Skip to main content

Full text of "The annual register of world events"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 

Uigniaub, Google 

Uigniaub, Google 

Uigniaub, Google 

Uigniaub, Google 

Uigniaub, Google 

Uigniaub, Google 

Uigniaub, Google 

Uigniaub, Google 





H I S T O R Y, 

P O L I T I C S, 


For the YEAR I8O2. 


npnto iir *■ *iue« mo. 0, cuANciiBi-LANti 

POK -v. 0T8IDOZ AKD iom; clakks akd (on; t. kubit; b. cboibt; 

J. kkll; b. fauldbb; ctrrHZLL xho habtih; ooilvt 

aitdiom; b.lba; j.kukk; i.walkib; t^CKiNGieir, 

allbn, and Co. b. iBi>FiBri vbrnob and 

HOOD; J. AiriBNB; and wtmnx 



t ■■ -■■ 

(X^^ 3A~d'^t . 

Uigniaub, Google 


We closed out labours for the last year, ^th. die an^ 
Qouncement of peace, having been once more esta- 
bliahed throughout those \n^-qiread regions, whose fields 
had been stained vith twdve years de&obting war&re: 
whose andoit limits had given way to the innorating spirk 
of revoluti<ui : and whose mhabitants hod been, during that 
period, soccesavely oqxxed, either to the insolent ravages 
of the invader, or the no less exhausting friendshqi of the 
protecting power. At that period, peace, in the abstract, 
seemed so great a blessing to the natioi)^ of the earth, that 
we were little disposed to damp die enthusiastic joy, with 
which it was received by all ranks of people in this 
country i by too curiously canvassing its terms, en- by these 
a 2 £»e> 

Uigniaub, Google 

[ !v ] 

forebodings of evil, which our political experience might 
have entitled us with prophetic solemnity, under all the 
TBWWHBHHBSB ■(WBBjHl^Tfj'TO "SMlHum "mf^ffl" Or Hie Dil- 
tlsh nation. Sharers in the general joy, we perhaps equally 
panicipated in the delusion ; nor could we conceive, but 
that if tranquillity was so necessary to Great Britain, whose 
gbrious'careor,>bad) ^uring Jirr kte avdiyms struggle, been 
marked with 26fl'st^t victory and conquest ; that it was 
not infinitely more so to her opponent, who had not, 
at its termination, to boast' of a single acquisition wrested 
frotti us during the whole period ; and who bad placed on 
the throne of her pnstine moiiarchs, a nameless military 
adventurer, to the establishment of whose power and au* 
thority, it seemed absolutely essential. 

.SabW 'btvffnr, v&& the \^ rdrioTed ^eeiA our ^jA ; 
-Ite^y^hafithe <prelinadariN' txboine the bb^.of pufadic 
•JbipftBgmiant ufaes; tlie il|M|jiJtuus. predpide aa vbidi life 
>gwM fltuxd^ iwcrimc bn(t too wppixmt. W« hastebdk tb 
CQVVect barsnm trcors, an^ (bme Into whidi we nagbt kime 
%wbnrtaK^iad b« rcadei^; ire deroted aa early poctioa 
vi te yiBMat TolBiBE'to ik^ caaadeatacay and. We.en* 
iteanviredrto point but tf^ mideqaacy, to render p6nn» 
RMit aiid secure, tfaac {j^accj, wbich derived its only vahie 
ft'am Vk ptbbab$ty of both tboce t^^itiK paving been 
setured'totr, by the immose and otfaerwise dl^iTDpor- 
donari sacrifices we ^ mdtle. 


Uigniaub, Google 

C V ] 

' As we advanaed, howwtr/ in our progress, all further 
Ofluble was s^red to iw. ■ The restless ambition of the 
onuular toTerdgO' of the French empire, became suifi- 
dently obvious Provmces aiid temtories added to his ' 
ddreadf overgnwn daminion ;; the assumption pf the ali* 
solute so^rdgnty of a great' portion of Europe ; treaties' 
obtained by farce or frand, injurioin to the British into^t^, 
insolently piionuiigated, -evai before the definitire treaty of. 
peace vras stgneif ; Idt no-room m the mind even of the 
most sanguine supporters of 'rite peace, to doubtasto its 

The forcible impo^tioa of forms of govemment^upon 
plates whose independence was formally protected at ac- 
knowledged by every power ' of Europe. The arbitrary 
interference in regulating the mtemal concent of that 
▼enoable fabric, the Germanic empire; and the super- 
cilious cdotempt with which Great Britain was, on every 
occaskai, treated by the Corsican usurper ; sufficiently - 
evinced his hostile views, and left us ^an easy task to 
convioce our readers of the small hope there remained, of 
euT exijoymg tJiose blessings which we had fondly, but 
too precqutMely, flattered them with in our preceding 

Under very opposite impressions has the present been 
conducted. In our domestic history we have gone into 
tei^th, on the great questicms of the preliminary and de- 
finitive treaties i and e&deflvoiired to point out tbdr de- 
b fccts 

uiBi-iiMb, Google 

fccts and'palpable tendency to the reaevd of war. We 
have given, in the. Parliamentary Debate^ the reaBoe* 
ing9 at con^derable length, of bur most eaKghtetwd' 
Rtatesmeo oii those momentous subjects. We here tracel- 
whh an id^aitial, and, we hope, unenihg hand^ the ebadca 
(d difierence yrfaich have' arisen, between tlu»e -g^ceat UoA*-. 
ing cbaiacters who hare,' since the commencement o& 
their pub]u: career, acted together; but vbo have, tulder* 
ih6se extraordinary and nnprecedeiitefl circumfitanotlifF 
wMifc fonri Ale subject matter of the histcw of Aepfeaent- 
year, tak<:-. ■.:p v,;ii,:y .!!!l,.rii-;y lin^s of conduct ; »d^ 
who have given new appellations and energies; to poUdcal 
cttmMiiation. Above all, we have endeavoured' to ^int'" 
r-:t the danger which must aiise to the inter^ts, nay,* 
:lj,i.' very- rafetence of the British empirt, .i^orr the' un-" 
checked and uiicOrtroulcd spirit ffF aggrai;'discin'nt~^3'- 
amhitjon in tfie present ruler of TrSmce ; and "the irtrcr' 
iinpopsibility there exists of our niaintaining tfi/ iisasf 
rtlsMons of peace and amity, with fiis Overweed&lg'antf' 
restless insolence* "" ' - . - -' --■- 

On the subject of the Fr^pch expeditbn tb St. Do-t 
nyngo ; qn the affairs qf Switaedand ; and on Ihat of the 
crimplicated system of the German indemnities, we trust 
we shall have been found to have manif^ted^np inconsi- 
derable research And labour. 

To'Irdand Our attention has been particiriaHy-SrtcteiJ, 

That counhy rUirg every day-in^Iiticttl in»pMtaiic«> ihe 

1 settle- 

MCtawM; di yi^^s^ndamavas iSain .vas tbe oatouibl* 
cMK^-of «^ lo6s.tfr Ae Britisb anptre of the mdoa of di9 
gi9M^ ^id most tmllia^t assembli^e of taknts, she iuu£ 
ner wun^fsedf uniud in one aidQuaistnit&aii ; required 
moK duQ ordiDary. attention. To attempt to trace the 
csoks <^- her present discontoits to Utdr tme 90L#ee» 
ml point out the . moet f robabt^.steuis -to remedy them*' 
we houpe we have exhibited in oyr chapter -on that 
■Igect j which atTleH£.,mU have ih&. merit (if no other 
OB be found) of novelty to lecommiead it. . . 

Ov cor<HBal eEtablishmaus, beth ia the East ahiiWest 
In^es, claimed a pardcutar share of our' attention, and 
vhicb> to the utmost of our ability and estent of our -io- 
fbnnAKMi, w« have b«^taved upon those important sutH 
jccts; nor will there, generally speaking, b^ found any 
Batter irtiich our " History of Europe" usually embraces, 
vhicfa we bavc not brought before our readers in their 
piDgrcsare and natural order, and with as much minute- 
ness as consisted with the nature of the work. 

Ia our selections, we have been unusually attentive to 
what we conceived would be the taste and wish of our 
leaUers. Our * Chronicle" we havfe endeavoured to make 
more than usually inter^-Sting by the extent and variety of 
matter. In our extiacts from the best works of the 
year, we have been particularly anxious to dwelt on those 
wiueh relate to Egypt, that very extraordinary country, 
which has- been, from the remotest antiquity, die subject 


Uigniaub, Google 

C 'Si ] 

ef research and ioqmrj, and which on a' late memoraUe 
eccaaon, was the theatre ^ the gallant eitpldits of our 
brare countrymen, and that of the humiliation and total 
discomfiture of our implacable en£my. 

la our Miscellaneous and Poetical Articles^ si&me oiU, 
fprai unpunished [ueces, of no ordinary, shar^ of^meijts. 

We now dismiss our Tolume to the perusal and judg- 
ment of our kind, we hope partial, friends, the public. 
That public whom we have feidifully served for 'f^iutiOnd 
forty years; whose interests we have carefully gu^rdety; 
and whose approbation and patnmage has be^ ^le, con->- 
ftwt object of our unceaaog and unvearipd solicitude. - 


UigniMb, Google 


For the YEAR I802. 





C H A p. I. 

iiTeeAig of the Imperial Parliamenl^-^meeta at an rarlier Period ikon 
■cuW. — Min Mi^tslif's Spfechjrom the Throne, aRaomicii^ ihe jfJ/ual- 
nKKf, by Cotwtntion, of ihe Differences with the Northern Powtrs of 
Europe — and of the Preliminaries of Peace being signed with France, 
tsfc. — Addresse'i ofThoMkimovedin the Lords OMd Comrtumt<—iiebaies. 
—•Adiirets tarried in both Houses, 

'T*HE signature of the prelimi- maintained its Integrity and its ho- 

-A. nary aiticles of peace, which nour, yet it had been deemed m 

took iilaceonthe IsldayofCktiiber, imposiible to rescue the other states 

tft London, wac am event of such of Enrope from the grasp of France, 

importance, that his majesty con- that peace was the universal wi<^ 

Vencd the parliament at an earlier of the nation. The insulence of 

ptnod than the session has been several of the successive govem- 

for many yeare accustomed to com- ments of France, their poverqr 

mence. Althoi^h the British con- even, which from not possessing 

ttitution had been preserved, and any thing ' to lose, naturally ex- 

this country (atone), of all the cited them to try desperate mra- 

powers engaged witb fiaace, had sures for bettering their situation) 

yeL. XLIV. B all 


all inclined the people of tliis coun- He ncit iufonned Uiem that prefi- 
try to believe Uiat peace was still niinaries of peace had been signed 
distant, M-lien suddenly and wiex- between liini mid tJie French re- 
pectedly, the signature of the pre- public, in which he trusted that 
liminaiies was announced, and very this important arrangement would 
shortly after lii* majesty's iiroila- be found to bt^ conducive to the 
malion appeared, appointing^ the substantial interests of this country, 
parliament to assemble on the 2<>i!^ and honourable to the British cha- 
rf October, for tb« disi>atch of ractcr. He also expressed his gr*- 
u-eigkly and important iusim-is. This titude to Divine Pro^■itleucc for tlie 
weighty and important business was bounty afibrdcd to his ])cople in the 
immediately known to be, tlie orti- abundant produce of the last har- 
cial communication to the great vest, and lii5 acTinowledgments to 
council of the nation, of the sign a- tlicdistiiisui.-liKd valoorandeminent 
turc of the preliminaries of the seri-iecs of his forces both by sea 
peace. The mass of the nation, and laud, the unprecedented exer- 
at first, expressed the most entliusi- tionsof the militia and fencibles, and 
astic joy at hearing of the reesta- the zeal ajid perseverance of the 
blishment of peace, without can- j'comanry and voluuteer cotps ; and 
massing the terms of it, or const- was persuaded that parliament would 
dering whether it was such a join witli him in reflecting with 
peace as tliis country had a right i>eculiar satisfaction on t!ie naval 
to ejcpect ; but when tlic parliament and nwlUarj' operations of the last 
was about to assemble, tlitt allea- campaign, and on the sucGCssfnl 
tion of every one was turned to the and glorions issue of the expediiioti 
opinions which should be delivered fo Egypt, whicli had been marked 
tliete, by those men, wliose supe- throughout by achievements, tend- 
rior abilities and opportunities of ing in tlicir consequences and by 
forming a correct judgment en- their example to produce lasting 
abled ijiem to throw tlie greatest advantages and honour to this coun- 
posaible light upon the subject. iry. He concluded by expre»sing 
Oif the 29th of October, h's ma- his most fervent prajcr, "that his 
jesty opened the sessions, by a people nii\;!it experience the re- 
speech from the throne : h« an- ward they had so much merited,, 
iiounced to his parliament that the in a full enjctyment of the blessings 
dilFerences with the Northern Pow- of peace, in a progressive increase 
ers had been adjusted by a conven- of tht-ir commerce, credit and re- 
tion with the emperor of Russia, sources, and above nil, in die un- 
to which the kings of Denmark disturbed jjossession of their rcli- 
and Sweden had expressed their gion, laws and Uberties, and in the 
readiness to accede. He stated, safeguard and protection of that 
that, in tliis convention, tlie essen- constitution, which it had been tba 
tial rights for which this country great object of all their efforts to 
contended, were secured, and pro- preserve, and whidi it was their 
vision made that the exercise of most sacit-d duty to transmit un- 
tlicni should be attended with as impairni to ttieir descendants." An^ 
little molestation as possible, to the address of thanks to his majcs^, 
fi:bJc(.Ls of the coutractir^ l)uuies. for liis most gradous speech^ wag- 


* LH.-reM,Cl")0^lc 


cored, iu the Huusb of Lords, armies triumpli ant. It was a grani 

by and maLjuificeiii iriumpii for Erig* 

LotJ Bf.lton, who said he slioiUd to make a peace, wlien licr 

cot filler into i'.r-.)- tlcJail of the mvies and armies w.:re every where 

preiiiniaaties, as i!ie prpcrs were conqiierora fKicn tin- Irftjen seas of 

li'A tiH.i b.-i'.ire liie h.jiiit- ; but he the North to llie piliar.i of Her- 

ejdd not avoid jiuiiitiii^ '.L.^ir lord- culci; nnd ftom Afiiot to tlie re- 

ihips aili'iifi'm 111 the scnfiiii' nis of iilotest slmres of Asia and America, 

pJleraal .-)if.-t-(iu:i exprcsicj by his Wiicii ihe iii:-;vu[iii!eii achieve- 

ftiijeitv. ill aDiiiiunciiij' uic ;dj'i't- iiienti of ihat kiuj of lieroe*, who 

Dient cf tlic d-ficreni'^s wiii. liic Ii:ul rescui^d K^ypt from its in-* 

Norihrrii Pnwer-;, and tlie ^ -iriing ViiJer-;, were m;idc only to restoi'e 

of Ihc prt:li:ii.i:.inei. As lor piMce it lo its rri'jtliil owner, aiid the 

itself, it h:iJ been so stmiisl)' (Vlt iriiim]>!is of our armies were only 

tu be desirable, tiii^t men did not iiLCcssary to ^)iint of model's- 

allow tliem5difs time to doulit of tio", which dictalcd our appe;d tu 

iii being advaiitajt'ous, bin i;:iie .triiis. His lordship, after paying 

free aad unbounded iiidu!gt-ix i^ £o ihe highe-.c trihotc of praise lo 

thdr joy: the leading nrtidcs of iii;r conimaiwiers in K^ypt, obscrred, 

die peace vrciv uiii»c:s;i]ly ktiowiT thai when the peace was made it 

and 2pp«»ed of, but no circom- w;is evident tiiut tht integrity, of' 

■tance attending it appeared to him Europe could not be preserved ; 

more worthy of coniideiaiion than had it been pn'siliJc to preservcit, 

flic fitness of tho time at whith his rt would have l>i.i.'n effected by the - 

majesty's ministeri h::J coneiiilcd power of Gieat Britain, 
tfie preliminaries of ti.e peace. They 
Lad not dune it at a linic when a 
lieticiciicy of lUpplieaw.H felt ; Xc, 
he Maw with pride and satisfaction 

that miniitcrs had- cho.sen a .time His lordship concltided by moving 
fcr making peace when our re- an address which, as usual, was an 
•ourtes were iti full vigo\ir, and echo of the speech, 
v'hm the natieti had displnyi-d its Lord Lifford seconded the address, 
a:icient character, by the maidy and compared tlic situation in which 
5Md determined [wsture of defence the countr>' then stood, with that 
into whioh it had voluntarily put aSarniiiig situation in which it was 
iiiclf when threatened by invasion, at the time parliament was con- 
He admired aliO the litiiei.i of the vened in the preceding year: when 
fime for concluding peace, because it llic war assumed a new terror tromf 
was not a( a tin)o-wlien we had any the nienacrtl imerlercnce of (he 
ttii^ to fear for our security, when Northern Powers ; while we had 
oiir arms liadbeeiV unsuccessful, oiir thi' gigantic force of France, to con* 
Mrengih cihau.lcd, or our spirits tend with nearer home, and the 
broken. On the contrari', tlie fare of Egypt still hung in sus- 
peace was concluded at the mo- pense. Sucli was then our situ** 
tnent the most auspicious to ihe tion with respect to foreign powers. 
Briti-.h characier, when our re- Our domestic situation was still, 
lources . were unimpaired, aad our more melancholy : the sttvereiga 
B2 wi» 


W3fl ailiicted by a B(!vere inditpo- tones never surpassed in tbe annals 

lUion, our admini^tralion divided of ttiis country, and secured by 

among themselves, government for moderation ; a plentiful harvest dis' 

a time inefficient, and the people pelling fverj- fear of (amine ; and 

threatened with the horrors of an an event no less glorious than the 

immedbte famine, and the country peace niih Fnince, no less advan- 

also menaced with invasion, and tageous to the iiiti-icsts of this 

this invasion calmlatiii^ as means couiitr}', the arrangement of the 

of success on the dislojallj' of nuiii- disputes wiih the Northern Poivers. 

bers of bis majesty's subjects. At After expatiating at considerable 

present all tliat alarm had disap- length on those topics, bis lordship 

peared, and «c had tlie pleasure to concluded, by moving an address 

behold our beloved sovereign in die similar to that which was proposed 

fill! enjoyment of tiis health, cxcr- in the other house. 

cising tlie best and nui^t amiable Cnlonel\Vooilhouse seconded this 

of his privileges, announcing the address. 

return of peace, and all its bless- Mr, Fox then rose to express his 
ings, to the people. Tlie blessing most sincere and curdial conrur- 
of Uod had dissijiated, by tlie la^t reucc in the address, and bis ap- 
abinidaiit hjrvcsi, all danger of probation of the peace which liaJ 
famine; and the nation, after a been at length obtained. This was 
lon^ and glorious struggle, might an event on which he could not 
prepare to taste the blessings of suppress his joy and exultation : an 
peace. event in which tlie people of Eng- 
ine duke of Bedford, in a short land had tlie greatest cause to rc- 
speech, expressed his concurrence joice and extdt. At present he 
with the address. He, however, should not trespass further upon 
differed from the noble mover in the attention of the house, than to 
one sentiment ; he could not agree oflcr this short but sincere expres- 
tliat this was precisely the fittest sion of his sentiment on the event, 
time to make peace, he thought it and to declare his assent to the 
could have been more filly made at address. 

a more early period. Mr. Pitt rose also to express his 

Tlie address was then agreed to, satisfaction on the event which had 

utniine dissmttente. been announced in his majesty's 

In the Commons, the same day, speech g for llie present, he should 

the address was moved by forbear any obser\-atious upon the 

' • - ■ ■ ' ■ ■ '■ - of tl > ■ ■ 

Lord Lovain, who hoped, that subject of tlie prelin 

as die event which his majesty's when he came to express his mo- 

spcech had announced had been lives for rejoicing in the attainment 

approved of by the great majority of peace, possibly they would be 

of di« nation, so the address which found ' very different from tliose of 

he should have tlic honour of pro- the right honourable gentleman 

posing, would be generally, if not (Mr. Fox) who spoke last. What- 

universally, approved of in tliat ever opinion he might entertain as 

ho-ase. His lordihip recapitulated to certain of the preliminary arti- 

the various subjects of natianal ex- elcs, he ajiproved generally of tlie 

ultalion. A peace, gained by vie- outline. \Vc owed this event to 
3 the 


the galbatTy of our fleets and sr- it was to light him to a feait or s 

mies, and that gcxid conduct in the sopulclire > He must most so- 

people of England, which he had Irmnly pronounce, that it was bis 

ever conEideird as our best security; Arm persuasion, that ministers, in 

and events had proved, that as long signing this peace, bad signed the 

as the people of England were true deaih-warrant of the country, Thp 

to theniselves, and their represen- only thing which France wanted 

latives true to tlieir interests, they to enable her to divide with this 

bad nothing to fear from external countiy the empire of the seas was, ' 

foes. j^. such a iMriicipation of commcrre 

Mr. Windham said, that if this as to enable her to extend her navy; 

address was to pledge the house to this pnrticipatiun tbuy had new ob- 

approve of the prt-Uminaries speci- tainid. He should not, however, 

ficatly, he could nut support it ; And fault with ministers, if they 

bat as it gave no such pledge, be cnuM show that such a peace was 

should support the address, but at a safr one, if they coiild show that 

the tame time give a general outline there was an absolute necessity for 

of the reasons tor which he dittered it. Such a necessity, however, he 

from the S(-ntiment$ which other • did not perceive. These topics 

gmtlemen bad CNpressed about the Would, however, be more fully dii-' 

peace- He could not avoid diftVr- cussed al a tiilure day. 
ii^, on this occasion, from his The chancellor of the exchetjuer 

ri^t honourable friend (Mr. Pitt), (Mr. Addinglon), decbned going 

from whom to difter he always con- into the discussion of the prelimi- 

sklercd a misforltine. He was naries, as they were not now be- 

aii'arc, that to stand as a solitary fore the house ; his right honour- 

tnoumer in the midst of gencntl able friend (Mr. VTindham), who 

exultation, to wear a .countenance professed also tq fexl the impro- 

clouded with cadness, while all pricty of entering into such dis- 

other^ are lighted up with joy, cussiun at present, had, however, 

was at once unfortunate and un- advanced opinions and suggestions,' 

gracious. He could not avoid, which lie could not permit to pass 

upon this occasion, diflering from uncontradicted. He must answer, 

those gentlemen (Mr. Pilt and Mr. that it was not by the extension 

Fox), who bad so often heretofore of our territories by conquest, but 

difiered oa every subject of the by preserving our constitution, and 

war, though now llicy coincided defending our own possessions, that 

iu approbation of the peace. It we would possess the best securities 

■truck him, hou-eter, in a diflerent for our rights, and for the exten- 

f view, and he must ask, slon of our commerce. He bad 

the circumstances of the conceived that his right honourable 

peace the subject of joy and exut- friend would be the last to depre- 

tation ? When he was called upon ciaie the finances of the country 

to put oa his wedding suit he must and its resources ; he was therefore 

intiuire wbetlicr it was a marriage surprised to hear him suggest that 

tx a funeral he was called to ccle- the accedence to the treaty on tb<; 

brate? When he was desired to part of England, was the efiect of 

iHominqtr, he must learn vhctber necessity, and from want of means 



<o continue llie contest; be dis- cnuld bj' no means a^ree. He di6r 

claimed tlie nimive so assigned ; he fered fiom him when he charati 

disclaimed being party to any such tetiied tlie peace as glorious and 

plea. He must pubhcly decUre, lionourable. He diftered sfill more 

tliat had it been found necessary to from ibose who conceived it lo be 

cpntinue the contest, no deficiency iiiex;iedient to make peace at all. 

whatever would have been found in He considered this as a peace iu- 

the finances and resources of the volving a degrjidniion of the na- 

country. He concluded b.v anlici- tiunal dignity, which no truly Eng- 

[Utiug the unanimity ot the houM! li.'ib heart could behold w:ib indit- 

oii liie motion for the address, {tranche ; such h as ilie war 

. Mr. Sheridan admitted the pro- Iiad a necessary tendency to lead 

priety of abstaining from discnasion to. Tlie war, he omsidered as 

of the merits of the treaty, and as he one ol the worst wars in which the 

saw no great objection to the address psuntiy had been engaged; and 

as it nov stands, he felt no wish to the jje.ncf as good a one as any 

disturb the unanimity of the house, man, ci;uld in llie circum- 

He awro-.ed of ibe address tlie stances in which the coimlry was 

more for not being an csact echo placed. 

of" the spipch, as tho speech eon- I'nil Temple agreed in the gc- 

tained tlisiitictions and characters ncral sentiineiit of wavinj; for the 

of I he peace which he could by present the diseusfiion of the peace, 

nn means admit that it deserved, and supporting the address, hi 

As to the unanimiij, however, with giving his supjmrt lo tl\c address he 

which this address was likely to by no means pltdged himself lo 

pass, he belleied, if tlie tin;e was Ruppurl (he peace, which, considei- 

come for gentleirien to speak their ing its terms, he could not appruva 

real senliments, there never was a of. 

period of less unanimity. The right After a few words from ftfr. 

honourable geniknun has spoken James Martin, ihe address was put 

, of tjie peace ill terou ip which he and cairkd un^nipoously. 





u-ilk Bussia laid lefore the House of Lr^ds—ani 
_, Mr. Grej/for Papi-rs~ty Mr. Whillread on the 
semnd Article of the i'retiminanes. — Iii-juiiy by Lord Grenville on the 
Satjecl of Poriagnl.— Address to the King moved for in the Lords on the 
Peace. — Delate. — Speeches of l/trds Romney — Limerick — Spencer — 
puke of Clarence — Pelham — Grenvilte — Ckancellor — Moirn — Mulgrave 
—Duke of Bedford -Fitzu'illiamSl. Finci-nl— Nelson—The Marquk 
^ Buckingham— Coraarvon — Hoiart.— Division,— Address carried. 

ON Fn'Jay the 30th of October, 
copies of the convention wiili 
the emiwcor of Russb, and of the 

frelimiaary articles of p&ice wilt 
ranee, were presented to tJit Louse 
irf lords by lord Telhani; and to the 
hoiue of commous by lord lI:iwk(^T 

In the liou^ of lords, lord Grea- 
Ville rose to tqove for copies of 
all treaties and conventions made 
within i!ie last year by France \viib 
aiiy of the powers M-hieh were ailits 
pf his majesty : tlie object for wbirh 
be moved those papers was to ex- 
plain thqt article of the preliminaries 
which respected the integrity of 
Portugal, inasmuch as by one treaty 
Portugal bad ceded a province to 
Spain, aod by auolher a atJll greater 
proportion of its territory to France : 
he wished then nmch to know -what 
was this iotegiity of Portugal which 
was guarantied by the preliminaries, 
pt what ctain) the goveiniuent had 
lo the praUe of fidelity in securing 
the poisessiops of our allies. For 
his part, he was of opinion that 
there never was a transaction of any 
ItKid in the history of our country, 
{^ any periled, or under any ciicuut- 

Etanccs, in which so much had been 
given Up without any equivalent, 
such unlimited concession made, so 
much disgrace incurred, and the na- 
tion placed in such awful circum- 
stances of impending peril. He 
hoped, however, that his iioWfi friend 
would, . by an express declaratjon^ 
fender the motion unnecessary. 

Lord PcUiacn regretteil extremely 
that tlie noble lord should think it 
necessary to oppose ihe measures of 
hh majesty's ministers on so impor- 
tant a point. With respest to tlie ' 
production of these papers, . he ob,- 
scrvcd, that while rua'tcrs stood in 
negotiation betiveen this cuiuitry and 
France, such papers could not be 
laid uputi the table, without c-cn- 
siderahly embarrassing his majesty's 
sen'ants, and endangering the pubr 
lie interests. 

Lord Grcnville said he did not 
mean to embarrass his m.ijesly'g 
ministers, nor oppose their measures, 
unless in matters of such import as 
left him no option. On tlje coo- 
trarj', he was ready to give them all 
the assistance and support be coidd, 
provided they would act w ith more 
Ikianess and vigour in maintuiiiiiig 
B 4 the 

i,., Cookie 


the peace, than they had shown in Spain and HnHand had appointed 
negotiating it. After again touching any rrpresentitive authorised to con- 
on the vastimportanceofthecession scut to those cessions of territory 
which Portugal has made to France mrntioned in the second article of 
in Guyana,he concluded by waving the preliminaries. 
his intended motion for the present. Lord Hawkesbtiry replied, that 
as hb noble friend (lord PcUiani) tliey had not ; but that it was con- 
bad expressed an objection to it. tidered that France was fnlly com- 

On the same day, in the house peteni to act for her allies : be add- 

of commons, Mr. Gre)- demanded ed, that he was now prepared to an- 

explanationsfrom ministers on nearly swer a question which had been put 

the same grounds as lord Grenvillc to him by an honourable member 

bad wish^ foi tiie production of (Mr. Grey) the other evening : the 

papers in the house of lords. He sixth article of the treaty meant only 

wished particularly to be infonned to secure to Portugal her territoriea 

what was the nature of the integrity as settled by the treaty of Badajos, 

, ^at was stipulated for the dominions that she had concluded with Spain, 
of the queen of Portugal? Was it Mr. Grey observed, that that wj* 

tJie integrity of what remained of it not the only question he had put to 

vdien it had ceded a province to the noble lord on a former evening; 

Spain, or was it its absolute iote- he also inquired about tlie 

grity ? He also expressed the surprise treaty between Portugal and France, 

ne had felt in reading the treaty be- by which Frencli manufectures were 

tween France and frugal, to find to be rccdved in Portugal on terms 

that the goods and merchandise of equally favourable with those of this 

France were to be admitted into the country, 

ports of Portugal with every ad\^n- Lord Hawkcsbury replied, that 

tage and privilege formerly given to the preference given by each coun- 

the most favoured nation: this try was reciprocal; and if Portugal 

would be, in &ct, an abrogation of admitted the woollens of other tia* 

all the treaties whidi had subsisted tions to be imported upon the terms 

between this country and Portugal heretofore exclusively enjoyed by 

for the last century. It was on this country, we should also be at 

these two points that he wished for hberty to place all other wines upon 

explanation tVom ministers. a footing with those of Portugal. 

LordHawkcsbuiy considered these On the next day a most important 

questions as unusual and irregular, debate took place in both houses, on 

and therefore declined, for the pre- the motion for an address to his nia< 

sent, to enter into any explanation, jesiy : this debate nattirally drew 

and more particularly as the subject forth the sentiments of every distin- 

would soon come btfore the house guished member of either house, as 

in a regular way of discussion, to die general merits or demerits of 

The thanks of both bouses were the preliminary articles ; previous 

^ivcn to general Hutcbinwin, lord however to the order of the day for 

Keith, and sir James Suamarec. reading his majesty's speech, a de- 

On the 2d of November, in the bate, or rather an animated conver* 

hmnc of commons, Mr. Whitbread sation, took place in both bouses re- 

B3kMl lord Hawkcsbury whether spccting sooie further infbmiatioB 


uiBi-iiMb, Google 


«Uchw3sdeinandedfrt>innuiuslCTi, be obMTved wa« more peculiailjr 

and which limy wcte not disposed to necessary, as Portugal had signed 

grant two treaties with Spain, one at fia- 

Lord Grenvtlle, in the hfloic of dajos, the other at Madrid, and the 

peers, askrd his majcs^'s ministers bouse ou^t to know which of Ihem 

wfartfacT Portugal was rtow at liberty was guarantied, 

to maintain beraecuBtmned relations Lwd Hawkesbuiy said, go\-em- 

^th this country, as by the treaty ment was not then possessed of offi- 

at Madrid she had been bound not ctal information on the subject, hnt 

to give any exdtuive privileges to he was ready to say, that beunder- 

tfae detriment of the ooatracting atood that by the treaty of Badifos, 

parties. Portugal only ceded llie town of Oli- 

Lord Pelham answered, that she venza to Spain, and that by the 

vas still at liber^ to treat with this treaty between France and Portugal 

country. there was so far an alteration rf me 

Lord Grenville replied, that this firontier in Guyana, that for die fU- 

qnestion was, whether Portugal re- tare the river Arewan wm to be the 

mained at ribeity to maintain her boundary. 

former connection with os, under The preUminary cmiTemtioa bc- 

wfaich we enjoyed exclusive advan- ing thus disposed of in both houses, 

tages, for wliich we gave reciprocal that part of his ma)es^« speech re- 

pTivileges. lating to the prdiminaiy articles was 

[No answer was made by minis- read, 

ters.] Lcrd ItonnKy moved the address 

Lard Thurlow compUned of the In the house of lords : he began by 

irtrgularity of this conversation. stating, that we had now termlnateil 

Lord Grenville said, it was by no the greatest and most momentous 

means unusual to call for important war which this country had ner 

information previous to discnssing been engaged in ; a war, which 

tlie order of the day ; however, for though productive of the heaviest 

(be sake of regularity, be should burdens, had been on onr side a war 

more an humble address to hiS ma- of necessity, not only for the de< 

yesty, piayingfor a copy (tf the treaty fence of our allies, but thepreserva- 

of Madrid, signed on the 29th <d' tion of our religion, laws, property, 

Se pt em b er. and cmistitution. And as it was on 

Lord Hobart said, that the pteli- onr side nesessary, so it was, as hr 

nunarics only respected the integrity as we were concerned, attended by 

of the territories uf Portugal; com- the most brilliant successes. C^- 

mercial regulations must remain for rious as that war was, in which tba 

fotnre arrangement. immortal Chatham presided at the 

After sneral observations from helm of atfaire, this was no less 

Ae lo«d Qiancellor, lord Thurlow, splendid. Our fleets had been vio 

aqd other kirds, the house proceeded torions in a still higher degree; they 

to the order of dm day. had crushed the navy, aOd annihi- 

In the house of ctunmons, the lated the commerce of the enemy, 

bononiable Mr. Grenville made a The whde of maritime Europe, 

similar demand of infwmation re- jealous of the power of «ir navy, 

Ipectisg the treaty of Srladiid, which had conspired its hunuUation ; they 



faand their vain endeavours recoil pecuniary, than this counlry was sup^ 
»pon tliem selves. Hr had liiimcif jMDsrd (o possess, and so far the imptir- 

kei;n taught, by the gloiy thai our tant objects of the war huti been se- 

troops had obtained isi Egypt, (lie cured. His lordshipthen dwelt on the 

truth of one obsetvjijon made to importance of the i^lalKis of Ceylon 

him foimerly by a hoImc ii^d, !iim- and Trinidada (both from, ihcir sit 
self an onia/ju-itt to the jnilitaiy pro- tuation and capabiUty of iinprove- 

fcssion (lord Moira), who loJd him menl), a« also on the vast conquesis 
ijiat he might rely upon it, that which had been made in India, from 

Kritisli soldiers, when tliey had aa Tippoo Sultan, tlie old ally of 
eqaai opportunity of distinguishing France, and the deliverance of 
tJiemselves, woiijd not fall slioit of Egj'pt from the French dominion. 
British saitor»: Kgypt bad blely He concluded by giving liis opinion 

witnessed such gloriouii exertions t)f that we bad dJiine all tliat could 

British troops, as the annals of his- have been done for our allies, and 

lor)- could not surpass, We had that we had laid a foundation for 

tlien to coDleiid with a completely British security, whicu held out a 

disciplined army, more num(;ruu5 promise -of permauent peace. He 

llian our. own, inived to ihc climate, then read his motion idc the ad* 

and commanded by a most skilful address, 

and experienced general. 'Ihethosen Loi^d Limefick seconded die ad- 

IrooiW'of France, who had s^^'^ed dress. He thought it augured well 

so many brilliant ^'ictories against of the peace, tliat almost all ranks 

tlie Auslrians, and deemed ihon- and descriptions of men in tlie 

SpIv'cs " invincible," found, for the country approved of it. He wa^ 

£rst time, that they were not invhi- sorry, however, to find that many 

ejble when they cams to close quar- of ihe highest characters in point of 

tefi with British soldiers. Success abilities and integrity thuught ditV 

however was the best season for ferently upon that subject. The 

concluding peace. In no tbrmer situation of (his counlry was, a; 

«-ar has the victorious paily insisted he thought, decidedly bctler thai; 

on retaining all its acquisitions. In at the lale peace. At die lasf 

the war which lord Chatham had so peace we lost our finest colonies, 

gloriously conducted, the object was and se\'eral most imjwrtaitt island^ 

lo secure oar American colonies: and fortresses had been taki;n from 

that being effected, we restored, at us in the war which preceded it; 

the peace, Wartinico, Guadaloupe, but in this the charaelcr of the 

iheHavannah, and Pondicherry. In country as well as its territorief 

fhe American war, when France had were preserved iuviojale : BriUiiu 

■ucceededindct.ichinglrom us these had also successfully interfered for 

colonies, she did not hesitate lo re- its allies, Turkey and Portugal. 

store several islands and.settlenr.ents His lordship then expatiated on 

she had taken from us du<ing die the glorious achievements of our 

war. We now have secured the Iroops in Egjpt, and regrelled the 

greal-objcciof the war, ourrdigion, loss of that hero, who led on those, 

laws, constiiuiinii, property, ajid in- troops to virtory and immortal ho- 

dependcnce. We had displayed nour. Ilis spirit, however, did not 

greater resources, boU) military and die j it fell upon ihose galhint oIHt 



jctryi wbo succeeded him, antl "s bose by land and sea had conquered, 
conduct bft s^joke ihi;ir ciJlo^iniii. and which would have secured u* 
He boped the huurf would pardun from ijie elleits ol" the aggrai'di^e- 
hU national vaiiiiy in mentioning, meni ol trance upon tlie continent, 
that many of tliem came from the It had been said that we bad pro- 
same iiarl of the united kingdcm tcctrd our allies. What was ihe 
•oi'ith hiin-eif, and were his par- fact? How had we protected Por- 
ticjbr friciuU. He ^pokc ihii with tugal ? It iipjicarcd that it M-as oiilf 
pjnicular plcisure, from tiie rccol- a portion of her territory whoss 
lection ol the disalftcltd and dan- int<^ity was to be presen-ed. A 
gctoiis spirit which prevailed tiio part of the important province of 
much amongst the iutciiut orders Olivenza was to be ceded ; our 
of people in tiiat country. To thi« allylhe I'rince of Orange was not 
•ubject he thought the aricnt'on of even namvd in the preliminariei, 
govenimt-ni shotild be directed, and iillhough from hia faithful attach- 
that above all tilings a large mtnt to u« he had lost both his 
csuSli.'.hment mUit be lu'pt up. territories and his Gtatioa. Could 
He concluded by generally approv- it be said that Ceylon and Trinidad 
ing of the conduct of ministers, gave eitlier sufficient hidemnity fnc 
but particujarly tor ptocuri:ig for the past, or security for the future i 
the nation such preliminaries of In Indiii the bravery of otu; arraj 
peace as the pr&sent. had subdued Tippoo Saib, and 
Earl Spencer lamented the ne- placed tliat country out of danger; 
crssity he felt himsolf under from but by this ppiice, uliich surreii- 
lii^ senie of duty, to deliver an dcrs to iho enemy llic Cape of 
opinion opposite to that of the wo Good Hupe and Cochin, we aftbrj 
n'>blc lordi who had last spoke. If lliem an entrance into Malabar; 
he did not feel himself called upon wiiije in South America ne have 
by his scDse of duly, he sliuuid pcmiiited P"rmgaJ to cede to France 
much rather have deplored in silence a strong military position at the 
the calamity of the present peace, motith of the river of Amazons. 
and the enihusiasiie joy with u hich In tlie We.'t Indies we had surrr-n- 
ihc people had received it. He dered Martioico, and left the French 
thou d rather have suppressed ihc in possession of St. Domingo. In 
piortiticaiion he felt at the degrada- the MeJiieirauoan we had surren- 
tion of his country : he felt peculiar dcrcd every thing and excluded 
JBin at opposing tlie measuri-s of ourselves. In Malta (he Fi^mch 
men with whom he had so long were to haie equal footing with 
acted, and with whom iie was conr ourselves. In short, he saw nothing 
nected by the ties of (rieud.hip j but a precarious peace. It was said 
but his opinion on this subject was it was the interest of France to 
diametrically opposiie to tlieirs. maintiiin this peace, but who had 
He tliought that iiu single object of learned to calculate the interest of 
the war had been obtained, and an usurper ? D' ever peace was pre- 
Ihat we had sacrificed all of carioun, this was that peace. If 
DTOtecUon. We had in every part ever precarious peace was daogei-ous, 
M the w orU made cessions of«o{in- this was that peace. The French 
fries whitlj tlje valour of owi- tbrces piiucipleg are Uiumphant, and 



adorned wilh all Oic attraction and proved itself superior both in «m- 
dignit^ of success. He felt sorry ragu and capac:ty. Tl>e French, 
to dilKr from tniniMers, and cnn- although superior in intniben, were 
Bidered it now roost pecoliarly his very inferior in mililar; addrt^^, 
duty to support such measurM of After passing verv high enco 
vigtmr as might give the cduntry a miums cm the conduct of our army, 
thance of safety, his royal highness passed to the 
The duke of Clarence supported binllianl adiievcments of our nav}'. 
(he peace. He considered that we llie memorable 1st of June, 14lh 
had 01 much security as could be ofFeJiruar}', llth of October, and 
e.-qjected in those reiolutionary 1st of August, i^onld be for e>cr 
times, from a government of the brilliant and glorious in our navat 
nature of the French republic. His history. The time was however 
royal highness took an able re- come for inaking peace, Kach of 
Tiew of the events of the last war : the powers, from their vast con- 
after bestowing the warmest en- quests, was ;Jaced in that predica- 
comiums on our fleets, he paid the n.eut, that no blow could be given 
highest tribute of applause to the u-iihctfect on oiiher side. France 
gallantly of the British soldiers had completely overcome cicry cim- 
during the course of the war. In tending power on the continent, 
this respect he traced the glcry of Great Britain, as far as regarded 
the British arms, not only in gal- maritime affairs, was in tlie same 
Jant eiploits acliieved upon the state. Tliis was therefore (as ex- 
continent of Europe, but in the pressed b) a distinguished personage) 
conipiest of the eiiemy'i colonies, no comnioii peace; but a rccon- 
and in the overtlirow and destruc- dlialion of ditftrences between the 

two greatest powers in -llie world ! 

He considered the possessions tliat 
such glory and success, a gigantic we retainetl as very judiciously sc- 
eiiterprise of the present first con- lectcd, not only from tlieir produc- 
snl of France threatened for a time tions and real value, but on account 
to interrupt tlieir progress. 4O,000 of their situations and the advan- 
of tlie best troops of tlie French tages we might derive from tlietr 
republic embarked on the cxpedi- harbours. It wa-* llie obvious po- 
tion to £gypt. This plan not only licy of Great Britain to pay her 
menaced all our possessions in tlie principal attention to aimmercial 
East, but tlireatcned the existence stations; while an immense pmver 
of the Turkish government. like France naturally looked to 
The first important check which continental 3c(]uisitioni. Hix royal 
this fiirmidable army of French highness concluded by giving his 
invaders met, was' from a handful hearty assent to the motion. 
of British troops under Sir Sidney Lrad PelUam, ia vindication of 
Smith, long before the landing of the treaty, compared it with the 
that army which became in their pTojel which the furnier ministers' 
turn the conquerors of Egypt. It had givenin in J7i>7- ITieonly dif- 
was on the memorable 21st of ference was, that llic Cape of Good, 
March last, when a British army, Hope, which by that pro/V( was to 
engaged with a French army, have been retainnj, ia now to be 



made a free port. Thi* diflerence attainracnt of that object, wliidt 
surely woiil<l not authorize a con- for so cnaoy years of his life it wai 
dnuatioa of tlkc war. As to tra bb duty continually to urge to their 
mention having been made of the lordships. He feared, howc^-cr, 
prince of Orange, it was most that all the paiiiK be had bestowed 
rrident that we had not the power upon that object, would turn out 
to leiasiaie him by force of arms ; mere fruitless labour, for he wai 
but certainly no opportunity would sorry to say, that, aco^ding to hia 
be lost in oegoiiating fax his intc- view of the subject, no one <rf the 
rests. NajJca, which now was objects for which wc had so lot^ 
possessed by the armies of France, warred had been obtained.. If sc- 
waj to be restored to its kwful curity was the object of the war, 
sovrreign, Malta wa.< to be availing we now remain in a state of greater 
to ntither of the contracting parties, insecurity than at the commence- 
As for Portugal, she had retained ment of the wai, or at any time ^ 
erery thing lliat could be useful to during Its continuance. He should 
retain, and had made no sncriticc agree that our naval and military 
that could be injurious. There was cUbrls had been crowned by success 
Bodting in the West Indies which greater than at any former period: 
could have justified a continuance he also agi'eed that peace ought to 
of the struggle, and in ihe East have been made when it could be 
the overthrow of Tippoo had com- made on secure and honourable 
pletely secured our empire trtxn terms, for a secure and honourable 
umoyance. Ceylon and Trinidad peace is the only legitimate object 
were important acquisitions ; but of war. The question was not 
it was much more impor^nt thai whether the peace should or sbotdd 
we had OTercome the erroneous not be agreed to, f« the honour of 
otNntons prevalent in England and the nation was now jdedgcd to the 
ID Ireland. He concluded with obser\-ance of its conditions ; and 
trusting tlie peace would be found as so many sacrifices bad already 
advantageixu and safe Ibr the coun- been made, he should be die last 
try. man who would pn^>ose to sacri- 
Lord We<itmeath also spoke in fice the national honour. He ques- 
&Tour of the address. tion now is, what are the merits of 
Lord Grenville said it would be this treaty ? or can ihe house assure 
indeed to him a matter of the most his majesty that the terms of it met 
lively satisfaction and heartfelt joy, their approbation } To this he could 
if hi* judgment could permit him not agree, because lie conceived 
to congratulate the house as the tlie terms disadvantageous to the 
noble mover of the addre-ss had countr)-, and fraught with national 
done, or if he could agree to an degradation. This was stated to 
address which stated tliat ne had be only a question about termj, and 
brought an arduous and important tliercfore it must he tried by an 
contest to a successful termination, examinationof the terms, by weigh* 
Independent of every public con- ing our cessions and our conquests, 
sidenitiun which must have ani- and considering our relative si- 
mated him, every private feeling he tuation. He considered that it was 
possessed must hav c rejoiced at the perfectly known to everj- statesman, 



fliat t^cre were but two principles and fresb coiHjitest. On our sMe,' 

on which negotiation* for peace our successes were no less hiilliant., 

tisually proceeded: the first was We hdd rescuird Egypt; possessed 

the state ol' tliiugf befoie the war; cuMTselves of Malta and JVIinoifa ; 

or the status .■]un ante leUum -, or and, simt up Uk^ Mediterranean 

tbe actual state of thing! at the time against i he ships of France ani( 

»t' negotiating, or the titi possideiU. Spain. We had tlic C'3|Tcof Good 

if tlie situation of things was such Hope.'a most imponaiit key lo the 

as tint it was not possible to restore E;ist, In the West Indies we hai 

txm to what ihcy Mas before tlie every tiling that w:!s desirable, 

war, then the negotiation should Martinico, Trtnidad, S;c, On ihe 

iiave been on Rie latter piinciple, continent of South America \ve had, 

and every devLition from that prin- at Denierara and Surinam, an em- 

ciple should be strictly watched, pirc almost efjual in eslent and im- 

n we had been much inlerior lo portancc t^i the po\vcr to whom we 

the enemy in strength at llic lime of re'^^tored it. Allhouijh the war had 

the negotiation, that surely un«t not been undertaken for colonial 

«iner into the account j but every acquisHiwis/ y« it was wisely di- 

noble lord who had yet 6i>oken, reeled to tliat ohject,- as being the 

disclaimed, and indeed it had been bes! means of crippling her marine, 

completely disproied by tlie event hy Contracting her commerce ; but 

frf the last year's war, in which it aitlioui^h we were disappoi^ited . in' 

*as by no means found that we the objects of the \<-ar, tlitie pos- 

werc inferior to the enemy, eitJier sessions should liave been held ay 

in success, in means, or resources, pledges forindemnity, and siillmore 

K'the slmation of ilie coimtry tlien sii for security. If the continent of 

was elevated and prosiwrous, we Eurojw could not he restored to its- 

onght to have' bad honoiiraWe terms fomier state, ihey ought to have 

of peace ; we were in a condition been retained as a counterpoise tO' 

to demand such terms as were ade- tiie po»-er of Friincc. The noble' 

qnate to our rank ahd [wwer. He' lord liad seemed principally to rely 

then requested their lordships to upon an argtiment dd hnmhiem, hy 

consider t!ie situation of France, comparing this treatj- with t!ie pro- 

wid by comparing it widi thai of .,v( of Lisle, but he bad forgot to-' 

this country, ascertain the relatii'e state tlrat, besides the ces.iions con- 

utuaiion of b^'th. He by no means tainnl in tiiat projct, the present 

mcanr to undervalue the conquests treaty g-ave up Surinam, Minorca, 

•f France, on tlie contrary, he and Malta, After four >'ears r^ 

thought them of the hii'iiest iin- additional war and ex|>ense, we 

portance. By taking the Uhinefor had given more to receive less; bc- 

Lcr bonrMlar)', am! annexing S;;voy, sides we should have remembered 

&c. she had not only extended her in what a period of despondency 

empire beyond wlvit the most am- tfiose negotiations bei^an. TIic 

bitious of her monareJis had evcc stojipge at tlie bank, which threat-' 

conceived, but she liai her frun- eiied more aiai'ming conseqiicnre* 

tiers additionally seaired 1^' depen- ihjn pe,s\ili'-d fioni it, to which «'a» 

dent republics atid tributary kings, to' be aiideil, the unexpected dc- 
additiooal war, comiuocd success, 'tecCiun of uur allica^^iid, above all, 



Aat whidi he would wish to blot 
from his memory, the miUiny in 
our fleet. At Lisle, thougli we 
gave up mucL lor ourselves, we re- 
tained the dignity ut stipulating 
for o\ir al'.ies. We then cxiiressly 
(tipulaied for Portugal. We rx- 
prc-sitv siipuUied lur thi^ prince 
«(■ Orange. We did not leave 
fai^ iulencts for future iiegotia- 
tioiu. If minivers had insisted on 
Ml indemDily for llie prince of 
Oange, could it be supjioscd that 
ihe treaty would have been broken 
otf on ihM account } If it slioiild 
tppcai that hi^ property had beei) 
confiscated oD the pretence erf his 
having given an oiiler for the sur- 
render of some colonics, was it not 
dear that this contiscatioQ should 
be taken olf when those colonics 
were restored ? He objected much 
to that tort of preliminary treaty 
which was to be construed by se- 
cret understanding b^-tween the 
parties ; for instance, when an ar- 
ticle^ expicssing to guflnuit^ the 
integrity of the territories of I'or- 
tugal, was, in fact, to mean the 
dismemberment of it, ptir^uant to 
■lie separate treaties which Portugal 
bad made with Spain. In permit' 
ting this dismemberment, in addi- 
tion to what wc had ourselves 
ecded, he conceived that the secu- 
rity of our possessions in the East 
bad su&red much; for when the 
•nemy should be able to exclude us 
from touching either nt Brazil or 
the Cape of Good Hope, when 
they were able to place ai strong 
European garrisons as they pleased 
in Pondicherry and Cochin, they 
v-ould have great advantages in an 
Indian war. They could send over 
armaments w'ltli safety and conve- 
Bienoe : we could not, for want of 
any ialeEuediate pent lo Loach at. 


In the West Indies we had given uf* 

Martinique, the value of wiiich was 
ceriainiv greater than (liat of Trini- 
dad. Ill ihe Mediterr.tnean n-e had 
given up every thing; Minorca, 
Malta, Porto Ferrajo, and Egypt: 
and tlie first fruits of the libenniou of ■ 
Ej;ypi, was a treaty by which Francn 
wai lu be a-, much favoured as e^ir- 
selves, iliroughout the whole extent 
of tlie Turkish einpire. As tw 
Njplcs, the advantages she had ob- 
tained by this treaty were iliQicay. 
Ihe French army wm to evacuate 
her territory, but might remain 
within sixty miles of it, in tlie 
Ci=aipirie territory, and regain in a' 
ti;w d^lys all that iJiev row con- 
sented to cive lip. He could not 
conceive thji the sitviaiion of France 
eniiited her to m^ke such exor- 
bitant demands i there no rc- 
ci]>rocity in- the treaty, all llie sacri- • 
fices were on' our p:;rt, and iioiie 
on theirs. His iordihip concluded 
by givifig bis opinion, that wc liaiJ 
gii cu every pledge of security whieli 
was in our hands, and liad now 
no other security but the 'word of 
France : that whatever might be chc 
feelings wliich induced ministers to" 
consent to such humiruting and 
dangerous sacrifices, (the nunc dan- 
gerous bcea'.i-e tiie)' were ki hnmi-' 
Hating,) and whatever deh;sive con- 
fidence tiwi country entertained in 
tlie continuance of such a ])eace, 
yfit that the nation would be im- 
pressed with tliis conviction, tli^t 
the stand must at least be made 
Vlien, if not sooner; and tliat we 
must act like men having incau- 
tiously surrendered the ouc-works, 
but \tfho retained tlie citadel, and 
Would rather bury tliemselves in 
the ruins than surrender that. 

The Lord Chancellor defenilcd 

the peace, and was lirmly per^ided 



tliat the war had been carried on Ifg? ; and altliough he should Hot 

till it was hopclcM to proceed any pretend to call this a glorious peace, 

further. So far of its object as yet he conceived it would be coD' 

went to the security of our con- ducive to the security of the esseQ- 

atitutton had been attained. He tial interetts of the country : fae* 

should not boast of this peace as therefM^, in his conscience ap- 

a very honourable one ; but his proved of it, and from his consci- 

principal wish was satisfied. If it ence and best judgment he had ad- 

waa. a secure and lasting peace, vised bis majesty to agree to the 

and the fonner ministers had de- terms of it. 

ckred that was their only object. Lr^d Mmrfli tii Ivply to Idt-d 

We had certainly conquered many Grenville, said, the peace was only 

possessions of the enemy ; but had so &r inadequate as it was inade- 

France gained no dominion over quale to the expectations which that 

Kaples and Porttigal ? As to the noble lord and his colleagues had 

profef of Lisloy that was but a jbr^'ef, doily held out to parliament and 

a proposition, and by no means an Ibe country, of indemnity for the 

ultimatum, and it is by no means past,, and security for the future. 

c:ertain what would have been the Altliough pariiament had given the 

terms agreed to, if these negotia- most unbounded confidence, and 

tions had gone on ; however, he ample supplies that were ever en- 

vished lo procure a suitable indem- trusted to mrniMcTs, yet (hose pro- 

nity for the prince of Orange j be miies constantly ftiledy and the 

could not, in his conscience, risk country was brought so on the 

the peace by insis^ng upon this verge of ruin, at that a peace at 

point; he thou^t it better to leave any price became necessary. He 

it for future arrangement. As to should, however, with that what 

the Cape ol Good Hope, however was past, should be, as much at 

important it might be as a station possible, buried in oblivion, and 

and u a harbour, he thought it by (hat we should look forward lo the - 

no tneans worth continuing the war more pleasing prospects which now 

at an expense of thirty milUons a cfeji upon us. He did not at all 

year to obtain the possession of it ; agree in the justice of the meta- 

aod M to the Meditcnmean, he pTior used by lord Pelham, that 

conceived we were better off now tliis country and France had gone 

than in 1797, when the island of on in parallel lines; he thought 

Malta had no power K> guaranty there was no parallel between them. 

it from Fratux j and wc were much France was an extensive continental 

better off than we would be if we, power, and hergicatness depended 

forllie sake of retaining it, suffired on her army. Ilie security of Eng- 

Prance to keep possession of Naples land rested cm her navy ; but how- 

and Portugal. In the West Indies, ever glorious and brilliant otir vic- 

he confessMi that he should [a«fer tories bad been btrth by sea and by 

Martinique, if it could be detained, land. Great Britain sttwd in a state 

to Trinidad. He thought there of comparative inferiority both in 

was a grenler chance of this peace strength and aggrandizement. I^e 

being permanent, (han any peace acquisitions we had made certainly 

whict^ might have bcm made in bore no comparison to those which 



Fnnce had nude. All the islands of ihoif. rtatutei, which originated 

we bad taken in <be West Indies in childish alarm, and appreheanoa 

were not <qaal in rahie to Savoy> of danger whicb never exUtcd but 

which was a very small portion of in the minds of hb majesty's b(e 

the acquiutions of France. The nunuten. He conduded by pro- 

strict bull of the M/iptunJrtu could tniting to nippoit ministo^ if thef 

not be adhered to when a weaker cantinued in the tame course tfaejr 

povor was negotiating with a had hitberto pursued, 

■tronger. He rejoiced sincerely Thebishopof Rochester said, that 

that peace wai enected, and G;ave although lie was a friend to peace, aa 

nunifiten credit for having niado the became tbe sacred profesiiion to 

best peace which, nader the exiting which be belonged, he was an ene- 

circuotttanccs, could be procured, my to a mere semtdance and coun- 

His ictdihip oonciuded by j.deda- tcrfeit of peace, which contained < 

tatioa to nunistera, thai he was within it the germ of future war, 

di nm a rf to ^re than his caidial andperbapsof thedcniructianof the- 

and nntctcrved sHpport, in the ex* country ; he should have been 

pectation that they would continue heartily glad to have gi*en hii mp* 

to daene it. prat to a peace diat was honouraUe 

Lofd Mulgrave, in a very ani- and advantageous to the countiy, 

mated speech, defended the. pence, and likely to be safe and pcrniaoent. 

and gave the highest enconuvims to Hm bisiuip condemned the cnodeof 

the valour of tbe British Mldien and defending tlie preliminaries by con- 

niloTf. aidering the itoporcapce of the island 

The doke of BedfcH^ lupported of Malta, or any particular ceuion 

(headdress and tbe preliminaciea of separatety. We should weigh tha 

peace, although he diifijred widdy great mass of oes»ons generally, and 

Grooi lonie of die noble lords who see Jur what the^ had been r^e i 

had siqiportcd it ) he sapported it we had yielded die Mcditeiianeao in 

a* a peace the best which conU be absolute sovereignty to the enemy ; 

obtained uiMler the cimimsinoces of we had opened for them a door to 

the oaoatry, lu comparii^[ it with India; given them back (he Cape, 

the pnyel of i797, he observed and their islands in the Weat Indies, 

that, nonvilhstaoding the vigour and rendered infinitely more valuable by 

resource* which this country dis^ British industry and- capital— and in 

|dayed in the last year of the war, exchange £]r such immense aeauona, 

France had, since 1797, gained such we had got nothing but a precarious 

important victoriQS on the contir and boikiw truce. The reverend 

neat, a* to place her higfarr, it prelate followed nearly the same 

pos»ihIe, than she stood in 1797- conne lord Grenville had take:i ia 

He Cduld not therefgte withhold his his disapprobation of the prelimina- 

approbuion of the peace, unequal ries, and pocdudiog by hoping that 

as it vrux, disgraceiiil as it might minisiters would not rescind those 

be. He hoped, however, that his salutary slatotcs, which had been 

majesty's present ministers would found to efltcactous in promoting 

JiiUuw up the peace by a faXi tc- the peace aitd tranquillity of tbe 

stocafioBof the eonstituiion to tite •ountiy. 

people, ' and an iiqmctfiate ropaal Lord FIIEwiUiam coiuidcred the 

Vpi. XUV. C l>e«;9 

18 ■ ANNUAL REGISTER, 1802. 

pace to be a mere hollow ind pta- great value. When the fbdieniMi 

nriciiu tmce, that canied \rith it no ivcre heivy ships, it was necessaiy ta 

iympioms of pRinaiiency ot accn- toiich there and refil, 6ul now ttut 

jky. He considered, that the joy they are ccopered and tail well, tlic:)r 

vhicb tlie people expressed was a ofteninakeUicvoragewitbouttouch- 

mere, momentary dehuion, that ingatapfpartwhatercr. Hethoi^ht 

would vanish as soon as the people his mi^ty's mitustera wore bound 

should Fetura to thor reason, and to saxe the first oppotiunity o€ 

(»mpare the immense sacrificea we making peace that ofimd, and ihu 

hare made to the trifling cessions the prdiminaries en the table wcxe 

made 1^ Fiance. For die two both honourable and ndnntageous. 
islands of Ceyton and Trinidad, the Hie marqiib of BuckinglMm )■> 

country has been nine years at w$r, mcnted aincercly that he could not 

has wasted some hnndieds of mil- -give his consent to the prclitninariBB 

lions of bei treasure, raid thousmds on the taUe, as they appeared to 

'oflivea. At the same tim« that he him to be humiUatiiig and iitgnoe> 

disapproved cjf the peace, he cmul- fal to thtii country. In tiui ficst 

(lecTd that the publicfaidi was now |ilacc,lu:coiuideTedtlnBidiahoBoai^ 

pledged, and that the tenm Af the abb, as they left our aUet expoaad 

■treaty, bad as it was, must be ad- and unpmtoctcd. Portugal, in par- 

karti to. lici^ar, appeared to bkn to have 

Lord Westmoreland defended the been ahainc&lly abandoned, and by 

preliminaries. oor consciitiag to its sew comnier- 

Lord St. Vincent considered Cey>- cial regulations with resfwct to 

Ion and IVlndad as two of ilie nioM FRmc«,we3llbUteKclaiicd'oar«wu 

"valunble islands in the whole habita- irotdWns from the markets of Pan- 

ble globe, eiiheo: considered in a po- ti^l. With regard to the secotiif 

liticm or commercial point ef view. ofthepeice, nothing hadfacencti- 

IiOpd Nelson rose to f^vc the ojri^ pulated, but nc were left solely to 

nion lie had fcamed ti^ the bett depend on the bare word aiad bonoor 

W)>portniiitie8 whichhehadofascer- of tfae.pefson now holding thegor 

taining the value of mat of the vemmqnt of the Brencfa republic. 

.[daces which we Bad taken and Whatwa»tbere in the characicraiid 

idtepnardN ceded., Mincsci he con- conduct of that peraon to ladHce us 

«cived of Utile value, a« it was too to suppote, that he would not take 

far dbtant from Toidoo to be aa im- the earliest tavouiable opporttmit^ 

mrtant naval station. AstoMalta, whid) oflered for breaking the 

Oie did not consider it as likely to be -peac« .' EHc had btit^ed a rooted 

wf any great importance to this jealousy and deep ladeed hatmd 

cuunTn'. Wc took it to rescue it aigainit this counuy, which it was 

-from the hand* of the French. It -not lo be supposed would be eaiily 

iwould recjuire a trarrison of 7000 waibod aw^-by any EUpetabtindaHt 

men to defend toe works. <He milk of htmian kindness in his com- 

thought, provided ihwrt^mch did position. Since the signing the pre- 

not gru it, it was- Inoilaterial whift liminiiries, the intrigues of the 

third pcwer was poMcncd of it. Fresdi govcroisent had negotiated 

?fritherdidhe consider tlicCflpe«f a private peace betn'eeii the r^ublie 

(ifiod -Hopt M tuoAvaitaHii Kry -WlUc PWie,' in Oder to prevent 



the latter power from feeling that -vHH answered by asking, was it 

givinide which it ou^t to fed to worth the witile of France to have 

this omDtry for afirading it the conliinied the war for any of tham 

gnatest a»btance in the hour of separatelj ? After having turrcnder- 

danger, which it had ever received ed all the fruits of a nine yearn war, 

from any European power. Iliii we had no better lecurity for the 

VM a laffident Rpecioten of the peace than the good &ith of a nation 

good &itfa of thc.fint coiuhL Wc vhich had n^ver before been cele- 

had given him '■< a giant's Rtrenglh, bnted for that qoalily. 
and we mi^t be assured be would I^rd Hobart defended the preli- 

lue it like a giant." His lordship minaries, and replied to the leading 

itini observed, that although he objections against them. He con- 

cDuld not give the present miniaters tended that the interests of Portugal 

hit confidence oif their coming Into had not been deserted, and that the 

office, yet he h»d forborne to oppose cession of Cochin in India was by 

tbem tQl the present occasion had no means of that imp(wtance now, 

-owipeAed him to do to. if how- which it would have been of, when 

cnr the meanire on the taUe was it was stirrounded by the territories 

Movrd up by measarea of energy of Tippoo Soib : tbc«e teritoeries are 

and vigtmr, and if his majesty's oow m our possesiiotv and thn 

niaisten wmdd make the neceiraiy nei^bouring sovereign of lYavan- 

CKertiaos to render the peace less core is our turn ally. As to tlie 

pfttariaus than it appeared to him Cape, it was a possession which 

ticnvtobe, he'^oold give them his couldnotbebeldbntatanenorrooua 

hearty suppwt. sxftense to this ccuntry. As b 

Lord CaernarvoD was of opinion, jwce fo« our ships to taoA at, it 

*faat a peace mure adequaa-, sate, was by no means necessary eo us, 

and boDonrable, might have been as many ships went and returned, 

obtaiued, if our oegntiaiors had not from India without touching tliere j 

ligfaity sariendered the interests of and as a colony its product would 

&K oountry. livery article in the never be >it all equal to the expense 

petinrioaries U concession on our of keeping it. As to the interests 

■de, and advurtage to France and of the stadtholder, the only reason 

ber allies, atlfaongh peace was as they were not expressly nicntionrd 

accvsaiy to Iheni as to us, and was, that a negotiation was then 

*qtdly wished for on their side, depending througii the mediation of 

tt mi^t therefore reasonably be the coiirt of Berlin, which promised 

npected that they would bave con- a tttvourabie iisne. 
K&led to nCgotiatt; mi equal terms. The house dien divided upon the 

As to the mode of defending it by question: 

|«Kiag a quesliOB separ.itely on Contents 94 Proxies 10 

•TWy thhig ceded, whether it wa* Non-contents 10 O 

*™r* oootinuing mi esi>eniive war Majority for the addrew 04 

fc Ihai object -, this might be as "... 



Atiirm on the Peate moved for in. the Uoatt of Commons ly Sir Edaiord 
Harlop—seeonded ly Mr. Lee. — Debate. — Speeches o' Lords L. Gower— 
HawkeibuTy—Mr. T. Grenville-^ Lords CasClereagh -^ Temple — Mr. 
Pitt — Fox. — Delate adjouvied — resumed next Day. — Speeches of Mr. 
iVyndham — Witberforct — Elliot —and Add'mglon.— Considerations on tke 
JoTegoing Debates, 

IN the bouse of cmnmons the preserred butconsidenblyiiicreMed 

addicM wai moved for the same our dominions by our great acqo^ 

day by sitiom in the East and West Indie*, 

Sir Edward Hartop, who stated and by retaioing Ceylon and Trini- 

that, in the conduct of the late war, dad. Hi^ majesty's miniaten, not- 

his majesty's ministom bad two withstanding the great successes of 

grand objects in view : the one the British arms during tlie last cam- 

to defend their country from the paign, iinding that one of the great 

destructive and sanguinary doctrines oiyccts of the war (for, want of coc- 

of jacobinism, and tlie other to tinental cooperation) was no longer 

resist the inordinate ambition and attaitiable, resolved on n^ociating 

a^randizement of the new govern- for peace, and in this treaty they 

ment of France. In the latter ob- had preserved the British empire 

ject we cooperated with the other entire and- increased in its territo- 

powers of Europe i and had tlieir ries : tUey bad also preserved the 

zeal and eiertiom been equal to strictest good fojth to their allies, 

oiu' own, we should not now have ' by securing their ialeresti, even at 

vimessed the humiliating degrada- the expense of surrendering valual^ 

tion to which they ha^e been re- conquests we had m^e from the 

duced. As to the destructive prin- enemy. He therefore thought thev 

ciples which had been at war with had held forth to Europe on tbir 

every government, they had already (Occasion, an illustrious example of 

sutEciently manifested their own honour, of justice, and of laitb, 

malignity, to be for ever reprobated worthy of admiration and of ex- 

by the people of these realms. Even ample, and highly advantageous 

in France tliey were detested by both to our reputation and our intc- 

the great majority of ihc people, rests. He concluded by moving an 

as subversive of gove iiinicnt and address of thanks to liis niajesiy for 

social happiness ; and (bus, by the iiis gracio'^s commuukation, and 

excess of their own virulence and expressive ()f a firm reliance that 

malignity, they had effected their the ratifiraiion nf these prelimina- 

own destruction. We had main- rics would be advantageous to the 

tained unimpaired the purity of our interests, and honourable to the 

Guustitutiou. We had not only characterof the Briii-h naiiun. 



Hr. Lee Kconded thii roolinn. bnnic had stopped its payments, and' 
In onkr u» prove that this was a ctimtnercint credit bad received a 
** of a^nsston on - tlie part of violent shock. A spirit of daiiger- 
^raiux, tod merely defensive oa ous iiisubordi nation existed in our 
(be part of £ngUnd, he took a fleet, and the funds had fallen su 
i^roipective view.of tte cmduct low, as to make us almost dc^pnir 
ofttii caiiDCi)*in 17y2, wHBn so of the future resources of ihe i;m- 
^ &OIU- exhibiting any hostile pire. In Ireland,. attJiough rebellion 
*■e«^ she reducnl her forces had not absolutely taken the field, 
both by land and' sea, while France yet the most unequivocal seutiinciits 
OD the other hand was encouraging of disafllvtion had been -c.vhibiicd. 
plot* for the subrcrsion of our con- The navy of the enemy was at that 
nitntioD, and the moment it was time nearly cijual to our own, and 
possible for her to do so, attacked we had not a single frigate in ihc 
uir old ally, Holland. He cod- Meditemmean. The situation of 
wkred that the war, aa it had been the country now was widely dif- 
nece Miry , to it had added to the feretit, and yet we bad made many 
SJoty (rftbeBriiisb oamc, and had more cessions than that pra/el at 
giren additional KCurity both to lisle proposed to make. We had 
our conttitution and our empire, ceded Surinam, Minorca. Poito 
He ^m», however, do possibility ferrajo, and Malta ; and what had 
of makii^ any peace which would we obtained a« the price of all those 
oot be so far prccarioos as that it cessions i Notwithstanding, how- 
might be vyshitcd as soon a* it was ever, that the terms of this p^cc 
the interest of either power so to was far short of his expectatio'ns, 
do. He remembered the aayinjg yet peace ilietf was so desirable an 
o*' an emptor of Morocco, who object, and had been received with 
wishii^ to break a peace, andbeing. such general joy, that he should by 
ttiU t^ that would be violation no means oppose the address, al- 
of£sith, replied, " I t>rcak it be- tliongh. be conceived it bis duty to 
caote it is my interett/' He sus- make those observations, 
pectcd that this savage emperor Lord HawkcsburJ, at consider- 
tpokc, in plain Unnt terms, the able length, defended the prelimi- . 
hivai lan^i^e and policy of the naries. He first observed upon the 
modern courts of Europe. Ho comparison which liad been drawn 
^ccntidered, hown-er, that thispeace between tliein and the articles of 
promised a reasonable degree of the profel at Lisle. He thought 
pcrmaBrnce and security. that it wa« luifair to dwell upon 
Lofd lievison Gdwer coold by any comparisoci between them, as 
oo means admit that the prtgel the ^rijrVt at Lisle was but a prn/ff, 
odered at Lisle was any criterion and no person could venture to 
to judgp of the merits or demerits deny that Lord Grenville would 
d the present peace by. Tbe cir- have been glad to have taken less 
cumslances of U»e country were from the government of France than 
(ben totally dirterenl from the cir- he then demanded. After nine 
cuinstanccs under which the present years eliuiion of blond ; after an 
peace wa« signed. A short time increase of debt to the amount of 
bcture the oegotiaitioa at Lisle, the nearly 200 jnillioiu; after Ihe un* 
C 3 iuterruiHeil 


intemipted exntioDB of the coimtry, its rage anil impettjoMty : hdk \f diU 

and, at the tame lime, the most countiyhiHl imposed its fury with 

B[dendid and signal successes, there some tuccess t, if it had changed 

was no man who could deny bat that in direction into a cliannel lets 

peace was a most desiiable object, dangerous to tfce general irelftre, 

KtrtWitlistanding the zeal, howe\-er, sonK acknowledgnient was «Uic to 

with which he bad laboured fot tlic the wisdbni and »A of govern* 

public tranquillity, be solemnly ment, as well aa to t£e spirit awl 

otsclaimed the plea of over-raling exertions rf the countiy. It w« 

necemty, which some po'sons bad impossible to look at the preteac 

aet up. Althotigh be feh the pre- Mate of France without being coft> 

sent peace to be eligible and ade- vinced that we had effected that 

quste to the relative situatien^f the most important change) a ehu^a 

two countries, j-et be wouM not which is manifnt to the mtat su- 

pretend to say that it was free fiom potioal obsrrrer ib the mumers, 

^1 objections, and secure from all luibits, and opinioos of die people 
lisk and danger. He would not • o€ France. After ctmsidering wdl 

attempt to ptedfe himself for Ae the c^fectf of this change, aad tka 

stability of the present peace ; he existing drcunistances he coo- 

ahmiM canfine himself to Aat sidered that there had Dot been ■ 

(Question wlncfa vas peculiarly ba- time when fewa erila could be 

tore the house, whether his ma- esiectedfran) peace thmtrt present. 
jesty'a ministera in signing this -With regard to a coiAinnance of 

peace hai-e been to blame or not } hostilities, there were twp questions 

Inconsidcring'tliisque^^tionitwould to be considered: tirK, wfaethev 

be necessary to obserse the different we possessed the po*ei*oF forming 

grounds upon which this peace has another coalition agaiajr France f 

befii objected to. Some persons aecondly, what injury could Eng- 

cbject, fe:cau3e ihey say the object la»d nod Trance do to each other i 

of tlie «^r had not been ob- As to the first question, it most 

lained : tliey Male that the- object berecoUected that the tirst cnalitton 

of tlie war was to desiro)' repub- had failed, and that die eecondbad 

licanikm, and by m interference in fdso failed. Was it then very dft- 

thc JntemM affiiirs of France, stop sirous to hazard the experiment of 

iheprbgrcss of its revolution. This a third? But if wc should have 

Was an (i|)inkm which ■ he must desired it ever so strongly, the • 

utterly deny to have been wdl- iilemals of a new coalition were 

founded, and m the contrary he not to be found. We riiould look 

niuai dcdare that iliiii country had for them in vain iu Germany, 

been forced into the war by France, Prussia, or lUwitia/ A coalition 

It was France -who had interfered being therefore imM»sible, it on^ 

in the internal ailairs of other coun- remained to %onsi^ what harm 

tries : who boili opeiily and by her could England and France do to 

agents propagnted dbaftcttJou, se- each other by con;jnunig the war ? 

dition, anarchy, ani revolt iu tliis Tlw fact was, with our im» 

Country. The revolution wa» a mcnse r\ave\ sv^riority we codid 

torrett so dreHiIfnl, that no man not Mrihe any eilectual blow against 

tfr HI of meu could hope to check I'^ance, and neither porwer could 
3 ^ matdially 


ButerUIf aSect the other. Tliat Ottconan hxte we had not only 

< w» the dtne then vfhicb wu choKB recovered aU her territnriis, but 

hf both Ibr Biga'mg. a ' trea^ of even procored a ceuion on the }>:!rt 

p«3ce, :atk coDsideratioD of which of France of (be sgvereignty of Iho 

ii would be necnsary to vbscnc ex Veneuan islands, which io the 

upon the time,, the totie, and the hindsof Fmnce mi)^lit bet;xt£eini.-ly 

tEnatofit. The time was in the dangerous to tlie Turkish pmpiie. 

hoar of Tictoij' to thu country. For the ■tadthtddcr and the king of 

whra its trhun^ bj land and sea Sardinia, although not bound ta 

mre recmt, and the voice of them by any obligacion of strict 

peace could be listened to with faith, yet wc had done ii9 much at 

bcKiour both by the government and wa» possible. We had )ntoifere4 

the peof^. The tone was that of as lai u our mterlcrence cuuld hav* 

dignity and independence, far re- iveigfat. Having said to much with 

moved from any bumiliating idea, respect to the good taith of ihia 

either with respect to outlives or county, be shmild nest exaiQins 

ow allies ; and in speaking ot the the question of the acquitiiioni 

lenns be must disclaim die lupeortj made b^ the two countries. (M 

and condemn the opinicHU of Uiose this subject he should first tfyscrvc, 

who were fond of under-ratiDg the that it was the opinion of many 

mources of this cmntry, and ex- men of the sounde^ii judgment, 

tcdhng the power of tlie enetny. that an increase of power is by no 

The situation of the two countries means a ' necessary consequence of 

was materially di&erent j but tliat increased acquisitions. This prin- 

dijierence was one ot the siiongcst ciple applied equally strong to the 

reasons fer'the peace, llie lirst continental acquisitions of Fianct 

festnrc of this pejce was a strict and our colonial acquisitioos. In 

goodi«th and mai^itaaimtty towards the West Indies be c^uld not Mr* 

those powns who had been our ceive any cession which could b« 

alhes. We had stipulated that the the subject of regret, nor any poS' 

Ottoman Porte sliould he restored (cuion given up in the tast In* 

to all the possessions "w'hlcfa it held dies which could be the subject of 

b«bre the war. To PmIli^ we jeiiloxuy. ITie pinse««ions ibcro 

had g^vco every protection suitable ailed were not ciilculaled (tt $g- 

to our strewth and her iiitere^tif, gression ; if they were strongenough 

and as for Naftes we hni behaved tii attack us in the East, tlie IsUitd 

with UDoommon niagiiatiimity. of Maurttius would be the most 

Kapks had beeo c;illed upon by liinnidable point to cotnmeiice tlte 

France to exdudc o-ir sliipping atLick from. As for Minorca, the 

from her ports } -a|te went further, experieuceofallformer wars shows, 

and jtnnM in an alliance which tli:rt wc c:m make ouritelvcs niaiier* 

wotdd have uilrrantod on our part of it when we jdease, but thut 

a deeliration of war ; yet what wan we have always thouglu prupCT to 

on cunduci un the occasion } We restore >t at the peace, ana xavo our- 

imcifcred in her favour, and ob- selves the ex)>ense of ganinonin;; 

lained fM ber the restoration of her it. Malut in certainly, Irom its ,ii- 

territories, and the establishment tuation and impregnable state, of 

■f her independence. For ^ considerable pelibcal inipitian't- 
C« and 


and value; but ii neither is itsclfa some gentlemcD would call fJbrtoiu. 
■ource of traik, nor can its value It cerUi&ly was as favourable for 
be at aU ascertained from aay tccu- tliis country as any of tlie five last 
rity it may be sjipposed to gi>'c to tfe,iiies of peace, namely, tlic 
uur Levant trade. Our Lc\-ant Treaties pf Ryswick, of Utrecht, 
trade is in fact next to nothing. Ai]^-la-CliajK;llc, Paris, and \'«r- 
The amomit of the Britl:Jt exjMrts sallies. Ol tliose five treaties, it 
to the. Levaut do not exceed was only by tli at of Utrecht and the 
ll2,O0Ol. per annum, whicli is a- peace of 1/63 that vre acquired 
mere nothing to the general com- any tlimg. By tlie peace of 1783 
merce of Great Britain. That trade »e lost considerably ; not only our 
kas long been, and is likely to con- Amencaii colonics, but oUier va- 
tinue, principally in the hands of luable possessions; and as to tho 
the southern nations of Europe^ only two treaties by whicli we had ' 
whose commodities ai% more suit- bclbre gained any thing, it must bo 
able to that market. The Dutch, reculleoed, that in tl\e wars which 
however^ had, by the effect of verf preceded them France had beea 
wise regulations, enjoyed an exten- unsuccessful on the continent. He 
live trade to the Levant, withotlt could not conceive the consist- 
having any settlement in tlie Me- ency of those persons who could 
diterranean, andii was the intention sign the ^ro;ef at Lisle, and not 
of govemiiieut in this countr}- to sign the present treaty. The ques- 
adopt similar regulations. As lo tion was not now about a p«icc, 
the acquisitions we have made, be in which the continental power* 
thou^t he might, without over- were to tate a leading 'part, but a 
rating, state, that Ceyioo and separate peace between Great Bri- 
Triuidad were the two great naval tain and France. In tht pT<^el at 
actions of those parts of the world Lisle, all that was ask^ in the first 
to which tliey belong. Ceylon is instance was Ceylon, Trinidad, and 
peculiarly important : its ports are the Cape ; and although \i^ had 
•o capacious and secure, that the since made other conquests, yet 
whole commerce and lyvy ot' Great we had lost some, particularly the 
Britain could lie there in safety j impcutant possession of St. Domin- 
its. nabi'C productions are of great go. In appreciating the real strength 
\'alue, and its situation would aflbrd of France, we must babnce against 
(if necessary) a. retreat for our her territorial acquisitions, the dl- 
Indian army, which the united minution of her commerce, the' 
force of the world would not be ruin of her manuJacturers, and her 
able lodrive them from. Trinidad toss of wealth ; and in appreciatii^ 
is aUo of great importance as a our situation, we would 6nd, by 
naval station, and one of the most the great increase of Britilb exports, 
productiveat)d hfnl'Jiy islands inihe that oiu; substanti,<l power has in- 
West Indies. Such having been creasi'd in a propoition equal to the 
tlie results of the war, and such territorial increase of France, The 
acquisitions being secured to us by navy of GreatBritain liaddurine thia 
this treaty, .he thought tiiat tlie war obtained as decided a superiority 
peace must be allowed to be honour- as Iter commerce. In the beginning 
able, althpugb U nii^ht not be what of the war we bad liS ships of the 
. ■ " . lipc. 


lioc, and 133 rrigato,; on the 1st our wisest statesmen, >» an obfKt oC 
ti Oewber JSOl, wc had 202 sail the first inii>onancc to this countiy, 
of theliiK-, BnJ 277 ftigales; while Whenever a pence had becDkOiB-' 
the Frendi, who at tbe conunencci^ eluded between two conicndUig 
meat nf the war had 80 saik of the parties, it followed, of course, ihit 
line and 66 t>i°ale«, had, at the cud* one party had- ilie Eii|jeriority over 
diuioo, but 3d tail andSfi Irigates. ibe other, which K was tbir .and' . 
It woukl not be in the power of proper to exert for the purpose nf 
Fiance, 'with every cjwrtion she ensuring advantageous lerrns, Hiclt. 
ctKiM make, in a ten years peace, terms at least a« should place the 
to build a navy equal (o that of .country wluch accepted them in » ■ 
Great Britain, and he fdt convinced state of Hcurity. And lie htqttd 
that if even tlie war was irnewed, that the spiiit of the English woul4 
in seven, eight, m' ten years, this ever lead ilicm to resiiit, >villi 
cnunlrywouklbeginittoinuchgTeat energy and Jcclbion, terms of > 
eradvantage than they had done ilie difierent nature, frati^ht with dis- 
bsLThiicduotiy had been engaged honour, andr big v/ilh hun^ihation. 
iDalonganddreadfulci>niest,lHitshe Bui while he disclaimed the wild ., 
bid come out of \i with honour and notions which had been falsely im- 
idnniage; audaltlionghits^ittiation, puted to him, he should, hq hoped, 
■ well ai that of Europe, migbt ap- never be found anior^t Uiose faith- 
pear critical, yet he hoped in a leas watchmen of the state, who 
•oond system of policy, combining should seek to lull the p^ple into a 
£nniKU with moderation, there false security and a treacherous 
would be found s counterpoise to repose, but ei'cr act with such ac 
every danger, and a remedy tO' should endeavour to rouse iheiQ 
emy evil. to a just sense of existing danger, 
Ihe right honouraUe Thomas of a danger which thre^itened them 
Grent-iUe next rose, and stated liis with ruin, with annihilation. It 
cf)inioiK at cotMiderable lei^th. He bod been the ptaciice of some of 
■ nid, that those who had opposed the public papers 10 accuse those 
die peace had been represented as who condemned tlie pcuae, of be- 
frmiic pcopk, who contended that ing hostile to his majesty and to 

— of the French mo- his majesh-'* goveniment. He, 

urchy should be the one qua nun however, had no hostility to hi> 

of peace. Thii charge, luiwever, majesty, nor yet to the ministers; 

caald by no means apply to hint, but no dread of misrepresentation 

beciusc be bad never entertained should ever deter him trom giving 

such an idea. Gentlemen, there- his sentiments, ficely and fully, rci- 

fine, wbo advanced the charge, had specfing a measure which appeared 

{one further than they were war- to him calculated to incr^e our 

nnied to gou As to the right of dai^er instead of diminishing it. 

■Dtnference in the aflairs of France, He felt it his duty to oppose it, 

we had surely a ri^ to interfere and he would contend, that both 

fi» the purpose of pieveniing that in the present treaty, and in the 

enoTiDous aegrandizement, which convention with the Northern PoW'> 

' «>s big wiui danger to «uneh'ts. ers, ministers bad assumed an 

lltit had 4ver been cooiidered, b^ bumble tone, which would lead 


to comequMtees dangerous to the ertcd ftr the lame puTpose. Mr, 
Hlitence of the couDtrj-. .Iliegen- ^Irenville UieA entered into b ram— 
demen who had that night sup- parison of the tenni of the preatat 
Mitcd the peace, had purpose))^ tcnaty with Ac temu which wem 
aisH»])blcd the real ot^ect of the o&red to tu at IJsle ; and dearijr 
Ivar. He had n-cr coiuidered it as showed that the latter were far 
a war for mdemnitr/ and security. pi«ferable to the fonner. It had 
Tlie enemy had threatened the ex- been said, that the genn^ tacgnaga 
ittence of our liberties and our con- of the country in respect of the peace 
ititntion. To preserve them, then ; was, that it was such a peace as 
to pTCTcnt the dlffiiaion of princi- every man was glad of, bnt no man 
fk» cubvenive of all the bonds of proiid of. Bqt be hoped and bus- 
ciri) socie^ ; to obtatA indonnity pected, that llits waa an cpigram- 
fer the citpcntes which we had matic expression, and not a true 
been cataptiM to inflbr, and se- picture. For, if EngUshian amlit 
curity for the fiiturc, was the reaj ^ rg'oicf at « lad peace, at a ptatt 
and g v ow e d object of the war. »f whiik tkn/ cmiid not be proud, 
H^isten bad thrown oar sncceasea the natiomU character was MaHjf 
tnde; they sceme^ to have for- lost. Thoi^ the supporters of ibe 
gotten 001 victories, and to ban peace had prudently forborne to in- 
last sig^tt of owr cowinests. But sist on its gfoty, they still pets^ 
Ihe recohecfton of those victories vered in representing it as homur- 
and those coiMQcsts would remain afik. But in what light was it Ao- 
te heig^n and to agf^ravate the re- nnura/iU 9 The noble lord bad eon- 
fiections tbat must arise from the tended, and truly contended, liiat 
contemplation trfour sarrifices. To time and circumatanc** were ne- 
hare been Tfctorious, and yet to cessary considerations in the can» 
be treated as a vanquished nation, dusion of a treaty ; but lif: was at 
was a galling and a jnortifying te- a loss to perceive the wisdom of 
flection to a British mind. It im- that pdicy, which would reject 
plied, indeed, a enntradietion of better terms in a moment of di** 
terms, and a conftision of ideas, may,' and accede to worse in the 
"which no acuteness co«ld r«»ncile, hour of victory and con6dencc ; 
no strength of nndentanding din- there might be a show of magna- 
pel. The noble lord (Hawkeshury) nimity in sncb conduct, but was it 
fiad begun by stating, that the pre- wise, was it politic, was it rompat- 
sent period -w«s very dtflfercnl from tible wiih the real . interests of the 
that at which the former negotia- country } — Let us see in what ra- 
tion took place ; that. we had ori- spect it was honoorable, a; tt rdates 
^nally oppossd the principles of toourallies} hew far their interests 
nance, cntt httcrly 'v.t had op- hat's been consulted. Ministers 
posed tier power. But in his have assumed great credit to thetn- 
opinion both led to the same end ; stives for their conduct towards oiw 
and if the power of Prance threat- allies. What has been done for 
ened the existence of this country, them ? Tvirkey was the ooly power 
it was as moch our interest and our which cotdd be truly said to be in 
«duty to oppose that power, as it was alliance with iis. It was said Aat 
to oppose iier principlei, when n- the integrity of the SuUirao Porte 



M been seemed. Bat '« that Mediteianesn, he. ba^ «n}y tTie 

kr ofigaoa ? does she fed te- little i<ibnd of Sardinia IcA, for the 

ran i A week after this itipnl^ Mcunty of which he vas solely io- 

tkiD far ber wcarity, ^ week sfter debtcd to tbe protectioa of our 

thii rxtniordiiiBry autance of mir fleet; a protectioa which he would 

/mglianiiiiitf had been displayed, lose the moment the definitive 

T'urkry preferied the guarantee ^ treaty shonld be signed. The next 

hnetxmy to that of her ally, and of our allies, the integrity of whose 

those to negotiate for boself. As dominions exhibiti an illustrioui 

n« had compelled the French to proof of o»ir magnanimity, is Por- 

e\-aniate B^jpt, both tbe security tngal. On this subject he h^d en- 

cf Turkey and our own tequired deavouicd to obtain inl'ormatjon ; 

ihat wc should have retained in our bat he had not been suiiicientlf 

possevien sooie strong fortress, successful to speak wilh decision 

ginisoMd by British trpops. With- on it. He adverted to the treaty 

out thi* prccantion, what was there of Badajos, and to tlie cession of a 

to ptir*ctit the French frotn return- Mrtion of tbe Port\igiie3e territory 

iog to Egypt ? At the vcij moment in the Brazils ; and he a^ked wIk- 

vben we msgnanimously stipiilated tiier it was to be understood that 

for tbe cvacaition of that country, cur treat}' with France sanctioned 

thaewaa not a Fiench soldier re- that cession? Portu^l, likes Naples, 

nacniog in it, (thanks to general had been secured by us in the in- 

Hutcbinson, wiiote military skill, tegrity of hi.'r possessions; and our 

«hoee6rm perseverance, and whose m^namlnit/ on this occasion h:id 

aaaly courage could only be ex- been Iciidly vaunted by the noble 

ceeded by his modesty,) wlio was lord, because those two powers Lid 

OM « prisoner to our gallant, per- formed fci«irate ti-caties with the 

•Tvering, and victorioinarmy. As enemy. But were not Ihose trea- . 

•» tbe tntegrity of Naples, thai wa^ ties the effect of compuljion on the 

as insecure as Turkey ; Cjr, though one hand, And the result of con- 

•c French troops had evacuated a quest on the other i Should we 

part of the Neapolitan territory, have be^n justified in decj3ri:i<; war- 

what -Was to prevent them irom against Portugal and Naples tbr 

letnnuag, especially a* they re- yieldinj^, agatiisi their will, to dire 

taned posiession of the Ciialpine necessiiy ? If no blnme, tben, at- 

lepdldic ? " I wish to know what is tached (o Portugal, ii she ought 

ft) pRrent the French who evacu- really lo be considtrc-d as oiu ally, 

aced Naplea to-day, Monday, from as no human being could sv^ect 

WLLitci'ing it on Wednesday, the her of possessing the ability to re- 

diKoBce /rona the Cisalpine re- Gist hei enemy, there could not be 

poUic not being more than sixty the smallest reason for any diminu- 

jaitts }" Sncb i» the situation, such tion of our altachiijcnt to her. How 

the security, Hiih the integrity of have we provided for her security ? 

Nicies. In canting our eyes over The preliminary articles will tril 
the map of Europe, we look in vain us how. Mr. Grenvillc then toolc 
for the kingdcxn of S^rditua. The a lar^ bundle of papers out of his 

Knitstks erf his Sardinian majesty pocket, but begged the hoiise not 
l>v% only in oar memory. In the to be alaimed, as he only meant to 


28 ■ ANNUAL REGISTER, 1803. 

lead about half a dozep luiei. He (hey were given. The cturfnct of 

then read the tullowiiig articles uf que goveciunent in the -iiegotiatioa . 

the preliminary treaty. V. Egjpt, at Lisle .was veiy diflerent; thcy^-. 

diall be restored to the SubUni^ did whM-w«s wi»e a)id' proper ta 

Povte, wLom; dominious and pps- attain jieace for ihe good of-tlie 

sessions shaU be secured iu their country. I hey selected cerlaia 

integrity such as they were befijre points of lnip<iriance, which it was- 

the war. VI. Tlie territories an^ necessary, fur tlic preservatipn of 

possessions of his Most Faithfiil Ma- tliat honour, to iusitt upon. He 

Jfaty shall also be maintained in was surprised to hear curtain ex.- 

their integrity. France, as far -a? pressioas wiii<;h had fellen firoin (be 

any treaty ca.i bind her, has con- noble lord, relative to tlte acquiai- 

eluded a peace wiiL Portugal ; but tions we had made by the preheat 

on what terms ? She has taken from [>eace. which he contrasted, wiib 

lier Olivenza atid the adjoining ler-, lord M^me^bury's projel, the )vi^ 

ritory, which Spain had long co- dom of which he eKtolled. , 'VVe. ^ 

veted; and furwhich nothing more should have been fully justified 'in 

was requisite' than lo express a the retention of Ceyl«n, the Cfpe, 

wish, in order to obtain it from and Cochin, for the more efteclual 

France. France, at the same time, drleiice of our eastern 'ero^re- 

took for herself a portion of ihs When we look at the cessionSi 

Brazils, which gave her the. corn- vhicb we have made, ^t-e should 

mand of the riter Amazon and the lind the conquests we bad rC" 

whole of the adjacent coast. Mr. taineu coniparatiicly trifling. Hia 

Grcnvillc quoted monsieur de la mind was not at ail satisfied with 

Condiinine, in order to show the thesituatlnn in which the Capewas. 

advantage which France would de- left by the treaty- We had ceded 

rive from llic pos-sessiun of this a port wliich might become a -great 

tract of country, in addition tp annoyanti^ lo oijr trade, 'i'he CajiQ 

ivhat !>he already enjoyed in the furiiiDhcd aa'i'i'''^y station of vast 

pioximity of Dutch Guiana. Is iniportance in the event of a sudden 

tJiis the mode of guarantying tlic viai-, not preceded .by a proela- 

pus^essions, of securing the inte- mation. 'Ihe marquis Corniw^llii, 

grity of a fiiithfui ally f If iuicgriiy in hi.s return from India, bad. 

and dismemberment be synonj'iuous strongly .pressed the necessity of 

terms, tlien, itideed, the asseriiott retaining Cochin, and the Cape {■ 

may be true. Iu allusion to the or if only one of them cuuld be 

term honourable, which the noble retained, tJie Cape in prefcreuco to 

lord has absurdly applied to tlic Cochin.. Though Ceylon was .in, 

peace, every man must foel that important setilcinent. Cochin, od 

no peace was safe that ^^as not the western side of the peninsula, 

honourable, and ilut no peace was was one of (he strongest miliuu)'. 

himouraUle whidi was. not sale; frontier, in India. Intheeveuiof 

but, uuforiimati'ly, this peace was a war, a &cet might sail- from the 

neither safe nor bonouiable : uor Cape and.arriv# at Cochin beforei 

could any peace ; be honourable, any person in India cotild know of 

which gave us territories . tliat did il« arrival, and. before any penoD ia 

nut belong to the power iiy vbom England could be apprised qt iu 



idln^. He ow^t possibly be told, the preliminary treaty, Bunllar to 

tint out merchantmen were adviied one which wai prepared at the ne- 

ID imid the Cipc ; that; ihe im- gotiation at Li,-le, which itimilated 

portiDCR of that settlement was not for the resloratign of ihejphole pio- 

•0 great M WM represented ; and pcrty of ihe house of Orange, or 

that our ships might touch at the the fiill value of it in money! 

BniSs. The tettlement which There conld be no objection to this; 

the hench had acquired in the but we wanted the spirit, the ^- 

Bniils would, in that case, give gour, or courage to suppon an ally, 

additional importance to France, who bad been so unfortunate as to 

The Cape and Cocbio were insisted be an enemy to Prance ! Though 

OD by lond Malmesbmy, at Lisle, be did not tliink the peace of 178S 

a* poiutsfrom which we wouldnot was either glorious or honourable { 

sonde ; and these were now-given jet he would recommend it to the 

vp, from that want of vigour^ spirit, gentlemen to read the preliminaries 

and prodeace which mark our no- to that treaty, and compare them 

pHiatkuw. An attempt liad been with the present. Let the cessiom 

made to represent; tht: Levant trade made then be compared wStb the 

as uninqmrtaat .to- this country, cessions made now; and, tbongh 

BfK our ,ifl»nttfacturers, he con- he thoueht the former a tel 

-crired, .ifqald tell a far didlerent peace, which presented nothing but 

tale. VfM it tme that Malta was defeatandhurailtMion.yctWDoldtbe 

mnonxirtaat ;— that fortress vdiich latter t>e found infinitely worte im 

had . iiHtBined a blockade of nearly itself, and unfortunately more dan- 

tvD yean ? It could not be sen- gerous in its conseqaences. Th« 

ously contended. To rescue Malta present peace was not faononrable, 

sod E^ypt from France ii deemed in respect of our allies ; nor was it 

an object of prhnary importance; necessary to be made. Mr. Ad- 

bot when it is considerrd expedient dingtnn had indignantly disclaimed 

to give tbem up, thet importance the plea of necfssicy. Altbougfo a 

mddenly vanishes, and they be- dlRcrence of opinion exiated as to 

come trivial and- insignificant. No the terms of the peace, no one 

part of the treaty of pence, nor any would contend t^at we were re- 

thing connectol with it, excited so duced \p tlic necessity of making 

mucii astonishment in bis mind, a peace, dishonourable to our allies 
as oor treatment of the bouse of or unsafe to ourselves. He con- 

Oni^, except the defence of that trasted the terms of' the peace of 

treatment. Britain was formeriy Utreolit, and nf the peace of 1763, 

boond by a solemn treaty witli that with those of llie present peace ; 

bouse. He understood some pri- showed the vast increase of power 

vate arrangement was making, be- whicli France had accjuired now, 

lwe«n France and Prussia, relative and the consequent increase of dan- 
U> th.ll subject. But the paioce of ger to ourselves. Tlie noble loni 

Orange was not to be thrown as an had contended, that our danger did 
outcast oa tlic world, by those for not accrue from ilie existence of 
whom he had sacrilUvd his aH, republican principles in France, but 

Where would have been tlie ditfi- from the extent of her powerj tliat. 

txity m intfodiiciog an article in in this respect, ihiiigs had changed. 


so ANNUAL REGISTER, 1802. - 

ildn^ttitts mch to be the case, wtiidi had taken place in ths'puhite 
could any rnau \'ie\v tlie present mind, both in Ireland and in Fr^icu. 
power of Franctr, and cousequentlj Lord Temple highly disapproved 
ear preeegt danger, vHhoat sbud' of the concession? which miiiiRtem 
A;ring^ lo the .eveiit of a war, had made, as dangerous to the safe^f, 
iKitwithstandrDg onr stipulations, all and degrading lo the honour of Sng- 
the ports mid fortresses in the Me- land. He had seen with i^rct, 
iditerranean wonld be seized by that a party of degenttrated Eng- 
J''tance, and shut against us. She will lishmcn were to be found, mean. 
' jBioaopoluie its commerce in time emx^ to draw the coach of gen. 
irt pcfice, its powrr in time of var. I^urtiilon thmugh llic ^ireftts of 
Acting itpon euch a principle of l.,ondon, with ciics of " Long live 
ttego^nSJaa, or rather of sacrifice, fionapait^." 31iis w-as on atflictuig 
mad let the' definitive treaty be prospect, and ffugurcd no good to 
«DTNpletcd, and he would desire to the coantry : but this wat in eome 
^nov wbe&cr it would not place degree encouraged by liie conduct 
«f m 8 state of war with France in of ministers ; for he uiidcriitood tbM 
•welve msDths ? Could peace be gmetti Lauriston was accomj u^it 
fjood a its duration were so short i from France by a person who had 
it would reduce us to the necessity be«n twice sent out of the eom^or 
w( ditisaatling^ our navy, and dia- under the alien act ) that on his ar- 
^■fniitH; our amy and our I'oluij- rii'al the proper offioer rccogoizii^ 
4eers I it bad dt^red m of all the him, refused him permission to land, 
aailituy pmnts and stations ; and, till general Lauriston dedaivd that 
ocCVritttststidiag all onr eLenions of in Utal case he wcaild retura with 
•COBomy, what would be our state, the preliminaries ; and this man be 
ifftance, in the course of twelve understood was in the coach with 
jtifluths, should take us unprepared, general Lauiiston when he was 
aai direct her whole power against drawn in triumph tbrougli the streets 
19} .He called U]K]0 tlie house be- of London, 'end that ministers had 
rioiuly t9 rtfiect on our situation ; .not the spirit to t.ike notice of the 
wd ta ask themselves what state circumstance. If that was a True 
we should be ^aced in if Finance statement of tlie lact, it was rather 
ritould so decbre war ag^nst us ? an tmbappy omen of what this 
Uid they not believe that sudi a country had to expect from a Con- 
Mar must shake our country to the nexion with France, under its pre- 
■ary ceoMr? Feeling, as he did, sent ministers. He opposed minis- 
that tfae peace was nwther honour- tcre from no factious motive, but 
aWe to oar«Uies, nor safe to onr- betause fiffsidcerely thoiiglit thfbi 
mIvce, fce should pvc histftccided unworthj' of llie confidence of the 
Mntive b> the motion. public. He was aware tliat his oh- 
Zord Castlereagh supported the jcclion": would not be supjiortcd by 
KAce, and thought it bid as tair to those who were in tlic constant ha- 
te lasting as any which Iind'cvei- bit of opposing. the conduct of ad- 
preceded it. This peace, at least, minisir.ilion, but he dtd not wiSli 
would Vy Ranee, and be thought for the sujjport of any man who 
ttbut&ir to give hern trial. He could declare his pleasure at the 
fokei micb fia the ffsat change peace, " becaiKC it wns glMJuOE to 


* tbe eaai^." Sqcfa a tenlliitMit be paaaftoTj m our demand*. H* 
thought by no lueaus becoouug a thaught the principle mid the tcnw 
piriot or an Eagli^ihmaaj and any of the ticaiy had been w«U des<xibed 
pcicc fouoded on it must be hoUow by bis uuUe fiieod (lord Hawke»- 
ud Mispiciou*. bury). Our grand objoct was to 

Mr. Pin said, that he had upon add fresh tecurity ta our atarititne 
this occaiiiou the miafortune to dif* sureoglh and coimaerdal gseataeas. 
faficaa some uf those with wbom We did not seek tu retain any a£ 
he had beea long united in the ties our conquests which we did not 
of piivotc ijricndship and political materially want, and whieh wen 
ofunion. He should begin by ob- unconnected with our ancient pos- 
wTving, that whatever vaiicty of seisioiis. In tlwj tail and Wcit 
kcQiinKUitt oDce existed, as to what Indies we had got every tbiug that 
govcmmcniswe omiit toliejt with, we could reawuiably dcound ; and 
ubatei er objects it might have once if wc consented to gite up our <4ia- 
hccM thought most advisable to queisis in tlte Meditenrjuean, what- 
punue in the coucic of the war, for ever ^ory we had acquired in inaJt- 
soNie time past all have agreed tliat ing these conquests, tt must be con- 
the questkoi of peace and war w3« iessed, that the Mediterranean aii^ 
now a nu-re question of terms. X>evant were ofmuch less importance 
Alter ibc continental alliance had to British commerce than the £Hst 
been dissulvedi notbin^ remained and West Indies. Although cfalaia 
for us but u> procure just and bo- ports in that quarter might be use- 
GonnbkcunditiunsDfpeacefbiour- iul iu a futuie continental war, ytt ' 
sdvei and the few allies which bad when we were seletHing whicli ek 
not deserted us. Wlien it became ova conquesw we nhould . rctaiu, 
tnerti) a question of terms, he was wc should oertauil^' prefer tJiuse 
much Dioce aimnus as to the tone which are conuectcd with ibe 
aad character of the peace, than coiutjiit and (lermiiiieut liourccs ot" 
about any particular ob)ect which our pru>p<:rity. Aa io Minorc:!. 
should come into dispute. Although during Ui<: four last wars it had ee- 
be conceived it the duty of evety gularly idiUtcd bands. In peace it 
minjuer to obtain the beiitjwssible was of no importance, and in wm 
Kmu iot the state to whidt he be- the power which was sirungcn at 
luigedj yet as long as the pt:acc was tea alunys took it. He was sorry 
buoourabk, he sboild prefer ac- we could not retain Malta ; but jf 
cqiLii^ teons, even kiiort of what we wi:re obliged to give it up, .he 
be thought the couutr>' eniJiJed to, did not know in what liands it-could 
to wking the remit ol'ibKBegotlaUun better be placed llian those HVio- 
by too<ibitinate anadhcience tcany tinned in the iri^iv. Turniiii; ti> 
^rtJcular point : alihot^h certainly the East InJios, hr-, felt regime .-it the 
every tiling bad not Jjoco obtained cf.'S<ion ofthp C:i^: of Gv>i>d,I^jjp^, 
by tAe pidinunaries, ytX iLdid;nct v/hich he had bcnii aLwH;):s aucu«- 
agfcax to him that iht dilturcrice tumrd lo i£ttm3teinore liiglfly tiutn 
bttweea .those tcnns and what the i^ls -iKtUedViexd, biTt <itdiliu consi- 
coontiy had a right to, was to be ccred much k-s; inriorTaiit thaii 
C<am>ared with the c\'iU which Ceylon, which was to us (he .w^i.'. 
sughtiiave resulted &om -Jiang too ralublt: CiuOLiiU pus^c^^ioo tin Oa 



globe, as giving to oor lodian em- - 'hat the war in Italj had done, we 

. pire a security whidi it bad not etw never could restore Uie king of Sar- 

joj-ed from iu first establiithment. dinia to bis ftwmer situation. With 

Af to the arrangement proposed by respMt to Portugal, we had not only 

lord Msitaeahuif about Cbcbin, be exhibited the mosl punctilious good 

did not fed himself at liberty to fatdi, hut fiie most dJgni6cd libera- 

itate how ftr lord MalmcEbuiy had 'ity. France would have insisted on 

bi?CK pcnnitted by his inttructions far more considerable cessimM, had 

to recede from the pr<sft preiented it not been for our interporitioti. A« 

«t Lisle : but It waa evident that 'o our guaranty of the consdlution 

Codun was not now of the im- of Holland ini7B7> could it be fbr- 

portance it possessed w^ile Tippoo golten irfiat exertions we had mad* 

Saib was master of tbe snrrounding to support it ? As to a mere pecu- 

^atncts. It waslikeBerwick-npon- niary indcmnitjfco .the stidtholder, 

Tweed, which, while the SoHdi which was all that was aiked at 

were a separate people, was of great Lisle, it was an object of too trifling 

importance at a fortitred frontier importance to endanger the aoccca 

town; but after the whole ishmd of a negotiation about. Many gtt- 

WBs happily united, what was the llemen seemed to think, ttnit we 

political importance of Renvick- had ceded possessions which w%xe 

vpan-Vwtteni? While Tippoo ex- important to our security; he, on 

med, the supplies he might have the contrary, thought that what we 

received from the port of Cochin, bad-ceded waa not unimportant to 

hi the bands of France, was a most our commerce or finance, but had 

fn^Mrtant consideration, but at pre- Rotliing to do with our 'security : 

aent, even Ncgapatam waa of more the retaining them- would not have 

coMeqnence than Cochin. Mr. maintained tbe integrity of Portugal, 

Pitt also expatiated at great length Naples, or Sardinia, nor wtiuld 

on the importance of Trinidad ; he I^ave depri\-ed the French of any of 

said, that with the terms of peace, (hat iinmeiue line of coast which 

>• ibey regard ourselves, he was causes our dismay. A little man 

Completely satisfied. They were commerce, m littie more finance, 

also Mtisfaetary with respect to our after a continuation of the war for 

allies : for the Pone we had done some years fonger, would b? a bad 

erery thing we were bound to do, bargain : unless it was possible to 

aod a great deal mwe. Ihc recog- rahe up a new confederacy more 

nition of the republic of the Seven un.inlmous and better cemented 

Isbnds was of the utmost import- than the fonner-ones, war rragbt 

«nce, as the very existence of the not only M nn idle waste of tresp- 

Turkish empire was in danger, rf sure, btrt miglit leave the relatife 

they should be left in tbe bands uf siiunTion of tbe Country worse than 

J-'mnee. ForNapleswehadiioueCTery it is at preiwnl. France had not 

thing wliicli could have been 4iHie, insisted on the u/i possidetis with 

even if the treaty lutd still o&ted ilic nations she comjuered on the 

widi that pou'cr. As to Sardinia, it continent, much less hodV-e a right 

was evident, th,ii unless we had the to insist upon that basis with her. 

power to diJisolve the Cisaljiinc and It would be strange indeed if «-« 

Llgiu1::n republics, and undo all should expect that the gigantic 


fnm of ID eneniy ibould be a stmction. . At oUier time* «■* 

|TDuiuI for obtaining better temii mijjht hare thought of driving 

(ban could reasonably be atked if France within ber ancient limiti, 

Ik vsi feeble. It would be strange and even strengthening the barriers 

language indeed for a negotiator to of her tidghbours : but now that 

Ht lo France, YoQ arc so formida- every hope of success in such a 

tie, and so exceedingly elarm us, plan is vanished, it l}ecoine3 right 

tbat you must give us a share of to consider the actual situation of 

jooi possessions to make us equal, the two conntrici. To remain ob- 

A vnah of this sort might be ex* stinate after circumstances had 

preved. but it could not reasonably changed would be the nwst fatal 

be expected that it would be grati- of errors. He coincided with what 

&d. had fallea from his noble friend 

As to the prcMat goreminent (lord Hawkesbtiry), that when we 

cfFrmcE and the hrst consul, he speak ot the aegrandisenjetils of 

Amid abstain from any disrespect- Prance, wc should also take ihto 

ftd or irritating language, as every the account her losses, both In po< 

nude of ontward respect was due ■ pulation, capital, and industry ; we 

U fverr goremment with which must take also into the account the 

«e were at peace. His o]Hnioii of acquisitions of other powers. The 

^ past however remained un- growthoftliis country too bad been 

iltscd. This country was at first immense, and by the advantages we 

oOed Dpoo to resist an attack had gained by the union with Ire- 

^nst aU existing governments ; its land, by oui naval and military re- 

otqen was security. He must con- pntation, by the consolidation of 

te that his majesty's ministers then our Indian empi^, and the increase 

thought that the disscdaiion of the of our conunerce, we might well 

ittohuionary govenuncnt was the hope, that if tlie country wot true 

ben means of obtuning this securi- to itself, that it would enjoy a long 

tr. but be never reckoned it a train of prosperity and happiness. 

nt jwa noji : be then thoi^t the He concluded by giving his sincere 

iHtoration of mMiarchy would be assent to the motion. 
1 l>a{<py thii^ &a Fnuice and for Mr. Pox Mid. that since he bad 

Eonipe : he thought so still, and he been member of that faonsp, he 

•hmld confess that, to his dying day, never gave his assent with greater 

he should regret the disappoint' satisfaction to any measure, Iban he 

nirat of his hoi>es. He should now did to the preliminanes of 

hsre been happy to have put to- peace. He considered that this 

FtLw the fragmenli ofmat ve- peace must be allowed to be honour- 

BerdJe edifice which had been so able by those who supported ii, or 

oneUy scattered ; but when that else it could not meet their appro- 

"i^ became nnatt^ablc, he must bation, or be con^idei^ sati:. With 

Iske that which was within his nations, as veil as individuals, ho- 

rach. TTiey had survived the ra- nour is tl»c most essential meas* of 

v^t of jacobinism) they ha<l, at saiety. VTithout honour i natioa 

™, lircd long enough to see it can neither cx[>cct lo m^et respect 

l"K raucfa of its vimlenCe, and at home, nor confidence abroad, 

flipped of (bo«e delusive M^ori which sat absolutely necCsiary to 

*i>icb once nve itits powcis of dc- the true grcatucis uf a natioa. Na- 
V;,L.Xl.rV. P , , ^.^,^„^t«»a» 


VukmI boneuF be had therefore al- pretend to Teoommend a ronlinuallon 

ways held forward as an object of the war. When the horrible e\il 

of the first unportanoe. As to a was cOtisideFed of the bulk of the 

glorioiu peace, no peace can deserve people subsistiog on charity, it must 

that title but the peace which fol- appear infinitely better that th(7 

lows a ^orioiu war, which it a de- should be able to purchase by their 

seriptionio^ilicableto thelatewar, labour that subsistence which the 

either in its original, irrinciple, or war had put out of their reach, than 

final rcudt. The great points for that we sliould iosi't on retaining 

pies^nt coasideration be conceived either Malta or the Cape. Some 

to be two : lst:» Wbctlicr peace on regretted that the peace was glo- 

the conditions obtahied, is preferable rious to France ; (or bis part] if 

to a continoance of the war i 2dly, the peace could be glorious to 

Whether better terms could have Prance without being di^toaaurable 

been had? As to what might be. to this country, he should not fed 

gained or concedeii bctweiii two concern at it. As far as the object 

great nations, he pertVctly agreed of the war was a restoration trf the 

with what had been stated by lord bouse of Bourbon, it was to him a 

Hawkesbury : he considered Ceylon recommendation of the peace, tliat 

and Trinidad as very impwtani ac- that object should lave failed ; had 

(luisitions; and allhongh he admit- it succeeded, the general liberties of 

t«dthe importanceof Mal(a,3ndre- mankind would have been endan- 

gretted llie necessity of giving it up, gered. Hien would have followed 

yet he could not flatter himself that coalitions of princes for the mutual 

we could have obtained peace on expression of their subjects: had 

better terraa. We could produce such coalitions formerly eiisied 

no serious pressure on France, and among the princes of Europe, Eng- 

perhaps it was better not to risk the land would not now have enjoyed a 

rupture of the negotiation, by in-- free constituti(»i. Were such coali- 

siating on an article which the pride tiona of princes now to be made, it 

or prejudice of the enemy would would be the greatest nusfifftune 

have led him to retire. Prance and which could befall tliis country. As 

fii^and were now in s«ch a situa- t» the maxim which had been laid 

tion, that neither could produce any down by a right honourable geuilo- 

coDsideFabte impression on iheother. man (Mr. Pitt), that when ilie exe- 

In Europe, ne could not aflect culivc govemmcrtt makes peace, 

Aance; in the colonies, we had men in high stations should abstain 

done every thing we ; and from inilaminatoiy or insulting lan- 

. happily the present ministers did not gnage; tf this is true after peace is 

speculate on the financial difficulties concluded, how much more forcibly 

ofFrance. If too much importance would it apply to using such inflam- 

hsd been attached to trifles, we maloiy language aa he had used, be- 

thould have risked another year of forewarhadeverbeendedared.'Witb 

war, which, dthough oiff resources respect to the terms and the tone of 

luould be able to carry us through, the treaty, he perfectly coincided 

would certainly be a great evil. Even with the noble lord (lord Hawkes- 

those who cry o«t the most loudly bury), but as to the time of id n^ 

aninst the tcinu of peace, would not mtut >tiU imistj that txKfi before the 




war began, and at almosl every mitted in that counirj in 1797, b/ 
{■eriod since, better terms ihsn the no mentis derived tE^t appellation. 
present were ia our power. The If however tlie effect of the peace 
neguliation at Paiia broke off en ac- should be, that the habeas coipus 
ciMDt of the extravagant ternu we act was to be again put in force, 
then demand^, and in the failure* and the common la'-v established, 
of tiiat at, Mr. t^^t had de- hcbhouldrejoice ; heshouldreccive, 
dared, tiiyt he trembled lest it however, the resiorajion of the li- 
sboold euccei^d, and employed it bertics of the country as a right, not 
only to asiist his schenics of tin.ince. as a boon. 

Even passing by the regntiatioiis at Mr, Addington rose about three 
Parik and at Lisle, we might have o'clock, and apologized Ibr troubling 
had much better terms when Bona- the house at so late an hour; he 
parte made overtuiet of peace. It said it had been the leading feature 
was then said, we must pause. We of bis majesty's present adniinistra- 
did pause, and (bat pnuse cost us, tion, to endeavour to efface that 
beside the lives of thousands, ^ngry aspect and tone which bad 
tevcDij-three millions of money, been apparent not only to France, 
Thii waji more than the whole of but to all the countries in Europe. 
the national debt from the revoiu- The cessions which Portugal had 
boo to the year 1755. Tlius Vr. been obliged to make in Guyana 
Rtt's pause had cost liiore than the were not considered by Portugal 
ricturies of the duke of Marlborough herself as likely to t^e prejudical to 
and king William tugeiber. I'he her essential interests: although aa 
experience of the hrst coalition honourable gentleman had spoken 
oiK;ht to have taught ministers nut with much levity of the service we 
to have placed too much confidence hud rendered, and the security we 
ia a second. And it must be al- had obtained for Naples, yetiftliat 
lowed, that the excessive a^mn- honourable gentleman would take 
dizemrnt of Prance was not the ef- the trouble of ^leaking to the Nea- 
f rt of the p^ace, but of the w,ir. po/iian ambassador on the subject. 
He was of opinion, that for rbe fu,- he would find Ibat the king, hi< 
tare, to enjoy the blessing*, of prace, master, was perfectly content with 
WFihouIdcKufioeoursehes to small wliat had been done by this coiuitr)-. 
eWabVislmients, and cot pretend to He trusted a right honourable gen- 
cojie wiih h'rance in heepi()g up ex- tieman (Mr. Windham) would not 
pensive armies : he tliought the new wish, by a further continuance of 
order of things would cherish, on the war, to driTe this country into 
b-xh sides, picific dia])ositioos i and such an extremity of danger, and so 
that it V.M in nn iucrea-icd comhu-rce completely to eilwust its resources, 
that it should never again, in any 
future war, be able to oppose any 
check to the aggrandizement or am- 
bition of France. For his part, he 
felt no desire to depriie France of 
her distant colonics, nor of her due 
pri)portion oi commerce ; and as to 
her form of povernmeut, this ccnin- 
02" try 


ttj in time of peace had nothiog to argameitlnm ai kvmintm agaiiwt 

do witli it, and it should Uc ilic him. Hr should allow tltat the 

principalol^cctofliisadministratiou present qtieslion was not so much 

toprcserve faithfully a peace which n'hcthcr tbc peace was good or bad, 

had Iwen honestly made. lumourable or dishonoDrable, ade* 

I)r. Liiwrence, Mr. Wtndliam, quate or inadequate; those consi- 

tnd Mr. Grenville-, explained, and deratiooa were but parts of the 

thehouse, on account of the liitrTK-.ts qimtion, which was really this: 

«f (by hour, sdjourwd tlie debate. Whether the peace which hat beea 

On the nrjt day, previous ta the concluded is or is not better than a 

renewal of the dclmie, lord Tem[ile contim^imco of the war? To an- 

asked inini);t(-n whether \hty had »wci this question rightly, it was 

been infi)n)icd of the ratification necessary not only to consider the 

of the treaty between France and cessions which had been made at 

Portugal, which , wm stated Jii the peace, but the effect which 

t)ie French o'Aici^ journal', and those ccKsions produced on our na- 

whciher the ritification extended tional character. If the peace has 

to any new cessions since tl)c treaty been concluded on terms which 

of Itadajos ? L^ird Hawkesbury re- lowered tie character of this na- 

plied, tJiat lio Iiad no information tion; if any symptoms of weakness 

on the subject but from tlie French w«re discovered in it, then perhaps 

papers 1 but that the^ ratification a continuance of the wai woiui 

certuinly did not extend to any new have been better thsn such a peace, 

cessions. It had been often stated in thai 

Mr. Windliam delivered his sen- house, and perhaps truly, that the 

tUnehts at grwt length againiit the preservation of national honour was 

peacf. Every thing lie heard and almost the only legitimate ground 

saw inade liim more strongly dis- of war. Xatimal honour was cer- 

approvcofthe terms of it. Not- t«nly a subject of the first-rate 

witfistanUing tlie lone of vigour and importance : if we permitted an^ 

dignity assumed by Mr. Pitt, he violatioiis and aggressions in this 

could draw no inference from bis quarter, it would immediately lead 

aignments, but that we are com- us to infamy and ruin. [Here 

pletely in tiic po\i'er of the enemy, Mr. Windham r^d an extract 

Hnd have flo other security but the fi^ni Junius, comparing the deU- 

disposiiion be may please to show, cacy of national honour to that rf 

He thou^it he perceived iKgcneral feimle parity.] The situation of 

apathy to the danger of the conn- things, as settled by tlie peace, is 

try, a gcner^il disregard for its ua- this. Austria has been conqoeiw'i 

tional diguity and honour, which and has lost her rank among tbe 

made Jum /tremble for its. future nations, and there remains no coon- 

d«stiny. Tlie qneslionof'lhe pre- tcrpoiie in Europe for the peat 

itent treaty had nothmg to do witi power of France. In the East, 

the negotiation at Lisle, no nMN rondicherry and Cochin has beea 

than wirh tbe [leace of IjOo, and restored to France, and in llie West 

yet that appeared the favourite topic Indies she had recovered nuny 

of those who su]»|)orteil the preliaii- valuable islands, which we bad won 

o.ak-i, which they urged as aa iioai hcrby couqucst. The posse*' 


lioiu af Sp&io aUo might be (aid tbe7%peTe-chicflf formidaUe from 
to be hers ; she could uke thtm their principles, but now il ii their 
vhenefer she i^eased : ihebiuiiou' aniisatid lui power which givet 
ibe meaoi of increasing her foreign nkrm ; but in nil ihii change they 
tettlemenu, and of surrouudiat; the have preserved the Fame hustiie 
British empin. If peace w.n s'.ip- (pirit against tliij corintry. niis 
poned oo the ground of our in- country ii iiill moiked out as Car- 
abdity to pursue the war, he must thagt, vbich must be destroyed. 
ask, was that inability likely to grow to make nay for the universal 
less ? He thouglit not -. on the con- empire of modern Rome. lliS 
traty, be thought the disparity ber Ramans too conquered Carthage 
iveen the countries would daily point by point, altvnys tcnninriting 
increase. All that we could ex- a glorious war by an advantageous 
pKt from the present peace wa;, peace: e^xry renewal of the wai 
that the eneniy may nut think it nu attended with frcah aJvantagesi 
expedient at preteiit to exert the and CarthageatlengtL sunk beneath 
power she lias obtained for our her powerlul rital. We have by 
destruction. France has unilormly the present peace ^iven out of cue 
aspimi to universal empire : in tlie handsevery Kcurity which we pos- 
bcgiimiDg of the revolution she sessed, and in this situation we thai! 
had an empire of opinion, but be obliged at a l\iturr time to con- 
now of power. FVench principlet tend against an encray intinitely 
first paved the way for puwer, and stronger, by- reawn of her great 
DOW ber power is osed to dlssemi* acqui^^itiona. It seems that it is 
nne principks j not such principles, supposed tliat our great capital will 
howei-er, ai now arc tolenttcd in enable us fur a long lime to out- 
France, but principles wliidi will jirip France iu the race of cum- 
cot serve for home coiisumptiou, merce ; but wiiliout wishing to 
arid which, tlierefori-, tliey send undcrialue this great adi-natage of 
abroad for cxportauon Bonaparte dpiiiil and indkulry on uur side, 
kimws well how to be the sup- he must ask, was it to be supposed 
porter of despotism in France, and that Bonaparte would i>crmit this 
ef jacobinism iu Holland. Mr. great commercial contt^t to be fairly 
Windham then asked, should we decided, or would not he niher 
hold an intercourse with a nation endeavour to ilecide it by the sword ? 
wftich was the foe of morality ? Wealth, thoush a means of carry 
with s nation with whom the sacred ing oil war, will not by itself save 
ry from ruin and destruction. 
ed at present for security, 
hing more ( bm be could 
teive that security could be 
1 under a. pcice like the ptc> 
let oecouomy be as great 
n, and the expense vi such 
must be wry nearly equal 
of a full War establish mniit ; 
MX can hope to obtain at 
nt expente. is 9 meic arm^d 
3 Ua^Ct 


truce. On the other hand, war rciohition was elTected in thil 
would have preserved us from' all counlry, and yet the whole nation 
communicalion with the enemy, was convinced that this country 
and consequently from all contagion alone, without conilnenlal craiptfa- 
from tiicir principles : it would tion, could not eftVct such counter- 
have lef^ us in possession of all our reviihition. Tlie only diflerciice 
commercial advantages, and have between this i>eace, which the right 
given us all those chances which honourable gentleman painted as a 
arise out of war. When he lias Juneral, and tliirt which he would 
heard so much of the wealth, ener- have solemnized as a/fstiral, was, 
gies, and resources of the nation, he thai some colonies were restoied, 
has always thought that there never which he wuuld have wished Co 
was a time when they were more have kept. Mr. Wilbcrforce tJien, 
necessar>' to be called forth than at in speaking of Trinidada, la- 
prcsent, when the security and the meiiicd ihe probable increase of the 
very existence of the nation is in slave trade : he concluded an ani- 
danger. Tliere was another point mated siwech by deploring the con- 
to whidvhe wished to direct tlieir tajion of modern French morals, 
attention; he considered the entire althuugS he Ihnught this contagion 
desertion of the interests of ihe would be as fatal in war as in 
emigrants (who had shown such peai*. 

attachment to the cause they em- Dr. lawTcnce upoke at great 
. braced, and given such cooperaliiin length, and very ably, against the 
to the British forces), as a thing peace. The strongest tqiic he 
most disgraceful to the country, tirgcd in addition to ihe grounds 
There ought to have bem stipulated which had been taken by the oilier 
for them at least a safe return to speakers on the same side, was, 
thoir country. He thought that 'hat witile the French were always 
the ctiief fault throughout tiie war faitliful lo their allies, his majesty's 
wfli, that the people were not sof- ministers deserted ours. He added 
ficienily aware of their danger, that general Mennu, when cooped 
The [leople, always accnstoined to tip in Alexandria, obtained better 
■ wish for an end to the war, bad terms for iiis allies in Eg)-pt llwn 
not sufficiently reficcied on tlie we liad pretended to tlo for ours in 
dangers of a, peace. Europe. ITie consequence he con- 

■ IVIr. Wilberfiirce rose in reply (o ceived that nni^t result from this 
Mr. Wiiulliam, and took notice of, thattheweaker powers 
ihe universal joy which penadcd would for the future put themselves 
all clauses of people when they beard under the protection of France, 
thai |>eace was made, and which whom they knew to be faithful to 
wai not diminished by hearing the her engagements, 
terms of it. He complained of Mr. fcUiot looked upon the peace 
the ideas which the honuurnble as ruin, and the treaty as an unnc- 
member had imbibed, and seemed cessary sacrifice of our Iwnour and 
anxious to propapue ; it appeared interests, merely to purchase a 
as if that right honourable gentle- short-lived and precarious tninquil- 
man tbou^t there ought never (o lity- [Mr. Elliot necwsarily went 
hr peaoe witJi Fianeej till a counter- over many of the grounds which 



tbe other speaker! bad taken aod snd fcy poeterity : nor \ns the 

nrarlj exfaaimed]. sccdc less inierestiDg to the people 

The Secretaiy at War supported of England, vho were anxiously 

tbe peace, and coDsidered that the waiting the investigaticai and de- 

fiiiure seoirily of Ihij countty cision of paiiiatnent, assembled 

might be sufficicndy provided for, for ttie e^qiress purpose at so early 

fay improvements in the system of a penod for the consideration of 

mCit^ delence. this great (ftijcct of their wishes. 

Several other gentlemen spoke on This anxiety was still more widety 

theqoetlion: most of whom were spread, for then was not ■ power 

iafivoarof thepeace. of £un^ which did not look to 

Tbe Chancellor of the Exchequer die aiguments and resolves of this 

closed (be debate by a short reply day with an imerest pioportiobed 

lo the arguments against the preli- to the importance and magnitude 

mmarie& of the subject. 

Htus terminated, after two days It natunlly occmt, from die 

lof^anddoseargument.Iheveryani- trifling division in point of number 

mated discussion of the preliminanes in the house of lords against the 

of tbe peace: a peace die most im- address, and its being carried in 

portaiitinallits bghts and bcarinzs the bouse of commons withont t 

that the world had ever witiieHsed. division, that thesenseofdiecountiy 

la what utuatioD it left the bellise- wa$ with tbe peace, and Ibal, re- 

reot and the neutral powers of Ku- gardlcss of its terms or its coRse- 

rope, as Wellwilhregpect tutheirtbr- quenccs, it met with the entire 

ritorial,as to their political relations, approbation of the public. That 

it will bdong more appropriately to this was the case it is not pos»bIe 

another part of this sketch of the His- to deny ; a series of years of most 

toryof Europe, for the year latn, to expensive war, of im usual pexo- 

detail: but it DUy be necessary here niary contribution, of real or ap- 

to call the attention of our readers to prehended scarcity, tfae total dis- 

the line of conduct which the great comficureof our continental allies, 

leading characters cf tbe country and the apparent impouibility of 

choseintbismemorabtedebaietorisk adiieviiw any of the great ol^ects 

their pidUical fame aud reputation tcir wliidi wai' had been resorted to 

tqxm. No occasion could be more originally, bad in their united e^ct 

solemn, no qumion more momen- contributed 10 rcndeir a cessation of 

tons, no deosion more important, hostilitia highly popolar. It waa 

Impressed with these seniiments, considered that those who made tbe 

eacfa individual, whether leader or peace were among the most violent 

partizan, carried with him to the and ^ady supporters of the war 

arduous contest all hla energies of system ; that dieir abilities were 

mind, all lus powers of ratiocination, guarantied to the public on their 

Each seetoed to think the present coming into office by the late 

contest that on which not only the minister; and that Mr. Pitt, him> 

dearest interests of his country were (elf 9 host, bad given his unqualified 

to be decided, but by u4iidihisown approbation to the measure, as it 

cbaiacter as a statL'sman was to be now appeared before tbe public, 

detenuncd oabybis coDlempoiarics It could not be ccmoeiTedj that 
4 men 


men who bad to long filled up some symptoms of the views of 

tlie iafn-ior deparlaients in an France corrdpoDding with oui 

adniiaistratioD, coinposed of the own." 

moM snlendid abilities thin coun- We hare seen that on tli'S occa- 

try had ever seen, with decency, sion Mr. Pitt give his warm avd 

aiifl even credit, would sacrifice decided support to the present go* 

the opinions and politics of their rernment, as did those over whom 

whole lives for a rooiuentaiy popu- his {>etsonal influence extended; 

larity; or fur the continuance of but the ministry received at this 

the high situations they bad, so moment assistance from another ' 

much to the surprise of the world quarter, which, however it might 

(perhaps to their own), been placed increase the number of its guppart> 

in ; and, above all, that whatever ers, cert^nly could not have added 

(heir abilities might be, that they had much to itn satisfaction from the 

sufficient patriotism and political mode in which it was given. Mr. 

Hcience, not to abandon all the ad- Fox, and those who usually acted 

vantages we had gained, with so wilb him, in approving of the peace, 

much blood and treasure, to France, took this opportunity of charging, in 

without securing at least the per- the bitterestlanguage,thosewhohad 

manency oi a peace which bad cost carried on the war with culpable 

us so dear. The result therefore misconduct. " A ^Vi" s^idthey, 

of this important debate was highly " which left \is no alternative save 

acceptable out of doors. The that of utter ruin, or a peace li^ 

character of the Arst consul, tLepresent."Indeed theformergeq- 

tfae a^randisement of France, the tleman went still further, and at a 

aban£inment of our allies, the public meetiug, said, that one source 

furrender of our conquests, the of his pleasure at the peace was, 

abrogation of all foimer treaties, '■ because it was glorious to the ene- 

tbe loose and ill defined terms of my !" Nor could administration feel 

the pfcsentj were of triiling con- much pleasure in bearing from Mr. 

sideration when contrasted with the Sheridan, another of their present 

" blessings of peace :" nor did the adherents, that " this was a peace 

eloquence and arguments of those which all men are glad of, but no 

in both houses of parliament, who man can be proud of." Gen^ 

ventured to d«ubt the solidity of the rally, however, peace in the abstract 

principles on which it was made, was approved of by those who 

or the permanency which those by were the most strenuous opponeuls 

whom it was supported, asserted of Mr. Pitt's administration, with> 

must belong to it, weigh witli the out either canvassing its terms, or 

worjtd whenjwt in the scale with lord revolving its probable consequcDces. 

Hawkesbury's assertion, viz. " That But powerfully as Mr. Addington 

should we have lo renew our contest and his associates were supported 

with France in the course of «gA/ or on this momentous occasion, an 

trayrari, we must commence it with opposition of a very serious nature, 

greater advantages than we ^ the both to them and to thei;r measures, 

last war !" and with Mr. Rit's, now began to manifest itself: an 

who said, " We had cvenr prospect opposition, inconsiijerable inde^ 

c( a long peace -, for " that he hw in point of ouaiber, but of the fint 



aMgnitnde irim estimated by the power, as it «'ould come from M 

Jtcliiical cxpcxieDce, brilliancy of mauy more points j" aud " tluit 

oknt, and wei^t c^ rank and wc could not reckoa on the prota* 

dutracter of those who com- bilityuf peace for any long pniod;" 

poKd it. Xo the house of lordi, it created consideraUe wnsatioo, 

vbere ten only divided agaiiwt and damped io no imiU degree the 

the address*, yiae to be found the rapturous joy evinced by 3i ranks 

names of tbe marquis of Bucking- of people on the first news of the 

bam, cnris FitzwUliam and Spen- ccsiatiun of boitiKcies, In (he 

OS, and lord GreoviUc, all of lower house of parliament tbon 

vbom had filled the higb^t olSces sentiments were suppoticd wiili. 

of the state with the greatest honour the united Judgment, talents, and 

to themselves, and advantage to eloquence of Mc!>sn. Wiitdham, 

their country ; in point of fortune Grenville, lord Temple, Mr Hilvtt 

and iafluence second to none. Dr. Lawrence, &c, who now, wi^i 

Nor were their opinions, however thos^ of the lords who dirided 

napalstaUc to the multitude, lost against tbe address, began to fa* 

upon tbe thinking part of the com- known hy tbe appellation of tkt 

munity. When it was understood new oppofition. 
in the wxirld thntihe peacewas con* We have gone into considenUe 

sideied by sncfa men as tending to length, both into the debates on 

tiiie humiliation and even degiada- this important subject, and trts 

tioa of tbe national character ; that oar remarks upon them, faeanse 

the terms of it left us for eier dc- we conceive that no subject conU 

pendantoa the good faith of France; be more interesting to our cratan- 

that we had surrendered by it as portmes, or more necessaiy to go 

mndh commerce as territoiy to our down to posterity, iii as am]^ and 

natnial enemy j and that " as the satisfactory a manner as the limiii 

threat of invasion terrified us into and nature ol' this wwrk troiM 

wace, so Fiance would always have admit. 
It in ber bands with tenfold more 

• liM of the non-eontcnis,, iSM. 
^tfKqiiit Of Backingham, Esrii Spencer, 

£srli Peniln^, CscrntiToa, 

Warwick, Lords GientiUc, 

riuwjlliun Gwydit, 

l^idaW} Bisbop of KtAatft. 


UigniMb, Google 


C H A P. IV, 

Tfmjih ofiotk Hnusu ef ParOamml to Sir Join H. Hulchinfm, and ite 
General Offirrrs and ihf Army acting in Egypt—and to L<n-d Kat/i, 

. arid the Adwirah uvder Sdm, and to the Kavg.-~-D<ihate on the Aissiam 
Conuention. — Remarks. 

SOME dap after tills dijciission were tlien contending agaiost. But, 
thetli;inki of bathhoii><esot par- lioivcvcr wcjl-groiiudcd tlie hopes 
liameiit wi;i« voted tosirJolinHdy of oiu- new adversaries, ibey had 
JHuichinson, and the general officers fuunJ in the vigilance and vigour 
who cominaiKkd ihc army iu Egypt, of Mr. I^it and his colleagues, and 
as also to lord Keith, and the ad- in tlie public spirit and magnaoi' 
ntirals commanding the fleet em- mity of llic British nation, the 
pjoyed in that ex|x:diliau. The complete frustration and overthrow 
wotcs of thanks passed unanimously of iheir hostile attempts. Hie vie- 
in boili houses ; but several distin- twj- of Copenhagen, the particulars 
guished members, in each house, of whidi we have det:)iled in our 
took tlie opporluniiy of paying the preceding volume, which, though 
faigliest compliimiiis to ihe gal- fought tinder the auspices of a nrw 
lantry of our army and navy, who administration, was the immediate 
bad rendeted such distinguished fruit of the prompt and decided 
services to their rountry. meastires of the old, lavight our 
The next public businesis of im- adversaries that in the defence of 
poitance which engaged the atten- our legitimate tights we were in- 
tioH of parliament at the com- vincible, at the same time that our 
mencement of this session, was wisdom atid moderation in the mo- 
the consideration oi the terms of ment of victory rendered t^ trutj 
the convention with tlie emperor worthy of it. The convention now 
of Russia, signed af St. Peters- lo be conudcred was the conse- 
bni*gh, the -,',th of June J801, qnence of this proud and glorious 
which terminated the nortliem con- day. And it remained to be de- 
ffdi.'racy, ' aimed at the vital in- cided, by tlic investigation of both 
terests, and even the very exist-' ho\ises of parliament, whether wc 
cnce of Ihe British empire, by a had followed up the brilliant suc- 
violent though insidious effort to cess of our fleet, by securing on a 
extinguish our maritime rights and solid and equitable basis the rights 
regulaliooa, and to deprive, us of we contended for, or whether in 
our naval dominion, at a moment negotiation we had bartered those 
when we were deemed incapable of rights for specious but fiililc ad- 
faearing up against the extraordi- vantages, 

tuiry and tmexatnpled difhculties we On the I3th of November this 



qnudaa ame m to be dKcuseed, thr just riglits of. tbe country, 
aod Khca the oTdrr of ihr day fur [His lordship thni complimented 
ibe amsideration of it ill thcliouse ]<>i'd Nelson who sat ne:ir him.] 
ollords was read. Among [lie pjrts if tiie treaty, par- 
Thc earl of Damley rose to m(i\-e ticul:»ly to be attended to, the 
K address which w«ild amoont lo first aiid nw<t imporlnnt was, the 
an aj^xofaatioD of the condtict of nlicindonini^iil of thnt fvAiie and dati- 
Itti majesty's present niiniiiters : he gcirous proposition that " free ships 
tould not withhold bis approtmlioQ made frt^ grmU." Thifj was effrc- 
rf their conduct since Ihey came tuslly done away by the third ar- 
nto office, especially v^hen con- ticlc^ of the convention, which dis- 
insted with that of their prcde- crimiiiated what was to be reckoned 
cr^sors, who§e servile imitators tbey contraband and liable lo seizure. 
had proved themselves not to be, 1 he stconJ point of importance 
•she had expected. The conven- was, " the right of search nf ihips 
ivjD oa the table was fi striking under convoy, M'ith the exception 
icmacce o£ that. It was oideiit of privateers." Tlie third important 
fccm that document, that they had point regarded what was called 
not coDtioucd to bully and insult " tlie contniband of war." The 
the powers of Europe; but that, convention in this respect dtt&red 
by a judicious mixture of firmness as with respect to Russia, and with 
aid moderation, they had induced respect to Swnleu and Denmark, 
them to lay aside their unjust pre- With Russia, this cimtraband of 
tmsions, and had finally settled, uar extended only to millt.iry war- 
Bpon an ef]aitable and permanent like stores ; whereas with Denmark 
Ibsis the maritim* law of nations, and Sweden this point was settled 
Upon the principles of the law of according to ancient treaties sub- 
nations depended the greatness and sisiing between the countries, by 
protperity of Great Britain as a u inch treaties were also ascertained 
maritime power. And yet this t.iw what should be termed a lluckaded 
of nations, althoogh clearly ascrr- port: this is now settled to mean 
tained by the abled miui^iters of a port so blocked by the enemy's 
tU coontries in Europe, has yet been ships, as that it cannot be entered 
6H)aently violated and broken in with safety. The principal merit 
vpua t^ reason of the political in- which he thotigtit belonged to this 
meet and prejudice* of Uie different treaty was, tliat it prepared tho 
omiitrics. it was not surprising way for the peace with France, 
that in the last war our uniiarallelcd winch, althmigh he was aware that 
KKcesKS at sea, and the vast ex- this was not a time for its dis- 
tcnnnn of our commerce, should cussion, he con^itlered as absolutely 
ncakm tbejeatouiyof otherpowers, necessary fi>r the country. He 
and dispose them to join in a cu- concluded by moving an addie^ii, 
iliti<»i contrary to our interests. " thankin; his mijcsiy for his 
He thanked God, however, tiiat commnnicjtion, and assuring hini 
lainiMer* bad firmness' and en- of the c0rdi.1l concurrence and ap- 
ergy enough to convince ihein that probation of that hoiMe, as the most 
they did not want spirit to nuiutain effectual means of reestablishing 



fricodtl^p with tlic Norihem Pow- Tbi«, howewr, being s cenTen- 
CTs, aaa mamtaining the maritime tion with a sUce iit amity, if theis 
liglits of this country." was any thing dcfcclive In the 
Lord Catbcart, in Kcoodiog the treaty it might be a »ubjrct of fu- 
sddreis, took a general view of tuic explanation antf aniicable ar- 
the events which preceded this raneemcnt; he therefore tell par- 
conveotioD with Ruisia. He con- tiouarly duirous of poiniiou out 
■idered that on no shigle occasion the coiue<]uencei which would re- 
did this country gain such an ac- cult from the treaty in its present 
cession to its character, as by tlie shape, and anxious that his ira- 
spirit and decision with which it jesty's ministers would settle, by 
broke tlic combination that was fiiiure arrangement, wliat was de- 
forming against it. A glorious vie- fective in the present. As the 
toiy opened our way into theBaltic, question of neutral rights had been 
and the moderatinn as well as firm- agitated, he wished it might be fat 
ness of our government had secured, ever put to rest, and that tlic trcaQ' 
as the fruits of it, the maritime should const tute a code of laws, 
rights of the country. He con- which might be appealed to on 
fiidered the conduct of his majesty's any future occasion. In order to 
mtntsiers throughout the whole of judge whether the present traty 
tliis arduous transaction us worthy had succeeded in obtaining the 
of tl« highest degree of praise. objects of the contest with the 
Lord Grenville said, it was im- Northern Powers, he should state 
possible for him to agree in that what those objects were, which he 
unanimous approbation recom- thought might be reduced to 6vis 
mended by the noble lords who distinct poinu. 
bad ju^t spoken. In the first place. The firfct point which was assert- 
hc conceived it highly prematm-e ed on the part of this country was, 
to give their approbailDii to a ti-eaty that neutral nations should not be 
which must still be a subject of permitted in war time, cither to 
discussion between this country carry r.oastways, from one port of 
and the Northern Powers (the rati- an enemy's country to another, the 
fication of all those powers not conunoditics of that country ; nor 
being yet obtained) : but he had convey home to an enemy's country 
. another and much more forcible ob- tlicproilucc of its colonies; and that 
jeciioa } jt did not secure for this such property, although in a neutral 
country the. objects for which the bottom, was sciiable under the ma- 
-war was commejiced, and which ritime law of nations. Were neu- 
the treaW. professed t^ have ol»- trals allowed to eMrcise such pli- 
taiued. .TT^e consileralion of this vilcges with respect to belligerent 
treaty was widely (Jill'cxcnt frqin powers, the enemy could carry on 
that of tlw; treaty latply conclydcd even' species of commerce without 
. with Trance. . The latter heiu j a tljc least interruption or anuayaact 
. trsaly of peace made with an from this countiy in war time, . 
cqemy,' was ab^olutcl)! binding on The second point was, that free 
.the national faith, and parliament ships did nut make free goods- >> 
had.little more to consider ihau the the contrary principle, »hi9h the 
fondufUof miuisters in makjtig-U. I^ortbeii)- 4'«wn< CPpteiidcd' ^' 

,,,,.,..,, Cookie ■ 


*« once admitted, Francr couM the firjt article* ■would, from its 
Id nar time derive supplies of every wording, secure the tree conveyance 
thing necessary fur her gtipport in of the colonial produce of the cne- 
m, in defi-mcc of ail our eiToiu m}-, on the ground of its b^ing the 
o mercnt thtm. acqu'uwl nroperty of neutrals. AI- 
Thr third principle related to the tboi^h Uiij appeared to be only 
contnhand of oar, by which neu>- conceded to Russia, yet Sweden and 
inloatianswercuot to be allowed to Denmark would derive the same 
fopply an enemy with tboK neces- power if that was made the bisis of 
nries of war, which it might be in a general treaty, and in their bands 
want of eitlier for oilvnce or de- this privilege would be essentially 
&-oce. and among those articles _ injurious to ihc country. Another 
im-al stores are the most important. ad\~ant:ige which this clause gave to 
The foonh point related to con- neutralj was, that it gave them 
Toy, and under this it was asserted privileges in war which they had 
that neutral vessels, even sailing un- not in peace, namely, that of trans- 
der convoy, should not be exempted porting the produce of the colonies 
foxn the liability of search. to the mother country : tJiis was a 
The fifth piiint relat«d to block- privilege which the navigation laws 
aded ports. The principle which of every state which had colonics 
Te contended for under this point reserved to the mother country. 
*3i, that no vessel should be suf- As to the second point, the rcnnn- 
fered to ctitei a port blockaded by elation of the cbim that " free 
a cruirin; squadron, inasmuch as bottoms made free goods," this 
by throwing in supplies they m^ht certunly had been obtained, which 
enable tbe port to hold out lon);er was only a confuranatjon of the 
gainst us, and that anr vessel at- existing law of nations. The third 
tonpting to enter, ami bound to point, that of contraban^of war : he 
sach blockaded ptsl, was liable to was sorry to see that this part of the 
Kiznrc. The nentral powers, on treaty went on the ground of the 
fte other hand, wished to restrict treaty with Russia in I797. With 
tlie ^nificadon of a blockaded port, Russia, a power that had no mercan- 
b> 'ibu before which a blockading tile navigation, it was an object of 
squadron was so placed, as to render no moment ; but to grant the same . 
it apparently oosafe for a vettcl to indulgence to other po^\*ers would 
enter. be most dangerous. It was also 
Harag recapitulated thos^ as the niof 1 strange in the enumeration of 
gtoonds of the original contest be- warlike stores to leave out those ar- 
tweeaGreatBritainandlbeNorthern tides which Russia, tni^ht be ex- 
Powers, bis lordship proceeded to pected to suppiv, namely, pitch, 
coonder how far the terms in the lar, hemp, cordage, sail cloth, ship 
pteseattrcatywcnttowardsobtaining timber, andnen ships themselves, 
than. In the first [dace he observ- The fourth point respecting block- 
ed, that the expressions used in ndcd ports had b=en is a great 
this treaty were amtHgnous, and measure abandoned by this treaQ^. 
drawn from a document most hos- Formerly a port was considered to 
tile to us, namely, the convention be blochnded, when it was declare^ 
<d ifae armed aeutniiity. One of to be so, in canscquence of a squn- 


droD cruising before it (or that our navigation and marine, that it 

purpose, even although that iqua- might be modified and rendered 

dron ^buuld be driven off for a more consonant with our ancient 

while by a gale of wind or any claims, our invariable prrtctice, our 

other cause. By ihe present treaty national dignity, and our marilime 

« port i« not considered blockaded poier 

uulcis there is a stationary force The Lord Chancellor defended this 
before it. The next article an to treaty, to the conclusion of which 
the right of search he considered he observed that he had been a 
equ.illy injui'inus to us. By this party, and consenting to its adoption, 
article ships wae not to be slopped He contended that this settlement 
but upon just causes and evident had been obtained on a. great and 
facts. We had always before exer- liberal basis, which showed to the 
cised the right of search upon world rliat Great Britain was pot in- ' 
good cause of suspicion and not tolerant in her power, and that she 
upon, the evidence of facts. It is did not wi»h to stand upon trivial 
often impossible to get facts in the nice distinctions. The nation bad 
first inatanccj they usually come piiints, or gained thegreatobjecisfor 
out ir> the search. Notwitlislandins which it contended, namely, that 
the many complaints wliicli had free bolloins did not make tree 
b^n made against ihii ligiit of goods; that thips of war had the right 
search, he usually found, Tihen ofsemcti ; that ihcblockadcnf ]xirts 
.those complaints came to be ptl' «hould be recognised as legitimate; 
fltnined, that they were ill l^^unded. tliat the exerrise of tliuac rights 
He had no objection, hcAn;vcr, to shwUd be regulated by clear, tn- 
deprivins privateers of this right iellii;ible and liberal rules ; and what 
of learcn, but viith ship-: of war wu-iuf more consequence tliau all, 
the right ought to be m^iin- that any ca.'iual violation of those 
tained in its ftill cxli-ni. 'I'tie juks should not be a ground of 
causes for dciension and seizure quarrel, but should be deiermmed 
seldom appeared till tjic s<-.jr^h by the tribunals of the country, 
was made -, ijiey im re nut lo l>e Those were, ■ as he conceived, the 
perceived at a ditiaiicc by a telc> beads of ihe treaty, and a^ to the 
scope. He would sup{X)sc, in war wording of tlie clauses in their con- 
time, a Danisli frigate was going stn;ciii>n, lie held an opinion very 
with a convoy into the pori of ditfi-tent from tliat of the noble 
Brest : the )>apers on board the lord uho spoke before him. He 
frigate convoying them mii^lhl be considered that the words were 
perfectly rcgul.v, and yet ilie ships suiBcienily explicit to prevent rn-u- 
full of naval stores. His lordhhip tnls from carrying on either the 
concluded, by saying that he tbund,' coasting iradt: of an enemy's coun- 
in every part of ilie treaty, so much try, or their coltitiial trade. France 
ambiguity and concession,' to much had at one time, in tlic ccuise of 
variance from the establibjhcd prac- tlie war, broached the monstrous 
tice, that he felt himiiclf obliged to doctiine, that tliey had a right to 
deliver his opinion, in hopeii, even seize and confiscate the property of 
yet, bcf<»te it came to be the defi- neiiirals, if of British produce, 
nitivc law for the govcniment «£ Tiiis treaty went on « different 



pnodfJe, and declared " that litis coiutnied oi conceived to extend 
anou; would OM consider as eiic- to any ullicr nnliun un eaitli. 
aft property -.tich goods as, liav- Lord Holhod voted for the ad- 
iiij fonnetly belonged to the enc- dress, but not on any of ihc groutids 
mj, had siDce booomc the properly a.viigncd by tlie noble ni»iver oc 
cfoniten." Although we tlicrc^ seconder. He thought many con- 
bee pennittcd neutrals to acquire cessions had been made in thn 
ibc cohxual productions of our cne- treaty j concessions, which so fac 
mitt, yet we did not allow thent Crom obj(x;ling to, he highly a^ 
to cany on the colonial tr^ide. proved of; and sliuiild vole for iJie 
.\JaMst any otlier treaty which address, hee.iiLse he thought those 
hd ever been made unnld be eonc(-~'sions likely to tend to the 
(mini liat^ to as serious objec- prcif:rv:!iion of peace, by showing 
liocu, if eiantined with ilie same tlint iiis majesty's ministers weK 
aiiitai gcumt*. The iiUcniioH of willing in grant evcrj' acoomino- 
ibe parties, howe\Ter, formed the dation tliat uuis reasonabk to foreign 
'me ioteipfetation of cwiy treaty, powers. His lordship, afttr rca- 
1^ was a Uraty ronilujed with soning foi' some time on tlie formet 
Sutia Kparati-lvT and it utis not ireatli^ subsisting between thi> 
to be supposed tliai all other neulrit counitj- and the Northern Toveeis, 
Mtiota wfie to come under lliis as also upon the lis-c heads enume-i 
"racgeincm. Sii-eden, Denmark, rated by ImtJ Greiivillc, agrc-ed 
UdUind, and America, wi:re no par- ^iih ttiat noble lord, thnt thepe 
''H to it, laod coidd not iu.sist on still remained in Uie treaty much 
*f of the siipuJatiom of it. His room ftir cxplanatiou aud ameni- 
lordJiip, upon the uhule, vonccived ment. He could l:ave vislied 
1 as unulijcctionablc as any treaty iliosc expianationi wliirli the 
iiiudi bad ever been concluded by learned lord (the dianeelliir), 
liuicounrry. confessed to be nccestuv, lud lju:n 

LmU Gren%'ilte esplained. He obtiiuej before i1k; house was 

idnolnican that the article witli caltrdnnforihe prcsejit vole, but he 

ropcct to the " coniniijand of war," sliould, however, support tlie aJ- 

*liic!m-a4 intimluccd in this treaty dress. 

*iiti Riwua, would be extended to Lord Grcnvilie again rose to c:^- 

'^ Unities to be made with Swe- plain, in const (luence of some eK- 

^ and Denmark. ; but he meant, pressions of censure n^od by li;-: 

tiii in this treaty it *hoiil.l be put noble lord against his ui^ijesiy's 

<»" of all doubt that England gene- late ministers, Itjr adii-iiig ;i «,i; 

lerdly considers iiaial stores as on mere sjiectdatiie points, lliose 

" contraband of war." Holland i>oints which he had namt:d were 

*>d Anterica might again suppose, by no means .speculative pi^l'its, but 

trom the wording of this treaty, rights of the utinosi ijii;h>rt.uic^.', 

ibai by the law of nations, on and priiiciplw upon wl:ich ilic 

vhich they stood, na^'al stores were cki^tence of this cuuntiy i>s a run- 

Mt coDtr^^od. riiime power JepenJ(;d. 

The Lord Chanc^Uor again re- lj)rd su|)r4)r!ed the .i:i. 

pcated that this article in a separate dreci, but dilVer<.'d itrom iuoaI of 

laty wt4t Kuuia could not bo tjic nnblc IvjJ:: uho h.u': j: ^-'r.":i 

48 AMNUAt REGISTER, 1802. 

la Mreral points: he could not sbe iliips to convey than. ThB 
agree wicli the noble and learnttd case wotUd be widely dificrent, if 
lord (lite chancellor), in his exulta- we were to allow mme otiter mari- 
tion at this trealy, as one of the time states the privilege of convey- 
most advanUgeous this coLintry had ing ship-timber, gum> powder, snd 
erer made; nor could he aj^ee shot, into our enoay's ports in time ' 
with anotlicr noble lord (Holland), of war. His lordthip approved of 
vbo had treated tightly tlie five dif- the sirtide reitrictintr the right of 
fcrent heads enumerated by lord search of ships under oonvny of a 
Greavtlle, as the principle:^ which neutntl flag ship, to our ships of 
caused the contest wth northern war only. He ibould himsctf, in 
powers : be thought tlinse principles many cases, conceive it his duty to ' 
were rights of the utmost import- make such leareh, ahbot^ he 
ance to tlus country as a maritime should do it with the utmost respect 
nation i he considered that these and civility to the cemnunder of 
ii|^ts were not secured by this the neutral frigate. His lordship 
treaty as fully as might have been concluded by declaring, that he 
vnshcd, but yet tliat a great deal should vote for the sddros. 
liad beea obtained, and a great The (Juestion was then pat, and 
many claims hostile to tins country agreed to withant a dinakm. 
had been now abandoned by the In the faouseof commons^ on the 
aoithem powers. Under this in>^ same day. lord Hawkeubury moved 
piession he voted for the address. the ordo' of the day for the convca- 

Lord Nelson highly approved of tioii with Hussia. 
fite convention which had beeg Lord Temple asked -whether nri- 
concluded. It put an end to that nistcrs hadrecdvedoflicl^infofntK- 
pciactpIe which was e.ideavoured to t>on of the accesiion of Svedea to 
be enforced by the armed neutrality the cmveution ? 
ID 178O, that " free ships make Lord Hawkssbury repUed, that' 
free goods i"" a proposition so inju- they were pontively assured of the 
fious to the rights and maritime in- readiness of Sweden to adoede, but 
tnests of tbis country, that if it that the formal act of accessioii had 
li»} been persisted in, he tliought not as yet arrived, 
the country shoidd wage war to (he Lord Francis Osbtum moved tfaa 
lait drop of British blood rather rhan address. [His lordship spoke in ao 
be submitted to. Tbst proposition low a tone of voice, that his argu- 
was now set at rest, and abandoned mentscouldnot be distinctly heard], 
by Russia. It was to obinin this I'he honourable Mr. A. Bydcr 
ftiat the rashness and vblcsce of the Gccoaded the motion i he began by 
emperor Paul set forward the con- ircnlling to the recollectioQ of the 
4ederacy j but the good sense, mo- house, cbe pledge which they had 
deration, and temper of the pieseot formerly given U> btv majes^ to ma- 
cmperor abandoned it. As to our intaiatho naval rights of the country 
not classing naval stores as contra* and the ku^-eMabltsbod. maritime 
band of war, in oui ccpaiate trea;^ law of Europe. He hoped that, l^ 
vitb Russia, he saw no danger in the terms of the treaty oow on 
the omission : Russia neither sup- the Ubk, ihote righta muat appear 
plied those naval ftures, nur had fi% suuRHted and naitttaineil, 
3 and 


ted tlat ibe Ji goroM pratnuioQi mcDt hid done in 178O. Having 
■ Jt m cc J bj the Nartbem Powers pud •ome oomptiroents to Ihe ^irit 
U been cbandoaed. TtiM treaty sod dediion of our miniiten, and 
«M not to be viewed at a Aill and to die eaHantiy t£ onr navy iu the 
wrtwulgd gptan cf maritime Uw, Baltic, be coododed Inr giving his 
tat ■■ « find dediMxi of ootaio heart/ aueot to the adcbess. 
faum <d oootnxrarqr which had Mr. Gr^ taidj (hat he so much 
ben Ae man diipnted, and there- rgmced at the tennioation of the 
Icn wen adeded for ditcuiaioa. dupute with the Northern I>iwet3, 
He principte which had been let that he felt bat little disposed to 
If 1^ the Nonbcfn Powers, that enter miontelj into a consideration 
" fcee *—**«">■ made free goods," of the (emu, and he should not 
Acf bai been obliged most imeqnt- hare risen, if the honourable gen- 
vooAr to abandon. If dus had tleman who uioke last had not so 
hecsi ateitted, the trade of the poiotcdl; allnded to the opinion he 
aeoqr doidd be carried on exactly bad fonnerfy delivered on that sub- 
as w«dl JD time of war as in pCKC, jcct. However that gentleman might 
and <Mt '■"«"« would be safe &om think himself justified in congra- 
aB am ajr a noe on our part. AU tulating the boose and the cooutry, 
tto^ ia the article rnyecting ma hisfMr. G.'s) advice not being 
"the oDsitnAand of war," oanl attended to, he by no means re- 
sioaes me oat paiticulariy mtntioo- pcnted of the advice be had given, 
ed. jtL, a* fbrmci treadea are hereby which, in all the drcumstaaces of 
noo^iiaad, this matter stood ex- the CDuntry,be thought was the most 
actly on Ac aaoeat footing. The prudent to have been followed ; he 
ligjrt of seanli for oontraband goods n^iced most sincerely at the termi- 
was dao admitted,, and certain rules nation of the dist«te, as ultimately 
Ind down for tbe r^nlation of it. connected with tbewarwilh France, 
By &is con v eption too, the precise and be hod no difficulty in affirm- 
de&utian of v4iat shall be " a ing, that till that dispute was set- 
fatocfcaded port," is laid down on tW, peace with France wsi onat- 
takwal pnivaplea. A port is to be tainawe ; he therefore viewed tho 
deeaMd blockaded wboi thore is a conventioo as a judicious com- 
aatiooarf fleet so placed bdbre it, pronuse, but could mt possibly allow 
as that h is evidently unsafe for a that it bad satis&ctorily Kttled all 
tessd to enter : in such case every points in dispute. He considered 
ocotnl having fur notice of the the address premature, inasmuch as 
hbckade, wiU be liable to seizuie if iw official iofbrmatiou of tbe acccs- 
Aey attempt to cater. He hoped sion of Denmari: and Sweden had 
that thia timtf vtuM pat an end to been received ; besides, he could not 
AtBB cu s H tsjt i ona on Urn •abject, see imon what groaiid we could say, 
Heeai^anlBlBd die booae and the that there was no room for fiitura 
cooMty Jar hwr^ k> daadedly re- ' disputes with Sweden and Denmark 
faad to HitflB to the oomsds of about die question, whether naval 
Aose who eWher ea p reaae d doubts stores were or were not contraband 
t£ the juitiee of oor ^ims, or' of war, when in this conventloa 
wtAedUi tDwavB the assMtioii of with Russia, to which they were 
eor mho, and tot aa the govern* invited fb aceede, nand stores weft 
V.L, XLIV. £ nat 

,; , ■...,, Cioo^le 


not mentioned among tlie tilings ' ever, our claims had bpftt receded 

which were to be considered as con- truin. He so much disliked llie 

traband. Denmark and Sweden system of privateering, that he ap- 

migbt well conceive thcms^^lves to proved of taking from privateerj the 

be bound not by the antecedent right of searching neutrals under 

treaties, which were now confirm- convoy; but he could by no means 

ed, but by this couveution, which approve ol' the method pointed nut 

professed to settle all contro\erled for ships of war to exercise that 

points. As to what had been gained right, if the papers were found not 

rtspccting the signification of a to be regular, it was said the captain 

blockaded port, we bad certainly might search ; but how easy would 

given up our former definition, even it be for a neutral to carry a set (^ 

if we had not accepted the definition talse papers? He thought, in that 

of the neutral powers : by our for- point respecting tlie blockade of 

merdefinitionofblockade, the whole ports, we had receded a great way 

coast of Holland was said to be in a from the rights we claimed, where 

state of blockade when the blockad- we admit that if the squadron des- 

iiig squadron were in Yarmouth tincd to blockade Erest should be 

roads. As lo the right of search, blown off by stormy weather, that 

he considered it had been limited in Brest sliould on that account cease 

a very proper way ; and the rcgula- to be considered a blockaded port. 

tton about privateers met his most His joy at finding the northern 

cordial approbation. Uponthewhole, powers bad abandoned the principle 

he rejoiced lliat the businesii was that " free bottoms make frca 

terminated, but saw no reason tri goods," was much abated by finding 

repent of his former opinions on die in I be treaty another clause which 

subject. He concluded b/ support- would make ibis of little avail, 

in" the address. Neutrals were allowed to purcbaae 

Lord Temple highly dbapproved the goods of the enemy aod cany 

the treaty : he considered that all them unmolested where they pleas- 

the grounds on which the liouse had ed : he could not conceive how it 

Eledged itself to his majesiy in ttie was possible to prevent fraud in this 
at sessions, had been whdly or species of traffic. Wiien a cargo of 
partially given up. His lordsiiip French wines, or French colonial 
divided into fiie heads, the points properly, was met at sea, how could 
of di^iiiite bctwcift this comitry and it be certainly known whether the 
the Nor them I'owirs: 1st, Tlicco- property wa'i or u-as not purchased- 
lonial and coasting trade) 2d. the by neutrals? With regard to contra- 
right to search ships under convoy j l^nd, the treaty concnled a point of 
oil. tlie right of blockade; 4di, frfc tjie greatest importance, namely, 
sbipti making fn:c ^oods ; 5lh, the tliai contraband uf war dots not io- 
ariidcs lo be considered contraband elude navai stores. Tbishad bet^n 
of war. Frum oiu' ciiLiiuj with re- behiri', iu former treaties, conceded, 
gard to all these, it had ln-emleclar- fur a limited term of years, to 
ed im;jossible to rciedt consistently povs-ers who could make no grot 
with tJie honour, ilie interests, and use uf (he pn\dL'ge; but now it ap- 
eveu the very existence of the coiui- peared Uiat this cunceibiun was to be 
ttj- : in cvci-jr oiic partlcuUr, how- iu^ratlud into a jpruecal system ot 
3 nuritime 


natilinie law, which this Ireaty ap- tope. We wertt to war to dissoha 
pored iniended to 6x. Those con- this confederacy, and to defeat its 
anions appeared to him of :io much purposes. Were not ilioie objects 
iniporunce, that necessiiy alone obtained ? Had not Uie coali- 
cnild junify ministers for ninking tiou been dissolved, and hud not 
tbcm. Tbtj had struck that Sag, ve maintained our ancient rights } 
rticfc an honourable gfntlenian Those were the only questions which 
(Mr. Sheridan) had eloquetitly and he thought the attention of the 
traly declared ought never to disap- house shoiJd be then directed to, Itj 
pQT till the nation itself was wcr- ascertaining properly tlie value of 
wfcHmcd. these rights, it might be necessary 
lard Hawkcsbuij began his de- to recollect that it was to her mari- 
faicc of the treaty by stating, that time greatness lliis country was in- 
he ihmld not trouble the house at debted for the successfiil issue of, 
mnch length, but he found it neces- the last war, and it was to the same 
nry to mention the grounds upon cause that Europe was indebted {ui 
which he difeFed from the honour- whatever it still retained of inde- 
Megtntleman (Mr. Grey) and the pendence. This maritime greatness 
ixAle h>rd (Iwd Temple). The was itself in a great measure the cf- 
jwoMtraHe gentleman bad conceived feet of that wise policy which die- 
it inegnlar to move for such so ad- tated our navigation laws, and which 
'^Ktt, until the offirial accession of alwaysprotectedourmarilimerights. 
Sweden and Denmark had been re- The principle upon which Great 
(circd i butt dthough the house had Britain had always gone, was to cx- 
twn amtred by hiu maj&tty of the tend her navigation as mu<:h a^ pos- 
*>]<uesceiice of those powers, yet it sible, and comnc her commerce to 
I"* be recollected, tliey were only her own shipping. In France the 
■WW coosidering the convention system was difterent ; their naviga- 
*itlt Rntsia as a separate treaty, gaiion being f>tr lnf>;rior to their 
He could not allow that this cou- commerce, they were content to 
•oitioa was a compromise, as the allow their commerce to be traus- 
MpooraUe member had c^ed it, acted by neutrals, that in time of 
pot &at we had given up all the ob- war ail their sailors might be em- 
Jttts for which we contended, as ployed in their navy. TTie priiiciplij 
"lie noUe lord supposed. We had ilieretbrc for which we had con- 
Mriotained, in full force, all onr tended, was of llui utmost im^iort- 
"■itimo r^ts, as fat as it ought (o ancL- to ui, for our individual mte- 
''"e been our desire. Some asked, rests, At the same time it must be 
Whit did the treaty give us wiiich allowed, that we siioiild make the 
*eh»d not before ? He answered, exercise of our rights a5 little vexa- 
Jiat it was not to obtain any new tious as p-jssibie. " This was ilic ob- 
"Irjnt^es, but to support and pre- ject of the parties to the tieaty 
"TTe our incotttestabk and ancient ■ which had tx;un signtrd. .He denied 
righb rtut the dispute arose. I'he that this treaty w<is at iill tu b- ooii- 
ral state of the quettioi\ he con- sidcred as a new code of maritime 
<*wed to be this : the pcrwun of the law. It wfls merely a scitlemeniof 
North bad confederated to dictate a disputes between Uili country an J 
new code of tnaritime law to Eu- three of tlie Noillieiii Powers. He' 
E 2 ", diviJod 


divided idIo the fidlowing beads particulir tmticfl, and not by tbfl 
the point! in dispute : 1st, thetight law of nations. Althoi^ be trusted 
rf wizii^ enMny'i property in ncu- that the house would gcncrslly give 
tral ihip* i 2d, the af^ of contra- credit to his majesty's miniatm for 
baud} 3d, the right of searching doing aU in their power to |ffomots 
vcimIs ander conroy j 4th, the the interests of the country ; yet ia 
ti^t cf blockade; 5ih, the colonial the present case, he would say, >f 
and coasting trade. Of these he more was not gained, it was be- 
CODiidered, that we had gained atl cause more was not asked or wished^ 
that wai essentia). As to the 1st for. When the Northern Powen 
pnnt, the Northern Powers ex- threatened to support their claims 
prcssly abandoned the principle that by force, this country, with proper 
*' Iree boUoms niade free goods." magnanimi^, resisted them ; but 
As to die 3d, no new general re- ai soon as there appeared on their 
gulation was made on the subject, side a wish tor settling the dispute 
jnd dte concession to Eussia ^one amicably, the eovemment of this 
to be allowed to carry naval stores, conntty had dis^yed equal modera- 
was an object of trifling importance tion in requiring nothing but what 
indeed. Vhe right of search, with- was reasonable and necessary fbr the 
out which the other rights were essential interests of tht; conntiy. 
oi^atMy, was also maintained. As to the wording of this trea^. 
thmi^ under some restrictions, and there nught, as in every other, be 
be would ireely conftst that this some tittle ambiguity ; but what 
concession had been .voluntarily of- trea^was ever made which could 
fered by the British government, on not be found fiiult with by ths 
condition that the I^^rtbem Powen discontented and the quaruloos. 
would recede from other claims His lordship concluded by a psoe- 
wfaicfa were altogether inadmissible, gyric on the conduct of this coon* 
Id the exercise of this right of try, in the <UspUte and its termina- 
aearcb, iteither the law of nations, tion. 

nor ma most ancient treaties with Dr. Lawrence did not conceive 
Sweden and Denmark, ever war- the nobte lord justifiable in the verj 
ranted it, except under strong triumphant manner in which he 
penods of suspicion, and the cap- considered this question. He did ' 
tain always exercised it at his own not see that tbia country had ob> 
risk. As te the point respecting tained any importagt advanti^es by 
Uockade, he naintained, that the the treaty, but it was evident that 
present definition of it went as Jar it had made concessions, and re- 
Bs any approved writer on the law ceded from its ancient claims : the 
of nAions had ever extended it. right of search, for instance, which 
The opinions which bad been op- was restricted by the present traSJ, 
posed to each other on this point had not been even called in question 
were both in the extreme : this at the time of the armed neutr^qr 
trca^ he conceived held a due in ]?80. We had also conceded a 
medium between them. As to the ^ood deal in accepting the i>ew de- ' 
last head, that of the colonial and hnition of a blockaded port, and , 
coaiUng trade i this sut^ect he con- instead of weakening the power af ' 
cdnd Std ■Iways beenresulatcd b; Jtuuiaj we had iticDgthcned it oon* 

' lidenUy/ 


■defaUf , hj allowing ber to trot entire approbation of the nntimenti 
br Ac other N<wtheni Powers. expiesBed bf the learned gentleauui 
I^)rd fflcabervie laid, that the <Mr. Enklnc), who had juit lat 
Inrned gentleman (Dr. Lawrence) oown. He then briefly reviewed the 
*■ niistalui) in a point of (act. treaty nearly on the lams groonda 
Hk Northern Powen had for a as lord Hawkcsbuiy had considerecl 
txouiderable time showed a dispo- it, and conclndal with voting for 
Mtioa to resist bj force our claim the address. 
(0 the right of search. A Danish Mr. Tiemey also concomd in 
^p had resisted by force, and a the address, and expnessed hit vp* 
Swedish captain had been broke probation of the ccmduct of mi- 
far not doing so. nisters, in whom he bq[an to [dace 

Mr. Enkine cordlallf at^roved confidence. 

ef the treaty. It had been called a The tjuestion was then called for, 

|udidi)us ctimpnxnise, upon which and the address was roted without 

he Would observe, in the language a division. 

«f a man whose name would be However material to the real in- 

always heard in that house with terests of the Brifish empire the 

tcfereoce (Mr. Burke), that " al- subject matter of the foregoing de* 

laost every human benefit is found- bate, with whatever ability the qocs- 

ol on a compromise, and it is better tion had been discussed, or bow ably 

tbn we thoold give and take than soever the public law of Bnrope, 

)» 100 r^id wim each other, for as connected with onr maritime 

thatifwewooldbewise, we should dominion, bad been laid down in 

>M endeavour to be too subtle dis- the couhe ofabng and iwiiwnnfH 

pittBts." If we had endeavoured opposition of sentiment ; it excited 

U impoae harsh terms upon the very little sensation in the poldic 

Iste oonfedctacy, those powers mind. The result of the contest 

■cold have contested, with us with the Northern Powera had been 

igiin, the first, opportunity that glorious ; it was universally under- 

aflered i but by our moderation stood that coucession would fUlow 

the h>i^ne»a had been better set- victory, and that, from the cba- 

tkd. In eveiy controveny between racter and temper of the yonng 

tan and man, or nation and na- sovereign with whom we bad nego- 

li'n, that reconciliation is the sin- tiated, every thing eqnitaUe and 

<«eit where the honour and in- conciliatot? was to be expected. 

Inat of both partiea are attended Tlie known abSity of lord St. 

to: h^ it not been fortbis arrange- Helen's, who had conducted the 

meat with the Northern Powers, convention on our part, and a viU 

ptace with France would have l>?en lingness to confide in the politiad 

fcilis^ unattainable. Mr. Erskine skill and iuKgrity of the roinistera 

ihai very eloijucntly congratulated at home, who bad concluded an un- 

■he country on its prospects of a se- hoped for peace with Prance, and 

cwe and Utting peace, and con- who now claimed from the nation 

dodcd by giving his most hearty praises for having, in the words of 

■ppnibatioo of mc' conduct of his the address, " secured to us those 

la^etty's niinisters. essential ri^ts for which we had 

Ss Willjaia Scott expressed bis contended," and which all agreed 
E 3 were 


were inseparably connected with for the rcassumption of those rights 
the existence of our naval- power, wliich had been wrested from us b^ 
precluded minute investigation; and the armed neutrality of 1730, But 
if we add to these caune^ tlie diffi- the principles of which we com' 
culty of the iubjfct, and its remote- plaini»] had gradually fallen into dis- 
ness from the usual studies and pur- use, and were renounced by the prac- 
8uit3 of the greater part of man- tice of almost every power who had 
kind ; we shall not he surprised at been a party to that confederacy. By 
the apathy and indifference with Russia in her war with Turkey in 
which this important discussion was 17B? i by Sweden in her war with 
^nerally received. But it is the the tbrmer power in 1789; by all 
province of the historian, not only the powers of Europe with which 
to detail facts as ihi'y arise, but to we were in amity during the 
place before his readers their causes, l.m war,' in their respective treaties 
their rebtions, and ilieir probable with us ; by Denmark and Sweden 
consequences. Separate tills duty in their instmclions issued in 1793. 
from his labours, and he becomes and in their treaty with each other 
ihc useful annalist indeed, but for- in 1794 ; and by Prussia in her 
feits all claim to tKe name and dig- treaty wiih America in 1799. "Iliii 
nityofawritcr ot histor)'. Impressed universal change of sentiment sc- 
witii these considerations we ^liall cured to us uninterruptedly for 
beg the indulgence of our reodera, many ' years the exercise trf" our 
while we consider at some length rights, and which would have, per- 
the articles of this convention : a haps, remained forjages uudisturbed, 
convention which at once abrogates had not the caprice and ill-founded 
wh>t has always been considered anger and disgust the late crapcror 
and acted upon as the received of Russia conceived towards ns 
public bw ot Europe; and esta- again revived the pretensions <^ 
blishes an entire new code for the llie neutral powers with increased 
future regulation of the merilime eagerness and the most hostile ma- 
affain of all civilized nations. Nor nifestations. A new convenlioa 
can the disquisition be coniidered was now formed between the North- 
as unimportant, when eiery Eng- em Powers up*n the basis of the 
lishman r«:ollccts that by the con- old, and Great Britain foupd that, 
sequences of this important trans- unlrsrshe could, by equal promp- 
action it is to be decided, wliat rank titude and vigour, meet the oecesr 
we shall hereaAcr retain among the tity of the case, and bring these 
European powers. questions to a Anal and distinct 
'Jhe, origin of the inadmissible settlement, her sua of glory had 
nnd unreasonable pretensions of lite set for fvcr ! 

Baltic itates, to interfere with and In the magnanimity of the mo- 
cripple our maritime regulations narch, the decision of the admi- 
and commerce, may be found in nistration, and the public spirit of 
the weak and temporizing policy, the people, the British empire soon 
which Great Britain had pursued saw its resources commensurate 
towards them in the latter years of with the dangers which menaced 
our contest wilh America. The it: fleets were set on foot; the 
le-ite of ir'^3 lusdc tio provision cootmand given to officers. of tried 



MiCf and experience, and in an 
incrrdiblj short time, Irom the 7th 
of NovembcT 1800, when the em- 
tw^O was laid on all the Etigli'ih 
sbips in (he ports of Russia, the 
Baltic powers had incurred tlie 
i»e»^y penalty of their lemeriiy ; 
ibeircolonies were conquered; their 
OKiunerca annihilated i tho de- 
ftDcej of their own ports destroyed; 
their commodities accumulated at 
famiefor want of purcl»ser'i; their 
levenaci reduced t>y the total sta^- 
otMa of trade ; mutual jealousy 
Jnd want of confidence existing be- 
tween each other ; and, in ttn«, the 
butie of CotKdhagen fought ! At 
thi* crisis, the dnalh of the emperor 
I^ opened a duor, not only for a 
Rsution of hostile measures, but 
&r D^otiaiioa and alliance, and the 
[vaeat (invention was set on foot. 
Uoder suth auspicious circum- 
njDces it might reasonably be «- 
ptned (hat we should establish, on 
I &ied and permanent basis, ilie 
principle tor whith we had com- 
bated i and that the contest which 
*e bad to gloriously maintained, 
uid termiiut^, should be followed 
Dp by au arrai^miint to precise 
»ad ceruin in its teims, as should 
limit hcKaftcr no possibility of 
fraiion or abuse ; and that itEhould 

fnnn, I 

eihe \ 

*of a 

•talesman, " the charter of our lu- 
lure itrcngth," and " tbc warrant 
"•f. aaurance of the undisturbed 
wio)inent of righU essential to our 
raval power." How far tlie treaty 
10 i]uesiion has accomplished thest; 
objects, we slall, with as mudi 
oKuty as consists with clearness, 

Tlie coDTcntioB *, as now hid 
«*we parhament, was made with 

Russia alene, certainly the mast 
powerful member of the. flurthcrn 
coitederacy : tlie fact ot ihc acces- 
sion of Sweden and Denmark to it 
iiiiiiistera confidently stated. Yet 
assuredly it was without example, 
and extremely inconvenient for par- 
liament to be called upon to consider 
an arrangement, before it was pos- 
sible that its evtent and (^>eratioa 
could be known, or how far it 
would aOt-ct the essential interests 
of the British empire; for until it 
should be seen what were the pre- 
cise terms of that accession, one 
material point of diltercnce might 
be left without a possibility of ex- 
pbnation or adjustment; because the 
interpretation of an article of what 
was contraband, was yet in disputt 
between tlie British government 
and Sweden ! Nor was tliis all, the 
same uiirenaiiity belonged to tlie 
convention itself ; for un the face 
of it tlicre appeat^d, that there were 
many cxplanaticns still to be entered 
upon at St. Petersburgh on some of 
its most material points; so that 
parliament was called upon to suic- 
tioii a treaty, ujwn the precise 
terms of wliich they could not bo 
distinctly informed ! Fur this un< 
precedeuted eagerness on the part 
of ministers in bringing the treaty 
in this crude and immature form 
before parliametit, we can oidy 
account, by supposing that it was 
too tempting au t^portunity to 
acquire pi)ptil:irily, not to be em- 
braced at the expense of all former 
usage, and die severe anlmadver-' 
siuns it brought upon them. 

Of the live distinct points to 
which this lrc;iiy t may be reduced, 
we shall tii'bt obsene oa tliat which 
establiiJies the rule under wliicb 


' State h^en," vol. fdriMi, ^ ; 

t Utt convmikm iliiJ. 



the bdligennt refum to neatrak now derivM from iu most yahiable 

the Itbergr oS earring on, during the capturea \ 

war, those parts tf the eaeraj't On the aecoitd of tbc general 
trade, from which tbty are exdud- principles of the conTcntion, that 
ed in time of pcacC) and which has which is opposed to the absurd 
usually been applied to the coasting and nnjuat pietetukm, viz. that 
and colonial trade of France. One " free ihqx make free goods," 
of the articles of the armed neutrality there is in this treaty a proper ic- 
in 1700, claimed the rig^t of car^ cognition of the long established 
lying on unmolested these branches public law of Europe on thathead. 
UT French commerce, although pro- Thetbird, whichsppliesto"con- 
hibited in time of peace ; this un- traband of war," lays down a pria> 
just pretension, aimed at our naval dple the most fiital that could poni- 
dominion, was renewed by the biy be devised to our futore mari- 
boniLa convention of 1800, nearly time dominion ; by it " M ambi- 
in the fbUowing words: " That gui^ or misunderstanding as to 
neutral ships may navigate fireely what ought to be considered ai 
irom post ' to post, and upon the " contraband of war," is declared, 
coasts of the belligerent powers." Nor is this declaration the conces- 
The present convention adopts very sion of any special privilege to the 
nearly tbe same terms; by it, contracting pirties, birt the recog- 
" neutnl ships are permitted to nitira] of a preexistent tight, which 
navigate freely to the ports and upon as such cannot be refiued to any 
thecoastsoftbebclligerentpowcTs:" other independent state. In the 
and in the next section of this ar- enumeration of such articles, can- 
ticle, it is added, that " the eflects nons and firelocks, helmets sq4 
eml»rked on board neutral ships swords, saddles and t^idles, are care- 
ahall be free, with the ezcq>tion of fiilly set down, with others of a 
contraband of war, andofenemy's nature appropriate toawarbylandj 
pn^er^." By the first of these but iron and timber, pitch and tar, 
causes the hostile claim of the masts, hemp, sail-doth and cord- 
northern Ict^c is completely re- age, are by it not only declared not 
. -cognized, as far aa relates to the to be contraband, but not even to 
coasting trade ; by the latter it as be naval stores ! So that so soon ai 
dearly concedes to the neutral our present commercial trca^ shall 
powers the rl^t in time of war to have expired with America, we 
carry on the whole colonial trade of must, in onr renewal of it, al»de 
France, under the pretence of its by that rule of putdic law, which 
being their acquired proper^. Thua we have ourselves prodainied : in 
have we surrendered for ever, with- similar circumstances shall we find 
out reserve or compensation, the ousrselvei situated with Holland, 
whole of this long admitted claim, with Spain,, with Portugal, with 
its principle, and its prdctice. We Prussia, in short with every mari' 
have given by it to owr enemy, in time power of Europe not a party 
imy future contest, all the resources to this conventicHi. 
ef commerce ; and we have dqpriv- Blockaded puts is the next subject 
ed the valour and enem' of our which this trea^ embraces : on this 
uvy, of tbc just reward which it bead yte skdl aot go into the exami- 




atcaa itf what b the precise natare 
tfiblodude bj lea, alwaji bd in- 
tncite and difficolt mbgect; but 
■facKugnmiidniffident to cilt in 
tfx^aoa tbe jnctioe and policy of 
tbc vhoic ftifH^adoD on this bead, 
fttm tbe words of the article, the 
Uoekadt is understood to last so 
l«S «Blr. >s tbat tbere sball be 
nidcntdaji^cr of entering, and to 
k fiitcd as ofiea as tliat danger 
otsiu, even for tbe ibortest in- 
knaL la this light, declaration of 
blodade, or of its having ceased, 
boctofiiTe tbe assurance required 
tf the existence of such a measure, 
■ sfangUed; there must, under this 
B^ code, be the actual presence at 
d timei, and st all seasons, of the 
tinrtarting Kjnatlron to constitute a 
Uwiadc, contrary to the very na- 
tae of naval operations, which ne- 
ctuirilj depend on tbe variations of 
^ wtaAiaf and which must occasi- 
nill/ compel absence hrom the pott, 
nei)teiitly to such a distance as that 
noirident danger can exist in enter- 
iw St. Nor can any neutral ship 
^mufyti be detained, bound to such 
pfU if net with at a distance from 
it, becanse by this regulation it is 
Bade fanposaUe that the officer 
«f Ae bdligeicnt can know that the 
Uockade does at that moment sub- 
wt. and becTOse tbe &ct of its. 
oistenoe on atone justify the de- 

The " right of search," the last 
nuioial prindple of the convention, 
nd wfaidi might, had the code of 
Dwal law, which Great Britain has 
ktfhcito asserted on this point, been 
'BdQy maintained, have cared in 
it* opcmion many of the gross and 
dsa^ous deficiencies we have al- 
itadf pMoted out in the preceding 
nidei. Bnt unfortunately in this 
BMuce, as in tbe others, we have 

to record the magnanimous con- 
cessions which we have made, not 
only of our own rights, but the 
rights of all Europe, In the moment 
(^triumph and of victory ; not as a 
pcace-otftring to a powerful and 
graipiiig enemy, but to a prince, 
our ally, whose moderation and 
friendsbip to us werp C(]ualty con- 
spicuous ; and who could not pQS' 
sibly gain tohisown dominions, at 
least in the present posture of 
affairs, any commercial or mari- 
time advantages from the sacrificca 
we have made, proportioned to 
their extent and consequence. The 
right of visiting ships tinder neutral 
convoy is indeed, by the words of 
this article, established ; but we 
have so limited and circumscribed 
it in the operation, as to render it 
completely invalid and nugatory. 
As the law will now stand the sus- 
picion must precede the inquiry, 
and no 'detention can take place 
unless the officer be already in pos- 
session of evident facts, establishing 
the violation of neutrality. How 
this mode of visiting and detaining 
neutral ships can be reduced to 
practice, with any sort of adi-antage 
to Great Britain, it is difficult to 
point out. If the papers of the ship 
detained be regular (and it would 
be strange indeed if they were not), 
the ship itself is not to be visited i 
but if> " some valid motive of sus< 
picion should exist," then the officer 
may make fijrther search. Unless 
indeed it be understood that the 
framor of this article on our part 
wished to sanction, under the am- 
biguity of phrase, tlie power of 
eluding the whole object of the 
stipulation, ^vhnt valid object of 
suspicion can arise in the mind of 
an olScer, respecting a ship whote 
name he never beard before, whose 


crew and cargo he has never seen, »erve aa a constant nile fn the cpn- 

Doris permitted lo see, unless tlie tracting power;, in matters ofcom- 

papera are bunglingJy fabricated ? mwce and navigation." 

What juiige can he be, or what Nor should it be forgotten that 

conjecture can he make, at that this irraty, in the modern spirit of 

distance, of what concealed articles innovation, has unsettled the basis 

the ship may carry ? Can he in of the public law of Europe, vene- 

■ucb a situation acquire- the details rdble for lis aniiquit)', respectable 

«l)ich the information of some or lor its equity, and above all valuable 

all of the crew might furnish him j for the stability of iUi principles, 

or can he, from the papers, decide 'fills was the first great measure 

whether the ship be victualled and of Mr. Addington's administration 

ptarcd as they indicate ? which could lairly be said to ccnne 

1 bus have we entered minutely before the public, 

into the component parts of tliis The preliminaries of the peace 

celebrated convention. To the with France were, in their own 

whole of liie treaty it must be ob- nature,, too loose and undefined, to 

jected, that whatever might be the serve as data, by wliich the political 

<;ircumstance9 which induced us to wisdom of him and his cdleagues 

conclude it in the present manner were to be determined on by the 

and form, witli one or more pow- public. Ibe convention with Russia 

era of Korope, we should have stood in a very difierenl predica- 

guarded, by the most explicitdi^cla- meut. It was die matures and pcr- 

ratlons, against the possibility of our fected result of many montlu nego- 

spccial engagements being converted tiation : lor the reasons wc have 

into general rules, applicable to all already given, a minute consldera- 

other countries : and this for tlie tion of Its merits and defet^ts was 

(Avious reason, that we were now hardly given to it in any rjuarter; 

limiting our ancient rights by ex- all its demerit-s were overlooked or 

piess stipulations. The reverse of were swallowed up in the vortex 

this policy has, however, been of delight and rapture at the ter- 

iinfoilunately pursued. Ve have niination of the war ; and the 

by the words of the treaty declared, " convention" and tiie "prelimliia- 

that the stipulations to which we ries" weut hand in hand in the tri- 

have now acceded " shall be re- umphant progress of Mr. Adding'* 

garded as permanent, and shall ton's administration. 



C H A P. V. 

TrctTraieiL-ith India.— Sir IVUliam Pultenfy'i Mat'ton thercfm.-^ Delate. 
—Sp-.'echa of Mr, Adiliugton—JuhTtston— frallact—Sir F. Baring— Mr. 
Mtkjlf-rr. Diindas-Ti^nu-n—LfirdGUaien-ie. and Mr. R. Thorn- 
tm.— Sailing of the Brest fleet. — Mr. Greiivdle's Obieroations, and 
Qtttstions to Administration thereon. — Mr. Addingion's reply. — Staie 
Bread Act repealeii. — IFaus and Means far three Months. — Arguments 
far the Prohitition of the Working of the Distitl<rriei. —Bill last. -'Thirty- 
tit Thousand AMtia voted till the Signing the Definitive Treaty.— fy' 
petted Adjoumnienls lo January IQlh, IWi, 

NO biuioess of moment oc- prehenaive liittoricd retrospect of 

corred in cither house of theoriginal rise ar.d establishmentof 

priiiment worth detailing for the the East India company. The cause 

iHnainderof the year ISOI, if we of that institUtioti.hcsnid, was two- 

na|>t the convetiation which arose fold. In tlie first place, it was the 

in consequence of a motion made object of government to get an 

by sir W. Pulteney, on the subject ample loan, in compensation for the 

of the Ba.^1 India trade, and some exclusive monopoly granted to the 

olueivaiions of the right bonoui-able company. Secondly, that exclnsive 

Mf. GreiiTille on the sailing of the charter was granted for this reason, 

Brest fleet fur St. Domingo. because the trade with India, from 

Sit W. Ptiltcney had, some time the great distance of the latter 

previodily to his mution, given country, could not possibly be 

notice of it, and had repeatedly de- carried on by individuals, but re- 

fctrai it on the ground that he <juired a confederated capital. In 

uadcrstood tliat the parties were the reign of queen Anne, a larger 

dijposed to settle ihe matter in sum of money was raised by the 

diipute without the interference of erection of anotlier company. Theso 

piliunent. On the 35th of No- two companies were afterwards 

tember, bovever, finding that there united and consolidated into one, 

*u little prospect of an amicable under the title of the United Com- 

adjuitment on the lubject of the pany of Merchants trading fo the 

free trade between those whose East Indies. At the time the en- 

fwctm it immediately was, he croachment of foreign compani&t 

was determined to bring it at length constituted the principal object of 

Wore the house of commons. the jealousy of the British traders. 

Sir \V. Pulteney prefaced his the speculation went on prospcr- 

"Mion, relative to the trade be- ouslj, and was eminently lucrative. 

twfcn this country and tlie East But when they departed from their 

^in, with enicrin^ into a comr simple character of merchants, and 



acquired territorial possesaions, they Impossible for the Eagliih tnder te 
became subject To considerable enter ints a ^x competidoa with 
kMKs. So great was the lilting off, foreigners. Acting on the same 
that the rupee, which was worth priDciplo which all hit predeceston 
upwanis of 2s. did not fetch more in the government oi India had 
than Is. 3d. Things continuing in avowed, lord Wellcslej, in the year 
this adverse train, a bill was, in 17Q&, granted a greater latitude of 
1762, brought into parliament, the permisaioa to the &ee trade. The 
effect ol which went to take the directors of the company, however, 
trade out of the company's hands though they had not been able to 
altogether. It n true tiiat this substantiate any proof of ditadvan- 
bitt did not eventually pass, being tage \frhicfa had accrued from the 
thrown out in the lords, after it system, wrote aeainst it very few- 
had gone through the commons, cibly to lord W^lesley ; in conse- 
and been read twice in the upper quence of which, his lordship, in 
bouse. But thoi^h the bill was l7ilQ, was more tenacious of grant' 
lost, the necessity of some sys- ing (kcilitics to the free trade. In 
tem of regulation was opiversuly the following year, 1800, lord Wel- 
Ml and acknowledged. Underthis lesley found himself, however, un- 
impression, parliament appKed to a der the necessity of sgain reaortmg 
milder mode of correction, by the to his former principle; which pro- 
establishment of the board of con- doced strong remonstrances agwnst 
tnJ. In this state the business the measure, on the part of the di- 
continued till the year 1793, when racton, wbo persisted in their r)rs- 
the question of the renewal (^ the tern nf hampering the native trader, 
company's charter came on. I^r- to the emolument of foreign spe> 
lictdar attention was, on this occa- culators. On these groups, be 
aion, devoted to the consideration felt it his duty to brii^ the bnsi- 
of the free trade, and many ness fully aitd directly before par- 
dauses were intit>duced into the liament. The house woukl have 
bill rela^ng to that subject. On the goodness to recollect, that the 
this point he could not refrain from trade to India was divided into two 
observing, that all the difivrent brancjies— the trade to China ; and 
gmremors who had l>een appointed that to India, as it was called ; the 
to the command in the I^t In- latter embracing Bengal, Calcutta, 
^s had, without e single excep- and the rest of the settlonents. 
tkm, given their opinions in favour The joint produce of these two 
of the principle of granting greater branches amounted, in tbe year 
fecilities to the free trade, which 1800, to 7,OO0,00rW. sterling: of 
(hey considered as essential to the these, 4,000,000/. sterling were re- 
very primary interests of the com- exported, I'he proportion of dia 
pany. The directors of the com- fireie trade was nearly 3,300,000/. 
pany, on the amtttay, had always aterling. The trade carried on I^ 
set their fices against the pnmsi- fortngnen amounted to considerahlT 
tion, notwithstanding the dedared more then l,AOO,000/. steriing. 
■entiments of their officers, refiis- To what extent the trade might be 
ii^ to ftcilitate the tree trade, ex- carried and improved, it was im* 
cept in sncli a way at rcndend it posiiUe to say.' ta tlw >iii(^ »"• 
4 tide 


tde of indigD, iriiich bad not been equivalent (o tfacir anthoritj', be 

cnldnted taaoj jan, mt addidon bad the opiDioo of a hebt bonanr- 

■f Dolenihao IfiOOfiOOl. tteriing aUe gendeman (Mr. Hcnrjt Dun^ 

m made to anniial prodace. Hence das), wbo bad devoted parttcubr 

k bcMMe would be able to form attentioa (o this important Kibjectw 

Moe catinxte of what might be and who was decidedijr in hvaat 

dene, if doe fiKilities were ^forded of the free tiadc. He bad the aa> 
ft) eoterpnie. All that be con- .thoritjr of all the govcroora wh» 

imled far, all that be requiied of had managed the company's af&Nn 

tbc ctnqamj and of tbe boose, in India, and who sorely miut be 

*>>, that the aatne privileges should allowed to possess the means df 

he accorded to the fiee trade of jndgii^ of tbe subject Further, 

Ihb coontry which were allowed to in order to sbow on what gnund 

ftnwners. But &ii and equitable tbe directors sbnd, it might be 

M this dcmatid must appear to proper to aStx a few remarks tm 

eray ondid aad impartial judge, tbe mode of their elactioo. The 

it WIS poeDOptorily rdiued by the ori^nal qualification for a cUrcctor 

dtedon. tiay, they even granted was 500/. Ibis had consequently 

pmilege* to fore^ers wbidi they faem raised to 1000^ Another 

deaied ia loto to their own coun- change was e^ctcd by limiting 

hymoL Foreigners were allowed the dection, which was aiiginally 

to de4, not only in certain article*, annual, to tmy four years, Ibii 

hat m die company's goods in ge- be oonsidoed as the gntnd and ge- 

nend. Hie e&cts of such a sys- aeiating cause of nxwt of tbe evila 

tMB could ix>t fail to prove ruinous which had ensued. Tbe dtrectota 

*o tbe iatereats (tf this country, by were now no longer tbe ropresen- 

fMbling foreigners to underK^ ui tatives of the propnston, but a sdf- 

intlieEuropenninarfcets.lnlbeycar ^ipnnted, self-elected body. Six 

1793, the' Ble of East India goods went out annually by rotation, and 

M L'Orieot unounicd to no leas a came ^in as r^nlariy into oScc, 

•an than 1,300,000/. sterling. This when their period of rotation re- 

«as tbe produce of the tiade with turned. Only one instance djd he 

ftanotriope. But it riwuld be ic- know of a director being chosep, 

>W*abcnd, that Detimarh, Ame- whose name was not on tbe house 

no, nd lisboo, had Ukewise em- Ibl. By this mean* the constitution 

Mvd in tbia coacern. It was not of tbe company wa* t^Iy changed 

Us wish to exdnde ftatigners frtan and subverted. The direction of 

(be Saat Indies j but not 10 sacr^e tbe eompany was a complete aristo- 

the interests of smr country to cracy. And the experience of ages 

tteirs^-aot to oaiiy and letter the emboldened him to affirm, that al 

Kniish trader in compliment to all posiiUe govcnimenta, not ex- 

fadp deaboa. Perhaps soeie gen- cepting even the horrors of a wild 

<3<aien ni^t fed indiDed to attach democracy, aristocracy was tbe inosi 

"W idi ln i b le wei^ to tbe declared tyianiiical and dangrrous. It was, 

aad nnininMua anfltage of the court indeed, no wonder that the directors 

(^ dueuiun, in oppositiDn to tbe should succeed in establishing this 

nogaraguncDt of the iree trade, system of ari^tocntical dominion, 

'Cat a coQsterpoiiC, a more than when it va* coiuidered wbatim- 


metuc patniuge they enjoTcd. The be allowed to (he t>rinte trade, as 
whole [ill of »)poiiitn)ents abroad j csnducing equally to tbe cncoura^' 
the purchdie of goods for the fordgn ment of British manu&cturej, and 
market -, the choice of merchanti ; to the consumption of oiu* £a9t In- 
ibeappoiDtment of skipa; all these dia produce. If the directors h»d 
opportunities of influence centred not given to private trade all the fe- 
among themselves. This was, in cilicies rniuiivd by that act, and of 
truth, the real cause and motive of course expected by its framers, h* 
the objection started by the directors should not have looked upon the 
to a more beneficial improvement of present moli^u as 3 new meusurej 
tbe trade. They were unwilling to but rather as a supplement to that 
weaken their own power and in- act. llierc was, however, no im- 
£ueuce by admitting a competitor- mediate is^ue before the house, on 
diip. This appeared to be the case which it wa; called upon perempto- 
by their own confession. The ho- rily to decide. The governor and 
nourable baronet then entered into the directors, the manjuis Welles- 
a comprehensive analyas of a pub- Icy, and the late president of tlie 
licatioD by one of the directors on board of control, had all agreed 
the momentous subject, the chief that something was necessary lo be 
and leading points of which he ar- done in this case. Tliey had wisely 
gued with great perspicuity; and viewed tbe contending parties as 
after again pressing on the consider- looking to extreme points, and they 
ation of tbe house tbe vast magni- had properly adopted a medium be- 
tude of the discussion, and the ne- tween these two extremes. It 
ccssi^ there was of granting ^ili- would be of infinite mischief, in his 
lies to our country, in preference to opinion, if the private trade were (o 
foreignen, concluded bit speech be encoun^ed beyond a certain ei- 
with moving for the appointment of tnit. It would be still more mis- 
aconunittee, to take into considera- cbievous if a rivalry were to beesla- 
tion tbe papers laid before the bouSe blished between the English and the 
last sessions, rdative to the proceed- India shipping, and if the latter 
ings of the East India company with were, on all occasions, te be sent 
respect to the trade with India ; and home fiill frei^ted with tbe private 
to report the same to the house. trade. A most material difTerence, 
The Chancellor of tbe Exchequer Mr. Addington said, had taken place 
b^an by admitting the great import- since this question was first brought 
anceof thepresent<fUestion. Itwas, forward. Itwas first produced in 
infect, he observed, of so much im- tiracofwar; it was now happily *• 
portance, that it should not have be discussed in a time of peace, 
been brought into agitation, unless I'be complexion of tbe case was 
under circuou lances of extreme ne- therefore so far difierenl that no dis' 
cessity. He should not, however, advantage could arise from delay- 
enter into the circumstances of (he There were now nearly three years 
case previous to the arrangement of left fur the experiment agreed upon 
1793, between the public and the between the marquis of Wellesjey 
i;ast India company. The act of and the board of cootrii, by which 
that date had wisely pro\'ided, that every possible advantage was 10 be 
a cena'ui <)Uitntity of tonnage ^ould given to private trade, remaining' 


as [d his pinion it skouM be, under la'td, which bad been made abroad 

ibe direciion of the East India com- and at home, by no means met with 

pay. Jt was theaimrffiispredc- bis upprobation. The receipt* from 

auon, and, without an)' prejudice India by private ctiannels did not 

» to tbeir iateotions, it must ever consist wholly of the remittances of 

be his winb, that London sbonid be Indix-idoah. There was to be in- 

Dot otdy Uie emporium of India duded the loans of the company, 

titie, but the sole and exclusive of which iwo millions out of ten 

mm of India produce. Ho should only were taken by ihe natives. The 

Dot alter into any comparison be- balance in favour -of India, he con- 

tween Lascars and British seamen, tended, was now nearly fh'e millioni 

M the latter would ever main- sterling. Surely some proper mode 

bin tbeir ascendancy, and the for- should be devised for the remittance 

merwere to be coii^idcrnl as merely of these large sums. If India-built 

n^tetnentar)-. Neither was it hia ships were not admitted into the 

Vtth to enter into ilie question of port of London, they would find 

coionizatioii, though therewasdoubt- their way to Antwerp and L'Orl'^nr, 

less some danger from what had hap- to the immense benctit of foreigners, 

pencU ia another quarter. The case* and their trade would be carried on 

td' America and India were, in his even more advantageously than un- 

opintiw, widely ditferent. The ca- der British colours. He desired to 

ptUtists of the latter hod no other know what was to be done to pre- 

«h than to settle in iheir mother vent this mischief after these two 

coontry. There was therefore mere- years of experiment had expired ? 

if a ground of caution, with which Mr. Addington begged leave to an- 

h waa Dot necessary, in his judg- swer, that what was to be done at 

ment, at the present season, to oc- the end of two years must rest with 

o^ the house. He was of opinion, the discretion of the government 

diat theact of 1793, with the recent and of the East India directors, who 

arrangenaents, was fully sufficient must, of course, feel it necessary to 

tar every purpose. There was no come to some permanent arrange* 

preacing eiigeocy for the interfe- ment. With respect to the indul- 

nace of the house. He, there- gcncesgtanledby theJatter, hemust 

fixe, tbough a[^oving of the nlo- say, that they appeared to him to be 

tioQ in many points of view, must very ample indeed, I'hey bad 

meet it in an indirect way, which agreed to extend the import tonnage 

be did by movii^ the previous ques- from Ihree 10 Jii-e thousand tons, 

tioo. provided that this was done under 

Mr. Johnstcm (the nephew of sir their immediate direeliun. This 

W. Pulteney) followed up and had for its obvious tendency both 

■aiatatBcd ttie arguments of his tihe public and private advanlnge. It 

liDiMurable relative. He alluded to was stated in the paper wbieh he 

the amuigemenu which had been held in his hand, tJmt these ships 

■Dade for the term of three years, thus employed should not be lie- 

[Mr. Addington said across the tained for any political purpose, 

table, "for two seasons, amonnling unless they were laden with piece 

ne«ly 10 three years."] Mr. John- goods or vith sahpctre— that the 

Oao continued. The-pUns, he company was incliuei to make i:p 

64 ■ ANNUAL REGISTER. 1802. 

th^ cargoes vhh ro^h goodi ml were not to be entitled to a free and 

the usual rate of three per cent, full share of this conuneice. Ihe 

—and also that these ships might waifan was now of a diAinent sort 

be relet for the purpose of export- A set of men, who had made theic 

aiion. fbrtutMi under the ao^Hce* oftlM 

Mr. JohnstoD said, that this ex- East India company, now came 

planatioa, if previously given, would fiirwtrd to lay, mat if the trade wu 

iiare cut short much of the debate, not in lome degree opened to them. 

The single question now was, whe- they Wtiuld remore tbor capitals 

ther the East India company should ebewheta. He made do doubt 

have the sole superintendemx for that it might in aome phca be 

the puqxiae of trammelling and carried oA more cheap j nit this, 

bampcring the private trade. He in his judgment, was a reaion the 

aaid, that if this were the case, more for keeping the monopoly at 

the India-built ihips must be forced atrict as pottible. He was of opi- 

to trade under neutral or foreign nion, that the marquis of Wdlwef 

flags. He was most decidedly ^r had exceeded lus powers firom (be 

the motion of inquiry. moment that he lent an ear to the 

Mr. Wallace took a very wide advocates for private trade. He 

view of the case. He thought was mach against the trade carried 

there was no ground for tt\e pro- on by ungle ahijps, which frequently 

posed inquiiy. It was for the com- forestalled the nur commerce of the 

pany to rq^ulate both thdr public company, andocca»oned the home 

and private trade; and this they produce to be returned, which 

had a right to do, not en political, would otherwise have been laid out 

but on commercial grounds. The in profitable investments. He had 

question, as it bow stood, was be> no objection whatever to private 

tween public faith tad pcditical ex- trade, if properly conducted under 

pediency. The plan which was the protection and superintendance 

now to be adopted for two years, of the company. But if these 

would redound, in his opinion, to claims were acceded to, it wodd be 

the credit and advantage of the similar to the conflict of the two 

company. Those who opposed it companies under the reign of queen 

aeemed to him to have some ulterior Anne, which was found to be ruin- 

advantagei in view, which, perhaps, ous to both. Under all the dr- 

wtmld be better decided upon when cumstancei> he did not look en this 

they were brought fkiriy before the as the proper moment for sodi an 

puUic. The exclusive monopoly of inquiry. 

the company he could not consider Mr. Metcalf very ably fdlowcd 

in any present point of view, but on the same side. He remarked, 

as highly advanti^eous to the couu- that there had been, during the late 

try at large. war, no less a toonage thim SOfiOO 

Sir Francis Baring said, that the tons, all destined for foreign set- 

^estion appeared to him to be, tlcraents, im some of which it was 

whether India or Great Britain was known that we at that very mo- 

to be the mother country ? The ment meditatad a descent. The 

oontest wai formeriy, whether the parties who made this t^lication 

fncrchantt of England and Ireland were;, in hi* qpiuioiif never to be 


lifefied : the7 wotdd in all appear- merely bwauie tbcy hoped that 

tace be ditcontrnied with anything these evils would turn to their 

ibort of the measTire of opening the benefit- If a concession was made 

trade rf together. It \va? surely fdr in this instance, there would be 

In policy and in prudence, to give no end to their claims. They said 

to ute company the fiill and exctu- that their aim was merely to ex* 

»Te benefit of it) charter. If this elude foreigners. This wonld sanc- 

were to be violated, and if from tion every claim that might be made 

any motive of policy, however on the part of Liverpool, Ireland, 

Mund it might appear, the com- tec. It wai the duty of parliament 

f«i^ w-erc to be deprived of their to mahe a decided stand behind the 

lantonai rights ; then, in his opi- diarterof the company. If a con- 

nion, thr tuH of India was set tor cession was to be made to SOO gen- 

ever ! On the measure now before tlemen, why not to 15CX) or 2000? 

ibelKKMe. and its consequences, he Tht claimants in this case appeared 

•boaM only observe, that the Iton. to him to have but a .ilender title 

hwooet who brought it forward, was to the attention of the house. They 

M alarmed at the sliglit probability came forward with a claim in (he 

of its fucc«ss, that he actually sold one hand, and a menace in the 

out Vi.uOOf. East India stock on other. " If," said they, ■' you do 

(he way day before he brought for- not grant what wc demand, we can 

w«rd his motion. have five per tentum better at 

Mr. W. Dnndas did iHrt see any Ostcnd, and ten per centum belter 

thing in the present motion hostile at Antwerp." They were subjects 

to the rr^ interests of the company, of this country, but they had a 

He did not think it wrong that free diMinct in(erest as capitalists, 

mrrchants should be allowed to Mr. Tiemey then proceeded to 

tnde, when that trade did not ac- show the fallacy of the argument 

tnaUy inlerfere with that of the that we could have ships built m 

conqiany. If the capital of the India on cheaper terms than at 

latter was limited, there was no home. But,admitting (his, for the 

reuon wh3tever why an extension sake of argument, to be the case, 

rf it should not ba allowed, where were we, for llie sake of IJO.OOOf. 

it was offered with goodwill. It loss to the company, to disband 

by no means followed, from the our army of shipwrights, and to 

exdusivc charter of the company, leave our marine at the mercy of 

tbat (be puUic was to sufier cither the enemy i He trusted that no 

tnm their want of means, or Irom such policy could take plat.^.. and 

their lo^nenevs. that the faithAil senanU of the 

Mr. Tiemey, on the other hand, country would not be discarded on 

contended warmly for the exclusive such narrow and impolitic grounds. 

righti panted to the company by Lord Glenbervie spoke at soma 

thechaner of 1793>' The present length on the l^al merits of the 

attack originated with men edu- case. He obscned that, with a 

cated and raised under the com- proper register, India built ships 

pany. They wished for more, were now admitted as British 

and ihere ft rc were refracftwy. TTiey vessel*. He was, however, more 

■uenFedevery «*il to tfaf compmy, an advocate for admitting the im- 

Vot. XUV. F portatioa 

6g annual register, 1802. 

pottalion fif teak wwid an a convc- his opinion till tliR signature of the 
nicnc?, in llir scardty of oak, than definitive treaty took place;' be- - 
ftyr transplanting our ship-Uiilding cause, unwilling as he always was, 
to India. He saw no ground, not and ever should wish to be, tt> 
could he reckon much on the prii- tlirow any obstacles in t!ie way of 
dence of questioning Ihc sincerity his majesty's ministers, much less 
of our late adversary ; he therefore in the way of so desirable an object 
must give his vote for the present as peace, he would not be the man 
fjuestion. who, by any act of his, or by aiijr 

Mr, R. Thornton spoke with the thing iliat should fall from him in 
other directors against the motion that house, might seem to appear 
for a committee of inquiry. to thwart the one or oppose the 

Sir James Pulteney spoke at some other. But whatever might then 
length in favour of the original pro- have been his Intentions, or what- 
fosilion, ever were the conditions of the 

Sir William Pulteney wM heard preliminaries, or now, those of the 
in reply. definitive treaty, all these had 

Mr. Addington said a few words, nothing to do with an e\-cnt whicb 
The speaker then put the pre- his duty in a paramount way called 
-vious question, which was carried upon him to have explained by the 
Tvithout a division. Sir W. Pul- right hon. gendeman opposite to 
tcney'a motion was lost of course. him (die chancellor of i!ie excho- 
As wc shall devote a paninilar quer). He was not in the habit 
bortion of this work to the affairs of of claiming often the attention of 
India, we shall not dwell here up- the house ; notlilng, tlierefore, but 
on the merits of the subjcet, that circumstances of import should at 
brought on the aiwve debate, and this season claim it now. But the 
we shall only now remark, that it subject was of such magnitude, that" 
was not again brought forward in he could not n;sist both the impulse 
the courscof the session. of duly, and, in this instance, of 

In (he month of December irtclination, in looking for a felr 
1801*, the Brest fleet had sailed and unequivocal answer to the 
for St. Domingo, cotivrylng an questions he should puttherttmj 
immense army, and naval nnd not but he hoped that such a com- 
mililary stores to a prodiginiis municatioii would have been mad* 
amonni, and this pending the re- concerning it as would have ren- 
gotiation of the dcfiiiiiive treaty of dcred it wholly unnecessary for him 
pence. On this ver}' extraordinary to say one word on Iho subject, 
event, on the 28th of that monih. That, howtrer, not being the case, 
1he rti^ht hon. Mr. Rrenville, in his he was the more impelled to declare 
jjlace in the hciiisi- of commons, ob- himself. — A report for some days 
scrvedihat, upon a fiwmcr occasion, had got into circ:u!ation, that the 
he adverted to the ronditions of the Brest fleet had sailed : this, as a 
preliminary treaty, many of which report, might hnve been idly pro- 
met his decided and unqnalitiiHl pagalcd, and he gaie little or no 
dislike } lie avoided then giving credit to it ; but fist night, having 


■ndnrtood that it was confirmed, any military movement wliatnoei'er, 

Ir was drsirous of being acquainted Por'ihis re;ison, he considered this 

with ihc fccl, and of the country elep, if it be true, as one menaring 

being aJso acquainted with it; and the most aldrming danger. He wi>h- 

alihou^h he had proposed leav- ed to be understood in describing 

ingtiiwn this morning, ycl, cou»ist- that danger : he did not mean to 

mily nith his duty, and comiMenily suppose that France would be desi- 

wi^ what he owed his conscience, rous uf breaking a preliminary 

be could not depnrt without satis- treaty, abounding as this does with 

fying both in this instance. As this, so many advantages in her favour; 

therefore, was a matter of the ut- but without any sueh si.ipposition> 

iTUKi apprehensiun and alarm, he be might apprehend the danger 

desired to know the feet, whether which such a superiority' of strength 

or not the Brest fleet, consisting must afford herin the West Indies, 

of sixteen sail of the line, with which may hereafter bear so much 

bsispcHis, and ]0,0(K) troops on on all the questions that nri^e at 

board, bad actually sailed for St. Amiens, and the changes it may 

Domingo? If it be the case, and work there. 'Can that respected 

they were sutTered togo, he begged nobleman, whom we have sent 

gentlemen would seriously reflect, there for the purpose of making 

Bid feel the situation the country peace, say, Rhnuld such change* 

most be in should the definitive occur, " III not go on with the 

treaty not be signed. He begged defiiiitiire treaty?" Can he say so, 

of them to reflect, what a prodigious and how must he act ? Can he even 

fijtce was permitted to proceed to now sar, " I would go on with the 

ibe neighbourhood of the most dcfiniiive treaty, if that armament 

Tulnerable, yet most valuable part had not sailed?" He was inclined 

of our colonfal possessions. In to think he could not i and there- 

every point of view whereon he had fore, as a soldier and a statesman, 

an o[^oTtuni(y of considering this, be mu^t find himself in a dilrnima : 

his fears, his apprehensions, and but he hoped that would be tha 

bis alarms, were awakened and w'orst; and that no greater fncon« 

increaced, and nothing conld allay ^-cnience would ari)>e from it. &U[>- 

fliem. He believed he could with posing for a moment tliat there had 

tmth aver, that at no time, in the been an additional article set to the 

history of the warfare of modern preliminaries to tlie effect of this 

Emope, such a circumst-mce as this event, and that it had been speci- 

bad oecurred between the signature fieally stated that sixteen sail of the 

of preliminaries and the completion line, witJi 10,000 men, were to be 

of a de6nitive treaty of peace ; and sent by the French government to 

bow to account for so strange a de- the West Indies pending the nego- , 

viation from cnsiom and from com- tiation, would any man in that 

ntnn ceiHe, hecouldnotevengness. house agree to such an article ■! 

The time between signing preli- Would he not r.itlier suspect the 

minartes and completing a definitive whole ? This he thought a fair way 

treaty, wai always considered an of putting the question now, and 

bonoarabie trace, in which neither in that shape he wonld leave it 

af the bdJigercDt parties attempted with thehouscj as be did sot mean 
Fa » 


to follow it up with any nvillon doubt. But still, whether any com- 

wtiatsoever; his sole motive being municatioti further should be made 

the discbarge of his duty, wherein thereon, he trutfed no gentleman 

was comprised two leading objects, would require hiro to stale ; or 

The first, as it would render a iit-r- whether government had or had 

vice to government, by enabliufr not taken any measures, which hf 

them to eontradict the report, if possibtliiy might be deemed pre- 

unfbunded; aodmoetgladheahould cautionary or not, would be still 

alwaj'i be to become tlie medium less required of him? At all cients, 

of affording them any opportunity he had the satisfaction of declaring 

by thiowing oft' from their shoulders that nothing has happened wbica 

the corpus delicti, if they could, can Interfere with the language that 

The second otject was, if tlie bet the noble lord may use at Amienir 

be true, to dnrtr from them such a or the nature of the trait repo!;ed in 

consolation for the public mind at him. Nothing further occurred up- 

they can ofter, and will satisfy, on the subject, and here it rested 

Added to these, a third object pro- for the present. 
ceeded from the consideration of In the ordinary course of the 

the other two, and that was, if public business of tlie session, a 

ibey neither could contradict the bill was brought into the house bj 

fiict, nor afford that consolation 60 Mr. Hemey, to repeal the stale 

desired, then ihat the house and bread act, in consequence, as be 

the country should lose not a nio- uid, of the very productive hardest 

ment in presenting an attitude, of die year, and that although the 

safe and respectable. act had but a fortnight to run. 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer penalties had been incurred under 

replied, Aat he well knew how dif- it to a considerable amount; the 

ficult it wai to set limits to obser* levying of which would be a gremt 

vations and inquiries stade, when hardship upon many very indus- 

topics of such a nature were trious 'persons, and certainly was 

started ; but the right' honourable not eaUed for by circumstances 

gentleman must admit, that he en- at the present moment. Leave 

joyed a very Uberal pennission on was given, it passed without op- 

this occa-wm, when, by his own position, and it was repealed io 

account, he rested wholly on ni- course. 

mouT. The right honouraUc gen- On the l6th of Novcipher, the 

tleman, however, desires to know Chancellor of the Exchequer stated 

the &ct, whether the fleet he alludes to the- house, that as it was thought 

to sailed from the harbour of Brest advisable to continue, for three 

or not, and a fidi and fair answer months longer, (he naval and mtli- 

he shall bare: government, ccr- tary establisliment of last year, it 

taiuly, has not yet received tlie re- became necessary to ascertain the 

gular and official information on uays and moans by which th'is tn-> 

that head, but that it has taken teniimi was to be fulfilled. Tbe ' 

place there is no doubt. But whe- estimates already voted were, for the 

ther that right honourable gentle- army aboie t^o millions, for tlie 

man claims this information as navy threcmlllionsBndHhalf, which, 

^natter «f rigbl is a very great with the advauoe .esUblithment f«r 



Greal Britain and Irdand, would argument! by the nniversal peti- 
make a total of 7,000,000/. The tiom frum aU parti of the couutiy, 
w»y» and meani by which be meant not from the lower order, or tlie 
to meet the expenditure were the Victors, but from discreet sober- 
land and malt tos, and a fresh issue minded people, who were fiilljr 
ofeKcbequerbilb tomakeuptbede- aware that the revenue must be 
nciency, as the sum re«]ui red would kept up oiw way or other. He ad- 
■U together amount to 8,500,000/. duced many arguments of the same 
He then proceeded to state the bar- nature, but was opposed by the 
{lin which had been concluded Chanceltnr of the Exche«]uer, who 
with the committee of the holder* of asserted that the quantin of barley 
outstanding exchequer bills which used in the distillery of spirits did 
he proposed to fund. Having dc- not amount to a tenth part of tlia 
scribed the contract, he moved the avemge produce of that crop; that 
tuual rcsolation. Verj' little objec- the di:>tLllcr* fed vast numbers of 
tiun was made to the bargain, aod hogs with their grains, which in 
^ resolution was agreed to. that shape, p<^rbaps, contributed 
Considerable tq^xisition of senti- in a considt^ble degree to tb« 
meat prevailed upon the measure of aood of man ; that the prohibition 
opening the distillerieii ; the act for would encourage private distilleries, 
proitibiting their working being on from whence much more evil, with 
the point of expiring. Mr. Burton, respect to morals, was to be appre- 
a respectable coonlry gentleman, liended than from the ordiiiat^ 
nwred for leave to bring in a bill course; and, above all, that thede- 
ta continue the prohibition for a falcation of the revenue, in conse- 
time to be limited : his motives queiice of the pruhibiiiun, amount- 
were grounded on the fact of ed to4O0,O0Oi./ After an animated 
600,000 quarters of barley being debate, the question was put, when 
used annually in the pioqest of the motion was lost by a majority 
making spirits; that quantity of of 62. 

com, be said, would be tlirown On a motion of the Secretary at 

into its proper cbaimel, and consti- War, it was voted the total number 

lute the bud of man. He said, of the miUtia, until the signiirg 

thjl if xpiiiis must be distilled, why of the dednitive treaty, ihould be 

MA. make use of molasses, which lie 36,000. On rhe 2Sth of December, 

contented would not hurt the re- botli houses of parliament adjourned 

venue ; for the prohibition woukl for a week, and which mode, de 

encourage the importation of spirits, lUe h diem, was contitiued till the 

by the duties on which the revenue igth of January 1602, without any 

vnuld be improved ? He added, business of impurlance being agi< 

jhai b» was cuuateuanced in his tilted. 


CHAP. yi. 

Jtelrofpeel to the Situation of Europe for the three last Months of 1801. — 
Marjiiis Coniu-allis appointed Aml-asiaiifr to the French RcpulUc — sails 
Jar Ciii'ais. — Reception there — and at Paris. — Bijoicings at Paris on thi 
Peace —ZHsthguithed Compliments paid to the English Amiauador. — - 
Quits Park — arrivi'ial Amiens. — Tardiness of the Negotiation — protahtc 
Causes. —Fast Pnjccfs end Amlition of Bonaparte.-- French Armament 
sails fir the Ifest Indies. — Mutiny at Banlry Hay suppressed. — Engiis/^ 
Squadron if Otservaiion follows the French Fleet. 

TN our preceding volume we ha^-e dulgc the fond hope that a perma- 
■*■ brought down our history of Eu* nent peace would follow the dread- 
rope to the period of the signature ful convuUiODS and calamities cvec 
of the preliminary articles of peace ttttendant on war. The treaty of 
betwftn Great Britain and France, Luoeville, while it secured to France 
on the 1st of October 1601. Itwill an enormous accession of territory 
of course be here necessary, for the and atrehgih, appeared, at the same 
rake of connection, to continue it time, to have left Austiia the means 
for the remaining montlis of that of supporting tlie rank of a primaiy 
yar, before we cmnmence our la- power of Europe. By one of the: 
hours on that which is immediately express articles of that treaty, it was 
the object of our present volume. — stipulated, " that the Batavian, Cis- 
A war, the most general and de- alpine, Helvetic, and Ligurian re- 
Ktructive which tlie civilized At'orld publics should be free and indepen- 
had «ver been engaged in, which dent," and the right of the people 
bad raged unremittingly for ten ofthosecountriestochooseorchaiige 
years, and which in its progress their governments, at pleasure, was 
threatened to overturn every esta- lolemnly guarantied by the two cort- 
blitbed principle of government and tractiug parties. By another articla 
of sodo^, was now, by'thc treaty of that treaty, it was agreed, that 
of Lunevillc" and the preliminaries the emperor's brother, the grand 
■i^ned in London, apparently ended, diike of Tuscany, should be fully 
The temple of Janus was shut, indemnified in Germany for the lost 
and it was tlie srdent wish of all of his Italian dominions. Under 
nations that it should long continue the circumstances which obliged the 
so. Maiikind was weary of a con- emperor to sign this treaty, it was 
test which gave few solid advantages ^ perhaps as favourable as Austria had 
to those who were most successiiil, reason to expect j and, if the spirit 
and was completely ruinous to the of tlut treaty, or its express cuve- 
vanquished. All classiis of society, nants, had been adhered to by the 
in CTCiy countiy, began now to in- Ficnchgo\crumcnt,somcsortnfba- 



Isice of pover would Still have ex- and who depepded totally upon 
tswi upon the continent of Europe; il. Tlie inhabiianis of tlic manu- 
•ome nations, which arc now no facturing towns in France had long 
more, would have stcurely cuiti-' cried out for peace, and particularly 
Wed and cnjojed the blessings of for one with England, without 
peace and independence; and the which tbey could not hope for 
"Dcient freedom and dignity of the the revival, of their trade. In 
Cennan nation would not nowhavc this country loo, the great and in- 
hcen bid prostrate at the foot of the creasing weight of t.i\ci, combined 
firat consul of France. The pro- with the etwmious high price of 
*pect of peace which was held out provisions during iJie last twd yean 
to Europe by the treaty of Lunevillc, of the war, and which was supposed 
was pleasingly coiifirtned by the by the people to be the necessary 
peeliminary articles of peace be- consequence of it, equjlly disposed 
iveen Great Britafn and France, the minds of die inhabitants of the 
(igoed at London iu October 1801. British empire toamity with France. 
This event, for which the public The preliminaries were therefore re- 
mind was hardly pre pa red, was eicry ceived with enthusiastic joy in both 
where recciiied with transports of countries. It was universally ex- 
joy. The resiuraii'-'n of peace ap- pecledthatlhedefinitivelreaty would 
pcared in itself so desirable, that have followed in a few weeks; as 
tbc tenns of this preliminary ar- it was supposed, that in the nege- 
langeinent were but httle canvassed tiation previous to the preliminaries 
br the people of either country. If every topic had been sufficiently dis- 
the nation* on the continent, with cussed, and that the execution of 
whom Fr.-iDcc bad been at war, ihc definitive treaty would be a 
found peace necessary to preserve mailer of form ; an authentic and 
their very existence, the people solemn ratification of peace between 
of Fiance, as well as of this country, ihetwogreatestpowersof the world, 
ron-iidcred it equally essential and to which no delay could belong, 
i«;ces.ary to their prosperity and save that indncfd by dipliiniatic 
hippincss. The French nation, ceremony. The city of An.iens, 
notwithstanding the brilliant sue- being nearly ef)i".i distant from L'jn- 
cesso of their armies in the field ; don and Paris, and midway beiv .:^n 
net with standing the great extension these cities, was fixed upon as tlic 
cf their territory, and the iniliiary pljcc for holding the congress, wiiich 
glory which they hud acquired, fcK, was finallj lo ';cttle all matters in 
in the midst of their victories, all the di^^pute b-iwccn Great Britain on 
di^tressci w-bich mnally atiend de- the one [lart, and France, in con- 
frai. The loss of iheir colonics, the junction with her allies, on the 
blockade of their ports, arbitrary other. Tlic British government, 
requisitions, together witii the es- sincere in its wish for peaci'^, ap- 
tinciion of public and private credit, peared lo give credit to the consular 
had completely crushed all com- court for similar dispositions : it 
mericai enterprise, and reduced to icleeted, for its representative ?t the 
the uitnost misery those immense congress, one of the most I'i-iin- 
numbers who had formerly derived guislied characters of whitl. the em- 
ilirir subiiatence from commerce, pirc had to boasL A man of es- 
F4 alted 


sited rank, who had filled with be airived on the evening of 
dignity tlie highest stations a British the 7th. Od ihe 6th he was in- 
subject can hold, and who added troduced to monsieui TaMtynnd, 
^ to his other qualifications, that (he minister for ibrdgn affairs, 
feiakDess and sinceritj' which are and partook of a splendid dinner, 
thetrucandbecomtngcharacterislics' at which wfje all the most distin- 
of an Englishman and a soldier, guished personages in Paris. The 
No choice could be more pleasbg next morning he was privately in- 
or more flattering to the French troduced In Bonaparte, who coo- 
goveniment. versed with hini for a considerable 
On the 1st of November JSOl, time. This was ihc day fixed ftw 
the marquis of Comwallis left Lon- the public rejoicings in Fans, OQ 
don, attended by a train suitable to account of the peace. The pre* 
his own dignity, and to that of the sence of the British minister added 
cation he represented. He was ac- considerably to the general joy on 
companied byhls son, lordBrome; the occasion. By a private order, 
fail son-in-law, Mr. Singleton ; and of the police, his carriage was the 
was attended by colonels Nightingale only one which was permitted on 
and Uttlehalesj Mr. Moore, who that day to pass through the 
acted as his secretary j three of his crowded streets. This privilege 
majesty's messengers, and a large was most cheerfully acquiesced in 
train of servants. He had previ- by the Parisian mob, who felt, at 
oualy sent over to Calais his horses least, as much disposition as the 
and his equipage, which were far govemmens to pay every possible 
mperior in splendour and appoint- compliment to his lordship as am- 
inents to any diing which had been bassador of Great Britain, and the 
aeen in France since the revolution, bearer of tlie welcome tidings of 
So anxious was his lordship to exe- peace In the evening, lord Corn- 
cute this important mission, tliat wallis was invited to the pabce of 
although the weather was ex- the Thuilleries, to see the illumi- 
tremely tempestuous, he resolved nation and fireworks. After this 
to embark, on the morning of (he day his lordship gave and recnved 
3d of November, for Calais. One some grand dinners, at which ge- 
of the vessels -which carried the nerals Moreau, Masseoa, Berthier, 
baggage was stranded and lost near and several of the lirst characten 
BouloguejRnd the inhabitants of the in France, were pr sent, but he 
town of Calais watched, with the never dined with the first consul. 
most anxious solicitude, the vessel It a[^>eared, from this circumstauce, 
in which his lordship was em- that althut^h Bonaparte was in the 
barked. Much was apprehended habiL of asking distinguished cha' 
for its safety ; but towards night the racters, of every country, to his 
storm somewhat abated, and he table, as a private individual, yet 
landed onder a general salute of to ambassadors he stood upon all the 
artillery from all the forts. The atrictneas of the etiquette of croyn- 
neit morning he was visited by the ed heads, and preserved the great- 
whole of the constituted authorities est degree of state and ceremony, 
of that district, and in the coune His lordship's reception, how- 
of the day set out foi Paiii, where cver^ sL the French court, was 



onrked with more dirtmction than period nispended. The Dntdi mi- 
bad ever before been paid in Prance to niater, Scbimmdpenninck, did not 
107 ambassador. Besides the guard arrive till the 7th, and the court 
alhoooar, which was ^pointed to of Spain seemed very ilow in apr 
«iit M bit hotel, ordars were given pointing tbcir minister ; at length 
to the (cddiers at every corps de the cboire fell upon the chevalier 
fmir, that when his carriage passed, D'Azarra, but he remained a con- 
Ibe gnard should turn out and siderable time at Genoa, assigning 
any arms. This, as a mark of as an excuse, what was the reali^ 
Aitinctiou, was one of the highest or the pretence of illness. SrAia 
oxaplimenti that could be shown was, of all the powers coalesced 
him, and sudi as never before against England, the Ictst satisfied 
vn paid b> any foreign minister in with the preliminaiy articles of 
Fiance. Notwithstanding all this peace. France was to receive back 
ompliatenC and ceremony, bis all the colonies which had been 
lorduip was soon tired of Paris, taken from her, in a highly im- 
md it the latter end of November proved slate, and was to cede no- 
Kl oat for Amiens, where he ar- thing as an equivalent, save those- 
nradiKi the 1st of the next month, countries which she would hare 
Ndtber Spanish nor Dutch minis- been obliged equally to have aban- 
m were then arrived, and Jo- doned, even if oo equivalent bad 
Kpb Bmiapart^, the consal's bro- been spoken of. Holland, who had 
Ao', who was die French mi- lost all her colonies, except Batavia, 
nitler, came down solely in personal was to receive much the greater 
campliment to lord Corowallb. part of them back again, and in a 
AlroMt as soon as his lordship had stale infinitely superior to what 
anived, the administrators of the tliey were in when taken ; bnt 
theatre of Amiens waited on him Spain, who liad lost nothing but 
to know at what boor he would the islands of Trinadada and Mi- 
wsh the play to begin. His lord- norca, was called upon to cede 
ship replied, that 1^ very seldom the former. Spain, therefore, find- 
went to plays, and requested they ing herself almost the only loser in 
wonld fix it at whatever hour was point of territory, was not very 
raoit agreeaUe to the inhabitants anxious to sign tliLs treaty j and as 
of &tnifns. They, however, ob- nothing conclusive could be done 
Kived his dinner hour, and during at Aroiena, till the arrival of the 
Ws stay in that dty, the play be- Spanish minister, lord Comwallis 
pa at seven o'clock instead of six, had for a considerable time no 
vbich was, before his lordship's other employment at Amiens than 
arrival, the rime it had always com- receiving and «xchangtng dompti^ 
OMKcd. All the constituted autho- mentary visits, 
ritio within forty miles of Amiens Tbe French government and the 
came to visit and congratulate his first consul were not inactive in 
Icriship ; and here, as well as at the menn time. Two grand pro- 
Paris, he reonvcd every compliment jects then occupied the mind of 
■nd mark of distinction that was Bonaparl^. ^lie first was the re- 

Cinble to give. The n^otiation, covery of the colonies of St. Do- 

vercr, «u for a cootiderable mingo and Guadaloupc, which had 



fonnerly been of the fiist import- They however collected a fleet aL 
ance to France, but which ihe rei o- Baiitry Bay, under the commaml 
Julioiinry army of negroes, whohad of admiral Milehcll, which was 
ilefended them ihroughout the wnr, dcsti-ned as a fleet of observation, 
MOW threatened to wrtst from to watch their motions in tlie Weat 
the parent state. The seeond pro- Indies. When the ci^ws of these 
ject was still bolder. . It was to vessels understood that tliey were 
pLice the Cis.ilpine republic, ultich about to be sent lliithcr, notwilli- 
the treaty of LuneviUe had de- standing the war appeared at an 
cl.ircd independent, ab--oIutely in end, a spirit of imitiny spread 
tlie power and at the discretion of pretty unirersally through the fleets 
the first consul. In pursuance of but particularly on board ihii ships 
the first pniject, a considerable Tcmeraire and Formidable. It was, 
army and fleet had been for a long howc\ei*, soon subdued by the de- 
time collecting ;il Urest, L'Oricnt, cided conduct aftd spirit of the 
and Kochefort, wiiicii consisted of otBcers ; and fonrttcn of llie ring- 
tiventy- three ships of iJie line, five leaders, who had most of them 
of which were Spanish, and 23,000 borne an excellent cliaracter before 
liind troops, and which sailed on the mutiny, were tried by a court 
the 141J1 of December, mariial, condemned, and executed. 

The BritisJi governrnent was, not The mutiny tJiua at an end. 

tvithout reason, jeialous of such a and completely subdued, a aquadroa 

force, and sumcuhat anxious about of seven sail of the line proceeded 

its final dcstiuafion; but having to the West Indies to reinforce the 

received express assurances from fleets on that station, and prevent 

France that its only object was to the poasibiltty of any atiack upoa 

t3l<e pc-isession of tlie colonics, and our possessions in diat part of the 

TF-iore them lo rei^ular government, world. Such were tlie principal 

th;-y at length amscnted to their events wliidi concluded the- yeaf 

sailing, without waiting for tlie con- 1801. 
flusiun ot' the defiiutivc treaiy!>,G0l")^le 



pommtncfment of Ike Year 1S02.— Op/xwt/f OpiidoBs on tke General gtaf^ 
^Ajairs at that Period. ~ Tardineis of the Negotiatmit^ at Arnum — 
aanantifd Jar, — Prtgects of Bonaparte - sets qff' J'or Lyons to meet the 
Cisalpine Deputies — conferences with them in private. — The CuiisulU 
pailicly julmil the new Constitution of the Cisalpine Republic to Mat, 
tmd iilidt him to accept the Presidency. — Constitution ^ tke Itaiia» 
Rfpullic. — Bonaparti returns to Paris. — Additional Ac^isititms <j/" 
France in the Month of Janifary — Louisiana— Parma, iic.—Ella. 

IT was the opinion of a vast burden which the bnik of the na- 

majontf of the British nation, tion had rather impatiently borne, 

that ihc year 1602 commenced was now to be wiilidrawn; that 

toder drcomstances highly aus- the substituted taxes were to be 

p«ous. TTie tenuioation of our snch as would press solely on the 

inhuos itni^Ic for every thing opulent part of the community; and 

dat to Britons, with an enemy, th:iL vast reductions were to take 

(he tnrents of whose success we pluce in our military and niaiina 

■loDeoDold stem, and from which establishments. 

K bad retreated, as far as our own In another point of view our 

tnnDediate interests wens afiectcd, situation was not less flattering: 

witbhoDOOT; oni m paired resources ; the atrocities of the French revolu- 

xldltional territory ; the cliaracter tionary gmernmcnt, and the dcs- 

of nr army and navy at the high- potism which succeeded them, and 

»t point rf reputation ; our mari- to wliich they inevitably tended, 

■iine regulations and laws, contend- thororighly satislied the English 

cdfbr with tbe Northern Powers, mind upon ihe subject of democracy, 

gloriouily established ; a confidence And there was scarcely to be found 

ia tbe pacific tone and temper of the at the close of the war an individual 

&'(■ cimsul of France ; a belief iLnt who would not hav« borne the 

ibespiritofrebeUionanddisaffection pressures he had undergone, mul- 

in Ireland was completely allayed, tiplied tenfold, rather than sul))ect 

•tone forth in the dazzling assur- our happy and tried coiisti union 

uces of the minister and tliose to the horrors attendant on innova- 

Who acted with them : and these lion and revolulion. Tbe opening 

•wirances were of too flattering a of tlie disiillrries was a convincing 

tBtnre not 10 meet with implicit and gratifying proof that plcniy 

<^it. Nor did it contribute in a had once more established herself 

tnfling degree to the general satis- in her favoured seat; and die 

Action, that it was universally un- ceasing of the provision conti'.iots, 

^CTtood that thp iocoOie tax, a and the quantity of foreign grain 

i i» 


in OUT ports, in addition to the pro- and temper of the first coiuu). thcj 
duce of the two successive plcntil'ul were not equally saoguine wiih 
harvests it liad pleased Providence tliosc, who saw in them the spirit 
to send us, put an end to all ap' of moderation and peace; on the 
prehension of scarcity, and the contrary, they augured ill of both, 
markets once moie were become from the activity which he mani- 
reasonable and abundant. fested in seizing the first moments 
Yet were there not wanting some, ofthisinice ro send a vast anra- 
and those too eminent for political mentto St. Domingo; his joiirnejr 
■agacity, who saw this brilliant to the Soutli, to establish himself 
picture in a very different light : in the sovereignty of Italy ; the an- 
with them, the peace was ill-timed, nesatlon, by private treaty, con- 
and ill-framed. While tlicyacknow- eluded with Spain on the 21st of 
ledged the abundance of our te- March ISOIf and which now be* 
sonrces, and the high reputation of came public, of Louisiana, and 
ourileeis and armies, tliey ron- Parma with all its dependencies, 
tended that the advantages of the and of the island of Elba, so long 
former, and the victories achieved and so nobly defended by British 
by the latter, wexe thrown away in valour*; his treaty with the Porte, 
n^otiatioD. If we bad acquired inimical in the extreme to the inter- 
territory, it was at the expense of ests of England in the Ijcvant, and 
our old allies, whom by now strip- concluded surreptitiously widi that 
ping of ap(»tion of their dominions, power, as die price of the evacua- 
weihrewmoreco'mpletcly within the tion of ^ypt by tlie French troc^, 
power, or rather tyranny of France, at tlie moment when, he knew, 
who, on the contrary, by this treaty they were to a man prisoners to 
maintained her high lone of unity the British force ; in fine, they 
and indivisibility; who, fir from were of opinion, that on the paic 
parting with any tiling siie possessed of Bonaparte the peace was deceit- 
by right of conqtiest at the time of till and hollow,, and would last jiut 
tlie signing the preliminaries, was long enough to witness the sur- 
then, and since engaged in adding render of our conquests in all parts 
territory and empire to her already of the world, to our unrelenting 
overgrown domiuioa. Of the tone enemy, and to enable him again to 

* It is much lobe rcKredril ihu the pariNnitan oFihe gallint and glorions defnoe 
<if lhl< ipol, by a huidful ut tioops, under Ihe command of Icul. col. Airey, oT Ike 
Kill ngiineni of Inlaiiiry, igsiiiji an infinitely superior Frencli force, hiu never ^et 
coine in a (aiisfucioiy furm belbre Ihe public. TtiJl island, uf the utmost imparuiice 
as a miliiary simion, tiuil by ibc bravery and greu eicnloiis ' of ili small garriMin, 
coiii|>t>>nl uf Tuscans, Swiss, Corsicans, Britiili marines and leamcn, logeihtr 
with a \ev English merchants who had been obliged to quit Leghorn, been juw 
rendered tenable, when a sospenlion of Btmi t.'ik place, in consequence of ibe 
prrUminaiy (teniy of |)escr. The mill tsry open^lions in the itle of Elba were ihe 
bit act of iioitilii)' between Great BriMic and France ; in point of real mntt Ihey h»e 
ci:riRinly not b'cii suryassed by any event of the war, altheugh their briUtancy I>h 
bri'n in a considerable degree cclipied, and prcventeil from exciting that iottirsl w 
which ihey were justly eiiiitled, from having occurred »l a peiiod, nhtn the fioblic 
ailenlTOn was almost exclusively occupied wiih Ihe niote agreeable intelligence of tbff 
niKiialure of preliminary articles of peace, and with the mo'e imporlanl event of ihe 
suitcndcf of tbc cniiic French array in l^gjpt (□ his majesty'i luid. 


CMwnence war with ioralctilable, faith to her allies, and her futare 

periupi iTTcsistible advaot^es. Iti Kcurity. | 

iIk Tcductiau of oiiT fleets aud ai- Such was tlie opinioa of the few 

nies, a weak and miserable ceo- contrasted with that of the many ; 

ooaf vna alone visible, which yet all began txiwards the middle <k 

woold not only, m a moment of January to ei^nvsi surprise, mingled 

lutiue coateat, lay as at the mercy with im^jatience, at lite delay ofthe 

of an enemy, whose vast prqjecls sieiuture uf the definitive treaty. 

md activity admitted of no such More than three months bad elap»- 

BKUuiCi but would, ill snch a ed since the signing ofthe pteli- 

cse, induce a tenfold expense to miuaries, and still was the natioa 

leplice them on a war establish- left in anxiety and stupense ai to 

ment. To the Northern Powen its conclusion. 
TG had oinotdcd, under Clie name I'he situation of lord ComwaUis 

of coDTcution, at a moment when at Auiiena was awkward in the 

«e might have commanded and extreme, and suspicions began t9 

obtsined concession. Nor did they be entertained that he was, at well 

cooHder the repeal of tlie income as the country he represented, egre* 

i» as a measure consistent with giously trifled with. It waa also 

•mnd )K)licy or judgment. It was, doabted, whether the permitti:^ « 

Aey maintained, a recurrence to vast armament to sail from the 

the already overstrained fundii^ ports of France, pending the nego- 

ifnem, to the unwise and burden- tiation, was consistent with est»* 

ame mode of borrowing with de- blished usage or sound policy ; and 

fened interest, which had been many were of opinion, that tb« 

^andoncd by the late minister as being obliged to dispatch a fleet to 

'onerous, if iK>t ruinous in its tlie West Indies of men of war, in 

onscqaences ; whereas, by a manly order to watch the motioni of the. 

peneverance in the tax, the public French squadron, at a vast espensQ 

iorame would be, not only com- and inconvenience, was a bad foie- 

Bxnsotate with the expendimre of taste of the blessings of peace. 
(kJi year, but tiie vast debt in- In^the mean time Bonaparte, wlw 

corrcd by the nation would begin appeared to cotuider the congress at 

■mmediately to decrease, and at no Amiens, or the definitive treaty, as 

distant period should we find our- objects merely of secondary im- 

idres renovated in credit and in poriance, prepared to s^ oat for 

'ODurce*. And whilst they partici- Lyons, for the ost^tible purpose 

pued in the joy and thankfulness of conferrii^ with a considerable 

■ttoMlaot on restored abundance, number of the Cisal^itie deputies, 

»nd (be other prosperous state- but rather, as it af^eared in ther 

BKats, they insisted ttiey were ad- event, for the object, of infinitely 

diliooal and powerful motives for more importance to him, of beii^ 

a continuance of (he war, rather invested witli the sovereignty of 

Aw that we should have submitted that country, under (he tide of 

to make a peace, like die present, president. Mr. Talleyrand, the mi- 

» little to liie liouour of Great nisler of slate for foreign affairs, 

Britain, who surrendered by it preceded him, and arrived at Lyons 

W BMional ckvactcr, her good on the 4ih of JanaaTv, He em- 

1i A^INUAL R. fe G I St ER,i802. 

ployed his time, tn the interval, be- Tlie first consul employed fill 

tveen his arrival and that of the time, for the ensuing fortni^t, in 

first consul,, in conciliating and publicly visiting llie difterent nia- 

givingscveralmagnificentandsump- nuiactorics and e«tabli);bments of 

tuinis entertainments to tlie Cisal- Lyons, and in privarely conferring 

pine deputies. with the principal Cisalpine depu- 

BooBpart^ left Paris on the gth, tics. The people of Lyons, who 

at one o^clock in the morning, and had suffered, perhaps; more by the 

Rached Lyons on the night of the revolution and the war than any 

11th. He was accompanied gn other city in France, Were charmed 

his joiUTicy by madame Bonaparte, with the attention of the first con- 

Chaptal, the minister of the inle- sul to their commercial interests, and 

nor, and many other persotiages of his promises of protection and en- 

the first distinction in France. At couragcment. Th« Cisalpine depu- 

6i3 approach to Lyons, he wasmct ties were also in the samctime pre- 

and escorted by a brilliant trObp of vailed upon to grant, with a degree 

150 volunteers, all tiatives c^ that of enthusiasm, that which ml 

town, joung men of fortune, and now the first object of Bonapai^'s 

ifine appearance. Thus accompa- ambition, 

nied, he entered the citj" about At the hall, where the coruulta 

ten o'clock in the evening, amidst met, a splendid chair was prepared 

the loudest acclamations and the for Bonapart6, adorned with mili- 

most rapturous expressions of uni- tary trophies ; tlie room was deco- 

Tcrsa! joy. rated with various ornaments cm- 

On the grand staircase of the pa- blematic of his victories, and in- 

lace, appointed for his residence, the scribed with mottoes applicable to 

following most flattering and ful- him and his fortunes, 

»ome inscription met his eyes : The meetings of the comuUd 

11th January, an. 10, were private, and they at length 

Bonapart6, appointed a committee of thirty 

Vanquisher and pacificator, to prepare a report of the actual 

-Aitivcd in tliis city and lodged in state of the Cisalpine nation, apA 

this pakce ; the means necessary for its fiiture 

iOO Cisalpine deputies attended prosperity and happiness. This 

him, committee accordingly presented i 

To fix, under his auspices, report, such as might have been 

The laws and destinies of their expected, declaring it absolutely 

country. reccssaiy that Bonaparte himsdf 

At his view should undertake the sole and 

TTie arts awoke in this city, exclusive management of their af- 

Oommerce n-sumes its ancient fairs. 

splendour. This report was very long, atid 

And the grateful Lyonese, forming concluded in the following manner: 

for him " The history of the past revolufions 

Tba same wish that their ancestors of the Cisalpine republic has not 

did for Anionine, been able to assist tlic researches of 

Have said, yonr committee. In fiict, the men 

" May his happiness be e<iualU>hii who have traversed those rcvolu- 

Ktory." tious, have either thcmsdves not 

* ' filled 


fiid pu'iFic ^itiiaiidns, and con^c- " To secure the dignity of die 

lorat] J' cannot be [iresunit'd fo be gdvcriirni.'nt agaiiisl the apprij;irl( 

liiSiienlly ver-cd iiMlic always dif- of forcij^ii trooiis, to a bril- 

fc:;;ian of g'A cniiiij; the public liaiiry and grandeur oief tlie L-mdlc 

wjI; or <rifn, allriwing that of the Cisalpine republic, the cura- 

teyhavu appiii^ themsL'lvei since mltt.y is agrctd, tliat it w.^iitd be ' 

tie last »M, aoJ held the rein* of easfiutbl to die happiness gf Ihc 

i pTcmnient, agitated a^ our» lias nation, tliat it shuuJd bu susiaiticd 

l*tn bi' conflicting pa>i>.ions and in its first iiionienis by a su|>erii>r 

pr.ju.iici-i, and impelled by foreign power wliicb po^scs>iUs mure strcn^tk 

iafi'jciici-, the>- have not had the and dignity than any othrr. 

Dfljoituniiy of ac<iiiiring that high " In conformity with liiose sen- 

iT'jiadon, whkh, in times like timcnts, tlio comnrittee have ihere- 

lix pcsent, is necessary to reconi- . fore agrtrd, that if, on the one 

iDcod men to public confidence. side, the extraordinary cnnsulla 

" Bat if. in spite <jf those n\\- should form a wish iliat tlic con.sti- 

ratrtnis obsLirlcs, a mm cnnld be lutinn should be immediately pr«- 

fnaadaniong us cajabk of sustain- claimed, ar.d that the collcyi^s, lej^is- 

ioj so great a burden, many other lalors, and oilier amhoritieii, -ihould 

MJjrralerdiffieultiespresentthcm- be chosen fi'oin among the meti, 

tdic, which would not allow us who have appeared to be the most 

turdr on such a choice. worthy of their esteem; on tlie 

" TJic Cisalpine repubhc cannot other sid'-, it must ardently wish that 

>ttbe eptiroly evacuated by French general Bonajwrtc should please to 

'TDops. Many political reasons and honour the republic, by continuing 

iwr own inrcresi, de>iitute as we to f;ovcrn it, and by associating 

i«:yH of national iroupa, do not witli the direaion of the Hftacrs ia 

pmiit it at Oils nwTijeiit, France the care of conducting our 

" Bejides, the Cisalpine repub- government; of reducing the dif- 

lic, aliliough its existence has been ferent parts of our territory to a 

•tnired by the treaties of To- uniformity of principle, and of 

l««ine and Luneville, lannot hope catisiiig the Ciialpine republic to be 

•t itsfjf, and from its own first acknou-ledgcd by all the powera 

Mjw, to obtain that de^ee of con- In Europe*. 

uleration which is necessary to its "(Signed) SlregeHi, Sec." 

owolidatioa within and without. Such were tlie ar^imcnts used 

It hai need of a support to cause to prevail upon the willing mind of 

it Jo be acknowledjt'd by those Ronapartc, to take upon himself 

jwrni ui(b whom ilicy have at thecarc aild burden of govcrningthii 

pi^wnt »o comniunie.ition. /( Aa.t Cisalpine nation, which by the 

i'i!r^f<ite need nf a man who, bu treaty of Luneville was declared 

Ikf Biundency nf hk name and kis independent. Tlie consiilta, how- 

fffT, may place it in that rank ever, were of opinion tli at the only 

which becomes its grandeur. That metliod to secure its indepnidenee, 

JiMn, however, we should in vain wasto submit itself to the govern- 

•wk for amongst ourselves. ment of a man who, by llin usivii' 


Jeneyof kis name andhh power, cottU foragn affairs, and the minister of 

place it in that rank «bich became the interior, foar counsellon of 

iti grandeur; to loolc for a support state, twenty prefects of depart- 

irom a nation, strong enough to menis, and a vast train of general 

presene the dignity of its govern- officers, took bis seat at the Cisal- 

ment from the approach of foreign pine cmsulta, and pronounced in 

troops, and strong enougb to change bis native language, Italian, a speech 

its goiemnicDt or its frontier at to the following effect : 

pleasure. " Tliat the Cisalpine republic, ac< 

The report of the committee was ktiowledged since the treaty of 

entered in the proces verbal of tlie Campo Formio, has already cxpe- 

taaiuila, and unan'uuously agreed rienc«d imany vicissitudes. 

to by the Cisalpine deputies. A " Tbe first efforts made to con- 

■pecial committee was a)ipoinled stttute it have badly succeeded, 

to wait on Bonaparte with the " Invaded since by hostile armies, 

report, wluch invited him, not in its existerice seemed no l9nger pro* 

hit capacityofftrttconsul ot'France, bable, when the French people, a 

but personally as general Bonaparte, second time drove, by force of anns, 

lo accept the government of a coun- your enemies from your territories, 

try as populous, fertile, and rich Since that time every means has 

in resources, as any of the states been tried to divide you.-'The 

of the second rank in Europe. protection of ^nce has prevailed. 

The Cisalpine deputies, it must you have been recognized at Lune- 

fce supposed, found no great difR- ville. 

culty in persuading Bonaparte to " Increased one fifyi, you exist 
accept that, which was the undis- rnore powerful, more consolidated, 
guised object of bis ambition, and and with better hopes II 
5ic now avowed motive of his jour- " Composed of six different na- 
ncy lo Lyons. He, upon this oc- tions, you are now going to be 
casion, did not dissemble ; no min- uttited under a constitution more 
cing modesty or affected delicacy adapted to your matmers and your 
caused the diciest appearance of circumstances. 
hesitation on toe subject. " I have assembled you around 

Aftfaough the affairs of Europe me at Lyons, ai being the principal 

ivetc quite unsettled, the congress inhabjtants of the Cisilpine. You 

of Amiens not yet opened, and the have ^vcn me the necessary in- 

fjuestion of the German indejuntties formation for fiilfUling tbe august 

likely to produce the most serious task which my duty imposed upon 

misunderstandings, yet he boldly me, as the first mazrstrate of tbe 

ventured to take upon himself the French people, ana as the man 

government ofacoiintrytiiat Europe who has most contributed to your 

CKpected would have been left to creation. 

iUe\i, and certainly not have been " Tbe cbmcet which I bare 
added formally to tbe already enor- made to fill the fint magisterial 
mous bulk of Bonaparte's western offices in your conntrr arc corn- 
empire, pletely independenl of all idea of 

On the 26th of Jan. the first con- party, of all spirit of locality, 

■ul, accompanied by the minister for '.' Ai to that of president, / hate 


-Mtfiiiitd any body among you, who 
• ouJJ have suflicieat claink to the 
pablic Dpioion, who would be suf- 
ficiently iDdepentlcnL uf the spirit 
a locality, and who in line had 
/KiJcred great services enough to 
liacuuntry to enlrUil it to him. , 
'• Tbc pnjcts verbal which you 
have cauM^ri to be transmitted to 
mc by your committee of thirty, 
in nliicb are analyzed, with equal 
prtci^ion and truth, the internal 
and extrxnat circuraslauces of your 
country, have made a lively ini- 
pFcuion upon me. J adhere to 
your wish. I shall still preserve, 
■* long as circuroitances may re- 
quire it, the great care of j'our 

'* Amid tbecontinual cases which 
the post 1 occupy require, every 
thing which may relate to you and 
coosolidate your existence and ynur 
prosperity, sh^l not be foreign 
from the dearest aiTeotions of my 

" You have had as yet only partl- 
coiar law^ ; in future yqu must have 
gcDeral laws. 

" Your people have only local 
habits i tbey must assume national 

" Finally, you have no army; 
the powcr.s who might beconie 
your enemies have strong armies : 
but yoo have tliat which can pro- 
dace ihem, a numerous population, 
fiHiile ccuntric^, and tlie example, 
wliich has been' given , in all tliu 
e&scniial circuniitouces by ijie dL;st 
naiion in Europe." 

This roaiiilatory oration of llie 
fint coDsul, inteiTuptetl iit tlic end 
of ea^ sentence tfy lovd ':4iplau«e, 
wa^ followed by ibc riding of tlie 
cMi^iiiuli'in. At ilic moment it 
V33 about to be rcpd, the general 
inclination of the ass$mUly ex* 


pres.«eda wish to change the name 
of the Cisalpine for that of tlie 
Italian republic. The first consul 
appeared to yield to the general 

I'he constitutibn was then read, 
which consisied of 128 articles, 
and was reduced under fifteen ti- 

Hy the first, tlie Roman catho- 
lic religion is declared tu be the 
religion of the state. 

I'lie fiovernment of the country 
is vested in a president, appointt^ 
for ten years; or, in his absence, 
tlie vice-pi'esident, the consalla of 
stale, and a legislative twuncil, A 
legislative body of seventy- five 
members arc to discuss and decide 
respect injjitupe laws which (he le- 
gislativf council shall propose. 

The members of the legislative 
body, as well as of the corisu/la of 
Slate, and of the tribunals of revi- 
sion and cassation, are to be chosen 
by three electoral colleges constituted 
for that purpose. 

Tlie lirat college is of FOSStOEK- 
Ti, or landed proprietors. TTiis 
college is to consist of 30O mem- 
bers, having a qualification of 60CJ0 
li\'res a year. 

The second college is of dotii, • 
or ot the learned. It consitls qf 
200 individuals selccled from those 
who are most dislinguisiicd in sci- 
ence, or in the liberal and mccha- 
uicol arts. 

'I'hc third college is i^ eomtaer- 
carili, or tlie tradchnien j is lo con- 
siit of 200, selected from the 
most skilful merchants and mauu- 

The scat of the legislation was 
pernunenily established at Milan. 

These are the only distinguishing 
features of tlie constitution of the 
Italian republic worth iccurdifig, 
G ■ Att?f 


After the reading of the const!- Louisiana to France, and by the 

tution, the mmes of the members arrangements of whicb treaty, the 

of the colleges, and of the go- dutcliy of Farroa, and the islam) 

vernment, were read over. of Elba, were also to belong, to 

The members of the government ibat nation, at tlie decease of tlie 

were as follow; reigning duke of Parma, an event 

Bonaparte, president. conlidently looked for at no long 

Meizi, vice-prisident. intrnal. 

Guicciardi, sec. of stale. These enormous acce;!sions of 

Spanorchi, grand judge. power which France had made in 

The first consul then invited the the ver^- commencement of peace, 
vice-president to place himself by togetlirr with the unexpected de- 
his side ; he took him by tlie hand lays which took place at the cua- 
aiid embraced him. Tlie assembly gress of Amiens, and which were 
appean-d grateful for tliis sponta- entirely imputed to the French go- 
ncous mark of allcclion. Citizen vernment, caused the greatest un- 
Prina then said, " Jf the hand that easiness throughout tlie Briiiah em- 
baa created and defended' us will pire, and excited the mo.'it uniicr- 
guide us, no obstacle can stop us, sal indignation. In Germany, the 
and onr confidence will be equal affairs of die indemnities lo the 
to that admiration with which the diderent princes for their losses 
hero to "whom we owe our happi- went on but slowly. Austria 
ness inspires us." (whose compensations for her vast 

The first consul then broke up losses were not lo be at all pro- 

the sitting and retired to his pabce portionate either to them, or lo 

amid the loudest acclamations. those of the powers who were the 

The object of the vifit to Lyons friends of France,) was confessedly 
being tlius attained, the first consul careless and dilatory in it^ pro- 
returned to Paris, where he anivcd ceeitings. The French government, 
on the JOth. Azarra, the Spanish then occupied witli the consulla at 
minister, had arrived at Amiens on Lyons, and the definitive treaty 
the 29th. with England, seemed content, for 

■Jliis important transaction at a short time, to leave liie German 
Lyons having terminated so com- empire to itself, and not to inter- 
pletcly (o the satisfaction of the fere in the internal regulation of 
French government, it sliould seem its afi'airs. After the acquisition 
that il had now some time to spare of Lombardy, the court of the 
for attending to the points to be Thuilleries had no object so inter- 
discussed at Amiens, esiing before it as tlie congress at 

Another circumstance transpired Amiens.andtlicconsequcnceswhirh 
in tile course of the month of Ja- it calculated must result from the 
nnary, which developed most alarm- restoration of the peace, 
iiigly the extent of Gallic ambition, In the mean time, tlie month 
and which altered most materially of January 1B02 bad seen added 
the basis on which the preliminary to the French empire, either im- 
articlcs of peace were signed. A mediately or in reversion, the conn- 
treaty was officially published, which tries of Lombardy, Louisiana, Far- 
had been conclii<Ied In March ISOI, ma, and the island of Elba. 
at Aladrid, by which Spain ceded 



CHAP. vin. 

Stwaris on the Static nf France sulsequcni tn her rvcmt Acjiihllions.— 
Hrr clan.l,^in!W Treaties u-'Uh Spain— Porlii«(ii— ami the PwU:~~- 
MiT lad Faith therein. — Return of the First Consul to Paris— great 
S'.'ile Oisumal by lum — despotic ConduLt and Caprice. — Iiiterfemire 
"•'lA Switzerland, Pays de laud, and lite I'a/ats. — Pny.rt's jiir the 
B^-ival nf Commerce, Manufactures, and the Arti, in France. — 
Gfterai Le Clerc's Dhpatches. — Canlieaume's Squadron sails for St. 
D-miiigo. — Proceedings of the CoiisuJta laid lifure the Diet at Ratis- 
fii~ Delai/s at Amiens — British Armaments in c<insequenre.^£'^iiing 
'f the D,:/imtive Treatt/-~£hiHeitrc Events to thai Perii'i.—ArlnUi 
'■f tiie Treaty of Amiens. — Accession of Sweden 'and Denmark to the 
H'i'.-ian Convention. — Armed Neutrality abandoned. 

THE cmiRc which die afFairj 

i of the Cisalpine had taken, 

^ ^\st. great increase which the powers. 

"npirc of Bonaparte liad received It whs upon this principle, that 

^ the acces^iion of snih a terri- although the island was to be re- 

^. not only altered most nia- stored to the order of St, John of 

'fiiiliy the relative situ^ition of Jenisalem, yet it was stipulated tliat 

frtnce, from the time of signing there should he neither an English 

^ preliminaries, but directly ope- nor a French langue subsisting at 

nidi upon the very foundation of Malta. The langiies of those na- 

"woftbe mo*t important articles tions were to l>e suppressed, and in 

"f ibat arrangement. their place a Maltese langue was to 

T^i: possession of the island of be created, whose knights were to 

Malta had ajipeared to both the be chosi-o tVom the principal inha- 

owrscting parties as an object of bitants and merchants of ihe island. 

"k first - rate importance. TJic Neither French troops nor liritish ' 

^Sfwraent between Etigland and were to be admitted in the garrison* 

fiaort was, that it should be neii- of the difiertnt forts ; but as tiie pe- 

W, and its neutrality was to be riodfixedforitsevacuaiion wasshort, 

"tilled by every precaution that it and it wa^ not likely that a Maltese 

*'Js possible to take. army could be so speedily formed 

All (lie great powers of Europe as should be powerful enoii!;h to *e- 

*^ invited to tlie guarantee of cure, in every c\enl, the neutralityof 

toil nc-airdliiy, and il was also the island, it was agreed that it should 

f itbd iliai the internal organiza- be garrisoned by Xcapoliian troops, 

'im i)f the island for its own de- until, in the judgment of the gua- 

■^cuc; iliould be such as to secure rantylng powers, it should have a 
C 2 force 

B4 ANNUAL rj:gister, isoq, 

force of its own adequate to its being able to preserve either indct 

defence. pemfcnce or neutrality ; he must be 

At the time of the preliminary subservient to the dictates of Bo- 

anicles Uiis arrangement seemed as naparte, and, therefure, the adr 

good a one as could be made for mission of a Neapolitan garriwn iiv 

preierving the neutrality pf the ' Malta was nearly the same thing as 

island. the admission of one from France, 

If it had been garrisoned by Bus* as it must, to all intents and pur- 
sian troops, it would have been poses, act as a &ench ganison. 
to surrender the island to Bussia ; whenever the pleasure of Bonaparte 
but the possession of Malta by the should be such. In all those iioints 
Sing of Naples gave no alarm or of view, the assumption of the so- 
tineasiness to any power, and at the vereigniy of those countries by Bor 
time of signing the preliminaries, naparie, altered most matfri.illy the 
Naples appeared as likely to remain basis on which the preliminary treaty 
3 neutral power as any other in was founded. 
Europe. The treaty of Luneville es- Even tl)e alteration of the name 
pressly guarantied and declared that of the new republic appeared of great 
the Cis^pine republic' should be an consequence, as developing in sonic 
independent slate ; had it been suf- degree the ulterior projects of Bona- 
fered to retain any form of an in- parte. While this state retained the 
dependent government, unconneet- name of Cisalpine, its boundaries 
f d wi(h France, (except as a ive:ik seemei! ascertained by the treaty of 
ally, which might, in extreme dan- Luneiille; but when it assumed the 
gers, claim the protection of diat name of the Julian republic, and 
state which had given to it a poll- Bonapane himself was the presi- 
tical existence,) in such case, the deni of it, no bounds or limits 
king of Naples might be well con- could be set to it, save the geo- 
(tidered as an independent and nen- graphical definition of Italy ilsetf i 
tral sovereign, under whose pro- the bounds ol' the Italian republic, 
lection the island of Malta might u)ulcr liis presidency, must be com- 
cnjoy that neutrality, which it was mensurate with his ambition. For 
the professed object of both the the present, diere was nothing i:\ 
contracting parties to secure. As Italy which could oppose hU pro- 
long as any independent states jects, and ii did not appear un- 
i^'ere suffered to exist between likely dial all Italy was dcilined to 
Franre and Naples, so long might be swallowed up in dtis Italian K' 
die king of Naples be considered, public. This was not the only ' 
in some degree, as an independent circumstance which rtccurrcd be- 
suvcrcign, and one likely to pre- tweenihesigningof thepreliminariu 
fenc his neutrality ; but, from the and of die dclinitive ireatj-, which 
moment that Bonaparii: openly deeply aflecied the niiuds and liie 
seized for himself^ and in his own opinions of the people of Great 
name, all the north of Italy, and Britain. ! 
extendiid his empire to the very A day or two alter the signing of 
frontiers of the Neapolitan ti'rritory, the preliminaries at London, wai 
from that moment diere could be recciied, in that city, die news of I 

HISTORY OF E.U R O P ll; 8i 

rj ihf Freiich anny in Egypt. It sUies, yet, when the preliminanes 

vn firmly believed that the l-rcncb were signed, and she bad calcu- 

gorenuiient had earlier intelligeace Inted that the English ministry 

of this event than we had, and would rattier submit to be so 

tarcfiilly concealed it till we had imposed upon tlian recede from 
i^ned die treaty- Although, per- ■ them, she produced the underhand^ 

lups in strict justice, bolli the clandestine, and fraudulent treaties 

panics to .1 contract are bound lo that she had been making at tli^ 

infonn the other of any very mme- same time separately with our allies, 

rial circumsiance which hapjiriis in By tliose treaties, the Porte hud 

ihe mean lime, yet ihe wishes of engaged ihat the French should be. 

ibe miaisters of this country were onancqiiality with the most favoured 

w ardent for pcac«, that they did nation throughout the whole extent 

not think a little diplomatic ad- of iheTurkiJ) empire, and rcinse- 

raitagc of that sort worthy their queritly tiiat the best of her allien 

attcniion. The first artidc, tlicrc- should not, even in a commerciiil 

fore, of the preliminary ireatj', view, be more favoured than Iho-ie 

"^yp; shall be evacuated, " which, who, without provocation, invaded 

und<^r the actual circumstances, was and plundered its dominions. 

a complete and most important In the separate treaty with Por- 

ctmoa on our part, the French tugal, that power was to cede 

look credit for, in the treaty, as if to France all Portuguezc Guiana^ 

lb'- ixHion had been on their side, as far as the mouth of the river 

No sooner had the preliminary ar- Amazons. This cession would have 

tides been received at Paris, than opened for the French a way in- 

•ome more tfratici of peace, which to the heart of South America. 

QwnsieiiT Talleyrand (the French France, also, upon this occasion, 

mioister for foreign affairs) had announced an underhand treaty shd 

probably deposited upon a shelf in had concluded a year before with 

his tvreaji, were announced with Spain, by which she was to add 

«inal solemnity, by a grand dis- to her own territories, Louisiana, 

charge of artillery and au illumina- Parma, and the island of Elba. 

t»D. The publication of these clandcs- 

AriKMig thoac treaties were one tine treaties exhibited, ^i so strong 

vith the Ottoman Porte, and ano- a point of view, the bad faitli and 

tber with Portugal. In our treaty, boundless ambition of the French 

» an equivalent ftr the vast colo- government, iliat many of tho'ie, 

wal restitutions we made to France Who the most warmly supported 

and her alRes, we had expressly sti- the preliminary artitles, hi'gnn to 

polated for the integrity of the ter- con'.ider that it was hardly jKjssiblc 

nioiy of those powers, and the undprsuchcircumstanccstopfeserve 

eracnation of the kingdom of Na- peace with honour, and fcit perfectly 

plesi but although the negotiation prepared for whatever turn the nego- 

n Loadon lasted a con.iidcrable liation for a detinitive peace might 

time, and France expressly staled take. 

tboK cessions to our allies ^.i equi- The French government, frotn 

*alrDti for the cessions we had the first signature of tlie preli- 

^rcfd u> make to bcr and to her minaries, seemed to nnder»tand 

G 3 ptikclJy 


86 ANNUAL RE GISTE R, 1802. 

perfecily tliat peace was entirely boundary. Although (in the re- 
in ihcir iijriUs; they tliercfore, gular ortlcr of narrauon) this cir- 
wilhout liesiialion, exposed ihcir cuimLitKc, which lormed a promi- 
wbtilu Heel ill [lie expctlitioii to iieot Icaiure in Uie negotiations at 
St. Domingo, while at the roii- Amiens, should be postponed uniil 
gress of Amiens they tonle=led tlie whole resultoftlie congress was 
crery point, and seemed only ik- stated, yet iliis single point may 
eirous of ascertaining how many lie smlicient to illustrate the spiric 
impositions, aggressions, and acts which animated both the coutract- 
of insolence ijie British govern- ing parties at the time of the open- 
inent would bear, before they wjuld ing tiie congress, France, from the 
Jinally break off the negotiations, moment the preliminaries -were 
The government of France ran no signed, considered herself as secure 
risk, for as all their additional de- of peace ; she ventured immedi- 
mands were most cxorbiJant and atcly her fleets upon the ocean, and 
unjust, they bad nothing to do but produced those treaties which had 
to recede a little when they found been for a long time most carefully 
liritish patience could bear no niorc. concealed. She eitlier, with justice. 
In tlii« manner, she agreement witii relied on the good faith and sincc- 
respcct to Portugal was compro- rity of Great Britain, or else she 
mised. By the preliminaries, tlic supposed lliat it must have beeo 
integrity of the Portugnezc ter- fear, or a failure of resources, or 
ritorics was to be preserved, and the dcternii nation of the British mi- 
ior this article we paid an cxorbi- nJslcrs to sacrifice all for peace, 
tant price in colonial cessions. But wliit!) could alone have induced the 
hardly were those preliminaries adnitnistration of this country to 
«igui-il, when the French govern- accede to tliem. It is probable 
isifv.t produced an underhand treaty tliat the latter opinion was that 
■w I licit they had negotiated with of the French government, for 
I'ortugal separately, by which tliey from the signing of the prehmina- 
»iere to be paid a second time for ries they acted without the least 
wJiat tliey had ceded, and, as if reserve, as if indeed we had been 
that were not enough, they were also it conquered nation, and that there 
to receive the Portugnezc Guiana, was no power existing which could 
This breach of good taith was not check its encroachments. Tlio 
only a rob)>ery on PurLugnl, hut a English government, on the other 
direct insult to tliis country; ' it hand, sinct're in the desire of peace, 
wasfeltas such by iJie people, and and overrating the power of the cne- 
ihe French government were ohlig- my as much as she herself was un- 
ed to recede so far as to compro- derratcd by him, was ready to ac- 
raise the altair in die lollowing ccdt; to any terms, even such as 
manner: Engliind wiis not to in,int could hard iy consist with her secu- 
on the absoluu: integrity ot the do- rity or her hiuiour, and was more 
minions of the queen of Portugal, inclined to submit to a few impo- 
nor was France to take all Guiana siiions tlian to break off tiie treaty 
at present ; instead of the riicr altogctlicr. Such were the mutual 
Amav,.ns, the. Xrowari, which tomes dispositions of the high coulracting 
within lifty miles o:' it, was to be tlie parties at the congress of Amiens. 
1 In 


In the mean time Bonaparte was country, as well as Italy, lie from 

tolicitous to procure tlie formal henceforward seemed lo consider 

tonsent of all the great powers of as his patriiooiiial properly. His 

£aropc to the step he had taken in return from Lyons was announced 

Italy. He loit no time in-announc- at Paris by repeated discharges of 

ing the result of the consu/la at artillery (a compliment which none 

Lyons. To the king of Prussia, of the ancient monarchs of France 

»-bo was entirely in the French in- ever required), and from the mo- 

tercst, (as hoping, by Bonaparte's ment of his return he allected a 

alTcmce, that under the naine of greater degree of state aud cere- 

Indemnities he diould be enabled mony, and kept his generals, who 

lo seize upon the best parts of Gcr- were tbrracrly his intim.itc conipa- 

many,) directed bis ambassador at nious, at a lui^t respectful dis- 

ftri* to convey his rnost cordial tancc. 

QX^Tatalations on the subject, while By whatever title he intended to 
Austria, in more qualified language, govem France, he resolved to go- 
expressed that she felt a most live/if vem it absolutely, and setOe the 
iaterat in the «ent ; the term was government in his family as a new 
tomcwhat ambiguous, and there dynasty. He nut only took upoa 
can be little doubt but that himself the stale of a sovereign, 
Austria must have felt deeply af- but exercised a power more arbi- 
fected at such an accession of trary than ever had been exercised 
power to so formidable a rival, and by the former kings of France. 
» palpable a violation of the treaty Laharpe, a distinguished veteran of 
of Lunevillcj for as bv that treaty French literature, and who had the 
the Cisalpine republic was declared highest name and reputation as an 
inHepeodent, the emperor ofGer- autlior, at the age of seventy, of- 
oiany had himself as much right fended bis consular vu^eslg, by ex- 
la lake the sovereignty of the pressing himself freely of the go- 
country as Bonapartd. Right, vemment before a company of old 
however, among nations, lias al- Iddies ; be was immedialcly banish- 
ways yielded, and must ever yield, ed from Paris. Madame Damas, 
to Euperior force. The emperor and some other fem:;!es of those 
was in no condition to support bis cotL-ries, were also banished. Duval, 
gDaraotee of the independence of the author of a piece called '< £d- 
tbe Cisal}nne republic, and there- ward in Scotland," (wiiidi, from 
fare he was obliged to submit, some supposed similitude bct-,('ecn 
Bnssia received this communication tlte fortunes of the bouses of Stuart 
without any apparent satisfaction and Bourbon, was most favourably 
or displeasure, and England alone received by the royalists,) was iUty 
could not or would not ioterfere banished, and it was expected he 
to alter the arrangements on the would be sent to Guiana ; but he 
coHJnent.' was, at length, at the earnest entrea- 

Tbe ambition of Bonaparte was tiesof mad(^moi;ielleBeauhamois(the 

by no nteaos satisfied with his Ita- daughter of madame lj^u:iparii- h 

lian boDours ; he now openly as- permitted to return. NothiHij could 

nnned the most arbitrary and nb- more strongly show how completely 

•dule power in Fiance, wbith die personal hbtrty of every indi- 
G4 vldual 

., ,. . ..^le 


vidiial In France was unprolecfed By the constitution which had been 
by iiny law, tlian those instance.';, made for tlie regulation of tJic 
If such sentences of banishment Frencli government, one fifth of 
were completely arbitrary, the par- those bodies were to go out anmi- 
dons which followed were eciually ally by ballot, and he took care so 
so. The caprice of the moment, to manage it, that every man of 
and the effect of female solicitation, talHnts, in ciiher of the assemblies, 
at length restored those authors to who appeared averse from hia pro- 
their families, but the circumstance jects, should be removed from the 
ijroved, that not a vestige of civil councils. Among tliose who were 
Iflierty remained in France. Not removed this year, was Chenier, 
only individuals, but the public one of the most distinguished of 
bodies, which he had himself con- the jacobin party, the celebrated 
stituted, felt the effects of his dis- author of the Marseiltois Hymn, 
pleasure, when they ventured to and most of tlie patriotic song* 
offend him. Jt was not to be ex- which came out during the revo- 
peeted that general Bonaparte, wlio, hition, and contributed a great deal 
with the bayonets of his grenadiers, towards iL Bailleul, one of the 
destroyed tlie former constitution most able politicians in France, 
of France, and turned nut the re- Daunou, author of ihe constitution, 
presentatives chosen by the nation, Bartliejemy, and Benjamin Con- 
would suffer any serious opposition stant, were also removed. Benja- 
from persons named by himsolf. min Constant was a yout^ man. 
Notwithstanding the improbability possessed of the most cuminanding 
of success, a number of men of eloquence. He, always, in the tri- 
great talents, both in the tribunat, ' bunat professed to be unwilling, 
and in the legislative council, during tite war, to ciieck or thwart 
plainly expreaied their wishes for the measures of government. He 
the establishment of civil liberty always spoke ot his country a» 
and law in France ; they talked of being then, as it weie, in a state 
the restoration of tlie freedom of of siege, and that, tliercfbre, a tern- 
the press, as a thing absolutely porary surrender of its liberties and 
necessary, and had e\en the cou- laws might be made ; but wheneier 
rage to reject a civil code pre- he spoke with hope of the return 
■ented by Bonaparte, which was of peace, it was principally on ihe 
hill of absurdity and tyrannical ground that, when lliat »o much 
enjictmenls. The rejection of this wished for event should take place, 
code violently enraged Bonaparte j the milttaTy, as well as the revo- 
he testified his di-pleasurc by ob- lutionaiy system, might for ever 
Bervatiotia which were ' not even cease, and that the empire of ra- 
bonndcd by the conimon rules of tional liberty and the law might 
decorum, and soon found means be e'itablishcd in their place. Such 
to show those bodies that they seniimcnts. boldly avowed by a 
must, for the future, be more sub- legislator of the moat consummate 
ordinate to his will, than ever the talents, gave hopt-s of better times' 
p.irliamcnt of Paris, or the to the true rqiublicans in Fiance ; 
cial piirli.tnieiits, were td tin- \cn;;- but lo l!i>nap:LLu's i^ovcrnment tlicy 
rable jirinine iuvercx-i* t-^ fiance, were e^cecjing il.mgerous ; usurped 


and de*poiic power mold nc\cr Aarpe, and of tht- author of " Rd- 
si^nH the test of cool and free wurd in Scotland," lir.ld out siifB- 
discnssioo, in linwa of peaCe. Bo- cifiiit terrors. An imprudent word 
Mpane was w<ll awarr of tliis, might iiend the father of a tamily tu 
Jnd thrrcfore, in every constimtion Giiijru, aijd it could not reasonably 
becicr made for any rcimlry, lie be exgiected that mademoiselle Beau- 
Wit down as the fii-st prim i pie, hamo is would always undertake to 
that the legislative, or motk rqirc- solicit partlon for diosc who ollended 
•entatiic body, mast never criginaic tbc lirst consul. 
taj thing, most iieAcr discuss any Bonapart^ having thus tntimplt- 
poiot but what the goternment ant ly terminated the bloodless con- 
diould send to them for discussion, quest of the fairest portion of Italy ; 
or rather for their acceptance. Be- having, without the slightest idea 
tides this precaution, he showed that it would give the British mini»< 
them, in the present instance, that try any uneasiness, announced to 
he had resened to himself power thf world the secret treaty of 
at any time to check the ebullitions AJ.irch ISOI, concluded with Spain, 
of public spirit la any of those a&- by which Louisiana, the dotninioQi 
lemblies. Whoever ventured to ofthedukeof Parma, and the im- 
displea:^ him might be certain of porlant station in the Mediterranean, 
bdi^ displaced at the end of the the island of Elba, were irrevocably 
jreir, and of never again resuming unitedas component pam of his em- 
hisseal. pire ; the dandcsline treaties with 
This was a stretch pf absolute Portugaland with the Porte; having 
dominion, more ab.solute, perhaps, sent thelargestarmanienl whichever 
than had ever been assumed by sailed for die new world, to secure 
any executive power over its senate, the old dominion of France, and to 
The senators of Rome, and the take possession of its new acquisi- 
memben of the parliament of Paris, tions, e\m before he bad concluded 
had their seats for life, and t}iere- peace with Great Britain ; it might 
fcre could and often did di>pby be supposed that such uncontrolled, 
ume spirit of indi>peiidence ; but unquestioned, and complete display 
by the French constitution, as it of power and policy would have 
DOW stands, the pcdilical existence checked (he restless activity of hit 
of a £eii:itor ceases, from tlie lime mind, and that he now would n-hx 
be has displeased the ^oveniment. in inactivity and pleasures, after the 
After those expulsions, the first uncr:<:>ing toils of so many years : 
consul liad an easy and complying but iliose who So calculated, soon 
tenaie, who were ready to accept taw, to their surprise, that the kinl. 
bb civil code, or any otiicr code ofenipirc was in him an appetite 
he should present them, his legion not to be satiated ; fresh eucruaeh- 
of honour, or any pmject that meiits u|x)i) what remained inde- 
camc into his he^d, however abfurd jiendcnt in Europe, and fresh at- 
or unjust. The puhlic bodies dared ' tempts still more to aggrandize the 
np longer c%p|■e^a a sentiment of <ciuittry -wlio had adopted him, 
medom, and it' any individual vt-n- uiarf^ed, uikeatiugly, hit KUhseqiimi 
tared cither to convtrsi- or wriie ro«i-ures. 
with ftpcdom, thi.- cvimj'les ofi-a- On Oie CJih of Trbniary, Icuers 




most menacing nature were 
seni, by orders of the first consul, to 
the canton of Bcn>e, tn whiuh the 
immediate intcrfcrence of France 
was threatened, under the pretence 
of the dissensions prevailing among 
the Swiss themselves i but in the 
Valais more immediate and unequi- 
vocal proceedings on the jiart of 
France transpired. 

In February general Thureau, 
celebrated for his atrocious nias- 
Mcres in La Vendee, arrived early 
in that month in the Valais ; set 
aside all the constituted authorities 
tlirot^hout that litde state and its 
dependencies, possessed himself of 
the pablic tieasury, the archives of 
Ihe government, and the post office, 
and publicly announced it an the 
intention of France to incorporate 
that republic with her dominions. 
The Pays de Vaud, which lies be- 
twt*fl France and the Valais, waa 
already formally anne^td (o her 
dominions ; and Switzerland beg'nn 
to tremble at what she apprehended 
must be the consef|Ucuc(? of thciC 
encroachments ; cither the directly 
becoming a French fffovince, or 
the imposition of a constitution 
which would virtually cause her 

Nor «'ere the efforts of the first 
consul less active willi regard to 
internal arrangements ; cliambers 
of commerce and agriculture were 
established throughout his empire ; 
societies for the cnconragement of 
the arts and manufactures univers- 
ally &>lablished ; rewards tor emi- 
nency in every branch of the fine 
art:i lavishly prinni^cd, whilst the 
arranging the plunder of Italy in 
the utmost splendour at Paris, 
promised to secure to tliat capital 
the re^urt aitd iqflux of strangeis. 

which once crowded to Rome and 
the other ravaged cities of Italy. 
Wfre such ylone ihe e/K)rt« mad* 
by France to restore her trade and 
her finances, the means would 
have been as laudable and legitimate 
as the ends : but the first consul 
did not limit thus his exertions i 
he manifested, both directly and 
through his influence with Spain, 
with Holland, with Genoa, and 
the other subjugated powers, the 
most marked hostilities against tlie 

com])Ietely cut otF, which always 
had been so beneficial a source of 
advantage to many branches of 
our manufacture. Our trade with 
Genoa, with Tuscany, with Spain, 
was expressly interdicted under 
the severest prohibitions. In the 
north of Europe our situation was 
nearly as al.iraiing ; British goods 
were excluded all transit through 
the states of Holland under the 
severest penalties, and it was much 
to be apprelicndcd that our. future 
connection with Germany would 
in a great measure depend upon tlie 
will and pleasure of a rival, who in 
such a moment as the present, so 
far front conciliating, did not even 
think it necessary to copceal hit 
rooltd enmity. 

About this period also was dis* 
pat(hed, under the admiral Can* 
theaume, a strong squadron of 
French men of war from the Medi- 
terranean, to reinforce the arma- 
ment which sailed for St. Donfiingo, 
in liie moiitli of December 1801, 
under admiral Vitlaret Joyeuse and 
general Lc Clcrc, and from whence 
news was now eagerly expected. 

On the first of March citizen 

fi etcher laid before the diet at 




Rnl^on ■ declaratiiin * fmm ttie W'helhcr the opposition wliich 
miniifer of foreign art;iirs of France v:i'! experienced by gcneml i* 
(Tilleynind), cointminicatiiig llie Clerc at St, Domingo was of as 
molt of the comulla at Lyons, trilling a n.itute as his letters an- 
Ihis instranient decljred ihu ap- nonnced, or whether il was con- 
poiutmcnl of the first consul to the sicicred by Bonaijarle as likely to 
presidency of ihe Iialiaa republic} tlimw seriou* obstacles in the way 
thar ke conceded to t!ie voluntary of his great object, certain it is 
»ish of its most enlightened ciii- that about this period some degree 
mqs; that the mEasure was indis- ofacliviiy began to prevail at the 
pnisabic to its frtedom, and .'wilely congress of Amiens, 
undertaken by him to prevent Hitherto the situation of the 
rivaliy of pretensions, and tlic per- marquis of Comwallis had been 
petual teuda which might be ex- extifmely irkiiome and disagreeable: 
pecieJ, btit which must, under his the deflnitive treaty had been lin- 
govcmment (which he assures the gering now more than three month', 
diet shall be energetic, paramount, during which time Bona|)arte had 
lod ascenditat,) te harmonized and realined every project his wildest 
tiaaquil. ambition could form, without 
On the lltb, the long expected check or interruption j and while 
iictlligcnce arrived at Brest from thus occwpied, it became notorious 
Sl Oumihgo, and was considered to all Europe that the uliimale 
iqwn the whole as highly favour- pacification with Great Britain waa 
aUe to tbc parent coiuitry ; nqt designedly protracted : means were 
(hat there wa* no resistance on the not wanting for such an object j 
part of Tuu^saint and the blacks to tlie delay ul the Dutch and Spanifjh 
the repossession of the island by the- ministers, and the abseitce of tlie 
French, but that such resistance first consul in the sootli, presented 
WIS impotent and inettecCuaL The plausible excuses for-dilaforiness ia 
general Le ' Clerc debarked in the early part of the negotiation ; 
fcfce oQ the 4th of February, and but when those causes no lon5er 
got poaession of several forts and existed, vexatious and frivolous im- 
ibe whole of the country between pediments were suggested on tlw 
tie Cape and Fort Dauphine. The part of Spain and Hollard, evident- 
negroes, by tlie orders of general ly for the purposes of delay. Willi 
Cbristophe, had set fire lo the Cajie the British minister it was far 
Town, but the French arrived in otherwise: the alarming incrf^se of 
time lo save a part of that devoted power, since the signing the preli- 
eily. The tetters of the command- minnrics, to France was no ob- 
en of the array and fleet wera stacle, although, as wc have shown, 
couched in the most triumpliant some of the articles of the preliwi- 
Icnm : complete success, and the naries could not now be executed 
rccstablishment of tlie French power eitlier in the letter or in the spirit. 
in the settlement, in a very short 'I'he British minister hurried on the 
lime, wu by ihcni confidently pro- negotiation to the utmost of hk 
ulicd. powcrj but iiiefi'cctuall/. 

• Vide " SntePapcn," pageOM. 

9S AP^NtJAL REGlStER, 1802. 

At lengtli some faint remains of Whether this manifestation of 

British spirit began to appear : the tlispleasure on the part of Great 

disarming system, which Iiad pro- liritain, and the consequencca it 

ceeded to a considerable extent, was threatened ; or whether the opposi- 

Euspended i wc had already sent lion experienced at St. Domingo, or 

out a strong fleet of obsen alioii to from the cooperation of both causes 

ihc West Indies, to watch the mo- on the mind of Bonaparte, he now, 

tions of the Brest fleet ; a squadron without further sliift or subterfuge, 

had also sailed from the Mediterra- seemed to wish to expedite the ne- 

nean*, in conscciuencc of the sail- giitialiou at Amiena to a conclusion. 

ingofGantkeauiiie with a reinforce- There remained now apparently 

nieiit for St. Domingo. Those but two points to occupy the atten- 

movemcnts, however, arose from tion of the French governnienl; 

the original source of so much dis- the defiiiitive treaty of peace with 

quietude and ex))ense ; the ini- Gri;at Eriiain, and the Gemiaa 

politic and unprecedented pennis- Jinlemniiiei. Tiie latter arrange* 

■ion of the vast fleet and army of ment was pennitted to slumber, 

Brest to sail from France, before and the pressure now caused by the 

peace had been concluded ; but the angry measures of Great Britain, 

armaments which the ministry now and tlie partial failure of the Brest 

thought it necessary to e<[uip, were armament, disposed measures of an 

calculated to coerce France to the active nature to supersede the su» 

concluding the definitive treaty at pineness that had hitlierto prevailed 

all events, and upon whatever at Amiens. 

terms she might diclatCi accord- Yet at rhe close of this long pro- 

ingly, ordCTs were issued, alK>ut the tracted negotiation, so far from 

beginning of March, fur the fitting receding from the . advantages which 

out and victualling the whole of the France clearly bad in the preliminary 

menof war at Porismoutti capable of treaty, her minister absolutely iu- 

being sent (o sea, frigates and rloops sisted on higher terms than even 

included, inall about thirtysail. that had given her. Nor did the 

And in consequence of similar aggrandizement of that power in 

orders, admiral CornwallJs, «'ho the intervening period, in violation 

•till commanded tlie chaiuie] fleet, of all tubsisting treaties, and of 

dispatched from Torbay six sail of the spirit of the basis of that which 

the line f on a cruize, ami victualled they were about to conclude, pro- 

for Ave months : alt the diflcreut duce in the slightest degree (al- 

oflices conneci^d with the naval tliuugh tlie British minister oflered 
department, the dock-yards, &c. , to throw inio the same scale E^ypt, 

■wexe put in motion; and at the Malta, the Cape of Good Hope, 

criais when thecountry at large was and all ilie contjucsta we had made 

cherisbiug the hopes of a happy nnd during Uie war,) the disposition to 

pcmianent peace, every symjitom ap- recede from her exorbitant demands, 

pcared of fresh warlarc and conicn- Pinceeding on this principle, the 

tion. Ficuch government interpo^d so 

• The Waniot, Zcataus, Defence, anil B.lloni, of 74 euns etch, part of Sir 
J. S»unm«'i flL-ei. 
' f Ldpi, Eicctlent, Ma^ilic(ni, BcUcrojilioii, Rjlusi, and Audacious, of 74. 


■4117 nnexpected points o( debate, British ministers and the general 

daring die negotiation, which pro- wish of the people of England waa 

tracted it la such a length, that the accomplished, 

inltabitants of both coantrics, who The itomestic cents which pre- 

were equ^illy anxious and sincere ceded this celebrated tre:ity, mrnj 

ibr the amicable termination oftlie the coniniencemcnt of the year, 

treaty, were in constant appreheii-, were few and uiiiioporLint. The 

lien of its being broken otf abruptly, trial and punishment of the infa- 

At length, either from the causes tUriied and misguided mutincen at 

wc have already alhided U>, or be- Bantry Bay, which toolt pbce early 

cause nothing more was to be m lite month of January, we have 

gained by procrastination, it be* already noticed ; and the account 

euac the will and pleasure of the of the crime and execution of go- 

fint consul that the long expected vcrnor Joseph Wall, in command 

treaty should be signed i accortlingly at Goree, 1782, which engrossed 

that cetemony took place on uie an unconimon share of llie public 

27ih of March. interest, we have gone into at 

The inhabitants of Amiens were some length in anotJier part of this 

apprized of the moment of the work*. Those severe but snlutarf 

ligiMturc's taking phice, and were acts of justice, wliich regarding 

invited to witness the solemnity, only the crime, eijually awarded 

llie weloome event was announced death to disobedience to tlie ofli- 

ibe next day at Paris by the minister cer, and to ilie extreme severity 

for foreign aftairs, and pniclaimed of those in command, were satis- 

ondcr t£e tiring of canuon, and factory proofs of the equitable and 

tvery demonstration of joy usual on sound principles of the English 

ibe receipt of (he most flattering law. 

and welcome intelligence. Oij the 18th of March there was 

On the 2(jdi of Marcli, Mr. a numerous meeting of the livery of 
Moore, assistant secretary to the I^indnn, assembled in common hall, 
mission, arrived in London at nine in order to take into consideralioa 
o'clock in the niiirning of that day, the propriety of petitioning for the 
witbihenewsdf thedefinitiveireaty rcpi-al of the income tax. The 
«' peace having been signed at measure met with universal appro- 
Amiens, at four o'clock in the batinn, and it was carried uuani- 
aftemoi>n of the 27ih instant, mously. In tlii' resolutions on this 
fcy the plonipotentiarics of the subject were enumerated the seriout 
iferent poi^ert, parties thereto, evils attending this tax; its de- 
Hius after a feverish intcr^'al of stnictivc operation upon tJie trading 
fire months, during which period world, and its injustice in making 
Uir most important revoluiluns had no di->crimliialion between tluctLUI- 
liken in the stales of Europe, ing and certain income lliey 
wliilst the stale of French power stated, tliat it was hostile to the 
"IS dally prtjiondcrating, and tliat liberties and morals of the people, ■ 

«f F.ngland ii»i!jly " kicking the and tliat no modilication could ren- 

\wa ;" the great object of tlie dcr it equitable, juslj or efficient, 

' Viiic " Appendix to the ChfonMe,' 


BtiH tliM for thpT, and many oUier respectively dischat^ing all advance* 

reasons too numcrom lo be liere made by any of ihe contracting 

(i^iailcd, lli;it a pt'litior should be parties for the maintenance of the 

presented to irarliamrnt, praying its prisoners in the countries where 

repeal, by Mr. ;iWerinan Combe; iliey have been detained. A com- 

Ihat tlic rcpresi-ntaiives for the city mission to be appointed to determine 

of rx>nd<»n shoidc! be i.ustruclt-d to the compensation to be made under 

mipport it } and tliat every exertion this article. 

•hould be made to get rid of alas, Art. III. His Britannic majesty 

atoiice so oppressive and inquisi- restores to France, Spain, and Ra- 

lorial. It was iiccoidingly presented ' tavia, all the possciiions and colo- 

lo parliament, which, with its con- nics which may have been occupied 

»e(]uences, we shall notice in its or conqueied during the war, with 

proper place. the exception of Trinidad and Ciy- 

The deaths of Jnhn Fitzgiblxin, Ion, which, by articles ]V. and V. 

earl of Clare, lord high chiuiccllor Spain and Balavia sei erally cedes and 

of Ireland, and of Francis Itiis^cll, guarantiee in full possesaion and 

duke of Etdiord, about thi< jieriod, soveTeit!;nty to his majesty, 

both characters of no common Art. VI. The port of the Cape of 

*tamp, arc wortlry of commeniora- G6od Hope rcra.iins to ihe Bataviaa 

tioH in our historic jw^c. Of the repub ic in full sovereignty, in the 

former we have taken particular same manner as previous lo the war, 

notice in our selection appropriated and the ships of every kind belong- 

for such purposes, aud the hulcr ing lo the other contracting parties 

gave occasion for an eulogium, shall be allowed lo enter the said 

pronounced upon him in (he bouse port, and there purchase provisions 

ofcommonsliy Mr. Fox, and which as heretofore, without being liable 

(hall be noticed in its place. to pay oilier imposts than snch as 

We siiall bii^fly (-numerale the the iiatavian republic subjects its 

leading and matira! pt/nus which own ships to, 

t!ic treaty of Amiens cLiihraced, and Art. VII. The territories and pos- 

shidldittr nur particular consider- sessions of her moil Faithful majesty 

ption of them till we shall have are maintained in their integrity, 

laid before our readers the parlia- such as they were antecedent to Ijic 

m' niary proci-ciiings of the year war, excepting at llie river Arovi-ari, 

prior thereto, and conDccCed with from where ii empties itself into the 

it*. ocean above Cape Nortli, near the 

Art. I. declares the reestablish- iBlands Nuove and J'enetentia, about 

pientof iieacebetwrni theconlrart- i and l-3d degrees of north latitude 

iug parlies, and ili^t cadi sh:iH use to its source, and afterwards in a 

their utmost towards its right line drawn Irom ihal source to 

iiiaintenanee. the Rio Ranto, ton ards the we>t ; — 

Art. II. stipulates for the rcstora- the noLthcrn bank being the French 

lion of all priamicis of war or hos- boundary of tin- French Guiana, and 

lages, within six weeks from the the .south bank ihe iiouiidary of the 

djicof the latilicaiion ) each party Ponu^ULze Guiana ; the navigaiiim 

• Vide official copy in tbe '• Stcitc Pajicri," page SOB. 



1 of lie river beiug open to both. 
Ik scttletnent of boundaries in 
■ fcropc nude between tlic courts of 
Jfedrid and Lisbon by ihe treaty of 
iiada<i>s ii coDlirmed by tliii article. 

Art. Vlil. The territories po«es- 
fions. Sec. of tlie Sublime Porte are 
ouintatned in their integrity as they 
\TK before the war, of the Seven 
Islands ii recugoised. 

Art. X. The islands of Malta, Go- 
M, andCamino, are to be restored to 
tbe order of St. John of Jerusalem, 
under conditions expressed in tliir- 
leen articles, to the following eAect : 
—the knights of the order are 
iovitet) to return to Malta, and 
there elctt a grand master; any 
clMrtion made previous to tlie 
ligning of the preliminaries to be 
Dull and void, in order to tlie 
greater independence of the chapter, 
DO inditidu.ll belonging either to 
Ktigland or France to be admitted 
iota the order. A M.Utese language 
to be established ; proofs of nob iliiy 
DOI necessary toadraissionof knigbis 
ioto this language J they shall, hovv- 
erer, enjoy all the privileges, &c. 
of the other knights, and at least 
lulf of the municipal, administrative, 
civil, judicial, and other employ- 
loents depending on the government, 
■ball be filled by tlie inhabitants of 
the island:, of Malta, GoiSi, and Ca- 
mino. Tha British troops to eva- 
raaic the island and its dependencies 
within three months from the ex- 
change of tbe rati5cations, or sooner 
if possible, when it is to be givenup 
to the order,' provided the grand 
master, or commissioners proptrly 
aolhorised, are llicreto receive it, and 
the Sicilian troops be arrivi^. The 
king of Naples is be invited to^t^nd 
2ttXJ troops, natives . f hi, donii- 
niuui, to kerie in ■jaiti^u in the 

Island for one year after the restora- 
tion of tl)e knights, or longer, should 
not the Maltese force be at that 
pi-ii(Kl deemed competent by die 
guarantying powers, to garrison 
the inland. I'hc independence and 
neutrality of Malta and its depen- 
dencies' are proclaimed, and the for- 
mer giiaraniied by Great iiritain, 
France, Austria, Spain, Kussia, 
and Prussia, the four latter pouvrs 
being invited to accede to the stipu- 
lations. I'lie ports to be open to 
the vessels of all nations, witli the 
exceptions of those belonging to tbe 
Barbary powers. 

Art.XI. The French troops shall 
evacuate Naples and the itoman 
stales, and the British shall ev.'ictiate 
Torto Fi'rrajo, and all the pons and 
islands diat they occupy in the Me- 
diterranean and Adriatic. 

Art. XII. directs the evacuations, 
cessions,, and restitutions, named in 
the treaty, to be made in Europe 
within one month; on the conti- 
tincnls and seas of America and 
Africa in tliree months ; and on the 
continent and seas of Asia in six 
montlis after the ratification. 

Art. Xiri. The iortilications. Sec. 
of the ceded places to be delivered 
in the stale they were in at tliesign- 
ing ot the preliminaries. Three 
years to be allowed to persons to 
dii|>o,se of their property in the casi'n 
of cession, and In the interim to 
be allowed the exeicise of tlieir reli- 
gion, and the enjoyments of tlicir 

An: XIV. All aequestnttions, f;c 
imposed by eitiior party, to be taken 
oil oil tiie signature of the treaty j 
all caics of law or equity betwi^en 
the subjects of any of the parties, (o 
be referred to a comjielent 

An. XV. The fisheries on the 

coasts of Newtijimdland and its de- 



Cidenties, and in the gulph of St. evidence of the crime shall be »urh 

wrence, tobe placed on the same that the laws of the phice in which 

footing as they were prcvioiis to the the accused person sliall be dis- 

war. The French fishermen and covered, would have authorized 

the iith;ibilants of the islands of St, the detaining and bringing him to 

Pierre and Miqiielon, are to be al- trial, had ihcol>encebeeii committed 

lowed to cut sueli wood as may be there; the party making the requi- 

necessary for them in the bay» of sition to defray all expenses attend- 

Forlime and Despair dnring the first ing its exfciition. 

year, reckoning from tlie ratification Art. XXI. nitcontraclingpartiet 

of the treaty. promise to observe all tlie article* 

Art. XVI. stipulates the restora- faithfiillyaiid sincerely, andgeneral- 

tioii (if all captures at sea, made in ly reciprocally to guaranty them. 

rhe Channel or North Seas, after a Art. XXH. The present treaty to 

space of twelve days, reckoning be ratified by the contracting parties 

from the ratification of the prelimi- within thirty days, or sooner if pos- 

nary articjes : a(in one month as lar sible, and ibe ratifications shall be 

as the Canary islands, as well in the exchanged in due form at Paris. 

Mediterranean as in the Oceanj DoneatAiTiiens,37ih March 1802. 

sifter two months from the Canary A separate article guards against 

idands to the equator; and after any prejudice tliat might arise in 

five months in all other parts of the future to the powers or to (he per- 

world. sons concerned, by the omission of 

Art. XVII. Ambassadors, &c. to some titles, which might have taken 

enjoy tlie same privileges, &c. as place in the treaty : and that the 

before tjic war. Fi'ench and English languages made 

Art. XVIIi. The branches of the use of in the copies of the treaty 

houseofNassiiutoreceivcanequiva- should not form a precedent, or in 

lent compensation tor the losses any manner prejudice the contract- 

whiL-h they may prove to have sus- ing powers whose language was not 

tained, as well with respect to pri- made use of; and some other mat- 

vate properly as by liie change of tcrs of little moment. 

consituiion adopted in the Baiavian And to the eigtbeenth article 

republic, there was appended a secret article. 

Art. XIX. The present definitive by which the Ba la vian republic was 

Irealy Is declared common to tlie guarded from finding any part of the 

Sublime Porte, which is invited to compensation decreed by that article 

trdusmit its act of accession as soon to ihe house of Nassau *. 

39 possible. The contracting parties were the 

An, XX. Tliecontractingparlies king of tlie united kingdom of 

to deliver up, upon authorized ap- Oreat Britain and Ireland on the one 

plication, pcrwn 8 accused of murder, part; and the French republic, Ffia 

iorgeTj, or fraudulent biiiikmptcies, majesty the king of Spain, &c. and 

cnnimitted subsequent to the con- the Ba^vian republic, on the other. 

elusion of ibis treaty, provided the A lerj' few days alter the arrival 

• The aliovc treaty ivi< piinrcd at Paii?, and circulated by couriet* to HoIImkI, 

§li»iH, &.C. iVu, 4;c, die nifctii luiforv it «ai s;LTied si Amicn*. 

,., Cookie 


of lie news in England of the con- but even in its more limitwlmauinq;, 

du--i(io ijf this treaty, an official let- of a speciiio engagement between 

lerlromlord St. Helen's at Peters- Russia and the oHu'r confederates, 
bjivb, announced the agreement of Ry this declaration, joined to the 

the courts of Sweden and Denmaik effect of the ti-ealy of Amiens, 

ijtheconvention signed with Ras~ Great Britain was in peace and 

(!}, respecting the rights of neuirdl friendship with all ihe powers of 

fovfjt; and that the Su'edish am- Europe, and it did not appear that 

taajdw had been distinctly inform- tJiei'e could be any questions in re- 

e>l bf Uk count dc Hotsclionbey, serve which were important enough 

at Russian minisier, tliat as (lie mo- soon to embroil the political system 

tve* wbich had occasioned the late of Europe: and the treaties of Lune- 

:-.viia] of the system of armed neu- ville and Amiens appeared -to have 

inlii/ Bcrc now happily done permanently settled the fate of the 

mv, that syste.':i was considered diftercnt nations and t!)c extent of 

br ibe conn of Russia as absolutely their dominions. Such was the po- 

Janulled and ab.indoned, not only sition ofaffairsin Envupcat th^com- 

li a general code of maritimt^ law, menccpient of theniomh of April, 





ParliammlaTV Proceedings. — Admin\straluin quesl'mntd ai to the SaiRiig of 
the br^st Fleet, and the French recent jttjuiiitions — in the Lnrds^ar-i 
Commons. —New Soeakcr. — Printers' and Bnokseiler^ Petiii<m.— De- 
bate on the Prince of mdes's Claims to the Arrears ef the Dulrky nf Com- 
vail. — Supplyfor two Months — Debate thereon— and on Mr. Hnksem't 

' Charge af the' huolvency of Governmint. — DA'ate on the Amcrkan TVaiJv 
Bill.—Etilo^ium pnmounced on the Duke iif Bedford by Mr. Fox. 

AFTER repealed short adjourn- French fleet, and under the prniec- 
ments, both bouses of parlh- tion of its fliig ; which, added iq 
ment assembled on die 19ih of Ju- nine, the Spaiiiah force al the Ila- 
nuary.whcrtheearlof-Carliilciii tiie vapuL'h. wmild render that power 
lords, pressed upon the atienliou of truly formidable. Ai;rt nil this w.n 
that bouse, the I'ery great uneaai- done before it wa'; known wlieiliet 
ness those short and repeated inlpr- Great Britain had nw4^ peace with 
missions of tlie meetings of- parlia- Spain or not : bi'ijiuse, his lordship 
ment IwA uputi the people at large, added, for ativ tiling v.x knew la 
He insisted, that it was the duty of tlie contrary, we M'ere still at war 
ministers to assign their motives for viih tiiat (wwer. He could find r.o 
adjourning that house so often. He document by which he was to con- 
wished to be informed, whether mi- elude that we were at peace wiih 
niAters had knpwn of the intention her ; and that, therefore, Ije wislied 
of France to send a vast armament his majesty's ministers would satisfy 
from that country to the West In- tlie public upon that head. He 
dies before ihe signing of the dell- wished then to ask mini'lcrs whe- 
nilive treaty of peace? Whether ther we were at [wace with Spainor 
that was done in consequence of an not? To that part of the jirelimir 
agreement bcrwcpn ihe two conn- uary treaty by phieli the island of 
tries ? and, whether bis niajciiy's Trinidad was ceded to this counti)', 
ministers hnd Liken Ihe necessaiy it did not appear that the consent of 
precautions to guard agfiinst the con- Spain had eitlicr been asked or ob- 
sefjuenreii that might follow from tained. No negotiation was carried 
tlie Fraich having such a force in on, nor treaty entered into between 
the West Indies } Bui it was not any Spanish and British minister, 
alone the great accession of force Was it not necessary then to know 
to Fraure in that quarter of the • how we actually stood, with respea 
world which was to be dreaded ; to that country ? 
the power of Spain 'Mould be vastly Lord Pelham (one of the secre- 
augmcntcd : five Spanish shins of taries of state) iu reply, informeit 
tbc line sailed from firc^t wiih the his loidsliip and the house, that it 



tad France, th:ii ilie armament lately 
tiilcd trom Brest; that, that Aea 
had a particular destination and a 
qjccifcc objeti in tiew, and that it 
could not be contrarj' lo the interests 
ofGreat Britain it' itsncL-ecded in it* 

Mr. Hiiol, in the hou?e of covn- 
tQon.t, on the same, day, and nptm 
the »anic grounds with lord Carlisle, 
attacked the ministry with consiiW- 
abie ability. He took a view ot the 
conseiiutjnccii which tlie sailing of 
the Brest fiect was, in his opinion, 
iikeiy to produce on the progre^ 
aodcuDductof the pending ncgolia- 
tion. Should war recomnieucc, he 
uid, the French might strike an 
inuwdiate and dangerous blow in 
ume of OUT most ireiportant colonial 
postesiions. Tliey had now the 
mean* of doing' bo, tliongh it was 
probable they would delay iJii- i-xe- 
niion i)t' thtir hostile designs. 
IWyuould probably po^tjione ilie 
Xcumpli'ihniait of (heir ulterior ob- 
jects of aggrandizement, iiniil tii[-y 
bad serjred the vast cessions wliich 
the preliminary treaty had proiK^scil 
flat we sh (Aid make ihcm. Until 
ihm, France m;-ht allow m to ni- 
)aj peace, w hile we should be 
Uiii^d lo Jiutp lip ati ex[>ensi\e 
Mtabli«lin)ent m the West indies, 
lu guard against lier machinations. 
" Such uas Ihtf peace we werr ti> 
enjoy ; a peace deiusirc and in-c- 
■ which would o[K- 

tatrr to pu; Fr, 
tlut whid» >l)i 

1 of 

o long sougiil 

/cared would enable her to accn 
pli>lj that ill which all licr h(>|>e3 

• Vi<k " Chrenicl;," and ". 

and wishes centered ; tliat which 
all her exertions, intrigues, and state 
{laiiers for years back Ivive been 
contrired and calculated to produce, 
namely, what she called the Ii1>eny 
of llie sem, but \vhich would he, 
in fact, ihe iiniiihilatiou of llie 
rommcrce consequence of Great 
Britain. ' 

The chancellor of the exchequer 
(Mr. Addiugton), and lord Hawkc^- 
bury (.secretarr of stale), rerftici-d 
tlie detence of the measures of ad- 
ministration on the point alluded 
lo, to two Iieads ; first, tliat the 
Kading of the French fleet mani- 
fcntcd no hostile purpose?, and that 
previously lo its having sailed, that 
thei-e had b^en a com miuii cation ■ 
with Ihe British, government upon 
the snbject; and, secondly, that 
ministers had not neglected to take 
evtiy precautionary measure lo 
guard against any prejudicial eftccti 
that might be apprehended. ■ b'or ' 
the fact of both th.-se assenions. 
they claimed the confidence of the 
house, as at present it wrts too de- 
licaf a matter iipiin \ihicb to cntcr- 
into a full explanatiun, 

Hqicattd adjoimimenls of the tit- 
ling of paiiiament silll continued to 
till up the anxious inier\al which 
occurred uuiil the signature of the 
definitive treaty, and very little bu- 
siness of imjiortance ti'as discussed 
on ihc several days of me^'iirg. 

The (leadi of the carl of Clare*, 
lord high chanccllr>r of Ireland, 
caused a vacancy in the chair of 
the hou'c ol commons, his maj^-%ly 
having lieeu plea>ed lo appoint sir 
John Miifoni, tlie spk-akcr, to fill 
p that high office. This event 
as conuuunicaled lo Uic CQinnions 


on the 9th day of Febniary, and the press is set up, and codk- 
on the lOth the hoiue proceeded to quently to CKpend large sums of 
the election of a new speaker, money for a numerous edhion. 
The master of the rolls (sir R. P. which might not all be sold in six 
■ Arden] proposed, with an elaborate or seven years after, perhaps never. 
eulogiuni on hi? capacity and fit- That if they printed a less number 
nes* for tlie situation, the right of copies, the prices'of the respec- 
honourable Charles Abbott (princi- live works would be still more in- 
pal secretary to the lord lieutenant creased and their sale proportion- 
of Ireland), as a member thoroughly ably diminished. They were there- 
competent to fulfil the important fore obliged to be in a considerable 
timies of their speaker. After a advance of capital to enable ihem 
slight opposition from Mr. Sheridan, to sell what th^ printed at prices 
who proposed Mr. Charles Dundas in some proportion to those pub- 
(tlie member for Eeritshire), tlie lialied abroad i in order to keep the 
former gentleman was unanimously market in any degree open for the 
elected. He was succeeded in his sale of English books. Thai as the 
situation with the lord lieutenant of paper for these large eiJitions was 
Ireland by Mr. Wickham. On pureliased at once, and tlic 'i'hole 
tlie succeeding day his mnjesly sig- duty paid directly, which cannot, 
nitied his assent to the measure, in general, be reimbursed in several 
through the lord chancellor, iu the years after, the tax was excecd- 
hoasc of lords. ingly burdensome on printers and 

On the I5ih of Ftbruary, Mr. publishers. 

Shaw Lefevre had leave given him " That there was much reason to 

to bring up a petition from the apprehend, that the expert of the 

printers and booksellers of the ci- - hook trade would be totally annihi- 

ties of Lojidon and Westminster, lated, as tlie best English boohs 

It wcB signed by above 200 of tJie could be printed abroad and sold at 

most respectable of their number, a considerably leas value, than un- 

Amongst other tilings, iheir petition der the present circumstances they 

stated, " that by the additional du- could in England ; and that, in 

tics upon paper tlicir trade had fart, some ofthe best stock Eng- 

bcen raaieri^tlly injured, as well as Jish books were printed in France 

the progress of literature greatly and Germany, and sold at half the 

fettered, and the eiKouragement to price they could be afforded at 

geiiiu* ei]ua!ly dimiuiihtd. That home, allowing a very smaH profit 

ilioie additional duties tailing so to the tiookseller." 

immediately upon tlieir capiial. Under these circumstancet they 

obliged tliem to raiae the prices prayed for a repeal of tlie additional 

of their publications, to as in en- duties, or such other relief as the 

able foreign countries to undersell houic should think proper, 

ihtib even iu their own markets. It was referred to a committee. 

That th?sc duties fell very aluwly and in the course of the snci-eeding 

upon the public, whiM tliey were session the additionalduticsverere- 

oUiged 10 print a considerable niiin- pealed, the case having been satis- 

bcr of coiiies of every work when fj^ciorily made out as an imposition 



friilcfa certainly was not only bur- iirbanitj and goodneu of hearf, 
dnuome to the individaal, but would undergo any inconvenience, 
ftnick directly at the very existence gulftr any affliction, raiher than 
<rf En^ish literature. aet up a claim against his royal fr- 
Oq the 17th of February, Mr. ther. These were his un.ilterable 
T. M. Sutton (solicitor-general to sentiments, these were his dcter- 
b'n royal highness the prince of mined principles. His majesty, it 
Wales) took an opportuni^, upon was true, had rcct^ived the products 
the diancelloT of the exchequer's of the dutcliy of Cornwall during 
baring moved for a select com- the miiiorit)' of his royal biglii:css ; 
mitte to take into considerntion but it was the receipt of them 
tbe arrears of the civil list, of call- alone tliat enabled him to support 
iog the attention of the bouse to bis establisliment without calling 
(be arrears due from the dulchy of npon the public to make good the 
Cornwall to the prince of Wales, deficiencies that must othenvise 
as his distinct and inalienable right, bai'C arisen. The publii?, of course. 
He stated, that from 1/62 to 1/83, derived the full benefit of tlie reic- 
(be years of tbe prince's minority, nues of his roya! highness during 
the arrears amounted to goofiool. his minority : and between him 
aiKl that 22] ,000/. having been and the public the account, tlicre- 
Toled by parliament at different forp, stood at present, the fcirmer 
times, for the use of his royal liigli- being, to a considerable amount, 
nrss, thfre remained a balance of the creditor of the latter. 
679,000/. In stating the above, he Mr. Fox, in reply, said, " I shall 
ol^ervetl, that notwithstanding tbe certainly trouble the hou'ie with a 
vAe, undivided, and unalienable very few words. The house is much 
ri^t in the prince of Wales to obliged to the learned gentleman 
tlnse re\-cnues, it is now found, for the very clear and able manner 
■hat fcr and daring the space of in which he has stated the rhiims 
Deartr bis whole life, one prt of of his roya! highness the prince of 
than has been applied to the civil Wafcs with rcsp.-cl to tin; anr.irs 
B«, and another to public purposes; due to him for the dutchy of Corn- 
that is, in fact, ail to the purposes of wail 1 .i,^rec with my learned 
tbe public; insomuch that if any friend in almost every word that 
question arose, it mi!;ht be said, has fallen fr<im him, at legist a« 
Ifaat no immediate claim exists be- connected with the subject of his 
t*een his majesty and tJie prince royal higlintss; and I do mo-t sin- 
of Waks, but between the prince cercly hope, tliat the hoii-e will 
of Wales and the people. And take up the matter wliicli he ha< 
witb sincere and undisguised ass< r- this day £ug;;csicd. J not only per- 
ttoa he then declared, that know- fecily agree wiili him, but 1 aj.]>:ovc 
it^ as he did, the ■genuine, open, hi^lily of his wisdom in stating the 
and unatTccled sentiments of that *ubjcct in the way he done. 
ilinstricus personage, he coiild take There is jierhaps no hbnte aitri- 
npon him to say, that were the case burablc citlicr to the present or 
even otherwise, that personage, dis- any ft^rmcv admimstr.ui.m. I 
tinguiahc-d equally for his filial at- thought it nece's:;ry to say a v-.tA 
bakm, as he CT-er has been fur his or t'vn in couseqacnci of the 
H 3 leaiiiud 


learned fCDileroanK having iiiti- siati-d, iliat \i was not the will <4 

riaicd, that llifc claim ol" the prince liis ro}-al highoes-i to make any 

nf Wales baa never been asserted. Miiiplaini in the hotue. I (hink 

It never has been eflccttially assert- his loyal higlintss hi's acled right, 

cd, I admit ; but thai it was as- I have every good wish towards the 

serted is a fact of wliich I muit re- heir apparent, and it was a most 

mind the liouse. It is a ()Htsiioii painful duty to me to state what I 

which did appear to me to be weU did «Iicn the 70,OCO/. was firs» 

worthy tlie allentioD of the house, proposed to be appropriated out of 

I shall not r«ncw the disciwsioii of the 120,000/. granted by parlia- 

tliu question myself, not because 1 mcnt towards the lii|uidatian of hii 

am not actuated by the same opi- former dcbis, I ihiuk 1 owe it to 

nion I was formerly, but because I his royal highness to state Uie (]ucs- 

am desirous it should be brought tion shortly, not m alieciiiig-liim, 

forward by some other gentleman but as the more immediate buai- 

more likely to inirodocc it with ness of the vote of this night. I 

efl'ect: I wish the learned gentle- thought i be snm of 120,000/. oot 

man would slate some propoiiiiou, too great a sum tor the prince ot 

He iliinks it would come with Wales. The honourable (^ci'tle- 

tnore propriety from another ; that man had stated, that prince Frc- 

is a point on which we differ. The dcrick had 100,000/. in tJie year 

prince of Wales has con^deraMe 1712) he might haie adopted a 

claims on the public, and I think belter mode of comparison, by con> 

his rojal highness cannot be beUer sidcring it w ith icrirence Iw the 

advised than to bring tlicm to ihe increase of the civil li'<t. I thought 

bar of tlie house of commons; tliat 120,000/. a year was libera], 

who, in conse(]ucnce of having but not extravagant. Why then 

overlooked Ins claims, have toted did I suggest to tlie house, ai]d sup- 

him considenibic iunft for (he ad- port the projwsilion, that diis should 

justment of the demands against be reduced to 50,OUOl. by applyiDg 

him. Now widi respect -to Oiese tlie remainder to the i>ayment rf 

■urns, I am clearly of opinion, tliat bis deblij, notwidi'tuiding my opi* 

wiiatci er has been voted on account nion, that if in confeijuence of too 

of die dcbis of his royal highnets small a provision he had incurred 

ought to be deducted. It is, in debts, it became parliament to pay 

my opinion, the grwicst har<fchip thcni. i did it, because his rcjal 

under which any man, in any .situ- highness had declared tlie incoma 

alien, could have been placeil, to granted to him was sufRcient. I 

haie been obliged, on various oc- siiiJ, it uas not for his royal high- 

casiona, to have tlic amount of his ness, after such a declaration, to 

debts staled to the pnblic, to have come to p.-jlianient, and desit« it to 

b^cn subjected to all llic ctannients puv hi^ debts. 1 mention tliis to- 

and obsenatitms which were made day, hecuusc I think it will be foun^ 

Willi wr^ard to his royal highness, to apply to the quesiion respecting 

whi;natthc same time he was en- the civil liiit, and will become ma- 

tillrd to much more, as a ri^ht, lerial ulien that subject is dJs- 

llun he wa« rc<|iiesting as a gram, cussed. On die qne^suon imiiie- 

^bc honourable g,t:uileni4n hu di^ttly relating to the mvliuii bc- 



ict the bouse, I shall say .1 few ing the civil list from year to year, 
*ork As tbe message has been or from time to time > Xfyouthluk 
prorated imm his majesty, and parliament is not able to judge 
ban refimcd to a committee of wiiat sum is aiifticiont to give his 
n^y, (a pn^ier respect 10 his ma- mnjesty for lite, you oiight not' to 
jetty, though perhaps not one uhicb sutler parliamem to give It. Yt>u . 
the house ought as a nutter of ought not to grant his majesty 
oonne to comply with,) I shall 900,000/. a year as a provision for 
ispfMCt the present motioD, with- tile, and at the same time remain 
cot catering into the suhjt-ct. It subjt^t to the payment ol Uie debts 
it is to go to a select committee ; he may -coinract beyond that sum. 
it may be as well to avoid previous If there is an excess of expendi- 
investigation ; hu^ it is not to be tare beyond tliat sum, you are 
ii^>po)cd by as.'ieDling to the motioi) liable to make it good ; but on 
I give CTcn a momentary approba- the other hand, if the expenditure 
tioo to the application to parlia- is tes? than U)e grant, there Is no 
moit to discbarge the arrears due likeUhood of the public getting any 
<:^on tbe civil list. Although I part of it kick again. It is the very 
am ready now to give my vote cssenceof a civil list that it should 
upon the subject, and state my be limited ; and his majesty ought 
reauns, yet the proper lime will not to be permitted to come to 
be when the accounts arc dis* parliament to desire it to make the 
niisrd. There is one tiling which civil list equal to his expenses ; but 
I nish the house to attend to. he should lake care to square liis 
h is a \-cry material circumstance expenses to llie civil hit. 1 be- 
in ibe history of this country, thut lievc gentlemen will find tbe appli* 
imce tbe revolution, the practice cation to parl'ament to pay the 
Us br«D to grant, soon after tbe arrears uf tbe civil Ynt very rare; 
kii^s accession to tlie throne, a ^or the principle of a limited civil 
civil list cstabhshmcul for life. 1 list proceeds on this, that the ex- 
know there are many pej-soni who pcnditure should sQlt the income, 
dcnbt tbe propriety of such a ciis- and not tbe income suit the ex- 
torn. I have at my liiaure consi- pcnditure. I will not go tf largo 
dend tlv question, and I am into the question, but observing 
deariy of o[»nion, that our ances- only, that the politics of the pre- 
ton were right in giving a civil sent reign iibow 1 do not allude to 
aablisliment tor life upon the any thing that has occurred in tlie 
kill's accession. It is granlcd up- course of It, I will conteut myself 
W tbe principle that yuii are giving ^'th retnarkliig, that if the civil 
m ample provision for life, and at li-it was voted from year to year, 
ttw tame time that it is a limited there would be tltb disadvantage, 
ooe : but if the civil list is to come supposing the state of politics to be 
Kiieatedly to parliament for pay- tlie same as in the reign of king 
taent of debts, it is highly absurd Wil'.iam and queen Anne, aod^ier- 
■0 call it a limited civil list. See haps a p:irt of llie reigns of George 
|o«bat tbe argument will go; will th.: First and Second. Are we sure 
it iwi be the strongest alignment that a prince who wanted moiic>% 
^0 tiTQur of tbe iue:^iire of grant- and for purposes in which the in- 
H -l ic.^=t 


terest of the nation was not con- should be in the situatioo in which 
ccrned, would not, if he was such he is placed, when at the tame 
a character as king William, ap- time he has a claim u]>on the public 
ply both to die whigs and tlie for a debt of such magnitude ? X 
tories : and it might be a question shall be happy if any mode cao be 
whether tliose should not receive slated by which the question may 
his support who paid him the most, undergo legal discussion, previou* 
With a view to tlie payment of to its being considered by the house, 
his debts, a king might make 1 for one, as being pait of the ad- 
choice of bis miuiiitcr not so much ministration of 1783, take blame 
for his capacity, liis integiily, to myself for not having put it in a 
and his public diaracter, as on course of inquiry. When we coo- 
account of his being a iN-'rson sider that the claim was in his rt^al 
who would at various times be highness the moment he came of 
ready to apply to parliament and fa- age, we ought to censure our owit 
cilitate the paying of the arrears ' negligence in leaving it to be agi- 
of the civil list. If you give a tatcd now, when lie is iu his fortieth 
prince a nominally limited esla- year. It is neither honourable to 
blishmeiH, and at the sanae lime the country, or to his royal high- 
aftiird him a hope that you will also ness. Surely the liouse has waited 
pay his debts, you place him in a lung enough ; and after such a de- 
situation of running into great ex- by, it would be fair to inquire 
ptnsts, to defray which he must ho»- fer ilie revenues of his royal 
:iftcrwai'ds depend on parlianiait. liighncss have been applied in aid 
That ib a soit of dcprndeuce on of the civil list." The honourable 
parliament which 1 think ought member concluded by staling, he 
not to exist with regard to a king, was clear ihe claim of the prince 
l/pou the first view, therefore, of ought to be [wid by the public, and 
llic .-lubject, I am against pfiying iliai it was material and important 
the debts ol the crown ; they may tliat the question should be settled, 
be paid by setting apart a certain Mr Pitt. — " I too mean to trouble 
portion of ihe ci\il list, in the the house but with very few words. 
some manner as lias been dune After liiis claim of his royal high- 
with respect to the establishment iic>« liaH been slated in the manner 
of the prince of Walrs. The !kiu',c it h;ts, and with so ranch propriety 
will certainly :ict wtih great injns- and al'ility, it does become the bo- 
licc, if the rule uhich was appli- nour of the house that some prcncr 
cable to the dJ.its of his nnal modt- should be adopted for piiHine 
highness is i;ol to be aiitilicaliU. to it in a ciuirsc of inquiry. 1 should 
the dL-bIs of the civil list. As lo ihiuk it impriiijir to otfbran opinw" 
tlie qutsliiin relating to his voval till I liawc lu.-u-d every thing that 
highness. It taniiot come Ixlorc the can be; oilercd upon the subject, 
house so W(;U lis if brought for- Whatever prccouivived opinion I 
wai-rl by the Icariii-d geiiili-'nian { may ha\ c fmnncd in consequence if 
hut if he doc* not, I hope liis ma- its liaiiiig fnrnitrly been «iy duty 
jc'iy's ministers will submit it to lo look initi tlit "subject, I should 
the lion-e as eaily as jiossib'e ; lor ficl it inipropir to state that-opi- 
hi nic a-t the huiise, whether it is n ion till the ijuealion is fairly.^'- 
hi ft i.n'rt that his royal highneia cutsed. With rcipcct to the other 



ftrt of the subject, I agree with an ultimate decision } aod I re- 
ihc hoDourabIc geotlenian oppof^ite joice that my learned Iriend ha* 
tx ill one thing only, that the best taken the step ' he haa to intro- 
timc lor diMrtusiDg the propriety of duce it to the consideration of ths 
fHjiog the debt, or augmenting the hou?e." 

rammt of the civil list, vlll be After some observations from 

wiien the house sliall be enabled to Mr. Nichnlls, a committee wiis 
fcnn a judgment as to the circum- moved far and appointed to coii- 
itaaoes by uhich the debt hag been sider tiie papers respecting the 
ocated. Till then I am not pre- above claims. 
putd, as a membej' of parliament, On the same day leave was i^iveii 
logiTe any ofnnioii other than un to briu^ in a bill to repeal ilie 
bypotbehcal one ; yet I must say, countervailing duty on American 
that the grant of a civil list for life vessels ; the American govem- 
ii ihai which is beyond comparison ment having aereed do take off the 
to be preferred to any other; it is. doty it had imposed on British 
1 prsclice strengthened by example, shipping, 

ind couM not be broke int.T with- The period of the conclusion 
ml violating the constitiiiion of of tlie delinltiv-e treaty siill ixinti- 
ihe country, I must enter my pro- nuing undecided, on the 3d of 
lest n once to so strange a doctrine March administration was again 
* that parliaoaent, by granting at driven to the necessity of demand- 
I'm commencemejit of a reign ^ ing a supply on the war establisii- 
civJlist establishment, deprives it- ment for sixty-one days; the kuid 
self of the power of augmenting to be raised for the army was 
iU amount, if the increased rate l,270,(yi5/. 

rf expense, which attaciies to the Mr. EUiot. Mr. Wyndham, Mr. 
trowuas well as the meanest sub- Baker, .ind Dr. l/4wrcncc, pr--i^cd 
ject, should require nuch an aug- on the house the fraud and perfidy 
BKDtation, I wtU never admit of France in every transaction of 
that parliament can abridge its in- that power since the sic^nine; of the 
Ixrerent power of increasing (hat preliminary artirtes, 1'liat tlie hand 
gnuir, which is bestowed not more that signed tiitm on the part of 
fcr the gratification of the sovereign Great Britain, had signed the h«- 
iliwi for the service of the public; filiation, the di?;^race, ^and the de- 
ibe sa[^rt of the diifcreut depart- clension of this luimtry ; llut ilie 
■ncnts of Slate, and the mainie- situation of tiie two counlrici wi*!e 
Mnce of that splendour which is materially altered since tliat Iri-aiy } 
not only essential, but is the vital and the house was not boiind 
ptiiiciplc inseparably coitnecii-d with by its former opinion upon them. 
theexistenceof a monarchiealform if the .... 

of govemmem. I therefore appre- that opinion no loiiE^er existed, 
bend I shall dilTer widely from the The arc|ui>ition of Louislaiia and 
bonouiable gentleman oi> this part of the island of Klba he here par- 
ti the subject. With regard to ticuiarly advi-ried to. 
•he other, respecting tlie claim of l^rds Hawkesbury and Ca-silc- 
hit royal highness, 1 agiee with reapli, and IliQ attorney general 
him thai it, ou^hi to bi; broii_ht to (l.avi-), defended the measures of 



JOB- AKNUAL register, 1802. 

government. They asserted llial no and lie ibonght it was better nOt (a 

Uame belonged to fldminisiralion on e.tainlne it too strictly, 

the subject of procrasiinaiinn ; (bat llie CbanceHor of the Exchecjaci' 

other treaties had been longer uniler said, that if it ought not to be esa- ion ; that rational hopes naiiied, it ought not to have hcen 

' might be entertained of the ami- used. He considered the honourable 

"cable termination of the negotialion gcmlrman bound cither lo prove 

at Amiens ; but that should it he his assertion, or to retract it. He 

otherwise, (be disappotninient should wislied hewotitd name the fact he 

be met with manliness and firmness r alluded to, and appoint a dajc for 

and lord Hawkcsbury particularly inquiring into it ; otherwise, be 

and pointedly expressed himself, thmighl he stood within the censure 

that, " whatever the result ol the of llie house, for having made ute 

preliminaries might be, lie sliould of such expressions. 

Ite\'er regret the slmre he had in Mr. Robsrm acain anid, that the 

that transaction," and " that the* expressions b:id Fallen from him in 

experiuient of peace was at least tlie heat of debate, that he could 

as wise as the experiment of war," prove it if necessary, but that it wa* 

The house then resolved itself into his opinion the less that was said 

a comraiicee of supply, when a about it tlie better. 

million to be raised on exchequer The Secretary at War said, it 

Mils was granted to his majesty. might be the better for him who 

When the report of (he com- had made this cbai^, but not for 

mittee was brought up the neyt that housC) who when it was made 

day, a conversation of an angry must vish to asceitain the truth 

nature arose in consequence of ofit.v 

aome expressiMis made use of by The Chancellor of the Exchequer 

Mr. Robson. In the conclusion of called upon Mr. Robson, for th^ 

■ his speech, after having expressed public gilice he alluded to, and re- 

fais dislike of monthly votes of sup- peated his words, fur the purpose 

plies, he added, that the country of tlieir being taken down by tbe 

ah%ady began to feel the ill effects clerk of the bouse, 

of them; tiiat it was absolutely in- Mr. Robson admitted, that the 

■olvent, for tliat public ofEces had chancellor of the exchequer had 
rdiiscd poymciH of their accepted ' stated tlie substance of his word* 

Wlls ! He was loudly called to correctly. Theoffioewas the siolt 

order, and the speaker gave it as and hurt office : a government ac- 

his opinion that this clia^e agiiinst ceptance had been carried thither 

tbe government was disorderly. .by a banker, a member of that 

Mr. Alexander hoped the honour- house, which was refused payment, 

able gentleman woidd retract an The Cliancellor ol'ihe ExchequM: 

assertion so injurious to the credit faftcr whispering for some time to 

qf tlie country. Mr. Martin, the member alluded 

Mr. Robson said, he could esta- to,) informed the bouse that thi» 

fclishtliB truth of the assertion by iransaction.on which the honourable 

Vidence ; but lliat the expression genileniiin had presumed to charge 

tnpfi out in the wanDth of debate^ the goveminem of the cotuitry with 



:y, wai about a bill of onlr get rid of the bttKtnr^s in any wnr. 

Here the btoinesA restwJ and iherefnre passed to the order oi' 

fur Hilars ilays ; but upon the 6ih of the day on Mr. Robson's motinn. 

Mucli it wjs broujihl on again by We return from this digression 

ibe dianccUor of the cxdu-(]uer. to the 3tli of March, when ther« 

vbo Mated, that on diligeul iDquiry uas a (]L-!iate of some moment in 

ioio the mode of transacting business ibe house of commoni, on (lie 

at the diiiirrent offices, it appeared qiie>iion for tlic second reading 

that large s^nu of money were not of the American treaty bill. 

kept deposited at these oiSces, but General Gascoyne thought thii 

tbc[Symeni of ibcir draughts upon treaty militated against all Uieprin- 

the treasury was always certain. ciples of our naiigulion liw. He 

Jlr. Martin, the member through considered the Americans had al- 

*hose hands the bill in question had ready but too extensive privileges in 

passed, said, he did not wisli to take trading to our West India coloriies; 

any part in tlus busiueis ; but he ar,d liun they were enabled at Ham- 

thought the honourable member buri^h, and other towns on the con< 

{Mr. Robson) had been attacked tincnl, torival us in the saleoftlis 

with rather too mucti vivacity, as produce of our own islands. 

if what he had olserted bad been a Mr. Vansittart said, that tba 

fidschood, instead of a fact which object of this treaty was not to 

could be proved by evidence. grant any esclusive privileges to 

Mr. Riibson the next day moved America, but to take off certain 

for papers to be laid before that countervailing duties which peca- 

bouse, which would prove that liarly pressed upon America. He 

maor instances had occurred of took uotice of the great increase of 

nmiiar defaults of payroenl at the tht export of our manufactures to 

tame office, America, and contended that it 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer was as much to our advantage ai 

ntoved the order of tlie day upon to theirs, that the Americans should 

Mr. Bobsoo's motion, which after be able to supply tliemselves at a 

a good deal of conversation was cheap rate, which would of course 

carried, and here this extraordinary induce that country to be ttilL 

discossion finally terniiuated. It greater constmiers of them, 

appeared in the course of it, lliat Dr, Lawrence expressed a wish 

the clianccllor of the exchequer, that eoiae arrangement for the 

Bctdall the members of administra- foundation of a cot^imercial treaty 

tioa, at first disbelieved the fact, with France might be made before 

«tid ihi-refore took up the business tlie definitive treaty was signed, 

with uncommon seiiousiiess, and a and before tlic one iu question wat 

coosiiirable d.-grceolticlcnce} but finally concluded, as it woiUd be 

afterwards it appearing that the facts highly dangerous to the interests of 

stated by Mr. Rubson wtre undc- liiis couiilry should the contrary 

uiably true, and only tlint the con- take place. 

cluuon was to be disputed, name- I.ord Hawkesbury defended ihe 

Iv, that it hh owed the gavcrumenl policy of taking olr the conutcr- 

10 be insolvent, t!ie cliaiiccilor of ^piling diniei in botli cotmiries, 

ibt cxcLeau'T teeini.'d to ui.h to ;n'hic]i, in the first place, rendered 


tbeir coninnercial communication mark of bis regard, he bequeathed 

more ■implc, and produced this {among other legacies) to that gen- 

addttional advantage lo us, that it Ueman a consioeiable sum. 

would enable u^ to re-export what On the ItJiH of the same month, 

we had imported from America on Mr, Fox, in moving a new writ 

belter terms, and in that respect for the borough ofTavistock, (va- 

prerent the rivality of other na- cated by lord John RiuscU, who 

(ions. bad succeeded to his deceased bro- 

Mr. Windham considered that ther's titles), took occasion to make 

neitlier our capital nor our punr- a long and animated eulogium in 

tuality, would be for the future the house of commons on his de- 

abletoprotectourcommerreagainsi parii^rd friend. He spoke with con- 

tlie determined hostility of a power sidemble agitation, and nearly to 

so enormous as France ; lie thought the follon'ing purport : 

it must be tlie spirit of the cciunufy, " I am well aware,"' said he, " that 

and its military establishment, this i^ not exactly the place nor the 

which could alone make it respect- occasion for entering at large into 

a\Ae fur the future. the character of the illustrious per- 

The Chancellorof the Exchequer sooage, whose decease has induced 

tptike at considerable length, on me to come hither to pertbrm a 

nenily the same grounds wiili I/ird painfiJ duty. As the memory of 

Hawkesbnry : he asserted that the no man was ever more generally 

trealy was 'founded upon principles revered, so the loss of no man was 

equally jusi and poliiic, both with ever more greatly felt. In a case, 

regard to America and oursehes. therttforCi of so much importance. 

Dr. Lawrence and lord Hawkcs- 1 hope I shall not be blamed, if, 

bviry sever.illy explained, and the in feeling how much the country 

bill was fully commitk-d. has sutfered by this event, I deviate 

I'he death of traicis duke of a little from the usual practice of 
Bedford, which we have already the house. The noble person lo 
adverted to, and which occurred whom the house will perceive these 
on the 2d day of Aihtrch, may be observations are applied, was dis- 
considered as a public concern; linguished by something so great, 
bis vast estates, gre;it endowments, something so benign, something 
Bud the premature lerniinaiioii of a so niarkt^d iu his character, that 
lile, the latter part of which seemed though possessing most opulent rc- 
cntirely devoted to the very popular venues, and though plac^ as high 
pursuit of improving the system of in rank and wealth as hope could 
iho rui'al economy of his country, make him, yet he seemed to be 
cauicd a very strong degree of in- raised to that esaltcd station only 
tercst to be universally tdt on that tliat his example might have the 
melanchdy event. During his lite, greater value. Having, therefore, 
«» a public character, he was con- so much of .public calamity to de- 
oected with Mr. Fox, wfiiine jilore, the house may be assured 
^itical opininns and conduct he that 1 shall not, at present, indulge 
was varmly attached lo, and by in the expression of any of tliosc 
which he was invariably and en- feelings of jirivate friendship and 
titely guided. At hli death, as a bit gratitude, which, on another cc 


cvioo, might be proper. The render it more productive, mart ho 
loa is the more affllcEi[l^;, the more sensible that the nation is more in- 
to be regretted, as it happened at a tlebted to him than to any other 
perod wJien the services uf Ibis person for tiie efTorls he made to 
DoUc pereonagi: were likely to be i nK.rove its agriculture. What was 
most beneficial to society ; when he hii molive for attaching himself to 
wai still yojng enough to give the this pursuit ? Because he was con- 
liope of further )!t^'ices ; still ac- vinccd, that in the present times 
live enotlgh fur alt the duties of th;it was the best direction he cauld 
public life : and while he still poi- giie to his talents and his means in 
K>sed dint you;hful vigour and piumoting the real interests of his 
enerijy which would lung h.ive country ; for hi* humility was such, 
eoabied him to support those un- that he conceived no pursuit too 
wearied Kxerlions, he displayed la low for him to etig;ige in, if he 
r.cry thing that tL-:ided to pro- fiiresaw that it would teiid to public- 
mote the intereslt of his coun- utility. I know, tliat if the noble 
try ; exertions which aCForded a persona^ of whom I have spoken 
lufficient pledge, that, had he liied, could louk barlt to what tossed in 
the remainder of his djys wouM iMs W(trld, nothing could afford 
have bceii devoted to acts of public him such iiietfiible pleasure, as the 
benetit. He did not live for tlic reHection tliat his memory should 
[Jea^ure but for the utility of lite ; be, ;i5 his life, beneficial to inaa- 
of rather, he lived for the highest kind, I shall conclude with a pas- 
enjoyment existence can art',jrd, sj.;c from a very younj orator, 
that of doing good to his fcDow '.viiich appears "particularly appii- 
creaiurcs. Tlicre are* many dlh'T cable to nliat I have said. 'Crime 
amiable traits in his chiracier iviiich is only a curse for the time, even 
I ^all not attempt to d-icribe here, vhcre successfiil ; hat virtue may 
1 raiy be permiiti'd to obscn^e, how- he useful to the remotest po-.teiily, 
ei-cr, that those who feel that the and is e\cu almost as adiant.igeom 
t bcuetit which can he done to fnture generations as to ita cri- 

tu this or any otlier country is to glnal pusscjisor.' 


Uigniaub, Google 



Chap. x. 

'parliamentary Proceedings amtinued. — Debate on the Civil List Dilt-^ 
tt ike Lords — and Commons. '~ Address voted. — Debate oa the Prince of 
Wales's Ctaims— House resolves not to entertain ihem.—ConsitleratioM 
thereon. ' 

AN interesting debate took that never could increase but by 

place in bolh houses of par- the vote of parliament, and yer, 

jiament, on the subject of his notwithstanding it had not been in- 

majesty's messnge respecting tlie creased for the last sixteen years, 

rivil li'ft. The 2^ih of Mareh was the debt which was accumujated 

the day appointed for taking it into docs not exceed one year's income, 

consideration. He liad no doubt bnt their lord^ 

In the house of lordu, lord Pel- ships wnuld readily and gladty vole 

iiam (secretary of slaie) stated the $uch relief to the dvil list as wai 

expenditure of the civil list, under necessary. He concluded by movr 

ths following classes, in, The pen- ing an address declaratory of this 

sions and nllowances to the royal sentiment. 

family ; 2<t, the salaries of ihe I^ord FitzwUliam moved an 

lord cliancellor, the speaker, and amendment to the addrcsSf by 

the judges of England and Wales ; leaving out part of it, and inserting 

3d, salaries of the tniniuers 1^ words signifying that the house 

foreign courts ; 4lh, tradesmen's would immediately proceed to in<- 

bills ; 5th, wages lo the scnants of quire inlo the causes of this debt, 

tlie household, including the pen- and the excess of the expense), 

■ion list. There was another dass. His lordsliip's argument principally 

under t)ie head of occasional pay- turned on this point, that it was, 

ments; and lastly, a gi-iicral one at first sight, impossible that any 

for all salaries chargeable on the debt could hare been contracteOi 

civil list. His loidthip then ob- unless by a direct violation of 

■ervcd upon the necessary increase in that act of parliament which had 

ihe expenses, on account of the in- been brought in by Mr. Burke, fiif 

creasing prices of every tiling, llic tlie regulation of the expenses of 

income cJ" the civil list was not like the royal household. 
' the income of a private nobleman Lord Hobart supported the oit< 

or gendeman, whose estaic usually ginal a.'.dresi, as the only mannei 

increased in value proportionally to of proceeding, which would mark 
the increased price of the neces- a pmper re-spcct for his majesty. 
»aric3 of life. The civil list, on the Lord Holland supjiorted the 

contrary, was a pemiancnt thing, ameudmeuC, and said he could not 
3 TioW 


vote for the payment of any of port of royalty during the last ceo* 

Ifaif ddx without a previous in- iHcy, and showed that the present 

quiiy. He caid, that although it income of the crown was 1cm thaa 

w dinJDctly admitted that the in- it had betm (when the present voltia 

creased cipenNcs were not in his of inui|eywa> considered) tor a grc:at 

aajettj's household, yet he thought nuuibci' of rpigns. King WiUiam 

it well to apprize the bou^e, that iheTUirdhadanincomeot/OOiOOO/. 

if the civil list liad not inpreaied of per annum clear i and if his nuje$t7 

lateyesrt like the estatei of private continued to possess the hcreditarj' 

geodemea. yet his majesty was revalues of the crown, which had 

not liable to the income tax, as* been given in exchange for this an- 

scsied taxes, and many others that i>uit/, he would be richer thau he 

fen upon the fortunes of private nuiv is, by eleven millions. As be 

gEDtlemen. Tbe lact was, tliat supported it must be the wish of tha 

ibi* debt prindpaJly arose from house to support the crown in ths 

wbal minittcrs had cla'^sed as " oc- same splendour as in former reigns, 

piiional payments," and of u-hich be supported the address. The liouss 

they did not appear much disposed then divided, when there appeared 
torcndei any account. He thought Fur the address - (h 

this account was due to parliament. Against it - • • 4 

and he saw no reason why, as in — 

the case of the priticc of Wales, Majority - ^6 

a sinkii^ fund should not be created. In the house of commons, on the 

out of his majesty's incuinc, for the same night, the debate waa t^ieoed 

payment of his debts. by 

LordMolra spoke very eloquenily The Chancellorof the ExchequeTi 

on Ibe nec■^-.■;.^ity of supportiiig Uie whii beg.m by observing, that though 

frown iu its proper splendour, and he had wi doubt of the loyal ailach- 

•gainst the popular opinion, that, inent of t!ie bouse to the person of 

r.yally was lJ;e most e\i>cnsive fumi thtir sovereign, and that they would 

of government. He, bi>wever, di»- be rt..dily induci;d, by motives of 

approved of the large sums given generosity and atieciion, to vote that 

uiiNcr ilie head of " occasional ptiy- his eniablishiuent should be freed 

mcnLs," and in voting for tlic addrt^ from all incumbrances ; yet upon the 

by no means inteudcd to preelutle present occasion it was not to their ' 

iumselffrom future inquiry. generosity, but to tlieir justice, be 

Lord Caernarvon also spoke at meant to appeal. He trusted (hat 

great kngth in favour of an inquiry, tlie most diligent inquiry which 

prei-ioLLi to votiogasumforihepay- could be tnade on this subject, wotdd 

menl of iliis debt. Besides the oidy tend to prove that his majesty 

" occasional payments," which did not receive eut of the civil list 

anxiunted to so large a sum, lie tllat enonnous sum, which many 

ubj-ctcd to the salary of o third ignorant persons supposed, for hit 

srcrctary of slate, which was charge- private exjtenditure. On the cou- 

ableon this fund. trary, his majesty did not now pos- 

Lord ^^'e3tmoreIand compared the sess a gftatcr, or hardly an equal, 

eivil list at presmt, with wlul had iiK-ome to that of any other 'sovo- 

bbcn the establislioicut fur the sup- rei^ii who e^er sat uo the Briiisli 



throne. In ancient times ihc in- opinion of the cftmmhtee, that i 

come of the kings of Englaml w;is sum nnt excrcding 990,053/. be 
io great, that tiiey Itad ii^iJly any. granted to bi- mSji-siy, to discharge 

occasion to call upnii ihtir people, arrcarsi and debts due aiid owing on 

and emild even spare larye sums for the c'» il list, on the 18th of Jann- 

the oppression of their people. In ary l8Ui" 

thereignsof Charles the Second and - Mr. Fox rose, and made one of 

James the Second, tlie revenue of the niosi eloquent and able speeches 

the crown amounted to near two ih;!t hr had ever delivered on any oc- 

millions annually. But to come casion. He declared, that so far from 

nearer to nur own times, neither wishing to smitinize with severity 

George the First nor George the all the minute expenses of the royal 

Second had a less income than family, he felt as strongly as any 

800,000/. anniially. His present man,that the splendour ot the throne 

innjesty, notwithstanding the great should bepreseired, andhewisfaedas 

increase of the prices of every tiling, much as possible to relieve the eove- 

Iiad only the same aimual sum set- reign from any difficulty or embar- 

t!cd on him at his accession. The rassment, but he could by no means 

consequence necessarily Ti'as, that allow that ihc compaiiaon which 

from his accession to the year 1786, had been made between his majesty's 

debts had been incurred to ihe income and (hat of former kings 

amount ofa million and a half, which of England was at all fair, llie 

parliament then pro>i<'cd for. For times \\ud completely changed ; and 

the debts which' had unavoid- the history of the ancient kings of 

ably been conli-actcd, since, he Irusl- Engbr.d had no bearing upon the 

ed parliament would now provide caseof the peesent kings, ifbefore 

with equal alacrity. Having touch- the ri'volution, the kings were pos- 

on the necessary increase of the ex- sessed of immense hereditary rei-e- 

prnscs on the civil list, in conse- nnes, those revenues were in fact the 

quenceof the incrftiscd allowance to resoiirscs of the nation and held in 

foreign ministers, to the expenses of trust for them. It was from thoic 

the younger branches of the loyal reienues that the defence of the 

family, and the increased c.\pcnse of coimtiy, and all the ordinary exr 

his majesty's household, he said he pcnses of government, were main- prrftctly convinced that parlia- taiiicd. Jlnt, since the revolution, 

mtnt would be surprised at finding the case is altered : now it is the 

the d<-ht was not greater, and that the parliament wjiich provides means 

splendour and royal munificence for the defence of the country, and 

which became the throne, had been for the iKiyniem of its armies, llie 

supported at so small an exptnse. civil list esUiblishment is noM' a 

He then llirewout an idea, whicii he mere annuity tor the support of the 

allowed the present was not the spkndourandcomlbrts of the throne. 

time to discuss, that very probably Keither'would he allow tlial his 

the sale of the crown lands in the majesty's income was less than his 

West India islands might be applied predecessors in any respect ; besdes 

to the paqn»e of coniribuling to the the sum of 800,000/. annually, which 

Sinn he now demanded. Ho con- was the income at his accession, 

eluded with moving, " tfiat it is ibc parliament bad not only discliai^d 
2 debu 


<Mxi aad bcunibrancn at dilfnient had been cited hy that hoDourable 

tlmn, but in 3777 a"* additional genileman, had aiiy bearing on the 

iWfiOOI. per annuui was granted, present case, or in the least war* 

ance tlui time, in consequence of ranted the conclusions he had drawn 

Mr. Burkes bill, pbccs to the from them; but he would appeal, 

Mount of 30,000/. per annum had not to ancient history, but to the 

"»*<!, which acted as an increase records of the journals of that iious?. 

Id ilieciril ]i,t. He wasalways of that in I7S3, at the time when the 

tpnioQ that the civil list should be honourable gentleman (Mr. Fox) 

'omJattbecommenccmentof every was secretary of state, Mr. Buike 

ffipi, and that when a cenain sum, paymaster, and lord George Cavcii- 

Miclr 900,000/. annually had been dish chancellor of the wtcheijucr, 

FMied, mioiilers had no right to there was an exceeding upon the 

^ liie expenses be 930,000^. above civil list ciinal to tliat of 1/84. The 

iMt income, and then call upon par- honourable; gentleman certainly could 

iument for the dilftrence. He not show a precedent of a similar 

''xwght the proper plan would be to case being slated to parliament, 

PJ the debts of the civil list by where the' application was refused, 

funue savings, as had been done in and certainly he could not show a 

lieascoftheprinceof Wales, He case which was ever more fairly 

"•w^lil the proper address for the laid before parliament. Some of 

™''>e to present to his majesty on the increased expenses necessarily 

'b orca«on. would be to surest grew out of the war ; for imtance, 

W dim, with all possible respect, tlie increased number of foreign 

I^' he should distrust those mi- messengers, and uf some exlxaordi- 

motn who lead him int» nnneces- nary ambassadors. He also justi- 

"^ tiffax, and that he oi^ht in fied a mea-iure which liad been cb- 

rwitn of fiuaace to comply with jecied to in botii houses, namely, 

tie restrictions of parliament, and the appointment of a lliird secreiaiy 

•jJt he should square his expenses of slate. He said tlie times recjuJred 

by the rules which ihcy iu their extraordinary vigilance, and this 

'irfflm had prescribed. measure became necessary. After 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer answering a number of more minute 

Aoniy eiplained. He said that Mr. objections, he contended that it must 

fi-.-rke himself, who had brought in be obvious, that die increase of the 

"■ebill, did not object in ijgz 10 expenses of tlie civil list, from hii 

I aiuaxat of debt* subsequently majesty's accession to tlic present 

tjnmcted. moment, which had bten only in a 

Mi. Pitt replied with the noost proportion as from 8 to Q^, was by 

pMted sarcasm to a part of Mr. no means equal to the decreased 

Soi! «pecch, in which the latter value of money since that period. 

Lid utd it would be a great hardship There .was amiilier circumstance 

w ihe people to pay the law es- which also dtficricd the mo>t scriotis 

pense* Uiat had been contracted by consideration. The hereditary re- 

idc aibitraiy imprisoumrnis and venue, ^hich had been given up to 

«l*r tttoag measures (as they were the nation in exchange tor the civil 

tilled) of the late adminiilralion. list, had increased to tlie value of 

He denied that tbOK C3tc» which IjSOO.OOO/, annually, and was now 

Vol. XUV. I WW 



one of the great tources of wealth till the period of his arriving at ttto 

wliicli the country liad derived under age nf twenty-one years. He also 

the present reign. He concluded a wished to inquire into, what sums 

very able speech by voting for the had been advanced towards the pay- 

addrebs. nicnt of hi.s royal bighness's debts 

Mr, Tiemey entered into a pretty up to the 2?th of Jane 1795. If the 

full examination of the aciounLs house should resolve upon the ap- 

prescnled on this occasion, and of poiiilment of the committee, thrrc 

the clashes under which they \verc would be two (jaestions for their 

arranged. He objected to the large consideration: 1st, Whether his 

paymeuls which were staled ge- rojal highness be or be not entitled 

rcrally, as " occasional payments." to the arrears of iherevenoes of the 

He also objected to the enoimous duichy of Cornwall i and whether) 

expenses charged as law expenses : if he be, those arrears have not been 

he knew that in the beginning of expended forthepublicservicc? He 

the war fourteen or fifteen counsel thr^ii proceeded to the claims of his 

were employed on the part of the royal 'highness. In the first place, 

croAvn in the slate trials. This was, this claim was founded upon a grant 

in bis opinion, a wanton wafite of of Edward the Third, to his son the 

the public money. The creation of Black Prince. He conveyed that 

theplareof third secretary was, he duichy and its rcvenne to his soirfbf 

thought, unnecessar)-, and the ex- his maintenance, when that prince 

pen&e enormous, amounting to no was but eight years old. The ob- 

less tlian 2(5,000/. per ann. ject of this grant was to secure the 

After some obsenalions from heir apparent an income iudepcn- 

other gentlemen, and after the dent of the crown, and the cooae- 

amendment was put and negatived, quence of it hat been to vest the 

the question on thi; original addrcM diilchy in the prince of Wales for 

was put, and the house divided, e^ersince, from the moment of his 

Ayes - - 226 birth. The prince of Wales was 

Koes - - 31 therelore entitled to the revenues of 

■ — • it from th« momiint o£ his birth. Ii 

Majority - IJS therefore would be an extraordinary 

On tlie 3tst of March, being two thing to assert, that the king had > 

daysaftcrthedchatconiliecnillisit, right to hold those revenues till the 

a very serious debate took place in momeutof the prin::e arriving at the, 

the house of ccmnioiis, witli n-s])cct age of Hvenly-one, and without rcn- 

to llic clainis of the prince of Wales dcrlng any account of them. Whtn 

on account of tlie arrears due from Ite said, his majesty bad retained 

his revenues in Cornwall, theu), be by no means' meant that 

Mr. Manners Sutton rose to make he had retained ihtm for hiso«D 

his promised nurtion i)pon this sub- use; those, revenues were otherwise 

jccti tlie motion was, that ;i com- applied. Great doubts had been en- 

inittee be appointed to inquire what tcrtained.on tliis subject, und by high 

sums arising from tlie rcinuies of legal auihoriiies: tlio first doubt 

the dutchy irtCornwall had been re- iva*, wlietlier the king bad not, a» 

ceived, and under wliat authority, guardian to his children, a claim on 

since the birth of hiiroyalhighockij those revenues. I^is doubt was. 



bowtrer soon got rid of, it being woiiIJ liavc fetl«n on himself. Thfc 

dear tbat this oppressive sort ot' learned gentlenMri concluded a very 

jjiunjiaiiship wns got rid of entirely able statemeni. by moving tliat a 

if tbe an of king Charles ih-: seliJctcommitK^ilnMild be appointed 

Second. AaotKcr doubt was wh»- (u inquire iuto tbc application of tbe 

tber the king had not, by some sort revenues of Cornwall during the 

of pfcrogative, a power to chioi minority of his royal highness ; at 

(base revenues. This doubt was also a so respecting the several sums 

inpoted of, it bein^ clear that his which have b<,'''n voted by parliament . 

pen^tive was limited by the grant for the discharge of die prince's 

itelf. The learned gentleman then debts. - 

BKQtiooed^ the many pririrea of Sir Ralph Milbank teconded the 
Wales who liad been fojmally in- motion, and expressed the firmest 
wsted with this dutchy when under conviction of tlic justice of the 
v^i unong the rest, Henry the prince's claims. 
Fiftb, whu received it at ten yc^rii Mr. Puller quoted precedents 
of^. Prince Arthur, sonuf Henry from the journals of the bouse, to 
ibe Serenih, was invested immedi- prove that the dutchy of CornwiiU 
ildj Bpon his birth, and after his was considered iudt^pendent of the 
^eHh Ilia brother, afterwards Henry crown, and belonging to the prince 
the Eighth, succeeded him. After of Wales. He thought Ihc liouse 
itoigall the cases of former princes even bound by ihe precedents in the 
rfWatct, who were acknowledged records of tlieir journals, 
■hktt of Cornwall from their birth. The Chancellor of the Exchequer 
Ik cited, as tbe most modem and discussed this subject at very cun- 
noctN that could be produced, that sider;ible lengtli : he confessed thqt 
(be lather of the present king, being the claim of the prince by no means 
oaderigcat the accession of George apiiearcd Co his judgment to be so 
itte SecoiKl, had an account ren- clear ar?d indisputable as had been 
^fKi him, at the lime of his coming staled by the learned gentleman 
i''»fe,ofihcreveniiesof that dutchy who moved the present ijuestion f 
nnntlke day of his father'saccesEtoo and highly as hercspected ihe legal 
lotte cr«\>-n. The same tights were knowledge and great talents of the 
wMently vested in his royal high- honourable mover, yet there w^re 
Ksj from hii birth > and the late other professional gcnthmcn, whaw 
daiio*)r of the exchequer mu,-t learning and talents he was also 
•tawt, that the surplus revenues of bound to respect highly, wjioeiutr- 
ibedaichyof Cornwall had been ap- tainedan idea very diiiercnt on the 
t^Kdtoibeaidof the civil list. The point of law, from tliat which had 
t*iaapal motive which induced his been expits'wd by the learned gcn- 
'"T'^higfaneu to bring this question tleman. The point of law, wliich. 
^''"anl, was an anxious desire to bad been staled as clearly wiili the 
i»ndwcU in the eye of the public, ctaim of tin: prince, was, that the 
^ to prove to them, that if his statute of Charles II. abolishing mi- 
^Ki had l>een duly acknowledged, litary teiinres, services, iKc. abolished 
I* thonld have been do burden to ^ generally the old right of ward ex- 
(o'lKopk, but that all his expenses, ' isting in the guardian, and which 
»b«l»r incunvd prudently or not, applied to the prcieni case. There 
13 had 


bad been opipions of the highest tbercveoues ofthcdutcby.yet itbf 
fluihorit)', that this statute did not no means followed that the expecses 
divest his majesty of the auciciit of his maintenance and education 
right of ward to the rev-enuesof the during his minority should not be 
dutchy, until what the law calls defrayed out of those revenues, hut 
lively qfseisiit wasdemandcd on the be borne entirely by his majesqr out 
part of hi^ royal highness. As this of his civil list, and yet it was merely 
was merely a (iiiesiion of law, it on this suppoaiiion that the idea of 
became him to speak wiih difiidence a large balance due to the prince 
upon it; but he could assure the was founded. He could by no 
house, lliat some of the higlicst means believe, that it was the in- 
legal authorities had held an opinion tention of Edward tlie Third, who 
adi-erse fromlheclaimoflheprinc?. first made this grant to his young 
He thought it would be sufficient to son, the Black Prince, that the 
stale, that it wan a doubUid question whole revenues of thedutchy were to 
of law, to convince the house that be appropriated for the prince, and 

- it was not their province to deter- yet that all the expense of his maiu- 

mine it. ]f the prince bad a legal tenancc was to be defr:iyed by him- 

riglit, he had undoubtedly a legal ^elf. However, he did not mean 

redress by petition of Tight, or in to give any decided opinion upon 

some other shape. Although this the question. His great objection to 

was his opinion on the matti^r of the present moLion was, that its ob- 

right, yet he would not wish to be ject was, first todrcide the l^;a! right, 

considered as having advised tliat or which he diought tlie house could 

any other measure. As to the otlier not do > and auerwards to order an 

|>oint, the balance of accoiuits be- account. As he could not approve of 

tween the prince and the public, or supiwrt the motion, and yet did 

vliich tlie learned gentleman had not wish absolutely to oppose it, lie 

stated, that his royal highness only concluded by nioving, " that the 

, vishud to have brought forward for other orders of tlie day be now read." 
the purpose of setting himself well Mr. Erskine then rose and sup- 
in (lie eyes of the public, he could ported, in a very able and argumcn- 
not but nbserye, that this motive tative speech, the claims of the 
reflected the highest honour ou his prince. He atlmitied, tliat if the 
royal highness, and that the state- point of law was doubtful, it should 
ni(.-nl of it must produce tliat elfect, l>« submitted to another tribunal. 
so necessary both to his situation Eut he considwed the point so per- 
and to the welfare of the country : fectly settled, that in a question be- 
but highly as he admired llie mo- twei-« tlic prince of Wales and the 
live which actuated bis royal high- king, it waii the house of commoiu 
nMs, he could by no means admit, tliat ou^lit ro examine the subject, 
ihjt die balance of accounisbt tween esp<fcially when the object of it wa* 
liie jirince and die public (if this to determine how the accounts be- 
sl.iiin was admiitetl) would turn tween tlie prince and the public 
out to be in favour of the prince. If stood, or whether the prince, wai 
it was allowed, to the fullest extent, really a debtor to the nation, or a 
ihat liie prince of Wales was abso- creditor, 'i'he learned gcntlenian 
lutcly entitled, from his biithj to tlicn examiucd all the precedents ol' 



tfae predecesson of his royal high- that he had not ber:Q a burden to 

atm, the fonncr princes of Walcj, the countiy. 

and prored that it was always con- llie Master of RuHs did not 

adcrad, that they were entitled to wish to express a decided opinion 

■be rrrcDues of the dutch/. Al- upon the nibject, but recalled to the 

ihni^, in the reign of Heniy the recolIectioD of ibr house, that thit 

Sixth, aod of Janies the Pint, there was the first time that the«e claimi 

Jf)peaicd HXBc disposition in those had evcrbcen mentioned in the house 

monarchs to keep those revenues to in so confident niiunner. Tliisclnim 

thenueli-es, yet the very proceed- was stated on the one side as strictly 

it^ in consequence of such disposi' 1^^ j on the other side, doubU 

tioof, and the declarations of the were entertained : surely this was 

le^ature, proved the right of the not the tribunal before which 

prince to " livery of seisin" in his doubtftj poiuls of property shouM 

tmnority. In the reign of Edward be litigated ? A% to ihe idea that 

the Fourth, this " livery" wasgiven the ptnnt was so dear, that it wa> 

to bis son at eight months old, and not worth sending to a legal iribu' 

the charter of " ILvciy," conhrracd nal, nothing could be more falla- 

by the lords spiritual and temporal, clous than that argument, for we 

redted, " thai the dukeof Cornwall heard ('aily in our courts points 

was entitled to liver)', the same as if agitatedj which lo the majwily of 

be had been of the age of twenty- tlie profession appeared perfectly 

one." I'his being the acknowledged clear. He considered that the edu- 

law of the land, so soon afler the cation of . the heir apparent was 

original grant, he could not conceive the exclusive prerogatire of the 

how the meaning of Ihe grant could crown, and that his majesty alone 

be misiuiderstiiod in 1802 j and yet was the proper judge ai ihu dit- 

lie only legal doubt that could be bursements neceswry. If his ma- 

admiccd wai, whether the statute jesty was not accountable, neither 

of Charles the Second failed in its was the public. The great prin- 

^eneral operation, a^ to this dutchy, ciple upon whicli he opposed th« 

orwantof "ht-erj- of seisin," when appmnimentof the committee was, 

it was always acknowledged in' ex- that if the house shoold take "upon 

pren terms, that the prince was itself ihe determination of tecal 

cmiiled to this " livery" from his questions, it would appear to him 

birth. He thought it would be a an assumjition of judicial power, 

voy tmgraciuns thing to have a liti- and a viulation both of Ilic prin- 

gaioo between his m.ijcsty and the ciples and practice of the constilu> 

pince. He tbot^t it was also tin- tion, 

necessary, for he could not conceive Mr. Foi saw the cpiestion in » 
llu 1 1 committee could entertain a point of view entirely diftrrent 
duuht upon the subject, when the from that in which the last sjiciikcr, 
AKiirarnt* wore laid before ihcm. the chancellor of the exchequer, 
Ai to the balance uf accounts he viewed it. lu order that the tjues- 
rttrnld say mulling : however small tion might be more distinctly un- 
it might turn out to be in liivour of derstood, he be^ed ihc derk would 
ibt prince, yet it would afford him read again the motion : (this being 
the pleasure of shotving the public, done), he declared he cuuld sea 
13 AD 




DO point of law in It, nor no qnes* to tbe general pimciple of keepk^ 
tion of right which thp home was the legislative and judicial power* 
called upon to decide. The motion as diMinrt at possible ; hnt there 
only proposed that the committee were some cases in every country, 
should inquire into the monies re- and at all times, which the legislative 
ceived during the prince'i minority, power was called upon to deter- 
on account of his dutchy of Qom- mine ; and what case could morv 
wall, of the application of this call on the interference of the le- 
money, and also of the sums voted gistative body than the case of the 
by parliament on nccouut of the heir apparent to tl?e crown having 
debia of his royal highness, AH a large claim npoii the nation, 
those objects were nierequestions of which bolb delicacy and legal fonns 
fact, and did not in the least contain made it difficult for him to esta- 
»ny doubtful question of law. It had Wish in the ordinary tribunals of 
been asked, what was the use of justice > As for this point not haF- 
inquiring into those facts, if the ing been made in 17^3, he confessed 
liouBe was not at liberty to ground that it had at that time been entire- 
any proceedings upon such Inquiry ? ly overlooked by his loyal highness"* 
Tlie answer to this was obvious j contidential friejids, but they had 
the i(ic;uiry would give his Toya\ ne\'er doubled of the justice of the 
hi^hne.'S the satisfaction of showing cbim ; when the jwini was made, 
the public, whether he ought fair- he was surprised tliat no legal 
ly to be considered as their debtor gentleman who opposed the motion 
or creditor. This was itself an ob- ventured to express an opinion 
jectof the utmost impcriancej but against this claim, or pointed out 
certainly, if it appcareil to partia- any way in which (he question 
ment that he was th<lr creditor, might be leoally decided. It would 
there could be no objection to ap- bo a most disingenuous c6nduct 
plying whate\'cr small balance their from this house to the prince, to 
niiglit be to the di.sch.ii^ of his tell him, " We do not know whe- 
debts, and to relie^■e his income ther we owe yim money or not; 
from those euibarrassments under trj' the point at law ; but we will tell 
which it has so long laboured. If yon this, that if you succeed, wa 
it was said that the prince of Wales do not know how you can enforce 
■was the only minor in the kingdom, your remedy." If the inquity 
vhom tbe law did not entide to should be gone into, and the claim 
demand on account, when he came appear clear, he then thought the 
to age, of hia revenues, nothing prince should receive what was due 
could appear to him a stronger tg him : if it Was doubtful, then 
reason for calling for legislative in- they should send it to a legal 
lerferenre in his case, if it was decision, fired from all the tech- 
allowed that the case of the prince niral ditHcutties, v hich the forms 
of Wales was different from that of of law might oppose to the cx- 
any other subject in ihe kingdom, it ami nation of so important a ques- 
was in vain to attempt to confound tion. 

It with common cases, by sending [In tlie course of his speech, 

it to the ordinary tribunals. He Mr. Fox insisted that, independently 

was as ntuch attached as any man of the dutcby of Comwallj . the 

3 prin« 


{Kate o( Wales had a right to be firom the particular 'statement mad* 

mii/iiiined and educated by hi* by the chancellor of the excbequeri 

hiha, as heir apparent to the that tJie sums advanced on account 

aowB, and that the same full ac- of Ibe prince of Wales, during his 

awm ought to be given of the minority, far exceeded the amount 

fevcauet of CorawaJI, as bad been of the revenues of the diitchy. 

given to the duke of Y<ak, on big Theqiicsiion, therefore, if any there 

coming of age, of the revenues of was. lay completely between his roy- 

Onalurgh.] al highness and hia majestyi and he 

He concluded by ezpiessing a con- thought it would be irruverent to the 

fidcut hope that the house would sovereign anddetrimental to the state' 

i^ec to the original motioD. that the house should interfere in 

The Attorney General said, he it. He concluded by observing, that 

■bould be very willing to listen the elegant accompUshments and 

to any application that might be splendid endowments of the prince, 

made on die part of hij< royal high- siUiicienlly pro\'ed the libi^ral at- 

oess, to enable him to toaiiitaia teution which had been paid to his 

kis rank and dignity, but the. pre- tducution, and die expense his 

lent heooDsideiedamere dryques- majcsiy had incurred on tliat a5> 

tioQ of right: be was not at all sur- count. He concluded by express- 

I»iscd at the subject having been iug his xleteriui nation to vote for 

omlooked by Mr. Fok and his the oQier orders of the day being 

colleagues in 17S3 ; for it certainly read. 

was not an idea that would occur Mr, Tiemcy conceived, that those 

very obviously, that after the prince gentlcnicnhad greatly mi ^conceived 

had been maintained for twenty- the case, who staled lite question to 

one years, in all the splendour doc be mcrilya private qiiCAtiuo between 

to hit elevated rank, that be slioiild his majesty and the prince. In fact, 

afterwards have a claim to receive his m.ijesty had nothing at all to 

all the money received during his do with llie que3li<M], and his itamc 

ounority for that purpose. He ouglu not to have been mentioned 

coosidcTcd that tiic original grant in it. The question «ai in tact 

tithe dulchy to the Black Prince, between the prince ait>l tlie public, 
was Jor the purpose of his education ' I'he [U'iiiq: advancet^ a claim against 

and maiiitcisuicc, and that it could tJie public to a large amount, and 

never be ilie intention of Edward he thought it would be a most 

the Third, that this money should ungmcious answer from the p\itJtc, 

be kicked up in a banker's chest, by tiieir represcutative^ in thehouse 

as a dry accumulating fund, till of comntons, tu say, " We won't 

that prince should come of age. examine whether we owu you 

He deprecated the idea of the money or not ; you may Hy it law, 

house taking upon themselves the and then see whether yt^n can 

decision of a legal right j if a legal find any redress." « 

right did exitt, it. must be tried Lord Hawkesbuiy considered tlu 

in the courts of law. as between question as merely hetwi-cn tite 

the prince and his majesty. He prince and his majesty. It was his 

thougbt it appeared most dcarljr^ uidjesty who, bad [eceived die re- 
i 4 ' Tenner 


Venue; of Cornwall, and had dls- inst, the bou<!e had recdved npfm 

posed of them as he judged proper i ihisoccasion no more law from them 

if then ihcrc remained a question than his royal highnetii was likely 

at all, it was a question for judi- (o receive money from the treasury, 

cial decision, and not for legislative He thought in private life it wonld 

interference. As tbr his opinion, not be deemed fair or honourable 

be did not entertain a doubt, for a debtor to reliise all explana- 

but that when the revenues of tion, or every proposal for ac- 

the dutchy were first granted commodation, respecting a debt, 

by Edward tlie Third to his son and to tdl his cuditor, "to re- 

the Black Prince, they were granted cover it as well as he could byfew." 

for his maintenance and support. In the present claim of the prince 

and not for the purpose of being of Wales upon the public, be 

accumulated till he should come of conceived it would be equally nti- 

£ge. handsome to ho'd out such language 

Mr. Xichols said, that the acts to bis royal highnes<i. Besides, if 

of hb majes^ during the rninority his royal highness should suc- 

of the prince, • were not those of cecd at law, and obtain a verdict 

•* a guardian in chivalry ;" such against his majesty, it is to parlia- 

guardian bad no power to grant ment h€ must afterwards come for 

leases of his ward's estate, for a the payment of tlie money, *a 

longer term than his v^ard'a minori- adjudged to be due to him. This 

ty i his majesty had however granted waa by no means a hi^.stile procerd- 

leajcs for a much longer term, ing on the part of the prince j he 

and had received 150,000/. on had acted with the utmost delicacy 

account of those leases. Iftlienbis to his royal father; but he fdt 

majesty had acted as " guardian in that he had also a duty to his cre- 

chivalry," the prince might have ditors. The commissioners for the 

Teceivcdalargesumonhiscomingof payment of his debts had struck 

age on account of the renewal of off len per cent, of all his debts, 

thoiie leases. and paid the remainder in deben- 

Mr. Sheridan acknowlei^;ed him- tures, bearing a great discount, 

self obliged to lord Hawkesbury The prince conceived himself in 

Tor putting the subject in a plain honour bound to pay his creditors 

intelligible point of view. What the whole amount of thnr drmands, 

hp conceived the real ptunta for atid therefore conceiving his daim 

the consideration of the house upon the public to be a just one, 

were, first, who the parties were? he wished to be enabled comptcte- 

next, whether there existed a just ly to discharge his debts, 

claim, or whether any other re- The Chancellor of the Exchequer 

medy but an application to parlia- justified the conduct of the com- 
ment waa open to the prince of missioiKra for settling the prince's 

Wata, even though tlie justice of his debts. 

claim should be admitted ? He said, Mr. Jefferies (of Coventry) stated 

80 far, the lawyers having pointed the considerable losses he bad sus- 

out how the prince might success- tained by that mode of [wyment. 

^ly jiursue his claim, if It was 1!he Solii:itor Gen^ argued 



«^Dit tbc prince's claim, upoi^tbe For the order of the day JflO 

ntsoaaUcness of applying the revc Against it - - . . 103 

DDcs of Cornwall to the mainte- •— 

wnce and education of the prince Majority against entering 1 ,_ 

rfohng tua minoTity. into the prince's claims | 

Sir Francis Burdett mpported the Tlib divisicin, agai;ist govem- 
daims of the prince, whom he mcnt, shows tlie sense of the house 
wished to see maintained in splen- to hare been strongly in f:ivDur of 
dwir and independence. He non- enicringhno the prince of Wales's 
•idcred tliat he h^ been treated in claims as dulcc of Cornwall upon 
m unworthy and degrading niiinner the counpy ; nor could it be con- 
by those mimsters, who, in other jcctured what rational motive the 
ttipcrts, were guilty of the most minister could have in refusing to 
hroh pT<<ligalily. his rojsl hig'ineps, that justice 

After ioniroVwirrvations from Mr. >vhich the mejnest subject would 

Tnliiit, lord Temple, Mr. Dent, ha* e in a parity of circumstances, a 

>od •lome other gentlemen, right to require and to obtain ; and 

Mr Manners Sutton made a very w'hich to refuse, assuredly, in the 
■Ue n^ly. He said, one of his eyes of the pablic, lefl the pritKe 
lenned friends had conceded the an injured and oppressed indi- 
qucsdon of right ; arolhcr of them vidual. He had long been sup- 
had stated, ^t the question was posed to have been indehteH for 
merely whether the revenues of considerable sums ; his debts wrre 
the dutcJiy ought to have been ap- far from being liquidated ; his ui- 
plied to the support of the prince come contracted to a sum much 
dahog his minority f and a third inferior to the support of that splca- 
had ccmiidered it merely a question dour which sound policy as well 
bctH-een the prince and his majesty, as established usage had rchdered 
.He differed from all those opinions, indisjicnsably requisite to bis high 
lod conceived it was a simple station. He now came forward, 
ilQeslioa, whether the public had a before the high council of the oa' 
right to receive those revenues in tion, solemnly and formally to state 
the prince's minoriiy and apl'V *"' ^^ ^3* ^°^ '''^ debtor but tho 
them in aid of the civil list ? Whe- creditor of the public ; that the 
tber, in fact, the public was not a sums he had receiicd as a bounty, 
debtor to his royd highness ? As were but a part of his right ; that 
to a petition of right, which had they wc:rc insullicient to any other 
been suggested, one of the best purpose, save that of compelling 
)e^l autboritiea in the countiy had him to relinqui.>h his royal esta- 
dccUred that it would not lie in a blishment, that his creditors might 
matter of penooal property. He be satisfied by the fruit of liij re- 
cgoceived that his majesty hadno- trenchmentj that should he attain 
thing u> do with the question, but the object of bis claim, hi? sole 
iliat it lay merely between the prince object was the discharge of his ro- 
ffid the public. maining debts, and the residue 
After a short explanation from of those which liad Ix^cn (contrary 
the lolicitop-geDeral, the house di* to the good faith which should be 
tided, found in tj;ie conduct of princes) 


compromised; and ihat, at all Hie mode and coircctnesi of the 

erenls, be might be suifered to calculations whicli bad been made 

make his case out for his own si- use of in the prince's statement. 

tisftciioD and that of the puWic, To expose the futility and fri- 

whatever might result from it. voliiy of this mode of reasoning 

Ibb was assuredly a subject irould be to waste the time, and 

vbich called for the czaminatioa weary the patience of our readers, 

and intervention of parliaroent. Le- Suffice it, thai it did not receive the 

sal redress was not only an inde- sanction of tiie public opinion, and. 

licate mode of proceeding between in times of leas iiiteie^t, would 

■uoh parties as must in that case doubdess have excited a consider- 

bave Men the litigants ; but also able degree of resentment and un- 

extremely difficult and uncertaio popularity against thosewboactedso 

in its own nature : yet to this just unjust, so unwise, and so impolitic 

tnd reasonable and temperate re- a part. But the definitive treaty, 

quisltiun, was objected by (be mi- the signing of wbicb abont tbra 

irister, that there was no precedent time was rrade publicly known, 

for such a claim ; that many great and the repeal of the income tai, 

legal opinions were adverse froniits which was now confidently aiseittd 

being brought forward ; that it was would be one of the immediate 

not quite certain that the balance acts of the govemmrnt, engaged, to 

would appear In the prince's favour 3 the exclusion of eveiy other topi<i 

and that some doubt ousted upon the pubUc interest and atteatioik 


uisniMb, Google 



■PaiBanenlaTif Proceedings mnlinued. — Butlgel Jhr the Year hrovghl Jar-' 
a-ard. — Conversation in ihi House of Lords on the Dijimt'we Treaty, 
— Sir Frojiiis Burdett's Mutton for an Inquiry into the Conduct "f the 
lale Adt^niilralkn—Amindment moved by Lord BelgraVe — u-ttk- 
draum — original Motion negatived by a greai Alaiorily .—' Klw Miiititt 
Biii.— 'Motion to take inio Consideration the Definitive Treaty on the 
lAtk of May— in the House of L-irds hf L,ni Or.nritU—in the Com- 
mnu i-i Mr. [t'indkan — Debala ther.-.n in totli Houses. — Molmns 
ly Lord C'lrlhle fur Papers relating to the Defhiilii-e Treaty in the 
Lords — ly Mr. Elliolf in the Commons— Deb'ala: th.-reon in both 
Houst»^AIotion by Dr. Lawrence for Papers respecting East India 

THE length of time which had ing e^chequpr bills, and the loan 

elapsed between the signing the for the year 1802 had crented c 

pnlimiaariea and the definitive trt':j< capiUl of 30,351,000^. The in- 

tr, Ihe oncertainty of the negotia- tcivst of llie inuneuse sum which 

lion itself having a fevourable issue, was to be funiW this year amontit- 

md the doubts which ntcesiarily ed to 3,211,202/, This was of 

resiJtrd fraoi the uocert^inty wbc- c<mrse the sum fi>r which the new 

ther it should tn- for a i\ar or a tuxes were to provide. Ihe fol- 

pface esiabli-Jiment that tlie couir.ry lowing were those destined to meet 

was to pridiile, delayed, for a con- this biirdcu ; 

lider .ble time, die production of £. 

the Liidget f.,r the year. It was Malt and beci' 2,000,000 

not til! ilie5tb of April that it was As-c'-^cd taxes - 1,000,000 

bt.jaghl forward. It was the great- Exports and imports J. 000,000 

est which had ever before been 4,()6o,tXXr 

brought forward in the house of The Chancellor of ihi- Exchequer, 

ccsninoni, a^, besides the loan to after a shiirt rec.ipimiation of tht 

ttntr the expenses of the year, supplies which ha<l been voted up 

the minisinr had resolved to give to liie prirsent day, being for a 

Bp the inL-oine tax, and fund term of five months, proL-eeded to 

the 56,000,000/. with which it siaic what would be necessary fur 

*ai charged. ITie total sum to tlie ensuing seven moiuhs. H« 

be fundftd tliis year amounted to assured the committee, tiiat when 

97,934,000/. of which 56,44,5,000/. tbe delinitiro tn:ity should be signed, 

was previously charged ou the iu- no time would be Ipst in making 

eomeiai. Eleven millions odd had such reductions in the army and 

bocBlundedottatxxxuUot'outsUnd- oavy, as the siiuattoo of the coiuf 


fay would justify. The terms on iDCrease miglit be felt by some, yet 

which the loan had beeo ell'ected, it must be recollected, on the other 

warranted him in congratulating hand, that the pressure of the in- 

Che house and the country upon the come tax was now taken oft. He 

gre^at confidence eiLprcsscd by the calculated this at 1,000,000/. 

monied persons in the extent and -, , , 

stability of our resources. In this Exports and ImporU. 

bargain lOOA in money was given As to this tax, he proposed it with- 

for every 13l/. IQs. 3d. in stock. «"l any regret, and even with plea- 

The three per cent, consols were sQ^, for it had met the perfect ap- 

taken at 75j. As to the iocome probation of many of themost intd- 

tax, he highly approved of the ''gent men who had been cimsutted 

WLsdom which planned this tax, on the occasion. The convoy dnty 

and the spirit which so long ■up- was now going to be taken off, 

ported it ; it was to that, in a great ^nd 'his tax substituted in its place, 

measure, that he auributed the It would be lighter than the convoy 

comfiirts we now enjoyed, and our ^ftyi ^f^ proportioned in such a 

success in the arduous contest we manner as to do no injury to com- 

lisd maintained. After professing merce. Those taxes taken all toge- 

great, regret at finding it his un- ther amounted to 4,000,000/. which 

avoidable duty to propose new taxes exceeded by near 800,OOOi. the 

to the amount of tlie interest of so supply that was wanting, 

large a sum;^as 97,934,43?/., he After having stated the new 

submitted the following taxes to taxes that would be necessary, he 

the committee, as likely to be effi- gave an outline of his plan with 

cacious and as little burdensome as respect to the coniolidated and 

possible to the people : sinking funds. Tliere were, in 
fact, two sinking fiiiids now tub- 

Mall. Hops, and Beer. .[sting : tlie first had been created 

On malt he proposed to lay a tax in 17sO, by the vote of 1,000,000/. 

of Is, O^. in tl:c bushel. On annually for the reduction of the 

hops, 2^. and 3-20ih in the pound, national debt. The second had 

»o A to make the hop duty 3d. been created by the resolution of 

per lb. On strong beer, he pro- the bouse in 1/92, (hat one per 

posed a tax of 2s. a barrel. He cent, of every loan to be made in 

was sorry ihat tlie price of malt fiiturc should go to the discharge 

liquor, now a necessary of life, of the capital so created. He wish- 

ahoujd be raised on tlie public, but ed to consolidate these two sinking 

it now became necessary lo lay on funds, and enable them to operate 

such taxes as would be likely to be joinlly on the cousolidated debt, 

etl'cctual.' Tbii tax he calcubted at Considering the national debt at 

2,000,000/. 300,000,000/. tlic siun, great as it 
is, might be dischaiged in forty-five 

ylssesied Taxes. y^^^_ He hoped much that a firm 

On this point he proposed not so and [cmnerHte system, uniting the 

much to raise a new ux as loin- s|)irit ot conciliation with that of 

crease the old one in a ralio of firmness, without ever intuiting 

Kcarly one third. However this other naiiuos, would insure a con* 

2 tinuance 


finUDce of peace and lecnritj^ plcDipotentiarics retired to a comec 
He coDcluded, by moving a rrso- of the room, and signed bctn-ecn 
hilioa, (tut 25,000,000/. ^ould be themselves an ankle, by which it 
n«d by way of loan. was expre^y provided that Hoi- 
Mr. Whitbrcad, after many oV land was not to contribute, in any 
»i'atioT)s on the new taxes which way whatsoever, to this compen- 
"oald affect the brewers, approved aation. And yet it was notori- 
aach of the general principles on ous to all the world that it was 
which Mr. Addington had rested the government of Holland wliich 
bis hope.1 of future peace. He had plundered the prince of Orange 
aRiroved also highly of the lepeal of property to the value of more 
of the income tax ; and although than )()0,000/. annual revenuu!" 
the chancellor of' the exchequer ap- Hit lordship tlien proceeded to talw 
praied in words of the conduct of notice of other defects in the defi- 
tit predecessor in finding out this iiitive treaty. The right of cutting 
»ijd system of finance, yet by his logwood was gone. The treaty o? 
actions in renoundi^ it, he ex- Methuen, aud ihe commercial ad- 
prcBsed a ^verc bat merited con-, vaiitswes we enjoyed in right of it 
ilraiDation and saicasm al the same with Portugal, were at an end. We 
lime. could no longer navigate to the 
Mr. Pitt most ably defended his Dutch spice islands in British bot- 
cooduct against the attacks of Mr. toms. This was indeed a glorious 
Whitbrcad, against whom and his peace for Holland, in exactly tlie 
ccdleagues in opposition he directed same proportion as it was shame- 
rane severe attacks, for aban- fid to us ! His lordship concluded, 
timing iheir posts in parliament, by calling tbe particular attention of 
tmder tbe idea of the country be- the house to tiie indemnities of llie 
iog irretrievably ruined, while he prince of Orange, and thought 
bimsrif was introducing this most every explanation was due to the 
efficient aod solid system of fi- house on that subject, 
wnce. Lord Pelham, not conceiving that 
After a few other obserrations any of tliosc points were regularly 
^(n difTereni gentlemen, the reso- before the house in discussion, de- 
httions were agreed to without a dined, for tlie present, entering 
diriiion. into any explan.ilion on the sub- 
On the lOth of April, in the ject. 
botue of lords, lord Carlisle calltxl Lord Grenville said, it would not 
tbe attention of the house of lords be diflicidt to get over the point of 
to some points which he conceived form, by framing a motion suit- 
vf the utmost importance to the able to the obicct of die noble 
coontry. •' It was," he said, "an- lord's speech. He thought the house 
deistood, at the treaty of Amiens, ought to address his majesty, be- 
Iheimercsis of the prince of Orange seedling him lo suspend the rati- 
*ere to have been particularly at- ficatioo of the dcliuitive treaty till 
tended to. A compensation was satisfaction was given the country 
cwa stipulated for him in tlic on all those great ol^ects which Iw 
"Mtyj but scarcely was that trebly had before called their attention to> 
iigued, when the french and Dutch aud to tome of those points tbe 


' noble lord bad SO properly adi«rted. .much sexerity, commented on*atl 
He slill considered, as the most im- Uie measiites of the late adminii- 
portant point to be settled, that the tration, whid) he represented in the 
treaty of 1/87 should be renewed, stronijcst language as contraiy to 
Without such renewal he thouglit the conxtttutiun, laws, and inde- 
ourgovernmcnts in India conldjiot pendence of this country, and to 
stand. ]nde]>cndent of this most im- have led to the destructiim of" its 
poTtant consideration, there was safety, freedom, and honour. He 
one point of commerce, alone, in then dwelt at considerable length 
vbicb we would lose half a million on the aftiiirs of Ireland, tnd on the 
amiually in consequence of the non* old complaints respecting Cold-badi 
renew^ of the treaty. France prison and governor ^ris, and con- 
might, for the I'uture, supply the eluded by moving that the house 
Bengal provinces witli salr. His shuiild resolve itself into a com- 
lordship concluded without making raittee of the whtde ITouse to in- 
aay specific motion, but trusted quire into the conduct of the late 
that ministers would give as much administration, at home and abroad, 
informattOQ as their duty would dudng the war. 
allow them on these important Mr. S«in seconded the motion, 
topics. Lord Temple rose to reply to the 

After these obsurations, no mo- speech of the honourable baronet ; 

tion liaviog been made, the house a gpeedi in which he considered 

passed to the order of the day. there was more assumption and less 

In the house of commons, on the argument than in any hehaderer 

12th of April, heard delivered in that house. The 

Sir Francis Burdett brought for- honourable baronet had advanced 

-ward his promised motion for an no new topic upon the present oc- 

&iquiry into the conduct of the late casion ; he had only again gono 

•dministration. He considered that over grounds, upon which the qpi- 

this was the time to examine the nion of the house had been taken 

Recounts of blood and treasure so over and over again. He s611 per- 

wantonly lavished .during the late sisted in considering the war as a 

war. It was a time to examine war of aggression on our part, al- 

what wjis the ohject of it, if llxed tliough it had been repeatedly and 

Objea ii ever had. It appeaietl to most dearly proved, that its object 

htm to have l)een a vkh against the was to repel that system of ja> 

liberties, properties, laws, constiiu- cobin principles and jacobin policy 

tion, manners, customs, habits, and which threatened the overthrow of 

characters of the English nation, every civilized government, and was 

It professed to resist intiovBtion, more pailicularly directed against 

and it introduced the greatest inno- the British constitution. He con- 

vations which were ever known in sidered the speech of the honour- 

fliis country, and he firmly believed able baronet as much better calcu- 

Jt was to produce this change that laled for a tavern audience than for 

the war had been undertaken by that house. When ho talked of 

the late minister. He thought that baitiles with such vehemeni'e, he 

" his sounding steps would not be would remind him, that at tlie de- 

iieard amidst the din of war." Sir itruction of the bastile there *«»■ 

fiaadsj at great Icngtb, auU with only found in it one poor prisonrr, 



vbrRM since, erery castle in Prance Lord Belgrade said, that if tb« 

bv been convened imo a prison to motioi] had been simply for an in- 

immure the wretched inbabiunts qulry into the condnct of the late 

(tfthat country. A»- to the Hon. mtuisten, he should not hnve pro- 

iMiianet'i opinion of the viewK of the posed the amendment he now meant 

United In»hnien, that opinion luid to Eubmit to them ; but as the m»> 

becQ compIeteJy contradici«d bv the tioD was introduced with sacb vio- 

dcdaiatiooa of Arthur O'Cunner lent ohnervations, he thought it 

ind the rest of his coufederattw. would be but manly in the house to 

As to his relation (Mr. Pitt), he espresslhelrdecideddisaijprtibationj 

nost sincerely believed hiin to liavc he tlierplijre moved an amendment, 

been the savioiw of tlie couulir, that afier the u-ord " that," ii» sit 

ttid the real author of \U Htreugth, FraDci^'s motion, the remaining 

roergf, and preecnt prosperity,. words shduld be left out, and an in- 

Mr. Arclidale replied to sir Fran- tcru.m in their pla(;e of the thanki 

cis, principally on bis statement of of the house to his majesty's kts 

I^ tSmri : as to tfa« conduct of ministers. 

the last admioistration in Ireland, Some conversation took place be 

he said that was an administration tweeo bis lordship and the speaker, 

of idf-defence i it was assailed by about the regularity of such an 

Rtielbon and civil war, and was ob- amendment. 

Kged to repel force by force. He Mr. Pitt requested the noble lord 

particularly approved of the govern- would withdraw liia amendment, as 

aie&t of lord Westmoreland, in although he fdt it was most kindly 

whose time be said the people of meant, yet the house had bad no 

IreUnd had received more bcnefiti notice of this amendirient, which 

dan under any furmer odmtaistra- was in tact a iseparatc and distinct 

tion. He then spokc.of the jaco- motion. He thought it would be" 

bin party of this country, a party better for the house to consider 

vliicli once was ' troublesome, and fairly the question before it. 

B^t still have been formidable, if. Lord Bejgravc consented to with' 

in the course of this war of princi- draw his amendment. 

fkt they had not been defeated by Aldcnnan Combe said a few 

■r^menla a* well as by facti, and words on the income tax, and dc- 

(trircn into obscurity, amidst the iiied that any approbation of it had 

indignation of the public. After ever come from the city of Londoa 

iwne general and vciy high pane- in ila corporate capacity. 

Erics (X) the conduct of Mr. Pitt, Mr. Kllison opposed the motion, 
said tliat be could on bis part and considered tint it u^s to the, 
iddresi the bunoarable baronet in late ministers we were indebted for 
•ew words ; the security we now enioy. 
"Discc, puer, viftntcmeime, vetfltn- Mr. Bnuverie supported the ori- 
quc Uboiein ginal motion, which was opposed 
" Fcmniam ab ijiis — — -^" by gjr Robert Baxtcr-aiid Mr. Alex- 
He concluded by sayiug, that if he andcr. 

lud given a silent vote on tliis occa- Sir William Elfm-d opposed the 

»"■), he himself would stand im- motion : he said there was not a 

tctdicd by bit own cpoiciciice. 'nord it) the hoaouiabb gentleman's 


■pcedi thit did not more stron^y from the exertions of the ropl 

>pply to the pjrlinnient of ilic coun- duke who commanded it, most foi- 

try than to the laie miDistei-s. He midabk, yet, in considering our 

was soiry the fontis of the house p«icee«tabliihment,itwas necessaiy 

prevented ihc question being put on to consider the number and organ- 

the amendment. ization of the iiulltia : he thought 

The house then divided; for the the niilitia ^ould noi be less than 

motion 39, against it 246. 70,000, of which he was happy 10 

Lord Belgnve thea gave notice, state that Scotland would coiitii- 

Ihat on a futui-e d'ty he sliould again butc 10,000. Of the 6o,000 which 

bring forward distinctlv, in the shape were to form the militia of Epglaod, 

ofa Tnotion, tlie amendment he had he thought the best way would be 

moved this night. to call out but 40,000 io the hrst 

On iht: 13th of April, in the house instance, the remaining 20,000 

of commons, tlie Secreta'v at War whin occasion should require. The 

tose, and presented ihe outline of Scotch miliiia he wished to be call- 

tliat plan which had been formed ed out in the same proportion. He 

by his majesty's government fo)' the then entered into the detail of ihe 

regulation of the militia. While diiferent improvcmenis his majesty'f 

bis maje-ty's ministers intended to niinistei-s intended to introduce into 

preserve a system combining con- the militia system. Ihe (jueslita 

ciliation with hrmnc^, and avoiding bcin^ put, 

every sort of irritation which might Wr. slieridon returned thanks to 
lead 10 the renewal of war, yet ibcy the right iionourable gentleman for 
must be always prepared to defend hi* very clear statemeiil. He agreed 
the country against cverj- attack, in much the greater jiart of what 
France, v hich was by much .our had faiku from him. He agreed 
■troagdst neighbour, was lery much that at the present time every re- 
increased of late in her territories trcnchmeni Uiat was consistent with 
and military strength ; it had in fact prudent precaution ought to be 
taken much more^ot a military form, made. In regulating our miliiaiy 
and for tlic future Britain would be establishment, it was necessary to 
looki^d upon with a soldier's Cye. consider the great establishment of 
It was theri-liire necessary for tis to our formidable rival. He had ever 
adopt precautions against the con- been a determined friend to the mi- 
sequences of a future war. Jl liiia system, which he considered 
nen-ssary therefore for us to culti- tlii: constitutional defince of the 
vate a military spirit in this country, country, and ni>ihing had given Mni 
He trusted that his mnie'ly was now mure regret than to see tlie system 
possessed ot" as able and experienced endangeretl by the practice of drali- 
olficei's for dliciplinint' his army as in g Irani the militia force into the 
there were in Lurope. We never regular army ■ this was in liict raak- 
pDssesscd a ga'ater uumbcr of brave ing mere drill st-rgeants of tlie "O- 
and skilful ulTtcers tli^ni had been bli-me:i and gentlemen whose inttu- 
bred up in the last war, many of enrc and attentiou had raided the 
them tuo in the flower of their a_^e, militia r-imcnts and disciplined 
Although the state of the regular ibem. 'J ne honourable ificmber 
army was, a« iqight be expectctl thcu, after paying ilie highest coiu- 
. plimeiiu 


tAmeilc to onr navy, be^d to call Mr. Windham rose to request 

iheMieniionoftbehousctothat mi- that a day might be appointed for 

mble pittance which was given to the consideratioD of the definitive 

nr brave naval officers ia peace as treaty. He could by no means 

tbdr half-pay. Independently of the agree with an observation which 

ftaiy of gratitude, by which we were bad been tnade by lord Hawkesbuiy^ 

botnd liberally to reward all those that it was unusual to have an ia- 

vbohadrcnderedussuchdistingutsh- quiry on a definitive treaty, when 

td wvice in war, he thought slate Oie preliminary treat)' liad received 

poGcy reqnjred that we should give the approbation of the house. The 

<nr naval o fli cera something like a points on which he proposed lo touch 

comlbttablc subsistence in lime of were, 1st, lliose which, tliough they 

fetcc. We knew how highly their CKi^ted at the time of -the prelimi- 

raloiir and their skill were thought nary treaty, were not then known toi 

nf all over Europe i and if we did the house ; 2dly, what had happen' 

not bind them to oiirservice, foreign ed since the preliminaries; 3dlyi 

po*en would endeavour to attract whether the principles of tlie preli- 

ilicm to theirs. The half-pay of a minaries had been departed from } 

liwteoant now did not exceed 50/. and 4thly, what were the points in 

pci annatn. He should not press the definitive treaty which did not 

'boee observations further at pre- exist at the time of signing the frf 

sent: he thought it was sufficient liminaries? Under tlie first head he 

to tlinnv cnit the idea to the consi- classed the cession of Louisiana, and 

(Jerahon of the house and the go- of the island of Elba, and tiie new 

vcnunenL boundaries of French Guiana. Oa 

Mr. Foster highly approved of the all these /opica, he contended thai 
vlai thrown out by the secretary of the French had behaved with the 
mr, and hoped that the plan of con- most marked ill faith, and had ob- 
soliditing the militia laws, and the tained advantages which neither par- 
tner improvements in the system, liament nor the counlr}' dreacned oE 
mi^bc extended to Ireland. at the time of signing the prelimi- 

TbeSecretari'ot Warsaid.he was naries ; as to the value of Louisi- 

p3d the right honourable gentleman ana, he considered it incalculable^ 

had pat him in mind of this. He and that it gave ihein all South 

certainly wished the Irish militia to .America. Since tlic preliminaries) 

be put OQ the same footing with the tlie French government has seized 

i^i;Iisfa. upon the lialian republic : they 

Mr. Wickham made a few tib- scut out a most powerliil arina- 

letrations to the same purport. meut to the West Indies, to rc- 

Lcave was then given to bring in establish their power in iliat part 

■be bill, as also a similar bill lor of the world. Among tlie i>uintE 

Scotland. in which thi< dellnitive treaty dif- 

Ptior to the day wliidi was ap- fercd the most from the prelimi- 

pointcd for the discussion of the de- n.iries, the fate of hl.ilta. 

^lire treaty, many questions were By tbe preliiiii naries that iaiand 

i*W by (be opposition. On the was to belong to the independent 

*d of itk^, in the house of com- ftrder of Malta, but France has 

fmt^, since confiscated their poiiiessiiins 

V-L. XLIV. K botH 

. , L)i.--Ki.,Cii.>o^le 

130 ANNUAL Register, 1802. 

both in France and in the Italian island of Elba, it was not the ar 

republic. Spain lias acted in a of his majesty's minister's, but of 

similar manner ; by wliich conduct, state, whose iiidependeoce we liadac 

this order, that wai to be indtpen- knowledged. As to the occnpatio 

dcDt, is reduced to one fifth of its of ihe Italian republic by Fraacf 

former revenues, and is utterly it was certainly a point of the ui 

incapable of maintaining its inde- most importance, and what ever 

p<<ndence. ITie actual revenues one who felt an anxious jealous 

of the order are now but 30,000/. of the a^randizement of Franc 

annually, which is evidently not must siaci-rely regret i buiy«tbedi< 

enoueh to maintain its garrisons nut .suppoiie ^at liis right bonouia 

and for liiicat ions. Malta he there* ble friend would advise ibe re 

fore considered as a Frendi island, newal of n'ar on that ground. A. 

As (o the Cape of Good Hope too, to the non-renewal of certain trea 

which had been yielded to the ties, respecting conimercial ar 

Dutch in full sovereignly, what rangrinents, he could assure iht 

was to prevent them from yielding right honourablegentlenian.thatthai 

it to France ! After touching on omission, as he seemed to considei 

ihe non-renewal of treaties, the ii, was perfecOy deliberate and wil- 

cntire omission of the interests of ful on our part ; and he minted tlut 

the prince of Orange, and indeed wl»en the time came for fully dii- 

the desertion of all our allies, lie cussing tlie merits of this treat}*, 

concluded by moving, that the the house would, in that respeel, 

bouse do, on tlie 18th of May, agree with liis majesty's minisieri 

take into consideration the detini- in tlie propriety of tlieir conduct, 

nitivfl treaty concluded at Amiens, After giving a short answer to seie- 

Mr. Elliot seconded the motion, ralof the points touched upon in tbfl 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer speech of the right honourable gew 

adnutted that the motion was an tieman, he lamented tbat be hadiM 

•Ktremely proper one, and he was gonea little further, and slated whl 

{lad that it was made : he could was (be object of the objections h 

not himself have made it, because intended to make; whether it «i 

it was contrary to the established by way of opposing the rcstim 

practice for any of hii majesty's tions agreed by the treaty tbi 

government to make a similar mo- this country should make ? or vbe 

tion i but he was glad that it came ther it was only a general censui 

from another quarter, as it wuuld on the treaty, and a condemnalio 

allow his majesty's ministers an op- of the ministers who concluded it 

portunity of defending Ihc treaty It, however, appeared to him that' 

they had made. He did not, how- was too long to keep thepublic mif 

ever, think thii was the time to in susjtense, on such an iraportat 

examine the various objeci-ons subject tor a forwight : he then 

bis riglit honourable friend had fore should move, as an amcun 

made} he should reserve himself ment to the motion of his honom 

to enter at length into the subject, able friend, tliat instead of 'M 

when it shou'd be regularly before words 18th of May, the llthsho'"') 

the house. He should, however, be substituted in tliemotioo. J 
My, that as to the surrender of the Mr, Theinas GrcnvUl* «tP"^ 



gmt astonishment, that a fortnight 
(buukf be considered too long a 
tinie for gentlemrn to btsiow to 
nuke thewEc)vri nusicrs of iliat 
import^i s'ubject, and to obtniii 
line tntunn»iion without which 
iGicussioD was idle. If th<? treaty 
aiataincd no other feature, but ilie 
omiBion to rcriew our furfncr tre:i- 
lio on whicti oiir sovereignly iii 
India Ucpciidod, even the cuniidet- 
nion ol* a si'.bject, iinolung so 
otinf complirateit relations and 
bearings uutild nijuirc at least a 
fonnight. If it was renlly the 
iDtentioD of bis majesty's iniiiisters 
to gii-e a fiul, f.iir, and candid tlis- 
oiiixoD, wliy iiiioiiid that discusiiun 
be so precipitated ? I'his dcsirt' of 
prrcijwtatioo cerLtiuly seemi.'d lery 
tncon s intent : it appeared like the 
eooduct of schoiil-boys, v~ lio, whun 
they are obliged to swiillow a nau- 
Koui draught, giilp it nil down 
ii once. As be wasconxinccd tlie 
Kcessary iufurmation could not be 
obtained in IcM than a fortnight, 
Le should vote tor the original 

Lord Hawke<;bury said, that he 
should delay fiiUy answering the 
objections of Mr. Windham till the 
d^ appointed for the discussion. 
But be said it u-ai evidciU, tli^t 
ahhougb every time for inforina- 
bon ought to be given, yet on a 
bosiDess of such extreme import- 
ance, and io deeply interesting to 
the feelings of the nation, ihere 
should be no unnecessary delay. 
As to the cessions of the isle of 
£Um, Louisiana, and the acccptaitce 
U~tbe first eousul of the presidency 
of the Italian republic, these were 
crnits which the public had been 
pctfecdy apprized of for scvera! 
months, and certainly did not re- 
qtuK at ibu isooKnt any delay. 

IS lilCI 


In the house of lords, on the 
4th of Mny, 

Lord Gicnville called the atten- 
tion of llic house to Uie ejine sub- 
ject ; he said, that he had carcfnlly 
abaiuini'ii lioni ortering any olijcc- 
tioiit, alter the approval of ihe pre- 
liniin;iry treaty, to tlic signing of 
tlic dilniiiiif, as he wi-.hcil to cause 
no I liisf ructions to the complete 
cstablialnlient of jieace ; but [ ow 
thr.l Ihe raiilicaliun has taken place, 
and the public faith and honour 
are irrevoialdy pled!;ed,.he ihimjiht 
the time was come to examine this 
peace ii> all its bearings, to see how 
tin it ditl'crcd trom what the nation 
had a riplu to expect from the 
preliminaiics. 'flic Mcdinen tre^Kv 
is now giien up, aiulwe hjve ir-h-d 

in order to form an opinion about. J 

In point of tact, the definitive treaty , 

had been for a considerable time | 

before the public, as it had been > 

published by I'Vance very, shortly 
after it was signed. He had not 
heard any thing stated by either 
ol I) is right honourable friends, 
which could aJtbrd the lost ekic 
til judge what was tlie iulbrniation 

Mr, Winiiham then mentioned, 
that prob.ibly a good part of ibc 
fortnight would be occupied in 
motions for such pa[>er3 as might 
.nppear ti> him and his friends iw.- 
cessary lijr the puriJose of having 
that information on tlie sulijeet 
that W.1S vei[uir(d. 

Mr. I'ilt hoped that his right 
lionuurabic friend would to-morn^v 
state liistiiicily what pijiers he 
wished to move for. He said, that 
his spt'-cch tud shown such a 
massof iiiforniaiion, that he couM 
not conceive that much more was 
wanting to him. The amendment 


to I'Vance a most important maritime the non-renewal of former trralie*. 
pmitioQ at the inoulh of the river Independently of thegrcat commer- 
of Amazons; whkti in a manntr cia) advantages which Enghind w^ 
tJiFOws Brazil, and with it our East allowed to possess in all those 
Indis commerce (in war time), at treaties, advantages which contri- 
ihe mercy of France. The Jiouse buted so much to the great snpcrio- 
cf Orange too has been plundered rity of her navy, there were some 
of landed property to the value of points in those treaties which were 
100,000/. annually, merely from degrading to the allies of Prince ; 
the attachment of that prince to for instance, that article which 
nur intcieits, and those losses are ohiiged the Diilcli to lower their 
carelci^y menlioned as losses suf- flnp to that of England. This^^iecies 
fered by liie house-of Nassau. We of vassalage was done away with, 
should, under those circumstances, the old law was destroyed, a new 
have certainly done more } we public law commences.and otlier na- 
should have insisted upon com- tlons migitt one day tune their act 
plele restitution of all that was of navigation. His lordship, aflcr 
Ibrfciied in our cause. As to his forcibly aiding in support of these 
liercdiiary rights and dignities, observations, touched upon point* 
where was he to receive conipen- which, though of great conscqutuce 
■ation for their loss ? There was no in lliemselves, must yet be cnnsi- 
delinite ohligalion ini|>o«ed upon any dered of lesser im)>orlanre.The crs- 
body, and while the British am- sion of I/iuisiatin, and the nccupa- 
bassadoT was signing the treaty, tion of Italy, both which ei-enis oc- 
tlie Dutch ambassiiii'ir, by a piivate cuired since the preliniinary treaty, 
understanding with the French seemed to require that wc should, at 
luiuister, was discharging his coun- least, have demanded some e<juiva- 
iry from that obligation under lent. Byllie non-renewal of treaties 
which it was understood to be we seemed to h:ive abandoned both 
I>ound. As to tlie observations the gum lr:icle and our right of 
he intended to otfcr respecting cutting logwood at Honduras. His 
Malta, and other points in which lordship titeii read (o the house th* 
the definitive treaty diSered from last s|K-ech of William the Third to 
the prdiminHriiM, lie Jbund himself his |iarlianieut, which apiwared in 
anticipated by the political, re- some sort a dying lei^.iey to the 
tiections of a French Paper, which cotintry. He at that timu felt per- 
«eenied authorized by their govern- fectly aware of tlie dangers n^iich 
nient, Tli^it )ia|irr slates, and the power and restless amhi- 
vvry truly, that thi; deriiiilive treaty tion of tlie French monarch threat- 
was siill niore glorious tor Fraiii'c ened all Europe with. He had. 
than the preliminai'ies, and that with unremitting zeal and skilful 
as t.i Malta, tlie arrangements are management, formed the grandest 
all in fiivour of Franct ; for while coalition against France which was 
Malta is Neapolitan, it may in fact ever made, 'lliis speech pointed 
be considered French. The French out to ilie country, in the most 
commentator laid most particular forcible language, the great dangtt 
■tress on the advantageii France that threatened Europe from the 
3tid her allies liad actjulred by fieuui kir>g placing liis grandsoa 



m the ihiDDC of Spain ; but infi- 
Bitdj greater dangeri now menaced 
it- {fi* lordship concluded by mov- 
iog. " that the house do tnke into 
their consideration, on Friday sen- 
Diglrt, the definitive trea^ of peace 
raaduded at Amiens." 

Uxd Pelbam could not see that 
Ihetc was any necessity for discuss- 
iogihe definitive treaty in that houie, 
unless merely to ground a vole of 
censure against miiitsten). He mtiat 
coofej that the peace was not ex- 
actly sud) a one as might have been 
wished by this country ; but, such 
»s ii was, he would venture to say, 
lliat by tar a majority of l[ic people 
of this country would preler it to a 
icnewal of the war. Ministers had 
done as much as it was in their 
power to do, and he was sure im- 
pncibilitics would not be required 
from them. With respect to their 
aDies, Portugal and the prince of 
Orange, they bad certainly by no 
means abandoned their interests, al- 
liiough they bad not been able to 
obtain ihein such terms as they 
awld have wished. He concluded 
^ moving an amendment, that in- 
ttead of briday the 14th, should be 
ioierted, Wednesday tlie 12th. 

LordThurlow conceived the noble 
nwvcr was extremely irregular in 
entering so much in detail upon a 
■noiion merely to lis a day tor a dis- 
cuision. As to subsisting treaties, 
tbcy were always at an end when 
*u was commenced bctx^'ecn those 
»hii were parties to them. It be- 
boicd therefore those who plunged 
tbe country in hostilities not to have 
irt those treaties loose in that man- 
ner; for after war was begun, it by 
Hit means foUowtii liiat those treaties 
must be renewed ai the peace, that 
depended on the will of the con- 
Oictlng paftici. 

Lord Carlisle-was surprised at the 
noble secretary's not perceicinj that 
any arguments had been adduced by 
tbe noble lord who made tliis motion 
for a discussion of the treaty. He 
thought every sentence, or rather 
every period, he ))ad uttered was a 
strong argument in liivour of a dis- 
cussion. He declared, that it was 
not his intention to move a censure 
on ministei^, his viewii were of a 
more liberal and dignified nature ; it 
was to call upon their lordships 
firmly and manfully to meet the 
dangers and ditficulties in which this 
treaty had left the country, and to 
endeavour to preient them. 'l"hi« 
he thought might still be done with- 
out a renewal ol hostilities. He 
thought moreover, that if ministers 
had been more firm and decided in 
the interval between the prelimi- 
naries and definitive treaty, tbera 
wouldthenhavebeen no occasion for 
discussing the definitive treaty after 
tlie preliminaries had been approved 

The Lord Chancellor was glad 
that Mich a motion had been made, 
as from the share he had in his ma* 
jesty's councils, he naturally wished 
fur an oppiirtunity of defending the 
measures which he had advised, and 
yet, ■ according to the established 
practise, no motion for discussing a 
definitive treaty could come trom 
his majesty's ministc's. If, by the 
omission of naming the former 
treaties, they were to be considered 
as abrogated, then indeed his ma- 
jesty's ministers would deserve for 
eicr to be diwnisseil from his coun- 
cils and presence. 

Lord Auckland heard, with great 
satisfaction, the opinions of several 
noble lords respecting our rights in 
India. He awencd, that they did 
not depend upou any treaties made 
K3 wiii^ 


with France ; they were ouis as so- The Chancellor of the Excheqaer 
vercigns of Bengal. ronsidfrcd that as one of tlift rtwMl 
A^erKnnic.-idditionalobnervatians e!(traordiiiary objections he had ever 
iixmi'die chaucenor Slid lord G re n- heard. To his judgmctit, nothing 
ville, the amendment was adopted, ap|icSreil nioi« admirable than liie 
and the lords were ordered to be constitution of our volunteer esta- 
specially summoned for the night blishmem, an estajjlifhment that 
appointed for tlie discus^ioti. could only exist in a free coimlty. 
On the same day, in the house of The readmefs of gnveriinient to 
commons, the Secretary at War place amis in the bands of large 
moved for leave to bring in a bill to bodies of citizens, and of those citi-' 
enable his majestj- to avail himself zens to receive tlicm, sliowed the 
of the ofTers of service of diHerent mutual confidence which aubsiitcd 
yeomen and i.Jiintccr corps: in the lietween them. It proved that go- 
preface to bis motion, he staled, vemmcnt had no designs against the 
with great force, the necessit)' there liberty of the subject, and that the 
was, at the present times, of cultivat- subject fe't an interest in the piotec- 
ing and keeping up a military spirit tion r>f the gm-eminent. 
in this country. Altliough he «n- Afrcr a few uords in eitplanation 
cerely hoped the present f)cace by Mr. Stanho]>e, leave was gi^c^l 
would for a long time meet no in- to bring in ihe hill. 

' ' ■ On the aih of May, in U»e house 
of lords, 

Lord Carlisle moved, " tliat an 
hmnble addics.s be. laid before his 
majesty, praying him to direct copies 
to he laid before the hou»e, of lh« 

proposed to encourage the existence separate convention concluded at 

of diose corps, by giving certain in- Amiens, in explanation of the I8lh 

demuities to the ofticen and men article of tlie definitive trc.ity, which 

serving iii them. An exemption stipulated for compcnsalioif to die 

from serving in the militia was tn be prince of Orange," His lordship 

extended to all the corps, both of seemed to consider that niinistets 

yeomanry and volunteers ; besides had entirely de^erled the interests of 

that, the yeomen were to be ex- thai ilhi.trious prince ; they had In- 

enipicd from the horse duty, and died ai^Toed in the delinitive treaty. 

thehatr-powdertax,3ndfrom which that compensation sliould be made 

last tax tlie volunteers were to to that branch of the house of Kas- 

be exempted. He ap;;iin iiwistcd, sau lately settled in Holland. How- 

that it' was only by euliivniing this evereoi:iemplnousthisl;, 

military character aninii^ all ranki, the waving the rjuesiion of the*"; 

that our national indepi^n deuce and coniixiisaiioiis was a more serious 

glory coidd be maintained. injury done to that house. It old 

Mr. Spencer Stanhope objected to nut now appear from what c|Uarler 

this plan, as being contrary to the the compensation was to come, 

usiges of the constitution to keep up though the loss was above lOO,(X*il- 

such a force in time of profound arniiJliy in property. 

IWiics. Uhc inaniuis C^nwallJs digclairo- 

ternipiion, yet 

t wa, a 


necessary tliai we should a 

wavs he 

in a situation to 



a considerable body ot men 

for the 

defence of the co 

untry, in 

^se of a 

sadden rupture 

with Fran 

ce. -Ho 



rd tbt idea of his baving deserted 
the iattTests of the prince of Orange. 
Heomccived the private agreement 
ol two of the contracting parties as 
IB 00 way binding on tlie others, 
lod be did not entertain the slightest 
dtnbt but that this article of the 
IiMtv would be carried into effecl, 
and that a fiill and adequate com- 
pnuation would be pvocured for 
ilat prince and hi« adherents. 

Lord PeUiam said, such an ad- 
tew as was moved for could not 
be of any avail, 3«, in point of fact, 
jorernmcnt had never been apprized 
"Jfficiallj of the existence of such a 
convent ioa. 

l.ofd Carlisle expressed astonish- 
tmit at this reply, at be thought 
hi* niaje«t}''s government ought to 
bate obtained this convention b)' the 
owns of their charge d'affaires at 
Pwii; but if they were not in pos- 
■ntionof this informatiou, he must 
*alidraw his motioo. 

"Hie Lord Chancellor said, that 

if the feitU of treaties and of n:iiions 

e at all to be depended u|}on. 


was no reason to suppose 

I*ince of Orange would not be in- 
*tnnilied ; any private agreement 
between two powers could nut af- 
ffrt the general question. He con- 
ctaded by suggesting an opinion, 
that perhaps it would be more for 
tliebterests of the prince and tils 
adhwriiti, that doubt; and difficul- 
>ie! ihould not be srarted here, as 
to the provisions of the treaty in 
tlai rwpect. 

lATd GreoviUe thought it was a 
*uffici(-ni reason why such an early 
•iir should not be fixed for the dis- 
otwon of the treaty, tliat his nia- 
^Vy't ministers now confessed ihey 
*rTe not in possession of a most 
Wjionant document for explaining 
Of of ifae principal atticlcj. 

After some explanations from th* 
Chancellor and lord Greuville, lord 
Pdham said, it must not be 6>rgot 
that this country had, in 17^7, done 
a good deal for Holland, and the in- 
terests of the prince of Orange, and 
that it was not fur tlie cause of this 
country only, but for the common 
cause of all the allied powers, that 
the prince of Orange and bis adhe- 
rents'had risked so much. 

Lord Hobart denied what had been 
staled by lord Carlisle, that it was 
in tl)e name, and in trust for tlie 
prince of Orange, that we got pos- 
session of the Dutch colonies. We 
look them by force of arms. Almost 
all the Dutch goi-eniors replied, to 
tlie letters of the prince of Orange, 
that they could attend to no orders 
from him, dated at Hampton- 

Lord Holland said, he never could 
admit the principle laid down by 
the lord chancellor, that it might be 
n)ore prudent nut to speak upon 
[full question Jn tlie house, for fear 
of hurting tlie interests of the lioute 
of Ormge. If tliat principle was 
once .idmiiled, ministers might 
cany it to any lengtli j it might be 
said, that all parliamentary disais- 
sionsofpublicquestions were merely 
to embarra.'s the ministers, and to 
give hints to the enemy. 

A desultory conversation tlien 
took place, in which the pri^it of 
1/97 having been often mentioned. 

Lord Greuville took an opportu- 
nity to say, he had the authority of 
the late chancellor of the exche- 
quer, the late secretary at war, and 
he believed he might add that of 
two noble lorfs iheu present, to 
say, tliat it was no! the intention 
of his majesty's ministers to recede 
in the smallest degree from the 
terms of lhatfrejf(, 

K 4 Lord 


Lord Carlisle was permitted to After some observations from Dr. 

withdraw his motion. Lawience and loid I'emple, 

ITic next day, io the house of Mr. T. Grenville went at consi- 

commons, derable length into the subject, anc) 

Mr. W. Elliot rose to move for differed altogether from ihe nol^ 

papers ccmnected with the defini- secretary, who supposed we were 

tive treaty. The first paper he not bovind by our alliance to reco-l 

moved to be laid before the house ver back for Portugal 'wfaat she bad 

■was the treaty of Badajos. In ia- so ceded in a moment of drfScult^ 

troducing his motion, he com- and danger. He thought tiie laic 

mented with great severity on tlie administration would have sou) the 

conduct of government towards Per- obligation in a very difterent light. . 
tugal in the definitive treaty. He I'he Chancellor of the Eiche- 

said, we asserted the integrity of qoer was suiprised that gentlemen 

Portugal in words, and at the same should so often make mistakes on a 

time guarantied her dismember- subject whidi had been sO vep>raiedJy 

ment. This seemed as if it bad explained. Before ihc preliraina- 

bcen done merely to display our ries were signed, we knew of the 

weakness and inability to protect treaty of Badajos, by which the river 

our allies. He expatiated at very Arowari was to be the boundary ■ 

considerable length on the import- between French and Porlugueze 

ance he conceived the cessions in Guiana; but for fear Pnnngal might 

Guiana were of to France, as giv- be induced to make siill iui ther sa- 

ing her the commerce, if not the crifices, the integrity ol her teni- 

lerritories of the Brazils. tory was guarantied after the treaty 

Lord Hawkesbury had no objec- of Badajos was known. He lelt 

tion to the production of the treaty, convinced, that when the day tanic 

but disapproved highly of the oh- for discussing the treaty rfguiarly, 

servations made by the honourable ministers would be able lo justify 

gentleman in support of his mo- their conduct in a nuniier that 

tion. He observed, that at the would satisfy both the hou^ aD4 

time when the Egyptian expedition the country. The motion was then 

took up the whole of our disposeable agreed to. 

force and we had not the means of On the 6th of May, in the house 

defending Portugal, at her appllca- of commons, lord Temple moved 

tion we released her from all en- for papers relative to iJie island of 

gageroents, allowed her to make Malta, which were granted » ithout 

a peace most prejudicial to our opposition. He then moved that a 

cotnoiercial interests, and even copy of tlie treaty of Luncvillc 

voted her a subsidy to enable her to should be laid before the hou»e. 
get better terms ; this was doing all Lord Hawkesbury objected to 

we could for Portugal, and it could tliis motion, as there was no par'^ 

rot be expected that we should not liamentary reason assigned for it 

now conclude a peace for ourselves. The treaty of Lune^ille had been 

unless every thing was restored to concluded a year and a half ago, and 

Portugal which she had ceded by wasamatler of public notoriety, 
fhat treaty. Mr, Pitt ratlier disapproved of 




tbe mode taken by the noble lord 
aod bis friends, upon the present 
ccc2ik>n. Their objecH seemed 
to be to hunt down, one by one, 
die separate stipulations ot* tlie 
ircatf, and (hat not in the most 
regular manner-' It w;is much 
tbe best way, in his opii>ion, to 
Ascuu the treaty together as a 
wbole, and not examine il by piece- 
meal. As for the treaty of Lujie- 
Tillc, which was now moved lor, 
it was not a British traiuaction : 
Great Britain had nothing to do 
with it i and we know iliat those 
■who made it have violated it. Th<; 
iduiness of tlie assumption of ttic 
italisD republic is certainly an out- 
ngMms breach of tbe treaty of Lu- 
BcviUe : but as we had ncnhing lo 
do with that treaty, we must con- 
lidtT that and several other ijues- 
lions cnly as they bear upon the 
relative situation of the contracting 
panirs to the treaty of Amiens. 

Alter a few observations from 
other geotleiuen, the tnoiion was 

On tbe $ams day, in the house 
of kwds. 

Lord Sf^ncer made a similar mo- 
tioa with respect to papers concern- 
tog tlie island of Malta, which he 
piciaced with a very lung speech, 
ID vkhich his lordship eiiiired very 
folly into the situation which this 
treaty , professing lo restore the island 
to the order, and ilie acts of I'Vance 
conti54:atiug rnost of its property, 
would place the island of Malta in ; 
having all the subsisting langues de- 
pendent on France, having no re- 
veoues to support their own csia- 
lilisbmrnt, they must necessarily be 
crpctideiit on France. The i\ea- 
pu;;i.iii garnsftn of 2OO0 men would 
aevei be able to prevent France 
poia possessing bcraelf of tlic is- 

land i on the contrar)-, tliey uoiild 
give her a pretence for seizing it 
upon tlie sljalilest quarrel with 
Naples. The island of Malta wa« 
coiniccied with the most iui()ortanC 
interests of the British empire, and 
ought not to have been ceded la 

Lord Hobart did not obicct t» 
the production of the papers, but 
s^iid. iu- sJioiild reserve, till tte 
uerity regularly luider discus- 
sion, tlie whicli it would 
ihen be his duty to otter on this aa 
well as every oilier part of the 

Lord Grciiville thought we should 
have rcuined Mallii itl our haiidi^ 
as sU'ii a« the emperor of R««sia re:used to guaranty it. He 
wished mnch that ihc housi- ^hollld 
be in possession of tlie inlovnuiioii 
tlio>e pnjiers were likely to convey. 

l/ird Hf>lknd did not consider 
this iaiami of that superior import- 
ance wliich mail)- pcfbons conceived 
it of. For hill pan he shimld pre- 
fer retaining Uie Ijli- ol iiiba, or 
any island that would give us ac- 
cess til an Italian port. The motion 

Oil llie ItJili of Mav there were 
other deli,it-.;s in llic huu>c of lord* 
on iiinruiuti for ilie produciion cf 

J^rd Hjl'.vind moved for tbe 
1 the u 

* be- 

I'fain': and Toriugal ; nrt 
onlv those which had been recently 
oonclud.'d, but aUo ilie cunventlou 
proposcil at Campo Kormio in 17U7, 
andwl.idi, as hl^> lonUhip was iu- 
fotmi.-d, this country would not 
allow I'ortiiDjl to si-rn. His lr)rd- 
?hip liinu'^lit we h:id hctu Ejuilty 
of a bie.icli of goiKl laith to I'lirlu- 
gal, in itic (irit place, in siiiieii:ig 
hi.'c to fall juto so heli^css a siaw 


» to be obliged to sign the treaty changing the nnme of the state 

of Badajoj; for he contended that from Cisalpine to the Italiaii^rc- 

ii was merely onr choosing to break public, seemed to show that he in- 

thc lienty of tJ^Arisch, Uiat made tended it, in time, to swallow up 

it necessary for us to send to Egypt the whole, of Italy. He consi- 

th^ army which had been destined dered Uiis circumstance a sufEcicoC 

for' Portugal. He also considered ground for breaking off the treaty, 

we had acted an unfriendly part to- After also staling the imponancc of 

wards Portugal, in not allowing her, the island of Llba, he moved an 

in );j>7, to makeas goodapcace as humble address to bis majesty foe 

&he could for herself. all llie pa]jcrs relating to tJie pro* 

Lord Pelham objected to the pro- ceedings of Lyons, and also the 
duclion of piq>ers to which we occupation of the Isle of Elba. 
were no parties, and.many of tliem- Lord Pelham said, there cotild 
conliili-niial and not proper to be be no nsc in such a motion, as go- 
laid before the house. vernment were not in possession 

Lord Grenville insisted, that Uiis of the papers moVed for. He ad- 

conntry bad not forced Portugal initted that the aggrandizement of 

into tite war } on the contrary, had France, during the negotiation, vm 

done all she could to prevent it, ,a circumstance "dhich, in other 

and keep her neutral, llie British times and other circumstances, might 

("overnnicnt had not insisted on her be a ground of war. Whether it 

fulfilling any engagement to this was necessarily so in the present 

connlry u^ich itood in the way of circumstances was one of the poiDts 

her neutrality. which would be discussed on the 

The marijuis of Sligo said, that day Ihat the definitive treaty should 
it most celainly was not as an ally come before their consideration. 
iii England, bnt as an ally of Lord tTlzwilham a.^ked, wliat re- 
Spain, lhat Porlnga] had engaged presentation ministers had made 
ill tlie war : the district she had against tliis trajisaction when they 
loit in Europe was of very lit- heard of it ? 

tie consequence. The motion was I.xird Hobart objected against this 

losi. irregular mode of putting <|uc«- 

The tame night, lord Minto tions. 

called the attention of the house to Lord Carysfort begged that the 

the affairs of the Italian republic, opinion delivered by the noble ae- 

and of thei^andiif Elba. He took crclary of state might be remem- 

ihii opportunity, whichwasthetirsl bered in that house, namely, that 

h'' had had (having been absent at in other times, and under oilier cir- 

Vic-inia) fo express the a.itonish- tumstances, siu-li conduct on tlic 

mint and sorrow with which he part of Erauee would be a ground 

hail heard of the preliminaries, from of war. 

which the definitive trtyity but little I^rdGnwille rqirobaled the re- 

ditfi-red. He then adverted to tlie fusal to give an answer to aques- 

lirsi '-imsu! assuming the sovereign- tion that iip|K-ared to him so fair; 

ty ol Italy, at a lime when we were he coidd perceive no objection to 

ncfiutiating ilie peace. He con>,i- tlie qinsiion, whetlier any repre- 

il( ltd even, lluit the circmpstance of ienlaiiou had b«cn made or not ? 



I.anl Aiicklaad defenrliMil minis- 
tcTi for refusing. They were not 
b^od to answer any question but 
swb ai came before the house re- 
guhriy in the shnpe ot niution. 
The cjuesiioD was then put and 

ITic last i^uestion connected with 
the definitive treaty^ which called 
forth ■ debate, prior to tlic diicuS' 
non of the treaty itself, uas a mo- 
tion for papers respecting Eait India 
ifikin. Tbii dcb.itc: took place in 
the commons on ihe 12th. 

Dr. Lawrence made his promised 
motioD. He began hv ahistoriial »c- 
cmni of ilteprogrcaiof ovirinriiience 
and establishments in tlie Ea^t In- 
die!, where wc fir^t ap])earcd merely 
in the diaracicr of merchants. 
Even in the nieracri- of some per- 
iw.i prewm, our li.iit India jios- 
*n«tons had bctn looked ui«m ;i» 
vrr^- subordiniiie in their vnlue, nnd 
grriler imjiortance was atiachcd to 
I barren rock, neur Newfoundland , 
than to the Cv->iiin of, at 
llie irtaly of Ai't-la-Cliapelle. it is 
tnie, ili;ic imr a^airandl/enicnt in 
laal ctninlry was ■..uirnifried by ihe 
e^sniplc of Krancf. The ^memor 
(if Poiniicherry first l)r(pin llie m's- 
u:u of tcrrilorial nrqtiisiriiin, :ii:d 
\te (lid the same tiling iiiiTely in 
tKii detciice. 'llicv (iliiaiiiid some 
grinL-t in India \V(.- nUo obtained 

frjnis from the higlic«t autlioriiy in 
rnfi.i ; tiK' <treat Mn^ul, supreme 
siivereign ut' the coniury. The va- 
lidiiv oi ihr^e grams bad hem ac- 
kiw>wled4.(l liy former France, in 
former trcjlien, which are nnt mw 
reticwfd. Hv those lie.ilics, France 
<K3t prohiliiled Irnm creeling any 
fnrts in Ben|^al, and hnd acknow- 
ledged the nabob of Areot ovir ally, 
from whom we (lc:iu:il our grant' 
ill iLc Carnatie, \s!iile Uiey re- 

nounced that family from whicti 
they derived their grants. AU those 

, he I 


tliro»'n away by omitting in the 
definitive treaty to renew the former 

were exiwstd to the Dutch claim of 
limiting our comnK-rcc in the east- 
em seas. He concluded by mo\- 
ing, that there should be laid before 
the lumse, an account of the ac(]ui- 
silions made, or jiteieiided to be 
made, by his Christian ttiajesty on 
thc(:<Msisiif CiiromondelandOrisia, 
from between the years J74S and 


Mr. Duiidas laid it down as a 
general maxim, that whetlier our 
claims weiL* to be decided by negn- 
liationorthe sword, still when mii 
rights are cKar and indisputable, 
untiling should be douc or said br 
m lo briti<r them into doubt, and 
yet he ^vas afraid tliat such niotioiis 
as llic |in-Acnt could haie no oihiv 
"■> duiihts had 



n this SI 

md he did 1 
ihat whUh was dear in pnnciplc 
niaite doubtful in debate. Allcr 
taking a very accmate view of the 
rise niid progress of our Kast Indian 
poMcr, hi; inferred that we lield our 
I)osse^,i.u,s i„ ibai com.iry by right 

concil.d to 'the iuh.ibituils by tie 
iviic it>]Htt paid to their preju- 
dices. \\-li.ilever allowances "we 
were inclined to ninke to the pre- 
judices of the iiati\c,>i, whaie^er 
regii'aiions we might lliink adiis- 
able, htill, with respect to every 
KuT'ip'aii power J we niigiit say 
disliiiiily, " we have g.uned tlie 
coujiiry by our arms, and by our 
nrms wc w ill keep it." Ever since 
the iremyot l/Gj, which acknow- 
ledj^ed uur aovcrcijiiily in }iengal, 


Bnhar. and Orissa, France had not disputed them. He tlicreforc con- 

tlie least riglit to. inlerti-i-e in llial ceived it highly imprudent lo cede 

couotry. \Vc were (U facto sove- the Cape and Cocliin to HollaDt), 

reigns of a consiJerable portion of the dependent al)>- of France, iin- 

India, whereas France does not now till at least France sliould, by the 

piJMCsfi an inch of ground there, renewal of former treaties, ac<iuioce 

except in virtue of the definitive in those rights, which althou^ no 

treaty. He considered that it was member of that house ^could doubt 

the best policy not to renew those that we were entitled to, yet it wa> 

treaties, as we held by -a clearer important tliat France should ac- 

title, that of conquest and power, knowledge. 

If France was di.s[)osed to revive old Lord Hawkesbury opposed the 
chiims upon India, it was not to be production of the papers moved. 
»up]xiscd a few scraps of paper laid as not considering that any grounds 
on the table of that bouse would had been laid for an inquity. It 
prevent her; but it never coiild was true France, or any other pow- 
be reasonably liupposed that the er, might advance what claims they 
country would relinquish its just pleased; but there never was a tinw 
rights in I)jdio, let who would set when it was less likely that France 
lip claims against them. We never should advance such claims than 
wanleri either arguments or strength at present. As to our sovereignty 
to resist French encroachments on in India, it had been often for- 
our sovereignly in India. He could mally acknowledged by France, aod 
nol, however, see the policy in was now undisputed, 
starting tiiffienltiesvhich France had Mr. Jones said a few words 
nrter started, and arguing upon ag^jnst the motion ; and, 
points which had not yet l)een Lord Temple supported it ; ton- 
disputed. He iidaiitted that he did tending that this country ^ould 
not himself approve of all the ani- have deri\ed material advantages 
clcs of the peace, but yet he would from the renewal of the treaties, 
be sorry to labour to convince tiie Ihemotionwaa ihennegatived with- 
nation ihat it was a bad peace, out a division, as were several 
As ministers would he absoluleiy other motions brought forward by 
«'ithout apolog)', if tliey surrender- Or. I,awrcnce, for other papers re- 
ed the sovcteigniy we posfcss in specling the claims of the French 
India, he recommended to the in India, and the treaties which had 
learned gentleman to put his mo- now been siifliired to expire. llii< 
tions inhispoi-ket. was lbs last debate in parliumcnl 
Mr. T. Grenvillc replied at some on the points preliminary to tlie 
length to Mr. Dtindas. He argued discussion of llie merits of the de- 
on die importance of having our ftnit.yc treaty, which, on the next 
rights ascertained and acknowle()gcd day, called fortli the most important 
by treaty. As to our rights in debate in both houses, which had 
India, so far from their being per- taken i-'ice during that session, or 
("ectly clear, France Ims coustaiitly perliiipi. in any other. 




Dclalt oti the Definltwe Treaty in the Home of Lords.— Speeches of Lord 
Gremiile, Duke of Norfolk, Lords Pelham, Mulgrave, jiuckland, Caer- 
narvoit, (feslmDreUmd, EUttiiorough, Damley, Rosslyn, Duke qf Rkk- 
iwmj. Lord Eldon (Chancellor), Camden, Hobart, Spencer. — Lord 
GrenvUW I Address lost.— Address moved in the Commons same Day Lg 
Mr. lfmdhant.— Speechvs of Lords Folistone, liawkesbury, Mr. T. Gren- 
t^le,Dundeu — fAdjourament qf a Day — Delate resumedj — Sir Jf^lUam 
Young, Lord Castlereagh, Lord Temple, General Maitland, Dr Law- 

Ttnct, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Mr, Slieridan — Division Mi: 

ITimiham's Address negatived. 

THE imporbuit and long ex- decided on. Hismajesty's mlnisteni, 

peeled debate on the delinitive however, thought otherwise, and had 

fraty took place, on the 13th of hitherto remained silent. U might be 

Uvf, in both bouses. In the asked, what was the use ofdiscus- 

ioax ai lords, after some previous sion now > Wa$ it wished to over* 

cbnervations by lord Stanhope, who turn the treaty which had been 

moved that strangers should with- concluded ? He should be sorry to 

draw, (while he endeavoured to brhig turward any motion if he 

impress upon his noble audience, could not answer those questions. 

the dangen that might in future Whatever disadvantages might re- 

>riK from the French nation having suit from this unibriunaie treaiv, 

tikea under their patronage the yet it had been made by that power, 

Anierican, Pulton, the inventor of lo whom, the constitution had given 

die tatleau plongeur, or diving the right of making treaties which 

boat*,} should bind the country { it had 

Lord Grenvi lie rose, in order to been ratified by his majeaiy j the 

make a motion respecting the treaty great seal of the kingdom had l>een 

wbicb wasnowfortheonisideiation put lo it ; and it would be adding 

of the house. He and his noUe dishonour lo our disastars if we 

fiicnds had already frH]Uently ad- should now recede from it, or not 

Wnccd arguments against the treaty, cany it into fiill eftect. I'he faith 

while those whose ducy it was to of the country must at all events 

defend it had remained silent. It be preserved. The first proposition 

W been his opinion that repeated he should make to ihe house was, 

t^^rtunitiea shonld have been to declare to his majesty their opi- 

taken for discussing the treaty, be- nion, that the public laitii was 

lore its meritii were to have been pledged to tlic obsenanci; of the 

« Vide" Useful Pr&jccB." 


peace ; that it was an obligation on was eilher th* sfalus qua ante hl- 
ihe country [Q preserve it iuviotable. turn, or the state before the war; 
After sucli a di^laration, wliat ob- or else the uti possidflis, or Ihc 
jcction could tliere remain to a dis- condition of the country after the 
cussion ? Why should he nut be war. Instead of cur negotiators 
allowed to urge the hoHsc in set a proceeding distinctly on cither of 
• mark on tho.-e inijioliiic and weak those grounds, tliey had applied 
miaistcrs w!io had negotiated such them both in the manner the mubt 
a treaty, and whose counsels had prqudicial that was possible to this 
concluded It ■ It was not his wish country : they bad applied the first 
lo disturb the treaty now it w.-is prinriple to Eiigl.ind, iaIio was to 
made, but only to lay before the give up all she bad tatcn during ' 
house the daiiijerotH tetulency of its the war to France ; nnd they applied 
provisions, that future ministers the last principle lo France, by al- 
might be warned against advising a lowing her to remain in posstssion 
measure so disadvantageous to the of all she had since aojtiircd. The 
country. He wished also to point arrangement which was to have been 
out the dangei's which this treaty desired was, that we should liave 
brought upon tlic country, in order diminished the power of France on 
that we might adopt a tniecoutage, the continent, in proportion to the 
by preparing to meet them. He sacrifices we made with respect to 
Iherctbre intended now to propose, tlie colonies we had ceded. Minis- 
that an address should be laid before tera, however, appeared to havr 
his majesty, expressive of the deter- made no attempt at weakening the 
mination of that house to preserve power of France on the continent; 
inviolate the treaty, and then to re- hut by the concessions they had 
present to liis majesty tlie state of made, had given France tlie power 
the country, the dangers which of weakeuiiig us in our colonial 
threatened it, and the means of iwssessions. The great lord Chat- 
avoiding tliem i for this purpose, nam had adopted a diflerent prin- 
he must advert to the arguments ciple, wtien he said, that every pre- 
which bad been used against the liminary treaty should be as defi- 
preliminary treaties, and tliu events nitive as posiiible. In the interval 
which had taken place since. He between the preliminaries and the 
had already staled to the house his definitive treaty, we had allowed 
abjections to the pFeliniinarics ; but 3 naval armistice, during which the 
if the definitive treaty had been French government, in spite of our 
conformable to ihe preliminaries and eutreaties and our tlireats, sent to 
the relative situation of France and the West Indies a comiiderable 

Spain, and the rest of Europe liad armament, whicli obliged ti 

remained tbc same, be should send a miK:h greater force tlierc than 

not now have proposed- any new ever we had done during the war. 

measure; but he now fourid that The first, traits of the peace were, 

the terms of tlie definitive treaty that we were under the necessity ot 

were infinitely more prejudicial tlian keeping up ■ fleet of iliir^-fivc wi' 

ihoio of the preliminaries. it iiad of ihc line in tlic West Indict. Wbe- 

bcen already stated, tliat in all ther the expedition to St. Domingo 

negotiations for peace, llic baiis was likely to be ultimately advania- 



geom or disadrantageoos (o France, 27,000/, per annum. Tlie proprrtf 

faioiticrs shiiiild not have pemiiiied of tlie order also in Pledniunt aiid 

it to uil till the preliminiuy anicles Ixiinbarcly !iad been confiscated, to 

bad bceo converted into a detinitive thnt of tlii.-ir fi>rin(T income vC 

treaty, nor should it liave been ISO.ajOt. only '2O,000/. wm now 

allowed to sail until the tirit consul left, wliich was evidently insufficient 

had redounced ilial important ces- to keep ap the fortlHcalions, or 

sioti which had been nuide lo him prepare fur tlic defence of die island. 

in Italy (the presidency of the The order of Malta was therefore 

Cisalpine republic). As tothe pacilic extinct ,-is a power, and niust neces- 

duposition of the Frcikch govern- sarily come under the influence and 

avnt, he could see nothing of il, into th;; pay of France. The grand 

thtg a-idinttlif eidnced a detiga to master would be elected by their 

r±tlade the remmerce of this country nomination, and die whole ordrr 

Jnm the amtiaeiil of Europe. As would be subordinate to dieni. In 

to the fete of the prince of Orange, die Wc:si India i^nds, the pro- 

and the liruation of Portugal, tliosc prictors of jiroperty in the settle- 

sotjecu were iudeed mentiuned ments ceded lo England were to 

widi lome regret, but the indem- have the right of removing them- 

nity which was mentioned in the selves and their properties at their 

treaty for ilie prince of Orange was pleasure ; but in tlie colonies ceded 

asonof an indemnity which France by us to France, the proprieton 

miglit give or withhold nii she were to be absolutely subject tothe 

plosed. As to the island of IMalia, regulations of the French govern- 

Dodiiog rouJd be more absurd than meut. With respect lo our claimt 

the placing it under tlie guarantee for the maintenance of French pri- 

ei sis powers, who could not be soners, a most audacious imposition 

ocpected to be brought to agree OQ had been practised against us: we 

any one point respecting the island, had been obliged to make allowance 

Tne treaty professed to restore it to for Russian prisoners, who had been 

tile order of Malu : this was still armed, clotlicd, and destined, by a 

mve absurd) for how could it be positive stipulation, to act against 

Mid thai such an order was in us. By the non-renewal of treaties 

eiistence, when almost all the fimds the situation of this countrf was 

necessary for the support of it had rendered much worse than it had 

been confiscated > I'he expenses been. By the non-renewal of the 

of the order of Malta (principally treaty of Utreclit, France might 

in fortificadons and garrisons), on now acquire exclusive commercial 

■n avenge of the last ten years, was privileges in Spanish South Atneriea. 

130,000/. annually. TliCir revenue* By the non-reucwal of the treaty of 

from the island of Malta were only 1/3,1, France might eulude lit 

34,000/. in the whole, and only from the gum trade on the cuiist of 

8000/. came into the cofters of the Africa, if Uie deliniitve treaty had 

kn^^. Of those revenues which been ]>erfecdy agreeable to the pre- 

•uppocted tlte order, France bat, at limineries which parliament had 

the time of the suppression of the approved of, he should adnjit that 

French /an^ue, coniiscated 5S,O00i. the bouse was bound to sanction it. 

Qonually. Spain bai caiiliscated Since the preliminaries,, however, 



France, by taklngpossessionof Italy, glorious victory of Aboukir. Every 

iwd given grouml f'lr the reuew^ object of importance obtained by 

of war. His lordship then pro- the valour of our navy had beoi 

ceeded to compare a picture of the ceded to France ; and BiioistCTS at 

■itufiiion of ihr; counliy before the tlie saiiie lime disclaimed tbe plea 

negotiation, when we were masters of necessity for peace, which could 

of the West Indies, and derited alone have justified such enormoui 

great re.fources from tlience, with sacrifices. They, on the contrary, 

the state in which the definitive talked highly of the resources of 

treaty hasleftit. Weliaduow left thecountry to continue the contest. 

France all her prq>onderating The advantages of the peace must 

strength upon the coniineiil, and be greater than the disadvantages of 

confirmed her in the possession of the war, or otherwise it must be 

Jtaly. We had also given her very evident that the peace was a bad 

imponantseltleinentiinlndia.wiih- one. What those advantages were 

out stipulating that they should not he should now consider. First, it 

befnnified. Our right of sovereign- was said that peace would increase 

ty in fiidi;i was nol recognized, and our commerce : on the contrary-, 

the Ca]>e of Gtiod Hope was ceded, he thought it would rather tend to 

He considered the Cape of Good diminish our commerce, by letting 

Hojje as an object of the first im- in the other maritime stales, and 

jiort.ince to our empire, France, in particular, to share it 

botii from the facilities it ariordcd with us. Upon the question of 

to sending over troops, and as a economy he must obsen-e, that in 

station \vhich, in ilic hands of our order to husband our revenue, it 

eneaiies, would greatly annoy onr was necessary to be able to protect 

Indian trade, and in:!ke it necessary it, and with this \-iew government 

for us lo send strung convoys with n ould still be obliged to keep op 

our homeward and outward bourd a large naval and military establish- 

flitts. By c ding tiie Cape to Hoi- meut. If any security had been 

iniid, we had in fict ceded it to obtained against the renewal of war, 

France. In the West Indies we he should rejoice at it, for we must . 

had ceded Martinique and Tobago, renew it at a great disadvantage. If 

and had facilitated llie means of we recovered in three campaigns 

their recovering' St. Domingo. In what we bad given up by the treaty, 

the Mediterranean too, where our he should consider it a glorious war. t-upi'ilority was most impor- In this state of the country, he 

timt, we had dispossessed oursdves deemtd it necessary to carry an 

of Malta, Minoi-ra, and ewn the address to the throne, containing a 

isl.ind ot Klba, which France wanted, resolution to follow every practipabie 

iiiirt'ly to cicludc tis fromihe jwrt ecotwmy, that would still leave the 

oi Leghorn. - We were now ex- country in a state of defence sufli- 

cluded from all the ports of Italy, eient to rqjcl any future danger, 

and yet it must be reCdUectcd thot His lordship then recapitulated his 

it was from the accommodation arguments, and expressed a desire 

which lord Nelson received in the of iiitnkiucing in the address a 

porisof the king of Naples, that he hope, that no time would be lost 

tvjk enabled to proceed to achieve the in scitlitig, by amicabk adjustment, 
2 those 


A(W pointi which had not been country, and to consider the prc- 

amo^ by the defiiiidve treaty, sent as only a nominal peace. 
He ilicrefore concluded one of tfie Lord Grcnville denied that ha 

opst ItL^ioDUs and masterly and had uttered an expression which 

oMiiDciDg orations ever delivered could justify the construcdon the 

HI i public asscrably, by moring noble lord had put upon his speech, 
an address which conveyed that Lord Pelham proceeded, and cob- 

pcmciplc, which at the »ame time tended, that when ihe noble lord 

ihai it acknowledged that the na- talked of the commercial disadvan- 

lioojl faith was pledged to the tages which peace would bnog, it 

ohserrance of the treaty, humbly was arguing a^iiinst the peace. One 

pointed out the great danger this principle which pervaded the noble 

countty was expmed to, in conse- lord's speech he musi entirely deny, 

<|aenccofthesacrificcs9hehadnMde, namely, that what we ceded to 

without any adei^uate compeDsation other powers wai, in fact, ceded 

00 the port of France, and finally to France. His lordship (hen ar- 

pnyiog him tu settle, by amicable gued at conaidemble length on the 

vnngemenl. those poiou which the manner in which we had ceded 

definitive treaty iiad It-fi unsettled. Malta and the Cape, and could by 

The duke of ^^oTfolk opposed the no means allow that those places 

addrett ntoved by l^>rd Grenville, had t>een ceded to France. After 

nd disappro\'cd of the tendency of a general defence of (he treaty, he 

ibe noble lord's arguments. He concluded by moving, that all the 

was thankful to those who re- words in the address moved by lord 

Korol lo the country the blessings Grenville, after " May it please 

c^ peace, which he thou^t was your majesty," should be left out, 

in a great degree to be attributed As tl)is amendment went further 

to the removal of bis majesty's than that of the noble duke, he 

bte mioistcTB from bi> councils, hoped his grace would withdraw his 

He hoped that the war would amendment. 

■Kver again be renewed upon tri- Lord Mnlgrave expressed faia in- 

fcng points of controversy. He leniion to inpport the motion of the 

thttiftre moved as an amendment, noble lord who spoke laaL WiUi 

that ill the wordi in the addreu respect to Malta, he considered it 

iftcT " humbly advise" should be in no danger of falling into the 

left o«it. hands of the French, while the peo- 

UxA Pelbam expressed some sur- pie of the isbnd were, as it is known 

I«« at the nature of lord Gren- they are, much better atfccted to the 

nUc'i motioD, foe which he was English, and heartily tired of Frem^ 

"« prepared. He coiuidered that frateniity. Although he allowed 

tbe noble lord had by no means that the assumption of the presi- 

Hsifincd himself to what he dency of the Cisalpine govetnmunt 

''"Wght was the true question, by the first consul of France was an 

"•Bcly, how &r the definitive event of great importance, which 

f^iy agreed with the prelunina- had happened since the prelirai- 

"w, but rather appeared to express narics, yet hs did not think it suf- 

•"arersioa to any treaty of peace ficiently so to risk ih- breaking of- 

onder the circuoutwceg of the the treaty altogether, aud renew- 

Voi. XUV. L ing 


ing the war. He jjjcommended Lord Caenianon considered tbt 

tliat , we should embrace every peace so jiregnanl with danger, thai 

opportunity ol' cultivating a pcrma- he thought it (he duty of parliament 

ncnt pftace with France. not to .shrink from tiie investigation 

Lord Auckland, in a lorg and of that alarming situation in which 

very able speech, principally con- the definitive treaty (to which the 

fined himtelf to proving that the public faith has been pledged by his 

non-renewal of former treatie* majesty's ministera) has left this 

would not be attended with the countiy. Nothing in tlic eveats of 

mischievous consequences appre- the war, or of the relative situation 

heuded by lord Grenvilie ; be did of the two countries, had prepared 

not conceive tkil a war so com- the nation for such disgratiful and 

jiletely destroyed all ihe rcbtions humiliating terms. Nor could be 

.between two n:ilious, as that ever)' look with any confidence to the «• 

ancient right whith one nation had pe^ience or abiliiie* of such minis- 

always exerciied, was entirely abro- ters, to ward off future danger* 

gated, unless exprebsly acknowledg- from tlie country; they no soodh 

ed by the subsexjuent treaty of peace, occupied the helm, than, as if inex- 

He did not think that we had lost pcrience was essential to the m»- 

any right with respect to cutting nagunent of public interesls, ihfj 

wood on the Spanish main, by its prcst into thtir service a noble lord, 

not being expressly mentioned in beloved indeed by all men, but one 
the treaty, nor of having our flag as whom flattery would not ventun 
formerly saluted by the Ilutch i but' to qualify with thr character of an 
a)}o\'e all, he thought lliat our sove- able and . experienced negotiator. 
reignty in India stood on mucli Thus secondwl, they opposed iheii 
stronger grounds than the conven- private virtues and unpractised ac- 
tion of i;87 with France, or the old lities to the diplomatic ability aw' 
treaties with Holland, by which she crafty eKpericnce of those men who 
engaged not to molest our sbips-on had, for the last nine years, rai«etl 
the. eastern seas. Our empire in their country to its present enii- 
India, and the security of our navi- nence, by ihdr cnniiiug and ^^"' 

gallon, was protected by the strength ^ no less ilian by tlieir arms. 'Il>« 
and resources of this great country, noble secretary, without answeriw; 
and. if France, or, a^y other .nation, any of the objections made lo lie 
advanced extravagant .nnd ridiculous treaty by tlie noble mover of i^""- 
clainis, they would undoubtedly be address (lord Grenvilie), secnw '" 
rcsiste^. Tlie extent of our re- consider the whole drift of lh»i 
Kource.s , were at present known ; noble loi<i'» speech as generally 
tlie sense of our naval and military asainst peace. There was not a 
^ory would be long on our minds, suigle expression in his lord^'p^ | 
The t-VitietiX^in^t/ofM (in which word speech whicli warranted this in- | 
alone we were indemnified for a terpretalion. He considered the 
grcatparloftheexpeoscsofthe war) peace as inadequate to our jiwt 
will. rtuKiin happy and unassailable expectations, but thai, such as 'i 
as long as she shall continue true to was, the country wa% pledged '" 
herself her ^sovereign, and her con- observe it. He feared that this <i^' i 
fililution. ' linitivc treaty deceived ratlief to 


be raDeil the preliminaries of a feather in his mind against the 
new irrr. His lordship concluded, advantages of the cessation of hos- 
hf eipressing great fears that tlie tilities. He was astonislied' to hear 
non-imewalof ^rmer tresitieswotild men of talents argue that the pub- 
giie France a pretence to advance lie law of Europe was a dead letter, 
diuus higfal; injuiioos to thiscoun- because certain treaties were not 
tir. renewed. Those treaties were re- 
Lord Westmoreland defended the plete with articles wholly inappli- 
fnrair. He did not conceive that cable to (he present political silaa- 
the appointment of Bonaparte to tioa of Europe i and die general 
the prcsidencjr of the Italian re- law of nations, which was founded 
jwhlic was an event of such im- on principles of immutable justice, 
portance as had been represented, was less liable to misconstruction, 
e France had not gained a single and more to be relied on than 
inch irf territory by this, which she any single treaty, or collection of 
was not before possessed of. He treaties, His majesty's lale minisr 
tho(i|ht it of lillle consequence to tern, and doubtless the noUe lord 
thii country whether the isle of among the number, when' they 
Elba belonged to France, or to the were negotiating at Lisle, sent an 
ijig of Etruria, and he was so ftr express icjunction against tlic re- 
from thinking the possession of newal of some of the articles of 
Liaisiana dangerous to the Ame- the treaty at Utrecht. As to our 
ricaa states, that he rather thought sovereignty in India, he thought it ■ 
it voold excite their jealousy, and stood on much firmer foundations, 
mofc incline them to the interest! than on the ackjiowledgment of 
of this country. He therefore by France, It depended uixin the right 
iw means tbou^t that those erenU of conquest in a legitimate uar, 
vould hare justified ministers in and tipon the established right of 
breaking off the treaty altogether, posses^iion. Our government is 
There was anotiier predominating now older than any existing govern- 
naxm which inclined ministers to ment in India, having subsisted 
peace, namely, that it was the ge- above forty years. This right could 
oeral wish of the people. His lord- not be strengthened by any articia 
drip concluded, by drawing a com- of a treaty ; and the power that 
pariwo of the stale of Great Bri- would so much want justice and 
^Q and of France, which com- moderation as to attempt to dis- 
parlwn was very favouraMe to tlic pute this daira, would not be bound 
loniw power. long by any treaty. He by no 
Lord EUeaborou^ replied to the means could allow that ihc order 
riHerratiDns and arguments which of Malta uas reduced to that ex- 
xid been Htgcd against this treaty, treme state <jf poverty which the 
r4e emphatically t>egged leave, in noble lord supposed, and as for the 
be first place, as an individual, to Cape of Good Hope, he tliought it 
cturn his most gratefiil thanks to was a post that we did well to get 
boie minister who had restored rid of, as it could not be retained 
D this country the blessings of but at an enormous expense : every 
cant. The objnrtions that he heard chaldron of coals that we had sent 
o this treaty did not weigh at 9 gut there cost the nation 2$/. LOr. 
L? ,4* 


As to thfi right of freely na%-igating sidered as good a peace a« could be 

the Indian &eas, who could prevent obtained, under all the circumstan- 

us from it } He did not think it would ces of the relative situation of tbe 

benianly to ituitt upon a wealc nation two countries. Hi» noble friend 

like the Dutch to &alute us at sea, (lord Grenvilk) had first considered 

if we did not at the same time re- the difference between the articld 

quire it from the stronger powers, of this definitive treaty and the [wc- 

He concluded by voting for the liroinories. He had, in the nert 

amendment moved by lord Pel- place, spoken at considerable length 

ham. on what he had conceived to be 

lj?rd Daniley in some respects material omissions in the present 

agreed with lord GrenviUe, and treaty, of which the most impor- 

in othen with ministers. He de- tant \rhich he had stated was the 

dined voiiug for eidier of the pro- non-renewal of old treaties, the 

jiusitions. omission to secure an indemnity to 

The earl of Boslyn, without ap- the prince of Orange, or to have 

pearing perftctly to approve of the our right to carry on the gum trade 

defiiiilive tfc^ity ; yet as it was ac- on the coast of Senegal, or of cut- 

knowledged that, such as it was, ting logwood at Honduras, e\|)ressly 

the country was bound by it, he *recogni7cd by the present treaty. . 

should not oppose it. He there- On those points the noble and 

fore voted for lord Pelham's amend- learned lord replied at great length 

ment. to the arguments of lord Grenville, 

The duke of Richniond spoke As to the omission of requiring the 

ably again-'t (he treaty ; but as al- Dutch to salute our flag, he said, 

mo*t every ground of objection had the real reason of that was, that ai 

already been taken, his argument France and Spain had never by any 

of course had been, in a great iiiea- treaty recognized such a rigbt in 

sure, anticipated in an earlier alage us, it could not be expected that 

of the debate. they would do so now in the case 

The supporters of the of Holland. His lordship then pro- 
treaty were the lord Chancellor and cerdcd to s|)eak of tbc variations 
lord Hobaii, wliich were staled between tbe 

The lord Chancellor entered very preliminaries and tlie definitive 

much at large into the merits of treaty. Those were principally with 

the treaty. As this treaty was respect to Guiana and to Malta, 

founded on the preliminaries, he The cessions made by Portugal ap- 

tlioiight it was not fair to discuss it peared to him of no very material 

ariide by article. He thought the consequence ; and as to Malta, he 

tieaty should be considered :ill loge- thought the arrangement which wa» 

tber as a whole, and viewed upon made was amply sufficient to pro- 

a fair coniparimn cf llie relative tcct that island from falling into 

situations of iin:i\ r.iitain, France, the ha\ of the French. Ai lo 

and the rest of Kurnpc. He was that part of the address moved 

not one of lii'ise who contended by his ix^ble friend (lord GrenviUe), 

that tl)e prwjLit wsa a great and wliidi recommended immediate ne- 

glorious pcice, but he trusted, when gotialion on certain ]>oints, he 

fairly examined, it would be con- agreed entirely with what had fallen 

2 iFom 


fnxQ I noble duke (tbe duke of basti whtcb luppowd Egypt in 
NocAlk), that, that would be ne- the poueuion of the other. At 
gotitfiiig " with a dniwD tword in length, however, the persevering 
DOT baads," and roust lead to a valour of the British ann)r remov^ 
nacnl of the war. His lordship, this obstacle, aad the peace was 
liter discuiaing the treaty at great concluded. There wn^ another ar- 
kaph, and with great ability and ^untenl which might well be urged 
mtaoienen, said, that he would in favour of ilie time in which iha 
Ttib perfect confideDce leave it to peace wag made. It "was at a time' 
the house to decide whether mi- vhen the whole nation wi^cd for 
DHtCTs -wcr; or were not deaerving peace, and that wish was so strong 
ef that oauure which was implied that any resistance to it in the go- 
ia tlic address moved by the noble vemment would have operated to 
lard. the disadrantage of the countiy in 

Lord Camden confessed that he the continuance of the war. As 
*B not satbtied either with the to the value of the Cape of Good 
prdiminarics or tbe definitive treaty. Hope, it had certainly been very 
He thought there vas by no means much overrated by some persons, 
a sufficient reciprocity to be found It was, in feet, a most expensive, 
ia tbem; bui, at the same time tmproductive settlement, which we 
as the peace had been made, he could very well do without. His 
should not object to such an ad- lordship then entered into a veiy 
dreu as that of the noble secretary minute geographical account of the 
cf ttaiK (lord Pdham); he should province ot Guiana, and of ths 
ibsefore vote for the atnendment. river of Amazons and Aro'vari, 
Uwd Hobart was at a loss to and proved firom tbe authority ^ 
conceive upon what principles any Condamine, and other enlightened 
nohle lord who supported the preli- travellers whom he quoted, that 
minaries could now object to the tbe mouth of the river Arowati 
deliniiire treaty- As to an objec- was no port for ships of war, and 
luD which had been made as to that the possession of Guiana to that 
the time trf' concluding the peace, boundary, by no means enabled 
be amid recall to the recoUei-lion France to possess herself of the 
<^ tbe house, that a noble lurd trade of the Brazils, or to molest 
tipposile (lord Grenville) had fre- the Ponugtieze in the navigation of 
qoently mentioned in that bouse, the rivei' of Amazons. Ir tact, the 
beftre he tjuitted his official situa- emporium of the Portogueze trade 
i>(vi, that the question of peace in the province of Man'gnon, was 
bad now grown a mere question th<- city of Para, which was at least 
about terms. It was eiident that IJO miles south-east of the Arowari. 
Us majesty's present ministers had He could by no means agree with 
Inst 00 time, after their accession the noble lord in Oie addition of 
to office. In cpening the negotia- much importance to the cession of 
tnn. The only obstacle which had Cochin, now that the power of 
psotracted titat measure n-as, the Tippoo Saib is destro^'cd, and the 
dmbtful event <tf the campaign in Mysore counti^- in our possession. 
%ypt, and his majesty's ministers. He allowed that the late ministers 
u K'^ as the French government, deserved lull credit for the expe- 
vcre unwilling to treat wi any dition to Egypt j U bad been so 

150 ANflUAL REGISTER, 1803. 

far completed in their time, tbat most faHj into the trca^, wi 

the rcsponsibiU^ would have been brought forward a number of ob- 

with them if it bad failed i but »s jections, which he supponed with 
lo the expedition to ttie BalUc, he ' great ability. He said, that among 

raust assert, tbat when the mea- the many parts of this trea^ to 

sure was taken for maintaining our which he must object, it was ia- 

rights by force of arms, they were dilferent with which he began ; he 

no longer in otHcial simation. He therefore should first consider Malia. 

concluded by supporting lord Pel- He thought it was beyond all ques- 

barn's amendmenL tion tbat this arrangement did. Id 

XiOrd Spencer asserted, that the fact, surrender Malta to Prance. 

expedition to the BalUc had been We had concurred in destroying 

planned and resolved upon during the independence of it, and de- 

the late administration. graded the order iisctf, by the iii- 

Lord Grenville said, that he had troduction of a Maltese langue, 

only mentioned the danger of the with uJiom the German knights 

cessions in Guiana in tliis point of refused' to Bene, It was a mere 

view, that it would enable France, farce to talk of a Neapolitan garri- 

in a future war, to exclude us fi-om son, and the protection of N.iples, 

the Brazils, which would, after when the kingdom of Naples iisclf 

the cession of the Cape of Good was under the control of France. 

Hope, be a serious injury to our For his part, he should much rather 

trade and navigation to India. that it was ceded to France directly. 

After some few observations from and that we bad demanded some . 

otlier noble lords^ the question was other place as an equivalent for it. 

put at about eiglit o'clock in the The Cape of Good Hope too, be- I 

momiog on lord Grenville's address ing ceded in absolute sovereignty 

as it originally stood, to the Dutch, they may give it up 

Contents 16*. Not contents 122, to France as soon m ever they 

including proxies, please. He considered this pbce 

The question on lord Pelham's as of the utmost consequence, not 

amendment was then carried with- only to our Indian commerce, but 

out a division. to the security of our Indian em* 

On the same day the question pirc, in affording the facilities of 

was also debated in the house ot' conveying troops for its protection, 

commons. if in our hands, or for its anooy- 

Mr. Windham, in a most elo- ance, if in tlie hands of the ene- 

3uent speech, which occupied nearly my. He must also insist, diat by 

tree houn in the delivery, entered the cession _of PortugucM Guiana, 

• The followine wcie in ihe minoriiy on ihc qiieslion of the definili»e (resly : 
Tlic rtukt oi Riehmonrt, Loid Buctnor, 

Mar<|uii of BiiL'*uiglianj, Dailmcton, 

Lor J Caernarvon, CaiysfMii, 

Kfiiyon, HiZKJIIam, 

Ci'li'lr. Fonncue, 

Spencer, Manifielrl, 

(IrcnuUe, Warwick, and 

Mini", t Ciwdof, 


the Fitnch -would command the na- qnisitions. He then proceeded to ' 

T^jtion of the river of Ainazons. spe-jk of the expnditiom of Totilon 

louiiiana was also to France an and Quibcron, of whirli he hif-lily 

anjuijilion of incalculable I'alue. approved, and of whicii a fi^iii 

Fnncew-iSl for tlie fiilurc raminand honourable tricnd of hU (Mr. Fiti) 

the navigation of the two great- had the manliness to cjqim his share 

fci rivers iu the world, tJie 2Vlissi(- of the responsibility, 
sippi and the Amazons. Great Mr, Pitt spoke to order. He 

mai are the vital parts of coun- thought hia right honourable friend 

tries; we naight therefore, with- out of order, in mentioning the 

oot hyperbole, be said to have -ceded variety of opinions which prevailed 

to France a brace of continents, on difterent points in the conduct 

Kever was there such a lavish, of the war. He also submittnl it 

prodiga], tJwughllcss spirit of cts- to hisjud^etit, whether he. was 

mo! (o addition to those foreign emitely free from tiiose ol>lig;iiioiu 

objecti, the whole continent of Eu- which were in force when they 

rope is left at the mercy of France, were together the coiilideiiti;d scr- 

Mr. Windham then expatiated at vants of his majesty. 
great length on the claims which [Mr. Windham was then pro- 

»nuld protwbly be set up by France cceding to take upon hinisrlf the 

iu consefjuence of the non-renewal whole rc-ponsibility of the Qui- 

of fonner treaties ; he particularly heron Imsinesi, iihen Mr. Pitt 

thought that this omission in the again objected, and considered that 

treaty woold very much endanger lie had not a rii'ht to spjak of opi- 

oor Indian empire. We might iiious delivered in official coati- 

pRtfy well learn lo appreciate the deuce.] 

lirskiDlent views of France by her Mr. Windham, then, at 

lecent cunduct with respect to the length, R-peiti-d the opinions lie 

iihnd of Elba, which she first sti- had so often delivered on the priii- 

pidaied should be surrendered to ciplcs of the war and its proper 

ike king of Etruria, and immedi- object. He lamented the tnumph 

ately after took possession of her- of jacobinism, and feared e\ery 

adf. French power pursued us in thing froiii tlic restlcjs ambition 

Afh, id .'\merica, and in every and perfidy of Fraiict-, anitcd ai 

part of the worid,- He coiwidercd she now was with imnicnse poiver, 

that the cstablisliment of French The danger he thought was hiS- 

ptfwcT in St. Domingo was more, nitely greater, because the people 

Ibrmidable to our West India settle- appcarcil inwn'iible of it. Uitr 

Bwnti than even the independence great naval vict()ries set meJ hardly 

of the black* in tiiM island, who to produce the pr.iper feeling on 

would hive no means of extending llie minds of our couittrynieii ; 

their empire farther. Mr, Wijiti- their unii.-;jrs:il cry wan tlir peace - 

ham tbet] iriok a general review of with sueh a power at France now 

0«war. He thou-ht the countr)- is, and as she is pt.s-essed of iliis 

uas never suHicicuily apprised of imiaeiisc po'vcr, he thou-ln i: ab- 

ili daii[;er. In his opinion, die Eoli;tely neccss.iry to lake sxuh mea- 

re-d principle of war h^id been siires of tiefenee as n.iw are U-IL irt 

miitalLcii in pursuing colonial ac- against any future anack. Hveon- 
L 4 du.ied 


eluded 8 very loi^ and eloquent ville, and assented to by the wfaola 
fl>eech with moving an address bi- Germanic empire. Thf, treaty which 
milar to that moved by loid Grcn- had been made secured the integrity 
viUe in the house of lordi. of the Britiiib cmpiri;, obtained bet- 

Lord Folkstone seconded the mo- ter conditions for orii allies ihin 
tion. He said, that the British flag could have been expected wboi the 
waa d^^adcd and disgraced by this negotiatioD began, and confiimcd 
treaty at iar at any treaty could do the acquiaition of two of the most 
it It wa« a treaty built on jacobin important possessions in the £ut 
[innciplea and confirming jacobin and West Indies. Such a treai) be 
power. We had abandoned For- could not conceive any thing lew 
tngal to spoliation, and in our treatr than honoiHable. The flrst claii of 
raent of the prince of Orange, we objections which he should consider 
had added insult to injury. He were those that went against ttie 
saw nothing left for the country conclusion of a d^niiive treaty, on . 
but dishonour, dcgradadon, and account of the events wbi< h took ' 
ruin, place od Ibc contimnt afiit the 

Lord Hawkesburytlien rose. [Hia signing of die preliminaries. He j 
lordsJiip's speech was by much the must confess he rt^rettcd n;ucb a _ 
ablest defence of the treaty which great many of tliose etcnia, not eiH . 
was made in either house of parlia- tirely on account of their intrinsic ( 
inent ] He said he was happy that importance, but nmch more bO l^ 
the whole subject now came before reason of the dispiwitions thry indi- 
the house at once, and be trusted cated in tbe French, govenioieuti ; 
that he should be able to prove this but he could not at the same time . 
treaty to be not only espediiint, but thiiik that they would justify out ■ 
advantageous and honourable to the breakinjf off f^ negotiation altogt* I 
country. Tbe circumstances which ther. He could by no mt.ins agree 
immediately preceded the negotia- withtheopinion oi lome ^rmleniea, 
tion Vk:cre as follows: Almoit as that wheneveranycnntnu iitalpoiveT 
Goon as his majesty's present oiinis- became involved with France, it was 
ters had accepted their liittiations, our busineaa, without copsidi-rinj 
the news arrived of our allies the how the question affected our e\KT- 
Austrians being defeated in a ercat nalorintemal interests, immediatdy 
battle, vliich was ver)' soon follow- to embark in a war about it. It it 
cd by the treaty of Liuiei iUe. The waa not expedient for ua to continue 
situation of Europe was now mate- the war for Holland wd the Ke- 
rially changed with respect to Great tberlands, much less so was it to 
Britain. Instead of being at the head continue it for Italy. Besidei, die 
of a great confederacy, a power- first intimation which his majesty 
ful coulcderacy was formed against received of the new conslitutiou rf 
her, under the direction of France. Italy, was followed -by accounts of 
Under these circumstances, after the congratulations of thp court of 
sending a fleet to the Baltic, wo Berlin, and tbe acquiescence of 
opened a negotiation i^ith France. Austria and Russia, As to the ccs- 
We certainly could not then pre- sion of Louisiana bySpain to France, 
t^d to unsettle that which had this wa* certainly an event of tin- 
^ sclUi^d at the treaty of Lune- poitaocc, but ibat very colony had 



been beftve ceded hf pynce to of Pretich wiiiM and brandy woiiU 
Spioin a privaid contention, which be a heavier li>s* to thein, than tbs 
look ptacc between the signing of exclvLsionof our maimfaciures wcnU 
tkjmHmiQ3rie« and definitive treaty be to us. He did not concave that 
tfl'Os. As to the value of Loui- oar rights in India, or at Honduras, 
dm, rt must also be recoUtetrd, were in the least aAected by die ooq- 
tfnt fenoeriy, when it was in the renewal of certain aitides in former 
fMKs«ion of Prance, they made och treaties. But there wxt no point 
tUng of it, although, at the same which appeared more completd)' n» 
lime, they made their West India be mistaken than that which res[wct- 
iabntk bi^ily valuable. A» to the ed our flag. The fwt wjs, that thji 
Annicui Katta being bmoght into country had ibr centuries claimeil a 
teeer by^ thit eveat, be thought sovereignty of the ^eas. and Inxa 
nroai too highly of their pon-er and this sovereignty, that other nationa 
mooFCfs, and that if they were should luwer ibeir flagi to us. No 
jnloos oi~ the ndgfabourhiKid of the express siputaHoD bad ever been in- 
ftmch, they would be the more in- trodaced in our treaties with fani» 
dined lo the cause of thii country, and Spain to thin parpoM-, and yet 
Alto the feults of omission which the tight had been always acknow- 
»ere alleged tgainst the present ledged. The reason dial ihe expresa 
tnaty, the pnncipal stress appeared stipulation wa; only with Hgllaod, 
to be laid on the non-renewal of wa.4, because there had one been ■ 
Unties, and yet it appeared that war between this councy and Hol- 
tbe CTcnt-'i of the war had so com- land upon that very point, and there- 
[toely unhinged the fotindatious of fore the right had been at the peace, 
A fanaer treaties, that it would be and by subsequent treaties, expressly 
almast impossible, if they were re- recognized with respect to Holland, 
Kwed, to bring them at all to bear and if this had not now been again 
on the present political sitnation of mentioned, it was because, with 
Europe Had we sanctJoned the Holland, as well as other countries, 
treaty of LuneviQe, for example, we we cho->e to stand upon our ancient 
thdold then hare made ourselves and long exercised right. We had 
panies lo the dismemberment of the ceded nothing in this respect. The 
Gcmianic empire. At present, we next general head of objections was 
have, at least, the satisfaction of the vnriatlons betueen this detmitive 
nying, dnt If we have hot been treaty and the preliminaries. As to 
lUeioTecoverfbrEuropehcrrigbts, the alio wan ces made to France oa 
tt lent we have been no parties to account of Russian prisoners, it wa« 
her wrongs. As to commercial by no means unreasonable : it wai 
treaties, they involve so many sub- in fact a new principle introducc4 
jects, w many points of diacustion, by us at the treaty <if 1/63, tlia^ 
that they necessarily take a great each state should maintain its sub-, 
dealof lime to settle. Theprohibi- jects when prisoners in the enemy's 
tiotiofoiir mamilbctures cuuld not country. (Vance had never acictt 
be carried pn to the same extent in on this principle with Austria, or 
peace as in war ; and ifitc^meonly any power, when it would hav9 
K a war of duties between Great evidently been her interest to havB 
flritaiti and France, the exdvision done so: and thercfcre, when ska 


15* ANNUAL REGISTER,- 1802. 

conseuted (o adopt this principle Rwuia changed, and die prexetit 
wilb respect to us (altbougb ihc ba- emperor ictused Miiia. He could 
lance ol'piUoners was mucb against have wished that the king of Naples 
her), it was by no means tinre^son- liad been somettung of a moie pow- 
able for us to exjiect to be allowed crfnl protector, but he saw na 
to set off against utir dcniand the reason to doubt his fidelit}'. Wheo 
expenses ot tlie Russian prisoners, gentlemen expatiated on the great 
wlio were takt-n b>' Uieiii when in actjuisitions which France bad made 
our pay. Tlie baliince blill remained tills war, ihey never spoke of her 
cuiisidciably in our favour. The losses, nor of what we had acquired, 
next point was the situation of For- They dwelt on' Louisiana, but did 
tugal. Oh this subject be must not mention Alysoc or India. Thejr 
jia(c, Ibat ihiB government liad done did not either compare the relative 
c\eiy thing in its power respecting sitiiaiioa of the West India cdonie* 
PorEugal. If it had divided its army ol the two countries. Ilic English 
bctweco Portnfral and Egypt, they colonies, flourisbing, improved, and 
would probably have fa ilc(l in both increaoed by the addition ofTrini- 
places. They had been, however, dad, while St. D(»ningo, the prin- 
(■xtremely anxious for ihc security cipal French colony, was in a most 
of Portugal, and had rrcommended precarious state. They did not cooi- 
iu the moat pressing manner to die jiatc the navy and comnierce of the- 
Portogueie govertunent to change two countries ; the French navy had 
their guncivd in diicf, who wat an been in tlie war reduced more tlian 
old mail, incapable from years of ahalf, and tlicircommcrccabtolutelj 
llie active cxirtiona that a campaign destroyed. He could not pretend 
would require. Had this been to say this peace, or any other which 
done, we should have given Por could bo made In the present times, 
tugal every assistaiito in our power, was secure, but he could not see 
The govcrument of Portugal, how- that any additional security would 
ever, refused, aod after that country be gained by a continuance of war. 
wa^ invaded and conquered, we France, besides, now apjieared to 
{laida subsidy of :JU0,000/. loenable be retumii^g to her old maxims of 
tjiein tomakebcttcrtermsfor ibem- rehgion and politics. A renewal 
>clvcs, and now at tlie dchnitive of the war appeared only likely to 
treaty uchad got better terms for plunge lirr back into the revolution- 
Porlug'nl than slic was able to procure ary system, which would atford 
fur herself i aiul some of her foreign less sirmity. The resoun^rs and 
[>;issc.ssions, which she had ceded, the spirit ot the country should be 
ueresliU to remain in her posscAsion. spared as much as possible: they 
As to the question of Alalia, it had in ttotne sort been worn out by 
would III- rccollcL.ediliJt It was our the long duratimi o( the wai-, and 
oiigiiial intention, in taking posses- required to lie cherished by peace. 
sioii of M.iil-i, to resuiit it to the Alter havingendcEivoured to prove 
order. Alt.TrtarUs wehad thtnight the iuteresli and honour of tlic 
uf placiii}^ it under the protcctioti i-f Btitisli empire bad been preserved, 
Russij i but tlie stuM^e and ill its allies uiit neglected, and node- 
judged j'olities iif that court prevent- grailini; or dishouourable article in- 
cuiiiLk. Aluruai'da die politics of uoduecd m the treat)-, his lordshipi 



tooduded bymovingan address to now nn undisputed sovereigntyin 

fiiiQMJe^ty, the substance of ^vhich India. He mii^l conf<.-S9, however, 

Wi to assure his majesty, that that it iviiii ilie utmost regret 

" the home were fully sensible that be Iiad iii^rd of the cessinn of the 

ti» majesty had wisely consulted Uie Cape of Good Hope, He alwnyt 

mrercsts of his people in fonniog a thought ihRt ihi; was a post of the 

definitive treaty on tLc basis of the utmost iiuportance lo Ibis countiy. 

ptdiminaries ; that they relied on He (hoi(ght so in theory before wc 

oil majesiy'i known disposition to had it, and he was the more mn- 

tdhere with the most scrupulous vinced of it, from ihe use which 

fidelity to his engagements, but tliat was made of it after it had been in 

they entertained a perfect confidence our possession. He looked upou 

that hewould be always prepared to it as a most excellent Uepit Uith 

defend, against every encroachment, commercial and militai^. In a 

Uie great sources of the wealdi, word, he considered it the great 

coimucTce, and naval power of the bulwark of India, With regard to 

empire; and that they were firnily Malta too, lie considered it an 

persuaded his majesty's faithful siib- island of the greatest importance, 

jects would be always ready to sup- one of the linesi ports in the world, 

port iIk honour cf his crown, and Ji was not merely for commercial 

the rights, laws, and liberties of their purposes tliut he bhould wish to see 

eouDtiy, with the same spirit they the British fla^ flying at Malta : it 

had manifested during the war, was also to give assurance to all tlie 

vhicb was now happily brought to surrounding iiaticms, of the protec- 

a conclusion. tion of the liritish arms in they 

Mr. Wclledey Pole seconded the should t>e attacked. And wlicii to 

motion. these con si derations he added tlic 

Mr. T. Grcnville opposed tlie desire of the Maltese themselves, 

taction and the definitive treaty in that they should be und« the British 

a very long and able speech. He government, the surrender of thi« 

examined the treaty in its several island gave him the deepest conceru, 

poiti, and urged his objections Notwithstanding that he stated those 

nearly od the same grounds which points iu the treaty of wLicli he dia- 

hii noble relative (lord Grenvilk) ai)froved, yei he could by no meaiw 

had taken in t!ie house of lords. adopt tlieaiidressofliisri^))! honour* 

Mr. Dundas complained of many able friend (Mr. Windhum), which 

nisrcpresentaiions which had been appeared to be pointed against the 

madeofwhat had fallen fiom him peace itself: tlieadoptionofsucban 

with respect to Itidia. As to the address, he conceived, would be 

inconsistency whicli he was charged mischievous. He coucUidt-d by 

viih for changing his mind re- declaring be should vole lor the 

specting the importance of the con- aiuendnient proposed by tlie nobie 

fcation of 17^7, from ilie time Ike secretary. 

coo«ented to the negotiation at On the motion of general Gas- 
lisle to the present, he should coyne, it was resolved, on account 
Muwer, that the circumstances of of the latcnes:^ of the hour, and the 
the case had etuirely and mo^it n<itu- maginiude of the question, to ad- 
liously changed, and tJiat we had jouiu tlie debate till die ne\t day. 


156 -ANNUAL REGISTER, 1802. 

Wbfn ihe question was resumed. What Rome has been, France wiB 

and l,ord Hawkesbiin-'s amend- be. As the present treatj' had b«n 

ment haTitig been read from the ratilied, he wished toseeit preserv- 

cbair, ed ; butpreservedon the priDciplei 

Sir William Yoiing resumed the of the address ino\tMl bj- his right 

debate. After defending the con- honourable friend (Mr, Windham), 
ductof hififrienil'*, in so frequently LordCastlereaghdefendedtbeuts- 

provokiiigdiscusbions on tlie dift'e- tynearlyon the same ground wiA 

rent parts of the treaty, he expressed lord Hawkesbury. He put iareview 

hisentire coincidence with them in all tlie events which had taken place 

this question, and preferred the since the preliminaries, and althoufih 

address as rao\-ed by liis right he acknowledged their importance, 

honourable friend (Mr. Windham), still he did not consider tliat ihey af- 

to the amendment of the noble se- forded sufficient cause for renewbg 

erelary, which he thought did not hostilities. He then, after comment- 

enpress our claims with sufiicicnt ingonthedifierentarticlesofthetrea- 

•pirit and vigour. In entering into ty, and answering many of the objec- 

the examination of the treaty, he tions which had been made to them, 

said it was evident ' tliat Malta called the attention of the house !• 

must be now considered completely the astonishing commercial rise of 

JVenrh. As to the Maltese lartgue, this country, even during the war. 

he could speak from actual obsena- Our imports had increased from 

tion, having resided for some rime nineteen millions to thirty millions ; 

on the island, that the inhabitants our exports from twenty-four to 

were extremely ignorant and poor; fort}--lhree millions; our tonnage 

that tliere were but four or five and our mimber of seamen had in- 

merchants on the whole isl.ind ; and creased in ihe same proportion. The 

Ih.itthemajority ofihenaliv'cs?poke eypurts or the impoits of France 

either ihe Arab largunge, or some did not exceed peien or eight miJ- 

laiigiiai;e that was a jargon com- lions ; and, therefore, tliere was 

po\inil<d of m.iny languages. The little probability of her oi-ertaking 

inhabitants weri^ certainly not per- us in a commercial contest. On 

son^i to be associated with rtny an- this ground, his lord'hip expatiated 

cient order of uoI>iIity. He next for a considerable time, and with 

adverted to Loui'^iana, which he great ability. He concluded, by 

considered not only of tlie greatest trusting \hat there would be an 

intrinsic importance; but still more establishment so vigorous, constantly 

Important tVom the advantages it kept up, as would be abundantly 

•ptforded the possessors of making sufRcieut, incase of afutureconiest, 

themselves masters of Mexico. In to maintain our rights, our inde- 

8t. Domingo, the rebellion of the pendence, and our honour, 
negroes had given a pretence to the Lord Templesaid, he should not 

French of kcepingup such an army, go over tlie whole of the treaty, a» 

as would beejLtremely dangerous to the principal points of it liad already 

us in future wars. He thought it been fiillv discussed. He could not 

was in vain to hope for lasting peace but complain, however, of the line 

with France. Amhirion has been of argument taken by the noble lord 

always the njiog spirit of republics, v ho spoke last, and by the noUe 




ttmiary (lord Hawkesbury), Tbty now completely subsenieiit to 
bad ukcd, as if it was tlie only Fnnce, aad as for tbc iiidcpcndtoce 
ipts6oa. Was it better to renew of Na^es, the arratigetnLUt abcut 
ibe ws oa account of th« aggran- the ulaod of Elba proved that that 
diiODent of France, or to make country was perfectly dependent oa 
peace i Ttiii was not the tme state France. The indemnity which was 
of tbe question. The question was, ' to be f;iven to the prince of Orange, 
irt»ether, with our successes and re- according to the pleasure of Fiance, 
soorccs, we were not entitled to was rather an insult oflered to that 
more than bis m^esty'a miiuslexs prince, than a sufficient indemnity 
bad obtained } The question was for his kisses. This peace, even in 
alx>, wltether we should not have the opinion of his majesty's minis- 
obtained a compensatioo for the ters, appeared insecure, for tliey 
advantages which France had ot>- thought it would be necessary to 
taiiied in the mean time ? He could keep up a veiy high military esta— 
not apee that the article* of the blishmcnt, even in t'mie of peace, 
defiiutive treaty must exactly agree When tbe many ajid forcible ob- 
with tbe jtreliminaries, when the jections which had been nude to this 
■ilnation of Europe was chao^ in trea^ were fairly considered, he 
the nuan time. The alteration of did not think that he or bis frienda 
the relative situation of the powers could, with justice, be said to wish 
oDolracting, certainly altered the for war, because they proposed that 
bns on which the preliminartes tbeae points should be submitted 
were founded. We certainly bad a to amicable arrangrment. 
tight to an adequate compensation General MaitJand contended that 
foe tbe advantages which France we had materially asiistcd our allies, 
in tbe mean time bad obtained, and particularly Portugal. lliat 
Vnih respect to Malta, it had been country knew well how to appre- 
taid, that it was entrusted to the elate the difference between that 
protection of an independent power, boaudary which we had procured 
He wished it could be proved that for her in Guiana, from tVt whicii 
Naples wa? really an independent she had negotiated for herself. He 
power. It had been said (hat Malta could by no lucans agree with tbo^a 
vuofno use tonsintimesof peace, who tliougbt that Louisiana and 
but he belitTcd it would be allowed Guiana, mu=t necwiarily give tJiu 
that it might serve as a V<pol for French Mexico and South America, 
ptm-isions for our army, and that it He never could consider llic colony 
woald serve to defeat the projects of Louisiana as dangerous to tli.; 
of French expeditions. With re- independence of the United States. 
spert to. the entire merits of the As to the Cape of Good Hope, he 
treaty, be must ask. Had we obtain- considered iliat its importance had 
cdanyof the objcctn of the war? somevi'hat diminished by (be con- 
Did diis treaty give us indemnity or quest of Tippoo, which gave bucIi 
wcority i Or, did it atfbrd protec- ample security to our dominions in 
tioti to our ailieii } Certainly not. India, tliat we did not want tlie 
The king of Sardinia was not even Cape of Good Ho[ic to luake tliuin 
oaoKd in tbc Uejty. Puriugal was nwre si)re. He twtluded by cx- 



jiressing his approbatioti of the wish and prayer, that it might b« 

treaiy, and giving bis vote for the laming, but if it should be disturbed, 

amendment. the country would still feel the 

Tlie Master of the Bolls defended benefit of hanng its resources saved 

the treity at cnnsiderable length. during the continuance of it. As 

Dr. Lawrence urged with great long as the country was determined 

force several nf the objections which lo piovidc for its own security, lie 

had already been made. thought it in no RXeat danger of 

Tlie Chnncellor of the Exchequer attack. It was now on a proud 
was not surprised at such a motion eminence, and, as Lc thought, might 
as the present, coming from that continue so, as long as it adhered 
right honourable gentleman, who to the principle of not invading die 
had before considered the rights of others, nor suffering its 
self as ruinous, and the prt4imina- own to be invaded. By a system of 
Ties to have been the death-bluw of conciliation and tirrnncss, he tlioughl 
the country. It would be of little the country might long enjoy its 
avail to endeavour to justify the present preeminence. He couM 
termi of the treaty, to hiiu who hardly wish its preeminence lobe 
inveighed against any trc.ity with higher than it is, and he trusted it 
ihe gmernment of France. He would never be lower. He con- 
condemned the mode in wliich this eluded by again expressing the strong 
creaty had been attacked by piece- dejireof all his majesty's minister*, 
meal, but as it had been attacked that the peace should be long prc- 
tn that manner, he found himself ser\-ed. He supported the amend- 
ohliged to defend it in the same raentoftord Hawkesbuiy. 
way. [Hethenwentoverthesevcjal Mr. Sheridan rose at about two 
articles of the treaty which had been o'clock in the morning, for the pur- 
objected to, and defended them pose of moving another amendment 
nearly on the same principles which to the address, stating, " that the 
lord Hawkesbury had done]. He omissions of various opportuniiies of 
considered, however, that the fair negotiating peace; and particularly 
way of considering the treaty was as the rejection of tlie overtures of llic 
«n entire thing ; and that the true first consul in 1800, had leil to 
question was, whether it was better such a state ofafl'.iiis, as to justify 
to make such a peace, or continue the important sacrifices which his 
the war. He never had attempted majesty had been advised to make." 
to paint in false colours the present Mr. Sheridan's speech, which was 
pence; he never spoke of it in a masterpiece of^ eloquence, and 
exulting language, nor called it a replete with sallies of wit, was prin- 
glorious peace, but he- thought it cipally directed against the conduct 
such a peace as was better than a of his majesty's late ministers, whom 
continuation of ihewnr, and such lie supposed to be now in secret 
as the country could sigo with co.ilition with the present. Instead 
honour. He did not think any ad- of the security and the indemnity 
ditional security for its pernianence they had promised trom llie war, 
could be obtained by the war, and tliey iiad gotten the isles of Ceylon 
saw no reason why it might not be and Trinidad. ITiey might call tlie 
lasting. It was his Hio^t sincere one tlie iti^ad of tecuHtu, and the 
X ' othef 


ottwr Ibe island of inift-nnn/y. We rate and distinct, but they were all 

hid haki in every object for which still rigkl hornmrab/e and honourable 

ibej plunged this country io war. friends. This mysteritms conneclion 

Insiead of checking the aggrandize- had nothing luanly in its principle, 

mentof France, their conduct had and he highly disapproved of it; 

nivd it to such a height, at to en- otherwUe he should feel strongly 

daoger the existence of ^ the na- inclined to support the measure i of 

tioDj which surround it. France the preseutatkninistratiofi. 
WMODw infinitely stronger and more Mr. Grey said, he was Teady to 

ftmridable than at any period since give his unqualified support to the 

the re^'olotion, and he thbugbt it ti^caty, but could not vote for that 

Tijowmgto the misconduct of the part of the atnentlment, which im- 

lite tninislcr* that it was so. Some plied an approbation of that war, 

ofibem bad always appeared dread- which he had always considered un- 

liilly ilarmed at jacobinism, but just in its origin, calamitous in its 

fearless of every thing else. For conduct, and disgraced in it« ter- 

bii part, his fears and alarms had mination. 

be^ where theirs bad ended. He Mr. William Smith, Mr, Whit- 
aav the immeiue power of France bread, and Mr. Bouverie declared, 
now consolidated ; all its coatinen- that upcm the same principle they 
lal enemies subdued, or won over could not vote for the amendment, 
Io its interests ; and he saw nothing altliough they approved of the con- 
to prEvcDt the ruler of France from duct of ministers in making the 
directing this mighty power entirely peace. 

agaimt Great Britain la another Mr. Windham made a ihorr 

war, which he might soon provoke, reply to the leading objectionB to 

Of declare against us. Allthiadan- bis address: he said, that although 

g(T he attributed to the misconduct that address might be construed 

oftbe late ministers, against whom into a censure on ministers, that 

he ioveigbed aeverely : he ^sa in- was by no means the intenlioii oc 

veiglied against the secret coalition the object of it. 
wbih he supposed to exist between The house divided on Mr. Wind- 

tbe present ministers and the ex- ham's address . Ayes 20 1 noesajO'. ' 

naniiters. They affeaed to be sepa- Majority 256- 


uirneM,, Google 



CMsUeratiMS OH ihe Defimtwe Treaty.— Delat* in tke Hoitst ^ Larjt 
•n the second Ruaihng <^ the Militia Bi/l — in the House <jf Commttu 
'4a Bull- Hailing.— Mr. Canmng's Motion o» the Cultwaliim ^ Tri- 
mit^d^Debalii thereon.— Bit! for the Relief rf tit CUrgi/ — hmigJa 
m by Sif U^UHam SeoU— Debate m the second Reading of it i* tht 
dmmons — and in the Lords. — Suppfy. — ^atterin^ Stattmtmt of fA« 
Fauaues by tke Chancellor of the Exchequtr. — Iruh Finaiux.-^ Con- 
versation on Indian Jffairs in both Houses, —Prorogation and Dii- 
taiatian of Parliament. 

HAVING thus gone into flctai! oriy the possesBioDS with which she 

at considerable length on the began the war, but had retired from 

Iii^Hy inieresting debate on the it with increase of military fame, 

suhjtct of the delinitire treaty, ve and the acquisition of two Dertain^ 

alinil now end<^vnar to lay before very valuable possessions, not only 

our readers some considerations and as with respect to their intrinsic 

reflections wliich immediatdy be- value, but at adding great adcUtiooal 

long to it, and cndeavoiu- to point security to her fonner domioions, 

out, with cle.ti'ness and precision, and likely to increase to a consi- 

wherein it differed from die iipirit derable degree her commerce and 

of all former tieatics concluded by her resources. 

Great Britain ; wherein it differed That thus she had much im- 

from the preliminary articles of proved her relative situation with 

peace, which should have formed respect to her enemies, Whilst, to sc- 

ii* exact and precise basis ; and cure the permanency of peace, she 

finally consider whether it left Eng- had removed every cause of jca- 

Innd in possession of a tranquillity lousy and dissatisfaction, by restoT' 

to wh:c!i " its tone, lis temper, ing to tlicm a long list of the 

and its terms," promised perma' most valuable and important con- 

ni^nt Mobility, or whether it was rjuests. 

to he considered ns only conducive To the statist and politician, how- 
to ■' an liollow and armed truce," ever, who was guided by the max- 
nf short and probably very limited ims of a Burleigh, a Temple, and 
diirati:tn, a Cliatham ; who believed it an 
II shniUd seem, on a first glance established and indispensable prin- 
at the provisions of the peace of cible that tlie security and genersl 
Amiens, that Great Brifain, after interests of Europe must be idvId- 
haiing maintained a contest unc\- lably protected a» the sole meaci 
ampled in interest, leiigtli, and vi- of presening tlie repose and safely 
jourj had retained by llicm, not of its individual stitesj and conse< 



^oddr (bat the indqiendeiice of been laid down by the greatest au- 

Grot Britaio, ctependnl upon that thoTJtiei that preliminaries should 

ot'tbedifeentcomiQcaital powers, strictly define the terms of tha 

(tbdie maxims, whose operations treaty itself. The usage in every 

lud Koa and secured to her the precediDg treaty warranted this 

fooi preeminence she possessed raaxim, and the abandonment of it 

in ihe driUzed world,) Uiis ccle- on the present occasion gave the 

bnted and monieDtoua treaty ap- most manifest advantafcs to our 

f^vi in a ftr diAerent point of raemy, wba was thus enabled to 

tiev. dispose of his hitherto blocked up 

If, indeed, the polilica of Great fleets and armaments exactly as he 
Brit^ wcR to beamK as insulated could have wished, bad they been 
a ber territory, if the were now superior in point of force, by the 
only to be regarded as a separate expedition of St. Domingo; and 
jowa, totally iud^>endent on ber further, by sfti^ing that interval, 
cmtiiKotal neighbours, and an on- which he never could ; under the 
cooamod spectator of all that circumstances which preceded the 
bnoftnr might agitate them, (and prejiminaries, have attempted, to 
ihii line of cxMiduct the finit con- encroach on his unprotected nei^' 
nil icenied magisterially to point hours, and to add the most im- 
culforher, nor were tlicre wanting poriant acquisitions to his empire 
at home some eo besotted as to tx>th in Europe and America, 
tnatle lo ihi« tlu;lale,J then. Nor did we require any conccs- 
inlod, and then oiJy. mieht the sion^ either to ourselves or our allies 
t:muof the peace be considered as- tor those advantages so acquired, 
ufcud honourable: but if,ontlie and which, injusticeandinthespirit 
(ttUiai;, agreeably to the wisdom of self-preservation, we should have 
"ad experience of ages, she was done ; on the contrary, we fell in- 
jn to consider herself as forming stead of rising in our terms, and 
icoDpancnt part of the great com- threw ourselves completely on the 
Bwniiy of Europe; if her &te n-as forbearance and generosity of the 
lo be delcnnined hy the preserva- first consul, in the hope of his not 
•ion or the cxtinciion of the ba- taking future advantage of such ma- 
boa o( power ; if she must nifest impolicy and weakness. 
Kaod ot fill with the continental The provision in the definitiv* 
p<«i'eTs; (hen. indeed, might she treaty for the sate of the properly 
icok Ibrward wttli alarm and appro- of our enonies in ihc islands ceded 
Iwnioo to the consequences of a to us, while none was m.ide for 
pact, by vhich a«quiiiiIons so British subjects under similar cir- 
"wiiious, a^ranJisement so gi- cumstanccs, was assured])-, on the 
pniic, ii\A pomer so uncontrolled, fecc of it, inefjuitable, nor could it 
"Tie secured to an insatiable, bitter, produce any other consequence save 
•ndunrekiitjng enemy. that of transfening to our enemies 

Hie first point which strikes u« an icquired and growing capital to 

incor proposed investigation of the an imniense amount, which haa 

trejiy of Amiens, is the wide, nay arisen from the spirit of enterprise, 

*Wit Qitire deriatiin of it ftuiii commercial resources, boundless 

tlK pidiminaty articles. It has activiiv, and, above oU, confidcnca 

Vot. XUV. M ia 


in the protection an4 good faith of ritorial nature ; rights which Gret 

go\ eniment, of the numerous Eng- ' Brliaia had secared at the expense 

Esh adventurers and leltlers io the of her best blood and treasure, and 

coD()ueTed colonies from France and which, at the conclusion of every 

her allies. former war, were guarded by all the 

A similar spirit of injusiice per- jealous precision with which our 

vaded llie article which related to greatest statesmen hadconducted the 

prboners of warj for, in the ex- negotiaiiuns tor peace. Toenumeraie 

change, the Russian prisoners made all that were thus abandoned by this 

in Holland by the French army fatal omission would far exceed oar 

Vk'ert set off against the Frencli pri- limits ; but we shall Instance, as 

so[ii rs taken by England ! Eiifhcient for our purpose, the pre- ; 

I'hc unprecedented and most ex- scriptive rights of the British flag, 

tinoi'dinary omission in the treaty the proud and glorious exercise of , 

of Amiens of all former treaties, which formed the best security feir 

which collectively formed the basis our national importance ; onr right 

and the security of the political of restraining French commerce ■ 

- iclations, the system of all com- in India, the principle of which i 

Knercial and territorial security, and was estalillshed by the conveotioQ | 

the best protection of all constituted of 1787 ; tiie right of carrying on 

authority, tliroi^hout Europe, was that most profitable branch of com- 

most fatal in its principles, and merce, the gum trade, on the coast 

^reatened in its baneful operation of Africa, which solely depended | 

(lie most destructive consequences upon our former treaties with | 

to tlie civilized world. It was in Francej and ibe privilege of cutting | 

ellcct stirrendcring to France the logwood in the bay of Honduras. 
light which she has constantly as- In direct contradistinction to all 

suuicd, since her revolutionary pro- established usage, the definitive ' 

jects commenced, of destroying, treaty made no mention whatever i 

wlierever her power or her influ- of any commercial arrangement be- - 

ence extended, all vestiges of re- twecn England and any of the other 

ccitcd and acknowledged public contracting parties. In her recent ' 

law, and causing all nations to treaties, concluded with Ilussia, with ' 

submit to those she has imposed in Portugal, and the Porte, France took 

their stead, and which are founded carr explicitly to put die rights of 

upon those treaties which she had navigation and commerce on the 

since that period obtained, by force most advantngcous footing for her- 

or fraud, from most of the powers sv\{; whilst that of Amiens pass- 

of Europe. Independently of the ed over such subjects as of no im- 

■urrender of the general principlcj porlance : by which omission we 

■which at once reduces all former virtually sunendcred out trade with 

treaties, prior to thnt of Amiens, to Spain, with Holland, with Portu- 

useless InnilxT, this abrogation af- g.?l, Tuscany, Genoa, in short, with 

fected (inasmuch as it placeil in every poAver under the contrd and 

3 dispuinMe point) many rights influence of France ; and whic^ 

and privileges of Great Britain, of might have been prcsened by an 

:iu liL.iiorary, comntcrcial, and ter- adherence to those principles of 




segotinioQ that have bren lanc- port any contest against that vaat 
iknoi bf all former experience and power which this peace has con- 
bj all ibrraer usage. firmed to France } or, can we sup- 

llie abandonment of our allies pose that any Eiinpean power will 
Hswcberandamclancliol)' instance ever again risk ihelussof colonies, as 
of tbe deviation of the treaty under Portugal, or oFpolitical existence, ai 
oar consideration, from all former the prince of (S-jn^e, upon the ho- 
ooes, the more eitraordinary, as it iioiir and good faith of Great Bri- 
wu pretended, that so far from being tain ? 

worsted we bad been victorious in Thus Git have we considered the 
the contest ; and when we under- ■ treaty as differing from all those 
took expressly to stipulate for them, that preceded it; our next object wilt 
(tbe prioce of Orange and the queen be to show wherein it ditfei'ed from 
of Portugal are those to whom we the preliminaries,^ to which tlic mi- 
direcily allude,) the article pro- nistry were solemiJy pledged, and 
fesKdly in favour of the former was to which alone the sanction of par- 
to uiKfefiDcd and loose, that he is lianmit had been given, 
left at the mercy of his enemies by We ha^■e already, in a former 
it; he is not only expriled frrm part of our work, shown, that while 
his coantry and his high situation. Great Britain was inetFectually urg- 
in ooDsequence of his alliance with ing the lennination of the treaty at 
OS, bnt the miserable indemnilica- Amiens tor four tedious months of 
tion for his vast losses, which he is suspense and anxiety, France, ever 
jmmtsed there, is fraudulently intent on her projects of a^ran- 
withheU from him by that power disement, had, in lliat time, added 
who ought in justice to b^ve pro- a con^iiderable portion of Italy to 
vidcd il, and which must in the her European empire, and had 
event be given to him by the vauntingly promulged her clandej- 
deetnosynary bounty of the British tine and fraudulent treaties with 
naiioo. Spain and the Forte, by which 

Both in Europe and in America, Louisiana, Parma and its dcpen- 
notwithstanding the express condi- dencics, the island of Elba, and 
lioo that the inteerily of Portugal the Hade of the Leiant, were se- 
should be preser^■ed, has that power curely and solidly attached to her 
been compelled to make the most dominion. These acquisitions coti- 
imporiant sacrifices. A large pro- sidcrcd generally, during the nego- 
portion of the Portugueze Guiana ; tiDtion for p<^^ace, entirely altered 
the command of the navigation of the relative situation of the two 
the river Amazons, with the pro- great contracting powers : they 
tince of CHivenia, are the cessions weic no longer situated as they were 
which she has been called upon to at the signing of the preliminaries^ 
makcand are thebitter fniilsof her and to have placed them again on 
fidelitytoGreat Briain. Tlmshave the same fooling, some equivalent 
we cut up by the roots the prospect should have bci;n given to Great 
of fiiiure alliance with any of the Britain or her allies, 'Jliat this was 
puwen of Europe, by this flagrant not done, nor that it was ever re- 
breach of policy and good faith, quired to be done, we have suf- 
Aod without alliances can we sup- liclent and mebncholy proof. 

.M 2 But 


Butifwelook morenarrowly into adopted in Piedmont, Lombardy. 

ttie nalute of thcK acqui»lions, wr and Spain, all the property of the 

slwll find that they were for the order of the knights of St. John 

most part such as rendered it im- of Jerasalem, who were the sove- 

possible for Grtat Britain, wirhout reigns of Malta. In the treaty 

giving up every principle on which of Amiens »he had introduced in the 

they were framed, to execute some proposed constitution of the island 

of the most important arliclea of (to which indeed the English mi> 

the treaty. nistiy consented) an article by which 

Passing orer Louisiana, Parma, the spirit of democracy wotdd in its 
and the Isle of Elba, and consider- operation be completely diffused 
ing them only under the head of throughout it, than which nothing 
immense additional dominion to could be now ^ourable to French 
France, and, as such, grounds suffi- views and pslicy. And now, by the 
cient fur -breaking off ihe treaty, or recent acquisitisn of the wtnJe of 
at least requiring an ample equiva- the north of Italy, tlie future pos- 
lent to Great Britain had our ne- session of the island to France wai 
gotiation gone'on with spirit, we rendered as practicable as it wai 
shall confine ourselves solely to the eagerly coveted by that power j for 
consequences which inevitably at- as Naples would now be alwayi at 
tached to the annexation of the the mercy of her near and power- 
Italian republic to the French cm- fill neighbour, she could not dare 
pire. to dispute the orders of the Coh' 

The importance of the possession sul- President ; so that to give up 
of the bland of Malta, and the jea- Malta to Naples was, in cfiect, ■ 
lousy with which it was regarded virtual surrender of that important 
by Great Britain and France, need station to France, which in oar pos- 
not here be expati.ited upon. Every session in peace would have secured 
precaution was su^ested to presene our trade in the Levant, " would 
it independent ; ihe principal was, have interposed between the ambi* 
the placing it in the hands of Na- tion of France and Egypt, and, in 
pies, until it should be able, from time of war would have been a 
its own revenue and resources, to watch-tower in the storm to direct 
protect iuelf. It was of course to the frighted natives (rf Italy to the 
be evacuated by the British force haven of British protection." 
then in possession. That the Eng- Such were the principal pointi 
lish ministr)' were sincere in their in which tlie spirit and the letter 
wish for the fulfilment of these of the preliminaries were violated 
stipulations there i'! liltle ^oubt. by the di'finitive treaty. The general 
Their eagerness to conclude a peace policy ofits provisions are nest to b« 
upon any terms was sufficiently ap-' coniidcrcd ; and here the bare con- 
parent. What the objects of France trastofoiir situation at the siguingof 
were il is not more difficult to de- tlic preliminaries, and at that of the 
termine; she had already struck at di'linitivelreaQr, will sufficiently en- 
thc possibility of tlie island's ever able the reader to judge for himself. 
becoming independent, by confi.s- At the first of thtsc lx•riod^^ we had 
cati.i" in her own dorainion.s, and conquered colonii-s which alone im- 
prociTrint; the wine- measure lo be tvncdbi-uvccn two and three mil- 



iiaea jearij; we commanded and have presented the effects of tliat 
vc ptoseued the cammercc 9f the hostile spirit which our implacable 
waUj we bad the matt impor- enemy hud constantly, and even 
(ant miliury stations in both he- pending the negotiation, manifested 
Doi^iaa; our enemy was crip- against our trade ? 
[M in bis resouToes, and a pri- But the pacific intentions and dls- 
vaia in his own ports j our ex- position of the first conrail has been 
prases, though vast, were not more un^ed, and that too by adminiitra- 
ilm commensurate with our means, tion, in the great council of the na- 
mpporccd as they were by the in- tion, as an excuse and a security for 
oast, indeed total monopoly, of the terms of the peace. On the iin- 
trade; and our resources and pub- policy of making that depend upon 
licipirit rigorohsandunimpaircd. At the life or temper of an individu:)!, 
lielaLtercpoch.we had surrendered which should have been placed far 
Sl Domingo and the West India beyond tiie reach of such precarious 
iiliads, Pondicherry and the East coutiugency, it is needless to re- 
India teulements, Malta and the mark ^ but it Is worth while to con- 
Cape! It is true, at the expense of sider upon what data they t'ormcd 
<nr ancient allies we were to receive thissof.ivourable an opinion of him ; 
Cejlon and Trinidad. Were these nor can it be easily decided, whetlier 
la equipoise to the immeuse recent it arose from his having, from the 
acquisitions of France i the rivers moment of the signature of the prei 
Aauaoi and Missisuppi with Lou- liminaries, persecuted our commerce 
iiina io America ; her usurpa- in the most direct manner ; or bis 
tioQ of Italy ; her union of the having, during the negotiations at 
Netherlands ; her frontier of the Amiens, made the most important 
lUiine i\jcr almost direct dominion acquisitions by fraudulent means ; 
<><>« Spain and Holland i her king- or hb clandestine and injurious Irea- 
nukiog inEtruria) her seizure of ties witli ihe other powers of Europe, 
Ihe tSoit valuable pan of the Sardi- in opposition, and pointed dirtcily 
Dian dominions j in fine, her mpid at tlie interests of Great Britain; or 
Jpproaeh to universal nionarclty ? his direct robbery of the king of 
And for what did we acquiesce in Naples ; or his intemp^^te inicr- 
diii enormous system of aggrandise- fereuce in the concerns of every 
mem- For what bad v/e been so neighbour j or, was it forgotten by 
pnxl^ of this imeiampted mass tliem, thatthe first consul wasBona- 
of cession? For an armed peace; parle, llie man who planned, and 
for a small deduction of expense ; commanded theexpedition to Egypt, 
iw the diminution of oinrconmicrce On the whole, then, it must be 
by the reatoratioa to France and concluded, upon every principle of 
«r allies of the vast colonial pos- human reason, from every deduction 
KSiioDs we had enriched by the from analogy or experience, that 
capital and exertions of our mcr- . the peace of Amiens carries within 
dianis and settlers, and by our it the spirit of inevitable and speedy 
lisriDg omitted, in the negotiation warfare ; diat its duration will be 
« Amiens, contrary to invariable determined soldy by the convent- 
pdicy, to enter into any coinnier- ence of the first consul ; or by die 
(ial airangemcat, wliicb might moment when the conquered colo- 
M 3 nies 


nies shall be restored ; or finally by increase of the ptnver of France, and 
the caprice and ambition of the most the ex'i'nt of her present sea'Coasts, 
ancontroUed, most powerful, and rrqiiired a much greater state of pte- 
therefore most dangcroaSj despot pamtion for ddbnce 011 our side than 
Europe ever saw*. was formerly netesswry. The con- 
Thc remainder jof the eession was ititution of ihis country did not war- 
occupied by a great press of public rant a large mtl'iLiry force in titne rf 
business.butwhichgavcriseto few, peace: the people naiumlly looted 
and comparatively very unimport- to it with jealousy ; and -the niilLUi 
«nt, debates ; which we-shall, how- was considered the most consiiiu- 
ever, as concisely as possible, lay in tional deteiice of ihe coitntr>'. Ihe 
their order before our readers. number (60,000) which was now 
On tlic 26ih of May, when the proposed, was no mote than what 
order of the day was read in the was the ancient es(ablish[n(;nt of the 
house of lords for the second read- militia, when the ioi:mry' « si less 
ing of the militia bill, populous th.iii it is at pn-aent, by 
Lord Hobart rose to-explain the nearly three millions of people. Of 
nature of the bill. As to its first this number: only 40 OOO were to 
object, the consolidation of the <-a- be called out in the first rnslance; 
rious militia laws iK)w existing, this but his mjjcsty was to have the 
yas, he believed, a measure which power of increasing the number, u 
would be iMiiversally approved of by he judged necrssa''y. 
their lordships ; but he was aware, LordFitZM-iilisinhad no ..hjcction the second object of the bill, to that part of the bill which uent 
which went to augment the militia, to the consolidation of the former 
might aflbrd some objections. Some militia bills ; but he objected strongly 
noble lords might think, that minis- to tliat part which w-e nt to a ccnsi- 
ters bad no confidence in the per- dombic augmentation ol tlie milllii 
e of the peace ; he could as- forces. He saw no reason existing 
?m, thai was not the case; now, to justify a measure which 
s hoped, iliat the same spi- would be scvrcly fell l^> the pei^le 
ril of conciliation which induced at large. He't -i i] cunsider- 
France to enter the peace able tbrce nod te^ -'i^ on tlie hard- 
would also incline her to presenc it; ships which the ^o-t votild feel ly 
but it was notorious, from the increasing the ni'nihpt of the mili- 
changes which the last war had tia. The richtat pier paid no mote 
made in the relative situation of the to raise the militia than the poorest 
powers of the continent, that more farmer on hi:, pnaie, tior the most 
thati our ancient peace establish- wealthy meiclwoi than the porter 
meut, or ordinary precautions, was whe carried out parcels from bii 
necessary in the present circum* door. The rich could easily put- 
Uiinces of afiairs. Ths immense chase exemption; while the poor, 

• It W!i5 as wwely as il wai aciilriy remaifci 'l; by one of ihc gtratcst statesmen of 
- this 01 of any other >gt, thai (he ttealy of Amiens had been roncludcd on iwo princi- 
ples directly ojipoiite ; and, on each, in opposirion lo ouc own interests. France fji 
allowed (o treat upon the u'ijMuWtrii, wtille Great Britain has been comeni lonego- 
liate un (be ilalu fuo anit lellam. On eilhci piinciiilc, solely agicd on, ((ic balux^i: 
f r pDw« mi|ht have been preserved. 



vtwonld not aRbrd to pay for snb- it at the time, because he was given 

nituw, were obliged to forsake to understand, tliat the exigency of 

(faciralUi^s, by wnich their iami- the times was so pressing, that it 

fies atre supported, and now serve waa necessary to get men for the 

in liie militia. It was principaltyoo army in ahnost any way. As to the 

(be ground of this inequality, and last peace, whetbn' it was a secui* 

Hk militia system acting as a heavy one, or as 1)ad as he considered it, 

niDDal tax on the poorer classes, in either case he approved of the 

itai be should oppose the augmenta- augmentation of the militia, both on 

tioD ofil beyond what was absolute- account of the present state of £u- 

if necessary. On the« grounds he rope, and to prevent the necessity 

novedj that the second reading of raising new corps at the com- 

ihould be postponed till that day mencement of another war, as we 

[hrte mouths. had done in the two last. 

Lord Caernarvon thoi^ht that Lord Komney followed nearly the 
tbe militia system had been much same line of argument which bad 
tnjuTcd by tbe many dianges it had b^n taken by lords Pitzwilliam an^ 
received of late in the war office, Caernarvon, and voted for tbe post-> 
wbfli the secretaries affected to con- poning of the second reading, 
sidei the militia as but an awkward Lord Darijey supported the bill, 
amif, which specially required their and said he could not see wby,dyr 
rapnintendence ; and he considered 4O,000 was a consdtutional militia 
this hill as a consolidation of all the esiablisbment, the addition of 20,000 
mischiefs which the former changes to the number, In case of emcr- 
had brought about. His lordship geucy, could make it unconstitu* 
agreed entirely with lord Fttzwil- tioual. He thought this a much bet- 
lam, as to die inequality of the tax, ter way, than to be obliged to have 
wbich fed] principally on the poor, recourse to the raising new corps at 
and from which many of the rich the commencement of every war, 
were entirely exempt ; but all of Tlie earl of Radnor approved of 
(hirin could exempt them^lves at the augmentadon iu the milida, on 
the expense of paying a subsdlute. the gruiuid that the relative situation 
TTie families of those who serve in of tlie country is very diflereni now 
the militia are alio left as a burden from what it was at the end of the 
m those who pay the poor's rates. American war, and dierefore the 
He al'o objected to that pari of the peace est;d)lishmcnt must neccs^- 
biil wbtrh dispensed with the antient rily be considerably larger. He dis- 
qiuiitiiation in land li>r subaltern approved very luuch of drafting 
otBcers. men trom tbe militia to die reifu- 
The marquis of Buckingham sup- lars, which was iu fact making- 
potied tbe bill. He had himself mere recruiting scrjeanls of the 
>pen< some of the happiest years of many noblemen and gentlemen who 
bii life iu the militia, and was as were officers in the militia. He 
much attached to it as any man. coniidered that this made a very 
He had felt it ii% a viobtion of die cificient part of the del'eiiiive force 
principles of the militia system, to of the empire, and concluded by 
•haft men from those regiments into supporting die bill, 
c^ regulars; bat he did not oppose Lord Pelham denied that any 
M 4 unfatt 


Iinfair arts were made use of to en- day for the second reading of the 
tice the soldiers of the militia to en- bill to abolish bull>baitjng. 
list in lUe r^ular army. He said Sir Richard Hill seconded the mo- 
that his Doble friend (lord Hot>art) tion, \a a speech which showed a 
had been much misunderstood, . considerable degree of feeling. Af- 
whcn be was sapposcd to say, that fer some very forcible a^unients, 
this peace had every aj^iearancc of drawn from Chat degree ofcompas- 
btring lasting : his ai^ument was sion and mersy to Ihe bnite creation 
. inerdy, that, whether it was likely which the feellngH of homanity and 
to be lasting or not, still the present the precept^; of the gospel equally 
measure was advisable, on account prescribe, he read same- extracts 
of the altered state of France. He from the Suf^ newspaper, and le- 
contended, that the power of calling veral private letters from the moct 
out the supplementary militia did respectable quarters, to prove the 
not at all deprive that house of its degree of cruelly which 'was of^ea 
constitutional privilege of voting practised on those animaH, to give 
what army it judged expedient ■, for them that degree of fury which was 
whenever the crown should judge it necessary to wind them up to the 
necessary to call out the supplemen- stale fit to aftbrd the most amuse- 
tary militia, miuisters must apply ment at their baiting. The honour- 
to parliament for money for their able baronet coacUided by support- 
pay and clothing; and every noble ing the bill very strongly, both on 
lord would have an oppormnity of the ground of humanity and reli- 
dclivering his sentiments on the al- gion. 

legcd necessity. He could by no Mr. Windham, in a very long airf 

means admit, that the- burden of able speech, opiwsed tJic second 

the militia was unequally divided as reading of the bill. He said, thai 

had been stated, or that it was the practice of bull-baiting was dy- 

Ihrown on the poor more than on ing away of itself, and was by no 

the rich : he had heard there were means universal in this country : it 

clubs where, upon a poor man's required no legi^ativc iuterfereoce, 

subscribing half a guinea, a substi- and he thought tlie discussion of 

tute would be tbund for him if pahry local complaints were unwra- 

drawn. He concluded by profess- thy of the legislature of a great na- 

ing his decided opinion of the abso- tion, and more particularly so at ' 

lute necessity of the measure. times like the present, which called 

The question was then put on the for the most serious attention from 

second reading of the bill, and car- that house. He not only conceived 

ried by a ma^rity of 22 to 6, this discussion entirely lieneath the 

On the 24Ui of May there was a dignity of the house, but objected 

very animated debate in the house to the uianiier it was1>rought for- 

of commons, en a subject perhaps ward and suppcated. It had been 

not interesting to the general politics considered in a minute, micro»co[HC 

of the country ; butwitli respect to manner^ and the suHerings of the 

the morals of the lower class of peo- bull appeared the only object which 

pie, and ihegeneral causeof huma- had been considered. Ibis was by 

nity, of considerable importance. no means a fair mode of judging. 

Mr. Dent moved the order of the The face of the most lovely female 



vmU not bear this sort of e:f ami- known th&t the tones of an organ' 
natka -, and beauty itself would ap- did nut otFend so much the ears of 
pear deformed, if microscupicaUy a pUTitaii, as did the notes of a £ddto 
ounlDed. 'Hiere were two great those of a magistrate who was DOt 
parties oaited in this attempt to re- himself of tbe party. The whole 
fbm [be morals of the people: fint, oeiglibourhoud of Berkeley- square 
ibe mcthodists, who wish to banish was thrown tbe other night into tlie 
aJlsporti and joy from the people, greitestcommotionandalarm, at the 
in order that their minds may be discovery that some domestics were 
naie prepared for the reception of assembled at a neighbouring public- 
their ^natical doctrines; secondly, house, and were actually dancing 
tbe jacobins, who also wished to to the music of a llacifiJtIla: With 
gitea character of keviousness and what different feelings did Sterne 
gmnty to tbe people, that their at- enter into and describe the arouse- 
teation might be easier turned to ments of the lower ordc^ of society ! 
their polidi^ theories. Infaccthaie After denying that cruelties, such 
Ivo parties seemed now to be united as had been described, were usually 
together, lo banish all rural sports, pmctised on bulU that were to be 
and de:itroy tbe old English charac- ' bailed, he ridiculed, with great force, 
ler. He doubled whether a bidl- that delicate and fejninine eompas- 
tuiier, or 3 sportsman, had ever dis- sion, and that meiliodistical mercy, 
linguished himself in disaffection, in which he conceived the bill to 
was a member of Uie correspond- originate. He concluded by op- 
ing society. The game that they posing the second v&idiiig of the 
buated was kings and govern- bill. 

meals. However ftr removed me- Mr. Courtenay replied to Mr. 

thodism and jacobinism might ap- Windham, in a s]>eech repbte with 

peario be from each other, yet they wit and humour. He could not, 

mutually prepared i he mind for the howeter, conceive the subject tri< 

reception of the doctrines of ihe fling, when the right honourable 

oilier parly. He tbcu contended, gentleman had so clearly proved 

that bwse-racing and hunting were how many advantages result from 

more immoral amusements than ci- the practice of bull-bailing : be bad 

iher boiing or bull-baiting. At a shown that metliodism and jacobin- 

horK-race, he said, there was al- ism were l)o(h leagued against the 

wart collected die rabble of every practice, and that reform had been 

neighbouring lown, the sharpers of prevented, and the constiUiliun sav- 

ihe metropolis, markers at billiard ed, by thecontimianceof it. Surely, 

tables, apprentices who have em- tlien, the house could not hesitatein 

beiilcd tlieir masters' property ; in tluowing out the bill. He had also 

short, intiimous chamciers of every shiiwn, that the bull lias a pleasure 

description. In hunting, the animal in being baited, and expritiated on 

that was bunted siifiered as much as the great merits of the old English 

a btdl dial Is baited. The rich have breed of hull-dogs. It might hap- 

their sports, tJteir balls, tlieir parties pen, that a Cursican bull would be 

ui' pleasure, and dicir pic nks : why some time or another to be baited ; 

wrethepoor tobeenviodcveryen- in sncii case the enemies of the 

JDyment of lilt: i And vet it was pence would liavc fine amusismcnt, 

■4 and, 

., ,. . ..^le 


and, like Spanish knights, ini^lit av coiiid it be supposed, (liat a martial 

sume new titles on the apprn;tt!iirig spirit could be cultivated bya pmc-' 

bnll-fii^ht. One might be called lice as cowardly as it was cruel } for 

Don Phmhoso Lumlngo; arituhcr, in tbis savage amusement, the bull 

the Knii^ht of the Sorrowful Cmm- i^ tied in a stake, and fights under 

leiiance, and so on. He concluded e4ory disadvantage. He was asin- 

by iroujcajly declaring, that from niilied thai his right honourable 

those consiileiatioos he i.;ust oppose trJcud could for a moment have 

-the bill. ^ . compared it (o horse-racing, where Gascoync considered tlic animals who are contending 
bu!l-b:.iting as ;in amusement 10 suffer notliing at all. He conceived 
which the lower liass was entitled, tliat, without cruelty or savage 
and a subject not jirciNT for llie in- aninsenients, the people of England 
terfercnce of-tlie Icgisl.atnre, He could find in their sports and athletic 
was sarrj- id sec a di-^position among exercises sufficient recreations ; he 
many luenibcrs of the house to therefore was a friend to the bill. 
deprive the [Kior of their rccrea- Mr. Wilji.-im Smith declared, he 
tions, .ind force thtm to pass their thought the right honourable gen- 
time (Juriiing at conventicles. He licnian, fr<4n the terrors of jacobin- 
hoi):'d ihc measure would be i-i- ism, had grmc as wilil as, any bull 
jeci-d. which euT was bailed. He consi- 

Mr, Witberfaree was of oj^^ninn, deredb'iil-liaiiing as a disgrace to 

thai iliis aniusemtiit fosteri.l every the country; as- a praebcc that 

bail and base priiic'^ile of human li^iided to bruldize the lower orders 

nnuu'e ; and he was so:iy to lind it of people : he therefore ihougbi it 

had so iiblc an advocite an his rii<Iit ought as soon as possible lo be abo- 

hon'p"rflbk friend. He had made liihed, 

dili^ inquiry into this practice, Mr. Newbolt expressed a similar 

and, from the most respectable tvi- opinion. 

deuce, was coii\inced that shcck- Mr. FrankJand spoke at consider- 

ii;g barbarities were practi-.ed to aide lengih against the bill. He 

give ihe bull tliat degree of ferocity deprecated, what he conceived, ihe 

which was necessary for the amuse- too freijiicnl appeals made to ihe 

ni< nt. of tlie siKctaiors. Sometimes passions of the house. He com- 

the horns were sawed off, and a pared this sport of the vuigar nilh 

punr^cnt liiiuid poured into them : the sprtris of the rich : he instanced, 

at otiier times, tire was UFcd-lo sii- particularly, stag-hnnting, when the 

mulaie their CKcrtions. " Wretched animal was ieU and pampered up, 

indeed muit be i\v.: condition of the mit with a view of torture, butllwt 

lower oftlers of Englishmen, if all it nii;.;hi yield belter Sport. It often 

their hai'p'ness was confined to seeh hiipper.eil that the stag lost his life 

barbarities." S;;rh a libel uj^on liic in the chase: sometimes his heart 

lower Orders of Euglishmen woiiid was broken; at other times the 

be a siroii^^' aigULniiit indeed iiir ja- dogs nould fasten upon his chest 

cobius to use. It has been a re- and tear him lo pieces^ and yet it 

ceived, and justly approved of, no- would be a libel on our sovereign 

lion, that tlie mast brave wereui^u- and tiie most esalled characters in 

■Uy the most bumane. How then tlic nation) to call this a sav^ 



fpoct. It wcnild be also a libel on rity. He felt, inii'-ed, for the irri- 
4k cMUtitucion, which had pro- lation of mind which that right 
wH a fixed estibliahment for this honourable gentleinaii must feel on 
po^pojc. In the petitions which account of the pi-are, and did not 
were presented in favour of tli is bill, wonder at hisendcaiimiing now to 
he ccwid not but obsene that the foment a war bi,iwec[i Uie dos;-; and 
vonfing was almost exactly the the bulls. It was :i little astniiish- 
Hmc, and that there were a ?reat ing, however, that that ri^ht honour- 
aumber of Mollis and JfTUiirs able gentlnnan, who had cimsidercd 
Kionj the petitioners. He then ' tlii' subiect ot so little importance, 
fcibwed uearly the same line of shmild yet suppose ii to be lliejoint 
inimneDt that Mr. Windham had cftijci of methodi^m andjai'obiiiiim, 
Bten, and concluded by opposing leagued against tlie coii-.filutioo. 
Ibrbil). He denied th.ii there wa* ;iiiysimi- 
Mr Sheridan said, he should not litude at all 1!('mi--ii thi.s savage 
have spoken on the question, if it amuicmi :ii, and ilio-e of hunting, 
was not for some observations which sIiooiilu;, or (i^hiiiy;, and he wa» 
bid flilleii from the last speaker, nni -urpriscd at Ir.,:::iiig au hi.tiour- 
Heailirit doubtedseriously whether abtead\ocate for Hi" practice .say, 
be did MOt mean to oppose l!v' bill tha lie li iJ been ■-■' t:ii-.i; t\hibitiuns 
in thi; same ironical way, in which over and over a^.i.'i. li w's, indeed, 
it had b--en opposed by a friend of ncc''s-,iry to be a fri'iiuciii -peciator, 
bis' (Mr. Counenay),-bul on at- in order to be iniirej .o ^ticli s>o|io, 
tndingio the animation witii which Tliat i^^iitleman r.dJed, tlot It 
be delivered his senTimmts. -he »ai nut for the s;i'm- of cruelly tliat 
diiewere-i thathe was seriou':. One the animal w:is tnrfircit, but tor 
gentleman (general G.i.seoyne) had sport. It was if little con<e(iuence 
aid, that bull-o.Titing added many on what account cnidty was prac- 
Tfcni^ti lotiie army in Lancashire, ti>.ed on anliiia';; whether Irom 
and increased ihc population of the beastly appctiu', ib; clfcct ofglut- 
couulrv". This would be a very tony: whethi-r lri,i'i mere sport, 
good argimienttoa recruiting str- or !ro;n dowuriglit wickedness : tl.o 
jeant, but a very bad one to the animal sutftrcd eq^ial torturea in 
ho'aie. As to the riglit honourable everj- ca^e. As (■■r our deriving 
gcollcman"s (Mr. \Vi.,dhara) pro- us< t;d Ici.wn^ iVoiu anim.d.s, he cou- 
oooneing tlie.-iubjeit to bL -o trifling ft-iicd it was iiii<'ii the ca.s-, but it 
as to be unworthy the serious coii- w:;* tr- oi auimal.i in a stjie of 
lideration of the house, if he had nature, and no', of torture and co- 
really thoiight it so, be would not ercion. Youiuiy 
brc deemed it necessary to make ,. l„„. fro,„ n,- NjuhIomo nil.' 
10 elaborate a speech ou tlic occa- 
sion : a speech abounding iu quota- but nothing but barbiiity a)id tho 
tinns froai ail authors ancient and mo,t savage crutliy could bo 
n;cirin. It' ht had but di-i^laycd h-ar'ied from ilie s)-.ix-m of bull- 
u miicli ability, address, and elo- bait;ng as now pnciicd. Such 
quence, in the discu,,ion on t!io practices called for L'^^i.sljiive in- 
definitive tre.ity, he viould probably tcrf^Teocc, as degr.iciio^ liie na- 
flothavcbeMikftinsosiiullaminu- tional character, UnJjiig to bru- 

. ^le 


talize the prople, and being, an tlic feelings of every memberoftlut 

ollence contra bonos mores. Whether huuse. He did not mean on ihat 

luagistrates had by the existing law occasion to enter into a long dis- 

a power to prevent iliese exliibitions cussion on ihc slave trade ; hesliotild 

of cruelty he knew not, but thought merely refer to the recorded opiiuou 

it time to apply a remedy to the of tiiat bou^ upon the subject. He 

evil, ileither wished to depreciate ihe 

After a abort reply from Mr. lalue ofTrinidada, or lo obstruct. 
Dent, ita improvement. He did not wiiji 
General Gascoyne rose, and moved to embarrass ihc present govern- 
as an amaidmeol, that the bill nient by tlie discussion ; but be 
sliould be read thi.s day lliree should have felt it his duty, ttiider 
moQihs ; which amcadmait being any administration thai could exist, 
adopted by a majority of Uiirteeu, to Jay before parliament those im' 
ilie bill was lost tor tlie session. ' portant considerations which ap- 

On the 27th of May, a debate peared to him to flow from the 

took place in the house of commons cultivation of newly acquired scttlc- 

ou Mr. Canning's motion respecting ments in tbe West Indies, He 

the cultivation of the isle ofTrinidad. should first, however, mention this 

Mr. Cannfog tiegan his speech by fact, tiiat very shortly after the 

mentioning, that having been pre- signing of the pieliminaries, a paper 

vented from giving his epinion in was circulated, not only in the 

parliament, on the definitive treaty, city of London, but in the Leeward 

by circumstances which it was not islands, purporting lo be a copy uf 

necessary to explain, he should not, the plan for the allotment and sale 

now that tt bad received tlie sane- of (he unclaimed lands in tbe island : 

tiou of parliament, attempt to give this paper contained such a descrip- 

bis opinion Ujion it, but should tion of the fertility and situation uf 

con5ne his attention to cinisidering this colony, as must hold out strong 

how to make the best of the peace temptiitiona to tbe monied men, A 

we have concluded. It was merely notice was iilso given in that house 

with this intention that he had now by the clianccllor of the exchequer, 

risen, to call the attention of the that for defraying the debt of tlic 

house to one of those in)porlant ac- civil lint, there would probably be 

quisitions which we h^id retained, a sale of tlie crown lands in the 

namely, the island of Trinidada. West India islands. Putting these 

It was the connection between that circumnlancos together, he had 

which appeared the only mode of taken the liberty of putting a que»- 

brrnging this island into cnliivaiion, tion to the chancellor of tlie cx- 

and iJie opinion whicli llie house chequer in that house, wbetlier 

and the public had already exitrcssed this intention extended to tlie nn- 

on the African slave trade, which claimed lands in Trinidad. Not 

first turned his thoughts to this sub- ha*ing recei\ed any explicit answer 

ject. Ifihcwhole islandwas tobe to tliat queMJon, he saw no olber 

atonCe brougiit into cultivation by course thini to bubmit tbe matter 

newly imported negroes, it would to tbe opinion of parliament. He 

produce an extension of the slave wished to prevent the immediate, 

trade to a decree, w Inch must appal and, as it would strike him, llic 



inrprovidcnt sale of the lands in in the slave tra^e which pleasej 
Trinidad, in a manner which must them for its own sake. With those 
compkKiy frustrate the opinion men he could hold no arf;«inent : 
abtidj Mprrssed by that house on he had no fellow feetingwiih them; 
tbe qoesiion of the slave tniile. He the constitutions of their mitids 
did not mean in the slightest degree must be totally diHerent from what 
to touch the slave trade as it now his was. The second class wai 
aisti, or the vested inieresti of those who wished for a total repeal, 
tbe Weit India merchants; on the and would disapprove of what ap- 
coDtrary, he wished to maintain peared to them to be only half 
ihem against those dangers which measures. Only l-25th of the 
be thought this unlimited extension island was now in cultivation, and 
«<■ the sbve trade would threaten there were 10,000 negroes there 
them with. There were twotlistinct already: locullivate the whole would 
points to which he should direct rcfjuire 250,000, at a moderate 
hii argument: 1st, how far the calculation. Jamaica contained a§ 
house is pledged nut to adopt any many in I79l> and yet tlie number 
meamre, which must operate to a of acres lit for sugar were less thaa 
great extension of the slave trade ; in Trinidada, Jamaica had been 
and, 2d, what is the best account nearly a century and a half in arriving 
to which Trinidada could be turned at its present slate of cultivation, 
in every view of colonial and na- and was in 1763 in nearly the same 
tiotial policy? In arguing on the slate as Trinidad at present. Above 
fint ptunt, he desired the resolution 800,000 negroes had been imported 
c^tbe house of commons, of the 2d into Jamaica during ihal time ; and 
of April 1792, 'to be read, "that iftherewas 3 question of suddenly 
the slave trade ought to be gndiially cultivating such an iiland as Trini- 
aboli<ihed ;" as also Ihe address of dad, we must make up our mindi 
the 6lh of Aptil 1797. to his to ihedfstruclionofa miUionof the 
majesty, "praying that he would human species. Besides, in a military 
direct such measures to be taken, point ofvifw, Trinidad would thea 
as should gradually diminish the be as weak as any other West India 
onressity, and lead to the termina- setilement, where the populatioa 
tion of the slave trade j" togeiher would be as much to be dreaded a* 
with his majesty's answer to that the itivading enemy, and would 
Mddress, ■' dial he would give di- employ as much of our force. He 
rections accordingly." He then wiihed, on the oilier band, thatthii 
wery forcibly apcealed to those who island siiould be peopled, not by an 
had voted for that resolution and immense importation of slaves, but 
ihat address, M^icthcr they did not by encouiiigeim-ni held out to set- 
conceive themselves now bound, by tiers, which might be drawn from 
(heir fomtor solemn resolutions, to the meritorigus r^iuks of our Wi^st 
interfere against a measure, tending India regiments, and also from the 
greatly to increase the evil tlieij free blacky and Creoles of the other 
comphined of He cotild not ap- islands. Besides those sources of 
prebend ahy diffcreuce of opinion, a new population, tlicrc was a hardy 
except from two classes of persons : race of men. who annually fre- 
Ac 1st, those who saw ^omedung qucnted the island fiijm the neigh- 


bouring coniinent. Thosp men 

might he it)d;:: a lo settle bv proper 
encourn 'fmem, :ind wnu'i make 
a hardy mill.: i (br (he drlente of 
the coiinlry. There wa'^ also about 
1000 nntive on i:.~ island, 
which would lay a ff 11:1 Jaiioi: for 
a nativf p;:i)L! He concluded, 
by movir,^ an adore-^s to hii; mijesty, 
" jjnyicig him- not to .^nenafe any 
ot the iindcared I„-,,i i^ T-ii„riad, 
unless upon liie condliiuii thai tliey 
were not to be cultivaied by ne- 
groes newly iniforted from Alrica," 
The Chancellor of il-.e Exchequer 
«aid, (tat he 1 • ii'A not bj* any means 
agree with tl;e motion of the ho- 
noanib'c genileiiian, and yet did not 
wiih to ^i\e it 3 decided negative. 
He Khould therefore take a middle 
!o\:t -.e, 'i'lie honourable gentleman 
bad nienlio.ied, that be wns induced 
to (nrn his attention to this siibjecl 
by t"'o reasons : 1st, a rumour of 
the pi. in Ibr ihi' sale of these lands ; 
and, 2d, a kind of notice which 
h;id fallen frr-ni him, that he con- 
sidered as a confitmation of it. As 
lo the nnnour, he cnuld assure Ijini 
thai it had never reached liis cars, 
and as to what w;is coiisitltied a 
ntitii-e from him, cf (Ire intention 
of rii^ixKing of all ihe crown lands 
in the Wc*i Indies, he nei ei Ihouglu 
of Trinidad, at the tiuie he tJin-w 
out soEDcthingof ihesaloot'^aiids in 
the West ]r.,'":( s ; St. Vincent's was 
Ihe island mIiic. was then in his 
conteinplaii'-n. He always wi^l.rd 
as much as possible to increase ihe 
white and creole ijopnlation of the 
West Indies. Ikcimld net. how- 
ever, view the island of Trinidr'.d in 
any o(h<.r li^ht than as conuecd'd 
■with our West Indi.T possi'sstons, 
taking them (til togi-iberj and in 
this point of view he iniist consider 
the slave trade, as applied to titii 

island, to be only a branch of the 

general question of the slave trnde, 
wiiich the honourable gentleman 
had left to sleep for many vears, in 
which he sat high in (>fiicc, and 
which his humanity had not taken 
the alarm U[Jon, iintii peace threw 
this valuable island into our posses- 
sion : and yet, during the last five 
or six years, there had been most 
considerable impor(alions of slaves 
into St. Lucia, Martinique, Dema- 
rara, Essetjuibo, and Berbice, placet 
which neither the honourable «n. 
t'lcman, nor ^is colleagues io omx, 
whu conducted the negotiations at 
Lisle, ever cupecied would be left 
by the peace in Jie po^bession of 
this country, whereas this island 
now constituted a valuable portion 
of (he British empire. As to the 
principle of the resolution of (be 
house of commons, " that the 
slave trade shot '.Id be gradually 
abolishfii," to tliai principle hepro- 
fcssedhimself a friend now as much 
as ever; but it musi be confessed Ihat 
circunjstanccs had, occurred in the 
latter years, that made it difficult 
to act upon that principle : par- 
liamt-nt had in fact not forfeited any 
pledge ihev had given, but circum- 
Btnmes had occurred which intcr- 
nipied rhiir intentions. As to the 
principle oi that resolution, he was 
convin-^d that the present motion 
wiiLitd !iy no means tend to forward 
it, as jiupprcssiiig the importation 
of sl.ivcs into Irinidad would only 
increase tlie imporiaiion of them 
into other parts of Ihc West Indies, 
and irfto the possessions of other 
rations. He never cotild consider 
the WVtf Indies in any other light 
but S" '^ikci; all tORKher, in which 
the dciiiandh - f the Luri'i-n-nn market 
mii>t, -Mid for ever would be, sup- 
plied by all the isLinds l^ken to- 
, gethcT'! 



jcdeT: if tbcD you should enact 
that DO slaves should be imported 
ioioaay one particular island, the 
onljr coos^ueace would be, that a 
greater number would be imported 
inio some other part of the West 
Jndics i not a negrg slave the less 
would come from Africa, but the 
profits of their labour would enrich 
other nations insieud of this. Tlie 
produce of St. Domingo has bicn 
fiw a considerable time kept back 
&Dra the European market; there 
was therefore a necessity for an 
increased cultivation somewhere 
die i iJcsides, he could assure the 
house, from letters of the highest 
authority, that such was the fertility 
ofthii island, that tlie soil would 
with half the labour produce a greater 
oop than any other West India 
ulmd in our pDsses.sion ; so that, in- 
Hod of increasing the demand for 
AJricai) staves, the cultivation of a 
soil so fertile and productive would 
dimioish it. He strongly hoped 
Ih^t in the next session of partia [iient 
the whole question would be brought 
fatlbre the consideration of the 
house; not as respecting Tiinidad 
in particular, but as applicable to 
the whole of our West India colo- 
nia. He concluded by moving the 

Mr. Canning said, thatby thederla- 
fatioQ of the chancellor of the exclie- 
V^ei, it appeared that government 
intended to take the whole of that 
ETCat moral and political question, 
rcipecting the slave trade, into their 
omsideraiicHi, he should llierefure for 
tbe present withdraw his motion, as 
this declaration of the iutemions of 
garerament went still further than 
the inuoediate object of his mo- 

Mr. Wilberforce then rose to 
(peak OD the slave trade in gene- 

ral, but the universal impatience 
o/ the house for the question pre- 
vented- his being heard at fuU 
length. He was also several ^ine> 
callt-d to oi-Jer for digressing from 
tlie p;Lrticul3r (jucslioii into general 
con •,!. '.era* ions foreign tf> it. 

Mr- Fuller ob,ervca, that the n- 
ntty of public spcakAig when it 
was quite unnecessary appeared to 
him to be the must aiisurd of 

Mr. Canning then obtained leave 
tq withdraw liis motion. 

On tlie 31st of May, upon sir 
William Scott's ninvini; lor the re- 
committal of a bill he had- brought 
into the house of commons, tor die 
relief of the clergy from vexatious 
prosecutions under tlie statute of 
Henry the Eighth, 

Mr. Simeon declared himsdf an 
opposer of the bill, on tlie ground 
of its changing the constitution of 
the clergy, and vesting an enormous 
power in llie hands of the bishops. 
It gave an enormous acceision rf 
political jiower to ilie bishops, and 
subjected tlie inferior clergy, if not 
to absolute slavery, at least to a 
very improper degree of inlluence. 
If the situation of the clergy was 
lo become a matter of iegiilalivo 
inteqi^jsiiion, be tliought the dis- 
tresses of tlie inferior classes called, 
princiiially fur attention. He wish- 
ed that the tinances of the state 
could afford a considerable additiou 
to queen Anne's bounty, in order 
to rescue a worthy* learned, and la- 
borious order of men from all the 
evils of poverty. 

The Chancellor of the Eicclie<|U'T 
said, tliat ihc nece'isity of this bill 
arose from the circumstance of a 
numarous class of inlbrmers hai ing 
lately started up aud having begun 
to harass Uie derg}' by vexaiiona 


prosecutions ; it Va» therefore ne- He thought it woaU be a sufficient 

crsaaiy now to proieut the clergy remeily to the evils complained of, 

from this chus of informcn. llic if it was left to a jury of twelve 

bouse had already acknowledged 'men to pronounce when non-resi- 

)he necessity of some bill for the dence was " wilful." It was, jn 

parpose, at)d now the present bill his^pinion, from tlie miscongtrac- 

was brought forward hy a gentle- tion of that word that all iboce 

man, of most diiitinguisbed tMleuts, mischiefs arose. A jury cxiuld dc- 

who had directed his whole mind termine e\-ery particular case of noc- 

and his experience, which so emi- residence in its own nieriti, and 

nently qualified him for tlie task, must- be supposed less liable to 

to the preparing such a bill. He partiality or undue influence than 

knew it was matter of regret to his any one man in tbe situation of 

right honourable and learned triend bishop. 

(air William Scott), that he could The Master of die Rolls diffi»<ed 

not blend in this bill the relief tliat entirely trom the last speaker, 

he tliought ought to be extended to and declared that he would much 

the inferior orders of the clergy, rather see the statute of Henty the 

He feJt a particular esteem for tlie Eighth abolished altogether, than 

whole body of the clergy, and that the enforcement of it ihould 

wished much that every one of remain entirely ia the hands of io- 

them should be possessed not of formers. He thought the discipline 

affluence, bntof a comfortablecom- of the church could not bo belter 

petence. On this subject he felt so placed than in the hands of the 

■trongly, that he was convinced that, bishop. What would, for instance, 

however wealthy we were as a na- become of the discipline of the 

tioD, and whatever military 'gloiy army and navy, if they were oolf 

we might have acquired, unless to be enforced by pecuniary penal- 

we had a derg^ among us superior ties in a court of law ? Besides, at 

to pecuniary wants and above indi- the law now stood, a ciergj-roao 

^ence.somethingwouldstillbewant- who slept in the parsonage houae, 

mg to OUT happiness, our honour, but defected all the duties of his 

and our security. These considera- function, was liable to none of those 

tions were however of such infinite penalties ; whereas a man of the 

importance, that they could not be most exemplary piety, assiduous in 

hastily settled; he hoped that future the discharge of all the clerical dn- 

provisions would settle them on a ties of his parish, who slept in 

proper basis : it could however be any other bouse bi^t the parsonic 

DO objection to what was at jireseiit house, would be liable to such ae- 

proposed, that in future something vere penalties as might occasion bis 

DOW might be done. He there- utter ruin. Besides, he considered 

fore trusted the liouse would pet- it most degrading to the clergy 

mit the bill to go into a com- to have their residence enforced in 

mittee. the same compulsory way by wbicb 

Mr. Taylor disapproveil of the the duties on gin and tobacco were 

bill, as giving too much power to levied, by the aMsislance of common 

bi^ps, and as entirely repealing informers. I'lie object of this bill 

fiie statute of Henry the l:)ighili. was to try whetbci the diKlpline 


of the chnrdi conJd be canied on The qncstioa for Uie house going 

by mora of [he constitution of the into a committee (ipon it was ciiricd 
clwdi; if it failed, they had without a division. 
it U aO times in their power to On the 2d of June, in the hotue 

go botk to the statute of Henty of lords, the attcniion of the house 

lie Eif>bth. He therefore should was also called to the same sub- 

f^iport the bill. jecl. 

■file Aooniejr General considered Lord GrenviUc, although con- 

■mny parts of the bill to be ex- scious that in jK>iiit of form it 

Oraidy object! caiable, and yet he was irregular to allude to any thing 

ilwuld not oppose iti going tnttf a which passed in the bouse of com- 

(onuQittee. Most of the objections mons, yet, as it was notorious to 

be had heard, only went to clauses their lordships that a bill was now 

vhich could be amended in the depending there, about (he resi- 

fooBuittee, and did not touch the dencc of the clergy oil their glebes, 

pnactple of the bill. He however he should beg leave to oflef a few 

tv DO means believed that -the observations on tli at subject. The 

dnjy were generally exposed to morality and virtue of the people, 

llKise severe bardihips which were which were the principal supports 

*utaj. The fact was, that it had of the safety and honour of the 

Inng been the practice, in cases stale, depended, as he conceived, 

^hne many penalties were sued most materially on the resiwctabi- 

1'", for the judge to chaise the lity of the clerg)-, for the possession 

i^7 to find Ibdr verdict only for of which rcsptctability, besides the 

one or two of them, which would attentive discharge of their sacred 

M pay the informer the eijienscs function), it was neccs.'iary that 

w" his prosecution. He considered they should be maintained in a cet^ 

it necessary to u*e somi" compulsory tain degree of conifort and compe- 

"whod to oHige the clergy to reside tence. His m:ijestv's late govem- 

M their benefices. He should, tnent, to whom he had the honour 

b"*e*CT, vote for the bill going of belonging, had considered this 

into a comioittt^. subject with the utmost attention, 

Mr. Windham <aid, the evils and for a number of years. The 

*!iid> ihe clergy suft't red by means reaid<-nce of the tkrgy was, in their 

ol thoic proitcuiions wnerc allowed view of the subject, but a single 

lo be of great magnitude. Tlie branch of a very comprclieiisive 

Iwwe had in the last session ci- subject. He could st.ite, with great 

pMjfii .hU o|iiniiJn by su-i[)i-nding confi.ii-ucc, thai, fn.m tlic attentive 

ii^ operations of thi; statute of examination of luc subject, which 

li^my ihe Eighth. For his pari, he hid taken in eummon with 

Kttead of csplainirig or amending his lU'iiisty's late niinislers, no- 

^it act, be sbntdd rather repeal it thing cilectual could be don? for 

^ "7r:':'r. Hf. wished much that the placing the ckrg)' in thiit s'liia- 

'"■ di-w!]!!'!!!'; of [he chnrcli should tion of rc-pect ibat was due to 

k Confined within itself, and on them as a body, and wliirh they well 

|iat principle wast a friend to tin; deserved, until a fnnd had been 

^■'i- createil for the augmentation of Ihe ■ 
Vol. XLIV. N luctimes 


IS of the inferior clerEy, and and drew the foUow'ng comparison 
that in a considerable degree. He of the sums voted in ittoi, aiid in 
understood, from the best authority, the prcscot year. There had been 
that one half of the clergy of £ng- voted in the year 
laud did not derive more ctnolu- ■^■ 
nient than 50/, per ai.num from ISOI, for the oaiy 19.012,227 
their benefices, and more than half 1802, for ditto ll,t)73,3S3 
of that numbtr did not Te<;eive more _■ 
than from 20/. to 30/. a year. j^ ^avlnK of nearly 3,000,000. 
Whatever might be the financial ,^ , ^ _ _ „ 
dtuation of the countr>', he thought 1801, forl^ie army 18.99/.610 
it could not be so bad ;« not to be 1S02, for ditto 10.900,414 
able to afford the means of remu- 
nerating thme who laboured in A saving of more than 6,000,000 
their service. He thought that it Which made altogelher the immeue 
would be indecorous lor this house ditfer? nee of nearly l6,OO0,0Cf}l. 
to proceed to the discussion of the less tlian in the preceding year, as 
bill, when a',1 the rc\ ereod prelates the whole sum voted for the last 
were absent at theit visitations; year was near 41,000,000^. while 
jn the mean time he tliought it that voted for ' the present year 
would be hard lliat the clergy hsrdly exceeded 25,000,000/. Af- 
sbould be exposed to be harassed ter congratubtiug the house and 
by lliose prosecutions; he should the nation on the prosperous stale 
therefoie much wish thai, fur the of the finances and commerce of 
present, the house of commons the eountr)-, after so long and ci- 
would only send up such a bill as pensive a war, he moved the first rc- 
they did last ye;ir, for suspending solution in tiie committee, for rai*- 
the ojieration of the siamte of in^.; 3,000,000/. by escliequtrr biil<. 
Henry ibe Eighth, autl let the bill 'fhis, wiJi the other resolutions re- 
fer ]>ermanent r^ulations lie over latite to the ways and means, wat 
till nest session. He concluded by pasM;il unanimously. 
apologizing for the irregularity of Mr. Corry, on the same day, 
rising without making any specific after entering minutely inla the 
motion, but he conceived the sub- dcuiil of the, Irish financos, which 
jcet of such importance, that he h;id not yet recovered the aboct 
could not avoid calling the atteo- thm tliey had received from ibe 
lion of tlieir lord»hipi toil. late rebellion and other cjwm^, 
After some words from llii- lunl conchnlc.i by moiing, as the »d(ii- 
chancellor, lord Alvanley, and lord tiimal uiii's and meaiii for railing 
Suffolk, there haiing lit-en no spe- tlie snpjii.- nceesiiary, ihat a rax 
cific motion made by lord Grenviilc, u|)(in txi«irts iir.d imports should L-' 
tlic house proceeded to the orders laid on iu il.yi i-ountn- similar !■> 
of the day. what exists in KuifiaJiii. He ir.'i- 
On the I'lth of June, the Chan- r.ulaii-d Uic proilm-e of so.h lai. -r 
cflW of the Exche<iuer, in a coin- yi),<KX)/. He al-^,' propo-^d a i.v 
niittt* of supply, recapitulated the upon Irish iouiwi;t^, which he i-u- 
fuiiincini ojKratiuns at the se^ioii, [uaiedouly at riKX.'/. 



Mr, Fonter drew a mclancboty EarlSufiblk, in the bouse of lords, 

piouTF of the dediniDg state of in muvinr tor certain accounts of 

nuno&ctaret and conuncrce in Ire- the capital stock and bonded debts ' 

laoi Tbe exports had, for the of the East India company, took 

!m a^t jean, dimlnUhed r^;a- occasion to animadvert very ac- 

fa*r, iriiile the imports as con- verely on the government of India, 

itBitlj iocreflsed. The linen nta- both with respect to the nabob of 

tnActnre, idiich was the great Arcot andof Oude. The dominions 

n>^, vit rapidly declining. He which the old nabob of Arcot, 

trasured very much that system ' the most faithful and valuable ally 

Miiaance in Ireland which rested we had in India, had left by his 

[Tiaqpalty qq the enccniragement i^Ul to his grandson, of about thir- 

of the diilillcries and the consump- teen ycara of age, were now occu- 

^ of ipirits, to a d^ree which pied by British troops. He alw re- 

^^sTafed both the morals and the probated the condttct of the B:itish 

'*r^irf' the Irish peasantry. He government to another Indian aUy, 

«l» dinpprored highly of the nu- (be nabob of Oude; we had lately 

■»^emait of the Irish sinking fund, increased his contribution from fifty 

*f>><^ I? no means gained on its lacks of rupees to a hundred, and 

Jataxai debt. had seized a considerable part of 

Mr. Wickfaam contradicted the his territories. 
Masaa of the last speaker, and The Earl of Dartmouth declared 
■"wW that both the revenues and he had no objection to the motioo, 
^ trsdc (rf Ireland were recover- but he considered most of the obser- 
1"? rapidlir from those temporary various of the noble lord entirely ir- 
'ojiiries which chey had received. relevant to it, and by no nteqns re- 
Mr. Corry also proved tliat the guiarly brought before the house. 
flfcrease which the right honour- The papers moved for were grant- 
*'>'' gentleman had srated, arose ed. 

"wd)' frnm lemponity causes, and Mr. Sheridan, in tJie house of 

ilat (he country was Impruving. commons, explained his reasons for 

I^Castlereagh said, that if the not pressing the motion he had 

linkii^ fund of Irelaiul was not so givpn notice of with respect to the 

opentive as tltat of England, it was Carnatic. He thought still thatall 

^iy because it bad not been so the circumstances attending the de- 

™>gotabliihed. position of the nabob of Art-ot were 

^ler loine farther observations pregnant with ilie strongest sus- 

^ndiffercnt gentlcmeti, the rcso- picions against ilic conduct and mo- 

Kitionj were put and carrieil. tive* of the British go\ emment in 

From this debate till the end of India. They were themselves the 

w wssion the attention of [larlia- informers, the accusers; the wit- 

"•wi was principally taken up in ncsics, and the judges in their own 

'SuunoD routine business. There cause, and in coniciuence of their 

*M Ho debate of any consequence, decision they themselves rt-ceived 

' u almoii the only interesting con- the forfeiture of the young prince's 

"jsaiion which took place was dominions. These circumstances, 

"lA respect to the conduct of our by themselves, demanded the fullest 

E'nenmKnt in India. e\planalion, but when it was stated 
N2 that 


that the neccssaij information had attached to the noble and emiooil 

not yet arrived from India, to en- persons who formed his maicstjr'i 

able the hoiisc to form a right judg- government in thai country. . 
ment, then he felt himself preclud»l The petition was then leceired, 

from pressing the business fiirtherat and ordered to lie upon the table, 
present. He concluded by mQving, Mr. NichoUs then, after a long 

" that the petition he held in bis preface, ^made his promiicd motion, 

hand, from the regents of the Car- that an address should be presented 

natic, be received, and do lie upon to his majesty, praying him to order 

the table." an immoliatc esaminaticm of the 

The Chancellor of llie Exchequer claims ot the son of the Isst nabob 

at first hesitated whether, in point of Arcot to the dominioas of his 

of form, a petition from men styling father. 

themselves ' ' the regents of the Car- Tlis motion not bang seconded, 
natic," could be received in point the house adjourned. 
of form, but (upon Mr. Sheridan's On the 28th of June, his majesty 
saying, he proposed the petition as went to the house of peers in the 
coming from subjects of the British usaal state, ind gave his royal assent 
power in India) he waved any fur- (o some bills that were then pre- 
tber opposition ; but observed, that sentedtohim. After which he de- 
be by no means found any thing in livered a gracions speech, congrata- 
thedocuments now before the house, lating parliament and the country on 
to impute criminality to the British the peace and prosperity his snbjecu 
government in India i and be was then enjoyed. The parliament wa^ 
inclined to believe, that when the then fonnally prorogued, and very 
Eubject could be fully examined, it shortly after dissolved by prociama* 
would be found that no blame at all tion. 




PnclaMolion <^ Peace. — lituminatiims.— Dealk of Lord Kengon-—Cha- 
raaer. — Ravards to Dr. Jenner~to Mr. Grealhead—and to Lord 
HtUchato». — CeUbration of Mt. Pitt's Birth day, — Proclamation for 
a luur ParBament. — Ettclion'~J'or Nottingknvi, and Coventry — Jfest- 
mhuter, and MiddUtex.^— Delay in the Fr^-riL/i Embassy to England. — 
Jppomimenf,as Ambassadors, of Lord If'hitu-orth and General Andreossy, 
OK Ike Parts ^ England arid France. — Discontents betu-een those Coun- 
tries — Causes alleged an lolh Sides. — Discovery qf Colonel DespartCf 
Plot. — General Rejieclions. 

PEACE was proclaimed in the corations, and very few accidenti 

cities of London and West- occurred to damp or dbtuttt the jojr 

minstn' oa the 29th of April, and and hartnony of the scene. The 

oot-niihstandingthattbeardourwith evening too was favourable, and 

which the preliminaiy articles were the streets dry and comfortable for 

received was coH'iiderably abated, bf the immense concourse o£ pedcs- 

the insidiouscondiictofFrance.dur- trians. 

ing the interval which had elapsed The repeal of the income tax, 

since thai period, yet, generally whicli uearly accompanied the above 

■peaking, the most lively sensations joyfiil event, was another source of 

oljoy were excited on the present happiness to the public ; and the 

occasion. Illuminations of the most accession of Sweden and Denmark 

splendid oatnre succeeded the ceie- tothc convention, con dndcd between 

DKnial processions of the day. his majesty and the court of Russia 

The house of the French minister* in March 180I, and which formally 

(Mr. Otto), the bank of England, put an end lo the northern con- 

ihe public offices, and tlie thentres, tcderacy, was frenh cause of popu- 

vere particularly distinguished for tarity to the miiii>ler, and of satis* 

the laste and brilliancy of their de- faction to the people. Thus, by a 

* ti rniy bi;, woith while here to mention, u characteristic of the national feeling and 
ehuKier, a circumrtjnce which ocruired (a few divs before thr. geneial illummition) 
M tbehoiuc of ihl) pcnllenian in Porunan- square : altracted by ihe pieiiaraiion! for 
the macnificcnt di^pUr which afierwaids took place, ihe mob took nonce ihat [ha 
won) CoHCORD was pni in coloured lamps over rite lioor ; Ihc reading of John Bull, 
hgweter, was con que red, and his inference, that Kngland was conqaned by France; 
ifatorbance and riot were about (o commence, when Mr. Olfo, after -lome fruitlen 
■nnnpti al expUnaiinn, prudently conceded, and lubstiiuted the word Amitv. But it 
M noi end here, for tome sailors found out that G. R. was not surmounicd as usual 
^ I crown : this itiey peremptorily iniisied ihoutd bt: done, and a liimp-fbrmed diadem 
•U iaunediatcl; pat uji. 

N 3 singular 



singular and fbrtunate coinciJrnce, of ihe law clear from the Eia«e and 

ubici) indcfd almost appeared to be Sordid pmctices of the uopiiucipird 

the ellect of uncommon good ma- attomics of his own court ; hit 

uagement, these palpable and fatal persn-ering and ardent zeal in the 

errors, wliich we have carefully and repression of adultery and seductiim, 

minutely pointed out in the several crimes which felt, on all occasions, 

articles both of the Bussian conven- the rigour due to such breaches of 

tiou and the treaty of Amiens wt-re morality and tlie laws of society, 

overlooked, aad obscured in the during his long administration of the 

blaze of satisfacUon and joy which justice of the counti}' ; and th« 

on both those occasions penaded tlie strictness with which he punished " 

public mind; first, in most unexi>ect- gamblers of every description, will 

edly finding the preliminary articles long be remembered as conspicuous 

of peace actually signed, and next features of his fourteen years bid) 

in seeing the burden of the odious and honourable discharge of tte 

income tax removed, and the hostile great public duty committed to bit 

principle of the armed neutrality for hands. In short, to borrow the 

ever abandoned. The triumph there- words of a distinguished writer, 

fore of Mr. Addington's populari^ " He was profound in 1^1 dis- 

was completci nor did there, at this qulMtion, patient in judicial discii- 

moment, appear any probability of mJna[ion,andofthemostdeter[niDed 

the peace of Europe being again integrity. Ho never, on any occa- 

speedily disturbed. sion, sacrificed his ofiicial to his 

Tlie death of lord Kenyon, lord parliamentary character. The sphere 

chief justice of England, which took of his particular duty was the gnat 

place on tlic fifth of April in this scene of his activity, and though as 

year, may be considered as a public a lord of pailiament he nev^ 

calamity, and merits particular men- lessened his diaracter, it was as ■ 

tion. His lordship, after having judge that he sought to aggrandise 

filled up the great law offices which it." 

usually precede the high ^tuation he On the 3d of June the public 
afterwards atta'med, was appointed, were highly gratified by the muni- 
intbeyearl798,ihcsuccessorof the ficence of parliament in their vote 
venerable and distinguished carl of of 10,000/, to doctor Jenner, the 
Mansfield (who had presided over the discoverer of the vaccine inocula- 
court of king's bench nearly thirty- tion j and who had, in the spirit of 
twoyears), and th«s became a dis- thetruesi phibntl)rupy,made itpub- 
tinguished example of wliat may be lie, without stipulating lor fee or 
atuioed by persevering industry, in reward. The committee to wbora 
the exercise of genuine, though nnt this matter was referred left no 
showy talent. Nor did he perhaps, means untried to procure cases hos- 
U])on the whole, however inferior tile to the efficacy of this noUe in- 
in genius and eloquence, fall far vention, .but in every instance the 
short of his truly great predecessor rt.sult was higlily satisfactory, in 
in his magisterial and judicial caji^i- France, in llussia, aad even ia 
city". His laudable, firm, and sue- Turkey, were to be found sufficient 
cessfiil efibrts to keep the channeli it^stimonies of its being introduced 




•iih t'lf mo«l unetjiiivorai success j Nor will lliis pariiculnf roticf Im 
and Ae fevonnible report of the deemed ii-jlciant, if \vc considt-r 
commiiiee esiablished tlif discMveiy, bow many noble discoveries, how 
in die mind of eiery rational man, many uscfiil inventions, have been 
a one which wotild in its o])eralion stifled in the birth ; liow many in- 
compieicly eradicate that dreadful gcnious men have beim lost to 
divri^tbe small [MX; wliich (not- the world forMaiit of tlie prulcc- 
witli^tanding the check it re»ti\ed tioii of a diainteicstcd and lealous 
t^thc ordinary mode of inoculation) patron, sucli as the noble person vvC' 
Mil) continued its ra\agr5. So Jiaie alltided to bas prov^ .biinself 
highly impressed were the most toDr.Jenner; nor will he be with- 
tfiitinguished meml>eti of the house out the meed of hia nierilsrious 
with the merit of Dr. Jenner, and conduct, for surely to be handed 
the importance of tlie discovery, down to posterity with bis name 
that 20,OJ0/. was propoied a« indihsolubly linked lo that of Jen- 
more adequate to the eiipn!,<sion of ner, tlie friend and benef ictor of 
public gratitude. But this sum wan the. human race ; a.f bis patron aiid 
<{>po«cd bv the miui^ler, who of protector, will be a source <^ 
crmrse carried the fir>t propo'tiiioii, ibc moit ex(jui>>iie and sublime gca- 
though but b>- a majority of thrt-e '. tificntirat, and amply repay him for 
Nor thould in this short statement his unceasing etTi>rts in the cause 
the name of admiral Berkeley be of humanriv and friendship, 
omiited, on whose motion the re- Ou the iianie day, and luider a 
imineratioQ was accorded. From the parity of circumsLinccs, (a larger 
int dnelopment of the system, he sunt l>elng imiversall/ proposed at 
bad distinguished himself as ihe ninn- cummensurate with ilie merits 
triead 3nd patron of Or. Jenncr, and utjlily 'if tlie invcniiun, but 
hid brought his discovery f*ward oppused by tlie minister.) a sum of 
to iMtjce through the niedium of i'iOOl. was voted, for the invention 
hit high rank and great conuectious of the life boat *, to Mr. Grcat- 
prc3s«d it upon llie attention of the bead, by which, as it appeared from 
nation by procuring the unanimous the assertion of a respectable mem- 
tpprobatioii of parliament to ll)e ber, 200 lives had been already 
discoverer, and now Anally, by mov- saved lo tlie community, 
ing for this testimony of the public And on the eleventh his majesty 
approfaetion and gratitude, so ho- was pleased to bestow 3 signal mark 
Dourable to itself, and so justly doe of his royal favour and approba- 
to the individual, completed his [ion upon lord Huichinsun, by 
beneficent and laudable cxercioiij. grautiiig him a net aimtiity of two 

•IT* fonowing descripiion of ihf lifeboat will pethap!be inleitjting lo our rraJcK; 
" lutorm i& ihat of ■ long iphrrioil, Ibirty ftei m length by iwilve fcei ovei; either 
mi poinled, and ibu* ealeulated to ivw boih »ayi, sui o»r ^i:r^i.^5 ihc puipOK of the 
Mm 1 ilwul c.gbtccn inches bel*w the gutiiralc a sdun; lining ot cuik covcci tho 
■twle of the iu^iilc, which gires the boat stu-li a buoyanLjr a« enables it to live in in/ 
*nn. The crew uiiullv conibti orivnnv nifn, and the capacity of the boat cnabln 
It (0 RCtiTC abuul ten more." Mr. Henry < inrnhead wai the original c>^iutnictoi, ■ 
Buicol, audi tbip'Cupenier at, South SlicLdi. 

N4 thousand 

184 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1.802. 

thousand pounds for his own life, ment from pablic trust end situation! 
and for the Uvea of the two neat wiili scarcely a coinpctencj' to euit 
male heirs of his btiHy to whom upon, did tliis great man receive 
the title should descend. 'I'iie^e tlie most fi;:ttering and accept&ble 
very popular acts gained a consider- homage e\-er offered tc lupercmi- 
able portion of the public approba- neiit abilities and integrity ! 
tion. Parliament havinsr been dissolved 
1'lie attempt made in the house speedily after the close o( the last 
of common.'t to sully tlie fame and session, proclamation was made on 
character of Mr. Pitt, and lis ill the 2yJi of June for tlie assetnWiug 
suci;i.-sR, has been already detailed ; a new onf'., and writs were issued 
bat his friends were not satisfied accordingly for the election of mem- 
wiili lliis triumph: respect for his bers, and which were made return- 
virtues and gratitude for his public able on th% 31st of the following 
services miivcr.^ally prevailed, and August. 

was most generally feit; under 'I'he state of the dilTei'ent con- 
thcGC impressions a subscription for tests which ensued in the ordinary 
the purpose of erecting a statue of struggle for representation may be 
him w.'is set on foot, and was almost seen in another part of this work *; 
immediately filled to a cousideiable generally speaking, they «'ere not 
amount. But at bis instance, who numerous, nor, except in some 
vou)(\ not receive such honours in few instances, carried to any great 
his life time, and on maturer con- length ; but liiosc for NoitHigbam, 
sideration, the sum so raised was Coventry, Westminster, and Mid- 
rested in .the public fends in ilie dkscx, deserve particular notice, not 
nami^ of tmstees, to accumniul.ite only on account of some remark- 
till his demise, and then to be ap- able circumstances -which severally 
pFopriated to Ilie fulfilment of llie belonged to iheio, but because intculioni But alihotigh it was In those stnigglcs where 
checked upon this occasion in ma- that dangerous spirit of exposition 
nift?stiug their admiration and gra- between high and low, rick and 
litnde, his fiiends foiuid another poor, gentleman and mob, \t-ai 
mode of publicly expressing those eminently conspicuoas. In those 
sentiments. His birth day occur- places the scattered and dying em- 
ing on the 2gth of May, near bers of jacobinism were rak^ ,to- 
ninehundrtd ot the most re^ct- geilier, and every effort made' to 
able personages of the empire, for tan tliem into flame, 
rank, character, and opulence, as- At the two former places, the 
■embled at Mi:rchaiit Taylor's hall mob were guilty of atrocities and 
for the puqii>se of celebrating it, violences unprecedented ; at Not- 
and never perhaps was there wit- tingham particularly the rabUe 
nessed on any similar oEc.i?:iou so unei[iiivoc;illy manifested their re- 
much eiit!ui-.iastic and zealous at- vuluiionary priuciples. The tricn- 
tacbment to nuy individual, of what- loured cocVado was chosen as their 
ever rank and -station, as on this favourite emblem ; their music 
ficcasiun. And thus in his retire- was the Marscillois Hymn, Ca IrCt 

• Vide " Chroaicle for July," 4c. 


ntdoAernotoricrasrepttblican tunes; the popular favour, tliat their former 
aodiome repons even went so lar idol, Mr. Fox, was completely de- 
li lo ilaie that, at their triumphal serled, nor did he at tlie lerniina- 
fncatkm in honour of the sue- tion of the poll receive tiic lustoin- 
ttuhl candidate, a female tigure, aiy homage of being cliiiired and 
rtpraenting the goddess of Reason, carried in procession by those for 
in 1 Mate of absolute nudity, wa» whom he had so repeatedly sacri- 
coaiptcuous ! In short, the pro- fict^I bii dignity, conscijucDce, mid 
(Mdingi of tb; major part of the feelings. To him who had be<;n 
Eihabitants upon tliis occasion were emphatically called the " Klnn of 
wch as loudly to call for the in- tlie People," such caprice and ne- 
lerrenLoQ oftbe legislation either lo gleet must have been abundiutly 
impox some qualification of the morticing; nor cau it fail, upon 
mxle of election, or perhaps, by total a minil like his, to produce the 
iJii&UKhisenieni, to pre^xnt such most salutary effect s. 
£)giaceful scenes for the future. But where whatever remained in 
The Westminsier election afford- the country of the spirit of jacob- 
(d aa n^ful le.-iOii lo those wlio inism was most conspicuous, where 
weic in the habit of caressing and it assunied its most niischievoua 
flattering the paK.sioi)s of the mul- and marked tcndenqr to throw otF 
titafc, and who considered their all disguise, and openly to assume 
toppon worth the laying aside every tlie revoliitionaiy tone and principles, 
bnxNirable distinction tli at society was at Brentford, during the electioa 
odd confer. Cln ihe first day of for the county of Middlesex. SirF. 
•Ik dectirai, a roan, without any Burdett, the new candidate, who 
qtulificatiiHi of rank, property, re- pointed hii; opposition against Mr. 
»[«ctibility, or talents, offered him- Mainwaring, an active and praise- 
Klf as a proper person to represent worthy magistrate, was tlie object of 
tbc inhabitants of tiie first city in the popular tavour; which indeedhe 
tbe world in parliament : upon every claimed, and pL-rhaps nicrited, by his 
lonner occasion some or other of repeated addresses to tliom, in which 
ttmequalities, combined with what- they were reminded of their " so- 
ever principle they might, were vereignty," of thtir " rights," and 
dwmed, both in tlieory and practice, of his deienui nation, by every means 
uxlispensablf requisites forthishigh- in his power, to procure them "a 
Ijpriied situation ; now, the totql ab- fair and equal repi csentaiion in piir- 
Kax of all of them seemed to be liament." However specious this 
Hie kAc ground on which tlie per- last phrase, it« true meaning and 
UD^ we allude to took his 'stand, -signification cannot be misiaken, 
•w were the multitude iosensihle when it is recollected lliat it lia^ 
to this singular and novel sjieries been long the watch-word of tlie 
ofpretcnsion. In the course of a societies and individuals who have 
•Were contest, which terminated openly prolrased republican and re- 
kowevcT in favour of the old mem- volutionary tenets ; of the consti- 
^> Mr. Pox and admiral Gardiner, tutional and corresponding associ- 
Mr- Graham, the unsuccessful can- ation', and of tho To.ili.eSi ihe 
•Mate, had polled 3'J07 voles ! In- Hardys, t!ie ThclwjUi, and the 
^ctd, to completely did be engross O'Connors. Of thoic societies he 


had been a principal, of ifinse in- Flags, with revotmioiaiy cmbletni, 

dividiuls tlw intimate. The pri- and "No Ba stile," were flown on 

mary object, however, with those, the part of the popular candidate i 

whoever thej ivere, who wi^licH and it was thought proper, the more 

to render tlie Middleseu eleciion to irrilale the irnib, to exhibit, as 

subservient to. the *orst purposes, claiming their commiseration and 

was to point the indignation of the assistance, a man raiM;d above ttie 

mobagainstaprisonofthemetropo- crowd laden with chains, langwisb- 

lis, which was designated upon every ing, and at length sinking, under 

occasion by the odiotis appejiation, the punishment supposed to have 

"TheBasiile." The\-cry obvious as- been intiicied upon him by a mer- 

sociatioD with this term, of ilic fate ci less jailor ! At length, however, 

of its prototype ; the revohition of by a circumstance as extraordinarr 

France, which succeeded it, and to as uoexpccied *, this scene ti 

which, perhaps, it contributed more ahametiil disorder and confusitm 

llian any otlier incident -, and tlie was brought to a close, and nr 

(oial subversion of the monarchy, Francis Burdctt was carried in tri- 

leaves little doubt of the motives iimphal procession on the shoulders 

Jn which ihe appelbtion originated ; of his fast friends and supporter;, 

and the subsequent conduct of the who bore him to ihe palace of hi* 

multitude, agitated by t,uch acts al- sovereign, before the gates of wbidi 

most to firenzy, proved too clearly a band of music regaled them with 

the efficiency of such means, act- the well-known re('olutionai7 air of 

ing on the prejudices and passions Ca ha. 

ofan intitriated mob. Each day of Painful and disagreeable as it has 

the election was marked by scenes been to tis to relate those shaineM 

of seditious disorder, such as neier scenes, we have yet considered it ■ 

before disgraced this country. In- duty to detaH what we cannot but 

isults of the most atrocious na- consider as the last, thou^ mighty, 

ture, accompanied by menaces, and convtilsive strnggle of the monster, 

in many instances personal violence, jacobinism ; and we are the mote 

were offered to Mr, I^Iainwaring confirmed in this opinion, as we 

nnd his friends ; and even the lite witnessed the dee]i detestation of 

of the former endangered. At the the country at large, and the 

hustings, tl)is gentleman was con- uticr abhorrence and discountenance 

siandy the object, the unprotected these atrocities met with in ril 

object of the grossest personal abuse, other quarters in which they were 

• TTie facl illuded to k ihls : — Near <oo people were in joint posiession of about J 
quartei o( t.a itre of ground, on which they hid l)cgun lo erect i flour mill ; iheir 
light in it wu purchiHd in fjiarei of the Talue of two guineua cjlI.. 'I'hiee huodicd 
»nd serenty-two ol ihose projiiieton were admiiud by Ihe sheiifts to poll for sit FnaM 
Butdeti, e&ch iwcaring Itiai ht; wus posst:''>cd ii( d firchold of the cleai ) caily value af 
40s. and bad becr> in Ihc actual pos^c^sioii thereof, Arc. &c, fr>r iwcKe calendar monlht 
before llic tktiion. It must fuiiher be remaikcd, ihst on thi^ patch of pound the mill 
was yetunflniihed, no regular conveyance of ii made, the purchase-ntoney of it unpiiid, 
knd no profit wliattoevei fiom it yet derived to Ihe owners I Nu duubl parliiineat will 
be to decide on [he legality uf such voici ; but shotild they be admitted, thoc nn 
hnnfWE be little doubi a» to tbc lighi of universal sufiia^. 



aiUrnptrd ; noT is there a doubt but of deportment, or elKIo^^'e(1 with 

thit (be e\eriions ut' die legi^ilation more concilialing manners, ihnii hi* 

to rare timsc evils which Tiad al- lordship i nor were his diplomatic 

Iqgetbci Bri.ieii firom this uiicon- abilities inferior to his exterior ad- 

tnlkd licentiousness, tnd to pre- vantagrs. Mr. Talbot, who had 

TCoi the rccurriug of such on fii- accompanied lord Matniwbury to 

tare occasiotts, would meet with the Paris in the year 1796, and bad 

GtncUTTcoce, approbation, and gra- since been officially employed with 

titnde of the whole empire. the highest reputation in SwitKcr- 

llic public b^n now wxiously land, Germany, aud Sweden, wm 

to look tor the arrival of the French appointed his majesty's secretary of 

aadn^sador, and lor the departure the embassy. 

of lord Whitworili, who was ap- The nomination of the French 

poiaied to fill lliat important shua- ambassador had taken plac<^ nrarif 

tioa at tlie tirsi consul's court on at tlic same time. Bonapart£*a 

the part of England. Nor could it choice fell on general Andreossy, a 

be satisfactorily accounted for, why natiic ot' Languedoc, dietinguisbetl 

lAf delay should have arisen in this as a railiLiry and civil engineer 

otdioary diplomatic arrangement, mider the monarchy, and who had 

and to which no dilficulties of any served with crt^lit under Bonapart£ 

ktod Kcmed tu belong. Tiie ap- in £g)'pt. He was esteemed a man 

pointment of lord Whitworth had of moderate principles, good inten- 

taken place iu April, aud yet OQ the lions, and sound judgment. He 

31:t of August it was atinomiced, was to be accompanied to die cflurt 

that 00 (hat day he had had bis of London by M. Portalis (the son 

bit public audience previous to his of ihe person ot that name who 

departure! Assuredly nothing could had lately taken so active a part in 

be bbJBcied od tiie part of Prance the ecclesiastical aflairs of France), 

to tbe peraoD who was selected to in the capacity of principal tecre- 

&J[ a situation, which re<)uired' no tary. 

ordinary combination of talents at Yet, notwithstanding tfaoae ap- 

this aiduoos and important crisis, pointments having taken place witk 

The right honourable lord Whit- all the accustomed fornialitie?, ge- 

woftb had resided many years at neral Andreossy did not arrive ia 
the court of St. Petcrsburgh, as fais England till the 6tb, nnr lord Whil- 

majesty'i envoy exiraordinary and worth 'ait for France till the lOlhof 

minister pleiiipoicntiary, with the (he November following. The causes 
bighcst credit lu himidf and ndvan- of this delay it is not here our pro* 
ta^ to bis ccuiiiiy, aud had quilttid per province to investigate ; but it 
■hat court on tlic violent aul in- hlled the nation with doubts of (he 
temperate conduct of die laic em- sincere wish of Bonaparte for cof- 
peror Paul. His majesty had beou dial amity with Great Britain, atid 
"' ised, in remuner.itionofhis great ciiiscd a very sensible depression of 
ices, to cQiiti^r on hi:u succes- Ihe public coDlidence in the pt-rma- 
tiveiy the order of llie laili, and neucy of that peace which the mi- 
the (Ugnity of a baron of the nister had so confidendy promised, 
kiDgdofn of Trd:iud. No man aiul which was tlie sole considcratiui^ 
Sb more dialiuguiihud fgr dignity that Tccoiici!t4 the tution to tlic *a- 


Ciifices it had made at the treaty of ing French emigraats ; and the U- 
Amiena. Nor was this inten-al lUled cence which the English press as- 
up by the interchange of acts of sumed of discussing freely the mea- 
national amity and friendship ; such suresofhis consular majes^, were- 
as should have marked tlie cordial considered as marked acts of ag- 
reconciliation of the two countiics. gression on the part of En^and, 
On tlic cimtrary, doubt and distrust, and as such haughtily and impe- 
jealousy and smothered resentment, riously resented by Bcmapartfi. Ke- 
were in all the transactions of both nionstranoes, which bore a strong 
governments too apparent ; nor difl resemblance to menace, issued con- 
the most sanguine assertor of the stantly from his court ; nor could 
necessity of peace look to any other any thing short of the total dt^rada- 
consei^uence to succeed this jnutual tion and sobjection of Great Britain 
discontent, save that of renewed confent him. A paper, called the 
Iiostility. Argus*, was not only tolerated. 
The plunder of Germany ; the ■ but encouraged at Paris : its object 
arbitrary ^d tyrannical imposition was to serve as a vehicle for the 
of a form of government upon the refugee Irish and English republicani 
nnfortunate Swisn i the direct attack to spread abroad their Jacobinical 
of Bonaparte on the rights and pri- principles, to vilify and revile the per- 
vileges of Englishmen, by th( arres- sonof the Briushmona^ch,andtode- 
tation apd confinement for six days cry ourconstitutionandgovemmect 
of two officers, high in rank, of the All English journals were interdicted 
British navy, in l^ris ; and the in that capital under the heaviest pc- 
imperiooa demands of the Frenrit nalties, (with the exception of one 
go\rrnment, for the restraining the only.whose tone was more consonant 
liberty of the British press, were to tlie wishes and feelings of Bona- 
oncquivocal symptoms of the esor- pane,) under the pretence of their 
bitant and insatiable ambition of the licentiousness in descanting on the 
first consul, and of his implacable measures ofthe French government; 
determination to persevere in his and every restraint which caprice 
prefects for humbling and insulting or tyranny could impose was ex- 
the British nation : whilst our hefii- perienced in our commercial trans- 
lation on the surrender of Malta, actions, wherever the power or in- 
which ii now begun to be discovered finence of France extoided. 
txmld not be evacuated by the Eng- Thus gloomily did the aspect of 
lish garridoD without a certainty affairs present itself at the meeting 
oruBfallingintotiiehandsof France, of the new parliament: and w« 
xnd the impossibility of executing shall here close tliis account of the 
anyoneofihe stipulations concern* domestic transactions for 1802 with 
ing ii in the treaty of Amiens ; our barely adverting to the providential 
attempt, however abortive and in- discovery of a horrid conspiracy, 
efficacious, at interference in the on Tuesday the l6th erf November, 
■A'airs of Switzerland ; our con- the day appointed for the assem- 
tinued protection to the few remain- bling of both houses of parliament. 


and which in its operatioa was to of thinking. We allude, first, to 

hare overturned the constitution ; the reduction of our army, and the 

hafc got possession of the diiFerent dismantling of onr navy, which 

htanchcs of the royal family, and were carried on, from the begin- 

have struck at ihe life of our be- ning of April lo the beginning of 

loTcd sovrreign itself. November, with singular eagerness 

The persons concerned in this and effect ; and, 2il!y, to that of tha 

£aboiical scheme were under the vast resort of Engliiih Co France since 

eotiie guidance and command of Ihe signature of ihe treaty of Amiens, 

odoDel Despard (a person who In the event of renewed hostilities, 

had already endured a long and the former must be obviously at- 

dose confinement in Coldbath- fields tended with the most fatal public 

prison for seditious practices), and consequences, and the latter a> 

consisted of thirty-siic in number, ruinously destructive (o individuab. 

principally composed of labourers. The first of these positions requires 

and die lower class of artizans; no proof ; and they mustbecredu- 

md amongst whom were three sol- lous indeed who do not see that 

diers of tlie giiards. After several detention and imprisonment must 

previous . examinations before the be the consequences of the other, 

priry council, colonel Despard and In the public and private honour 

firailecn of this number were fiilly of Bonaparte who would confide ? 

committed to take their trial for and this opportunity of indulging 

h^ treason before a special com- the angry passions of a little mind 

miisioD. The particulars of this would not be neglected, whenever 

lUocious combination, its objects, it was in bis power to gratify them, 

and means, the mode of its dis- We have already shown, tliat 

covery, and the fate of the traitors, the increasing power of France, and 

belong to the succeeding volume, the declining consequence of Great 

where they willof course be detailed Britain, could not accord with eadi 

in their proper order. otiier ; and in the first attempt tt> 

It may be proper here to remark restore those countries to an equi- 

t*o circumstances, the one of a poise, the impolicy and imprudence 

pnblic, ihe other of a private na- of ministers and individuals will be 

tare, both of which, however, lead severely felt, both in public and i» 

ti> the same consequence and train private concerns. 




Ajfiiirs of Ireland— nelrnil,en.—Ctiiisr^ if the IVion—aiid rf ihe Ac- 
quiMCCHce of the .'..ajmUy of the Pmple In thai McasnTt.— Slight 
Scmat'im uccan'.ni-d hj the Change "f ,Vir.',.-<l-j-- cr the R,mi,iial 
^ Lord Cornu-a/lis.~(Jinctal Eli-clion—Rn!:aTh- thereon. — SifViplvKt 
of Dhiijj'ectioii in the S"nlh.^Projixt«d Jlla,k m Limerkk. -iklun ^ 
efTra'itnrs to Ire/and — and French .■leeiits. — Cilixeu Fauvekt.—Bai 
Policy of Adniiniilration. — dneral R^fieclioas. 

THE a/i^irs of Ireland are the reeled to Uie cnnsequfnccs of the 
next subject of our discussion itcw arrangement ; and if we add 
■ in the order vbicli we proposed to to tliese motives tlie consideraiioD 
follow, and though very few, it any, of how litrlc importance tli is sub- 
domestic events occurred, in the ject has been hitlierlo considered br 
course of ]302, in that island, of the English reader, coniparrd with 
magnitude or importance sulticl- its real magnitude, ve sliall be fitllj 
ent to attract the attention of our borne out in going into more length 
leaders, or to en.ploy thi: pen nud in this discussion than we hivr 
labour of the bi.sturian ; yet the po- usually apportioned to the qffms of 
litical situation of that country, Ireland. 

tiic great revolution it Lad under- On recurring to our fbmner vo- 

gone in its form of giivernnient, lume for ISO!, we observe that no 

and the iigitati<m atul swiill which particular obsei vat ions are made od 

had yet far from Riibsided after the sintc of Ireland for that year^ 

the dreadful storjiis which had agi- we shall therefore, to presene the 

laied it to iho centre, Tt-itdcr cxjnnectiou entire, be obliged lo 

some account of ilic state of tlie coiunacnce tbepreseni tivtbject witha 

public mind of that countrj', as retrospect to ihc aspect of aftairsim- 

connecied with and n stilting fvom mediately preceding and subsofjucnt 

those grr;it e%cnts, absdutely ne- to the acts of parliament |>asnd in 

cessary; and llil-i review will ap- the year 130(). for the union of the 

pear tht- more exppdienl if it be legislative bodies of Great Britain 

crtiisidercd, ih;ii tliti jiolicy, what- and Ireland, and which look filect 

ever it was that hnd been applied on the Iirst day of Jann.'ry ISOI- 

to the administration of irish affairs The measure had been so well 

by the English f;overnmenl, had bi- digested, and the means so well 

ltie:t(i completely failed ; that a arranged, ihaJ this great and beiicfi- 

newsyslcm, niJic.nlly (iid'cring from cial change, perhaps the most im- 

the ftimur, hail now t;:ken plate; portant in the history of eiilnt 

that the ejcs uf ill men were di- TOuiiiiy. iwdticcd i:o M-nsatien br- 




jond what mi^t have been ex- talents in debate were of very for- 
petted from much more ordinary midable magnitude and celebrity: 
occorreooes. During the latter the former constituted the w«igiit, 
ye»rs oi that great epoch of revo- the latter the vigour of this new 
htionar)' system, the American formed opposition ; a combinallou 
var, ibi contagion appeared to have of both produced a dangerous spi- 
conUDUDicatei] and iiitected Ireland j rit of great poUiicnl intemperance, 
nor had the vcenes which were es- which tr.inshised itself universally 
bilMted in almost every quarter of throughout the Irish nation. 
thecontlneot, since that period, been We believe tlint the personages 
hkely cither to lessen iti effect or whonow combijied toembarrassthe 
mitigate its malignity. In fact, measures of government, at a very 
the eril was sufficiently apparent, critical, perliaps unprecedented nio- 
aod loo openly manifested itself not meat of calamity, thought of no- 
te alarm every lover of his country, thing less than the consequences 
and every enlightened stateiman. which almost immediately resulted 

On Uib side of the water that from it, and we are grounded in 
liability to the empire, which could thi.s belief, because those conse- 
akoe result from the perfect legis- quencc^ involved the utter destruc- 
lative union of its principal com- tion of that monopoly on which 
poneat members, was looked to by their political influence ^nd exist- 
all with great earnestness ; on the ence depended ; and yet, even at 
coDliary, on the part of Ireland that moment, .to men of plainer 
tixK was little prospect of assent understanding and talents it was 
to such a medsure. The dominant sufficiently obvious, tliat when all 
part of thai nation, or as it was the eyrx in tlie country were turned 
more graerally termed " the ascen- in ardent gaze and were intent in the 
itacy," was too much elated with pursuit of grievanceii, one verypal- 
ihc victory gained in l/3'2, over pable, and which Interested, either 
what was then the principle of really or factitiously, vast numbers, 
British coimection ; Biid the pros- cotild scarcely elude the research ; 
traic majority, the catholics, were .-uid that anouier, though not so in- 
of too little imparlance to be con- jurious or so pre.ssing, yet which 
ttdtrtd or consulted. had very lately occupied a large por- 

Tliec<mtroversies on the appoint- iion of the public rcg^ird, might 
meat of a regent in 1/S8 consti- again be presented for discussion, 
tute a very important era in the 'llie first was, the system of penal- 
modern history of Ireland. A con- ties and disabilities belonging to the 
iiderable party had been then form- popery law?; the latter, the reform- 
ed m parliament, including ao ation of the representative bod}', 
many general and particular in- Both those measures were accord- 
leiests, that their numbers might ingly brought forward from without 
vii-U suggest to thera the possibility tJie doors of parliament witli a de- 
of compelling government to ac- gree of earnestness and ability, and 
erpt ihcir serviceti upon their own wiih a pressure of public demand, 
lemii; nor were there wanting in which was without precedent ou 
this confederation some individuals, anj' tomur aijilniion of national con- 
Wlwsc popularity, adroitness, and cetna. \Vith respect to one mea- 


■ure, the government thought proper natural order. The public tran. 
to comply ; and on the other it ex- quility suifiu^ no further inter- 
hibited itself appalled and trembling ruption. Ilie parlies who had 
on the forward precipice of con- hitherto inveteraiely mole'^led and 
cession. From uiese predisposing pursued eacli oilier, discontinued 
causes ; the rapid succession of their vexatious and iiTiuting con- 
dangerous and interesting events, duct ; tlie one forbore, the otbw 
fiami-ly, the rebellioji ; (he two submitted ; mutually astonished at 
French invasions ; the disposition finding out, to tlieir vast surprise, 
(inciimmonwith that of every other that while tliey were engaged ia 
cffluntr)')iift!ie commonalty to join the pursuit of their respective ob- 
in projects of innovation} the ve- jerts of ambition, ihey were the 
hemeut animosity with which the mere instruments of accompli sliii^ 
respective parties, viz. the green one very far indeed from their de- 
and orange, appeared to have been signs or wishes, and of aggrandising 
inflamed, aJl combined to overcome a power, whose interest even the 
the reluctance of the greater part of highest pretenders to loyalty iu ihK 
Ireland; and the proposition for kingdom, had never designed to 
union was entertained, witliout re- promote at tlie enpense of his own 
pugnance, by the sober, the bene- importance ; and even the change 
volont, by those who desired repose, of adniinistralion which took place 
and by tlie many who felt them- at a subsequent period of the year, 
selves harassed L; contention or although a measure of Iri^ih pdi- 
opprcsscd by tlie victors. The pro- tics was the avowed and osten- 
priely mid justice of the measure fiible reason, awakened itat a veiy 
werefeebIy,ifatall,disputedbeyond transitoiy and languid intereit 
tlie limits of the Irith metropolis : Numbers both of the higher aod 
there indeed the prevalence of local middle orders, wiio fur a scries of 
interests occasioned some warmth years had been deeply and cooii- 
of opposition ) but it shrank from derably engaged in pulitical spccur 
before the firm countenance of go- lations, at once abandoned tlut 
vemment and the decision of the p.irsuit, and helook iliemselici lo 
legislature. their rcspi:cti>e lu-ufcssions, or to 
it is worthy of remark, tliat al- the improvement of tlte cultivation 
though an immense ntunber of of the country, 
pamphlets issued Irom tha Dublin Among the circumstances whit^ 
pre=s on this occasion, and tliat the tended to reconcile tlie jicopic of 
dcb.'ites in the Irish parli.iment were Ireland lo the union, one niusi not 
protracted to an unusual lengUi ; be omilled highlj- creditable lo the 
yet scarcely, upon any of the great parties concerned. Somcdelarb- 

Sjuestions which bad agitated Ireland ments of the guards, and several 

or the preceding twenty years, was regiments of tnglish militia, were 

^tlie display of taleiits so weak, sent to Irebiid to quell the insur- 

cither as to intelligence, reasoning, rection. Tln-ve appeared in those 

ingenuity, or eloquence ! bodies a rcgulariiy of discipline and 

A complete pause now succeeded an unifonnity of good and j.cneTDOi 

(o tliis event. At the union tilings conduct, which the militaiy cha- 

leenicd disposed to fall into their ractei' had lost in Ireland, doubitets 

3 frum 



frnm bnin^ mixeJ in the factions 
of the ronntiy. 

TV offJocTs of tho«* CDrps Ji*- 
timpd ihek duty with fim]:i;:si, 
bmiathe exercise of tijat duly ih''' 



s there to he found, 
(iuiiDg their residence in Ir'lnnd, 
ay instance of houses burned or 
ffldividajls tortured witliinlhequar- 
ttnofan Engliih r.-gimL'nt. 

Sccb vra^ tic aspect of affairs at 
4e dose of the year 1801. Tran- 
jnillit* seemed completely restored. 
fte peace, abould it prove penna- 
oent, was ccruinly fatal to tlic 
riewiofihoiC who wished to esfa- 
Mah French principles and FVcucn 
connections in Ireland, at the same 
time that it afibrdcd tlic most fa- 
notsble and honourable moment 
ft* government to extend, by a wise 
aadiibcral policy, the blessings of a 
tw government to millions, who^e 
fccpe^ had been raised by tlie pro- 
■pKt of i>ich a panicipation with 
Ibeir fdlow subjects ; and which, if 
BOW conceded, would be eniirely 
ranoved from the invidious lug- 
^aion that it was e\torted at a 
nmnent of great and alarming dan • 
{cr to the empire : such, howe\-er, 
»cre not the' views of Mr. Adding- 
ton and hU coDeaguea. 

TTie remoi-at of lord Comwalli* 
frotn the government of Ireland, 
»d the diuni»sal of the laie minis- 

ter', m ^"coutiE of a difference in 
the cabinet tm a question of Irish 
policy, produ<;Ml in that part of the kin^-'-im much iris sensa- 
tion tin:! (..■ill well be expected. 
Lord |-f,iv(hvicke, I'le successor to 
the lord lieutenancy, adopted, al- 
most without variation, the course 
of conduct (in the execution of his 
now very limited duti.-s) pursued by 
his predecessor. The object of ad- 
ministratioQ seems lo have been to 
hazard no great alteration in the 
state of things, and to decline all those 
great deviations' from the former 
policy which have been repeatedly 
represented by intelligent persons 
as absolutely necessary to the final 
settlement of the coiimry, and which 
it was suppo.'icd might, with pecu- 
liar safely and pcoprieiy, be put 
into execution after the union. 
Whether the measures we allude to, 
if adopted on the suggestion of 
the able statesmen who proposed 
them, would have tended to excite 
in the middle ranks an animation of 
zeal a-nd loyalty, by which the very 
lower people would have been kept 
in awe, and disasters prevented 
wliich have since occuncd, and 
tlic magnitude and extent of which 
caimot perhaps yet well be calcu- 
lated, must remain to be discussed > 
in works of more minute observa- 
tion *. Sufficient for us to detail 
the facts as the>' have aiiscn, without 


11 of [he i;reat questioi 

* ThuoKb we decline enlccin; in 
»3ij'lt, ire cinooi reiisi laying btft ... , ... 

aaic pulic, coanecleil wnb a ercat national obicrt, mil wrini-n in the spiiit of pairiot- 
■BD, ind Kith all the adianuget of local knowlcJee ; entirely diveiicd Of prr)udiLe. ind 
mxRuQcnding a iclieme appaienily sullirienily practicable. Not arc wi: T.-jthont 
bopf^ thai ii may meet Ihc eye aod ticeive thu amwuiiition of those who have 
linn ihcmsilvcs ihe real friend* of Iitland, ind ihi' best hupr of the eniT'ire. 

'" I appichetid (hat the security of Iidanil in the c\rm of a vfarcinnOt be oihctwiie 
Ncffrciuilly provided (6t, ai hy emhi'dyiiis natiuiiil 0( ptovincial regimf:i;., unm 
* "' — I aomewhai varjing frnm wli»l ha* hilheno been piacliied. I speali of llw 

a mil'.raij spiiit prcraili in)orf;u 

■■ Th( 

aomewhai vaninK fmn 
souib-wix ol IrcUnd. 
f Ji'iiicls iite very ihiLLly inh^itcd, : 

194 A-NNUilL REGISTER, 1802. 

devrating too widely from the ia accomtrfwlnng this b 

straight path of histonical namUve arrangement, aiiil qb\j >■ end 

into the wide field of ptditical spc- instance (the coimty cX DuMin) 

cuiatioD. did any candidate deem hii oppo- 

The genefal election was scarcely silion in the uiiioii a tuffictent 

sufficioiit to ruflle the calm into cbim ior popatar farow, to al- 

'wbicb, at^er the anion, the coasno- lude to it in addressing die wn- 

tions of Ireland had subsided : but stiluent body. At the preoedtog 

here (one circnrnstances ore wurth getieml electa), the diKonteotrd 

obaen'ing; not a vo^ member of testilied their arenion from the 

tke hish parliament who supported constitution, by declining to cxer- 

tbe nniou was displaced in conse- ci»eut daim tlie franchise to vhich 

qnence of the displeasure of his CMi- tliey were entitled; on thia occ»- 

liiiinenis; in do instance was this sirin it was considered a very ttnK^ 

snpport uf^raided to any candidate } evidence of the decKne of ' dii- 

sciiie of the moel oitrnsive and in- affection, that (be electioDs woe 

dependent comities ret.imed gendc> much more contested than befbic, 

mtui who had shown great zeal md nearly every pemu came fcr- 


the people ; their pulimes are mariial and advenlnrons, and their ocmpllions innn 
to h^inbhip ; nnrrisfies lie eirly. Frequent, >nit productive. Fiora the wvolBtion to 
ihe American wu tUcre vat no recruiting in theie districts for Ihe Bmnb service, nd 
since the banle of Fonlenoy there hulKCD none foi tbe French ; Ihe lots in tbelrtib 
T^imenu, on that occai-ion, never wu repaired. The omiEsion of gareroment lo 
occupy (Ins tnilitaiy spirit and exuberant popubkiion leem) ID hare been ■ muiODil 
cause of the late insuneciion. 

" 1'hetc are in the country i namber of jonns antv, the cfandren of penont of 
small property, very ottcn irith HmWy pteWnsioua, which among the peumir; vr n- 
tofDiztA vaA respecicd ; ihi'y live with the common people, drink with them, mix 
mih them in their places of public tcmn and ■musemcnt, they hm unbounded in- 
fluence, They fte<iuently U)ie a lead in ptniei fn running awiy wiih yoonp; women, 
and when thry please inslifale tu acttof diatnibance. 1 see nothing lo material n 
(be irantiOTllity of [he stale as to provide an outlet fof this dasa of ptiwns; Ihey ncnt 
bave been invited into the British xrvice, because those who could recumineiid lo 
gmemmcnt for ismmissions were in opposite intcrcsu. ind thought more of accom- 
modating the sons of freeholden. Of late, tbe resource Mled them, of seeking effi- 
ploymcni Irom Ihe diflcrenl fomgn powers who enlen^ned Iriiti legbnents, and iT 
the same time property hai been dlfiilsed so much moir witbly tlun beretoibi*, Hto 
incrcuc Ibc number ol idle handt eausidenbly. Twenty-five yean ago, a mama{e 
porlioD of Ml. was not W common as a punion r4 aooJ. is at picscni ; and it is more 
usual to bentow upon a young couple from Ml. to loot, this itay, than il wis some jttrf 
back lo farnish them with a f^ farming utensils. There is a last dispotiiion in liv- 
land to inactivity, and when there a any pretence of property or hmlly, those yfha 
can alletc Ihe encuse very teldom omit rodoso, and our rustics cherish a pritte of 
binh and disiinciiun ol families unheeded and unobserved by tbeir superiois. 

" If recruiting panics ire sent into iRe country, as has been the esse doring ma 
foimer nrs, a number e>' men muy certainly be raised ; but I conceive Ibis nwatnrt 
will as bcretotbji be in^llVciuat, be^u^e it docs not embtace or provide oecupatiM 
for those leaders who ite .ibove tnieting ai privates ; men of thh drsoription were the 
insuiunciiLi by mean^ ui whom the hte lord Edward Fnzgerald commanicaletf widl 
thepopuLcc; and if an enemy tries the eipcrimcni attain, be may f nd in tbeiane 
clais of people > Uke hicility uf icduclion ; he will find iMi;cisity, pride, and pet*, 
baps disamioininietn, 

~ "" ' n of (he rcsimcDU of Irish btij^e somcycan linoe, seemi id hive 




«ird to escKise tbe privilegs of of ths Kxiih, &9t snggntcd an opl- 

\oliag. aioa that the old eaemj of the Brl- 

Tins first pwrKament ckosen aftv tisfa governmrnt teas not indifferent 

tbe taioD wai aiso, in a great mea- to the caosei of discontent in Ire- 

uuv, tbe fint in Wkkfa the Btnoan land ; an attack on the city of U- 

outtdics availed themarivex of thdr merick was believed to have been 

J*txat\f acxjoked ri^bt of voting) intended, 'and numerous assemblies 

for, ai we have already observed, were held by night in that county. 

bawtm the consternation of aoaie. These proceedings did nnt resemble 

md the hoa^ity of others, the par- tbe accustcmned tumult of the coun- 

liaaKiit of 1797 xi-as in moat places try, which althongh frequent, always 

dioKn with little more than the for- were tbe resuk of local exaaperations, 

oiality of dection. always had loai ol^ects in view. 

Towards the doae of the year andusually termltiated insomenid- 
nme appearance of uneasiness den anlly of passion, or some sacri- 
maag the oommon peo^ of KMne fice to village resentment. "Die as- 
of the ficat and populous coontiea scmblage of men fiMn remote parts, 

bcai somewhat ia coincidence wilh the principle I mratiun ; but that expedient tailed, 
n it well might, far it did not gp haH w*j to the objeci. The brigades held out their 
tdigna to tbe people, to whieh tket were not imeiuible, but which they do not 
Tibc acv so iDtich as thcf do tkdt Kad«i. The officen of tba bri|;ades were mostljr 
FKnctuuao by birth ; they had Ion theit connection with the country ; and any othoi 
^Kignnj misht iiitt wiih equal effect have been sent to recruit here. It was $uppo!ieil 
thu the Iiuh Kcit so iiKich devoted to Che catholic religion, that (hey would be in- 
ivtd to a^tjicie, (iota this motive iloae, 10 the officers presented to them ; maeh u 
^*^ bCEn aid to ^ve ctirrcncy to this opinion, it is onquestioaablj [Diudcd on an er- 
lunoooi piesumptioQ. 

" AoMher opinion eauallyciiiuieoui, but inculcated by some pctions, is, that this 
J^Ofk checiiha any politicsL dc9i;cn> or has been iToticed up to any pefmanent prin- 
nylc of disafieetion. They know little either of their own 01 of foreign ^remmciK) j 
^kIt politics iKcad bo binttaeT thin to hate an oianfc man ; 1 apeak of the multitude 
who inhabit the open counl/y i (hey aic Ibnd ot conflicu and ot ardoom euteipiisei 1 
OBI nam govtiotncnt miy have them if it clioo«;s and will take the double ; should 
oat gn eminent orait this precaution, they are at the disposal of the enemy; and be 
■ill h»e the full OK of Ibem, either to keep (be coantry in alarm, whilst he pre- 
pans fof an attack, 01 to comboiie with Mm in case of invasion. 

" Tlic pirii«cl 1 would suggesl it, to totm leEimcnts on the piinciple of the bri- 
pdn, bin oSiccred, foe the miw pan, by penons who have an ascertained intluenca 
*i^h the cornmoo people. There is a great disposition to clmship atnonit the common 
peo{4e, bat trom cireumuaocea, which would be Udious to enumciaie, this attacbmcDt 
baaoc geoeially ran in the line of properly. 

" Tbe Raman catholic religion was the establishment of the bri(Bdes. I do not 
know Khctbci itiis would in tbe pmeni instance be neccEsaiy ( but it would be well 
to «ecure tbe persons engaging against the possibility of any intctference wilh the iiB- 
'rictuoQi they are aiucbed to, or against any taciious partiitities: this might brefli^cted 
^ pWiog olaccn of known mcdeialion at ibc bead uf the several ret^mentt. Paients, 
'<tu<ci,Md ciernracn, would coopcialc more readily, or at least not discannienaiice 
•iwc olKi were dxpoaed 10 engage, if they obsctvcd a provision made lor resi«GtiDg 
■beu picpuncifions. 

" Animoiiiy and revenge drew the Irish into the field in the late rebtllion, but 
i-trlr IT nas the oacie spirit »f advciuiitc which led ihent to anpce m Ihe prarious 

2 fhe 

uiBi-iiMb, Google 

196 ANNUAL RfiGlSTEfe, 1802. 

the adoption of leaders, and the are a race of men of aculc reeliD|^ 

projected attack upon a regular and fierce p^issions ; they were, in 

garrison, all combined to suggest to nUny inataAces, abandoned (u petty 

rcflecling; tnen, that the ])eople tyranny, to the linrd hands and 

wcrr, on this occasion, excitnd by insolent maimers of mean eiacton; 

somewhat more than their ordinary at length, the contajiion of political 

and Iniiisitary tumukuousness. In interfuKtice extended iu>clf to ihtai; 

fact, tct-eral persons, who had fled it ran with the rapidity of flame 

to France cm the insurrection of acting upon well- prepared coniiXM- 

1798, returned to Ireland after the tibles ; . tlie opportunity was observ- 

peace of Amiens, Various French- cd by some men who had talenis 

men, under tlie pretence of private sufficient to improve it, but who 

business, spread themselves ovei wxuted sense or honesty to discern 

the country, and a mysterious com- or to avoid the disasters which 

mercial agent took his post in the their iniiidious efTuits must accn- 

metropolis. It was singular enough, mulate upon their unhappy felkw 

that at the tune M. Fauvelet cor- ^titizens. A young nobleman, of 

responded with his government, as daring mind, of pc^nlar manners, 

its agent in an accredited situation, end great family pretensions, vnt 

no person In Dublin "Has aware led by spleen, or by infatuation, to 

that their city was honoured by the lend his cooperating aid. The pto- 

resideuce of such an officer ; and so jvertied part of the country, acting 

obscurely did this gentleman keep with the grossest indiscretion, » 

himself secluded, that, it having the danger approached, tan foi 

become necessary fur tlie atfairs of shelter into a petty religious com- 

a French tanuly to ascertain the bjnation, tVom which they octi- 

deatli of a gentleman, who died in sionally issued to alienate their 

Jreliind during the war, the proper countrymen still more by iudisoi- 

tlocumcnt^ were forwarded from minating intemperance. 

France, with directions to have If the protestants of rank lod 

them authenticated before citizen property in Ii'cland, instead of 

l-'auvelet, the commercial agent of forming a l^goc of exclusion, of sus- 

France in DnUiu. The party con- pieion, and of severity against ilieir 

cejned was obliged to return for catholic countrymen, had, on tJie 

ans\Ter, that after diligent search first appearance of alarm, calledfor 

he could not discover tlie residence the aid of those of their o*t), 

of any such person, or the existence or nearly their own rank, aiuoug 

of any such officer. them ; if they lud even accepted 

In fact, there were in la-land that aid where it was profterrd, if 

materials too abundant for such in- the associated [Wopetty of the land 

triguers to work upon i tlie many had called foilli the middle orders, if 

political discussions which had agi- all united hwL approached the coin- 

Uied that country, from tl;e year men people with gentleness, with 

J77B, had turned every miiiU from expostulation, with a cordial cflrr 

sober pursuits to political specula- of pardon and protection, they 
tioH. Ilie lower people had been would most probably have enlin'ly 
for a' long time turbulent: they subdoad the dispoiilion to insur- 



redion, ihej wonid not have left 
a pjrtizart of Fmdcc in the three 
p.-OTiDces of Leinster, Munster, and 
CMMught ; and the same sinady 
wuect, the s.une setitiment of coii- 
tca:, which intiinidated onr ene- 
mies when they made the attempt 
H Bauuy bay, uoold havn still 
ccmtinaed Co protect that island : 

TV gently of Ireland are prokibly 
hf this time aware of their error, 
IxJt hM cost them dtarlv. 
, These cirt-Timstiiiccs of scduc- 
fion on tiie part of the revola- 
tionlsts, aad of overbearing harsh- 
DCM cm the pnrt of the leadint; men 
of the country, pro<Utced in tlie 
middle clas'vs an inditference 'o the 
iaterejtj of ihcir government, and 
ia the populace an active dinpofi- 
tion to destr.jjr it. I'hv spirit of 
tie latter wis cruslied, but not 
xMufd nor reclaimed ; it wa*, in- 
deed, rather the more esiifiperated 
Iw the mon^troiw severitits which 
earned either in rejirwiin^ or 
a*en;jing llic reb.-l;;'m ot" 1/93, 
Wliilever miglit hs the wishes of 
E^emment, its ertorts (o concilinte 
were not able to produce as yet 
an eff'-ct in any dcj^re propor- 
tioQatc to the spirit of innnvn^inn. 
Of course, the eniiisarle-t of Frii'ice 
had little more u> An, in order ta 
ikiw this people Into action, than 
to cdiect tliein t".^>'ilier, and give 
tbf m a promise of a-isisiance ; dnd 
the oTclitiary bondit of union l>e' 
tween the severnl classes were so 
efetuiilly loosened, that ihest? roni- 
b<Q»ionj, and all preparatory »te]is 

for commotion, might calmly be 
arranged with little or no danger of 
detection, and without the slightest 
probability of information being 
conveyed to the civil niagislrate. 

In this rapid sketch of the aflkirs 
of Ireland it will hnvu beeii ob- 
scn-ed, that at the close of 1302 
they presented a far more gloomy 
aspect than M that of the preceding 
ycctr; nor did they proniija much 
amcliomtion ; for it was now rn- 
nioured, and gained universal credit, 
that the tenorc by which Mr. Ai!- 
diiitjton held his high situation of 
livsi minister was, the exclusion gf 
the Irisii catholics from any further 
admission into the advantages of 
till; constitution ; a fact which, if 
believed, naturallj- alienated a con? 
sidsriible portion <rf" the popuJatiun 
of tlie country from the general 
intiTests of the empire, and gave 
but too i^iind an ojiiioiUinity to the 
malignant and implacihle repnb- 
licajis to ngl.atis Hnd corrLij>t, Snme 
Ti'.isoniiiL; principle it might have 
been ueiTesfavy to apply to show 
the dangerous consequences which 
wonld prorj.ibly resuil from the 
Riissi.iii f.iiucntion and tin- treaty 
of Amient; but to state at length 
the impijiicv of proscribing a whole 
people, and (hut people too one of 
the main stays and 9up;Kirts of tlie 
gi-andenr, opnlence, and security 
of tiie British empire, woiUd be a 
wA^t^ of our readers' ailentinii, and 
an ii';ull to their under.nandings. ' 
tinch were the sullen and unpinmis- 
ing a«]iect of alfaira at ilie terniiiia; 
tiou of the year. 



Stalt of Emvpe at iht Coucbtatm of ikt Treaty of Anufns—qf RtissU 
— */■ ihe Empervr Altxander — Aiutria — Pnasu^—imaJler Panevrt if 
Europe. — Affairs of France. — Separate Qmventim lettoetm that Pmoer 
.and Balavia, in flolalifm of tie Spirit of tie Treatu of Antiens.— 
Tunis tubmiti to France. — Dissatisfactions in Suitxerland — andin the 
Itepublie <f the Sevtn hUt.'—Pttllicaliim of the Concordat, and near 
Arrangements respecting Religion. — Catholic Religion restored in Franee 
■ — Ceremonies thereat- — Act of Amnestu in Favour of ike Evtigratttf. 
—ReeUction of the First Cmsul for Ten Tears— and for hife. — Su^ 
cess at St. Domingo. — Great Power and Dominion of Bonaparte. 

THE nortbem confederacy, be- -standii^ and jndginent were weak, 

ing, by the farmal renunciation and wlio was at ihe same time 

of iU principles, dissolved, and the tyrannical, capricious, and roman- 

deJiiiitiTe treaty signed at Amiens, it tic; liis reign was a Ecries ot 

-was supposed that exery contentious contradictioDs, and all his public 

question bad be«i settled among actions were marked with violence, 

Ihe nations of Europe ; that every absurdity, and injustice. When the 

interest Iwd' been balanced, as well imtmense force rf the Russian em- 

as circumstances woidd admit, and pire was in his hands, the coDti- 

that all the elements of war had nent of Europe could never be se- 

bcen at rest, and were not likely cure from war j but his success^, 

soon to be again Ihrown into com- the present emperor, seemed to 

motion. Great Britain had shown caiTy every amiable aod princely 

her sincere wish of peace by" the virtue to the throne: mild, ge- 

vast sacrifices the had made lo ob- neroiis, and pacific in hia nattire, be 

tain it, Uonapartfi, in the name of turned his miud principally to that 

the French nation, also pr<)fessed wide field of improvement irhich 

the most earnest desire for the pre- his vast dominions and half civ iii*«J 

Bcrvation of the general tranquillity subjects opened to his view ; lii« 

of Europe, and no other power second ciure seemed lo be ihe pea«, 

seemed to have any wish or motive traoquillity, and happiness ot Ku- 

to disturb it, Tbt politics of Bus- rope. With resijcct to tlie Ilussi.m 

sia, ever since the accession of the empire, all his acts bpre Ihe sump 

emperor Alexandt-r lo [lie throne, of bis character, and were soldy 

were completely pacific. The con- directed to the lihtriy and happi- 

duct and the character of this mo- ness of his people, and tlie iin- 

iiarch appeared in every thing to provement of his dominions. With 

differ fioni that of his father, the respect to the politics of Europe, 

anperor I^ul, whose natural tinder- hb priuciplcs were those of a peace- 


aAa, ind Europe felt a security the decisions of the Frendi cal)inet 

■0 fait d»aracttT, that if agaia the the great events of llie comim nt 

"onn of u-ar was to desolate its for this year uerc to proceetl, and 

filnns, that stomi was not likely the hiatory of tlie intrigues of Uie 

10 come frona the side of Russia. Tkailteriet becDtncs the history of 

Tie German empire was not in a Europe. 

Htoation to wish for or to provoke The first event which imme- 
wr. TTie emperor, after the fatal diatdy followed the treaty of 
(^joience of so many unfortunate Amiens was a (xinvention between 
cmpaivns, and the decisive viotO' the French and Uatavian anabassa- 
tia giiocd by France in the last, dors at Amiens in the name of tJicir 
radd not pretend singly to cope respective governments, that the 
with France, nor was be tikely in indemnities which were stipulated 
inch a case to receive assistance by that treaty to be given to the 
ftwn the other Gennanic powers. family of Orange were not at all 
The hostile ritality which bad to be at the charge of Holland. If 
long subsisted betwi;en Prussia and this bad been so understood be- 
Attstrii bad now created a complete twecri the British atid French am- 
ichiini in the German empire ; bassadors, it would appear that there 
Pnh^ia, which was the weaker was no occasion for this separate 
porcr of the two, looked to tlie convention: if it was notso undei- 
lai^cance of France to place her stood, it then follows that, on the 
a( leait on sn c<]uality with Austria, very day of signing the treaty of 
InllielatierytMrs of the war, Prussia Amiens, France, by 3 solermi act, 
tid assimied tlie protectorship of violated the spirit and true con- 
lie north of Germany, and Iiad even (tnicljon of the negotiation, 
iHempted to annex Hanover to its Tlie next polllical occurrence 
domialons. After peace had forced which followed was tlie treaty of 
lieit03bandouHanover,shesot^t, peace between France and Tunis, 
under the name of indemnity, to ob- or ratlier the submisiinn of the iley 
uia considerably more than she had to the menaces of Bonaparfe, The 
W during the war j but for those states of Europe have so long sub- 
acouiiitions she looked to the par- mitted to the insolence and dcpre- 
tijlii}- and infiOcuce of France, and dations of the piratical states of 
DM to the (brce of arms, or to the Harbary, that if Bonaparte had used 
juain- of her tkiims. Russia wish- the force and cncrgj- of his govtni- 
(d f T peace; Germany (notwith- * meut to cnwli this usurped power, 
(an'!;ng the (juestion of the indem- and really to restore the " ULcrty of 
fillies was still undecided) wished the se(£' to all nations trading, ia 
fv peace ; that England wished the Mcdi terra neaji, he had then the 
fer peace was too apparent ; the means of acfjuiring the greatest 
■onhtn and the smaller powers ^ glory for himself, and of meriting 
of Europe, including Holland and ' the thanks of all natioiiB j but his 
SsiraerUnd, wisiicd for jieace: nor treaties and his actiuus were of a 
*as there any quarter from whidi move selfish nature, and never looked 
«r cunW proceed unless from tte further than the aggrandisement of 
iajatiable ambition and injustice of tliat particular nation of which he 
feuice, and her cuvemment. Ffom bed made binuelf the master. 

04 The 


The dej- of Tunis, terrified at- the. rqHiblic. This iniinngement wu 

appearance of aFreiicli stjuadron oflf videiidy resisted by the people; iJio 

Ibc fort of Goletta, and at ihe me- ji.inies wrre, liowever, prevented 

naces of the French admiral, signed from proceeding lo extremities bj 

a treaty, by which ibr the future tlic tiiterposiEiixi of ibe English 

"Francewat tobethe most favour- commodore who was cniisipg off 

ed nation throughout the dominions t!iat station. Tiiere being nothag 

of the regency, and itfi commerce of m<)rc importance to disturb the 

to pay less duties than tliat of other p^'.ice uf Europe, Bonaparte bad 

cations." leisure afresh to pursue, ^nd has 

This treaty alone would be suf- accustomed good forlunc to attain, 

ficient to conviuce every candid the now. grand objects of his ain- 

political obser>'er, thai the phrase bition. 'In order to give a pcroia- 

of " t!ie liberty of tlie seas," so ilent duration to llie power he had 

often repeated by the French go-, assumed, he fdi it necessary to con- 

vcrnmcnt, was in tlieir moutlis a' ciliate the afii-ctions and sooth the 

niere empt)' expression adopted for pnsiions of the ditfereut parties tn 

sellish purposes ; and that their France. The fate of a mere mili- 

pbmpfiij ddclamations on the tlie- tary govirtimcnt has been in all 

oty of the " equality of comnier- ages, but nioiv especially in an e«>- 

ciii! righli" among nations at peace, lightened one, extremely precari- 

me^Tit ("otTili'jelse than tliat Eng- ous : all thrones haie been found 

larj w.n never to be the ftvourcd weak which were not in some de- 

nation ill iiT-.y commerciDl arrange- gri? siipporletl by public opinion, 

ment, bur \hp.t France was to Hitherto the peoiile of France had 

fitlnd !n that sitmlion in evcTy submitted to be the instrument of 

cou::',.-/ where her power cr her tlie de>,ii;ns of every party, ivhiiJi 

infliien:'^ c: ici'iiL'd. in it* turn bore &way, during the 

At tliis lime; there hardly existed revolution j yet it was well known 

a ferment in any country in Europe, that the great majority of thetn 

1^'ilh the exception of Switzerland, (particular^- tlie peasantry) were 

where the people were violently, much dissaiiilied at the abolition of 

averse from the constitution whii-h their aniient rrllgion, and wished 

France had fiirced upon tlicm, and to see it again reinstated in its 

impatient for the execution pf the former splendour. Bonaparte wa* 

treaty of LuneTille, which declared . fully aware of Ibis predoniinant in- 

their country to be independent, clination ; and during tbo war be 

and to have an undoubted rigiit to entered into a convention with the 

choose such const ittilion or Ibrm of pope, by which the neiv tysiem 

government as was agreeable of die Galilean church was com- 

to the proplc. Some tumults also plcidy settled. This convention, 

existed in the little republic of Uie or, as it was styled. Concordat, 

Seven Isle<, occasioned by the at-, which bore date on tJie lOlb of 

tempts to inlri>duce an aristocracy September IHOl *, was made pob- 

tif the ancient Venetian nobility into lie in. Paris a fortnight after tlie 

the governmefit of this new formed siguature of (be treaty erf Amitaw. 

•^Vide "Siiie.Papers," leoi. _^ 


Vit: tmaa of it weue briefly as VIII. The followaig fotm of 

ftillov: prayer shall be recited at Uie end 

L The catholic, aposUdicaiulBo* of divine service, in all the calhuUc 

ma idtgioD, shall be fraely exer- cliurchea in Frajux ; 

Q*Bd in France 1 the wornbio shall _ . . . 

be puliLc, arm subject to ihoic regu- omolTm. nIvoi he consaW 
tttwnj Qi' police «Ftiich the govern- 

mem may jud^ie luxeesary lor the ThelXth, Xlh, 3{Itb, aitd XUth 

pihlic tianqailli[>-. ^ articles give the new bishops the 

IL A oeu- divisiOD is to be made power of appointing the cure; who, 

cf the Ficoch dioceses by liie holy hon'evcr, must be accepted by die 

KK. in concert with the frcnch government. 

gprenmient. XIII. His holiness, for the wel- 

III. His holiness shall invite the fare ot (he church and the happy 
litular Preach bisltops to every sa- establishnicut of the catholic reli- 
(ri£ce, even that of their sees, for gion, declares, ihat neither he nor 
the sake of peace and unity. nis succesMirs ^^iiI disturb in any 

IV. Hie first consul shall name, nunncr (he possessors of aHmaled 
viUun three manthf atter the pub- eccUsuuikat effects ; buL liiat tite 
Ucition of his holiness's bull, to property uf those c^'ecu shall re- 
^ archbishopricks and bishopricks main, unchai^cable in their hand* 
of Ae i}ew divbion : his holiness oi in the hands of their assig- 
■hall coQ&r the canonical institu- nees. 

tioD, sccording to (he ancient forms llie XlVth and XVIth articlet 

m France before the change of go- place the tir^t consul on the same 

venunoit. footing with respect to his holiness 

V: VI. and VII. Hie bishops a* the ancient monarchical govcru- 

^l, before tlieir entering on llieir ment of France. 

Amctkus, take from the hands of The XVtli permits French catlio- 

tbe first co.isul, and the inferior ties to make endowments in favour- 

dagy from the civil authorities ap- of chnrchea, 

pTHnled fiu' that purpose, the follow- The XVlJth and last mentions, 

ii^ oath ; that when any of the successors of 

" I swear and promise to God, the first ^consul shall not be a ca- 

on the holy Ev.ingelists, to prcacn-e tholic, the rights mentioned in the 

obedience and fidelity to the govern- above articles, and the appoiotiuent 

ment established by the constitution to bishopricks, shall be regulated by 

c^ tiie French republic j I promise a ne^v convention, 

alw to have no intelligence, to assist Such were the articles which 

K no oDuncil, to maintain no con- formed the foundation of the cele- 

■Kction, either within or without, brated cancordai. 

*fiich shall be contrary to the ThiTc were also other articles 

pub£c tranquillity; and if within drawn np for the regulation of the 

my dioccitf, or clscn'here, I ^hall pri'testant ivoriihip in F'rance. 

learn that any thing is designed Those changes and tlie neiy re- 

^ the prgudicc of the stale, I ligiuus code were announced to the 

will make It known to the govern- FrcDch people by a proclamation of 

roenL" the 


tbefirM CDiinil, dated at Paris, April To this addrns the first contid 

the 17lh, to the public; and a made the following answer : 

sotemD cdcbration of die event nai " On account of the apotlolic 

totakejJacein ihe cborchof Nt'itre virtues by wl itch you are diftin- 

Dam?, the metropotitan church of gui<ihed, cardinal, I beh<^d you, 

Paris, on the next day, being Saa- u1tfa great satistaction, the posses- 

day. ' sor of an extensive influence on the 

Pre>rion«ly, h owe ver, to the pob- conscience of man. 

lication of this new religious wide, " You draw from the gospels the 

the cardinal Cnprara, the pope's mles of yimr conduct, and conse- 

legate, had a formal audience of the qncntly you will contribfMe nracli 

first consul : the government car- to the cMrnction of animosity, and 

riages were sent to his eminence, the establishment of union, in this 

who came in state to the Tbuil- wast empire. The French nation 

leries ; he was preceded by a detach- will long have reason to rgoice at 

ment of grenadiers, andoffouifar- the happy clioift that I aod his 

laerif, with trnnipcis, Sec. There holiness have jointly made ol yon, 

were' in his train ten carriages fuH 1'he tt'sult of your mission uiB 

of ecclesiastics, and t]>e processioo be fnr the Christian religion, vikb 

wasdosedby abodyof200ciivalry, in all ages has operated so moth 

The legate and his suite descended good to mankind, a fre^h subject 

at the principal entrance of the for evuliaiion. The enlightenrf 

palace : the cross was as usual car- pfrilosopher, and the true friend 

rted before the legate, and dnring lo man, will express his satire- 

the ceremony was placed at the lion at this appointmcni ." 

door of the council cVmber, At On the 8tb, the consnis isstml an 

this council the ministers and mem- arr^le, nrdering the Pope's bull to 

bers of the council of state at- be inserted in the bulletin of ihe 

tended. Tlie cardinal delivered a laws, and auihoriiing the I^te 

thttcring address to the consul, in to cKcrcise his t'nnctionsj after talc 

which 6e complimented him both iiig the prescribed ootli. 

on account of hb victories and The magnificence of the J7U 

his zeal for religion; but nniong which established and proclaimed 

tlie many remarkable expressions Ihe catholic religion in France, 

it contained wa.s the ftfllowijig; was far gre;itcr and more dazzliag 

" ITie same band which gained ihan had attended any solemnity 

b.itlJes, and whidi signed peace since th? revolution. Ilie rcpub- 

with all nations, restores splenttonr lican party had snpposed that they 

t'l the temples of the true God, had in all events thrown doTcn, for 

reeriifies his altars, and rcesta- ever in France, tlie altar of esta- 
bliabes his worship." After the Mished religion; thw however 

condusion of his spreeh, the ear- found themselves mistaken. The 

dinal signed \heJormiila of an oath restoraUon of the national religion 

in the Latin bnguage, by which was not only effected with the ui- 

he engaged to observe the consti- most splendour and solemnity on ihe 

tiilion, laws, slalutes, and customs part of the government, but it was 

of the republic. received by the people at large with 



nme tmivcml and .sinceiv pl«amre the cxcctnion vm by no mesnt io- 
ihaaiBf e\-cnt that bad occuirrtl in ferior. Every splendour Ihat con- 
fnaee unce the revohitioD. T^e suIh Riid ctirdin^ls, binhops, arcb- 
[nnuion of die goveniiueut to the bishop!, and Ae pope's legate conM 
otbedral emulated eveiy deicrip- give to the rcestablishmeiit of the 
lion of eastern luxury and pomp. Romau catliolic rfligion in France, 
The ooiKtituted authorities .were was most protbsely liavlshed on ibis 
inwn up in the cathedral by eleven solimnilj, llie magnilicence cf 
odock, at which hour (he proce»- the spectacle, m «t11 as the occasioa 
•too moved &om the Thuillcries. of it, ift'ere highly [ideasing to ibe 
The first consul was preceited by French people, and this step added 
ife eorpi dipLimatiqne, ilie council eery considerably to the popularity 
cf state, thegcoeral ofHcers, and the of ficmapiutc. It must hovrever 
nuiu«ere. His carriage was drawn be remarked, that the republican 
bf eight horses, each led by a ser- party were much displeased, and 
ytA m a superb livery ; his corps of several of the luilitaiy obej-ed with 
Mamelukes also attended in the the utmost reluctance tlie orders to 
richest uniforms, in the church salute the cross whidi was carried 
the &ini1y of Bonaparte were seated before the legate, and murmured 
in the roost conspicuous place, above at the ceremony of consecrating 
aU die coQsituied authorities of their tundants; " The stat^dards of 
France. One oircurastance occurred ihc'Freiicli arrajj" they said, " hnd 
anudst this pomp, whicli showed the nexrbeeiiso croivned with glory, 
c^rk«and the power of fortune, as nben iliey were not consecrated." 
Among the unnoticed crowd, which it was also said that (he bishops 
ptessed into the church to see the and cU-rgy, by swearing to disclote 
P^cantij-, wai the wife of the ge- to the gf)\eTnTnent ererv cbn.-ipiracT 
Dcr»l ilnrenu, (a man who, for or dlsnfiettion in their districts, had 
abiliKes displayed in war and aer- in fact degnided themselves into 
nces reodc^l to the country, was men: i/iicr of the police. He 
raked by all Europe at on numbers, however, of those who 
an oquajity with Bonaparte:) she, ' difijpi'"i% ed of the reestablishmcnt 
dtbiiQgh oat honoured uiili a scat of the national religion, wrre but 
ai the cfltlicdral, was induced by few when compared with ihc great 
fttnale curiosity to press in among body by whMn it was approred. 
(he cio«-d, and rrrcived from the Ihe ncit step which fionaponfi 
naskct of a solilier a blow which took to ^in popularity was by 
warty deprived her of life, wliilc an act ol amnesty to the eml- 
erery lelation of Ilie Bonaparics grants, aini n-hich, if it had in 
»tre siaing in state aiui security, truth dcsened that title, wonid 
Tiis circuin stance made a consider- have been a gloriotis national re- 
able sensation at Parisj nor indeed paralion for tunnec injustice and 
conld it fail to make an irapttssion cruelly. 

w erqy fta;liiig or reflecting mind. The fate of those unhappy gnf- 

The ceremony proceeded however ffcrcrs by the rerotuiion was truly 

*ith great pomp. 1 he anthems and deswring of pit>' : many of them- 
theappropriatcmijsicwastliewurkof had loimriiy enjoyed all the com- 

tbc fiiit composers in France, and iorts and all the dignity which 



wealth, rank, and honour, - can be- tioo of a teasing and arbitraiy at- 

stow, but by one thcat rrrolutioii Hl-c, fur teu years, after the23iiof 

of t!ie wheel of fornuie ihey were September, which wss the ddini- 

tirivi^u trcm tlieii' liomes mid frmn liie period nppolnicd to dox up 

tbi^ir couiilry, anJ dispersed as thcffJlesof tliiiincrcj', sucli asilwas, 

wandfrcrs and beggars over tlie against ihos^ who did not embrace 

face of the world. Not only tlieit it on or l^cfore xhal day ^ and b^ 

niisfoTtune«, but ihe general cor- the succeeding aitici<', the inspectors 

rectness of ihcir conduct in cirry rf Uiii police I)ad ilic po\« er> duriog 

eoiiniry wlifre ihey found shelter, the.w; ten yc:u-s, of r.-;novicg any 

gained thrm respect and universal of the indi\iduaU, included under 

eommisersiion. In France many thisact, to ilic dialdiice «t siilyimles 

of tlic peasiintry were still attached from hin usur-l place of rcaidcncCf 

to ibe families of their ancient by his owii piopct authority, wiih- 

lord*; and among llic higher classes out appeal ^ and :t^ain«t any of 

Ihetc were none who had nol n rek- those who had *ulicrcd_ tliis re- 

tion or friend amoni; tlie class of nioial, it miglit, at the expiration 

proscribed emigrants. Most of oJihe ii-ii years, be I'Xtcnded to the 

lltcir property liad been confiscated wb!il<; ot ilie life of the inditJduat 

in ihc lirst years of the revolutiun, by t!ie same authority ! On this spe- 

and su'allowed up by the expenses cics of mercy it is unueccsisaiy to 

of (be war. make any comment. 

It was not in the power of the By anothi.r iirticle, all emigranU 

government to malic compensation who had recciicd from foreign 

for their losses; but to thn;e who pouers places, titles, decoratiooi, 

had been so long in exile and gratuities, orinnsloiis, were bouod 

misery, it wai perhaps a gre:it formally to declare them betbro 

boon, once more to leviiit their certain conimi^^iniicrs, a[id Amually 

country and friends, were it unac- to renounce the same. , 
companied and luisliacklcd by con- As by another article no retriT 

ditious aitd penalties, which made bution was to be made to them 

that which had the semblance of for whatever proportion of tJicir 

an act of mercy, in elfict a mockery property the nation had thought 

of the mi^tbrtuitcs iif the wretched proper to alienate, or otherwise 

objects whose fate it pretended to dif^pose, since the revolution, 'it 

smcliorate. was the extreme of cruelty to • 

This act wfl« proclairaed on tlie compel many of tiicm to resign 

27thof April, asabw of iheFi-ench their only means of Mibsisicnce, 

republic, and consisted of two titles, or banish thetn from ihcir coun- 

utider which Itcads were included try, their friends, and cnimcciions, 

seventeen articles, which may be for ever. 

seen at length in another part of Tlie following classes of persouH 

this volume *. \vc^ totally exempted from the 

Hy die twelfth article, all emi- bcneiit of the iiraMiit amnesty ;' 

grants, wiihoitl civcep'.ion, were namely, those inQividu:ils who have 

placed under the eye and insi>ec- comioaudeil armies, asscpibled in 

• Vide " State Fsi)ei»." 



tMtilitT to the republic i 2(1, (hose mained unaliennted \i thp hands of 

whn have had rank in the enemies' government was to be restored to 

armifi; 3d, those who since the ihem. Poor as tliis compensation 

foondalion have held places in tlie was for the great losses they had 

hotisehold of t!ie ci-iln<anl French sq tained, it was yet periiaps all 

princes ; 4lh, those who were tlmt could be done, considering the 

known to kne btr.n, or were wretchedstatcof theFreniAtinanccs. 

actually, movers of the civil or fo- Bonapane having thus conciliated 

reign war; 5ih, those wbo com- the majority by tlie restoration of 

maDded b^ bnd or sea, as well as the cattiotic religion, and soothed 

tlie represen in lives of the people, a little the resenimentsof the ro>* 

who have been found piilly of alisLs by this amnesty, such as itwat, 

treason against the republic ; and to the emigrants, thought it now 

the srchbishnps and bishops who, hii;li time to put into execution 

de;pising legitimate authority, have Ilie designs he had long entertained 

refused to give in their resigna- of being invested, at least for -life, 

tioo. with the sovercignt)' of the French 

On this ample schedule of empire, liis creatures immediatelf 

eiemptions it n scarcely worth agitated the question, what niarlt 

remarking, how s-cry general the of national gratitude was due to 

4th head is, which savs, that the hero who had done so mudi 

" those who are known to have for France ? There was a great 

been, or wlio were acinnlly, moxers varie;y of opinions. Many in the 

or agents of the civil or foreign tnl>nuat considered it would bo 

»ar." This pcneral description suflficicnt to reelect him as firat 

Would appear likely to take away consul for five years, 

every hojw from the cmiijrant'. The conservative Reiiatc, liow- 

if it iras not afterwanls qualified by ever, sapposed they were paying 

(hat article which, mentioned that htm a high honour, and meedng 

the number exempted should not fiilly iiis wishes and expectations 

nctcd lOOO. by reelecting him lor twice that 

By the seventeenth article, part period*. Bonaparte was by no 

of mdi emigrant property as re- means content with this reelectioo 

" Sf niton, 

" Tbf honourable l«tinion)' of j-our cst«m, eiprei^ed in your dtliberatiims pf the 
Wi, ifaall be fof eirrt enjtaven on my hcarl. tlie suflugej of ihe people hni; 
iatcttcd rat wiih ihe ^i:,i'>:ni; mii;iiiiji.')-. I shouM not togk upon myself nt a)3Urc4 
Df Ihe niiional cinfidi-ncf, if:!;: r.0[ itin: vtas l» CDtitinue mc in that lii^ll oflice ma 
no: ic;iia ijncticned by llie K^,: suf1hi<;e. Dnrii^ the thm yrus itial bavc ju«t 
•bliKd, brtunc hf >in{\ta propitioj:>ly nn tb: lepublic i but fbriunc is inconsuntt 
"ad haw miny S'e ihi«e on wliom the has l»i ..-hed Iter tivuan, that have hve'l a few 
Ttan too lung I Tiic iniLici I kil iur my glory :ii-.l my happiness tliotiH seem to hare 
iBirkcJ ihe u-iio cf tay ji.iblic lift al 'he moment that the peace of the wnrid wxf 
ptsljimtj. Bui even at[t:.tion to ilij plory nnd Ihe happineu of a citizen shouU 
cut; -0 o;>-tit-e *.hen the tnlerKts of the ^ti:e or ihe public kindnesi call upon hi Ob' 
Vlu think [hat 1 owe a asw Aaciiiice to ih>' pooiil>: ; thai taciiiKe 1 will make, if Ihe 
Wtthofiln jieo^le v.Lji is suihoriztJ Uy yuurvote. 


ftir ten yews ; he wished, if not tlus mock election must be decided, 
to bear the Dame of king or empe- No time was allowed for any na- 
jor, at least to h.ivc the power tional concert of opinion ; Pam was 
asabsolule and as pei-maofnc as hud not [lerniitled to lake the lead, as it 
tcually accompanied liuch titles, had done on foimer occasions ; the 
if indeed he did not wish to passe^ queslion was put to all the com- 
the Mibstance of royalty laoro un- raiuies of France at the same time 
fettered than ^uy other sovereign Bonaparte's reelection was securct 
had ever hitherto done. No privi- for it was not in the nature of 
leged parliament, no trihiiaal ot pub- things to suppose thnt any consi- 
Uc t^inion, was to restrain bis will derable number of peasants, lo any 
during bis lifi^ time, and he claimed remote corner of a diriiant province, 
besides [be right of transmitting tlie would venture to record their op- 
sovereign power to whom he pleased position to ihe eslablished govem- 
at his decease. -Two days after meat, widiout knowing how the 
die resolution of the conservative rest of France was affected, or whe- 
■enate, tlie consuls proposed tlie ther tliey would not, by sucb an 
followii^ question : »ct. sign tbetr own warrant for 

" Shdl Napoleon Bonaparte he death or deportation. Besides, as 

declared consul tor life ?" tliere was to be no public deck- 

On this question the people of ration of opinion, but the votes 

France were to be consulted. The were to be insciibed in books kept 

public acts expressing those resolu- by the agents of the government, 

lions are to be found in our col- it was not of the slightest con- 

lectious of State Papers. sequencs which way they were 

The mode of collecting the suf- givenj for as all those registers were 
frages was as follows : registers to be given up to the ministers of 
were opened in every commune, the interior and of justice, those two 
where the citizens were officially ministers could declare llie num- 
invited to sign their opinion upon ber of votes as they pleased, and 
&is great question. assuredly there was no individual in 
' These registers were opened to France who would dare to demand 
thesecietatiesufall adminisivatiom, a scrutiny, llie climate and go- 
to liib gieffiers of the tribunals, and vejiiment of Guiana had no'attrac- 
toall mayors and notaries. tious for those who wislicd to be 

The time allowed for voting in permitted to live in Prance. Caraol, 

each dcpailmcnt was three weeks, however, and tome determined ja- 

leckoning from tlw day of the cobins, did venture to inscribe their 

arrival of the official a-inlc at the dissent ; but as this dissent wasof 

preiecturc, and seven dajs, rec- no consequence, they were neither 

turning from its arrival at each guillotined nor deported. Camot 

oooimune. was so certain of the latter &ie. 

The ministers were charged with that Avhen he made his signature, 

tfkc executLon of the arrilc, and it be added, that he was signing his 

was solemnly iiuctted in the bulle- own deportation. At length, when 

ttn of the laws, this farce of cnreg^stering was over. 

It was easj to foresee which way ^d the booki deposited with the 

2, nuuifiten. 



minUtCR, thej- were pleased to do- indepcudent by tlic tnsaty of Lu- 

rlire ttut abuve 3,000,000 lud Dcville, he tre-jted a^ couquered 

vMrd far the qiiestioD, aud only a provinces ^ the Genaaa empire, 

fer buodEcds against it. . Fronj the whidi in the customary slowness of 

pmicalaicirci'.Qetaiiccsof the times iu proceedLiiga in^idc many dvlay* 

in which the question waa put, aud upon the settling of liic quesdoa 

fioai tlie considerations already meD- of indcmaiCtes, was threatened by 

tiooed, it is po^ible tliat 3,000,000 France; and all llie Ic^mt colonie*/ 

m^t have voted for the question, which had becu ceded, were now 

It is al« posiiblc, and full as pro- in his po5scssi(>n ; and the dis- 

UiWe, that then.' was a ju^le among patches wbicii arrived from St. 

the miniaters about those registers, D.iuiingo, the only one of the 

ud that the numbers ihey had de- French colonie» which appeared 

dared were not the real number likely to form an independent re- 

«' those who had vot,-d. Be that public under Txusialtil /.'Oarer- 

n it may, Bonapartr acwpted tlie tr/ri:, auuuunccil that it also wa» 

deiiaiation of his ministers as the obliged to bow to the t'uriiine of 

voice (rf the people, and causetl it Bonaparte. Jemmp, tiie ymiigest 

tmniediat'ly to be In.serted in the brother of tlie first consul, v as the 

MUlU of the laws ; he, however, bearer of these dispnicbes, the first 

did Dot choose to s'.ibmit to them which had arrived from St. Do- 

tbc second question, " Wheiber be mingo ; iiie landing iU whldi, and 

dmld have lit^riy to appoitil liis. the crpturc of the Cape, were a 

saaatar ?" This question be pro- part of^ his welcome tidings. He 

Hired to be decided in his favour, was received in France wiili traus- 

io the conservative senate, vcitJiout ports of exuliaiioii, and the re- 

ibe mocVeiy of consulting tJic possession of ih:it vast and ini- 

pniple. Tht^se two questions Iwing ponaat colony vras looked U[wa 

thus decided, his title to the so- as certain. 

>ereigiity of France, which wa« From the Porte, Bonaparte bad 

acquired by the sword, became obtained a canfirination of tlte 

coofinned and est^Ushcd by the highly advantageous tcmu of the 

law. commercial treaty with that power, 

Thi« event placed him, to all which be had originally by fraud 

iotaib and purposes, among the concludcU, as the price of the 

WTcreigns of Europe ; and the evacuation of Egypt, at tlic nio< 

mly remaiuini qtiesiiou was, what meat when his whole army in that 

dc^ce 'of influence lie might be country were the captives of the 

permitted to exert in that capa- English, and to wlilch some de- 

dtr > mur had siiice arisen at Constau- 

In addition to France, as it was tiiioplc. 

eslai^cd by the war, he held the in Spoin, hii influence was as 

Italian republic, Piedmont, Parma, unbounded as it was exacting. 

Pbccu^ and the isle of Elba : Louisiana, that vast and incalcu- 

Etniria and Naples were ali^olutely lably valuable poisession, he had 

dependent cm him i Switzerland and wrested from her,undcr the pretence 

Hdlwd, though declared free and of negotiation : aiid f oriu^al wat 


Uigniaub, Google 


tremb^Dg under the frown of hit obstacles to his universal empite 

■mbas&ador, who seemed to con- seemed to hare been coii<)^ered; 

•ider that country af> the scene of and it only now r^nained to be 

hit military prefecture, rather than decided, ■ whether fortune or hit 

as an independent state. In fine, own prudence could maintain hitn 

he was now raised to the h^hest long in the giddy eminence lo which 

pinnade of ^ory and power that the snrprising events of the Uit 

ambitioR bad cter soared to. All six years had raised him. 

UiBDiaub, Google 



tiptSim to Si. Dammgo.—ProlabU Value of that Colony to France— t 
SMe if it at the Time of the Expedition — Force of the Armaineiit. — r 
Cluracter of Tousioint L'OuvertuTe. — jirnvalof the French F'eet, and 
Jntij, at the Cape — Resistance experienced — Success — Cap« hunted--* 
StrTeiiier of many of the Hack Chiefs — all the Coast repossessed ly the 
FreHik. — tfegotiatioji tvith Toussaint broken off — Toussaint declared n 
Rebel — Generals Le Clerc, and Rockambeau, iffc. march against him.—* 
Sanforeemeals arrive from France. — Plan of the Camprdga — partial 
Statsi and Defeat. — Attack ^ Toassidnt in his Iiitrenchments, and 
taw^lete Defeat. — Reverse of Forturte for a Mnment— final Success nf 
the French. — Toussahtt sarrendert with his Generais on Terms — violated 
w r tried and seat home to France— imprisoned, and dies. — fi^ar begun 
ojf'oA. — Conclusion. 

AT the close of oar last chaptei^ most pnwerful consideration which 

we took occasion to mention induced such eager acquiescence 

the nriral of dispatches from St. was the recovery of St. Doniiirgo. 

Daningo to France, with fevourable A fleet had been for a lone time 

aAwati of the progress of the collected at Brest, and a considerable 

Fieocfa arms, towards tbc accom' army had l>een assembled in the 

pMiii^ thai object, for which, c\'en neighbourhood. Altliough Ireland 

Man be had made peace, the flnt was held out as tlie intended object 

amsol had risked the greatest arma- of the enpedition which was thus pre- 

mtnt ever dispatched to the new paring, yd it had been obsened, for 

•wW. We shall now resume the a considerable time before ihc pre- 

wiject ; oar discontinue it, till we liminaries were signed, that it waa 

ItiK dMailed, in connected arrange- to this army tlic French govern- 

neol, all the transactions of Ais ment sent all the West India refugees 

citraordinary and novel warfare, and black troops then iu France ; 

vtrich occurred within the year; and as it was hardly reasonable lo 

•nd which iovolves in its conse- suppose ihat they could e\er have 

ijiMoces not oniy the most important been intended to be employed in an 

ctfects to the pereni couotiy, but expedition against Ireland, it appears 

UGreat Britain herself, and perhaps probable, and almost certain, ihat 

to the whcde human race. this fleet and army were a^isembted 

Itr the ready "actioiescence of at Brest, merely with a view of 

Bompvte and the French govern- holding out a menace (hiring war, 

arat to dte prelifninaries, which and for the real purpose of occupy- 

ibnned the foundation of the treaty ing St. Domingo, as soon as ever 

<i Amtens, it appeared that the the British goveimnent sltould be 



uenuaded to sign such a peace as ports were above 7,O0O,O0Oi. rtcf- 
I'rance expected and reqiiirrd. Mar, which cmpluyed 1040 sliips. 
Early in the month of October and 26,770 seamen. When to this 
)801, the preliminaries were signed possojsion should be added the Spa- 
between the French aad English nish part of the island, it would be 
Ko\'emments ; and without waiting a nooderaie calculation to state the 
for the discussion of those points future probable value of the whole 
that were to be arranged before a island, moderately speaking, at three 
definitive treaty could be signed, times the vdne which ibe French 
the French governnient, with an part alone possessed before the war, 
almost inconceivable degree of Even when the whole island sbonld 
activity, equipped in the ports of be brought to the state in which 
Jtochefort, Toulon, Havre, and die French part was formerly, it 
flushing, those armaments which would not then be half peopled 
Were to cooperate with the grand or half cultivated, and would stili 
equipment at Brest, of which admi- hold out the fairest prospects of in- 
ral Villaret Joyeusc was the naval creasing wealth and rcsojirces. It 
oomiuander, and general Leclerc was therefore clear that if France 
'(who had married the sister of the could only hold St Domingo as 
arst consul) the commander of the a colony, she need hardly wish for 
land forces, wiih the conunission more foreign possessions, u tliat 
of captain-general of St. Domingo, island alone would be worth all the 
The great solicitude for the recovery colonies which the other European 
of tlut colony, tlie astonishing ac- itates possess (taken collectively), 
tivity in fitting out the expedition, both for intrinsic value and from thi 
and the [KMsible loss of the entire number of ships and seamen itwould 
french naty incurred t>y it, are nut employ hi time of peace, wbAli 
to be wondered at when the im- would at once lay the firm fouodl- 
mejise importance of the island tiun of a commerce and a navy, 
is considered, the character and that at no very distant day must be 
power of TottssaiTit L'Ouverturt tupertor to that of any other nation, 
who dien governed it, and the These considerations, which involv* 
great difficulties which the nature cd materially the future destinies uf 
of the country, and its numerous the French eua[»re, were naiunlly 
and armed population, would most amoug the principal objects of iis 
probacy oppose to a forcible occu- ffovemment : the expedition there' 
nation of the island. As to the tore for St. Domingo, which W 
intrinsic value and unponance of been loug preparing, was completely 
St. Domingo as a colony, it is al- e<|iiipped within a very sbprt time 
most beyond die power of calcii- after the signine of the preliinioa* 
jatiou. That part of it which be- ries, allowed a chance to dicF'rcndi 
longed to France before the war, tiict of making the passage, without 
which was barely one third of the \ti:\\w obstructed or captured by the 
Island, and \iy tar ihe least iertile, English force. Such beinc the iaten- 
was more productive and protitable, liuiis and views of the French ^o- 
in every point of view, than all the the timeof siguing uiv 
Brilisb West India islands taken to- preliminaries, it is worthy of aiirn- 
gcthct : the value (tf its annual exr tion to obecive vlui \vj> ihc siate 


oT tbe Wmd at tbat time, and the of conducting armies witii consum- 
cfuncier of tho*e who possessed ils mate kit! i statesmen of no common 
govmiment. or bounded views : some who, at 
lite colon}^ of St. Domingo liad the schools at the Cape, and the 
sofiered more in proportion than other principal towns, had learned 
Ihe moihcr country, by the excesses in their youth, from European mas- 
vhicli the (alte and extravag:int no- ters, those sciences and that know- 
lionsof libcTtyhadgiven riseloin the ledge in which Europe so much 
ommenceincntoftheFrenchrevolu- excels; others who, with little or 
lion. Tbercwcre tlirce distinct classes no education, drew from the native 
of men in the island j thewliites, the strength and resources of iheir own 
men of colour, and the blacks. Not- minds, a capability of filling the most 
withstanding the jacobin and le- important situations with decency, 
rdliag sentiments which then pre- Of this number, if fortune were al- 
niled in the FVench army, yet ihe ways constant to merit, in TouS' 
garrisotis of Sl Domingo at first stdnl L'Ouveriure, not oaiy the poet, 
■ided with the two former classcr, butthefiiithfiilhistorian.wotddbave 
who were the proprietors, against seen " hands which the rod of em- 
tile daims of the blacks to eraan- pile might have swayed." The as- 
dpation. 11k whites and the men cendency of his genius entitled him 
of cclour afterwards (juarrelkd to the chief command among his 
among themselves, and the French countrymen, and when the course 
gnrisons were too fixble to inter- of events had made him for years 
Icre with success, in settling their the supreme governor of tjie island, 
ewi! bmib. At length, when the 'he " bore his faculties so meekly," 
coatianance of the war in Europe acted with so much honour anj 
fut it out of the power of France justice to foreign merchants, and 
(□ Knd any rcinfrinxments of troops showed so strong a desire to raise 
to St DtHtiit^, and the island ap- the race of bis fellow negro ct- 
peared likely to bea»ne an Eng- tizcns, not only in political rank 
M colony, the republican troops but in moral character, that the eyes 
were obliged decidedly Ki call in the of the world were turned upon 
Sid of ih« Uacks to repel the Eng- him, as one of those extraordtn:iry 
iish tod defend the island. In men whose fortune it was to be die 
ordo' to make of slaves enthusiastic founders of empires and republics, 
Ktdioi, no less a promise than that He was considered as the woiltln^- 
of liberty was held out to tbem. ton or Bonapart^ of St. Domingo, 
It wn for liberty tbat they stood and the man who was fated to be 
*itb fiddity to dieir posts, bravely the principal i)isirameiit of restor- 
Met the dangers of battle, and ing the negro race to freedom 
vidHNit assistance firom tlie mother and independence. Viewed in this 
•wimtiy deteodcd the colony against light, he was undoubtedly the most 
the power ttf Great Britain, the proud interesting of all the public characters 
misticisofthescas. Among this race which appeared on the great sL-ige 
irfo^rocs,forraerlysodespised,weTC of political events for l£e present - 
invnediately found characters suited year. For several years before, 
to the vast parts which they were the whole weight of the govem- 
alled i^on to act. General* capable mcnt of St. Domingo bad beca 
P 2 fiustaiiisd 


sustained by him j he had eubdncd When this party, with general 
or iranfiiiilliied every pany that op- Moyse at their head, was sub- 
posed him, and had at length ducd, Toussaint turned his attcn- 
uiawn up a constitution for ihdt t'lon to secure the independence 
country, such as in his judgment and interests of tlie island by nc- 
proini<;pd to secure its h:ippiness gbtiations with America and Eng- 
and independence. In forming iliis land. The iifgotialion with the 
constitution himself, and in not government 9f Jamaica appeared in 
sending to Bonaparte to form one the greatest state of fonvardnex, 
for St. Domingo, it was considered when it -waa abruptly broken off, 
by tlie first consul, thai this chief in consetjnence of the news aniv- 
of the colony had committed an ing at Jamaica of the conduiioo 
open act of rebellion against him as of the preliminary treaty, and b1- 
sovereignofthcmothercountryi but most immediately after Toussaint 
in justice to the moral character of learned that a great fleet and araiy 
Toustaifil, it must be recollected was on its passage to St. Domii^. 
that France had abandoned the is- He then complained most bitterly of 
land, during the war, to the blacks, the want of good faith in our govern* 
and that they, not knowing of the ment, whD,nesaid,had,withoutaTiT 
private negotiations between lord provocationon hispart.ccaleacedwitb 
Hawkesbury and M. Otto, natu- Francetoruinhim; and,indeed,wheo 
rally considered the war would be it is considered how easily Eng- 
of much longer duration, and there- land could have prevented the ratling 
fore ventured to make a constitiUion of the expedition if sbc had tbougbt 
for (hemsclves, without consuking proper, this supposition appeared to 
the great constitution -maker of Bu- nave some foundation. It was only 
rope : this was their great offence; in the month of January 1802, t^( 
and no sooner did they hear of the it was known at St, Domingo that 
preliminaries bf ing ugned tlian they peace had been concluded with Ei^- 
sawon their coasts an Immense fleet land, and before the month had a- 
and army, destined to occupy the pired the French armament appeared 
island as masters, and possibly before their ports ; there was there- 
to reduce them to the state of fore very little time to make any 
ilavery, from which they had pur- preparations, or hardly time (at tM 
chased their emancipation by their blacks to form an opinion whether 
Uood, and by tlieir courageous de- the French rame as friends or foes. 
fenceofthe colony. Toussaint had TheFrenchfureethiii presenteditself 
just suppressedan insurrection , which before St. Domingo was probably the 
must have been the most affliiling most formidable armament which 
to his feelings as a man. inammcli had ei'tr sailed at one time to the 
as it was headed by his nephew, western hemisphere; the only docu- 
general Mnyse, in whom he had mentlike au official account of their 
reposed entire confidence. From force appears in a letter from theirad- 
ihe protection that the humanity miral l^illarfl Joyense to xite hnH-ii 
of Toussaint attbrded lo the whites, adrniral Duckwortli, commandite 
a party was formed against him, who at Jamaica. As tlie object of this 
iT'(d nut that he li:id abandoned letter ivas to obtain, if necessary, 
and idi ihe blacks to the whites, supplies and ammunitirm, it must 


,;..,..:, Cookie 


dKR&re be supposed tliat the Rochefort, and also by some ships 
f^chadmjral, ia order to allay aD/ from t'errol, commanded by the 
jcdocsT or aUnn, rather underrate Spanish admiral Gravina. A part 

than exaggerated bis force. The of the squadron was sent from 

uiemcDC of fillarel Joyeust was thence with the division of general 
is follows : that twenty-five sail of. Ken'eyseau, to take possession of 

the line had eiUcretl die porta of St. the city of St. Domingo, and tlie 

DooiH^o, but that live sail being Spanlsli part of the island, while 

Spanish, were to proceed immedi- the main body pricpeded to Cape 

«dy to the Havannali ; that three FiLingois, before which harbour they 

Mfl of the remainder were merely presented themselves on the 3d of 

inned ex ^fp, and that the number February. A small squadron was 

of the troops they had brought out detached to take pos^icjsion of Port 

»«» Mxtfm thousand men ; that he au Prince, whkh espcdition was 

daily expected six sail more, three confided to general BouJet, while 

of which were Bata?ian, and were the grand army under the orders of 

to proceed to their own ports, and Ledcrc and Rocliambeau prepared 

thai these vessels vrere to bring to take possession of tlie Ciipe and 

iboat 5 or 6000 additional troops, all the iiuportant positions In the 

The great pains taken in this letter nordi of llie Island. The French 

to describe the naval force as little gener.ils were by no means certain, 

IJxmldibIc as possible, leaves strong whether Tons.iaint meant to resist 

room to suppose that the account M or not; the ir operations, howdver, 

tbe land forces were probably under- vere so calculated and combined 

rated when they were tlius slated at as to overcome any resistance Uiat 

only 21 or 22.000 men. When it they could expect to find. While 

is considered that die squadrons of the grand fli^t lay directly betbre 

Gantiieairme and Liaou both ar- the port, the first debarkation 

rived very shortly after this letter was made on tlie 3d of February, 

wii written, we cannot fairly esti- in the bay of Mancenille, about 

mate the force destined to make twenly-fivc miles cast of the Cape, 

the first attack on St. Domingo This armv was comnianded by 

« less than 25,000 troops and gener.ils Rorliambeau and Brunei, 

twenty-sii. sail of the line, with On their landing, a tumultuous 

a proportional number of frigates ; asscmbl.ige of blacks mudc a show 

this fortt: too, great as it was, was to of resi,taiire, crying "No whites, 

hefollowedbyotherreinforcemcnts. no whiiw;" tliey were, however, 

Ihe details of the passage of the soon roin.d and disjicrsed, and 

Frendi fleet were given in a letter general Bruiiet entered with the 

from the admiral Villarot Joyeuse fugltiies into the forts of Ance 

to the French minister of marine: and Bouijuc, which, after a des- 

ihey had been detained by contrary perate rosisi.ince, wltc cjrried by 

»iiid) in Brest harbour till the 14th the French imops. A French fleet 

of December, upon which day they in the miiin time entered the roads 

•ailed, and in foriy-six days made of Fort Dauphin, but although 

CapeSamanah, the nearest port of the blacks kepi up a c:iinuinaiie 

St. Domingoj there they were joined for some time, tlicy wtiv obliged 

bf a division which sailed from to evacuate it on the ncjr appioadi 
Pa o£ 


of the French troops, mipportcd b^ ciny bis threats into coni{dete eit- 

the lire of the tquadron. In this cuiion. Although he did cauK fire 

manner fell Fort Dauphin, the first to be set to part of the tuwu, tic wai 

important post which the French obliged to evacuate it, and the 

e possession of: here Rocham- French entered it, before ibe fire 
u found ISO pieces of cannon, had done any very cimsiderablemis- 
a magazine of provialoas, and a chief; a great part of the rich plan- 
position that it was not in Ibe tations in the neighbourhood, were 
power of the blacks to dislodge also preserved by the precipitate 
faim from. The grand amy of retreat, which the rapid advance of 
Leclerc waited for the news of this the Freucb troops obliged Chris- 
first debarkation ; when, in the tophe to make, 
evening of the 4tli, the Syrene Iti- In those first operatinns of the 
gale brought inidligence of its war, which gave tJie Frendi pos- 
fluccesa: the graud anny was with- session of Cape Fran^oiii, Fort 
out delay landed about thirty miles Dauphin, and some of the mctt 
to the westward of the Cape, be-' important points iu the colony, il 
tween Margot and Limbe. The does not appear that any d^re 
town of the Cape was evidently no of courage or skill, on the part ot 
longer tenable: wbiie it was blocked the blacks, could have opposed an 
upoothccastemsidebyBocbambeau, eflcctual resistance. No town that 
Lecleic's grand army was marclilDg is not completely fortified, and 
on it from the west, and the entire strongly garrisoned, could pretend 
fleet presented itself abreast of the to resist eftcclually a force of 
harbour.andbegaDtacannonadeFort 20,000 veterans, and twenty sbipi 
Piccolet, and the batteries which do- of tbe line: the blacks, however, 
fended the entrance into the roads ; showed a considerable degree ol 
this cannonade was however briskly spirit and determination i Lecietc 
returned by the blacks in the forts, confessed that the forts of Ance 
and general Christophe, who com- and Bonqiie made a desperate re- 
.mandetl there, did not evacuate the sJstancc to Rochambeau's division, 
town, without opposing every reaist- and the Fort Piccolet, and the others 
ance that in those circumsUnces it which defended tlie entrance uf 
was possible to make ; but when it the harbDur, were not to be sileoced 
is considered that 20,000 veteran by the whole Freudi fleet, until 
French troops, supported by an \m- they bad also been threatened oo the 
luense numbtr of ships of war, were land side. The orders which were 
preparing for an immediate attack, issued by Cliristoplie to the corn- 
it was in rain for him to attempt maudcr of Fort Dauphin, and all 
any longer to defend it; he how- those in his district, were to sink, 
ever let the French eomrcandws if they could, all ilie French vessels, 
know, that he should certainly bum to defend thcmsclt es to tlie larf 
the town if ihey persevered in iheir exirtiuify, and, if obliged to rctrwi. 
hostile measiures. The French ge- to bum every thing behind ihcni: 
ncrals, partly aware of the proba- this was the plan he himself pro- 
bility ot titat event, had accelerated fessed that he would act upon i ocd 
their march in such a manner as in answer to the summons of 
to make it impossible for him to the French generals^ he .replic4r 



Ibat he wtnild receive no orden abop of the Preoch part, to betraj 
bM 6ini Toussaint, and if he win his tnut, and drive away the bro- 
obfiged to retire, he ahoold certainly tbcr of Toumainl, who had been »p- 
bumtbe town of the Cape, llie pointed govenwrof the whole of the 
French, notwithstanding the atro- Spanish territM)'. General Laplum?, 
dlies eonuniited by tbemselvea; mio commanded in the southern 
lActed to consider this as a most district, acted a similar part, and 
baibuoos icsolation: to an impart the Prenuh genera) Kervel^u 
til] obKiTer, it must however m> entered the capital city of St. Do- 
pear that it was impossible for mingo without any opposition. The 
Chrisiophe to have acted a more Spanish settlers rejoiced in the 
ipirited, soldicr^Hke, and patriotic chan^, as it appeared to them, the 
prt than he did in this resolution, recovery of their property and their 
wfaicb was not the efiect of passion, nc^oea. In the southern districta 
bat the oo(A detennination which of the ancient French part of the 
he bad preriousl} formed, and let island, the arms of the intfaders 
the French know of brfore tbt^ were also successful : the division 
Imded. Tbeot^ectthat the blacks of general Boudet hmded almost 
fec^t for was liberty : they sus- without oppositicn, aiid carried by 
pened, and with very good reason, storm the works and town of I^3^t 
that ■hatcver specious proclamations au Prince, although defended by 
the French might issue, they came 4000 blacks ; gennral Humbert luo- 
orer to St. Ih>min];o with a view cceded in taking Port an Paix ; and 
to reduce them again to slavery, iu this manner, in the course of fotir 
I'ndy these circnmstances, were or five days, all the prirKipal pmlB 
Chritlopht the most enlightened of the island were in the possession 
diieAain that ever led an army, he of the Prtmch, who by their ope- 
Koold probably have given the same rations had now gained thisimmeme 
tlirectioDs, to bum in the retreat, advantage, that tbeiy had the power 
«ny boMse that could give sbeller of acting either c^cnsively or do- 
lD> Frenchman, and lay waste all fensivety, accordingly as circum- 
tbcMc plantations which might stances might incline them, 
tejipt their n\'arice. His retreat Touisatnt himself appears to have 
was in the mountains, where the been iu tlie interior of^ the country 
inraden could be oppoited with at the time of the invasion, and 
the greatest advantage. While the therefore, notwithstanding tlie ro- 
maiu body of the French nnny had sistance made by Christoiuie at the 
tho* begun tlie campaign with such Cape, a proposal was sent to him 
niccns on the northern part of the on the part of the French ge- 
iaiand, the divisions marched to the neral, offering him the situation of 
other points wers also succcssfiil be- lieutenant - general of the island, 
yoid H'hat they could have expected, if he would submit. This pm- 
llte Spanish part of the island was posal wai accompanied by the 
pvcn up without a shot being fired : proclamation of Bonaparte, eic- 
giTKnl Clervaux (a mulatto gene- pressing a senw of the oliligntions 
Kil), who commanded the iioribcrn France w.ts under to him for bis 
part, was iiKliiced by the inter- ser\ices, and the personal esteem 
t^ioice of dtiicD Nunvicke, bi- the consul bad conceivod for him t 
P4 the 

■216 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1803. 

-tbe great rdnctancx be ihonld fed daimed a rebel, and on tbe ISft 

ill being obliged to ticat him as a the mmy began iu march to attack 

TcLtd, and the pleasure he should him. Ob the l/ih it had received 

have, in being at liberty to bestow a reinforcement of 2900 troc^, by 

tiut great national recompence on the arrival of admhral Gandieaume'i 

bim, which his former services do- squadron : admiiSl linois arrivrd 

served. At the fame time that this about the same time at tbe harbmr 

mesMge was sent, the children of of St. Domingo, in eolaring which 

I'ouuaint, who had been educated he lost two snips of the line, the 

in Fiance, and whcan he had not Dc^salxandtbe Genarre. Thetnmpi 

seen for <a number of years, were which oime in the Inst squadron 

sent lo him. Notwitbst.inding those were, however, not in the immedi- 

flattcring offers on the part of the ate scene of action ; but the 2300 

French goveniment, Toussainthow- which G:4ntbeaume brought were 

e\'cr would not place any confidence sufficient to garrison the different 

in thein; he s^nt word to general posts in ihe north of the isiaod, 

Lcderc that he was ready to d)ey while Ihe grand army advanced into 

any orders he shonld receive from die interior to attackTou»saint. That 

Jiim, and sent Lim back his chil- general as we have seen having no 

(Ircn as hostages. ijK^lerc then reason to know ihat peace had betn 

ordered him to come nione to the concluded between France and Bng- 

Cape, and appear before him, in land, or a French expcdilicu was 

whicli case be repeated his promise prepared for St. Domiogo till about 

of making him his lieutenant-gene- three weeks betore they actually 

jal : TouHsaiiit hesitated, and en- landed, his preparations of #feire 

deavoured to gain lime ; upon were llierefore by no means in diat 

-which the Frendi general proclaim- state of forwardness that tbey 

rd him a reliel, and put Christophe would have been in, if he had bad 

and him ont of the protection of sufficient notice of the danger with 

the law. The most important part which he was threatened ; but 

■of the campaign wa* now tobegin, neverthelcsa, with a courage wor- 

and the French amiies prepared lo thy of tlie character he had hitherto 

advance from all points upon ihe sustained, he preferred taking every 

positions held by Toubsaint and his chance which fortune could present 

generals in tlie interior of the in war, or running every risk which 

country : the French had a secure defeat would expose him to, rather 

retreat in llie strong towns should than surrender that trust which his 

they be defeated, and iliey had good fellow blacks had reposed in bim 

irason to calculate upon victory,' as for the defence of their libertie*. 

tluir army u-as entirely composed The flattering compliments and bi|h 

.of veteran troops, whereas "lous- promises of the first consii! made no 

- aaint's was principally composed of impression on him ; he bad theidbre 

an ill armed and worse disciplined sent back his children, and prepared 

fcuy en masse ; he had, it is true, a as well as the short time wcoM 

black army of the line, but tlicy all')w him for a battle. This cou- 

did not amount to above 10,000 tcit a]>i>e.Trcd viTy i-.n^ijiial : on bis 

men at tlie inmost. On the J6fh side tlii.-re was no rtason to hope 

of February, Toussoint was pro- lor snct-'css, except in llie atrcngth 


(rf, ha poaitioas snd the nntha' LerJoc ttates aithe motltbnnidable 

nam of his foilowere. The French position hehad cverseen since he «'a> 

xmjmtnsuperioHo hisintiumben uithemilitafypn>tession),caiTiedthe 

H veil Ri in dHeipliiic. The deiails town of Mannalade with fixed bayo- 

oi rtie thort campaign arc given nets, although the position was de- 

in the official tetters of I.ederc h) fentlcd by Christopbe hiinielf, at the 

tk miciuler of maiine and the head of 1200 black troops of the 

colonia, and are to the following tine, and an equal number of cont- 

tffecl : On the 13th of Febmaiy mon labourers. The diyinion of 

the foUoving diviiions commenced Bochambeau advanced to St. Michael 

(bar march from the Cape ; Des- without resistance. The main force 

iiutineauiL't advanced to Umbe, of the French army had thus, in the 

atoTii about twenty miles distant ; couneof three days, advanced about 

the divitioD of general Hardy took fifty miles into the interior of tlie 

[be paction of die Momets, while country, after o\crconiing every ob- 

Eockunbeau advanced before the stacle which presented itsdf to them, 

left from Fort Dauphin. The first They had now arrived within twentj- 

ilay"sniarch tbcFrencharmyadvanc- or thirty miles of the strong posi- 

ed about twenty ratles into the coun- tions defended by Touisaint hiinseif. 

try.alior several partial engagements The plan of the French campaign had 

with the natives, who gave them beentodrivetheblackafromeTerypart 

ansidcrable annoyance by firing ot the island to this central pcKiiion. 

upDo them from the woods which and when their retreat waa cut oft', 

llviedthevaUeysthroughwhichtheir to make a grand combined attack 

narcblay: thesectmddayihcFreiich with all tlie divisions of their army. 

diii^ions advanced about twenty If this plan had perfectly succeeded, 

nilej fiirtbrr into the countr>-, not- they might, in one day, have des- 

■ithuanding the partial attacks tliey troyed the \v*iole of the black troop', 

nklained aiKl the namnd difficulty I'he other divisions of the French 

tfihecoantiy through which they army, however, were not so succes- 

putrd. Rochambeau's division pos- ful. General Humbert, who march- 

KSKd themsehes of St. Kaphael, edtrom Portau Paixtodrive backlhe 

Hardy's of Dordcn, and Des- black general Maurepa*, wasrepuU- 

fMimeaoE took a position nL'ar Plai- ed by him with considerable loss, 

■aace ; on tiic third day he possessed General Debelle then, at the bead of 

luHiKlf of Plaiiiance without c^- 3 or 4000 men, advanced against 

position, a* general Dumesnil, Maurepas, but was himself obliged 

who comnuiided lliat district, re- to retreat also. Leclcrc does not 

iaieA to obey the oiJer^ of Tons- state the loss of the French army 

isint, to destroy cvfry thing in the upon this occasion, but it must 

retreat, and nr.t only nubmitted but have been considerable. In the 

joined the French army with 2{X) soutli, general Boudet marched fmm, 

ctvalry and 300 iufaiitry. This Port au Prince to attack tlie black 

iltlection was a serious loss to genera) Dtssalines, who was posted 

'i'onssaint's t'ceble army, f Jardy's at the Croh: de Jhujuel,'. Dessalines 

diviiion, after making ilteniselves set lire to the town on the approach 

■Kafters of a ^lome (u liich gettctal ul ttie French, and making a feint 



lo retreat to tbc Grand Momc, took allows Tnnssaint's troq» to h»w 

a wUk cii'aiit round the Frencli fougbt with great courage and ot> 

corps, and nude Iiimsd/ masier of •tinacy, they were at length defeated 

I/-i)g»ne, driving a dinall detach- by the French, witli ibe lossof SOO 

jtipiit of I'^rendi troops out of it, men left dead on the field of battk. 

Tills iiimxpecteil tnOTeiiiL-ni of Dessa- Toussaint retreated in tome disorder 

lilies quite dbconcerted tlie plan to the Petite Riviere. This fint 

pre<K:ril>eil to general liiiudet: if lie defeat appeared in a great meaiuie 

niarched on In join the grand anny, decinve of tbt; fate of Toussaint; 

Ite left Dessalines iu hia rear, who his adherents were dispirited, and , 

might ;:W!>i)ttyctiect a juLictiun with deserted from him in considemUe I 

general Lnplunic who conunanded numbers. Two day* after thii 

Uie southern district «f the Spanisli battle, LecliTc hearing, as hedel>- 

part, and of w bosc subuiissioii the cately expressed it, that geaeril 

account had not been then received. Debelle was not able to force the 

General BoudeC was therefore ob- positions of the bbck gencnl 

liged to stay at Port au Priner, and Maurepas, after leaving a sofficieal j 

general Debelle was kept completely body to watch and pursue ToiB- 

in check by Maurepa-s. On tlie saint, he marched himself with t | 

22d of February, bt'iug the fifth day strong body of tnmps against Mao 

Irum that when the army began its repas ; but that general hearing of 

march from the Cape, tlie division of the defeat of Toussaint, and seejof^ 

general Hardy defeated Christuphe a himself on the point of beiog sur- 

tecoDd time at Ennery, which he rounded, capittilated to genod 

attempted to defend with 1000 black Debelle, on the condition tbtt hs 

troops, and about an equal number and liis officers were to retain theii | 

of cuttivatoTs. On the23d the tiiree rank and situation in the army. 
divisions of Desiburneaux, Hoche, I'he aHairs of Toussaint appealed 

audItochamheaii,umted,afterdriving now completely desperate j butdie 

some detached budics vi the blacks black general Dessalines, in the 

before them, and on the next at- southern part of the iiJaudi by i 

tacked Toussaint in liis strong po«i- variety of movements, comlnncd 

lion of the Havine de Couleure. The with skill and executed with bidd- 

force which I'uussaint was at the dcss, contrived completely to out- 

bead of consisted, according to 1^- mano-uvre the French general Boo- 

derc's calculation, of I50U greoa- det, to whom he had b«cn opposed* 

(tiers, 1200 picked men from the and even to require the great bod^ 

baiuiioii, and 400dragoons, together of the French army to be sent agaiut 

wiih 2OU0 armed cultivators, in the hJm. Toussaint was therefore en- 

wuods that commanded the ravine, abled by this powerful divenaoa lo 

makinginthewholeaforre of 3100 make another grand attempt to 

regulars, and :;000 irreguJan. llie recover the island : by forming ■ 

position was described as formidably junction with the remains of Chrif- 

strong, notwjih standing which the tojitie's force, he suddenly attacked 

division of gaierjl Rochambeau at- general Destburneuux's division at 

lacked his intreachinents, and after Plaisance, but was repulsed) be 

a oiuibatj man toman, innhicli he then turned «lf lo the right, forced 



AcpcatiofDeiidaDandMamulsdF, Marc. Tbe war being thus finUb- 

nited jgaio the bbck population ed, ia passing the diSeyent eients of 

«f (he Dcrtbcrn district id arms, and it in review, it munt be admitted 

acbailj attacked tbe town of tbe tbiit the blacks fought with n great 

C^ It was not however to be deal of courage, and that ilicir prin- 

opecttd that a fortified town would cipal generals displayed very con- 

nmndcr to the first attack, and aiderable military talents. Maure- 

tboi^ the French kept the strong pas in the north, and Dessalines in 

towoi, tbe blacks were again mas- tbe south, completely oulgenerjied 

ten of the country in the northern Debclle and Boudet, and did not 

diunct, atKl a laint gleam of hope submit till th<^ main body of th« 

appeared still to remaini but tbe Frencharmyhadbeenmarched against 

diviiioos from Harre and Flushing them. Cbristophe was acknow- 

arrited in the mean time, bringing ledged by the French to have con- 

1 reioforcmacnl of 5500 veterans, ducted himself with great bravery in 

Tnssaint being then unable to keep his different battles with genenl 

ibe licU, was obliged once more to Hardy ; and Tousiiaiat added to his 

roiretohisstrongpoaitioosin thein- former military fame, not only by 

loior, with as many of his partizans his able choice of positions, but by 

a be oould persuade to follow him, that bold stroke by whidi, after his 

AUItopewasnowlost: Dessalineswas deteat, he endeavoured to recover 

U length orerpowered in the south, the nortlicm part of the island, and 

■od obliged to submit. Christophc had very nearly succeeded in the 

Keing that all was lost, Was obliged attempt: had this blow succeeded, 

alw to negotiate with Lcclcrc for bis it would have been considered a most 

penooal safety, and qt length, when masterly piece of i;eaeralshipj it< 

almost surrounded by French co- &ilure api)eared to be solely owing to 

luiD3, he reluctantly surrendered, the sudden arrival of tbe reinl'urce- 

Hxl ibe array which he commanded ment of 5500 troops from France to 

•n» nniied to the French army, the feeble garrison of tlie Cape. Al- 

Touuiut then infoimed Leclerc though tiiisattemptwas not crowned 

llut "be saw he was now waging a with success, it equally showed in 

nr without any hope of success, Toussaint a great mind, firm in its 

and consequently without any ob- purpose, not to be cast down by ill 

yea-, but that, notwithstanding the success, and knowing perfectly well 

fiirte of the French army, he was still bow to take advantage ol any circnm- 

KiDDg enough to ravage and destroy stances which tbrtuue might throw 

ll[e country, and sell dearly a lite bi his way. From the very obstinate 

tJBt had once been useful to France," resistance made by Maurepas in tbe 

Uclerc confessed that those ob»erva- north, and Dessalines in ihe south, 

lioo* made a serious impression on it seems extremely probable, that if 

hi) mind ; he therefore received his Clervaux and Laplunie had been 

nfanbision and promised pardon, faithfid to the trust reposed in 

Un lliii promise Toussaint, in obe- them by Toussaint, tbe campaign 

dK&ce to tbe orders of. Leclerc, would have terminated in favour of 

repaired alone to the Cape, from the blacks ; if Toussaint bad been 

vbeoce he was sent to a plantation enabled to defend his positions but 

■[ Gonaivtv aud Dessalinci to St. for thirty days Lunger, the season 


220 ANNUAL R EG I STER, 1802. 

would be past for the operations of French anny^, to join in the caax of 

the Frcndi army, ■who could not his country. A long war »i)cceeded, 

pretend to make a summer cam- tnarked by more alrocitles than any 

paign in the interior of St. Domingo, which has occurred in modettnimei. 

Fortune however declared against TheFrench.bentontLeeitteTminatiMi 

him; and all Europe knows, and of the blacks, invented' new methodi 

history will record to future ages, to for their destmction, Thonsandf of 

the eternal dit^grace of Bonaparte them were thrown into the sea.or, as 

and his government, that the pro- the French term it, deporlii ea^ter; 

mise of pardon so solemnly givea many -were suffi^cated wilb the 

■was violated, and that, under pre- fumes of burning brimstone, and 

tence of a conspiracy, Toussaint was the most ingenious tortures woe 

■nested and sent over to Brest, practised upon them. The blacks, 

where it ■was first intended to bring in retaliation, pat to death all the 

Lim to a mock trial ; but afterwards whites who fell into their hards, 

it wasjudged more expedient to send but it does not appear that ibey 

him to a prison in the interior tortured their prisoners as their 

of France, from which he never enemies bad done. The fare of thil 

was released, but was in a few island was quite doubtful in the 

■months after he arrived in France -end of the year 1802. On die issue 

reported to be dead. The maimer of this war perhaps- depends not 

of his death the French government only the future state of the Wcstln- 

have never thought it was necessary dies, but perhaps ofjijrica, to which 

to explain, and therefore it is much the negro race will tdways look up 

more than matter of suspicion, it with affection as to their molber 

b almost clear, tkat he was mur- country. If a civilized nation of 

dered in his prison by ike orders «f Uacks can exist in St. Domingo, 

BoTiaparli. that nation must have a trade and 

His countrymen in St. Domingo intercourse with Africa, superior 

were justly exasperated at this to that which any Etiropean nation 

treachery to their former chief, and can have ; but it would be nnnaii- 

saw with pleasure the ravages which tic speculation to suppose that the 

the climate and the yellow fever light which Europe has thrown upon 

made in the French army. The St. Domingo may be reflected bade 

moment tliat army was weakened by into the very heart of their native soil, 

disease, they again burst out into and compensate at some future day 

insurrection under their old leaders, for all the injuries that the race of 

Cbristophe threw aside the rank blacks have hitherto endured from 

which Leclerc had given him in the their white brethren. 




dadaloupe. — Petagie assumes the Command there — captures the Govenor 
Lacrosse, and dismiss^ kha the IslaJid. — General RUh^panse arrives with 
the Triyyps from France — lands without Opposition — and finally sub- 
daes the Island. — Restoration of TTanquillily. — jiffcdrs of Switzerland 
ai the Close qf\SOi.-~^lm/f Reding goes to Pa:is to negotiate with 
Bonaparte — Sucti-ss — Adoptvin of his Plan nf Government — reversed by 
the reroiutionary Party, and a new Consliluliim formed— ryecled by 
the democraik Cantons. — Independency of the Falais pronounced eon- 
trary to their Irishes. — Confederation ofUri, Srhwietx, and Underwalden. 
—jiddrrss to the FrenchGovemment and to the Helvetic Republic— Proelo' 
wtallon of the Helvetic Government — the smaller Cantons prepare for Re- 
sistance — Cnmnuncement of HoslHilics — Defeat of the Troopsofthe Hel- 
vetic Republic by the Peasants of Baden. — Messrs. De Iratteville and 
E'lach take the Command—and march against Berne. — Surrtnder of 
that City. — Helvetic Government eipelkd — and Retreat to the Pays de 
Faud — supplicate the jissistancs of France. — Ancient Gmjemmeut 
aisemlles at Berne— Forces raised and placed under General Bachman, 
to act against the Helvetic Government. — Frttourg taken — general Action 
ia the Pays de laud — Helvetic Army totally defeated. — Arrival at 
Lausanne of General Rabp — publishes Bonaparte's Determinalion to 
protect the Helvetic Republic. — French Army assembled on the Frontiers 
under General Ney. — Armistice. — Proceedings oj the Diet at Schweitz— 
their Answer to Bonaparti. — French Army enters SutitxerlaTuf. — Great 
Brilaia determines to interfere — Mr. Moore dispatched to Switzerland. — 
lieUetic Gorerninent reinstated at Berne. — Dissolution of the £Het at 
Schweitz — and complete Suljagation of that Country to the French Force. 
—heffeciuai Mlision of Mr. Moore. — Arrest ofAlous Reding. — Deputies 
from all Parts of Switzerland arrive at Paris to form, with the Assist- 
once of the First Consul, a new Constitution. 

HOWEVER undecided and andconceivtngtheldeaofestablishiiig 

equivocal in tiieir etlects had equally wiih that chieAain the in- 

the aoccesscs of the French arms dependence of this bl.ind, a man of 

been in His[>anio)a, tbeir triumph colour, of the name of Pelagic, as- 

*ai complete in the island of sumed ihe chief authority over the 

Guadaloupe. At the close of the mulatto and black inhabitants, and 

year ISOJ, irritated by the arbitrary declared war against the French 

•ndtfrannical conduct of the French cap lain -general Lacrosse. After a 

tpvemmpnl ; stimulated by the luc- series of unimportant movements 

•CM of Tousi^nt in St. Domingo} on both tides, on the Igt of Ni)-. 



vcmber 1801, Lacrosse siiflfered fwcdto be camcdon with thelsland; 

''imself to be surprised in vi^iiing and the tidings nf peace and the kiU*' 

some out- posts J and was lorceii on ingof theBrestfleetfor theWestin- 

board a neutral vessel then tying at dien, which became now univenalljr 

anchor at Point a Pitre. This vessel known, filled the insurgents and 

(a Dane) sailed for Copenhagen im- tlieir chief with apprehension and 

mediately, but was intercepted by dismay. It was probable that to 

an English cruiser, from the captain these circumstancet the white [dant* 

of whom the French governor de- ers and inhabitants owed theif 

inanded and obtained protection, safelyj nor did the general massacie 

Fortune, so far favourable, did not ot them, which was apprehended, 

now desert him : he was carried take place, although individuals in 

into Dominica, where tidings had ^'arious parts of the island were octa- 

arrWed of the preliminaries of peace sionally sacrificed to the spirit of 

having been signed between Great revenge or caprice of their oetr 

Britain and France in the preceding masters. 

October. Here he was joined by But tlie period of this short lived 

Ijiscallier, tlic colonial prefecl, and revolution was now arrived. The 

Coster, .the commissary of justice, French force destined for Guada- 

who had just arrived from France, loupe, under admiral Bouvet and ge- 

Together with these functionaries neral Richepanse, appeared off the 

he immediately issued (dated 3d of island about the beginning of May; 

December ISOI) a manifesto against they had taken the prefect Lesc^ier 

theusurpedauthorityatGuadaloupc, on board at Desirade, and every 

containing, among other things, a preparation was made to take Point 

piohibitioa against all governments a Pitre by assault. On the 7th of 

10 supply that rebellious usurpation May, the debarkation was cycled 

with anus, ammunition, or provi- at Gosier without resistance. Mili- 

xions, under the severest penalties. tary dispositions, apparently ahly 

In the interval, Pelagie was to all planned, were made to get possessioi 

intents and purposes the sovereign of the forts Victoire and Union, ia 

of the island, in which he exercised order to cut off the communicatioa 

uncontrolled jurisdiction : ui places of the negroes, who were in posses- 

of trust and consequence he placed sion of them, from the interior; 

mulattocs, and entirely subverted the and the main body, with the goieia] 

formof government established by .Richepanse.marchedfor thctownof 

his predecessor. The army and the - Poiut a Pitre. Here, however, aS 

municipalities were dispersed or dls-' was submission ; the quays were 

organized, and tlie miserable white lined with Inhabitants of every d^ 

inhabitantsfbundthemselvesentirely acfiridon, who welcomed the tnx^ 

at his mercy^ with the exhilarating sounds of Pht 

In the mean time it should teem la Repuhiuiue ! ViveBonaparU ! On 

that tlie English colonial'govemment taking possession of ilie Place dels 

were diiposed'to act in concert with Ficlotre, Pelagie presented himself, 

the French for the reduction of the and not only tendered his own obe- 

insurgents. A British frigate assist- dience, but oHered to ensure the 

cd in blockading Point a Fitre, and submission of tlie whole island. 

M sort Qif cpnununicalioD was luf- General Richepanse ordered him, as . 

a test 


• te$i oT bis sincerity, iiumediotdy of Ac attackiDg army, aod the rest 

IP relieve ihe different forts anil re- dispersed in every dircctioQ. It wa* 
duibti which be commauded, with not till the 31st that general P.ichc- 
J6e troops from France, which he pansc, now joined by general Sensia 
roUily undertook to do, and to as- (whom he Lad left beLind at Point 
■cmhle all his troops in the evening a Pitre), was able to open, after iu- 
lo await the orders of the general, credible labour, a battery of lliirty 
Iq these projnises, however, he was pieces of cannon against (Jic fort, 
tDoctHifidentandsanguineof tbeex- which was evacuated the next day 
iHttofbis power to fulfil them. At (the 1st of June) by the rebels, who 
Foft Victuire, a chief of the name of it should seem, from some disobe- 
%iuce nude a show of resistance, dience of the general's nrdcrs in 
«iiich was easily overcome by die posting troops so as to cut cheui oil', 
French detachment sent to take retreated with litde loss. Tlicarmy 
foiscssionof it; and though Pelagie wjs immediately ordered to purtiw 
wai faithful to his word, and appear- the flying negroes iu every direeiion, 
ed hinuelti with many af his ful- and they never aAer .succeeded in 
Wers, in the evening at the place being able to assemble in force. lit 
of rendezvous, yet was he ubdiged tliesc dilVereut affairs the lo^i of 
to confess that some of his officers killed and wounded to the French 
aodnuinbersaf his troops were mt^- army wasabout 500, 
log. Indeed, tlirough thediukucsg On the ^th of July, gcner^tt 
ti the night, which uiw had gained Richepanse assures his government 
apuu the negotiating parties, armed that the army liad completely suo 
bodiesof negroes were seen hovering ceeded iu the reduction of ttiei^bnd, 
arouod with arms in their himds, and having had, he adds, " little elite nx 
' io manifest detenuinaiiou to resist, do than to pursue and (xl^miiutte 
Under circumstances, Riche- the rcmiiantuf the rebels, insensible 
paose thought it prudent to embark to persua^^ion and incorrigible in 
[luHe who had assembled on buaid liieir deteroiinatiun nut to return ta 
tbe Sect, tinder the pretence of their their duty ; it is only lUe death of 
force beiDg necessary in his ci^pcdi- th&se wretches that can put a slop to 
lion to Basse Terre. It was not till conflagration and the murder of the 
ihesotb, at noon, that he reached whites:" and he concludes by say- 
that part of the i-Jand, and where ing, " that he tliinks it fortunate 
the oppusiiiuii t^perienccd was con- tliat they opposed tlie French arms 
Mderable. Under a heavy fire, the iu the beginning, as this gave aa 
tmiy landed near the mouth of the opportunity of tiius getting rid of" 
nrcT Duplessis, but without sus- them!" — a sentiment that reflects 
^aing much loss, and penetrated equal honouron llie hnmanityoftlia 
that day to the right bauk of tlie writer, aud the French military cha- 
nter d^ Peres. Ontheneitmoni- raaer. 

ti^ the position of the rebels on the No furtlict attempt was made to 

Idt bonk was atiacked and forced at disturb tl)e trHnquillity of the colony 

day-break, in lest tlian ten minutes, for the remainder of the year ; agri- 

ftuthoweyeroflhe insurgents threw culture and commerce began gr.nJu- 

thrniieJves into Fort St, Charles, a ally lo rcvivbi and as the island had 

{pn gained the Clonic uu die rJ"ht not sulti-red much during the u:ii. 



little doDbt Tcmains of its increasing curreDA; submits implicitly to the 

prosperiry. one, and arbitrariiy imposes the 

AH the functionaries established other, 
by Pdagie, and the officers of colour But these scenes of horror and 

who were not butchered in cold desolation were too remote to excite 

blood, were passed over to France much interest in Europe. Even the 

to await the sentence of the govern- successes of France in her ooloniet 

tnent of the country. Whether Pc- ivcre looked upon rather wnh a f»- 

lagic himself were included in this vourable eye, not only as they were 

tpecics' of deportation we are not considered as the le^timate exertion 

infoimed, any more than we are of of her strength to punish revolt, an) 

his subsequent fate; but that of torecoverherrightiuldominion, bat 

Toussaintwehavealreadywitnessed: the idea of a black empire in the 

nor is there much reason to suppose West was looked upon by all, as uni- 

that a better has fallen to the lot of rersally repugnant to the feelings of 

one who seems to have resembled Europeans, and utterly irreconcUe- 

him in every particular except his able with the interests of civilized 

courage and resolution. society. Far diflerent, however, wm 

We shall here dismiss the sub- the horror with which thctyrannital 

ject of the French colonial history, interference of Fraoce in the afHiin 

with, recording another instance of of Switzeriaod was viewed by all the 

the complete desertloa of every powers of Europe. This brav^ 

principle on which the accursed temperate, irugal, and honest na- 

ffrench revolution was avowedly tion, had long been controlled and 

founded, and for which eleven trampled upon by the different levo- 

years of warfare and spoliation, in lutionary governments of France; tff 

alniosteveryciuarterof theworld.has whom successively they had acted 

hardly atoned : the reestablishment with a good &ith, as honourable to 

of slavery in all the French West their national integrity as it was nn- 

India possessions. On the lyth of merited by the base eacroachen on 

May it was passed as a law by the their rights and liberties. In oar 

legialativel>ocfy,andwa3placcdupon preceding volumes we have traced 

the same footing as that on which the progress of Frencli influence in 

it existed in tlieyear 1~B8; and the this comitiy, from theaera of (hein- 

importation of negroes, and avery cursion of general Montesqnicu into 

branch of the slave irade, ordered to the territory of their allies to the 

be recommenced with eierycircum- treaty of Luneville ; from the latter 

stance of advantage and encourage- period we shall commenceour revieir 

ment which had tormerly belonged of the transactions by which the 

to it. Thus, after wading through fate of this devoted country, wai 

blood, and ihe slaughter of their fel- finally determined by ibemaiidatc of 

Jow meUj during the revolutionary the Corsican usurper. 
period, for Uie destruction of mo- It may l>c recollected, that by tlie 

narchy and the establishment of the I lili article of the trc-ity of Lune- 

righls of the human race, lias France ville (signed on the 9th Fcbniarf 

witnessed the restoration of despo- Z801) it was expressly stipulated, 

tismandslavciy intheirmostodious that " the contracting parties mi>- 

forms, and by its own act and con- lually guarmticd the indepettdenre 


tif ibe Batavian, HBLvmc, Ciral- vant of onaninuty might furnish 

pne, ted Ligiman republics j and France with a preiext again to in- 

i^ right of Ike people who inhoHi terfere in the Internal concerns of 

'*«, It tidopt tvhatfarm o^jowm- Switzerland, repaired to Paris with 

■«/ tiey pieand." the ticw of averting so great a ca!a- 

l£ shmid swm that this -vna a fi^ mity. The result of his representa- 

TinnbieopportDnityferSwitzeriand tions to Bonaparte vtm, that a coa- 

(onodifytbecoiKtitution. vvhicbhad htion should be eflccted between 

Iwn dictated to her by a former re- the parties, by replacing six of the 

loloiiauTy govenunent of France tnembera of the old govemmenta 

lad its patiuuu ; aixl for this pur- by an equal number of person* 

p°K a gesenl diet was convened, chosen from the partisans of the rc- 

vtuch iMembled at Berne in the voluiiun. 

mxHb of September following. This arrangement having taken 

Oae of the first objects of iU de- place, the senate inimedi.itely pro- 
ftesai(m,wMadaimprefi:Tred,with cceried to frame a permanent con- 
mcfa earncstnos on the part of the nitution. After Living been en- 
denacratic cantons, to be restored ^a^d in deliberations on Ibis sub- 
to Ibcir ancient privilege*. This ject during three months, and having 
nsirceded'to after some debate.' finally agreed upon the plaii. Reding, 
Indeed the disposition to revert, as in hisqunlity of prcsidentof theexe- 
aori; as circuinstaBcci would per- cutive council, adjourned that body 
tnt, b> (be wigoal fedeial cotistitn- tbr the Easter holidays. 
'ioi.ixCTaiJcd so generally through- No sooner had this adjournment 
eat die natitm, that a newform of taken pbce, and Reding and his 
9nTiunent,fnnnednpon that basis, friends returned to their families, 
*a ^reed to in the course of the than the revolutionary- members, 
cauing month [ and the adminis- lately nominated at the instance of 
fmkm o£ putdic aflkin was con- Bonaparte, assembled in the night 
frM to a senate and executive of the 17diof April 1902, displaced 
ctnadl, pruviBianaMy sppoi&ted. A Reding and his whole party, de- 
onadenbie portMn of the magis- stroyed the plan of constitution 
tmu, who had been disfrfaced on which had been drawn up, and ap- 
thesabrot^onoflheancientgrivem- pointed a committee to frame ano^ 
motts by the Fteoch directory, took th<;r on their own principles ; wbere- 
fwt in these proceedinga ; and upon they received the warm con- 
tlie ceMMated Aloys Reding, of gralulations of cilrren Veminac, 
ScbvTCiti, was (daoed at the head <yf Bonapurt^'s minister residing at 
tlie executive councit. Berne. 

The siMrit of p»ty was not, how- This jfrocceding naturally pro- 
evcT, extinguished. Those who duccd great dissatisfaction ; and tlie 
*ere attached to the ancient system projeclof a constitution, thus formed 
ffh thomeiTes supported by a great under the auspices of a French 
m^ority of the people of Switzer- agent, and founded upon the ductriiie 
Imd; whilst thelropponentslooked of unify and indivitilUily , was re- 
o the pauvrfiil {irot«ctioa of the jectedwith indigni^tion bythedemo- 
fiEnch government. cratic cantons ; unanimously by 

Beding, apprehensive bat ibU Schweitz, \Jn, and Underwalden; 

Vol. XLIV. Q and 


ami by a great pkir»lit>' of voices in Frante, rwltiCoI to liie utmost tli'i' 

(ilaris und Appenzell. It w:ii, liow- tress. At Ipnglh this braTC ^Mplr, 

ever, accepted by a nwiority in the 'n-ho had cmRigeouslj' siriiggW lor 

arislocratic cantons, (that is to say, their liberticn whtTi first invaW, 

by what was termed tacit com- and whose present retnonstraricei 

pliance, for by far the greater mim- were produrthe of no rtibslantial 

ber of voters did not tender their advantage, exhausted, but not tab- 

suffrages,) probably in the cxpecta- dued, were pronounced, againit 

lion that by *o doing they would be their will, an indepnitienl repoMic, 

relieved from the French troops, through the medium of the hri< 

who continued m the country for official gazette {the Monheuf), in a 

the purpose^ as was pretended, of proclamation signed by die enroj'f 

maintaining its internal tranquilliQr, nf the Frencb, Italian, and HeWeiic 

It now appeared tliat France, not republics. 
.content with governing, by ber de- Upon the accpptatiMi. nich u it 
volcd instruments, Switzerland at was, of the new ronstitttion, the 
large, hail formed the project of de- Helvetic execntive connal annoow* 
taching the republic of the Vabis ed to tlte citizens, in a proclamalkiD, 
from its alliance with that country; dated tlie 20th Jnly, that " the 
the main object of whidi was to »e- French government had approved of 
cure to herself, at all times, a free the tlse they had made of their in- 
pasiage into Italy by Mount Bernard, dependence, and. as the first pMgc 
Thureaii, a imaii who had conducti-d of its esteem, had declared its reidi- 
himself with extraordinary severity ness to withdraw its troop* &("" 
against the royalists in La Vendee, Helvetia. ITiat this offer had been 
commanded the French troops then accepted by Uic aaincU i^rtmilm; 
stationed in the Valais; but,nolwiib- and that such an act of justice, on i!ir 
standing the various arts employed part of the first consd, thould call 
by him to induce the inhabitants to forthalltheirgratitudelosogenerDUi 
solicit the union of their country to anally." j 
France, they resisted every such at- The French troops had scarcely | 
tempt with the most heroic forti- evacuated Swilxeriand, wbea the in- 
tude, and sent deputies to Berne, kibitants manifested a decided op- 
charged with a vigorous remon- position to the new consiiturtoo. 
strance against that measure; de- Xlie cmtons of Scbweitz, L'ri, and 
claring,inlhemostmaiJyandaffect- Underwalden, \t^ich had neversc- 
iijg language, that no consideration cepted it, confiding in the promise 
could ever induce them to renounce made by Bonaparte to Beding, (ia' 
(he name of Swiss, or to dissolve the democratic canlons shouki rifji^ 
their connection with a country to iheir anaimts lau'i, formed the ies>* 
which they should eternally remain lution of separating from the Hd- 
attached. Hereupon Thurenu ex- vetic republic, and of renewing the 
acted a heavy and cruel contribution aucicnt conjctlerac^ of the /RiW 
from this small state, which had al- Starten. They accordingly addfwscd 
ways been remarkable for its po- the following admirable letter, daicJ 
i-erty, but which was now, iuconse- from Sdiweitz, the I3(h of July 
quence of the repeated acts -oi vio- 1 902, in the nameji of il«e depuiie* 
Ittice atul oppression exercised by of all the commmutictintbosettinv 



canMu.tocitizenVemJnac, minister republic. As to any thing furtlier, 
tS the French republic in Switzcr- we ouly wish to prcsen'e good har- 

ianrf. mony in our commercial relations, 

" We have ineffectually endea- as becomes brave Swiss. In listen- 

vmired, for four successive year^t, to ing to oiir just demands, the Hc!- 

Itartrom us a constitution, which, vetic republic will acquire in tis 

Irom its origin, anil still more from brothers and failbful nfttglibonrs *\" 

tht violence with which it was esta- At the same lime iliey ditpatclied 

Uiihed, could not fall to be odious a letter to Bonaparl^, expressive of 

and insupportable. It is in vain that their gratitude to him for having re- 

we have constantly hoped that the called the French troops from Swit- 

Heli-etic government, instnicted by zerlaiid, and of the motives which 

lite sorrowful eicnts of four unfur- had induced them to reestablish 

tuoate years, would, at length, find their ancient form of gover.iment. 

that our separation from tlie repub- which he himself bad approved of, 

lie was that which was most wise and which was tlie only means that 

and suitable for both parties; and remained to preserve the public tran- 

'that the wish, whicb we. have so quillity in those countries, by re- 

oftfn and so strongly expressed, for storing tlie people to the exercise of 

our ancient liberty, would have in- their legitimate rights, which had 

duced ibem to act aside all hope, been so grossly violated by the cen- 

ihat those three cantons would ever tral government, 

volimlarily accept any other coiisti- Upon this resolution of tlie tlivca 

tadon than that which has ever cantons being ofticially notified to 

been considered as the only one the Helvetic government, they is- 

niiied to ihete states, and for that sued a proclamation, manifesting 

Ka<on M highly prized by ourselves tlieit steadfast determination to cany 

■od mu ancestors. Oor reunion into effect, ihroughout the ri-public, 

*ith Helvetia, which has been stafn- the constitution of their own fram- 

fA with so much innocent blood, ing, which they maintained to be 

i«. perhaps, the mOst cruel example the best adapted to the Helvetic peo- 

uT constraint that history can offer. pic; and, in order to present all 

" In tlie conviction, therefore, discussion on thesubject, ilie/aTK/j- 

t^t for a forced and unfortunate gemeine, or popular assemblies, were 

latriage, divorce is the only reason- declared illegal. 

»ljte reioedy, and tliat Helvetia and Tlie contcderated cantons were 

wuvlvM cannot recover repose and not to be deterred from their reso- 

CDQtoit, except by the dissolution of lutioti. They formed magazines, 

lliii forced tie, we are iirraly resolved arrayed troops, and addressed a ma- 

to labour at that separation with all nifesto to the Swiss nation at large. 

ClUe activity ) and we think it wherein they asserted their right to 

to address that authority, which, legislate for themselves individually, 

ftrfoor years past, has united us, in but disavowed all idea of interfering 

^te of ourselves, to the Helvetic in the concerns of other cantons. 

* Contnry m our unnl costoin, wt have insetted ihi* letter m length, for we did 
Ml with 10 iWap the inmciC which oui readers muit lidte ia it t>y ict^tiint Ibcm fbl 
ilB) Mt " State fttBCM." 

Q 2 Tbis 

uirneM,, Google 


Tliis example -was speedily fil- land, aod other districts, formtJ 

towed by Zug, Gtaris, Appenzell, themselves into an anny, undtf tlie 

and Baden, whicli, togellier witli tlie rAit/ command of Messn. dc Waue- 

KlieiuChal, decbred tbemnflvca in a ville and d'Ertach, and directed ttmr 

state of tDaurreclion, and sent de- march against Berne, thi; scat nf the 

puties to Scliweitz. Helvetic government. A anuill ad- 

The 8[ririt of resistance made such vanced deticbment of these troopj, 
rapid progress, that the Helvetic go< conniating only of -between two and 
vcrhment judged it expedient to three hundred mcn^enileavoorcd, by 
have recourse tn arms, in order to appenring suddenly before the city, 
reduce the insurgents to obedience, to take it by surprise. This attempt 
A body of troops was accordingly having failed, it was instantly re- 
sent against them ; but -they were solved to summon the place to sur- 
defeaied in an engagement with ihe render: an officer of tlie name of 
peasants of Buden, and another EtSnguer was charged with this c(ttt>< 
division of the Helvetic army met mission, and tlie time for delibcnh 
Willi a simitar disgrace on the frou- tion was limited to half an hour, 
tiei-s of Undcrwalden, their advanc- "Die proposition was rejected, and 
ed guard being totally cut to pieces an attack commenced ivithout any 
on entering that cantnn. additional force. Afier a tewcan- 

Then-cnis of this peri^ strongly not shot bad been thrown into the 

evince how little the inclinations of town, which caused no serioos 

the Swiss people had been consulted damage, and an ineflrctual attempt 

hy the framers of the new constittt- had been made to gain possession of 

tion. All parties, with the cxcep- a drawbridge and one uf tlie gates, 

lion of those immediately connected whilst asmall body of men had tiirti 

villi the Helvetic goveriunent, un- in vain to enter ihe city from ano- 

mindful of their ultimate views, ther (]viarter, a flag of truce arrived 

were unanimous in their e&ffii to from the besieged with proposals to 

Eel it aside, as tlie creature of foreigti capitulate. Conditions were almost 

influence, e\-ery way hostile to the immediately agreed upon, and i 

g.-nius of Switzerland. The city erf convention signed between the cora- 

^tirich, where it had been accepted mandant of Bcrnc, who had been 

by liic greatest number of sulfragei, authoij/ed to that efl'ect by (he 

not only refused to admit a detach- Helvetic govcrnincnt, and M. de 

roent of tlie government troops un- "Watteiille. 

der the comm^ind of general Ander- This convention was concluded 

hiatt, but actually expi'rienced two on the evening of tlie I8lh of 

succr-^sive boinbaidint-uis, a species Sepleiuber, anid it was tliereby 

uf warfare hiiht rlo ujicKampled In agreed, that in order to avoid any 

Switzerland This eiicumslnncc further effusion of blood, and pai^ 

«c^^■ed only to augment the general ticoiarly to spnrc th? inhabiianis and 

(HJiiiiu ag.iin»t ilie autlioiiiy which tlie ciiy, iJurc Klmnld be an imroe- 

had directed so violent a measure. diate ct'^^uiun of hostilities ; lIuH the 

Anexteniti\e tract of country was place shou:d be delivered up to the 

by (liis time in open insurrection, besieging army in the course of 

A Idrge body of pc^isanis from Ar- twenty-four hours from the signa- 

govia, the canton Iff Suleunij Obcc- lure of tho- cottveution; that the 


Wmbm of the govemmcBt should by it tras agreed that no garrisoQ 

knipplici vith all necestary faci- should be established in tliat cily; 

liliK ter the renHn-al of ilicmselvcR, that aU past proceedings aliould be 

ilidr fmilies, aod eflecti, togetlier buried in otilivioii; and tlut tha 

■nbtwmlf pieces of artillery, and a speediest means sfaould Ik aidupied 

jneaqnaDlity of aoimunitiofl; that to put an end to all hostilities. 

Ae piddic records frc. which might Hereupon Andermatt raised the 

bcldtbhiud, thottld be respected ; blockade of Zurich, and retreated 

iat the sick and xroiinded should with graat precipitation, leaving his 

be ukea care of, and sent to tlieir artillery behind hiin, towards the. 

nipective corpse Uid that a tree Pays de Vaud, where the Helvetic 

plunge should be insured to tbe government intended to make a 

Ewerranent and those attached to stand, iu expectation of suocoum from, 

■!> M 6r M the trontiers of the can- France. Thus, by the lOth of Sep- 

iMuofVaudand Friboiirg. General tember, the wliole of Gennaii 

ii'imtaU, and the troops underhis Switzerland, with the exception of 

>>iii»diatc command, together with that part of tbe canton of I'ribourg 

>ll other Helvetic troops whatsoever, where tlie German bnguage is 

*ae to be permitted to rejoin their spoku), had shaken off tlie yuke of 

pii-emment, with arnu, ba^age, an usurped and detctted govem- 

ndartiBeiy, provided they took the ment, who>e existence had evidently 

>kite<ti road without the city walli, been maintained so long, merely by 

iidmrnedat the rate of five leagues the presence of a Frent^ array. 

pfTday; and it was also agreed. The democratic cantons, -Uri, 

<iai until these troops lud, iu com- Schweltz, Underwalden, Gl-iris, and 

pliaoce with the above terms, ar- Appenzell, had hitherto taken no 

fired It their destination, the con- part in these latter transacliims, an 

'i^kniK^ should not enter the can- armii^tice linviug been concluded 

MuofVaud and Friboarg. bciwesn them and the comtnandet 

De Watievilte and his council of of the Helvetic troops which had 

*w, in scoBdiag to such favourable been defeated on the couhoes of 

°»<iitions, seem to have been ac- Underwalden i but, upon receiving 

Inted by the desire of accelerating, intelligence of the insolvents having 

B much a* poasible, the retreat of marclied against Berne, the deputies 

fl"* garrimn, the Helvetic army of these tive cantonsaddresscda let' 

•indo Andermatt fating in the rear ter.of which a sjsneralofliccrwas tlie 

of die jitnirgenls ; and likewise by bearer, signed in their name by their 

fcidra, with which they appear to president ileding, totbe Helveticge- 

fiavc been slrotjgly impressed, that neral Andermatt. In this letter they 

if ihe Helvetic government were obi>er\ed, that the dissolution of the 

"Oec tolallv exp^led die coaniey, centcil govcmmcntof Berne, autbo* 

Ftsnce woald not interfere for the ri/«d them, as well as every patrin- 

prpoK of reinstating it. tic inhabitant of Switzerland, to 

Three d,iy< aiitic<-dcnt to the disavow a government originating 

npiiulatino of Berne, a convimlun from a faction composed of a few 

•» cimdHdcd between the mwii* diM-imtemed individuals; tl)ate\ery 

ripfllny of Zurich and a commiifsary obligation to obedience, both on his 

of [he Helvetic govemmenij where- (Anderraatt's) part, and that of liis 
Q 3 troops 


troops, had ceawd, ai tliey could canton, amonntiDg, in the aggregatt^ 
cunsider tliemselvcs no longer be- to 18,'200 men. This paper ww 
longing to a legal government; and' dated the 18th of September, the 
ibai he and h'ts officers should be da^ on which Berne capitulated. 
made pcrsonallj' responsible for any The Helvetic govemmeDr, coo- 
act of hostilily that should be com- tcious of its inability to maintain 
mitted, by the troops under his com- itself against the alinost unanimaui 
mand, against their forces, or against will of the nation, hastened to im- 
the inhabitants of any oUier part of plorethe mediation and auistanceof 
Switzerland. But that if they re- the French republic; and Bcna^ 
turned quietly to. their liomes, and part^, in conformity \vith his nsnal 
conducted tlierasehea there like system of pdicy, eageriy embraced 
orderly and peaceable citizens, they a pretext tor interfering in the coa- 
shouJd be fai-ourably looked upon cems of a neighbouring state, llw 
whenever a new Icgiiimatc govern-' majority pf the Swiss, however, 
mcnt shcMld be established *. trusting to the terms of the treaty of 
In a proclamation, issued by them Luncville, vainly flattowl them- 
at the same time to the inhabitants selves th^t no impediibent would 
of the other cantons, ihey declare, arise trom that quarter, the object of 
among otlier tilings, t]i:it the Swiss their proceedings being strictly li- 
namc was for e\er degraded by the mited to the regulation of ibeir in- 
tleteitable crimes witli which tlie temal aflairs; the more so, as it 
nelf-named HfUeiic government mtist, from the late events, be maai- 
had closed its career (alltiding par- fcst to all £un^, that whatevei 
ticularly to the bombardment of stepi had been tiken against the 
Zviicli) ; that they were resolved to Helvetic government, were in corn- 
rescue their common country, and to pliance with tlie previuling seoti- 
break ilie chains which tyrants were ments of the pei^e, who called 
jiirging for tbemj diat in entering loudly for the restoration of the ■&• 
l) id r territory, they ought not to be cient order of things. 
considered as enemies, but as h-iends, Berne was no (■ooner-evacnatn^ 
animated by a laudable anxiety to pursuant to the convention of tbe 
establish an equal participation of 18th of September, than the menf 
rights in those diBtricis where ex- bers of the ancient govemmeiH 
elusive privileges bad herelolure assembled there, dnd resumed their 
prevailed, and to secure to them fiinctions ad interim, according to 
those advantages by the constitution their accustonud funnii j and on the 
about tu be framed. They then in- Slst, they iraued a prodamalioD of 
cited the several cantons to send the following tenour : 
each two deputies lo Schweitz "We, the great and least-r coun- 
before the 24lh of September, otie cils of tbe city and republic of Bernci 
of whom should repre^eut the inha- do, by tbeiie presents, assure all oar 
bitants of the townti, the other tlioae faithful atlhercnu of our good and 
of the eouLitry. Ibis proclamation patriotic intentions. 
cunclu Jed with fixing (lie contingent "At length, after repeated rofier- 
oi' troops lo be luritiahcd by each ings, and tour j'cars of disaster aud 

■ ViJe "Suiler."['CTS," 


', we hai'e all attained the the canton at Inree : a distinc- 
dk^ect of OUT vishes. invited by tinn which, under the ancimit con- 
propliiotK fortune, and suinmoocd stituiion, had been productira nf 
bj- tbedolies we owe lo our coun- much discontent, and had greatJy 
tiT, ire Tcmm to the bosom of our contritiuted to the introduction ot' 
eomnion motber, the capital city of French revoli 
Berne, which yourcouiage and nde- that canton, 
lity have enabled u* to regain. Wc In conse<jucnce of the late oc- 
are filled with gratitude and admi- currences, Berne now became the 
ration, in contcniplating the sublime theatre of the most important irans- 
aod generous spirit of patriotism actions. An executive council, con- 
vliich has prompted yon to bear so sitting of ten members, was nomi- 
nui^daogen, inorder toreestabli^ nated to direct the aftairs of the 
Tmrlawfand^vcrnmeiit. Thesore- state; and M. Dc Waiteville \i~js 
rtiffi [K>wer has resolved to be on appointed, withjiill powRn, com- 
tamiof amity with those who, dur- mander in chlir of the Bernese 
ii^ onscttled and turbulent times, forces. Volunteers flocked thither 
hare deviated froin the line of their from all parts of Switzerland, '2000 
dnty. To ihem it opens the doors men came from the lesser cantons 
of recondlistion. From you it ex- alone, and the number of deserttiri 
pecti obii\ion of all tlte injuries from the Helvetic aimy wat like- 
yon ki« tustaioed, and that yoa wise considerable. 
will not sully the glorious triumph Ou the 25th of September, a 
erfyOTTCouniry, by actdof individual depuwtion arrived at Berne fron) 
Tewjwoce*," &c. &c. Schweitz, chatted with an overture, 

llie majority of votes w^s, hi the on the part of the central committee 
first instance, for the complete re- of die diet, to levy a body of 2O,00O 
ntablishment of the ancient regi- men to act in concert against the 
men; biri this disposition yielded to PIclvetic government, and to be 
the expediency of adopting certain commanded by general Baehmau, 
niodilirations, in consequence of the an officer of high reputation. 
Tarious changes effected by the re- The proposal was immediately 
vtdution; and the sketch of a con- accede<l to, aud ratified by diee\e- 
itilution, on i/ml tusii, was at the cuiive council. 
Hme time posted up in the city, for llius a foundation was already 
itieransideratltHiot the publicf. laid throughout Switzerland for 

These sentiments of moderation the reitoratlon of a constitution 
wtxe not confined to the canton of conn in tent with the interests, wishes, 
Beme. and habits of the people, and an 

The provbional govemtnent of armed force p^ovide^^, perfectly ade- 
Znricb took the earliest opportu- quate to free the country from an 
aily to declare, in the most so- usurped dominion, and whose ef- 
loirn manner, that the rights and forts would, in all human proba- 
priiilegcs heretofore restricted to biliiy, have been crowned with die 
tbe dthxjis of Zurich should be happiest success, bad iJicre been 
fUeoded to the inhabitants of no more formidable enemy to cou- 

• Vide " Slate Ripen." t Ibid, 


tend wifh than the Hdvetic gorero- ci^ of Fribourg, proceeded widwat 

meet. Under these circumsuiicet, delay to die Fays du Vaad. Tbcf 

and with a view to conciliate that issued a proclam.itloa to the inha- 

powa from which ntbat was to be bitants, signed bj' their generab, 

apprehended, M, de Mulioaer, son Aufdermattr and De WatleiiUe, 

to the fonner adroycr of that name, stating, that they entered their ter- 

-vas dispatched to Paris ; teptesen- ritory not as enemies but fTieads, 

tatioiu were likewise made to other without even the iulentioo of id- 

EiH-opean powers f aitd depatic* Buencing (heir choice with nmi 

sent to the French minister at lau- to a future constitution ; that ueii 

sanne. hostility was directed solely agaiusi 

By this time the Helvetic 'troops, the self-created goreniment i uid 

comprised in the capituladcKi of that, as soon as they had accom- 

Beme, had retired to the Pays de plished their views in that tespect, 

Vaud. It apprazL^ however, that they should retire, exhorting them 

B small portion dPtbein had been at the same lime to entertain no 

disarmed by the troops of the lesser apprehensions, for thai the strictest 

cantons, wito, in fact, were not discipiine should be observed by 

parties to that convention. During their troops, and uo iudividual be 

the ni^t, between the 25th and molested*. 

26th of September, the suspension Hereupon appeared the following 

of hostilities was dedared at an end counter- proclamation on the part of 

by a ibrmal notification made to the nalioital prefect of the amlo» ^ 

Ihe Hehetic general; and an attack Vtaid, who was lempornrily invealed 

was commenced early the next witli tlie powers _of minuter of 

morning agaiust the ciqr of Fri- pdice. " To arms, citizens 1 (bey 

bourg. promised to permit our troops to 

Alter an hour's cannonade the arrive at the frontiers ; tbcy have 
commandant was summoned to sur- violated their oatiis ; they promised 
render; he replied, that he could not to attack the Pays du Vaudi 
not treat with those who had te*- ihey haie attacked it : and will 
tiiied their ill faith in violating the you trust to their further promises ^ 
capimlation of Berne, by disarming What true Vandois but feels hii 
the Helvetic troops. The cannon- heart swell with indignation, and 
ade ^vaB then renewed for a short will not take up arms to defend 
time, when a second parley took his house and his family from [ril- 
place, whiol) terminated in the same lage, from robbery, and from da- 
manner as the first ; is^reupon the very ; Let every brave man come 
attack recommenced with increased forward, and we shall avert tho«e 
vigour, and afier having continued accumulated evils." 
the whole of that day and part of On the 3d of October a genenl 
the next, the garrison laid down action took place, uhert-in the Hel- 
tiicir armn, and were permitted to vetio army sustained a lolal de- 
ret^re to the I^ys du Vaud. feat, and was forced to fall back 

llie confiederates havitig thus in the greatest disorder upon ibe 

made themBel\'e8 masters ol' the town of Moudon. 

• Vide " State Papcra.' 

in I 


to tbe official leport published 
bf ^ Helvetic govemmeDt it is 
Mted dut (heir troops did not ck- 
ceed, oa (bia occasion, 1500 men 
io Dumber, whilst those of the 
c(iif«ler3tes amouDted to 6000 It 
ii, iodeed, certain that the Helvetic 
iTDop* were much dimintsbed by de- 
Kttioa, and that flrom the coLn- 
nmcanent of the straggle ihey 
hid ID great part shown but liitte 
■ttadunent to the cause in which 
tbcr were^Dg^ed. 

On the et'eniog of the 4th the 
confederates enlerrd Moudon, witli- 
out oppoBJtiou, and Andcrnutt ar- 
rived the same day with part of his 
array beton; Yverdon, in which 
punter an inaurrcction had begun 
■o manift^t itsdf against the Hel- 
vetic gwenuncnt. 

Sy this HicceSiiion of disasters tl)e 
Helvetic government and its ad- 
bocnis were thrown into the ut- 
noa consternation. Pressed ii]iun 
from all sidea of Switzerland, with- 
mt the means of defending them- 
Klvet, DO alternative remained, 
bat to surrender tlirmselvcs pri- 
soners, or abandon the country ; 
and tbcy were on the point of re- 
•cRiog to the latter expedient, atid 
of retiring either to Savoy or Ge- 
ne**, when they were relieved 
fittn their embarrass men ts by ih^ 
foddeo arrival of citizen Itnpp, an 
■^utant-gcueral of Bouapari£, at 

This ofHcer proceeded withool 
delay to the senate, aecon^ianicd by 
the French minister Vcmiuac, a nd de- 
livered to chat body, for lU peniwl, 
> prochmatioo, addressed by " Bona- 
[orie, lifst consul tif the French re- 
public, and president of the Ii»lian 
republic, to tlie eighteen cantons uf 
the Helvetic republic:'— a ciinipv 
lition which will ever be memo- 

rable for its despotic arrogance, and 
which does not condescend to take 
the smallest notice of die general 
will of tlie ration to uhom it prc- 
■nmcH to dictate. 

Boiiitpiinc, after reciting, in his 
way, dw dissensions and calamities 
to which Switzerland hnd been a 
prey for sotue years, alt which he 
attribuies to the unskiilulness and 
wenkiies-s of its nders, (but he 
ornit^ to mention that those very 
mien were imposed upon tbe coun- 
tcy by the violent iuicrfcreuce of 
Fnince, :ind tliat tlie coniieigucnt 
e\-its would probably cease to exist 
upon the removal of tlie cause,) de- 
clares, that ahlioiigti he had resolved 
not to interfere in their aflairs, lie 
now retraced his determination j 
tJiat iie uvu/d le the tticdialor of 
tlieir dilicreiiecs, and that his me- 
diiiliun should be efficacious, sutji 
as bclitled the great nation in whose 
n.ime lie spoke; that five days frtxa 
the not ideation of tlic present 
proi-bmation tlie Helvciic senate 
should reasiiemble at £e/iie, and du; 
prefects repair to their posts, and 
that all the authorities c^tibltshcd 
since the cnpitulalion of Berne 
should be diHSolved ) that the 1st 
and 2d Helvetic demi-brigadcs 
sliould compose the garrison of 
Benie, and dut all ;ho other troops 
in ihc service of the Helvetic go- 
VcTianent ^hol)id remain embodied, 
but that ihe confederates should 
deposit thuii arms at their muoici- 
pniitii's on being disbanded } that 
ihrfe dr]iuties fruiii the senniu 
shotiU be sent to Paris, and that 
cuh caniuQ might likewise send 
dcJei^atcs, 10 make known the 
means of restoring tmmprillily, &c. 
Tli.1t on lii>< part he had a riglil la 
crjurl lli.ll no viti/, »" lommunili/, 
ttu toi!^ r//Ji'.-i'-wv, sLuuU act in aiiy ■ 


way contrary 10 ihe ditpodlions of gfTieral Key, the object o( 

wMih Ac made known In them . whiSi was tu reoccnpy that coui* 

" Inhabitants of Helvetia ! (lie try. 
then exclaims) revive to hope !" &c. Two days subsequent to the ar- 

" There is no mac of =ense who rival bf adjutant-general flapp at 

does not see that ihe mediation Lausanne, an armistice was con- 

which I have taken upon myself is eluded between the gencnl of Lri- 

a benefaction of that Providence gade Van der Veld, (whohadbcni 

which in the midst of so niany nojninatcd on the 3d of October to 

Bhocks had constantly watciicd owr replace Andermatt,) on the pan of 

the existence and independence of the Helvetic govemment ; and co- 

your nation, and that tliis media- lonet Herrenschwald, aulhoriied 

tion is the only means tliit remains to tliat cfiect by baron BacbnuD) 

to presene to you botli the one general in chief of the confederate 

and the other," &c. &c. Swiss troops*: the substance of 

This paper having been read, ad- which was, ■(hat hostilities, shooid 

jtitant-general Itapp acquainted the not recommence until twenlj--fout 

senate, that he meaht to repair hours after the reRim of gcnerJ 

to Beme to make the snme commu- Bapp to Lausanne ; and fixing a 

nication to the iniorgents. He set line of demarkatioa (or both ar- 

out aecordingty a few minutes after- mies. 
wards. The Helvetic govemment, thni 

In reply lo this important noti- encouraged by the countenance and 
iicniion, tlie following resolution support of France, assumed now i 
was immediately agreed to : " The more decided tone. Signanires to 
■enatK having read the declaration * fulsome address presented to the 
of tile first consul of France, dated French minister were obtained from 
St. Cloiid, the Sill Vendemia ire, the greater niunber of the commu- 
'II, brought this day by general nities of the Pays deVaiidj a coon- 
R:il>p, decree, ihat they reccii e witli try where -the French language ii 
the most lively gratitude this new spoken, and an ancient cotHjueii of 
testimony of the good viishes of the ti? canton of Berne, but wiudii 
iirst conwl toward!) the Helvetic irom not being admitted to an en- 
people, and the senate will ioyment of equal privileges, had 
conlbrni tu the said declaration, as long been disaftected. It had taken 
far as relates to them. The present the earliest and most active part in 
decree shall be communicated to all the Swiss revolution, ukI slill fuis 
the autl)or!ties, as well as to the nished the most zealous partisans of 
commanders of the troops in arms the new government. 
against ihr; government." This address was of coatse, undei 
This declaration of Bonaparte was these circumstances, a comjdeM 
not an empty threat, lor a body acknowledgment of the accusations 
of French trixtps, to the nominal contained in Bonaparte's prodama- 
amount of -10,000 men, the tion, and expressive of the great 
Mine time collceicd on the frontiers obligations of tliosc communities » 
tif SwilJicriaud, under the command tlie J'ttci^cator of Europe i, for li"* 

• Viilt " State Piijicrs,'" t ViJc 


bcnerolent interference. It con- of the changei wLicb have oc- 
cluded witli these words ; " The currcci in the nature of things, nor 
name of Bonaparte can only be of the sentiments which these 
pronounced, with admiration and changes may have given birth to. 
gntimde br our posterity, as it is Every thing will be .done, that is 
now by ourselves. " consi.^tcnt with reason, to affonl 
Diuiiig these transactions, the general satisfaction. It is by such 
del assembled at Schwcitz «erc conduct that Switzerland can showr 
peaceably occupied in devising the herself worthy of the 'benevolent 
fittest means for restoring the an- intentions which have been evinced 
ciat tranquillity and prosperity of towards her by two great neigbour- 
ibeir coon try. ing powers, who, by the lllb or- 
The}' issued, on the 30th of Sep- tick of the treaty of LuiievUie, stl- 
tember, a proclamation addressed polated that she should have the 
to the inhabitants of Switzerland at right of regulating her own consti- 
farge, of which the followine are tution. 

extracts: "The moment is at " That Divine Providence, which 

length arrived when the Swiss na- has conducted us through so many 

tion can freely and openly express storms, to a state of things so emi- 

ber win, with regard io the politidd nencly fortunate, will also grant 

coDstitutioD which she may think us its assistance in the accomplish- 

prnper' to give herself." After ment of this great work, and will 

speaking in terms of just reproba- lead us through those painful trials 

fim of the Helvetic government, to that happy and peaceful slate, 

it prDcced« thus : " The period is the influence of which was felt 

come in which order and peace are even beyond our ancieut bounda- 

to be restored ; those who dare to ries*." ' 

disturb either, shall receive severe And in conformity with (he senti- 

poniihment. A few examples of mentstlierein expressed, theyagrecd 

ibis sort will undoubtedly be suffi- upon the principles of a conslitu- 

cient to open the ej-es of those who tion, apparently well suited to the 

sui&r themselves to be misled, and nation, circumstanced as she then 

to deliver them for ever from the was, and certainly not rcasonaUy 

■n^rcs of their perfidious leaders, to be objected to by any foreign 

E^en t/uie last may be reclaimed power t. 

when lliey see, that liu* from wish- The arrival of adjutant-genend 

Id; completely to reestablish the Bapp at Berne, and the publication 

ancieui order of things, /uuveeer of Bonaparte's imperious mandate, 

liapiixi it might fiirmerlyhaoe Leen,il together with a verbal declaration 

icwH- dfttroifM, irrevicabhj datroy- made by the former in the name of 

rJ,'— The most careliil attention the first consul, that a French army 

viil be employed, as well in the of 40,000 men would immediately 

auMrihineut of the general con- reoccupy Switzerland, produced the 

ttitution, ai in the formation of deepest sensation in that city. Hie 

patticular institutions: and care provisional government, struck with 

viU be taken neither to lose sight astonishment at this unheard of pro- 

• Vida " 3l»l« Papers." t Ibid. 



cefdij^, were at first under consi* yourself *'> ensure to her by &• 

derablc difficuliiea, with respect to irealj' of Luncville. Switzerland 

tilt; line of conduct they ought to would long since have been tranqml, 

adu^ upon tliis occasion. In this if the members of the Heretic 

stale of cmbarrassmcut it was even govcmmcQl, diose obscnrc mela- 

[irupDs::*! that iheir troops shoutd be phyucrnns, had consulted the red 

I muicii lately disbanded. A laud- state of affairs, inetead of obstinaidy 

able indignation, however, over- attaching themselves to theoretic 

caiuc this impres^iion, and the only experinients, as erroneous as tbcT 

reply tlicy condiisccndcd to give to are expensive. The violence *ith 

this indolent paper was, In refer which tliey have tried to impoK 

the bearer of it to the diet at their system upon tlie democratic 

Pchweitz, as ilic sup:ea-.e legislative cantons, the civil war they Lave 

representative body ol the Swiss orgaiiizcd to attain their end, di- 

nalion. reded at finit against those cantons, 

The proclamation was accord- then against aU Switzerland, the 

ingly I i-an ill lilted to SdiweilK, and unexampled severity which (hqr 

the diet relurned tJie following an- employe, have produced a disam- 

swer to Bonaparie : tent eipially general and just, and a 

" Citizen first consul, deicmiined and avowed will to 

"The proclamation which yon shake off thii insu[^rtableyoke: 
did us tlie honour to send to us on it is cot then, general first consul, 
the 30Ui of September, by citizen an af&ir of party ; it is (he sacied 
Bapp, your adjutant- general, ar- cause of humani^ ; it is the ^cnod 
rive.! at Schwdiz on the 6ih of wish of a -wiiole nation, which has 
October ; we could have wished given us our powers and our in- 
itiat the letter which we took the struciious, of a nation which yen 
liberty of addrc&sii^ to you, ge- yourself were desirous to free, and 
ncral first consul, on tire 30th of which has been ill-treated and irri- 
Septeniber, couJU have reached you tated contrary to your intcutions. 
sooner ; it contains a faidiful expo- Yet that nation (we render onr- 
hition of the present state of Swit- selves liea- guaraniecs) will never 
zerland'''. Permit us to send enr abuse the liberty si i; claims. Itie 
closed to you a duplicate of it, and Swiss have nothing more at heait 
to entreat you to receii-c it favour- tliaii to attain a state of repose. Id 
ably, (t will ]>rove is yon tliat whicli, uitder the shield of a mild 
the movc-meots which have taken -^ and just government, each inha- 
placc ill Switzerland zre not the bitant may enjoy hit property and 
result of a spirit of party, and that eustence. We are convinced that 
the" Swiss nation has n« otlicr ob- we shall arrive at that csseotbl ob- 
ject in view than to make use of jecl of all social order, fran tbe 
the rigliX which she ct^ms of giving moment that our will and our cf- 
to lierself a central and caiitouaj furls shall be no longer lettered. 
cnnstiiuiion, founded on her posi- General first consul, all Europe »d- 
\ion and her wants j a sacred and mires in you the supreme head of 
precious ri^ht, which t/ou,. deigned mi immense po^iei' and empire, 

• Vide " State Paifcis," 


«biil,witliout doubt, according id general lUpp has tnade in His name-i 

ya^ own view*, will be directed of sending an aniiy of 4O,O0O 

to the good af Inunanity; your men into Switzerland, I have the 

magDiaimi^ aseures m, that you honour to acquaint the gcitnral thnt 

wiU not loafce uie of it against we shall yield to force, and ihnt 

1 people who only desire what you no one thinks of contending n-itli 

We nude them hc^, and who the power of the fir« conwi! : but 

(ulf with what tbcy b^ere ihem-' there remain in our possession ariu4 

kIki attfhorixed, by yourself,' to wtiicli he himself esteems ; they 

do. Penetrated with eternal gra- are die juslice of our cause, Ihc 

titude, the Swiss nation will en- voice of the people, and of poste- 

dEaroar to dcacTTc the good will of rily."— Signed, colonel Piyfter, 

the Frcodi govemment, and will member of the council of sialcj 

falffl all the duties which are im- and dated Benie, October gth, 

ptacd npon ber by the desire of 1S02. 

cdtinting the good tmderstanding A few dars afteniMrds Hk' fol- 

«bich ifaould exist between netgb- lowing aft'cning {mK-Jainntlun wax 

bonring states, it is with the most issued by the cotuici) of nar, >if 

&tii^ished respect that we K- the Swiss league, to their \n<j- 

auis, general first consul, thers in arms. It vutt dated Bs^k, 

" Tba deputies of the ^^}\ "'i. I802. 

Helvetic diet " ""^J"* a'^'* brotlier*, when 

"n-f-j c^j,^--., rw 10 lofv)" ro" ««para'cd yourselves from your 

Dated Schweitz, Oct 18, 18IM. ^j^,^ j.^^^ cl.iUlteir, your ftllur* 

Tltt abore letter was given in and yiiir friemls, to conqner for 

duive to two gentlemen named your diildren liberty, indopcnrlcmt, 

Pljfc and Freuler, to be delivered and prosperity, you ntiaiidiaiid wjtli 

lo idjnunt-gcnnal Rapp ; Mr. alacrity and coura^ your coltj^ci. 

PffSer, on beii^ requested by «d- and your herdsi This idea, • The (J>.d 

jatmt- general Rapp to make a af our Jaiheri is wilh iia, unil prt^- 

wnttencoromoiiication of the verbal tects us,' gave you fwir lo Imnc 

HHinDces which he had given all dangers, and lo despite the tii- 

tun (^ the sentiments of the diet, tigues of wnr. You quilted with 

■ddicued to bim a note to the Jul- songs your mountains and your 

Wing cfiect : vallies, to enter into the field ajii di-- 

" ITic Swiss diet at Schwtiie fend the cause of frpedora and yo'jr 

hare charged me to make known coontry. Tbe Almighty ble^s- 

to yon, general Rapp, that tliey ed your eftiitls, and heard the 

aiecLr-.inccd that the letter which just praj-ers of a nation known 

they have addressed lo the first only by UieTeditinie of her vii^s, 

eoasnl will remove the fatal im- and whiclihM armed for h^rlibcrty 

presiion wiuch has been attempted and independence. Oiuenemies, our 

to be made t^wn his mind, with oppressors, the f=elf-dent)minatrd 

reelect tu the state of anarchy and Helvetic gowniment, wllh its fcc- 

ftction in wiiich he might believe be party, have been driven aliuoit 
Switzerland to be at present. If the. to the fronliors of the coiifrtierate 

ftnt consul persists in carrying into cantons. But, bruthcr^ and friends, 


that if we did not by out con- be informed of the ime shl^ ff 

duct give proofs of an eatirc con- Iftings, adopt meaiaies whidi «nU 

fidrnce in the first consul of the lecure oai honour, and the pro^ 

powerfiil nation of France, (who pcrity and indepeodeocc of cm 

hat caused a declarBtiyn to be made counin-. May the Almighty deign 

by hi.i envoy, gctieral Itapp, ttt (rat to griiit this, who biu enabled n* 

fathers assembled at Scbwettz, to make an impflitant step tovard) i 

tliat he wishes to interpoie m ourtliturehappineES/andhaacnnni- | 

mediator in the war in which ed'sur anns with his benediclkin." 
we are engaged against the odiovu It teems to lia^'c been one of 

Heh'ctic government,) we sbould the principal objects of tiiis fmb- 

be compeUed to it by the victorious licatioa, to mako an imprestioD on j 

arms of frencti warriors. Brothers, the minds of the FrecKh nilion; 

friends, confederates, who amongst and indeed it is impossible to draw 

us could have conceived the thou^t a more faithful picture of the real 

of our being menaced by the nu- sentimenta with which the grcai 

merous and experienced armies of majority of this unfottonafe people 

France } No, fHends, no. We were inspired in the present itn^j^ 

wish to await peaceably the deter- for the recovery of their con- j 

minatioQ of the first consul i and stituUun, nnder which they enjoyed, ; 

with that order, that moderati<Ai, to the fullest extent, all the happiness 

and tliat discipline, which have and advantage which can be derived 

hitherto guided your itep.*, you froni rational freedom. ^ 

will receive, we are convinced, the From the foregoing documents, il 

commands of your superiors, of i» easy to cdlect what line of con- 

your general ; and even, if it duct the diet bad resohed to purme 

■hould be necesmry, you will re- in the present crisis. The riKSi- ' 

turn to your homes> to the end here o( this respectaUe and iraly 

that our country may not be ex- patriotic body remained at th«ir 

hausted by the entrance of frnvign post in the firm and temperate 

troops; that we may not be de- exercise of the dutiea imposed upon 

privcd of the scanty harvest of this them by their country : while ibey 

year, which we hoped to consume were disposed to hope that tlie re- 

with our children ; and that we presentations and remonstianan 

may not be plun^ into indigence made by them to Bonaparte would 

and miMT)'. It m only tlie Helve- cause hitn to relent, tod not penist 

tic governDienl, directed by its pas- in the violent and tyrannical ntedi- 

tiom and its private mterest, that ation with which he bad threatened 

couldcallintheaidbffbreign troops: them, they expected that tt^- other 

we, who took up arms solely powers of Europe, roused by so 

for our country and tranquillit}', flagrant a violation of treaty, md 

have no need of troops to attain so unjmtiliable an attack on the i 

our object ; but, relying on our libenies of an independent and un* ' 

conduct, we dare to hope that offending nation, would step for- 

the ^fint consul of France, whtt has ward in her behalf Sboutil llify 

guarantitd ovr independence, and t>e disuppointcd in m just a hope, 

wlio has been deceived by false and be left to llieir own means <^ 

reports, .wil], as soon a« he sliall defence alone, all that remaiurd 




fot dieDi to do wru, by colemulr 
pniCcitii^ agtinat the conduct of 
fnace, and appealing to all num- 
fciod. to nukf' it maiulcst to the 
world that tbey only yiL'ldcd to the 
v>37 u^rtsr force of au enornioiia 
pover, wbcMc aniiica were already 
xtheir liraDticn, and agaioKt wboui 
it wouM be absolute madness to 

The hopes, whatever they might 
barebeen.wbichhadberti conceived 
from the moderatiou and iustiee 
of Baiu]»Tt6, were speedily blasted 
by tbciDvationoftbc Swiw territory 
by the Freuch arrny-, on various 
paints, both from Frauce and Italy : 
these troop* were placed under die 
order* of genenil Ney, who was 
at the oaac titae accredited mi- 
nisln' plenipotentiary to tlie Hel- 
»eiic govcmiuent, in the room of 
Verainac, who was recalled. 

This ouL'agcous comluLt of Bo- 
njpanc, ia deiimcc uf iiis own 
ioleaiii guaraiit>'> of the right of 
Svttzeriand to adopt the form of 
{mrammeiit most agreeable to bcr 
inhabitants, could not tail to excite 
umvcrsal iodignation. The mur- 
■Min «f mankind were beard 
crea >ji the 1 huilleries. HuW' 
ever impenetrable aM tliat palace at 
^nwwimaybeconsideted tobelo tlie 
ay of justice and huinaaity, it was 
lodged expedient tu silence them : 
not by a generous aUmdonmcnt of the 
measure, but by a laboured at- 
tempt to justify it in the eyes of 
EoiTipe, which appeareil in a pnb- 
ik letter from Talleyrand, minister 
for foreign afiaiis, to Mr. DeCetto, 
the Bavariau euvi^ resident at 
hri). lliLi paper* which is a 
composition of inisrepre<«entii[ion 
6oia beginning to end, had no 

• W<k " Sate Pipen. 

other effect than to a^ra\'ate the ini' 
quity of the proceeding, lint llie 
rulars of France have lung liad the 
presiimpliiin to suppose (hat th^ 
patseas the talent of convincing 
maDklnd, in opposition to lact and 
to reason. 

Such, however, \ras the situa- 
tion and the policy of the different 
powers of Europe, that Great Bri- 
tain alone tnanitcxted a disposition 
to come forward to the relief o£ 
this unfortunate nation. On tlM 
lOth of Uctobcr, lord Hawkesbur}', 
his majesty's principal secretary of 
state for foreign aSain, addressed 
a note to Mr. Otto the French mi- 
nister in London, wherein hia lord- 
ahip expressed the seoiiineDts ot 
deep regret excited in his majesty's 
breast by the proclamation of the 
first consul to the Helvetic people, 
and wherein be explicitly declares, 
tliat his majesty "sees the lata 
exertions of the Swiss cantons in 
no other light than as the lawful 
ettbria of a brave and generous 
people tn recover tlieir ancient laws 
and government, and to procure 
the reeslablixhment of a system, 
which expcricuce lias dt;monst rated, 
not only to be fa\ourabte to tho 
maintainancc of their domestic Imp- 
pincsa, but to be perfectly consist- 
ent with the tntnciuillity and secu- 
rity of other powers t : and shortly 
after Mr. Moore, who had been 
one of iiis majesty's seaetaries at 
the negotiation of Amiens, was sent 
upon a conlidcntial mission to 
Switzerland, in order to ascertain 
the state of atfiiir* in that cotuitry, 
the disptsitioni of the inhabitants, 
and in what mode the interference 
of the British govcnmient could 
be most eflectually employed for 

f To this no antwer was retained. 


Aeii advantage. This gentleiDan dclaj to dUsolre itself ; dedarineat 

was authoriztd to promise tbon, in the same time to that geuctri, ftrt 

his majesty's iiamr, pecuniary sue- in obedience (o the inHnictinn* of 

)X>an, in case be should find tbem ibeir conatituents, to *hich ibef 

determined to resist by tbrce of donsidered tbenuelres obltgrf lo 

arms the attacks of France. conform, they could not regard &e 

In the mean time the Helvetic H*l\'etic government as cstablisW, 

government was reinstated at Befne dor alienate the sacred right of their 

■nder the protection of the French nation to foim a conrtitutioii for 

sftmy, wliicb continued to advance herself} a tight which tbty tn- 

into the heart of the country, and herited from tbdr ancestors, ntd 

the confederate troops were either which was ccmfirmed to them bf 

tfsbandcd or recalled from the po- the treaty of Luneville. Brudes, 

■itions which lliey had occupied. tliey were firmly persuaded that d>* 

The first act of this goremmenf SwiKs would never recover Aeir 

wMs to publish a proclamaiion to fninijuillity and their happiMu bat 

the inhabitants of Switzerland *, by tlie exercise of that right, 

ftxommending them to bnry the And accordingly, on the 26tt of 

late events in oblivion, and enhort- October, tliis venoraUe flMembly 

ing ihem to submit to the ronati- of true patriots finally drsiohEd it* 

(ulion, othenvise the smallest re- self; but before they closed their 

sislance would be sutljcient lo draw sittings th^ issued a proelamatioQ 

dirtvn upon ihem the vengeance of to the enanii^ effect : "Tbemein- 

the first coimil of the French repub- bers of the diet return the powers 

lie. They then snmmoned the pro- wherewith they were invested into 

visional government to dissolve the hands of their ccmotiiaeffi, 

iiself. 'flic 1( ttcr containing ibis re- having been interrupted ill ttwr 

•imiLtion wjs rciiirned uiwipencd- proceedingsby a foreign armed force, 

Toa similar rrqaiiitionnia^e to the and by the influence of estraordi- 

diet of Schwciti + by grncral Key, naty circumbtaiicefi. Thi^ do w* 

demanding Utcia to declare whc- lenoutice the right guarentitd to 

ihrr or not they would accede to tlie diflerent cantons, by the truly 

l!ie proclamation of the first consul, of Luncvflle, of giving to Switwr- 

ihey rf|i;ii(l by a note, doted tlie land a suitable cwnstitutton, and they 

26th of Oiiciber J, that alrendv, on protest beforehand against ereiy 

the 15th of that month, they had act on the part of other inhabiDinii 

takej) the resolution of delivering of Switzerland to renounce tbit 

up iheir powers into the hands of light.'" 

their consiituents, as sowi as the TIjcse events sncceeded each 

Prench troops should enter Switier- other with such rapidity, that Mr. 

land, having never entertained the Moore, the British agent, had tail; 

dciign of opposing them by fbri'e of time to arrive at the frmiien of 

arms. Now that they were positii ely Switzerland a »-ery few daye hefcie 

informed that ihe citit s of Jlailc and the dissolution of the diet. Con- 

Ecriie were occupied by French scquently his mission had no olbef 

truops, ihe diet would no lunger eSect than to prove to the Swin 

• TsOt <' State ^apns.■' * ^^ii * Ibid. 


tint there was itlU odc nation in and principal towns were required 

tnrope suiEcicntly magnaidmous to sciid delegates to PariK, in order 

lad gneniiu to take an actit'c in- to consult upon a new form uf con- 

lenw in their caose. s^itution. Most parts of Switzer- 

ITic patriotic radeaToors of the land complied wilh ihis requisition, 

Swiii, to establish a coostilution that they mj^lit not n^lect any 

omfbrmable to their wishes and their means that slill remained of pre- 

iubiis,hiiriDgbeenthiisnx>st iuiquit- renting, in some degree, the adop- 

oulj frustrated ; and tbere being tion of measures iumiical to tUeir 

noUiing tobeexpccted from a longer interesta. 

roi^itance but a fiirtber accumula- The majoiily of ihene deputies, 

lioo of evils ; they felt themaelves to the number of between fiiiy and 

■Mkrthe painjiil necessity <^ sub- sixty, assembled in Paris, at Uie 

iffillJo^ with repressed indignation, latter end of the month of No- 

u «e their territory again in the vember, and a commission com- 

pntession of a FretKii anny. posed of four jncmbiTj, Barthelemy, 

ThoK who had been most dis- Desnieuiiicrs,Pouclie,a[)dRQcderer, 

■toguished \rf their efTt>rts to re- were nominated by tlie Fiendi 

nbtdith the independence of their government to assist at ttieir dis- 

cmittrr, became the peculiar ob- cussions, and lo report to the 

jectc o£ persecution. Arst consul, from time to time, 

A respectable gentleman, of the the progress miide in litis business : 

Bane of Hirtzcl, member of the an- at some of tlieir sittings Honaparlc 

cxoi magistracy of Zurich, having attended in person; ar.d dcpuiaiiona 

beai arrested, Aloys Heding, the in- from tliis body occassiojially waited 

bepklcbaiiipioDof Switzerland, was upon him, as it were, to coniult 

rby his friends, who foresaw his opinion. 
woold happen, to retire la Bonnpatte conscious, no doubt, 

Hme place of safety. A passport that hi« conduct, (liroughoiit ihesa 

ft* that purpose was even procured transuctious, was much too flagrant 

^himi but, disdaining to avail not to excite uniicrsal .ibli jrrtnce, 

'uDuelf of it, he delivered it to and desirous, if po^slblft, to con- 

ihe officer ordered to arrest him, ciliate, by somn mejsures of cOn- 

"tanving that, having failed in bts cession, a brave people whom lie 

mdeaTourt to restore freedom lo had so cruelly ouird^.;d, relaxed in 

S'itaedaDd. he conceived himself many points fiom the principles of 

lute particularly bound to take got'ernment which be had oiigi- 

t>p>a faitosdf the entire responsibi- nally forced upon them. He Af.- 

'ii7' "/ have obeyed, said he, tite dared, at an early niL-eting of the 

■*•*• ^ W cotudence and of my deputii's, that, on becoming better 

ammtrg f da you obey the orders of acquainted with their' country, he 

5°«r niuter." He was tben con- was convinced (hat an uniform 

f^d a prisoner, together with system of government was not suit- 

WKi^lii* ooDeagoes, who insisted able to a people hab'.iuated to dif- 

iipon ibxring his fate, to the castle ferent usages and customs, and 

«f Aarbourg. consequently that they must npprox- 

Id the midst of these calaraitoiu imate to their ancient constitution. 

OcoBUtances, the tn'cral canton* " Federalism," he observed, 

Vot. XUV. ft " weaken* 


" weakens great states, by dividing more upon her weakness thnn opoa 

their strength ; it augments tliat ot her stiength." 

small states, because each part Under these auspices, the depu- 

thereby preserves its natural ettergy ties of the Swiss nation cummenced 

undiinitiisbed." On anotlier occa- their labours ; and such was the 

Bion he remarked (with what con- mode of proceeding adopted for the 

.■istency is immaterial), "that the framing a constitution for a bet 

Kcuri^ of Switxetland depended and independent people ! '. ! 

,,, Cookie 



daiiuaiioi^Frejie/niff^'—^gion of Honoia' instituted. — Comtituiwn 
—Jaiepk Bonaparti elected Grand Officur thereof.— Near Constilutiott 
tf France— aritfttd. — Situation qf Bonaparti- — and of the Continent. 
—Nutria. — JouiTteu i^f the Emperor to /'resiurg — Diet qf Prei- 
iiirg,— Poland— Dislvriance at (Varsaw. — Itcdy — King of Etmria— 
Araunderstanding between his Mqjeitif and Bwiaparti. — Sardinia — Aldi- 
iotion of the Kittji in favour of his Brother. — Ligurian Repuilic. — Naples, 
~~SpiiiM.— Treaty with Rusiia. — Seizure of the Properti/ qf the Knights 
tf Malta. — Journey to Barcelona. — Inten-ieiV tettueen the Emperor ^ 
Riiiiia axd King of Prussia at Memel. — Turlash Empire.— New Re- 
fultk <^ Ike Falais.— German Indemnities.— 'Russian Interference.— 
Suture threatened respecting Passou — Plan accepted— Considerations 
thereon.— Sweden and Denutark. — Batavian Repullk. 

WE shall now return, from the means of supportittg the grandeur 

(ubjcct of Switzerland, to of tlie French nation, and of giiard- 

oaiemplate once mom the remain- Jng its dominions ; nor did he tail 

ing projects of the first consul, and to remind them, that although peace . 

to the detail of the means by which was so recently concluded, it was 

(tiey were accomplished. We have ^r from improbable but that it 

•m that the French nation bad might soon be violated. 
fcnnaUy invested him with the so- The project for tliis new order 

wieipity, under the name of fint was then read, the principal pro- 

ronsul for life ; yet was he not sa- visions of which were as follow ; 

Mtd with the unboiuided power "'The legion shall be divided into 

vliich this appointment gave him, fifteen cohorts, which are to bo 

tutilhe bad hedged himself, and bis stationary in difierent quarters of 

reccDt acquirement, round with a the empire. Bach cohort shall con- 

tad of order of nobility, whose slst of se\cn great officers, twenty 

iMeresl it should i>e to support his commandants, thirty inferior offi- 

■le^ismj and a new constitution cers, and 350 privates. Each great 

vhich should, to its utmost latr~ officer to receive SOOO franks per 

(tide, give it countenance and sane- annum, and during life ; each com- 

tioD. mandant 2000 franks, each inferior 

The appointment of a legion of officer 1000 franks, and each prv- 

•wnour was now formally announc- vate 250 ; all for life, 
•i On the 13th of May, Roederer, Every individual shall swear, on 

we of the oounseUors of ttate, pro- his admission to the legion, on hit 

posed it to the legislative body, in honour, that he will devote his life 

« flprid haiangtie, ac tho best aud services to tlie well being of 
It 3 the 


the republic; to the preservalion of nUtration of their domaios fPM fi- 
lls territorial indivisibility ; to the nally arranged in thft most minute 
dWr'iice of its governRient, its laws, manner; repciitories veie appcniil- 
aiid the property by them conse- ed for the archives of the order; 
crated ; to oppose, by all the means the mode of electing the great of- 
which justice, reason, and the laws ficers of the order was ascertaiord i 
authorize, every undertaking which and finally, tliis decree was entered, 
' may tend to the restoration of the with every usual cereinonial, iiOo 
ancient forms and government, of the bulletin of the laws, . 
the titles aad privileges attached to On the I3lh of July, citizen Jo- 
them; and to exert his best and seph Bonapart^ was declared eleoted, 
most strenuous efforts for the main- grand olfic^r, and member of the 
tainance uf the present order of grand council of administration, of 
things. All military men who have the le^^on of hoDour, be having ■ 
received honorary distinctions of plurality of votes ; and thus was per- 
arms from the first consul are mem- manently organized a privileged ot- 
bcrs of the legion; or who have der, for the avowed purpose of pn>- 
renderrd essential service in the de- tecting absolute authority in the 
fence of liberty in the late war, ei- person of an individual, and coo- 
ther in the field or in tlie coimcils ; firmed to him for life ; in that veij 
and citizens who, by their abilities, capital which had witnessed, bat ■ 
knowlet'ge, or talents, have contri- few years before, the proscriptioa of 
buted to estaWish the principles of its nobles, and the murder of iis *>• 
the republic, or who have been emi- vereign, as the sole means by which 
Dent in the administration of justice, these distinctions could be for eret 
or who have by their virtues caused abolished ! 

it to be respected, may be nominated A constitution peiiectly confinB- 
candidates." able to his will wta all that now re- 
On the lath of July following, a raained, to be imposed by this fbrto- 
decreeof the fim consul, establish- nate usurper, on tail abjoctsnd cub- 
ed finally this singular establishment, missit'e subjects, 
consisting of nearly 6000 indivi- It was promnlged od the thild 
duals, all of whom were bound, by day after the consulate was con- 
solemn oath and their individual in- firmed to him frtr life, was fiully 
tercst, to look up to the first consul determined and accepted in the 
(who was declared dejure chief of cotu'se of a iivgie sitting of his ob- 
the legion, and president of the sequious legislative body, and wa* 
great council of the administration immediately proclaimed to the pto- 
of the order,) as the soul and spring pie in the usual fona of a seaatns 
ofall their movements; forwhosese- consultum. 

curity they were distributed, a titled It consists of ten separate heads*, 

and armed body of spies, throughout the substance of which we shall a* 

the whole of the empire; and on briefly as possible lay bctixe oar 

whose favour and protection was readers : 

grounded their sole hope and de- " The consuls are for life; tbs 

peodcnce. BythtiorrAf theadoii- first consul present! the naotes of tfar 

• Vid* " Suit P»pers," 


Vixr tvo (o the fenate, frho may dominioa was more absolute, and 

r^cct ihe lEt and ait m> ofiercd to bis military name higher, than tliat 

tbem, but the third preseoUtioa of any BorereigD who had before 

man be accepted. He first consul filled the throne of France, but his 

DUf name bis iQcceisor. Should empire was much more extcn$i\'e, 

bebowerer not choose, or neglect and his influence on the tale of other 

•0 to do, the 2d or 3d consuls no- nations far greater. The colonies 

tninate one who may be rejecled, u which had been ceded by the treaty 

above; bat the third nomination is of Amicus were cjuietly repossessed, 

inqieiBtive. The succession must aodSt. Domingo for a time appeared 

bedeclarcdwilhiD twenty-four houn to have yielded to his fortune. We 

after the death of the first coaiu). faave seen that a capitulation \\-a% 

Hk first conml has the right of agreed to by the black generals, 

{Mrdoning in all cases; of makii^ which was, as it might have bera 

war and peace; ratifies all treaties ; supposed, violated by the Irench 

oominates all inferior otBcers j can almost as toon as it was made. Hie 

^paint forty members ot the senate brave and luuuspecliug Toussaint 

(^Uiown^Mduteanthority, which, L'Oavcrture, who had defended St. 

vken entire, consists but of 130; Domingo from the power of Eng- 

preicribes to them tbe only subjects land during the war, and who bad 

they can deliberate upon ; and has luade terms with the French, was, in 

tbe poTer of introducing iota every contempt of all good faiili, sent asa 

dehberatiTe body a majority of hu prisoner to Fiance, where jie perish-' 

own creatures." cd miserably in a dungeon : un- 

Thus aiftitrarily and nbsolately heard of cruelties were practised b/ 

*cre vested a power in the present tlie French on the . negroes, whom 

first ctmsul and his successors, more they in the least suspected as likely 

despolicthan any European monarch to be rebelliously indined; and to 

hd erer dreamed of assuming, give the greatest po^ible publicity 

much lessofcompelling his subjects to their system, slavery in the co- 

6 be parties to, by solemnly and lonies was di'L-lared and proclaiiued 

grarety dcclariog, their slavery irre- by a solemn act of the French go- 

ncably established by laws of thdr vcrnment, and entered in the ImlUtm 

an making. of the laws of tlie republic. I'he 

II would be little wcoth while, to conduct of the French government 

eominent further on theother provi- in thii respect shows that Toussaint 

^Muofthis detestable code, at once was justifiable in ofi'criugall the re- 

ibc roDckerr and punishment of the aislance iu his power to die French 

abject wretdies, who preferred the am^i for it was dear that the 

goiemment of this unprinciiJed Frcndi government had formed the 

■Hanger, to the mild and beneficent atrocious pbn, of either extirpating 

iwsyof the Bourbons. the negro population of the colony 

Bonaport^ was now raised to the (half a ntiUbn of people), orel<iere- 

bijhest pinnacle of fame and power, ducing again into slaver/ those men 

uid found himself the absolute who bad been for nearly ten years 

nuiter of the greatest eiilpirc which fi-ee, and who would cousequently 

hade\er been won by the sword of rather throw away their lives, tliau 

a soldier of fortune ; not only hii again return to the condition uf 
II 3 slaic*. 


Elavei. St. Domingo, howcTcr, ■[>- the national icEunenUihould becoct- 

prared for a time completely sub- pleted to tUeirttiU complement; and 

dued ; Toiu&aint, who bad been the they consented to vote an increase 

rival of Booapart6 in glory, and who of two nulliona of floruit to tbe 

had braved his power, was now hit public contributions ; but on ihe 

Erisoiier ; and he hiouelf had per- other band they demanded the free 
aps .reached tbe very summit and exportation of all Hungarian pro- 
zenith of bis prosperity. It was ductions, a better orgauization of 
doubdess with a sort of proiihetic the national militia, and certain 
feeling, that he exclainjiul ia his changes in the system respecting the 
answer to bii councils on his reelec- money of the country. Those de- 
tion, " How many great men have mands of the diet, in answer to the 
lived a few years too loi^, and sur- prc^iosals of the eropcfor, were alt 
vived their gloiy i The term of my acceded to on the part of his in^e- 
pohtical existence should have ceased rialmajeaty! and the conduct of the 
at the signing of the general peace." diet in ibis instance was a convioc- 
Having arrived at this high emi- ing proof that there exists a good 
ncnce, he appeared tor some short d^ of independence and freedom, 
time (like toe traveller who has as well as courage, in the Hun- 
attained the summit of a steep g;arian nation, l^e form and prin- 
motmtain) to indulge himself with a ciple of the demands of the diet 
short repose : nor for nearly two were exactly similar to the conduct 
months did he commit any out- of our ancient padiamenii, who, 
rageous violation of the territories whenever, at the request of the so- . 
or independence of his neighbour vereign, they voted a- grant of 
states. During thii short breathing money, always demanded, on tbe 
time, part of tlie nation, redress of some 
The afTiirs of other powen on tbe existing grievance. By this simple 
continent became, if not very inter- process, tlicy arrived to be of their 
esting, at least deserving some rtiaer- present importance in the comiiiu- 
vation. The emperor of Geimauy, tion, and have raised to m> higb a 
■cootnpanied by the empress, jour- pitch the prosperity of their couuir}'. 
nicd lo Presburg b, where they made ITie same causes elsewhere, may ia 
their solemn entry on the i 2th of time produce similar eflocts. 
May. Ttie following day his im- In Fohad an occurrence took 
peri^ majesty opened the diet of place, within this year, which, «1- 
Hup^ry, widi a Latin speech, con- tliuugh it appeared only in the form 
tairting 'be several propositions he of riot, strongly slwwod the sfHiit, 
had to mnke to tbe Hungarian na- which still animates that brave but 
tion, for increasing the revenues and unfortunate people. The Bussiau 
the army. Tbe diet of Hungary by prince Zubolf, whom the public opi- 
no means coincided widi the ^ lews nion of ISiu^pc had considered (lie 
and expecUlioHs of his imperial ma- i>rime mover, or at least bidily in- 
i«sty, llieir answer to the emperor's strumental, in that phul, which ended 
proposition was, that, under the in tbe death of the emperor Paul and 
present circumstances, they saw no the accession of Alexander, could not 
necejiHty for increasing the array i decently be permitted to reside at the 
tb«v would however consent that Kuuian court. Howcrer iteccsuiy 
' tbt 


At rDfttnre mi^ have been, how- cntly of several other privileges) 

ci'fl' to the advantage of Russia, and ^vrre appointed licensen of all bookii 

e»en tlie irtiole worid, yet still it whatsoeicr in their respective dio- 

vooU hare been improperfcrrAlos- ccsesj and no book could be pub- 

■odcr to have received at his cotirl, Hshed in his dominions wllhoni 

(hcni3Bwbohad>tsiited!ntbemuT> their Jiccose, or that of their de* 

dcr of his father and his sovereign, puties. 

Zoboff was therefore rei|iie5ted to While the good king of Etrnria 

bml, and he ehosc Italy for the #vasthtisengagcdinhiipious labours, 

place of his residence. On his way, Bonaparte (by way of com^Jlment) 

be iad intended to stop some time icnt him tlie French Concordat. 

at Warsaw; but the people of that It was natural for the first consul 

dty, although they were obliged to to suppose that the king, whosv 

•ubtoit to their coniijerors, would royalty was manufactured by him- 

not bear the sight of a man whom self, would receive this testimonial 

thcf considered the principal advisa of his regard and confidence, at 

of the ruin of their country, and of least, with great respect ; but in the 

the massacre of Pnga, during the event it appeared quite ihe rci'cise > 

rrigDof the empress Catherine. All his raajeaty of Btruria seemed to 

Warsaw was in ,in uproar; and the consider, that his recent dignity gevo 

goveniment found it 'necessary to himtheprerogative.of givineadvice 

order him instantly to qait that city, to his brother potentate of ftance ; 

vhkh he was obliged to do under he accordingly sent back the copy of 

the protection of a strong guard of the Concordat, witli a number of 

idd«rs, to •a%e him fhim being torn marginal notes written In his own 

to Meces by the populace, who hand, and containing observations, 

Ico^y menaced bin) wjth that fiite. (o which he expreiscd a bgpe that 

Heaflairsof Italy, in its present Bonapnrt6 would conform, fiona- 

dt^raded state, however incapable pani answered him in a way that 

of exciting much interest, are nc- showed he never would pemiit « 

Tcrtheless worthy of some notice, king of Gtruria, to interfere in the 

The petty monarch that Bonaparte, affairs of trance, and sent a copy of 

wther in a moment of vanity, or his majesty sletter tothcarchive* of 

in an idle and sportive hour, was the minister of foreign sffirirs, with 

plnsej to create king of Etruria, the following pithy note annexed to 

chose to be more Independent in his it; "Tobeprescncdasatnonunient 

foDies, thnn his creator perhaps ima- of the folly of kings, when they 

poed. He published a long pro- permit themiehTs to be governed 

clamation, wherein he states, that by priesu." The French govern" 

the fir:>t ibe which he ought to make ment gave the king of Etraria ancn 

of the power given him from God, therexjiressivehint on this subject, 

was the protcciion of religion. He The otfiria? journal, the Monitrur, 

ackocnrledgedthepopeasGod'svicar- quoted, without any ccnaura frim 

foieral, and referred to him all spi- another paper, the following expres- 

ntital matters; he restored all the sions: " Civilization hasgoueback- 

(cpilar ecclesiastical orders, and de- ward in Tuscany for scleral cen* 
ftarcd the e-ilate of the church un- furies; the king ufEtruria has given 

atioublc. llie binbop* (indepcnd- himself up eulircJy to prieitik tba 
R 4 whol< 


whole state h^s been surreodercd to those who at that stonn^ p^od hai 

the power of the church } the pope distioguisbcd themselves bj zeal Sat 

may aow (as his predecessors have the interests of the crown, sbooU 

done) depmc the new Lewis at experience his tpecial protection, 

pleasnre, if lie dare to swerve fiom Anxmg the transacliwis in SpiJD, 

the aUegiaiK<! he has vowed to the of the ^ear ISOa, the niost impoit- 

holy see; and, that l^iscany, which ant which took place waa the pobbc 

was once the cradle of the arts, is declaration of a^ treaty with Rbmb, 
likely to becontc their tomb, if the ^ signed on the 4th of October, tbe 

crealar nf the stale, BONAPARTE, substance of which was as foUows : - 

does not oppose it ! This was ccr- '■ There aliall be from tliis muaieU 

tainly no insuSicient bint to the peace, amity, and good undentaad- 

kingof Etniriaof bis insiguiiicance. ing, between the king of Spain ind 

In another state of Italy, long the emperor of all the Ruuias. 

celebrated for the wisdom of its ni- "Tokeepupaiidcultivatetheordcr 

lers, but which waa swept away iiom of things tlius happily reestabliibed, 

among the nations of Europe by the the two cotirts shall appoint, tid 

atana of the revolutionary war shall cause to retide at Uie couit of 

which Bonaparte directed in Italy, each, ipiniiters according to the nn- 

tbe kinc; of Sardinia, a man rather cient custom. Tbis Domination lifaslt 

bom to enjoy the blessings of a [iri- take place mutually on the 1st of 

vate life than to contend against January 1803, orsoonerif possible, 

such limes, resigned his tbronc to " Immediately after the proclanu- 

his brother, the duke D'Aosta. tion of the present act by the two 

The sacrifice was small; it was sovereigns, there shall be published 
only that of (be title of king, which, in tbeir states edicts, by which, re- 
aeparated from the revenues, the voking the past,itsballb«pceKnbed 
power and the station was merely an to Oie respective subjects, to treat 
empty name, which vanity itself eacli other as subjects of two friend- 
would blush to assume, That ly nations, and to observe, in theii 
which was tbe support of the throne commercial and other relations, sndi 
of Sardinia, the territory of Piedmont, anuxleof proceeding, as is analogous 
Bonaparte had possessed himself of to that state of peace and amity in 
by tbe battle of Maringo, and had which they are reestaUished by the 
now declared, without further cere- present compact." 
mony.a military department of the The above treaty wa» ratified hy 
I'rencb empire; and was conse- tbe king of Spain on the 5th of De- 
(juenlly very indift'crent which of cember 1801 ; and by the emperor 
ihc brothers chose to call himself of Russia on the 27th of Febniaiy 
king of Sardinia. 1602. Tlie exchange of tbe rartfi- 

1'be GenocHe, or, as it was c^led, cation took place at Paris on the Bth 

the republic, BCrepled from of April 1302. 

France a constitution similar to that A matter of consideraUe import- 

of the Italian republic i and tbe ance to the futore peace of Europe 

kingof Naples published, by a royal now took place, which wai tlw 

edict, a general anint:<ty for all acta foimal annexation by the king of 

done during the rc\'olMtiuii ; but at Spain of alt the property of the 

tlie same time dLciared, that all ktiigbts of Malta m his territories m 



&e nifil domaini, and hit Spa- be tnmiported for life to (he Phi- 

Bsh majKtj declared himaelf grand lippiae islands : many of bis fticods 

lOMfT of tiiat part of the order became aUo victims of their z«l and 

wfilch resided within bis dominioiEi. , desire (o improve the state of Spain 

"nm^Qi a moat material dtange in in its agricoltnrei, and internal im- 

tbeiiinaiionoftbeOTdcrofSt. John; provsmcnt. if this were all the 

for it completely suppressed three of truth, iJiis action would be a more 

those io^nef, of w^icbtbeorJcr was striking moaumrnt "of the folljr o£ 

cgmposed, namely, those of Ai- kings, misled by priest*," than the 

agon, Castile, and Navarra. This king of Etmria's coramentarieS' oa 

tfep, which was donbtlesi rccom- Bonaparte's Concordat. But it i» 

aeaikd or enforced by France, threw not impossible, or improbabje, birt 

imupsable obstaclea in the way of that some revolutionary principles 

the execution of the treaty of and movements, were the source of 

Amiens, by redndng and ahnost de- this exemplary punisbnient. 

KKF^i^ that onlef, to which the Their Spanish majesties aUo, about 

iiUadof Malta wa^ to have been re- this period, made a journey with 

«orcd; and the means by which, great pomp and parade to Barce- 

vere it restored, it could alone lona, where they received ttie kin^ 

muntain and support its dignity and (]ueen t^Etrnria, and a princess 

iod independence. of Naples, who was betrothed in 

Aoolher actof the gov^mnent of marriage to a prince of Spain. 

Spsin, though of a more private na- This jonmey was at first supposed 

tore, was the cause of very general toponendeventsof larmorcimport- 

tonwrwition and inquiry thrcugh- ance. ASpanishsquadionof menof 

Mt £arope. A prisoner of state, war wid frigates, were appointed to 

*hoae &oe wa» disguised by a mask, convoy their majesties from CarthS' 

v» embarked at Cadiz to be trans* gena to Barrelona : aDulchsqnadmn 

parted from Spain. He was treated was at that time in the Medilerra- 

with distiticlion, and tlic circum- nean, under admiral De WinttT, 

Kanceof hiabeingmasked,reaiinded and it was rninonred thatacunsi- 

dtepnUiu, not onty of the celebrated derable French iquadron was prc- 

iran iMskoi the French Bastiie, but paring at Toulon, It was feared by 

ot die ionnmerable stories - which the British government that it might 

the writers of modem romances had be a projen of Bonaparte to oojicct, 

Itbiicaud of prisoners so disgoised under (hl&rent pretences, a strong 

a the dungecns of tyrants. Curio- fleet in the Mediterranean, and 

My was busifd in inquiring, and againatlempttbecooquestof Effj'P*. 

TOmoor in spreading reports, who To counteract such designs, if they 

<liit Unasked prisoner might be; the were entertained, admiral sir Ki- 

Seneral opinion, however, seemed to chard Bickerton was reinforced, and 

lix on don Urriuijo, who had re- placed in the command of a consi- 

lided a considerable time in Eng- derable British fleet. Tlie journey, 

land, in the capacity of ambassador however, turned out only what it 

ftom Spain. His oflence was said to was profrsscd to be ; a royal visit 

h*an atiemjit to abridge the power to someof the pniviiices wiiich were 

t^lhcinyuuuwR} hiipunLshment, to at a distance from Madrid, and a 


cerenuiDious and pompoui recep- German mile from the town : the; 
tion, of illustrious strangers coa- both alighted from their carriages 
oected with the royal fiimily. and embraced each other. The 
Another royal interview took ecnperor then mounted one of the 
place neariy at the same time, king's ted horsea, and the two mo- 
which gave rise ta rumonrs of naicha rode side by side, fnllowed 
itiU more magnitude: it took place by their req>ecliTe suites, into the 
in coDSO^ueDce of a viiit paid by town. In passing the house where 
the emperor of Russb to their the king and queen were lodged, 
rraaiiaa majestice at Memd, whi- (he queen came out, and welcom- 
l^er the latter came to receive their ed with an embrace the illustrious 
imperial guest. To pay the prn- guest. During his residence thne, 
per honouis to the distinguished there was a constant succession rf 
Btnmger, two triumphal arches were feasts, balls, and other entenain- 
erected, one before the gate of raents, and in the mornings, n- 
Lkbm, the other at the cnirance views and other tnllitary e]diibi- 
of the Ureet io which his imperial tions. To contribute to die splendour 
m^esty was to lodge. On both and novelty of the *hows, the emt 
wan the following I^lin inncriplion : peror ordered a small party of Cos- 
Ahxiadra el Frerlerka IVUhelmbm, sac^ks to coma Irom the nest Russian 
/>iw a Dto jimctii, Ctu'itas. Two town; they performed their peculiar 
obdiiks (which formed another mantruvrea with wonderful dexte- 
triumj^Kd entry) were erttaed on rity. The emperor's visit lasted for 
this occasifai ; they were eiitwined about a week, during which time 
witb'gaHands of flowers, and bore, the town of Memel was a seem 
the one the Russian, the other of gaiety, parade, and pleasure, 
the Prussian flag. The emperor when the power of these two so- 
wai received at the first Prussian vereigns was cooRidered, and the pro- 
town by general Kalkreutb, general digious influence whidi, if vmted, 
t>i the cavalry, with a strong de- they might have on the affaire of the 
lachment of choteo horse : on his continent of Europe, great political 
approach to Memel he was met by events were supposed to be tb« 
various other corps of troops j and object, and were expected to mult 
by the merchants' guard of Memel. irom tliis interview; it howevtf 
He wore the insignia of the Prus- appeared in the c\eni to be merely 
sian order of the black eagle, and a visit of compliment, and the 
his Prussian majesty those of the ]>olitics of Europe seemed to flow 
Russian order of St. Andrew. The in their former channels*. • 
king of Prussia met him at half a I'he Turkish empire appeared im 


* There ii an anecdote itlated, which took place during X\\a vitii, wliit;h, alihousli 
of no impoitance, u it was judgrd worthy or notice in all the foreign journ*Is, miy aim 
here bo iiuened -.—ki (he emperor and king of Pninia were wslkmg on ibe ^ujt of 
Memel, they got into convemiion niih an Eogtiib captain of a vcuel then in iba 
port: ailcr the convetution had lasted home lime, the liing told the English cipliin, 
that thai wai the emperor ofRuuia ; the captain, a good deal atlonished, changed Frora 
(he familiar lona into a very respectful one. The empetof then told him, Th's ii 
Ac bnc of Proasis. '. joiu lenaat sendenien (laid tti« Eosllsli capain), donf 


Uigniaub, Google 


flui jeir to exhibit the stroo^t disposition* of Bussia and Aiutriaj' 

■rmplDim of approaching dissolu- they muBt now perceive that ihey 

tioa. Independently of Passawan would gain little, in relative im- 

Ogko, who mi^t he considered as porlance, by the dicmeinbenneilt 

in a ttale of pemmnent rebellion, of Turkey, and that it would ' 

•od who had a most considerable only conduce to bring a strong power, 

<fiMrict under bis command and in- in the pbce of a weak one, upc»i 

flococe, and even ventured to en- their froDtien : this GonskdcTatim 

cnacii on the Aostrian territories; niay probably support, for some time 

the wfule couDEry of Turkey in longer, the crazy and tottering edi- 

Eon^ appcaretd to be completely ftce of theTurhish government. 
IB the occupation of rebel pachas Bonaparte amuswl bimtelf, AotA 

tad baoditti of every description, this time, with forming another of 

Adhaoople, the second city in the what he called indcpmdmi repubtia, 

empire, was in their possession, end for the benefit and advantage d 

the roads leading to Coustantinople Europe. ILe small district of the 

were b<::>et by brigands under their Valais, formerly dependent on tbo 

orders. In Egypt, the beys bad Helvetic unitni, ha now reserved 

baun tlie vizier's army ; and there to grace with the pompous Ihle 

qipeatcd no strength or hardly vi- of tite Faiaman Ritpuolic : after ma- 

lalily in the Turkish government, nufacturing a pompous constitution 

Ibis stale of imbecility naturally at- for it, founded on liberty, equa- 

tracled the ambition of some of the lity, the sovereignty of the people, 

odter KTvcreigns ofEuropc, but (heir and all those high soundjnr words 

politics had undei^gune an entire which are so fascinating to the mul- 

cbangc with Kspect to that power. titude; he expressed in this con- 

Fonncrly it was supposed that stitution, ihc duties th^ were to 

Russia and Austria were the only perform as ilic price of so many 

slates who could share in the advantages, lliese obligations were 

disncmbcnuent of the Turkish neither more nor less, than that at 

empire, lliis had been, certain- their own expense, and by their 

ty, the &vnurite object of those two own labour, they were to make 

powers, and a bond of union be- and keep up good roads between 

twetn thctn : but now Bonapan6 France and the iiaiian republic. It 

had, on the pan of France, put in is impossible to conceive a greater 

bisdaim to a sliare, wliich would burlesque on the name of freedom 

doubtkas be the Hoa's portion: than this was: by it the peasants 

faenti^tbe content to begin with and the property of the district of 

Bf^t, Syria, Greece, and the Ionian the l^alais were put in>o per- 

tslaadsj btitthosepointsoncegained, petual requisition to construct hit 

he would certainly contend for the military roads ; and when be had 

wliolc. This new claim of France turned the people of the country 

10 her ature of the spoil has doubt- into pioneers for his army, he tbeo 

ki* aliered very considerably the told them they were an indepcn- 

Aink thit yoa can dupe m: in that way ; Mr. F.mprrar nnA Mr. Siiig, I w'nh 
Toa ■ icry ^rad momiag. Aai beinuoadiudy luroal. oi, aiTfOiued saddugaMcd ■( 
fi* >ufl«ncd mockery. 




dent repnblic, and that their indc- voiir of those powers nfajcb Fraitee 
pendence was guarantied by t'Fance, might expect, to make use of in 
Uelveliu, and (he Italisn republic. tulure wars against the rrrimc, 
iLurope bail now enjoyed peace was necessarily very revokiog W 
for a few moniha since the tieaty the feelings of the emperor. He 
of Amiens, but the elements of was obliged however finally tn stdi- 
fresh war had lekinded itt mit, but be submitted wilb dig> 
Switzerlaod, We bave seen that nity, and with such reluctance, that 
the smaller cantons decidedly re- ihe mediating powers consented to 
jected (he constitution offered by enlarge the indeuiniiies to his bro- 
Prance ; and in Germaoy, the quea- ther the lale great duke of Tuscany, 
tion of indemnities agitated violent- At one period, howCTer, during 
tj liie whole empire. Vrance had, this long negotiation, it appeared as 
however, the address to comert if war would have recomnicncti 
the pacific dispositions of the em- The elector of Bavaria, who act* 
peror of Russia, into a most power- ed aa the tool of France, endea- 
ftd instrument for dictating to the voured to seize, by liirce of anm, 
German empire. The plan of in- the city of Passau, which was ai- 
demnities was drawn up in concert signed to him arrotig his indem- 
between the Russian and French nities: tlm emperor, however, 
ministers, and then presented to marched aii army into it first, and 
the empire with a farce of nic- threatened to oppose force by forcd. 
Station whicli appeared irresisti- The mediating powers took fire « 
ble. Austria with great reluctance this decided conduct in Austria, but 
submitted to this coercive interfe- the emperor replied with firmness, 
rcnce : she had lost far more in the that when tlie negotiation should 
war than any other power, and it be terminated, and had decided to 
was her- rivals or enemies who ob- whom the city of Passnu was 10 
mined the greatest indemnification, belong, be was ready to yield it, 
Prussia bad no moderation or de- but not before. . When it is con- 
txncy, in demanding compensatioa sidernd that, upon this occasion, 
for losses she alleged to have stu- France, Russia, I^ssia, and Bavarit, 
tained. T!ie power most favour- were all leagued against the inte- 
nd, fao«'e\'cr, in the indcinnities rests of Austria, it will appear 
was Bavaria ; tliat state had cer- surprising that the emperor should 
tainly lost much in the Palatinate, have acted with so much boldness ; 
but die indemnities allotted to it in but, be that as it may, he certainly 
the empire contained a population, conducted himself with a great 
of nearly 1,000,000 of souls, deal of firmness and r^^solutioD, and 
which was a wonderful accession of gained, if not much territory, at 
power to his electoral highness, least, tliat esteem and respect which 
^be grand duke of Tiiscauy, on is always paid to those, who con- 
the other hand, who had lost eon- duct themselves with dignity and 
siderably more, and was promised tpirit, under very difBcult cirenra- 
to be fully competi'i.iied, had very stances. His brother's indemnitiei 
inadequate indeiijniiies assigned were however somewhat ii^creased, 
him, This o'ident partiality. In &• apd with this modification he v>* 
1 obligdt 



afaligcd to accept the plans ofTered But the great objects of the firet 

fa; the mediating powers. cotwtil, in tbit tystein of iiiiivenal 

He graod duke of Tuscany was spoliation-, was the aggrandiKemeot 

ta obuin ibe territory of Salsburgb, of Prussia { the reduciion of the 

m'di the raok of elector: this was houseof AtHtria; the gratifying the 

■ veiy poor compensation for what vicwsof theprinoeswhobadsecond- 

he bad lost, tut it gare him title «d the viRWg of (Vance ; and, finally, 

to look to the band of tlic only l^ the allurement of the plunder of 

dai^htcr xiA heiress of the elector the empire, to Heciire the de]>eDd- 

(tfSuoay, aod thus by a prudent ence of all tbe 'lesser states of 

marria^ to retrieve bi« tortunes, Germany, upon tbe will and pnrtec- 

md perhaps to be again a consider- tion of the Frencli nation. That 

rtk prince in the alliance of Austria, these consequences must result fioni 

Far didcrent, however, was tbe tbe total change in the terntorial 

£Ue of tboae powers whom it was and political alterations Which have 

tbe inleresi of Fiance to raise, at been produced by this system of in- 

tbe expeuae of the house of Austria, demiuties, no person can doubt, «rhb 

or whom she wished to aggrandize conaiders attentively die condasiiin 

as tbe menni of concilialing the upon this subject *, and it will only 

tiieodsbip oS Russia. He houses of be necessary here to recapitulate its 

Baden ami Wirtembnrgb, who had leadii^ princi[des, unquestionably 

toccetsively given craiHresaes to to establish these propositions. 

diat nation, were raised to the First, the compensations ginli 

electoral dignity, ai)d received more to I'russia, for \m voluntary lur- 

than a tenfold compensation for render of bis detached and unim- 

tbeir IcMses. Tbe princes of Hesse portant possessions on the left batik 

Cauel and Darmstadt were erjually of tbe Rhine, were six timM greater, ■ 

&vu<ired. Bavaria and Prussia, who both in point of revenue and popu- 

had deserted the emperor and the lation, and inlinitely superior in 

common cause of Europe, now re- ^ographicfll adv.miage, to Iiis kwsea. 

cdv'Cd their reward, and united in By thia new disposition of his state*, 

(baring the plunder of the vast se- the king of Prussia almost entirely 

cnlariecd estates of ibe church, and surrounds, and of course commands, 

the jurisdiction of the free and im- the territories of the elector of Sax- 

petul cities in Germany. Every ony. He unites with Bavaria in 

petty prince, who would condescend dividing Franconia and Upper Sua- 

lo supplicate the protection and bia, and thus, with tlie ancient and 

patrot^gc of the firit consul, was inveteraieenerayof Austria, he hy» 

rrjaid by some share in th^ spoil open the whole of the frontier of 

of the empire ; whUe the prince of that power in Bohemia, Upper 

Orange, the elector of Hanover, and Austria, the Tyrolese, and the 

die l^ser brunches of tbe house of Voralberg ; from Egra to the lake of 

Niisau, iaw themselvea stripped, Constance. Ibe country of Hcssc 

vithom ceremony, of their most im- Cassel, as in the case of Saxony, 

portant possessions, without receiving is nearly surrounded by the new 

■teuthraflbtiiraluelncoiDpensation. possessions of Prussia^ and conie- 

• Vid* "" 3ttie Papers," 



<]ncntl^ within the power of that ithopric.'i iU)d prelades ; and the in- 
state; nor are the posscnsiona of nihtl.ition of the independence of 
ihc houKs of Hanover itnit Brum- the imperial towns and scnattsj 
U'ick, free from the danger of his materially cifiected the imperial au- 
fitture encroach nwn Is ; the bishop- thority. From tlie Sectoral coU^e, 
ric of Hildeshcim, which he has and frona that of princes, in one at 
Required, being in the centre of other of which the voles of these 
tlieae countries, and barely a day's powers were of right given, tbej 
inarch from the capitals of both; were now excluded; those suf- 
uid bis new frontier stretches it- frages were usually given in con- 
>elf round the dominions of both currence with the private v«e of 
those princes, which he thns can, the emperor, as ctKstate, and se- 
ftoJii within and without, keep in cured to him tliat necesuij pie- 
complete subjection, and treat, when ponderancy in these councils, loei- 
.be pleascK, as a conquered country, sential to Lis jurisdiction as dnrf 
Woatplialia is nearly a Prussian pro- of the empire : he in return wa» 
vince ; Swedish Pomerania, and tlieiv natural and constant protector 
Mecklenburgh, are hemmed in by against the tyramiy and encroach- 
bis states, out of the reach of ments of the lesser states, who al- 
dll uiccoiir and protection, and must ways looked with a greedy eye np- 
of necessity take whatever pert in on the domains of the church, an! 
tny future contest Prussia may the independent territory of theim- 
choosc to impose upon tliem. Thus, perial cities. This bond of uoioo 
with the exception of Baden and was now annihilated; and thus thi» 
Wirtemburgh, the states of Gcr- great source of consequence to the 
nuny, from fear or interest, must erupen>r was for ever cut off: not 
aU be dependent on the court of was this all, for by the proposed 
Beiiin, and consequently united plan of imdeirmities, not only thii 
with it against tlie interests of the lawful influence was lost to tie 
praent imperial house of Austria. head of the empire, but devolTcd, 
And this statement goe* a consi- with tlieir domains and revenues) 
dcrable way towards the proof of theirciviI,milita^,andpoliticalesl3- 
the second proposition, namdy, blishments and consequence, upon 
the depression of Austria by the princes, whose views were directly 
ayatem of the indemnities ; for it inimical to his interests, and whos* 
b self-erident that the aggran- jealous regard he was hencefonnnl 
diiement of a rival power mun, to expeiience. 
indqjcndently of any other circntn- But in the measure of raising to 
uaoca, produce that eticct. But the electoral dignity, the maigr»v8 
France was not contented with this of Baden, the dukeofWirtembur^i 
manitestation of her hostUe views, and the landgrave of Hesse Cwl 
The alterations she impo.sed upon (all protestant princes), there roula 
the consiimtion of the Germanic be no doubt of the proipMli™ 
body, struck not only at tlic pou-er view of the franiert of uie pUn « 
of die liouse of Austria, but at the indemnities, of depriving the boW« 
very source of its imperial preemi- of Austria of the imperial crown. 
oence. The scrulariKaiion of the The natural weight of the Aattriin 
ecdoiastical electorates ; of the bi- tamily in the clKtorat coU^j*^ 


acmcd from ilii own voteofBohc- lerv meant, as the price to that 
mb) from ilul of HaiiovtT, whidi power of her acquiescence andeten 
waipitJged al the time of ils being cooperation in thii new diviiion of 
hiiial lo lliat digiiit), always to Gennany; while the liberality to 
toU-ror Austria; anJ lliosc uf the Ile^Ke CdtAtl an^ Darmstadt, and 
tpintual electors, Mcutz, Tiiers, tlic other iKinces who were ^vonr- 
anil Colt^e. The latter were ed ia thit panilion, arou ia the 
DOW abolished, zod in tlicir stead atitious wub of Bonaparte (as has 
Doe catliolie cLector^itc alone was uideed been expreised 4>y hi3 mi- 
fttahliihed, who was to be styled nistet I'aHcyrand) to gratify tboie 
the t^tector of Aichntlcnbourg, princes who, by their coodnct to- 
aod uaj In future to exercise the wards France during the wtr, 
office of arc! 1- chancellor of tbc u ere entitled to her gratitnde. 
empirr. Some abbe.js, and the ci- Nor, lastly, is it toore difficult 
&sof WeLzlar and Ralisbon, were to prove, that by the ca(»'iciou> aod 
auigoed to him in order to sup- unjiiiit distributioa of the territory 
jmrt his newly acquired dignity, it of the German empire; thesnp* 
u Dot difficult to foresee tliat an pression of the hi^iest dignitiei j 
elector without an electorate, whose tlie creation of others ; the haugfatf 
principal possessions are 300 mili;s and arbitrary time aaaumcd by 
ftnso each other, the cne shut up France on all occasioni ; that it wm 
b Bavaria, the odier in Heue, constantly the object of the firH 
cgnnot on any future occasion pre- consul, to cause himielf to bo oob- 
teod lo independency, and whose eidered, the arbiter of the deitiniea 
fete must, from the circumstances ofthestate3of£urope,who*edecition 
we have already staled, at any fu- was final upon their ri^ts,and front 
tore dection, be at the disposal of whose decpeea there was no appeal. 
^iMia. Tfau.1 the protcslant dec- We shall here dismist the pala- 
tontes of Saxony, Brandeoburgh, ful subject of the indemnities, ' • 
Baden, Wirtcmburgh, Hesse Caud, measure as unjusiitiable in ita priB- 
utd thecatbolic of JBa\3ria, (always ciple as it wai arbitrary in iti ope- 
inimical to Austria, perhaps a can- ration : impceed by France ; coun- 
didate,) aadAscbaReiihourg, would tenanced by Russia; the source of 
bare a clear and decided majority immense ac<]uisitioa lo Prussia^ aod 
^Dst the Austrian pretensions, ruinous in iu consequences to Ana- 
(mi^iorted only by Bohemia) Ha- tria, perhaps to the liberties itf 
iK>?er, and the grand duke of Europe, it will long remain a mq- 
Tutcany,) in case of future con- numeot of the bakfid efiecit of the 
test for the throne of the Cxsars. all-devouring, insatiable, and de- 
How precarious under tliesccircum- structive French revcdutioH. 
■duces will be the possession of 1'he minute details will be fbuod 
tk imperial dignity in the present in our State Papers of this flamnt 
bmily, ii is ea'^y to foresee. violation of the most venerable losti- 
Thirdly, it is app-ircnt that the tulionsofwhichEuropecouldboastj 
connection of Baden and Wirtem- which has changed tlie face of t 
bbtgli with Russia the source great portion of the continent t nxl 
"f i;,e immense advaiHages which which thrcaleui yei tnoro fatal con- 
*>i.Te litBpw! on tliesc princes by sequences, from ttie rvnis which it 
liie indeiiinit'ic-, and were doubt- must inevitably produce tJiic re- 


flection, ho«-c\-er, forcei itself upon It mHst not howevrr be pSSKd 

ns, which ii, that in all this compU- over in silence, that the king of 

cated system of wttfcfnn;!^; aflcrwit- Sweden, as a [wi nee oftheGermao 

neasing the ostentatious compeusa- eaipirc, cntcitd a dignified and ';pi- 

tions to some powers who lost no- riled protest against the principle 

thing, aiid tenfold retribution to of foreign interlercnce, in the ailain 

others who wilfully sacriticcd trifles of Germany, Id the matter of ibe 

that they might acquire objects of indemnities ; and which was n> 

the utmoet magnitude, it secmR denlly pointed at Bonap.irte's Id- 

■trange, that no one word of in- temperate and unjustinable pro- 

-demiuficaiicQ has been heard of, to ceedings, 

the emperor, for the Netherlands} TTiis conduct, however fruitless, 

to the king of SHrdinia, for Savoy was highly honourable to his Swe- 

.attd Kedmunt ; to the pope, for a di^h majesty, and might have aSori- 

third part of his estates j to ttie ed a better model, than he chose 

king of Sp.itn, for Louisiana and to follow, to bis powerful neigh- 

tiiipamola ; and, finally, to the king hour. 

of Prance, for tlie loss of the most Overrun by French troops,' hiK 

noUe, the inost ancient, and most rassed and depressed by military 

powerfitl iiwnarchy in the world, exaction, and in every thing biit 

Is not the silence on these subjects the -tinme a province of Prance, 

nfficient to prove, that " indem- the united provinces,ormoreagree- 

nity," like " liberty and equality," ably to the modem political no- 

" rights of man," " freedom of meilclHturc, the Batavian republic, 

tfie sea," is a mere term of revolu- presents this year a drtary and on- 

tjoBary cant, and has no meaning interesting spectacle; some modt- 

Mve that, which the ambition or fications of their councils, some 

ciqiidity of France chooses to be- commercial arrangements, and a 

■tow upon it. pretended conspiracy in their amiyi 

TTie accession of Sweden and fomented, as it was Raid, by gc- 

Denmark to the convention of the nerals Daendals and Duraoncrau, 

emperor of Russia with Gi'eat Brl- are Ihc only e^'enti which arc wor- 

tain has already been noticed, and thy of record, and these once rocn- 

ibrms the only prominent feature tioned may, for the interest \ixj 

«rf the history of those countries for can excite, be dismissed for eier. 
the present year. Happily removed. Whether Bonaparte did not ftiinli 

by their geographical ))Osition, from it the moment fitting for the formal 

the power and interference of Bo- annexation of this wretched cminiiy 

napart^, they enjoy unintcrraptcd tbhis empiFe,or wheilierhe (hiKight 

prosperity: their religious and po- he could make more of it in the way 

liticu institutions uninvaded ; ihe of that contribution, which he could 

lace of their ancient sovereigns at liof exact, were it arrived to lire bo- - 

their head ; their agriculture and nour of being a French province, 

commerce increasing ; they form a it isxlitlicult to determine : ccitaia 

striking coutxast to the picture we it is, the alternative was within his 

have drawn, of those countries, who will, and that at the close of the 

have this year sutik under the m- year 1802 it was still slyled lie 

incus and (when once set in mo- Satavian Republic, 
don) irrciitlible spirit of innoTalion, 




St'aiik CoItmits.—^Stfrra Lenna — Institution of the Company — Introdac' 
lion of the Nova SMiii Xfgrots—llitfir ill Conduit, and Jiitai Coiisc 
qtt'nca~-captiircd [ij the French — gTowiiig Piosperily-~Slate in I'yB — 
Mamoni inlrodircfd—Hel-eUion if the Nova Scotia Settlers — assisted by 
the Natives — Conflict and Truce — probalU Consenvences. — InsunectioH 
of the Nrgroes in Tobago — su/ipressifd. — Rnmlt of the Black Troops in 
Dominiia — complete Dismmfiturt of the Rci'otters.^ Jamaica — Mes- 
we of the Governor lo the House of Astemlly, prai/iiig an Esla- 
iSihtnent of 5000 men — nfusfd — Reasons assigned— further Dhpula. 
—America — Message from the PiesiilenI to Congress — Rrduction of 
the Taxes.— EJ'ect of tlie Peace on tht Commerce of the Slatet, and 
Iff the Cession of Louisijinii to Frauix. — Negotiations at Paris— frait- 
ttti.— Depot at Ken' Orleans interdicted ly Spain. — Itesentment of the 
American Nation— proialle Cunsequenca. 

THE British p<wiei-ions out of In rhr commencement of iBis 

Euix>p^, next cfaini our atten- e?!tal)lislimei!l, sufficient grounds toi 

lion; gi.-nrrallyspeiikii>g,pro9petoU3, il^ allaiiiing the ends of iJic institu- 

and unaltered by any circunistnuce lion, appeared to the i^ersotis con- 

vhich occurred in tlie course of tiie cenied in it, and little doubt \\a^ 

ptfceding yenr, they afford (with enteriaincdof its turningoui, at least 

thcescepiiousof tliosein Aiia) very in a commercial point of view, a 

liulc to interest tke ivader. It may, profitable speculation. But tlie in- 

howerer, be worth while to notice troduction into the popubiiou of the 

■Ik dijailrons state of the colony, setilemcnt of abodyof Nova ScotJa 

established on the coast of Alrica, negi'ues,in number about 1200, who 

tiw the express purpose of intro- had taken part witli Great Britain in 

dodng civilization into that bar- the American war, and had since 

hanxis quarter of the globe, and to been settled in Nova Scotia under 

<£raioish, if not totally abolish, the the protection of government, mnte- 

■ilm* trade, llie scheme was set rially alteralilic laceofalfeirs. These 

on foot the year before the com- men had supplicated a removal from 

nencemeiit (^ the hte v-ar. A so- that country, in consequaicc of tlie 

ciety was established, called the climate prming ungenial and dis- 

^iein (.cone Comiany, and was agreeable to tlicm. From the mo- 

tontHUy cliarteicd. A capital (on mem, liowever, of tlicir arrival in 

lions of SOI. each) of 2i0,0tt0/. the ucw colony, ihey manifoitrd a 

*» nised : and a factory actually frro>iou> and intractable siiirit, to- 

ttUbUsbed DO tlie coast, for the pur; tally subversive of order, and of the 

pM( of carrying on trade with the pu^posl-^Illl'^vhichit wase!^tablished. 

intetiorof Alrica, for ilipproducc of Ou one, nCiaMon, even the life of 

lliecountry. (he ginrri'or w:u attempted, whicli, 

Vot. XLIV S , , „ ^„„.t(ifiush. 


Ibougl) defeated and punished with keepers, five and twenty HthtmieS, 
exemplary severity, did not correct from ten to fifteen traded in imaj 
the spirit of revolt, which still ex- vessels of dieir own, four were enl- 
isted, and ihieaiened the entire over- ployed as schixil -roasters .-iboot fif- 
throw of the cslabliblimcnt. In the teen seamen, and twemy Iabonrrr% 
year 17!Hi a French squadron in under tlie company. Some few of 
the ninnth of October attacked and the Nova Scotians resided in the (k- 
captured the settlemftM ; all the ton-, and the number of Eoropcaw 
property which ' could be rcnioicd residing in the colony wa« betwtni 
was cairted off by tlie, rapacious as- twentyand tliirty. An unequivocd 
saiUnts: what could not be remwcd proof of iheadv'antag'-? which might 
Was destroyeil, and every building be derived from llie e^tablisbnient 
belonging to the company was bum- appeared in the amdi()ration of the 
'V edi nor could the loss there sustain- condition ot'lbe natives iniinedietdf 
cd be estimated at less than 53,tX)0/, connected with tlie settlement : he- 
In addition to these heavy calami- tween 3 and 400 of Ihc.c were eift- 
ties ; the capture of their ships i» ployed as labourers for hire, cliiefly 
consetjucnce of the war ; the impos- on the farms, which were incre:asiif 
sibiJity of insuring cargoes on ac- r^idly ; some were employed by iw 
count of thcunpioiijctedbtateof ilie Europeans, and sonic by the Now 
coast of Africa ; the difficulty of Scoiiarw. They were all fiTie men, 
procuring Europeans to undertaKe who came from trie AejgbbAirniE 
ofiicial situations at Sierra Leone ; parts, and were called Grumcttas. 
the enpi'nse of arming vessels for They received monllily wages, the 
the protection of the trade ; and the whole of which*was their own. It 
apprchenuon of the turbulent spirit was usual with them, after wm-kii^ 
of the Nova Scolian negroes, con- five or six moi»dn, to return home 
Iributed to retard the prosperity, and for a short period > but their pbs 
defeat the ends of the iusiitulion. was supplied, and the abwe number 
Notwithstanding all these ditfi- kept up, by fresh arrirals. TlieGn*- 
culties, about the year IJQS, tlie re- mettas were much improved by their 
jiori made to ihe company slates connection with the factory; not 
the colony to be in a state of cnnii- only was their dress impKived ( their 
derable and pR>gre»»ive improve- manners more civilized ; but the 
ment, 'Ihe seat o( gmenniicnt, money which they-eamcd was never 
Freetown, consisted of 300 houses, employed io the purchace of spirits, 
well built, and regularly laid out, as is customar)' both with ihe AfH- 
and had several public buildings. can# and settlers, bui employed in 
One extensive wharf had been built purchasing cloihmg or articles ttf 
by government, and two by indivi- European produce, 
duals: and the government house Freetown was at this period ft 
was strong, and well secured by a place of considerable resort ) ftmn 
naUtsadc and six pieces of cannon, one Io two hundred natives iiiiy 
iTie inhabitants were about 1200. visiicdthissettlcmentfisTthcpOTpcMe 
ITiC beads of f:imilie?, pcrhaps'300. of exchanging tlie produce of ll» 
f>ia half oT tills number were sup- couniiy tor European commodities. 
ported by agrk-uliure i soino were Considerable influence was gained 
artiians. about fifteen reUil iliop- with the natives, and man}- of iJteir 


History of europe. 253 

rfaiUccn were sent to the settlement apprelicnsiont were enlcrlaiBed that 

lurnhicatiun. a cuntederacy w^s fbrmiug, among 

Shonly afier this period, govern- the neighbouring' cbirrs.ngiiinst tJis 

nvni applied lo the compiljy to Inke settlcmenl, and which would mnst 

Ilic Maroon negroes (now expelled probably occasion, in the event, lb« 

from Janlaica, and etjtiatly feeling abandcKimcnc of the inaiitutiun. To 

the unkmd influence ol' Nova Scoti.i avert as much at no!isil>le the im- 

utih the negroes wlio had nlrendy ))ending c*i]*, n dciactunent from 

pefitkmed to be removed from tUence Goree was applied for aad obtained,' 

ti a warmer climate) under their and one of the king's diips was &ib- 

proiection. To this, from various tioned in Sierra Leone river, fur the 

motive*, it agreed, and the Muroons express purpou: [<f defending the co- 

snrived nt Sierra Leone in the month lony. No \Try immediate danger 

of Octdber 1800. to the nnmher of was apprehended : but the noccssiiy 

530. They w»re alnuwt immediaidy of a l»r^c Iiiirr)|ieaii force and a 

emfri^ed in quriling an iDtiiTTcction strong fort, W3i deemed indispen- 

i4 the Nova Scolian settlers, who sably requisite for its protection, 

hid uow broken out into open tu- The sum which parliament had 

beUion. Several ot the in<.ur]geiits twice voted for ilte support of ll>o 

were Killed in this ronflict ; many eiUblishnienl, wa^ £ir from being 

inete tnade prisoners ; three Were adeqnflic to the annual expense, iU' 

executed by- maniHl Inw, and soma ruried by its citil and military e.sta- 

•ere baiushed. From ihi* eirenm- bli:,hinei>ts, 'Ihe capital of the ori- 

*taDcc aiofie tlie most serious ca!a- giiial proprlet'jr* was quite exliaust- 

mity that had yet befallen tbh c<>- ed. and ihe sh.irea of 50'- per cent. 

low, 9B<1 which threatens its total were sunk as low as 5l. ; indeed 

aDainerilabtedlstruction. Ihti na* were wortli nothing. 

lives, who bad hitherto been on ilie Witii this reverse of fortune did 

tratfiieodly terms with the settlers, the year iwt itlo>e upon [hL> co- 

iDMigated tqr the refiigee and banish- lony of philanthrophical c-xperimcnt g 

e4ii^o6s, on the isihof Nwcm- nor have the evcina whidi have oc- 

hor, (headed by two of the insur- curred, within ihi: present, tended 

gtvit, who h«d made their escape to increase the eonliddice of those, 

after ibe iiiBarTcctioD of the former who then bejan to despair of i>* 

year,) made a mo>t (iirious and un- final success. 

pmrakal Msault, upon the aniinish- On the I Ith of April, the D.-ilives, 

ed fojT *bich the gmemor liad in force abont 300, Httsckcil with 

ihoDght it adviMUe to construct the unmoH fbry Uie govunimenc 

anmod his honse. After some loss of tort, jtwi after momttig giui had 

mtn itutainedun both sides, the na- fired. Tliey succeeded iu forcing 

tiwt, who are tbc TimmaaieS, were open a gateiaftrr baring fhotthitstrr- 

reftii(cd,a[idwei%forcedsucces9ivety lincl, and in fixing thuir t|jg on the 

inafaandon variuns commanding si< eastern rampart. Twelve or luur- 

tmioQs, where they had assemyed teeo of ihcm got in wiihottt n-sist- 

la the oeighbourbood of Freetown, ance, when they wrre chariii^d aiid 

Tewvdf the conclusion of the year forced to retrcJi. Ihe)- rwliicd se- 

a trace wa» concluded, aitd ub fiir- vcral times, but wmc ai hut pvit to 

diK iwMdities look place i btit serious to'nl tulu, and punucd foi* three 
$ 2 nOes 


mile! into the cmmtr)', by ilie garri- ptej-ment, embarked in ilif sfrticrof 
son. llicir loss ixas about fifty men, the slave lactones, or iLe 
left dead at the fort, or found sbme trade upoti tlieir own HL'ciuiub"'.! ! 
days atier dead ot' their wounds, ii) Sonic liirtlier protils til" liit iDiracf- 
tlieir line of retreat; that uf the cu- able dispmitiwi ol' tlw negro ntc 
lony was twenty-two, killed and iiuy be found in tbeinsuntxtiowiii 
wounded, llius ended tht^ afliiir, the iilandit of Tobago aud Dwni- 
fortunately and honourable in ils nica. In the foriwrof lliese bliml., 
conse<]uenccs to the attacked, but about tlte Iteginnlug of ilie ytat, a 
which b a melanchcdy proof of the luost dangerous cuun})ir3cy was di;-- 
determincd hostility of the naiives covered of almost the wltok lifatli 
towards the colony. population, whose object it was to 

We may perhaps be thought to oiagiacre tbe white iubRbitana, t-M 
hate dwelt too much at lengtli upon sei7« upon the gM'eniment. Tu 
this petty warfarej but it should be resist leverd tbourand^ of this (no- 
remembered, that no common in- cious people, brigadiw ^neralCu- 
terest has been attached to the well michacl had barely 200 men in aimij 
being of this colony; that many but his judicious aod decided con- 
were sanguine enough to predict the duel supplied all tliat was wantinf. 
.ibolitlon of slavery, and the civiliza- On the eve of the breaking out of ihii 
tion of -the naiives of Africa, as atrocious rcbcUian, thirty of ik 
some of the consequences of Its ringleaders wore nude priumeni 
entablishment ; and that immense one of thein wm haugcd caTl)> ihr 
commercial advantages to the mo- nest morning, at day brcak, at dw 
ther coimtry, and of individna) gain signal staff; and lib body bciiif 
to the projectors of this scheme, lower«d dawn aud hu«ited up moic 
were confidently held out. How ihau ihirQ- time*, and a mg/iai sui; 
far these beneficent and goldeo spe- beii^ tired at eacb titne, tbt iu- 
culations have answered, tbe ihort surgenlii were indnecdlfi believe il>^ 
sketch of tlie history and present roost of tlieir chieis had perished « 
ilaleofthesettlementwehavegiven, this oianner. Tenitied at ihn kl 
will sufficently eviiKc ; what future of justice, tbey imniediakJy surrf*- 
hopes are entertained of their ac- dexed or dispersed, and traiiqidli') 
t^mplishment, may be gathered from prevailed in the islaad, till itsreito- 
thc last report of the directors, which ration (rery contrary tothewistet* 
sLile tlie surrounding nation of the the inhabitants) toFruKO, iaotr- 
Timmanics to be " indolent, faith- sequence of the peace ol' Ai»it:M 
less, and ferocious ; their chiefs, ra- It would be an iuju!>ticc to gcon 
pacious.dninkeir, and deceitful; and Carmidiari not to add, that ^M 
tlie whole constantly mdy to pro- Itouaes of the legislature ol' Tul>4J 
mote any design, howeier flagitious, gave the most houourablo icatim 
which promises to gratify tlieir ava- ui«s ot their aaise ot hii> pnidriK 
rice, or their passions." Nor should rcutlution, aod prontpliiudf , su ij 
it be forgotten, that this report fur- trying ocow'iou, aud ftutiiei y^ 
ther slates, the inconsistent, but cer- ed hun with a swoid ol' the raloo 
tainly authentic fact, that " many of lOO guineas. 
the tettlers, and even s(Hne of those Irn Dominica, the same 'V^^j 
Tvbo went out in the comjiany's em- ia^ubordiDtbou aud dispuaitinn ' 


blood in ihr bbcks maniffsteJ ilself, tlie wbole were captured ; near fifty 
batKrompai)ie(lwid)ci[cuni9iniice» died of iheir wounds, and 330 re- 
of 2 im more aggravalcn naivirt.'. mained prisooers ; of ttie^e the ring- 
In Tob^o, the iiisurgenu had aI leaders were executed agreeably to 
hast the «ciur> of beviiig the yoke the forms of ju^ice, and the rest 
otiJaTely; but in the present in- condemned to hard labour for stated 
jtDce they were entrusted with periods. iSume loss was also experi- 
■mii, treated with the utmost kind- eiKeiloii llie part of die king's troops. 
oesi, and had every advantage in Thus ended a formidalile insurrec- 
Mmmon nidi the Britisli soldiery, tion, by tiie complete discomfituro 
(>i the fftti of. April, theSthU'est of the rebc^ls. But the [lolicy of 
iBdhi r^nunt, entirely composed anniDg die negroes txrcame, in con- 
rfbbck iroc^, who liad been em- setjuencerfihis event, tbesubjectof 
ployed in sotne public works, most warm di^ussion both at home and 
protnUy disliking labour, suddenly abroad. Little doubt wascitertained 
broke out into open mtttiii)', and by all, but that tlie vigorous stand 
lounkrcd several of their otiicers in made by tlie blacks in St. Domingo 
(be most barbarous oHHiner, and a^nsttheEuglishaudFrenchforce, 
etcty other white who fell into their employed to reduce them, had 
haixis. llic alarm being now given, created a very general sensation 
the governor, (he hon. Codiran amoi^ their brethren and cotmtry- 
Jolmttooe (who was also colonel of men throughout the West Indies, 
the Stb West. India regiment) iut- and (bat sentiments of Independence, 
taediatety mustered the troops in the resistance, and hopes of tii»l con- 
idaadaDdenibarluidiur St. Rupert's, quest, were daily gaining ground ia 
ibe station «f tlie miKinecrs, aad theminjs'of that people, wherever 
wtmethey-hfld oomoaiited ttwatro- situated, in tJie Euro[)can colonies 
cities we kavc rfjove R-laled. The in the west. Ju Jamaica, the jea- 
nevs and marines of some ships of lousy of the proprietors and inha- 
w in the bay, assisted in the expe- bitanCs was so great, upon the em- 
*(ioo. On the arrival of this suiall ploymeui ol troops of this dcscrip- 
amy, the iiuaigants were d(scu\'er' tion for the dulcnce of the island, 
rdon their paitsle in order of battle, tliat the goiernor gave way to their 
wiA Mdie of their officers whom apprehenaions (perhaps well ground- 
tkj- had spared, in front. They had ed), and rcmoie.! the 2d West India 
moanai the diffetent batteries which regiiiwiit, and announced to thcai- 
rguman^ed the approach to the senibly his majesty's consent tliat no 
fort, aad'liad loaded the caaoon with mor-e troops of .that description 
grape shot. Uu being siMomoned. sli'udd l»e sMit diitlier, witliout the 
Ho snrrender, they refi«cd to gioimd ooueurreiice of the house of asiicm- 
tbetr arms; when they were Ared bly. This lact audicicuily cviitces* 
npMi itnmedialdy, which they re- theappreheasiimentertaitied of die 
toned biiikly; afteia fewdischa^es enormous population of this race in' 
}k»ciw, iboy gave way and fled our western colonies ; at the same 
i" every directioD, leaving lOO dead titueiJiat die strong French force at 
withespoi. Tliedispojitions, how- St. Domingo lertuired the greatest. 
"w, which were made to prevent peace establi.dinicnt ever b-fore heard 
Uwir retrcalj were so cftcctiial, that ol'in thatipiarter. In the hist peace, 
5 3 a fifty 

363- ANNUAL REGISTER, 1802.' 

^fiRygun shipof Wfirnndafew (ri- sources of ihe island, that he wtnU 
gates constituted the wliolc' of the immwjiaiely order ihe 20th regimfnt 
nayol force at J.miaira : during the of dragoons and the 3d West In4ii 
lale war, six sail of the line was COO' regiment, immediately to be em- 
sidered a Gufficient protection for that borked and removed from the island. 
and the Leeward islands; but so much To lliis requisition the hoiisc of u- 
apprchcnsion and jealousy was en- sctnbjy replied in strong hot re^wt- 
tertained of the designs of our new till terms : that having cnnttiteited 
(Hends.whoni we had endeavouRxl progressively, witbeveryotherpartaf 
to conciliate by every saeritice, both the British empire, to the. i Defeated 
at our own atid at the expense of our prcssureof its expenses, tbeg-conceir- 
alhes, that a fleet of twenty-two ed they were equally with them en- 
ships of the line, six months after tilled to protection, both in pointof 
the preliminaries were signed, were detenceandsecurity; and that it vai 
Ktatiooed at Jamaii^a alone j and in contrary to llie constitution of the 
December, after tlie French fleets island, to subnjit to bo burdened with 
had returned home, nine aail were the pay of British trnopii sentlhitber 
thought necesisary for its protection, for such porposse : th^t to the extent 
and this, after a year of peace, aiul of the island subsistenceti. hoi^italt« 
when the black empire was lookrd barracks, kc. for 30CX) tioops, the; 
upon as nearly annihilaied. In ad- liouse had pledged itself as early at 
dition to (his great naral estiblish- l?73 ; to w^ich engagement the/ 
i»ent, governor Nugent tliought it had ^ibtully ever since com[:iied, 
neceisatyto apply, on the 17th day and in addition, had iocicased, at 
ef June, to the house of assembly, considerable c)^)ease, the caofocti 
by a message*, slating, that tiie very of the soldiery lo a degree unknown 
great danger tvhidi ihrcaicncd Ihe in the other islands : , that the lioh 
island, from the melaiteboly and regiment of dragoons. wat impeced 
alarming situation of some of the upon them at a moment of aiano, 
neighbouring inlands, required an and under circumstances, which no 
increased military establish nkent, longer oiisting, they did ttotconcdi-e 
and therefore pro|<6sed that Ihe that ihey had any longer the same 
ii^land sliould suppbrt an eflective necessity for its presence: and that 
force of SOOO men -, asmring them, when the assembly agieed to pw 
however, that upon good order aiKl British pay to 3000 men, the mea* 
subwdiniiiiDn bting restored to the sure was resorted to, to avert the 
French Islands, the number would trvils that raifst arise from armiiig 
probably be reduced : that the ex-* black troops; and trusting lo armed 
iraorJinHry means to which Great ^vtu the d(ifenc« of the lives, the 
Britain was under the necessity of liberties, and properties, not oiJy<*" 
Fccurring, in order to support the freemen, but of British si^ecti ; ■ 
&icr«nsed naval and military esta- measure considered by them to pro- 
Uishments throaghout the empire, ocedotigi nally from ignorance of tteir 
mdQccd tho necessity of this de-i local Circumstances ; of their lawsi 
iHandj and in order to make it more and ot their constiiution) and uiiivn<- 
ponveDietit, and lie within there- EaQycontemplatedbythemwithha^ 

• Vide " Sttte PipEis," 

History of Europe. se^ 

Tfii md indignation : thnl recent oc- wnt (carried by a majority of four 

cuTTcnct;.!! i[i liit- Windwjrd isbniU, voices), qualified however by statin"', 

and ih; d^icrtion of soinc of the that it was a subject of tt« mmli 

blick iroiijM, <martercd in the coiui- importance, to enter into at ilut aJ- 

trj, ftiUy jQstified the njiprehensions vanced peri<Mi of the scasion, but 

of [he people from having a force of tiinl early in the next, tliey would 

this description slaltoned in their give it their mo?t mature consider- 

gsrrisuns :, therefore, as In both allon. 

thc« in5tn!ict-s, the force alluded to How these disputes have temii- 

iris found 10 be tnexpedictit and nated wc are not now inlbrmed, but 

dmwTons, they conceived ihcy had, there rcmaiiK little doiibt but ihat^ 

as Bririsfa sabjects, an unduubted from the temper, popularity, i:\\v:- 

H^t (rf relief : and tliat, from these rience, and firmness of the governor^ 

v-arious considerations (with others no iH consequence can be apjirr- 

which wilt be found at length in our bended from them : sufficient lor us 

State Paper-.> the hmwc considered to have shown the abhorrence with 

it to be their duty not to comjily which the employing black tromis 

with the governor's retjuisition. was held in the West Indies, tfic 

Tley then enumerate a variety of fataleon^jequcncestobeapprrh-nded 

tauses toshow, that even if this pm- fVom such a meastlre, andthesln- 

jeci were admissible, the deplorable gnlar fact, of one of the effects of the 

circumstances of the commerce, re- ;-eace of Amieui being, iJie obliga- 

vwiue.andpnblrc debt of the iiland, tion lo keep a naval and military 

«onld render it totally impossible establishment on foot, greater flinn 

toMy such an enormous ii mount of iliatrefiuireddnringtiiemostarduous 

addiiional taxes, as would be re- contest in whidi Great Britain had 

ipreJ to support the proposed most ever been engaged ; and which m-ist 

expewiive establislunent. at length prove rwinous to tlie parent 

On the propriety of iliis answer to coimtry ai"l her coTonies. 

his honour the governor, a division Before we leare the new worW, 

took jriace, when it was carried by we shall cast a retrospective gUncr. 

atnajority of JSvoires to six. towards the aflairs of the United 

The 34lh of the same mouth Slates of America: On the ath of 

(J-jnci, governor Nugent sent a fur- December 1901, the president, Mr. 

titer me-isage to the house of assem- Jetferwn, coninmnicLited with tlie 

Hj, conlainmg, among other thingn, senate and house of Wprcsentativen 

bis deiire that they would entrust (in consequence of sonic alleged iO- 

ftc direction and contiol of the convenience attending on personally 

tomick department to him, as it addressing them) tor the first time 

*aj othenvisc imixissiblc to station by message*; in which he coniniu- 

troops, or carry on the necessary nicated to them the joyful tidings of 

works, with any advantage to the the probability of peace t)eing e^tM- 

pnMic, or tlie service in general, li- blished throughout Enfope/and thai, 

niitedand n-stiictedai he was with- of consequence, the IrregularitiH 

tal uch power. which aftccted the commerce of 

To thij message, a refusal was neutral nations, and the irritations 



^hicb \hey producnl. would dow hG'mg into its ordinary channeb. 

most probably cease, and universal But the account of ihe ccssiou o( 

amity and harmony prevail tlirough- Louisiana to France by Spain, caused 

out the. nationsoftheeartli. He con- a degree of sensation and alarm, un- 

gratulated tliem upon the friendly known since tbe declaration of tbeii 

fermsuponvbichlhestates were with independency. I'hcy reproached, 

the Indian tribes i upon Ihe gradual in the inost bitter terms, the con<)iict 

introduction of agriculture, and of of the British miniEt»« iosufii^iriDg 

the household arts among the latter ; that vast country to fall into tM 

and uponlhe important fact, that, ia- hands of France j whilst the dedm- 

Htead of the constant diminution of tion of one of Ihe secrctatles ofttttc 

their numbers, arising fom their (lord Hawkesbury), " that it wif 

wars and wants, some of them began sound jxtlicy to pbee the Frradi in 

to experience an increase of popula- guch a manner . with respect to Aok- 

tjon. He next adverted to the success rica as would keep the latter in a 

gained over the Barbary crui^^'s, and perpetual sta/e of jt^ousy with m- 

of the term* of amity on which they spect to the fomier, and of cc^u^ 

DOW were with the states. Thecep- quence unite them in cIomt )m>i^ 

■lu, he said, which had lately been of amity with Great Britain," filled 

taken, ascertain^ the population of them with indignation and abhc^- 

the United Stales, to have advanced rencci nor will their sensalions od 

in a geometrical ratio, and that it this occasiat)bemattcrofsuiprise,if 

promised a duplication of the present jt be remembered, that this impratanl 

numben in twenty-twO years. The ces,sion put thcFrench in poswscion 

public revenue liad increased in a still of the entire western frontier of the 

greater proportion, and would allow United States, gave them the in- 

of the reduction of many of the in- controlled navigation of the Miuit- 

temal taxes, iucltiding the whole of sippi i the probable tiiture command 

tlie excise, stamps, and the postage of that great river { and, above all, 

of ttew&papers : that a reduction of they woitld, in their most dcfcoceleB 

the army and navy, establishments state, be neighboured by a baildaf 

wouM be advisable : and, after some fbrioui and unprtiuipled iii,\ailc(^ 

iiutlier obwrvations on the duty of composedofthe refuscof Fraooe,nid 

the executive department, he con- of her profligate soldiery, who woqU 

eludes tliis highly flattering state soon find means to corrupt and Kc 

of the affiun of the republic, duce, and who would never ceate 

with recommending an alieraiiop tlieir insiitinns attempts till the >viv 

in Ihe laws respecting naturaliza- chiefs of revolution had ex^iKlfd 

lion. themselves over the new wnrkt T^ 

The satis&clion which attcniled tlie stales of Kenliicfcy and Ten- 

tlie reduction of the taxes, was ne- iKsse this measure was more par6- 

cessaty lo reconcile the people of uularly ruinous j the piUduce of 

America to the effect which tlie ge- those stateti had no outlet, save bj 

aeni ]>eace had ori the prices of ihc-ir the Mississi]^t, and their future cx- 

provisions, their carrying tiade, and istence must depend on the will aiid 

almost every branch of their com- caprice of France. Under tlieim- 

merce; which were considerably do- pression of these circumstances, the 

terbratcd by Ihe trade of £uiopc American minister at Paru tvai or- 

3 datd 

., ,. . ..^le 


4end la inquire vbether France had sides of die moutb of that great river, 
any terious intcDtion of aettling ftoni the Gulf ot'Mexicbi the west- 
X^niiiiaa, and if she had, whether cm bank v.-9» entirely ben with un- 
ceoK teiins might not be pruposi'd defined limits, bi> was the terriloiy 
toindoK her to forego the measure, on the eastern as far as 31 degree* 
JJewai heard with atleiuion, iie- iioctli laiitude, 'where it met th^ 
gotiatioBi were entered into, but American souiheni boundari'. The 
May succeeded to delay, and little great ditHculty, oiul often the im- 
ptospcct remained of such a termi- possibility, of ascending the Missis-i 
nation as the Americans vainly flat- sippi, in vessels of burden, higli 
ttred tbeuuelves would take place ; enough to receive ibe prodnce of the 
V if indeed the first consul would, western slates of America, induced 
in dderencc to tham, forego the pos- the United States to obtain front 
Kssion of a territory, whith must, Spain a tn-aty, uhich was concluded 
ID the qrent, give to the French em- in 1/9^, by which, amons: other ar- 
nire tbe command of Nutth and tides, it was stipulated, that " hif 
bnitb America, and the West In- Catholic majesty should peimit thq 
ffs. and which would realjze the citizens of the United Slates, foe 
pnt gigantic project, which even three deposit iheir mcrchan- 
be, in tbe wildest dream of his am- dize aud effects in tUe ports of Nei»f 
buioi^haid ever fancied. But openly Oi'leans, aud to expoit tliem from 
to ifa)(. off U'-e Rcgotiation was not thence, w itliout ^ying any other 
bft oii^t. The supplies, which duty than a fair price for tlie hire of 
■he tmuipKut destined for the re- (he stores; and his Catholic majesty 
(ttuion of St. Domingo, derived further agreed to continue this per- 
fnat Anteriea, were necessary to its mission, if he found that it was not 
frcmplishmepLandeveuetisrcDcej prejudicial to his interestsj or that 
iVd, io long as the tucccu of this if he should not agree to continue 
(iqect vas .doubtful, measures were it tliere, that he would then as>iga 
Kt be krpt : 3nd the negotiation to tliem an equivalent estahlish- 
vou tvtwat^ No sooner, how- raeot, on another part of the ban|;f 
CW. had the surrender of Tous- w* the Mississippi." 
<WV(>andtheaibeTrebcLchiefsiuSt. NotwiihstaiKling the time, sUpu- 
&]mingD, gi,vcn confidence in the la.tcd by the treaty, Uid expired 19 
final sucecxs of tbe French anas 17^> no steps liad beun Utkin tg 
toBoasqiarie, than an act of direct distuib tlie American f/f/urf at New 
houdt^ in Lowniaiiaj the object of Orleans ; and they cominncd mimo- 
whicb could not be mistaken, took lested and in pertwt security till the 
[dace, in vidalion of ttic treaty be- i€th of October 1802, when the 
twauiheUnited States and the king intendant of New Orleans intrr- 
of Spain; in which the latter was dieted, by procbnialion, the funhcr 
, dearly tbe a^iessor. To understand deposit of American goods in tliat 
ibcnaiuieM this urcutnttance, it porl,3ndwithouta5signii)ganye<iui- 
wiU be necessary to consider the re- valeiit whatsoever. . At tiie same 
btitc situation of the American and time it became known tliat the go- 
Spanikh lerriiories with respect lo venior-geneial of I»tiisiana, so far 
tbe Mississippi and to each other, from riis.ipproviiig this ^lep, ex- 
Spain was tbe proprietor of both prt:ss!v liiidicated it. This acr, so 



repugdisnt lo all jjood faitli, and in 
direct violation of a soltimn treaty, 
by irhich an immense ]<«s was im- 
mediaiHy sustained by individuals, 
and wliicli wns a dirt'ct attack on 
the free navigation of 'lie vivcr, fll- 
fected the intciest and liuiioiir of 
the stales too deeply, not to claim 
rticir most immediate and solemn 
«:onsiiieration. It was easy to trace 
this olitrnge to its true sonrce; the 
ambition and cujiidiiy of Bonaparte. 
His de3it;iis were now apf arenr, and 
it bdioved America, if the protec- 
tion of the rights of her citiicns, 
her indeijendence a a free «tate, 
or her rank among narii«n!, were 
denr to her, to act '-.irh dlemily, 
spirit, aim proroptilndrt, StwU was 
the Fiiiiaiinn in wh'.h ii;;s im- 
portant transaction pli'.c.i tlicl'nited 
btmn at^cfiber.-ar 1S02 ; 
nor can theu- a doubt, lint 
iliat the pnbiic spiv; 

li-^ed as 

(■ i... 

fit pitdi by ibis nc; ■li a;';;r^-='iin, 
and the long tra;n fit'di-:islroiii r'l .- 
leqiiericcs which, if unr, pellei', it 
nnwt give rise tn. will lead cot.^rc.;: 
(howerer well inclined the j;re-i.trnt 
iiKty be to French politics, and iliat 
he io no person pirsmnes Lo doubt,) 
In anil in defence of their best in-^ 
|<;rests, and punish this breach of 

gooil faiih as it descrres ; nor ^hoiM 
wc be surprised if this acl of criwk- 
ed policy of Bonaparte (for his in- 
('nbitahly it h) should completely 
defeat his ends, and perhaps prevent 
liis erer entering upon this frjudu- 
Icnily acquired possession. 

It is scarcely wortii while to noi 
tice any other transaction v,Lich oc- 
curred in the United Suies in tbe 
coiir-iC of the year ; yet it may be 
wi^rtiiy of record, that by the eoii- 
vent'im concliidnt in Jioudop, on 
tht: a:h of Janiiaiy, bclwwn Gmt 
Britain and Ami-rica, the demand* 
ot the English cr'.'ditur-i of die tatter^ 
wliicb anioiinied to smne niillioiii, 
were commuted for tiic unm of 
e0O,00O/. lo be pniJ by in 
at the. city of Washini-'td 
times ; and we shall her 
with lemarking, thst whiiii-ver may 
be th- def;-cts of their eonftitn- 
tirrn. or the disadvantages aiisifig 
fr'.ii the clashing interests m 
t!ip diCfavnl staK-^, collectirHyj 
.\ii'T('-a, which twenty years bac* 
'■ .[< 'carwiy removed froia hanll- 

I at MBttd 

> (he T 

,00i>,O(X>/. sterling anDiMlly, 
arly l,aM),000 tons of ship- 
njoys an increasing populsUoa 

and rerenue, a thrilVj- guvernmeiit, 

and a decrease of taxes. 

pine , ( 

DtrraM,, Google 



f^fiuri ofliulia. — Vrli'iUe Trade. — Progress of the Govemor-General l» 
tacimitir — Cunsequences. — DeposUioit of the Nabob rf the Carnatic.~- 

Imlallallnn nf Arcem id Dowlak on the Musnitd of' Arcot. — DUeon- 
teitit in Alcdatar. — Divisions tif IheMahiatias. — Prnsfiecl of a Mai- 
Totfa H'ar. — Return nf Ihe Indian Army /rom Egypt — Honours paid 
b them. — General Reflections — and Conclusion. 

IK our last volume (I8OI) we for the purpnscof Hr.nwing iht trade 

weie mider the necessity of of India to Gi«il Britain, must be 

lUdging this important part of advantageous to tlie company's in» 

a« political history, from the want- Cerests, and iii:it every attempt to 

of iaformaticxi, sutficiently autbec- csdude India-biiiit shipping trum 

tictted Jty ofEcjal docitments, to the trade of (ndta, or any otlier 

lay before the public. However branch of ihtf British trade, is 

s(Kiou» we may be for early publi- highly impolitic." These strong 

dtico), ve prefer the risk 01 cen- expressions the noble lord qiiali- 

i«ie, from delay, to ihe certain blame lies, in some degree, by proposing 

»e iiMmid incur by a crude, undi- L'ertain regulations, under which the 

gested, and wiauthorizcd detail of private trade shonid be conducted, 

lacu, which iuvolve the dearest in- This leltei ihe chairman replied to 

UBcttiof the empire. it) a very animated st\|i-, expresfi- 

tat thesn reasons we confined ing ht« doubts a.^ to \h<: competency 

oinKlvcs to the general statement of the board of control tu inter- 

ciHr. Dondas, and to the dispute fere in a quemion whii-h he con- 

factween the executive of the East sidered vrn purely commercial, and 

India company and sundry met- to the disfiitsioD of which the char- 

(Jtants, whose object it wad to esia- lered rights of the East India com- 

htsh a private trade between this vxay presented an insuperable ob- 

cwmtry and India, to which system jection.- This correspondence gave 

great countenance and protet'iion great uneasiness to the pmpriciory, 

fcaw been given by the tward of and those tn whom they had dele- 

"Btrol. gated the management of their 

Very early in this year the sub- concerns ; tn consequence of which 

ject appears to have again en- a general court was held in April, 

S»g(d the attention of lord Dart- when ihe debate was opened by 

nwuth, the president of the board, Mr. Twining, in a speech of great 

who, in a letter to the chairman of length and sound argument, setting 

the court of directors, of ihc 2Sth forfli, in the strongest terms, the 

■f Jandary, does nut scrapie to dangers of such an encroachment 

wy, " that the most liberal liacUity, on the chartered rigiits of the Ka't 

J India 


I>Miia rnmjj.iiiy, and ilii^ iiijory the iiij; 134, the voc-, 32. In con.w- 

jiublic, as «<11 as ih? lompany, qucuee of wliicii llic privalc irade 

would sustain, hv oijpiiing-, in any and employment of India sliippinj 

iliape, the trade to India. He con- remains on the tame footing on 

eluded a very able speech by mov- which it was placed in liie yea 

ing the following resolution : 1798, 

" Ucsolved, In this debate much stress was 

"Tlwt this conrt confirm and- laid on the ingratitude of tbisc pro- 

a|;q)Tovetiieproo««dingsof the court prietora who had formerly been in 

oi'dhcctors upon the subject of the the service of the company, andi>h» 

private trade of India. Ibat hi now wishtxl to c^niploy the fortODct 

iheir proceedings (hey have shown they had made, midcr theii" dJ 

tJ*Kisfclv»i, aiwi the court are con- masters, to their injury; bet we 

viBccd will aUvayssho)vthemselve«, consider (his p.irt of the argmuBit 

desirous.otprcscmng, by reasonable as totally irrde\-ant. Most of the 

jtrrangemcDt^, that SP^ under- £ortune« now ttade in India ari« 

etanding with the buaitt of coin- from the country tr^e. Th« geld- 

rnissioners, which is so imjioiiaiit to en diys of lie lale lord Clive haw 

the interests both of the public and long since pa^icil by, and tliecon- 

tlic { India company ; but tliat duct of the company has of laie 

the i-oivt of directors, be authorized been such as to deetrt^' that |i^ii- 

to take such lunhcr steps aa may tudc and zeal for their iuiercMj 

qppeaj; to thcn^t necessary fur the vhich tonncrly shone h> enru^pi- 

delcHcc of those rights which have cuousfy in lUcir service. When 

ticeu solemnly sanctioned ta the the political poacr was, with gfcit 

tympany by their cliartcr, which propriety, we confess, taken out <il 

arc essential to Ux Interest* gf IIm> the hands of tlie directors, and 

public as iveU aa of the company, with it the su|ierior paerouage tlay 

and to ihc violation of which, the possessed, they then very tatwbtl)'. 

proprietors of E^st India stock can ungrackuisly, and contrary to tbe 

ni;icr ci^nsenC." true inteK«U of tlteir conntitucobi 

Thi$ motion was powerfully se- nominated in England iheir <Km 

condcd by ilr. Huddlestone, fw- trlends to sicuations in the aenke 

tnerly one of tlie Madras counqili abroad, which ware till then in (bff 

atjd who^ inlimnte knowledge of gift of the difl'ercnt govemowfits, 

the company's true interests, which and looked up to as (he reward of 

he placed in the stiot)gest possiUk long and niefiluriifis 8«vic<& QC 

light, made a vry sensible im^res- thoae.thcretbre^wheBowBeKinifwm 

fi'.tn on his andilnrs. Several ot th« India, there is scarce an imlikidMil 

ddost priiprietwj, and every one who lias not been itijured and op- 

of the djucctors, wha took [lail in, pncstied hy this ivtk order of ihitigj. 

the 4chate, supported the motion,. From persona so sitnated litde pt' 

which was very. ably but uiKiUGcess<- tiUide U to he expected, and pant- 

fully, n-sistcd by Mr. Hencl)inan> cnlarly where such gratitude wouM 

>1r>sr9. Impey , Julififttoiie, and utbci: mati^riajly nuUtate egaintt thdr own 

pruprictors, who hat) called lor tba ioterestit. 

luectiug. Tlie motion was carried But the principal filature in the 

by 4 niajoiitv of IWi Uic aycsbc-i hittgir gf qut MMc poaseniu»> 



fi^r ibis year, is th* deposition of cannot possess, to traiiir Itack etenl* 

ihc nabob of ihe CarnHtic, and the totlicirduses.aiKlsprcad idc^tni^f-of 

atiuiuption of the whole ci»il aii3 hisiory purged of error, trnd puntHxl 

niiliiarj'admiuistTacionot'thatcoun' by philosophy, before lh«ir dt,li«lit- 

tiT, by the company's senanti in ed and iimtrttctcd readers. To us au 

ladia. Upon the general policj- of humbler, but we irOal a no less use- 

iuocMng €>ar tcrrilorial dominion t'ul, course lies open ; uaniely, to 

■a Asia there ore rarioos opinioni. allaw no fact to esvapi-. us, to colletX 

Ronote a.1 wc nre from thi» great roaierials for future Intnlnom ar- 

llieatn: of political speculation and rangemenl, and, with inviolablefidrv 

adventore, and from tlie very oon- Uty, to substitute fact for conjecliii<-. 

fioed sources of informatiou within These rcHcclions naturally arise 

•wr reach, it cntffioiiiesnpposed that from ih« snbject wc are about lo 

we should assunt'^ a decided tone, discuss. Our readers will have <t'ti>, 

so the broad principles of. policy that it has been deemed wmtliy of 

wd l^gi:<lation, which actuate tlie ariv'^liiiL; thu attention oi' p:irli«iiieiit 

eiecuiive go\enunent in ihat coun- iipm, in tlic course of ihc last srj- 

tiy. Of the various iutereats, states, sion, by very res]iectable atul \vefB- 

aodinbabittnuof those rait regions, inlomed members of both hou^ea 

"■b«e Great Britain has acquired, c4' parltament. On a subject of .tucli 

&ani the obicuTe and humble otigin Ipnpixiance there must be a divor- 

Ot a commercial factory, an era- sity of opiiuoDF, iiivolvilig, as it dOFii, 

pii;e to whtdi no bounds can be (jucstious trf" the greatest conse- 

wigned, aad ot" whuse value no c)ucuce to o«r (jreseot and fiititre 

Cikohlion can be formed, we con- government of Irulia. We shal), 

feu oursdres ignorani. Our ideas iberefbre, as brictly an [nssible, pnt' 

of •6ai ia just or puliiic, unjust, our readers in poBsei^ion of- riij 

or nnwne, in the itdiuinisiraiion of facta which haie reached u« res|(e*.*t- 

ihe ilrittiJi interests in Jndia, can- ing this ui^nrtant ireniuction, iiud- 

OM be determined by an applica- for which we have authcatic aiid 

IkiD of those tuau, in their abstract satis^ctory documents. 

sense, (o that conduct, of which a. Tlia most intimate aUiance h»4 

•Kagte otiieial document, or fe- long stibsisted between the East 

porta origmating from intertsted or India company and Che laniilv of 

imdngoate sources of information, Iblahommed Alty and Omdut n! 

»e [lie sole groonds on which we Omrah, the late succciihe tabobs 

<m veoiure to fbnn a judgioeiit. of the Camatic, whose- tointly bad 

M ft period more distant, on the been in possession of that difroiii- 

■ ftMtkof calm and *>)emii investigii- nearly half a cent\>ry. liy the sole 

tioB, when the- chnioiui of paity aid of this alliani;e M'jliommed 

■id furejisdice are shamed into si- Ally enabled, to support hie 

taite, or fotgotteu.ia merited ob- pretensions to the soven-igntj- of" 

livion, on a tutiure Ca:nbrid);e, a[) the Camatiu, disputed on the death 

Omie, oi a Maucine, wilt Ihc task of his father br oiher preteoders. 

deiolie cf apprcciiuing the real and finalW, by force of aniiE, ttr 

mIiw of actimw, whid) wcnow 9ce> c^talrfish himself in the govcriipient 

" 11 in B'gbiw, darkly." It will l)c of Arcot and its dependeiicifi, lUidrr 

iheiis, from advantages which wo tjie pnntciioo, indeed, vpon the 



ffiwndation, of ihe British power, remitlcd a ver>- considerable arteaf; 

When (III- powLTfiil confederacy was of debt due by Ivm lo the com*. 

formed in I ?S0 by Hyder Ally (and pany, and reduced the annual sob^ 

continued by his son and successor sidy, from fifteen io nine lacks of, 

the late nppoo Sultaun) with the rupees; for these important coo-' 

J->%Rch against the nabob, and when cessions the com{>any only re*'_ 

these coiiffrierates had seized on a <]wired an extended renewal of tlic ' 

con^idenible portion of his domi- territorial security tliey were al-_ 

niotis, the whole force of the British ready in possession of, for the per- 

government in India was employed formaoce of tlic nabob's pecuniaiy' 

in his support, and in the rceon- engagements; and a specific sgrec- 

(joest of his country : at the peace ment on the part of the nabob,' 

of 1783 he was coiifinncd in his not to enter into correspondence 

dignities, rMtorcd to his possessions, with any European or native powen, 

and recognized as a legitimate so- without the previous knowledgd- 

Tcreign by the native powers of and concurrence of the Btiii^ go- 

Jndia. 1 o support the authority vemmcnt. Under these conditions^ 

thus established, it became ncccs- assuredly sufficiently fiivouraUe to 

snry to the English government to the nabob, his government »»■ 

keep up an additional forcCj and an restored to him. 
express stipulation was entered into, Mahomnied Ally died in l^QS, 

in the year l?87, by which the leaving two sons ; the second, Azetatf 

company bound itself to maintain ul Dowlah, probably lived and died 

the whole military strength requi- in the cdiscurity and seclusion to 

site for tlie protection of the terri- which the policy of Asiatic couns- 

tories of the allies ; in consequence condemns the younger branchss of 

«f which the nabob agreed on his tlic regal Jamilies, He left, bow- 

parf to pay' an annual subsidy of ever, a son of the same name, ap- 

fifteen hcksof star-pagodas. In the patently the heir of his wTctchcd 

year 1790, when the restless am bi- fortunes, and who was supported 

lion of Tippoo Sultaun again me- by the capricious boimty of the' 

naced the territories of Great Bri- reigning prince, 
tain and her allies in India, it was Omdut ul Omrah, the eldest son' 

judged necessary that the company of the deceased nabob, agreeably »" 

•hould assume, for their mutual one of the articles of the treaty of 

benefit and protection, llie whole 1792, succeeded to the dominion 

civil administration, in addition to gf his fathers territories upon liir 

the military defence, of the Car- decease. Much cause of discon- 

nalic. At the restorarion of the tent to the company had already 

glorious peace of 1703. which arisen from both the fiitlicr and 

struck a mortal blow at tlie power son, having, contrary to the sjnr'it 

of that inplacable enemy of Great of the eusting treaties, and to the 

Britain, and the nabob Tippoo Sul- great prejudice of the temtcrial 

taun, the British gwemment re- security, the company held, ,tM 

wored, tn the spirit ol' good faith, its interest in the Camatic, 

and in llie strioicst adherence to granted tunkaws (or aEsignnuinii 

the existing treaties, the civil go- of revenue) on those districO which 

his highncM the nabob, were pledged for such security >' 



IJiH It was not till after the fill of with him, wiiiiout the koowleilgB it \va*<lUcoveretl, of tlie Bii;iili goveriiiiiciit, dikI lot 

tlul ihc. late nabob anJ ill;; prc:<<;n[ purposes ci i.lciilly prejudicial M its 

"[■ft; ilie concealcil ciitiiiics to that iocunly iind liuiiuiti'i and that the 

gofemniem, to whom (Ley were n.iocLi Oiii.lLiri;! Ihitrah, who ii^n- 

iudebtod for tlidr di^iiiiy and jto.i- liiirtd ilie liv-iiy of 179'^> "^ 'lie 

Kiiittm ; aiid haJ aetu.illy c. iii- same moiutiii was actually ein- 

inaiced and oiaiiitaiiKil a secret ployed iu pioiuoiing the teatl la- 

cofn-ipoildcijce with Tinpuo Sd- tcrcourse with thecourt (jf Mysore, 

ijun, the iinttcraie <-nciiiy of Eng- 1'hi» corrcspoiidcsict; was carried on 

bsd; which struck lUrcL-ily :it llie in cypher, u key Iu whidi was dts- 

cTunection suhsi-iiiig bciw-L.-cn the coveretl ainong the records at Scrin- 

firitidi goverwiiicnt and the Car- gapatani, and was given by » 

lutic ; aiid the company's interests confidential agent of the ]-(iunger 

i;l India. In gutting possession of nubyb's to the ambassador of 'I'lp- 

itie I^'rant'a recorJi ;md archives, poo, to be comeycd to. his rnasttx. 

the cofreipiindence of his ambas- The terms employed in this cypher 

irfrtri, d'jriag their residciiw; at bear indi>puial)ls evidence ol' iha 

>rairai. when his sons wera hos- hostile spirit with which tlw Btitixh 

U^i in the years 179'J and J793i govcriniicnt and its allies were rc- 

fdi into the Lmds of t!ic British go- ' garded by these confederates *. In 

Tonmcut, and gave strong grounds Uiis manner, in the motitli of K«- 

M siisprct that a secret intcrcunisc vember 17y'2,Mahoriraed AJlycoa- 

Hifcsis-ttd between him and (he vfvcd secret iufoiniailoii to Tip[)uo 

t«n nabobs, Mahoranicd Ally and Sullauu,ofthescr.:iine»isof theBri- 

Onirhit ul Omtiih, of a nature tish goveninient in India, with rc- 

Lostile to the British interrsls i ktion to hid' hosltlc intrigues iu the 

from these circumstances every le- courts of Poonah and Hyderabad j 

swrdi ajid iiifitiiry was employed and on the first intelligence of llic 

'■' ascertain the existence of a fact war between Great Britain and 

so rv?ntial to llie security of the I'Vance. iu I'gS, he imparled secret 

English empire in iuiin ; and tj.c infi^tmation ic the court of Mysore i 

resali established most saiiilln lonly and friendly advice respecting ll>c 

the fiilbwjng propoaitiutis ; seas-inat-Ie time and most pro- 

That, as early a, the year l~Q2, pitiouscircum^lancesforthcvii)lalioii 

when the nabob MaJioinmed Ally criippjulSultaun 'a engagements with 

lii/cw himself upon the gk ::i';'osiiy ihi- auiipnny. Repeated li.ltu-s of 

w ilic British govemiiiiLii iui in- Onmnt vilOriral)pro\idhisthoro«i;li 

dnlgmcc in the mod ilic:; I tun of the acipiicstcLice with iiis fatlicr in Uiis 

tieiiy in 1787, he had iilready cl.mdesiine raid injuiious torre- 

ommenced a secret ne-^.i'li'.iioii spcadnice. Anil it lurihcr appenr- 

*ilh Tppoo S'-iltaun, in order to eii, that di.riiig the l.iie war, 

••tablish an intimate intrrcoursc which turi,iiii,.iud in the deatruciiou 

• FJr tiampk, whcnwer ihe E/Rli>.h are 10 be rocnlioi-wl. Ihey ai< ilcsi^™"'* 
bTrtt iiiiufitnnl word iifui^mf,; ihe Maliraiias by mcui w >it>pM:Ht, iln 
Kinm, roi'tntifj OT notfijnp. R^.; -.vhilcTipirtjo ■* always ihr fimtcliT of tUJ'ii^a,t 

,., Cookie 

^^ ANNUAL REGISTER, "1802. | 

of Tippoo Sultaun's dominion, and Ifmel M-Xeil, ordering liim I." 
tbe los« of his life and empire; that phcc hiiusdf at tlie hcud of a uniV 
the nabob' Omdut ul Omrah, to the detaciimrnt (collecled for llie ptii- 
DljiiMt of his mean? and power, pose) and take possession of the p:- 
puraued the objects of hiS'KCcret in- lace of Cliepauk, the nnbob's tlirn 
terconrse with Tippoo SuUaim, as residence, for the fiTesen-ation of 
well by a systematic course of do- order in the evrfht of h'is"'3iSfnsf, , 
cept i on, widi respect to the provision ^liich was honrlj' expected i ia A- 1 
of tlip funds necessary locnablc the atniiii the intercourse of aft pfi- 
£rititli force to march into the sotta with (he interior of tfiepaTacT) I 
Mysore, as by a studied and activg t6 repress any coriunotio'n wlurh i 
(ipposiiioii to the supply and mpvo roighl cn<ue on- the death of tlic 
nit-nt of the allied army througli Ilis nabipb; to piolfct 'from videncc 
dmiiinions. his inim'ediate trtmily j anJ finidl!, 
The above strong facts were sup-' to prevent smy ftf his' property and 
jxwieil by awrie* ol'connpcled writ- treasure from beiiij; Tenioredfrmn 
ten, andiff;ii testimony; and, under the palace. In the cxef^tioii'ordiKc 
the impression which "they caus-ed orders colonel M^Keil wii-tbuse 
npon tii<^ mindb of the govshior- every degrce-of-ctmciliation-ariilTc- 
general, it was his intention to have spect towards hi»ii)ghncs?i'»immhii- 
made a fonnal communi cation to arefamilyandtlieconlHenHalDfficm 
the nabob CUndul ul Omrah of the Af his government ;' but he \«snol 
proofs which had t)een obtained of vo consider his brothe#\^ fenfefcgs 
Aiix breach of the alliance, widi the part of that family. These '«[KTi 
lic'w of obtaining, by tlie most ]e- wcib dated Stf the 5th of Jnlt. 
iiieiit menus, saiisfaclifui ibr th^ llic same dayeolonel M'PftUin- 
injury, sustained by the Urilish formed tKegovcmorof thdrfiWnj 
government, and ample security been executed, w"Rh- the exception 
against his future Iwstilc views or of liis not haiing placed ffOtii 
attempts. witliin the interior gate, as ^ens- 
Circumstances of expediency how- bob expressed himself mixh zrei^e 
e(er (the particulars of which have from the measure, and froth parti- 
not come to our knowledge, but cular circumstances there not extst- 
which the governor of fort St. ing, in the colonel's opinion, iny 
George* declares connecied with immediate necessity for such dsfep. 
" tile general interests and policy Some further arrangements were 
of the British government,") in- made in order, to insure the ot^i 
lerrupted such commumcation, and of the gownior being earned into 
tlie intermediate illness of the execution ; and on the 1 1th a small 
nabob, fitrther protracted tlie ex- fortre was collected, nnderlietilcnanr- 
ecutioa of that intention. In the colonel Itowser, to act as occuiou 
month of July 1801 the very pre- should rc<]u Ire i 
cjrloHs state of the health of Oin- On the] 3th day of July his higif 
dut ul Ctarah induced the governor ness Omdut n1 Omrah, nabob ii' 
(in council) irf fort St. George, to Arcol and its dcpendende*, il"*^ 
issue instructions to lieutenant- cu- at his palace of Chqiaufc; ao<i " 



tptoA oommittloD was imaiedi- Hie fir^t inquiry procured nn ac- 

»(e^f i«acd by the governor of knowkdgment, tiiat an authentic 

ItttSL George, foonded on the in- wUl, under hi* sea] and <!igiianire, 

•tnc^oMs of the gDveniDT'|etieral, hsd been 1ef< by Oindtit nl Oiiimh, 

to J. Webbe, esq. his chief secre- which (he commisi loners requiring 

t»r, and lieatenant-coloDel Close, to see, «'as rKn?eH, under die prc- 

dSnctw tbcm to proceed to the tcnces of <r:^cmoniHl and decorum, 

pilKcOT tbelMenriwb, in order to but on its being urged more peremp- 
pcribet ■ oocnjdcte adjustment of ttirily, the bt:ir (<f the hte nabob 

Ik wfan of the Conmic, with the (who ii always styted in the re|iort> 

ICHt poMible dday. end correitpondencB of the British 

In thk iBAnunent, lord Cltve government, the repated or tke sfip- 

takc* ocxaiiae to, state, ttiat fbe pated ton of Omdul i)l Omrab, 

tkiffa <ji the nabob, hu [w wl n ce d upon what grounds we are not in- 

Do dnnge in the principles, by fbrmed) apjTcnrcd wUh the will ia 

>Ucfa ttie fiiitHb government was hb hand. On its b(;ing opened and 

■ Umtil towBKli hit famih'.in con- read, it wa^ foaitd to be a olear au- 

wyeuM of the mtaeof the ert- thentic tnatrtimcnt, devising to hh 

doaoe vhicb bad been eatab&ibed soa My Hnasain ^ hin ri^hu, pos- 

ia jWBof o( the violation of the tewions, 8(c. in themtxri^^/^* of 

■Mfitr, by tbe two soccessive na- the Cani:ittc; ' and Najoeb Kh,in, 

baki of Oe CaraMic j but (hat, in Sahtr Jung, at)d Tukliia Ally Khan, 

Iks i^ ^ica ticn of these principlei, were appc^nted by it, t6 Jissi^C hitn 

ia waoy ieo ce of the critical state in the itdmiDtstration of bis al>itir^. 

t^tOun, Ifaat tbe amngerocnt «f After the departure of Hu'jsniii, 

tiacoaCBnis of the Camalic thould which took place immediately upon 

be ad^uaml by an amicaUe negotia- the will baring been read, Messrs. 

1MB. For theae |itirposes the above Webbe and Close, in conTcrsatioii 

Bmed cmninsuonen were aulho- with tbe two khans mentioned in 

rijEd to nso their own discretion, die will, slated the nature of tlie 

Ob Aai aninl at the palace they written documents discovered at 

wwB met by Najeeb Khan, Tukhia Seringapatam, and the rvsohition 

A9f Khan, Kadb Nawaa Khan, and formed by the British government ti> 

Ifr.TbomaiBanet.whorepreKnled ' demand of the decrai-.'d mbob sa- 

(hagaidvea as having been tbe prin- tia^tion, for hi^ violation of the 

ojd oAccn of thp goremment of alliance, and security against the 

*he laie nabob; to the latter of fiiture opetatioris of bi-i hostile 

ihae penonagea fte administration coimcih; that the indisposition and 

of tbe revmuea of the Carnsiic had death of Omdut ul Omrah had hi- 

haea cDini&ted, and was de^LTibcd therto prevented tbe execution of 

bj the co nuniwi o nere as of the the governor-general's orders lor 

lowest tribe of Portt^oeze, equally this purpose ; but that tJie Biiiiili 

denilnte of education, manners, government, ever aiisioua to pri- 

and knowlei^, and who was care- lerie a conniption io long c\isi- 

fiilly eiclud^ by ihem, from any ing, would be diiiiosrd i<> cslcii.l 

wher conference, after the first day. Uiose sentimenti to his (ii-pulid) 

■ li ii t tingnlat cirevmttiace (bat [he voi J vnnri^iin is iu IIIti,!^!!!!!. 

Vat, XLrV. T— 2 ,w,n 

S74 ANNUAL EEGi'S^filt/^802. 

«oh, provided adequate meaiis of The proposllion in sobnance Visit . 

security could be established for the follows :— After Btating tbe inoni- | 

righlj of tlic company in ibe Car- venicnces which had b«n «B^ 

naiic. through the cliannel of an neiiced from the eflecti of a &'fM 

amicabk adjustment. The answer government; the only remeSyiilifj 

ijf the khaos was couchtrd in re- ^dcd, which could hi appUHUdB 

Bpectful, but evfeivc terms: tht7 present errora, was "die BubsllP^; 

jtositively dbitied any knowledge ot' of one peirtianent authority, iataj 

the docuinentt found at Sering*- of the unstable government tbtft^j 

{>!itam; endc^TOOTcd to explain diem hkherb)sub9istcd«andtbalithtnJit^! 

away into tcrnu of frieodsbip and the entire and exchuive adminlM- ' 

CDinptiineot ; obierTcd that the cy- tionoftbr crviland inilitaiygqfp*.' 

^cr mt^t'haVe been conveyed into incnt of the Carnatic, was the i^j 

the archh-es of Tippoo Sultan by the security niich could be adoptttf l>i 

enemies of the deceased nabob ; and adequate to meet die dangemrflAl 

that tbey ciluld not preteud to give menaced the Britiah interests Olitej 

any answer to 'the momentous pro- the late system," flie khantlijj'V 

position of the commit slonen, till prayed time to take this impoM 

they bad cousnlted tbc ministers and proposition into considention, vld| 

' iamily of tbeir late master. Mns oonceded, and the neit d]j,4r 
llie conference wat than broke 17th, they promised' to ^vc ttB 

up, but was renewed Ml the even- final dctcrmiDatioii. In cqnwjaa^ 

higof thenextday, die Ib'th. After of which, at three the next aflcrnriij 

I conversation at some len^i be- the same parttesmetoncemoreitAq 

tween the same parties, on die same palace of Cbepauk, wheje die ""^ 
tt^ics which had occu[ried the pie- informed Messrs. Wcbbeandi 
c»Iing day, viz. the assenion and tliat the family and tfae . minivten^ 

^eniu^ of the authority of die docn- the late nabob had deliberated ' ' 
' ments -found at Seringapatam ; to- the proposition mode the prro 

wards its close, 00 the reipiisi- .day, and that, notvith stand tOj;' 
tion of the khans, the commiB- decided terms in which it hai bi 
■ioners made a distinct proposkiun made, tbey were iinanhwMily 
as the basis of an anlkable adjust- opinion that the Urituih ) 

■ nioBtuf the a&irs of the CanHtiG; mcnt would listta toaiiiodt 
eii tho tiecerptBttoa <» rejection of of it, attd in consequcuce pi 
whidi, would depend the siibsequwit 3 contra pnjfl, which lh?y dconJ 

'._ conduct of die British govcnunect might be submitted to tbc cunudeit 
. with rotpect to the bwi , die ^unily, lion of t^ goYesoE*^. 
.'■adtbedependeatiof thela(enab(rf>. llieconuDKsioDenGtatKliDni^ 
'■.".... ... * 

■ ■ - ■■ ■ ■ * TMiultH»H»fPn}iBtiltBtafimthmtir: 
' ' 'A(t:i. (l^cdM td the cfimpsny, lovcrtign aulhailtj over the PciIiE»r»:'1io>ll 
* 'eempanr axA\ g,hr Ciedit fui two Ucin, fiu.;oi uu pagoilu, on nixoutK otneVtis 

■ I'cltlicu^h, in Iht kiiii of Bine latki payaltle each yeai— A«. 9. The hcit giinu *" 
lutfiprlty 10 (he company, to collect the revenue*, Ike. of the foUoninf; lUilTin 

, (liie KVtpiii;! iJf ttif« disttkti arc here (kwiledj, but tbey amoQr(i lo piote, »I/.T( 

(lirtlly 4,on,ifi8 ftsniagodai.'Wtuiuia Si, BIS ditto. OnpoU ia,i3* diilo WDSaii?: 

■ flino^nwifflWliir Dfthrtf two aiiicln, iiicludinj ihc Pokg»r Pcisdcu^h, Ti B,s*;8»i n 

. .ftfi*ti and thu turn b<;^ihf dcdifcitil bum ihe a\m laclu piyabie cacU yiar, IHVn 


tti3L%fi;Teic .vetted. wilJi4lli<ii*- - Or the IQth, tbe pn^Lcd intei- 

crc.ioDjr/ puwer^ Cut- injecting any view took place, and Lbe young 

p(jpo:itiou short of (hat, wMch priiice (iu die pre.^euce ot ihe 

Utut ro vesung e^^clutivcly in Uie khani) iusIireJ the comnufsianen 

banJiofthc couDcil, tliu vAvAe civil that tlie object a£ hit ovvu coUncila 

3ft([ miliuiy ailniinlit ration of the wa« iiot to separntc Itdiu that of the 

djEia of the Cnrnatio i aiul vvui'iit;d khan^i. Bat (as it ha<I beenarranj;- 

i!* khaai of tJie ellccts the non- ed by the go\eraor) it was iheu 

n^cqXAnce qf it wuuld.liaj.o ou th^ announced to Hussaiu that a per- 

iijnwici of &i\y Uuitaiiit The sonal onifeciince wu desired with 

liuibho»\jvMco[jiiiiuetl firm, aiid hiin by hi* lord=hip. This step wa» 

di'^cO that the aiiiUa .priiji'C eon- ciiEteHv-oured to Ul- evaded ; but being 

Uiued die only teruit oii which tjiey Insisted ^K>n, it at hkit coin- 

tuuU aaxfk to an arnmgeuicut of plied wiib, and iu the absence of 

ibe a£ur$ of tlie Cantadc. the kliaub, who Jiad ggue to prepare 

IlicprQjiujeiladiLUtnicntbemgthut biii ei|uipage, die youog man, with 

broken uirwi/n«i;i^,lhecoiQiiiJ&siouer« diucIi apparent anxiet);, ami in a \ov 

itnulij uiidaubledly have beeu jui[i6.- tone of vuicci said tlial be bad been 

sliudeclimugaUforibern^ljaiioli, deceived by the two Miaiist aod 

}ietuDwi]liug not to give the perM>Di immediately proceeding to oolond 

wlute iatcreit wa^ nmrc concerajed I^I'N'eil'i tent, tiadanutlcrvieiv with 

tbo lliat of any other iudividnair an lord Clive, where Ik auented to 

(^pontuHiy of declaring hit genuine every pro^ition that diekbaoibad 

idUiiDculi upon the subject, and rejccted.ia bU name, and erea ea- 

(f<txijiiiun£,i if he tbought proper, tercd into details retpcctlng. the 

liif coKOcili Ttfhicb they cuuclud- treasure of hij father, and chu per* 

«1 arcoe from iuterested and trea- sonal piovision wbich abould }fe 

dpoiM adtiscrt, tliey iusi^ied on made for him: he concluded by 

uiaierviciv . with Hmaain himself; disclaiming the conduct of the Uiam 

■ikh, after many stililerfuge«, and during the negotiation, and ^euied 

lung and tedious debate, was agreed .that a treaty sliould be pmvidcd iqwn 

^iqiiifor thencAtday. . the basis of the proposition luade by 

tibaw(ir.4a,t;»«W|)«;al*ir"rii'<^ii iheb>bnoe*f dineUekiatkittnt loMtajr ihe 
u{«nNteilicMencc<>ltb«Cuauic,aiul th«Hunof«,Bi,i96»arp««a4u, (rtiicb it 

lUoncd [a dl)cliu(c ihc debts o( thr nibob W<Jajah, sEcordiag to cbeirciiy, which 
»l!IViJin1to (hciompmy yrarly by the heir; and ihjil be dijchaijfil in len equal 
fen, Imm the mlo the loth of etch momh, from ihe bejinninB of September (o Ibe 
Doothot June; tatoa ibcMiM-oClbe nabob Wkt^ah bans diichartftd, Itlt paynfeat 
'■fte^VB of 0,94, iaMUfW»daa (hall ceatc, ami llu MVQ ol M,i SI tai p*sa^«i>lr, 

. itull cooiinue uj be paid yearly, igrenbly lo [benipulationi of I'Sl; and ihe whole 
(I ibc coDtenli of (hii papei •hall be coniiidered ai referring la the aid treaty. — An. 4. 
AficT Ibe discturge of ttle atxne dabH, (be heir ihall litjaidtte tbe new cavalry loan) 
'id he will not only acknowledge ihe debt, but alio Ihe inietett due on JL — An. i. In 
<v«it of tiilure in the paymeni af Ihe kiiu liipulaied \n ibe third Art. ihEn IboK jartt 
tfibr lieiiy'of i;03 shall be carried into e Feci, which telajn loihediilticH detailcil in 
KlicJiile of Xo. 'J of the nid trniy, and which, according to the second ariicl; iif (hi> 
paifcr, hiTC not tiren tT*n<:fenTd ; and wiih the exfe^iion of tbe matters Tnodified ai 
i))uK, the whole of-thetmiy of l^v-l ihall coniinur in full force. The heir, oul uf 
I'll n^uil antl frirhdthip toi ihe company , will make over 10 tbt Gumpiny, u an icl of 

, Uisu'i tbe tit:olc ul lilt lijhu ti;uLbm( itie pe»il fishery. • 

- - ■■ T-Z 3 ■ ' the. 

,27B- A.R K V.k% R B O I &T;E-R^- ^90f. 

time ffovcmor, and tbal be miuki>be', cofupei^rej.^i^npn wifb « u^ of 

ntt^ taraixat^ it Witb or witbtmt; csmpkoenc^r fAach beipokc tlic 

the consent of tjw ktans, U ano-. ^eateBtsdf-wtU&clicinandappJaiue. 

thcF cmnfereoocK) be h«tii.«i» (ho Under thcAc drcunutancca, tbe 

■est ili^ wrihiu the BfiJixbliaffi- -< ' gpvemorand council , thought it ex}ie> 

;.|lut s very singukr iccne 'pnt- dient to open a commtinicatioa witli 

tented itE^ un the 3Qtb, ifae day tlks.pnnce Azcem nl Dowlah.whoat 

tp]Miinted foTAlie tennifutiCn of lliit ire ivive already mentioned as ibe 

lonf centMKdal^iv. OnAUyHus- Kqibew.of Qmda^ ul Onuah, dud 

lain bNDg inliwduced to the com- Who lived in the greatect penury ft 

mtfistotxn at tlie palace, be ad- Cbcpeukj and tud been, as i«al' 

pressed them, in a BCBohite tone of wayi the case in the East, oamnrly 

voice, and witli the utmost firmneA wBtched.ind alnuut a prisoDcr twto 

in bis mannrr, in sobttaace as fd- the death of his uncle. Ttus was i 

Iowa : " I'hal the Uuus having matter of no little ddicacy, as, in 

been apfwiated by his fittbej^s will consequence of his situation, pmaie 

Id assist hit eooncils, he could not cMnmani cation could not be bad 

iKlopt alineof conduct inconsistent with him, and to attempt to see him 

with thdr advicB, and that, there- openly might operate to his destruo 

lore, any further interview with the tien. ' But the intelligence being 

governor would be unneceraary." cotnmunicqtrd to the governor, tbC 

Kut muob surprised at this ch»)ge the two khans h^ already perfbnn- 

«t' tBttc end mmner, tbe cffltimis- ed the importaat cereraoay of ia- 

skmtrs concluded that it wasowin^ itaUingAlly Husspin onthe musnnl 

to rite indnenre df the kbans, then of Arcot, -and that they meditated 

present, and propOBed, under pre- perfbrining Ihe ceremnoy in a pol^ 

tenoB that tbe confeience had been lie manner the, nc;ct day j in onltt 

brofcon t^ too abiuplly tbe day be- to prevent what was cvidiEiitly cd> 

4aK with 1m lordship, to conduct culated to prodii^e iounediMB .ceai- 

fcim once more te tbe teiH, wbere, motion, it was deemed expedient 

«a its being made extrsmdy pii- that lieutenant-cgltHiel M'Nefl 

vate, be ag^ln, with the saaac con- abould take instKtt pocsnsion tS 

£dciiCE and £nane!>s in liia manner, the palace, and to remove entirelj 

aa^uif^ Uic governor tli.ll lie woidd all liie guards of tbe late nabob. 

tiut recodc from tbe wnitiBwnts of who bad been peimttted (o occi^ 

:ilia two khmiit ; I lint Ik Mlracied any posts during the neyoiiation- 

,- the opinion.- )ie bntl yesterday ,at- Tliis measure opiTncd the means d 

tcrrd to bu lordstiip,..i(s utlccly cunununicating with tbo fouif 

.uiuiiisiKte«ft witJi bis iior.nur twd prince, and a partyoftbeoompaujr's 

iiotetrsthi and (bat he 'couJtl adiait foriv« were. placed over the kovel 'm 

'•of' nd [ilbcr tmn^ ta>e tliuse coti- .whiub be was t^fired. It would 

- laitied In bii fi>tgcL. hxma this dc- teem. that. tliisjiieasiirc at firal M«a- 

lobtnuiou'ino ])er^uiii>jiin> nd nrgu- sionnl litmit corttiiderabiedcgFKof 

.mtuiis 'C9M rnducehttn to recede ; alarm attd arprchensJon, but being 

■ nil tlie comequcnccs, as they wmild icassr.irj by iX)loiid M'Neil, he «- 

' jiiicctbtwand-^jiB fomtfj.i^cie.lield pvwaod gitat. saiisfaclion at ib* 

uiHl ta.hin,,but i«>aiii, and he cb.iiigc, and«n earnest. dcslretoex- 

liulLbsd iiiii teat with tiic jroMtpit plain hip siteatlon to tbe govaW' 


in ontojnence of th(i "wtiSi «> ex- po«eJ tree^, till 3' mon f«Tsid in- 
pesid, Mttsre.Webbe and CJose^ stniBient could be prepared. The 
were 3fiMiint^ to meetbimon the commitMioMsniUte.intheir account 
33J, vhcD he made a pnthetlc eaa- of ihiBeofrferenoc; (faM tlw Htiongeit 
oxniioa of the hardihijM of Uf impiemoii wai nude upon their 
n'laaUoD, of the persou^ titjitfiei mind^in favoor of theprinoc by tlie 
be bad tostatncd. and earrtesttj- deeorMw dcpanment. modeiSHoOr 
bt^ged, that both mi^t be taken tnd good MSee, bjr wfakh he dia^ 
inU) c^Wiideration when Ae a&in tinguishad hiins^ on thii auddeu 
oftbeCirnatiovBire adjusted. Suffi- and luipnsin^tdiangeof foitutle. 
Cieiit grouafls lirm-ever appeared itt On Ae 3(Mh, he wm formally in- 
die e\mrse of the converwlion to troduced to lord Qive. and coti- 
•ati^ty their judgroeiil that tfie ductdd. as the fumre oMCMjiblo na- 
pniice wat cajole of sustaining a foob of the CaFnatic, to the pnWicbof 
more iraporMnl character, ah4 con- hit ance«o«j find «i- 4he a lit of 
duded that a regard for his own July he was ibe iiai.;i:e 
pn^onal interests v'ould'induce rb'm ef Cbepauk, oii the miumid ui ihe 
» accept ihe propmitioD rejecteet t^ Camalic, with the almost pump aud 
Hiresaifi Ally with cdrdiality. splendour. The cen niony trxtk. 

On the 24th, after some circum- iHBceiit noont ihe gnven-c r, ad.-niral 

bcution, the proposition wai di»- itoimer, general Si"iiart, and a\i il* 

I'metlj made, and which, a* rtiiglit civil and mililnty oiHccra of tho ^tt-. 

be expected, wa« accepted with die Ternment, attended ; and at liie co»< 

rwBt frttefiit acknowledgmenta hy clit'ion of the ceirmoHy, a royal s*- 

prince Azcem nt Denvlah ; and ho hue was fired. 1'[\'. tirst act of hi* 

lihe^se msde a 'formal declaralicH), reign, if inch it can )>e called, wu 

tbat in the e^"cut of his elpvation the •iigning of the so liii^ disputed 

to the nausnud, he would iid- 1rr:Ky, vhicli It^'i Itim indeed tii-i 

raediat^Jy give that security and Bame and rank of a suvureign. but 

SHtii&ctlon to the company whirfi sccKred for ever the poui'M aid in - 

the governor had deemed so itKlig' lltiencetrf iheCimatic to tli? Uritish 

prreaWy requisite to the i>rcservMion fovcrrnnem in India. 

ofthtfBntiih imi^tcsti in the Car- H is needless here lo particuiariec 

natic. (hetermsuftheirealyiiself. It will 

On the 25Eh, a draft of tiie treaty bo readily fmagimd thai its sum 4ii<J 
WM prepared, and brought by ewienoe was the est.iWisbmcnt of 
Mom. Weblie and Close to the (Iiecompany'srighttoadiTiiiiistcnlie 
prime -, and who disaisswl with him whole chil and uiiliiary goi'cmmc^ut 
lu difibcnt articles, as vrell as the of ihe Camatic, and die e?<tabiitti- 
Itmral principles, with him; and nienfofall the uffic^Ts for the col- 
daring wliicb discussion, it most be lection of tbereveniv^. and all court* 
mentioned to his himour, that be of judicature, whoiht" civil and cri- 
^iTpnlited for provi.sion being made minal, without any interference 
6»f liie family of his grandfather and whatever on the part of the nabob. 
uticle : This waa directly assented to. One-fifth port of the revsnucs were 
"ud every claose of the treaty being appropriated to the mdittteiiance of 
J!;rred upon, he affixed his sii^- thesoveretgu,aDdhtsownimeiediale 
tore bo a Persian dr^'t of tlie pro- ^mily ; but piwioudy to sucb tiftti 
T-Z3 part 

part being' set iaxAt to thouie (if rtiff knrf\rn,or!(c(-n inadS^reiititotnlor 
nabob, all thfrrtpenws of th« ml- view from wliju'tliey JiaVc^appracS 
lection rtfflie revenues, the .Ta;;;hire tD us, we mustbellev^'Qiflt jjie iqwe 
Unrts iif (he tifat^-of I7S7,' afirl (lie ane will not prm-c tri be QHwtHtbvqf 
shm get apart forihcpayimtitnf ilte ttiC goyertmcut of (lirn, la wIicK 
<fchts of the n:ihffbMshommn:lAlljr,' decisioit, fnrMighl, alid t^Tenti, w 
were nv be dtJucted from their PrtKii are WideW-d for tTfe' litter destnjgj 
jwnonnt.'' By another artfcle. nil ilia tinn of' our impVaL^able foe; an^.to 
dtcbte du? to the company were ac- whose brilliiftit exertion's we »'»te 
Kiibw^edgcd by the nabob, tint ft'cre that exteniinn of power 'ant! of qifc 
not (o(>e deducted, any pan of them, pire which enables m to keep 18 
from His- fifth part, but renmirt a some' srtrt of equipoise the vast m- 
charge upon'dieCHmmic, tobeli- (xsnions of Bomiirme. 
(Jiiidritedwhenthcthreesums'iibore We shall next adi'erl to th(- pri; 
mentioned were di'^liai^ed. Pri- grfiss of the iii:irquis \VclIc4cy (lift 
♦ision was made for the femilics of fpivemoi^ general) In llie nnnhefp 
die twn late nabobs (in -wAirii the proinnces of the Rritisli empire In 
Aifortmiate Ally Htissnin was not; hidia. It -was attended with feve^' 
ftji^tren, it being stipnbtcd that drcumsfanee of pniip and sptfrn^ 
he yho»ld have an annual pensiorr dour that coiild belong to the mA^ 
of 24,000 pa'godas), ant) care "waS nient of tbe most powerfU irf tl» 
twkcfi that the rank of the ncTff nabob Asiatic sovefeign^. His cxcellc'nc)! 
Acnitd be ascertained and qcknow- embarkM at Fort William, accoi*- 
ledgedi andby a seciet article, 1t paiiied by the officers ' of his MiiVe." 
T^asagreed that a part of the tffia- and a detachment of hi* b<iM 
tore (H die late nabob should be ap- jruard, on tlie 15th (^August ISOi. 
|>Ii6d tothe caralty debt'due to l!ie He proceeded up the Gaiigef tg 
Company. The whole tran?action Moorshedabad, die" ^lace 6f tlio 
was terminated ' by a proclamation residence of Che ' nnbob of Bengal 
apprising the inhabitanti of the Car- where he artiwd on llie 4lh of 
llatio of thff alteration ■wiitch had Septemberj visits of cerenioiij 
taken place in the admmistration of were here interchanged between 
iffairs, and requiring them to pay hi* lordship &nd ^hc nabob. Ofi 
«bed!«nce to air anch ordinances and the 15th ofNoiember he reacfteJ 
offic-ers as the British' government Benares, where (he Joyful liilitiji 
shouht for the fiitnre appoint. of tbe surl-ender of Alexandria hi- 
In the course of the above detaH came known to himj on this'oc- 
efftcts, wc have careful ly, for the— cnsion ah addivss from the Enr*-' 
reasons we have already giv»-ii, ab- pcaufnhaliiiants of the 4'slrictw«l 
stained from comment 'or reflection; presented to his lordship, cuiichiSl 
JJttcoflierrt!i-ohlt(on!; IfhaKetnletf m terms e\pr'essive of the aJmift- 
yreat opposition of sentiment, antt fion and, respect they felt, iii corn- 
great warmth of dtunwion.' it mon wirli other "BrKMi sulywi* i? 
must (f'tve's.i'tisftm ion at least to see India, foir his lordship's diatacter, 
fbat, Itbfts Iweil unwained' with t.ilent8, and abilities, 'vliiili'biwi^, la 
KHirJd; and- tm polluted by acts of the short spare of three yean,' «- 
bartiarityanSoppnSirfon. tended iind' consolirtatt-d the Britii 
'" Until the drcwmtaocei are b«TCr empire iii"lo'dia,'ii\ 'a ili'^iut rthiili 
f ■■ inuit 

nnist em b? conten^ated with ate perhaps ino^ fomplele^ :in 

ulM)L4hment} and congratulatory the tjark, than with, respect to as}' 

00 the prctent jayfvi occasion with one transaction tlijil we cecdlect to 

Cular propriety, ai die force have occurred in the East ; of the 
Brilish India, in conscqucDce eiitent or particular iiature of the 
f( ttii lord$hip*K prompt and vigor- ce«Etons we are tctaUy ignorant, 
«u metmres, bad coopetated on nor should we liavc been able to 
itiii important service ) adding the lay even thb information, scanty «• 
lenarjtable circum)tance, that a part it is, before oui readers, had it nol 
eftbeannywhichhadcapturedSerin* been for the minute detail of tbq 
ppatara was actually then emploj-ed progress of the .governor-general 
en IhciOioref of the Mediterranean ! through the [iroviDCM, and the 
At Benares bi» terdshm visited and pixapous dctcHptioD.of ita iplen- 
totertaiiicd three of tna grandHins dour and masnihcence, which have 
ei Ae oafbrtonate Sha-Allum, the reached us througli .the medium of 
Kpvereign of Delhi. On the 29th Indian newspapen. We have « 
<ix gineroot- general left Benaret, jdedge, however, in the charactec 
ud proceeded to Ramn^ur, the of the marquis Wcllesley, that the 
rtridence of the nabob of Benarct, meamre has been as honourable aa 
wbat: the usual ceremonial visits it is unduubiedly adfantagcuui to 
me p^d. On the 26ih of Dc- the British interfsts in India. 
amber he reached Allahabad, where On the 3d of February, hii eit- 
he u-as joined, by the honourable cellency arrived ai Lucknow, tb* 
Mr. Welksley, and arrived at Cawu- ultimate point of liis progress north- 
pore on the Bih of the next month, ward, where^he completed all raat^ 
On the 1 ~tb Iiis lordship was visited ters of public business that remaineii 
by the nabob-vizier, attended bjF to bead)mtedwithtbc nabob-vizicr, 
bit five younger Kona from Luck- and on the 26cli commenced his rei 
BOW, accompanicti by a large body turn for Calcutta, where he arriic4 
Qf troops. Scvcial conferences now on ihe.aoih of April 1801, afttr 
took place between the governor- an absence of eight mouths an^ tivB 
general and the iiabob-viuer, during day« : bis return was marked bjr 
»hich, it is luott pmbablc the main every dcmouttratiou of joy, anil 
ob^of tlieesjieditionwas achicv- every public testimony (if attach- 
ed ; territDi'ial dominion of const- ment and respect that could be' 
deraUc cou^^equcuoej both as to re- manifested .by the irthabitaots of 
venue and eilcni, were ceded by Calcutta. 

iIk viiier lu the East Indi.') com-_ During this long and useful pro- 

^y, and the government of the grcFis ) at every statioii in the jour- 

pruvincM tlius ceJed, conferred oa ney, complniiUB„ whether, of natives 

hi* cxcelleocy's brother, the ho- or Europeans.wereheard, grievance* 

nuurable Henry WeDckley, who redressed, and regubtions, suited to 

proceeded to Canpugc, to take pos- the circumstances of the case, adopt* 

tewion of bh new dignity, on the ed, to ensure the future \vell-bcLng 

23d of January lb02. . of the company'^ subjecl^, . I'Ut 

or the causei which led to this native poMcrs were conciliated hf 

idiUiiwal aggrandiscmeni of the every mark of oiicuOon and kiud- 

£iiii>h empire in India, (be public oess. ,A t'ousJdctable adilition' to 



tbe Brilnh doriMii'uui tw>k plaM, bf UiniOlhecci*9U9> "Hte Wd 

-oifaihttlie [DiigDi licence of the g<H conqunt of Tippoo Stdtanm left tJM 

\rnu}i-g-:iicva\ oiid Li^. ^u'^cttnt niic^:.k> gnvertini< '.n it ki^tue ta 

iheKotJoOfsvitlch were paid hiiB«a attpdt ibmeJii ic>n^*^«t dnefuiWi 

i)i» route, seciiTfd tbatd^erejice and in wtkr u> um<^ce the payment af 

Tespect0nm altquarifi:.,* I ui'iiii.l a ii.'iiute which newr had bees 

to tlie interciti of mouanJi; m tb> CcJlacted but ky fbcce, twd the ri|^t 

ccnmrnV-s of the Ea»t. of exacting wUch tbc^ Ind alwt^l 

Ib tlie southern proviuecs «f Um ^enicd ana ictiued. In (hs p*^ 

British anpire in Indiu, the aspect wot imtanoe they acted vith tba 

^ affairs have in the pre!>ent year by mria pertinacity, tbcy lewated tte 

BO meant alHudcd such wtisfactoty wllection of icvenoe by the Bli* 

Kcacsatthq^c^chavcjuUTecordrd^ tiah ^ovcnment in aimoot emf 

a.totra-LeilauiidcMil^rywai^ali.'W uMtanoe. JadoOtecaies thrji w<n 

Ii . ^ .-'.'.stM bfiween the cocwanjr toKt4 *»■ Ktiamt, in -other i loe- 

v'- .'. r:. " jiivepowLrs.wbilat. <D)tiful,andlh''^iAlfoMUcS'U'hich 

t^.' .... !...V.ii ■(;- \..^.^l^i r-iTUjij.'ca qrcivcd fiQn\ UhMVi^nntiMyoB 

in ^'^ ■ ....i:, r.ii^-,,,^« ul..: lio bujiiii fi i| si-.-cw (pitniiW 

II: ic. --.L^.-.-u .i-Iio .ioi-iiJfi i\.t uon icia>tei!.-ii-K..i.',cai*«lt 

^■. ■ .'!..■. ii.-, LnuMi j;jr : 'ii.".»war a!iLa:«.4,aiit;w,4Jta ■»• 

Y- , , i^; J ., 1,^ ;i,,.(l\.'d, :-iid lai.ihity pntit, ■.IJi a ih.o. ditfipliM 

fij.-il :■. .i^,,,^^-^ ::i.i;:.:^, ylii-r wc kiii iuLiwluiOil ainuitg (hCinx 

t(> i .,.,^vi ..,, :.";■.■. oi (-iii'mir. ithjit tivc. Iroopa in cur cntpby. *»» nrt 

qi:i.;ity. ^.^ .....i.'.i. panidiliirly lu wtfidcQl .to enuuvc . tscodw, cMn 

(lit- . ■^(■■!„i., t'l llii; l'iJ}!i,:Tr and wkcq oppoctd to tiif uodiaci^iBOii 

ft]a!.....ii .'luii'n, fir.d tii thr iiutroul anti iU-umnd fotcr of the .coaOliT; 

(U.-i.(i!< ■ t:?iitet.n.liiedilIW<;utMalii but that we .<KCff. iuirariabiy aJtd 

faiudi'li.iiui.. , «)ttin;,l(« 

TmC riU>^ars, wliosc sitiiatlon in we gtuncd, la ihe bayoneti of mm 

loiiLt nc^lv Tf'iei)ibl<'» t\ml oi die £uroppanitrogp^, wbeaclossia tbc» 

gw i« ill lEu-vji.', tave fi>r a liai^'.lj encoiiRlers mutli more titan coia- 

(^ linu' dtMc'^.iicil their couii<ry and terhalaucetl the value of out aequin- 

tlicir libcity Mith a |>ti'sevi.i:auL:s mcuia. 

Iluii hii9 (iiuvcd fatal in nuiny iur -Of all the numerous tnbabitnti > to the bn-ve. troops -cm* s£ liulia. nantr bavc preaeii'ijl ibfit 

pl(i)(iil Tor iJitir rctiui lion. onL;iiial luanuerK more teoaciotuJy 

'i'!:''lr cr.uiitry, .'.iiuaicd ht'iivtiRB than the i>ttire« uf Malabar ; that 

ll;e "ji;suif, Cuiu.Uuure.aiid Car- jwrt of liie.coaiitiy which is LcMiiA* 
DHiIc !::dUi, w.-.ti nuiro capahie of nd on the w»t by (he ucean, did 

tii->i,Lii.::i^ J lU 11 iifive uar iL^ui iny on thr east l>y the chain of mma- 

oiiiir p:ii'i iii I.;./li i and itvalLiiig lainK which intersect the ^-an conli- 

tliiiiu.ivt* as miidi it) ep^jIUbW neat of HindwOn tTOiaoiieesitiaae 

iis ii:tli:nil c<i>;::il:^^ci, they had fol to the olh=r. lu extent ttoniDoRhw 

a^";'' piv.-iTVdl (li>;ir iuikpuidciicc. aaulbnearstidegreei, btil in tevaddt 

"i i'e f.ovcicigi:!)', ho»ve\er, of their sddom esceediog ioHj nilea. S«l*- 
Icniloiy u.i> tlaiimd by [be nabob ject to the dominion of ditrcrrnt 

T-f lilt: C.-iviiaiicj fliul this right, chieftiiini, denomiitatul nijiihs, uhI 
y:.c\i :is i;, v.\:s band^ over iu>l coiUKcled by any^ vjHaa «f 



fcittrlon, they bal-tTBeiwfit WKrti tave been in firiii^iV;, that on the 

mmf itaeitit^VC*, but "hid tVSHtod ^rtition bet wren thtv.iilie'j ofTip- 

*ititn«e8», all attempW on thctt poo's doniiiiiiiFi^ in IJfjl, rhr,-, with 

iB^fOniknee, either bv Sitropean the enci'piinii of 'tlisi'rsvnnc:>rR iiTid 

* MataomitHallia rnvtiders, OittiV Cow£;sli ri'iatu, ".rftr Iinnflrd over 

mne ^ctan after H^r AHy had (o tlic En'^iU!! a-f'tfie psiilicn nf 

marfei tfie .mnnitd ^if M>^>.^qv. t(K si>oit nll^^it-d to tin m. . Tli« 

VciMK mdMoiMlV were !!>« c«ii- conscinmi-c* h^ix lj.Tn e^ncLlr' 

Iwt totoiMn liK' trort]* a;«t tb© siirfi m mi^ht !i;v.-c hn;-, c\[>c.::-<.\. 

!!**«!(! b« it length •HWvedpd "RiS co'iniry has b'rn. fr.'in 

A fir at to itvy r fribate ("roin mrtment to Ov; prL';ciit pcrioi), A 

WMc of tbo»' chn*fiiliin, while continued scene of mass.itre aiiS 

«licn, !f» aHiffncc wMk Che Eng- bloodshed. Ever? means (hat hu- 

M, lad forriKbeid 4ty thr^n win man wisdom cnnM iiiig^t w^e 

4r mcMM of rcnMBce/ nMiotained employed by the Bombay gorern- 

Amt im fcfW tiattCB. Hit j>oii suid men t to concilime the natives of 

, tbe bte Tippoe Sultantl, Malabar. Genllemen of the h'oKit 

1 not only by views of ara- character were appointed to titc sa- 

Wn, but nf rdifion, oa the con- perinteiHlence nf those proviuc^<i. 

ckMidn 1^ tbe peace of I7S4, with and rttf^ir conduct in office entire)^ 

Ita EagtHh, directed hia atlemion c<irr<>o:i(tcd v.'n^ their cfaai-a 

B the tfnlire ««bji»?»Tion of ihia bnt thw could nm remedy the 

^■11 of India, and immediately cati- e»i!. The revenne, collected en- 

fMed Hkm* wliom he svdidued t» tirrfy by force of arnrH, was fmmd 

einbnce his laitfa. Hf^ty filt nncqnal to ihe expenses of ciiUcc- 

trnktai, who were tbmby tbe ' tJnn,' and, on the reprcMntatton 'tf 

■•oner rid <rf a mmttor who tlia- the Madras government, the whole 

paoM baaMD nantrt;, and tn of tbe Malabar {irovincei «ere 

tffaon M was tr^ tar die preaerit placed under their control and sm- 

titaet r> produce a parallel in perintendence. Tbe comii<'-»''ia 

ibe pfTsflii now at ihe tesd rf consisting of Bombay ciiH servmifi 

i nei^boining narioa, hri crime was dissolved, and a (nilitary gcn- 

bmn^tit «ilti it its own piinish- tleman, of the Madnt!) cktrtbliah- 

niMt. HH attack on the rnjah of meat, of no higher rank than tliit 

l>a»T»core, the •oadiei-nmott of of major, wat appointed *"le su- 

(fciwe princct, caused the war of pwintendent and fommi said nor of 

'7SP. which ended with the kws those provinces : bis coiidn.l h^s 

Of' (Mv third <it bit cn»ptre, and been irreproachiible, but efjiiaiiy un- 

fftttly fM-iliiatcd the cuiMjuest of SDccci?tul with that of his ]y.\.;.'j:- 

dw Mmaindec. The Malabar rajahs, cessots ; and by recpnt advir^ v.c 

•wtofW to uluke off the inl'>tetnble are informed that he has b.iaa 

7*e iMidiT "wftich they lab.^ared, oHiged to leave the rnnnlt;-. wh;, h 

••ifled mw «ierations a^ain*! tbe is now in o;>en n;bt!lion to oar go- 
tftmr, wiih the utm^ aesl i and vemment. 

wefyawUiaiicewiishrlrtotit loth'-m TJio, wlio, ai wrll as 

•I imtl"(:(mn. It it n'vt to be the Bl.ilabars me ilic nh .)ri:-:n:4l 
cwieeivoJ tiinn descrilwd, what their iiihahittnr^ of Hin'li'^mi, h:uc, ihnn 
atloaiibDBL'tK M>d iiiili^alion muat tlieil lirH ea'.tibli^-liutent. fit- a dit- 



titirt pDofde, been it an eidv to l»n.nieMionad,'W'Uie »Mn d 
period merely diHinent hatiet nl' general ifaucd's^^fm^-'froin Sgnxi 
fFeebooten, geraaed by a Icucbil Ihe bitle-band ot wsnion of Affi 
syKrm, which bac naturally )irO'- onny, -wliicti brloogcd to thcBt^H 
i^erd virietj' of inteoesla; and in eftablisltmeut, 'iA(;fjnidiiriafi"wm 
die jariiiig and 'clashing of whicfa idegrecof pMktiaa .and dueipbae 
we have always, at it appeoced to wortti^the'cWa«er«f tke'JtritiA 
«tiit our inteiest, talun a part, (ddicr, the mmhi'fioBilheduis 
-TltQ sttpport we gat-e to Ragolmfa «f riie Red tea uram^e aidiDd 
«ot only sullied our nadmial cli»- boniii^ da)st"0f:>lbB.iTfadMi4^ 
Meter in the East, but neariy re- arrircd at Fort.WilliaDa^iontlNJM 
4uc«d tli>: cnnpaiiy to a Mate of of July, and tvetr teodvedalilkA 
bviktuptcy; their pnper 9t ihrn»v- fmidency Willi ibe-inxwb didv- 
■du^nof ttMHcond Maliratta,wer gniahed Inuima.' Tba y et nrt 
being seventy per cent, fodcw par ; general nvt tmiym/iaoi dlan>(iilb 
mul akbongfa their credit has suwe tbdr g&Uaol ileadeK^ tDite^pttUiib 
fevived, yet the pmnire of the tinukod fiu- th<»i great mil auri 
M>t thereby iujurTed is stUl te- Rvkinii KrvicKb ^tal ynt^imila 
verely Iclt. The chic& now <](hi- pkatfcdi to order hodoom. natUi 
tending fer aupnaiiKy are Dowlut to be cxxifnrod ofi att U|f ute 
Row, Scindia, and Tucagee H<d- ooauntiuuaedand noncsauMnioAl 
car. Tlie real governmeut of (he officers, troopert and Scapoys, go- 
Mohratta empire ii vested in the land«|0e and gun Lascari, who woe 
paisfawa, wlio resides at Poonah; employed in Egypt. Lord Cana 
the ram rajah, or nominal prince^ alto bore honourable testimony to 
being always held in a state of con- the good ccnduct of this army wluk 
tiiiement at Sattarah. undn* bis particular command, in 
Towards the conclusion of this a tetter to the govemor-generali in 
year, the paishwa, on the advance which he states, " that though th^ 
of Tucagee, was obli^ to fly from might lament that circunutanco 
Pooiioh and take retiige at Baasun, rendered it impossible for them, ta 
a considerable fort on £e continent, have taken a part in tbe briUitBt 
about twenty miles from the i:>land actions in this country during tbe 
of Bombay. We immediately soit last campaign, that U mu^t be a 
a detachment to protect his person, satitfactton to them to know, that 
and he has assigned to its diflerent their Bervices in ^J'pt have been u 
districts, the revenue of which is important and essential to their 
calculated to produce thirty lacks of country, as those of their brotba 
rupees per annum. A large force soldiers, that gained such dittiii* 
has in coiuequcnce been ast^mbled guished victories in it," 
to replace hiin in llie seat of go- On the 9lh of August the mar* 
verument, but no official accounts qnis Wellesley gave a magnificeal 
haveyetrcacbedthiscouhtry oftheir entertainment, at the new govern- 
further proceedings. nient Itouse, to general Baird and 
i The last subject connected with the officen employed in tbe expo- 
tlie af&in of ludia, which remains diliou to £gypt, aud ii> tbe evcmog 

• Rit an iscouni ot which we o«i '■ Miscclluemi Anidt.". 


H^itST'OaT: OS' EUROPE. S83 

« lofiwiiate wM fised in faonour of rtiUty of ooi readtti, or aor om- 

tbcjinqr letomcd fnta thcnoe. teinpcn^ry ean^dates for the public 

Binir: tbe detacfamenta from the Avour have cfaown to repMsent 

Mber pmidcacica woe iccetTed them ; it is becaose we were ooo' 

« tbea iMom, we hav« had no vinced that (be rait and iociwiag 

mom af tnfef™«*i~» • but as thejr powef ofFnnx, operating upon the 

■oriitd, SD -we doubt not tbcy ie> resdew anobitioii of bar ruler, will 

oivd, aqua) boooun. not long leave ui in posKStion of 

. Havii^ now mcceaiiye^ passed that peace wUcb wtt have purchasod 

■a rQne\ri the tranaactioDs, both In the greatest laciificet ; and that 

■ ' ■ - ■ if it be t ■■ ■ 

e- aod foreigD, of the year, if it be true that peace ia the eod 

we shall take leave ■ uf our readen and ot^ect of vsTi io it it Si 

with *a einwst faope that we shall axiom eqjttally eAdetit, (hat war 

be fawd o bavctaitbfollf and ac- is the necessary cooseqmencc of an 

(■atdydetuladtheiactsasthq'pre- ill-constiuctod and uuequ^ peace ; 

■aiedthamsdvcaftfaatwehaveboen aad iriiidi must be lecomoieDced 

taHBcd by no peejudice, nor in- scnnsr or later, with infnite dtsaii- 

aaaaml bf party spirit. If we have vantages to that power, wUch has 

n^Kaeiited tbe state of tfaingain a pardnaed a moaoentary reapitsi by 

VDBs ^eaarf point ot vicw> than degrading and ilisgiaca&l i 

tiR7 MR ben. len^ by the gene* tioAs. 

b, Google 

i s« ] 


JANUARY. number of cAloncl Agnew's forces, 
ITic former consisted chiefly of 

]st. ' I 'HE first day of the second pikcmen, who, finding their retrrat 

M. year of the century was into, the jungles cut off; by a line 

dstiiiguisbedt^ the usual ceremonies! drawn from north to south, and 

t&B imperial flag was hoisted at the flanked by heavy artillery, endea- 

tawer, and the guns there, and those voured to force a pass in face of 

at the park, were fired : a year of cannon loaded with grape, and, con- 

nnitiial good understauding, and un- centrating their force to that par* 

iuteiro pted harmony between the ticular point, are stated lo have per- 

two countries, bis been the best formed prodigiei of valour. Tba 

proof of the necessity and of the ad- shock was sustained by the British 

ranUges otf' an union between. Gr^t and sepoys with their accuslomed 

Britain and Ireland- bravery, and in the issue the enemy 

It was regoTted, in the course of were routed, leaving the face of the 

cKc afternoon, that accounts had country for several coss covered with 

becD^cceived of tlie definitive treaty their slain. An officer who was in 

barij^ been signed ; but the rumour this engagement, and who has had 

ormld not be traced to any authentic many years experience in Indian 

Bpnrce. warfare, declares that he never wit- 

I^dtters. fimm Portsmouth state, nessed a conflict so arduously con- 

tbat the most perfect order exists on tested. 

board the squadron just returned Owierr.—Tilburina's observation^ 

fytxn Bantty-l>ay. A court martial in the ' Critic, that " an oyster 

^rin assemble in a few days for the may be croasai in love," has been 

trialaf fifteen ringleaders of the late lately verified, to the profit of the 

[T tal mutiny. speculators in this new amour. Tlie , 

4tb. An overland dispatch re- advantage which has resulted from 

cei\~cd .It the India-house on Thun- crosiing the breed of cattic, induced 

Jtmy By a like experiment upon oysters, and 

averrconsidcraWcbodyof the Panja- an extensive dealer in Kent latrfy 

IniD Courrhy Pt.ligar's troops, after imported several tons of Carlingford 

the sortienderof thefdrt, descended and other celebrated Irish oysters, 

inio the plains of TumeviUy, where which he laid down in the Ijeds of the 

fbry Twere opposed by nearly an equal bcit Endisb oaliveij about Milton, 

Vol.. XLIV. A a Favcrshatp^ 

354 ANNUAL BE(?ISTeR, 180*. 

Favnrsham, ud Whitst^lc : the cf- ed cli3d in the crowd ; tuspedinf i 

fn:t of this uiiioahasgrKitly exceed* her mtcutioiu were bad, he deter- j 

cd hia expecution, the prodticc bciug mined to observe ber conduct. — lie j 

greater than beretolccet, arid of ooQ' iafant, for it vai scarcely four yon I 

tiderab]}' inipraved flavour. old, followed the band to the Adct- ■] 

iiiteUigeiKe baa becancmvcd-bf phi, wlieie thcAraman succeeded a j 

thiJ Coucorde, lately arQved froiu getling the diild icom the crmvd into i 

NewfouudlaDd, that a most honia a private place, and had actudSf. | 

i^rdetwucommitted iDthatUland, begun ta strip its clothes off, when I 

Evious to her aailing, by a sailor, the gendeman caine up, andscitcd J 

viug quarrelled with biilandhd^, bold of her, with an intention d '• 

he immediately snatched a hatchet, bringing her to justice ; but tmlof* '. 

^nd mui'dcr<^ the. woman with her tunatcly, during the strug^. Aa ! 

infant at the bceast, and four otlicrs. child screamed dreadfully, and Ho ! 

Being taken, and put into prison, he woman made her escape. - i 

found means, duiiug the night, to Ctb- A duel was fought a few ] 

liberate his haiidt, and take off his months since at Bombay, betweca C J 

fftockiugs from beneath his fetters, lieut. B. and a Mr. F. in Achidi'die ;' 

with u'hich he strangled himself, and h'ltt^ was i^hot ihrovigb the hcaTt.aod . 

that H> cilectually a» to tender all of course esuircd upon the spoL'Uj* j' 

means triedtbrbtsrecoveryabortive. siurivor and his second, a captain K. . I 

Amens. On the SthofD^^cem* have both been v^ntcncocf to ht. 

ber last, Joseph Bonaparte and lord transported ,to Botany-bay, the fx- 

Comwallii exchanged iheir powers j mer for fourteen, the latter for mca 

and on the lOth, thcBataiian ain- years. 

baftsador, citizen Schimmelpenpipck, At the sessions at Hick't-ball, 1 

bad a lon^ fonference with the suilinwbichaMr. I^eky waspl^ J 

I'Vench plen^otcntiaries. llichcgo- tifi", and the London wct-doekcDcn- 3 

tiations between the latter and lord pan/ defendants, came on to be > 

Curuwallis are uow'carricd on with heard. ITiis suit was institiitcA bf 

great activity. Onr town is become the plaintifi' to recover compcnsaticB 

the theatre of mimerout festivities, from the defendants fbrcmtainbt^ 

To-itay lord Comwallis gave a din- ings in Ralcliflfe-bi^way, occn[M< 

uer in so sumptuous a style, as has by the fonner in a factory for spn- 

ni)t been seen here for a long time, ning linen-yam by macbitierr n'ofc- 

A Sp:uiish Kcretaiy of trgatioo is ed by asteam-ensine, which buiU> 

arrived here, the QxuA dc CampD ings arc to be puilfd down by ordtr 

d'jMangc. oOhe wet-dock company, under die 

A few days since a gentleman had powers in them vested b^ the art of 

the cuiiosl^ to ttop and attend ta piirliament under which ib^ are in- 

, Koine musicians, who were pl.ayiog in curporatcd j and also fdr the costs lo 

a b)e-£ the Strand; a great be mcurrcd by the pulUnc dowoj ic 

many otliers likewise assembled, moving lo other premusn, .andie- 

aiuong whom, as usual, were all the erecting tlie said steam-engine ind 

children in the Dcighbouthuod. After other macLiu;^ In as perfect slMjie 

staying some time, he' perceived as lliey origiildlly stood ; and far » 

a gentcd motherlv-looking .woman ndeijtiaic compensation to the j^io* 

ukeiurticularnouccofa w^-dtcM- tifl' tbi the lots he «-ould (lutaio (^ 

■ 3 -tb 

C'HftoNlCLE. sss 

Af [WHtion of his trade during the Mr, Bosanijuet, otwcirpa i^n the 

berwd of pulling dmni and rebuild- evil tendency whiA thiete sort of 

mg die Mill engine and machinrry. publications had upon ttK nr-urols oi 

—After eouTwcl wcrt heard on both the rising generation, 3nd thatlt wa» 

lite, the chaimian summed up the necessary to pnnish an offence of this 

ffidaice, md about five o'clock the kind wiih the utmost severity which 

jiDTrelired, and after a ddibcration the laws inflict, 

uf near an hour, rctorncd a verdict —■ Kennedy, one of the tjfficen 

forthe irf;iintiJrof 40)0?. addiiionnl bdonging to the public office in 

cDmpauation to the 4000/. airea^ Marlborou^>stii?et, deposed, thnthe 

ajTWd toby the detcndanta. had a warrant to apprehend the dc- 

Sth.TVtrialoftheniuiineersof'he fcndant on the 2^h of April; he 

Baatiy-bay squadron commenced, at went to a book-staU which the de- 

njoeoVock in the morning, on fat»rd fcndant kept under the irnll of the 

tiimajesty'sshipGlsdiatoT.atPorts- dukeof Portlands house in Picca- 

nwntb. The court, obseniug sc\-c- diily, in order to execute the ivar- 

njpenonstakingniinutesofthepro- tant, whete he observed the book 

ccedings, consulted ffir some thne 08 lyiogaawRganumbciof athers; he 

the propriety of publishing tlie ci-i- took it up, and, looking; at it, per- 

ifcocein detached parts, andat length ceiitd it was caHed " llie Man of 

mne to a determination that notes Fashion," and cont-rincd matter of 

m^I be taken of the business, but the mostobscene nature. He thete- 

wt published till the conclusion of fore secured it, and gave inforrha- 

ihe trials. tion on the subject. 

The mutineers aretixtccn in nura- Mr. Alley contended that this wit- 

(w, mostly vcrj- young men. TTie nejs''s merely taking up die book was 

cuimronsistcdof the foUorv-ingmcin- no proof of a publication by the de- 

bcft,rii. fcndant. 

Vtt-atoiraj Sir C. M. Rk, ^'''" "'"'^ V'f '»'''''= ""■ 

W.,toinl Go-ver, "4 ''»' """I'!™"? >■ "' » I™"- 

And 7 poft-caeton* ; jr^p, ,o Uie iurv in faiwir of (lie dc- 

^«ain.Grindali, otiheFonnKtole, fcndant. . He eoutcnjediii.'^i the of- " 

Jones, ■ '- Atlas, fp„ce charged ag^nst his diait had ■ 

-.—-WeHs,— -' Glory, notbienpMVfd, as it wn, necessary 

■ Sir £. N:^, J'jste. „ constitute the crime that the book 

-S^Cfcbom,— RanuliM, shoUldbcactuallyofllTedfor sate: in 

' S"^' . — Mnjcsoc, j],jj (_yj i, merely lav among aitici 

"•~- ^- 1^". — Minotaor. ^,g,j^ it, hjj posseVsion, and tlie wit- 

pUi. In the court of king's bench, ness had chinen to take it up. Hs 

Curies Hayes was prosecuted by laid thai any pcron wlmlwil alibrl 

ibe iocic._' for proinotiT^ christiait in his posstwion mfglit be indiited, 

hawicdge, for having published a'r Cicn though he should tint publish it 

"Mcencand scandalous Hbel, cnlled to the "ofld, if this char^^c cdiiU be 

" Ihc Man of Fashion." The maintained. Ho ObstfM^ lio<v im- 

itaacd coiuisel ibr the proiecution, possible it n-as tliui tii'i di^iciul.iit 



thould expnse a book for sale under 

the veiy wall of the BtL-reUiiy of 
state's house, if lie knew ttuit any 
libel was contained in it ; the fact 
was. that he hnd purchased a uiimbcr 
of old books ofa gentleman, among 
which number was the one in ques- 
tion, and ihe coiiii^nts of wliidi he 
had not read. — He remarked that 
the law inflicted tlie most hca^y pu- 
nishment in cases of this kind where 
the offence was proved, iiud there- 
fore conjured the jury to ojiiaiiler 
well before thej gave in their verdict, 
whether the fact of publisliing had 
been broughthonieto ihf dcli-iidant. 

' Tlie learned gentleman then made a 
most pathetic appeal to their feel- 
ings on the situation in which his 
wife and family would be placed, in 
llieevent of their verdict being against 
him, and said be should calla^grcat 
number of respectable witnesses to 
prove that his moral character was 
irreproaeliable, and tliat he wan cm- 
ployed by tlie parish of St. James, in 
a situation of sonic trust, which he 
woiJd lose, and thereby deprive his 
family of their support, if tlicjiiry 
found him guilty. 

A great many respectable wit- 
nesses then appeared to the charac- 
ter of tliL defendant, most of whom 
had known him upwards of fifteen 
ycare, and gave him a most excellent 
cne, as an honest and moral man. 

The chairman said, the publica- 
tion appiT.rcd to be clearly made out. 
Tlie book was exposed for snle in a 
.place which is. the most public per- 
haps of any in the metropjlls ; and 
where numbers of all ages and con- 
ditions stop to louuge away tlietr 
time, they were likely to take up 
the book and examine its contents ; 
if they did so, the obscenity which 
it contained was disseminated by 

. tite defendant, as he had pkiccd tlie 

book so as Ibcy could not help teeing 
it. He tlierefore was bound to leU 
the'jury, that in his mind the tact of 
publishing was pro\'ed. Thev how- 
ever would judge and give their ver- 
dict accordingly.— Tlie jury consult- 
ed a iihoit time, and found the de- 
fendant— A o( Guilty. 

I'he archbishop I'latow, who con- 
secrated the emperor Alewnderoi' 
Itossi^, and who pronounced afine 
discouise upon that occasion, is ^d 
105 years. 

A duel took place at Npw-YwI, 
between P. Hamilton, die ddfrf 
son of gcneial Alexander Hsmihou. 
and iMr. G. J. Eakcr ; in which, si 
the liral iirc, Mr. H. was sbul 
through the body. He langmshed 
until ihc next day, when he died. 

Tlie he;'d and gun money for the 
Heldcr Point business is in a train of j 
settlement. Ihe first payment lol 
Ihe captors, being about 45,000/, 
will be discharged immediately. The 
remainder, about l&OfXQl. will 
not be paid, it is siippos»], for stmif 

lUh. The mi:t-neer! at Pdtk- 
mouth now on dieir trial stated thit 
they wcrt; not ijiiite prepared with 
their defence ; in consetjueiK* il 
which tli'ey were indulged by thf 
court with a further adjournmf"' 
till iwcU-eo'c!ock,wheii they s«-erally 
deltvered their detcnccs in wiitinSi 
which were read by the jndgr id- 
vocate. Witnesses were then enlirf 
and examined on tlie part of 'he 
prisoners, and the court adjouowi- 
Tlie names of the mutineers of the 
Tcmeraire, new on trial, are ; 

lulin Mayfietil, William Cook. 

[araes \Vard, Chrisropher VT" 

lameiChutenrin, John CaUiiu, 

ihn Pilzjerald, James Locker, 

loiepb Rowland, |ll^n Ciiinniini, 

"hoflias Jonec, Williim Hlllicr, )b1 

'tioiiiat CroM, Johu Daylcy. 


Tbe charges against them are bad amembted at Candahar, for the 

It fiJlow : purpose of assisting in a rcvolutibn, 

fSfst.-^Making, or endeavouring Bsid to be in agitation in that 

tonuilte, nmtJLious assemblies. country, The kin?, some montlif 

Second,— UtterriDg seditious ex- prior to his death, concluded a 

pfKsions ) and for concealing trai- treaty, oJTensive and defensive, with 

toTon* and seditious words spoken, the Scik government, 
and tending to the bindrance of his At nine o'clock, tlie signal for pu- 

majtstT'e service, and not revealing nishmentwas madeonbc^d hisma- 

ihB same to their conunanding of- jesty's sjiip Acasto, of SB gnns, cap- 

6en. tain Fellows, at Spithead, and a flag . 

Third, — Being present at such hoisted for a boat from e.icl* ship to 

maiiny aud sedition, and not using attend the execiltian of A marine,, 

(fanr utmost eudearoun to suppress whh a number of soldiers in each 

tfaeraine, between the 1st and lldi boat whh their mnskets loaded, 

dqr of December I90I. About a quarter before ten, he was 

Lctins were received last week brought upon tlie platform erected 
owiland from Bombay, whieh state for the purpose, attendAi by a 
in coofideot terms the death of the Roman catholic priest and some of 
tag of C^ul, early in the month his comrades. After spending about 
of April, while on an expedition to twenty minutes in prayer, he made 
Caodabar. Timor Shah Abdalbt a signal he was ready ; and be was 
powessed great dominions, extend- launched into eternity! Heac- 
iog westward to the neighbouriioed knowlcdgod the justness of his sen- 
of tbe city of Tershuih, including tence, which was for uttering muti- 
t^Jshwe, Gbizni, Gatu", Sdibm, noas expressions, and for thmwing 
>od Korasan, a tract' not leas than abotde at an officer, thoughhesaid 
6sp miles in kagth. Aiimed Ab- h^ was drunk at tbe time. He 
Wb, the father of the above, and bi^gged hit shipmates to take wam- 
fcHnder of Candahar, was origi- ing by his fate; 'to ht purtictdarly ' 
"ally tbe chief of. an A^han tribe, attentive in obeying their officers, 
unied Abdal, (whence the name and while on board never to drink 
AMaJli,) who was stripped of bis to excess. He gave the clergyman 
Bmaby by NaiUr Fihah, and com- who attended him a guinea, and 
p^led to join the Persian army, in left ten pounds to pay the expense 
1739. Oo tbe death of Nadir, he of his funeral : he is to be landed 
wddenly appeared among his former to-morrow, and buried at Kingston. 
abjectt, aiul erected for himself a He was an Irishman by birth, aliout 
aoiiderable kingdom in the eastern thirty years of age, and a remark- 
pmof Pereia, adding to it niost of . ably strongman, 
tlie provinces to the west of the. )2th. ^e last day of the sitting 
Indus, which had been ceded by the- of tbe court-martial, iield at Ports- 
loogul to Nadir Sbsh. It is stated, moutli, when the mutineers were 
that several chiefs who composed ail (witli the e«;eption of White) 
Zemauo Shah's army al the time of found guilty ; the chan;es being 
bij entering Hindostan, and who after an imiiartial and minute in- 
here active in the subsequent under- WMtigaiion 0! sis days fiilly prov- 
takicg against thq Seiks at I^abore,- ed, thoy were accordingly (except 
A a 3 WhUc) 

958 ANNUAL REGI3T ER, 1802. 

WWtf> adjudged " to saStr death. The betedjurjr prince of 9a4t^ 

bjf being hanged by the neck, on (father of the empress of Kuuu. 

board such of his qiajcstr'" ships "st the queen of Swetien, and the elec- 

Spithe«d, or in Portsmputii harbour, tress erf Bavaria) had the misfjituw 

and at such lime at the lords com- to be overtiinied \a hi» carnage oa 

Djissionern, he. shall direct," And the jSth iilt, at Arboga, fifiMQ 

the court funher adjudged Chriito- league* frMu Slockholmi and dW 

plier\Vhitfc"torcceivr.twohundrcd the next day in consequence of tht 

fashes on bis bare back," tlic charges fall. His CMisort, and the prioceai 

against bim having be«» hut in of Baden, retvimed to Stockfaoloi, 

part proved. overwlielmed with grief. 

When this sentence was pn~ 13th. A }Wj was empamtelled 

Qounced, Coiling, one of the pri- by the sherifh, in order to asaeit tks 

aoneti, addressed the court in these (images in the eausp of Jackson v. 

words :— '' Permit meto return iwf Istd Milaingtown, where juc^cment 

" sincere than^ to the coivt, for was sufti^red to go by default. T|^ 

" thepaticnceaDdiadulgcnceshown damages were laid at \QflO0t. 

" me. / acktviwledge iliejuttUe tf hir. seijeatrt- B^t iofonned the 

" my stnlence ; I have violated the jary oa the part of the plalntttj diat 

" lawBofnT country, and the dis- it waann actimi to lecom' compen- 

" cipfine of the nniy ; btK I declare aatioo in damages trom the de^nd- 

" to Ahoigfaly God that the inten- anr, far having alienated the a^- 

" tton of murder never ent«wed my lions of the fbintilfa %«&, deprived 

" head. I solnnnly call on Go4 Kim of the oomfbits of her society, 

" to witness this dedaniticai. and aod induced her to ^ope and Kw 

" tnut \a the truth of it all n^ with him in adultery, whidi she still 

" hopesofVatdoninthcotherworM. contioncd to do. — llie dopenient 

" May God protect the British islet took place en the 4lh of August laA. 

" and the govenunent t and may The learned conntel then proceeded 

" God receive my soul !'" to explain the nature of the case. 

At these \voTds all the other pri- The plaintiff, Mr. Hmiy JnclKOti, 

BDi>er» desouiJy exdaimed " ^mM." was a gentltnnnn in the profrsabn rf 

Chesterman then said, "I hope the law, ITie defendant, lordiis- 

they will allow a friend rf iniite to count Mitsingto\vn, was the eldest 

bury niy body;" and concluded by son of the a-e»lthy earl of Portmnrr. 

pra]-itig tlie conn to allow him a The unfiirtHDate lady, the ohj»« of 

litttolimetopreparehimselfforeter- his (eduction, wan grund-daughtrrtn 

nity. llie presiderM refdied, "lliM a most respectable hartmt^ in Kent 

does not rest <4lth u^, b^t witl) (atrC.Ris)i<^),andnicce toiheladf 

otltcf authority." jrf sir George' Warren; her father nas 

The remaioing pritcmen owneil atthistimcacolonelinth{!army.The 

that they had oficnded against the unionbetwcenMr.nndMiri.Jackmm 

laws, but denied Mdemnly their took [daccon llwaC^hof ^cptembn- 

having ever ent»tiiiii«d any tde^ (^ 1791- The huhbami and wifi-, jl 

commlTting murder. would be shown, lived totietfacr nt 

The court then broke up. the'most perfect love and harmoiif. 

tPtK- ^e particulars at length nf In the ytar i7<>3, •Tuft. Jifck^on bM 

ihis most interc^itii^ trial, sec . tl)e -tbe mislbcttiii^ to \)e afflicted with a 

V^.ppendi».} panlj* 

, , . . ..^le 

CHRONICL/E. '■ ■-: tS$ 

ytBii6cttt<Aje,-whkii n»de it »- portiei on die law, and -tbb^ 

<ttiMj tor him to suspend all appll- seeiBcd to far drawing to n conclu- 

aaoB to huantasijaid Tctire to die sua,- that Mr. J. wubiug to promote 

MODlrf, ftir the purpose of strength- so advintagcous a loatdi with a 

oiiig hi* health. He took apart- nobleman o: lord M.'mok and fiir* 

■nbinSuobmy, where M». Jack- tune («'hicl» considciatjon was fre- 

ttn attended oit hiui u'ith all that quendj' pre^si'd upon him by his 

an, aitentioii, and aoxioty. that led/), and being soliL-tti^l so to. do 

cwld hare been lihowii by the most by Mi^s Bish(ip hcreclt', favc hid 

waidwRu and afltx^tionate of \rivei, lurdihip as invttatioit to I us bouse. 

Thai mutual harmony cocttinueel wbicli the latter accepted, and oun- 

itsva to Julj 1700, u-hen Mrs. tioued hii ruits there all the summrr 

Jacitaonn-eattoSpoiTeQ^n. iuSui* oi' 1800, stiit appearb'.gto direct iiis 

Kx, OR a viut (o ber fiither {o^iiel attentions to Miss Bi^Hop. In cou- 

Bisliop) and modiet. Sir George seqiicnc* of the frequent rejKots cf 

led lady Warreo being theD at .the intended m;i[Tingc, lord Al. v., Jj 

Engblan, inrited majoE and Mrs. Mr. and Mrs J. and Miss B'uuop, 

Vwc& (stsleis to Mrs. ^acluon) and were itivited, and paid vitits to^col. 

ituee other uiunatried sisters, topHi Biahop, their tatlier, and several 

A/e race week with them ; and other persons. At length, Mr. J. 

ibortly afcenvards lhe.y ware joinod tindiag that his lordship inude no 

trrcoioael Bishop j and Mrs. Jackson proposals, aud liaving suspicions of 

acd her sisters were iavitod by lady his ilUcit tu^entionK, coinn«ui:ic;iiud 

Chalks Sotnerset to a hall and sup* to his wife bis design to bieak otf 

pa, which comnv^oced tlte ac- with, aikd inform him that his visits 

^intancc between Mn. Jacksoa HMist be discontinued, ihe Isjy 

W lord SdilsiBgtown, who was wished to dissu:ide him from d»iug 

ieirodoced (o her by sir G. Wairen. to luuler diderent prutences, and 

His lordship selected Mrs. Jackscai even quqo^tlcd wtlti him imi the 

krhis partner, and it was re^>«rked stitgect ) bttt he pctxistcd in hU de- 

ttut he paid her very .^tartkular torminAion.Bml left itto Mr«. J. to . 

sueotiooi l>ut she came up to Loa> iiilunn tuid Mtlslngtswn of it in 

don a few days after. In the sum- what minnct site pleased. Hie 

SKT fbUowing, the same ladies were cuHtHHinicaiion being in^tde, the 

ttiavisittoMfit.middleton, sister to .plaintift""* eyes were so-:! opi:ued, l» 

•ir William Middleton, and uncle to his surprise aiii monificutiuii, by tim 

jbe plaintiff, at Ktoo, and it kippcu- elopement of his wite iti n. t'cw Anyi 

jpg that the Ascot nicea took phce aiterM-ards. Is one- of Airs. J.'s 

*llui time, the^ made a party to drawers he found, upon isiarch, a 

■dcoi, and were joined by lord M. letter, which left no fiirthei' dinibt of 

•ho was aAerwards introduced (o what hatl taken place, llie letter 

Mn. Mtddletua, at her hoiux:, Iwiii was-nearly as ttAlovvs ; 

liy Mrs. JaektoQ and Mis* Bishop, " I hope.ino^it cnmeitiy vary 

» a suitor of the btter yoong lady, -soow to see that mj' beloved Harriet 

Mr. J^ksou going down in a day was not the wufse»r the cxiiedittiiii 

Sftwo afterwards, a oimikir 'mtro- of yL-sterduyj J, wished very louch 

^Ktku look ptace betwtrea him and • to hove eallnl this morning to have 

WdM. llii^cBiUed^wveTalwat.ti. int^uired iil'tei her, hut tlioujlit if I 

atflO ANNUAL- mS.G I ST!E)R, 1803. 

did, I shcnid mAhaits tbe ptnmue br Ur. DeUai, fauBd a ■n^liet'^ 

-ofpassiog the evening with the only 2Od0L dtunaga agmnsttbc dcftD- 

iFomnn in die wtrld that I bnve ibc daot, with coats of auit. 

Binallest attachment to, an actuch- 14th. Abmit one o'dockjlo de 

•ineat so stmiig and £xcd, that no- ' great terror of the neigbbouduiat, 

thing in the world can alter. 1 never mora than fort}' feet insxtent ttflfae 

•csn be baypy till tie live together, h^h wall at the cost end of AH 

with that deSr little angel that so re- Saints church, Ncwcsstle, fell intD 

tembles thefigureoCUs deaiBst mo- Silver-street. Ithadloogshownm- 

,ther> it makes me quite miserable, dent sjmtptonis of docaj and Om' 

the thougbts of leaving, tou'n ; I bling, but the iq^cation of f-easo^ 

canoot bear to be separated from .able repairs was iilwayg focgodestc 

you, Tay love ; I hope it will not bt; - neglected. Some hcaises and wift- 

the case ; I am sure we conld be dows on the opposite side of tke 

happy togetber,and my ooljS;mdy the street have nmved daanase. but 

happiness of you, my adored Harriet, happily no lires were lost, nor w» 

^d the wet&re d your children, .any petion isjurud. Bat iboa^ 

Pray, my love, let me see you to- the living escaptA uiibuit, the oui< 

monowtftt isinyour power. J wiah hous of the dotd were dUturbed i^ 

very, vtry moch that we may meet the accident, wme oofiiBs wttk iliar 

tons when we shall meet not to part conteols accompanying tbe - soil, 

again. Perhaps you will not have which pressed upon the wall, infe) 

an opportunity of reading this before the street. 

I am obliged to leave you, therefore Jt was repeatedly observed, pcad- 
I will be in Hart-sbrect, atthe usual iug the ag^tlon of the union fa(- 
f^ce, at twelve o'clockto-mocron' i tween.the two kingdoms, that In^ 
piay come as soon afW as you cm ; Ia{id would never earnestly pume 
aiidbelicveme,mostsincetely,aflec- tboseoL^ts of commerce, agricul- 
lionately, and faithfully, yours ever, ture, and improvements in general. 
Id." which could alone reuder her pw 
The gentlemen on the other side pcrous aud <^ulent, until her parti- 
may ask why he did not bring Miss ment was iiiwrporated with that df 
Bishop forward to prove any part of (jieat Britain, This prophecy s«bi 
the case } His reply was, that she to l)e ^t accompliahiug. Nolungcr 
b«ng the sister of the fallen lady, distracted with parties, Qtrioging in 
and having been the pretended object a great measure from senatoiul ca- 
of lord M.'s addresses, his client bals, the sister coun(r)' now apptaii 
^vould sooner forego all the advan- to l>e centring \\a universal .■<W>' 
t.4ges he could derive from her tion in pursuits that niusLiiiatiw 
evidence, or even forego all damages years give her far more conseijueMC 
\vhatever, than commit such an out- tn the scale of nations. 
rage upon the delicacy of tbe young 15tli. As colonel SuUivfip «^ 
lady and the feelings uf her family.' returning to town on the EdK"'ate- 
Witnesses being examined in road, with bis tenant, io his pott- 
proof of the abote statement, and chaise, hewasstopjiediieartheHi^e 
the defendant , having allowi^I by two footpads', uhupresa.ied their 
judgment to go by default, the jury, pistols into tbe chaise to himi awl 
afux bearing an Ingenious defence demanded lus money : he icfWi 


CHRONICLE. , r ■ $61 

tfdM^ wasld tahfrthnr piMsds avaft Theannrerof cear-adn^ral Camp^ 

the? thntd hare wfaM \« h»d about bell to a ^ocstioD of the rmitinouA 

fain, sckI BCcotdin^y gave them hk riiip's company-Df ithe Temeraire, i> 

guioeii. B'.it.not , satis^ed witb one of tbeanost natural traits oftraA 

Ihu, they imitied «n taking a ^- navaldisdfKnc, after th&oldticliool, 

Rnnitedi:^ he had niih him. This thatweremeniber: upon the spokes- 

be refused them ; ppofi.whicli they man aiklng where ibe ship was 

fired inio the carriage, but, fortu- . going ' he replied. " To Hm if jAe 

DUilf.oa psrcdving them pt^ent, ^vr6end,vaA\ofmustgi>wvlkheTi'* 

be fell bark, and invaded the shots. We have no^v thebc^l gmunds of 

wtrich he instantiy returned, by Sis- hope, that a duer subordination will 

ciii;ging bis phtd atone: of them, be ellected, and mforced throi^- 

{loth dtccolotiel and his servant thm out our fleets, by the vieilauce and 

fMoutol the chaise, when a trial of unswerrii^ eaei^ which actnata 

ftrength ensiKd bennwn-thera and the present board of admiral^. The 

tlieir antagoni>.tf, which provinzun- naval cosncili of 1797 were fbuod 

bvoormUe to >be mffians, one of incampetent to this great and indis-' 

tfaeni drcn- anoiher tram bis pocket, pensable d>ity. Witli the best in- 

■nd i^Mt the oi^tKl in the breast; tention, no doubt, but .certainly 

not withstanding which, the contest under a most errine; judpoent, 

comlniicd, wluchatlast ended in the they permitted lord Howe ta hold 

total defeat of llie robbcre. TIk b parley, and aftcrwardx to condudfl 

colonal if but :iiightly wounded. a treaty with a delegation of muti- 

Mr.Northman, ayoong gentleman neer^ ; a negotiatit>n cmidupted 

flf fioad-itieet, whilAnkatiog abont under ceremonials so contcmptiUe 

lis o'dock (H) Monday evening on and ridiculous, that future times, 

the Sc-rpentiae riter, nnfortnnntetf webope, will Hot credit,, though wc 

advanced on a part of the ice which nt-thc present day must review, with 

was not tutiirtenily lirm, when both shame and regret! Postered \yj 

he and hit companion fell in. The this miserable pusillanimity, the 

laiter extricated himself with some spirit of disaifectioii aoon spread 

djfficaity; bat Mr. Northman sunk, itself to the Mediterranean, where, 

and perished under the ice. His however, itwas resistedbyadedsion 

body coaki aM beibund till dragged and fortitude, which, from the yard- 

bi, and; as soon as brot^t to land, arms of the mutinous ships, imme- 

'w^^ immediaidy placed ih a wami diaicly displayed, even otf the port of 

iatb, where every mode u^ed in si- an eiiemy, a prumpt and memorable 

nibr cases by the hu.iiane society tacritice to discipline and justice ! 

wa adopted i but, we are sorry to Tbe noble loni wlio so decisively 

My, in vain. crushed th^t daring revolt, ha[^ily 

Tbe trial of the remaining mutU for his country, was found at the 

■aeers, namely, John Allen, £dward head of its marine, when the last 

Tajtor, George Comayne, George mutiny broke out at Bantry-bay. 

won, James Bielly, and Ibumas Tlie measures that have been taked 

SinuDons, commcDced this day at fur its effectual suppression, were 

PonunoQtb. Tbe order was receiv- such as mi^t be expected from him 

cd by express at three o'clock in the only, who is enabled to improve tbe 

ncroio^ judgment of an enlightened states- 


»M, by tbe-eipaicLcc of 4e most ^"n. Db pi^ not Ms^i u «rf 

v%ilant and active oomiaandn. ttme it now nceeifoigl)' pKcmn : 

TWi morning . at Pammotitb, we thwrfoie condiiw, hHrably bej- 

*he yellow Sagj, the usual »ig. tngyoOTComfdiairaC. 

mil for punithmeat, vgre b^iabed '" Yoan, with homJIity, 

Bu botnl ibe TciqerairB, Faadda' - " IMii-ip^ Jaaamns. 

Ue, andMaJBltie. andtbefi^lowiDg' " Tft tho {Cw. Mr. Jonei." 
^isonen. oo^v!ctcd^)y a CDnrt»niar- 

tialaf mutiny, Andaentenced todia, " Jfc JHqettf'i Mp^ Ttn m vt . 

. ^rere brought ont (o safter deaU) : — , * Rct. Sir, 

CheMcnoun, CoUiDB, Uilliaal, ■i4 " We are hqw ready to bear jco 

l*itigerakl,.os board the Tenxnnre ; opn touitbownaMSWofwiidoa. 

Word on board the Majcatic; and in whote dmne antluir weikunto 

Miiyfield <Nt board tfae FoitmMAei piacc our aupreme coofideace, aaf 

liny appeared dt the pbtfonsertt:t' in vboie Krncc we with to b* 

ed at the bowt of the leapeetivB found." 

alnpsj deporting tkenuelves \riib Wbcn tbey came upon tfae pbl- 

' tbat apparent coqU itios and icngr- tana, a paper «-3i p i ea ented by OM 

BMion whidi becaniB theqi at a of them in tfae naoaeof fatnuetfaD^ 

raoBKot 90 ttvrfnl. Their coDilact fail unltappy oomrsdo. iHudr wai 

dnring the whole period of their cim- read aloud to the sfaip't caa^UT. 

AoemeRl bad- evinced the most per- It was aa Mlows: 

ion rsKiguBliDn to (ttcnr fate, asd a " Itenicnibcr yoor Aatf to God, 

■unsciousBcii] tbat their onence had and for his take to your king and 

nvniiedit. They had availed diem' country. Yon most be mAIi 

selves of lite a.-isistaitce of tbe ftev. vfaat wmt llie chief cauK ibit 

Mr.iliMie8icIj;api<iinoftheTcracrdire. brought on the fatal conieiiKLueet' 

The raanoei in which they applied wtilcl^ now end so tmhappUy &ir ni, 

for tiia pious oUices in their behalf, and with lo imch remorse to yon, 

will belt sham the atate of tiieir if' you rightly comider "bow much 

n^od;^ their hiunility, aod the calm you have contriboted, by yow i^ 

compaettrc with which tbsy antici- port and countenance, to bliDgal 

paled tbe drcadfiil hour. - Their ap- to this untimely end. ^ . 

i4ic«tieu wna by lettec, and in ins " We rdbasd to pat that tntil 

ulknviu^ terms : Md oonfideiiceintbewiadcHBofaaf 

" GhA*tor, Jan. y, 1802, rolcre, whiub isdne to them fttmt 

" Dear Sir, all ^ood inhjncU; tlicy watch i*' 

« Wg lake the liberty of thus the welfcre of us- all j andhowdamd 

kninbly beggiog you, in the uaine wc then prefer our own scMsh ptn- 

«f the Lord our God, to attend ui, sures andinterati to what they nw 

and ad^nui^ter unto :US, poor and neeeisan' for tbe pubKe good ! liow 

miserable tinuc^, the word of our OKjA we find in ear bean* to f«i^ 

blessed Redeemer ; aS tbe Eisue we Ait aD die pnisM and tbe lK>ai«n 

are now in is .of tbe iqoit «crioui which our country bad *« gratefiiUy 

n;itMro, our bodies not only being in bf«towed Upon her luval heton.wb^ 

dai^rr, but our unprepared souls ; bare » bfarriy iVio^t fnr lier ! 

therefore we humbly imploie. your '* H«w wwld-we-so ftxdisblysofr 

assistinaeon thitLUOtu.tU lute occa.- fcruur imiuticDCS. to get ibf fMUr 


ff Di, u, fot the sake of a fmv few -thousuid Englrsli had Riarched 

ponllu longer cervi«e, to sacriticc thither to nutore trnnquilli^r. 

ill lie bletsings of peace we had Od this day came on at the Old 

^tolling for these nine loDgye<ir« ! Balky, ihetrtal of Joceph Wall, esq. 

" Ob ! that wc Ipd made these chargtd with the wilful mm'ilo', 

rdedioBt looner ourselves ! but our wliih; he wai goveitior of Goree, of 

loiucKl— ourcouTiein lhi» world Benjamin Amistroiig, a scrjeant in 

isfiaiibed.— Make good iiscof what the Atricon corps, by ordering him 

rciiuiatof yquTHi-'ltcaniiotbelotig to receiifc 800 Wics, which woe 

bdbreweniust all meet againbrfbre the uuise of his detith. After an 

tbejudgmentteatof that God whom iDvestigalioDoftbc circumgtgnces of 

wthaveoflcodcd, butwbOi.wettuK, thit horrid alEur, whicii took placs 

tuj Kes and accepted our unfeigned neariy twenty ycaza b:ick, and lyhic^ 

KpeOajice, and will £cf^t-c kj, as engagod the attention of the court 

^B do truly and freely ibrgire all add the jniy tor more thnn iwctn 

those who hn'c anywise otlended boon, thepiitoiierwatfbuudguilty.. 

cr iajuied ui. Prepare yourte/Ka IJcath. 

also, di^ar countrymen, for this Sot- Tite rtxordcr then paued Ecatenca 

givene<», that when fre meet in the upon him, thnt he be executed f*- 

VDild to cooKj we may not meet nuttrmv -laoTning, and to be aoMo' 

in ereriasiing misery. miBKl, &c. 

" pray for us— we heartily piay The wretched man seemed sensi- 

tr you. Amen." bly aitccted with this sentcttct), but 

AltCT ooatiouing a short time in said nodiii^ more, than pmying « ' 

pc^er, a gon was fired as the fatal Uttlc time might be allowed him to 

^nal of death, and (he wretched prepare for death, 

am wme launched into eternity. [This trial at length, and soma 

l/ih. The aautiiieen wereoutbii acoonnt a£ govenwrWaU, in the 

dav,wiih tlieexccptioti'of Coimyne, Appcodt^.j 

fouad guilty of the charges against 27lh. A Icttet iront Quebetv 

th)xn,)nd adjut^rd tosuHtJcfeath: dated October 30, mentions the 

and Amayne, jn part guilty, to re- death of maj<v Impey, of the Ah 

oive 200 laihes, Tegimi:nt, in consequence of a dud 

11k uafortunale men seemed per' with ticuietiaDt WiitU, which origi' 

fjcily sensible of their guilt, and uatcil in a quain:! at the inei^room 

acknewlqfigt^ the joiticu t£ their on the ^th of The putiit 

fulcnce, — Sec Appendix. met on the following mumlrig, and 

axh. Private tetter* froni Paris the major fell at the tirst shot. Be 

tUie, '/ th>t iBitjof Hiaddeq, arrived lived tct) houri after receiving the 

in ttut city latUy froni Egypt, had wound, in ^re^t agony- lieutenant 

Wnugbi aq account that the grand W^is wqti immediately comiuitied 

ifiin, aud a pacha at Cairo, invited tQ )ffisoii, and was to Like hin Crid 

»Ililie bevj of Ka'Pi w a gnuid tcto (uward'j the end of November. 

u Caint, r]urii)g which a baqd of 3tJth. A few ininutr-s after eight. 

i'^'T^ tmtCFed the fyiii, aqd iqar- this moniiiig, tlie -uiifortun.ilc but 

dr-jnl all the b^s, which prodit«(l guilty goyntior Will wut lauiidied 

peat coquDotimw itt CbuVj an4 a iiuw ci^Auty. 


«6* ANNUAt REGISTER, 1802. 

On hisarrival at the scaffiild, wc m^ght indnce and enable to become 

lament to be obliged to record, that porcliafers of so magnificrat a csbi- 

ftree successive shouts of exwllation net of pictures. As Mr. Vdnj was 

and triumph bnrst from an innumer- one of the most eminent connoisseurs 

•ble populace, and which cridently and encouragcrs of the arts, a? well 

deprived the unhappy criminal of as a man of great hospitality, it s-ai 

file small portion of fortitude he h^ the intention of many amateurs and 

■DmmeQed up. Af'er banging a roy»l academicians to show their 

fiiU hour, one quarter of whicli was respect to his memoiy, by attending 

convulsive agony, his body was mt Us funeral ; but, on opening hii 

Arwn , pnt into a cart, and ctaiveyed will, it appears that his remains ate 

•way to be dissected.- directed to be interred at hi» famiij 

■ Dito. — On the Jih insf. at His vault in Scotland, 
lonse in Hertford-street, Moy-fair, 21st, The mnch-estCCTiied and 

•fter a long and Severe illness, cdebrjted Mr. Arthur O'Learydc- 

whictihe IxH^with uncOTtimon for- parted this life at the bouse ofi 

ta'tude, Robtrt Udny, esq. of Udny, particular friend (the widow of the 

(ytow of the royal end a'ntiqua- late highly respected general Josepb 

lian socif^ies. — Mr. Udny possessed Smith), where he was on a visit 

■iTery ample fortune, part of which from the moment of hisarrivalftob 

ht acqoirpd in commerce as a West Paris, whicb was a ftw days preced- 

India merchant, and part by sue- ing his death, 
eceding to a considerable ffimily 
estate in the north of Scotland. " 

Having entiy in life conceded » FEBRUAUy. 

passion for the fine arts, he distin-r 

^uished him^If by an elegance and Jst ItisnpweyactlyfinirTnonfti 

cdnrectnew nf taste superior to mort since the prdrminary artides of 

men of the present age. He twice jWace with' France were signed by 

made the tour of Italy, during which lord Hawke*ory, yet the ratiika- 

lime he had great opporturtities of tion thereof is stiU withheld. To 

pnrchasing many excellent pictures what to attribute rt)i« delay, tiie 

of the Wst masiers of the Italian public is totally at a loss, but it ho* 

■chool ! and .■» he spared no expense, seen with astonisliment, in this UD- 

and received much assistance from accountable intelval, an immeme 

his brother, who was consul-general armament dispitcbed by Bance for 

at Venice and Leghorn, he was the West Indies; ■ circumstance 

tnabled to make one of the most entirely new in diplomatic history. 
genuine and capital collections in 2d. Thef<)!Iowingjletcnccofll« 

Uits kingdom. — Mr. Udny's inten- conduct of the gaUant sir Edwar^ 

tion was to form a complete school Hamilton, the glorious recaplor of 

joT pflinting, in aid of the royal aca- the Herniione, and who was IsteJy 

demy i and be has left directiotis dbmissed the service on a charge of 

that his collection of pictures may cmelty to his gunner, has appeared, 

poi be separated, but he kept entire, and which wc most gladly girt > 

snd be disposed of to the royal aca- place to. 
drmy, or to some noblemanor gen- 
tk-man wbosc taste and opulence Ob^ 



Cop^ofthelettrT ofadmiralsMiich- be, nr, your most obcdieiit hombl* 

dl. Pale, and Culliiigu'uod, re- scrvauts, 

ifKctiag the inquiries wliich tfcfy " (Signed) A, MitcbcU- 

msdetoiiceriiingdiccireuniatances Ch. >L Pole. 

B-liich producediliecourt-mariul. C.CollingwiJod. 

•' Hit Mqiatys ship Trait, at "Mark Milbank, esq. admiral 

Sf»lh^, Jan. 17, 130a. of)i>e white, conunandor - 
■t Sir, in chief, &e, &c, Ike." 
" In pursuance of your <nder of The insurrection at Gultdnlonp^ 
jfsCerday's date, we liave been on we are sorry to hear, continues to 
board his msjesty's ship Trent, and rage with increased Aiiy, to the 
have made a very minute and parti' great ' detriment, of Jia^gli^ com-- 
colar inquiry into the cimimstaacc* merce, some of our merctiant ships 
repracnted in the letter from Mr. having been ca|Xurcil by the piiva- 
WiUiam Bowman, gunoci' of his teers from that island. The leader 
majaty's ship the Trent, to Evan of the rebels b a mulatto, named 
Nepean, esq. secretary of the admi- Pctagc, formerly a slave at Matti- 
nhy.bearing date the 11th JarHuuy- sii^ue. In 1792, when Lticrosse, the 
1802. exUedcommander in chid', instigatdl 
" And we iind captain sir Edward the negroes to rise against thnr ro3s< 
Hamilton had given very particular ten, Pelagi assassinated bis nwstreas, 
diTctioDE to tlie first lieutenant, on that he might plunder ber treasures. 
hisgoingoiHoftbesbipodSaturday, — In tbe next disturbances be 
the gih inst at nine o'clock, A. M. commanded a oDropony of midat- 
(<m duty), that the guns and car- toes. He afterwards enjoyed the 
riqetsbanld be run in, washed, and ooufidence of fiochambeaD. and 
dcaned ; and on returning on bonrd, defeudod with the greatest con- 
be found tbe guns and carriages on mge one of tbe redoubts of (he feat 
the quarter-deck not tdea»rd to hii Bmu-bon, when the English attacked 
opectatirai; on which he reprimand- it. Accoidtng to the last advices, 
ed the gunner^ and ordered him to the n^roes were on the eve of join- 
he tied upin (he main rigging, with ing the mulattoes, and a great coii- 
fbur men of bis crew, where he re- vulsiou was apprehended, 
munedabout an hour. And on hia 5th. A deputation of the prin- 
■ndicatioD, tbe suigeoo (who was cipa! inhabitants of Malta ba« ar- 
taentnlking the quaiter-deek) went rived in London. The object at 
lo the captain, and tbe gunner waa theirinissionis, toput their country 
then taken down rioia the rigging, under the protection and govemnKnt 
^he surgeon leports. on tbe gun- of his majesty : no doubt can cost 
MT'i being taken down, he fell into but that this overture will be accept- 
ibe arms of the man who cast him ed by his maje^y's miuisters,assQme 
<d^: he appeared to be agitated with small equipoise to the sovereignty of 
rotttiderable tremor, from cold ; he Italy, which the first consul ha» 
also appeared to be faint, which the acquired since the piriiminarica of 
wrgeon thought at the time lo be peace were signed. 
%«<*■ 7th. important intdligcoce bat 
" Wcherewith encloac the gun- just arrived from Lyons, wbiiA 
>ei'i letter, andhave the honovu- to cutes, that BoDapartc, in compli- 

tea ANNOAL REGISTfift, 1664. 

■ncewilhtheramcit soHcitations of Vnf of transports, prcnioions m 

the coniulia, has accepted the office fnilitaiT stom, for the island of St. 

ef prwtdcnt or supreme director of DomingD, 

fbe newlj constituled Italian repub- Bth.Betwern ht-o and tlire^ o'clock 

He.- He his on^ accepted tliis office- one c^ (he Margate hoys, bcloDgiof 

foe tea Tears, wilh a salary of to Mr. Sucketl, heavily laden wilS 

500,080 livrm per ann. but is in- corn, which was sttrwcd both in tha 

definitely teeligible to this »ove- hold and on deck, and thiny passen- 

K^tr!!! gcrs on board; beside ihc crew, 

At the end of November, Tous- ■ consisting of the master and fotrf . 

aaint'f relation (second in command) seamen, was ofTTtnkcn bytheiio- 

re»r(Jtci againrt him at the Cape, and lent gusts of wind, lietween Bifth- 

.ma^cred about 300 witites. Tous- ingtnn and Recnlver} the fitil ' 

«aint immedittely marched against unshipped her niddt^r on the sandi, 

lum from the soutfi, and made hhn when becoming imraanagcaUe ^ 

ptvoaa : he was instantly shot at kept contiounlly shipping the motl 

the mouth of the cannon, as were heavy teas, and was carried by the 

•everal other comnmndaiits who violence of the snrf towards (be 

were inimical to him. Toustsint is beach ; at this a\^'fi:il period the 

Mid to have amassed an immense kept rolling and pitching, and the 

jHoperty ; Iris treaiuiy at Port-au- crew, from their wish, if posiiblci 

IVince only is said to contain forty to prescne the fives of the paswn- 

Riillinns of doUars. He baa levied gtrs, particularly those of (he wonKti 

* duty of t^-enty per cent, on all and children who were on boani,_ 

inportsand export*.— He was a^t-are hatred down the hatchways. Shortly 

oftheespfditioacomingagainsthim after this the vessel stnick on the 

ftom France, which he was deter- beach, and filled, a tremcndocu s« 

mined to resist in landing. He has brraking o\-er her in aU directioiu, 

inm-ards of sixty tlioaund good dis- which washed Oeaily the whofc of 

oplined troops under his command, those upon deck ovetlioard, and. 

The grcate.«t regularity is obaervcd dreadfhl to relate, t\venty-five per- 

Mi the islatHl : every negro seen son*, consisting of men, women. 

Idling is taken up and sent to his and diildren, are said to have peiisb' 

own pbtitation, wnerc he is oUigerl ed. In the course of Sunday, ih* 

tt) work, and one quarter of the pro* bodies of nine of the suffered \me 

duce.isallowed them tiir their labour, (hrtm-n upon the shoir, and fbnrtf« 

and' they ire found to wurk much bodies have been taken out of tht 

better than when in sbyery. Tons- cabin of the hoy . Had it been daj- 

taint is much beloved, pariimlarly light, it is possible itian)* more livtl 

by Ijhe whites. He entirety main- might bavebeen saved, but Ihedirk- 

tains his dd master, who now re- ness of the night added to Ae cto' 

sides at HuladelphiH in grent sl>'le : mity. Amongsttbe'sufTeTeriareMi'. 

he allows him 3000 dcdiars per JtJin Goodburn, the innster, whoii 

■aondl. Iliey are well Nupi>)ied supposed to hnvcteceired a blow oA 

with all kindsof provisions andam- the temple trom theboom; Mr- 

munition. Tbomton. carpenter, of Margaii!, 

Admiral Gantbcaume has sailed with his M-ifc and son, whom lir 

froBl Toulon, «i(li five rfiips of tlie was taking nn to town to put out ap- 

lice, suBC liigat^ and a large cob* f renticc, and, torry wc arc to 'aj'i 

,■ ttqf 


Ac^ W.-left tit orfhUu A Uar* TbcMqaltaur, th«afficialTi«iHih. 

pie tc lament theii uatimdy eadi journal, fao* potitively denied that- 

Mr. Booc, cupenrer, uf Mugate; Hich a.coifM euttedin Egyptaa £»• 

the vile of Mr. Jacob, of Broad- naparte's ininabla : a mean at- 

itatni (be widow Crow, of tempt to obscure the glory of aur 

pK; &in. Tatnall, wife of Mr. brave tiuops. wito certainlj pmvedi^ 

TaioaUt at Tbc LoiA Nebco at ob tfae erer-matnoiaUe 3 1st o^ 

Bmueote; aod k sen-ant gir), ^itli a March, tliat it wat a ccnnplete nu- 

duid uncter bcr care, with whom nomtr. With respect to the *tan- 

(he was rdimuog to- town. The danl; however, thev ooocede tho 

fev nho wen ia\-ed ascended the point ; they allow that it was knit 

tbiondtj amongtt (beae was Mr. but uy it ihould not have bfen 

>iuckle, of' the lihrety at Broad- biou^t into the field on that day 1 . 

Oiin. Nothing could present a The captured itandard, accordii^:. 

marc awful ipeclacle than the rc« to Reignier (a Ficncb gooera], and 

pealed arrival atMargatc, on Sun- the historian of that campaign) waa 

ixjl, of various carriages with the that of tbc twenty -fintde mi-brigade, 

btt&s of the su&rcrc Irom the and covered with its militaiy »•. 

■nek. ' pk)iu ut Italy. 

o/ii. Tlic right honooiahle Mr. Jtji matter of sharp coatroveraf 

Mitford tt'as thia day declared chao- between ihe 42d Highlander* and 

oSlor of Ireland, in the roum of the tfae qucai's German regiment, t* 

laic call of Clare. which corps die gbiy of having- 

lOlh. The right honourable Mr. taken it'ot light belongs ; but tho 

AbbcU, late lecrclary t« the lord bent autltenticaled itccuunta agree, 

beuienaut of Ireland, wat diis day that Anthony Luiz, a private in the 

eiecttxi speaker of tbeliouKot'com- latter, brought the standard, at iha 

BUDi, in the loom uf &lr. Mitfoni. close uf the t>attlc, to the o^jutant- 

He is EW-cetided in hiij Irii^ silua- general, for which be received a gm- 

baiby Mr. Wickham. tificatioii of twenty doUait, and a 

13tii. As Mr. Dressing Ihe niet- certificate of the fact. Not kuow- 

icDgcr, w.-u on his last journey to iug liow to read ornriie, be couhj- 

Du^uis Conjwallis, be Wits fllanucd, not be piomoted as he othcruiso 

during (he nigh^ not tar Iroin Boti-, should, and asbisfonivtry merited.. - 

logoe, by tbc cries of the po!4boy, 13th. lltefulluwingdieadfutacci- 

«bo called out to Uim to" hie'." dent happened to the Sir Edward Ha- 

Uit horses stopping sudtleitly, be inUliiii rice-ship; cupl. Bobertson, 

fred a pistol out of each window, buund to Bengal : — In lat. AS. 44. S, 

lb>nkii^ be hacj been attacked by aiul 4U. E. long- sbc u'a» struck by 

highwavmcn; but on inquiry he lightning, which carrieil away the 

faaoA that the boy's outcry was oc- fure-top-gallnnt-maat, iJw'ercd tho 

caw»cdbytwawolves,juu;ofwbich lbre-t<^niai>t and Ibte-cap, and 

«leiiiptedtobitcbiElca,)«twatpie- went through the deck abreast ut' 

TCnted by the jack-boots uocn the fore-mast. It then spread below. ' 

by Froidi postillions : ihcy then tctling fire tolheiutilors'haauiiocks, 

udi Kiacd one of the horses by wrenching all the'iron from their 

the Qoie, and had {m appeared on cltc£l«, qnJ, taking a direitipn ul't 

cuffijnstioD) torn their li^ otf, into the cnbio. went oH'- ainoog the 

968 ANNUAI, REGISTER, 1804. 

wnu which weic in that part of thc^ estrem^ hTirt, and a MTgeon w» 
■faip with a dreadful explosion. Cap- obliged to be SL'nt for, wlio found 
tain Robert-ion aod tlie new, who him severely cut, and the blood 
fontinately were on deck furlicg flowing copiously. He dressed aud 
werysRil (it blowingahDrricaneat bound op the wound ; after which 
the mcoient), ihuiight the ship llie plnhiiiff agaih went to colond 
Wouniipi butthesmoke and sul- Ihomton, whoexpiwsed hissorroir 
phuri'u^ sinell haviog -ubsiiled, ihey for what he had done-, and oflered to 
Jiiuud 111? \( a!^ £Lill above the waves, pay tlic whole bill. Ihe parties then 
aiid, by tiirn-ly and spirited exer- shookhunds, and tbfcdciend-ml said, 
tines, tiu-y *iei-e !>'.:c.-c:.iftil in exun- he hoped there was an end of the 
guishintr till- flames. ■ The gale, dur- bHMneM. , The plaintiffrep.ieri there 
ing which th-; ahnning ncc:dent was. providtd ihe defenckmt wonM 
hapiieiied, lastt'i) for some days, and pay ihesu^eou's bill. Ihifithe de- 
was anconimonly seicrc. liendant ab«alulely refiised ; in con- 
l£th. I'.irma.Placentia, GuaMalJa, sequence of which ihs present action 
and a p:nt of Pi»linoni, are to be was broiight, 
inaorporated with the new Italian re- Ihe case wnsprovcd exactly im to 
public lliis addiiion to its ex-, the above statement, and the juiy 
tent and power will cause it to found a verdict for tho pkiniiff.^ 
niik high among the primary Damages 30/. 
states of Europe, and when we Accowxs from Sierra L«(ine,daled 
consider that it is placed under the I2i]i day ol Oectmber last, give 
tlie goveninieni and direction of Uie nnusi melnncholy stalenvnts d( 
France, iind undcrihe same master, the situation of that colony ; ithrf 
we may easily, in Kuch an ari'ange- been attacked by the natives, vbo 
mem, discover the genn of future fiii^bt with the greateMfury and r» 
disgetution and warfare. solution; they were however r^aik- 
17th. An action was brought by ed with great loss; but (he gover- 
Mr. Huguenin, a perfiimef, in part- nor and every while man in t& 9e^ 
liership u'ilh Mr. Bouigeois, in the tlement were wounded, Ihe Usck 
Kaymarket, against lUodcI Thorn- troops stood titm, and saved 0» 
ton, for an assault. whole ; the Canadians siTfl«rcd con- 
It appeared that the defendant had siderablyi and the inlbmtant adds, 
formerly owed iho jilainiitt a sura of Uiut they were in bouily expectation 
monf^, which, by die subsequent of a fresh asuult, and ' troubled f«r 
•ale of several ariitles of perfumery, the coneetiuences. 
amounted to S/, The plaintiff wait- Miller, alias Bower, one of ^ 
*d upon ihe dH'endaitl al his lodg- muiineersandmurdcrersof theHer- 
ings in Cockijitir-street for pay- mione, has been tried at Pdrtsmoodi 
ment. Thi- dekndant admitted the onboard the Gladiator, and convict- 
charge for the articles last sold, but ed. He is adjsdged to be hanged- 
mfused to pay for the former. The 20th. Our naval warfare '"tS 
plaintiff in Fiihtfd upon payment for most probably dose wkh an aocount 
his whole bill ; upon which the de- of a most britliaut and dari^at- 
fendant struck him a \ery violent chii^vement in ihe East fndies, bf 
blow in the face. Ihe plaintiff was capuia Charles Adam, ofhimuijc^ 



V frigate La SybUlc, and ton of Mr. Manners Siitton, solicitor ge- 
Warwn Adam, esq. of Lincoln's- neral to the prince of Wales, laid a- ' 
kiB-fidd«, the pHiticulars of which statement of the iituation of tuB 
tiepat received in the following let- royal highness before the house of 
to fiom Bo'mbaj, datnd Oct. 8th, commons, with respect to his claims 
1801 : on iu justice, for the arrears due to 

" Advices were received on the him from the dutch/ of CornwiU, 
9th hist, from Madras,<Utedtlte22d and other revenues proceeding from 
uh. itating the capture of the French it, which have hithcilo be«n wiih- 
Mlional frigate-La Chiftronne, of 42 held, and whicli, if appropriated to 
guni, by his majesty's ship La Sy- the me of his royal highness, would, 
biUe, captain Adam, on the igtb of enablebim to reassumebisestablish- 
Aagust, at the SeyclieUes, after a ments, and taiisfy his creditors. Htf 
ipritedconflictof nineteen minutes, was followed on tlie same side hj 
Ptivaie letters mention the gallant Mr. Fos and Mr. Pitt, who fiiUjr 
behiTiourof capt. Adam, in boldly cwncided with him inthefaimess of 
poifaing into the harbour under the statement, &c. ; and tht papers 
French colours, Dotwithsianding the relating tliereto were referred to d 
mnrowness of its entrance, and other committee of twenty-one of th4 
natural tUfBculties, until be ciiirie members of the houso. 
wiihin half a musket shot of tlie The list of the royal navy, at pre- 
taemy, wbct was moored across, and sent, is as follows : Admirals, 133 ^ 
defended t^ the battery of four post-captains, 537; cornnianders, 
iweke pounders on rfiorc, from 412; lieutenants, 2394. 
>4uch red-hot shot werefired during This morning, W. Miller was ei- 
theaction; fortunately none of them ecuted on board the Retribution, al 
tuoched la Sytnlle. Our loss is one Spithead, pursnant to his sentencej 
man killed, two wounded ; that of for beingconccmed inthcmuliny oa 
■Ik enemy, 26 killed, 30 wounded, board the Hermione ftigate. It is a 
hisiobc regretted that most of the tingularcircuiustance thathewasex- 
fcwof the Chif&onne escaped on eciited on board the very «hip. where 
"larc. Jt appears tlut ibis frigate he committedtbecrimeforwbicbhe 
uikd from Nauts the 14th of April sulTered. 

*iih couvtcis, to the number of Napper Tandy has at ten^ been 
ihirty, under sentence of banishment liberated from his confinement, and 
^ being concerned in the plot was to embark for Bourde^ux, ir or^ 
against ^naparte. I^ ChiHronne der to reside in France. His libcr- 
Oftored, on the 19th of May, a Por- ation is imported to have been ef- 
I O^DOc Jrigate mW en flute, and fected in consequence of an applica- 
LlbnBcllooa, of Calcutta, on the I ijtli tion made by the French plenipo- 
IcfJone; the former of these ships tcntiary at Amiens to that cflfect. 
Fvu Uberated after allthegims were He travelled fi6m LifFord by a cir- 
I overboard and stores taken cuituus route, and anived at Wick- 
' I latter escaped the vigihnce low escorted by a; party of light 

(NKiusers, and arrived &ife at dragoons. 

•kl^itius. 24tli. " The queen Ann's farthing, 

" I«CfaifironDe ia representrd ns advertised to be disposed of in Pall- 

qu^leanew ^hip, copper-bottomed, maU, proves to bean original. There 

I'd a remarkable ^t sailer." wcie only Iwo coined in that queen's 

Vol. XUV. B b rrign. 


Ai{Di tnd nnt tkret, m had bun er- atfinjig the bonx, faaai fact mii- 

ToiKPUsly Etatol. 'I hat whicl> wsf tieas nnirdered in the partoor: tlie 

f(A4 by tbe lerjesnt from Clulhani girl mis Uicnattactel, and dispatch* 

ier 4001. was ptirdinsed by ■ noble cd aha A Mt. Elwooit, an ddal|r 

viKtmnt, curJoiu Id hts Klection of dergymao, who lodged in tbe nppo' 

coioi, &r. Seven hundred guioeai partof ihehouiie.hearing dicshrieki 

v-as ihepricB asked for the one ad- ofthcidaid, came do^vn italn, jmt 

vcrtbrd last vn^k. t'iw huodfed fouod both mistress and maid vnelia- 

wasofTerad for it, andreiiued. the ing in thdr blood in > slate sbociin; 

ewqcr lives' at hynn, in Norfolk, to be detcribed. A ytmng nun, 

The o0hr was made by the son of a nephew to Mrs. Eostsce, who dietnl 

^onet, who wants to comidote hii andlodgrdinthebonse, bMbeena[)- 

collection." prebended on intpicton and lodged 

Sudi was tlie attention excited bjr in Peter's wntch-iiouse. It ioet not 

tb« above paragraph, in common appear that the boasetru robbed of 

with many others of the same ten- any one article o£ valne. 
iency, ii^at the fact E;ained uaivarsnl The Iwig-dcpending: liligntfao be- 

erediti nor was it liil some time bad iween tlie creditor* of Dmry-law 

dapiod lliat it was found that tbo theatre and tlie proprietors thertof, 

whole was a £ibrication, intended was tliis day tcmnnated to tbeiaiii- 

etlher to intpoM upon the credulity faction of all parlies, the lord cbu- 

of the public, or, which is the more cdlor having made a find ordff, j 

likdy coojuture, to euhince the which ii, that thcclaimantsare lobt | 

value of Buch a coin to tbe holder, paid by a nightly reservation en tJ» 

who was doubde« a party to the de- profits, after paying iJie current e»- 

eeption. Mr. Laoke, whose aulho pense of that night. 
rihr must be decisive on the sabject. An attempt wai made to dwtrt^ 

inhisHiitoiyofEnglishMoney.aays, the town of Boston, in NewEnglsod. 

that duriag^disreignofqut-en Anne by firr, when several buildings wire 

there were Somt/etf efpper halfpenct consumed, and a great many Bia 

aadjarthings coined, and gives a de- weiie endangered! '"'t "be oiJy suf- 

tcription of them, p-igflOo, 40fi. fererproixd to be a child about four 

ImoA. edit. i;4J. From this ac- y«irs old, who had been put to bed in 

CouBt it should «em that the half- the upper part of a house which WJi 

pence are as rare as the fiu'thii^e, consumed. On the liillowing csra- 

and that neither are so mndi to as to ing a still more dcsptnitc atlfinpt 

bear any extraordin.iry price ; in wa* made for the destruction of tit 

fact two of die latter, indubitably ge- city by forty daring inrendiaTi»,*i» 

nuinc, were not long since sold in a set it on tire in foorditTerenl pBt^i 

wdl-Iinown coHectioa, and not ap- but a prompt iiiipply of water ai*^ 

preciaiecl at more than a guii-.twcadi. engines had bsen kept rtad? in c""- 

Dutlin. On the istli, a Mrt. seciuence of combustibles b.irin? 
Eustace and her seivani-maid were been found in various parts of th< 
both barbarously nnu-dcred, between town, and their plan was happily ''«- 
ten and eleven o'clock at night. This feated, though rciy cons ide.--.ble da- 
unfortunate woinnn, who lii-ed at mat;e was done. A l«rsonh3"b«-'" 
No. (J, Pcicrs-row, it appears, had ajiprehcnded on stRpirbn rf Ixi'^i 
fient her maid for some portcK. vfa* oneef theintieiidianct. 


IirthetfirirtnTkin^'s bench, Mr. of her promisr^ etttimtting his di- 

VnttrbrragbtaiiaaioaagniDstMiss magesat lO.OUu/. Afttraloagand 

Mdli>Ii. The plaintid' in this case minute tnvuii^lion of the erideDee 

is a nrreno and apoihecan- at High- on each side, the jury retirtd for > 

ptt ; thr dctcndaiic a yoting lady of shm-t time, and returned a tct- 

thc most Hegant aivomplishtnents dictfortheplainiiff— Damves 200^ 

and bautirnl pt^ton. The action The trial lasted till ten odock at 

was brought to recover a compcnsa- night. 

tion in damages for the injury t!ic General Clsodc Martin, who latvljr 

fimtiff had sHstaincd, in conse- diedat Lackuow, inthe East Ibdict, 

tftoKx of Miss MfUiih's refusal to has, by his last will and testament, 

JwfiKm a promise which she made bequeathed the immense »am of iik. 

to nurry the pbintitK It appeared, hundred thousand Sicca rupees in 

in the courtc of the trial, tiat the various pensions and legaciet. The 

(faimilf wai introduced to the ac- bulk of the general's fortitne Kt raid 

(fnaintaoce of the young lady by the to amount to thirty-eight lacks of 

■wnt of a fiimily with whom he rupees, the whole of which, with 

was in ihe habits of friendship, and few exceptions, is appropriated to 

tt whose house she was on a visit charitable purposes. The total, ia 

»boot two years since. Mi^s Mel- sterling money is 47i,OOOl..' 

Kdi being under age, and entitled to Dibd,— On Wednesday morning 

■ considerable fortune, was undvr the 2(1 of this moiith, at his house 

the protection of iier two brotlirrs, in Brook-street, Hanover -square, 

Sfntiemen of the greatest rfsptcta- the right hoiiocrable Welbore Ellii, 

Wity, who, on iwing informed that LL. D. F. R. S. baron Mendip ia 

ibeplaintirt'pnid his addresses, for- flomcriielshirc, and a trustee otibe 

bade Jiim the actiuaininnce of tlieir British museum. His Lordslup wta 

••Iter, and he promised, upon the a younger son of the right rererend 

hiDourofagcntleman, that bewouhl doc[orEUis,whoU'a!<bt4lHipof MtMk 

nol urge his suit n^»inst iheir incli- in Ireland, at die unne time that his 

nation i the acquaintance was then brother, an uncle of the deceased 

fir a dion time broken off, nnd tlie )ord|Who had emhraeed the KomaA 

pbiaiiffpnid bis addn-sMn.'i tv a young cathdic religion, and fallowed the 

Wyio liis neighbourhood, biit fortunes of iho Preietjder, enjoTed 

<l«*arged the houie of hrr father nn cccleiiHsiical dignity of iiitnlar 

from some circnnMances in his style rank in ftaly. Mr. ElKs was edu- 

of liring whidi did not meet with cated at Wertminstcr school, and 

tiii approbation. On ilils he found was admitted a king's scholtr on the 

■tKmsto renew his former prcfes- foimdotioiiot'lhat antieut seminary, 

WiwioMlss MeUi:<h, and so far in- In the year 17^3, being then four- 

gntfateii biiRtelf into her favour fcen years of age i from whente he 

^ia, iR tt) obtain a proraise that was elected, in 1732, to a sludect* 

wewoiiUl inwiyliimonthe 12t])of ship at Christ-chvirdi, Oxlordi He 

IJfcanber last. Brrtious to this resided at the univeriity for some 

da^ananoiiymnnslstlerwiisreeeived years after Iliis matriculationv and 

l^-MissMeJlish, whieb indixerfher proceeilfil regularly to his degree* 

to tiank ilir plitintitf Kid ireaied her of badiclor and iiiMter of arts. In 

Unworthily, and she therefoty re- ? short time after qnttling the uw- 

jeriedhim. ill co'iseqiirnceof wliich versity, he c;niic into par;i.inient, 

tc linaight hii action fur the faihue and in tlie year 174B, be was ap- 
fib2 poiutcd 


pcrinted a lord of, the admiralty ii 1770. Mr- EHis was again "ap- 

under Mr, Pelham's admiiiUt ration, p linted a vire-treosiirer of. Irrland, 

miccceding to that situation in the which Mluatioii he filled unlB 1?P7, 

room of Mr. George Grenvillc, the when he was made trrasiirer of the 

father of tl>e present marquii of navy. At the close, of lord North's 

Buckingham, who was promoted to ministry, in February 1733, when a 

■ scat at the treasury board. Mr. change was imiversally foreseen, and 

Ellis continued in this office after many of the members of admitiittra- 

Mr, Pelham's death in 1754, when tion had (juitted their stations, eilher 

the duke of Newcastle succeeded to' from apprehension, or the hope of 

the first station in the ministry, until making their court lo the triumphant 

Deccmbe-1755, when he resigned l>arty, Mr. Elli^ at the «pren 

his seat at tlie admiralty, and be- dcsii-c of a great personage, was pre- 

cameavice-lreaSorerof Ireland. He vailed on to acceptthc office of 

enjoyed this situation, notwitlistand- secretary of state for the colonies. 

ing the unsettled state of parties His slay in this office was of '■ety 

during the intermediate time, until' short date, lord Rockingham and d» 

I>ecembcr 1763, and, in I7t'3, was opposition succeeding lord North 

appointed secretary at war, on Mr. and liis friends in the following 

George Grcnvillc's becoming first month. This was the last political 

lord of the treasury. On the dis- situation which Mr, P;ilis filled: 

tuDlution of Mr. Grenville's ministrv On the coalition between lord North 

-n 1765, when the marquis of Rock- and Mr. Fox, he was one of the few 

Ingham succeeded 'to the belmxif old friends of his lordship that ad- 

govemment, Mr. Ellis resigned the dercd to him : and though he suc- 

otfice of secretaty at war, and re- cceded to no place in the minisiry 

■umed his former _ appointment as »hieh fo'lowed that arrangemfnt. 

vice-treasurer of Ireland, in M'hich their measures met with his M 

he continued until October in the support and concurrenoc. When 

following year, when his rcEignation Mr. Pitt came into ppwer. in De- 

inade room for the present colonel cember 1793, Mr, Ellis followed the 

Barr6, In the August preceding, fortune of his friends ; and at ihii 

the- duke of Grafton had superseded period, after an active political Kfc 

loid Rockingham in the premiership, of 44 years, be saw himself, tor the 

and, during th<^ administration, Mr. first time, in opposition. He con- 

EUia held noolSce ; but he continu- tinned steadily to supTort the mca- 

ed, nevertheless, lo give a warm and snres of this party, mitil the sdiisiR 

activp support to government, as ap- which took pbcc in 1793. on the 

pean from the letters of Junius, m subject at" the Frendi rerolulion and 

which, on several occasions, Mr. the late war, when Mr. Ellis, whose 

, Ellis's name is treated with consider- principles and disposition equally 

able disrespect ) but the day of led him to disapprove of the coa- 

pdttical prejudice, as to those trans- duct of iJie Frtmch nilers, joined with 

actions, is now past, and the virulent the duke of Portland and Mr. Burke 

abuse of that political writer ne in giving countenance to the system 

longer fiiies a stigma or reproach, of administration. He was, hoivever. 

On the accession of lord North to now too far advanced in years ti> 

tlie first acat at the treasury board, take an active put in the politics of 


ttiedar, and, on the mtroductinii of 

dw diikc ofPordand into the cabi- MARCH. 

net.bewas, withniany otht^rsof hU 

gnoe's frirnds, CTcaied a peer of the 1st. Tlie ralifiration of the trea^ 

lalm. From this time this veteran of peace witli France is still with- 

futesman led a life of learned ease held! 

ind dignified retirement, contenting Gov«niinent hai'C atlength receiv- 

himself wiifa the society of his pri- ed an ofGcial inlimation of the ac- 

laie friends, and reaping the fruits cession of the court of Sweden to 

<^ a good edacation and well-spent the convention of Petersbureh, As 

Etc. His lordship was, through the accession of Denniark had pre- 

life, of an active and diligent turn of viou^ily taken place, all diftcr- 

mind, a correct and accurate, though ences between ihis coiinliy andthe 

D« an doquent speaker in parlia- powers of the north are lerminated. 
meat ; and, notwithstanding his' An officer wns lately killed in 

ctmnection with so many admiaistra> duel in tlic wood of Boulogne. Hla 

tioos, and his long familiarity with name was Knoring, a Livonian by 

cffice, of spotless and irreproachable birth, and he had been aid-de-camp 

integrity. It was his principle in to general Ouitinot. His adversary 

general to support the measures of is an Hanoverian gentleman. TTiey 

goTtinment ; but his political opi- each fired four tinns, and in the fifth 

nions weic ever consistent, and his shot Knoring received the fatal ball 

pditical attachments were firm and inhis heart. Heisextremelyregrettod 

imshaken. We may search in vain on account of his virtues and his 

through bis long life for any derelic- valour. His family is one of the 

lioD of principle, or any abandon- noblest and most powerful in Li- 

ment of connection. His lordsiiip yonia. The dilel was caused by the 

was one of the most complete revival of a dispute which hid oc- 

dassical scholars of the age, and currcd between ihe parties when at 

on eicry subject one of the best college.'solongngoas fifteen years. 
informed men ; and the library 3J. Two actions were brought 

which he has left behind, is perhaps by Mr. Waddingtou, in the court of 

the most numerou« and valuable common pleas, against Jlessr?. 

rate collection in the kingdom. Upton and Francis, for non-fu)fil- 
private life his virtue* were not ment of contracts, by which llie 
to be exceeded. He was of a defaidants had agreed to sell and de- 
domestic dbposition, a most pffec- liver to the plainlitf the prerdOC; of 
tiouate husband, and a fatherly several acrca I'f gMund planted «'itli 
. friend to every branch of his family, hops, at a certain rate, Ttie court 
Hii lOTdahip died in the Sgth year of was of opinion that those contracts 
his a^, and 'is succeeded in his were calculated unfairly to enhance 
jtiile wd csiiltes by his nej*ew, lord thepriccofan ariieleofhigh import- 
discount Clifden of Ireland, the aoce ; and tlie jury accordingly gart 
peient member for Hcytesbur)-, in both ca^cs a verdict for the de- 
wdsoa-in-lflwofthe dukeof Marl- fendant. Mr. Waddington had ten 
wroogli. ■ other actions of a simular nature to 
B b 3 bring 


bring forward, which arc of course 
decided by iheat verdicW, 

Mr. Beckford's pictiwes, which 
«tre lold at Cluislie's, lold idciably 
■w-cU.— The Hearths brought fiTtt 
Kuincasi the Dcjtmira and ccDtaur 
V^i theLucrctia, by Guido, 1^0; 
the situU piece of SalvalQT Itosa, 200 
^ncas; and every other picture uf 
celebrity in the tame proportion. 

5th. in coosequcDcc of dispatches 
ftom the ma(qui» of Cornwallis, 
orders were sent off to Plymouth, 
Yarmouth, Shwrness, and Horls- 
roouth, to victual and prepare for 
%e^ immediately every aiup of war 
that is deemed fit for service : tUcy 
are to beprovisioned and eijuipp