The ftate of defence on the fide 
of Sweden, confided of a body of 
between five and fix thoufand men, 
nnder the command of General 
Hierta, which lay a confiderable dif- 
tance inland, at a place called Wen- 
iierfburg, the town taking its name 
from the lake on which it Hands. 
From this exceedingly faulty poli- 
tion, that body was not only ren- 
dered ufelefo, while the difficult 
pafies and defiles on the coall were 
lefc open and unguarded, but a de- 
tachment of a fev,- hundred men, 
and fome field pieces, which were 
polled on that fide under the con- 
duct of Col. Tranefield, was necef- 
farily deftined to be facrificed with- 
out ufe or purpofe. To* complete 
the abfurdity,TranefieId was chain- 
ed down like a machine to his poll, 
v/hJch he was not to quit without 
fi-efn orderi, under any change of 



circumftance whatever, while tftfi 
diftance from Hierta was fach, that 
it would coll four or five days to 
fend for and receive them. 

However inexplicable this con- 
dufl may be, the confequence is 
eafily forefeen. The prince of Hefi'e 
having feized all the defiles in the 
rear of the Swedes, enclofed them 
on all fides in their llrong poll at 
Quiftrum, the difficulty of the coun- . 
try, which would in other circum- 
ftances have conftituted their fecu- 
rity, now only ferving to render 
their efcape impoffible. The valt 
fuperiority of the Danes foon ob- 
viated all the difficulties prefented 
in the approach by rocks, moun- 
tains, and torrents, although the •• 
Swedes covered them as well as 

they could with their c„„* ^„^u 
£ ij • rru «- Sept. 27tn.. 

held pieces. 1 he action ^ ' 

was briflc, though fhort ; the Nor- 
wegians climbing up the precipices 
with the agility of rock foxes, a« 
their enemy in derifion called them, 
the Swedes were foon in a fituation 
which rendered all refiflance fruit- 
lefs. A parley was accordingly 
beat, and the whole Swedilli corps 
obliged to furrender as prifoners cwf 
war. 

The Swedes behaved with all 
the gallantry which their fituation 
and force could admit. It happen- 
ed, however, fortunately, that the 
lofs of men on both fides was 
very moderate. The prifoners, who 
fomewhat exceeded eight hundred, 
v/ere treated with the greatell at- 
tention and kindnefs, and were re- 
leafed upon their parole not to 
ferve againlt the emprefs of Ruffia 
during the war. This little afi^air 
afforded an opportunity to the 
prince of Denmark of being, what; 
in fportfman's language would be 
called itlocded, and of acquiring a 
praclical 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. ^[19^ 



praftlcal knowledge of the diftinc- 
tion between the mufic of great 
balls and Tniall ones, as they flew 
over and by him. 

The prince of HeflTe then march- 
ed to Uddewalla, a rich and trading 
city, with its harbour full of Ihip- 
ping. The inhabitants had armed 
themfelves, thro\tn up an entrench- 
ment, and prepared for defence; 
but perceiving they had no fupporr, 
and the prince having taken care to 
acquaint them that he made no war 
upon private property, they fub- 
mitted quietly; while the complete 
fecurity v/hich he afforded to the 
town and fnipping fully juftified 
their confidence. In the mean time, 
Bahus, with its caftle (once deemed 
a fortrefs of great importance) with 
a number of other places, all fell 
without refiftance into the hands of 
the Danes, while the prince piiflied 
on detachments to fecure the brldfrcs 
and roads on the way to Gotten- 
burgh. 

Having arrived at Strom, and 
gained a pafTage, with fome diffi- 
culty, over the river Giotha, at the 
mouth of which Gottenburgh ftands, 
lie made no doubt that when his 
army had advanced, on both fides 
of the river, within fight of the 
ramparts, the city, feeing itfelf com- 
pletely in veiled, and being fenfible 
of the greatnefs of the immediate 
danger, would have readily fub- 
mitted to a capitulation. For, the 
place being furrounded by emi- 
nences, and the houfes moftly built 
of timber, that rich and fine city 
wa: liable to inftant deltruftion by a 
bombardment. The prince of Heife 
had likewife intelligence that the 
garrifon was only weak, and the 
fortifications naked of artillery, fo 
thaf reiillance would be attended 
Witii th3 double rifque, of the city 



being carried by afTauIt, while it 
was imoking under the eftedl of the 
bombardment. The wealth of the 
inhabitants, however, afforded no 
fmall fecurity, that they would not 
by refiftance urge fo deplotable a 
cataftrophe, as this dreadful accu- 
mulation of danger could not fail 
to produce. 

Prince Charles of HefTe thought 
it necefTary, before the paffioas of 
the people were too much agitated 
by his approach, to difpatch a ge- 
neral ofHcer to Gottenburgh, to pro- 
pcfe terms of capitulation to them. 
But the governor had not vvaiteij 
for the arrival of the Danifh ofHcer, 
or the approach of the enemy ; he 
had already fummoncd a meeting 
of the inhabitants, at which he re- 
prefented the danger they were in, 
and recommended a fabmilTioa to 
them as the only means of pre- 
ferving the city; a propofal with, 
which they generally, if not univer- 
fally, agreed. Thus was the rich, 
mart, and great emporium of the 
foreign commerce of Sweden, the 
only port of any value which Ihe 
pcfTjifed on the ocean, at the very 
point of being loft ; nothing mor« 
being wanted to f^al her delliny, 
than the arrival of the Danifh of- 
ficer to conclude the capitulation. 

A vigilance feldom equalled,along 
with unufual perfonal exertion, on 
the fide of the king, prevented aii 
event fo ruinous and difgraceful to 
the nation and to himfelf from tak- 
ing place. Aware of the danger to 
which Gottenburgh might be ex- 
pofed in his abfence, he performed 
a long journey on horfebackj alone, 
traveihng night and day with more 
than the expedition of a couiier,- 
for its ptefervation. It was to the 
utmoil aftonifhment of the inhabi- 
tants, that; within a: fev/ houri after 

[*N] 2 ' their 



I9ti]* AnNOaL register, 178^. 



tbeir determination to furrender, the 
king, whom they thought to be far 
diilant, and likevvife to be cut off 
by the enemies parties (which were 
Ipread through the country) from 
^ ^ , almoil the poiiibility of 
3"" approach^ arrived in that 
city. 

His firft aft was to difplace the 
governor ; and, having fommoned a 
meeting of the inhabitants for the 
following morning, his ufual powers 
of perfuafion produced the happiell 
cfted, on a people who were already 
greatly aOiamed of the daftardlinefs 
which their condud on the preced- 
ing day indicated. All thought of 
the danger of houfes and property 
was now at an end, or at leal!: no- 
body v.'ould hazard the mention of 
fuch an idea; and it was unanimoufly 
determined, that, in conjunftion 
with the garrifon, the place fhould 
he defended to the laft exlTemity. 
The aftoniftment of the Danifn ge- 
neral, on his arrival, was undo^ibt- 
edly no lefs than that which the 
inhabitants had already experienced, 
v.'hen he found himfelf led blind- 
folded into the city, and introduced 
diredly into the king's prefence. 
The precaution was indeed rather 
farcical, as the enemy were as well 
acquainted with the defences of 
Cottenburgh as the inhabitants. 

Though the place was thus faYei 
for a momer^t, ) et the Situation of 
that city, as vvtU .is of the king 
himfelf, vv'as ilili very critical, and 
iindeed perilous. For he had no 
force in his hands, or within reach, 
at all competent to oppofe with 
efTecl the Danifn army, and the 
<lefperate obilinacy of his courage 
was fuch, that nobody doubted his 
<ietermination to periili in the ruins, 
■fooner than relinquifh the place; 
while tb« Jiative fpirit of his fub- 



jefts would fcarcely admit thoi'e wiid 
were prefent to be unwilling parta- 
kers of the ruin. 

1 he intervention of the mediating 
powers of England, Prufiia, and 
Holland, dillant though they were, 
faved Sweden, and faved the king 
from fo dreadful a criiis, and af- 
forded a new and eminent inftance 
of the utility of that watchful atten- 
tion in ftates to the aftairs and fitu- 
ation of their neighbours, which 
operates to prevent the great from 
fwallowing up the fmall, and any 
combination of power from entirely 
crudiing an individual. To thii 
vigilant fpirit and difpofition, thb 
forward look into futurity, as well 
as wife precaution againft near dan- 
ger, Europe has preferved for fe* 
veral ages, though at different pe- 
riods in a lefs or greater degree, 
feme reafonable balance of power 
between its refpcftive ftates, and 
thereby efcaped that general defpo- 
tifm, which ha? fo often oppre.ffed 
and cnflaved the greater part c^ 
mankind. To this alfo, arts, fci- 
ence, literature, civilization, and 
hi-imnnity, owe the greatefl obliga- 
tions. 

It happened fingularly enough, 
in this feafon of bufincils, trouble, 
and commotion in the north, that' 
neither Great Britain, Pruffia, noY 
even France, had any public minif- 
ter rchdent at the court of Stock- 
holm. To remedy this v/ant, Mr^. 
Elliot, the Britilh minifler at the 
court of Copenhagen, immediately 
piiiTed over to Sweden, and, having^ 
announced, by letter to the princ» 
of HeiTt, his new charatfter of do* 
legate fx-om the allied mediating 
powers, he proceeded to aft in their 
joint name, and joined the king a* 
Gottenburgiv The zeal, addrciS;, 
dexterity, and ability, difplayed by 

Shis 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. *[i97 



t'nis minifter in all the parts of a 
fuccefsful but very difHcult negoci- 
ation, have fcldom been equalled, 
and can never be exceeded ; a 
fironger demonftration of which 
needs not to be given, than that his 
rnerits were fully and generoufly 
acknbv/ledged by thoie, who con- 
iidered him as entirely inimical to 
their interefts, and felt themfslves 
fufrering under their cfFed. 

In his firlV letter to the prince, 
Mr. Elliot informed him, that the 
Swedilh fovereign having accepted 
the mediation of the allied powers, 
and a courier being already dif- 
patched from Berlin to demand a 
general armiftice of the emprefs, he 
wilhcd at the fame time to fettle 
with him the means of concluding 
a particular armillice for the pre- 
sent, until the intended arrange- 
ments could take place. Prince 
Charles, in his anfwer, declined en- 
tering into any ncgocincion upon 
fhe fubjeifl, as he could noi, with- 
out exprefs orders from his Danilh 
majefty, depart from that line of 
condaft which was prefcribed to 
him. 

In Mr. Elliot's fecond letter he 
acquainted the prince, that by a 
pourier juil arrived from Berlin he 
had received certain intelligence, 
that the offenfive operations of the 
army which he commanded in Swe- 
den, were regarded in fuch a light 
by the allied fovereigns, that, to 
prevent their further progrefs, an 
immediate attack on Denmark, by 
the combined forces of Prulfia and 
Great Britain, was determined upon; 
that this faft being of too much 
importance to be concealed from 
the prince royal, he fhoald there- 
fore demand an audience of his 
royal highnefs ; and that he ftill 
fiat^ered himfelf \yith being able to 



find means, by which the prince of 
Hefl'c fhould fulfil his engagement* 
with RuiTia, vv^ithout any farther 
efFufion of blood. 

Prince Charles returned an an- 
fvver to this in the name of the 
prince royal: " That he had too 
firm a reliance on the king his 
uncle, and the whole Britifli nation, 
always fo faithful to their engage- 
ments, ever to fear any thing oQ 
their fide, after their being long 
ago apprized of the feveral reafons 
from which the king his father 
could not refufc a corps of auxilia- 
ries to the emprefs of Riilfia: That 
this corps, in which he was himfelf 
a mere volunteer, having been re- 
linquilhed to her majelly's difpofal, 
in conformity to the tenor and terms 
of a treaty, he did not think him- 
felf at all authorized to flop its fur- 
ther progrefs." After fome reafon-. 
ing in judificatlon of the invafion, 
as to manner and place, the prince 
ot Denmark concluded, that he 
woald., however, difpatch a courier 
to Copenhagen, the anfwer from 
whence Ihould ucci.'e the further 
fteps of the auxiliaries. 

Two days after a Pruf- ^o. ^ 
fian officer arrived in the • 7 "• 
Norwegian camp with another let-r 
ter from Mr. Elliot, in which that 
minifter informed the princes, that 
the kings of Prulfia and England 
could by no means confider their 
troops as a Ruffian, but abfohuely 
as a Danifh army, and confcqueiitly 
addreffed themfelvcs, through him, 
to require an immediate ceifacion of 
ail further progrefs in the Swedifli 
territories. That he, the minifter, 
being furniflied with full powers by 
the king of Sweden for treating 
with the prince of Heffe on a ceila- 
tion of hoftiiities, upon juft and ho- 
nourable conditions, either as field- 
l*N] 3 marlka^ 



1^3]^ ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



tna.TCcia.1 of the king of Denmark, 
or as commander of a corps ot 
auxiliary troops ceded to Ruffia, he 
v/ould (notwithilanding a fevere in- 
difpofuion) find means to be con- 
veyed to the head -quarters, in order 
to fettle the conditions of an armi- 
flice without delay. 

To give the greater force to his 
arguments, and efteft to his propo- 
fal, Mr. Elliot obferved, that at the 
moment he was writing, war was 
perhaps already declared again ft 
Denmark by Pruflla and England ; 
but that, in cafe priqce Charles was 
ferioufly inclined to feize the pre- 
fent cpport'jnity of doing that fer- 
vice to humanity; which he propofed 
to him, he would imm.ediately dif- 
patch couriers to Berlin and Lon- 
don, to Hop, if poJTible, both the 
invafion of a Pruflian army in IIol- 
ilein, and the failing of an Englifti 
fleet for the Sound. He further 
obferved, that he had chofen baron 
d'Albrdyhl to be the bearer of 
that letter, becaufe, being a Pruflian 
officer, he could confirm every thing 
he had aiferted, with refpect to the 
preparation and determination of 
his mailer. Mr. Elliot concluded 
his letter by an indirect application 
to the prince royal, requefting tliat 
it might he read to him^ and taking 
TJOtice that it was written by the 
ambaffador of the king his uncle; 
by a mail wholly devoted to his 
Toyal highnefs, and who was rift- 
ing his own life (alluding to his 
illnefs) to prevent the effuiion of 
the biood of other:. 

The firft apparent efFedl of Mr. 
Elliot's intervention, v/as a change 
in the pofjtion of the Dauifh army, 
that part v/hich had palled the Gio- 
tha, in order to enclofe Gotten- 
purgh OP. both fides, being now re- 



called, and the head -quarters tranf. 
ferred from Strom to Trotfka. 

Tiie fit nation of prince Charles 
of Helle was at this moment by no 
means enviable, and indeed he had 
a very diflicult game to play. He 
had pofitive orders, both from his 
own court and that of Petcrfburgh, 
for the taking of Gottenburgh, and 
the force placed in his hands was 
fully competent for that fervice. 
His own charafter as a commander, 
feeijicd likewife not a little ftai<-ed 
upon that event; and it feemed a 
fevere check upon the laudable am- 
bition of the prince royal, to be 
difappoiated in the grand object of 
his firfl enterprise in arms. Nor 
is it to be fuppol'ed but that, well 
acquainted as Prince Charles was 
with the peremptory haaghtincfs of 
the court of Peterfburgh, long ufed 
to fucceed in her deligns, and to 
the prompt execution of all her 
orders, he mull have been appre- 
henfive that fhe would ill relilh a 
failure, with refpcdl to an objed on 
which ihe had fo llrongly fixed her 
mipd ; and which the princes them- 
felves had deemed as already ir^ 
their hands. 

Eut, pn the other hand, the un- 
expeded arrival of the king at that 
place, along with the extraordinary 
efFeft produced by his elocution and 
addrefs upon the inhabitants, ha4 
totally changed, within a very few 
days, the ai'ped of affairs. All hope 
of gaining Gottenburgh by compo- 
fition was now at an end ; it could 
only be carried by force; by an 
exertion of the moll cruel nature; 
a bombardment in the firlt inl^ance^ 
which would have laid the city in 
afhes, and a fucceflion afterwards 
of the moft defperate and blcody 
affaults. Nor was the fuccefs of 

thi? 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. *[i99 



t^iis extremity by any means fo clear, 
as the Daniih generals feemed dif- 
pofed to imagine ; -and in the bell 
cafe that could happen, the fmok- 
ing ruins of the place would be the 
only prize to the viciors. The 
hearts of the princes recoiled at the 
idea of fuch a fcene of carnage and 
defolation ; at being themfelves con- 
lidered as incendiaries, for the de- 
ftruction of fuch a city, of fuch 
immenfe private property, and the 
ruin that muft enfue to fo great 
a number of individuals ; and of 
being the means of rendering the 
name of Dane for ever odious and 
abhorred in Sweden. 

The greateft rub of all ftill re- 
mained, however, to be confider- 
ed ; that, was the dangers that 
would arife to Denmark from the 
combined hollile operations of a 
PrufTian army, and of an Englifh 
fleet. This was a fubjecl that com- 
manded the moll; ferious attention. 
It was not among the lead of the 
embarraifments in which the prince 
of Heife was now involved, that he 
was under a neceffity of coming, in 
a certain degree, to an immediate 
determination upon this fubjedl. In 
this dilemma he happily conuder- 
ed, that the intervention of thefe 
great po\ycvs, as the fupporters and 
proteftors of Sweden, had totally 
changed the face of affaiis ; that 
Denmark was in no degree capable 
pf refilling fucli a combination; that 
therefore the original defign muil 
of necefiity be foregone, for that 
An obftinate perfeverance on her 
fide, inftead of affording aid to 
Ruiua, would probably prove the 
means of adding a moft formidable 
increafe to her enemies. Upon 
thefe confiderations, and perhaps 
others, the prince of JHelfe reiblv- 
ei to accommodate his condudl to 



the prefent neceffity of things. He 
befides refieded, that Denmark had 
done all that (he could to manifeft 
her zeal for the emprefs ; and that 
the prince royal had afforded an 
unequivocal proof of his attach- 
meiK to her interefts, by gallantly 
hazarding his life in their fupport ; 
fo that no charge, whether on the 
iide of friendihip, or with refpedl 
to fulfilling tlie duties of an ally, 
could poffibly lie againft either. 

Thefe moderate fentiments, which 
owed their birth, in no finall degree, 
to the ability and dexterity of the 
Britiih miniiler, were fupported and 
confirmed by his incefl'ant applica- 
tion. Another change was made 
in the polition of the army, by which 
it was moved farther from the fcene 
of jealoufy and conteft ; and the 
head-quarters were removed to the 
neighbourhood of Bahus, where 
Mr. Elliot attended the princes in 
perfon. To his former itrong re- 
prefentations on the neceffity of an 
immediate armillice, in order to 
prevent the greateft evils, and to 
ward off the molt imminent dan- 
gers, he now held out the flatter- 
ing hope, that it would afford the 
means of producing a fpcedy paci- 
fication in the north ; an event 
which would not be more happy 
to Sweden, than glorious to the 
princes and to the two allied powers 
themfelves. 

This pleafing idea, fo happily 

contrafted with the evils before held 

out, could not fail of effedl. ^o , 
» -a- ■ Oa. Qth. 

An armiltice was imme- -^ 

diately concluded for eight days, 
as preparatory to one for a long- 
er term, the avowed objedl of both 
being, to afford time for negociat- 
ing a general peace under the au- 
fpiccs of the mediating powers. In 
tiie mtan time, a ftron^ remon- 

Itranc* 



2O0]* ANNUAL R E G I S T E R, 17I 



ftrance from the king of Pniffla 
was prefented at the court of Co- 
penhagen, including a threat of an 
immediate invahon of Holftein, if 
the Danifli forces were not with- 
drawn from Sweden ; ^and the Ba- 
ron de Borcke arrived as miniller 
from Berlin at Gottenburgh, fn or- 
der to coincide with and confirm 
tlie proceedings of ]\ir. Elliot. 

We are fosry that julHce and 
truth compel us to obferve, that 
the king of Sweden did not a6l, in 
the enluing negcciations, wixli all 
that opennefs, fairnefs, and clear- 
nei's, which were to be wifhed, and 
would hav-e been fo fuitable and be- 
coming to hjs high rank. That, 
on the contrary, he feemed to have 
afforded too much room for a re- 
newal of thofe cenfures, with re- 
fpeft to a certain ambiguity of cha- 
rader and. verfatility of conduil, 
which have heretofore been palled, 
both at home and abroad, upon 
Other occafions. It is certain, that 
a captious fpirit of litigation, not ex- 
empt from llrong appearances of du- 
plicity, became now fo predominant 
as to draw forth the marked difap- 
probation, and even fomething like 
an implication of withdrawing from 
the office they had undertaken, of 
his own particular friends, the two 
minifters of the mediating powers, 
whofe zeal and ability had been fo 
happily inftrumental in the prefer- 
vation of his kingdom. 

It would feem, that the animo- 
fity which be conceived againil the 
Danes was fo great, and his r^fent- 
ment for the fuppofed difgrace of 
the invafion fo keen, ti'.at he was 
almoft willing to rifque^ all things in 
order to gratify thefe feelings, and 
TO give the invaders fuch fore and 
laliiTigTejnembrancers of the effed 
t>f iheir conduftj as might kivc to 



deter them in future from fimilar 
attempts. For the Pomeranian 
troops, amounting to fixteen or 
eighteen hundred, being now arriv- 
ed, other troops collected from dif- 
ferent quarters, the Dalecarlian vo- 
lunteers approaching, and the pea- 
fants arming and regimenting them- 
felves in confiderable numbers in 
the adjacent provinces, the late ap- 
prehenfion and terror about the fine 
of Gottenburgh was already for- 
gotten, and the king fondly ima- 
gining that he v/as, or would in a 
iew days be, in fufficient force to 
beat up the Norv/egian polls and 
cantonments, and to drive them dif- 
gracefuily and ruinouily out of the 
country, it is more than probable, 
that, he fully regretted the fuccefs- 
ful progrefs of the laediatirg mini- 
llers, in procuring an accommoda- 
tion ; nor can it be doubted, that, 
under thefe impreffions, the fight of 
a Pruffian army in Holftein, and 
of an Englifii lleet in the Sound, 
v/ould have afforded much hijiher 
gratihcaaon than any peace what'* 
ever. 

But thefe fanguine hopes were 
partly, perhaps, founded upon mif- 
calculation, or otherwife were mere- 
ly the fruits of too warm an imagi- 
nation. For the force in his h;:nds, 
or that foon could be, was total- 
ly incompetent to theif fulfilment. 
The regular troops were joo few in 
number; and, notv/ithftanding the 
native courage of the Dalecarlians, 
and of the raw newly-railed pea- 
fants, it would have been madnefs, 
in the prefent fyllem of war, to rely 
upon them in a field of battle, when 
cppofed to a well-conllituted, well- 
difcipliced regular nrmy, compofe'd 
of men as hardy and brave as them- 
felves. Neither were any magazines 
provided, nor the king's forces fur- 
§ ni{h?(\ 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. *[aor 



j»(hed with baggage, ammunition, 
and other articles, which were the 
Jnoft indifpenfably necefTary to en- 
able them to take the field. 

It was, however, undoubtedly, in 
confequence of the difpofition and 
opinion ive I\ave mentioned, that 
twenty Norwegian barks, laden with 
proviiions, fcores, and the baggage 
of the army* were taken on their 
Ihort coafting voyage, under the 
faniaion and in the midft of the ar- 
miftice, and carried into Gotten- 
burgh with all the triumph of a 
viftory; while the king fupported 
£nd j unified this violence, on the 
ground, that the terms feas and wa^ % 
ters were not fpecifically mentioned 
in that inftrument. Under the do- 
minion of the fame fpirit, while the 
ncgociators were labouring with the 
utmofl affiduity to h^eal all griev- 
ances between the nations, and, if 
they could not yet fuceeed in the 
reftoration of peace, at leaft to ac- 
complifn a renewal of the armiftice, 
a ilrange fort of proclamation, or 
manifelto to his fubjcds, was iflucd 
by the king, tending to fruftrate all 
their labours and fubvert their de- 
fjgns. For the evident objccl of 
this piece was to excite in the 
people the greatef!: pollible aninio- 
fity againft the Danes, by moft in- 
juriouily nnd unjuftly charging up- 
on the Norwegian army, and of 
courfe upon their general, the ruin 
cf the Swcdilh provinces in their 
pofleffion, by the exorbicances and 
depredation of which they were 
guihy. It is eafily feen, that the 
tiatural confequence of fuch a pub- 
lication, ccming from ftsth an au- 
thority, v>'ould have been fome out- 
rage on the part of the neighbour- 
ing peafantr^,. that would ncceffarily 
!cad to an immediate renewal cf ho- 
ftility. 



It was much to the honour of the 

Englilh minifter, that he (hewed as 
much zeal in refuting thefe calum- 
nies, in juftifying the conduft and 
vindicating the honour of the prince 
of KefTe, as he had conftantly done 
in promoting and fecuring the inte- 
refls of Sweden. 

Indeed the m.ediating miniflerS 
had now a mod vexatious as well as 
difficult part to aft, in endeavour- 
ing to prevent the effedl of that 
ftrange uncertainty and tergiverfa- 
tion on the fide of their ally, which 
tended to counteraft all their eflbrts 
in his favour. In the courfe of al- 
tercation which this ftate of things 
produced, the foHov/ing extradl from 
a letter, written by Mr. Elliot to 
the king, on the fubjecl of the Nor- 
wegian barks, is, perhaps, on ac- 
count of the fentimeuts it contains, 

not unworthy of preferving. 

The king having before compli- 
mented the minifter on the " glo- 
" rious fituation he was placed in j 
'' an individual is the depoiitcry 
" of the folemn word of a great 
" king, and of a prince command-. 
*' ing an army !" Mr. Elliot new 
repeated thefe terms in his letter, to 
recall them to the king's memorv, 
and as introdudcry to his fubject ; 
he theu proceeds : " It was on th« 
'•' acknov/ledged charader of Bri- 
" tiih veracity, ftable as the foun- 
" dation of their ifland, the under- 
*' written faw a fovereign and a 
" prince rely, to i^op the eifufion of 
" blood, on the point of inundating 
" the north of Europe. It was 
" the verbal afli.u-ance of a ftranger, 
" credited for the faith of his name 
*' and country, that two armies, rea- 
" dy to combat, have refigned their 
" hatred, and renewed their ancient 
" ties of amity and confraternity. 
*' It is, therefore, in the facred 
" name 



202]* ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 

" name of honour and truth, the ficulties which the negoclatlng mi* 

*' underwritten is obliged to declare, nifters had to furmount, another 

«* that, according to his weak in- armiftice for a month was happily 

*' fight, the objeds contefted rnufl concluded: and this was fucceeded 

*' be reftored to prince Charles of by a third, for fix months, the term 

«' Heffe. He difpenfes with enter- of which did not expire until the 

" ing into a reafonable difcuflion 15th of May 1789. — The prince of 

«« upon time and place ; he fulfils HefTe withdrew his army from S we- 

« his tafk, in virtue of his right as den into Norway, rather before the 

"umpire." middle of November. 
Notwithllanding the various dif- 



CHRONICLE 



CHRONICLE. 



[ »93 ] 



C H R 



I C L E. 



JANUARY. 

Bay of Honduras 3 Sept. 23. 

BETWEEN the hours of four 
and five in the morning, a 
gale commenced from N. N. W. At 
eight it came to blow at W. N. W. 
with great vi lence, attended with 
rain. At eight the fky became ob- 
fcured, and it blew a hurricane. At 
this period the houfes began to give 
way on both udes the river Balize, 
the limbs of the trees to be torn oft, 
the inhabitants with fear and con- 
fternation to be running about for 
refuge, and the rain pouring incef- 
fantly upon their heads in full tor- 
rents About ten the wind (hifted 
to S. W. and blew, if poffible, with 
redoubled violence. At that in- 
ftant the Tea began to rife, and, 
contending with the land floods, 
every where overflowed the low 
lands. Tije cries of the women 
and children, and the floating of the 
dead bodies prcmifcuoufly among 
the logs of mahogany, exhibited 
fuch a fcene of human mifery and 
diftrefs as no pen can defcribe, nor 
was the horror in the leafl: dimi- 
niflied when the hurricane abated, 
and the waters fubfided — a melan- 
choly fcene prefented itfelf to the 
unfortunate fur', Ivors — :ot a fingle 
houfe, hut, or habitation of any 
Vol. XXX. 



kind, on either fide the Balize, 
Handing ; not lefs than 500 of dif- 
ferent conftrudlions have been blown 
down, and with their furniture re- 
duced to a heap of rubbifli. The 
dead bodies of many who had pe- 
rifhed in endeavouring to gain the 
heights, the carcafes of hogs, goats, 
and cattle, all ferved to heighten 
the calamity. Out of fifteen fquare- 
rigged veflels, befides fchooners, 
fmall craft, and other velTels, eleven 
of them were totally loft, and more 
than 100 peribns perilhed. Such a 
deplorable cataftrophe never befel 
any fettlement in the Weft Indies 
before. 

Peterjhiirgh Gazette, Nov. to, J 787. 
" Lalt week the court received 
from prince Potemkin the following 
account of another defeat of the 
enemy's troops, commanded by the 
famous Sheik Manfour, dated Eli- 
zabeth-Grod the 5th inftant. 

♦• Towards the middle of Sep- 
tember lieut. general Potemkin re- 
ceiving advice that a great number 
of troops were aflembled between 
the rivers Uiap and Lab, and that 
a great many Turks of Sudlhukkle 
had come to inform the Tartars of 
Cuban that war wps declared, and 
to engage them to make an incur- 
fion in the neighbouring ftates of 
Ruffia ; he formed the defign of 
preventing them, and difperfing the 
troops which were affembled. 

[N] " The 



194] ANNUAL REGISTER, 17S8. 



" The ift of Oftober he pafTed 
the Cuban with three columns, and 
the fourth, commanded by major- 
general Jelagin (to cover his de- 
fign) was to pafs the river below 
Owetfchu-Brod, and to repulfe the 
enemy in cafe they ftiould attack 
him. 

*' Colonel Rebinder's column, 
which had the leaft way to go, ar- 
rived firfl at the {heik's quarters, 
where he found about 600 of the 
enemy's troops entrenched behind 
the waggons. When the vanguard 
attacked them, the Tartars, en- 
trenched behind the waggons, re- 
peated a loud prayer, diftated by 
the (heik ; after which they made a 
defperate defence, but were obliged 
to yield to the valour of our troops, 
who made themfeives mailers of the 
entrenchment, and left 400 of the 
«nemy dead on the field. 

" On the 2d, the fheik returned 
with a body of troops he had railed 
to attack colonel Rebinder, but was 
repulfed. Tlie regiment of carabi- 
neers, of Roilen, had the greatell 
fhare in this attack ; for whilft they 
engaged a troop that was detached 
from the reft, another party rulhed 
from an ambufcade on their left 
wing; which being _ immediately 
fuccoured by the regiment of Ai'- 
tracan dragoons, and a battalion of 
grenadiers, the enemy was obliged 
to fly. 

*♦ On the 3d of December, the 
enemy having been reinforced by 
feme Tartar troops from Temengai, 
Bellei, Keptfchak, and Abailu, made 
a fecond attack on our troops. Ma- 
jor-general prince Ratifew marched 
ftrait againlt them, and forced them, 
by a fmart and well-fupported fire, 
to fly haftily towards their habita- 
tions. The next day they fet fire to 
the flveik's habitation, and the 



neighbouring villages, where the/ 
found io,OGO pieds of butter, and a 
great ftore of barley. 

*' Colonel Deprerabowitfch fet 
out immediately to the villages of 
the Tartars of Cuban, aiid after a 
laborious march, during the 7th, 
8th, and 9th inftant, they reached 
them. The Tartars made a def- 
perate attack, and the fight lafted 
lor feven hours. Major-general Je- 
lagin, having marched to fuccour 
the colonel, found, on his arrival, 
the enemy already put to flight. 
Colonel Deprerabowitfch calculates 
the number of men killed in this en- 
counter, in the adtion, villages, and 
in flying, to be two thoufand. The 
whole body under major-general Je- 
lagin had Oiily one lieutenant and 
thirty-four foldiers killed, and two 
fecond lieutenants and one hundred 
and five foldiers wounded. The 
booty taken confiflsof a great num- 
ber of cattle, which they diftributed 
amongft the troops, v*ho, after hav- 
ing humbled the Tartars of Cuban, 
returned fafe to their quarters." 

Plyinouth, Dec. 27. The Pegafus 
frigate, from Cork, commanded by 
his royal highnefs prince William, 
arrived here. His rc»yal highnefs, 
after vi fifing the admiral and com« 
miffioner of the dock, took up his 
refidence at Mr. V/inne's, an emi- 
nent merchant of this town.- On 
his paflTage his highnefs experienced 
the effefts of a very extraordinary 
phenomenon : a thunder ftorm 
broke over the fhip fo violently, as 
to tear fome of the fails, and Ihiver 
the main-maft, fo as to render it 
neceffary for a new maft to be fup- 
plied. The feafon of the year 
makes the circumftance memorable, 
and the more fo, as the ftorm was 
more tremendous on the north coaft 
of France than at fea. 

January 



CHRONICLE. 



[^95 



January ift. A fingular forgery 
has lately been committed on the 
Bank, by a perlbn of the name of 
Lamb. The note by which the 
forgery was difcovered, was for 20 1. 
and fo nicely executed, that Abra- 
ham Nevvland, the caftiier, could 
hardly tell the true from the falfe 
note. The early difcovery, which 
was fortunate for the public, was 
by chance. Lamb, being a clerk 
in Do61:ors Commons, requefted the 
head clerk in the office to lend him 
a 20 1. bank note, which he pro- 
mifed to return in a fhort time. 
But Lamb not keeping his word, 
his brother clerk was obliged to 
prefs him for it. The note Lamb 
received was indorfed ; the note 
Lamb brought the head clerk. 
Lamb happened to neglect putting 
the indorfement on it. This, with 
other fufpicious circumltances, led 
the clerk to fuppoie there was fome 
underhand manoeuvre in the matter. 
He went to MelTrs. Boldero and 
Co. with the note : they declared it 
to be genuine, and offered him caflx 
for it ; which he refufed, confcious 
the note he gave Lamb was in- 
dorfed. His fufpicions proved too 
true ; for no fooner Lamb fled, 
than the matter took air. 

It does not appear that he had 
paffed any number in circulation. 
They were drawn with a pencil and 
Indian ink, and the water-mark 
complete. 



loth. 



This evenin?^ It was given 



out that Mr. Macklin was to 
appear in the charafter of Shylock, 
at Covent Garden theatre. The 
houfe was crowded in every part, 
and his performance exhibited a 
wonderful fhare of fpirit and vigour, 
confidering his advanced age, till 
the fecond act, when, confcious of 
ibme few defers/ he, with much 



folemnity, addrefled the audience 
nearly in the following words : 
*' Ladies and gentlemen, 

" Within thefe very few hours I 
have been feized with a terror ot 
mind I never in my life felt before; 
— it has totally delboyed my cor- 
poreal, as well as mental faculties. 
I mult, therefore, requeft your pa- 
tience this night — a requelt, which 
an old man of 89 years of age 
may hope is not unreafonable. Should 
it be granted, you may depend this 
will be the lall night, unlefs my 
health fhall be entirely re-ellab- 
lifhed, of my ever appearing before 
you in fo ridiculous a fituation." 

This affedting addrefs from an 
old favourite of the town, of at leaft 
eighty- nine years of age, met with 
enthufiaftic reception ; which feem- 
ed to give new life to his drooping 
fpirits. He foon recovered, and 
the play went on with applaufe to 
the end. It is recalled to mind on 
the prefent occafion, that Lever- 
edge, the finger, fung on the ftage 
at the age of ninety-five. 

Plymouth, Jan. 14. Laft Tuef- 
day evening at eleven arrived here, 
in a coach and fix, their royal high- 
neifes the prince of Wales and duke 
of York, accompanied by prince 
William Henry, who went to meet 
them. The concourfe of people 
was aitonilning ; the illuminations 
fplendid, and the demonftrations of 
joy on every countenance pleafing 
beyond expreflion. The carriage 
proceeded llovvly through the town 
to lodgings prepared for the royal 
guefls in Fore-ltreet. 

The marquis de la Luzerne, ^, . 
ambafiador from the moft 
Chriftian king, had his firft private 
audience of his majelty to deliver 
his credentials. 

As had likewife the count St. 
[A'] 2 Martin 



196] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



Martin de Font, envoy extraordi- 
nary from the king of Sardinia. — 
To which they were refpe£tively in- 
troduced by the marquis of Car- 
marthen. 

, Among the feveral returns 
* made to the houfe of com- 
mons, in compliance with Mr. 
Gilbert's bill, was one from a poor 
Welch curate, who, after delineat- 
ing the diilrefTes of his poor neigh- 
bours, adds, " But their diftreffes 
cannot be greater than mine are ; I 
have a wife who is far advanced in 
her pregnancy : I have around me 
nine poor children, for whom I 
never yet could procure fhoe or 
Hocking ; it is with difficulty I can 
fupply thero with food ; my income 
is 35 1. per annum; and for this I 
do the duty of four parilhes." The 
letter here alluded to, had a wonder- 
ful efFe£lupon the whole committee. 
Mr. Gilbert, with that benevolence 
which has long characterized him, 
immediately tranfmitted to the 
poor curate a bank note for a tem- 
porary fupply. The letter has been 
fhewn to their majellies ; enquiry 
has been made as to the moral cha- 
rafter of the man, and provifion 
will be made for him as foon as pof- 
fible. 

Soon after, the duke of Chandos 
humanely conferred on this clergy- 
man a living of 120I. per annum. 

Dublin, Ja?]. 7,1. This day Ro- 
bert Keon, efquire, was brought up 
to the court of king's bench, to re- 
ceive fentence for the murder of 
George Nugent Reynolds, efquire. 
The circumftances of this murder 
were the following : thofe two gen- 
tlemen went out to fight a duel, and 
when Mr. Reynolds, previous to 
coming to adlion, was in the act of 
faluting Mr. Keon with hi^ hat in 
liii hand, wifliing him a good morn- 



ing, the latter fired his piftol, and 
Ihot him through the head. Upon 
this, Mr. Plunkett, Mr. Reynolds's 
fecond, called out, " A horrid 
murder!'' On which Mr. Keon's 
brother replied, " If you don't like 
it, take that," and fnapped a piftol 
at Mr. Plunkett, which luckily did 
not go off. The jury found Mr. 
Keon guilty in November lalt; but 
his counfel moved an arreft of judg- 
ment, and pleaded feveral errors in 
the different proceedings, to flop the 
fentence. The court, after the moll 
folemn arguments, over-ruled all 
the objeftions, and paffed fentence 
of death upon him, according to the 
verdifl ; and he was executed the 
1 6th of the following month. 

Died. — At Pans, the count de 
Graffe, who was taken prifoner by 
admiral Rodney, in the Ville de 
Paris, laft war. 

At Kilmarnock, aged 105, Janet 
Allan, being born on that day 
John Nifbet fuffered marryrdom at 
the crofs of Kilmarnock, in the 
reign of Charles II. About four 
years ago, her fight returned in a 
great meafure, after it was long 
dim by reafon of age. She went to 
kirk and market till within a few 
days of her death, and retained her 
fenfes to the laft:. 

At Galloway, aged 114, Patrick 
Connolly, efquire. 



FEBRUARY. 

On Tuefday, January 28, « 
the court of feflion determined 
the very important queftion, " Whe- 
ther the members of the college of 
juftice have the privilege of being 
exempted from all taxations and 
affeffments for the fupport of the 
poor within the city of Edinburgh." 

Their 



CHRONICLE. 



[197 



Their lordfhips delivered their 
feveral opinions at great length, 
and unanimoufly determined that 
the privilege of exemption froiii 
this afTeflment dearly and indif- 
putably belonged to the members of 
the college of julHce, both from 
ftatute and ufage. Their lordlhips 
(poke with much candour and li- 
berality on the fubjeft. They felt 
the delicacy of deciding a caufe in 
which they themfelves were par- 
ties ; but, whatever might be the 
wifli of fome to wave a privilege 
apparently ungracious, the immu- 
nities of an ancient and moll re- 
fpedlable corporation were not to 
be infringed. They fat as judges, 
not as legiflators ; the interpreters, 
not the makers of the law. It was 
only for the high court of parlia- 
ment t0 interfere in a matter of 
fuch magnitude and importance. 

The French king's edidl, con- 
cerning Proteftants was regiftered 
on the 29th of January. It confifls 
of thirty-feven articles ; of which 
twenty-four refpedl the neceflary 
detail of marriages, births, bap- 
tifms, and burials ; the others fpe- 
cify, that Proteftants are to contri- 
bute to the clergy of the French 
church — that the police and muni- 
eipal regulations are to be obeyed 
— that the eftabliflied officers of the 
French fhall never be interrupted — 
and that the Proteftants ftiall be in- 
capable of any adl as an incorporat- 
ed commuity. 

£^^ In the court of king's bench 
was folemnly argued and de- 
termined a very interefting queftion, 
refpedling the laws of marriage : 
— a difpute having arifen between 
two parifties concerning the fettle- 
ment of a pauper who had been 
charged to have two wives, but 
who had fworn only xo one ; an ap- 



peal was made to the quarter fef- 
fions, when the juftices made an 
order, without permitting the wi/e, 
with whom he had fworn to have 
contra£ted matrimony, to prove her 
marriage. A rule «//?, therefore, 
was obtained to quafh this order, 
upon the ground that the wife ought 
to have been admitted an evidence. 
The court was, however, of a con- 
trary opinion, and that the wife is 
in no cafe admitted as a witnefs to 
criminate her huftjand. In the cafe 
before the court, the hulband had 
fworn he was married to one wife 
only ; the teftimony of the wife 
would not only have imputed to him 
the crime of perjury, but might 
probably have led to a profecutiotl 
for that offence. They were there- 
fore of opinion, that the order of 
feffions ought to be confirmed, and, 
of courfe, the rule was difcharged. 

This day being appointed , 
for the trial of the impeach- ^ * 
ment of Warren Haftings, efquire, 
the houfe of commons, about eleven 
o'clock, preceded by the managers 
of the impeachment, came from 
their own houfe into the hall. The 
managers were dreft, the reft of the 
members in their ufual undrefs, 
Mr. Burke led the proceffion, and 
they took their feats on the greea 
benches. 

Half an hour after, the lords 
moved from their own chamber of 
parliament : the clerks of parlia- 
ment firft, the mafters of chancery 
following them, next the ferjeants, 
then the judges ; after them a he- 
rald, and then the eldeft fons of 
peers and peers minor; then, after 
the ufhers, the barons, bifhops, vif- 
counts, earls, marquifTes, dukes, 
the archbilhops, and the lord chan- 
cellor. The proceffion clofed with 
the royal family, th? fon of the 

[N] 3 duke 



198] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



duke of Gloucefter walking firft, 
and the prince of Wales lall. In 
paffing to their feats they took off 
their hats, and bowed to the throne. 

Having taken their feats, the 
ferjeant at arms made proclama- 
tion, commanding filence, and call- 
ed upon Warren Haftings, efquire, 
to come into court. 

Mr. Haftings accordingly came 
into court, accompanied by Mr. 
Sullivan and Mr. Sumner, his two 
bail, and kneeling at the bar in the 
box afligned to him, he was ordered 
to rife, which he accordingly did. 

The ferjeant at arms then made 
proclamation : 

** Oyez, Oyez, Oyez. Whereas 
charges of high crimes and mifde- 
meanors have been exhibited by the 
honourable the houfe of commons, in 
the name of themfelves and of all 
the commons of Great Britain, 
againft Warren Haftings, efquire, 
all perfons concerned are to take 
notice that he now ftands upon his 
trial, and they may come forth 
in order to make good the faid 
charges." 

The lord chancellor then addreff- 
ed the prifoner as folloAs: 
*' Warren Haftings, 

" You fland at the bar of this 
court charged with high crimes and 
mifdemeanors, a copy of which has 
been delivered to you ; you have 
been allowed counfel, and a long 
time has been given to you for your 
defence; bat this is not to be con- 
fidered as a particular indulgence 
to you, as it arofe from the necef- 
fity of the cafe, the crimes with 
which you are charged being Hated 
to have been committed in a diftant 
place. Thefe charges contain the 
moft weighty allegations, and they 
come from the higheft authority : 
this circuinllance^ however, though 



it carries with it the moft ferious 
importance, is not to prevent you 
from making your defence in a firm 
and colleded manner, in the confi- 
dence that, as aBritilh fubjedl, you 
are entitled to, and will receive, 
full juftice from a Britifti court." 

To which Mr. Haftings made the 
following anfwer : 
" My lords, 

*' I am come to this high tribu- 
nal equally impreffed with a confi- 
dence in my own integrity, and in 
the juftice of the court before which 
I ftand." 

The clerks of the court then pro- 
ceeded to read the charges and the 
anfwers, which they did as long as 
they had day-light ; and about a 
quarter pall: five, had come to the 
end of the feventh charge and an- 
fwer, when the lord chancellor 
moved, that the lords ihould ad- 
journ to their own chamber of par- 
liament. They accordingly with- 
drew in the order in which they 
came. 

Her majefty, with the four elder 
princefTes, fat in the center of the 
duke of Nevvcaftle's box. The 
queen was waited on by the duchefs 
of Ancafter, lady Holdernefs, lord 
Aylelbury, &c. She was dreft plain 
without diamonds, and coming 
without Hate, the ufual etiquette 
was difpenfed with, and fhe fulrered 
the ladies above mentioned, with 
the young daughters of lady Lin- 
coln, to fit on the fame feat with 
her. 

So high was the public ^v 
anxiety on the iffue of the "■ ° 
bruifing match, which was decided 
yerterday between Humphreys an4 
Mendoza, that neither the diftance 
from town, nor the ftate of the 
weather, could prevent a very large 
body of people from afiembling at 

the 



CHRONICLE. 



['99 



the fcene of a£lion in Odiham.— 
Several hundreds of people paid 
half a guinea a-piece to gain ad- 
mifiim within the paddock, where 
the ftage was railed. The paddock 
was well defended againil the mul- 
titude by Tring, Ryan, Dunn, and 
a number of other of the ftrongeft 
men in England, who with clubs 
looked like fo many giants ; but 
what can refiit the fhock of an Engr, 
lilh mob : The paddock was brok- 
en down, and the torrent rufhed 
in. 

The combatants mounted the 
ftage exadly at one o'clock, and, 
after the ulual ialutation, Mendoza 
inilantly began the onfet with all 
the heat and impetuofity of a man 
determined on viclory. He threw 
himfelf in with much adivity, and 
difplayed much fnewy enterprife, 
\yhile Humphreys retreated and 
avoided the blov.'s. The latter bore 
himfeif with great referve, and the 
Jew was accordingly the alTailant 
in the firft fix or feven rounds. In 
thefe, iVIeiidoza being more hazard- 
ous and more fuccefsful than Hum- 
phreys, the bets, which were two to 
one in favour of the latter before the 
battle, changed to fix to four, feven 
to four, and at laft two to one againft 
him. Several blows of Mendoza had 
their efFeft. He cut Humphreys 
under the left eye, and of courfe 
endeavoured to follow up the wound, 
but in this he was difappointed by 
the fuperior addrefs of his oppo- 
nent. 

The ftage, from the wetnefs of 
the day, was extremely flippery, 
and for fome time neither of them 
could keep their feet fo as to give 
£rmnefs to their aftion. To re- 
medy this, Humphreys threw oit his 
fiioes, and got a pair of worfted 
(lockings, in which, without fhoes. 



he continued the battle with im- 
proved footing. 

After they had fought 18 or 19 
minutes, Humphreys began to ma- 
nifert his fuperior fkill, and the bets 
again changed in his favour. He 
planted a dreadful blow on the 
neck, or tiear the jaw of the Jew, 
which fickened, and almoft dif- 
abled him. He continued the bat- 
tle, however, with much determi- 
nation of fpirit, until extravafated 
blood and exhaufted breath made 
him fo helplefs, that he lay on the 
ftage unable to rife, and yielded the 
conteft. 

The battle lafted 29 minutes. 

Humphreys was feconded bjr 
Johnfon, and Mendoza by Jacobs. 

In confequence of the above bat- 
tle, it is faid that upwards of 
20,000 1. fterling of bets will be 
transferred from the Jews to the 
Chriilians — rather to the Gentiles. 

This day, at a half-yearly , 
court of the proprietors of the -^ 
banic ftock, tne governor acquainted 
the proprietors, that as this was the 
time when the dividends are ufu- 
ally declared, it was the unanimous 
opinion of the direftors, that the 
next half-yearly dividend, ending 
the 25th inftaut, fhould be three 
pounds ten fliillings, which makes 
the increafe of the dividend of that 
ftock at the rate of one per cent. 

L'nnerkky Feb. 25. On the zoth 
inftant, John Downs, efquire, in- 
fpe6lor of excife, accompanied by 
fome other civil officers, and a de- 
tachment of the 27th regiment, with 
two field-pieces, proceeded to at- 
tack the calUe of Ognolly, in which 
has been carrieJ on for fome years 
an immenfe diftillery in open defi- 
ance of the laws ; but on the firft 
appearance of the military force, 
the caftle furrendered without the 
[iVj 4 ieaft 



aoo] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



leaft refinance. In it was found one 
of the moft conipleat diftilleries in 
the kingdom, which they totally de- 
ftroyed. 

i)iED.— On the 3 1 ft ult. at Rome, 
about half paft nine o'clock, prince 
Charles Edward Lewis Cafimir Stu- 
art. Since the death of his father, 
in the year 1765, he affumed the 
title of king of England. He was 
commonly known on the continent 
by the name of the chevalier de St. 
George, and in England by that of 
the young Pretender. He was juft 
iixty-feven years and two months 
old on the day of his death, being 
born on the 30th of November, 
1720. He was fon to James Fran- 
cis, prince of Wales, fon to James 
II. His mother -was the princefs 
Maria- Clementina Sobiclki, grand- 
daughter of the famous John So- 
biefici, king of Poland, who beat 
the Turks near Vienna, and made 
them raife the fiege of that capital, 
and thus faved Chriftendom from 
deftrudlion. She had an immenfe 
fortune ; a great part of which was 
loft in the fruitlefs attempt made by 
her fon, in 1745, ^° place his father 
on the throne of England. She had 
two fons by her hufband ; Charles, 
who lately died, and Henry-Bene- 
di^I, who by his father was created 
liuke of York, and who, having 
been promoted to the purple, has 
been generally known by the name 
of Cardinal York. The elder Ton 
married, fome years ago, a princeis 
of Stolberg, in Germany ; but by 
her, who is ftill alive, he has no 
ifTue. He has left, however, a na- 
tural daughter, whom, by his pre- 
tended royal power, he lately creat- 
ed duchefs of Albany, and to whom 
he has bequeathed all the property 
he had in the French funds, which 
was very confiderable. She is about 



twenty-'five years of age, and much 
refpefted for her good- nature, pie- 
ty, and politenefs. To his brother, 
the cardinal, he has left his empty 
pretenfions to the crown of Eng- 
land. It is thought his eminence 
will change his title, and affume 
that of the king-cardinal. His emi- 
nence is a bachel'- r, and in his 
fixty-third year. The remains of 
prince Charles will be buried in the 
church of Frefcati, of which city 
his brother the cardinal is bifhop, 
who will go in perfon to affift at 
high mafs, and perform the laft 
duties at his funeral. 

At Chelfea, aged 106, Mrs. , 
Mary Warder. She had been ^ 
married to three hun)ands, the laft 
of whom was a penficner in that 
college. She had been the mother 
of twenty-one children, fifteen of 
whom are alive, and all married. 
The number of her children, grand- 
children, and great grand-children, 
amounted to feventy-two. 

In his 77th year, John Flower, 
efquire, mayor of the borough of 
Devizes, being the fifth time of his 
filling that oiRce. 



MARCH. 

The following is a concife „ 
ftatement of the arrangement 
which his majefty has been pleafed 
to make for adjufting the claims of 
rank between the king's and the 
Eaft India company's officers, and 
fettling them on a firm and lafting 
footing. 

" Firft, That from the day when 
hoftilities ceafed at Cuddalore, the 
officers in his majefty 's and the 
company's ferviee fhould rank in- 
difcriminately from the dates of 
their commiffions. 

*' Secondly, 



CHRONICLE. 



[201 



«' Secondly, That if it fhould 
happen that two commiffions, now 
or hereafter, fhould be dated on the 
fame day, the king's officer is to 
have the precedence. 

*' Thirdh', That fuch king's of- 
ficers, as hold commiflions dated 
prior to the cefTation of holHlities 
at Cuddalore, fhould command all 
the company's officers of the fame 
rank. 

" Fourthly, That brevets fhould 
be granted by his majefly's autho- 
rity to the company's officers, dated 
from the cefTation of hoftilities. 

" Fifthly, That, in all future 
promotions, the company's officers 
fhall receive brevet commiffions 
from his majefty. 

'' Sixthly, That no ofHcer, pof- 
fefGng brevet local rank in India, 
ihould remain there, unlefs he chufes 
to ferve with his aftual rank in the 
king's army. 

" Seventhly, That a period of 
eighteen months fhould be allowed 
for the exchange of thofe officers 
who now hold local rank in India. 
By the Ravenfworth, an ac- 
count of the lofs of the compa- 
ny's country iTiip, the Ganges, cap- 
tain Frazer, bound from Bengal to 
Madras, has been received, of which 
the following are the particulars : 

On the 22d of May 1787, a leak 
had been difcovered ; but, while the 
YefTel could be kept clear by the 
pumps, no danger was apprehend- 
ed. In the evening, houever, the 
pumps were rendered ufelefs, be- 
ing choaked by the rice, of which 
the cargo conlifled. In this di- 
lemma it was judged adviieable to 
run the fhip afliore. By two o'clock 
fhe had taken ground, and was ly- 
ing on her beam-ends, when Mr. 
Corbet, who, with his wife, were 
palTengers, went down to acquaint 



zd 



his lady of the danger in the tender- 
ell manner poffible, of which flie was 
fufficiently apprifd, by the noile 
unavoidable on fuch occafions, and 
with great compofure afTured him, 
fhe was prepared to meet with him 
whatever might be their fate : with 
this refolution they got into the top, 
where they remained fome time, till 
the fhifting of the fhip plunged the 
mall into the fea with fuch violence 
as to oblige them all to quit their 
hold, except Mr. Brown, another 
pafTenger, who generoufly leapt in- 
to the water to fave the lady, but 
perifhed in the attempt. Mr. Cor- 
bet was faved by the Pilot fchooner, 
that took him up in a Hate of infen- 
fibility; he lived to experience all 
the horrors of his miferable fitua- 
tion. Out of one hundred and thir- 
teen perfons, forty-three were faved. 
Of the gentlemen who perifhed, the 
following are the names : MefTrs. 
Gardener, Brown, M'Intyre, jun. 
Boulden, and Jofeph. — Lieutenants 
Warren and Nuttel. 

From the Bahama Gazette. 
Or* the 3d of January, cap- , 
tain Thomas T.hompfon, in ^ 
the floop Sally, beating up from the 
S. W. point of Heneaga, faw a 
white flag flying on the fhore, where, 
on landing, he found twenty-three 
women and fitiy-three men and boys 
in a moft dillreifed fituation, having 
been palTengers on board a brig 
from Dunlary in Ireland, bound to 
Charles Town and Baltimore, and 
put alhore there for want of provi,- 
fions, the brig having been fix 
weeks at fhort allowance. They, 
were told the place where they were 
landed was a plentiful ifland, on 
which they would find towns and 
inhabitants who would fupply them 
with plenty of provifions ; but when 
they found thcmfelves deceived, and 
wanted 



-02] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



wanted to return on board, they 
weie fired at, and one man killed. 
Captain Thompfon is faid to have 
landed twenty of thefe unfortunate 
people on Long Illand, and fifty- fix 
at Naffau. 

Edinburgh, March 22. On Wed- 
ixefday a^'ftiHrp conteit took place at 
the back of the Black Rocks, near 
Leith harbour, between a boat's 
crew belonging to Newhaven and 
another belonging to Prefton Pans, 
occafioned by the latter's dragging 
oyfters on. the ground laid claim to 
by the former. After a fevere con- 
iJi<!:l for about half an hour with 
their oars, boat-hooks, &c. the 
Newhaven men brought in the Pref- 
ton Fans boat to Newhaven, after 
being much hurt on both fides. 
This is the fecond boat taiien from 
them this feafon. 

Irehmd. On Tuefday, the 27th 
of March laft, a large bog of 1,500 
acres, lying between Dundrum and 
Cafhel, in the county of Tippe- 
rary, began to be agitated in aij 
extraordinary manner, to the afto- 
nilhment and terror of the neigh- 
bouring inhabitants. The rumb- 
ling noife from the bog gave the 
alarm, and on the 30th it burft, and 
a kind of lava iffued from it, which 
took its direflion towards Bally- 
grifien and Golden, over-fpreading 
and laying vvafte a vail trad of fine 
fertile land belonging to John Hide, 
efquire. Every thing that oppofed 
its courfe was buried in ruins. Four 
houfes v^ere totally deliroyed, and 
the trees that ftood near them torn 
op by the roots. The difcharge has 
been incefiant fince the 3oih, and 
how far it will extend cannot at 
prefent be determined. 

, The ftates of Venice have 

° ' publilhed their formal refufal 
to permit the Ruffian fleet making 



ufe of their ports. It is dated in 
the Predagi (i. e. council or fenate) 
on the lit of March. 

A proclamation was this , 
day inferted in the London ^ 
Gazette, recalling all Britifii fea- 
men, of what denomination foever, 
or wherefoever, from foreign fer- 
vice ; and prohibiting all mailers 
of Ihips, pilots, mariners, feamen, 
fhipwrights, and all other feafaring- 
men vvhatfoever (natural-born fub- 
jedls of G. B.) from entering into 
foreign fprvice without licence, on 
pain of being profecuted with the 
utmofi: feverity of the l;iw ; and, in 
cafe of being captured by the Turks, 
&c. excluded from all right of re- 
demption. 



APRIL. 

This morning, came on the . 
ballot for fix Diredors of the '' 
Eaft India company, in the room of 
thofe who go out annually by rota- 
tion. About a quarter after eleven 
o'clock in the evening, the fcruti- 
neers declared the numbers to be, 
for 

Abraham Robarts, cfq; 1,045 
John Michle, efq; I,o2j 

George Tatem, efq; 978 

Thomas Parry, efq; 856 

John Woodhoufe, efqj 830 
Charles Mills, efqj 793 

Pavid Scott, efq; 729 

The firft fix gentlemen, who are 
duly eledled, were upon the pro- 
prietors lill. David Scott, efquire, 
was the only new candidate who had 
not been in the direftion. 

The following is a correct lift of 
the eight gentlemen who have been 
eleded this year to ferve as Direc- 
tors of the bank of England : 

Thomas 



CHRONICLE. 



[203 



Thomas Boddington, efq; 

Thomas Dea, elq; 

John Harrifon, efq; 

Chriftopher Puller, efq; 

Thomas Raikes, efq; 

Samuel Thornton, efq; 

Ben. Winthrop, efq; 

Mofes Yeldham, efq; 
The laft gentleman was elefted 
in the room of Lyde Brown, efq; 
deceafed. 

N. B, It is a rule agreed upon 
by the Dlredors of the Bank, that 
eight out of the twenty-four go out 
every year in rotation, with an ex- 
ception only to thofe who have pafTed 
the chair. 

, In the evening lady Wal- 
lace's new comedy of the 
Ton was attempted to be a fecond 
time acted at Covent Garden thea- 
tre, when the clamour was fo great 
againft it, that it was with difficulty 
the actors could get through with 
'their parts. In the geaeral uproar, 
whilfl Mr. Lewis was bowing to ob- 
tain audience, a quart bottle was 
thrown from the gallery into the 
pit. This increafed the diforder ; 
but the occafion being declared, 
and a reward of ten pounds offered 
to difcover the delinquent, and a 
proper apology made by the mana- 
ger, the reprefentation was fuffered 
to proceed quietly to the end ; and 
an indulgence of one night more, 
to give the author's numerous 
friends an opportunity of feeing it 
adled, was granted. 

St. yames's, Jpril g. A chapter of 
the moil noble order of the Garter 
having been fummoned to meet this 
day, the knights companions, with 
the officers of the order, all in their 
inantles ; the knights (with their 
collars) attended the fovereign in 
his own apartment, from whence a 
proceffion being made, as ufual, to 



the great council chamber, and the 
fovereign and knights companions 
feated, the bifhop of Carlifle was 
introduced, and humbly prayed to 
be admitted to take the oath of re- 
gifter of that moft noble order ; 
which being done, and the fovereiga 
having inverted him with the in- 
fignia of office, he withdrew to his 
place ; and as by the ftatutes none 
but knights can be elefted. Garter 
and Black-rod introduced his grace 
the duke of Dorfet,who was knight- 
ed by the fovereign with the fword 
of flate, as was likewife the duke 
of Northumberland. This cere- 
mony over, and the fufFrages col- 
ledled, the knights companions pro- 
ceeded to eledion. vvl:en his grace 
of Dorfet, by his majcfty's com- 
mand, was declared duly eleded. 
In like manner his grace of North- 
umberland was declared duly elect- 
ed. 

On the2dinft. the prince bifhop of 
Liege iffued a proclamation againft 
gaming in any part of his domini- 
ons, particularly at Spa, under the 
penalty of two hundred gold florins 
for the firft offence, and two years 
imprifonment lor the fecond. 

The damages done by the late 
ftorms and inundations in Portugal 
are eftimated at above two millions 
of crufadoes. From Coimbra they 
write, that the fertile province of 
Beira has been laid waite by the 
overflowing of the Mondego river, 
in fuch a manner as to require many 
years to reftore it to its former Hate. 
The waters rofe fo high, and with 
fuch impetuofity, as to bear down 
the noble bridge, the admiration of 
all travellers. 

London Gazette. 
Conjlantinople, Feb. 22. 

The grand divan, which , 
was aflTembled here on the < 
5 iith 



204] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 

1 ith inftant, came to the refolution 
of releafing Monf. de Bulgakovv, the 
Ruffian minifler, and the Ruffian 
fubjeds, detained in the feven tow- 
ers. Monf. de Bulgakovv is pre- 
paring to depart by fea, and has 
given orders to freight fhips for 
himfelf, his drugoman, and their fa- 
milies, for Leghorn. 

Baron d'Herbert, the Imperial 
internuncio, and his interpreters, 
with all their families, departed 
from Conftantinople the 15th in- 
ftant. 

n The court of king's-bench 
determined, that a woman 
was competent to ferve the offices of 
commiffioner of the fewers and over- 
feer of the poor. Mr. Juftice Afli- 
urft obferved, that the ftatute of 
Elizabeth mentioned fubllantial 
houfekeepers, without diftinflion of 
{ex. He alfo mentioned a parifh 
where a woman was chofen confta- 
ble. 

A diffeclion at Mr. Cruickfhank's, 
in Windmill-ftreet, is faid to have 
occafioned much fpeculation among 
the gentlemen of the faculty, there 
being no well-attelled defcription, 
in the anatomical annals of this or 
any other country, of fuch a pheno- 
menon. The inteftines are all re- 
verfed, the heart, &c. being on the 
right-fide, and the liver oti the left. 
In every other refpecl, 'but fitua- 
tion, the parts are complete. It is 
very probable, the perfon himfelf 
might live without a confcicufnefs 
of fuch a difference in the internal 
Jlrufture of his body. 

Died. — At Hawes, county of 
York, aged 105, John Scarr, a 
pauper. He could thread a needle 
without fpeftacles, and crack nuts 
in the laft year of his life, as well 
as moll; young people. 

Mrs. Mary Delany, at her houfe 



in St. James's Place, April 15, 
1788, within a month of the comple- 
tion of her 88th year. She was the 
daughter of Bernard Granville, efq; 
married, firft, to Alexander Pen- 
darves, of Rofcrow, county of Corn- 
wall, efq; and, fecondly, to Patrick 
Delany, dean of Down, in Ireland. 
She was niece to George Granville 
lord Lanfdowne, fecretary at war 
under queen Anne, one of tbe firll 
patrons of Pope, and himfelf a poet. 
In his fociety, which was that of a 
very polifhed court, fhe acquired, in 
her youth, a grace and dignity of 
manners which fhe preferved to the 
laft. Married early, and retired into 
a remote county, fhe had the leifure 
and good fenfe to cultivate a natu- 
rally vigorous mind ; and her letters 
and converfation eminently evinced 
the good ufe fhe made of the oppor- 
tunity. She pofTeffed, in an uncom- 
mon degree, that quick feeling of 
the elegant and beautiful which con- 
ftitutes tafle : fhe was peculiarly fit- 
ted, therefore, to fucceed in the fine 
arts. She made a great proficiency 
in'mufic; but loved and excelled 
principally in painting, in which fhe 
has been equalled by few of her fex. 
When the failure of her eyes disabled 
her from purfuing the higherbranches 
ofthe art, in her 78th year file invent- 
ed a new one, that of imitating flow- 
ers in paper mofaic ; and, till her 
83d, when the dimnefs of her fight 
prevented her going on even with 
that, fhe completed 980 plants to a 
degree of perfeftion and efFedt not 
eafily to be conceived but by thofe 
who have feen them. She preferved 
her warm afi^edlions and fine under- 
flanding to the laft ; and crowned a 
long and exemplary life by a calm, 
compofed, and cheerful death. She 
was the chofen friend and companion 
of the late duchefs dowager of Port- 
4 land. 



CHRONICLE. 



[205 



land, and during her grace's life con- 
ftantly relided with her. Mrs. De- 
lany afterwards removed to Windlbr, 
his Majefty unfolicited prefenting 
her with a relidence there, and with 
an addition to her income, which be- 
fore was far from iaconfiderable. 



MAY. 

„ By the laft accounts received 
^ from the fleet from Botany 
Bay, they arrived at the Cape of 
Good Hope on the 13th of Odober 
laft, and expefted to fail again about 
the middle of November, and to 
proceed direftly for their place of 
deftination. They were very heal- 
thy, and the cpnvids very orderly. 
The number of deaths from Eng- 
land to the Cape amounted to twen- 
ty-one. 

, Came on a trial at Guild- 
7^ • hall, in which the trading peo- 
ple are deeply interefted. The fole 
queftion was this. Whether the 
plaintiiFs, who are wholefale grocers 
and tea dealers, to whom the de- 
fendant was a cuftomer, were en- 
titled to intereft, on the amount of 
goods fold, computed from the end 
of three months, being the ufual 
credit in the plaintiffs trade ? which 
was decided in favour of the plain- 
tiffs. 

y- , His royal highnefs the 

* duke of Orleans arrived at 
Portland-place from Paris, having 
obtained leave of his fovereign to 
retire to England till affairs are 
fettled at court. His firil vifit was 
to Monf. de Calonne, vv'itii whom 
he held conference for fo.me con- 
fiderable time, which fufficiently in- 
dicates the fubjeft of his miflion. His 
next vifu was to the prince of Wales. 



Came on be tried, before , 
lord Loughborough and a ^9'"' 
fpecial jury, the caufe inllituted by 
the countcfs of Strathmore againlt 
Mr. Bowes, to recover back certaia 
eftates (value 1 2,000 1. a-year) 
which ftie had fecured to herfelf by 
a private deed, made previous to 
her marriage with the defendant. 
This was on ilTue directed by the 
lord chancellor ; and the queftion 
for the jury to try was, •' Whether 
a deed the ift of May 1777, exe- 
cuted by the court, revoking the 
former deed, was obtained by the 
influence of terror, arifing from 
cruelty and violence." And the 
jury, without going cut of court, 
brought in a verdid^ for the plain- 
tilf. The whole court exprefled the 
higheft fatisfaclion. 

Edinburgh. On Sunday, the 
25th, the king, queen, and prince 
of Wales, were prayed for by 
nam?, and the reft of the royal 
family in the ufual manner, in all 
the Nonjuring chapels in this city 
and Leiih. The fame manner of 
teftifying the loyalty of the Scotch 
Epifcopalians will alfo be obferved 
in every part of the country, in con- 
fequence of the refolution come to 
by the bifliops and clergy of that 
perfuafion. Thus an eiredlual end 
is pat to the moft diftant idea of dif- 
affedion, in any part of his ma- 
jefty*s dominions, to his royal perfoa 
and governm.ent. 

The two annual prizes of , 
20 guineas each, given by lord ^ 
North, chancellor of the univerfityof 
Oxford, are, for the preient year, ad- 
judged to Mr. Roberts, A. B. of 
Corpus Chrifti, for an Englifli Efl"ay 
on Refinement ; and to Mr. Vaug- 
han, of Merton College, for Latin 
Heroics on the Art of Chemiftry. 

Both 



io6] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 

Both of thefe compofitions will be difli-fquare, Mrs. Adams, a widovsr 

recited in the theatre at the enluing lady of large fortune. Dying with- 

commemoration. out immediate heirs, (he has diftri- 

n As the princefs Elizabeth buted upwards of 50,000!. in lega- 

^ ' "was fitting in her apartment, in cies ; among which are, 300I. to 



the afternoon, her royal highnefs 
was furprized with the abrupt en- 
trance of a fhabby man. The prin- 
cefs, exceedingly alarmed, hallily 
quitted the room by an oppofite 
door, and acquainted her atten- 
dants with what had happened. 
The page in waiting ran inllanlly 
and feized the fellow, who, upon 



Mary -le- Bonne charity -fchool ; 
loool. to her own maid, and 500I. 
to her coachman. She has alio left 
an annuity of 15I. a year, for the 
fupport of a favourite dog. Her re- 
mains were depolited, on the morn- 
ing of the 22d inlt. in Mary-le- 
Bonne burying-ground, attended by 
an immenfeconcourfe of people, the 



examination, appeared to be a poor children of the fchool finging an 



infane creature, who by fome means 
or other had got into the palace un- 
perceived. Being taken to the 
lodge, the porter proteiled, he had 
no recoUeftion of any fuch man 
having palled ; and being queftion- 
ed in what manner he had obtained 
admittance, he laughed at the porter 
for afking ; faying, it wa-shis bufmefs 
to tell, and never would fay more. 
As he appeared a harmlefs creature, 
he was futfered to depart ; but in a 
Ihort time returned, and, in peremp- 
tory terms, infilled en being intro- 
duced to the princefs, " That he 
might pay his adorations at her 
feet." It was then thought necef- 
fary to take him into cullody, and 
notice to be fent to lord Sidney. 
The refult was, that, after being 
confined till next day, he was then 
examined by the magiftrates in Bow- 
llreet, when it appeared his name 
was Spang ; his father a Dane, but 
himfelf an Engliihman, and a hair- 
drclTer ; that he had till lately 
worked with a Mr. Warren, who 



anthem as the pioceffion palled 
through the ftreets. 

At Oltend, aged 107, Mr. 
George de Drufma. He was born 
in France, but had been upwards 
of eighty years in the fervice of the 
emperor of, Germany. 

Aged 102, Mademoifelle Jun, a 
nun of the Urfuline order at Bour- 
deax. She had led an auftere re- 
ligious life till fhe was 100 years 
old, and it was with regret that fhe 
obeyed the pofitive orders of her 
fuperior to keep her room on ac- 
count of her age. 



JUNE. 

"Jamaica, April z^. The flave n 
laws here have been revifed 
and confoiidated, and feveral regu- 
lations made in favour of the ne- 
groes. The aflembly have pafled 
an a(?l, which contains the follow- 
ing reforms : I. Every pofleflor of 
a flave is prohibited from turning 
gave him a good charaftcr ; and, him away when incapacitated by 
upon the whole, his infanity being ficknefs or age, but mull provide 
eltablilhcd on the cleareft evidence, for him the wholefome necelTaries 
the magiftrates ordered his parilh to of life, under a penalty often pounds 
provide for him. for every offence. 2. Every perion 

Died. — At her houfe in Caven' who mutilates a flave Ihall pay a 

fine 



CHRONICLE. 



[207 



fine not exceeding one hundred 
pounds, and be imprifoned not ex- 
ceeding twelve months ; and, in 
very atrocious cafes, the flaves may 
be declared free, 3. Any perfon 
wantonly or bloody-mindedly kill- 
ing a flave Ihall iufFer death. 4. 
Any perfon whipping, bruiung, 
wounding, or imprifouing, a flave 
no: his property, nor under his care, 
fhall be lubject to tine and imprifon- 
ment. 5. A parochial tax to be 
raifed for the fupport of negroes dif- 
abled by ficknefs and old age, hav- 
ing no owners." 

Mr. Tankard, a king's officer at 
Dartford, in confequence of an in- 
formation, flopped the mail-coach 
from Dover, and demanded of the 
guard the key of the trunk on which 
he fat. Being refufed, he broke 
the trunk open, and two letter bags, 
with the brafs labels, "Dover bags," 
were found filled with lace. The 
coach and horfes were feized. 

Lord Mansfield figned the 
refignation of his office at Caen- 
Lodge, before Mr. Montague the 
marter in chancery, who underwrote 
it, and afterwards difpatched it to 
the lord chancellor, who next day 
laid it before the king. Some flight 
exifting diflerences, it is faid, was 
the reafon the refignation did not 
take place at the chancellor's houfe. 
^ , A caufe was determined in 
' ■ the court of king's-bench, of 
confequence to be remembered. A 
female fervant, having hired herfelf 
for a year, gave notice to quit at 
the end of her term. Her miftrefs, 
in the mean time, in confequence of 
impertinent behaviour, difcharged 
her eight days before the expiration 
of the year; but at the fame time 
paid her wages in full for the year's 
fervice. The queftion before the 
court was, ** Whether this fervice 



3d. 



gained a fettlement ?" The cour 
aetermined in the affirmative. 

Arrived at Edinburgh the , 
much talked of Mr. Brodie, ' 
lately apprehended for robbmg the 
Edinburgh bank, after being tra- 
ced to London, from London to 
Flanders, and from Flanders to 
Rotterdam, where he was leized, 
identihed, and delivered up to the 
Britifli conful, in that city. Brodie 
was a man of prop>erty, of whom 
a particular account may be ex- 
pefted. 

One of his majefty's mef- , 
fengers arrived at the office of " * 
the marquis of Caermarthen, with 
the provifional treaty of defeniive 
alliance between bis majefty and 
the king of Pruffia, figned on the 
13th inflant, by plenipotentiaries 
duly authorized for that purpofe. 

Lord Elcho, grand mailer of , 
all the lodges in Scotland, at- 
tended by a refpeftable body of free 
and accepted mafons, laid the foun- 
dation-ftone of an afliembly-room, 
to be built in a moft elegant ftyle, 
at Haddington, by fubfcription. 

Died. — At his houfe in « 
the Adelphi, much lamented, 
George Hefle, efq. The manner 
of his death renders thecircumflance 
ftill more unfortunate. About two 
o'clock in the morning he came 
home, and went into his library, 
where it appears he wrote five let- 
ters, which were found upon the 
table, addreiled to the following 
perfons : Mrs. Hefl^e, fen. his mother, 
Mrs. Hefle, jun. his wife, Mr. 
Agar, Mr. Crawford, and Mr. 
Woodman. After which he charged 
very lightly one of his own travel- 
ling piflols, and, putting it into his 
mouth, difcharged it. The ball 
went through his head, and was 
found upon the fopha. The report 

was 



1208] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



was not heard by any of the fervants 
of the houle. About eight, the 
maid-fervant went in to open the 
windows, and feeing a man's leg 
on the fopha, on opening the door, 
(he ran down to tell the valet that 
fome man had broke into the houfe. 
On coming into the room, he im- 
mediately perceived it was his niaf- 
ter, who was lying at his length on 
the fopha, with the pillol in his 
ri<^ht hand, acrofs his breaft. . The 
letters above mentioned were on the 
table, with his watch, and a pen- 
knife. On the day preceding, Mr. 
HefTe had dined with lord Gage ; 
whence he went to the club at Phil- 
limore's, and, on leaving that, im- 
mediately went home. The whole 
evening he was remarkably thought- 
ful ; and for many weeks pall had 
{hewn fymptoms of an altered mind. 
The coroner's inqueft brought in 
their verdidl* lunacy. 



JULY. 

On the 1 2th inftant, at five in the 
afternoon, their majefties, with their 
royal highneffes the princefs royal 
a;)d princefs Augufta, arrived at 
Cheltenham, in Glouc-iierfnire, for 
the benefit of tiie waters of that long- 
neglefted fpa. Their majellies fet 
out from Windfor about fevea in the 
morning, proceeded to the earl of 
Harcourt's at Naneham in Oxford- 
fhire, where they flayed about two 
hours, and then proceeded on their 
journey through crowds of people, 
who were every where aiTembled oa 
the road, to exprefs their loyalty to 
his majelly. 

On the 18th their majefties and 
the princeffes attended divine fer- 
vice at the parifh church, where a 



fermon was preached by the lord 
bifhop of Glouceiler. 

The royal family refide at lord 
Fauconberg's, a delightful feat, 
about a quarter of a mile from 
the town, and two hundred yards 
from the fpa. 

Their majefties ride or walk a- 
broad every day ; and it may be 
eafily conceived with what crowds of 
loyal fubjecls they are attended. 
They want no military guards. 

On the 19th their majellies and 
the princeffes paid a vifit to earl 
Bathurll, at Oakley Grove, where 
they were mofl nobly entertained, 
and a dinner provided fit for a king, 
which their majellies, as was previ- 
oully intimated, could not be pre- 
vailed on to partake, becaufe in 
diretl oppofition to the purpofe of 
going to Cheltenham. 

They have fince been to GIou- 
cefler, and are foon to vifit Worcef- 
ter and Hartlebury. 

A mofl extraordinary rob- , 
bery was this day difcovered 5 
to have happened at Devonfhire- 
houfe, where the lock of his grace's 
cabinet had been broken, and medals 
carried off to aconfiderable amount. 
Some difcoveries have already been 
made, but not fufiicient to enable 
us to authenticate the recital. 

This afternoon the fecretary -r..v 
r .1 <- r J lotn. 

or irate lent a free pardon to 

Wilkins, the printer, in Newgate ; 
but the right honourable lord 
George Gordon, who employed 
Wilkins, Hill remains clofe prifoner 
in that gaol. 

The ceremony of prefenting the 
Indian ambaffadors at Verfailles 
took place on Sunday the loth in- 
ftant. A fplendid throne was pre- 
pared t^aTJS la/alle d''Hercule (Her- 
cules's hall, in the king's palace at 
V^erfailles) j 



CHRONIC 



E. 



[209 



Verfailles), and on that throne the 
king received them. The procef- 
Aon atrending their introdudion 
was very magnificent. The qjecn 
preceded, in a beautiful white drefs> 
elegantly embroidered with va- 
riegated flowers. Her breaft and 
fleeve knots, of rich diamonds, 
dazzled the eyes of the gazing ad- 
mirers, but chiefly her aigret, which 
was compofed of brilliants of the 
moft pure warer. The duke of 
Bourbon was in the royal retinue. 
The other princes of the blood did 
not attend. When his majefty 
had reached the throne, and the 
etiquette of placing the queen, 
the royal brothers, and the prin- 
cefles Elizabeth de Provence ar.d 
Artois on his right and left, was 
adjufled, the three ambafl"adors 
advanced in folemn ftate, vvithout 
niufic, accompanied by twenty-four 
attendants in their Indian dreffes 
and muflin turbans, befpangled with 
filver and gold. One of them car- 
ried a prefcnt for the queen in his 
hands, (hut up in a kind of box ; it 
was thought to be pearls. The pre- 
fentation was fion over, and they 
returned to Trianon, where thc-y had 
flept the preceding evening, and 
vs'here they dined in their own way. 
In the afternoon they returned to 
\'erfaille?, to enjoy the curious dif- 
play of v/aters, w'nh. which they 
were exceedingly pleafed. 

, Came on to be heard be- 
' ' fore the chancellor, at Lin- 
coln's-icn-hall, a petition of a fin- 
gular nature. The petitioner was 
a bankrupt, who was folicitous to 
obtain his certificate, to which his 
creditors had fignified their confeot. 
The prayer of his petition was, 
that a quellion propounded to him by 
one of his creditors, at his laft exa- 
xninationj and the bankrupt's an- 
VoL. XXX. 



fwer to fuch queftion, might be ex- 
punged from the proceedings under 
the commiflion of bankruptcy. 

The queftion propounded was. 
Whether the bankrupt had loft five 
pounds by a game at cards? — which 
he acknowledged he had. 

This application to the chancel- 
lor became neceflary by a certairi 
proviiion in the bankrupt laws, by 
which a bankrupt, who has loll fivd 
pounds at one time at a game of 
cards, and fome other fpccies of 
gambling therein defcribed, is pre- 
cluded from obtaining hia certifi- 
cate. 

The chancellor rejected the peti- 
tion. 

The high court of Jutli- , 
ciary met at Edinburgh, to ^5^"* 
pronounce fentence upon James 
Granger, unanimoufly found guilty 
by his jury, of havingtaken an active 
pnrt in the combination among the 
operative weavers, and the riots 
which afterwards took place in 
Glafgow and its neighbourhood in 
September laft. The verdiift of the 
jury being read, " that the prifoner 
Ihould be carried back to the Tol- 
booth of Edinburgh, therein to re- 
main till Wednefday the 13th of 
Auguft next, on whic'ii day he fliouM 
be publicly whipt through the ftreets 
of the city by the hands of the com- 
mon executioner ; that he Ihoulu 
then be let at liberty, and be allow- 
ed till the 4th of Oftober to fettle 
his affairs ; after which he fliould 
hanilli himfelf from Scotland for 
feven years, under the ufual certifi- 
cations in cafe of his again return- 
ing during that period ;" the lord 
juitice clerk defired the opinion of 
the court upon the fentence which 
fell to the court to be pronounced in 
confequence of the v^rdift of the 
jury. The judges all co.ncurred h\ 

[0] the 



dio] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



tVie helnournffs of the ofFence, 
bat felt for the prifoner, who, till 
thofe unhappy difturbances took 
place, had behaved as a good and 
worthy citizen, and lord Efkgrove 
even wiflied that the public whip- 
ping could be remitted. There 
were foiiie, he faid, fo callous, as to 
receive that challifemcnt with no 
other einotion than what the fmart 
of the laili of the executioner ccca- 
fioned ; while there were others who 
had ib high a fenfe of the indignity 
that they would rather almoll fub- 
iRit to the lall punifhment of the 
law than endure it ; thefe being his 
fentiments, he was extremely forry 
to be under the neceffity of differing 
from the majority of their lordi"hips 
in the mode of puniihment, though 
he perfectly agreed in the atrociouf- 
nfifs of the crime. Lord Swinton 
felt much for the fituation oi the 
prifoner; but, fitting as a judge, 
he thought himfelf bound to call 
in his judgment to correft thofe 
feelings, by way of example for the 
benefit of fociety. The fentence, 
as before recited, was agreed to and 
pronounced. 

Died. — At Selkirk, aged 116, 
William Riddell. This man, who, 
in the e.irly part of his life, was a 
confiderabie f.iiaggler, and remark- 
able for his love of brandy, which 
he drank in very large quantities, 
was always fo fond of good ale, that 
he has often declared he never drank 
a draught of pure water. He was 
not a regular drunkard, but had 
frequent paroxyfms of drinking, 
which continued feveral fucceffive 
days. After his 90th year, he at 
one time drank for a fortnight to- 
gether, with only a few intervals of 
Ileep in his chair. When he married 
his third wife he was 95 ; and re- 
t^ned his memory aad other facul- 



ties to his death. For the laft two, 
years of his life his chief fubfiilence, 
was a little bread infufed in fpirits 
and ale. 



AUGUST. 

The poll for member for , 
the city of Weaminlfer finally "^ 
clofed, when the numbers, on cafling 
ap the books were as follow 



Frid.JulyiS 
Saturday 19 
Monday 21 
Tuefday 22 
Wednefd.23 
Thurfday 24 
Friday 25 
Saturday 26 
Monday 28 
Tuefday 29 
Wednefd.30 
Thurfday 31 
Frid. Aug. I 
Saturday 2 
Monday ^ 



Majority for Lord J.Townfhend 825. 
Brigbtoiy Jug. 6. This day, a- 
bout twelve o'clock, the ftand on 
the race-ground was crowded with 
the nobility, gentry, and others, to 
fee three pitched battles on a llage 
ereded for that purpofe before the 
ftand. The firlt was betsveen Wat- 
fon and Jones. They both fought 
with great fpirit for eighteen mi- 
nutes, and aimed moft of the blows 
at the head. Jones, finding himfelf 
too weak for any hopes of fuccefs^ 
yielded to Wation. — The fecond 
battle was between Ward and Rey-. 
nolds. Ward (not the Briftol rrian) 

was 



R'nfhend. 


Hood. 


Total 

polled. 


i, 572 


292 


864 


, 521 


4^4 


1005 


, 826 


839 


1665 


., 440 


704 


1 144 


> 3S2 


573 


955 


., 5«7 


488 


1005 


f 408 


4»5 


823 


), 302 


2ld 


sa 


» 643 


382 


1025. 


I, 469 


233 


702 


), 398 


236 


634 


. 264 


156 


420 


, 123 


97 


22<» 


'> 177 


261 


438 


t» 35°* 


193 


543 


6392 


5569 


H96J 



c H R o isr i C L E. 



[211 



Was (evidently the ftrongeft, and 
fought manfully ; but Reynolds 
Ihifted, (hewed but little fport, and 
ort the firft fair blow in the face, 
gave it up.— >The third battle was 
between Tyne and Eirl. Earl was 
the taller man, and a fhoe-maker 
by trade ; Tyne is a taylor, and has 
fought feveral battles. They both, 
from the firft fet-to, fhewed great 
courage, and walled but little time 
in manceuvring. Tyne appeared to 
have molt Ikill ; but Earl fought 
very faft, and generally threw him. 
In the I'econd round, Tyne's right 
eye was clofed up, and in a few 
rounds more he cut Earl terribly 
over the face in feveral places, and 
aimed moll of his blows at the head 
and breall. However, after a dread- 
ful conflift of forpj-eight minutes, 
Tyne llruck Earl under the left fide, 
and immediately clofed in, and 
threw him a moft dreadful fall, 
which killed him inflantly. Seve- 
ral furgeons, who were prefent, en- 
deavoured to bleed him, and other- 
wife ufe their Ikill ; but all to no 
purpofe. His Royal Highnefs the 
Prince of Wales has declared that 
he would have fome fettlement made 
on the nearelt relation of the de- 
ceafed ; but that, on account of 
the dreadful example he had then 
witnefled, he would never more 
either fee or patronize another ftage 
light. 

1 Being the birth-day of the 

Prince of Wales, who then 
entered into the 27th year of his 
age, the fame was obferved in Lon- 
don and Wellminfler, with illumi- 
nations, and other demonflrations of 
joy. At Brighton, where his Royal 
Highnefs ordered an elegant dinner 
to be provided, it was ftill more 
fplendidly obferved. In the even- 
ing a general illumination was dif- 



played ; and the caftle honoured by- 
company of the firlt diilindlion. 

Was the day appointed, , 

by his Majefty, for the celc- ^^ ' 
bration of the birth-day of his Royal 
Highnefs the Prince of Wales at 
Windfor. Thofe who were prefent 
on this occafion, fpeak ot the Iblem- 
nity as one of the finell lights ever 
feen in this kingdom Twelve of 
the Royal Family were feated at one 
table, and very near one hundred of 
the nobility of both faxes, at two 
long tables to the right and left of 
the firll. The couj> d''ceil of the 
whole, therefore, from the decora- 
tions of the tables, the blaze of 
lights, the fplendur of the drefles, 
and, above all, the beauty of the 
ladies, formed a fcene that was at 
once awful and imprcffive. 

Prince Charles of Lich- , 

tenftein arrived at Vienna, 5 • 
brought in a litter from Zagran, by 
eighteen Sclavonians, relieving each 
other fucceffively on the road. The 
princefs accompanied him with the 
utmoll tendernel's and attention ; but 
little hope is entertained of his re- 
covery. 

Marfhal Laudohn has been ap- 
pointed commander in chief in Cro- 
atia, in his room. 

Marfhal Laudohn had a narrow 
efcape in the late adlion ; as he was 
reconnoitring v/ith his firll aid-du- 
camp, two centinels in an advanced 
piquet-guard fired, and both Ihots 
took place^^one wounded the aid- 
du camp rather dangeroully, the 
other hit fome of Marfhal Laudohn's 
accoutrements, and wounded the 
horfe on which he wa^ mounted. 

The Turkifh ;ort oi'Gradifca, {o 
much boafted ot by the Aullrians, 
is among the firll trophies of his 
vidtories. The miferable garriiba 
of which was reduced to the pitiful 
[O 2J number 



!Li2] ANNUAL RE 

number of 265 men, who, notwith- 
ftanding, refufed to- furrender, till 
they could no longer endure the 
fteiich of their own dead. Only ten 
pieces of cannon were found in the 
fort. 

A letter lately received from 
York, among other particulars, 
gives the following defcription of 
the maufoleum, erefted about a mile 
from the front of Wentworth-houle, 
the top-ftone of which, a few days 
before the letter was written, was 
fetby the Right Hon. lord Milton, 
fon of earl Ficzwilliam, on which 
he laid a bank of England note, 
value ten pounds, for the workmen. 
The bafe of this noble ftrudure is 
of the Doric order, 26 feet fquare; 
the middle llory ^f the Corinthian ; 
and the rotunda, of twelve columns, 
of the Compofite order. This grand^ 
edifice is erefted to the memory of 
that great and illuftrious charafter 
the late Marquis of Rockingham. 
The infide of the bafe ftory forms 
a dome fupported by twelve Doric 
columns, wherein are intended to 
be placed Itatues of the late mar- 
quis, late Sir George Savile, and 
fome other of his intimate friends. 
Jn the infide of the fecond ftory is 
placed a Roman farcophagus. The 
whole of the building is about 90 
feet^high, and forms a noble ab- 
jedl, not only from the houfcjbut 
for feveral miles round the adjacent 
country. 

, " This morning the purfer 
^9^*^' of the Princefs Amelia, the 
laft (hip expefted from Madras this 
feafon, arrived at the Lidia-houie, 
with advice of the arrival of that 
fliip off St. "Helen's. She has 
brought difpatches from that prefi- 
dency to the court of directors, 
which were near being loft on land- 
ing, the boat being ovcrfet the mo- 



GISTER, 1788. 

ment after the difpatches were put 
on fhore. 

On Sunday laft,about twelve ^ « 
o'clock, the Archbiftiop of •^ ' 
Sens, prime minifter of France, 
was difmiffed from his employ- 
ments. 

Died.- — At his houfe in Pall ^j 
Mall, about two o'clock in the " ' 
morning, Mr. Gainftjorough, the 
painter, one of the greateft geniufes 
that ever adorned any age or any 
nation. His death was occafioned 
by a wen in the neck, which grew 
internally, and fo large as to ob- 
ftruft the palTages. The eftcdts of 
it became violent, a few months 
fince, from a cold caught one morn- 
ing in Weftminfter-hall, at the trial 
of Mr. Haftings. The malady be- 
gan to increafe from this time ; but 
its fymptoms fo much eluded the 
fkill of Dr. Heberden and Mr. John 
Hunter, that they declared it was 
nothing more than a fwelling in the 
glands, which tlie warm weather 
would difperfe. With this profpeft 
he went to his cottage near Rich- 
mond, where he remained for a few 
days ; but growing worl'e, he re- 
turned. A fuppuration taking place 
foon after, Mr. John Hunter ac- 
knowledged the protuberance to be 
a cancer, Mr. Pott was at this 
time called in, with Dr. Warren ; 
who confirmed this opinion, but 
found it impracfiicable to adminifter 
aid. In a fituation thus defperatc, 
the efteemed and admired Gainftjo- 
rough languiftied, and died ignox 
rant of the malady which brought 
him to his end. Since his death, 
the part has been opened, the ex- 
crelcence examined, and replaced. 
— Mr. Gainft)orough was juft turned 
of 6 1 years of age. Of bis great 
excellence, both as a portrait and a 
landfcape painter, the number and 

value 



CHRONICLE. 



[213 



value of his works make it unne« 
cefTary to fpeak. 

, In Glafgow town hofpital, 

'^ ■ after eight days illnel's, aged 
105, John Young, weaver, born in 
Cumbernauld. He wrought for his 
ownfupport till the age of 99, when 
he was received into the hofpital, 
and has fince been employed in 
winding yarn. On the iqth inft. 
the day allowed the poor of the hof- 
pital to fee their friends, he went 
out with the reft. He retained his 
memory to the laft ; remembered 
the battle of the Boyne, and the 
mall^icre of Glencoe. 

/■ , At Paris, her grace Eliza- 
■ bethcountefs-dowagerof Brif- 
tol, duchefs dowager of Kingfton. 
She W3S fo!e daughter and heirefs of 
colonel Thomas Chudleigli, late of 
Chelfea-coUege (younger brother 
of fir George Chudleigh, bart. of 
Alhton, in Devonfhire) and Harriet 
his wife. In 1743 ihe was ap- 
pointed one of the maids of honour 
to the princefs of Wales ; which 
office (he continued to hold till her 
marriage with the duke of King- 
fton. — Her grace was married Aug. 
4, 1744., in the pariih church of 
Lainlton, in Hampfhire, the feat of 
John Merrill, eiq. by the rev. 
Thomas Amis, rector of that parifli, 
to the hon. Augultus-John Hervey, 
then lieutenant of the Cornwall man 
of war, fecond fon of John lord 
Hervey, fon and heir of John the 
firft earl of Briftol (who, in confe- 
quence of the death of his eldeft 
brother, George-William, the fe- 
cond earl of Briftol, unmarried, 
March 20, 1775, fucceeded to that 
title) both parties being then about 
eighteen years of age. The ilTae of 
this marriage was a fon, born at 
Chehea, in 1747, who died an in- 
fant. The earl died Dec. 22, 1779. 



— She was married, fecondly, March 
8, 1769^ in the pariih church of St. 
George, Hanover-fquare, by the 
rev. Samuel Harpur, of the Britifti 
Mufeum, to Evelyn duke of King- 
lion. He died at Bath, Sept. 23, 
1773, without iffae. — Her grace 
was tried for bigamy before the 
houfe of peers, in Weftniinfter-hall, 
on April 15, 16, 19, 20, and 22, 
1776, Henry earl Bathurft, lord 
chancellor, being appointed high 
fteward of Great Britain for that 
purpofe ; and on the laft of thofe 
days was found guilty by the una- 
nimous and unequivocal adjudica- 
tion of all the peers prefent, the 
duke of Newcaftie only adding to 
his declaration of " Guilty, upon 
** my honour," the affertion, that 
fhe was fo " erroneoufly, but not 
" ivitentionally." After the trials 
fhe quitted this country, and refided 
at St. Peterfourg, and many other 
foreign courts. — About a fortnight 
before her grace's demife, fhe was 
attacked with a fever of fo flight a 
nature, that the faculty confidered it 
of little importance. She was in- 
difpofed, raiher than aftually ill. 
The night preceding the day on 
which fhe expired, an internal bleed- 
ing took place, and it appeared to 
have confiderably relieved her. She 
arofe a little later than her accuf- 
tomed hour; by the aid of a dc- 
meftic, walked about the faloon, 
and converfed with fome friends, 
at different intervals, during the 
forenoon. At two o'clock Ihe ex- 
prefTed an inclination to drink a 
glafs of wine, which was brought 
her. She then walked the length 
of the faloon, returned towards a 
couch, and the inftant in which Ihe 
reached it, fhe fat down, fell gently 
backward, and expired without an 
agitation or a groan. On opening 
[0 3] the 



2i4i ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



the body, preparatory to embal- 
ment, the heart ^nd lungs were 
found to be in perfeft condition ; 
but a I'mall blood-veiTel had burft, 

which caufed her death. The 

duchefs was born in J72Q; conle- 
quently fl^e was 68 years of age. 
The executors are, fir Richard He- 
ron, fir George Shuckburgh, and 
Mr. Payne, formerly conful at Al- 
giers. Mr. Payne is gone ro Paris, 
to bring over the will, which was 
made two years ago, 



SEPTEMBER. 

n The lord mayor of London 
went to St. Margaret's-hili 
court in the Borough, accompanied 
by fir Thomas Halifax, fir William 
Plomer, and Mr. Sheriff Fenn ; 
where his lordfhip opened the court 
for granting licences to the publi- 
cans refiding within the five parishes 

of the Borough. Among many 

Others who received their licences 
was the proprietor of the Dog and 
puck tea-gardens ; confequently, 
that houfe will be opened in t^e 
ufual manner. 

At three o'clock the lord mayor 
and aldermen withdrew from St. 
Marg-iret's-hill, after finilhing the 
bufinefs of the day, and confirming 
the jurifdiftion of the city of Lon- 
don in the exercife of magifterial 
autiiority a fecond time, with the 
full concurrence of the inhabitants^ 
who accede to the enjoyment of 
many prlvj leges and franchifes by 
this extenfion of the city's char- 
ter. 

The Surry magiftrates attended 
at the fame time, and for the farne 
purpoie, at uion-hall, to maintain 
their claim of a j'jrifdiftion over 
^he Borough ; fo tiiat this claimj 



which has been long in litigation, 
does not yet feem to have obtained 
a legal decifion. 

On Wednetday the 3d, came on 
at Edinburgh, before the high court 
of julticiary, the trial of Williani 
Brodie and George Smith, for 
breaking into the general excife- 
ofEce for Scotland, in the night of 
the 5th of March laft, and Healing 
bank-notes and money. The trial 
commenced at a quarter before nine 
o'clock in the morning, and the 
evidence was not clofed till after 
one the next morning, when the 
whole was furamed up by the lord 
advocate on the part of the crown, 
and by the prifoner's counfel. The 
lord juftice clerk then gave his 
charge to the jury, which lafted till 
near fix o'clock, when they were 
inclofed, and at one returned a ver- 
did, unanimoufly finding the pri- 
foners guilty. A motion was theti 
made for an arreft of judgmentj, 
which their lordfhips unanimoufly 
rejefted ; and the lord julHce cleric 
paJTed fentence on the prifoners^ 
to be executed on Wednefday the 
firft of Odoficr next. 

Mr. Brodie's behaviour during 
the whole trial was perfectly col- 
ledied. He was refpedful to the 
court; and, when any thing ludi- 
crous occurred in the evidence, 
fmiled, as if he had been an in- 
different fpeflator. His demean- 
our, on receiving the dreadful fen- 
tence, was equally cool and deter- 
mined. He was carried back to 
prifon in a chair. Smith was much 
aifeded. Mr. Brodie was dreffed 
in a blue coat, fancy vefl, fattin 
breeches, and white filk llockings ; 
a cocked hat ; his hair full dreffea 
and powdered. Smith was rather 
meanly dreffed. 

However extrag^^Jinary it may 
appear^ 



CHRONICLE. 



[215 



appear, it is a certain faft, that 
Mr. Brodic, at the death of his fa- 
ther, which happened about twelve 
years ago, inherited a confiderable 
cftate in houfes ia the city of Edin» 
burgh, together with 10,000 1. in 
fpecle ; bur, by an unhappy con- 
nexion, and a too great propen- 
fity to that deftru6tive, though too 
predominant paiHon, gaming, ha is 
reduced to his prelent deplorable 
ruuation. 

Q 1 Twoeight-oaredcuttersftart- 
ed from Weftminlter-bridge, to 
row to Ixichniond againll wind and 
ride, for a wager of fixty guineas 
a fide ; the firil through Richmond- 
bridge to win the money. The 
names of the boats were the Chat- 
ham and the Invincible. The bets 
at Itarting were much in favour of 
the Invincible, and continued fo till 
they came off Sion-houfe, when the 
Chatham touched her in the ftern, 
and drove her alhore, to the fur- 
prize of the fpeftators, the Chat- 
ham being 300 yards a-ftern at 
Kew-bridge. On board the invin- 
cible the exertions were io great, 
after this encounter, that one man 
may be faid to have died on his 
oar, and two others, on being 
landed at Kew, were taken very ill ; 
of courfe the Chatham carried off 
the prize. 

, William Mafon was this 

day tried far the robbery in 
Devonfhire-houfe. By the lenity of 
his grace the duke of Devonfhire, 
the prifoner was indidedonly for a 
fimple felony, of which he was con- 
vidled. 

18th This day there was a nu- 

merous meeting of proprie- 
tors of ba.tk ftock, at the half- 
yearly court, to hear the dividend 
declared ; when Mr. Darell (the 
j^o'/ernor) de^l^red^ tha,t they were 



enabled to make -> dividend of 
3 I. 10 s. per cent, fertile half year, 
ending the loth ol Oitober next. 
Mr. Alderman Pickett then arofe, 
to know the grounds on wiiich that 
dividend was declared. He detellcd 
all private views, and Hated the 
right the proprietors had by their 
charter to meet and deliberate on 
the nature and circumltances of 
their affairs; and according to the 
fituation in which they Hood, from 
time to time, to declare the divi- 
dend for the time being. He in- 
filled, that as the profits of the 
company were prog.i"eili\e, the divi- 
dend ought alfo to be progreffive in 
proportion to thofe proiits. He 
made other pertinent obfervations, 
which he formed into relolutions ; 
but as he found the fenfe of the 
principal proprietors in toto ngainft 
him, he forbore ior the prefent to 
urge them. The directors acknow- 
ledge the right of the proprietors ; 
but could by no means be anfwer- 
able for what would attend the ex- 
ercife of it. 

The motion being put, that the 
court do agree to the dividend 
dsclared, the fame paffed unani- 
moufly. 

On the 26th of July, early in the 
morning, a large hulk, in the fer- 
vice of government, lyingoff Green- 
wich in Jamaica, in which was above 
2000 weight of powder, took fire 
and blew up. There were only a 
white man and two negroes on 
board, by the careleffners of whom 
a fire was left burning in the ca- 
boofe when they went to fieep, A 
little after twelve the white man 
awoke, and finding the veffel on 
fire, inftantly called the negioes to 
affift in quenching the flames ; in- 
ftead of which, they fuddenjy jumped 
into the only boat along-lide^ and 
[0 4] rowed 



2i6] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



rowed off. In this dilemma the man 
got over the bows of the hulk, and 
Supported himlelf by the cable till 
the explofion took place, when he 
was blown into the air, and fell down 
again into the fea, without receiving 
any other hurt than being llighlly 
fcorched. 

A young Irifh gentleman, for a 
very confiderable wager, fet out, 
on Monday the 2 2d inilant, to 
walk to Conllantinople and back 
again in one year. It is faid that 
the young gentleman has 20,000 1, 
depending on the performance of 
this exploit. 

, A common -hall was this 

^-''^* day held at Guildhall, for 
the eleftion of a lord mayor for the 
year enfuing, wlien William Gill, 
i;i'q. citizen and ftationer, being the 
feaior alderman, was chofen with 
unufual unanimity. — Mr. Pickett's 
threatened motion for the demoli- 
tion of Temple Bar, meeting with 
no hand to fecond it, dropt of courfe 
ur.put. 

, The arrangement of the 

•■' "■ * French miniftry, as refolved 
on by the moft ChriftianKing, ftands 

thus. it is nearly the fame as it 

vvas when the archbifhop of Sens was 
iit the head of affairs, 

M. de Caflries has no fhare what- 
ever in the new adminiftration ; nor 
is there any place of premier now 
exilHng. 

M. Necker, minifter of the fi- 
nances, and at the head of affairs. 
The place of fuperintendant of the 
finances was abplitlied under M. 
fouquet, and probably will never 
be r.-jvived. 

There is no comptroller general. 
M. de la Moignon (and not de 
Montholon) keeper of the feals. 

Count de Luzerne (and not de la 
Porte) minifter of the marine. 



M. de Brienne (and not de St. 
Prieft) minifter in the war depart- 
ment. 

There is no fuch office in France 
as fecretary for the home depart- 
ment ; but 

Count de Montmorin (and not 
M. de Bretuil) fecretary of ftate for 
foreign affairs. 

The other department of admi- 
niftration is, monfeigneur de Mont- 
morency Laval, chancellor. 

At preient it is not intended there 
fhould be any prime minifter — but 
fhould any fuch department be filled, 
it will certainly be by the due de 
Chatelet. 

Died. — Rev. William Norman, 
reftor of Bledon, in Somerfet- 
ftiire. As he vvas fitting at fup- 
per (on the 25th) with a friend, 
he obferved his brother, the rev. 
Henry Norman, take a large knife 
from the cafe, and go out into the 
kitchen. He immediately called to 
the fervant to take it from him, 
which, through fear, he omitted to 
do. Soon after, Henry returned 
to the parlour, with the knife con- 
cealed under his coat, and, unob- 
ferved by his brother, came behind 
hin\ and ftabbed him twice. The 
unfortunate gentleman lay in the 
greateli agonies of pain till the 
morning of the 27th, when be ex- 
pired. — The wretched perpetrator 
of this horrid adt is redor of Mor- 
fted, near Winchefter; and, having 
been fome time fince deranged in 
his intelledls, was removed to his 
brother's at Bledon, for fecurity, 
and in Auguft laft appeared in a 
more ferane ftat? than for fome 
years before. He therefore had 
greater liberties allowed him, and 
the tragical event happened as a- 
bove related. The unhappy ma- 
niac, we are told, being aked by 

his 



CHRONICLE. 



[iiy 



his fervant when he fhould return which was the fize of the mouth of a 
home, gave for anfwer, *' as foon large oven, betrayed the faft. A 
*♦ as he had killed his brother." No letter was found in the palace, evi- 
notice, however, was taken of this, dently dropped by one of the de- 
He has been finc^ confiued in a pri- predators, without an addrefs, fign- 



vate madhoufe. 



OCTOBER. 

At a general court of pro- 



9th. 



ed "Jofeph, but no furname. The 
contents of the letter is, that the 
houfe of the writer's inafter had beem 
broke open, but the family being 
alarmed, the men had gone off with- 
out effei^ling their purpofe, and left 
behind them a fack, and fome im- 



prletors at the Eail India houfe, 

for balloting on the queftion for plemcnts for houfe-brcaking. This 

leftoring captain Bruce Bofwell, late epilUe being taken to Bow-ftrect, 

of the Earl of Chellerheld Eall in- aud the hooks examined, the houfe 

diaman; the ballot began at nine to which the letter alluded wag 

in the morning, and finally ciofed known, information of the circum- 

at fix in the evening ; foon after ftance having been given at the 

which it was declared for the cap- office after the intended robbery, 

tain. The gentleman being waited on, 

, Between the hoars of one immediately knew the hand-writ- 

and three in the morning, the ing of the letter to be that of a 

palace of his grace the archbilhop fervant named Jofeph, whom he had 

of Canterbury was broke open, and lately difcharged, on an idea of his 

plate, as it is faiJ, to the value of being concerned with the perfons 

two thoufand pounds taken away ; who broke into his houfe. But 

to fecure which, his grace had lately nothing has yet been difcovered 

removed a door that led into the by it. 

plate -rooms, and had caufed the One Richard Coventry, a ^ , 

paflage to be bricked up with a wall lighterman, navigating his "^ * 

eighteen inches thick. By this al- barge from London bridge, on the 

teration, it is fuppofed, the villains Surrv-fideof Black-friars wa.'fetfaft, 

came to the knowledge of the rooms and in going iiome, between tvv. Ive 

where the plate was depofited, a and one, made the following difcove- 

part of which was the property of ries.of which he madeoathbeforethe 

Mr. Eden, who, before he went juftices at Union-hal, in the Borough, 

abroad, lodged it in the palace as a Seeing a light in a carpenter's yard, 

place of tliegreatellfecurity. Find- and hearing the found of hammers, 

ing it impolTible to get over the he was induced to be curious, and 

wall with the booty, the thieves difcovered five perfons hammering 

picked the lock of the garden -door tankards, tureens, fpoons, &c. the 

next the river, and it is thought utenfils appearingto be covered with 

conveyed .iway their prize in a boat dirt and filth. It ftruck him that 

moored along-fide the bi'lhop's walk this was the plate which was. flolen 

for that purpofe. Not any of the from the aiciibifhop; and he imme- 

family were alarmed, nor the rob- diately called his fellow bargeman 

bery difcovered until the fervar.ts and a boy, who arming thcmieives 

rofe, when the hole in the wall, with two old piftols and a cutlafs, 

bur£t 



5iS] ANNUAL REGISTER, 178S. 

merous than had been known for 



burft into the place, and farprized 
tlje- thieves at their work: four of 
tkem got off— the fifth jumped upon 
a pile of timber, but being ibr- 
roundcd was obliged to delcend, 
and was taken into cuftody by the 
watchmen. Four large bags of 
plate were found upon the fpot, all 
tarniOied black, having been tlirown 
into the adjoining ditch. The pljte 
was produced, and feveral pieces of 
it were beat clofe together, fo as to 
render it impoffible to be identified : 
but it was not fo with the greafr 
quantity, which was clearly proved 
to be the property of the archbilhop 
by two of his fervants. 1i>e pri- 
foner's name is Edwards. He has 
efoally plied upon the water, and 
occafionally worked as a porter, 
and was known by the nick-name of 
Oil Shin Jack. Ti^e fafts being fully 
corroborated, the prifoner Edwards 
was committed to the Borough New 
Gaol for further examination. 

Ireland, 20th. The anniverfary 
of the, birth of king William HI. 
was obferved at the CaJlIe with 
more than ordinary folemnity. The 
appearance of nobility and gentry 
at the levee was fuch as evinced 
their attachment to the revolution 
in favour of tharilluftrious monarch, 
and its happy confequences in the 
eftabliftijncnt of the prefent royal 
family on the throne of thefe realms. 
After the levee, his excellency, at- 
tended by a numerous train of the 
firit perfonages in the kingdom, and 
efcorted by the guard ufuaj on fuch 
occafions, went fropci the Caftle to 
College Green, and after faiuting 
the eqiieflrian flatae of king Wil- 
liam, proceeded from thence round 
Stephen's Green. 'I he appearance 
on this occafion was iplendid, and 
she number of equipages mere ny- 



many years. 

Portjhiouth, 28 th. A court martial 
was this day held on board the 
Edgar, to try lieutenants Wall and 
Lucas, officc-rs on board the Phaeton 
frigate, captain Dawfon commander, 
for fufFering themfelves to be beaten 
by the furgeon, Mr. William Ward- 
robe (under fentence of death for 
iiriking his commanding offcer 
while ©n duty) without pnnilhing 
or calling him to account for his 
conducl. The profecutor was the 
third lieutenant, fupported by the 
mailer, 'i he beating was proved; 
but it likevvife was proved, that the 
furgeon, in the courfe of fervice, 
having received a contufion in his 
head, was a maniac when he was in 
liquor, but a man of quiet temper 
andconfummateflcillin his profeffion 
when fober, which had inclined 
lieutenant Wall (who had the com- 
mand of the fliip when the fatal 
quarrel hrippened, in which he was 
Itruck) from a principle of humani- 
ty, CO forgiveiiefs, in which he had 
been fecouded by lieutenant Lucas 
from the fame motives ; a lenity^ 
which however commmdable as 
private gentlemen, was reprehen- 
fible in the extreme in officers, as 
dangerous to the fervice in his ma- 
jeily's navy. Thus circumftanced, 
they threw themfelves on the mercy 
of the court, hoping that, fhould 
they be thought guilty, in fhewing 
too great lenity to an unhappy man^ 
in compaflion to his more unhappy 
family (having a wife and feveral 
fmall children, entirely dependant 
on his pay, in Scotland) a little of 
that lenity they may be blameid for 
fiiewing to others, may be extended 
to themfelves. 

While the fentence of the court 
rear Li 4 



CHRONICLE. 



[219 



martial remained in fufpence, ano- 
ther court mnrtial was ordered to be 
held • on captain Dawfon., which 
commenced Oil the 7th inltant, at the 
inftiiice of Mr. Wilkie, the mailer, 
on a variety of charges (fourteen in 
number) the greatelt part of which 
were judged by the court ill-ground- 
ed, fcandalou?, malicious, and fub- 
verlive of all good government and 
difcifline in the navy ; but part of 
the tenth, the el'^venth, twelfth^ and 
part of the fourteenth, were fully 
proved ; and therefore the fentence 
of the court was, that the captain 
be difmilTed from his majeily's 
fervice. 

, The general afTembly of the 
5 * church of Scotland, by an ad 
pafTed on the 29th of May, 1788, 
appointed the 5 th day of November, 
in the prefent year, to be obferved, 
within the bounds of their national 
church, 35 a day of folemn thankf- 
giving, in commemoration of the 
revolution in 1688, and have en- 
joined all minillers to intimate the 
fame from their pulpits, on the 
Lord's day preceding the faid 5th 
of November, 

DiHD. — At Paris, faddenly, the 
marquis de Chaftellux, a command- 
ing officer in the French army in 
America, and author of " Travels 
in North America, in the years 
1780, I, 2," which have been 
tranflated into Englifh. The mar- 
quis alfo wrote, " De la Fclicite 
publiqi;*;; ou, Confiderations fur le 
fort des Hommes dans les diffe- 
rentes Epoques de I'Hilioire," pub- 
lifhed at Amfterdam without his 
name, in 2 vols. Bvo. 1772, 

At Paris, after a fhort illnefs, aged 
eighty-feven years, eight months, 
and twenty-feven days, Antoine de 
Con taut de Biron,duke de Biron, peer 
and fi;il marfhal of France, knight 



of the king's orders, colonel-gene- 
ral of the French guards, governor 
of Lnngijedoc, baron of Perigord 
and Jftuifey, lord.of Bradefol, Mug- 
ron, and Brifambourg, count of 
Cabreres, and marquis of Rouflillon 
and Montferrand. — His remains lay 
in ftate tiil the evening of Monday, 
November 10, when they were 
buried with military honours, all 
the French guards attending. — Mr. 
Walpolc thus defcribes his garden- 
ing: " In the garden of marfhal 
de Biron at Paris, confifting of 
fourteen acres, every walk is bat- 
tened on each fide by lines of 
flower- pots, which fucceed in their 
feafons. When I faw it, there were 
nine thoufand pots of Allers, or La 
Reine Marguerite." 



NOVEMBER. 
This morning William Gill, 



efq; lord mayor eled, was ■ 
prefented to the lord chancellor, 
according to ancient ufage, for his 
majefty's approbation. 

This day was tried before lord 
Kenyon and a fpecial jury, an in- 
diftment againll Jofeph Mitton, 
a foldier belonging to the banJc 
picquet, for the an"ault on Mr. 
Crefpigny, fon of the member of 
parliament of that name. The in- 
didlment charged the defendant wh\\ 
an alTault with intent to murder, 
and alfo with a common aiTault.— 5 
Aifter lord Kenyon had fummed up 
the evidence with his ufual accuracy, 
the jury pronounced their vedid. 
Not guilty upon the count charging 
the defendant with an intent to kill 
— but guilty upon the count for a 
common alTault. 

Being the anniverfary of the , 
birth-day of king William IIL ^^^ 

the 



:l2o'] annual register, 1788. 



the artillery company attended di- 
vine fervice at St. Paul's church, 
and afterwards dined at the Ar- 
moury -houie. 

Among the clubs in London who 
celebrated the centenary of the 
glorious revolution, there were feven, 
befides a number ot inferior ones, 
who dillinguiihed themfelves on that 
memorable occafion. 

At the dinner, at the London 
tavern, of the Revolution fociety, 
more than eight hundred gentlemen 
were prefent, earl Stanhope in the 
chair. The tavern was elegantly 
illuminated. '^J here were many 
.more illuminations where tlie 
friends of that happy event were 
alTembled. 

At the Whig club, held at the 
Crown and Anchor in the Strand, 
his grace the duke of Portland in 
the chair, Mr. Sheridan, after pay- 
ing an eloquent tribute to the me- 
mory of our immortal deliverer, 
fubmitted to the approbation ot the 
fociety certain reiolutions refpefting 
a column intended to be erefted in 
Runney Mead (a fpot facred to the 
liberties of the people) to perpetuate 
fo illuttrious an event, which were 
unanimouily agreed to, and more 
than £. icoo fubfcribed by the fe- 
veral members. 

Edinburgh, The 5thinllant, being 
the tooth anniverfary of the landing 
ofkingWilliamlli. in England, the 
fame was obferved at Edinburgh as a 
day of thankfgiving. A number of 
excellent fermons were preached at 
the various churches, in which the 
rife, progrefs, motives, and joyful 
efFeds of the revolution that follow- 
ed, were pointed out in a moll 
mafterly and pathetic manner. The 
concrrepations, which were univer- 
fally numerous, were in the princi- 
pal churches of the firft quality. 



One of the Whig clubs, called, 
" The Independent Friends," came 
to the refolution, *' That, imprefied 
with the llrongeil fenfe of 'the inef- 
timable bleflings which thefe king- 
doms enjoy in confequence of the 
glorious revolution in 1688, they 
now enter into and fhall promote a 
fubicription for ereftirig in Edin- 
burgh, or the immediate neighbour- 
hood thereof, fome public monu- 
ment, with a fuitable infcription, in 
commemoration of that great event, 
and in teftimony of their firm and 
fteady adherence to the principles 
of the revolution fettlement." 

On the 17th of September, the 
Ihip Alliance, captain Read, arrived 
at Philadelphia, from Canton, in 
China, after a voyage of fifteen 
months, part of which, outwards, was 
by a new track, from the Cape of 
Good Hope fleering to the fouth- 
ealhvard, and encircling all the 
eadern and fouthern ill^inds of the 
Indian Ocean, pafling the fouth 
cape of New Holland, and on their 
pajTage northwards dKcovering, as 
thevluppofed, fome unknown iflands, 
with the inhabitants of which, they, 
however, had no intercoufej fo that 
nothing can be concluded from their 
report. 

By the report of dodor Rufh, of 
Philadelphia, a fecond phenome- 
non, equal, if not fuperior, to that 
prodigy in calculation, Jededia 
Buxton, has appeared in Mary- 
land, in the perfbn of a black flave ; 
this is the more extraordinary, as it 
is fomewhere remarked, that few of 
the race of wooUey-headed blacks 
can go farther in the art of enumer- 
ation than the number 5. The man 
being alked how many feconds a 
man of feventy years, fome odd 
month §, weeks, and days, had 
lived ? in a minute and a half, told 
I the 



CHRONICLE. 



[2ar 



the number. The gentleman, af- 
ter calculating the fame by figures, 
faid he was wrong. — *' Stop, jnnJjTa,''* 
replied the black, " you forget the 
leap years;''^ and on including them, 
the gentleman found the biack was 
precifely rii^ht. This Have is a na- 
tive of Africa, and could neither 
write nor read ; neither could je- 
dedia Buxton. The publication of 
thefe fads feems to have an end in 
view, which, however, will by no 
means leffen their credit, v/hen re- 
ported by dodor Ruili, on his oxv« 
knonxjledge. 

Ireland. A moil extraordinary 
clrcumllance occurred lately at Mul- 
lingar. A man about three years 
ago murdered his Itep-mother in 
the open day ; and the alarm be- 
ing given, a gentleman, with his 
attendants, properly armed, repair- 
ed to the place in order to ap- 
prehend him. While the party 
were engaged in breaking open the 
llreet-door, he contrived to make 
his elcape back^vard, and going 
round, mounted the gentleman's 
horfe, and rode clear off. He was 
not heard of for about three years ; 
bat on the 27th inltant, went to 
the fneritt of the county of Welt- 
meath, and voluntarily furrender- 
ed himfelf; though remote from 
puniibment, and living orderly, he 
had acquired the reputation of an 
honeit man. 

1 The following interelling 
point of law was argued and 
determined in the court of common 
pleas, before lord Loughborough. 
Mr. Williams, an audtioneer, was 
employed by Mr. Crown, of Bromp- 
ton, to fell his furniture by auvflion, 
on the premifles. A Mr. Milling- 
ton, who had a claim of five gui- 
ueas on Crown, had goods knocked 



down to him at the auiElion, for 
which he paid the cuftomary ear- 
ned, and next day tound means to 
get the goods loaded and fent off, 
and then tendered a receipt for the 
five guineas due to him, with 
2I. 4s. 6d. in cafh, as payment to 
the auftioneer. The audlioneer re- 
fufed the receipt in payment, paid 
Crown the full money for the lot, 
and then brought his action againit 
Mr. Millington, and got a verdidt 
in his favour. Millington moved 
the court to fct afide the verdift. 
The arguments offered by his coun- 
fel were principally thefe, that the 
audlioneer had himfelf no property 
in the goods, and his pofleffion was 
only a menial one, fuch as a Ihop- 
man has from his employers ; there- 
fore he could maintain no adlion ia 
his own name for breach of con- 
tract ; that the cafe was totally dif- 
ferent from that of a fadtor for a 
foreign merchant, who was liable 
to fue and be fued, for the conve- 
nience of commerce, becaufe the 
principal, dwelling in a foreiga 
country, could not be forthcoming ; 
but here the audlioneer's principal 
being on the fpot, removed all re- 
fponfibility from the fervantto him- 
felf. When the counfel on the 
other fide had replied, lord Lough- 
borough gave it as his decided opi- 
nion, that the audlioneer had not 
only a clear poffeflion of the goods, 
but that polTeifion was alfo coupled 
with an intereft he had in them, as 
bound not only to defray all ex- 
pences incurred by the fale, but the 
law threw upon him the refponfibi- 
lity for the duty. On this ground 
the verdi<;l was ellablifhed. 

Was committed to the , 
Caille of Lancader, John ^ '■' 
Taylor, of Aldclilftf, for attempting 
6 to 



222] ANNUAL REGIST^^R, 17I 



to flioot his wife and child, with a 
gun loaded with three flugs, which, 
though he fnapped it twice, fortu- 
nately mifTed fire. In a fcuffle 
which enfaed, the wife twifted the 
gun out of his hands, and difcharg- 
ed its contents on the firil pull of 
the trigger. 

, Lord George Gordon, of 
3° ■ whom we tiave heard nothing 
material for fonie time . has lately 
taken occafion to caufe feveral 
hand-bills to be diftributed, in 
which many texts of fcripture are 
moft fcandiloufly applied to the un- 
happy ftate of the king. They are 
chiefly feiected from the books of 
Deuteronomy and Kings. 

His lordlhip, in order to Ihew 
government that what Moles and 
the prophets wrote in refpedl to the 
fovereigns of thofe days, would an- 
fwer for any monarch in hundreds 
of centuries afterwards, thought pro- 
per to fend feveral of thofe hand- 
bills to the prefent members of ad- 
miniftration, avowing himfelf as the 
author. 

The applications evidently made, 
and the effedls palpably intended, 
were to alienate from his majefty 
the afFeftions of his people, by the 
moft fcandalous perverfion of the 
texts above-mentioned. 

As this proceeding was of a very 
criminal nature, orders were imme- 
diately fent to the IherifF to fearch^ 
his lordftiip's apartments, and dif- 
cover whether he had any means of 
printing fuch treafonable libels in 
Newgate. Accordingly fir Benja- 
min Hammet went, on Thurfday, 
the 28th day of November, to lord 
George Gordon's apartment, on the 
felons fide in Newgate, and tore 
djwn two copies from the walls of 
the room. He informed his lord- 



fhip, that thofe papers made a great 
diiturbance io the city, and threat- 
ened to remove his lordlhip to a 
worfe room. Lord George told the 
iherift's, he was under the power of 
his enemies, in a loathfome prifon, 
and they might do as they thought 
moil prudent for themfelves ; as to 
the printer, he was known to no- 
body but himfelf. 

Died — Lately, of a violent fe- 
ver, on board his fhip the Rotiflaw* 
at Revel, admiral Samuel Carlo" 
witch Greig, chief governor of the 
port of Croniladt, chevalier of thfe 
orders of St. Andrew, St. Alexan- 
der-Newfki, St. George of the fe- 
cond clafs, St. Woldmir of the firft 
clafs, and St. Anne; and admiral 
and commander in chief of the em- 
prefs of Ruffia's fleet. — His remains 
have been conveyed from Revel to 
Peterfburg by water, and there in- 
terred with great funeral' pomp in 
the cathedral church of St. Ca- 
therine, where a monument is to be 
ere£led. 



DECEMBER. 

The royal fociety held their « 
anniverfary meeting, at their * 
apartments in Somerfet-place in the 
Strand, when the prefident, fir Jo- 
feph Banks, bart. in the name of the 
fociety, prefented the gold medal 
(called iir Godfrey Copley's) to 
Charles Blagden, M.D. Sec. R. S. 
for his two papers ** On Congela- 
" tion." The prefident on this 
occafion delivered the cuftomary 
difcourfe on the fubjefts contained 
in Dr. Blagden's papers. 

Afterwards the fociety proceeded 
to the choice of the council and of- 
ficers for the enfuing year, when, on 
examining 



CBiRONICLE, 



[22^ 



examining the ballots, it appeared, 
that the following geatlemeu were 
eleded of the council : 

Of the old council, fir Jofeph 
Banks, bare. Charles Blagden, M. D. 
Richard Brocklefby, M,D. Henry 
Cavendiih, efq; the reverend Lewis 
Dutens, ?>'!. A. Thomas Emlyn, efq; 
the reverend Nevil Mafeelyne, D.D. 
Conftantine John lord Mulgrave, 
fir William Mijfgrave, bart. Jofeph 
Planta, efq; Samuel Wegg,efq; 

Of the new council, John Doug- 
las lord biihop of CarliHe, Francis 
marquis of Carmarthen, Charles 
Combe, M.D. George Fordyce, 
TVI.D. Sir Abrah:.m Hume, bart. 
Thomas Barnard lord bifhopof Kll- 
laloe, Francis Millman, M.D. John 
Peachey, efq; Samuel Prime, efq; 
Robert Wefton, efq; 

And the officers were, fir Jofeph 
Banks, bart. prefident ; Samuel 
Wegg,erq;trearurer ; Jofeph Planta, 
efq; and Charles Blagden, M. D. 
fecretaries. 

J, . The recorder of London had 
a long conference with lord 
Sidney, on the fubje(5lof the prefcnt 
(ituation of the prifons of the me- 
tropolis, ana the number of convids 
that are increafrng to an alarming 
degree, owing to the delay offend- 
ing abroad thofe under fentence of 
tranfportation. The feafon is over 
for fending them to Quebec and 
Nova Scotia ; but alTurances have 
been given, that two fhips, properly 
fitted up, ihall be ready, by the 
latter end of March next, to carry 
convids to America. 

1 The poll at the contefted 

cledion for Colchefter clof- 
ed, when the numbers were— for 
Mr. Tierney, 640— for Mr. Jack- 
fon, 640. The mayor made a 
double return. 

The alTembly of the Notables, 



which met at Verfailles on the 6th 
of November, was difiblved by the 
French king in perfon. The fol- 
lowing is a tranflatien of his fpeech : 

*' Gentlemen, in terminating 
your meetings, I ailemble you a- 
round me, to teflify my fatisfadlioa 
at the zeal and application which 
you have obferved in the examina- 
tion of the different objedls which, 
I laid before you. I fhall weigh 
with attention the refult of your de- 
liberations, and (hall prepare every 
thing which may accelerate the af- 
fembly of the States General ; 3 
period that i wilh for with niuch, 
impatience, being alTured they will 
provide an efficacious remedy for 
the evils of the ftate." 

A ballot was held at the ^ , 
Eaft India houfe for the *^^^* 
choice of a dire^or, in the room of 
the late Mr. Michie : at fix o'cloclj: 
the glaffes were clofed ; and at fe- 
ven the fcrutineers- declared the 
numbers as follows : 

For Mr. David Scott, 568 
Mr. Robert Jenner, 285 
Upon which Mr. Scott was declared - 
duly elefted. 

This day his royal highnefs the 
duke of York ordered 260 facks of 
coals to be diftributed among the 
families of the married men of his 
regiment, and the fame to be con- 
tinued every week during the feve- 
rity of the weather. 

Died. — At Paris, in his Cid 
year, Peter Andrew de SuiFren 
Saint Tropes, bailey and knight of 
the order of St. John of Jerufalem, 
vice-admiral of France, knight of 
the king*s orders, ambalTador at 
Malta to his Moil Chrillian Ma- 
jefi:y, general of that order, com- 
mendeur of feveral priories. Sec, 
Ke greatly diftinguiflied himfelf in 
many gallant anions during the late 
8 war 



224] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 

war in the Eaft Indies. — Being a on the Fifiula in Ano," 8vo, ibi<Ii 
knight of Malta, he was buried in 1767. 8. " Some few general Re- 
the Temple, on the nth inll. marks on Fraftures and Dilloca- 
, Jn Princes-ftreet, Hanover- tions," 8vo, ibid. 1768. q. " Ob- 
^^°' fquare, Pcrcival Pott, efq; fervatirns on the Nature and Con- 
F.R.S. late principal furgeon at fequences of thofe Injuries to which 
St. Bartholomew's Hofpital. He the Head is liable from external Vi- 
was among the favoured few who olence," 8vo, ibid. 1768. 10. 
are indulged with early eminence. " Obfervations on Wounds of the 
He fucceeded Nourfe, his maf- Head," 8vo, ibid, 1760 and 1771, 
ter, at St. Bartholomew's, where, 11. " An Account of the Method 
man and boy, he had been occupied of obtaining a perfetSl; or radical 
above fifty years; and yet, in all Cure of the Hydrocele, or Watery 
that time, who ever found him Rupture, by means of a Seton," 
wanting in any purfuit of urbanity Svo, ibid. 1771. 12. " Chirurgi- 
and elegance ? He was an intereft- cal Obfervations relative to the 
ino- converfer; he had cultivated li- Gataraft, the Polypus of the Nofe, 
terature ; he was fond of art. But the Cancer of the Scrotum, the 
his beft praife was in reallife, in the different Kinds of Ruptures, and 
relative duties^ and more trying ef» the Mortification of the Toes and 
forts of adive life. In the pecuniary Feet,'' Svo, London, 1775. All 
parts of charafter, happy is he who thefe different works have been col- 
can be as liberal. His life had been, ledled and publilhed in one volume 
if health and comelinefs are fo, un- quarto. 

commonly reputable to his fkill. At his apartments at Chel- ^, 

He looked 50 though at 75. He fea College, in his 95th year* 

was fent for to a patient out of Mcfienger Mouniey, M.D. For a 

town. Catching cold, he caught confiderable time he was family 

his inftant death. He vvae deliri- phyfician to the late earl of Go- 

ous before night ; and before the dolphin, and phyfician to Chelfea 

next night, notwithftanding Dr. College. His character and hu- 

Millman'salTiltancejhewasdead. — mour bore a ftriking refemblance 

The following is as corredl a lift of to that of the celebrated Dean 

his ptbiications as we can obtain : Swiit. By his will he has diredod 

1. " An Account of Tumours which that his body Ihall not fuffer any fu- 

foften the Bones. "Phil. Tranf 1741, neral ceremony, but undergo dif- 

N"459. 2. " A Treatife on Rup- fedion ; after which, the " re- 

ture.," bvo, London, 1756. 3. mainder of his carcafe (to ufe his 

*• An Account of a particular Kind own expreffion) may be put into a 

of Rupture," Svo, ibid. 1757. 4. hole, or crammed into a box with 



" A Treatife on the Hydrocele," 
Svo, ibid. 1762. 5. " A Treatife 
on the i^'iftula Lachrymalis," 8vo. 
ibid. 1763. 6. " An Account of 
an Hernia of the Uriniiry-Bladder, 
including a Stone." Phil. Tranf. 
vol. LIV. for 1764. 7. " F.emarks 



holes, and thrown into the Thames," 
at the pleafure of the furgeon. The 
furgeon to whom he has afligned 
thi^ charge is Mr. Forller, of Uni- 
on-court, Broad-ftreet. — In purl'u- 
ance of the dcdor's fingular win> 
Mr. Forller has iince given a dif- 
courfsi 



CHRONICLE. 



[225 



courfe, in the theatre of Guy's Ho- 
fpitaJ, to the medical fl-udents and 
a confiderable number of intelli- 
gent vifitors, on the difledion of 
the body. He introduced the fub- 
jeil by a iketch of the mental pow- 
ers of Dr. Mounfey, obferving, that 
his underftanding was very compre- 
henfive, that his genius and wit 
ranked him high in the literary 
world, that his company was court- 
ed by men of the firll charader for 
talents and diftindlon, and that he 
retained the Ifrength of his judg- 
ment, and the livelinefs of his 
fancy, to the very advanced period 
at which his life ended. — Mr. Forf- 
ter then vindicated the dodor from 
all aftedtation, vanity, or whim, in 
having ordered his body for diffec- 
tion, and prohibited all funeral ce- 
remony, Hating, thAt whatever of 
Angularity might appear in his will 
was refolvable merely into a zeal 
for knowledge, and a defire of be- 
nefiting mankind, as he conceived 
that a diffeilion of his body would 
lead to the iliuilracion of much ufe- 
ful truth. He mentioned alfo the 
philofophic contempt in which the 
Doiflor held all funeral pomp, and 
every fpecies of unneceiTary form. 



BIRTHS for the year 1788. 

Jan. Lately, The right hon. 
lady Vernon, of a 
daughter. 
8. Great duchefs of Tuf- 
cany, of a prince. 

14. Lady of the hon. Fred. 

Lumley, of afon. 

15. Lady of the hon. John 

Byng, of a daughter. 

Feb. 9. Lady of Thomas Smith, 
efq; M. P. for Not- 
tingham, of a daugh- 
ter. 

Vol. XXX. 



10. Lady Carysfort, of a 

daughter. 
18. At Copenhagen, her 

royal highnels princefs 

Sophia-Frederica, of 

a princefs. 
24. Lady Boynton, of a 

daughter. 

26. Lady of Gerard Ed-; 

ward Noel, efq; of a 
daughter. 

27. Right hon. lady Kin- 

naird, of a fon. 
March 10. Lady Macdonald, of a 

fon. 
21. Right hon. lady Bollon, 

of a fon. 
24. Right hon. lady Lou- 

vaine, of a fon. 
29. Her royal highnefs the 

princefs of Afturias, of 

a fon. 
April 4. Lady of fir Paulett St. 

John, bart. of a daugh- 
ter. 

12. Lady of fir Samuel 

Hannay, bart. of a 
daughter. 
May 9. Lady Carnegie, of a 
daughter. 

13. Lady John Ruffell, of 

a fon. 

19. Countefs x)f Altamont, 
of a fon and heir. 

21. Her imperial highnefs 
the great duchefs of 
Tufcany, of a prin- 
cefs. 
June. Lately, the countefs of 
EglIntoun,of a daugh- 
ter. 
8. Lady Compton, of a 
fon. 

II. Lady Swinburne, of a 
fon and heir. 

19. Lady Cahhorpe, of a. 
daughter. 

21. Right hon. Countefs 
Kinnoul> of a daughter. 

[P] July 



226] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



July 7,0. The right hon. lady 
Frances Beiifon, of a 
fon. 

Aflg. 6. Lady Frederick, of a 
Ton. 

16. Lady Bernard, of a fon 

and heir. 
26. At Naples, her Sicilian 

majciiy, of a prince. 
Sept. Lately, the right hon. 

lady Callle Stewart, of 

a daughter. 
I. Lady of James Hodfon, 

efq; of J nee, near 

Wigan, of a fon and 

heir. 
4. Right hon. lady Grey 

de Wiitou of a daugh- 
ter. 
26. Lady Wiiichcote, of a 

daughter. 
30. Duchefs of Beaufort, of 

a fon. 
Oct. Lately, the right hon. 

lady Ann Fox, of a fon 

and heir. 
15. Her grace the duchefs 

of Athol, of a Ton. 

17. Coantefs of Abingdon, 

of a daughter. 
20. Lady Allanfoa Winn, 
of a daughter. 
Nov. Lady Radnor, of a fon. 
In Ireland, vifcountefs 
Jocelyn of a fon. 
Dec. 2. ThecounteisofTanker- 
ville ©f a daughter. 



MARRIAGES for the Year (7S8. 

Jan. Lately, Francis Bur- 
ton, efq;of Lincoln's- 
inn, Biember of par- 
liament for Wood- 
ftock, to mifs Hal- 
head, eldeft daughter 
of Nicholas H'llhead, 
efq; late of that place. 



Jan. 14. Edward Miller Mun- 
dy, efq; of Shipley, 
member of parliament 
for Nottinghamfhire, 
to the right hon. lady 
dowager Middleton. 

23. The hon. fir Francis 
Drake, hart, admiral 
of the blue, to mifs 
Onflow, only daugh- 
ter of George Onllow, 
efq; many years mem- 
ber of parliament for 
Guildford, Surrey. 

26. Sir John Rous, bart. 
member of parliament 
for Suffolk, to mifs 
Wilfon, only daughter 
and heirefs of the late 
Edward Warter Wil- 
fon, efq; of Bilboa,ia 
the county of Lime- 
rick, in Ireland. 
Samuel Whitbread, efq; 
junior, to mifs Grey, 
daughter of fir Charles 
Grey, knight of the 
Bath and TiiilUe. 
Feb. Lately, in Dublin, the 
right hon. lord vif- 
count Jocelyn, to mifs 
Biigh, of Merrion- 
buildings, eldell: dau- 
ghter of the dean of 
Elphin. 
2. Lord vifcount Went- 
worth, to the countefs 
Ligonier. 
' 14. The tarl of Aylefbury, 
to jadv Ann Rawdon. 
March 4. Lord Glafgow, to lady 
E. Hay, third daugh- 
ter of the countefs of 
End. 
6. Sir John Sinclair, bart. 
to the hon. mifs Mac- 
donald. 

II. Richard Grofvenor, 

efq; member of parlia- 

X ment 



CHRONICLE. 



[227 



ment for >\Veil Looe, 
Cornwall, to mifi 
Drax, only daughter 
of Edward Dra.v, efq; 
of Rielcomb Regis, 
■ Dorlet. 
April 7. Hon. John Wiifon, one 
of the juiJges of the 
courtof common-pleas, 
to miis Adair, daugh- 
ter of ferjeant Adair, 
recorder of London. 

11. Lambert Theodore 

Walpole, efq; nephew 
to lord Walpole, to 
the hon. mifs Marga- 
retta Clive, youngeft 
fifter to lord Clive. 

12. Right hon. the earl of 

Dundonald, to Mrs. 
Mayne. 
14. Charles, Sturt, efq; 
member of parliament 
for Bridport, in the 
county of Borfct, to 
the right hon. lady 
Mary -Anne Afhley, 
only daughter of the 
late earl of Shaftef- 
bury. 
May. Lately, The rev. Dr. 
Cleaver, firfl chaplain 
to the lord-lieutenant 
of Ireland, to mifs 
Wynne, daughter of 
the right hon. Owen 
Wynne. 
I. Sir Nicholas Conway 
CoIthurft,bart. to mifs 
Harriet Latouche, 
daughter of the right 
hon. David Latouche, 
13. Sir Egerton Leigh, bart. 
to Mrs. Beauchamp, 
daughter of the late 
fir Edward Boughton, 
bart. of Lawford-hall, 
in the ceunty of War- 
wick. ■ 



16. Sir Edmund Affleck, 
bart. rear admiral of 
the red, and member 
of parliament for Col- 
chefter, to Mrs. Smi- 
thers. 

20. The earl of Plymouth, 
to the hon. mifs Ar- 
cher, one of' the daugh- 
ters of the late lord 
Archer. 

lip. Orlando Bridgeman, 
efq; eldeft fon of fir 
Henry Bridgeman, 
bart. member of par- 
liament for Wigan, in 
the county of Lan- 
cafter, to the hon. mifs 
Byng, eldeft daugh- 
ter of lord vifcount 
Torrington. 
June 2. Monf. de Calonne, mi- 
niller of Hate, to 
madame d'Harvelai. 

4. Vyner, efq; fon of 

Robert Vyner, efq; 
member of parliament 
for Thirfke, to lady 
Theodofia Mary Afli- 
burnham, daughter of 
the late lord vifcount 
Alhburnham. 

5. The right Hon. lord 

Charles Henry So- 
merfet, fecond fon of 
the duke of Beaufort^ 
to the honourable mifs 
Elizabeth Courtenay, 
fourth daughter of the 
right hon. lord vifcount 
Courtenay. 
26. Vice-admiral fir Alex- 
ander Hood, knight 
of the Eath, to mifs 
Bray, only daughter 
of the late Thomas 
Bray, efq; of Edmon- 
ton. 
July 12. Right hon. the earl of 
[P] % Burford, 



328] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



Burford, Ton to the 
duke of St. Albans, to 
mifs Mofes. 
15. Right hon. vifcount 
Dudley and Ward> to 
Mrs. Baker. 

Aug. 4. John Drummond, efq; 
member of parliameat 
for Shafcefbury, to the 
right hon. lady Sufan 
Fane, daughter of the 
late earl of Weftmor- 
land. 

Oft. II. The light hon. the 
marquis of Carmar- 
then, to mifs Catha- 
rine Anguifh, daugh- 
ter of the late Thomas 
Anguifh, efq; mailer 
in chancery, and ac- 
comptant-general. 
Nov» Lately, the hon. H. 
Pelham, fccond fon 
of lord Pelham, to 
mifs Cobb, daughter 
of lady Mary Cobb. 

Dec. 9. The hori. Frederick 
St. John, brother to 
lord vifcount Boiing- 
broke, to lady Mary 
Kerr, daughter of the 
marquis of Lothian. 



PROMOTIONS for the Tear 
1788, from the London Gazette, 

January. Reverend doflor Dou- 
glas, bifliop of Carlifle, appointed 
regiftrar of the moil noble order of 
the Garter, and dean of Windfor, 
vice reverend doctor Harlsy, de- 
ceafed. 

Reverend James Jones, D.D. ap- 
pointed archdeacon of Hereford, vice 
reverend dodlor Harley, deceafed. 

James Ford, M.D. appointed 



phyfician extraordinary to th« 
queen. 

March. Right hon. fir James 
Harris, K. B. appointed ambafla- 
dor extraordinary and plenipoten- 
tiary to the Hates general of the 
United Provinces ; and William 
Gomm, efq; appointed fecretary to 
the faid embaffy. 

Reverend Richard Farmer, D.D. 
appointed canon refidentiary of St. 
Paul, vice right reverend dodlor 
John Douglas, bilhop of Carlifle. 

Captain William Wynyard, cap- 
tain Charles Afgill, and the hon. 
Charles Fitzroy, appointed equer- 
ries to his royal highnefs the duke 
of York. 

William Stiles and William Roe, 
efquires, appointed commiffioners of 
the cuftoms, vice Henry Pel.ham^ 
and John Povvnall, efquires, re- 
figned. 

Jeremiah Pemberton, efq; ap- 
pointed chief jufiice of Nova Scotia, 
vice Brian Finucan, efq; deceafed. 

Thomas Walpole, efq; appointed 
envoy extraordinary to the eledof 
palatine. 

Right hon. Henry Dundas, efq; 
treafurer of the navy, elefted ch:in- 
cellor o( the univerfity of St. An- 
drew, in Scotland, vice earl of Kin- 
noul, deceafed. 

George Rofe, efq; member of 
parliament for Launceftori, in the 
county of Cornwall, elected ver-' 
durer of New Foreft, vice fir P. J< 
Clerke, deceafed. 

Right reverend doftor John But- 
ler, bifhop of Oxford, tranflated to 
the fee of Hereford, vice reverend 
doftor Harley, deceafed. 

Paght reverend doctor E. Small- 
well, bilhop of St. David's, tran- 
flated to the fee of Oxford, vice 
doi^or Butler- 
Reverend Samuel Horfley* D. D. 
appointed 



CHRONICLE. 



[229 



appointed biHiop of St. David's, 
vice doftor SmaJlwell. 

April. Reverend Samuel Wef- 
ton, M. A. appointed canon and 
prebendary of Canterbury cathe- 
dral, vice dodor Richard Farmer, 
religned. 

Reverend Charles Fiennes, B. A. 
appointed prebendary of Weilmin- 
fter, vice dodor Taylor, deceafed. 

Philip Goldfworthy, efq; ap- 
pointed equerry to his majelty, and 
clerk-marfhal of the Mews, vice 
general Carpenter, deceafed. 

May. Right hon. , Hugh lord 
Fortelcue, appointed lord-lieute- 
nant of the county of Devon, vice 
earl Poulett, deceafed. 

Lieutenant-general William Au- 
guftub Pitt, right hon. James Cuffe, 
Ponfonby Moore, John Handcock, 
and Robert Langrilhe, efquires, and 
colonel David Dundas, together 
with the hon. George Jocelyn, 
George Rawfon, and Charles Henry 
Coote, efquires, appointed commif- 
lioners and overfeers of barracks, 
&c. in Ireland, vice James Caven- 
difh, Fitzherbert Richards, and 
Ralph Ward, efquires. 

Sir George Yonge, and admiral 
fir Alexander Hood, created knights 
of the Bath. 

Reverend Francis Barnes, B. D. 
of King's college, Cambridge, ap- 
pointed mafter of Peterhoufe, vice 
the late bifhop of Carliile. 

June. Right hon, fir Lloyd Ken- 
yon, bart. created a Britifh peer, by 
the title of lord Kenyon, baron of 
Gredington, in the county of 
Flint. 

Right hon. lord Kenyon, ap- 
pointed lord chief juitice of the 
court of king's bench, vice earl 
Mansfield, refigned. 

Richard Pepper Arden, efquire, 
knighted, and admitted of the ho- 
nourable privy council. 



Sir Richard Pepper Arden, 
knight, matter and keeper of the 
rolls, vice lord Kenyon. 

Archibald M'Donaid, efq; knight- 
ed, and appointed attorney-general, 
vice Arden. 

John Scott, efq; knighted, and 
appointed folicitor-general, vice 
M'Donaid. 

The earl of Leven, appointed his 
majefty's high commiflioner to the 
general aflembly of the church of 
Scotland. 

George Rofe, efq; clerk of th« 
parliaments, vice Cowper, deceaf- 
ed. 

July. Right ho-n. Richard vif- 
count Howe, created an Englilh 
baron and earl, by the ftyle and 
title of Baron Howe, of Langar, in 
the county of Nottingham, and Earl 
Howe. 

Right hon. John earl of Chat- 
ham, and the right hon. Samuel 
lord Hood, added to his majefty's 
commiifioners for executing the of- 
fice of lord high admiral of Great 
Britain, 

His grace the duke of Leinfter, 
appointed mailer and keeper of the 
rolls in Ireland, vice Ri'^by de- 
ceafed ; and Mr. Perry appointed 
his grace's deputy. 

Edward Bearcroft, efq; appoint- 
ed chief iullice of Cheifer, vice fir 
Richard Pepper Arden, mailer of 
the rolls. 

Francis Burtdn, efq; appointed 
puifne judge of Cheftcr, vice the 
hon. D. Barrington, refigned. 

Auguft. Joleph Ewart, efq; ap- 
pointed envoy extraordinary to the 
court of Berlin, 

Hon. Stephen Digby, appointed 
mafter, keeper, and governor of the 
hofpital or free chapel ot St, Katha- 
rine near the Tower, vice Waller, 
deceafed. 

Dr. William Wynne, appointed 
[P] 3 judge 



22o^ ANNUAL REGISTER, 178S. 



judge of the prerogative and pe- 
culiars, and dean of the arches 
court, Dodtors Commons, vice Dr. 
Calvert, deceafed. 

Sept. Right hon. John Griffin 
lord Howard, of Walden, K. B. 
created a baron of Great Britain, 
by the name, ilyle, and title of Lord 
Braybrooke, Baron of Braybrooke, 
in the county of Northampton ; with 
remainder to Richard Aldworth 
Neville, efq; of Billingbear, Berks, 
and his heirs male. 

Right hon. JefFeryLord Amherft, 
K. B. created a baron of Great 
Britain, by the name, ftyle, and 
title of Baron Amherlt, of Mont- 
real, Kent; with remainder to his 
nephew, William Pitt, efq; and his 
heirs male. 

Right hon. fir Jofeph Yorke, 
K. B. created a Britifh peer, by the 
name, xlyle, and title of Lord 
Dover, Baron of the town and 
port of Dover, in the county of 
Kent. 

Right hon. fir James Harris, 
K. B. created a Britiih peer, by the 
name, ftyle, and title of Lord 
Malmefbury, Baron of Malmefbury, 
in the county of Wilts. 

Right hon. and ri^ht reverend 
John HinchclifFe, D. D. bifhop of 
Peterborough, appointed dean of 
Durham, vice the hon. and reverend 
William Digby, deceafed. 

William Scott, LL.D. knighted, 
and appointed his raajefty's advo- 
cate-general. 

William Wynne, LL.D. knight- 
Cd. 

Charles Whitworth, efq; appoint- 
ed envoy extraordinary and mini- 
fter plenipotentiary to the court of 
Peterfburgh. 

Robert Lifton, efq; appoiated 
envoy extraordinary to the court of 
Stockholm. 



Daniel Hailes, efq; appointed 
envo^' extraordinary to the court of 
Warfaw. 

Nov. Ifaac Corry, efq; appoint- 
ed furveyor-general and affiftant to 
the lieutenant-general of the ord- 
nance in Ireland. 

Hon. Thomas Pakenham, . ap- 
pointed chief keeper of ordnance 
Itores in Ireland. 

Hon. mifs Anne Bofcawen, ap- 
pointed by the queen fempftrefs and 
laundrefs to her majefty, vice hon. 
mifs Chetwynd, deceafed ; alfo, the 
hon. mifs Augufta Brudenell, ap- 
pointed one of her majefty's maids 
of honour, vice hon. mifs Bof- 
cawen. 



DEATHS /or the Tear 1788. 

Jan. 9. The right hon. and 
right rev. John Harley, D. D. bi- 
fhop of Hereford, dean of Windfor, 
and regiflrar of the moll noble order 
of the Garter. 

*I2. At Bruflels, lady Catharine 
Bellafyfe, eldeft daughter of the 
late earl of Fauconberg, and fifter 
to the prefent earl. 

14. Sir Philip Jennings Gierke, 
bart. member of parliament for 
Totnefs, DevonOiire. 

16. The countefs dowager of 
Fife, mother to the earl of Fife. 

At Liege, the hon. Thomafine 
Barnevvall, vifcountefs dowager Gor- 
manflon. 

24. In France, the cardinal de 
Luynes, archbidiop of Sens, pri- 
mate of both Gauls and Germany, 
abbot of Corbie, in Picardy, &c. 
comn>ander of the order of the 
Holy Ghoil, member of the French 
academy, and of that of fciences. 

27. Lieutenant-g?neral Tryon, 
colonel of the 29th regiment of 

foot. 



CHRONICLE. 



[^31 



foot, late governor of the province 
of New York, and commojider in 
chief of his majerty's forces there. 

^o. Sir A{hton Lever, kaight, 
late pofl'eflbr of the Mufeum, in 
Leiceller-fields. 

Feb. Lately, in France, lord 
Rofehill, eldeli fon to the earl of 
Northefk. 

March 5. Audrey, ladv dow- 
ager vifcountefs Townfhend, relicl 
of the late Charles viicouiit Town- 
fhend, who died in 176J, and 
daughter and fole heir of Richard 
Harrifon, efq; of Balls, near Hert- 
ford, formerly governor of Fort St. 
George, in the Eart Indies, and 
poftmafter- general. 

Lady H. Beauclerk. 

8. Benjamin Carpenter, efq; 
general of his majefty's forces, co- 
lonel of the 4th regiment of dra- 
goons, clerk-marfhal of the Mews, 
and principal equerry to the king. 

II. Mifs Moore, daughter of the 
archbifhop of Canterbury. 

15. Lady Wilmot, wife to fir 
llobert Wilmot, bart. and daughter 
to the late hon. admiral Byron. 

21. Lady Armytage, relift of 
the late fir George Armytage, bart, 
of Kirklees, in the welt riding of 
the county of York, and daughter 
of Godfrey Wentworth, efq; of 
Hickleton, near Doncaller, in the 
faid county. 

Anne, countefs dowager of Co- 
ventry. 

24. The right hon. lady Eliza- 
beth Fitzwilliam, fifter to the late, 
and aunt to the prefent, earl Fitz- 
william. She was fecond daughter 
of John, fecond earl Fitzwilliam. 

31. The right hon. Sufannah 
lady vifcountefs Fane, relid of 
Charles vifcount Fane, of the king- 
dom of Ireland. 

April 8. The right hon. Ri- 



chard Rigby, member of parliament 
for Taviltock. 

11. Right hon. Jane dowager 
countefs of Hopetoun, daughter of 
Robert Oliphant, efq; and fecond 
wife to the late earl. 

14. The right hon. Vere Pou- 
let, third earl Poulet. 

16. At Pari';, George Le Clerc, 
count de BuiFon, lord of Montbait, 
marquis of Rougemont, vifcount of 
Qnincy. 

19. Lord vifcount Kilcourfie, 
fon to the earl of Cavan. 

At Paris, the duke de Fleury. 

22. Lady Flemming, relid of 
fir William Flemming, bart. of 
Rydal, in the county of Wellmore- 
land. 

29. Lord Boringdon, colonel of 
the Devon/hire militia. 

May I. Jane dowager vifcoun- 
tefs Galway, relift of the late John 
vifcount Galway. 

12. His ferene highnefs duke 
Lewis Ernefl of Brunfwick Lunen- 
burg, field-marfhal of the empire. 

16. Rachel baronefs Le De- 
fpencer, fole daughter of Sir Francis 
Dalhwood, of WeilWycombe, Bucks, 
bart. by his fecond wife lady Mary 
Fane, eldeft daughter of Vere, 
fourth earl of Wertmoreland. 

22. The right hoa. lady Mul- 
grave of the kingdom cf Ireland. 

June. Lately, the riglit hon. lord 
Cahier, of the kingdom of Ireland. 

4. Sir John Lindfay, K. B. rear- 
admiral of the red. 

15. Rev. fir William Lowther, 
baronet, redor of Savillington, 
Yorkfhire, and prebendary of York. 

1 8. Her grace Lucy duchefs of 
Montrofe. 

July I. Lord vifcount Say and 
Sele. 

5. Right hon. lady Byron, wife 
of the right hon. William lord 

[P] 4 Byron, 



132] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



Byron, of Ncwftead-abbey, in the 
county of Nottingham. 

Aug. 5. The right hon. lady 
ColviJle, of Culrofs. 

7. The due de Richelieu and 
Fronfack, peer and firft marfhal 
of France. 

8. Right hon. Richard Wing- 
field, baron Wingfield, of Wingfield, 
in the county of Wexford, and fifth 
vifcount Powerfcourt, in the county 
of Wicklow. 

10. Right hon. Edward Turnour 
Garth Turnour, earl of Winterton, 
of Gort, in the county of Galway, 
Ireland. 

13. The right worfhipful Peter 
Calvert, LL.D. F. R. and A.SS. 
official principal of the arches court 
of Canterbury, and mafter, keeper, 
or commifiary of the prerogative 
court of Canterbury. 

24. Sir Charles Raymond, bart. 
banker. 

29. Lady Purves. 

Sept. Lately, in France, the due 
d'Augillon. 

2. George Montagu, duke 
and earl of Manchefter, vifcount 
Mandeviile,. baron Montagu of 
Kimbolton, knight of the garter, 
lord-lieutenant, cuftos rotulorum, 
and colonel of the militia of Hunt- 
ingdonlhire, high Iteward of God- 
mancheller, colledor of the cuftoms 
outwards in the port of London, pre- 
fident of the bock Hcfpital, and 
LL. b. 

At Paris, the marquis d'Aube- 
terre, marlhal of France, knight of 
the king's ord s, and formerly 
ambaflador to the courts of Vienna, 
Rome, and Madrid, and command- 
ant in chief in Brittany. 

6. At Rome, Cardinal Charles 
Bofchi. 

lu. Lieutenant-general James 
Cunninghame, colonel ot ihe 45th 



regiment, and member of parlia- 
ment for Eall Grinlt ad. 

11. At Lifbon, ofthe fmall-pox, 
Joieph Francis Xavier, prince of 
Brazil, and heir apparent to the 
crown of Portugal. He was born 
Aug. 21, 1 76 1 ; married Feo. 21, 
1 77 1, to his aunt, Maria- Francifca 
Eenedida, who was born July 24, 
1748. 

12. At Grenoble, Marfhal de 
Vaux, commaiider in chief of the 
province of Burgundy. 

19. 7'he hon. and reverend 
William Digby, dean of Durham. 

28. Lady I'hilipps, relict of the 
late fir John Philipps, and mother 
to lord Milford, of Pidlon caftle, in 
the county of Pembroke. 

Odt. 9. The right hon. John 
Ward, vifcount Dudley and Ward, 
recorder of Kidderminfter, Wor- 
cellerlhire, and LL.D. 

13. Robert Nugent, earl Nugent 
of the kingdom of Ireland. 

Nov. Lately, The princefs of 
Wurtemburg, eldeil daughter of the 
reigning duke of Brunlwick-Wol- 
feii buttle. 

Haniet lady Archibald Hamilton. 

12. At Gottingen, his ferene 
highnefs Francis Julliniani, prince 
of Chio and the Holy Empire, 
born knight of the royal order 
of Chrift. 

23. At Madrid, his oyal high- 
nefs the ir.f .iU .Sr. Gabriel, his 
catholic maclly'.^ third fon ; his 
ccnfori 'iied a li tie time before. 

Dec. 5. Lady Aubrey, widow 
of the late fir Thomas Aubrey, bart. 
and mother to the prefent fir John 
Aubrey. 

7. The hon. mifs Coll, lord 
Brcwnlow's eldelt daughter, 

9. The light reverend Jonathan 
Sh'.ple), D D lord billicp and arch- 
deacon of St. Afaph. 

12. The 



CHRONICLE- [235 

12. The right hon. lady Sufan MonmouthJInre. G. Smith, of 

Povvlett, aunt to earl Povvlett. Pierceiield. 

14. William lord vil'count Northumberland. D. R. Grieve, 

Courtenay. cf Swarland. 

23. Hon captain James Luttrell, NortbamptDvJhin. J. Afhley, of 

youngeft fon of the late earl of Ledgers Alhby. 

Carhampton, member of parlia- Norfolk. Ihomas Kerrich, of 

ment for Dover, and^furveyor-gene- Gelderflone. 

ral of the ordnance. Ncttinghamjhire. R. Stenton, of 

Southwell. 

— . Oxfordjhire. T. Jemmett, of 

Little Milton. 

SHERIFFS appointed hy his Rutlandjhire. W. Belgrave, of 

Majejiy in Council, for 1 788. Uppingham. 

Shropfjire. Jofeph Mucklellon, 

Berk/hire. William Brummell, of of Prelcot. 

Donnington. Somerfetf>ire. J. Lethbridge, of 

Bedfordjhire. W. L. Antonie, of Sandhill Park. 

Colmworth. Staffordjhire. T, Fletcher, of 

Bucks. S. Langfton, of Little NewcalUe under Line. 

Horwood. Suffolk. Sir T. C. Bunbury, of 

Cumberland. Sir F. Vane, of Barton. 

Hutton. Sumy. John Creuze, of Wood- 

Chejhire. John Glegg, of With- bridge, 

ington. Svffex. John Bean, of Littleing- 

Catnhridgefhire and Huntingdon- ton. 

Jhire. Eultace Kentifh, of King's War-ijuickjhire^ W. Elliot, of 

Ripton. Counden. 

Devonjhire. Sir j. Chichefter, of Worcefierfnre. J. Baker, jun. of 

Youllton. Bevere. 

Dorfctjhire. A. Chapman, of Hol- Wiltpire. Robert Alh, of Lang- 

neft. ley. 

Derbypire. Peter Pegge,of Beau- Torkfire. John York, of Rich- 
chief mond, 

Effex. T. Theophilus Cock, of 

Meihng. SO.UTH WALES. 

Hants. R. Brickenden, of Malt- 

fhanger. Breconfjire. Sir E. V/ilHams, of 

Glouceferfiire. N. Smith, of N. Llangoid Callle. 

Nibley. Car mart henfju-e. John Thomas, 

Hertford/hire. C. Bourchier, of of Cilbmog 

Shenley. Cardiganfaire. Jorn Vaughan, of 

Herefordfi>ire. T. Dovvnes, of Trcwindicr. 

Staunt.)ii. Glamor gcv.joire. R. Jenkins, of 

Kent. James Bond, of Hayes. Pantyna.,.-i| 

Lticejlerjhire. J. Clarke, ol Great Pembroayhirc. J P. Langharne, 

Wi,l:;lton. of Orland'Ti. 

Lmcolnjhire. Edward Brown, of 'Ri^fir-jhtre. Bell L'oyd, of 

Sumford. B.u.ty iSrook. 

KORTH 



234] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 

Merionethjhire. Griffith Evans, of 
Cym yr afon. 
NOPvTH WALES. Montgomeryjhlre, R. J. Harrifon, 

of Cefngwernfa. 
Anglefea. Henry Pritchard, of 
Trefcawen. 

Carnarvonjhire. John Holland, of SHERIFF appointed by his Royal 
Teyrdan. Highnefs the Prince of Wales iit 

Denhighjhire. Richard Wilding, Council, for \']Z%, 

of Llafhacdr. 

Flintjhire, John Fitzgerald, of Cornwall, F. Gregor, of Reftor- 
Bettisfield. mel Park. 



APPENDIX 



[ ^25 1 



APPENDIX to the CHRONICLE. 



Copies of the Letters received h)' the 
Council * of Brabant, the zzd of 
January, yVow his Excellency Count 
tie Ti'auttmanfdorfF. 

FERDINAND, &c. 

Gentlemen, 

S it is our determined will, 
that conformably to our former 
orders the declaration of the 17th 
of December be publiflied within 
twenty-four hours, and as that term 
is on the point of expiring, we now 
repeat to you our commands to 
carry our former orders into exe- 
cution ; forbidding you, at the iame 
time, under pain of difobedience, 
to feparate or quit the council, until 
you fball have taken the proper 
lleps for iiTuing and publifliing the 
faid declaration, and communicated 
to us iuch your refolution. We 
think it proper to inform you, that 
we have made known to the depu- 
ties of the States our abiblute in- 
tentions, in terms which announce 
the immediate confequences of the 
Jeaft delay on this head. 

In the mean time, gentlemen, 

may God have you in his holy 

keeping. 
TRAUrTMANSDORFF. 



Counterfigned, by command of 
his excellency, 

Brtfjils, 
Jan. 22, 1 7? 

To the council of Brabant. 

Received by the council a quar- 
ter before nine o'clock. 






Vandeveldt. 



The above difpaich was accompa- 
nied by the following, addreffed 
to the chancellor of Brabant. 

My Lord Chancellor, 
I SEND you a difpatch for the 
council, which I beer vou will caufe 
to be immediately read. By the 
contents you will perceive that I 
am irrevocably determined to en- 
force the execution of what I men- 
tioned this morning, even though I 
fhould come to thofe extremities 
which I have had the good fortune 
hitherto to avoid ; but the explofion 
of which would be this day infalli- 
ble, as well for the whole body, as 
for many individuals. It being 
his Majefty's abfolute determina- 
tion, which his dignity require?, 
that nothing, upon which he has al- . 
ready iignitied his will, mav be 
made the fubjeft of doubt, or alter- 
ed in confequence of any reprefen- 
tation or remonftrance, you will 
find in the faid difpatch the moft 



* The council of Brabant refembles, in feme degree, as to its fiinftions, n pro- 
vincial parliam'^nt in France; it is diltinft from the legiflature, and is the liiprerae 
court of judicature of tiie country, enjoying fome privileges and prerogatives of a 
fupcnor nature to aay poflTelled by the courts of law in Engbud. 

exprefs 



2j6] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



cxprefs injunftion to the council 
(of which you are the head) not to 
leparate before the publication fhall 
have been agreed to, and until their 
refolution thereupon fhall have been 
reported to me. I enjoin the judge- 
iifcal (or chancellor of the ex- 
chequer) to take notice of every 
thing that Ihall be done upon this 
head, and give me an account of 
it. I inform you, at the fame time, 
that I will not receive any more 
jeprefentations or remonftrances ; 
and if any fnould be fent, the coun- 
cil will expofe itfelf to the mortify- 
ing humiliation of feeing them re- 
turned unopened. I yeRerday gave 
you twenty- four hours to deter- 
mine ; to- day I can give you only 
four ; and if the publication is not 
made in two hours hence, I will 
compel the council to it by FORCE, 
even though I Ihould be obliged to 
inveft the council-houfe with troops, 
and have recourfe to the dire expe- 
dient of CANNON and BAYO- 
NETS, which his Majeliy most 
EXPRESSLY prefcribes. 

And what would avail the moft 
complete refiftance of the council, 
produced by that of the States ? It 
could only throw a difficulty in the 
way of a publication, which it could 
not polTibly prevent; and would 
amount to a renunciation of the 
conceffions made in the declaration 
of the 2d of September, which will 
certainly be revoked this morning, 
if the oppoficion is not withdrawn 
by two o'clock. 

I have the honour to be. 
My Lord Chancellor, 
Your moft humble fervant, 
TRAUTTMANSDORFF. 

Received by the chancellor the 
22d of January, 1788, v.'ith the 
above difpatch, at a quarter before 
nine o'clock. 



Soon after the delivery of the 
above letter, the whole iown of 
Bruffels was alarmed, and feveral 
of the citizens, anxious for ihe 
event, repaired to the market- place; 
in confequence of which, general 
D'Alton ordered an enfign with a 
party to patrole the ftreets. Some 
boys having thrown a few ftones at 
the foldiers, the officer immediately 
formed, and ordered his men to 
fire, when five or fix perfons were 
killed ; after which, witnout wait- 
ing to re-load, the whole party, 
alarmed and panic-ftruck, ran 
with the greateft precipitancy back 
to the main body. 

To this circumftance the general 
alludes in the following letter. 

Another letter to the chancellor. 
My lord chancellor. 

The obftinacy of the council is 
incredible ; and the death of fome 
wretches, of which it has been the 
caufe, ought to make it a fubjeft of 
repentance to the members all the 
days of their lives. I fhall, how- 
ever, foon find a remedy for it. In 
the mean time, it is necefTary that 
ycu continue to fit. till you receive 
a difpatch from the States, which 
will be foon delivered to you, that 
you may pafs the refolution for the 
publication, and communicate it to 
me this night. 

I have the honour, &c. 
TRAUTTMANSDORFF. 

Received in the council a little 
after nine at night — The difpatch 
from the States arrived at eleven 
at night. 

To the Reftor, i dads, Do£tors,&c. 
of the univerfity of Louvain. 

FERDINAND, &c. 
Vemrahle, dear, and nuell-belo'ved. 
The anfwer you returned to our 
difpatch. 



APPENDIX to the CHRONICLE. [237 



difpatch, the 29th of this month, is 
the lefs admiffibJe, in as much as, 
r.otwithftanding cur declaration, fo 
clearly and fo formally communi- 
cated to you in our difpatch of the 
29th ult. you ftill PRESUME to con- 
found the ftatutes and privileges 
of the univerfity with the conftitu- 
tion of the country ; and, under the 
pretext of its pretended quality of 
an eiTentiai branch or integral part 
of the conftitution of Brabant, 
which you affume the univerfity to 
be, you iHU perfift in oppofing the 
ordinary ccurfe of law to the difpo- 
fitions of the fovereign refpedting 
the government of the univerfuy. 
And, being determined that in the 
public adls and records there Ihall 
not remain a trace of any fuch ap- 
peal to the law, we herewith fend 
you back your anfwer ; and we re- 
peat to you, for the LAST time, 
that his Majefty will by no means 
admit a claim or pretenlion, as con- 
trary to the nature and confiitutioa 
of the univerfity, as it is to the in- 
conteiVible right conftantly afieited 
and maintained by the fovereigns 
of the Netherlands ever fince the 
foundation of the univerfity, of be- 
ing the fole and exclufive judges of 
every thing relating to that body, 
as its fupreme moderators and ad- 
minirtrators, and confequencly of 
being at full liberty to change, 
modify, and reform whatever in 
their juilice and wifdora they may 
think, fit, for the advancement of 
learning, to which all the rights, 
privileges, and franchifes granted 
to the univerfity muft necciTarily 
be fubordinate. And as, moreover, 
it is well known, that this manifeft 
truth, acknowledged and admitted 
at all times by the univerfity itfelf, 
has of late been called in queftion 
Only by fome turbulent perfons. 



who finding their account in main- 
taining thofe abufes which the pa- 
ternal folicitude of his majefty was 
about to reform in the univerfity, 
have thought proper to avail them- 
felves of the dilTenfions of the day, 
in order to procure to themfelves, 
under the pretext of the pretended 
right of the univerfity to be confi- 
dered as an integral branch of the 
conlHtution of Brabant, a fuppcrc 
againll any reform whatever: — and 
as it is for the intereil of the uni- 
verfity (whofe very exigence de- 
pends up: n it), and confeqaently 
of the city ofLcuvain, whofe pro- 
iperity is fo intimately conneded 
with it, that fo pernicious a cabal 
fhould be deftroyed ; we again 
command you all in general, and 
each of you in particular, to fub- 
mit and conform to your fove- 
reign's decifion, announced to yea 
in our difpatch of the 29th of De- 
cember laft, confirmed by our dif- 
patch of the I9:h inlt. — and we en- 
join yoa not to maintain, either by 
Hjjord of mouth, or in -c'rUing, the 
pretended right fet up by the uni- 
verfity, whicn his majeily has fully 
and irrevocably cancelled and an- 
nulled : whoever fhali dare in the 
finallefl: degre_- to infringe this in- 
junftion, liicili be proiecu ed as re- 
fractory aid DISOBEDJEiNT tO 

the emperor's orders. — 'A'e give 
you no. ice at tne fame time, thac 
we will receive no more repreien- 
taticns, de}.U'.ations, or prot fls 
whatfcever on t'.is fubjeft ; and 
that if you prcfume to lend any, 
we {hall look upon them as formal 
acc.i of difobe^iience, and proceed 
upon them as fuch, according to the 
orders which we have received from 
his majelly. — We enjoin you, th$ 
rcvflor, to caufe this our declaration 
to be read in full convocation of the 
univerfity j 



438] ANNUAL REGISTER, 178?. 



•univerfity ; to have it entered in its 
regiiter, as well as in the regifters 
of the different faculties ; and to 
certify to us the execution of our 
prefent orders within the fpace of 
twenty-four hours- 
May God, Sec. &c. 
TRAUTTMANSDORFF. 
Brujfehy Jan. 2 2, 1 788. 



Account of a dreadful Inundation of 
the Sea at Inge ram, on the Coajl 
o/'Coromandel, in the Eaft Indies. 
' — In a Letter from Mr. William 
Parfon to Alexander Dalrymple, 
Efquire^ 

Ingeram, June 7, 1 787. 

My dear friend, 

OU wifh to have a juft and 
circumllantial account of the 
late calamity we have fuftained. It 
is no wonder the accounts you have 
feen, fhould be incoherent and im- 
perfedl ; for while the misfortune 
vrax recent, our minds were diftrafl- 
ed with a thcufand fears and appre- 
henfions for the confequences : in- 
deed people lefs alarmed and lefs 
gloomy than ourfelves might have 
admitted the apprehenfion of pefti- 
lence and famine ; the form'^r, from 
the air being tainted from fome thou- 
fands of putrid carcafes both of men 
and cattle ; and the latter, from the 
country around us being deftroyed, 
as well as our ftock of provifions and 
the fruit of the earth. 

From the 17th of May, it blew 
hard from the N. E. but, as bad 
weather is unufual at fuch a feafon, 
we did not apprehend that it would 
become more ferious ; but on the 
19th at night it increafed to a hard 
gale ; and on the zoth in the morn- 
ing it blew a perfedl hurricane, in- 
{bmuch that our houfes were pre- 



fently untiled, our doors and win- 
dows beat in, and the railing and 
part of the wall of our inclofures 
blown down. A little before eleven 
it came with violence from the fea, 
and I preiently perceived a multi- 
tude of the inhabitants crowding to- 
ward my houfe, crying out that the 
fea was coming in upon us. I caft 
my eyes in that direftion, and faw 
it approaching with great rapidity, 
bearing much the fame appearance 
as the oar in Bengal river. As my 
houfe was fuuated very low, 1 did 
not hefitate to abandon it, direft- 
ing my fleps toward the old Fac- 
tory, in order to avail myfelf of the 
Terrace : for in that dreadful mo- 
ment I could not fo far refleft upon 
caufes or effecls, as to account for 
the phenomenon, or ♦•ofet bounds to 
its encreafe. I had indeed heard 
of a tradition among the natives, 
that about a century ago the fea raa 
as high as the tallell Palmira trees ; 
which I have ever difregarded as 
fabulous, till the prefent uaufual 
appearance called it more forcibly 
to my mind. In my way to the old 
Faftory, I ftorped at the door of 
Ml. Boures' houfe, to apprize the 
reft of the gertlemen of their dan- 
ger, and the meafures I had con- 
certed for my fafety : they accord- 
ingly joined me ; but before we at- f 
tained the place of cur deftlnution, 
we were nearly Intercepted by the 
torrent of water. As the houfe is 
built on a high fpot, and pretty well 
elevated from the ground, the water 
never ran ^bove a foot n the firft 
floor, fo we had no occaaon to have 
rec<Jurfe to the Terrace. Between 
one and two o'clock the water be- 
gan to fubfide a little, and conti- 
nued gradually decreaiing; till the 
body o: it had retired ; leaving all 
the low places, tanks, and wells full 

of 



APPENDIX to the CHRONICLE. 



of fait water. I think the fea muft 
hav« rifen fifteen feet above its na- 
tural level. About the time of the 
water fubfiding, the wind favoured 
it by coming round to the louth- 
ward, from which point it blew the 
hardeft. As the Fa(5tory-houfe was 
in a very ruinous ftate, and fhook 
exceedingly at every guft, we were 
very anxious to get back to Mr. 
Boures' houfe. I attempted it twice, 
but found I had neither power nor 
ftrength to combat the force of the 
wind, getting back vviih the great- 
eft difficulty to my former ftation. 
About five o'clock, during a Coon 
lull, we happily effe6led our remove. 
It blew very hard the greatelf part 
of the night : at midnight it veered 
to the weftward, and was fo cold, 
that I thought we fhould have pe- 
rifned as we reclined in our chairs. 
The gale broke up towards the 
morning. I fhall not attempt to 
defcribe to you the fcene that pre- 
fented itfelf to our view, when day- 
light appeared : it was dreary and 
horrid beyond defcription. The 
trees were all blighted by the fait 
water, and the face of the country 
covered with fait mud ; yet it had 
more the appearance of having fcf- 
fered by a blail of hot wind, or by 
the eruption of volcanos, thaa by an 
inundation of water, fuch an effefl 
had it in deftroying th3 herbage 
and foliage of every defcription. 
Our houfes were found full of the 
inhabitants, who had taken refuge 
therein, ftripped of doors and win- 
dows, and quite open to the weather 
at top ; the godowns iiioftly carried 
away, and feveral fubftantial tiled 
houfes fo completely levelled, as 
fcarcely to aitcrd a mark of their 
ever exifting : but our fafFerings 
were light, when compared with 
thofe of Coringa, and the reft of 



[239 

the villages nearer the fea. At 
Coringa, out of four thoufand in- 
habitants, it is faid not more than 
twenty were faved, and thofe moftly 
on Mrs. Corfar's terrace, and on 
the beams of captain Webfter's 
houfe. Mr. Gideon Firth, Mr. 
George Day, and the Portugueze 
Padre were, I believe, the only 
Europeans that were drowned. At 
firft the fea rofe gradually, and as 
it came in with the tide the people 
were not much alarmed ; but when 
they found it ftill increafe, fo as to 
render their fituation dangerous, 
they mounted on the top of their 
cadjan-houfes, till the fea, impelled 
by a ftrong eafterly wind, ruftved ia 
upon them moft furioufly, when all 
houfes at the fame awful moment 
gave way, and nearly four thoufand 
fouls were launched into eternitv- 
This tremendous fcene was vifib'le 
from Mrs. Corfar's terrace, over 
which the fea fometimes broke, and 
they were frequently in great danger 
from the drifting of veflels and other 
heavy bodies, which muft inevitably 
have brought down the houfe, had 
they come in contafl. At the Dutch 
village of Jaggernaickporan, 1 hear 
the diftrefs was very great, and that 
about a thoufand lives were loft ; 
many of the villages in the low 
country between Coringa and Jag- 
gernaickporan were totally deftroy- 
ed, and the inundation carried its 
dreadful eftefls as far to the north- 
ward as Apparah ; but I do not 
hear that many lives were loft at 
that place. The inundation pene- 
trated inland about ten cofs from 
the fea in a direcl line ; bat did 
little more damage to the weftward 
of us than deftroying the vegeta- 
tiou. It would be very difficult to 
afcertain, with any precifion, the 
number of lives Joft in this dre.^d- 

ful 



Ji4o] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 

ful vifuation ; the moft intelligent 
people I have conferred with on the 
fubjed, ftate the lois at from ten to 
twenty thoufaad louls. This is ra- 
ther an indeiinite computation ; but 
I think, if the medium be taken, 
it will then rather exceed than fall 
fiiort of the real lofs. They com- 
pute that a lack of cattle were 
drowned, and, from the vaft num- 
bers I faw dead at Nellapilla, I can 
eafiiy credit their affertion. For 
two or three days after the calamity, 
iuch was the languor of the inhabi- 
tants, that not a cooley or workman 
was to be procured at any price ; it 
required cur utmoil: exertion to get 
the dead bodies and the dead cattle 
buried with all poffible fpeed, to 
prevent the air being impregnated 
with putrid eftiuvia. This, to be 
fure, was a tailc we could not fully 
execute, except juft in the villages. 
However, no bad efrcdts have en- 
fued, which I impute to the conti- 
nual land winds that have blown 
Ibongly for fome time pall:. Thefe 
have the property of drying up the 
juices of dead bodies and preventing 
putrefiiclion, which mud .neceflanly 
have been theconicqu^nce in a damp 
air. It is extraordinary, rhat the 
Vaft tradt of low ground on the fouth 
lide Guadavery, from Gotendy to 
Bundarmnlarika, fuiTered very little 
from the inundation, and fcarcely a 
perlbn perifhed. This country lies 
fo exceedingly lew, as to be flooded 
in many places by the common 
fpring-tidcs, and a great deal of it 
is in confequence covered with fait 
jungle. It is probable they owe 
their fafety to thofe fmall iflands at 
the mouth of the Guadavery, as well 
as Point Guadavery itfelf, which 
mull have both contributed to break 
the force of the Tea. 

When v/e had recovered from our 



confternatlon on the 21ft, we began 
to confider how we fhould be able to 
exilt in fuch a field of defolation, as 
our wells were tilled with fait water, 
our proviiions deftroyed, and we 
found.by digging indifferent places, 
that no fweet water was to be pro- 
cured ; when it was difcovered that 
Providence had fo far interfered in 
our favour, as to bring down the 
frefhes at a very early and unufual 
feafon. From what accounts we 
could haftily gather, we were appre- 
hcnfive that the ftores of rice were 
either much damaged or totally de- 
llroyed, as the rice godowns and go- 
marks are generally fecured againft 
an accident lefs formidable than 
this. However, the event has hap- 
pily falfified our furmifes, and prov- 
ed our information fallacious, for 
ri:e has hitherto been plentiful and 
not dear. The generous fupplies 
that have been fent us from the pre- 
fidency will, I truft, fecure us from 
ferlous want. Our markets have 
not yet been attended by a perfon 
with an article for fale ; but this is 
not to be wondered at, as our fup- 
plies were generally furnifhed by 
the villages at no great diilance in- 
land ; and thefe cou(;tries have been 
drenched fufficiently in fait water to 
deilroy their produce. The fifher- 
men, a moll: ufeful body of people, 
inhabiting chiefly by the fea-fide, 
have been almoft totally extirpated ; 
and we are thereby deprived of a 
very material part of our iubfiftence. 
Time alone can reftore us to the 
comforts we have loll, and we have 
reafon to be thankful that things 
have not turned out fo bad as we ap- 
prehended. I have tired myfelf in 
attempting this narration, and I fear 
I have almoft tired you in the peru- 
fal of it. A great deal more might 
be faid upon the fubjedl in a flowery 

garb: 



APPENDIX to the CHPvONICLE. [241 



garb : If it yields a moment's 
amafement to my friend, my end 
is fully anfwered. The greateft 
part of this intelligence you have 
already had in detail, but it is your 
defire I (hould bring it to one point 
of view. It is halUly written and 
very inaccurate; but you will re- 
member I was in a good deal of pain 
at the time of writing it, from an 
inflammation in my legs, fo had not 
fufficient eafe or leifure to correft or 
tranlcribe it. 

Your's affeftionately, 
(Signed) William Parson. 



Particulars relati-ve to Lord Manf- 
lield's Rejignation of his Office of 
Chief Jujlice of the Court o/'King's 
Bench ; 'with the Letters ijuhich 
faffed het^tveen his Lordfliip and the 
Counfel of the King's Bench £ar 
on that Occajion. 

June ^d, J 788. 

THIS morning lord Mansheld 
fent a fervant from L'aen 
Lodge to Mr. Montague, the maf- 
ter in chancery, at Frognal Grove, 
near Hampftead, reqaefting that 
gentleman's co'm;)any to dinner. 
The anfwer returned was, '• That 
Mr. Montague had come home the 
preceding evening from London ill, 
and remained then indifooied." 
The meflenger returned back, pref- 
iing Mr. Montague's attendance 
on his lordfhip, who had fom'" ma- 
terial bufinefs to communicate j 
upon which Mr. Montague replied, 
*' He v%oald wait on the Earl in the 
afternoon." 

At five o'clock the mailer went 
to Caen-Wood-Lodge, where he 
was introduced to Earl Mansfield, 
who was alone. ** I fent for you. 
Sir, fays his lordihip, to receive as 

Vol. XXX. 



well officially, as my acquaintance 
and friend, the refignacion of my 
office ; and in order to fave trouble, 
I have caufed the inllrumeiit to be 
prepared, as you will here fee." 
He then introduced the paper, 
which, after Mr. Montague had pe- 
rufed, and found proper, the Earl 
figned. The mafter underwrote it, 
and afterwards difpatched it to the 
lord chancellor's houfe, who laid it 
before the king. 

Earl Mansfield has been chief 
of the king's bench exadlly thirty- 
two years, having been raifed thereto 
in May 1756, on the deceafe of Sir 
Dudley Ryder. 

Soon after his lordfhip's refigna- 
tion was fignified, the following let- 
ter was fent to him. It was figned 
by the counfel of the king's bench 
bar, who had praftifed in the 
court during his lordfhip's admini- 
ftration. 

To the EARL of MANSFIELD. 

My Lord, 

It was our v/ifh to have waited 
perfonaliy upon your lordfhip in a 
body, to have taken our public leave 
of you on your retiring from the 
office of chief juftice of England ; 
but judging of your lordfhip's feel- 
ings upon fuch an occafion by our 
own, and confidering befides, that 
our numbers miglitbe inconvenient, 
we defire in this manner afiedion- 
ately to afTure your lordfhip, that 
we regret with ajull fenfibility, the 
lofs of a magiftrate, whofe con- 
fpicuous and exalted talents con- 
ferred dignity upon the prcfcfTion ; 
whofe enlightened and regular ad- 
mini'tration of juftice made its du- 
ties ].efs difficult and laborious, and 
whofe manners rendered them plea- 
fant and reipeftable. 

But while we lament our lofs, we 
[ i^] remembei' 



^4-^] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



remember with peculiar fatisfadion, 
that your lordfhip is not cut ofF from 
us by the fudden ftroke of painful 
diftemper, or the more diflrefling 
ebb of thofe extraordinary faculties 
which have fo long dilHnguifhed 
you amongil men ; but that it has 
pleafed God to allow to the evening 
of an ufeful and illuPtrious life the 
purell enjoyments which nature has 
ever allotted to it — the unclouded 
refledions of a fuperior and unfad- 
ing mind over its varied events, 
and the happy confcioufnefs, that it 
lias been faithfully and eminently 
devoted to the highell duties of 
human fociety, in the moll diftin- 
guiihed nation upon earth. 

May the feafon of this high fatif- 
faction bear its proportion to the 
lengthened days of your ailivity and 
ftrength. Signed. 

The letter thus figned being tranf- 
mitted to the venerable Earl by Mr. 
ErCiine, at the defire of Mr. Eear- 
croft, the fenior of that bar, and the 
rell; of the gentlemen who had thus 
fubfcribed to it, his lordfhip, with- 
out detaining the {erva.nt. Jive 7?ii- 
nutes, returned the following an- 
fwer. 

To the honourable T. ERSKINE, 
Serjeant's Inn. 

Dear Sir, 

I cannot but be extremely flat- 
tered by the letter which I this 
moment have the honour to receive. 

If I have given fatisfaclion, it is 
owing to the learning and candour 
of the bar ; the liberality and inte- 
grity of their praftic© freed the ju- 
dicial inveftigation of truth and juf- 
tice from difficulties. The memory 
of the affiHance I have received 
from them, and the deep impreffion 
which the extraordinary mark they 
have now given me of their appro- 



bation and affeftion, has made up<5rt 
my mind, will be a fource of per- 
petual confolation in my decline of 
life, under the prelTure of bcdily in- 
firmities, which made it my duty to 
retire. 

I am, dear fir, with gratitude to 
you and the other gentlemen. 
Your raoft aftedionate. 

And obliged humble fervant. 

M A K s F I E L i« . 
Gaen - Wood, June 1 8 , 1788. 



TranJIation of the Duke o/'Suder- 
mania'j Letter to the King 0/ Swe- 
den, gi'ving an Account of the En- 
gagement bet-iveen the Swedifhflxv^ 
Ruffian Fleets ; extrailed from the 
Stockholm Gazette of July 31, 
1788. 

JTOUR majefty's fleet under 
X my command, confilling of 
fifteen ffiips of the line, and five fri- 
gates, was on the 17 th inft. cruifing 
in the Narrows off Kalkboden and 
Ekholmen, with the wind eafterly, 
and very foggy weather, when 
early in the morning we heard fe- 
veral guns fired to windward. This 
was unexpedted, as by information 
received froiti different (hips, I had 
reafon to believe the Ruffian fleet 
were ilill at anchor at Seafliar. I 
ordered the fleet, however, to form 
in a line on the ftarboard tack, a 
difpofition the moll likely to gain 
the. weather gage of the enemy ; 
but there being little wind, and a 
very flrong current running near 
the lee-fide of Ekholmen, Uie vaa 
were not able to accompliili that 
manoeuvre, which obliged me, at 
fix, A. M. to form the fleet in a 
line of battle on the larboard tack, 
and I at the fame time made the 
fignal to prepare for adlion. Bc- 
I fore 



APPENDIX to the CHRONICLE. [143 



Fore this order of battle could be 
formed, a few Ruffian fhips of war 
were difcovered through the fog, 
and various reports came in as to 
their number and force. Notwith- 
ftanding this uncertainty, and the 
dangers of a lee-fliore, I thought it 
diflionourable for your majefty's 
fleet to decline coming to aftion, 
and therefore made a fignal to tack, 
and advance in columns to meet the 
enemy, who at ten A. M. we could 
evidently difcern, ranged in line of 
baitle, and lleering towards us with 
the wind large; from which difpo- 
fition I then conceived hopes of get- 
ting to windward of them. Their 
clofe order of failing, added to the 
hazinefs of the weather, rendered it 
impoffible for f^me time to deter- 
mine their exadl force ; but we at 
lall made out 33 fail, of which 
one was a three-decker, eight of 
74, and eight of 66 guns, with 
feven frigates carrying heavy me- 
tal. Both fleets having advanced 
within about two gun-fiiot of each 
other, the van of the Ruffian being 
oppofed to our center, I made a fig- 
nal for your majeity's fleet to form 
the line a-headon theftarboard tack; 
but the enemy IHU continued on 
the other tack, carrying all their 
llrength againll our van. This 
manoeuvre would have rendered the 
engagement indecifive ; and as by 
approaching the fhoals and other 
dangerous places, I fhould at any 
rate have been under the neceffity 
of foon changing the difpofuion of 
the fleet, and that in the time of 
aftion, I refolved to tack, and form 
the line on the larboard, a difpofl- 
tion which was not only the moft 
proper to gain the enemy's weather- 
gage, by our line ftretching on to- 
wards their left wing, but alfo to 
proht by a miftake they feemed to 
commit in bearing up and opening 



different ways in the center. This, 
however, was foon corrected by Ad- 
miral Greig, who altered the dif-^ 
pofltion of his rear, and cautioufly 
bore down under an eafy fail, at :he 
fame time endeavouring to take his 
ftation oppofite to my Ihip, and his 
fleet afterwards bore down courage- 
oufly within mufket-fliot ; upon 
which, at four, P. M. I made the 
fignal for action, which foon be- 
came general throughout our line, 
and with fuch fury, that in tne fpace 
of an hour the leading fhip of the 
enemy's fqnadron was totally dif- 
abled, and obliged to be towed out 
of the line, and brought round on 
the other tack, under the cover of 
fome of their fhips. 

The fmoke from the Ruffian fleet 
fettling down upon us, and our own 
being but little difperfed from the 
lightnefs of the breeze, it was not 
poffible to make or anfwer any fig- 
nals, or even to dillinguifh oi;r own 
line. This gave opportunity for 
fmall divifions of the enemy to fla- 
tion themfelves on my quarter, and 
keep up a very heavy hre, being 
frequently relieved by others ; and 
the fame method of fighting feemed 
alfo to prevail in their van. But 
when the fmoke had in fome mea- 
fure fubiided, feveral Ruffian fliips 
were feen difabled, and towing 
away to windward of their fleer. 
Afterwards they coUecEled a confi- 
derable force in the van, and ad- 
miral Greig was alio there, when 
the wind failing, and the fmoke 
again fettling on our fleet, which 
now, as in the morning, felt great 
inconvenience from the flrength of 
the current off Ekholmen, and to 
fuch a degree, that notwithilanding 
all poffibie manoeuvres, and the 
greateft exertion of our boats in 
towing, it was totally imprafticable 
to prevent our ihips falling round, 

[^2] »nd 



244] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



and fuffering exceedingly by be- 
ing raked fore and ait by the 
enemy. 

It was in this critical fituation 
that the Wafa, (commanded Ly the 
gallant count Home, fince dead of 
the wounds he then received,) very 
feafonably covered me by a vigo- 
rous and wcll-fupported fire ; and 
I fent lieutenant Ekholm to inform 
the van that the fleet was to veer, 
as the fetting of the current did not 
allow us to come near the wind on 
this tack, but was in our favour on 
the other. At eight o'clock P. M. 
our line was again formed, and the 
adion renewed with uncommon vi- 
gour on both fides, but with great 
advantage to your majefty's fleet, 
the enemy being obliged to veer, 
while expofed to the hottefl: of our 
fire, in order to cover their rear 
and difabled fliips, which had re- 
tired after n. We have taken the 
WiadiflafF, of 74 guns, carrying 
thirty-two and forty-two pounders, 
and 783 men. The engageroent 
finiflied icon afterwards, at ten P.lVI. 
Night coming on, I judged it pru- 
dent to form the fleet on the other 
tack, in order to avoid the danger 
of Kalkboden, cover our prize, and 
confultthe honour of your majefty's 
fleet, by endeavouring to retake 
the Prince Guftave, who was lay- 
ing difabled, and without a flag- 
But this lafc piece of fervice did not 
fucceed, as the Ruflian Admiral, 
and his whole fleet, vi'cre to protedl 
their prize. During the riight, the 
enemy hauled their wind clofe, and 
left the ficM of battle, whereas we 
carried lights in our top all night, 
and frequently fired fignal guns. 
In the mean time reports were 
brought me from feveral fliips, that 
they were in great want of ammu- 
liition, had feveral fliot between 



wind and water, and fome of them 
their mafts and rudders damaged. 

I gave orders to make the moft 
of their time by repairing their da-> 
mages, and made a diltribution ef 
ammunition as far as it v ent. At 
duy-break I formed the fieefin a 
line of battle on the ftarbcard tack 
as well as the faint breeze would 
let me. On the other hand, the 
Rufiians had during the night got 
their difabled fliips a great way to 
windward, all their fleet keeping 
clofe on a wind to cover them, 
which put it out of my power to 
renew the attack, particularly as 
the wind died auay when the day 
advanced. I thereupon judged it 
moft prudent to return to Helfing- 
fors Road, not only to repair the 
fnips, but efpecially to I'upply them 
with ammunition, of which moft of 
them had nona whatever left. It 
appears from the prize your ma- 
jefty's fleet has taken, that the ene- 
my was our fuperior by nearly one 
third in point of force. Their fleet 
had been fome time fitted out, and 
in the moft expenfive and complete 
manner, with heavy artillery, being 
intended for an expedition to the 
Mediterranean. We loft two poft 
captains, one mafter and com- 
mander, and had five officers wound- 
ed. 

It is evident from the many dif- 
abled fliips of the enemy, and from 
feveral confirmed reports that one 
of them had gone down, as well as 
their hauling their wind from the 
Swedifti fleet,- that zeal for your 
majefty's perfon, and love to their 
country, warmed the breaft of every 
one under my comnoand. All the 
captains paid the utmoft attention 
to flgnals and evolutions, and main- 
tained the line in a manner that 
did honour to the Svvcdifli name. 

The 



APPENDIX to the CHRONICLE. [245 

The enemy attncked us with all difadvantages on our fide, their te- 

that confidence oFluccefs which their merity was checked in a manner 

great fuperiority in fize and force which reflefls the greateft honour 

of fhips, the htuation of the field of on every officer and fcaman in your 

battle, and the wind totally in their majefty's fleet, 
favour, in fome meafure feemed to Gurtav. the Third, at anchor on 

warrant ; but although the engage- Helfingfors Road, July 20, 1788. 
meat was fought under many great CHARLES. 

Lift pfthe Swedi(h Fleet, under the Command of the Duke IPX'S udermanla. 
Guns. 



Guflavus the Third — 68 • 

Enigheton — — 
Prince Guftaf — 

Sophia Magdalena — • 
Hedvig Eliz. Charlotta 
Omheton — — 

Rattvvifon — • — 
Dygden — — 

Wafa — — 

Federnefland — 

Aran — — 

Forfigtigheten — . 

Prince Charles — 
Pr. Fred. Adolphus — 
Pr. Guflavus Adol- 
phus — 



His R. H. Duke Charles. 

His Ex. Count Wrangel. 

Capt. Nordenfchold, Flag C apt. 

Capt. Klint. 

Capt. Enefchold. 

Count Wachtmeifler. 

Capt. Linderltedt. 

Capt. Modee. 

Capt. Krufeirfkierna 

Capt. £uft. 

Baron Raab. 

Count Horn. 

Capt. Kuylenftierna. 

Capt. Hifingfchold. 

Capt. Fahlftedt. 

Capt. Pfilanderhielm, 

Capt. Leyonanckar. 



Griffin — ?- 

Camilla — 

Troga — 

Minerva — 

Thetis — 



•— 60 Capt. Chriftiernan. 

934 Guns. 

Frigates. 

— 44 Capt. Von Horn. 

— 40 Capt. Duvfa, 

— 40 Capt. Puke. 

— 40 Capt. NauckhofF. 

— 40 Capt. Wollin. 



Frigates to repeat Signals, and fmall FeJ/els. 



Jaramas — r 

Hedor — 
Patriot — 

Efplehdian — 
Jaroflaw — 

Sprengporten — 
T^olic -^ ^ 



— 32 Capt. Billing. 

— 22 Lieut. Kullenberg. 

— 18 Capt. Wirgin. 

— 16 Lieut. Ekholm. 

— 52 Capt. Hokeflyckt. 

— 26 Capt. Steding. 

— 26 Capt. Gyllenfchold. 



[^3J 



Liji 



546] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 

tiji of the Ruffian Fkit, under the Command of Admiral Greig, 





G 


luns. 


Eoftiflaff — 


— 


108 1 


MaliilaiF — 


— 


74 


St. Peter — 


— 


74 


Wiadiflaff — 


— 


74 


St. Helena — 


— 


A 


Kir-Iflan — 


— 


A 


JaroflafF — 


— 


74 


Wfeflaff — 


— 


Joan BohaflofF — 


— 


JfiaflafF — 


— 


66 


Rodiflaft — 


— 


66 


Diris - — — 


— 


66 


Paraet Eftafia — 


— 


ee 


Vidlor — 


— 


66 


^lezeflafF — 


— 


ee 


WeichaaiF — 


— 


66 


BoleflaiF — 


— 


66 



Admiral Greig. 
Capt. OzendofF. 
Capt. Mouloffsky. 
Capt. Denilon. 
Capt. Bergh. 
Rear Ad. SpiridofF. 
Capt. Breyer. 
Rear Ad. van Diflen. 
Capt. Tet. 
Capt. Biks. 
Rear Ad. KoflaninofF. 
Capt. MakarofF. 
Capt. Warland. 
Capt. KartzofF. 
Capt. Travenen. 
Capt. KakofofF. 
Capt. BoronofF. 
Capt. ObolianinofF. 
Capt. BorifcfF. 
Capt. Hlphinfton. 
Capt. DenifofF. 



^" line^^- °^ -} ^'"8 Guns. 

Frigates. 



Podagri/IafF — — 36 
Bnant.hiflalF — — 32 
Priamiflaff — — 32 
Slawa — -«• 32 
Nadechta Blahopoloutchia 32 
WoimiflafF — — 32 
Mllilawetz -^ — 28 


Capt. Lomen. 
Capt. Sincawejl. 
Capt. Seivers. 
Capt. ChichoicofF. 
Capt. Lolyret. 
Capt. Lifosfkoy. 
Capt. SiomontofF, 


Bomb Ketches. 


Lechtouche — — 
Neva -^^ — . — 


Capt. Shot. 
Capt. Bro-oniv 



7ranfports. 

Smelay — - .^^ -- 8 Capt. Srewnens, 
And three others. 



Suhjiana 



APPENDIX to the CHRONICLE. [247 



Siihjiance of Admiral Greig'j Letter 
to the Court o/Pcterfburgh; j-Zi,'/;.'^ 
an Account cf the fame Engage- 
meul, 

" /^ N the 17 th, about neon, our 
\^ fleet difcovered five Swedifh 
fliips, between 60 and 70 guns 
each, and eight large frigates, pro- 
vided with heavy artillery, failing 
in a line, having five fmall frigates 
and three packet-boats attending, 
under the coaimand of the duke of 
Sudermania, whofe fliip carried the 
flag of admiral-general of Sweden, 
having alfo in the fleet a vice-ad- 
miral and rear-admiral's liags fiy- 

" Admiral Greig immediately 
gave the fignal for an attack, and 
our fnips dirediy crowded all the 
fail they could, advancing towards 
the enemy. The Swede?, on per- 
ceiving this, immediately formed 
into a line of battle, ihe weather 
was ferene, and our fhips profiting 
of a frefh fouth-eaft wind gained 
on the Swedes, The Rotiflaw, 
commanded by admiral Greig, at- 
tacked the Swedifn admiral ; but 
he retired towards his fmall veflels ; 
and it was not until about five 
o'clock that our line were abreaft 
of the enemy, who then began to 
bear down upon us. 

•* The firing immediately com- 
roenced on both fides, and was con- 
tinued with great brifknefs until ten 
at night. 

'■ The Swedes twice began to 
give way ; and although during the 
battle there was a dead calm, and 
that It was impofTible to govern the 
ihips, the fire was llill kept up with 
the greatelt intrepidity, and conti- 
nued until the night was fo far ad- 
vanced that the Swedes began to 
haul up, and retired, leaving our 



fleet mafters of the field of battle. 
They went under cover to Swea- 
bourg, in Swtdifh Finland. We 
took from the euemy the Prince 
Guilave of 70 guns, bearing the 
flag of the vice-admiral, who de- 
tended himfelf with the greateft 
bravery more than an hour againft 
oar admiral, but was at length 
obliged to itrike. We made pri- 
ibners, with this fhip, th-e Comte 
Wachmciller, vice-admiral and aid 
de camp to the king of Sweden, 
who led the van, and fifteen ofScers, 
with all her crew. 

" Admiral Greig writes, that he 
never fliw a light better fuftained 
on both fides than the above. Our 
lofs coafifts of 319 killed, and 686 
wounded ; that of the enemy muft 
be more confiderable, as the num- 
ber found on board the fhip we took 
amounts to 300 killed and wound- 
ed. 

^' After the battle, four fhips of 
tKe enemy took advantage of the 
night and a calm, to lurround one 
of our fliips, and carry her off, after 
a vigorous refillance. 

" The admiral gives a general 
eulogium on the conduft of aJl un- 
der his command." 



T'he folloujlng is the Emprefs ©/"Ruf- 
fia'^ Letter, •written by herjelf, and 
con-veyed by a fpecial Courier to 
Admiral Greig, after the above Ac" 
tioa njuith the ^wedxih. fquadron. 

" To the worthy and brave. 
&c. &c. 

E fhould be wanting in that 
gratitude and politenefs, 
which ihould ever diftinguifh fove- 
reigns, did not we with the utmofl 
fpetd convey to you (and our other 
brave and gaila.-it ofHcer^ and lea- 
[ ^] 4 roe** 



whofe aid we have invoked, and of 
whofe affiftance we cannot doubt in 
a ca,ure (o juft. 

*' Your fervices will perpetually 
live in our remembrance ; and the 
annals of our country mull convey 
your names to pofterity with reve- 
rence and with love. 

" So faying, we recommend you 
to God's keeping ever. Done at 
Peterfi^urgh the 23d of July, in the 
year of grace 1788. 

(Signed) Catharine.'* 



24S] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 

men of our fleet, who have proved 
themlelves worthy of their country) 
our approbation of your exemplary 
condudi ; and the obligations which 
we owe you hn- your intrepid conduit 
in your engagement with our enemy 
the fleet of the Swedifh king. To 
the conitant exertion of your abili- 
ties, and your zeal for the glory of 
the common caufe of ourfelves and 
the whole Ruffian empire, may, 
under God, be attributed the very 
fignal victory you have gained ; and 
we have not the fmallelt doubt, but 
that every part cf our dominions, 
wfhere this event fhall be tranfmit- 
ted, will behold it in its proper point 
of view. It is with grief we read 
the record of thofe poltroons, who, 
unable to catch fire iVoni the fpirit- 
ed exertions of their fellow warriors, 
have fo fignalized themielves in the 
annals ot creaibnable cowards ; and 
to whole cowardice the Swede has 
to boall that any fiiip of their fleet 
efcaped when fo encountered ; and 
the more particularly that their high 
admiral efcaped, when twice fo 
nearly within their power to have 
captured. 

" As we take upon ourfelves the 
fcle power to reward the meritori- 
ous, we fhall take fignal care for 
the very exemplary punifhment of 
the giiilty. 

" We beg, therefore, that you 
would yourJeif accept our heartieft 
acknowledgment ; and we trouble 
you to communicate the fame to our 
othei v/orthy and animated ofncers 
and feamen. It is our pleai'ure that 
the delinquents, mentioned in your 
ofPcial ietters, be immediately 
brought to Cronftadt to wait our 
further difpleahre. 

" We frrcerely wiOi you, and all 
with you, health, and the m ft fg- 
pal afliltance of the Almighty Gcd, 



Some Particulars of th? fta'val Engage- 
ment betiveen the Turks a7id Ruf- 
iians, in the Black Sea ; extraSied. 
from a Letter, dated from Prince 
Potemkin'j Head ^arten, June 
27. 

Brigadier arrived here yefter- 
day in great halle from the 
fleet ftationed at the mouth of the 
Niefter, commanded by the prince 
de Naflau, who was difpatched to 
prince Potemkin late at night on 
the 18th inftant with the important 
news of the vidlory gained by the 
faid fleet over that of the Turks, 
after a fmart engagement of five 
hours. The follov/ing are the cir- 
cumftances of it : 

The capitan pacha having been 
to reconnoitre the gallies and great 
boats under the prince de Naflau, 
off' Oczakow, immediately aflem- 
bled all the vcflels of every kind in 
the road of that fortrefs, to the 
number of 57, and prepared in per- 
fon to attack the Ruflian fquadron 
(which kept about two leagues froni 
the place where the Niefter runs 
into the Black Sea.) On the iSth 
he advanced with a favourable wind 
againft the faid fquadron, which 
waited ready to receive him. The 
Turks, 



APPENDIX to the CHRONICLE. [249 

Turks, having the wind in their lord John Cavendiih, with feveral 
favour, began the cannonade, but neighbouring gentlemen, were pre- 
too far ofr to do any harm. The fent. After dinner a lubfcriptioa 
Ruffians did not play their artillery was opened for the erefting of a 
till the enemy was within reach, and monumental column, in co.Timemo- 
then fired fofuccefs fully, that, not- ration of the glorious revolution, oa 
withltanding the capitan pacha's that fpot where ^e earls of De on- 
great fupenority, he was ob'igeo, fhire and Danby, lord Delam'ere, 
after an engagement of tive hours, and Mr. John Darcy, met to con- 
to retire in great diforder uncier the cert meafures which were eminently 
guns of his grand fleet, which was inftrumentalin refcuing the liberties 
below Oczakow, and the prince de of their country from perdition. As 
Naflaa returned to his former poll, this monument is intended to be not 
The Turks had three gallies funk, lefs a mzrk of pixhlic grdtitza/e, thaa 
and moll of their crews drowned, the memorial of an important event; 
and a great many more damaged it was requeiled, that the prefent re- 
and difabled. We are ignorant how prefentatives of the above-mention- 
many men they loft ; but our offi- ed families would excufe their not 
cers fay there mufl, owing to the being permitted to join in the ex,- 
exceilent diredion of our artillery, pence. 

have been a great number killed. On the 5th, at eleven in the 
whilft we loil not one veffcl, and had morning, the commemoration corn- 
very few killed and wounded. After menced with divine fervice atWhit- 
the engagement the prince deNiiflliu tington church. The re\erend Mr. 
immediately fent an officer to prince Pegge, the reftor of the parifli, de- 
Potemkin with the good news, who livcred an excellent fernion from the 
fent off two couriers direflly, one to words ♦' T/jis is the day, ^r." 
Peterfburgh, and the other to the Though of a great age, having that 
emperor's head quarters, after which very morning entered his 85th year, 
Te Deum was iung here amidft a he fpoke with a fpirit which feemed 
general difcharge of our artillery." to be derived from the occafion. 

The defcendants of the illuftri- 
ous houfes of Cavendiih, Ofborne, 
Boothe, and Darcy (for the ve- 
nerable duke of Leeds, whofe age 
would not allow him to attend, had 
fent his two grandfons, in whom the 
bloodof Ofborne and Darcy is unit- 

ON Tuefday the 4th of Novem- ed) ; a numerous and powerful gen- 
ber, the committee appointed try; a wealthy and refpeftable yeo- 
tocondud the Jubilee had a previous manry ; a hardy, yet decent and 
meeting, and dined together at the attentive peafantry ; whofe intelli- 
Revolution-houfe in V/hittingron. gent countenances fhewed that they 
His grace the duke of Devonftiire, underftood, and would be firm to 
lord Stamford^ lord George and preferve that bleffing, for which 

* See Chronicle, p. 220, for the celebration of the fame day by the different 
clubs ii\ London and in Edinburgh, 

they 



^n Account of the Jubilee, to cele- 
brate the Centenary of the Revolu- 
tion, at Whittington and Chefter- 
field, in Derbyfhire *. 



450] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



they were aflembled to return thanks 
to Almighty God, prefented a truly 
foleinn fpedacle, and to the eye of 
a. philolopher the moft interefting 
that caa be imagined. 

After Tervice the company went 
in (accition to view the old houfe, 
and the room called by the Anti- 
revolutionilts " The plotting- par- 
lour," with the old armed-chair in 
which the earl of Devonfhire is faid 
to have fitten, and every one was 
then pleafed to partake of a very 
elegant cold collation, which was 
prepared in the new rooms annexed 
to the cottage. Some time being 
ipent in this, the proceffion began : 

Conltables with long Haves, two 
and two. 

Members of the eight Revolu- 
tion clubs, four and four ; i//«. 

1. Mr. Deakin's: fl;ig, blue, with 
orange fringe, on it the figure of 
Liberty ; the motto, " The Pro- 
teftant religion and the liberties 
of England we will maintain." 

2. Mr. Bluett's : flag, blue, fringed 
with orange; moito. " Libertas ; 
quaj fera, tamen refpexit iner- 
tcm." Underneath, tae figure of 
Liberty crowning Britannia with 
a wreath of laurels; who is repre- 
sented fitting on a lion, at her feet 
the cornucopia of Plenty ; at the 
top, next the pole, a caftle, emble- 
matical of the houfe where the club 
is kept ; on the lower fide of the 
flag Liberty holding a cap and 
retting on the Cavendiih arms. 

3. Mr. Oftliif '5 : flag, broad blue 
and orange ftripe, with orange 
fringe ; in the middle the Caven- 
difh arms ; motto as No. i. 

jL. Mrs. Barbel's: flag, garter blue 
and orange quartered, with white 
fringe ; mottoes, '* Liberty fe- 
cured." " The glorious revo- 
lution 1688." 



5. Mr. Valentine Wilkinfon's : flag, 
blue with orange fringe ; in the 
middle the figure of Libtrty; mot- 
to as No. 1. 

6. Mr. Stubbs : flag, blue with 
orange fringe; motto, " Liberty, 
property, trade, manufaflures ;" 
at the top a head of king Wil- 
liam crowned with laurel, in the 
middle, in a large oval, ♦' Revo- 
lution 1688." On one fide the 
cap of liberty, on the other the 
figure of Britannia : on the op- 
pofite fide the flag of the Devon- 
fnire arms. 

7. Mrs.OUerenfhaw's: the flag, blue 
with orange fringe ; motto as 
No. I. on both fides. 

8. Mr.Marfingale's: flag, blue with 
orange fringe ; at the top the 
motto, •' J\-i memory of the glo- 
rious affertors of Britifii freedom 
1 63 8 ;" beneath, the figure of 
Liberty leaning on a fhield, on 
which is infcribed, " Revolted 
from tyranny, at Whittington, 
1688 ;" and in her hand a fcroll 
with the words " Bill of Rights ;'* 
underneath, a head of king Wil- 
liam the Third : on the other fide 
the flag, the motto, ♦♦ The glo, 
rious revoiter from tyranny 16^8;" 
underneath, the Devonfliire arms ; 
at the bottom the following in- 
fcription, '^ Willelmus Dux 
Devon. Bonorum principum nde- 
lis iubditus ; inimicus & invifus 
tyrannis." 

The members of the clubs were 
eftimated to be 2000 perfons, each 
having a white wand in his hand 
with blue and orange tops and 
favours, withTHE Revolution 
llamped upon them. 

The Derbyftiire militia's band of 
mufic. 

The corporation of Chcfterfield in 
their formalities, who joined 

the 



APPENDIX to the CP3RONI CLE. [251 



the proceffion on entering 

the town. 

The duke ofDevonlhireiahis coach 

and fix. 
Attendants on horfeback with four 

led horfes. 

The earl of Stamford in his poft- 

chaife and four. 

Attendants on horfeback. 

The earl of Danby and lord Francis 

Olborne in their poft-chaife 

and four. 
Attendants on horfeback. 
Lord George Cavendifh in his pofl- 
chaife and four. 
Attendants on horfeback. 
Lord John Cavendith in his poft- 
chaife and four. 
Attendants on horfeback. 
Sir Francis Molyneux and fir Henry 
Hunlocke, barts. in fir Henry's 
coach and fix. 
Attendants on horfeback. 
And upwards of forty other carriages 
of the neighbouring gentry, 
with their attendants. 
Gentlemen on horfeback, three and 
three. 
Servants on horfeback, ditto. 
The whole was condudled with 
order and regularity ; for, notwith- 
Itanding there were fifty carriage?, 
four hundred gentlemen on horfe- 
back, and an aftonifhing throng of 
fpeftators, not an accident happen- 
ed. 

The company was fo numerous 
as fcarcsly to be accommodated at 
the three principal inns. 

In the evening a brilliant exhlbi- 
ti^on of fire-works was played oif, 
under the direftion of S'gnor Pie- 
tro. 

The day concluded with a ball, 
at which were prefent near 300 gen- 
tlemen and ladies ; amongft whom 
were many perfons ol dillinftion. 
An hogihead of ale was given to 



the populace at Whittington, and 
three hogfheads at Chelterfield ; 
where the duke cf Devonfhire gave 
alfo three guineas to each of the 
eight clubs. 

It v/as not the leaft pleafing cir- 
cumftance attending this meeting, 
that all party diflindions were for- 
goit-in. Perfons of all ranks and 
denominations wore orange and 
blue, in memory of our glorious de- 
liverer. And the racli refpeftable 
Roman Catholic families, fatisfied 
with the mild toleration of govern- 
ment in the exercife cf their reli- 
gion, vied in their endeavours to 
Ihew how juft a fenfe they had of 
the value of civil liberty. 



On No--j. 13/^, 1788, n Meeting nvas 
held at Lambeth Palace, at -^hich 
the tzvo Archhijho^s and four Bi~ 
(hops vjere prejent ; luhen the fol- 
loixi'vig Prayer -zvas compofed, and 
ordered to be ujed in all Churches 
and Chapels in England and Scot- 
land, during his Majefy^s Indifpo- 
Jition, 

Prayer for the K i n c . 

Merciful God, in whofe 
hands a/e the iffiies of life 
and death, accept, we beieechthee, 
th^iappiications of thy fervanr-s^vho 
call upon thee in this lime of their 
trouble, 

" We acknowledge, that for our 
manifold fins and wicke^.neis ue are 
mofl worthy to receive thy chaliife- 
ment. But thou, O God 1 in thy 
wrath, thinkeft upon mercy. V otch- 
fare therefore to he^r the praycs of 
thy people, vvho with coi trite htarts 
turn unto thee. Let tn; meiLiful 
goodntfs regard theii petitions 
which they oiFer unto thy Divine 
Majeily, 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 178S. 



252] 

Majefty, in behalf of our fovereign 
lord the king, and thy people com- 
mitted to his care. May it pleafe 
thee to r move fjom him the vilita- 
tion with which for the purafhment 
of our tranf^reflicns tho'a hail leen it 
good to aiflicc him. Let thy gra- 
cious providence guard and lupport 
him Give a blelfiug to the means 
ufeo for his recovery : reftore him, 
we pray thee, to his former health ; 
and grant that lie may continue, by 
his piety and wildoni, to maintain 
amongll us the blcffiugs of true reli- 
gion, civil liberty, andpublic peace; 
till it Ihall pieafe thee to call him, 
full of years, and rich in good works, 
unto thy heavenly kingdom. 

** Extend, O Lord, thy mercies to 
the queen, the prince of Wales, and 
all the royal family ; be favourable 
and gracious unto them, and hide 
not thy face from them in their af- 
fliftion. Let thy heavenly grace 
guide and diredt them, and may 
they receive from thy Holy Spirit 
thole confolalions which thou only 
canft b ^ftow. 

*« Finally, we intreat thee, that 
we, who now cry unto thee in our dif- 
treis, may in thy good time be en- 
abled to give thanks unto thee in 
thy holy place, for that thou hall re- 
garded the petition of thy fervants, 
and reftored our fovereign to the 
ardent prayers of his people. Grant 
this, O Lord, for Jefus Chrifl's fake, 
our only mediator and advocate. 
Amen." 

A Frayer for the King, ufed in all 
the Jewifh Synagogues, on the fame 
Occajion. 

*' He that difpenfeth falvatlon 
tinto kings, and dominion unto 
princes : who delivered his fervant 



David from the dellruclive fword ; 
who maketh a way in the feas, and 
a path in the mighty waters ; he 
Ihall blefs, preferve, guard, aod 
affift, exalt, and highly aggrandize 
our moll gracious fovereign lord 
king George the Third. May the 
Supreme King of kings, through his 
infinite mercy, grant him life, pre- 
ferve and deliver him from all man- 
ner of trouble and danger. May he 
be pleafed to fend him a perfeft 
cure, and in his infinite mercy grant 
him life, heal and ftrengthen him. 
We beleech the Supreme Being to 
remember his jull and pious ac- 
tions, fo that they may intercede in 
his behalf, and caufe all his pain to 
be removed from him. O ! Lord 
God, I beleech thee, now heal our 
lord king George the Third, in like 
manner as thou didft heal Hezekiah, 
king of Judah ; raife him from the 
bed of ficknefs, lengthen his days, 
and gnant him a life of blelfing, 
mercy, health, and peace, as it is 
written, Prov. iii. 2. " For length 
*' of days and years of life and 
" peace Ihall they add to thee.'* 
May the Almighty God be pleafed 
in his mercy to remove all pain, 
trouble, and anxiety from our moft 
gracious queen Charlotte, his royal 
highnefs George prince of Wales, 
and all the royal family, fo that 
they may foon rejoice in the reco- 
very of our moft gracious fovereign." 
—Amen. Selah. 

A Prayer for the King, on the fame Oc- 
cafon, appointed by his Excellency 
the Lord Lieutenant and Council of 
Ireland, to he ufed on Litany Days 
before the Litany, and on ether Days 
immediately before the'^ Prayer for 
all Conditions of Men," in all 
Cathedrali Collegiate, and Paro- 
chial 



APPENDIX to the CHRONICLE. [253 



*hial Churches and Chapels nuithin 
the Kingdom o/" Ireland, during his 
MAjeJif' prejetit Indifpojttion. 

*« O father of mercies, and God 
of all comfort, our only help in time 
of need, we fly unto thee for fuccour 
in behalf of our fovereign lord the 
king, and of the people committed 
to his care ; befeeching thee to re- 
ftore him to his former health, and 
to prolong his days on earth, that 
he may live to thee, and be an in- 
ftrument of thy glory, by continu- 
ing to ferve thee faithfully in piety 
and wifdom, and to maintain a- 
mongft us the bleffings of true re- 
ligion, ci-.il liberty, and public 
peace. 

" Favourably, O Lord, extend 
thy mercies to the queen, the prince 
of Wales, and all the royal family ; 
and comfort and fupport them in this 
their heavy afflidtion. And we be- 
feech thee, that we, thy fervants, 
duly fenfible of the manifold blef- 
fings which thou hall extended to us 
under his mild government, may, 
in thy good time, be enabled to 
give thanks to thee, in thy holy 
place, for having rellored our gra- 
cious fovereign to the ardent prayers 
of his people.— Grant this, O Lord, 
for Jsfus Chrift's fake, our only me- 
diator and advocate. Amen." 

^he follo'-wiiig tvas the Form vfed in 
the Dutch Churches, on the fame 
Occajion, 

*' Almighty God ! be gracioufly 
merciful to our friend and ".eigh- 
bouring ally, whom it hath plealed 
thee to afillcl with a dangerous ill- 
nefs ; and, O Lord ! if it is con- 
filtentwith thy all-wife decree, fpare 
his life, not only for the welfare of 
the land over which he reigns, but 



of thefe provinces, and the whole 
Froteilant religion. 

" O Lord ! with thee nothing 
is wonderful ; thou haft but to fpealc 
the word, and the king ftiall reco- 
ver." 

Prayers to Be /aid for the Recovery of 

the King's Healtht in the Chapels 

of the Roman Catholics. 

In all the maffes that are faid, 

let the following prayer for our moft 

beloved king George be added to 

the poft-communion of the day. 

^he Prayer. 
" O God, who art the fingular 
refuge of human iafirmity, Ihew 
forth the power of thy proteftioa 
upon thy fervant George our king, 
that, being aflilled by the help of 
thy mercy, he may be rellored to 
perfefl health. 

After each of the maffes, before 
the prieji departs, kneeling at 
the foot of the altar, let him 
fay. 
*' J/it7ph. O Lord, fave thy fer- 
vant George our king : and hear us 
in the day when we call upon thee. 

Pfalms xix and xx. 

** May the Lord hear thee in the 
day of tribulation : may the name 
of the God of Jacob protedl thee. 

May he fend thee help from the 
fanduary, and defend thee out of 
Sion. 

May he be mindful of all thy 
facrifices : and mav thy whole burnt- 
offering be made fat. 

May he give th^e according to 
the defires of thy own heart ; and 
confirm all thy counfels. 

We will rejoice in thv falvation : 
and in the name of our God we fhall 
be exalted. 

The Lord fulfil all thy petitions : 
3 now 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 17I 



^54] 

now I know that the Lord will fave 
his anointed. 

He will hear him from his holy 
heaven : he will fave him with the 
power of his right hand. 

Some truft in chariots and fome 
in horfes : but we will call upon the 
name of the Lord our God. 

They are bound and have fallen : 
but we are rifen, and are fet up- 
right. 

O Lord fave the king : and hear 
us in the day when we (hall call 
upon thee. 

"IN thy ftrength, O'Lord, the 
king fhall be glad : and in thy fal- 
vation he fhall exceedingly rejoice. 

Thou halt given him his heart's 
defire : and haft not with-holden 
from him the r'equeft of his lips. 

For thou halt prevented him with 
blciTings of fvveetnefs : thou haft fet 
on his head a crown of precious itones. 

He aflced life of thee : and thou 
haft given him length of days for 
ever and ever. 

His glory is great In thy falva- 
tion : glory and great beauty ftiait 
thou lay upon him. 

For thou ftialt give him to be a 
bleffing for ever and ever : thou 
wilt make him exceeding glad with 
thy countenance. 

For the king hopeth in the Lord : 
and through the mercy of the A^olt 
High he fhall not be moved. 

Glory be to the Father, and to 
the Son, and to the Holy Ghcft. 

As it was in the begiiming, is 
tiow, and ever fhall be, world with- 
out end. Amen. 

Antiph. O Lord fave thy fervant 
George our king, and hear us in the 
day when we call upon thf-e. 

Lord have mercy on us. 

Chrift have mercy on us. 

Lord have mercy an us. 

Our Father, &c. 



V. And lead us not into tempta-* 
tion. 

R. But deliver us from eviU"" 

V. O Lord, fave thy fervant 
George our king. 

R. Who putteth his truft in thec^ 

V. O Lord, fend him help from 
thy holy place. 

R. And from Sion protect him. 

V. Be to him> O Lord, a tower 
of ftrength. 

R. To defend him from the ene- 
my. 

V. O Lord help him. 

R. On the bed of his forrow. 

V. O Lord, hear my prayer. 

R. And let my fupplication 
come unto thee. 

F. The Lord be with you. 

R. And with thy fpirit. 
" Let us pray. 

" O God, whofe property is al- 
ways to have mercy and to fpare ; 
receive our petition : that we and ali 
thy fervants who are bound by the 
chain of fms, may by the compaf- 
lion of thy goodnels mercifully be 
abfolved. 

•' O God, who art the fjngular re- 
fuge of human infirmity, fhew forth 
the power of thy protection upon thy 
fervant George our king, that being 
aiuiled by the help of thy mercy, he 
may be reltored to perfect health. 

" O God, at whofe nod the courfe 
of human life is maintained, re- 
ceive our petitions in behalf of thy 
fervant George our king, for whom 
in his preient ficknefs we implore 
thy mercy: and grant that as vve 
are afhi<^>ed at his danger, fo we 
may rejoice at his recovery. Thro* 
cur Lord Jefus Chrjft, thy Son, who 
with thee, &c. 

R, Amen. 

F. May the divine affift.ince re- 
main always with us. 

R. Amen." 

Funeral 



APPENDIX to the CHRONICLE. [255 



Funeral of the Pretender. — The fol- 
lowing ExtraSl of a Letter from 
Rome, contains a particular Ac- 
count of the Funeral of the late 
Count of Albany. 

" /TT^HE funeral obfequles of 
Jl the late count of Albany 
were ceJebrated on the 3d of Fe- 
bruary, in the cathedral church at 
Frefcaci ; of which fee the cardinal 
duke of York, his brother, is bi- 
Ihop. 

" The church was hung with 
black cloth (the feams covered with 
gold lace) drawn up between the 
pillars in the form of feftoons, in- 
termixed with gold and filver tiffue, 
which had a very magnificent and 
folemn effedl ; efpecially as a pro- 
fufion of wax tapers were conti- 
nually burning during the whole of 
the ceremony in every part of the 
church. 

" Over the great door, and the 
four principal fide altars, there were 
written in the feftoons (in large 
charaders) the following texts of 
fcripture, which were choien by the 
cardinal, as allufive to the fituation 
and fortunes of the deceafed : — 
Ecclefiaftes, chap. 47, v. 17 ; Job, 
chap. 29, V. 5 ; Tobit, chap. 2, 
V. 18; Proverbs, chap. 5, v. 17; 
Maccabees, book 2, chap. 6, v. 
31. 

" A large catafalque was eredl- 
ed on a platform, raifed three fteps 
from the floor, in the nave of the 
church, on which the coffin, con- 
taining the body, was placed, co- 
vered with a fuperb pall, on which 
was embroidered, in feveral places, 
the royal arms of England ; on each 
fide flood three gentlemen, fervants 



of the deceafed, in mourning cloaks, 
each holding a royal banner; and 
about it were placed a confider- 
able number of very large wax 
tapers, in the form of a fquare; 
guarded by the militia of Fref- 
cati. 

" About ten o'clock in the fore- 
noon, the cardinal was brought into 
the church in a fedan chair, co- 
vered with black cloth, attended by 
a large fuite of his officers and fer- 
vants, in deep mourning. 

" He feated himfelf on his throne, 
on the right-hand fide of the great 
altar, and began to chant the of- 
fice appointed by the church for the 
dead, affifted by his choir, which is 
numerous, and fonie of the bell 
voices from Rome. 

" The firll verfe was fcarcely fi- 
nifhed, when it was obferved that 
his voice faultered, the tears 
trickled down his cheeks, fo that ic 
was feared he would not have been 
able to proceed ; however, he fooa 
recollefted himfelf, and went 
through the funftion in a very af- 
fedling manner ; in which manly 
firmnefs, fraternal affection, and 
religious folemnity, were happily 
blended. 

" The magiftrates of Frefcati, 
and a numerous concourfe of the 
Heiglibouring people, attended on 
this occafion ; who were attrafted, 
not fo much by their curiofuy, or 
the purpofe of aiTilting at the maffes, 
which were celebrating at every al- 
tar in the church, as a defire of 
teftifying their great refpedl for the 
bilhop ; who conflantly refides 
amongft them, and daily beftows 
upon them temporal as v/ell as fpi- 
ritual bleffings, with a very liberal 
kand." 



A GE. 



i56] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



A GENERAL BILL 



O F 



All the CHRISTENINGS and BURIALS, 

From December ii, 1787, to December 16, 1788. 



Chrlftened 



$ Males 
2 Femal 



males 9667 



^^B.,„.{« 



Males 

emales 



9962 
9735 



Died under Two Years 6138 
Between Two and Five 1522 
—Five and Ten 667 

—Ten and Twenty 366 

— Twenty and Thirty 1552 
—Thirty and Forty 2015 
—Forty and Fifty 2086 



— Fifty and Sixty 1698 

— Sixty and Seventy 148 1 

— Seventy and Eiglity 1 145 

— Eighty and Ninety 460 
—Ninety and a Hundred 55 

A Hundred 7 

A Hundred and One 2 



Increafed in the Burials 
this Year 348. 

A Hundred and Two i 
A Hundred and Three o 

A Hundred and Four O 

A Hundred and Five o 

A Hundred and Six I 
And I at the advanced age 

of 113 



DISEASES. 

Bortlve andStil- 



JTjl. born 
Abfcefs 

Aged 

Ague 

Apoplexy and 
den 

Afthma and 
fic 

Bed-ridden 

Bleeding 

Bloody Flux 

Burften and 
ture 

Cancer 

Canker 

Chicken Pox 

Childbed 

Cholic, Gripes, twill- 
ing of the Guts 14 

Gold 6 

Confumption 5086 

Convulfions 44-^5 

Cough and Hooping- 
Cough. 298 



7-3 
II 

1424 

7 

Sud- 

229 

Phthi- 

488 

6 

5 

I 

Rup- 

12 

76 

o 

2 

197 



Diabetes o 

Dropfy 102 1 

Evil 1 1 

Fever, malignant Fe- 
ver, Scarlet Fever, 
Spotted Fever, and 
2769 



Purples 

Flftula 

Flux 14 

French Pox 4<; 

Gout 58 

G ravel, Strangury,and 
Stone 59 

Grief 5 

Hea-J-Ach o 

He.idmouldihot, Hor- 
fhoehead, and Wa- 
ter in the Head 44 

Jaundice 

impofthume 

Inflammation 

Itch 

Leprofy 

Lethargy 

Livergrown 

Lunatick 



55 



53 

I 

229 



Meafles 

Mifcarriage o 

Mortification 218 
PalCy 62 

Pleurify 23 

Quinfy i 

Rafh I 

Rheumatifm 3 

Rickets o 

Rifing of the Lights o 
Scald Head I 

Scurvy 10 

Small Pox iioi 

Sore Throat i 3 

Sores and Ulcers 18 
Su Anthony's Fire 2 
Stoppage in the Sto- 
mach 9 
Surfeit 3 
Swelling o 
Teeth 346 
Thru/h 34 
Tympany j 
Vomiting and Loofe- 
nefs o 
Worms 7 1 



CASUALTIES. 

BIT by a mad dog 
Broken Limbs 3 
Bruifed o 

Burnt 13 

Choaked o 

Drov/ncd 119 

Excelfivc Drinking 9 
Executed *7 

Found Dead iz 

FraiS^ured I 

Frighted O 

K.illed by Falls and 
feveral other Ac- 
cidents 67 
Killed themfelves i 3 
Licked by a mad dog i 
Murdered a 
Overlaid 3 
Poifoned 2 
Scalded r 
Shot o 
Smothered 1 
Starved c 
Suffocated ■? 



Total 266 

• There have been 35 executed, of which number (7 only) have been reported to be buried 
as fucb within the Bills of Mortality. 



The 



APPENDIX to the CHRONICLE. [257 



The following authentic Extrafts from the Corn-Regifler, are taken 
from Accounts collefted from the Cuftom-Houfe Books, and delivered 
to Mr. John James Cathervvood, by Authority of Parliament. 

An Account of the ^amities of all Corn and Grain exported from, and 
imported into, England ^ja'^ Scotland, ^th the Bounties and Dra-ivbacks 
paid, and the Duties received, thereon, for one Tear, ended the ^th of 
January 1789. 



EXPORTED. 



1788. 

ENGLAND. 
Wheat ... - 
Wheat Flour 
Buckwheat - - - 

Rye 

Barley . . - - 
Malt - - - - 
Oats - - - - 
Oatmeal _ - - 
Beans - _ - - 
Peafe ... - 
Indian Corn - - - 

SCOTLAND. 
Wheat Flour - - 

Rye 

Barley - - - - 
Barley hulled 
Malt . - - - 
Oats , - - - 
Oatmeal . - - 
Peafe and Beans 
Bear - - - . 
Bear Meal - - - 



R 1 T I s H. 
Quarters. 

49.769 
24,208 
121 
30,929 
62,187 
146,280 

i»>443 
619 

8,933 
4,520 



384 
291 
851 

34 

3.287 

1,081 

368 

622 

2,198 

5? 



Foreign 
Quarters. 

8,241 
368 



171 



907 

997 
63 



Bounties and 
Drawbacks paid. 
£. s. d. 

44,206 t ii|Bo. 

000 Dr. 



976 10 4 B«. 



IMPORTED. 



1788. 

ENGLAND. 
Wheat - - . - 
Wheat Flour - 
Barley - - - - 
Oats - - - - 
Oatmeal - - - 
Beans - - - - 
Peafe - - - - 
Indian Corn - 

Vol. XXX. 



Quarters. 

116,936", 

6,302 
10,685 

2,086 ^ 

9,190 
1.092 } 



Duties 
received. 



5'344 3 + 



m 



SCOT= 



258] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 

1788. Quarters. 

SCOTLAND. 
Wheat - - . - 
Barley . _ . _ 
Oats - - - - 
Oatmeal - - - 
Peafe and Beans 
Wheat Flour - 



25,111 1 

794 I 

48,804 ! 
31.883 f 

619 

361 J 



Duties 

received. 
^. s. d. 

1,321 n 6 



The following is an account of the average prices of Com In England and 
Wales, by the ftandard Winchefler bufhel, for the year 1788. 



V,Tieat. 


Rye. 


Barley. 


Oats. 


Beans. 


s. d. 


f, d 


s. d. 


s. d 


s. d 


5 7l 


3 5l 


2 9 


I Ilf 


3 4l 



N. B. The prices of the fineft and coarfe;ft forts of grain generally exceed 
and reduce the average price as follows, viz. 

Wheat. Rye. Barley. Oats. Beans, 
Perbafliel, 6d. 3d. 3d. 3d. 6d, 



PRICES 






APPENDIX to the CHRONICLE. [259 



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moo 0\OS— NOO O t^O "< -^-^O u-iV/-irJ-ONl^O00 Nvo O 

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SUPPLIES 



26o] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



SUPPLIES granted by Parliament to His 
Majefly for the Year 1788. 

NAVY. 

FOR 18,000 men, including 3,620 marines, at ^. x. d. 

4I. per man per month, for 1788 — _ 936,000 o o 

December 7th. 
For expences of the late armament, incurred by 

augmenting the naval forces — — — 175,407 5 11 

February 21, 1788. 

For the ordinary of the navy, including half-pay 

of marines, for 1788 — — _ _» 700,000 o o 

For the extraordinaries of the navy, for building 
and repairing velTels, over and above the allow- 
ance for wear and tear, for 1788 — — 600, 00(? o o 



Total of the navy — 2,411,407 5 11 



ORDNANCE. 

December 10th, 1787. 
For expences of the late armament incurred at the 

ordnance office — — — — 18,300 o 

For the charges of the office of ordnance, for land 

fervice, for 1788 — — — 419,407 o 



I 



Total of ordnance — 437>707 o 9 



ARMY. 

December 10, 1788. 
For expences of the late armament, incurred at the 

war office — — — — — S9'^7^ 4 ° 

December ii, 1788. 
For the army, 16,982 efFedive men for guards and 
garrifons in Great Britain — — — 598,637 210 

For 



APPENDIX to the CHRONICLE. [261 

For forces for plantations and Gibraltar, for 1788 - 3i5>865 19 i 
For the difference between the Britifh and Irifh 

eftablifhments — — — -»- — 8,758 14 9 

For the forces in the Eaft Indies — — 11,292 13 o 

For the pay of general and ftaff officers in Great 

Britain, in the fame year — _ — . 6,427 o 6 

For full pay to reduced or fupernumerary officers of 

the army — — — — — 4>273 2 t 

For the paymafter general, fecretary at war, com- 

miflary general of the mufters, judge-advocate 

general, comptroller of the army accounts, the 

deputies, clerks, &c. and for the amount of the 

Exchequer fees to be paid by the paymafter ge- 
neral, and on account of poundage to the infantry 60,863 6 8 

March ii, 1788. 
For four troops of horfe and grenadier guards, to 

June 24, 1788 — — — — 28,490 1 o 

For two regiments of life guards, from June 25 to 

December 24 — — <_—-—. 19*294 n 6 

For a compenfation to the reduced officers of the 

four troops of horfe and grenadier guards — 3 '768 12 6 

For return of admiffion money to the privates — 28,000 o o 

April 8. 
For the horfe guards, formerly reduced, for the 

fame year — - — — — * — 223 17 o 

For the officers late in the Dutch fervice, for the 

fame year — -_——.— 3'392 14 2 

For the Chelfea penfioners, for the fame year — 1 73 '83 3 i 9 
For penfions to officers' widows, for the fame year 9^91^ ^4 3 

For the reduced officers of land forces, and marines, 

for the fame year — — — — • 172,776 3 o 

For reduced officers of the Britifh American forces, 

for the fame year — — — . , — 60,000 o o 

For the army extraordinaries, for 1787 — 480,058 3 4 



Total of the army — 2,045,812 i 6 



MISCELLANEOUS SERVICES. 

December 6, 1788. 
For the Heffian fubfidy — — — — 36.193 15 © 

December 10. 
For the fecret fervice, on account of the late arma- 
ment — — — — — — 58,166 o o 

For the building Carleton Houfe — — 30,000 o o 

\R-\ 3 For 



262] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 

for the debts of his royal highnefs the prince of £. s. d. 

Wales — — — — — — 161,000 o O 

For ilTued in purfuance of addrefles — — * 7*496 *4- ^ 

April 10, 1788. 
For the civil eflablifhtnent of Nova Scotia, from ift 

January, 1787, to ift January, 1788 — — S»845 6 o 

The like of New Brunfwick, from June 24, 1787, 

to the fame day in 1788 — — — " 4,300 o • 

The like of St. John's Ifland, from ift January, 

1787, to id January 1788 — — — 1,900 o 9 

The like of Cape Breton, from June 24, 1787, to 

the fame day in 1788 — — — 2>loo o O 

The like of Newfoundland, from ift April, 1 787, to 

the fame day in i;;88 — — — — 1,182 10 o 

For the civil eilablifhment of the Bahama iflands, 

from ift January, 1787, to the fame day in 1788, 

in addition to the falaries paid out of the duty 

funds — - — — — — 4,080 o » 

For the civil eftablilhment of New South Wales, 

from loth October, 1787, to the fame day in 

1788 — — — — 2*^77 10 d 

For falary of chief juftice of the Bermuda iflands, 

from 24th of June, 1787, to the fame day 

in 1788 — — — — — 580 o o 

Ditto, Dominica — _ _. — 600 o o 

For the extraordinaries of the mint, for 1787 — 24,145 5 8| 

For the profecution of off*enders againft the coin 

Jaws — — — _ — . __ i>394 6 S 

April 30. 
For roads and bridges in Scotland, for 1788* by 
order of general Mackey — — 4,000 O • 

May 5, 
I/Tued to the fecretary of the commiffioners of 

American claims — — — A>S^^ "* ® 

To the fecretary of the commiffioners of Eaft Florida 

claims — — — — 1,000 o -o 

To the commiffioners of American claims, for their 

expences — — — — 2,ilio6 

For the annual allowance of the American loyalifts 74»72S ^2 o 

For the furveys of lands in Nova Scotia, &c. — 2,982 12 i 

For the bills drawn by the governor, &c. of New 

South Wales __ — — 2,652 7 3 

For the buildings at Somerfet Houfe — — ^5,000 o o 

Iffued to the chief clerk of the commiffioners of 

enquiry 'into the public olfice« — — 813136 

liTued 



APPENDIX to the CHRONICLE. [263 



600 





J. 




5,000 

4.533 
30,083 




6 

10 



6 

2| 


8,058 
13,000 


IS 




If 



2,000 








522,932 


17 


0^ 



SJTued to the fecretary of the commiflioners of public 
accounts. — — — . — 

Iflued to the fecretary of the commiffioners of the 
crown lands — _ — — . 

For ihe convift^ at Plymouth — — 

For the convids on the Thames — -— 

May 19. 
For the profecution of Warren Haftings, efquire — 
For the forts, &c. in Africa — — . — 

For the repairs of Catwater harbour, Plymouth — 

Total of xnifcellaneous fervices — 



DEFICIENCIES. 

December 4, 1787. 
T« pay ofF the excheqaer bills of laft feffions — 5,500,000 o o 

December 13, 1787. 
To make good the eftimated deficiency of land and 

To made good the deficiency of the commutation- 
tax to 5th of April 1787 — — 

To make good to the finking fund deficiencies of 
annuities for 1758, to 5th of April 1787 — 

Ditto for 1778, to ditto — —_ — 

Ditto for 1780, to ditto — . — . — 

Ditto for 1783, to ditto — — — 

Ditto for 1784 and 1785, to ditto — — 

May 5, 1788. 
To make good the deficiencies of the laft year's 

grants — — — — — 63,671 18 2f 

Total of deficiencies — 6,442,404 12 lof 

Recapitulation of the Supplies. 

Navy — — -« — 2,411,407 5 II 

Ordnance — —. -_ ^^7,707 o 9 

Army — — ^ _ 2,045.812 I 6 

Milcellaneous fervices — — . 522,932 17 o^ 

Deficiencies — — — — 6,442,404 12 io| 

Totaloffupplies for 1788 — 11,860,263 18 i 

^m ■■■ ■—pw— — ■■■■■ 11^ 

m 4 ^^/ 



300,000 








89,899 


2 


Si 


21,816 


3 


6| 


68,895 


16 


8^ 


143,614 


13 


lOi 


178,144 


10 





76,362 


8 


o| 



a64l ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 

Ways and Means for raijing the abo've Supplies, granted to his MajeJIy far 

the Tear 1788. 

December 6, 1787. £. s. d. 

By land-tax, at 4s. in the pound — — 2,000,000 o o 

JBy malt duty — — — 750,000 o o 

May 6, 178S. 

By loans and exchequer bills — — »— 5,500,000 O O 

From the growing produce of the confolidated fund, 

to April 5th, 1788 — — — 1,845,000 o o 

Surplus to arifefrom ditto, todifcharge deficiencies 

as ftated in the fupplies — — — 578,000 o O 

Impreft money to be paid in the courfe of the 

year — — — — 200,000 o o 

Army favings of the year 1786 — — 200,000 o O 

h further fum to be paid by the Eaft India com- 
pany, on account of troops, and vidualling the 
fleet in the Eaft Indies — — — 500,000 O O 

By lottery of 48,000 tickets, at £_. s. d.l 

15 1. I2S. pd. each — — 750,600 o o> 270,600 o o 

Deduft prizes — — 480,000 o oj 

Savings from the army in 1786 and 1787 — 43,000 o o 



Total of ways and means for the year 1788 — 1 1,886,600 o o 
Total of fupplies for ditto — — 11,860,263 x8 1 



Excefs of ways and means for 17 88 — — 26,336 1 11 

^« jS. 7'here txias no nenjo tax laid this year, except an additional 
dcuty on fpirits manufaSured :n Scotland and imported intt 
England, 



^fi 



APPENDIX to the CHRONICLE. [265 

An Account of the Net Produce of all the Taxes, from the ^th of January, 
1786, to the^th £/■ January, 1787 ; and from the ^ih 0/ January, 1787, 
to the ^th of January, 1788 : laid hefere the Hou/e of Commons ia 
April, 1788. 



Cuftoms - - • - • - 
Excife ----.-- 
Stamps . - - - - 

INCIDENTS. 

Salt, 5th April 1759 ... 
Additional duty, 10th May 

1780 

Ditto, 22d June 1782 - - - 
700I. per week, letter-money, 

ift June 1711 

2,3001. per week, ditto, 1784 
Seizures, ditto, 1760 - - - - 
Proffers, ditto -----»_. 
Fines of leafes, ditto - - - - 

Alum mines, ditto 

Compofitions, ditto - - - - 
Alienation duty, ditto - - - 
Fines and forfeitures, ditto - 
Rent of a light houfe, ditto - - 
Rent of Savoy lands, ditto 
Letter money, ditto - - - - 
6d. per lib. on penfions, 24th 

June 1721 ------_ 

I s. dedudion on falaries, 5th 

April 1758 

Houfes and windows, 10th 

Odober 1766 

Hodfes, 5th April 1778 - - 
Hawkers and pedlars, 5th July 

1710 --.---.-- 
Hackney coaches, ift Auguft 

»7ii - - 



1787. 



4,063,314 7 2i 

5,531,114 6 lof 
1,181,464 u io| 



241,853 4 lof 



1788. 



£' s. d. 

3,714,477 2 6 

6,225,627 II 3 

1,182,060 16 o 



80,461 10 5 



60,463 


3 


7| 


21,615 


7 


3 


62,954 





6 


22,l5J3 


»3 


9 


36,400 








13.300 








119,600 








43,700 








4'442 


H 


7 


5,429 


n 


9 


635 


16 


II 


661 


9 


2 


6,073 


15 


4 


6,676 


6 


4 


960 








960 








2 


10 





2 


13 


4 


»»35i 


15 


4 


2.433 


15 


4 


105 








1,400 








6 


»3 


4 


156 


13 


4 


95,000 








93,000 








53,300 








41,100 








29,410 


16 


6i 


32,102 


6 


3 


414,050 


13 


2| 


411,021 


19 


2i 


125,470 





loi 


140,081 


5 


Hi 


1,925 








io54 


7 


io| 


9.324 


S 


II 


13.-219 


15 


4 










Ditto, 



266] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



Ditto, 1784 ----- - - 

Hawkers and pedlars, 5th 

July 1785 

Firft fruits of the clergy - - - 
Salt, III Augull 1785 - - - 
Tenths of the clergy - - 
Male fervants, ditto, 1785 - - 
Female ditto ------- 

Four-wheel carriages, ditto - 

Two-wheel, ditto - 

Horfes, ditto - - - - - - 

Waggons, ditto ------ 

Carts, ditto ------- 

Shops, ditto ------- 

Houfes and windows, ditto, 

^1-^1 

Male fervants, ditto, 1777, ar- 
rears --_--,-- 

Confolidated letter - money, 
ditto, 1787 ------ - 

Ditto fait, ditto - - - - - 

Total of incidents - - 

Total of culloms, exclfe, 

flamps, and incidents - - 



Exchequer, 
the 3d day of April 1788. 



1787. 



C' s. d. 
11,979 o o 



2,070 

6.413 

12,000 

9>903 
64,586 
19,061 
86,307 
18,595 
72,448 
8,446 
4,887 
32,796 



13 
9 
o 

H 
18 

19 
«4 
16 



II 

3 
o 

lOi 

I 

8i 

ok 
7i 



773 10 3 
29 19 o 

















1,613,661 


'5 


2 


12,389,555 


I 


i| 



1788. 



14,269 o o 



1,488 I 
5,164 

3,000 

9,893 1 
97,912 

33'994 
134,512 I 

30,046 I 
110,885 

18,530 I 

11,191 I 

64,265 

82 



3 "^ 

2 10 
o o 
6 4 

61 
6 8^^ 

3 10^ 
9 iok 

' 9i 

5 2 

2 7i 

1 I 

o 9l 



2 17 4 



99,000 
235,669 




7 





1,800,969 


7 


Si 


12,923,134 


17 


2| 



JOHN HUGHSON. 



STATE 



[ 267 ] 



STATE PAPERS. 



His Majejiy's moji gracious Speech to 
both Houj'es of Parliament, on the 
opening of the fifth SeJJion of the 
fixtetnth Parliament of Greac Bri- 
tain, on Tuefday the z-jth of No- 
vember, 1787. 

** My Lords, and Gentlemen, 
** \T the clofe of the lall {d- 
.**■ Hon, 1 informed you of the 
concern with which I obierved the 
difputes unhappily fubfifting in the 
republic of the United Provinces. 

" Their fituatlon foon afterwards 
became more critical and alarm- 
ing, and the danger which threaten- 
ed their conftitution and indepen- 
dence, feeraed likel/, in its confe- 
quence, to affefl the fecurity and in- 
terefts of my dominions. 

** No endeavours were wanting 
on my part to contribute by my 
good offices to the relloration of 
tranquillity, and the maintenance 
of the lawful government ; and I 
alfo thought it neceflary to explain 
my intention of counteradling all 
forcible interference on the part of 
France, in the internal affairs of 
the republic. Under thefe circum- 
ftances, the king of Pruffia having 
taken meafures to enforce his de- 
mand of fatisfaftion for the infult 
offered to the princefs of Orange, 
the party which had ufurped the 
government of Holland applied to 
the Moft Chriltian king for affift^ 



ance, who notified to mc his inten- 
tion of granting their requeft. 

•* In conformity to the principle 
which I had before explained, [ did 
not hefitate, on receiving this noti- 
fication, to declare, that I could not 
remain a quiet fpedator of the arm- 
ed interference of France, and I 
gave immediate orders for aug- 
menting my forces both by fea and 
land. 

" In the courfe of thefe tranf- 
aiftions, 1 alfo thought proper to 
conclude a treaty with the Land- 
grave of HfcfTe CafTel, by which I 
iecured the affiftance of a confider- 
able body of troops, in cafe my 
fervice fhould require it. 

" In the mean time, the rapid 
fuccefs of the PrufTian troops under 
the conduft of the duke of Brunf- 
wick, vhile it was the means of ob- 
taining the reparation demanded 
by the king of PrulTia, enabled the 
provinces to deliver themfelves 
from the oppreflion under which 
ihey laboured, and to re-ellabli(h 
their lawful government. 

" All fubjefls of conteft being 
thus removed, an amicable expla- 
nation took place between me and 
the Moft Chriftian king, and de- 
clarations have been exchanged by 
our refpedive minifters, by which 
we have agreed mutually to dif- 
arm, and to place our naval efla- 
bliihments on the fame footing as 

ia 



i68] ANNUAL REGISTER, 17I 



in the beginning of the prefent 
jear. 

*' It gives me the greateft fa- 
tisfadtion that the important events 
which I have communicated to you, 
have taken place without dillurb- 
ing my I'ubjeds in the enjoyment 
of the' bleflings of peace ; and I 
have c-reat pleafure in acquainting 
•you, that I continue to receive from 
all foreign Powers the fuUelt affu- 
rances of their pacilic and friendly 
difpofition towards this country. I 
muft, at the fame time, regret that 
the tranquillity of one part of Eu- 
rope is unhappily interrupted by 
the war which has broken out be- 
tween Ruffia and the Porte. 

*♦ A convention has been agreed 
upon between roe and the Moft 
Chriftian king, explanatory of the 
thirteenth article of the laft treaty 
of peace, and calculated to prevent 
jealoufies and difputes between our 
refpedive fubjedls in the Eall In- 
dies. — I have ordered copies of the 
feveral treaties to which I have re- 
ferred, and of the declaration and 
counter-declaration exchanged at 
Verfailles, to be laid before you. 

*' Gentlemen of the Houfe of Com- 
mons, 

f* I have ordered the eftlmates 
for the enfuing year to be laid be- 
fore you, together with an account 
of the extraordinary expences which 
the fituation of affairs rendered ne- 
ceffary. 

** I have the fullefl reliance in 
your zeal and public fpirit, that 
you will make due provifion for the 
feveral branches of the public fer- 
"vice. I am always deiirou^ of con- 
fining thofe expences within the 
narroweft limits which a prudent 
regard to the public fafety will 
permit ; but I muit at the fame 



time recommend to your particular 
attention to confider of the proper 
means for maintaining my diftant 
pofleflions in an adequate poflure of 
defence. 

*' My Lords, and Gentlemen, 
" The flourifhing ftate of the 
commerce and revenues of this 
country, cannot fail to encourage 
you in the purfuit of fuch meafures 
as may confirm and improve fo fa- 
vourable a fituation. 

•* Thefe circumftances mull alfo 
render you peculiarly anxious for 
the continuation of public tran- 
quillity, which it is my conftant ob- 
je6l to preferve. 

" I am at the fame time per- 
fuaded you will agree with me in 
thinking that nothing can more ef- 
feftually tend to fecure fo valuable 
a bleffing, than the zeal and una- 
nimity which were (hewn by all 
ranks of my fubjefts on the late oc- 
cafion, and which manifeft their 
readinefs to exert themfelves when- 
ever the honour of my crown and 
the interefts of my dominions may 
require it." 



The humble Addrefs of the Right 
HoJiourable the Lords Spiritual and 
Tetnporal, in Parliament aJJ'embled, 
for the foregoing S pee eh. 

Die Martis, 27° Novembris, 1 7 87. 

** Mojl Gracious So'vereign, 
«' \yl/ E» y°"r majelly's moft 
VV dutiful and loyal fub- 
jefts, the lords fpiritual and tem- 
poral, in parliament affembled,beg 
leave to return your majefty our 
humble thanks for your moft gra- 
cious fpeech from the throne. 

** We acknowledge with heart- 
5 felt 



STATE PAPERS. 



[169 



felt gratitude your majefty's con- 
ftant regard to the interefts of your 
peoplf, which could not be more 
fully manifefted than by your at- 
tention to the difputes lately fub- 
fiiUng in the republic of the United 
Provinces. 

" The danger with which their 
conftitution and independence were 
threatened, could not but afFeft, in 
its probable confequences, the fecu- 
rity and interefts of your majefty's 
kingdoms. 

*' We beg leave therefore hum- 
bly to exprefs our higheft approba- 
tion of your majefty's juft and wife 
determination to counteraft all 
forcible interference on the part of 
France, in the internal affairs of 
the republic ; and we acknowledge 
in the fulleft manner the propriety 
and neceffity of the declaration 
made by your majefty in conformity 
to thefe principles, when the in- 
tention of the Moft Chriftian king 
to affift the party which had ufurp- 
ed the government of Holland was 
notified to your majefty, for the 
augmentation of your forces by fea 
and land ; meafures which, while 
they prepared the country for any 
emergency which might arife, were 
the moft likely to prolong the blef- 
fings of peace. 

** We learn, with particular fa- 
tisfadlion, the rapid fuccefs of the 
Pruffian troops under the aufpicious 
conduft of his Serene Highnefs 
the duke of Brunfwick, which has 
obtained for his Pruffian majefty 
the juft reparation which he de- 
manded, and enabled the provinces 
to deliver themfelves from the op- 
preffion under which they laboured, 
as well as to eftablifti their ancient 
and lawful government. 

•* The important events which 
have taken place, without difturb- 



ing your majefty's fubjefts in the 
enjoyment of the feleflings of peace, 
afford matter of cordial congratula- 
tion to your majefty ; and we are 
happy to fee your majefty enabled 
to enter into an agreement with the 
Moft Chriftian king for difarming, 
and placing the naval eftablifhments 
of the two countries upon the fame 
footing as in the beginning of the 
prefent year. 

" We beg leave to return our 
humble thanks to your majefty for 
ordering the feveral treaties and 
conventions to be laid before this 
houfe, and to aft'ure your majefty 
that we ftiall fee with fatisfadioa 
any arrangement calculated to pre- 
vent jealouftes and difputes be- 
tween your majefty's fubjefts and 
thofe of the Moft Chriftian king in 
the Eaft Indies. 

♦' Your majefty may depend 
upon our concurrence in fuch mea- 
fures as it may feem expedient to 
adopt, in confequence of the other 
engagements entered into by your 
majefty, as well as fuch as may be 
neceffary for placing your majefty's 
diftant poffeffions in an adequate 
pofture of defence. 

" The flourifhing ftate of the 
commerce and revenues afford us 
the higheft fatisfaflion, and cannot 
fail to ftimulate us to ufe our ut- 
moft endeavours to confirm and 
improve fuch important advantages, 
as well as to concur with your ma- 
jefty's paternal vvifties for the con- 
tinuation of the public tranquillicy. 
We lament, that hoftilities fhould 
have broken out in any part of 
Europe ; but we receive with fa- 
tisfadion the information that your 
majefty continues to be affured of 
the pacific difpofition of all foreign 
powers towards this country. 

*♦ We refleft with pleafure on 

the 



270] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



the zeal and unanimity fliewn by 
all ranks of your majefty's fubjefts 
on the late occafton, as it muft 
give more weight to the afTurances 
we now humbly offer to your ma- 
jefty, that, with every wilh to cul- 
tivate the bleffings of peace, we 
jhall be always ready to exert our- 
felves to the utmoft, when the ho- 
nour of your majefty's crown and 
the interefts of your people may re- 
quire it." 

y«» luhich His Majejiy returned the 
follonuing anjhver. 

*' My Lords, 
*' I thank you for this affec- 
tionate and loyal addrefs. The 
iatisfadlion which you have unani- 
inoufly expreffed in the meafures I 
have taken is particularly agree- 
able to me. You may depend, that 
both in war and in peace my conflant 
objedts fhall be the honour of my 
crown, and the advancement of the 
interefts of my people." 



Yhe humble Addrefs of the Houfe ef 
Commons to His Majejiy, for the 
foregoing Speech from the Throne, 
November 29th, 1787. 

** Mof} Gracious Sovereign, 
" W/ E, your majefty's moft 
^ ^ dutiful and loyal fub- 
je£ls, the commons of Great Bri- 
tain, in parliament affembled, beg 
leave to return your majefty our 
humble thanks for your moft gra- 
cious fpeech from the throne. 

*' Your faithful commons ac- 
knowledge, with gratitude, your 
majefty's regard for the welfare and 
interefts of your people, manifefted 
by your endeavours to promote the 
leftoration of their internal tran- 



quillity, and the maintenance of 
their lawful government. 

•• We are fenfible that the dan- 
ger which lately threatened the 
conftitution and independence of 
the United Provinces was likely, 
in its confequences, to afFed the 
fecurity and interefts of your ma- 
jefty's dominions ; and we parti- 
cularly applaud your majefty's jufl 
determination to counterad all for- 
cible interference, on the part of 
France, in the internal affairs of 
the republic. 

*' We feel, in the ftrongeft man- 
ner, the propriety and necelTity of 
the declaration made by your ma- 
jefty, in conformity with thofe prin- 
ciples, when the intention of the 
Moft Chriftian king was notified to 
your majefty, as well as of the fea- 
fonable and vigorous fteps taken 
for the immediate augmentation of 
your majefty's forces both by fea 
and land. 

•* The rapid and brilliant fuc- 
cefs of the PrufTian arms, under the 
condud of his Serene Highnefs the 
duke of Brunfwick, affords us mat- 
ter of peculiar fatisfadlion , both as 
it was the means of obtaining the 
reparation demanded by the king 
of Pruffia, and as it has enabled 
the Provinces to deliver themfelves 
from the oppreffion under which 
they laboured, and to re-eftablifh 
their lawful government. 

" We cordially congratulate your 
majefty on the important events 
which have taken place without 
having difturbed your majefty's 
fubjeds in the enjoyment of the 
bleflings of peace, and which have 
enabled your majefty to enter into 
an agreement with the Moft Chrif- 
tian king for mutually difarming, 
and placing the naval eftablilh- 

ments 



STATE PAPERS. 



[271 



mcnts of the two countries on the 
fame footing as in the beginning of 
the prefent year. 

*« We are fenfible of your ma- 
jefty's goodnefs in the communica- 
tion of the feveral treaties and de- 
clarations which your majefty has 
ordered to be laid before this houfe. 
We fhall fee with pleafure any 
arrangement properly calculated to 
prevent jealoufies and difputes be- 
tween your majefty's fubjedts, and 
thofe of the Moft Chriltian king, in 
the Eall Indies ; and we (hall pro- 
ceed, without lofs of time, to confi- 
der what ftep^ it may be fie to take 
in consequence of the other engage- 
ments entered i ito by your ma- 
jelty. 

** Your majefty may be affured 
of our readinefs to make fuch pro- 
vifion as m ly be neceffary for de- 
fra)i ig the extraordinary expences 
which have been incurred by your 
majelty, and for carrying on the 
feveral branches of the current fer- 
vice. 

*' We (hall make it the objed 
of our immediate attention to con- 
fider wiiat meafures it may be ex- 
pedient to adopt for maintaining 
your majelly's diftant pofTeffions in 
an adequate pollure of defence ; 
and vve fhill proceed, with unre- 
mitted affiduiiy, in the purfuit of 
meafures which may tend to confirm 
and improve the favourable fitua- 
tion of affairs. 

** The flourifhing ftate of the 
commerce and revenue of the coun- 
try mud make us concur, with more 
peculiar earneitnefs, in your ma- 
jefty's paternal wi(hes for the main- 
tenance of the public tranquillity. 
On this account, while we lee, with 
concern, the war which has unhap- 
pily broken out between Ruflia and 
the Porte, we have great fatisfaftion 



in learning that your tnajefty con- 
tinues to receive, from all foreign 
powers, the fullcft affurances of 
their pacific difpofition towards this 
country. 

** We are thoroughly fenfible 
that nothing can more effeftually 
tend to fecure the invariable blef- 
fings of peace, than the zeal and 
unanimity which was fhewn by all 
ranks of your majefty's fubjeds oa 
the late occafion, and which mani- 
feft their readinefs to exert them- 
felves whenever the honour of your 
majefty's crown, and the interefts 
of your dominions, may require 
it." 

His Majejly'*s moji gracious Answer * 

" Gentlemen, 

" I return you my hearty thanks 
for this loyal and dutiful addrefs ; 
the fatisfaC^ion you exprefs in the 
meafures which I have purlued, and 
in the important events which have 
taken place, afford me peculiar 
pleafure. 

" You may depend upon my in- 
variable attention to the happi- 
nel's and profperity of my king- 
doms." 



His Majejiy'' s Speech to both Houfes 
of Parliament, at the cloft of the 
ji/th Sefion, July \\th, 1788. 

" My Lords, and Gentlemen, 
** T N the prefent advanced fea. 

JL fon of the year, and after the 
laborious attendance which the pub- 
lic bufmefs has required of you, I 
think it neceffary to put an end to 
the prefent fefhon of parliament. 
J cannot do this, without expreffing 
the fatisfaftion with which I have 
obferved the uniform and diligent 
attentioa 



272] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 

attention to the welfare of my peo- 
ple, which has appeared in all your 
proceedings." 



•* Gentlemen of the Houfe of Com* 
mons, 
*' The chearfulnefs and libera- 
lity with which you have granted 
the neceffary fupplies, demand my 
particular acknowledgments. It 
muft afFord you the greateft fatif- 
faftion, that you have been enabled, 
without any addition to the bur- 
dens of my people, to provide for 
the extraordinary exigences of the 
laft year, in addition to the current 
demands of the public fervice, and 
to the fum annually appropriated 
to the redudlion of the national 
debt." 

*' My Lords, and Gentlemen, 
*' I fee with concern the' con- 
tinuance of the war between Ruflia 
and the Porte, .in which the em- 
peror has alfo taken a part. But 
the general ftate of Europe, and 
the affurances which I receive from 
foreign powers, afFord me every 
'reafon to expedt that my fubjtds 
will continue to enjoy the bleffings 
of peace. 

" The engagements which I 
have recently entered into with my 
good brother the king of PrulTia, 
and thofe with the States General 
of the United Provinces, whi<ih 
have already been communicated 
.to you, are direfted to this objed;, 
which I have uniformly in view, 
and they will, I trull, be produilive 
of the happieft confequences in pro- 
moting the fecurity and welfare of 
my own dominions, and in contri- 
buting to the general tranquillity of 
Europe." 



^ Cofy of the Treaty of defenjt've Al^ 
liance bet-iueen his Britannic Ma~ 
jefiy and their High Mightineffcs 
the .States General of the United 
Pro'uinces. Signed at the Hague, 
the z^tb of April, 1788. 

THE mutual and fincere friend- 
fhip which has fo long fub- 
fifted between his majelly the king 
of Great Britain, and the lords the 
Hates general of the United Pro- 
vinces, having been increafed and 
firengthened by the inttrell which 
his Britannic majefty has lately ma- 
nifefled in the prefervation of the 
independence of the republic, and 
of its legal conftitution, his faid 
majefty, and the faid lords ftates ge- 
neral of the United Provinces, have 
refolved, in order to cement in the 
moll folid and lafting manner the 
good harmony, confidence, and cor- 
refpondence between them, to form 
permanent engagements, by a trea- 
ty of defenfive alliance for the good 
of both parties, and for the main- 
tenance of the general tranquillity, 
as well as of their own in particular. 
To accomplifh fo falutary a purpofe, 
his majelly the king of Great Bri- 
tain has named and authorifed fir 
James Harris, privy counfellor, 
knight of the Bath, member of the 
parliament of Great Britain, and 
his majefty's ambaifador extraordi^ 
nary and plenipotentiary to their 
high mightineffcs ; and their high 
mightineffes the ftates general of 
the United Provinces have named 
and authorifed their deputies for 
foreign affairs; who, after commu- 
nicating to each other their full 
powers in due form, and having 
conferred together, have agreed 
upon the following articles : 



ARTICLE 



STATE PAPERS. 



[273 



ARTICLE I. 
There Ihall be a iincere, firm, 
and conftant friendrtiip and union 
between his Britannic mr-jeftyj his 
heirs and fuccefl'crs, and the lords 
the ftates general of the United Pro- 
vinces, fo that the high contrafting 
parties fhall dire£l their utmolt at- 
tention to maintain this mutual 
friendftiip and correfpondence be- 
tween them, and their dominions 
and fubjedb ; and they engage to 
contribute, as far as ftiail be in 
their power, mutually to prefer ve 
and defend each other in peace and 
tranquillity. 

ARTICLE 11. 

In cafe either of the high con- 
trafling parties fhould be hoftilely 
attacked by any European power, 
in any part of the world whatfoever, 
the other contraftirig party engages 
to fuccour its ally, as well by fea as 
by land, in order to maintain and 
guaranty each other mutually in 
the pofTeflion of al) the dominions, 
territories, towns, places, franchifes, 
and liberties, which belonged to 
♦hem refpeitively before the com- 
mencement of hoftilitiesi 

ARTIC L E III. 

His Britannic majelly guaranties, 
in the moll eiFeftual manner, the 
hereditary Stadtholderale,as well as 
the office of hereditary governor of 
each province, in the ferene houfe 
of Orange, wi?h all the rights and 
prerogatives thereto belonging, as 
forming an efTential part of thecon- 
lUtution of the United Provinces, 
according to the refolutions and di- 
plomas of the years 1747 and 174S, 
by virtue of which the prfcfentStadt- 
holder entered into the poffeffion of 
thofe offices in 1766, and was re- 
ijiftated therein i:^ 1783: engaging 

Vol. XXX. 



to maintain that form of govern- 
ment againfl all attacks and enter- 
prizes, direft or ihdireft, of what- 
foever nature they may -be. 

ARTICLE IV. 

The fuccours mentioned in the 
fecond article cf this treaty of de- 
fenfive alliance, {hall confift, on the 
part of his Britannic m.ijeftv, of 
eight thoufand infantry, two thou- 
fand cavalry, twelve ftiips of the 
line, 'and eight frigates, which re- 
fpedtive fuccours fhall be furnilhed 
in the fpace of two months after re- 
quifition made by the party attack- 1 
fid, and {hall remain at its difpofal 
during the whole continuance of the 
war in which it (hall be engaged, 
whilft thofe fuccours (whether Ihips 
and frigates, or troops) Ihall be 
paid and maintained by the power 
of whom they fhail be required, 
wherever its ally Ihall employ them, 

ARTICLE V. 
In cale the ftipulated fuccour^ 
fhould not be fufficient for the de- 
fence of the p^ower requiring them, 
the {)ower to whom requifition fhall 
"be made fhall fucceffively augment 
them, according to the wants of its 
ally, whom it fhall afTifl, even with 
its whole force, if circumftances 
fhould render it necefTary ; but it 
is exprefsly agreed, in all cafes, that 
the contingent of the lordy'the flates 
general fhall not exceed ten thou- 
sand infantry, two thoufand cavalry, 
fixteen fhips of the line, and fixteen 
frigates. 

ARTICL E VL 
But as it may happen (confidering 
the dillance of feveral of the pofTef- 
fions of the two high contrading- 
parties) that the advantages, which 
ought to refult to them reciprocally 
[S] from 



274] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



from the conclufioti of the prefent 
treaty, may become illufory, unlefs 
meafures can be taken for the mu- 
tual defence of thofe poffelFions, be- 
fore their refpettive governors could 
receive orders from Europe for that 
purpofe ; it is ftipulated and agreed, 
that in cafe either of them (hould be ' 
hoftilely attacked, or even menaced 
with an holHle attack, in its pof- 
feffions, whether in Africa or in 
Afia, by any European power, the 
governors of their fettiements in 
thofe parts of the world fhall be en- 
joined to concert together the fuc- 
cour to be furnifhed, and, in cafe 
of need, to furnifh fuch fuccour, in 
the moll fpeedy and eifedlual man- 
ner, to the party-attacked ; and that 
orders to that efFedl fhall be expe- 
dited to the faid governors immedi- 
ately after the conclufion of the pre- 
fent treaty : and in cafe the two high 
contracting parties fhould be obli- 
ged to furnifh the aforefaid fuccours, 
they Ihall not permit the Ihips of 
war, of what nature they may be, 
of the power attacking, to enter into 
any of their ports in the aforefaid 
fettiements, until peace ihall be re- 
ftored between the party attacking, 
and the ally of the contrading par- 
ty, unlefs the faid veffels be foreed 
to take refuge there, to avoid pe- 
rifhing, or being ftiipwrccked. 

ARTICLE VII. 
If it {hould happen that the two 
high contradling parties fhall be e- 
qually involved in a war againfl a 
common enemy, they reciprocally 
promile each other not to dilarm 
but by common confent ; and they 
ihall communicate to each other 
confidentially the propofals for a 
peace, or truce, which may be 
made. 

6 



ARTICLE VIIL 
If the high contradling parties 
prefer furnifhing their fuccours of 
troops in money, they fhall be at 
liberty on each fide fo to do ; and 
then fiich fuccour fhall be computed 
at one hundred thoufand florins, 
Dutch currency, per annum, for 
one thoufand infantry, and at one 
hundred and twenty thoufand flo- 
rins, of like value, for one thou- 
fand cavalry, per annum, and in the 
fame proportion by the month. 

ARTICLE IX. 
The power requiring Ihall be ob- 
liged, whether the fhips, frigates, 
and troops with which it (hall have 
been furnifhed, remain for a long 
or fhort time in its ports, to provide 
whatever they may want, at the fame 
price as if they belonged to fuch 
power itfelf. It has been agreed, 
that the faid troops or fliips fhall not 
in any cafe be at the expence of the 
party requiring, but that they fhall 
neverthelefs remain at its difpofal, 
during the whole continuance of the 
war in which it fhall be engaged. 
The fuccours above mentioned ihall, 
with refpeft todifcipline, be fubjedl 
to the orders of the chief officer who 
commands them ; and they fliall not 
be employed feparately, or other- 
wife than in concert with the faid 
commanding officer : with regard to 
the operations, they fliall be wholly 
fubjed; to the orders of the com- 
mander in chief of the power re- 
quiring. 

ARTICLE X. 

It is agreed, that until the two 
powers conclude a treaty of com- 
merce with each other, the fubjecls 
of the republic fhall be treated, in 
the kingdoms of Great Britain and 
Ireland^ 



STATE PAPERS. 



[275 



Ireland, as the moft favoured na- 
tion ; and the fame fliall be obferv- 
ed in the United Provinces towards 
the fubjeds of his Britannic majefty. 
It is, however, to be underltood, 
that this article is not to extend to 
a diminution of the import duties 
payable upon linens. 

ARTICLE XI. 

Whereas by the fourth article of 
the treaty of peace, figned in the 
month of June, 1784, his Britannic 
majefty engaged to treat with the 
lords the ftaies-general for the refti- 
tution of Negapatnam, with its de- 
pendencies, in cafe the faid lords 
the ftates-general ihould in future 
have any equivalent to give ; and 
whereas their high mightinefTes have 
now renewed their requeft for ob- 
taining that reftitution, as well as 
fettling and determining precifely 
the fenfe of the fixth article of that 
treaty, concerning the navigation of 
Britifh fubjecls in the eaftern feas ; 
his Britannic majefty, in order to 
manifeft his good-will towards the 
republic, is difpofed to concur in 
thefe defires of their high mighti- 
nefTes, and even to fecure to the re- 
public additional and real commer- 
cial advantages in that part of the 
world, as foon as an equivalent for 
thofe objects can be agreed upon ; 
in return for which his Britannic 
majefty w-ill require nothing but 
what is favourable to the reciprocal 
interefts and fecurity of the con- 
trafting parties in the Indies : and, 
to prevent the negotiations for fuch 
arrangements from retarding the 
conciufion of the prefent treaty, it 



is agreed that they fhall be beguJ' 
as foon as poffible, and be conclud- 
ed in the fpace of fix months from 
the date of the prefent treaty ; and 
that the convention to be made 
thereon fhall have the fame force 
as if it was inferted in the treaty 
itfelf. ' 

ARTICLE XII. 
The prefent treaty fhall be rati, 
fied on each fide, and the exchange 
of ratifications fhall be made in the 
fpace of fix weeks, or fooner, if it 
can be done. 

Done at the Hague, the fifteenth 
of April, one thoufahd fevea 
hundred and eighty-eight. 

(L. S.) James Harris. 
(L. S.) J. W. CoNTE DE Wel- 
der E N . 
(L. S.) W. F. H. VAN Wasse' 

NAER, 

(L. S) L.P.VAN DE Spiegel. 

(L. S.) Gt;iLLAUME DE ClT- 

(L.S.) W.N. Pesters. 

(L. S.) Charles Bigot. 

(L. S.) M. B. C. VAN ViERST 

VAN BorGEL, 



Copy of the Treaty of Defenji've AU 
liance *, het'vjeen his Majefty the 
King of Great Britain, and his 
Majefty the King of Pruffia. 

THEIR majefties the king of 
Great Britain, and the king- 
of PrufTia, being animated with a 
fincere and equal defire to improVe 
and confolidate the ftrift union and 



* The provifional treaty, upon which this was grounded, was figned at Loo, by the 
Sieur P. C d'Alveofleben, on the part of his PruiTian majefty, and Sir James Harris 
(nsw lord Mainifburv) on behalf ©f his Britannic majei^yj on June 15th, 1788. 



mz 



friendihip 



i76] ANNUAL R E G I S T ER, 178^. 



fiiendfhip which, having been tranf- 
mitted to them by their anceftors, fo 
happily fubfift between them, and 
to concert the moft proper meafures 
for fecuring their mutual interefts, 
and the general tranquillity of Eu- 
rope, have refolved to renew and 
ftrengthen thefe ties by a treaty of 
defenfive alliance ; and they have 
authorized for this purpofe (to wit) 
his majefty the king of Great Bri- 
tain, the fieur Jofeph Ewart, his 
envoy extraordinary at the court of 
Berlin j and his majefty the king of 
Pruflia, the fieur Ewald Frederick 
count de Hertzberg, his minifter of 
Hate, and of the cabinet, knight of 
the order of the Black Eagle ; who, 
after reciprocally communicating 
their full powers to each other, 
have agreed upon the following ar- 
ticles : 

ARTICLE I. 

There fhall be a perpetual, firm, 
and unalterable friendlhip, defen- 
sive alliance, and ftrid and invio- 
lable union, together with an inti- 
mate and perfed harmony and cor- 
refpondence, between the {aid moft 
ferene kings of Great Britain and 
Pruflia, their heirs and fucceflbrs, 
and their refpeftive kingdoms, do- 
minions, provinces, countries, and 
fubjefts, which fhall be carefully 
maintained and cultivated, fo that 
the contradling powers fhall con- 
ftantly employ, as well their ut- 
moft attention as alfo thofe means 
which Providence has put in their 
power, for preferving at the fame 
time the public tranquility and fe- 
curity, for maintaining their com- 
mon interefts, and for their mutual 
defence and guaranty agairft every 
hoftile attack ; the whole in con- 
formity to the treaties already fub- 
^.fting between the two high con- 



trafling parties, which fhall remai.1 
in full force and vigour, and fhali 
be deemed to be renewed by the 
prefent treaty, as far as the fame 
fhall not be derogated from, with 
their own confent, by pofterior trea- 
ties, or by the preient treaty. 

ARTICLE II. 
In confequence of the engage- 
ment contracted by the preceding 
article, the two high contrafting 
parties fhall always aft in concert 
for the maintenance of peace and 
tranquillity ; and in cafe either cf 
them fhouid be threatened with a 
hoftile attack by any power what- 
ever, the other fhall employ hrs 
moft efficacious good ofiices for pre- 
venting hoftilities, fcr procuring fa- 
tisfadlion to the injured party, and 
for efFetting an accommodation m 
a conciliatory manner. 

ARTICLE IIL 
But if thofe good offices fhouid 
not have the defired efFedl, in the 
fpace of two months, and either of 
the two high contra^Sing parties 
fhouid be holtilely attacked, moleft- 
ed, or difturbed, in any of his do- 
minions, rights, pofTeffions, or in- 
terefts, or in any manner whatever, 
by fea or land, by any European 
power, the other con trading party 
engages to fuccour his ally without 
delay, in order to maintain each other 
reciprocally in the pofTelfion of all 
the dominions, territories, towns, 
and places, which belonged to them 
before the comm.encement of fuch 
hdftilities : for which end, if his Pruf- 
fian majefty fliould happen to be at- 
tacked, his miijefty the king of Great 
Britain fhall furnifh to his majefty 
the king of Pjuffia a fuccour of fix- 
teen thoufand infantry, and four 
ihowfajid cavalry j and if his Bri- 
tannic 



STATE PAPERS. 



[277 



tannic majefty lliould happen to be 
atta.ked, his majerty the king of 
Pruflia (hali likewife turnilh to him 
a luccour of axteen thouiand in- 
fantry, and four thnufand cavalry ; 
which refpedtive fuccours Qiali be 
furniflied in the fpace ot two months 
after requifition made by the party 
attacked, and ihall remain at his 
difpofal during the whole conu nu- 
ance of the war in which he fiiall 
be engaged. Thefe iuccours Ihall 
be paid and maintained by the re- 
quired power, wherever his ally 
ihall employ them ; but the requir- 
ing party (hall fupply them, in his 
dominions, with fuch bread and 
forage as may be neceffary, upon 
the footing to which his own troops 
are accuftomed. 

It is neverthelcfs agreed between 
the high contrailing parties, that 
if his Britannic majefty fhould be 
jn the cafe of receiving the fuccour 
in troops from his Pruflian majefty, 
his Britannic majefty lliall not em- 
ploy them out of Europe, nor even 
in the garrifon of Gibraltar. 

If the injured and requiring party 
;ftould prefer fuccours in money to 
Jand forces, he ftiall have his choice ; 
and in caie of the two high con- 
trafting parties furr.iftiing to each 
Other the ftipulated fuccours in mo- 
ney, fuch fuccours Ihdll be comput- 
.ed at one hundred thoufand florins, 
Dutch currency, per annum, for 
one thoufand infantry, and at one 
hundred and twenty thoufand flo- 
rins, of the like value, for one 
thoufand cavalry, per annum, or in 
{he lame proportion by the month. 

ARTICLE IV. 

In cafe the ftipulated fuccours 
fliould not be fufficient for the de- 
fence of the requiring power, the 
Required power fliall augment them. 



according to the exigency of the cafe, 
and fliall afllft the former with his 
whole force, if circumftances ftiali 
render it neceflary. 

A R T I C L E V. 

The high contrafling parties here- 
by renew, in the moft exprefs terms, 
the provifional treaty of defenfive 
alliance, which they concluded at 
Loo, on the 13 th of June in the pre- 
fent year, and they again engage 
and promife to ad, at all times, in 
concert,, and with mutual confi- 
dence, for maintaining the fecurity, 
independence, and government of 
the republic of the United Pro- 
vinces, conformably to the engage- 
ments which they have lately con- 
tradled with the faid republic ; that 
is to fay, his Britannic majefty, by 
a treaty concluded at the Hague, on 
the 15th of April, 1788, and his 
Piuflian majefty, by a treaty iigned 
the fame day at Berlin, which the 
faid high contrafting parties have 
communicated to each other. 

And if it fliall happen that, by 
virtue of the ftipulations of the faid 
treaties, the high contracting par- 
ties fliould be obliged to au_omeiit 
the fuccours to be given to the ftates- 
geoeral, above the numbersfpecified 
in the faid treaties, or to alTift them 
with their whole fVrce, the faid high 
con trailing parties will concert to- 
gether upon all that may be necef- 
fary relative to fuch an augmentation 
of fuccours to be agreed on, and to 
the employment of their refpeftive 
forces for the fecurity and defence 
of the faid republic. 

In cafe either of the faid high 
contracting parties fliould, at any 
time hereafter, be attacked, moleft- 
ed, or difturbed, in any of his do- 
minions, rights, pofleflions, or in- 
terefts, in any manner whatever, by 

[S] 3 fea 



S78] ANNUAL RE G I STE R, 1788. 

fea or by land, by any other power, 
in confequence and in hatred of the 
articles or ftipulations contained in 
the faid treaties, or of the meafures 
to be taken by the faid contracting 
parties refpeftively, in virtue of 
thefe treaties, the other contrafting 
party engages to fuccour and affill 
him againll fuch attack, in the fame 
manner, and by the fame fuccours, 
as are Itipulated in the 3d and 4th 
articles of the prefent treaty ; and 
the faid contrading parties promife, 
in all fimilar cafes, to maintain and 
guaranty each other in the polleffion 
of all the dominions, towns, and 
places, which belonged to them 
j-efpedlively before the commence- 
ment of fuch holHlities. 



ARTICLE VI. 

The prefent treaty of defenfive 
alliance Ihall be ratified by each 
party, and the ratifications fhall be 
exchanged in the fpace of fix weeks, 
or fooner if it can be done. 

In witnefs whereof, we the under- 
written, being authorized by the 
full powers of their majefties, the 
kings of Great Britain and of Pruflia, 
have, in their names, figned the 
prefent treaty, and have thereto fe: 
the feals of our arms. 

Done at Berlin, the thirteenth 
of Auguft, in the year of 
our Lord one thoufand feven 
hundred and eighty-eight. 
(L.S.) Joseph Ewart. 
(L.S.) EwALD Frederic comte 
DE Hertzberg. 



A£l of Guaranty of the Stadtbolder- 
Jhip of the United Provinces, by 
their High Mightinejfes the States 
General. 



TH E lords the ftates of the 
provinces of Guelderland, 
Holland, and Weft Friefland, Ze- 
land, Utrecht, Friefland, OveryfTell, 
and Groningen, and of the county 
of Drenthe, having reflefted upon 
the caufes of the inteftine divifions 
by which the republic, and eack 
province in particular, have of late 
years been diftrafted ; and having 
found that thefe divifions have, for 
the greateft part, arifen from the 
falfe and dangerous idea entertained 
by certain perfons, whether real or 
pretended, refpefting the conftitu- 
tion and formof government of thefe 
provinces, and efpecially with regard 
to the importance and neceflicy of 
the high and hereditary dignities of 
Stadtholder, Captain and Admiral 
General, which idea they had in- 
ftilled into the minds of other inha- 
bitants not fo well informed ; and 
having moreover confidered, that 
at the time of the happy reftoration 
and confirmation of the Hereditary 
Stadtholderlhip in 1747 and 1748, 
the confederates regarded the union 
of all thofe dignities in the perfon 
of one prince only, both with refpedl 
to the fevcral provinces, and to the 
countries of the generality, as a lin- 
gular advantage to the republic, 
being convinced that the bond of 
the union would derive from it re- 
newed vigour and folidity; that 
confequently thefe dignities haviag, 
from that period, obtained a clofer 
and more intimate connexion with 
the whole confederacy, they ought 
not only to be confidered as an ef- 
fential part of the conftitution and 
form of government of each province, 
but likewife of the republic at large, 
and fo attached to the union, that 
it cannot pofllbly fubfift and profper 
without thefe dignities ; and that 
therefore. 



STATE PAPERS. 



[279 



therefore, as the confederates are 
bound to aflilt each other at the ri/k 
of their lives and fortunes, for the 
prefervation of the bond of union, it 
neceflarily follows, that they are 
obliged, under a mutual obligation, 
to fupport each other refpeding the 
jirft and principal means by which 
the union may be preferved and 
maintained, and to prored it with 
their united force againfl all enter- 
prizes ; the more fo, as experience 
has (hewn, during the late troubles, 
that from beginnings of flight im- 
portance, which appeared at firft to 
have only trifling alterations in 
view, a general confufion enfued, 
which brought the confederacy to 
the eve of its diffolution : the depu- 
ties of the above-mentioned pro- 
vinces do folemnly declare, in the 
name and by order of the lords the 
ftates of their refpedlive provinces, 
by the prefent aft, that the faid 
lords the ftates regard and confider 
the dignities of Stadtholder, Captain 
and Admiral General, with all the 
pre-eminences and prerogatives 
thereunto annexed, in manner and 
upon the fame footing as they were 
conferred in the feveral provinces, 
and poflefled by the prefent prince 
Stadtholder in the year 1766, as an 
efl^ential part of their conftitution 
and form of government, and they 
mutually guaranty the fame to each 
other, as a fundamental law of the 
Hate, promifyig that they will not 
fufFer this fundamental law, fo ab- 
folutely necefi!"ary for the repofe and 
fafety of the republic, to be deviated 
from in either of the provinces of 
the confederacy. 

In teftimony whereof, we the 
underwritten being, by virtue of the 
refolutions of their high mightinef- 
fes of this day, exprefsly authorized 



thereto, have each of us, in the name 
of our refpedlive ftates, and in con- 
formity to their refpedtive refolu- 
tions, figned this inftrument. 

Hague, June 27, 1788. 

A. R. VAN Heckeren van 

ZUYDERAS. 
W. F. H. VAN Wassinaer. 
L. p. VAK DER Spiegel. 

W. V. CiTTEPS. 

W. N. Pesters. 

M. V. SCHELTINCA. 

R. Slost tot de Haar B. de 

v. Idsinga. 
The underwritten, in confequencc 
of the acceflion of the county of 
Drenthe, and by virtue of full pow- 
ers tranfmitted to him for that pur- 
pofe, has figned the above aft, July 
3, 1788. 

P. A. VAN Heiden, Droflard 
of the county of Drenthe. 



The Emperor's Declaration cf iVar 
againjijhe Porte, Feb. 10, 1788. 

ALL Europe have been witnefs 
to the good faith with which 
the court of his imperial majefty 
has for many years cultivated peace 
with the Ottoman empire ; the fin- 
cere difpofitions it his manifefted 
on every occafion to preferve their 
good neighbourhood ; its difinte- 
refted and indefatigable endeavours 
to avoid any interruption of their 
mutual harmony ; and its readinefs 
to lend every office of mediation, 
to prevent any rupture between the 
Porte and the neighbouring courts. 

Thefe pacific intentions were 
lately difplayed in the differences 
which arofe between the Porte and 
the emprefs of all the Ruflias, 
when the emperor, uniting his en- 
deavours with thofe of his ally the 

[5] 4. king 



c2So] ANNUAL -REGISTER, 1788, 



king of France, omitted nothing 
which was likely to effed an ami- 
cable adjuftment of their difputes. 
And whereas the grievances and 
demands of the court of Ruffia did 
not exceed a requifition for the jull 
execution of the exifting treaty be- 
tween them and the Porte, and 
whereas the former court (hewed 
the mo ft favourable difpofition to 
accommodate the difference?, his im- 
perial majefly was not without hopes 
that his endeavours, joined to thofe 
of the court of Verfailles, would 
fucceed in preventing a rupture, 
and the cala/nitous confequences 
that muft inevitably attend it. 

But the Porte foon (hewed the in- 
cfficacy of this attempt of the unit- 
ed courts, and, (hutting their eyes 
againft their falutary advice and 
prcfling exhortations, had the in- 
juftice to refufe the Ru(rian envoy 
the neceflary delay for a courier to 
return with frefh inftruftions from 
Peterlburgh, and required him to 
fign a formal deed, revoking and 
declaring void the treaty of com- 
merce concluded between the Porte 
and RulTia, as well as every flipala- 
tion refpefting the Crimea. And, 
in confequence of his refufal to ac- 
cede to a proportion, which, inde- 
pendent of its impropriety, exceeded 
the powers of an envoy, the Porte 
did not hefitate to confine this mi- 
nifter, contrary to the moft facred 
laws of nations, in the prifon of the 
feven towers, and to declare war 
againft RuiTia at the fame time. 

By (b violent a proceeding, things 
were brought to the moft critical ex- 
tremity ; yet the emperor did not 
lofe hopes, that hoftilities might (iill 
be prevented. Fie flattered himfelf 
that the Porte, yielding to the re- 
prefentations of all the foreign am- 
bafiadors refiding at Conftantinople., 



would be perfuaded to releafe the 
envoy, and five her imperial majef.f 
ty a I'atisfaftion proportionate to the 
violation of the law of nations offered 
to the perfon of her minifter, and 
thus a poffibility occur of renewing 
conciliatory negociatious. 

But all tht'fe hopes were entirely 
deftroyed by the Porte commencing 
open afts of hoftility againft all rc^ 
monftrances, and obliging Ruffia to 
have recourfe to arms in her de- 
fence. 

The Porte were not unacquainted 
with the ftrid bands of amity and 
alliance which unite the courts of 
Vienna and Peterfburgh. Of this 
occurrence they were informed, as 
well by verbal inunuations as by a 
memorial prefented towards the 
clofe of the year 1783. This was 
accompanied with an energetic re-, 
prefentation of the nature of this 
alliance, and the danger of pro* 
voking it. 

The Ottoman court have there- 
fore themfelves only to blame, if 
the emperor, after fo many years 
employed in the prefervation of 
peace, and in his endeavours to live 
with them on the beft terms, and 
after having feized upon every op- 
portunity of amicable intervention, 
finds himfelf at length oblii^ed by 
their conduft to comply with his 
engagements with the emprefs, and 
take a part in the war into which 
fhe finds herfelf fo forcibly drawn. 

The emperor, by thefe fafls and 
circumftances, conceives himfelf au- 
thorifed to rely with the utmoft con- 
fidence on the approbation of all the 
courts of Europe, and flatters him- 
felf that they will unite their wifhes 
for the fuccefs of his arms againft; 
the common enemy of Chriftianity. 

At Vienn^^ Feb, 10, 1788. 



STATE PAPERS. 



[i8i 



AJdre/s of the Parliament of Paris, 
preie.ited to his Moft Chrijiian Ma- 
Jejiy at the JJfembh; cf the B<;d of 

JuiHce, May the %th, 1788 en the 

Arrefl of McJ/t.urs d'hip'-emenil 

and de Mor.-.aatbert, tivo Coun- 
Jellors of their Court *, 

" Sire, 

^'OUR parliament is con- 
firmed, by every proceed- 
ing, of the intire ipiiovacion which is 
aimed at in thofy!lem of monarchy. 
At tne m.ment even when your 
parliament was offering their fui';u- 
eions and remonftrances at the foot 
of tile throne, an aft of abfoluie 
authority is exercifed in your name 
againlt two magifirates, whofe con- 
duft is irreproachable, and who 
ihoiild rather deferve your majerty's 
prot^flion for their fupport of the 
rights of monarchy. 

" At the time that the deputies 
of parliament were foliciting an 
audience at the foot of the throne, 
which public circumfiances feemed 
to require, the feat of fovereign 
juftice was invefted by a body of 
armed people, who committed ads 
cf violence in the middle of the 
night, aiid at the time your parlia- 
ment was fitting. 

** Your majefty has been advifed 
not to receive the deputation of 
your parliament, becaui'e you had 
not be^n made acqi-iainted of their 
coming by a fpecia! mefiage. The 
efforts that have been made to con- 
ceal tru^h from your knowledge, but 
too plainly indicate the changes in 
the conilitution which the enemies 
of magiftracy have endeavoured to 
efFed fince 1771 ; and which they 
flatter themfelves to attain by a fpe- 
cious plauhbility. 

* See State Papers in our lad volume, relative to the arreft of the puke of Or- 
leans, and two other counfellors of the parliament of Paris. 

8 tuatlon 



*' Your majefty, in fummoning 
your parliament to the throne, was 
aoout to conciliate the love of your 
people by a meafure conformable to 
ancient praftice. But, fire, the 
French nation will never adopt the 
defpotic meafures which you are ad- 
viicd to, and whofe effects alarm the 
moft faithful of your magiftrates. 
We fhali not repeat all the unfor- 
tunate circiimftances which afflift 
us ; we fhall only reprefent to you, 
with refpedlful firmnefs, that the 
fundamental laws of the kingdom 
mufl: not be trampled on, and that 
your authority can only be efleemed 
fo long as it is tempered with 
juftice. I 

" It is the interefts of the nation 
which has determined each and 
every member not to take any part, 
either as a body or as individuals, 
in any funftions which may be the 
confequences of new regulations, 
nor will they affift in any meafures 
which are not the unanimous refo- 
lutions of parliament, endued with 
all its privileges. Such is the na- 
ture of the French monarchy ; and 
we befeech your majefty not to fuf- 
fer apparent or momentary advan- 
tages to divert your attention, as 
they may only produce unhappy 
confeq.'ences. 

"' This objeftion is of fuch im- 
portance to the public tranquiilitv, 
that the confideration of it abforbs 
every other fentiment, and fcarcely 
leaves us power to befeech your 
jultice in favour of the two ma- 
giftrates who have been recently 
torn from ns, attended by circum- 
ftances which we dare not defcribe. 

♦' Your majefty will, fooner or 
la'er, difcover the juftice of our re- 
preientitions ; and, in whatever fi- 



232] ANNUAL REGISTER, i 

tuation your parliament may find falutary epocha for my fubjefls ; to 

itfelf, it will feel the pleafing and begin a reform in the judicial order, 

confcious fatisfaclion ot having ufed by that of the tribunals, which are 

its beft endeavours for the/ervice of the bafe of it ; to procure to the 

the king and the nation." fuitors in our courts a juftice more 

fpeedy and lefs expenfive ; to truft 

" ' the nation again with the exercife 

Speech of his Mojl Chrijlian Majefty, of their lawful rights, which muft 

0// c/^?;?>/^//'^ Bedof Juftice, May always be united with mine. I 

the ^th. mean, above all, to fet in every 

part of the monarchy that unity of 

<« '-|~^HERE is no point in which views, and that tout enjemhle, with- 

j_ niy parliament has not, for cut which a great kingdom is but 

thisyear pail, deviated from its duty, weakened by the number and ex- 

Ivfot fatisfied with raihng the opi- tent of its provinces. 

Dion of each of your members to " The order I intend to eftablilh 

the level of my will, you have pre- is not new : there was but one par- 

fomed to fay, that a regiftry, to liament when Philip Ic Bel fixed his 

which you could not be forced, was refidence at Paris. In a great Hate 

necefiary for .confirming what I there mull be one king, one law. 



one regiftry ; courts of a jurifdiftion 
not too extenfive, entrufted with 
the power of judging the great 
number of law-fuiis, and parlia- 
ments to which the moft important 
fuits muft be referred ; one only 
court in which the laws common to 
the whole kingdom iliall be enre- 
giftered and preferved ; in Ihort, an 
aflembly of the general flates, not 



Ihould determine, even at the re- 
qued of the nation. 

" The parliaments of the pro- 
vinces have adopted the fame pre- 
teiifions, the fame liberties. From 
hence it refults, that iome laws, as 
intercfting as defirable, have not 
been generally executed ; that the 
beft operations have become weak ; 
that credit is deftroyed ; that juftice 

is either interrupted or iufpended, once only, but whenever the exi- 
in order that the public tranquillity gencies of the ftate may require it. 
might be fhaken. " Such is the re-eftablifhment 

" I owe to my people, to my- which my love for my people has 
felf, and to my fuccelfors, to put prepared, and which it now an- 
a ftop to theie extravagant pro- nounces for their happinefs ; the 
ceedings. I might have reftrained only obje(5t of my wilhes is torender 
them, but have preferred rather to them happy. My keeper of the 

prevent the eife(51s of them. 1 feals will now enter into a particu- 

have been forced to punifh fome lar detail of my intentions." 
jnagiftrates ; but adts of rigour are (The reft of the bufinefs ivas coti" 
contrary to my nature, even when duded by the keeper cf the feals, nvha 
they a-re indifpenfable. produced the diffcre-nt ordinances ixihich 

** My intention is not to deftroy his majefty commanded to be regif- 
mv parliaments ; I mean only to tered. 

br'ino- them back to their duty, and The firft ordinance relates to the 
their original inftitutions ; to con- adminiftralion of juftice. The objeSi 
vert the moment of a crifis into a of this is to eftabUfti fwo courts of 

Juftice 



STATE PAPERS. 



[-^83 



jujlke in each of the different diJiriSis 
therein J'pecijied : the one to decide all 
affairs not exceeding 4,000 li-urcs ; 
the other, fucb as Jhall not exceed 
zo,ooo li'ures, refer^ving to the par- 
liamentSy luhen they rejume their 
funflions, the right of judging matters 
of greater importance j each in its civn 
province, 

The fecond ordinance is for the fup- 
preffton of fome particular courts, 
ivhich had a kind of jurifdiilion in- 
dependant of the other courts, 

The third ordinance relates to the 
manner of condem?iing criminals. 

The fourth is an edid for reducing 
the number of the members 'who ha've 
a right to fit in parliament : among 
120, only 67 nvill remain. 

The next is for the re-ejlablijhment 
of the cour pleniere, or fupreme af 
fembly This court ivill be compofed 
of the chancellor or keeper of the feals , 
the great chajnberlain of the parlia- 
ment of Paris, the peers and great 
offcers of fate, ivith feueral others 
from different parts of the magijlracy, 
nvho <vjilt"hold their places for life. 
The great objeSl of this court, is the 
regifry of the laivs and impojls. 

His ?najej}y's laji declaration, re- 
lates to the •vacation of the parlia- 
ment. By this, the parliatnent re^ 
mains fufpended iti o.ll its fundions till 
further orders. In the 7nean time, the 
proper meafures are taking for carry- 
ing the above ordinances and declara- 
tions into execution, and a prohibition 
is laid on the parliament, and all its 
7ncmbers, to affcmblc, or deliberate on 
any affair, public or private. 

His tnajejiy then pronounced the 
follcvjing fport fpeech, and clofed the 
affemhlyfor the day,) 

** You have jult heard my will ; 
the more moderate it is, the more 
iirmly it fhall be executed. It 



tends In every thing to the happi- 
nefs of my fubje(fts, I depend oa 
the zeal of thofe who are imme- 
diately called to compofe my cour 
pleniere; the others will, I doubt 
not, merit by their condudt to be 

fuccefTively called to it. 1 am 

now going to name the firft, and 
order them to remain at Verfailles, 
and the others to withdraw." 

(In conjequence of the foregoing 
ediBs of the king, le grand aflemblee 
du parliament (the great affejnbly of 
parliament J met on Friday laji. 
Their protejl is dated May the gth, 
1"^%%, feven o'clock in the morning. 
It contains a reprefentation to his ma~ 
jejiy, that their Jtlence in his prefence, 
on the day preceding, muft not be con- 
ftrued as an acquiefcence of their con- 
fent to his majefy's ediSis ; that, on 
the contrary, they 'zvholly dif claim 
taking any part in ivhat paffed 
at that fitting, or giving their af-^ 
fijlance to it. That they further de- 
cline accepting any feat in the nevj 
court his ?najefy 'wijhes to ereSl, 
called la cour pleniere ; and they 
cannot accept of it, as being contrary 
to their oath, their duty, and fidelity 
to his majefiy. 



His Moft Chrifiian Majefiy' s Ordi- 
nance, declaring the Prctefi and 
Deliberations above ■7n£ntioned, of 
the Parliaments and Courts, j'edi- 
tious and libellous. 

T having been reprefented to the 
king, that feveral writings had 
been clandeftinely publifhed, and 
that his indulgence Las been much 
abufed by no notice having been 
taken of them : — that befides, fic- 
titious lignatures have been made 
ule of to give them confequcnce : 

Thefe 



ji?4] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



Thefe and other weighty reafons 
have determined his vviidom to pro- 
hibit and fuppvefs them. 

Thofe writings, under the title of 
refolutions or protefts, of different 
bodies and communities, carry with 
them an air of dilbbedience and re- 
volt, contrary to the duty of fub- 
jeds, and elpecially of the officers 
of thofe bodies, whom the king for- 
bids to hold any further affembly 
or deliberation, and from whom 
alone they hold the authority of 
exercifing theii" profeffions. 

Thefe writings are in their form 
»— illegal ; in the efFedl they are 
intended to produce — fallacious: 
the contents are equally reprehen- 
sible, and affume a fupericrity over 
the royal authority. Some declare 
the king's afts — abiurd in their 
form — defpotic in their principles- 
tyrannical ir. their efFefts — deftruc- 
tive of monarchy, and the rights 
and capitulations of the provinces. 

It is his majefty's wifli to hold 
out to the nation its true interell — 
Jn the fame manner to bririg it 
back to its proper powers. 

His goodnefs has delayed hina 
hitherto from taking notice of thofe 
writings, hoping that his fubjedls 
would relied, and repent of their 
errors, and induce his majefty lo 
forget their conducl. 

His majerty owes to his own au- 
thority — he owes it to his faithful 
fubjefts. — he owes it to the people 
at large, to prevent for the future 
fuch ads, which made without power 
-—out of the places of the ordinary 
fitting — agaii.ft the cxprels com- 
iiinnds of the king, efcape the no- 
tice of, a formal proceeding to an- 
nul them, 07 che very vice of their 
formation, fince to annul them, 
would be to fuppofe they had a re- 
gular exiftence ;-~but which, fpread 



abroad as they have been, to mu- 
lead the nation from the true in- 
tentions of his majefty, do not lefs 
deferve his entire difpleafure, as 
they are capable of troubling the 
public tranquillity, by their fpirit of 
independence and rebellion. 

From this report, made to his 
majefty — the king being in his ccun^ 
cil. Oncers, that the deliberations and 
protefts of his courts and other af- 
femblies, made ftncethe publication 
of his laws of the 8th of May laft, 
and tending to prevent their execu- 
tion and efFed, are and ftiall remaia 
fuppreJJ'ed, as feditious—treafonable to 
the rojal authority — made nuithout 
ponver, and avith a dejign to mijlead 
his people. Prohibits all perfons» 
particularly officers of his courts, or 
other judges, to alTift in fucure at 
fuch aucriiL'ties, or make fuch pro- 
tefts, <..'; pain of forfeiture and lojs of 
ejiate, comTTilfjlon, ci'vil or military 
appointment, againft all thofe wlio 
ftiall affift at, or fign them. Pro- 
hibits in like manner, and under the 
fame penalties, all and every officer, 
in the different iribuuals throughout 
the kingdom, to pay any regard to 
fuch decrees and protefts, or the 
impreffions they may have made. 

His qiajefty declares like wife, 
that he will take qnder his efpecial 
protedion, for the prefent and to 
come, all thofe tribunals and others 
of his fubjeds, who, fubmitting to 
fuch laws, ftand forward to put 
them in execution ; and holds him- 
feif to guaranty them on every 
occafion, againft any feeble and fe- 
ditious menaces which might alarm 
their fidelity. Comrnandsy in the 
fame manner, all officers and com- 
mandants of provinces to pay ftrid 
attention to the execution of th? 
prefent ordinance, which Ihall be 
printed and ftuck up wherever it 

ihali 



STATE PAPERS. 



fcall be found necefTary, and noti- 
fied, by the exprefs order of his ma- 
jefty, to all the grand bailiwicks 
and prefidencies throughout the 
kingdom. 

Made at Verfailles, the 20th 

of June 1778. 
(Signed) 

Baron he Breteuil. 



Hote delivered the \%th ofjune, hy 
the Ruffian Amhajfador at Stock- 
holm, to the S'-vjediJh Minifiry . 

N confequence of the various 

objefts which the under-written 

envoy extraordinary and minifter 
plenipotentiary of the imperial court 
of RulEa has lately conferred upon 
his excellency count d'Oxenlieirn, 
he has now the honour to profent to 
him a fuccinft recapitulation of the 
fame in the prefent note. 

Whatever may have been the fur- 
prifs of the emprefs my fovereign, 
when ftie was informed of the ar- 
maments carried on in Sweden, her 
imperial majefty, not feeing any juft 
motives which could occafion them, 
refolved to be filent as long as thcfe 
motions fhould be confined to the 
anterior parts of the kingdom. But 
being apprifed of the motives al- 
ledged by the fenator count d'Ox- 
enfteirn to the minifter of Den- 
mark, and which he, in oonfequence 
of the intimacy fubfilting between 
the two courts, communicated to 
the under-written, her imperial ma- 
jefty has refolved to break filence, 
and given orders to the under-writ- 
ten to enter intothe following expla- 
nations with his Swedilh majefty's 
minifters. 

During twenty-fix years of her 
reign, the emprefs has not ceafed to 
give confltanc teftimonies to the king. 



and to the whole Swediih nation, of 
her wifh to cultivate the moit perfect 
harmony and good neighbourhood^ 
fuch as at the laft peace was eftabliihcd 
between the two llates ; if, therefore, 
in the midll of the repofe which 
her empire enjoyed from its other 
neighbours, her imperial majelly 
has never conceived the lealt idea 
cf difturbing or altering, in any 
fhape, the order of things, it would 
be arguing againft every degree of 
probability to attribute it to her 
now, when flie finds herfelf in a war 
which has been unjuftly inftigated 
againft her by a powerful enemy, 
and to which ihe cannot give too 
much attention. Provoked in this 
manner to difplay all the means 
which fhe holds from Providence, to 
repel the attack of her enemy, ihe 
has not failed to make an amicable 
communication of it to all the 
Chriftian powers, particularly ilie 
obferved this conduft when fhe re- 
folved to arm a fleet to fend into the 
Archipelago; which intention the 
under-written did, by her orders, 
communicate to the Swedilh mini- 
fters. All thefe difpofitions and 
preparations being therefore vifibly 
and fingly direfied to the circum- 
ftance which Ruflia found herfelf 
in, were in no fhape of a nature to 
alarm any neighbour, that did not 
nourifh fome fecret intention to mul- 
tiply her embarraffments, and take 
advantage of them. But, admitting 
for a moment that the court of 
Ruflia had fuppofed fuch defigns, 
that of Sweden, however contrary 
they are to the faith of treaties which 
bind them, found reafoning, as well 
as the interef^ of the firft, would 
have confined all her meafures to 
prevent its cite£ls, and not to pro- 
voke them ; and, in faft, fuch as 
prudenc^i dictated, and were adopt- 
ed. 



286] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



ed, after the rumours which were 
Ipread on all fides of the armaments 
carrying on in Sweden, are reduced 
to a trifling reinforcement of the 
Ruffian troops in Finland, and the 
deftination of the ufual fquadron that 
annually cruifes in the Baltic to ex- 
ercife the feamen ; a cuftom to which 
Sweden has never given any atten- 
tion, or occafioned any umbrage. — 
Neverthelefs, her armaments were 
daily advancing and increafing, 
tvithout the court of Stockholm 
thinking proper to give any formal 
notice of it to the court of Peterf- 
burgh ; and then at laft they were 
prepared. The fenator, count 
d'Oxenfteirn, in the name of the 
king, did not fail to declare to the 
minifter of a court llrongly allied to 
Vienna, and confequently, it m.ay 
be prefumed, not bound to conceal 
it from us, that thofe prepara- 
tions were direfled againll Ruffia, 
on a fuppofition that Sweden was 
threaten-ed to be attacked by her. 

In this fituation, the emprefs, on 
ier fide, has as readily ordered the 
under-written to declare to his 
Swedifh majelly's miniftry, and to 
all thofe who have any ihare in the 
adminiftration, that her imperial 
majefty could not give them a more 
folid proof of her pacific difpofitions 
towards them, and of the iniereft (he 
takes in the prefervation of their 
tranquillity, than by affuring them, 
on her royal word, that all the op- 
pofite intentions which fome might 
impute to her, are void of all foun- 
dation ; but if aflTurances fo formal 
and fo pofitive, joined to arguments 
fo plain and convincing, are not 
fufiicient to re-eFrablifii a calm and 
tranquillity, her imperial majefiy is 
refolved to a\Okit the event with that 
confidence and fecurity which the 



purity and Innocency of her inten- 
tion infpires her, as well as the 
powerful means which the Almighty 
has put into her hands, and which 
fhe has never employed but for the 
glory of her empire, and the happi- 
nefs of her fubjefts. 

Stockholm, June i8, 1788. 
(Signed) 
Count Andre Razamoffsky. 



Anf^jjer of the Court of Stockholm 
to the foregoing Refcript. 

I S majefty could not avoid be- 
ing furprifed when he faw, in 
the note delivered on the i8th June, 
by Mr. le comte dc Razoumoffsky, 
envoy extraordinary and minifl,er 
plenipotentiary from the court of 
Ruflia, the manner in which it was 
attempted todiftinguiih between the 
king and the nation ; and the af- 
furances given by the emprefs of 
her difpofition in their favour, and 
of the intercft which fhe takes in 
the prefervation of their tranquil- 
lity. 

Although in this language the 
king recognizes principles often 
divulged by the court of Ruflia in 
other countries, his majefty cannot 
reconcile fuch friendly fentiments 
on the part of the emprefs, with an 
infinuation that tends direftly to 
draw a diftlndtion between him and 
his people , and, firmly refolved never 
to admit fuch a principle, he cannot 
believe that a declaration of that 
nature was ordered to be made to 
him by the court of Ruffia. The 
king is rather willing to impute it to 
their minifter only, refiding at his 
court ; but, furprifed as well as hurt 
at the language it contains, which 
is at once irregular and hoftile to 

the 



STATE PAPERS. 



[287 



the tranquillity of his kingdom, he 
cannot after this moment acknow- 
ledge the comte de RazoumofFsky 
as envoy extraordinary and miniftcr 
plenipotentiary at his court, referv- 
inghimfelf, until his arrival in Fin- 
land, to anfwer the emprefs of 
Ruffia on the other articles of the 
declaration, by his minifler at Pe- 
terlburgh. Meanwhile his majefly 
finds himfelf obliged to require the 
departure of conite de Razoumoff"- 
iky, by announcing to that minifrer 
that he can no longer treat with him, 
as having in his written memorial 
offended both the principles of the 
Swedifh government and failed in 
the refped due to the perfon of 
the king. 

The attention wherewith the king 
has honoured this miniller, ever 
fince he knew him, ftrongly marks 
the regret felt by his majefty in 
commanding his departure ; and 
nothing lefs than the powerful 
reafons, of his dignity being per- 
fonally offended, and the peace of 
his dominions rendered liable to be 
dillurbed by thofe principles it was 
not fcrupled to avow, could have 
influenced his majefty to wifh the 
removal of a perfon who has fuch 
claims upon his regard, that, in lig- 
iiifying his intentions to the comte 
de RazoumofFsky (whom he no 
longer acknowledges a public mini- 
iler) his majefty allows him a week 
to make the neceffary preparations. 
The king has alfo given orders for 
fhips, and every other accommoda- 
tion that can render his paffage to 
St. Peterlburgh convenient, that 
being the only mark of attention 
that the prefent circumftances leave 
it in his power to Ihew to the comte 
de Razoumoffsky. 



Col>y of a Circular Note deU<vered hy 
the Court of Sweden to all the 
foreign Miniftcr 5, a'^/f^ Stockholm, 
June 23, 1788. 

WHILE the king, anxious 
to prefer ve a good under- 
ftanding with all his neighbours, 
neglefted nothing in the cultiva- 
tion of the fame with the court 
of Ruffia ; he has been aftoniflied to 
obferve the little effedl which his 
fentiments have produced on the 
miniller of that power; whofe 
language, for fome months pafl:, in 
his public conduft, ftill appears to 
bear the marks of that fyftem of 
dilTenfion which his predeceffors 
tranfmitted to him, and which they 
have perpetually laboured to ex- 
tend. The king was always willing 
to deceive himfelf on this point, 
and wifhed he could doubt the e::- 
iftence of the efforts made by the 
Ruffian envoy, to induce the Swcdilli 
nation to return to thofe errors 
which led it aftray during the time 
of anarchy, and todilTeminate anew, 
in the heart of the Hate, that ancienc 
fpirit of difcord, which Heaven, and 
his raajefty's paternal care, have 
happily extingui (bed ; till at length 
count Razoumoffsky, by his note of 
the 1 8th of June, has extinguifhed 
all thofe doubts the king was ftill 
defirous of preferving on this fub- 
jett- Amldft the declarations of 
the emprefs's friendlhip for the 
king, with which the note is filled, 
this miniftcr has not hefitated to ap- 
peal to others befides the king. He 
addreffed himfelf to all the members 
of adminiftration, as well as to the 
nation itfelf, to affure them of the 
ientiments of his fovereign, and 
how much fhe has their tranquillity 

at 



^8S] ANNUAL REGISTER, i-8^. 



at heart. This Sweden, however, 
derives folely from its proper anion ; 
and the king could not but fee, with 
the greateil furprife, a declaration 
exorefTed in fuch terms, difcerning 
therein but too much of the policy 
and language ufed by that miciiter's 
predecefTors ; who, not content with 
lowing divifions among his maje- 
fty's iubjefts, wanted tofet up other 
authorities in oppofition to the legi- 
timate power, and to undermine 
the f;:ndamental laws of the king- 
dom, by calling in aid of their af- 
fertions, wiinefTes which th^ form of 
government cannot recognize. It 
was in vain that his majefty fought 
to reconcile the aiTurances of the 
friendlhip of the emprefs of Ruflia 
on the one fide, with the appeal to 
the fubjecls of Sweden on the other. 
Every minifter being charged to 
declare the fentiments of his mafter, 
ought not, nor can announce to 
them any other than the fovereign 
by whom his credentials have been 
accepted. All other authority is 
unknown to him, and every other 
witnefs fupcfluous. Such is the 
law, fuch is the conftant praftice in 
all the courts of Europe, and this 
ru-e has never ceafed to be obferved, 
unlefs when by captious iniinua- 
tions the only aim has been (as 
heretofore in Sweden) to embroil 
matters, to confound every thing, 
and again to fet up thofe barriers 
which form the diftinflion between 
the nation and their fovereign. 
Thus hurt, in a way moil nearly 
afFedling his dignity, and no longer 
hearing from count RazoumoftVky 
the language of aminilter, hitherto 
charged to convey the friendly fen- 
ti,ments of the emprefs ; but, at the 
fame time, unible to conceive, that 
expreffioas fo contrary to the fun- 



damental laws cf Sweden, aa^ 
\Vhich, by dividing the king and 
the ftate, would reader every fubjeft 
culpable, were prefcribed to him, 
the king chofes rather to attribute 
them to the private fentiments of 
the Ruffian minifter, of whicii he 
has given fulhcient indication, than 
to the orders of his cr urt. In the 
mean time, after what has paffedj 
after declarations as contrary to the 
happinefs of the kingdom, as to the 
laws and refpefl due to the king, 
his majeily can no longer confider 
count Razoumoffsky in the quality 
of a minifter, and finds himfelf 
obliged to require his departure 
from Sweden, confiding to his am- 
bafTador at the court of Raffia, the 
anfwer to the other points which 
have been juft commanicated. 

Nothing lefs than fo direft aa 
attack on the dignity of the king, 
on the p:^rt of count RazoumoflVky, 
could induce his majefty to inf:ft on 
the departure of one, whom he has 
honoured with particular regard; 
But feci"'' himfelf reduced to fuch 
neceffiy svirh '•egret, his majefty^ 
in confequence of his former good- 
will, has endeavoured to foften the 
difagree.ible nature of this event, 
by the care he takes in regard td 
count RazoumofFiky's departure^ 
and by the attention that will be 
paid to the time, and to his accom- 
modation in his voyage to St. 
PsterfDurgh. 

Kis majefty wilhing that the di- 
plomatic body fhould be acquainted 
with the foregoing occurrences, 
the fenatcr count Oxenfteirn has 
the honour of communicating the 
iame. 

(Signed) 

OxENfiTfilRI'. 

Declaration 



STATE 



^edaratiott of the Emprsfs of all 
the RiiJJias, againji the King (f 
Sweden, June 30, 1 788. 

T was towards the end of the 
laft winter that tfie armaments 
by fea and land began to Ihevv 
themfelves in Sweden. — Whii'pers 
were purpc>fely circulated in the 
kingdom, as if Ruifia meditated an 
attack. In proportion as thefe pre- 
parations advanced, and as they 
believed they hrxd made an im- 
j-'relfionon fome national fpirits, die 
cabinet of Stockholm began to ex- 
tend rumours of the fame kind, 
6ven to foreign courts. The em- 
prefs has the fatisfaftion to learn 
that thefe innnuations have every 
where failed of their aim. In truth, 
the courts of Europe are too en- 
Jightened to believe that Rnflia, 
after having for fo long a time 
maintained a pacific fyfte.m in re- 
gard to Sweden, had chofen to de- 
part from it in the moment when 
Ihe was engaged in a war fo ferious 
as that in which the Ottoman Forte 
had involved her. 

h\ the mean time, the emprefs, 
attentive to every thing which 
paiTed in a place i'o adjacent to her 
territories, judged it nece'fary, on 
the information and advice which 
ihe received, not to negleft to 
take meafures of precaution. But, 
anxious to avoid every thing which 
might give umbr.age or excite 
alarm, fhe contented herfelf with 
ordering to Finland a flight rein- 
forcement of troops, and with efta- 
blifhing in this province magazines 
proportioned to their number, and 
indifpenfably neceilary to their fab- 
fidence. in fine, repoiing on the 
innocence and reilitude of her in- 

Vou, XXX, 



PAPERS. 



[289 



tentions, on the religious tenure of 
the perpetual treaty fubfilting be- 
tween the empire of Rufila and 
the kingdom of Sweden, and above 
all, not knowing of any one fubjett 
of difcufiion, open or concealed, 
between the two courts — the ami- 
cable correfpondence, on the con- 
trary, continuing as ufua! between 
them — (lie Had undoubtedly every 
right to thinlc, that, ftrong as might 
be the ambition, the uneafinefs, and 
the envy of the imperial powers, 
the true motives that could impel 
the Svvedilh monarch to make war on 
her muft be reprcfled by the refpeft 
to good faith, which ought to adluate 
the hearts of fovereigns more even 
than of other men; by the impolTi- 
bility of giving any colour of equity 
to the flight which he wifhed to give 
to his paffions; and, in fine, by the 
obftacle, equally ftrong, that of the 
folemn compaft he had made with 
his people, not to undertake any 
war without aflembiing, confulting, 
and obtaining the confent of his 
fubjefts. 

Nothing could prove more efFec- 
taally the fatisfadtion which fhould 
have been placed in her imperial 
majefty's various alTuranccs, than 
the refolution which fhe took of de- 
taching from the fleet defined for 
the Arcliipclago a fq.uadron of only 
three ftiips, which flie fent to fea in 
the beginning of this month, not- 
withltanding the pofnive advices flie 
had of all the Swedifli fleet being 
cruizing in the Baltic. Thefe fliips, 
three days after their departure from 
the port of Cronftadt, fell in, oiF 
the Ifle of Dago, with the Swedifn 
fleet, which detached a frigate, the 
captain of which came aboard of 
the fliip of the vice-admiral Vander- 
£s.tT, who commafided this litcl* 
{T\ fciuadron. 



290] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1781 



fquadron. The captain of the 
frigate announced to the vice-ad- 
miral the prefence of the due de 
Sudermania, the king's brother, the 
commander of the Swedifh fleet, 
and required the falute. The vice- 
admiral replied, that by the 17th 
article of the treaty of Abo, no 
falute could take place between the 
Ruffian and Swedilh fleets, but that 
refpeding, in the perfon of the due 
de Sudermania, the coufm-german 
of the emprefs, and the brother of 
the king of Sweden, he had no dif- 
ficulty in rendering to thefediltinc- 
tions all the honours that were due. 
He then ordered a falute with 
thirteen guns, and fent an officer 
on board vhe duke's fhip to pay his 
compliments, and to announce to 
him at the fame time, that it was to 
his perfon only that the honours 
were iiddrefTed. The anfwer of the 
duke of Sudermania was, that al- 
though he was not ignorant of the 
tenor of the convention made be- 
tween the courts of Sweden and 
Ruffia, in regard to the falute, he 
would not accept of that which was 
to be rendered, unlets it was given 
to the SwediAa flag, as he had re- 
ceived the moll precife orders from 
the king, his brother, to make that 
flag refpefted in every place, and 
on every occafion. 

The emprefs had hardly time to 
make her complaints on the injuftice 
and irregularity of this proceeding, 
to the court of Stockholm, when Ihe 
was informed of the proceeding, ftill 
lefs expefted, of the difmiffion of her 
mlr.irtcr from the Swedifh court and 
territories. The pretended reafons 
of this meafure are expofed in the 
declaration of the king made to the 
minifters of foreign courts. Thefe 
reafons are not calculated to impofe 



on the moft unenlightened, and thef 
therefore require no anfwer ; but 
one cannot help obferving, that it 
is the firft example of the kind by 
which a fovereign afl^ired his fub- 
jefts of the pacific and benevolent 
fentiments he entertained towards 
them. 

Jn the mean time the emprefs, 
refolded to continue to the laft in 
the principles of moderation fhe 
had proftfled, confined her refent- 
ment of this proceeding to the re- 
ciprocity which fhe was naturally 
authorized to ufe in regard to the 
minifter of the king of Sweden. 
She figniiied to him to quit her 
court in the fame fpace of tims 
which had been fixed for her mini- 
fter at Stockholm. The only dif- 
ference in the proceeding was, that 
all falfe and infidious imputation 
was carefully avoided — This dif- 
ference h.is been eilabliflied and 
demonftrated indeed by the good 
faith which has accompanied the 
caufe of the emprefs, and the 
breach of faith which has marked 
the whole condud of the king of 
Sweden. 

Notwithftanding thefe fcenes, 
which threatened an almoil inevit- 
able war, the emprefs was pleafed 
to cherith hopes that the amicable 
explanations which the Swedifh 
monarch had himfelf promifed tjic 
foreign powers, might yet tend to 
preferve the good harmony and 
neighbourhood, which no one reafon 
of ftate on either fide tended to in- 
terrupt. But this hope is totally 
vanifhed. She learns that on the 
ziflor zzd of this month the troops 
of the king of Sweden having fallen 
haftily on the frontiers of Ruffia, 
have carried ofF the money depoflt- 
ed in feveral cullom-houfes, have 
a penetrated 



STATE PAPERS. 



[291 



penetrated to the environs of Niefiat, 
and have even opened the fiege of 
its callle. 

Jt i$ by a feries of violent pro- 
ceedings (of which every one in- 
fringes on the rights the moll gene- 
rally received among civilized na- 
tions) that the king of Sweden, 
without having complained of one 
grievance againll Rufiia, hath at 
length pudied to the uttermofc the 
moderation of the emprefs, and has 
obliged her to have recourfe to the 
only remedy which is left her, of 
repelling force by force. Jt is with 
regret that (he iffiies her orders to 
the commanders of her forces by 
land and fea. In making known 
this refolution, as well as the 
motives that have provoked her to 
it, to the friendly powers, flie pro- 
tefts to them, that the king of 
Sweden is alone refponfible to God, 
to the world, and to his own peo- 
pie, for all the calamities to whioh 
his ambition and injuftice may give 
rife. 



Exhortation of the King of Sweden 
to his Suhjids. 

WE, Guftavas, by the grace of 
God, king of Sweden, of 
the Goths and Vandals, to all our 
faithful fubjedts health! commend- 
ing them to the care of the Al- 
mighty, with our favour and parti- 
cular good-will. 

Seeing ourfelves again attack- 
ed by enemies on another fide of 
our kingdom, and obliged to arm, 
in order to defend our ftates and 
the independence of our dear coun- 
try, no lefs than your lives, -your 
property, your liberties, and your 
welfare, we doubt not that our dear 
rubjcfts will with the arms aiuimethe 



courage of their anceHors, with 
hrmncfs and unanimity to repulic 
the enterpriies of our enemies — 
more efpecially as ourfelves (hall fet 
the example, like our illullrious pre- 
deceflbrs, to defend, to the very lail 
man, the independence of a king- 
dom, that boalh fo remote an anti- 
quity. Neverthclefs, we mult not 
conceal from you, my fubjefls, all 
the means which the enemy wifhes 
to employ, in order to fubjugate a 
people, whofc valour they havq 
often experienced to their detri- 
ment. 

As they cannot hope to efreifl 
our common ruin folely by open 
force, they are llriving to excite 
difcord, as well between yourfelves, 
as between you and us, fom.enting 
jealoufies by fecret intrigues, and 
provoking quarrels, in the full per- 
fuafion that a Swedilh king, united 
with the Swedilh nation, could not 
eafily be brought under their yoke. 
We exhort you, then, in the name 
of the almighty God, as the true 
and only defender of kings and 
ftates, that you will not lilten to 
treacherous infinuations, but that 
you will conftantly perfevere in the 
fidelity which we have a right to ex- 
peft from you, and which, during 
fixteen years of our reign, we have 
no lefs experienced than defervcd. 
We have alfo to give you the happy- 
information, that the principal 
powers in Europe now in alliance 
with each other, which interell 
themfelves in the independence of 
the Swedilh nation, are this prefent 
moment endeavouring to accom- 
pli fli our wifhcs in the rcftoration 
of peace ; which we hope, with the 
help of the Almighty, will, by our 
joint eiForts, foon be eftabliflied. 
We truft, that fo fcon as that falu- 
tary end fliall be attained, we fhall 
['H 2 haves 



292] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



nave the fatisfadion to meet our 
fubjefls, united in the Ibiftefl bonds 
of concord, in a general diet of the 
Hates, where we may offer up 
our thankfgivings to the Supreme 
Being, for his protection accorded 
to us, and to our kingdom. In the 
mean while, we reccmmend you to 
his all-powerful hand ; and we re- 
main in the utmoft aficdion towards 
you all, of whatfoever rank, with 
all our royal favour and good-will. 

(Signed) GUSTAYUS. 
Done at Carllladt, 
Sept. 26, 1788. 
(and lower) 
Herm. Von. Laastbone. 



Declaration, and Counter - Decla- 
ration, bet-zveen Denmark and 
Sweden. 

DECLARATION. 

IS Danifh majefty Jhas order- 
ed the under- figned to declare, 
that although he complies with the 
freaty between the courts of Peterf- 
burgh and Copenhagen, in furniih- 
ing the former with the number of 
ihips and troops ftipulated by fe- 
verai treaties, and particularly that 
of 1781 ; he yet confiders himfclf 
in perfedl amity and peace with his 
Swedifh majefty: which friendfliip 
fliall not be interrupted, although 
the Swedifh arms fhould prove vic- 
torious, either in repulfing, defeat- 
ing, or taking prifoners, the Danifh 
troops, now in the Swedifh territo- 
ries, afting as Ruffian auxiliaries 
under Ruflian flags. Nor does he 
conceive that his Swedilh majefly 
has the leafl ground to complain, \o 
long as the Danifh fhips and troops 
jiow afling againft Sweden do not 
^xceed the number ilipulated by 



treaty ; and it is his earneft defire, 
that ail fiiendiy and commercial 
intercoune between the two nations^ 
and the good underftanding be- 
tween the courts of Stockholm and 
Copenhagen, rexnain inviolably a$ 
heretofore. 
(Signed) 

Count De BernstorFj 
Delivered to the baron de 
Sprenglporten, his Swedifh 
majefly £ miniikr plenipo- 
tentiary at ihe court of Co- 
penhagen. 

Sept. 23, 1788. 

COUNTER-DECLARATION. 

THE declaratory note delivered 
by the count Bernflorf, to the uuder- 
figned, in which his Danifli majefly 
conceives that his Swedifli majefty 
cannot have any ground of com- 
plaint, as long as the Danilh fhips 
and troops merely ad as auxiliaries 
to RuiTia, is a doctrine which his 
Swedifa jnajefty cannot altogether 
reconcile with the law of nations, 
and rights of fovereigns, and againil 
which his m-^jelly has ordered the 
under-figned to proteft. 

Neverthelefs, to prevent an eftu- 
fion of blood between the fubjeds 
of the two kingdoms, and particu- 
larly the moment when a negocia.- 
tion has began to reftore perfect 
peace and tranquillity in the north 
of Europe, which affords a pleafing 
profpecl: ©f a general peace ; his 
Swedifn majefty, from .motives of a 
love of peace, waves entering into 
a fpeculative difcuflion, whether or 
not there is a caufe or ground of 
complaint, on his fide, and refts 
perfediy fatislied with the aflurances 
contained in his Danifh majefty's^ 
declaration, that his Danifh majefty 
h-2s no hoftile views againft Sweden, 

and 



STATE PAPERS. 



[^93 



and that the friendly and corr.mer- 
cial intf;rcourie between the fubjeds 
of both kingdoms, and the good un- 
dcrftanding between the two courts, 
ihall remain uninterrupted. 

His Swedifh maielly puts the 
llrongeft faith and utmolt confidence 
in what iVlr. Elliot, envoy extraordi- 
nary and miniiter plenipotentiary of 
his Britannic irsajefty, has reprefsntcd 
to him on tins iinportant occafion. 

His majeity, therefore, to prev^ent 
the horrors of war, and the calami- 
ities impending the two nations ; 
anxious to behold peace and union 
reilored between them ; embraces 
with fatisfadionhisDanifh majefty's 
declaration, and particularly as it 
will facilitrae the negociation for a 
general peace which is happily 
begun through the mediation of 
Great Britain, France, :ioiiand,and 
Prullia, and the good fuccefs of 
which is the greattil object of his 
majelly's ambition, and which his 
majeily has fully declared to the 
aforefaid Mr. Elliot, provided the 
defeating of the Rullian auxiliaries 
is not confidered as houilities againll 
his Danifh majelly, agreeable to 
the dsclaration delivered by count 
Bernitorf, 

(Signed) 
Earon de Spre n orr orten. 
Dated Stocicholm, Oft. 6, 

1788, and delivered to 

the count BcrnUorf, at 

Copenhagen. 



Copy of a Declaratiof? (teliaiered to the 
confederated States of Poland by 
the PruJJian Mir.ijier at Warfaw, 
daied O^ohQT 12, I788, on the 
SuhjeSi of an intended Alliatice be- 
t-vjetn RulTia and Poland. 



DECLARATION. 

F the projefled alliance between 

Rullia and Poland has for its 
firll objert the confervation of the 
Hates of Poland, the king does not 
fee the neceflity or utility of it, be- 
caufe the lafety of Poland is fulS- 
ciently guaranteed by the laft 
treaties. it cannot be fuppofed 
that her majeily the emprels ot 
Ruflia, cr her ally the emperor of 
Germany, would infiinge theirs, 
it mull then be fuppofed the king 
has fuch a defign ; and, in confe- 
quence, this alliance is diredled 
againft him. 

Thus the king cannot but objeft 
and proteic folenmly againll: the laid 
alliance, as tending to break the 
good harmony euablifhed between 
PruiTia and Poland by the mofl 
lolcmn treaties. 

If, in the fecond place, this al- 
liance is directed againft tbe cora-r 
mon enemy, and if under this qua- 
lification is included the Ottoman 
Por^§j the king, outof friendihip for 
the republic of Poland, cannot but re- 
prefent, that the Porte having always 
religiouilyobrerved the peace of Car- 
iowitz, and that during the whole 
courfe of the prefent war they have 
carefully avoided the llates of the 
republic, there will infallibly refult 
the mof:. dangerous conftquences, 
as well for the ftates of the republic, 
as for thofe of his Prulfian majefty 
which are neighbouring, if Poland 
contracts alliances which authoiife 
the Porte to fee an enemy in Poland. 
Every loyal and enlightened citizen 
of Poland will fee at once how 
difhculr and impoffible it will be to 
defend his country againft an ene- 
my' fo near, lb formidable, and io 
unruly. 

The king cannot then be indiffe- 
rent 



fuccours, for maintaining the in- 
dependence, liberty, and I'ecurity of 
Poland. 

Given at Warfaw, the 
I2lh of Oc):. lyJ^S. 

Louis d£ Buckholz. 



Jnfivcr of the Diet at Warfavv to 
the King of PrufliaV Declaration, 



-94] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1783. 

rent to tbe projed of an alliance, 
which menaces not only the greateft 
ctanger towards the republic, but to 
his own ftates, and which will infal- 
libly extend farther the flames of 
war, already too general. 

The king finds nothing to objeft 
againfl the republic of Poland's 
augmenting its army, and putting 
its forces in a refpedable Hate. 
But he leaves to the confideratlon of 
the good, citizens of Poland, if, in 
each augmentation of the army of 
Poland, a power is not given to en- 
^ge the republic in a war which 
is abfolutely foreign to it, and con- 
lequently leading to grievous con- 
fecjuences. The kln;^ is fiattered, 
that his majel^y the king cf Poland, 
and the Hates of the ferene republic 
afiembled in the prefent diet, will 
take into mature deliberation all 
that his mnjefty now reprefcnts, \n 
the way and through motives of the 
mod fmcere friendlhip, and for the 
true welfare and common interell 
of the two ilates, fo ciofely united 
by the iadiffoluble ties cf a perpe- 
tual alliance. 

His majefty a!fo hopes, that h^r 
majellv the emprefs of P.uffia will 
TiOt refufe her approbation to mo- 
tives fo juft, and fo conformable to 
the welfare of the Polifli nation; 
and he expeflsalfo with confidence, 
from one part and the other, that they 
tieiiilfrom the projeftof an allianci; 
fo little neceffary, but always fo dan- 
gerous for Poland. It is in this 
hope, that his majefty invites all 
the true patriots and good citizens 
of Poland to unite with him, to 
prevent, by their union and wife 
meafures, the imminent danger with 
which their country is menaced. 
And they may depend, that his 
majefty will grant them the neceffary 
alhiUnce, and the moft powerful 



THE under-llgned, by the ex- 
prefs orders of the king and 
the confederate ftates of the diet, 
has the honour to tranfmit to M. 
de Buckholz the following anfwer: 

The reading of the faid declara- 
tion of his PrulTian majefty, in a full 
council, on the 13th, has impreffed 
the ftates aff^mbled with a lively 
fenfe of the generous manner in 
whicJi the king has a6\ed as a friend 
and neighbour, in affuring to Po- 
land the fafety of its pofTeffions. 

The project of an alliance be- 
tween RufTia and Poland, not hav- 
ing been propofed either to the per- 
nianent council, or to the diet when 
free, and afterwards confederated, 
is not therefore an objed ot the aft 
of union, which leads the bulinefs of 
the diet, conformable to the general 
will of r.ie nation ; and the propofi- 
tions coming from the throne re- 
fpefting the augmentation of im- 
pofts, and the military of the re- 
public, are not in the fyftem of 
an oiFenfive force, but folely for de- 
fending and preferving its poffef- 
fions and its iTe:t government. 

Jfin the already determined pro- 
ceeding the ftates affembled re- 
ceive a proportion and a projeft of 
an alliance, the republic, being 
held by the fame nature of a diet, 
in fo public a ftep will never veil its 
proceedings, but act conformable to 
the independence of its fovereignty, 

to 



STATE PAPERS. 



[295 



10 tlie rules of prudence, to the 
facred principles of" public faith, and 
to the deference due to the friendly 
fentiments of his majelly the king of 
rrufna. 

The general will, ever right and 
ever public, forming the ipiri: of 
the deliberations of the prefent diet, 
the itatiis afl'enibled unanimoufly 
feek to fix in the opinion of his 
Pruffiau majelly an advantageous 
idea of their underflandings, and 
their patriotifm. 
(Signed) 

Stan iSLAUS Nai.zel Mala- 

CHOWSK Y, 

Refendary of the crown, marlhal 
of the diet, and of the confede- 
ration of the crown. 
(Signed) 
Casimir Prince Saphleha, 
General of artillery of Lithua- 
nia, marfhal of the confedera- 
tion of the grand duchy of 
Lithuania. 
Warfaw, Oft. 20th, 1788. 



no knowing the charaifler, who 
know not how to keep their word, 
and who only can fell lies, does noi 
deferve that we fhould fpcak or 
write any thing to them ; for, ac- 
cording to our religion, a lie is the 
molt abominable of all vices. Their 
ambaffador, Curtis, told us that he 
had orders from his court, that the 
Ihips built on our flips, and which 
we were to fend to Gibraltar, lliould 
be there completely refitted. la 
confequence of which, we fent thofe 
fhips to Gibraltar, provided with 
every thing necefl'ary, and with 
money ; but he fent back our fhips, 
and nothing was done to them : 
but what offends us moll is, that he 
even fends back the fhips which we 
had fent to condu<^ them to our 
brother the fuitan Abdulhan>€d, 
whom God prelerve ! After this, it 
is not necefTary to add more. — Or> 
the 17th of the moon Jumadilala, of 
the year 1~C2 — that is, Feb. 25, 
17SS." 



7/je ftllciuitig circular Letter ivas 
fenty by Order of the Emperor of 
Morocco, /o all the European Csn- 
fuls refident Within his Dominions. 

N the name of God \ To all 
the confuls : Peace to him 
who followeth the right way. 

♦' Know ye, that for thefe thirty 
years we have obferved the conduft 
of the Englifh, and Itudied their 
charafler ; we have always found 
that they neijer keep their •word. We 
never could dive into their charac- 
ter, becaufe they have no other 
than thzt of telling lies. We are ac- 
quainted with the character of other 
Chriltian nations ; we know that 
they keep their word ; but a nation 
like the Englifli, of wlilch there i^ 



Lords Protef again/} the India De- 
claratory Bill. 

Die Mar. 19th March, 1788. 
Dijfentier.t, 

BECAUSE we objefl alto- 
gether to the very flyle and 
form of the prefent bill, inafmuch 
as it purports to be a declaratory 
bill of a kind as dangerous in its 
application as it is certainly unu- 
fu:U, if not new, in its principle. 
If the aft of the 24th of his ma- 
jefty be clearly expreffed, any de- 
claration of its fe^ife is evidently 
tinneceirary ; if it be worded, whe- 
ther from accident or defign, in 
dark equivocal terras, we conceive, 
that, in order to dc away every aii>- 
biguitv. 



296] ANNUAL REGISTER, 17S8. 



bigutty, the mode moft open and 
candid in itfclf, as well as molt 
regular and conformable to the 
afage of parliament, would hav« 
been bv a bill to explain and 
amend, and not to declare. And 
we cannot but behold this extraor- 
dinary bill with yet greater alarm, 
when it has been av^owed that it is 
intended to operate as an ad of in- 
demnity for pall meafures not ex- 
plicitly ftated. Surely it is a pro- 
pofition abfurd and monftroas on the 
rery face of it, to call upon this 
houle to declare what was and is 
Jaw, fubjed to provifions which (hall 
be. A declaration \'o qualified is a 
new fpecies of bill of indemuity, 
which, unlike- all others, does not 
content itfelf with holding forth 
terms of protection again fahe penal 
confcqiiences of an illegal ad com- 
mitted, but retrofpectively alters 
and reveries the nature and efience 
of the aftion itfelf from its very 
origin, if certain profpeitive con- 
ditions be fubfequently obferved. 

zdly. Becaufe the preamble of 
the prefent bill, which mult be pre- 
fumed to f-'t forth the legal grounds 
of the propofed declaration, does 
not appear to us in reality to con- 
tain any fuch grounds. It offers 
nothing more than partial and pie- 
ced extrads from various feftions of 
the 24,th of his prefent majeity, 
two of which evidently convey 
only general powers, to beexerciied 
" in fuch manner as in the faid act 
is diredted," that is, fubject to li- 
mitations and moiifications not re- 
cited in the preamble ; and the 
third of thefe extracts, which is 
taken from the conclufion of the 
Iith fedion of the act above men- 
tioned, is in truth part of the claufe 
imperative on the direftors, not 
enabling to- the commillioners ; 



binding the for.mer to obey th^s 
orders of the latter, (that is, all 
fuch orders as they may lawfully 
iJiue under other parts of the z&.) 
but not conferring on the latter 
any portion of diltinft power. Their 
powers, whatever they may be, 
inuil be fought, in the enabling 
claufes of the aft, by which alone 
this imperative claufe can be con- 
ftrued, but of which not a trace is 
to be difcovered in the preamble. 

3dly. Becaufe the limitations and 
reftraints on the power of the com- 
miirioners, which are now impofed 
for the iirft time in this bill, carry 
with them an intimation highly de- 
rogatory to the honour and wildom 
of this houfe ; inafmuch as they 
imply, that in the very moment 
when this houfe felt the mofl tender 
apprehenfions for the fafety of char-- 
tered rights, and when they v/ere 
moll anxiouHy alarmed for the con- 
fequcnces of transferring the power 
and patronage of the company, even 
for a time, they confciouily and de- 
liberately paffed an aft, by which 
thofe rights were to be fuperieded, 
and that power and patronage in 
efFeft veiled in the Board of Control 
for ever, without fufficient checks 
and guards to proteft the one, or 
to prevent the corrupt ui'e of the 
other. The authors of thefe limit- 
ing and retraining claufes nave left 
to the majority of this houfe no 
other refuge from the imputation 
of this inconfillency, but in an ig- 
norance of that m.eaning, which' 
we arc now called upon to de- 
clare. 

4tl)ly. Becaufe, if any fuch li- 
mitations and reilraints be indeed 
necelTary, the provifions of this bill, 
we are perfuaded, muft p.'ove nuga- 
tory and inefficient. 

5thly. Eecaufe coupling the aft 

©f 



STATE PAPERS. 



[297 



of die 2+th of his majefty with all 
its accumulated explanations and 
amendments, and underllanding the 
powers there conferred on the com- 
miffioners to the extent implied in 
the preamble and limiting claufes 
of the prefent bill, the fvftem efta- 
bliflied by that aft, in truth, realij;es 
all the dangers which were ever at- 
tributed to another meafure then re- 
cently rejeded by this houfe, and is 
certainly fruitful of formidable mif- 
chiefs proper to itfelf, friendly to 
corrupt intrigue and cabal, hoftile 
to all good government, and efpe- 
cially abhorrent from the principles 
•four popular conftitution. 

The patronage of the company 
(and this feems to be the moft feri- 
ous terror to the people of England) 
the commiflioners enjoy in the worll 
mode, without that refponfibility 
which is the natural fecurity againll 
malverfation and abufe. They can- 
not immediately appoint, but they 
have that weight of recommenda- 
tion and influence, which mull ever 
infeparably attend on fubftantial 
power, and which in the prefent cafe 
has not any where been attempted 
to be denied. 

Should this fail them in the firfl 
inftance, they can intimidate and 
encourage ; they can fupprefs the ap- 
probation and the cenfure of the di- 
xedtors on their own fervants ; they 
can fijbllitute blame for praife, and 
praife for blame, or they may in- 
llantly recall whcmfoever the di- 
reftors may appoint, againft their 
will; and this they may rep-at, till 
they ultimately compel the direc- 
tors, harraffed and over-awed, to 
nominate the man whom the com- 
miflioners may wiili to favour. Nor 
is this difpofal of patronage without 
refponfibility, the only evil that 
cbaraftcrifes the fyftem ; all the 

Vol. XXX. 



high powers and prerogatives with 
which the commiflioners are veiled, 
they may exercife invifibly, and 
thus, for a period at leafl:, invade, 
perhaps in a great meafure finally 
baffle, all political refponfibility; 
for they have a power of adminifl:er- 
ing to their clerks and other officers 
an oath of fecrecy framed for the 
occafion by themfelvcs ; and they 
pofl"efs in the India Houfe the fuf- 
picious inftrument of a fecret com- 
mittee, confining only of the chair- 
man, the deputy chairman, and one 
other direftor, all bound to them 
by an oath. Through thefe thef 
have lent an arrangement for pay- 
ing the debts of the nabob of Arcot, 
beneficial to individuals, injurious 
to the company, and fundamentally 
contradidting the plain principle of 
an exprefs claufe in that very adl by 
which their own board was infli- 
tuted : and through thefe they have 
concurred to tranfmit a diipatch, 
altered too by themfelves, on a fub- 
jedl of mere trade, over which they 
profefs to difclaim all right of ma- 
nagement. After fuch examples, we 
mud confefs that our imaginations 
cannot figure to us any defcription 
of bufinefs, which may not be fhel- 
tered behind the thick veil of the 
fecret committee ; and from our 
pail experience, relative to the firft 
of thefe tranfaftions, we are fo jultly 
fenfible of the great advantages 
with which the fervants of the 
crown mull argue on fuch topict 
before an aflTembly confl:itutionallv" 
diipofed to a geiieral confidence in 
them, that we ihould be fanguine 
indeed, did we but expert any con- 
fiderable check to be given to the 
poflible mifcondufl of the board op-- 
control, by the fears of a parlia- 
ment3ry inquiry. 

6thlv. Becaufe the operation of 



298] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



this bill, and cf the z€i, the mean- 
ing of which it is to declare, ought 
to have been limited to the duration 
of the exifting charter. Whatever 
may be the right of the legiflature 
to fubject the trade and the general 
revenues of the company to the in- 
JTpeftion and control of the board of 
commiffioners, nominated by the 
crown, fo long as the company con- 
tinud in the enjoyment of an exclu- 
five trade, and in the management 
cf great territorial revenues, we 
inuft, however, maintain, that to 
perpetuate fuch in'peclion, and to 
render tlie «gnatures of that board 
r.eceffary to all the company's dif- 
patches of every kind, when they 
may carry on their trade merely as 
a commercial corporation, without 
any monopoly, and when they may 
remain in the management only of 
their own proper ellate-, is a mea- 
fure of injuliice wholly unprece- 
dented, and an exam.ple liable to 
much reaionable jealoufy in a c0m- 
mercial country like Great Bri- 
tain. 

On all thefe grounds of objec- 
tion ; to the llyle and form of the 
bill, as a declaratory bill ; to the 
jncongroities, abfurdities, and defi- 
ciencies of the bill itfelf ; to much 
of the principle, and to all the dif- 
tinguilhing charaders of the fyftem 
which it is meant to declare, as well 
as to the perpetual operation which 
it gives to that fyftem, we think it 
incumbent upon us here folemnly, 
on the journals of parliament, to 
record our hearty diflent, for the fa- 
tiifaftlon cf our confciences, and for 
our julcification to our fellow-ciu- 
zens, and to pofterity. 

PORTLAMn, 

Carlisle, 



Devonshire, 

portchester, 

Derby, 

Sandwich, 

Cholmondeley, 

Powis, 

Cardiff, - 

Craven, 

Bedford, 

Lough BOROUGH, 

FiTZWiLLlAM, 

Scarborough, 
Buckingham shire. 
Diflentient for the firft reafoa 
only. 
Hay. 



Heads of the principal Ads of Par- 
liament paffed in the Tear 1 788. 

N * aft for charging an ad- 
ditional duty on fpirits ma- 
nufailured in Scotland, and import- 
ed into England. 

An aft for regulating the trade 
between the fubjefts of his majefly's 
colonies and plantations in North 
America, and in the Weft India 
iflands, and the countries belonging 
to the united ftates of America ; 
and between his majefty's faid fub- 
jects and the foreign iflands in the 
Weft Indies. 

f An aft for removing any doubt 
refpefting the power of the commif- 
fioners for the afi^airs of India, to 
direft, that the expence of raifing, 
tranfporting, and maintaining, fuch 
ti oops as may be judged neceflary for 
the fecurity of the Britifti territories 
and poueffions in the t.aft Indies, 
fhould be defrayed out of the re- 
venues arifing from the faid terri- 
tories and poft'cfiions ; and for li- 
miting the application of the faid 



* See Supplies, and Ways and Means, ante. 

f See Lords Protcit to the India Declaratory Bill, ante. 



revenue^. 



STATE PAPERS. 



[299 



revenues ia the manner therein 
mentioned. 

An zd (ot:!- reducing the duties' 
on the importation of certain goods, 
Avares, and merchandize, the growth, 
picduce, or manufadture of any of 
thi European dominions of the 
liases general of the United Pro- 
vinces, into this kingdom. 

An ad to enable the" Eaft India 
Coiipany to borrow a further fum 
of money upon bond. 

An aft to enable juflices of the 
peace to licenfe theatrical repre- 
fentations occafionally, under the 
rellridlions therein contained. 

An aft for appointing commif- 
fioners further to enquire into the 
lofTes of all fuch perfons who have 
fuftered in their properties, in con- 
fequence of the ceffion of the pro- 
vince of Eaft Florida to the king of 
Spain. 

An aft to repeal the duties and 
drawbacks of culloms and excife, 
payable on the importation and ex- 
portation of vvine (except wine the 
produce of the European dominion.; 
of the French king, Rheniih, Ger- 
many, and Hungary wine, Portu- 
gal and Madeira wine, and wine of 
the produce o.*^ Spain, cr of any of 
the dominions of the king of Spain) 
and for granting othtr duties and 
drawbacks in liea thereof ; to re- 
peal the duty of exciie upon fo- 
reign green glafs bottles imported, 
and for charging an additional duty 
ofcuftomsiu lieu thereof; for af- 
certaining the duty on carriages, 
the manufafture of the European 
dominions of the French king, im- 
ported direftly from thence; for 
obviating a doubt with refpeft to 
the duties on white woollen cicths 
exported ; and for referving to his 
piajefty the hereditary and other re- 
vennes of the crown ia Scotland, 



An aft to enable his majefty to 
make fuch regulations as may be 
necefiary to prevent the inconve- 
nience which might arife from the 
competition of his majelly's fubjefts, 
and thofe of the moft Chriftian king, 
in carrying on the filhery on the 
coafts of the ifland of Newfound- 
land. 

An aft for the better fecuring 
the rights of perfons qualified to 
vote at county eleftions. 

An aft for allowing the importa- 
tion of rum, or other fpirits, from 
his majefty's colonies cr plantations 
in the Weft Indies, into the pro- 
vince of Quebec, without payment 
of duty, under certain conditions 
and reftriftions. 

An aft for giving relief to fuch 
perfons as have fuffered in their 
rights and properties, during the 
late and unhappy diflenfions in Ame- 
rica, in confequence of their loyalty 
to his majelty, and attachment to 
the Bricilh government; and for 
making compenfations to fuch per- 
jons as have fuffered in their pro- 
perties, ir. confequence of the cef- 
fion of the province of Eaft Flori- 
da to the king of Spain. 

An aft for appointing commif- 
fioners further to enquire into the 
loffes and fervices of all fich per- 
fons who have fuffered in their 
rights, properties, and profelTions, 
during the late unhappy diftenfions 
in America, in confequence of their 
loyalty to his majefty, and attach- 
ment to the Britifti government. 

An aft for the better regulation 
of chimney-fweepers, and their ap- 
prentices. 

At: aft for tne farther regulation 
of the trials of controverted elec- 
tions, or returns of members to 
ferve in parliament. 

An aft for providing certain 
temporary 



50o] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



temporary regulations refpeding 
the tranlportation of the natives of 
Africa, in Britifh fhips, to the 
Weft indies, or elfewhere. 

Abjhaa of this Aa. 
It fiates. That it is expedient 
to prevent, as far as may be, in- 
conveniences attending the con- 
veying, in Bntifh fhips, the na- 
tives of Africa to the Weft In- 
dies, and other foreign parts ; 
it therefore enafts, that, after x.\\^ 
loth of June 1788, it fliall not be 
lawful for any mafter, or other per- 
Ibn taking the charge or command 
of any (hip or veffel whatever, be- 
longing in the whole or in part to 
any port in this kingdom, to have 
on board, at any one time, or to 
convey or tranfport the natives of 
Africa from the coafls thereof, 
to any ifland in the Weft Indies, 
belonging to his majefty, or to any 
other place in parts beyond fea, in 
any greater number than in the 
Tvroportions following ; (that is to 
fay) In every Ihip, where the fpace 
between the two decks ftail not be 
lefs than five feet in height, and 
where the cabin (hall be fitted for 
{be accommodation of the negroes. 



in the proportion of five perfons for 
three tons, if the burthen of the fhip 
does not exceed 160 tons; and of 
three perfons for two tons, if txe 
burthen of the fhip does exceed 
150 tons ; and in every fliip where 
the fpace between the two decks 
fliall be lefs than five feet, or where 
the cabin fhall not be fitted for the 
accommodation of the negroes, in 
the proportion of one perfon for 
every ton burthen of the fhip or 
vefTel in or on board which fuch 
natives fhall be fo conveyed, car- 
ried, brought, or tranfported as 
aforefaid ; which tonnage fhall be 
deemed and taken to be the ton- 
nage defcribed and fet forth in tlie 
refpedlive certificate of the regillry 
of each fhip or veffel, granted in 
purfuance of an aft made in the 
26th year of the- reign of his ma- 
jefty, intituled, ** An ad for the 
further increafe and encouragement 
of ftiipping and navigation," under 
the penalty of the fiarfeiture of 20I. 
for every native exceeding in num- 
ber the proportion diredled ; one 
moiety of which fhall be to the ufe 
of his majefty, and the other moiety 
to thofe who Jliall profecute for the 
fame. 



CHARACTERS. 



C 1 3 



CHARACTERS. 



//« erroneous Account of the late Bi- 
Jhop of LondoTiy taken from one of 
the Monthly Publications, having 
been inad-uertently inferted in the 
Annual Regijlerfori'j^j, lue ha've 
been favoured njoith the follov)ing 
Particulars, 'which, as they are re- 
ceived from the beji Information, 
may he depended on. 

A Jhort Account of the Life and Cha- 
ra3er o/^RobertLowth, D. D. late 
Bijhop o/" London. 

HIS Father was William Lowth, 
Fellow of St. John's college, 
Oxford, and Chaplain to Dr. Peter 
Mew, Bifhop of Winchefler, who 
had been Prefident of that College. 
Under his patronage he became 
Prebendary of the Cathedral Church 
of Winchefler, 1696, and Reftor 
of Buriton, in the county of South- 
ampton, 1699. He was a ftudious 
and learned man, and the author 
of Commentaries on the Prophets, Di' 
regions for the profitable Reading of 
the Hdy Scriptures, and fome other 
theological pieces *. 

By Margaret, daughter of Robert 
Pitt, of Blandford, in the county of 



Dorfet, Efq. he left two Sons, and 
three Daughters. The elder of the 
Sons is William Lowth, Prebendary 
of Winchefler, now living; and the 
other was Robert, late Bifhop of 
London. Margaret, theeldeftDaugh- 
ter, was married to John Sturges, 
M. A. Prebendary of Winchefter ; 
Mary, the fecond, died unmarried ; 
^d Martha, the third, is the relift 
of Robert Eden, D. D. Archdeacon 
of Winchefler, and Prebendary of 
the Cathedral. 

The Bilhop was born on the 27th 
of November, 17 10. He was edu- 
cated at Winchefler College, and 
from thence fucceeded to New Col- 
lege in Oxford, 1730. He was 
elefted ProfelTor of Poetry in that U- 
niverfity 1741, and re-eiecled 1743. 
To the patronage of Bifliop Hoadly 
he owed the^Reftory of Ovington, 
1744, aid afterwardsofEaft Wood- 
hay, 1753, both in the County of 
Southampton, having been appoint- 
ed by him Archdeacon of Winchef- 
ter, 1750. In 1754, the Univerfity 
of Oxford honored him with the 
degree of Doftor of Divinity, con- 
ferred by Diploma. In 1755 he 
went to Ireland, as firft Chaplain to 



* For a iTore particular account of Mr. William Lowth's Family, Writings, and 
Charafter, fee a ihort Life prefixed to the 6th edition of his DireSHtns, printed 
1788. 

Vol. XXX. B ' the 



1 ANNUALRE 

the late Duke of Devonfhire, then 
Marquis of Hartington, Lord Lieu- 
tenant. In confequence of this ap- 
pointment, he had the offer of the 
Bifhopric of Limeric, which he ex- 
changed with Dr. Leflie, Prebenda- 
ry of Durham, and Pvedlof of Sedge- 
field near that place, for thofe pre- 
ferments. In June, 1766, he was 
made Bifhop of St. David's ; and in 
the Oflober following he removed, 
by the King's command, to the See 
of Oxford, from whence he was 
tranflated to that of London, April 

'777. . 

He accompanied to Berlin, Mr. 
Legge, afterwards Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, who went to that court 
in a public charader, 1748 ; and 
with whom, from his earlieft years, 
he lived on terms _of the moft in- 
timate and uninterrupted friend- 
fliip. 

His Gonne6llon with the late Duke 
of Devonfhire arofe from his having 
attended, 1749, '^^^ Dake's Bro- 
thers, Lord George and Lord Frede- 
ric Cavendiili, on their travels, and 
cfpecially at Turin ; which place 
was their principal reiidence during 
their abfence from this country. 

He married, 1752, Mary, the 
daughter of Lawrence JackfoOj of 
Chrift-charch, in the county of 
Southampton, Efq. by whom he had 
two Sons, and five Daughters. Of 
thefe children, two only furvived 
him ; Robert, now Prebendary of 
St. Paul's, and Vicar of Halltead, 
Effex; and Martha. He had the 
misfortune to lofe, 1778, his eldefc 
Son, Thomas Henry*, Fellow of 
New College in Oxford; a young 
maa of the moil promifing expecta- 
tions, and dillinguilhied abilities. 



GlSTER, i78§. 

At length, after an ill flate of 
health, continued during fome years, 
and attended with the moft fevere 
fulFerings, all which he bore with 
the greateft refignation and forti- 
tude, he died at Fulham on the 
3d of November, 1787. 

In an account of his works, we 
may begin with his PreleSlions on the 
Hebreiu Poetry. To this work, the 
duties of his ProfelTorfhip gave oc- 
cafion ; and the choice of his fubjeft, 
which lay out of the beaten paths of 
criticifm, and which \Vas highly in- 
terelVing, not only in a litterary but 
a religious view, afforded ample 
fcope for the poetical, critical, and 
theological talents of the author. 
In thel'e Preleftions, the true fpirit 
and diilinguifhing charafter of the 
Poetry of the Old Tellament are 
more thorouglily entered into, and 
developed more perfedlly, than ever 
had been done before. Seleft parts 
of this Poetry are exprefTed in La- 
tin compofition, with the greatefl 
elegance and force ; the general 
crificifni which pervades the whole 
work, is fuch as might be expected 
from a writer of acknowledged poe- 
tical genius and litterary judghient; 
and the particular criticifm applied 
to thole paffages of the original He- 
brew, which he has occafion to in- 
troduce, in order either to exprefs 
the fenfe, or correft the words of it, 
is a pattern for that kind of Sacred 
Litterature : nor are the Theological 
fubjeQs which occur in the courfe 
of the work, and are necellarily 
connedled with it, treated with lefs 
ability. 

To the Preleftions is fubjoined, a 
Short Confutation of Bijbop Harems 
Syjian cf Hehrevj Metre j in which 



* Mr. T.H. Lowth, obtained one of the Prizes given annually by the Chancellor 
•f tlie Uaiveruty of Oxfo;d, i 77 3, and a^ain, 1776. 

he 



CHARACTERS. 



he Hiews It to be founded on falfe 
TCafbning, on 9. petitio principii, that 
would equally prove a different and 
contrary fyflem to be true. It is 
here mentioned chiefly for the pui*- 
• pofe of taking notice of what fol- 
lowed it ; namely, a Latin letter of 
the Rev. Dr. Edwards, of Cam- 
bridge, in vindication of the Harian 
metre, and a Larger Confutation of 
it addrefled in anfwer to that gen- 
tleman, 1766. This Larger Confti- 
iixtion, which from the iubjeft may 
be fuppofed dry and uninterefting 
to the generality of readers, is yet 
as a piece of reafoning, extremely 
curious ; for there never was a fal- 
lacy more accurately invelligated, 
or a fyltem more completely con- 
futed, than this of Bilhop Hare's ; 
who was perhaps not confcious of 
the fallacy himfelf. 

In 1758, was publifhed his Life 
of William of Wykeham, Bijhop of 
Winchejier, and Founder of the Col- 
leges, in which he had received his 
education. It is coUefted from au- 
thentic evidences, and thereby af- 
fords the moft certain information 
concerning the manners, and fome 
of the public tranfadlions of the 
period in which Wykeham lived ; 
as well as concerning matters of a 
more private and local kind, re- 
fpecling chiefly the two Societies of 
which he was the Founder. 

His Short IntrcduSion to Englijh 
Grammar, was firft publifhed in 
1762, and has lince gone through 
numerous editions. It was origi- 
nally defigned only for dom-cftic 
ufe ; but its utility in recommending 
a greater attention to grammatical 
form and accuracy in our language, 
than had hitherto been obferved. in 
it, and the many judicious remarks 
which occur there, together with 
the favourable reception it has met 



with, fully juftified its being ^Iveri 
to the public. 

About the year 1765, happened 
his concroi'erfy v.ith Dr. Warbur- 
ton, bilhop of G.oucelter, w! ich ac 
the time afforded much matter of 
conver(ation, and the memory of 
which is ftill recent. Jf we do noc 
now wifli to dwell on the particulars 
of this controv&rfy, it u becaufe 
violent litterary contention is aa 
evil, like other war, and though 
perhaps iometimes unavoidable, yet 
is always to be regictted ; and be- 
caufe the charafters 1 f learned, in- 
genious, and amiable men never 
appear to lefs advantage, than un- 
der the form, which that Hate of 
hoftillty obliges them to alfume. 

The laft work of hi: Ufe was the 
fTranJlation of Ifaiah ; a Work for 
which he Was eminently qualified^ 
by his critical knowledge of the 
original language, by his under- 
ftanding more perfeftly than any 
other writer the charafter and 
fpirit of its poetry, and by his 
general erudition, both litterary aild 
theological. In the Preliminary 
Differtation, the form and conftruc= 
tion of the poetical compofitions of 
the Old Teftament are examined 
more particularly and at large, than 
even in the Preleftions d-.emfelves ; 
and fuch principles of criticifm ar« 
eftablilhed, as muft be ihe founda- 
tion of all itaproved tranflations of 
the different, and efpecially of the 
poetical bocks of the Old Tefta~ 
ment. The tranflation of the pro- 
phecies of ah autlirr, who is aimoft 
always fublime or elegant, yet oftea 
obfcure notwithflanding all the aids iff 
of criticifm, was executed in a )nan-» 
ner adequate to the i'uperior quali-^. 
fications of the perfon who under- 
took it ; and marked out the way 
for other attempts of a like kind, at 

B 2 a time 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



a time when the hopes of an im- 
proved Verfion of all the Holy 
Scriptures was cheriflied by many, 
when Sacred Criticiira was cultivat- 
ed with ardor, and new fources of it 
were opened by the labors of the 
indefatigable and learned Kenni- 
cott. 

Several Occallonal Difcourfes, 
which the Bifhop was by his ftation 
at different times called upon to 
deliver, were of courfe publifhed, 
and are all worthy of the excellent 
author of them ; but there is one 
oa the Kingdom cf God, on the ex- 
tenfioo and progreffive improve- 
ment of Chriil's Religion, and on 
the means of promoting thefe by 
tlie advancement of religious know- 
ledge, by freedom of enquiry, by 
toleration, and mutual charity, 
which may be diiiinguifhed above 
the reft, as exhibiting a moil com- 
prehenfive view of the fucceffive 
ilates of the Chriftian Church, and 
containing the trueft principles of 
Chriftianity. 

From various poetical pieces, 
may be feledled as defer ving pecu- 
liar notice, the Choice of Herculesy 
from the fable of Prodicus, which 
was written very early in his life, 
and has fever al times appealed in 
print ; and a fplrited and manly 
Imitation of the 6 th Ode of Ho- 
race, Book the 3d. applied to the 
alarming fltu?-tion of this Country at 
the time of the Rebellion, 1745, and 
firft printed in the Mufeiim, a perio- 
dical publication. 

With thefe abilities, equally ap- 
plicable either to elegant littera- 



ture, or profeflional ftudies, Bifhop 
Lowth polT iTed a Mind, that felt its 
own ftrength, and decided on what- 
ever came before it with prompti- 
tude and firmnefs ; a mind, fitted 
for the high ftation in which he 
was placed. He had a Temper, 
which in private and domeftic life 
endeared him in the greateft degree 
to thofe who were moil nearly con- 
nected with him, and towards 
others produced an habitual com- 
placency and agreeablenefs of man- 
ners ; but which was fufceptible of 
confiderable warmth, when it was 
roufed by unjuft provocation, or 
improper conduft. To thefe abili- 
ties aud difpofitions were added, 
qualities Hill more valuable, the 
virtues of a good Man, and of a 
fmcere Chriftian. 



Chara£ier of the Emperor Juftinlan ; 
from Vol. 4, of the Hijiory of the 
Decline and Fall of the Roman 
Empire, by Edward Gibbon, £/^. 

'T would be difEcult to trace the 
charader of a prince who is not 
the moft confpicuous objeft of his 
own times : but the confeffions of an 
enemy may be received as the fafeft 
evidence of his virtues. The re- 
femblance of Juftinian to the buft 
of Domitian, is malicioufly urged *; 
with the acknowledgment, however, 
of a well-proportioned figure, a rud- 
dy complexion, and a pleafing coun- 
tenance. The emperor was eafyof 
accefs, patient of hearing, courteous 



* The raior of Domitian is ftlgmatlfed, quaintly enough, by the per. of Taci- 
tiis (in Vit, Agricol. c. 4.5.); and lias been hkewile noticed by the younger Pliny 
(Panegyr, c. 43.) and Suetonius (in Domitian, c. 18. and Cafaubon ad locum.) 
Procopius (Anecdot. c, 8.) fooliftily believes that only o»f? buft of Domitian had 
etched the 6th century. 

"X and 



CHARACTERS. 



and affable in difcourfe, and a ma- 
iler of the angry paffions, which rage 
with fuch deftrudive violence in the 
breaftofa defpot. Procopius praifes 
his temper to reproach him with 
calm and deliberate cruelty ; but in 
the confpiracies which attacked his 
authority and perfon, a more candid 
judge will approve the jultice, or 
admire the clemency of Juftinian. 
He excelled in the private virtues 
of chaftity and temperance : but the 
impartial love of beauty would have 
been Icfs mifchievous, than his con- 
jugal tendernefs for Theodora ; and 
his abftemious diet was regulated, 
not by the pruJence of a philofo- 
pher, but the fupcrftition of a monk. 
His repails were fhort and frugal : 
on folemn falis, he contented him- 
felf with water and vegetables ; and 
fuch was his flrength, as well as fer- 
vour, that he frequently pafled two 
days and as many nights, without 
tailing any food. The meafure of 
his fleep was not lefs rigorous : af- 
ter the repofe of a fingle hour, the 
body was awakened by the foul, 
and, to the aftonifhment of his 
chamberlains, Jullinian walked or 
ftudied till the morning light. Such 
relllefs application prolonged his 
time for the acquifition of know- 
ledge* and the difpaichof bufmefs; 
and he might ferioufty deferve the 
reproach of confounding, by minute 
and prepollerous diligence, the ge- 
neral order of his admlniftration. 
The emperor profefTed himfelf a 
mufician and archited, a poet and 
philofopher, a lawyer and theolo- 
gian ; and if he failed in the enter- 
prife of reconciling the Chriftian 



fefts, the review of the Roman Ja- 
rifprudence is a noble monuraevit of 
his fpirit and indullry. In the go- 
vernment of the empire, he was lefs 
wife or lefs fuccefsful : the age was 
unfortunate ; the people was op- 
prefled and difcontented ; Theo- 
dora a^ufed her power; a fucceffion 
of bad minifters difgraced his judg- 
ment; and Juftinian was neither 
beloved in his life, nor regretted at 
his death. The love of fame was 
deeply implanted in his breaft, bat 
he condefcended to the poor ambi- 
tion of titles, honours, and contem- 
porary praife; and while he labonr- 
ed to fix the admiration, he forfeit- 
ed the efteem and affeftion of the 
Tl.omans. The defign of the Afri- 
can and Italian wars was boldly 
Conceived and executed : and his 
penetration dfcovered the talents 
of Belifarius in the camp, of Narfes 
in the palace. But the name of the 
emperor is eclipfed by the names of 
his vidorious generals ; and Belifa- 
rius ftill lives, to upbraid the envy 
and ingratitude of his fovereign. 
The partial favour of mankind ap- 
plauds the genius of a conqueror, 
who leads and direfts hi.sfubjeftsin 
the exercife of arms. The charac- 
ters of Philip the Second and of 
Juftinian are diftinguiftied by the 
cold ambition which delights in war, 
and declines the dangers of the field. 
Yet a coloffal ftatue of bronze re- 
prefented the emperor on horfeback, 
preparing to march againft the Per- 
fians in the habit and armour of 
Achilles. In the great fquare be- 
fore the church of St. Sophia, this 
monument was raifed on a brafs co- 



* The ftudies and fcience of Juftinian are attefted by the confeflion (Anecdot. 
c. 8. 13.), ftill more than by the prailts (Gothic, l.iii. c.31. deEdific. l.i. Proem, 
c. 7.), of Piocopins. Conliilt the copious index of Alemannus, ahd read the life 
of Juftinian by Ludewig (p. 135 — 142,) 

B 3 . luran 



ANNUAL T^EGISTEK, 1788. 



lumn an4 a ftcne pedellal of feven 
fleps: and the pillar of Theodofius, 
which weighed feven thcafand loijr 
hundred pounds pf filver, was re- 
rncved from the fame place by the 
avarice and vanity of Juftinian. Fu- 
ture princes were mors jail or in- 
dulgent to his memory ; the elder 
Andronicus, in the beginning of the 
fourteenth century, repaired and 
beautified his equeftrian ilatue : 
fince the fall of the empire, it has 
been meltrd into cannon by the 
vidlorious Turks*." 



QharaSler of Mahomet; from the 
fame. 

Tthe cpnclufionof the life of 
_ _ Mahomet, it may perhaps be 
expefted, that I fhould balance his 
faults and virtues, that 1 fiiojld de- 
cide whether the title of enthufiaft 
or inipoftor more prqperly belongs 
to that extraordinary man. Had I 
been irtimately convcrfant with the 
fon ■oi Abdallah, the tafk would ftiil 
be difHcult, and the fuccefs uncer- 
tain : at the diftance of twelve cen- 
turies, I darkly contemplate his 
Ihade through a cloud of religious 
jncenfe ; and could I truly delineate 
the portrait of an hour, the fleeting 
leferablance would not equally ap- 



ply to the folitary of mount Hera, to 
the preacher of Mecca, and to the 
conqueror of Arabia. The author 
of a mighty revolution appears to 
have been endowed with a pious and 
contemplative difpofition : fo foon as 
marriage had raifed him above the 
preffuj-e of \vant, he avoided the 
paths of ambition and avarice ; an4 
till the age of forty, he lived with 
innocence, and would have died 
without a name. The unity of God 
is an idea molt congenial to nature 
and reafon ; and a {light converfa- 
tion with the Jews and Chriftians 
v/ uld teach him to defpife and de- 
teft the idolatry of Mecca. Jt was 
the duty of a man and a citizen to 
impart the dodtrine of falvation, to 
refpue his country from the domi- 
nion of fm and error. The energy 
of a mind incelTantly bent on the 
fame objed, would convert a gene- 
ral obligation into a particular call ; 
the warm fuggeitions of the under- 
flandlng or th^r fancy, would be felt 
as the infpirations of heaven ; the 
labour of thought would expire in 
rapture and vifion ; and the inward 
fenfation, th^ invinble monitor, 
would be defcribed with the form 
and attributes of an angel of God f . 
From enthufiafm to impofture, the 
ftep is perilous and flippery : the 
dasmon of Socrates J affords a me- 
morable 



* See In theC.P. Chriftiana ofDucange (1. i. c. 24. N° i.), a chain of origi- 
nal teltimjnies, from Procopius in the 6th, tq Gylliiis In the i6th, century. 

f The Cliriitians, ralhly enough, have alTigned to Mahomet a tame pigeon, that 
feemed to clefcend From heaven andwhifper in his ear. As this pretended miracle 
is urged by Grotius (de Veiitate Religionis Chriftiaiine,) his Arabic tranflator, the 
learned Pocock, inquired of him the names of his authors j and Grotius confeffed, 
that it is unknown to the Mahometans themfelves. Lett it (hould provoke their 
indignation and laughter, the pious lie is fupprefled in the Arabic verfion ; but it 
has maintained an edifying place in the numerous editions of the Latin text (Po- 
cock, Specimen Hift. Arabum, p. 186, 187. Reland, de Religion. Ivloham. 1. ii. 
c. 39. p. 259—262.) 

vura oM (Ji.iXK(u TrfciT-tity, it(<n^iitii ot anon (Plato, in Apolog. Socrat. c. 19. p. T21 



CHARACTERS. 



morable Inftance, how a wife man 
may deceive himfelf, how a good 
man may deceive others, how the 
confcience may flumber in a mixed 
and middle ftate between felf-illu- 
lion and voluntary fraud. Charity 
may believe that the original mo- 
tives of Mahomet were thofe of pure 
and genuine benevolence ; but a 
human miffionary is incapable of 
cherilbing the obftinate unbelievers 
who rejeit his claims, defpife his ar- 
guments, and perfecute his life; he 
might forgive his perfonal adverfa- 
ries, he may lawfully hale the ene- 
mies of God ; the ftern paffions of 
pride and revenge were kindled in 
the bofom of Mahomet, and he figh- 
ed, like the prophet of Nineveh, for 
the deftruftion of the rebels whom 
he had condemned. The injuftice 
of Mecca, and the choice of Me- 
dina, transformed the citizen into a 
prince, the humble prea'cher into the 
leader of armies ; but his fvvord was 
confecrated by the example of the 
faints ; and the fame God who af- 
flifts a finful world with peiHlence 
and earthquakes, might infpire for 
their converfion or challifement the 
valour of his fervants. In the ex- 
ercife of political government, he 
was compelled to abate of the Hern 
rigour of fanaticifm, to comply in 
fome meafure with the prejudices 
and paffions of his followers, and to 
employ even the vices of mankind 
as the inftruments of their falvation. 
The ufe of fraud and perfidy, of 



cruelty and injuftice, were often 
fubfervient to the propagation of 
the faith ; and Mahomet command- 
ed or approved the affaffination of 
the Jews and idolaters who had 
ef(^aped from the field of battle. 
By the repetition of fuch ads, the 
charafler of Mahomet muft have 
been gradually ftained ; and the in- 
fluence of fuch pernicious habits 
would be poorly compenfated by the 
praftice of the perfonal and focial 
virtues which are necelTary to main- 
tain the reputation of a prophet 
among his fedaries and friends. Of 
his laft years, ambition wg.s the rul- 
ing paflion ; and a politician will 
fufped, that he fecretly fmiled (the 
vi(f\orious impoftor !) at the enthu- 
fiafrn of his youth and the credulity 
of his profelytes*. A philafopher 
will obferve, that their credulity and 
his fuccefs, would tend more ftrong- 
ly to fortify the aflurance of hia di- 
vine miffion, that his intereft and re- 
ligion were infeparably conneded, 
and that his conl'cience would be 
foothed by the perfuaflon, that he 
alne was abfolved by the Deity 
from the obligation of pofitive and 
"moral laws, ii he retained any 
veftige of his native innocence, the 
fins of Mahomet may be allowed as 
an evidence of his fincerity. In the 
fupport of truth, the arts of fraud 
and fidlion may be deemed lefs cri- 
minal; and he would have ftarted ac 
the foulnefs of the means, had he not 
been fatislied of the importance and 



J 22. edit. Fifcher.) The familiar examples, which Socrates urges in his Dialogue 
with Theages (Platon. Opera, torn. i. p. 128, 129. edit. Hen. Stephan,) are be- 
yond the reach of human forefight ; and the divine infpiraticn (the Aai/woviov) of the 
pUilofopher, is clearly taught in the Memorabilia of Xenophon. The ideas of the 
moll rational Platonills are exprelfed by Cicero.(de Divinat. i. 54.) and in the 14th 
and 15th Dillertatidns of Maxiir.us of Tyre (p. 153 — 172. edit. Davis.) 

* In fome pafiage of his voluminous writings, Voltaire compares the prophet, in 
his old age, to a fakir : " cjui detache la chaine dc fon cou pour en doiinjr iui, Ic^ 
i^ oreilies a fcs confreres." 

B^ /i Jullice 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1788. 



jufticeof the end. Even in a con- 
queror or a prieft, 1 can furprife a 
word or adlion of unaiteded huma- 
nity ; and the decree of Mahomet, 
that, in the fale of captives, the 
mothers fhould never be feparated 
from their children, may fufpend 
or moderate the cenfure of the hif^ 
torian *. 

The good fenfe of Mahomet f de- 
fpifed the pomp of royalty : the 
apoftle of God fubrnitted to the me- 
nial offices of the family : he kind- 
led the fire, fvvept the floor, milked 
the ewes, and mended with his own 
hands his flioes and his woollen gar- 
ment, Difdaining the penance and 
merit of an hermit, he obferved 
without effort or vanity, the abfte- 
mious diet of an Arab and a foldier. 
On folemn occaHons he feafted his 
companions with ruliic and hofpi- 
table plenty ; but in his domelHc 
life, many weeks would elapfe with- 
out a fire being kindled on the 
hearth of the prophet. The inter- 
diflion of wine was conrfimed by 
his example ; his hunger was ap- 
peafed with a fparing allowance of 
barley-bread; he delighted in the 
taiie of milk and honey ; but his 
ordinary food confifted of dates and 
water. Perfumes and women were 



the two fenfual enjoyments which 
his nature required and his religion 
did not forbid : and Mahomet af- 
firmed, that the fervour of his de- 
votion was increafed by thefe inno- 
cent pleafures. The heat of the 
climate inflames the blood of the 
Arabs ; and their libidinous com- 
plexion has been noticed by the wri- 
ters of antiquity J. Their inconti- 
nence was regulated by the civil 
and religious laws of the Koran : 
their inceftuous alliances were blam- 
ed, the boundlefs licenfe of poly- 
gamy was reduced to four legiti- 
mate wives or concubines ; their 
rights both of bed and of dowry 
were equitably determined; the 
freedom of divorce was difcourag- 
ed, adultery was condemned as a 
capital offence, and fornication, in 
either fex, was punifhed with an 
hundred ftripes §. Such were the 
calm and rational precepts of the 
legislator : but in his private con- 
duCT;, Mahomet indulged the appe- 
tites of a man, and abufed the claims 
of a prophet. A fpecial revelation 
difpenfed him from the laws which 
he had impofed on his nation ; the 
female fex, without referve, was 
abandoned to his defires ; and this 
fingular prerogative excited the 



* Gagnier relates, with the fame impartial pen, this humane law of the pro- 
phet, and the murders of Caab, and Sophian, which he prompted and approved 
(Vie de Mahomet, tom. ii. p. 69. 97. 208.) 

•f For the domeftic life of Mahomet, confult Gagnier, and the con efponding 
chapters of Abulieda; for his diet (tom. iii. p. 185 — 288.); his childrea (p. 189. 
289.); his wives (p. 290 — 303.); his marriage v/ith Zeineb (tom. ii. p. 152— 
j6o.); his amour with Mary (p. 303 — 309.); the falfe accufation of Ayefha (p. 
186 — 199 ) The moft ori