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Full text of "The annual register of world events"

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THE 

ANNUAL REGISTER, 

OB A VIEW OP THE 

H I S T O R Y, 

P O LI T I CS, 

AND 

LITERATURE, 

For the YEAR 1808. 



VKIMXEO TOa W. OTKIDCE AIID tOM ; LOHOMAK, nUR5T, niU, AND 

oKMC, B- cKtuBT; J. sell; j.cdthell; lackinqtok, allen, and 

.CO. ; X. JCFFEBT; VUmOB, BOOD, AXD SHADPB; J. AlPEnwi'; 
AMD '■ VADLBES, 



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0^, dbO J>-a- . 



Printed bv < and \ St. Jobn'a Sqnvc, I 

, c. w. wuioK, y 



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PREFACE. 



JIN the liistoi^ of 180S, the great object of attcntioa is 
Spain. Spain is tfae ceotre around which we arrange all 
other countries in Europe; and we take more or less inte- 
test ID them, accor^iHfi*lo the reUtioa in which they stand 
to the theatre, /fa^whKJi thevcoptcst*1)ctwcen liberty and 
tyranny is to be' del^niined. - This exhibits to our view a. 
striking mixture dfpatriotiam'aQd' corruption, exertion and 
ronissness, precaution and improvidence, heroism and cow- 
ardice. Patriotic ardour, however, prevailed, on the whole, 
over corruption; and though new levies of peasants were 
apt, on most occasions, to consult, as was to be expected, 
their safety by flight, the amor f atria, and the bravery 
of many thousands of Spaniards were carried to the higliest 
pitch of glory ; and formed an early and fond hope, tbat 
if some character pre-eminently energetic and great should 
be produced by the present contest, and the patriots place 
him at their head, aad trust themselves entirely to his 
directioDj the Great Peninsula might be saved, and the 
tide of fortune turned against the tyrant. Such were the 
expectations of humanity afYer the Brst efforts of the 
direction . of provincial juntas. At the present moment, 
the minds of men, accustomed to anticipate future by a 
retrospection of past events, are agitated between hope and 
fear, according as they turn their views to the progress of 
conquerors, or the prosperous success of those who, con- 
tending for liberty, have made head against them. 

AVhen a great and populous nation, possessing extensive 
jet compacted dominions, is roused to arms, and breathes 
1 conquest, it has generally been 
3le. Multitudes are united under 
produces able commanders ; they 
es of stratagem and attack over 
! only renovates their spirits, in- 
flamet 

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ii PREFACE. 

'flames tbeir passions, and with their 8treng;th increased 
their pretensions. They go on, conquering and to con- 
quer. The Persians under Cyrus were irresistible: the 
Macedonians under' Alexander were irresistible; so 'were 
the Romans; the Saracens who invaded Europe from 
the south ; and the hordes of Tartars that have poured at 
different periods into the north of Europe and of Asia. 
To come nearer' to our own times, and a case the most 
Bimilar in history to what is now alluded to, Charlemagne, 
triumphing over all confederation and resistance, carried 
his conquests over Europe to the banks of the Vistula — 
precisely to the territory fliat witnessed the peace of Tilsit 
in 1807. Scarcely had that great and enterprising prince 
remitted his exertions for the farther extension of his empire, 
or ceased from aggression, when the Norwegians and Danes 
appeared, and made predatory descents ou the coast of 
Aquitaine. In the reign of his successors, they effected 
settlements in Sicily, Naples, France, and (rreat Britain : 
thus proving still the truth of the maxim, that enthusiasm 
and t^gression usually'prevail,over the power attacked, or 
combinations among different powers for common safety. 

On the other hand, the spirit of liberty, in as many or 
more instances, and some of them against the most fearful 
odds, has proved invincible. Not to multiply examples 
which will readily occur to readers of history, the Dutch 
. maintained or refined their liberty, after a struggle with 
both the branches of the House of Austria, then in the 
zenith of its power, continued for half a century. The 
mountaineers of Cbiti were not to be subdued by the arms 
of (Iharles V., nor those of his successors, to tliis day. 
Whatever be the issue of the present contest in the Penin- 
sula, it is proper to record the efforts of patriotism and 
courage, aiid the resources of necessity — we had almost 
said, of despair. 

While doubts and fears.wcre entertained that the poli- 
tical independence of Old Spain was hastening to a period, 
a gleam of hope arose, that, in alt events, the Spanish name 
and nation would still be preserved in both Asia and Ame- 
rica — plus ultra. 



THE 

ANNUAL REGISTER, 

For the YEAR 1808. 

THE 

HISTORY 

OF 

EUROPE. 



Tit P^iiaaiaaaiy preeteditigt ofMt Year, a naturd Bon4 <^ Con- , 
wrini hetwten Ike great EvenU ^ ^S07and imB.—SpeeeA/rom the ■ 
Tlavmr.—DebaUi ikenwt m hiah Houtea. — Mnrd in du Petri pi/ 
OkE^tI vfGtUUm^.— Amendment WMiedb^ the Duke ^Nor/elk.— 
Ihia Am e n dm ent eexondedbi/ Lord SidmotUk, — Opposed bu the Earl 
»f Aberdeen, — Supported by Lord Gramlle.— Opposed by Lord 
Hnrleabnryj— Supported htf the Earl of Landrrdale.—-Oj>poted ty 
Lord JUnlgrme.—The Anun^nent rejected.— rh the House of Com- 
HMM CJu Addreaimooed Jy Lord HamUlon^-^Motionfor the Addrea 
ottmmdtd by Mr. C. EUu. — Obeervationt by Lord Milton respecting 
lie Attack on Copenhagen.— Speteh of Mr. Ponsonby, midI\'otice of a 
Motion respecting the qffair of Copenhagen.— Ttte Addreti ivpported 
Iv Mr. Milnti.—Strieturu on the Addreaa by Mr. Whitbrtod. — 
Spetxk ef Mr. Qmning m enpport of the Addrew.—Lord H. Petty 
agminM the attack on Copenhagen —Mr. Bathunt ditio.—Mr. iVind- 
inm ditto.'— Reply of Mr. Perceval,— The Question carried without a 
Dinoion. — Report y the Address. — Fresh Debates. 

THE wnnderfiil erenls (hat had were broogtit into discuasioo in tlie 

come to pass on the continent int)i«rial (Mrharoent of Great Brilaiu 

sf £ur^>e is the sumnier and aa- und Ireland, that was a^spnihled on 

teaiBoTieor, formed a great por- the 31st of January, ISOS. It i-i 

tioa of the rartous snhjecis tlial ibercfore prop«t, in lh« hisltfrj' of 
Vol. L. [B]- (his 



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2 ANNUAL REGISTEK, 1808. 

this year, for tlw sake of order, of Ibe «tieiny to cniupel tke courts 

both chronological and natural, in of Denmark and Portugal to lub- 

tbe finl place to give mme account scribe their navies to a general coo- 

uf Itie proceedings and debates of Tederac^ about to be formed against 

this great national council; the this country. This formidable 

only great council in Europe in conibinalion had been frustrated 

which political afivirt could be treat- with reelect to Denmark by force, 

ed with freedom. Tlie attention of' of arms. The hostile sentimeuts 

parliament towards the close of the of the court of Denmark, eviaced 

session wasrouzed with equal impor* iti many ways for some years past, 

tunity by the most unexpected eveiits bad rendered every other mode of 

in the west ofEurope: eventswhich proceeding useless. It was an iin- 

geemed to be as fortunate and brigiit, fortunate circumstance that the 

as those in the north and east bad Danish fleet should be cndrcled by 

been disastrous and cloudy. Tliough the walls of the capital. Ibereby 

therefore parliamentary afiairs con- causing misfortune which every bu- 

slilute only a secondary and subor- man mind would wish to bave 

diuate part of the history of Europe, avoided. But it was creditable to 

in the present case, they form a the amis of this coanlry, and nieri- 

very natural bond of connexion be- torious in the oflicers commanding 

tween Ibe great events of 1807 and the expedition, that every attempt 

those of 1608. was made to prevent that evil. As 

TIte apeech from the throne*, soon as success bad enabled us to 

delivered by commissioa, turned as judge fur ourselves, every predic- 

luual on the great public questions tion of goverunient had been veri* 

thi|t would come under discussion tied. An aisenal was found to be 

in parliament ; llie mosl important over supplied wilh erery article of 

of which were the expedition to equipment, magazines replete with 

Copenhagen ; our relations wilh stores, ascertained to have been 

Riissiu, Austria, and Sweden; the purchased by agents of France, and 

tle|)arlure of the royal family of demonstrations which could not 

Portugal for the Brazils; and the escape the eye of seamen, that the 

orders in council respecting neutral fleet was on the eve of bein^ fitted 

commerce. In llie house of peers out. It was gratiiying to reflect on 

anaddress,in answer to bis nwjesty's the means that bad been employed 

speech, was moved by the earl of to securethe navy of Portugal from 

Galloway, who recapitulaled with the grasp of France, by recoiiP- 

great approbation its most promi- mending to the court to transferllic 

■lent features. In the speech from seat of their govemmeut to the 

the throne, their lordsliips had been Biazib ; to see one government of 

informed, that soon afier the treaty Europe preferring emigration to sub- 

of 'nisit hud announced the dire- mission to France, an event from 

liction of Russia, of tlie cause she which, provided a strict frienddiip 

had espoused, bis Majesly's minin- andiibcralpolicyahouldbeobserveH 

lers received the most positive in- by both Britain and Portugal, the 

formation that it was the intention most beneficial Rsults were to be 

* State Papers, pise 196. 

eipected 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 3 

tsputtd. It was gradfyiog also be, " we must make a stand some- 

b niecl, that al the very iDDmcDt where, and where can wc do it bet- 

•ka «w merciiatib were deprived ler than in defence of our seamen 

ttAat tnde with Ruiua, so large and our trade, which the Anieri- 

■ pwtionaf the continent of Anie- cans unequivocally demanded I If 

■ici wu thrown open to their enter- America prefer F/encb alliance to 

prin. He hoped that we should British connection, it is not in your 

kcMK iadapendent of Rniua for power to contiroul her choice, nor 

ffx. If the laJslatnTc of these can you prevent that war which I 

Iaed«im wowtd grant a liberal ^ not wish to take place ; but 

bo^Htjte enconiage tlie cultivation ' which, if it does take place, I am 

«f heap and flax, both at bome and confident, ifpursued by us with 

> the Britbh coloniei, we might judgment and reference to the 

^el Eve to greet the day of our Amencan character at>d situation, 

^iiU .wiUi Rnsua, andicven bail no man need to fear." But lord 

•ilh Sitts&ctMm the inau^icious G^Uoway observed, our chief con- 

iiMyafT9sit. cera was with France ; "Slle pro- 

Wilh icqKd to tlw other powers daimi, my lords, that she wfll 

•'Eampe, lordGallowayobserved, not lay down her arms, but will 

te with the single eicepltoa of augment her force until dw 

SatdtB, they were prostrate at the has con(]uered the libtrty of the 

fctlefFnsKe, and obedient to the seas, the first right of all nations. 

■ndatcs of their domineering In recommending to us an armed 

■■>er. Bat tbe coodnct and spirit truce, which she calls a peace, slie 

rf the iodcpcwfent monarch of says, *it ^11 endure umil &he 

Sn4cn merited evoT eulogium. clHwses ttf proclaim anew tbe prin- 

Be frnsled that a British force doles of her armed neutrality,"' 

>obU aid liini in the Bitttic to defy when she permits you to proclaun 

til e a em iea, and timt British grati- your principles of maritime law. 

tiidt would compensate any loss be Is this what you are willing to ao> 

■■(ta be oUiged to lofler, by ttans- cept as your jjcace I Have we al- 

fcmg to him some of those coIo- ready forgot tbe peace of Amiens} 

M we could so well spare, and Do we wish to see (be seamen of 

■>N soon take from oor joint joes. France all restored, and the pend- 

As to oor dispute with tbe United anls of her ships going up, while 

StMcs of Ameika, local knowledge ours will nnceuarily be coming 

•tasaed by him at the early periods dowot My lurds, altbougb the 

*f the Ftanch levolutioo had cn> arms of Europe may appear on the 

Md hiBi lo fonn a very decided side of Prance, I cannot believe 

•fiuiuu m ilb respect to that oonntiy, that her heart is against thti coua> 

■■d he was sorry to ray, he could try. If we remqin firm and unap- 

■Mforat a flattering one; and he pafled, as recommended by his 

•IS hapj^ to lean by the tenoar majesty, and exemplified by him- 

■* ■" — — *-'i tpeecb, that it was self, some balance may yet be pro- 

k» of bis majesty's served in Europe; if we yield, no 

> coDoede one single man can forsee tbe consequences." 

vtothatilbberaland pre- 'ne.eatl coududed by moving ao 

" Hy lords,* said address to bis lu^esly, wbidi, as 
{B 3] ssoa), 

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4 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

usual, re>echoecl the tehtjinenls of been apprised of the intcntinii 
the hpeecb. Thi<i iiMjliou was se- of the eitemy to cpmbioe the 
conded by lord Kenyon, who powers of the continent in one gen- 
dwelt chiefly od the pawuge In the eral confederacy, to be dirrcted 
^Kedi which related tn the enii- . either to Ihe entire subjtigation of 
Itnitionof the court of Portugal to litis kingdom, or to the imposiDf! 
the Brazils, and Ihe ipiril with upon his m^esly an insecure and 
which ministers cooducted Ihein- inglorious pcftci' ; tliHt for this pur- 
•elves in not lurreiKleTitig the naval pose, states formerly peolral, were 
rights ofthis country to the AiDcri- to be forced into hostility, and 
cans. Tlte duhe of Norfollc was compelled to briog to bear apiiust 
aorry tlmt it would be impoanble for the differeat parts of his majesty's 
hiui to give bis unqualilied assent to dominions, the whole of the nawl 
tlie address as it stood. The speech force of Europe, and specifically 
from die throne declared, that it the fleets of Porlugsl and Denmark, 
was with the de pest reluctance bis Ifthis werereiilly the case, it would 
majesty bad found binself com- be a complete justification of the 
pelled to resort to tlte estrrmity of conduct of tliis couDtrr, not only 
force agaiiMt Denmark. Now the in our own eyes,- but those of the 
duke, looking; in the most careful vrhnle world. For the moment a 
maimer tn the speech, did not per- uation meditates hostility against 
ca*e that it was in the coatempla- you, that u to be reRarded as * 
tioD of his majesty's servants lo af- declaration of war. But .then, to 
ford to the bouse any such infor-, giveeffecl (otiusjuslificationi sonie 
mation on the autgect as should proof of its ^Nislence must be ad- 
enable lh«m to say that Ihey saw duced. '■ A hostile disposition," it 
reason for concurring in a declara- bad been said, on the part of tbfi 
tioQ that there was a necessity for Danish government towards Ihia 
the measure. He was aware it country, bad manifesied itself for 
wouIdSw said that every species of the last seven years; and the fact 
discretion should be observed ia of ih<ur h^vi^ig acceded to the vicM-s 
ex|>osing inalten of such delicacy, of France, was evident from tlie 
This principle, and the propriety of immense quantity of stores and 
acting Upon it, in most cases, he ammunition found in their arsenals. 
was hi from disputing ; but be Lord 9. aiked if it >tBS consistent 
thought it was carrying the doctrine with human reason, oreven with tlic 
too &r to desire of that house to words of the speech itself, in an- 
eipresstbeiropinienoftbetiecessily other paragraph, that the court of 
of a measure of so exlroue a nature, Denmark should be in amity with 
without the most distant tittle of France at a time when France was 
evklence to justify it. disgrace cariyingonhostililiesBgaiRstRusMaf 
herefore moved, that the clanse IK- or if it could be suppMed, thnt he- 
spectii^theeipeditiontalheBalUc, tween the period of Ihe battle which 
in the ledrfss, should he osnitted., preceded the peace of Tilsit, uid 
Tbt ameudment proposed was our attack on . Copenliagen, these 
seconded by lord viaount Sid- storcf had beenodlecledl Wi>ere 
noulh. -The speech referred to then were Um demonstntioiis of 
the fact of bb imyMty btnag hoittlitj unaifeBtcd .on the part of 

Denmafli 

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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 5 

i^insl tlut country? been more mapwnimous to have 

Wberr <«r«re tier ■miiea I In Hnl- allacbe<) the {witerful than Ihe 

rtn. Whefe*.!^ tier fleet 1 Lying weak T It was known that Die mindi 

k ordinaf^. Her armies, so far of the tuhabitaiits of Pcli-rsbtirgh 

ftom beins ia biHlile mntemeul were favourablelothisciiunlrv. Our 

ae-iKst na, were, tn the number of fleet, hy presentmg ilielt'ul a proper 

26,000 men, enrimtwii in Hulsleio, time before that cnfrital, mipM liave 

g«aidi»r aeMiu^l ilie iioslile move- gained possesion of it, and IIjus 

mrfAa of Mie Prehcb. Hat) they Sweden would have been saved ; 

bea in Ze«lai>(l, we Rii^hl rot so and Der^mark, nlio was as much 

t»^1y tmTe tieen able to' congrala- out friend as Rnssia was out nil;, 

bie ouraeUes on the victory we wuuldluve been spared. Tiiis mode 

•X M tcd. Her navy, so ^r from of war&re Ijts lordsLip objected to, 

»edit*('ng Imstililiesagaioilus, was particularly as tending lo overturn 

tBiynt^t, the grealer )»rt of il in IhelawofnationsJItwouldhavebeen 

a tiale ~uf riHiiplHe disrepair. It more becoming in Great Britain lo 

«■• ni>( li-at ihf Treuch would oppose our honour and good faith 

b«*e seised 011 Hiilsieiir, and from lo our enemy's mode of warfiire. 

Ihettce might bs*e easily passed over The earl of Aberdeen defen<(e<l 

iaio Zealkud. Tliis, bis lordship the expedition lo Copenhageu. Of 

HiderdoiMl, was by no mranh m> the law of nations, stif- protection 

ca»y as ms imagined .-'such a frost was "a principle. Much had been 

mU' m octrurred asloaKbrd a rom- said of the extraordinary and un* 

Iwlable povasp from the one place precvdented nature of Ibis expedi- 

1» the other: and even when it did Ikm ; but ' there was a precedent 

BO happen the people of Zealand for it in the conduct of Ihe late ad- 

■t;bt break the ice nearest lo tlieir lotnis^lion towards Turkey And 

own ode. Aud, supposini; thai ttie lie did not conceive it to be more 

French might thus hme got pos- probable, timt the Turkish fleet 

Mswn of tbe Danish itavy, what &hi>uld sail into Ihe English channel 

ne cottld Ihey have made of it 1 Iban itie Danish. 

What hail we to dread from tlie I."rd Greuiille said, lliat from 

aMitioo of uiteen sail of tbe line, the commencement . of Ihe war in 

of sDch^ipsas those of Denmarki 1793, down to the termination of 

Ekb before the battle of IVaflUgar Ihe illustrious administration of the 

we cotdd have had nothing to dread illustrious Mr. Pitt, in no speech 

fnm MKb au accession of strength from the Ibrone, at Ihe commence- 

ts onr eoemy, far less now. We ment of a session, were parliament 

»ec« lold that hostile dispositions, on called upon lo pled{;e themsekes in - 

aKpartoftbenortbempowers.had support of measuies wilboul evi- 

begvD to ahewlbemselves ever since dencebeforetbem uflheirnecessity, 

fl>e peace of Tilsit. Why then bad propriety, or utility. In no case 

we allowed a Rnssian fleet since that were tl»ey called upon to approve 

tine lb passtluou^h the Meditetra- of measures before the paprrs re- 

■eaa,aRdthTee sail oflhe line belong- lating to them were produced, 

■g to Russia to go amnolested, at wliereon a Judgment might be form- 

Ifae wttj tame thne the Danbli fleet ed acairding to the evidence o( the 

■u acued onl Would it not have case ; \et, in the present instance. 
[B 3] 



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6 ANNUAL aEGISTER, 180S. 

nlnuten departinf; from so nlutarj applkaliim of such a doctrins, un- 

a rule, not ooly called upon parlhi- lete tbe imperative drcunutances 

nient to Approve of measures wliich vreK clewly proved aud accurately 
nothing but absolute necnsilycould .defined. Tiie danger ought to Iw 

justify, and respecting the necessity clearly established, and the inability 

of which not a little of evidence had nflhe neutral slate to defend itself, 

been produced, but had even called Witb respect to the Danish fleet, 

upon til em to applaud otber mea- which it ha^ been said was in a slate 

sures now, respecting which papers of preparation, ms it not natural 

were to be produced hereafter, when all the powers around ber 

' Tltere was ou the continent of Eu- were at war, that she should be in 

rope a great reliance on the integrity a state of pteparation I But it be 

end justice of the British parlia- had not been grossly mbinformed, 

ment : and it looked with anxiety sa lar from Ills being the rase, the 

for the decision of ihb council on greater part of the Danish shipi 

the motives and policy of the expc- were laid up in ordinary. It was 

dition to Copenhagen. Thii bad contended, that because French 

alreadymadeanimpressionthrouglt- troops occupieil Holsteiu, Zealand 

out the continent unfavourable to must fall of course, but this was not 

this coUnlry. How much greater at all proved; on the contrary, 

would that impression be, if par- there were between IloUlein and 

liainent should give its decision ap- Zealand two passages of the sea ; 

proving of that expeditionT, And the one su, and. the other sixteen 

still more, if it should do so, with- luiles wide, wliich a French army 

out any evidence or information on must cross lo invade Zealand, and 

' the subject. Ministers Iiad asserted, where they might be met wilhefiect 

that there were secret articles in the by British or Danish ships. It 

treaty of Tilsit affecting tbe inter- might as well be SMid, that Digtaad 

ests of Ibis country, and the French must be conquered by tbe French 

government aiserted there were because they occupy the continnit 

none. Heretlien was a challenge ; of France, there beiogonlyachab- 

aad it wai incumbent on ministers nel twenty-one miles broad between 

to prove that there were such art!- Calab and Dover, as that Zealand 

cles, but this they bad not attempted must fall if Hoistein were occupied 

to do ; and in the speech from the by French troops. It had been 

throne had given up the assertion, argued by ibe noble lord who qmke 

they had formerly made, of the last, that tbe expedition to Copen- 

existence of those secret articles, in bagen bad a precedent io that to 

his majesty's declaration respecting Constantinople. Suppoung the cs- 

HussJa. Ttiat circumstances might pedition to ConalanlitM^ to have 

exist which would imperatively ju9- been an instance of bad faitfa, bow 

tify such an expedition as that to is that lo jnili|g( aoolber kistance of 

Copenhagen, was admitted by the bad fiutfa 1 TIk l«ct however was, 

most approved writers on the htw that the expedition to TuAey ^ma 

of nations. The same writers, how- chiefly in confonnily with, the treaty 

ever, stated the dreadful coose- vrilh Russia, and that its olyecl 

quencei that would result from the was not to seise the Turkish flcel, 

but 



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HISTORY OF^UROPE. 7 

but to mfince IbC necnlion of Irra- tban thoK whicfa wtmtd tend to Ihe 

tin. consummate niin of our own colo- 

With regint to the two propoii- nicst In so faru the emtgntion in 

tioos maintamfd b; mioitten, first, question manifested an> friendsbip 

that we ibfHild not enter inlo a ne- for us, or as it presented a contrast 

'ess the bant thereof to the ctuiduct of olber princes, it 

[ be previously slated; and, cert:i inly formed a grateful subject 

secoadlj, that we should not avail for tlie contemplation of manlcind, 

aatadvci of tlie medialioo of any and ofcoDgralulation lotliat house. 

power not pertieclly impartial, or Bui as to Ifae commercial or politi* 

svpeded of pailialily to the enemy, cal advantages to be derived from it 

Lori G. could not conceive any to ihiscountry.liecould notconsent 

ting OMHC preposterous. The se- to delude his countrymen by liold- 

<a«d prapoaitioa was peculiarly uu- tiif- out such ideas. 

■cattblc. becanse we do not accept In reviewing the dreadful cata- 

aaediator asanumpire.butmerely lo^e of evils which surrounded or 

asaiDedinmoffacHitalingaurcom- menaced this country, he believed 

MMJLalion with the eoemv. If Hie that Ihe grcalest additional calami^ 

■Hlntor be partial to tlie enemy, for as, and the [greatest advantage 

wbat injury can result to iisT W« for France that could be well ima- 

afe not bmmd by hb ■rntiroents, gined. would be a war with Ante- 

tad wc may avail ounelvet of his riea. Such, indeed, was llie laa- 

JMerpoaitMM, by tweeting wbicb we guage of ministers themselves. And 

■ay provoke bm to declare against yet what had been their conduct 1 

m. Sncb precisely had been the Why, at the very time it ivas most 

ose wftb Ttspett to Russia. As to material to avoid such a war, they 

tte iiat propositioa there were not absolutely altered the Inw of the 

in the «»b<de faistoiy of this, or any landtopromoteit. Afinislen stated, 

alher civilised country, any prece- and in that Lord Q. agreed with 

data to be found for sustaining it. tbem,- Ihat no difficulty or danger 

With respect to that topic of the could befal Ibe country equal to 

^utth wbicfa related to Portugal, that of acquiescing in the surrender 

tbe HSDple questions were, what we of our maritime rights. If America 

bad loat, and what we Irad gahied put forth such a claim, then a call 

by Ibe onigratioD to PortuealT We upon parliament and the country to 

had lasl,asap(iblicaIionof tbeene- resist it would be unanimousljt an- 

■y had hlely staled, two of llie swered in theaffirmative. But Ante- 

Bost bnportant port* for nt On Ibe rica had not asserted any such claim. 

wbolc coaattrflMcoDtine&lof En- —Tbe speech. Lord O.observed, 

npe, LirfMO and Oporto. And, studiously separated the two qnes- 

wib regatd to tbe transmarine po>- tioni involved in oor cootroveny 

soMMM of Portagal, be asked what with America, namely, that of tbe 

«e bad obtained, more than what Cbesapeak, and that relating to our 
we p nan wed before, by tbe pre- ' orders of council. But those quea- 

scace of Ihe Friixc of Braail in tiona would not be separated in 

Atf aettlenxntT How would tbe America, nor yet in discussiou here. 

Inais be made more productive In examining the orders of council, 

fcr tUi eomtry, byany otbet means tfaey were to be considered in three 
[B4] pomt 

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8 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1809. 

points of vkn ; firsl. ai affcctiag our abandon, we would link into sbninc 
commerce ; Kcoudly, Ibe cpiistiru- and degradation, 
tion; and lastly, our negociatiou - Lord Urennlle ciiiKluded a long 
with America. When all lite paiwrs speech, of wliich we have oyly given 
relative to ibii iiR|>or1aDt qtieslion briefly the substance, as all the to- 
skoiild l>e laid before tlic lioui«, it pies he liandled aderwards becariie 
would be the duty of the bouse subjects of separate discussion, wilb 
particularly to enquire, whellier bis an eaniest jepreseiitatiou of ibe im- 
niajesly's goveniment could coDsli* ^rtance and necoisity of an inqui- 
lutioaallj enact such ]>rohibilions as ry into the state of Ireland, with a 
these orders of council contain ; view to tiie adoplion of measures 
next, whellier the time chosen for calculated to conciliate the popula- 
issuJDg these orders was not pecu- tion of lliat couulry. 
liarly exceptionable, a'^ tending so LordHaivkesbiir> bavingobserved, 
much Jo inflame the miuiU of the (bat mioislers could not be expected 
Americans, already so stmagly ex- to point out the precise quarter and 
cited against ns; and also, whether channel from ubicb tliiy hud re- 
we had any right thus to aDoihilate ceived their information respecting 
the whole trade of Amerioi : thus the arrangements atTilset, said, that 
tg say to that power, as our orders ^ven if ministers enterliiineil any 
di^nclly expressed, "Not a ship doubt of their information respect- 
of yours shall sail which shall not mg what passed at I'ilsil, it must 
be subject to contiscalioo by us, or long since have vanished. The in- 
to condilioos which sliall subject it formation received through the chan- 
lo confiscation by the enemy." nel alluded to was corrohoraled bya 
Lord G. asLed, ivlietlier such Ian- variety of other channels wholly un- 
l>uage Has reconcileable with any connected with each other. It was 
l^wurusage, or principle ofequityl corroborated by tlie testimony of 
On what grounds could lite para- the government of Portugal, to 
graph in the speech relate lo the wbupi it was proposed lo make 
necessity of the orders in council 1 common cause with Ibe conlinent 
The plain interpi elation of this pa- agaiitst England, and to unite theJr 
ragrapb was, •' that we had been fleet with that of Spain, of Oance, 
too long carrying on a most unequal and of Denmark, lo enable the cou' 
contest of justice against injustice." federacy lo make a general attack 
Could thdt great man. Mr. Pitt, ou these blands. It was corrobo- 
loQk down from heaven upon this rated by Ibe testimony of dilTereut 
declaration, bow much would he persons in Ireland, where all the de- 
deprpcale th^ ttnliment, " (but we signs and projects of the enemy 
ought to terniinate the unequal con- were most speedily known, and 
te^l of justice ag^nst injusticel" where it was promised, Ihat the 
It was to the principle which sut- combined fleets of Spain, Portugal, 
taiued justice aguinst it^juttice that and Denmark, should make a de- 
we owed our consequence, charge- scent on both Ireland- and Britain, 
ter, and safely. It was thb prin- hut the priucipal one on Ireland. — 
civile that aniniaied our army wut A wish bad been expressed that we 
navy, whicb upheld Ibe spirit of the bad proceeded t(f Cr.oostad^ and 
people, and which, if we should seized the ifussian fleet, leaving tlie 

Danish ~ 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 9 

Owb Bed «f«xteca rail of tbe tine loH QremiUe^ d«elBratoty of tbe 

kh.od as!! Be*i(k«,tbe Rnuaa opinionof tbe bome, ihat >t would 

fcri wu ool •• rcwijr for »e«, nor 10 neither be respectful to his mm- 

■dl calculated ia aay respect Bs IIn jesty, nor becoaiing tbe dignity 

Dmisfa tte«t to evny the de«igiu of of tbe boiwe, to give au opi- *' 

Ae cixniiy into esccutiou. fat- uion m to the propriety of re- 

tker. Ibere were manir ciiciUMtuKet jecling ibe Ruuiuii medialioir till 

■ the treaty of T%<t which indis- tbe papers relative to that ()ue»tioa 

poa eil Ibe people of Russia aeainA were before the bouse, were .bnth 

tfart trraly; and even at tbe time tbe negatived without a dtvisioo. Tbe 

«sare of tbe Danish fleet wat address was then agreed to, aoitof- 

kaovB at Petenliurgb, tlie emperor dered to l>e presented. — Against the 

Alcwuwler seemed tnore Hidined decision of tbe howpe refpectiog tbe 

Iban befere to renew bis relation* seizure of ibe Danisb fleets, pro- 

wilh tlw coaatiy. Ai to all that tests, with reasons of disient. ner^ 

■ai arj^ed a^inst tbe <xderB in entered by tbe duke of Clarinet, 

roaacil, and against tbe treatment lord Rawdon, tbe earl of Lati'ler- 

flf ftiaiiiiB. while a oegociation dale, the euil Grey, lord Vassal 

ailk Araeiica was oa fool, it was Holland, tbe duke of Nurfolb, the 

I better lo abstain from a , vi9canutSidnH>utb,aud lurdEnklne. 

Ibat wotdd feitd only On Ibe same day, Jan. 31, in 

' " ae tbe minds of tbe tbe house of commons, as soon as 

He lamented tfie tbe qreecb tram tbe tbmue was read 

-for mention of the state of from llie chair, 

bdaad. Tbe concoMons alloded ~ Lord Hamilton rose, and in a 

to br tbe noble baron could not maiden speech moved Ibe address. 

■ow W thought of. Indeed, even At^er a review of tbe extraordinary 

if tbeae oowceaioas were made, itilt slate of Europe, tlie difficulties and 

■Mwawoald be called for, and there dangers that environeil our connlry, 

■oald be no end of socb demaods. and tbe wiccess und tbe elo^y with 

Tbe earl of Lauderdale r^ied which it liad made head acaioit all 

to lord Hawkesbwy, awl atrongly tbese; be said, that in the regNt 

wiged tbe coBstituliooal necessity of which his majesty bad expressed at 

a Inl of iodenuiily forlbe orders of beinf! compellfd to adopt hoslllc 

c — n d L mensurei a^inrt Dennarh, tfan 

Locd Hulgtave admitted, tlut bouse would nndouttledlj join; bat 

anIbcT at the lime af rejecting tbe it wouM be a regret uimiuil ailb 

BaMan mediation, nor at this mo- reproach : for. aAer the Imly of 

meni, bad govenmeot any copy of TiUil, aud tbe subsequent conduct 

the aeoct articles of tbe treaty of ol' Kuwia and Deanwik, it was iia> 

Tilsit. They were \a p oas e i i ioo of possible that any niaa could doubt 

secret projects, but conid only as- of a combioation of powers havinf 

aett.iK>taddoGepHnfoftheiiBatH(e. beea formed ^Mt'im. Too loag 

Tlie duke of Nortolk's motion, badtbe commoirei>eBy of Europe 

to oiail tbe fiMTtb paragraph in lilt bees pernillivd to pronoed in bia 

pcofwaed addros to tite tbione, >»• career affieUnce to neutrai powers 

■Hcting tbe leiuae of the Danish tor the aggnndiic««nt of hb oiva. 

Jkai; aod-aaolber anieuhWBt by "Cbrt tke oBpeditiea to Copanhigew 



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10 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

was most itdporlsnt, and most cri- Mi engagenienU to tbal gallant 

tical, every one niiut Imve felt wlien prince, but also to shew to the 

It iras brought to a detemiinatioD ; worid, that it was not by the quart— 

every one mutt now be sensible tnm of immediate -itAerest Ibat we 

(liat it was most wise. He cbal- measored our national faith and 

lenged Iheannalsof Europe to pro- friendship. 

duce an iustance of a warlike en* Of many important subjects of 
terprize, in which so much eulrealy consideration presented by his ma- 
had been resortqd to before success, jesty's s^ieech, none were more im- 
and so much forbearance manifested portant than the principle adopted. 
after it. What his majesty's mini- and the steps taken by our govem- 
sters had planned with decision, ment, to fnistrate the enemy's de- 
they had carried into ef!ect with a signs against onr commerce; the 
toTce which could not leave to the principle of retaliation and self-de 
Danes any hope of triumphing in a fence. — In a moment of frenzy, 
contest. And tie confessed, that he France, had issued edicts levelled 
could no more consider the Danisii aj^inst our commerce. Had the 
government as justified in sacrificing objects of these measures been at- 
tlie lives of so many gallant men in tained, had they even partially crip- 
a hopless resistance, than he could pled our means, Ihe considerati«Mi 
admire the heroism of the prince, that u temporary distress to our- 
who, himself escaping from the selves was utter ruin to our oppo- 
dangers with which he was environ- nent^ must have induced us lo per- 
ed, coolly devoted his capital to severe in the contest with tranquil- 
destruction, and its inhabitants to lity and firmness; but the very re- 
alaogbter. Accustomed as we had verse was the fact. So far IVonl our 
been lately to witness estraordinaiy means being diminished, although 
events, he coutd not avoid expres- the different branches of our com- 
sing his astonishment at seeing the merce might vary in extent, tbe ag- 
emperor of Russia, the champion of gregate exceeded that of the most 
Ihe coDliueiit, secured by his situa- prosperous period of our history : 
tion from Ihe calamities which had insomuch'that his majesty, in his 
overtaken other countries, volunta- most gracious speech, exprrssed his 
Ttly patihe last band to Ihedegra- confidence, that no material increase 
dwon of the continental powers of of the burthens of hu people would 
Eorope; to tee bitn descending be necessary. 
from Ibe proud eminence on which llMre was one subject, from the 
he had been placed, for tbe purpose contemplalion of which unalloyed 
ofviobliiig bis engagements, and pleasure must be derived in every 
crouching under the throne of that point of view; namely, the rescue 
usurper, whom be bad so lately io- from the power of France of one 
suited and defied. Tbe contrast of the oldest and most &ithful of 
which tbe firmneiB and rfaaenanimity our allies, transferred from a couik 
of the king of Sweden dis{^ayca, try weakandindefeauble toonese- 
GomiqBndea equally our admiration cure and poweriiil : an occurrence 
and support. And lord H. was which afibrded a field for Ibe most 
sure, that the house would gladW brilliant anttdpadons, commercial 
enable his m^esty not only to fiilu and pdifical. Lonl HamiUoD thea 

said, 

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HISTORY OP EUROPE. U 

md, tfcat mJcr the imprewioa ot the mut effioeot iifame, but a 

(fe fecliogs irtddi be experienced, greater power of active hostility 

k Aocild- move that an humble ad- than, perhaps, we ouraelvea were 

dma should be ptcMnled to bis yet aware of. By exerting our na- 

■ajei^, &C. The address, which, val force in every passible direction, 

ai ■anal, was an echo to the tpeech, we might ihen the enemy tliat a 

hoig read by the cteik at the predominant navy gives a power 

tabic, scarcely inferior to Uiat of a coo- 

Mr. C EUk Kconded the mo- quering anny. 

titn. Witfa rc^Mct to the design Lord viscount Hilton regretted, 

ealertakied by France, of compel- that miaisters bad not expressed 

^C Daunaik to job the confede- tbcir willinfEness to enter into a q»- 

lacy against Oreat Britain, if m^ fiotialion, on suitable terms, for 

■Btcn were in possession in July peace. At Uk same time, be did not 

of ihe infomation alone, which had approve of any idle clamours for 

Mce been publicly disclosed, they peace before thie terms of negotia- 

woold bave tailed in their duty if tiou should be ascertained. The 

tbey bad not acted as they did. A attack ou Copenhagen be consider- 

s^Bar attempt had bera made by ed to be priwta fade unjustifiable. 

Fiance oo Portugal. But the Copeithageii was M\ defenceless, 

ftaakaem of the court of Lisbon, while tbe Danish tro<^ were pour- 

^k1 its detcrminattoa neither to iag towards Holstein, tbuieriueing 

lead ib aid to tbe confederacy a- an anatifecUd confidence in the 

giMt Gmt Britain, nor to aban- amity of the British nation, and at 

doQ Britiab persons and property to thesametimeasinceredistnutoftlM 

tbe yoataainn of tbe French, en- French army. Yet be did not deny 

titled it Id tbe confidence of bb ma- that there might have been circnm- 

jeaty's covemniail, and justified it stances as yet unrevealed, by which 

■ panaii^ a Ime of conduct dif- the attack.on that cafutal might b« 

femrt froai that adofiltd in tbe case justified. 

^ E>CBmaik. Adverting to the Rus- Mr. Ponsonby observed, that his 

■at dcdaratiaa, he contended, that miyesty's speech embraced such a 

a character very different from that variety of topics, that it was not 

of Rassaa marked tbe composition, easy to express one's sentiments 

Bet oaly in the sort of argument npon it Had it been made known, 

aadc ose «t, but in tbe peculiar)- as was the usual custom, two of 

ties of tbe style, which, if not three days before it wasdelivered, 

f mcb, ivas the most b^ipy imita- members would have had less dif- 

6aaot French that he had ever ficulty in slating their opinions upon 

seen. TbeaMgnanimity ofhisma- its contents. And this was tbe more 

jcsty IB oficiiog reparation for in- to be wished, that it was llie longest 

jary to Ibe United Stales of Ame- perhaps that was ever beaid front 
fica, was most praise worthy. He . the thraae since tbe days of James 

traded tbe Aapo-Americans would h Its principal object be nnder- 

Mc Aat it was aot tbeir true policy stood to be, tbe citicidation of oar 

to i^iU tbesaaclvcs to France, We relations of peace and war whh 

bsd arapk laeans of carrying on- other powers- But before be could 

nc U««rnvy wcbadnot only delircr an <qHnioa of tbe ooaduct. 



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n ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

on which Umm rclatmiH derided, had beeh reill; worse disposed !»• 

hemust Ih* in i>[»M(>s)ionor(liecor- wards this cnitnlry than she was, 

respomteiKe wliirb liad luLen plure cnuld slie have parsued any other' 

betivern niir onn Bnvrninieiit dnd course ihitn that preriselj' (vbich 

the piverntrieiits of foreign natioos. she had followed 1 The extraordi- 

It Mas rqdii ill niinislers to assume narj eonccntration of French troops 

maltiln'tpnf 4tii>nity, Morthv of the qa the frontiets of Hulslein, Ibe 

ebaiacler uud resourresof thecnun- subtnissioD of Denmark to the de- 

It^. Whelli'T a ptolunfalion of crews' of Priince, and her rrmon- 

Ibe «r>r v>il)i Fniue, ur the com- Strauces apainst fi<iriiiaritimerij>ht9, 

tneacciDeni of hoiiililies with other together With her Hctive anil for- 

^powcre was (he only aliemalive led midnble naval equipments, were 

Hb, be was not in possession of iiw siifficicnt evidences of her ^nbmis-' 

fbmialion suffieienl to fonn an opi- siun to Buonaparte.— Was Jtiiona- 

nioiK The bouw, he asserted, wai paite's s^slent, that " all Enrogie 

cqaally destitute of informalioD od should be demled, excepting Den* 

the ^uetlioB relative to America inark?" With a large navy, with a 

and neirtml nations. Tliere was more extended comnierre, and with 

another Hibiecl of much import- the keys nf the Bailie in her l)and. 

Mice, wtiicb tniKlit have been iiitTo- would he have bllo^ed her to re- 

duceil into the speech, namely, the nujn as a monument of re|>roadi 10 

'present state of Irelund. As'tothe tlie vassalage of surrounding coun-' 

ttfdW uf CupeiiliuKen, be Would on tries, and to have btokeii the con- 

• future ocrasioii move for the pro- tiouily of the chain which binds 

duction of necessary docHinents, so ever; country of Earopi'? It iwas 

Hut it miftht, at least, be fiiirly the declared opinion of a uoble 

brouelil into discusuoB. ' lord (Milton) that the expeditioii 

Mr. Mihies, after att eulogy on should be condemned, because the 

the present administration, observ- crown prince was in Holstein, add 

cd, that it would indeed have been his forces unprepared for action, 

ilDpotitic to adopt any iBeasure by Strange as that sentiment might ap- 

whicb Ibe character of. tlie country pear to bis mitld, it excited no sur- 

night be affected, if the powers of prize. It was a doctrine of the 

Europe retained their independence, school of which the noble lord was 

if the govcmment of Denmark had a disciple, or perhaps the leader. 

hee» free to follow that course And when a noble lord (Petty) an- 

which its honour and interest dicta- nounced, that their raotio waf— ' 

ted. Bnt there wa» not a power on " Noi Rebas Servamui Secundis;" 

dw cmlinent which could bave re- or that they would never afford any 

BHted (be mandates of the enemy, assistance to 'friends till tfaey were - 

It was Itie first duty of minblers to in a condition not to want it, be 

Mit upon Um iNoesnty of the case, could not but Ihink the advice of 

■edit was equal^ their dutf^ to use the noble lord perfectly natural, 

tbair discreljwi in judging' of that tliat we Should never resist an ate- 

DMesiity, Andif,inactkif;upoa't(m, my till he should be in a cotiditibn 

Itej- vnn toctr at df, it WM beet to despise our resistance. As to' - 

Ifaat Ifiej diould err upon the aide peace, BUovaparte would certainly, 

of. pmc Ncurity. U Deannrii in bis terms, wish td- qucstiOD our 

martlime 

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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 13 

uriUme sapiMiNcj, a pilMiaoaj might leara s lewoo of eocodraK^- 

«ib3ed npoa uf, and tboclbK not nent and of sdmoDUJoa : la bn^ 

1 ■atter of n^otiatiooi auuiaten what llwy had so it«adtly borne. 

Mild jndgc faoMT far a peace was and to conmund luoceiaby deaerr- 

|a>aaiiau^ onder mch auipicea. ui| it. 

WcK Bwoo a parte U abdicate his Hr.Whitbread niJ.that iribem 
tknme, and to- depose aU bis jm- ms oo otiicr juiliticatHMi of lh< at- 
m» priocet: wei« be to restore to tack on Deiiiuark Ihsa what bad 
Fnnoe ber legal govcnuneDt, and been given that eveoiag. he bad no 
(• Ean^w bet balaDce of power, h^italion in declaring it base and 
Ibcf wcMid not, in his niod, be treacherons. Hededared^that be 
lyiTaknts (or the uciifice of our would nitlter have seen the fleet 
twrnaaaad. ml sea. — We bnd seen of Pennatk in forced hostililin 
kc oripaal prasciples of revohi- against in, nUDaed by ber sailors, 
fioaarf devaitatioo settled into a acting under cooipalsioni than he 
MOgc tyrviiay, wbicfa bad armed, would, after what had happened, ' 
by ilB III! iiai 1 1 or corruption, the see tbem aaoorcd in our owu ports. 
Ktt of Earope against as. We saw In additioa to Ibeinvcleiale animo- 
tm k bad a leader pledged to onr sity oC Denmark, to which Ibis act 
laMiwho^ after eabMuting the other bad given rise, had il not also been 
laarecs of Iws mahgnily, renoimoed tbe means of cutting aff our com- 
MkagithtbatcamnKToal law which municatiOB ' witb t)N contioeul, as 
liiliHiiili i| the war to both, aBdcoa- welt as of throwing Denmark into 
wtod Hito the inalTwaeBla of bis - the heads of Francet But we w«'r« 
bartiiqr the want and misrqr of hb told ilwooJd be dat^rous togrant 
mwm people Wc saw, bowerer, the information dcMred. To wliom 
that ia Ibis spirit of ^cslrndioD. woald it be daugerowl To -mini- 
i&cagagpd from all ilaolber ob- stent Heserily bdicwd Ibcy bad 
jec^aadoODaartnUedoallMdown- nmwtogive. ' To tboae who gava 
falairtkbsinglcco«urtry,belMdBot thein Ibc uifonmiaB on which th^ 
advsaecd oae liiwlc step, towards acted! This be could not well con- 
it; tha* tbe tinae was. Mill (o come, ceivc, tiace Ibcy Imd asserted Ibcir 
wbn tbe^tiea of the great os^ being in posaessioa of il: and it 
tioa aiefe lo burst oa Brtom, aod was not very laalerialt after at«w- 
whea, cxccniiag the oUgatcky of mg Ibis bet, whether lltey imparled 
car camtitntioo, we wen bi beeoKM Ihiosubslanceof the irifiHmation or 
k^p fi j ia the monarchy be was to not. As to the Act iu quealioD it- 
1^ na. ht themean time, be d»- self, we had aiecrlton agilmsl asser- ' 
chwd ua blodiaded, not by the tiw: the assertion of the crown 
piiwai ■ and aMavllof bis oanesii priDoe of Damnark on the wk' 
mi the eoose^mt deitnictMB of. band, wid an aMertion which mi< 
«ar. eoaia erri il . slrei^h, bot by tuslcrs had put iato ibe inmilh of 
*r<rtng Ibe gates- afsunt bb - ewa tbeir sovereign on ibc other. And, 
dipping. Seimg ali this, and. re- Air iui own part, kebedno besita- 
fc^g.bow- ArthpprwlictiaDS of tna in uymg, ttet be gave credit to 
Bammpartc bad bees- fatfilkd, and. die focmet in inference lo tbe lal- 
(■ wbom Ikb spedcs of warfare tcr.- . 
fiast d hcavicslt tbe wltolt nation Mr. Whitliread here adrerted 



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U ANNUAL REGISTER, I80S. 

to etprcHions uwd by tb« noble of commani'catioiu respecting the 
lord who moved (be addreu, highly iotercourse between his majesty's 
derogatory to the coura£C of the ministers and (he courts of Austria 
crown prioce, and such certainly as and Russia. — These powers were 
Derer ought (o )iave been applied to not in a situation to mediate im. 
any man who, 1 ill e him, had been partially. If this fact should be 
tried, or indeed to any man who proved by the notes to be produced, 
was untried. He saw, however, he hoped for Mr. Ps. approbation 
with regret and sorrow, that it was of rainisleys, in not conseotiog to 
quite the fashion to deal out sar- treat till they should know upOD 
cBsms, and sometimes abuse on what basb ; a question that bad o^ 
tboae powers who, in consequeoce cupied three months in the lale ne- 
of the pressure of circumstances, had ^tiation. As to (he expedition to 
been compelled to abandon our Copenhagen, it was possible ihat- 
. canw. He was far from tliiuking Mr. P, might move for soitie in- 
thai the emperor Alexander had de> formation that might be produced 
■erted iii in a moment of despon- safely. But if he should move for 
dency and datro as had been stated, the secret infonuation on which 
and was perauaded that he had been that expedition was undertaken, as 
forced to the step he took by Ibe for as bis judgment went, he be- 
neccsiily of the case.— As to the lieved be would never have ocular 
a^gnitwD from Portugal, it was convicliiMi. — Was it possible, (bat 
brought about by the menacing pro- a time when there was no capital on 
damatioQ of Buonaparte, and the tbe contiDent where the power of 
approfu^ of ■ French army to Ijs- Buonaparte could pot dr^ tbe of-' 
bon, not, in any degree by the dex- fender against bim to exectition. 
lerity and address of miontere, and should ,be fi^ed on for divulging 
tbeir ageul, lord Strangford, as bad the sources of secret iaietligencc T 
barn given oat. — Of our relations Was this country to say to tbe 
wilb Vienna and Petersburgh, he agents who served it from fidelity, 
would forbear to speak till the prO- or from less worthy motives, *' You 
miKd papers were on' the table; shall serve us but once, and your 
butiftbepnuciplesofcMnmiMi sense life shall be the fbrfehr' — What bad 
were af^lied to tbe present coojuBC' happened (o Portugal was suffici- 
ture, a more fi^vonrable opportu- ent to convince evenr fair thinking 
nity for negotiating a ptace with man of the tnilh of the informatioB 



Friuwe could not be hoped for. respecting Denmaik : for tbe com- , 

Ur. aecrctary Canning was sar- munications from tbe Portuguece 
priMd, that Hr. Ponsonby should govenment rdated as well lo dw 



to maiahal bis arguments or opi- la Ibe expedition to Copenhagen 
nions on tbe matter of tbe ad- tba present mhisters had tbe ex- 
to ddiver hu sentiments ample .of those tiefore thent. 



I which tbe public wluonly necessary lo apply to Den- 
mind bad kmg since fianncd a de- maiic Ac principle ibey had applied 
cidedttpioion. For tbe dbeu-ssion to Portugal; to threaten and co- 
of these, be bad stated, as an sddi- erce aecret enemies, or at least 
tional grounded delay, tlieneccsntj suspicious tuulnts, intsead of old 

and 

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HISTORY OP EUROPE. 15 

Md bitfafiil lilies. It was retnarlc- prove a boitile act. Lord Petty k- 

iktlMl wliile the ipfticatioa of gntied ver? mucb that tb«re should 

bttU Copenhagen wm condemn- be lo little in the tpeecfa about the 

fdbftbc ^tlcDwn opposite, the temporary policy respecting Den- 

MHpplicalioo of it at Usbon wm mn^ and nothing at all about the 

etMcvd no leis severely. Bat so permaocnt policy respecting Ire- 

ivtaU hne been iflbe force had land. 

^^ied at Uibon and negoli- Mr. Bathimt c«>ntended, that all 

dn ti Copenhagen. The Duiih the danger that would arise ftom a 

fBj m«M have been lost by foot- commuiucation of the psrticulaRi of 

■A oiQ&deace. and PoTtu|al out- the intelligence required, had been 

npJ b; unprincipled and impoKtic incurred already. He was Mir- 

vikatt. prized that those who bad examine 

Wkb respect to lite late su[^>oeed ed wliether Portugal could be de- 

■r^etistianror peace, Hr.C.decbr- fended against France, had not 

idlhtnolan^UileDvcrturehadbeen also enquired into the practicability 

nde eillMr by the French or Aus- of defending Zealand, and whether 

tiisB ^eminent. With respect to the Danes were able and dbposed 

lb hie orders of council retaliating to defend themselves. 

>k ratiidions of the French go- Mr. Windham put llie question 

^isBcat on our commerce, lie if it was reasonable to call upon tlie 

m^aed onr right togoasiaraa country to approve of a proceeding 

Fnatc, and make Fiance feel, in in iu nature involvipg the national 

>k c&ds of her own iiynstice, character, without alledgiog one ui- 

>M we could hope to brii% her to stanee m proof of either the justice 

■SR itMooable conduct. The vh or policy of the measure ? As to 

cw of the British navy, when put the qaestion of right, he was willing 

Ml wiihadetetminationvriuch tlie lownit forthejustificalion of mini- 

Mfaite qwit , of our government sters, and should, for tlie sake of 

UlsilKrtoresirahtcd.wouldprove the country, be most happy to 

(^ to cope with the power that find it satisfactory. But as to the 

>^ tjmt of Fnuce had establish- policy, he could (mly say, that be 

<Jsthad. It wovld appear, that would rather Bnou^rle were now 

irkcanbinedall the powersoflbe m possession of the Danish fleet by 

i^stiscBt to of^Kest us, the eombi- the meaiH to which he must have 

■»>« Koold but encrease our resorted in the seiture of it, than 

fa;^ and energy, and make us thai England should have got it in 

^mafk under our oppression. the way she did. The ships would 

Urd H. Petty contended, that be rotten when the effervescence of 

™ pmdples of ligbt and wrong national feeling would live in the 

*s* to be cfHHidcred in politics as Temembrance of national injury.— 

*d B philosophy, and on these To this observatioo, 

■■*eie to reason in general till The' chancellor of the excbe- 

> pvticalar case was made out. It quer replied, that certainly Ibe 

** I nagakr iaslance to be in a captured sh^ would be rotten 

*1t tifmu with a power against some time or other, but not in the 

*^ Ibeie were no documents to ensuing spring ; not at a period 

when 



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16 ANNUAt REGISTEB, 1809. 

vhen they might bt cnplnyed in of one part of the speech. IW 

coBTevJB^ t^Wdch I roopilo Ireland, tmly ofTilsk *-a* aignefl oii Ibe 

not wbeii they were to be emftlo^d f Ih of iuly-; inlelUireacc, and ■ 

in nchuling its froni tlie Bvltk, md copj of it mebed lliia countijr on 

fuflberitigUiedeugMof tlteeneiny. Ihe SlU^of Aufiuat ooty, ami jtt, on 

ColoB^ Montagae Mattlww ex- Ihc S6lh of laly, the orrfen had 

pressed, in stronft leiins,lifs mistruit been gircn to adniitiri Oambier to 

of a set of rainisters who bad come uil fnm tbe Downs. 

into ofEce wkh an aronred boMtlitr If r. Pjmt expressed his opinktR 

agahul ibtfr mJUioits of hit iD^fe^ Ibat our advaniages from peace 

ty'a sulffects in Irehnd. would be eqaal to, if not greater, 

'Tbe queatioo was tbcn carried tiian tbnt of our enemicfl, Tt was 

' witbout a diniiati» and the bouse impossible for bim, oh Ihe evidence 

wljaurned. before the bouse, to approve of tbe 

House of CommoDS, Fridav, cipedition lo pramark. 

Jan. 22, — Loid Hamilton brtiu^ Hr.Yorksaid, that he wontdask 

up Ihe report of ibe addioi to hii a(>y nun acquainted with public 

ra^jetlj. - buiiDess, wbctlier the nature of our 

Mr. Macdoaa|d said, that the ^Temment was not such that Ihe 
anuament of the Uanes eonid not gorerament of the country could 
be considered as hoslilei becanse not proceed if it did itut act upon 
ibe ptcpara^ons in their harbours grounds which could not, consbt- 
coida not ba*e been begun in the ently with the interests of the coon- 
. inlerral between the treaty of Tilsit try, be made public T He was old 
- and the sailing of Ibe expedition ; enot^ to renember the Amcricaa 
and u to tbe dispoailwDs of' tba^ war, and be coakl state from op- 
Danes thfir arming' cabtbited »• porlnnitiea wi)kb be bad bad of 
tber a jcaloniy of the dedftas of peraooally knowii^ Ibe fact, Ibat 
FratKe than of thnac of Gicat in consaqnencc of tbe production 
Britain, of tbe papen, relative lo the saiU 

Mr. Falter wai ooly lorry that iag of Ihe Toulon fleet, on the 

ninnlcn had not aeiMd every binl motiooof a genllenan of very hijcb 

that bovered about tbe Inmmclidna Idents, now no more, (Mr. Fox) 

at TiUtt Whatever, tbe other side tbe French bad boea enabled lo cut 

'of tbe lioase migbt wy about tbe off a lource of iotell%ence which 

allegations of crown princes, or half this country had pouesscd in Hol- 

crpwn princes, we ought to bclicra land since the days of queen Anoe. 

our own min^en. He would give credit to goveru- 

Hr. Herbert was of opinion, that ment for their having received in- 

the picaeot minitfen bad, by their tcUiscnee of tbe seem articles of 

expedition, disgraced the country, "^tsit. There waa enough mi the 

without either necunty or abili^. fcce of such papers lo enable the 

Yet be would not oppose tbe ad- enemy to trace Ibe source from 

dress, though he would not pro- whence Ibey might bavc been re- 

mise bis support of the measura to ceivfj^. On the secret articles!^ 

which it related. Tilsit he wonid rest his foot, and 

Mr.Edenrequircdtn explanation give bb apprwbatioB to the mcasttre 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. it 

■flotiiM. Ai la Uk coUonon of vera by miliUr; measures, from 

DiMrk, he bwat confess thmt as tLw moment we sbould make peace 

■ Cwliiliiiiui, he tboughtand rdt wKh him our danger would begin. 
b Iht Dinbh^Tenimcnt (for be He trnsted, hoivever, that minislets 
•mM not speak with disrespect would uot nject aoy ofien of ae- 
rf Iht proKe so nparl; connected foliation on terms of e<|uatity, and 
■tt Mr own laniily) had acted tiie pobt ofhonourshonld baiKTer 
■ttcoUoitoa. it ought not to be given up. 

faqadCB thai before force was em- Mr. Wipdliam thought tlial bo- 

plntd, an allemalive bad been of- nour in any peace that might now 

fcnd to the Danish govemuienl, be concluded, was totally oi)t iff the 

fi iben that ahemative was re- question ; saftty was all we could 

]K^ be tkoogb'l we were right in now look for, and ibis was all be 

•^pkijiag fonx to secure the fleet : f> ould ask. The hunouroble geolle- 

■ niidwl Ihat was justifiable o^ man appeared to treat anciently 
Ikfrrt principles of human nature, received priociptes with as little 
ttffKKiiJtioii. Abstract pcinci- Xceremony as the famous French 
pis of right, be respected as much Vamniittee of safely had done. 

■ ay mn-; but in oor respect for Mr.W. however, would slifl venture 
itar we-tbould not sufler ourselves to^rofess an attachment to Ibe old 
H hecBiDt the victims of abstract maxim of ' honesty being the best 
pK^fes of wrong. With regard polity;' a maxim, wliicbwasjust at 
I* Hk dsles which had been ad- true when applied to tbe coiiducl of. 
Wkd to, gentlemen seemed to nations as that of individuals. Nor - 
ia* Ib^ whole argument from did he Uiink it sufficient merely to 
^n|»dil* with which tbe cxpcdi- profess it ; . it was equally essential 
^ M been titled out and dis- to act upon it. But an open and 
N'M; afapidily wtiich they Ind public renunciation of this prin- 
Mblrijbeen accustomed to wit- ciple was ao alarming symptom in- 
■">• And if the crown prince, or deed, and Infinitely more lUlal la 
'^tttr((brminislersorten governed the cause of public morals than 
pws and kings) Ibe Bernsloffi many practical deviations from it. 
W hmtd ibeir estimates of tbe It was a state of most hopeless de- 
'V'fiiHi.fi'omllie specimens they pravity when people began lo adapt 
^ btldy seen, they woold not their theory to their practice. He 
■K opcded that Zealand would advised ministers to stop short in 
^MMoniorrounded: they there- this new career, for be assured them 
^ tlmught it expedient to keep they would cut but a poor figure 
wirBy (n Holstein, to keep up when compared with the coemv, 
irnnaces. As to the question of who from long practice, was become 
pw, it W4S mvolved in difScuIlj a rival too formidable for us lo cn< 
■■d ddicKj. He had supported^ counter. It never "had been dis- 
wpoKc <^ Amien>, as an eiiperi- iiuted that government might have 
^: }ct as ihe experiment bad received information which it would 
■tande, be' was not disposed to be imprudent in them to publish. 
2^ ^ Whilst Buonaparte con- But there was another (tuestion, 
"I'd It Ibe head of Ibe French Whether or mt they should have 
■*" ""'' ' " acted onsucU information? Mr.. W. 

C suspected, 

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18 ANNUAL REGISTER, Ip(j 

siupocted, f |i»t in th« mh in. qv**' wbich dibcU U the duly of a 

lion. tliK iDinietert, i»st<a<l of pm- U> employ il in tiie (erwce in wbldi 

pariiig troops for an expedition, it had Ireep U» euecw^ully «!• 

kid prepaK'l an exprditiua for the gaged, 

truops, FiniliDK th^l they hadgot Mr. WtiilbrMd, viift sonw ob- 

. •toney in their poekclt, Itiey re- scrvationi on tbc iiuporliUKC of 

lolfed on spendinig it. N<it kiiuniox nisioUining imtioiul morality Mui 

whatlu do uilh the army )b«y had good faitli, and the pos«ibiU|y of 

collected, they taid, after (iini<r re- making peace as readily now a« at 

flcdign, " God Mck ii), let ui go any former period of the war. ad- 

and attack the ORiiinh Soet." verted lo what had fellaefroiu ft|r. 

Mr. Caooiug, in Ktuwer to Die Yorke of a laader or opUoB, a« it 

qoejlioii put ]iy Mr. Sdeu, observ- was exiled, made ta the Dwnt, 

Cit, that niinister* had newer wid that if tliey gave lu their fieet, w« 

tlia^ Ibey had in lUcir possOMion a«y wnuld .defend .'them frooi th* 

one Kcret article of the treaty of French. How 1 We defead tboot, 

Ttlut, but only ibat the tubstance who were not able, after Mizipg 

of audi secret articles bad l>een their fleet, to keep poBBesskxi of 

cuiifidejil tally eoumwiicaled to hi» Zesilaad for one winter t He ooa- 

M^esty'a government, and that a dudeii wilhro|ieatiagbucwiviGtivB, 

long; time prenoiM iQ tlie date ad- that miniilen bad pevef received, 

verted to by tlie honourable gtutle* either ia Bubslance or io fbtn, tb« 

flian. Aatothe wfereaee attempt- secret iuformatiov which th<y al- 

ed to be drawn from the advaucetl lefied ttiey Iiad received, aiul to 

ital^ of preparation in which the wbidi theyhadatlributed that ^lal 

MTttiament wa> placed before the aod diafCTiKeful cspedilioB. 
treaty of Tilut, it wai uotorioiit The report was t"«ug1it up, atid 

tlial that army was tlieu equipping llie address w»« |ir«s«Dted to bis 

fur au entirely diitiiicl objeet, when Uajekty, who returned his aioM 

tiie secret iutelligenoe wai received ([ucitms watvcr Jwvaty 2jtb. 



hy Google 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



CHAP. 11. 

tbUammtkeHsmxoflcrdtforartteofnmkstothe Ofictrs em- 
ftmftd M tie Atiaek on Copmhagen.—A Motion to the sanK ^nt 
bi the Hmue *f Commoju. — Opposed bt/ Mr. ll'indhtm — and Mr. 
*w*rf. — Smpporttd Jj the ClumtcUor ^ tht Eseheqver~and on a 
Omiimt ^ tht Honot rarried. — Motion iy Mr. Ponamby for 
Py wi rttmtnt U the Erprditum to Cupmhagm—and for tertmk 
RnohaiMu on tkat Snbjrct — Oppoxd by Mr. Canning—Mr. 
BUbm—Litrd Lrvttoit Goxer — llord Caithrtegh, S^. Sre.-^Sup^ 
ptrlfd hg Mr. Windfuim-^nd Mr. WMthrad.^On a Divitum of 
Alt Hmuc n^alivrd.— House of Prrrs.— Motion by tht Dtdce of 
Norfotkjwr the Snbttanee €f aU Cominanicationo respecting the Stidt 
of At Onniah Navy, and Ike Srtret ArtM^i of the Trtaty ofllMt.-^ 
S^forted hy Lord Htdchintm—Vte Eart of BnektnghamMre—- 
ne E^of Maira—TTte EerlofJeraey-The Earl of St. Vincent 
—Lord Sidmonlh, *c. J^.-Oppoted by tki Marmdo of Welltoky^ 
i^rd ^Borrhtgdon—Lord lAmrrick, Sfc. Sre. — Negatived. — RcmIm- 
<iM moved by Lord SidmoHth far p restn in g the^Danish Fletf in 
oath a Slate that it ntight be etentnatty res^artd to Demnttrk.—^Afte^ 
* Dedatr, the Motion negatlvtd.'^Honae tf Commons.'— Motion by 
Mr. Sheridan for the Correspondence which patted after the Capitu- 
lotiom tf Copenhartn, between^ His Mojetty't Mhustrrs and the 
CMrf of Sloekhmn, relative to the retaining Possession of the 
leladefZeaiand hr a Sioediik Army in Concert with M« Majett^t 
Fareet. — Smpported by Mr. IVindhmn—Mr. PonaOtby, ^c. Sfc. — 
Op p o mi d by Mr. Canning ;—ncgatiwd. — Haute if Lordt.— Motion 
by the Earl of Damteyfor an Addrett to His MajeHy, ntuting that 
thmtoaoino Keeeasity for the Expedition against Capnthagen, Ifc.— 
nt eo d it ed.— Motion for an Address to His Miijesty of an oppooite , 
I^atmrr by Lord EiUot ; — carried, — Conversation respecting tike De- 
I mid Condemnation tf DaniA Trading Veotelt. — House Of 
ma. — Baltic Expedition brought again inio Itiscussion by Mr. 
Skmrp. — Motionfor an Addreas to His Mmeity to the tame Effect aa 
that ^ Lard Damky'a in the Hatue ^ Lords.— Debate—The Mo- 
tion megaliotd.—Honsr'of Commons.— Motion by Lord Folkitomofthe 
tame tenonr as fhatin the House of Lords by Lord SidmenUi, reaped' 
ing the Danish Nary.— Supported and oppoted on the uanal Gromtds 
by torrent Speakera ; — negatived.— Houtt of Lords.— 'Reaoltitiona 
moved hf Lord Sidmmth rrtpecUng the Sh^ detained in our Har- 
bonrt previously to HoetitUiei.— Debate.— The Motion negatived. 
f 

TtLOCGH the expnltlioD to examiued in the debates- on the 
Copcahigei) bid beeii so fully ^ech from the lltrooe, in re- 
C 3 sped 



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ao- ANNUAL REGISTER, 1898^ 

■pect of both mor^l law and Mund beea ioduced to give it no oppoii* 

£olicy, it was nguiu aod again tioa ; but when it was propowd 
rougtit into diKussion, and con- also to thank the navy employed in 
tinned to be at different times, and this expedition, he conid not but 
oil different occasions, a subject of oppose Uie motion, as there was do 
very animated controversy for al- oppoHuuity for the display of mili- 
inost (be Hb<de of the present xa- (ary naval sliiil. lite high and pe- 
sioD of parliament. culiar honour of the thanks of par- 
' -In tlie house of lords January liameiit ought not (o be rendered 
SSth, lord Hawke^ury moved a too conuuon. In order to preserve 
vote of thanks to the officers cm- its value it ought to be reserved for 
ployed in the attack of Copenhagen, great occasions, for brilibnt ex- 
His motion, he premised, related ploits and great victories, as in the 
tncrety to the service on vrbkb thjS Roman republic triumphs were 
cxpetJilion to Copenhagen was sent, never granted but for the most 
and not at all to the policy of tlie splendid achievements. — Earl Grey 
expedition,, the object of which, spoke to the same e£fecl.— Lord 
undoubtedly of great magnitude Auckland observed that there was 
and importance, was attained by no information before the house to 
the skill and ability of the olficera shew the policy or propriety of al- 
employed. Here he gave an ac- lacking an unsuspecting and de- 
count of the origin, progress; and fenceless people ; but with respect 
issue of the expedition*. He praised to the e^tecution- of the service, if 
the promptitude and rapidity with Iiad displayed great ability, en'ergy, 
which the Danish ships were fitted aud skill. 

out aud brought away, and con- . Lord Mulgrave, in reply to lord 

eluded by moving the thanks of the Holland^ said, that lie could not 

house to lieutenant general lord see on uliat grouud, in the present 

viscount Cathcart, K; T. for the (question, wy distinction could be 

prompt and decisive measures a- made between tlie army and tlie 

doptcd by him in the attack en Co- navy. The most skilful distribu- 

penhsgen. tions were qiade by lord Gambler 

Lord Holland contended that in the disiKual of the fleet under 

the mi^nitude and importance of his command ; that part of it 

tn object alone, was not a sulfici- which was entrusted to rear admiral, 

cnt ground fox the thanks of par- Keates was cxtciided for 300 miles, 

tiament to those who had been ent- and bad for its object, 16 cut off 

ployed with success in obtainiug it. the com mimical ion between Zea- 

In the present instance there was no land aud the continent. By this 

opportunity for the display of skill means tlie Danisb army in Holstein 

and science. Had there been an was prevented from passing into 

opportunity, there could not be a Zealand. The skill therefore of 

doubt but these qualities would admiral Gambier had been cou- 

have been eminently duplayed. sptcuously manifested. But in any 

Had it been proposed only to thank case when the army and navy were 

the auny, he might, perfaaps, have conjointly employed, to vote thanks 

* For a user ati re ofwhicli teecl»pterXIV..orourlwtTaliime. 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 21 

I* Ibe one uk) not to the otheri tion wu agreed to, and ordertd to 
vmM mat tend t« aoy powible good, be communicated to lord (Hmbier 
II bad, besides, sJwayi been the when in his place in the house.. 
pacticg to nnile them in voles of Lord Hairketbtuy Dext moved 
AaAs wboc they were jointlj em-, thanks to vice adimnU sir H. E. 
plojed. Stanhope, bart. rear admirals £■• 

Tbe motion being put and car- singtoo, Sir Samuel Hood, K. B. 
bed, sod tbe issue ordered to be and Keates, captain sir Home Pop- 
canBtmicaled to lord viscount bam, K.M. captain of the fleet, 
CalbcxTl, on %:s taking bis seat and the other officers. Htc duke 
m ibe bonar, lord Hawkesbuiy of Norfolkasked, if itwas usnal to 
■OTcdlbanka to sir Harry Burrard, include in a vole of thanks, thecap- 
but. ibe carl of Kosslyn, tbe hon- tain of a fleet by name 1 A con- 
oar^kle sir G. L. Ludlow, K. B. versation cAsued about precedents, 
■ir David Baird, the major ^nerals. The earl of Lauderdale observed 
hrijadiefs and other officers em- that it would he a most singular 
pkmd, and an approval and ac- circumslHoce if sir Home Popham 
kaowkdgment of ihe services of were to be made the first inslance of 
ike flott-commisiiooed (^cen and Ibe captain uf a flret being thanked 
saldien; wbich motions were agreed byname. Someprecedentswere pro* 
to, aad ordered to be commu&icat- duced, and the motion was agreed 
ed by tbe lord ckaocdlor to lord lu. So also was- a motion for ap- 
tacowt Calhcart. _ proving and acknowledging the ser- 

Hit lorddiip then moved the vices of Ihe seamen and marines, 
' I of the house to the right and Ibe result of both motions waa 
Ue lord Gambler, for the ordered to be communicated hy 
I distribulioQ of the fleet, tlw lord chancellor lo lord Oam- 
tkeieby contributing lolbesuccesiof bier. 

Ae expedition after all uegotialion On the same day thanks to his 
hKl faked, and for Ibe promptitude M^esly's army and navy employed 
£it>'*y**' >B fitting out tlie Danish in the Bailie expeditions were 
dup&, and shipping the stores. moved in thebonse ofcommonsby 

Tbe duke of Norfolk objected, lord CasHereag h, who expatiated 
that the words relative to negqlia' on the magnitude aud importance 
tion tesdcd lo prejudge tbe question of Ibe exploit, tbe difiicullies that 
of wbjch notice had been given, were lunnouuted in performing it, 
ad of which Ibe object was to as- and the prompt exertions of the 
certain Ibe nature of Ibe prerious board of ordnance, lo whose great 
aegoUatioa*. exertions it was in a great measure 

Lord Hawhetbury replied, that owing that a British force was aa- 
Ae urgolialioD alhided to in Ihe sembled. ready to act in the Baltic 
■Btioa was merely tliat entered before tlie middle of August. 
■to by Ibe commanders in their Mr. Windham observed, that in 
■Slary capacity, and had uo re- Ihe present question, it was ihe 
faenee lo political negotiation, province of the house to decide 
Met a tbort convenalion the wo- generally upon the merits of the 

■ 7k dake of ITorfoIk liad ^len naike on the day before Dist he thonU t04BeT< 
— *"" ■" — « fcr cenuopipen i«fpectin( tbe expedition to Coiwnbi^eo. 

C 3 senice. 



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i3 ANNUAl REGISTER, IMS. 

•cMiei but in cMraogtollBsdMi- oU adage, "that nlie» the tng^ 
■OR, il wai DaceMrf to nnke a laoei Ibe knvc wlm,'' and «fbca 
diatbicliou between the merits of fay tb* tdnMrna of the noUe lotd 
lfae miiiiiten who planned, and of Itimsetf, the Kivioe wai of nicb ■ 
Qm savji and amy who p*Tfamed nrture that «Ten itoaiweeu miMt bs 
the MiMditioni Tlic jualice aad conlemplatcd with pain, he was 
polity of the expedition would farfrom Ibiaking it a jaoper oeca; 
ttabt Under camideration al bb< iton for Ihc legUlatare to bestow 
other time. The qnestion now be- what ought always to be accounted 
fcre thu bouse limply was, whether the highest honborf and a reward 
the service was of stKb a nature as . paramount to every other. He waa 
to rank it among those tnttancet wilting to allow (hat the army ami 
of (Kslingnish^d and successful navy had done every thing tb«t 
exertions for which any TOle of could he either required or axpect- 
tbanks of that bouse had been ed of tbem, and that their services 
recorded, and in his (pinion it miglit rank with a case of either a 
did not come under that detcrip' gallant defence or a successAil re> 
tiun of service by which the rules of treat ; but he denied that tliey pos- 
' national gratitude ought lo be go- sessed those ingredients whid) alone 
vemed, nor was atallof ibat na- coatd entitle t^m to a vote of legi»- 
fnre to which Ihey ought to be ap- ktive thanks. Mr. Windb^ ad- 
plied. He conceived that the only verted to the title conferred on ad- 
fil occasion for the two houses of miral Gambier, which did not r«> 
paiiiarocnt to pass a vote of thanks eord llie nature or character of the 
for the services of either the army service for which it had been grant- 
ornavy, was, the achievement of ed, asin the instances of lordiMel- 
some exploit which afforded matter son and lord Dtmcan, where the 
of general aud unmixed joy and ex- title waa borrowed from the reapect- 
nliation : when, for example, it ive scenes of their schievementa. 
Was bestowed in consequence of a Nor bad be heard of any medals 
victory obtainedoverthefirsttroojis being distributed on the prennt as 
in the world, and over legions on former occasions. He then re- 
which had arrogated to themselves plied to that |)art of the noble 
the title oi ittmeibh, not with su- lord's ^ech id which he had de> 
perior mimbers, but with a force ncribed the high state of preparation 
noteveacqualtothatof thceaeroy. of the Danish ships, at the same 
'niere was no man who did not feet time that be clainied credit for the 
a pride and gl6ry in jotiHtig in it. vast activity in potting those ships 
But in circumelances like the pre- in a state for being brought vS. 
sent, in which one ostensible part Eitberhis premises must be false, or 
of the expedition bad been entrust- tlieiuterence he attempted to draw 
ed to an officer who could plead in from them unfounded. In the 
Ins own hehalf only the approba- same inconsistent strain the noble 
tioo of a self-created tribunal, in lord had asserted tfae force ata/t 
opposition to a sentence of condem- against Copenhagen to be so fer- 
nation lately passed upon bun by midable as to make resistance ana- 
one legally constituted, and who, vailing, while, with the same breatb, 
in his fortune had esempltfied Iba he called upon tbe boasa to pass a 

vote 
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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 2S 

■■•c «f llwiihi. fitondtd on tbc canw it wai «[un<t#ring away Itrt 

ddl, bmcTf, aiid«Ht«rptinof Ibe public mqney; still, Ibnugh one 

4fitin aw fi to ywl b a lemcc when peiuioD was granted improperly. Ihe 

■• amA talnU aad qualitin ««i« next was not the worse on that ac- 

aiBli i It was iBcurnbent «n a count. But when bouour was *nci: 

Bhbrfl booM of coninlfNU, porticu- depreciated, itsvalue was altogether 

tarij in tunes lb tbe present, to lost. It was nal difficult liowei^r 

^BCft its diptnily, and to maintain to [trrctne the object ministers bad 

Ife credit aHaebed lo its opinliin of i» view, in thus Iieapiiig rewards on 

wtat coMslilutcs a great uatitwal e»- tbose who bad a part in (he service. 

ftmt. Neither did be conceive. It was lo give it a lictiiiaiu taliie, 

fioai wiMt be knew of the two and an inip<^rtaDce in the eyes of 

bdUc lonb wbu were embarbed in the pablte that did not belong lo it. 

Ae uajwrfitiaw, Ibat tbry would Mr, Windham concluded, with 50- 

Itmk lae fxcaent worth; lo b« Icmnly (wotesting agaiM Ihb mis- 

I mn(H^ tbe >chi<T«neat3 of application of the sacred deposit 

' ';. There was B»- committed 10 the house, of dealing 

e of Copenhagen, out wiib ftiimess and impartiality 

s literally a harbour expreuiom of tbe public gratttade 

•f ■aichMti) calculated to call to those who were employed in its 

farlfc tbe eacrgics of a soldier, the aervice. 

MBof a soldier, and the father of Mr. Brand, after advertm" to 

a soUier, like lord Catbcari, whose the atledged weakness of Denliiaik 

Anker serrtce* were well known, lo defend Irersclf, had she been at- 

aad wilbissliMbigbly apprrciated. ta<Aed )ry France, con ctiied that 

Aad Ibe vtry cirnmstance of ad- ft would t>e altogether inconsistent 

mni GuabicT'i bwiiig advantage- to pass a vote of thanks for a ser- 

MBly dsHingniibed himseir as a vice which deri*«s its principal im- 

ciptaia in tbe gtorinas action of the portance from the degree of resiil- 

mtof ivDt, was luffictenl of itself ance which those employed in it bad 

ta aakc lu« set, conparsiinly, but to encounter, 

a mM vmlne on bit services on the The chancellor of the exchequer 

fKstst occaHUD, tl)oii;;bt, that if Mr. Ws. ohjeciions 

Hr. WiadiwiD nest drew Ibe at- lo giving thanks in cerlab caiet 

•aitioa «f Iba bouse far the eondnct were admittnl, they would bt 

af ■Britten in moving such a reso- very prejudicial lo the service. 

latloa, tbc efiect«f wbicb was, not Mr W. had admitted, that h wit» 

mittd lo cimcaM tbe taxes on tbe bigtity meritnrinus, by a judicious 

petfte, kit wbat was still a nmre retreat, to secure the lafety of an 

maiBS evil. If the peoplacotild only nrmy or a navy ; but tliat tlie bouse 

be brwoghl lo umlerMnd it, to di- had never cantemjihted such k 

wmsb tbe great Aind of honour, service ai a |iroper ntiject nf Ihett 

Ibe best incentiiw to bononrable thanks. The riglilhoiRnirublc>;enllc' 

enrtiam, and wbal was wnrte stHI, man seemed lo have forgotten the 

Bol only lo fffly it iiijodicinusly, tme of admiral Comirallis, who 

bal lo destroy tbe vafae of the had received tbe thanks ufparlla- 

whofe capitflL Oranting that an ment, not for a victory, but a re- 

ia yi w id eirt pmslon was had, be- treat, " for the ability, judgment 
[C 4] and 

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24 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

and bravery wliidi be had display- hii Daoul) msjesly's forces in the 
ed ill, Ihe presence of a snpeiior islanif of Zealand : anil lliirdly, for 
fleet ofthe ene mv." He ntctiiiniied the substance of sucli HifoTmationits 
other instances in which Ihe house had been receiveii from hit ma.teiitir's 
ofcommons had voted theirtbanks, naval officers, and Ibe officers- of 
which were of a ditFerenl descrtp- the dock yards, with respect to the 
lion from thatto which Mr. W. was state and condilioD of the Danuh 
desirous of contining it. — Mr., Tier- ships at the time of their surrender 
My shewed lliat . ibc precedents or subsequently to their arrival iu . 
cited by Mr. Perceval were not ap- British ports, 
plicable to the present case. The *, House of commons, February 3. 
cases were by no means par<illel. — Mr. Ponsonby^ pursuant to notice 
The motion for thanks to lord of amotion respeclin;; the espcdi- 
Cathcart being read from the chair, tioiiloCopenhagen, stated its object, 
the boHse divided.— For the motion He proposed to consider this sub- 
100; agaicst it If). After vthichi ject in the three distinct relations 
motions for thanks to lord Gambier, ofDeumaik, Russia, ^d France; 
&t, &c. the same as those in the to ascertain the disposition of Ibe" 
houseofpecrs, were agreed to. Dauish government towards Ibis 
Mr. PonsDoby rose to move for country, for some time previous lo 
such papers as his majesty's minis- the attack on Copenhagen ; to bq 
ters were di^Kised lo lay before the enabled to decide wliethcr imme- 
iiouse relative lo tbe expedition to diately aficr the treaty of Tilsit, 
Copcnbuj^en. Tlie bouse would Russia had entirely abandoned her- 
thus learn what papers they were self to (be councils of Fiwice ; and 
not disposed to grant; and thus a with respect to France, to ascertain 
subject of unmixed debate would what weans France had to compel 
comebefore the house. He wasEorry Denmark lo depart from her system 
* lo say. that from a communication of neutrality ; and especially bow 
fie had had wilb the secretary for far Franct could have succeeded 
foreigiiaffiiirSi.be could not call for in any attempts lo, annoy us in tbe 
more papera tbaii what he should Baltic. Iu either case it vras bis - 
flow move for. He should lirst object to ascertaia Ibe means of 
move, tliat ail humble address be France. It was i<ile lo talk of tbe 
presented for copies of the prucla- disposition of France ; but her 
malions issued by tbe commanders means he took lo be in Ibis case, 
nf bis majesty's naval and military as doubtful as her disposition vras 
forces, wbile before Copenliagen ; unquestionable. As a juslificetiMi 
. uud also copies or extracts of the of the expedition, \t was insinuated 
cunmmuications uilh the panish tSiat Denmark was unable to de- 
govenmtent, touching the surrender fend her own neutrality. Ouc of - 
of Ihe Danish fleet by cHpituIalion. the resolutions therefwe he sbould 
Secondly, lliat there be [aid before submit to .Ibe house, would be for 
llie bouse, copies ofthe articles of copies of all com m an ica lions be- 
capitulalion concluded between Ihe tween this countryhnd the Danish 
commanders of hiii majealy's naval government at Ihe close of the last 
and military forces, or either of war, wherein the Danish govem- 
■ Ibfui, and tliC t^fficers commanding mcnl avows, as its apology for <le- ■ 

parting 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 85 

part^ Ciom its iKutnlily, Its in- lord Gambicr arrind in tbe Sonjid. 

aWtj to resit Uie operation of ex- The house was in possession of tbe 

tBmal mO 1 1 Witb rcsard to evidence offered in prouf of IIk 

the «fapowtion of Denmark previ- hostile intt:ntk)ns of Denmark to- 
«M to bosttlilics. the object of his wards lliis country ; tliat is m> eti- 
loobitioos would be, lo pat tbe dcnee whatever : precisely 9s much 
hmac in pooesaoa, of all reports he believed, as niiuislcrs them- 
aade lo tbe government of this selves bad. But wliat was Uic evi- 
caoBtr*. relative lo all altempls on dence on tlie other side ? Whro 
Ifac pvt of Denmark to encrease vague runiourfint excited the alaria 
bn nnMl i>owtr, lo supply lier ar- of the Danish captaius, they made 
Ksak, to equip her m*y, to man n formal application to llie Dani^b 
tbe &?ct, far mstance, which we consul, wisliing lo ascerUin wbclfaer 
labieqiieatly seued on. It was a Ibe ularm excited hj llie rfeftort 
■d) known prwHiee in tbe Danish of an intended expeftilidn was 
I— liiii, tbal eveiy seaman was well or ill founded. 1'lie Dan- 
ibl tg ed. on enlerio|[ into tbe Da- ish cqpsul applied in tlieir be- 
■ab wrrice, to inscribe Itis name half to the conncil of commerce, 
■ a book, la state also the name an inslitulion which formed a part 
<£ tbe vesel in which he embarks, ' of the- Danbh government. Wliat 
t* ^Tlir«luue the destitiation, and was Ibc answer to tbe Danish cou- 
ta stsle OD what service bound, sul T That lliere was not llip 
IVrefore, Denmark would fiud slightest ground for appreliensiou 
: difficotty in secretly in- on the part of the Duuisli captains. 
J her naval force. Still And at ibis period of Deumark's 
! dSicnlt, if not impossible, unsuspecting confiiteucc in us, lh«r« 
w^M it be for that power to raise was' no less a nunilitr than three 
a eoasaderabte fleet in a short time. Iiuud red Danish ships in our liar- 
Far it was not there as in England, hours. Supposing Denmark will- 
wberc there constantly - abounds . ing. (bough unable to presenie her 
Mdi m imineiise population of sea- neutrality, no man, who had read 
■n, and where a mighty naval the law of nations, or any cases at 
povCT could be suddenly called all, would prctfiid to justify an at- 
mto action, not only by resorting tack upon a neutral power merely 
la tbe great resources immediately because it ivas weak, unless upon 
b «ar power, but by the compul- Ibe principle of self-preservttlion. 
■ve operation of an impressment. But how was this to be made out? 
t bi Bwi ug at once into the bands of By provihg llic absoli>le determina- 
the executive government a power lion ofFranceloseize on the Danish 
lli^ noKfat, on the instant, be wield- fleet, for the purpose of directing 
cd with effect. Mr. P. therefore that force against us; and also by . 
eoatextded, tint if Denmark pro- proving ihe iiicompeteucy ofDen- 
JKted such designs against this mark to defend hersclt'againsi such 
caaatiT as bad been alledged, she an attempt on tlie part of Prance; 
MHl have proceeded to the neces- by proving loo. her io<liBposilion to 
tary prcpwatious, and that if she rtsisl such an allempt, and |urli- 
bait eaterrd on such preparationa, cularly (lie certainty of her yielding 
i be oi as t have betrayed sontcdenwn- to superior force: in all which 
aations of tbcm, long before my cases we were - without even (he 

shadow 
• D,g,t,7P:h»Goog_le 



26 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1S08. 

ihadow of a circiiQMlanliul proof. h«d read tnMny boakt ttpoa it; tnd 

As to the means of Prance for he w«s wnrmnted in n;tiig, lliat an 

Gonipelling D«ninitrk to take a army had not pas3«<i orer the Bol- 

part in the mariliine con federal kin tic upon the in for tiie lait hundred 

against this country, in wlial cir- and fifty yean. Qoiii wat not now 

eumsliinces Hid those two powers what it then was. The coldness of 

appear to tlie world in relation fo a climafe was not nlwtp regulated 

each other? A conndei'ahle {aiV by its lalitade. Tlicr« were a va- 

ot the Daiiijh force was encamped riety of local causes that might in a 

in Ilolslein, not very far from ilie given time acniibly ameliorate tlie 

tame place »- here the French troops natural coldiiessof aconntry ; such; 

hud assumed a menaciug position, for instance, as cutting doivo fo- 

— What were Ihe most considerable rests, draining morasses, exposins a 

territorial possessions of Denmark, couutry to open air, &c. Sec. Bflt 

6a wlial b called the cootiiienl of even admitting lfa« practicability o>f 

Europel Holstein, JultamI, ^or- the French pasting over the ic«; 

«ay ; but abovo all the Danish were they to encounter no obstacle 

isles, in one of which was her capi- from the lliirty-five thousand mai, 

tal. And was il likely that with that were then encamped in Hol- 

sucli pieans, site would have sud- stein, when lliose ihirty'tive tliou- 

deuly GOinpromised her in<lepend- snnd men were brought to e«t-op«- 

ence as a tialion I What trould ttave rate with the thirty thoasand (hat 

been her answer to any proposal on lord Ctstlereagh had told Ihem, 

the part of France, compelling her the other night, were in the island 

to enter inio hostility with tbia of Zealand 1 Could the French, ia[V 

country} "You (rave no right to posing them, against all probability, 

compel nie ; but if I most be com- to hare got into Zealand, bave 

pelted to depart from my system of made the slightest stand against the 

neutrality, and to make a choice, I united efforts of the armies «f Sire- 

will prefer friendship with England, den, Denmark, ai^d England I 
because she can secur^ to tne what As to the conduct of ttussia, snb- 

you ran never take from me; sequent to the treaty of Tilsit, and 

whereus war wilh England would bow far that conduct justified IIk 

' expose me to mapy dangers from suspicion of her joining tbesup- 

which Iher rrieodship can protect posed marine u»)tedecacy against 

, me." But il niigtit b« objected, this country ; when the news o( 

why did not Denmark accept our the treaty of Tilsit first arrived, we 

proffered treaty I Because we made heard of nothing bnt immediate 

no ]>rnposal that it was possible for hostilities on the part of Russia : 

an independent nation to accept. — and yetlh^RussianAeetwasniffered 

Hr. Ponsonby returning from this to roam through the sea at its plea- 

digressionto thedisposiiion of Den- sure, while that of Denmark, in 

mark, athed what were the means professed neutrality, was attacked 

of France to ron))>el Denmark to and seiied on. >That the secret ar- 

act against Englmid. He had heard ticles of the treaty of Tilsft arcre 

a Kreut deal about armies marching not the primary cause of the Da- 

' dver tlie Batlic, and had made uish expedition, be inferred from » 

much inquiry on llie subject. He minute and accurate review of 

the 

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HISTORY OF EUROPE. S7 

n Ivnl LctMon ttBtuitam an ftltsolved frofti tliose 
6«w*T. Ibe Britafa niouler al Pe- imuutubte am) eternal laws of ine< 
tarinrgb. — ^TIm rxpeditioa wai »- r^ity, which tbe providence tliat 
TVMidlf set OB foot to detest the rules the unirene prescribes alike 
tbiM. greal projects attribulct) to to nien and nations, and to shew 
&e oWBiv, 1st. Tlial of excluding the eviU naturally arisin; lo slates. 
Oral Biil^ii from alt accusloined aiid that had in fact sprang out of 
cbaHwls of commanicBlion witli a departure front those rules of 
^contiDeBt: Sdl], of inducing or justice, liberty, and patrioK^m. He , 
CMB^effiag the court of Denmark ihen'canduded *vilh miivii)g his rc- 
to rirat Ute Sovod against us; and, solutions. The tirst motion was, 
3diy, of askt^ ibe Danislr marine in " That au bumble adilreM be pn- 
Ac invasioe oT these islands. Of seated to his majesty, that ht 
abac tliree prefects see bad cSected would be ^dously plea^ lo cause 
■be hro first. We were excluded to 1^ liiid before (be house, Ujc sob- 
froM tbe ecntiaettt, and tbe Sound stance and dates of llieir informa- 
««a abut. Bat was it imagined, tinn, sent by our mini'iters at Co- 
^■t lb* nere caplare of tbe ships penhagen, rehlive to Ihe naval 
Hodnvd Ihe Danes defenceless? Or, fttrce uf Denmark, .ind Ibe measures 
if Ibe necessity did justify tbe ex- taken to augment that force." 
paJJUu*, why Bot make tlie nost of Mr. Canning, after rhany ohser- 
ill Wtay Bot, when we Ind Ze^ vations in the way of sarcasm or 
tad, keep it as conqnerors, with irony, tbe subject of which was the 
■•r 30,000 troops, which bad iieat conduct of the late ad minis t ration 
their 35,0001 Would Buonaparte respecting foreigu powers, corn- 
base stomed halfway'? If neccs- pared with that of tiie present, 
■If jmrified the attack at all, Die came at last lo the question before 
sBMe neccatatyjastified our making the house ; which, he admitted, 
tbe moat of it. If necessity com- had been lairly stated by Mr. Pon> 
peUcd us to provoke a power, we sooby ; tbe dtspositinn of Demnark, 
ibvaM have gone on till we had dnd of Russia, and the means of 
rewlerad it iacapable of iiyuriog us. France. He hud sdmilled the de- 
The^ was tbe utmost danger in signs of Frauce, wtlliout any other 
doog iU by faalses. Bui we liad evidence than lliat contained in l)ii 
got a itm ships— ^France had got majesty's speech. As lu Denmark, 
Z^Bod, tbe bcsl possible place she Ihough he (Mr. C.) did not im|iute 
oobU haive for nuning lier marine, to that country a disiMHtlion to go 
^id nattning it lo a forniidable lo nar with this he prolrsied a- 
strc^b. And in what difficulty gainst tbe adv^nlage wiiich was la- 
bBd this involved our fitilltfol ally, ken of Ibis admission, when it was 
tbe king of Sweden ? Exposed to asserted, that we had the hearts of 
as atla^ on every side. By Den- the Danes, and that we had for- 
■aik from Norway and her isles ; feited tliem. From the moment of 
bv fiasfia from Finland : and by the armed neutrality in 17S0, there 
France frotb a vaiiely of AiSmtii had been a i'ecling towards this 
pontiaos. Mr. Ponsun by proceed- country on Hie pari of Denmark ; 
td to artvign Ibe.tnormrous doc^ not of direct hostility, but certainly 
trioe, «-hicb bad been resorted to* not of very cordial friendshtp. Was 
■ defeBCC of Ibe expedition, .that it not probable tlial a league of 



2S ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

nucti niorf force, and kint with publiihed by Sttonaparie, after tbo 
iBueh greater rigour than any pre- battle of Fnedland, given ber no- 
cetitDg one, would be fornieii a- tice of her approaching fate: wbcB 
gainst IhU country? wa^ it not pro- it stated. " Thst the blockade of 
babte, from the experience of tije the continent would then cease to- 
past, that Denmark would be in- be a vain.word V To nhal otlier 
duced by iiiclinalion, or compelled ports than those of Denmark, coulfl 
by force, to join (batleaguel He this prospective threat be applied) 
, illustrated the probability of snch Wliat others were neutral? To Den- 
an event at great kiislb,' by his- mark alone, this intimatinn of the 
torical details, accompanied with re- bulletin referred, and acconlingi; 
flectious auil inferences. Among slic was found shrinkii^ into her 
other delailii and commrnis, he read xliell, as France approached, aad 
extracts from several dispatches ncglecliii'' to make any addition to 
from Mr. Carlicke, slating that lier means of defence. He asked, 
afler the French decree of the 21st if this was a stale of things in which 
November had been communicated his majesty's ministers were logi», 
to Ihe Danish government, a de- on, confiding in the sioeerily and the 
inand was made, thai the Dauish means of the Danith government 
army should be withdraHn from till tliey should be called ou for a&- 
Holstein, that tib English orSwedish sistancet — As to the disposition of 
troops should he allowed to enter Itiissia, allaccountsagreed inrepre> 
the Danish territory, nor any mea- sentin*;, that the mrnd of tlie court 
surfs taken denmtistrative of dis- of Russia was alienated from tUk 
trustl of France ;'tliat on receipt of country, and one might easHy con- 
this inteltifjence at Kiel, relays of ceive a reason for that utienation. 
horses had been provided,'not for The expectation of assistauce from 
the advance, hut lo secure the re- this country, uo matter whether 
treat of Ilie crown prbce : that no well or ill founded, was the cautt, 
preparations had been made for not of the peace of Tilsit, hut of 
defence, nor any incliualiou shewn Ihe temper in which-it was condud- 
10 resort tothe.aiuof the natunit ed. Out of twenty dispatches re- 
allies of Denmark ; that sevcml of ceired from our ambassador with 
llie jwrsons employed iu the ulljres Ihe emperor, there was not one iu 
of sliile, were at1acli<^d to the which he did not say, " Send assist- 
French interests, and acled iu col- auce. or Russia will fail ypu. Make 
jusion with Fiance. In short, Mr. a diversion thiit shall tMke part oF 
CarlickeUiouglit it hisdutylosla'e, I ho weight of the warbff Russia, or 
tliat there was reason to conciudi-, she will withdraw from it." 
that France, when in an atliliide lo It Iiad been said, why not at- 
rnake the demand, would insist on lack CronstadI, and menace the ■ 
f he exclusion of British vessels from emperor in bis own capital ] There 
llic ports of Denmark, and prolta- was a great parly, or rather a ma- 
bly afterwards, on the surreuiler of •Jotily of the belieniiost people ia 
Coppohagen. Riissia,wl>o were anmus for British 
Mr. C. asked, Vhpl her Den- connection; but whatever the par- 
mark had not the most unequivocal tiahties of such persons might have 
intimation of the dangers ttmt hung been, they nmst alL have fell for the 
«Tef berl Had not the bulletin honour and gtcry of their couutry, 

and' 
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HISTORY OF EUROPE. !i9 

■d Iherefofeit codU notbede- mented. Those «[in thought- (be 

sircsbW todeslrcy, b; an unprofit- policy uf that measure wenk, and 

able attack on tbe national tieelings, it« e:<ecutton uojust, would vole a,- 

IlKBaseeiit popularity of thw conn- gainst him; bnt he could not coa- 

tiy. Besdea, lliere were, at thjt aider it as niaitly to'lake tbe divi- 

tiiDc. fire hnndred British ships in sion upon Ihe motion for papen, 

Ike ports of Russia, and si^i tjiou- and not on tbe merits of the qilev 

aand British scauten. The conduct lion, merely becunse some few 

ibat liad been adopted in the expe- would vote tor papers who would 

dilioa to Copenliasen, was not with- not support a motioii for oen- 

<oot precedent or example. In the sure. 

yviT 1801, (he island of Madeira Mr. Windham, al^cr a good 

had been taliea possession of by deal of lauglrteir at the action and 

(Mr gaoreminent, for fear it sliould gesticulation with which Mr. Can- 

CiII into the bands of the Frencli ; nitig Has accustomed to grace h)5 

yet Portugal was a neotral nation, oratory, observed, Ibal he had 

xad laA always, by way of emi- veiitured to justi^ himself upon 

Deore, been styled tlie old and an- ciiscs not uiity not anala^ous, but iu 

eieut al!;; of Enghmd. In llie year direct and pointed contradiction I» 

lSt)G, tberehad beeb reports of ilt tlie questioil at issue ; '* You," says 

ben>g tbe ioleotion of the French be, " the bite ministers, coiutemB 

;;w(nia>cnt to invade Portugal, our measure agilinst' Cupeubagen, 

He Lad, iiimelf, no doubt tt( the althouqli yon did the sanie tliTo> 

perpctoal intention of the French against Portngnl:" — " To lias," 

pnveraiBefit to prosecute that de- said Mr. WimlTiam, we answn-, 

■i^B. tfaovgb Hdid not appear, ttint " that ttaou*;}! in Ihe sfinie situntloo, 

a French army was assembled at ne did not iwrfomi Ihe same act. 

Bayonne. He admired the conduct Tlie -navy of f ortugal nas tlirealea- 

wtn^ had been adopted by the iHta ed with an attack bv Buonaparte; 

niciister on the occasion ; and he an army had actually been assem- 

fcll s"i^"^'> **' "** nwiiner in bled at Bayonne, for Ihe purpose of 

wliicfa their proeeFding had enabled vinlating Ihe neutrality of Portugal, 

Um to meet the general question on and ' nltimately seizing her fleeL— 

this chaise. Here he read an ex- We sent a squadron, under Ihe 

timet from the instraclions, given by conin;and of an intelligent and ac- 

Uw bte board of adniratly to Ihe five ofiieer, (o he actually on the 

earl of St. Vincent, wbcu dispatched spot ; not to he guided liy general 

lo-Lnbon. — Of all persons he did and unsupported surmises ; not lo 

not think, thatllicprescnt ministers proceed to extremity until the in- 

Aonld be acmsed of injustice by tention of Frauce was not only ma- 

tbe captors of Alexandria; of mis- nifest, but. likely to be carried into 

■a nag ciDeni, by the attackers <jf execiitiou. until it should be evi- 

ihe Danbnelles; as ingloriuus, by deni lo the world, and ^ to the Por- 

ihe conquerors of Coastantioopte.—T tu^uoe Iheraselves, that there wa" 

By the expedition lo Copetihafien, no alternative between our tempu- 

tlMmewiof theencmy foriniiiring nir^ possession of the ships, and 

Gmt Bntain had been reduced, their seizure liy France: that though 

lad tbe security oir tbe country aug> compelled to' tho execution, ine 



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30 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1»08. 

tneau of jiutificalian iWuM be tbelwtmaB to r«faw: but aider 

U inanifeit as the measnirc." tbe preieat circumitancci, I must ' 

Tlie attark on Copenhafjen, Mr. tell tbeai, lliat front me ibev Imve 

Viodhain considered as a violalion do letter of altoroey to involve Ibc 

of that public law of nations, wliicfa, cudil and honour of ^be country, 

Ihnugb adverse on occaaious to the and, to larnish it ivitij a stiun, w^icb 

particular views of comiuuniliea, no fulnre circutnalances- can te- 

was still conducitc to the generfl move," 

interests of mankind. Did Ibc par- Mr. Uitoessairi, that while ge>- 
' Jtaans of Ibal measure ^Dmly hope, tlcnien opponile to him gave titdil 
^ that its advantages would outlive to tbc assurances of Btiooaparle, 
tbe dun»er aud tlte calamities that fhey ojnttled no opportunity of call- 
would spri)ig from it f Wheu Den- ii% in question the dedaratioui of 
tasnii. or Fraiue should liave re- their pwn sovereign and his minis- 
crnited Iji^t marine with the hearts lers. It li«d been conteudcd Ifaal 
and cHerj;ies ivJiich our conduct the measure nou; before tbe bouse 
bad afforded tbewt Mere Mr, was wrong i^ton the face of it; but 
Windham drew a very lively pic- was (here not soiuctliing wrong ou 
litre of Ibe recolkclionfi and senli- the face of a nioliou, wbicb lequir- 
ineuts of the Danes, and other na- ed a disclosure of inrormation con- 
liufU, on heholding the nionu- fideiitially communicated I Would 
menli of our havoc in Copciilia^n. it not be inj«dii;iou3 to tlijjpw opeu 
There was a clasi of men, lie said, the records of the foreign office, bv 
ao prooe to all tb^ iMrrow. views whteh llie enemy would be put io 
uul.suniid inducements of Mfe, that possession of t))e means Uiat go- 
no measure appeared to be of v»> vernment had of ublainiugv know- 
lue, lM(t in tbe sordid profit it pro- ledge of tiis plaas. atut eventually 
dnqrd. Tlwsc men would fireet of fnistraltogJlieir execution ? He 
with accl'^malion every act of pluo- considered the ntotion as au at- 
der and rafwie, careless of the terapt, on the port of the opposi- 
tueaiit,aad ai^^nuer in which it was tioii, to convert the money voted 
tfacted. " But 1 wish to bear the by pirliatneiit fur ucret service 
opinion of ) our learned doctors of into means of procuring informa- 
tbe laiv, of your profound sages, liou for themselves, wliicb no one 
and learned civihans, on the oppo- else was at ail solicitous to obtain. 
site si*le of llie house. Are they He advised ibcm, instead of bring* 
converts to the new doctrine T Will ing forward motions ofllib descrip- 
ihey disclaim the efficacy of tlial tJoii, at once to propose a resolii- 
publtc l-div of nations, which tlicy tion, thatmiiiislersiiad lost tbecoa- 
havc taken such rare to understand fideuce of parliamant. 
andto couununicale? Are theypre- Mr. Italhurst observed, that the 
pared to tlirow r.ff their wigs, bury , danger of disclosing proo6 should 
their hooks, aud break their wands, not be pleaded generally. Let 
in order to substitute the new ministers tell, why tliis or that spe- 
syfleni of unprovoked outrage, in cibc pa|Kr could not be granted, 
place of the exploded doctrine of Nor whs it necessary, in grantia^ 
moral jnslical A due and proper any paper, that they should a^ 
soufidetice in ministers, I would be quaint the bouse how they caneb; 



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HISTOEY OF E0ROP£. 31 

it He did Nt Ikink, thai Ihen Pnusia, whittk was like a pnsent 

Miid be my ohJTClion to the pro- ta the dry of Aleiers. 

JpdioB of imy rfucunieuli lliHt liad Mr, Morm' cnllvil upon gentic' 

tarn iuo*eA for: Hnri, iu bis o}>k men to reflect ■intiieimniiNeiitilao- 

(in, tiK ietteri, rslractt from ftr wUli wlijcli lhj« country wai 

■foil bwl Lvra read, ouflit to be tlireaUnei1,)ui<lparticulerly Ireland; 

■■Mg the oBoiber. Tbe leUer of iJte iovsaion of which was the ob- 

Hi. Gariidie, for iratauce, staling ject to which the um of ibe Danick 

lb bsatilc mind of Denmark, waa fleet was dettined. 

w>; inpoftaol. It wu inportant Mr. LvdkloD conreved, ihat 

Att, for tite liMur lo know, ii|>0Q ditkims m lie did froni lb« pre»eiit 

■faltbc ofudaa of tbal gentleman adnutuslrHlton, on nwny im|Mrtut 

w fpnaded ; that, if Ibe Freiicb iwiitls from tlie sxtbfactiott tlray 

•nc »iic« in poiiesww of HoUleiu, ha<l t^ven the bouse on t|ie ■»*«- 

Ibe idoud of Zealand owBt faU into sure of the kte cupedilioii, he lutd 

tUir power. Mr. Canuiue, in al- on Ibat point become tbcir prO^ 

laaaa to Ihc conduct of the htl« telyte. Tlie Dunivh fleet was w>- 

tteiBbtialioa tpwurds Portugal, doublediv inMnded for tlte iiivaatuti 

W arfoed, that if we co«ld ut- of Ireland. 

idt a*r ally, Miiely we inisht at- Mr. Wliilbread cwuluded » 

bck a |)owef which we had every speecli insapfMrt of the tnottoB.br- 

mwB to susprcl of hostile intca- fort; the houte, as fullowt: " Mi- 

tMsagvttst m: hilt llie honoiir- nielerg waiiteiHo )mital« Ibe eiicm^ 

ikle secretary seemed ikot to kuow, of Frauce, ' How did they do that { 

«r ta have forf at, that lite expedi- France Itad Bblii a giant, and tlien 

IJM duded to was teol. not to at- &^'aud inuM ga and kill nii help- 

Wt but to protect an ally, at it ks.^, utuuctnt cliild ; but Ibe quti- 

tint when there were Britisli troo)M tiou iiuw was, nut wlwlber lite e«- 

■ Portkgal, toief>elaii ac).\t»l tii- peditii^uwasju-titiable, but.wijellivr 

ooM of Freucb uu! S4)aQt»h that house wus bumi'l to rWc crnlit 

awpi. He eijuld not, however, to tlie asterMuns of miitidlei*, aod 

iHt remark tlutt niinitlerit, wltile wlieihec it ougltl not to requiro 

>lwy wilidiehi all tuforiWBtiot), re- (Dore InroniiatiKii. 

fKtut^ the luc eH)teditii>ft, liafl Lord Levesoii G'n^'er <kiiie<,t p<v 

M (he nnvllcst senile to <li»dosiu}; siliveiy, iImL llic iiiibtiiiiy uf Russia 

li Ihe aecrels of •ovenuueot for was occhmhumI, rltUer by tjie <•»• 

the last seven yenn. . glcci of Eiit-iand t-u si^nd ber suc- 

Mr. I..e>lie Foster ecwccived. that cuurb, or ky Uic altacly on Ci)pe»r 

the eipedilion lo Co(»eiilia5en was hai;eu. The r(-ii cause vf tlial 

npentively dictttled \>y tbe aseeml- hosiility, wiis, tlte iHitlle of Frieti- 

1W7 which Buoaapartii hfttl ac- land. VVIivn Ihc emperor Alek- 

fuTuI nver the arm* aiMi coutiai's asiler urrivt-d at Ptitcrsbiirah frooi 

•T lb* pfwera of Ihc n»rlh, jn con- Tilsit, ahtr i>i;;i!!iis iIk p*^ce w4tl| 

Hqnc«c«ot' the iiegh^enct'und su-: Frunce, llie lirsl (tei-^on' he vinited 

piacnes* ut the iqte admioijlT^lion, n'as his iniiiistcr of rtiariite ; and iba 

•^cfa had done nelhiu; f<^ llie first onlen h? ^fternanis Ktve. 

Mounna cause, exc(|il witding a was to rc|>air tliu batteries of Cfoo- 

Kicrabtc «d>sidy to the kins of stadt. 

Lord 



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ai ' ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

Lord Ca&llereagh, among a f;reat be said, the sentitnenlat system of 
variely of '|iarticulars touched on gentlemen on tiie otber side of Ihe 
ia a long spAcb, in vindication of home, embraced all nations but 
(be expedition to Copenhagen, gave their awn. Their diiquliitiODS 
an account of the various endea- might be well enough calculated 
voun used by liis majesty's goveni- tor the amusement of schools ; liut 
ment to bring ttie court of Den- tbey were not titled fbr tlie events 
mark to an explanation of its views, of real life, or a state of ferocious 
without effect ; and concluded, that war.— >0i] a divi>i6n of The housv, 
■At cro«n prince, in the whole of there appMretPfor Mr. Ponsonby'* 
bis conduct, Ind secretly favoured motion 108. Agninst it 353. 
the views of France. He denied^ House of Lonls, Feb, 8. — Tbe 
that ]>enmaTk was competent lo duke of Norfolk called the atten- 
defend itself against the power of tion of. their lordships to tlie im^ 
France, As to the assertion, that portant subject, on which he Iwd 
we ought to have remained in Co- moved them to b« summoned. Ilie 
pnbagen, govenimmt had given expedition to Copenhagen, was » 
that questioh^veiy discussion; and measure which deeply afiecled the 
the naval and military ofiiceis being character of Ihe country; and, in 
,'consulled on the oct^iion, were of order that tbey might come to a 
opinion, that it would require a true judgment of it, it was material 
ki^er force to keep possessiDn of that they should be furnished witb 
Zealand .than Ibis counliy could all that body of 'information, (o 
spare; and much greater than was which ministers had, on a former 
Ih'en in Zealand. The question, Digtit, alluded, but which was not 
also, bad been put to the first naval regularly on llieir table. Violence 
atithorities, whether the bland conld of an extraordinary kind liad beeo 
be surroitnded hy our vessels, so as used, and great scandal had been 
to prevent an invasion on the part incurred botb to the govermnent 
«f the French. The report of Ad- and tlie nation, from which nothing 
miral Keitfa was, that on the Jut- "but clear evidence of ao imperious 
hud side there were seveu or eight necessity could acquit tfaem : an 
forts, in which might becollevled evidrtice not to be afforded but'by 
to the amount of sixty thousand the examination of papers. He 
men ; that, if the ninety pendants would so word his motion, as lo 
which were then flyin:; rodnd Zea- steer clear of all diDicnIly and dan- 
land were to opcujiy the Belt, they ger of disclosure ; and he sboithl . 
Btust be five miles distant from even have no objection to alter the 
each other; and that, as some of words, if it should be thought any 
these might be driven from their inconveuiency could arise tironi it 
stations the French could on that as it now stood lo any of the agents 
occasion send over their forces in of ministers, or to the state. The 
the small craft, of which there was duke moved, for " tbe substance 
a suliicient nuroberalong the shores of all tli; communications that bad ■ 
of Jutland. beeo made to ministers, in the course 

Mr. Lusbinglon defended the of the last year, with respect to tbe 

cip^dition on ihe usual grounds, stale of the Danish navv, of anif 

On tbe topic of Ibe law of natioui, apparent increase thereof or of any 

' steps 

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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 33 

4fi lalcn to preiwre tbetaine for poMibililyofcr6^n>;lheBelt in tbe 

Nt: tbe prodamation and cor- onlioary season of the year, in aphe 

rafandcDce of our commanden at of the ulnitnt vitfilancc of our 

Ci|mln^en ; ami tlie substance of cruizers, was confirmed by tlie fact. 

■1 the Kcrft commanicalioni re- (bat several bodies of tite encmy'i 

yitiua tbe aecret arlictes of the troops artually got over ioto Zea- 

aeaty tA TBait." land, during the operatioii* exerted 

A loin: and animated debate en- to prevent it. And, as to tbe de- 

■ed. in wbtch tbe argument* on sign of Buonaparte, who could 

bM sites of th« question,' which doulii it T Had he hesitaled, in hi* 

hat already been laid before our usual abrupt tone and manner, to 

loltn, were ur^ed, witii addi- enquire of the ministers of Porlu- 

taaal drcnnt stances, and phced in gal and Denmark, whether itiey 

a enal variety of points of view, had tranajtitlted to their respective , 

Tbe duke of Norfolk's motion courts, his instructions that their 

ra sopfwrted by lord Hotchinson, fleets should be e<|uipped, and 

ind Enkine, lord Buckingham- ready to unite with him in crushing 

ivn, tbe earl of Moira, the earl of the maritime tlespotism of Eng- 

Jcner, tbe earl of ^ Vincent, earl land, and with thai view to declare 

Gr^, lonl Damley. and lord Sid- war, in concert with- him, a|aiRit 

wotfa. It was opposed by the England by the 1 si of Stpreniberl, 

■vqWB Welksley, lord Boring- But it was said Denmark could de- 

Ah, lord Harrowby, lord Lime- fend herself. Could Denmark de- 

ri^ lord Hawkesbury, and lord fend Zealand after she was deprived 

VsIeraTe. of Holstetn, from whence she drew 

1^ itnrqois of Wellesley, who provisions for the support of her 

nuulialely rose up when the duke insular dominions? — Nor was it 

«f Norfolk «t down, took a survey the policy only of Denmark, that 

at all the objections that had been incliued lier to lean Inwards France, 

0^ a^iinst llw expedition. He Her commercial interests gave her 

aiaHtained. that the facts and the same bias, for tbry wercfoimd- 

oiCDmstanccs already before Ihe ed on the principles of the arnied 

kove, were abundantly sufficient neutrality. It might also bi- said, 

u noble )tie house to fomi a Judg- Ihat the accession of the Danisb 

Beat on Ihe justice and policy of fleet lo Ihe naval means of France, 

the measure; that il was the de- could not have created any serious 

«t!a of Buonaparte lo etnploy Ihe danger lo Ihe safety of Ihis cnnn- 

re^Kircet of Denmark aniorg the try. Bnt there was a wide diffe-' 

uner naval means which he medi- rence bctwevn the present slate of 

Med to wield a^inst Ihe maritime aflairs, and that previous to tbe 

•^eriorily of Great Britain. As gloriouit lialtle of Trafalgar. Then 

Jtwas the jnlemi, so it Mas in Ihe almost all the great powers of the 

fower of BuoOBparle to accnmpliih continent were ' in arms aeainst 

^dewg*, either by fraud anil in- France. Bui wlien tbe expedrtJoa 

iiijtte, or bv o{>en force and vio- was sent against C'ipenhagett, the 

nee. In proof of this aiiscrtion, whole of the continent was suh- 

kenteretl into a minute delail of dued, and subdued not men ly for 

W savigalion of ll>e Bell. Tbe the purpose of conquest, but the ' 

Vol. L, [ D ] aubjusalioB 



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54 , ANNUAL REGISTE'R, 180S. , 

subjugation •f Eaglaiid, tfarougb lia ; from tliese convenalietu, of 

tlie (lownfalof liernavalgup^n^cy. which he gave d cJrcuDutaDtial &c- 

Tlie necessity of tlie m^asuR-, he couDttolhchoti»e,hewascominced, 

coDsideTed as clear. U only r^ thill the emperor was sincere in hb 

mained to inquire, whether the desifetomediateiifpoMibleiapeaoe 

triucipies on witich it was underta- between this country aod France : 
en and executed, were cnnlraiy to but at all eveiils, lord HulchinsOD 
the law of nations, as laid down beUeved that (he relalioui of peace 
aud acted on in old linWs, before aod amily might then have been 
the bond by which it had iiniled preserved belween Great Britain 
all civilized nations was burst by the and Rqssiaj He h^H never ^aid, 
French rovolution. The first right uor did he now nieun to say,, that 
that grew out of lliut law, as well if the alilack on Copenhagen had 
as of the ' law of na'.ure, was the never been made, there woftld have 
right of security : a .right which been no war with Russia ;M)i)t he 
could not be limited by any of Ibe would say, that tiic result of ihat 
- rights of oeutralily; but, it seem- expeililion did niatcriatly change 
ed, on account of the expedition to the relations between Great Bri- 
Copenhageo, a getfctal cry was tain and Russia, and give rise to 
raised against England. Tlic voice sentunenta of a very hostile nature, 
of Europe was.said to condemn us. at the court of Petersburgh. At 
Was the voite of Europe now tlie last interview he had vititb .ibe 
free T Or did any power or indivi- emperor, which was ou the 4th of 
dual on the continent .venture to September, his imperial roajesty 
breathe a sentiment l\pstile to. the closed the conversation, by repeat- 
views of Rimnaparte? He implored ing with much emphasis, that lie 
- (heir lordships not, in the bosom of would liave satisfsQlion for Den- 
present security, to look back ou mark. Lord W.h^ treated light- 
past dangers, with a view to ceii* ly the opioioii e:ipressed in Europe 
sure tliose by whose services they respecting the expedition to Copeu- 
bad been avoided, lest future mi- hagen ; hut tliat opinioa was higUy 
sisters, in cases of similar urgency unfavourable to this country: nor 
and danger, should be deterred had that expedition, as he cod- 
IVom emulating the preseul glorious ceived, been justified by the ar- 
exaniple, under tlie apprehension of guments used by tlie noble lord, 
being stigmatized as the viulators Lord Er^kine expressed his s^~ 
of neutral rights, and tlie imitators tisfaction, that lord W. had cndca- 
of (he injustice of Jlie enemy, voured tb rest his arguments on the 
Lord Hutchinson wasof opinion, law of nations, and hot on the mon- 
tfiat even supposing -the French tu slrous doctrine, lliat the law of na- 
bave been iu possession of Hoi- tionswas.at an end, aud that we 
stein and Jutland, still Z(';ilaiid irere justified in resorting to auy 
might have been defended uilh ef- measure that might suit our con- 
fect against the French arms, llav- Vemence.TliiswascopyingUjatcon- 
iogbeen employed on a very im- duct of revolutionary France.which 
portant mission, which gave him an wus-the oriK'u) of the war will) that 
opporlunily of having some con- country. He had rather that France 
Tcnationif with the emperor of Rus had taken the fleet, and that we 

bart 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 35 

W Drt N boldlj on the ocean. If procured copita of the treaty en- 

aiustcn said, ibe; bad jofarma- lered into by tbe elector of Saxony, 

Im to prove Ihe n«ce»sily of the llien king of Poland, for the partt- 

npafrtion in question, he, as a tion of his dominions ; for, having 

Btnbet of that bouse, in lliG exer- afterwards obtained posaession of 

CKoffaiiparliameulaty duty, tiad the original treaty, be published it 

inthttoay, that no sucb infor- at every court in Europe, in order 

Bl>M eiiiled. He ttas jterfectly lo render his justification complete, 

mrc, that in public law, provision Jn opposition to what had- fallen 

vaulc for a case of uecessily, from bis noble friend, the marquis 

iM tben the Be<;essily must be of Wellesley, respecting tht practi- 

Mdrdeulj maotfcsl, cability of an army equal lo the 

Lenl Borini^on did not see on caplute of such a place as Copen- 

•i«jroDDd,lbenoblelords onthe bagen, passing the Belt from Hol- 

^»ie of the house, could con- stein lo Zealand, lie opposed Ibe 

^TM ibe expedition to Copeiiba- opinion of the highest naval au- 

p*, vitliout also condemning the thurity, (lord St. Viiicenl) in this 

ffMm to Constantinople, and or any other country. And upon 

k MttKlions alledged lo ' have that uulhorily lie would venture to ' 

tnivMd in ]S06, to a squadron assert, that so far from cruizers not 

M to lite Ta^s. being able to keep their station in 

Hie tail of Biickinghanuliire, ttic Bell in ordinary seasons, the 

■^■ri by dales, that the expedi- anchorage was perfectly good ; and, 

tu i^aJDst Copenhagen had no that by placing gun boats upon the 

'nllj niled before ibere was a coast, ready to put off, any arma- 

f^i^j of aoy account, even of ment, unsupported by a superior 

'^ tiisteDce of the treaty of Til- force, might be effi?ctually resisted. 

t, boog received in thb country. He was aware, that during the laic 

tin if (lie constaut practice of ullack on llie isle of Zealand, some 

I>rin«wil did pot wamrnt the ex- few vessels bad got over, nolwilh- 

P'c't^ of ofltcial docuaienls be- standing tlie vigilance of our crui- 

^ liiil upon Ihie table, the attack zers; but the number was so small 

"f* pwer, in. perfect amity with as In fumisti an argument in favour 

'*• ^1911 whom Doact ofttoslility of bis staleiiieut rather than agaiust 

M bceo lUedg^, was in itself so it. His noble friend had stated, 

^ontionble a proceeding, that it that Buonaparte had declared at 

^*H for every explanation that his levee, that the fleets of both 

'^ be possibly produced in its Portugal and Denmark should be 

'^'i^tioa. Under circumstances iinited against this couutry. But 

*vnhal limilar, what was the bad he succeeded in the case of 

'lodKi of the great king of Prus- Portugal 1 And he was persuaded, 

*^ Dtnng the seven years war, that he would have equally tailed ' 

* lad soddeoly marched an army iu that of Denmark, tliough the 

^^XQoy, Bud taken possession custodyoftlieirowo ships had been 

"DiKdto, the ca{)ital of the elec- left to the Daues themselves. "Hie 

I*; Bui be had not fell, that he idea of a northern coufedeiacy 

"^ done enough to satisfy Ibe combiaiag all the oavd force oflbe 

"lU, by dtclaibg, that he had Baltic, had fiKleed been held out 

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36 ANNUAL REGISTER, 180g. 

Xo the eountTy. lo nragnifv the fleet, the Danes wod14 have taken 
danger which lbriDeaiure.B<loptc<l the first opporliinity of entering 
was intended lo avert ; whilst the inio the marilime confedt^racy 
real fact was, Ifaat of lhi» supposed against thii country, as in the rorm- 
conibinatiAn of itavat force, SiveHen er instance *, which led to one of the 
was wilh us, the Baltic fleet of greatest naval achievements record- 
Russia completely in our power, ed in our annals. It was impossible 
and therefore the Danish fleet, to suppose that Buonaparte, after 
even if at the disposal of Prance, liaving annihilated llie armies of 
which was at least questionable, itie the conlmenl, would have iuffered 
only daj^er against which wc had 'isolated Denniark lo retain her iti- 
. to provide. But this was thought dependence. We bad trusted la 
■o great and immbent as to joslify the declaralion of Denniarli too 
measures, which, but for the long. Her comiuct had not merit- 
French revolution, would Eie wilh- ed radi confidence. She had not 
out precedent. Why, his lordship made preparations for her defence, 
asked, under the circumstances of nor shewn,any inclination to resbt- 
dangcr under which alone our con- ance. It was only when (he EngliUi 
duct towards Denmatk was defend- and Hanoverians wers advanciog 
ed, were the Rusuan ships of war to the cescue of the north, that she 
Ifaat passed through our fleet in the had assembled her troops in Hida- 
Baltic, and the Russian squadron lein. [le was surpriaed to find 
in the Mediterranean, (offered to such horror expressed at tbe expe- 
cscapel By lakhg possession of ^ition to Copenhagen, by tliose 
tbe latter, we sliouin have facililal' who had approved that against 
ed llie negociation then depending Constantinople. He could conceive 
with Ihe Turks ; and wilh such an tbtit a person might condemn both ; 
iustniment in oor baud, we might btil he could scarcely think it pos- 
bave truiletl-to the mediation of sible fot one to a|ipro*e the attack 
the court of Pelersborghi whilst, at on Constantinople, where there whs 
the same lime, by a strong naval no obvious necessity, and condemn 
force in Ihe Baltic, we should have that against Copenhagen, which was 
protected, and enabled Denmark so necessary for our security. TMa 
to maintain her nentralily, kept country bad been aclins on su^h 
open tbe Sound, and thus effcclu- grounds, as would justify an indi- 
ally have 'disappointed Ihe expec- vidual in aggressitm. The eoeny 
tations Buonaparte bad formed, had departed from the law of na- 
from the influence be had gaiued tions, and we, consequenlly, were 
over Ihe emperor of Russia. But not bound to adhere to. it.' If we I 
above all, we should have avoided bad adhered lo Ihe princifrics of 
the abandonment of those sacred the noble lords, on Ihe olber side, 

Erinciples of justice and honour, m tbe lale disturbnncn in Ireland,^ 

ywhich Ibeconductof our govern- we should have been ijoing lo law; 

nent had been so advantageoody with the rebels, whilst they were 

contrasle:! wilh tbat of France. going to war with us. 

Lord Harrowby contended, tbat Tbe earl of Moira said, tliat of 

if we had not n'md ihfe Danish the hostile inlentiolu of the present 

• 1(01. 

ruler 

D,g,t,7P:h»Goog!e 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 37 

trier of Fraoee no one doobted ; luuusliAable and unfortunate attack 

W wbrrc vtaa lite eviileiKc, thai on Denmark. If the alledged spirit 

Urc wn» ■iijF collusion on the of hostility which actuated both tbft 

(Kt of Denmark ) D«Dniark liad government and the people of 

anforalt preietved a strict neu- Denntark against Ihit rounli^. waa 

tnlity between jhe twlli^rent not to be cured by oIlKr meani 

puwen, and there wat no rea- than bomlrartling tlieir capital, why 

warn to Ifaink. thai on the present not also dciuoliih ihoce fortifica- 

oensaon slie would lta«e derialed tioni which enabled them still to 

iram iL Her arm; bad taken a shut tlie Baltic against Aur naviga- 

ttroag pooilioa in Holsteio, the tion 1 Why leave their batteries, 

lanifnl iIk FreiKh troops enle/ed and the caslle of Cronitiidt stand- 

i|jDavcr,aud ite liad not the saialU ing T Why'leave tb^ni in possession 

at doubt that, had she lieen attack- orilisir docks, ia nbich the; might 

cd, sbe would have defendrd tier- soon build other ships t and had 

«If nilli gallaiitryand persercraoce. Ibey not (tie same number of tea> 

T)ic Dane* might hoi inileed bare men they ever bad, with wbicli to 

keen able to save the proviucet of man them 1 

Uobicin and Julland; but bad Ibey Lord limerick thought theexpe- 

Mt the ialaad of Z<-aland, to which dftion to Copefiliagen fully juslifi- 

to Tctiie, and whither it was inipos- able, because he coiiM shew, that 

■Ueforlbeiren^my tofollowlbeni, from Ibe cnmmeucemenl of tlw last 

The poseibility of conveying an war, the Danes bad been hoslilely 

vBy acros* llw Belt could not be disposed towards this country, 

i afcr r e d from the passage of a few They allowed and encouraged pri- 

■dindoals, particularly when it valeers and enemies' cruizers to 

was coB^dered that the Danes cariy llrair prizes into Bergen in 

wotild have had tlie assistance of Norway, and lo sell them there, 

balk a Brilish and Swedish naval condemned in a court formed by 

fenw lo guard Ibe passage. But the French coimuI at that port. 

■ all ««culs, lie would rallier have tJis lordship mentioned other is- 

ieoi twice the number of sbqn com- stances of tlieir hostile disposil ion, 

posing llie Danish fleets in tlw If (be liixleeii ships of Ibe line, in 

po*rr of Buonaparte, than that we Ibe ports of Riutin, were added la 

should liare oblained it by the llie twenty belonging to Denmark, 

means through which it liad come there would be ho doubt but llie 

into our poasesuon. As long as thirty-six would have forced tlia 

Ikne was a powerio Eurt^ which, twelve sail of the Swedish liite I9 

froNi its regard to the rights of cooperate with them: uot lo be 

otbn slates, couhl form a rallying considered as an inconsiderable 

posal to the oppressed, there was force ; especiallj' in a part so con- 

•Doe hope, thai the nations groan* venient for the invai^ioit of Ireland, 

iag under the yrtke of a pitiless and by llie jMSKage iiorlti about. 

Mxorable lyraal, would iiave Tlie earl of Jersey contended, 

watched for some opportunity, and that there was »•> reason whaiever * 

tasde Mme exertion, ia coimiion, lo brlieve thai Drniiiark had eiilt-r^ 

lo throw it eC Such a power was ed into any alliance, or thai ^tie 

lUi cmmtry, before Ibe late most hadeven bad any secret un(Jtrr>taii<t- 
[D 3} iug 

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33 ANNUA-L REGISTER, 1808. 

ing with Preiicc pr^ioys to out at- to join wiUi the British force, tha at- 
tack on her capital : no such in- teoipt of defeadiug Zmland wvulit . 
terence could he drawn from the have been made, Tltat offer havhig 
quantity of ilores found in her ar- heeo made and rejected, no time 
teiiRb, bveauM there had not been was to be lost. The inoderatioa 
time for collecting thele stores be.- niidfurbeatanceof ourcommandeTS, 
tween tlie period at whirh the before and after Itie attack, left«o 
trealy of Tilait was concluded, and room for regret at the ^naDDer-in 
the OBle ofoiir invasion, which the business had been i^one. 
Lord Haukedbury observed, that How then could it be said, thsl'tbe 
the law of nations was founded ou expedition excited dis|fust in all tite , - 
~tbe law< of nature. One nation oalioos of Europe 1 There wuin- 
v^s bound to another in ttje com* deed bpt little freedom of speedl ' 
' monwealtli nf states, just as one on the continent; but where that 
indiviilual was bound to another in freedom existed, t tie voice proved 
civil sociely. The only di^rence favourable to Britain. And it was 
was, tlmt in civil soriety lliere were no yonder, for the general interests 
tribunals to Ju'dgtrbetueen inuD and of Europe were consulted as well 
nan : and tliat in the common- as those of Great Britain. Europe, 
wealth of states there was no such Asia, Africa, and America, would 
tribunal. Specific intelligence of find in this act tlie nucleus of their 
the secret arrangements of TiUit future independence and graudenr. 
had reached ministers from a quar- Without ships, colonies, and coni- 
ter which precluded all doubt of merce, our enemy would never tw 
.an intention to form a maritime able to humble Britain; and this 
confederacy against Great Britain, grand blow would tor ever prerent 
After the battles of AusterJitz, Jena, the attainment of his object, 
and Friedland, there was nothing Tlie carl of St. Vincent fieclared 
on Ibe continent that could oppose his ophiion, that, supposing Zei- 
any resistiincc to France, Den> land and the Danish navy to he in 
niar^i, when called upon, would the possession of Denmark, and the 
have had no alternative. This was French to be 4ii possession of Hol- 
Ibe plea slie bad alledged in excuse stein, he should think it moreprac- 
for declarnig against us before, in ticable to invade this country from 
circumstances less imperative. Den- Boulogne, than Zealand from Hol- 
niark was utiable to defend Hols- stein. As to the state of the Danish 
tcin ; and it was the opinion of fleet, it seemed to his lordship to 
the abltst otlicers, that if two be exactly what it was when be 
bodies of Prcuch of l5,0COeach, first knew, it about eight years 
had been stationed along the bell, ago. 

in le^ante coqts of 5000 each, Lor«lGrey observed, that though 

some of them would liave got over it might be the poliqr of France to 

into Zealand, And when once a lake the most immediate uicasures 

body of Ibein did i^et over, there for accomnlishing her ends, it was 

was no doubt that they would have far from likely that Denmark should 

got the better of the Danes, who grant a ready compliaoce with the 

were the worst land troops in En- demands of the French government; 

rope.lf the Danes had bctn willing It was undoubtedly her interest to 

keep 



p-hy Google 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. S9 

tapoatoflheeoRtcat And if ihe .ifould have turned iheir tyea 

is deatDoi of doing so, ihe had towards Ireland. Let tliem re- ' 

ibnl to hold out to Buonaparte, store to Denmark ber ships; 

a ftmahd u an; be had to drive let thene be manned by the most 

bv tn a am^tance whli his witbes. hostile of our enemies. To meet, 

5b had the British navy to apply that force, let goTerameot ^nul to 

b Ik protection ; and itwouldhai-e Ireland herciviland religidus liber- 

hn ibiolute ruin to Buonaparte's ties, and they woald have duac 

"n xhnnes to have driven her to more for the safely of (he country 

KbimooroF. His noble friend than all 4l>e fleets of Denmare 

MSl. Vincenl) had ju5l declared, could ever effect As to LisbMi, 

ita the Danes in Zealand wei^ as which hail been referred to, our 

imre against an attack from Uol~ commander tbefc had no instruc- 

dn, H1K vrere against an attack tions to attempt carrying off the 

lin Boologne. Prom Ihe opinion fleet, but in the eient of the Trench 

<^t milttary person. Lord H. wish- taking possession of the country, 

tdlo infer the contrary. But that And at Constantinople no dciiiaud 

(fawo did not seem lo lord Grey was made which we bad not a right 

■obcit all to the point. It was an to make by treaty, 

■tntr to a question, as to the Lord Mulgrave lirged llie same 

dtace of some one of live or six arguments that had been ntado use . 

^naKM, or 500O, out of 35,000 of again and iigaio in defence o£ 

W nueedtng iu effecting a land- the e.xpeditiun lo Copenhagen. 

"^ This was maraly a hypolheti- There mitfht be a, great deal, he 

fti qsotion, the answer to which said, of magnauiuiity in contem- 

ptoKtt nothing ; for it did not say, plaring, without any degree of ap- 

taoo one division lauding, Zea- prehension, so much danger, as 

U mtKt fall 89 a necessary cnuse- that of the Danbli fleet fallinj; into 

T"»ce.il was said, the Danes were the hatiJtofthe enemy; but for his 

botfly dispoKd towards us, in partbeprefiTred Iheprudeuccwhich 

^oi which, Ihe American war saved us from incurring it. A great 

*Batrd, the armed neutrality, and deal had tvcen said on the absurdity 

tbcctuilellency of 1800— 1. From ofailoMing the Russian fleet to na- 

liw however, particularly the )a.?t, vigate the seas at pleasure, at the 

hbitlship was inclined to forman same time that this serious attack 

^■iwi directly opposite. They had been made on (lie Danisli ma- 

*'^ call to mind what had been rine. Now the fiicl was, that orders 

<b<ficct of that confederacy : an had been disjiatched to our officers 

•W on their capital, and the not to |«rrait a Russian fleet to go 

Wof a cDnskferable part of their into ai) eueniy's jwtt. Jt was not 

««t Lord G. entered into a want of caut'ipn that had admitted 

^•rawol of ihe actual sHuatioii the entrance of a Russian siguadroa 

«the Danish fleet ; no jiart of into the Tagus. but waul of wind. 

™. it appeared lo him, could and unlavourablc weather, by 

T^beeoready forseain less tlian »liich Sir Sidney Smith was pre- 

« wttks, and the greater part venl^ from reaching the Tagua, 

" wrt l<n than six months. If until two ilaya after tliat squadron 

"* Bunisters bad been anxious had got into it. 

"• 'luigthen the country, ihyi Lord Damley contended,- 4hat 
[0 4] n« 



40 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

no case wbalever ttad \ftta made Hnuse of cominoot, Febntary 
out to justify Ibe Uureli ^easiirM Sth. — Mr. Wliitbread calleit the at- 
Tcsoiled to by niinislers in atlnckini; tcnlion of the Louse to a subject of 
a dcfeucelcu |>i,-o|>)e in a stitle of tlie higliest import iince. Alluding! to 
avowed ueulniiil}. Ibe comluct uf Mr. secretary Cait- 
Lord vbcouulSidmoulhconlend- u'tag, in quoting pattial estr^da in 
cd, ia the first |tlace, thai lliere supiMrl of (he opiiiiotis lie was 
was no reason to supimse that llie maiiitaiuiiig, in ibe late debate of 
Danes were hostilclv inclined to- February 3rf, on the subject of 
wards in ; and in the next, even Copenhagen, he said, a practice 
adnjilliiig that they were, that Ibis had crept into tliat bouse whicb, be 
would iioi in itself iusliry the Ibought, had been carried to an 
niea»ure of tlie expedition. He immoderate extreme. He coo-' 
couimeuted on tlie glaring anachro- sidercd the riglil honourable gentle- 
liism of imputing the ex)ie<1ition, man to be bound .by every tie of 
>vhicb sailed in July, to intelligence honuuraniof policy, to prove by the 
not received bere till the Stbof the proilnriioii of the pa|)en he should 
ftillouiiig nmnlh, and llie indecency inuvr for, that the fe«lingi, boitour, 
of imtting sucli an assertion in the and char;icler of our Diiniitera 
mouth of his mujesly. As to the abroad and at botne were safe in 
designs of the French in ttie Baltic, the hands of the secretary of stale 
Russia, would never liave siiHered for foreign aflain. The (irsl ex- 
France to have established aiiv tract he should allude to, was that 
serious influence in that sea. With rcfi'rred to by Mr. C. in his apeecb, 
respect to llw danger to this coun- February 3(i, frou) lord Uowick's 
try,' he considered it first, ivilh official di^palch to Hr. Qttrlickei 
respect to its certainty, and next, binriug dale tlie 3d of December, 
with re^ct to its magnitude. Its l&o€. He would move f/ir a copy 
certainty bad nut ui al) been made of that dispdlch ; for lie had aullio- 
out, nor was it greater in point of rily to state, tliat lord Huwick had 
ma^Ditude than of certainty, nor reason to think himself uotdvne jus- 
>{ras its urgency greater than eitlier. tice to in Ibis instance. He did not 
He gave if as bis opinion, that tlie meanfo saythaltlierigbthouourabk 
Danish shi|)s should be kept in a secretary iiad forged sucfi extracts; 
fitate of readiness for resloralion. but lie did say, tliat by slo|:^iog 
He conjured their lurdsliips to short in Ibe midst of a seiilewe, 
pause before tbey decided on a and omitting. the subsequent part, 
question involving so deeply the that wholly qualified t)ie ynuxduig, 
national character; and Ibal ihey by reading as absolute what was 
would bear in mind, that if, as bad meant hypoilKtically ; ba did say, 
' been said, the expedition bad been tbat this was reading a man's evi- 
bilberlo generally approved of by denee against himself, uud against 
the country, it was because Ihe the true nature of the evidence, 
country loqjcetf with confidence to It was neitlier more nor less than 
ministers, for the fullesljustificalioa falsifyiug Ihe statements of another 
of their conduct. The bouse then person, whose silualion should have 
divided — For the duke of Norfolk's commanded laore delicacy. Mr. 
motion, 48, Against it, lOJ. Garlicke iad bteo hardly treated. 

Lord 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 4X 

tarf ScNvicfc K^^ stand up in liii discu«sinn oT llie French decree 
ffacc and vinc^icate himself, but of tin: Qlsl nf Deceml>er, and uf 
■hoe could Hr.Garlickevindicate Die £i)»li«Ii oriter orcouiicil of the 
k* di^Mtcbei, from garbled mis- 7ih of Jitiiuarv. For the produc- 
HfRMnlation. And liow aiixioiis tiun of these |>a|)ers tie would vole ' 
wttA fas be to vindicate liis character cheerfully, l>(it ikiI for tbe dlipalch 
to Ibe Uaniih court, and every uf tbe noble l<>rd, for the produo 
•dn-T But Bidepeiidcnlly of iiiiy tiiin of wliicli there had not beea 
prmo^ rclsliuiu, Mr. C. \^93 laid any siifliricnl ground. 
phced in a most im|)Oilmt one (o Mr. Wtiittiread observed, that 
Ike pMic. Tbe Cc^iilta^n ex- Mr. C. in hn slateincnl of the in* 
ptAiooivas DOlyel jiiHtified. The structions l>i Mr. Oailieke, had (eft 
baaowabla secrcl^irif for foreign off where the very lirri word of the 
aAm bad beea drircn frotii next sentence, the uord frtif. would 
lOKw to rrasoD. and it was for him have coiuplelely knocked down all 
Id prave, (hat Ibe last lie hud re- his ri-asonins on ilie «ubjecl. Mr. 
M Ji .d to, tbe exlractH be had read, Ws. nwlion was suppurled by lord 
were aot &lstied. Mr. Whilbread Temple, Mr. Herbert, Mr, Ti'er- 
coadadcd, witii- muvinf, " that a ney, Mr, Horner, Mr. Windham, 
Ofiy of a dispatch from lord How* Mr. Lyttleton, Mr. SheridiiH, and 
kk, dated Ibe 3d of December, Mr. Sharp. It was opposed by llie 
1S06. from 'nbich extracts bad secretary at war, Mr. Lockharl) 
feca tcad in tbe debate, on Wed- the chanrellor of the eidiequer, 
■eMiay the 3d of February, be sir Joliti Orde, and sir M. Monta- 
hid befefc Ibe house ; and ^ta a gue. On a division of tbe house, 
nfj of a note from Mr. Rust to there apjteared for tbe motion 73 1 
bra Uowick, from which extracts against it 127. 
had beeo read, &c." House of lords, February lltb. 

Mr. Canning asked, if Mr. W. _Lord Sidmoulh gave notice of a 
venllecicd with wbat view he had motion he intended to make, on a 
dtod dtediapatefa of the 3d of De- fit opportunity, for an address to 
eeiaberl It was probable that ex- his mujesty, praying he would be 
■taig circumstances nii;>ht have led graciously pleased to give directions 
to a compromise, by which the that the Danish Heel be kept in suclt 
led of Denmark would have been a stale, as not lo preclude the pos* 
mttraAtted to France. In sup- eibi'ily of realoriiig it, should cir- 
poil of this assertion, he had very cunislunces occur under which it 
aalarally read part of a dispatch might be expedient lo restore it. 
fma lord Howick to Mr. Gaitick, Agreeably to this ualiQe, the noble 
kwbicblbe latter wa^ instructed, li^rount rose to make a motion to 
ifaay disposilion ahould l>e maoi- this effect, uu February 18lh.; but 
fated on the part of tbe Danes to be requested, previously, that the 
rater into such a compmniise, dis- summons sent by the Britbh com- 
tinclly lo stale, that it would be mauders to tlie euvenior of Copeo- 
RMoled by bb mtijetly. He had faajfen, on the iGlli of August, and 
■n <4>jectioa wliatever to the pro- a subsequent letter from tlieiu might 
duction of tbe notes to and from be read; which was dour. ' Ilia 
Mr. RbL ' Tbn- coutaioed an able object he aaiJ, was lo propose to 

their 

D,j,t,7P-h»Google 



42 ANNUAL REGISTEB, 1308. 

tlwir lonUhips, to cotiK to a leso- be taken iritb respect to the Aips 
hifioD stating the imporlaace of of war now in llie possession of hi* 
preserving tlic Danish Uect in such majeslv, in consecjiieiice of the ca- 
■ stale tliat it uii^lit be eventually pilnlalion of Cnpenliagen, . tliat 
restored to Denmarh, on tiie re- miglil preclude tlie eventual reslitu- 
•toralion of peace, orHioner,>if tionoftliem to the govennwrrt of 
possible. He Saul ' eventnaliy,' as Denmark, agreeablj to the spirit of 
it was possible that such a siluatinii the requisition referreii to in llir 
of affairs niiglil esist, that tn re- proclanialioi) issued on the l6'tlt it' 
store the Danish SetA might be August, fay llie romnianders in 
jtiving it to France, aud also be- chief of his mnjesly's sea and land 
ctnse be did not wish to bring fur- forces, employed on that occuston ; 
ward any motion that might inter- and renewcjj in Ih^r k'ller of th^ 
fere with the prerogative of tlic first of September, to the coni- 
crown. ' He had also used thf mander in chief of the forces of his 
terms ' tiic re5l>>raiion of peace, or panisli majesty." 
■ooncr',becausecircunistances might - Lord Boringdcn thongtit the pro- 
occur, DotMilhslanding the contiim- position of (lie nobte viscount of a 
ance of the war, inuhich there- nu*el and olraordinary nature, and 
sfMatiiin of Itie fleet n>ight be such as if adopted, must lead to 
proper. He should not have Ihe most prejudiciiil consequences, 
brought forward the motion if he Had >^nrh a proposition as lliis been 
bad not seen by the voles nf the adopted wiHi reject to the Spanith 
bouse of conniinns that the Dauisli frigates, ivonid it not have greatly 
slu]>s Ind been surveyed, fur the embarrassed tlie enri of Ijniderdale 
purpose of being fallen into the Bri- in his negociations at Paris 1 Sucb 
tish service. To adopt a resolution a proposition coutd be adopted 
pfUte nature proposed, . would set only on the ground, that the SpaniA 
Bs right in the eyes of Europe, and e)i|>edilioM was wholly nnjustifiuble, 
evince our desire to be just. We and the house had already decided 
should have .it some period eillter on both itsjustice and mcesshy. 
to restore the Deet or to make com- Lord Elleuborougk lhoui;lit, 
■ pensalibn tor it; and it was better that ^ery consideration of jus- 
tocome at once toa rekolution, de- tice.and regard for the interests 
elariog a decided opinion on Ihe and welfare of the coinitry were 
. cubject. Not aH tlie victories of in snp|Ki^of the tuotion of bis 
the ruler of France, nor all Ins hobte friend, 
conquests, could give liitn so murk , The lord chaticellor contended, 
pleasure as to obtain a victor\' over tliat both by the law of pr«ced«ut, 
Ihe honour and integrity of this and by that of the constitution, the 
cuuntry. He had, n|>oii consider- j>resent inotian must bt resisted, 
atiou, thought it twllcr to propose Tlie ships «e had taken froru Hoi- 
a resolution of the hou»e, than an land had not been restored, nor 
address to the throne. His lordship those from Spain, nor those latien 
concluded, by moving, "that it at Toulon. Butthe conslitutioa of 
was highly iniporlaiit to the honour the country was decisive upou tiMs 
•f Ibis country, that under present poinl. . Captured siiipi became the 
■ircuni stances, no measures should property of Ihe crown, and (he 

ptesenl 

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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 4S 

ynaoA motwa tended to tw up caaae, insmd of giving theiu &«• 

Ik ktad of the prerogative. lities in a uegociatlon for peace, it 

Lord UoUand contended, tljat woyld better our government, wid 

the qneaUon did not at sll vfiect prevent tlieni from obtaining the 

Ac ptcrogKlive oF tbe crown. It terms which Uiey might otherwise 

m ofU)', wbelber ih^ house would lecure. The arguments nf ihe 

rmIvf, that it was expedient that noble lords opposite went too fat 

tte gamataml ^ouid t«serve to -for Ibefr purpose; for, if tii^y 

itactf the power of restoring, even- proved any thing, they proved, not 

kaSj. (lie ships seized b; as at that Ihe Danish fleet should be kept 

Cnyenhagen to llie Danes. He in order, that it might be t'eftored 

was aot iocliaed at present to enter at some subsequent period, but io- 

■•• SDji exposition of the tbiOin^, stantlyand without delay. 
IRianoling testimony Ibat had Lord Erskine observed, that fge 

ken resorted to, ia vindication of had gone to the Danish shores in ai) 

(ke Baltic expedition. One time amicable ctiaracler, and treated wilh 

Deavsrk was represeoted as sincere the Danes on an amicable fnoling. 

■ ber professions of neutralily, Wc took them by surprize, when 

hoi too weak to act up to her in- they were lulled into security, and 

tealk'iia. At another, they were thtn proposed that tbey should 

kU, tfaat as ber sincerity was ques- pnrcliase I he ^temporary protcctton 

liBMfale, hct means of aiinoj'ance of a foreign power, by the surrender 

woe to be feared and provided of tbeir iodependence as a nation 

apiatt. Again, it was pretended, for ever. With respect to the law 

Ifatt. the aole grounds of tlie expedi- of precedent he dissented from bis 

liBB were Ibe secret arrangement of nolde and Icitrited friend onlbe sack. 

tke treaty ttf lUit ; aud when it The casc-s cHed by his noble friend, 

was Mienpted ta trace Ihe alledged were not, in bia opinion, applica- 

' ' " n to any authentic aonrce, Ue to that fiefore Iheir lordsliijn. 

rasat one period brought There was no obligalioo whatever, 

d as the infamier ; and at on the part of tjiis country, to re- 

j»er, the disatfected Irish. Tliis atoie to molutivnitrd HoUand ibe 

1 of ahifliiig naturally created ships tuben from llie 4liidtholder. 

ioan in the mind-of every im- With respect to the precedent of 

partial van. Coosidering Ibcpre- Toulon, liie Toulon fleet, was de- 

aeat notion, with a reference to posited in our bands on tlie express 

the «|aestinn of peace, he appealed, condition of its being restored on 

to Ibe frdii^ of the noble lords, the restoralion of^monarcby. And 

whctber it would not be more for in the treaty of Amiens, there was 

Ike boooat of IhecoDotry, if they not one syllable taid by France, 

caaldcommeDceauegotialton, alter indicative of any daim to that fleet., 

arolualarf ce^ioit on their parts, But l|]i;re was nothing for which 

mbcr than the subsequeot degra- lord Etskine was more ansious than 

di OoB of a forced surrender, ex- to shew to the world, lliatvlial we 

acted hj the slipulalioM of a did was indeed the work of mere 

traty I necessity ; and that thb necessity 

Lord Harrowby^ opposed the being once at aaeiid, wescorned 

■Man of ibe noblT viscount, be- to enter into any pitiful calcolalitni 

of 

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44 ANNUAL REGISTER. 1805. 

of lurniug it lo our own vdvan- motion ; it wa« bj^ no ninrw |»ro- 
tage. ]><>srd, lliMl Die Dituiali fltel stiuiitd 
The carl of Selkirk, Itiougli Ew be rcblottd uuder any |iarltculdr 
WBi a friend to lite principle of the circiimstHiiccs ; but nierelv lltat, in 
Danish expedition, t)ioiit:l>l >t hi> order to facililntc a recnuciliutton. 
dnl^v lo su|))M>rl llie motion before and nitU a view to ojconoiit) also, it 
tiK houK. ' eliould be kepi in luch a »tule as to 
Lord Redesdalc tboiichi, that |>revent any obstructions to )>eaee 
the original proposition of our com- wilb Denmark, by cnabliiig us to 
manders tu restore the Danish fieel, restore it with the least possible ex- 
was contplelely done away iy the pence a ud difiicully. After drpre- 
shhiieqiieiit conduct of the Danish eating llie principle, that a stale of 
govern nieiit, in rejecting the terms war sliould cancel inotul oblign- 

,of lliat propoutinn, and entering tions, or that we should shrink froiu 
itflo hostilities with this counlty. — doiug justice lest it should lead to 
There was no nation in Kuro|)e lo loss, he proceeded to couinieot 
which Denmark had been so ad- on the consequences hkety to remit 
verse, for several years back, as lo from (he nature of our atlack on 
thb country. Slie would liave Copcnlmieen, So farfromdeslroy- 
acted hoslilely towards us if she ing, by that attack, the uqvat rtN- 
could; and our goverameot acted sources of Denmark,. jve-had, |nr- 
wisely in dtpriviuf; ber of lieri licularly by the spirit we produced, 
means. Such a pledge as lliat for conliihuled to proniole and extend 
Ibe restoration of those means them. Her ports and arsenals wer« 
uould, instead of tending to con- still remaining, mlh a vast <|uaii- 
ciliale, serve to produce an oppo- titv of naval malerials; and anjr 
site e^t, as it proposed to con- supply she wauled, she could witl»- 
cede that before hand, wMcb ought out dilEcully obtain. The profit 
to be.left for matter of treaty. lo be deriied from our init^uitjr 
The earl of Damlcy conceived it was, in fad, immaterial while we 
lo be peculiarly becoming that Imd created a spirit, valour, and 
bouse lo stand forwitrd, for the animosity to fighl against us, which 
poTpoac of rescuing the national must furnish powerful vid to lite 
diaraclcf from the impttlalion na- common enemy. 

. lutally to be affiled upon tt, by the Lord Hawkesbury opposed llie 

Danish expedition. motion, as tending to fetter the 

Lord Molgrave, lo the asserlion, caeculive government, in case of a, 

that we did- not Hani ships but negotiation with Denmark; as cast - 

men, replied by alledKingi iImI we ing an oblique censure on the cois- 

could have men enough at any time, duct of ministers ; and as atiixiiig a 

but that hC uiight stand in need of stiguta upon a measure, w4ncli was 

•hipping. both just and necessary. '' 

Lord Grenville denied, that tlie Lord Sidmouth replied to lord 
house had yet come to any deci- Hawkesbury, on Ibe usual grounds, 
uon ou the merits of the Danish thai the Bailie cxpediliou was net- 
expedition; the evidence relative to therjuat, necesury, nor |H>htically 
wtiicb had not yet been laid before necessary; and that at any rale Ibe 
it. He cxplaioed the otuccloflbe ships, under ceriaiu circumstances, 
I ought 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



45 



mfk\ Id he Rstored to DeDtnarfc. 
Iklioaw diridcd. For InnI Si(l< 
■Nth'i motion, 51. — Agatost it, 

m. 

Hotue of Connnoiu, Feb. 2 5. — 
Mr. SkeriilsH snbmiltefl to tlie 
home » prupontutn, whicb ippear- 
Htubim of the first mi|inrtance, 
Ht Inrf hoped, thai strong infonna- 
iMstNiId hHTcprovcH the attacb 
H&yenhagen ia linve heen an 
■(of necessitv; or that some nn- 
t^nrocal in^ance of the hostility 
rf Den murk wonM haw been 
Am; orlaitiv, that some argu- 
KBt wouM have o&reH .wnie to- 
InUe pretext for their camluct. 
uWwbra he found, that inslead of 
Om, tbev only made an nwkward 
■tlmpt to form Mmetliing out of 
d Ibe three ; that ihey tirat pre 
kvtfd a atroDg necessity ; that on 
ka; driven from this grmmd, 
Ibn Irietl to point out a variety of 
pmcalioas nii the part of Den- 
mA : that Mkj then said, it was 
•Kcnary to no some stout act, 
*hh might prove to the wnrM 
Ah they could inutate Buonaparte ; 
a^ that Ibe result of the whole 
•liatDlal rleniat of alt actu:il in- 
^■rmaljon whatever, he couhl not 
^sfmt the imlavourable impres* 
■M nhich bad beei^ made upon 
b mind. The alle«nlion, tlutt 
pwtinj information was danqer- 
«!, was ever on the lips of tjiose 
»W puqinsM re(iuir«t coticeal- 
HM. Admilling, however, that 
iWfianting of iofornialion mi^ht 
be wnKliiDes inconrenient, perhaps 
(«■ dangerous, publicity ^val the 
'I'll principle of our political coii- 
tilalion. Despotic governments 
M jnme advantages from that se- 
nt! larking manner in which busi- 
Kn might be there transarlid. 
IVpeculMTcoilveatences enjoyed 



by a despotic government were ba- 
lanced by advantages on llic side of 
freedom ten thousand tiinei greater. 
This proposition Mr. Sheridan iU 
Inslrated in a very happy manner. 
Supposing (bat a, case conld be 
made out aeaiiisl Denmark, the 
house was without iofornnlion re-) 
speclin^ ihf real cause of the war 
with Russia. He look it for grant- , 
ed, that it was not simply the at- 
lack upon Copenhagen which had 
4ienated the emperor of Russia from 
this country. It was owing to some- . 
tlitr^ thai hwl occurred posterior 
to that attack, that he had arrang- 
ed himself in the list of our ca»- 
mies; (be conununicaliiHi impiitted 
to th« coiiit of Peterehur^h, of the 
foul, treacherous, xnd base pro|K)- 
■als that were made after the capi- 
tulation of Cojienhaxen, by mini- 
sters to Mr. Ri^t, the Danish agent 
in this country, dcMing Denmark 
to submit to any Iprnls llicy might 
think proper to dictate, on the pain 
of liavins Norway wrested from 
that kin>;ilom and given to Swe- 
den. If be could trust to the pa- 
pers, which lie held in his hand, 
purporting to be the suli^tance of a - 
conversation which passe<l between 
Mr. secretary Caunin|{ and Mr. 
RisI, and copies of a corn-spond- 
ence, whicli passed between the 
coiirti of CopeiiliaiT'n and Stnck-> 
holm, it appeared tl.at, i^t rite very 
time when ministers were soliciting 
Ibe mediation ol' the emperor of 
Riissid between Great Brilain ami 
Di.'nra:irk. ihty were threaUniug to 
de~|ioil Denmark of a part of her 
territi>iies, and. after having eva- ■ 
Guated Zealand, according to (he 
capit ilaiuu. ,t'i co-opi-rate with a 
Swedish garrison in a^ain taking 
poii'.i's.ion of it. Flagrwit and 
wicked, « he cuncciveii the first 



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46 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

•Uack on Copcuhagen tohavebem, eluded w!Ui moving, " That Hieie - 
to IiBve Tioiated tbe capilulatioti be laid before the house. a> far ^ 
trould have fieeu still more base ajitl the Bme could be done, without 
crhninat. Mr. Sberklan read the detriment to the public tenice, 
several papers to witich he alluded; copies or extracts of the eorres- 
beginniu^ with Mr. Rist'* note to )iondence which passed after tha'_. 
count Deriistoiif, containing a coin- capilwlation of Copenhagen, be- ' 
munication of live dlflereut me- tween bis majesty's ininistera and 
naces, if the court of Denmark did the court of Slockbalin, relative to 
Bnt agree to subscribe to certain the retaining posMSsion of Zeabnd 
lermij; and ending with u note -ad- by a Swedish aTtav,orinconcertwilh 
dressed by baron Fawbe, the Swed- his majesty's forces ; also for copies 
' isli charge d'atlaires at the court 9^ extracts of the coTrespondence 
of Kiel, to count Bemstuff, th« which passed between his majesty's 
Danish minister, declaring, that ministers and the Danish charge 
" Had his Swedish majesty .judgtfd d'af&ires, or his secretary, residen- 
ft necessary to occupy Zealand tiary at the court of London." 
with his troops jointly with those Mr. secrelaty Canning replied, 
of his allies, lie should have done at great length, to Mr, Sheridau; 
it; and the kin^ wishes, that be to the most imporlaal points ia 
ma; never find lumself in the case whose speech he answered, that tlie 

to regret that he had acted other- doctrine of opposing publicity' to 

wise." the secrcsy with wbjch the enemj 

Mr. Slietidan put tlie question conducted his afiairs, would be very 

to the house, u-belUer it would sane- pro|>er if we were prepared to be* 

lion tbd, new system of wilhholdin;; come the subjects of that enemy; 

all ioformatiou lelalive to (he iitca- and tliat no sucb offer had been 

surcs of ministers! If it did, it made of Noruay to Sweden, as had 

would be better tn decide at once, just been ailedged. It was true that 

that the interference of that house what liad passed between himself 

was at all times ao impediment to and the Danisii charge d'aflairt*, hod 

the operations of governraenl; (liat been reduced to a minute-, in tbe 

partiameat in difficiiU tiroes was a shajie of aprotocol ofaconference; 

nuisance ; that it was better for the but there tvas not in it a single 

king to prorogue it during plea- word of what the right bDnoumbie 

sure, raise money at lie pleases, gentlcmau had read from the Mo- 

and make war or peace, when, how, niienr. Tlie proposition that hati 

or on what terms he may think been made to the Panish charge 

proper. He implored ministers to d'afiaires, was, eilher that he fbmld 

desist from the system of Aghling procure full powers to treat, or in- 

Buonaparte with his own weapons, duce his goveriiment to appoint 

Let them oppose lenity and mode- some penOu with such powera', to 

ration to his cruelly and oppres- treat with a minister to be seiit 

sion; 'good faith to his treachery; from this country tO' Copenhagen, 

to tiis violence and despolistn the 1'hts was the whole of (he official 

mildness of the British ronslitulion; commnnication. It would not be 

and, above all, to his lOY^lery let contended, that in any converna- 

tbeni oppose publicity. He. con- tions be might have had with that 

gentleman. 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



^r 



(■dnuii. be vas not justified id 
Aling, wbat mieht |>ossib)y be llie 
EnNqumm of a ternsal od tlie 
)Kt of Denaark, or tu advert to 
a; Dtlier topics to iuduce Mr. 
Kto ta Buke llie appUcalion to liis 
tvaiA. As to what luid passed b^ 
t«eoi Ibe courts of Stoddtolm and ' 
tiippBhacen, after llie capitulation 
°r&aluid, Mr, Sbcriddn must I>e 
vrut, tliit sncb corTespondeiice 
mU nercr be prwtnced to tbal 
U«.— Mr. 5. bad justly stated, 
lia( mt VnX bal one ally remain- 
ns mil ibat him we had brought 
iiloi^tnalio* nf great peril.' And 
•Ut was the cure he proposed ? 
•lot Ibe acknowledginenl of bit 
SiUt}} Tbnt ,we should lav be- 
'Mi the public the whole of b1s 
ind inlimale counsels, notuith le- 
^ la dangers long past, biit to 
Ms xtitally impending, and 
•bid) roold be greati; aggravated 
\ Ibe proditctiou of the corret- 
pmlaiCF now moved for. 

Ml. Caniiiog: in the course of 
1^ iptcdi reniarked, tliat there 
Ml 1 lery " observable sympathy 
Utiten the genlleinen in opposi- 
ii<i*lnjii(it and bis colleagues, and 
'Iw Fmch newspaper, called llie 
-Vnilrar. Sa sooner Ihan lliey 
•nt run dry by a dcbale, tliau a 
'wnliet of Ibe Moniteur airived to 
'up^}' llicro with a ftesh topic, 
^'W Uieir light was quite ex- 
ItHted OB any question, in came a 
^wiltus from which a spark fell 
foD the tiluoni, 2nd rekindled Hie 
•wt of ilieif arguments." 

Tfe drew a smart ryjly from 
"f. Pontoaby, wlin, tliough *tn- 
4le of ibe just rebuke of tire 
It'll howMinible secretary ujxm 
'niMir, and lliose on (lie same side 
"iH" liim, that tliey-were grown 
''jlii Hie deteie, that they tute 



quite exhausted ia laiisnage, tod 
required the proinellieaii fire of the 
Moiiiteur to rekindk tbem intA ac- 
tivity, could never admit iliat any 
such imputation could be fixed on 
the right bonouTublc secretary biin- 
self. His ideas were not so nuiner- 
ens but Iliat lliey cuhld ia a mo- 
ueot be put in array. The man 
who had but few ideas could readi- 
ly summon them into action, parti- 
cularty, when by pgipetual j)raelice 
tfaey were drilled in all the evolo- 
tious of the dispulanl. The right 
honourable secretary was Sucl) »n 
ceconomist in his thoughts, and 
sdch a prodigal in words, tbat he 
could feel no einbarmssiuent in de- 
bate, lie could U|H>n any occa- 
sion bring forward tliut chalii of 
words which jingles in thccar, wrO' 
ly afiicis |he undcnlaiidiiig, mid 
never appreaclies Ibe heart; bat 
which souM pHTlizans might call 
eloquence. Mr, Poiisonby pro- 
ceeded to animadvert on various 
parts of Mr. Camiiii^'ii speech. — 
The conduct of misiiterK in nego- 
tiating with Siicden fr>r I'v nccu- 
pation of Zeuiuiid ufler it ^loiild 
l« appnrcntly evacuated, in eqa- 
furmity with the caiMtuUliuii, ck' 
cited bis aslnnisbmeirt. It exactly 
resembled the comhirt of .two lii^b- 
waynten, uite of «'ho») should first 
aildtess a pai>senj;er, denunditig hi* 
money, and threaten his life, and 
tlie passenger oftVr his purse, but 
beg that hi* lite might be spared; 
ou tliis, tiie highwayman accepts 
-his purse, and promises not to in- 
jiire him ; but the moment be wnlks 
111)', lie whistles his coin pHuion from 
the liirdge, aud saj=, •; Do you 
diipalch hiiH," 

Mr. Windham said, thc'characlKr 

of the coiuUry had been seriously 

aLcusi'd, and to that accu^iitinii 

Mr, 



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48 ANNUAL REGISTEK, 1908. 

Mr. Canning had retnnied fi mere period at which it took ph(«, amf 

asMrtion : in wliich, aj niual, he who reflected, Ihat it wascoiidadetf 

' was confiHent jmt in proportion as in the oiler ignorance of the decia* 

be vias deficient in proof and argu- ration nf war b^ the Diinisb gf>- 

ment. He had slated, llial even vemmeot. 

were the papers applied for bid be- , Lord Temple said, the qqestion 

fore Ihe house, the genlleniei) who was, whether it was proposed to 

supported the motion' would not any otfaerponer to occupy Zealinda 

And what they wanted. Thej after onr troopa shoulo bave-era- 

wanted some proofs to contradict cualed itt ' 

the statements which appeared in Mr. Canning ashed, rf the noble 

Ihe Moniteur, and to vindicate Ihe lord meaat to enquire, whether 

cbnracler of the country; which after all hopes of a termination of 

wonld be very imperfectly vimli- Ihe war with Denmark had ceased, 

.caled indeed, if it rested on the 'ministers had it id contemptation, 

mere assertion of the right honour- or had actually prnviitbdlo takean^ 

able genllenian. If he thought the hostile steps against that country t 

papers would support hii 8s«erlioD, Tlic ciiiestioii havina been loudjy 

was it not nalural to infer that he and repeatedly called for, the faoote 

would produce them ? And was it dirided. — For Mr, Sbecidan's roo- 

not equally natural to infcr ihc lion 85 — Against it 134. 

contrary from (he pertinacity of his House of Lords, March 3. — The 

refusal? He look a view of the earl of Damley, after a snilaUc 

animadversions which had appeared preface, moved that an humble 

in the Moniteur, and maintnined address be presented to bis ina^ 

that they were in some parts par- jesty, 

licplarly just, though not expressed " That after allentitely consider- 

■■ very happy terms. . ing all the public doeiimeiits befere 

The eiirl of Temple thought the us concerning the late altaiek on 

matter under consideration might Copenhagen, and the war which it 

be decided fay a single qnestion. has produced, we have found the 

Was there, or was (here not any information which Ihey afTord cx- 

Dcgotiation with SWden, or any trrntely imperfect and gnsatis&c- 

other foreign power, to occupy Zea- lorr. 

lend af^er our troops were bound " That in a mailer in which 
to evBCUHte it ? hoih the honour, and the interests 
Mr. Canning repeated, that it of our country are so deeply con- 
was Ihc deterntined purpose of mi- cemeil, we had hoped for Ihe fullest 
nblers to evacuate Zealand, and li- explanations The priuJiptes or 
lerally according to lite rapttnia- our conslilution, and the iinirorm 
lion: but when he said titrralli/, pracliccof hianiigesty.'and theio- 
he meant not according to tkf let' vereigns of bis ilhniTious house, re- 
trr, but Ihe spirit of the capitida- (]Dire that parliament should be 
lion. Tlie doubts entertained by distiuclly apprised of the tne 
mirialers as lo the construction of grounds of entering into new wars, 
thiit capitulation, would mt be con- especially in a utualton of our 
sideredds unreasonable by any can- connlry wholly unprecedented, 
did nian, who looked back lo the " Had Denmark been ■ parly to 

any 

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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 49 

m fcostBe c ot ft dt u cy againt the tersburgb, in an official vole, rested 

rifikb or hknttls of the British eni- the defence of the measures not on 

fBK, our resistaiice wouM hare any hostile purposes etttier of Den- 

hna DCceaBarj, and our warftre le- luaHi or Russia, 4iut Aitely on the 

pliamtc. Uoder such drcum- design, wliicb it was said, Ike 

stHcn we should onl; ha?e had French govemtnent had long sine* 

wrr«rel, UmI the ports and arsenals ~foeen knom to enlertaia. 
•f thai country should so li«lilly ■* His majesty's niinislers not on- 

kne been abandoned, vtIwd aovan- ly fnrebore to advise such oKasuri^s 

lifa so vefy comideTabie had been as would hnve l>een necessary to re- 

ricrifed from tbeir temporary oc- pel any Teal liosttlity of Russia, but 

nyiaa; and when, by our con- they actually solicited the media- 

tignsg to hold them during the tion of that power to extinguish a 

■ar, ^ real danger from that qoar- war, and ber guarantee to defeat 

ler night hainq been efiectually projects, in which it is now pre> 

ivertcd. tended ttiey kiww her to have been 

" Bnt wc cannot doubt that Den- a principal and contracting party. 
nifc, ioriead of engaging in hostile " Allegations thus inconsistent 

kagses, bad resolved still to main- with each other, and conftaiy to 

tm ber neotralily- This fact is admitted facts, weaken, instead of 

pnxed even by the imperfect do- supporting, the cause to which they 

caaMils which have been laid be- are applied. 

(mt as, and ia confirmed by the "With respect to lliealledged ne- 

pmcfaunalion issued by his m^esly's cessity of the case, we beg leave to 

nnMmiiidiiii immediately betbre ajsiire his majesty, tliat we cannot 

the attack. think so meanly of the power and 

" Cerlaialy Denmark was ' go resourcesof his empire, of the spirit 

party, nor does it appear that she of his ]>eople, or of the valour and 

was privy, to any confaleracy hos- discipline of hii fleets and armies, 

tile to this country. We ahe not as to adniil that audi an act could 

ciCB satis6ed that such a league did liave been r«)nired for any puqiose 

mUy exist. of self-preservation. 

**Tbe conclusion of any secret " Any temporary advanlaeeS 

iriides at "nisil, affecting the rights which the possession of such sh^is 

«f istere^s of the British empire, and stores as were taken at Copen- 

^fwars to have been uniformly de- bagen can afford, are already much 

■Kd boUt by Russia and France. more than counterbalanced by tlie 

" Tbe correspondence of bis other consequences of a measure, 

aajctlt*a secretary of slate, and the wliich appears not less objectionable 

tees of tbe transactions them- in policy than in priuciple, Ttrat 

Khea. prore that bis majesty's mi* measure has augmented die number 

■rim coold Dot be in possession of of ' our enemies f it baa counle- 

■yKKfaartides, when theatlack was naoced tlie injurious representalioBs 

ofdered ^atnsl Copenhagen ; and circulated throughout Europe re- 

i< has beoi dtstindiy admitted id specllug our principles and designs; 

lib bouse, that tbey have not yet' and has inflxmeil against us the 

ibtatiMd a copy of them. warmest passions of neutral and of 

' IW kiag's aiubaandor at Pe- friendly natitwa. 

Vot. L. [ E ] '. '■ But 

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so ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

. " But h has, above ally shsken anit peace of Tll>il ; Itie av<fwMl 
oarovm perenasioaof Ifaejiuticeof declarfttion nf tbe French govern- 
oijr cauw ; a sentiment whick bad ment, to exclude Ibe Briluh Oag 
hitherto nipported lu thrnugh alt from every port of Eiirt^.-and to 
our ilifficulttes; eommandiog the' cumhine all the potven of tbe con- 
respect of ofber powers, and en- thiuiU, in a general coufedeiaey, 
couraging us in an bumble but too- against tbe maHlune ri|;l>lt, and 
fideut reliaoee on the sttimale pro- p»l>ttcal exisleuce of Great Bti- 
tection' and blesting of Providence, tain, most 'highly apjirove tlic 

" Unwiltbg as we are even yet prompt and T^;orous measures 

to pronounce definitively ou a sub. adopted by hi« majesty's niioiilers, 

ject, tbe full knowledge of which for the purpose of removing oat of 

ha« been so pertinaciously withheld the reach of bis enemies, tlie fleet 

from lis; and reluctant as we must and naval resources of Denmarh." 

ever be to admit conclusions ua- The house divided. -For tbe mo- 

favourable to the justice of those (ion 125— Against it 57. 
counsels by wliicb his majesty's House of Lords, March 7. — 

conduct has been actuated; we are Viscoimt Sidmoulb called their lorff- 

yet conipelleil, on such an occaMon, ships' attention to a subject of great 

tospeak to liismajeslytbebnguagc importance. He had beard that 

of truth. And we must, llierefore, when a rumour prevailed of an in- 

wilb all humility, and with the most tended attack upon Copeuliagen, a 

unfeigned aod heartfelt sorrow, re- repiesenlatiuu bad been made to 
present, that in a case, which, above . governnieat on behalf of tbe Da- 

all others, required tbe clearest nisb vessel) then in our ports, for 

proofii every presumption is against tlie purpose of ascerlainiug, wbe-. 

us; and that no particle of evi- tii«r tliey were safe in contpklmg 

dence has yet been adduced by their cargoes. The nature of Ibis 

which our nationfi cbaracter^can be represenlatiiin, or the answer to it. 

vindicated from the guilt of an an- lie did' not know. But afterwards^ 

prdW^ed and premeditated viola- intimation lia\iug been made by the 

lion of that good bitb, justice, and chamber Af conuiierce at Copea> 

humanity, wliicb have bilhertobeep bagen, tliat Utere was nn expecta- 

at once the glory aod Ibe safeguard ^ion of hostilities with this country., 

of the Britiab entpu^," those vessels proceeded to complete 

The address proposed by the tlieir cai^oei. Previously, lioiv- 

earl of Darnley was supfwrted by ever, to the sailing of the expedi- 

lotd HollaDd, and opposed by tbe lion, au order was issued under 

lords Elliot and Boriogdon.^l'lie which all those vessels were de- 

house divided. For' the lUolion tained, and others broujibt in, tbe 

51— Against it 110. whole of which be liad heard were 

Afler Ibis, Lord Elliot moved for since condemned, and , become 

an address to his majesty, stating, droils of adnttralty. The produce 

" That this' house, considering tbe of tliese vessels and cargoes, be 

fieclaralion hiid before thetii by had heard, a'lnouqted to nearl^v 

bis m^csly's command; tbe state 4,000,13.001. if these slaleiin-nls 

fowliichlkecontiBent was reduced, vere true, he could not help lb uik- 

in consequence of ibe negotiatiuo ing tbe circumslancei unexainpted 



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HISTORY OF -EUROPE. Si. 

' iilkiBraboflbe coiuitry.. Un- {toner, while all her ships wete lu 

(oike bad fiutber iafonmtion, he port, and alt her sibrea were in her. 

nK rrer bdiere. ibat our ezpcdi- urMoals. An Mt of xhit prima facie 

IM In Copenhagen caused the war. inju!>tice callect Tor a frank eK|>osi- 

^DtsBsirk, and, Iberefore.tfant tion; and, indeed, iu the words ef 

Ike mseb preYioasiy detaioeri, his majesty's speech, it was due lu 

M^ to have beta coaadend !□ a Europe wid the wurid. Aut bad 

tfmtf slUatioD from vessels da- it appeared thai ministers had oot 

kwd in coosequeiKe of the pre- resorted 1o this act of violence, as 

•iNi hwlile power to wliicb they long as a doubt of Denmark's hos< 

Weo^. He Fished to ask the >ilily. as long as^a hope of her neu- 

ukk xcrelary of state, whelhtr trality remained T The grounds of- - 

i ^ true, that the vesaelB he had juatiAcation had been tlireefold ; 

>Ued I* had beea condcfniietl in First, the intentiou of France to ' 

tkc snaacr slated, and also, whe- seiie npon Holstehi, and to compel 

. *o the crewa were delaiued' as Denmark to depart from ber neu- 

priMMnof war? trality; secondly, itw co-operation 

Ui) Hawke^DT? staled, thai -of Kussia uilb France; and liiird- 

iWnae course had been adopted ty, the collusion of Denmark with 

^tofwct to the Danish. vessel*, FrKuce, and the latent compiracy 

a hi been adopted with respect of ihree powers agHJiiat the niari- 

Is fte itsaeli of other poweri de- time r%hls of Great Britain, liav; 

>mI in similar circuinstaiKeK ioj; examined these three grounds, 

^ iMraBce of protection bad which appeared to liim altogether 

k«a pna either directly or in- unsatisfactory, he concluded a rer\ 

Avdiy by government to llie Da- animated and ingenious speech, 

■A vcBeb in our porfs, at the with movii^, 
>ae Heeliooed by the noble lord. " Tliat an humble address he 

^ Is (he crews, they were as in presenle<l to bts majesty, submitliug 

4a taws, detained piimners of lo his iDsgesty. that we have alttn- 

*■. ailh the exceptian of some in- lively considered all the infoTina 

^nhakwbo liad been under par- lion before us rexftecting the lale 

^"iu drcumstaiKes rekaseil. A attack on Copenhagen, and ihe 

'■rtd prapoaed lo Ibe Danish go- war in which wc have con5e<)ueiil)y 

^/Miat had beeil hitherto de- been Involved ; and that we deeply 

'M. Ai to, Ibe vahie. of, the lament to have foond it iniperlcct, 

*^ aad cargoes it had been great- con trad idory, and unsatisfactory, in 

''euggenrted. all its parts. ' 

Hoatenf Commoi)s, March 21. "That respecting a Iransaclion 

*-1V BdAe ctpetfltion was again in which both the hmiour and the 

"wgkt mto discussion fay interest^ of our country are so 

lir. Sharp, who -considered all deeply nmcemed, we hud hoped 

■■* kari pasted hiUwrlo on ibis far the fullest etpianatioo, 
l^rt trai only prelinrinary lo the " That the principles of our con- 

■fcwe which the boose nould stilulioir, and the uniform practice 

^ Ik called-iipon lo give. Ina of his majesty aiid the toverei-i.n 

*"■> of profound peace we bom- of bia illustrious boose, re.'inite lliut 

^iM tlie metropolis of a neutral parliament slvould be ili»liiictlv !i)> 
[F.2] ^ ' ,:,i,;-i 

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52 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1803. 

prized of the true groyDdi of en- stale, and tbe dates of tbe Iranrac- 

' tering into u«w wars, and espe- tioiis prove, that if any socli articles 

cialJy in a siluatioii of the country, did exist, hb inajesty*a niiuiitera 

so extraordinary aud unprecedent- wefe not in possession of them, 

ed as Ibe present. when the attack was ordered a- 

" That liad Denmark been u gainst Copeobageo. 

party to any hostile confederacy, '■ That his majesty's ambassador 

eillier for uieracing his majesty's at St, Pelersburgb. in an official 

territories, or invading his maritime note, rested Ibe ilefoace of Ibat 

rights, our resbtance would Jiave measure, not on the hostile pur- 

been necessary, and our war&re te- poses either of Denmark or of Uus- 

gilimale; and that, under such cir-' sia, but solely on designs wbith it 

cumstances, this house would only was said the French government 

have had to regret that his ma- had long been kuown to enter- 

jesly should have been advised so tain. 

lightly to abandon the ports and " And that Itis majesty's ministers 
arsenals of that country ; for that, not only adviiied his majesty to ab- 
had tbe alledged danger been real, stain from those measures of liosli- 
tbe possession of those ports during lity agaiust Russia, which it was 
the war would have afforded the their duty to have reconmiended, 
best security against that danger ; bad they really believed iii Ibe ex- 
wheteas tbe ahandoumeut of them istence of such eugagements : but 
faas MOW lefl us more than ever rx- they actnally solicited her media- 
posed to it. tioQ to extinguish thai war, and her 
' '■ But that we can enlertahi no gunrantee to defeat those projects, 
doubt that, instead of engaging in in which it is tjow pretended she 
boilile leagues, Denmark wished was kuown to liiive been a principal 
only to luaintain her neutrality: and contracting patty, 
that this fact is proved even by the " That allegations, thus incon- 
imperfect documents which have sistent with Ihemselves, and cotilra- 
been laid before us ; and is disliiict- ^ to the admitted fads, ralliet 
ly acknowledged in the proclania- weaken than support the case to 
(ion issued by his majesty's com- which they are applied, 
inanders immediately before tbe " That, with re»)>ect to the pre- 
altack. tended necessity of the case, we 
"Thatuot only was Denmark no bei; leave respectfully to as.turo his 
parly to such u league, but we see majesty, that we canuol tliiok so 
BO ground 1o believe that she was meanly of the power and resources 
privy toil; and the very fact of its ofhlt empire, of the spirit ^if hi.« 
existence is, to say the least, in the people, or of th6 valour and dii- 
higbest degree questionable. cipline of his fleets and armies, as 
" That the cunclusion of any to admit that such an act would 
secret articles at Tdsil, aflccting have been required for uny purpose 
the rights and uiterests of this coun- of self-preservation. 
try, appears to have been uniform- " And that, wbalevor temporary 
ly denied, both by Russia uud advantages the (mssession of (he 
IVance ; and (hat the correspond- sliips and slores taken at Copenlu- 
«ace of bis miyesly's secretary of gen may afibrd, have been more 

thai) 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 53 

tbn covDlcrtuUiiced by the id- against us. The secretary for ft>- 

anted daogcn Biisiag from the reign ailairs, and lib advocates, in 

■wner in wbich they bare been i manner confessed the iDefficacy 

•bl«oed. of a war of justice against injustice, 

" Tbat this nwasnre, so highly and to procjaim to the world Ihij 

(ttjectiomble both in policy aud ia diingerous and degrading doctrine, 

principle, has augtiiented the num- that England was trarranted and re- 

kernf oar eneniies ; lias animated solved to employ the worst wea- 

t^mat m the. passions of whole pons used by France, for the pur- 

Datins, wbo before were amicably pose of overcoming what it called 

Afottd towards us ; and has, Frvuch iniquity. The motion was 

ibote all. shaken our own rcliaDce opposed by 

en ibe justice of our cause; the Mr. Stuart Wortley,- Mr. Por- 

caiy sentuncBt wbicli bas hitherto cher, lord L. Oower, Mr. Robert 

Mfcdd us iu aU our difficulties ; Tbomton, the Secretary at War, 

riMaiMiiJjUjg the re^ct of other Mr. Cioker, and Mr. Canning. 

M6nas, and in^iring our own peo- The secretary at war adverted to a 

pk with a confident expectation, fact, which appears indeed, in the 

nder the blessing of Providence, present question, to be of great 

«f a suecessfui temiinatiiHi of a weiglit. He read an extract from 

ha^ and ardooos contest. oDicial papen, to shew that at one 

" That we aie ever unwilliDg to period some steps bad been taken 

praaounce definitively on a niea by the Danish government for en- 

ane, the whole grounds of which abliug its fleet to oppose the pa»- 

ne Bot before us: but that, iu a sage of the French from the con- 

case whicfa, above all others, re - tinenl. But these had been abaa- 

^uired the clearest proof. We have doned, and when the moment of 

tke deepest mortification at being danger came, it was perfectly nii- 

oMpeHed to acknowledge, that provided anri unprepared for n- 

nery pmuniption is against us; sistance. 

■d that DO eviflence has yet been Of all the ai^umenls uied od 

addacnl oo which we can safely the other side of the bouse, Mr. 

rot the (lelcmce of our country, Shurp conceived the plain trensla- 

fioai aecusatioBs the most injurious tion to be this, that any belligerent 

looor natiimal character. power is entitled to seiie upon any 

Mr. Sharp's molioa was sup> means of attack and defence that 

potted on the usual grounds, by a neutral power may possess, lest 

Ur. Orde, Mr. H.LujhingtoG, Mr. those means should be seized by 

.Uercrorobie. Dr. Lawreuce, }/lr. another belligerent. He entreated 

F!ti>erald, Mr. Wfaitbread, wid the house to consider to- what con- 

leid Henry Petty. As to the Rus- sequences the establishment of such 

no war, lord Petty was wilUDg.to a doctrine must lead. The house 

eBoccde,tbat this might have arisen divided. — For the motiou 64 — A- 

tven if the Danish expedition had gainst it 321. 
tot taken place; but, it would have House of liords, March 24, — 

been a war of a different character. The earl of Suflblk, who had not 

We should not have had the opi- as yet beard any satisfactory es- 

KMi, and the people of Russia planatiooof the ground on w iiib 
[E3} iich 

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54 ANNUAr, REGISTER, M80S. 

•iicb a violent attack had been ■ Slq>l)cn, and Mr. ifavj OiHdy. — - 
Hiii<l« oil Copenliagen, moved an On a divnion of the houK, there 
Kdilress to his^ majesty, prying tliat appeartid for Ijjrd Folkestone's mo- 
ilirectioDi might be gifen to lay be- tiun 44— A^inst it 105. 
fore thchoUK such corretpoiidence House of Lords, May 17- — Lord 
aa tutd luken place betwatii Mr. viscouqt Sidniout^ rme, in pur- 
(larlicke and the secretai-y of slate, suance of uatice, to call llicir lord- 
froni November 18U6, to July sliips' attention to the subject of the 
Hi'T, respecting tbe designs ivhicb Danlah vcg^ln detaiued previous (o 
Denmark in conjunction with Kiis- bostilidee. It was a principle of 
$a, wa» supposed to tie meditating ualural jnstice, acknowledged by 
itgainst Ihia countrv. tbe law of iiHlions, tliat vessels car- 
Lord Hawkcsbury observed, tliat rying on trade in. the parts of any 
Die papers, uovt moved for by llic country should receive protect^n, 
noble lord, had Hlready tieeu re-, until souie cause of liostilily should 
fused, and that the molion for have arisen. But the Dauiafa.vcs- 
which tliey were wanted iiad been sels had been seized without any 
negatived, after mature coiisidera- previous cause of liostility. He 
(ion iuid t'inj> tliscussion. had stated on a former occasioa. 
Lord Ureiivtile cuiileiided, that that tbe proceeds af tbe whole of 
on Ihe tul^ect lo which the niu- these vessels'and cargoes aiuoitnted 
>iou referred, the bouse were still to near 2,000,0001. He now pro* 
very imperlcctly informed. I'he ceeded to shew, by a statemciit of 
inution.was also supported by earl particulars, (hat be did not make 
(irey. 11k question being put, was ihal slalemenl on light grouuds. 
negatived. The amount of the sum, bowever. 
House of Commons, March SP. made no difierence witk respect to 
— lA>rd FolkeKtoni', ufler a suitable the principle on which the molion 
pretace, niorcd aii adtlress lo his lie w^ about to submit to tJie 
(ii»j('sly ol' liic »inie lenour as that house was founded, lie was aware 
pro)K>sed,by LonI Sidmuutti in the that Britiilr properly to a eoiiaidcr- 
iiouse of lords ; ihu' main drift of able eitcTil had been sequestrafctl 
it being, tliat his majesty might be in Denmark, after hostilities had 
f)(eu»d lo give direcli'ius, that I he been commenced by this coynlrj; 
Danish fl^et should be kept in such and lie thought it fair that the pro* 
a stiilc of repair and pre)iaralion, ceeds of tiie Danish vessels should 
as to render it )iossible lliat it be answerable, in the first iustance, 
nii):ht be restored us soon as it for the amount of this properly, 
could be June, consisteiilly with Having staled the drift of tlie reso- 
Ihe seciiril; of his own dominions, lutions now to be moved for, he 
and todedure his intention of so lamented thai a ili^>osilion had 
duiug. lately been shewn lo depart from 
Lord rolkcstone's motion was those principles of Justice which 
supported by Mr. Brand, Mr. Wil- lixd bilherto characterized the con- 
lierlorce, Mr. Hawkins Browne, • duct of this country, in order, as 
Mr. Hanbury Tracy, Mr. Bebing- - it ■ had been alledged, to meet 
ton, Mr. Baihursf, and Sir James the injustice of the enemy. Hb 
- Hall : and opposed by Sir Thomas wish was, thai those principles, al- 
TurloD, Mr. Simeon, Mr. James though driven out of every part of 
■ . ihc 

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HISTORY OF EUR'OPE. 55 

tkt caatiDCfit, abouM fibdanasy- jiHliee and libenEt^ may be ploued 

In in Great Brilaia, and be to direct. 

bcre cberisbed and Mippotted ; tb«u " Hiat it would be trigMy b«>- 

ifAfiittg onr cooducl, as staled Dourable to the dnracler- of tlw 

ftwn tbe tbrooe in 17*)-^, a contrast country tbnt consideriaK the petu- 

le that of the enemy, ultimately liar citrumslancet of the present 

Kttilaining and cudtiiig oar cba- case, all nmnnera and olfaers de> 

nder, and conlribuling lo our lained and taken in consequence «f 

Kaltecsnly. His lordship ton-' the ^nkn and instractions afore- 

daded. by moving the fuUowing said, should be rekased upon such 

RsslulMoa: terms and conditions as hii mqcsty 

" That it appears to ibis house, may thmk fit to require. 

llat afa^ and oltier properly to a " That at theHimc of issuing the 

Imp BamiKT and amount, belong- orders and inatroctions aforesaid, 

ia; to sobjecti of liia Danish uia- theVe were also in tiic ports of tliti 

joij, ba«e been seized and detained kingdom many ships and cargoes 

■lit I orders and instructions, is- belonging to suttiects of liis Da* 

■ed before information was re- nish majesty, which haraig been 

cmcd by the British government unjustly arid wrongfully brought 

af tbe cofiunencemeot of hostilities into the raid ports, had been de- 

«ilh DenssMft; and at a time when creed to be restored lo the owners; 

there was no alledged or supposed aud Ibat many more then under . 

oaae of srar orreprizals, and when adjudication mnst, as it ai^wars^ 

ia patsHit ti£ a. peaceable artd law- have been in like manner decreed lo 

U comiricrce, there was an unusual be restored : that freigbt-money, to 

■Rtnnabtsoa of Danish ships and a-fargeamounl, hud been, and other 

mr^oes in our ports, under the turns of the like nature must have 

anit perfect confidence of secu- been, pronounced lo be doe; all 

ril;; aad Ibat tbe said slii|)s and wliicb diips, cargoes, -and freight- 

ciber property have bees since coo- money have, in consequence of the 

ifammd as price lo the crown, ' super voiiin? hiMtillties, been con- 

"l^atin consideration of tbe »-- dcmtied ae prite lo the crown, 

traordmary circutnslances uoder "That iLisessenlialtojusticeand 

wlBch tbe said orders and instruc- to the honoat of the Biilish name, 

6m «ere isan«d, it is highly eipe- as well as conformable to tbe an* 

dicsri, that except for lite purpose cient practice of our courts, and to, 

af indeninifyiag such Brilish ^ub- tlie established principles of the 

jecU as may have suffered from tbe law of nations, that effectual means 

•c^nestimtion of. their property in be adopted for giving to the own- 

Domark, the appropriation of ers of tbe said ships, and other 

(be proceeds of ibe said ships and pro)>erty, the full bt^efit of the de« 

other effects should be su9|)ended, crees pronouncetl in tlu:ir favour by 

IB that no obstacle may be occa- the high court of admiralty, or by 

thereby to such eventual bis niajesty's high court of appea| 

nsation to the original owiv- - for prizes ; and the adoption of 

I circiunslances may appear lo such means U rendered the more 

it of, and as bis majesty in bis obligatory on the tailb of this na- 
[E 4j tion, 



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56 ANNl?AL REGISTER, I&08. 

tied), haamuch as ttie poative slipu- history of 'Our nan, that borelhe 

latioQ of a iteaiy then subusting sniaileot resemblaace to the pre- 

betwden this coniitry awl Denmark, sent transaction. 

was mtended to provide against, a The motion was opposed by the 

delay, which, howeTer iiRavpidahle lard chancellor Eldon, add lord 

iiv-the prtsent instance, has proved Hawjiesbury. 

so injurious to the interests of llie Lord Eldon inaintaiDed, that as 

subjects of Dotmark. the law stow), a vessel detained. 

" That il is equally ctsenttal to although there might be no reason 

^ice and to Ibe honour of Uie for the detention at the lime, be- 

Biitiafa name, that Ibe crews, or came forfeited to Ihc crown. TItU 

such part of Ibem as had remained might' operate as a hard case in , 

in ibis kir^om, fin tiie belter cus- many itutaoces on individuals: but 

tody and protection of the sliipa he had great doubts, whether there 

mid ieargocs so as aforesaid ordvrcJd coold be any thing like a com- 

to'be re^ored, should no buger be merci^ peace, and a pohtical vnr 

considered as prisoners of war. at the same time. Such a systent. 

" That the principki of the fore- and the idea of compensation for 

^ing TesolutioBs foe considered as losses, would only lead towards spe^ 

cittending to the proceedings of all cnlauons on the part of iadividiials. 
bis majesty's conrts of prize, wher- Lord Hawkesbury went over the 

ever the facts of die case, which at same ground, contended Hint the 

present are not before thb hoasc, war on the part of Denmark was 

jbaU. warrant their application." .■:'. entirely optional, and in fact cmirl- 

'>! Lord Sidmoulh'x motion was ed by that country, and also, that 

wpported by lord Erskine, lord tbe seizing of the Danish ships nua 

Elloi borough, earl Stanhope, aid n»t without precedent. 
Ifaejearlof Lauderdale^ Lord Sidmoutb's tirst resolotton 

I/irtl ' Enkme mamlained, that being moved, the bouse divided. — 

4hose wha combated Ibe present Contents l6 — Against it S6. 
pruposhion must shew that there And on the fourth resolntion. 

was an actual nece&ity for detain- which related to the ships that had 

iog and keeping these b-adiifg ves- been previously ordered by the ad- 

Btit ; otherwise the owners were en- miral^ conrts to be restored, ano- 

tilled, in justice, to acompcnsatimi. tber divinao took place. Con- 

l^rd Lauderdale maintained, that tents 1^— Non-contents 37* 
tbere^ was never any thing in the 



CHAP. 

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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



CHAP. III. 

H^icMt hclwetn Great Britain and Russia, 
linlarhf Rhssim. — Motion in the House of Commons bt/ Mr. 
hnmdjir Mouby Papers relating to this Subjeet. — MotioH by Mr. 
mtbread after reeitmng the Information now before the House, for 
nterimg immediately into a Negotiation for Peace.—Opposed by Mr, 
PuuoMy, Mr. Cmning, Ifc.^c.^Supported by Mr. iHwridan—iu- 

? tiled. — Resolutions moted by Mr. jlihm respecting the Law of 
trlioment. — Supported by Mr. Windham and Mr. fVhttbrtad.— 
Opfooed by Mr. Canning, Mr. Perceval, Lord Castlereagh, and Mr, 
dirges Bonme.—EjcpedUioii to the DardaneUea, brought into Di*- 
rtiikn in the House of Commmti by Mr. W. Taylor.— Motion for 
tmdiTf Papers relating to that Affair. — The, Expedition defended by 
ilr. T. Grenville. — Censured ty Mr. Canxii^.— The previous Qaei- 
fws put and carried. 






■RY Dcar akin to the long b]> Russia to the spedfic request, it 

agitated queition of llie BhU could not be done, as tkere was no 

lie npedilion, was that respecting aycb paper in eibtence. 

nu idalious to n^ssia. In some Mr. Ponsoaby then inovcd, that 

■sUpces the; nn into one anutber an bumble address should be pre- - 

nd became ibe same; on Ibe 2b'lh senlcd, prayiug that hi* majesty 

cCJuoar;, Mr. secretary Caoniog would be graciously pleased to 

[raailcd to tbe bouse of commons cause that (here should be laid b«- 

Uk inpers reUtive lo the Russian fore tlie house, copies of extracts 

wd tbe Austrian ofiers of media- front tbe corre^ndence betwecB 

^ wbich were ordered to lie on his majesty's principal secretary a( 

<^l>ble. state for foreign aftiiirs, and his ac- 

Mr. Ponsonby wished to know credited minister of the court of St. 

■Wtber it was Mr. Canning's in- Pelersborgh, as &r as related to 

taliua to lay before tbe house tbe the request of bis majesty lo liis 

i'fii relative to tlie ^plicaliun imperial majesty to mediate a peace 

Badt by tbe British government lo between this country and Denmark. 

ilx awft of SI. PclersbuiBh, to Ordered*. 

KdiUe belwecu this counti; and Mr. Whitbread wisbeil to be in- 

I^Bsark. formed wbetlxr it was Mr. Ponson- 

Vr. Canning replied, that though by 's intention to move, Uial these 

lb bad ool been tbe iotention of papers should be taken into con- 

■beIcis, be bad no objection to sideration on any particular day; 

^ pmductioo, provided any and on receiving an aneiver in Iho 

atboa for them should -be sp gt~ negative, he gave notice of ba in- 

■tnllt worded as lo admit of it. tention, without naming the day, 

fw if it «ent thfl length of re- to take an early opportunhy of 

TBtiog tbe tpeti&c answer given bringing the fnieigti relations of tbe 

country 
• See State Pspers. 

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i8 ANNUAL REGIST-ER, 1608., 

country iiiidi-r discussion, with the an- accredited miniiler ; though, «s 
view of inducing the house to i-ome a private indiviilual, lie inaiutained 
to a resolution ou ttie ])ru|)riety of S communication with the emperor 
commencing a negotiiition for of Russia, with the knowledge of 
|>«Tice with France at the present «ui" accredited minister. The con- 
moment. 'Acriirritnsly, oiilhe l6lh versatioii which he hHd wilb the 
of February, Mr. Whitbrcad row, emfwror on the 33il of iVugust, was 
)>ur!iuunt lo notice, to move forcer* known well at the lime.atidliadbeen 
lain pa|>ers,- necessary to be before convened lo this country in a di»- 
tlie hou-«, previous to'flie di»rus- (tatch ffOin lord Levesou Gower, 
sions which lie intended to intrn- lo whopn it had been communicaled 
dnceon MoD<iay se'miigiit. Minis- for lliii e\pre»s puqwse. Why 
ter5, after various transactions, in then should, it not be coniniimicatec| 
which ll>ey hadlieeu engaL-ed in the in an iiutlieutic aud regular form to 
of b. ~ 



Courae of last summer, had laid the house 1 Tlie em|Kror confid- 

upon the table, notes, dispatches, ing in tlie judgment and integrity 

. and extracts of dispatches, cxpla- of lord Hulciihison, askett him, 

uatory of tlieir conduct. Xl>» he whether, considering the siluatioii 

considered as deficient ; and Jiis de- of at&irs, peace ought not to be 

•ign was lo call on ministers to concluded. Lord H. asserted that 

make up the chasm. His first il oughl. The emperor then said 

motion would be tor copies and e»- that he had affhndi his mecHation 

tracts of dispatclKs ffbm tlie secre- for a peace- with England, statiog, 

tary of state for foreign affairs to at the «anie time, that, from what 

aiv ministers at Vienna, relative to he knew, peace might be concluded 

Ihe proffered niediulion of Austria, on honoumble terms. Whs not this 

as he uodcretood lliat this Aas to document necessary 1 Could there 

be granted, be would say nothing be any thing indiscreet in conimu- 

< on that point.- His second motion nicalingit? The itolite lord vras 

was of great and - paramount ini- not prCTcnted by any obligatioo 

portaoce. It was for an extract of whatever of duty or expediency, 

■he 'lUspatch containing' the sub- lo cohccal' the conversntion: He 

stance of tlie conversaliou that took then proceeiled to slate instances' id 

place ' between tbe emper6r of which communications of ronversa- 

Kuaiia and lord Hutchinson, on the lions Vith sovercipis had been laid 

SSd of August, 1807, relative to before Ibe bouse, Mr. W. ahn 

■he offer of the Russian mediation wanted to have tlie substance of 

ftit peace, &c,' It had been insi- Ibe verbal assurances, relative lo 

nuated, that it was a breach of peace between Russia and f ranee, 

duty, in any accredited minister, to mentioned in llienoteofoursmbaa- 

menlion the conversations he might sadnr of the 30th of June, ISO? ; 

have had with a sovereign. This the dispatcl), containing assurances 

was not the case in all circum- of salisfoclion' for a promised co- 

slauces; but at any rate, lord Hut- operation after a change of minis- 

chinsoit, a most distinguished indi- try ; with several other papers, fc- 

vidual, renowned for his mililary lative lo the Russian loan, Sweden, 

talents, and not leas celebrated for &c. After a short debate, Mr. 

Lis high sense of honour, jvas not Wlttjtbread nilbdi«\T bb first nio^ 

ti<Ki, 

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HISTORY OF EUROPE., rffl 

im, iriticb Klatrd to tlw )>roffered bnve beea fdrjlifierent from wbat 

■cdntioaof AiMtria. The (ccuDtl, it vras. 'All projecUwerenowgiveu 

aHmg fat cilnKls froni lord Leve- up uf ublaiuin^ indemnity for tlie • 
M Gowct's dispalcb, conluiiiiiig ' past, of dictaliDg a constitutioa to 

(kmannces referred tuMr.Bud- France, or of curfiin^ ttie power 

btfg, 'tub June, was U(r;;iitived. and umbilioii of Buonaparte. Our - 

Tkti, for copi«a of all as^iuraaces only aim now, was to defmd our- 

tfto-ofieralion g\vea to tbe tirurls selves. And wbat probability was 

W SL Petersbu^h and Stock- tbere of nbtaiuing a more bonuur- . 

Ub, was, witb some modifira- able peace Uian migbt be condud- 

tat, acceded to, as were all the ed at the present nioinent I He 

itttiL called llie attentiou of tbe bouse to 

HfNue' of common), FeSmary the present situation of tli^ ciiuntry 

fjlli^— Mr. Whilbread rose to villi reg^d to foreign powers, 

nfe bis annonnced motion, for Tbe peace of TiUit had been treal- 

o'niBg immediately into a negod' ed in his majesty's declara lion, and 

Hiw lor peace. After wme ptefa- id the speech of the cqinmissiooers, 

"sq ofc u rwtiona respecting the ac- most disastrous to Russia, and rc- 

Wlti^ed danger of the present presented as the effect of dcspoa- 

oin, be said, tltat his present in- dency and alarm. But Mr. W. 

itMioa was lo take a review of the contended, that this . peace bad 

■Aroxlion Bowr before the house, been the salvation, and had pre- 

ii^cctittg Ibe conduct of minbters vented tlie Russian army from be- 

in irfuHug to enter into Qegoliatfon ing- totally and completely extiu- 

■^ Prance, thereon to gronud a guisbed. Before the peace of Til- ' 

niaiatiaB expressive of wbat tbe sit, however, was concluded, ao of- 

iMb of tbe country might have fer bad been made by Hu&ia, to 

beta, had a differeul course been mediate a peace between Great 

pnwd. He had, a mooth ago, - Britain aud France: an offer wliich 

■li'td wme of tbe symptoms of he had always considered as an ef- 

In presHit crisis of the country, fusion of Al&iander'* heart towards 

^iKt that time, several petitions this countrj'. Here Mr. Whitbread 

''Ml bceo presented lo the bouse, entered into a detailed analysis of 

of •hicb the statements were most tbe papers which Itad been laid on 

''BtRMin^, 1 he- prayer most mode r- tbe table, relative lo this offer, on 

>k, HKt the g^iie^l tone most pa- the part of Russia, and tbe refusal 

liioic. He did not bring forward of ministers to accept of it. lu the 

|h notion be was about to make, course uf many observations and 

■ cwaequence of thvse petitions; coranienls, he adverted to general 

W be was not sorry that tbey had Bugberg's letter of the SOlh June, 

^ preseuted, becuuse be was a in which he complains of Russia 

^udlo petitioning: mucbgoodbad having been left unaided in the con- " 

^produced by petitions. It was test. On tba justice or injustice of 

^ 'Ak petitions of the people, tliat these complaints, be did not now 

*• aid bad been put to the Ameri- mean lo enter ; but be contended 

on Mir; and if the petitions of that tbe language held in this note, ' 

1^ peof^ had been attended to in which was that of a man who seem- 

k oriy part of the last war against ed lo feel that be bad been ill used, 

fnace, uur situatloo now wo^ld wa* itself a proof of tbe fidelity of 

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60 ANNUAL REGISTER, 180S. 

the emperor of Riijsia ; or, at form, but to comnion sense. They 
fcast, lit a persuasion on his part, seemed also to have confounded the 
that lie had acted with tidelilj' id ciraracter of a mediator wUb that 
his engagements, and that Ms con- of an uinirire. He next pi'oeeeded 
duct was uol dictated by the petu- lo an analysis of the correspotidence ' 
hin| feelings of the moment. And., with Austria. If iniDisters had had 
even this note was concluded with a disposition Icuards peace, they 
an offer of medialion, accompanied nould have accepted llic profiered 
not merely with a belief, but with medtalioa of Austria, with that 
*n assurance that it would be ac- confidence and good-will towards 
cepted b_v I'rance. He did not her, which her former conduct 
mean to say tliat lord L. Goner towards us had merited. But 
«ras ein|)owered to accept of this bete, too, they had nianifeBtted a 
mediation, or that tie was wrong in disposition to start instead of 
•Kit accepting of it. He only rtished smoothing ditTiculttes. The pelii- 
the honse to observe, that this offer lance of Mr. secretary Canning, he 
■uras mSde bUfbre ihe )>eilce of Til- sard, the dilficullies which lie was 
ait was concluded ; and that itiras constantly raising, the obstacles he 
an ofler proceeding from a sincere threw in the way, and the false 
wish, on the part of the emperor construcliousbe wasapt to faliinto, 
of Russia, to lacilitale a pacific ar-' ]>rovrd clearly that no negotiation 
rangement between Ihis country could be comluctcd by him with 
tnd Franc^, accompanied \TJlh a any reasonable chance of succe^. 
Aioml cerlainly of France being The ruler of France had, at three 
Teadv to meel bs lialf-way in the distinct periods, made offers of 
proposed n^golialion. This, then, peace to this country, in lernis tin- 
vas one of Ihose golden opporlunl- object iouable. The first was re- 
ties, which, when once lost, are ir- Jecled. Tlie second was not abso- 
Telrievable. But it had been said, lutt'ly rqeeted ; but lord Malgrava 
that "no iriliniation of the basisou had written a contumelious letter, 
whkb France proposed to treat had informing him, " that his majesty 
liecii given :" on which Mr. W. had consulted hb allies." We bad- 
observed, that if it could ever have then an opportunity of selling ft 
bcfpn a irtutlerof doubtwbrtherfhe recognition to him; and we might 
jifevioiis settlement of a basis was have sold many before he had esta- 
necessary fo tlie hope of a success- blished himself a» he bad now done 
iul negotiation, the experience of in defiance of us. Notwithstanding, 
the last negotiation with France, . however, the manner in which his 
would liare placed that question fcihner offers bad been treated, 
beyond controversy. Mr. W. |>r'>- another offer, and (hat after his 
ceeded to auiniadvert on lord L. power had been ereally increased, 
Oower's dispntcbes of the 2d Sep- liad been made through the inter* 
tember; and on the disjRitches in vention of other powers. That 
aiuner lo thorn by Mr. secretary offer had been accepted ; and what 
Canning ; and on a review of the did gentlemen on (be other side 
tvhole, contended thai niini^lers, in- mean lo do I Were lliey, as was 
^tcad of smoothing, bad been assi- stated in the king's speech, looking 
duous only ui raising difficulties, about for an impartial niediaiorl 
and acted not onlv contr.iry lo There was no such mediator uow 

to 
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HISTORY OF EUROPE. CI 

to he bad, aarf noUibg remained peace ; jct it miglit b« said (bat ia 

lol ■ direct communication. But aJI this he was iaiiiicere. Tlii» 

It «oald appear as if » p«noual mi<;ltt be tlic opinion of sonte; but 

hMiiitj to Buonaparte «\isleil : iH^furc that opinion could be reo^ 

tad wby T E>ecaiue tbe people were dered (general or universal, it would 

ta(d tkit be was ambitious and be necessary tu enter into a negs- 

cnd, and a violator of all rt;;lils tialinn to prove it. Mr, Whitbread 

hma and divine. Tlie political concluded a long and elaborate 

caaduct of princes was that alone speech, by moving tbe following 

■ilh irhich nthrr nations had to do ; resolutions ; 

■d or the effects of that, nations " Thai it is the opinion of lln> 

lid act individuals. It was not tbe bonse, ibut llie eonditions stipulated 

pwet ef France tliat was fonni- bj liis iwajtsly's miiiistcrs lor llie 

(bble, but that of tbe French cm- accepTniice of the mediation ofTered 

|ieTor. Il was Ihe talents of the bv llie einpcror of Russia, wete 

tsppTor that consolidated tbe |)rc- itle^pL'dicnt and impolitic. 

nu mass. We bad forced liiin to '■ Hint it is llie opinion of tlii* 

try the c\[>erimenl of coutcmling house, liict llie coadiict of bis ma- 

nhaU the EUiropean armies, and ji'stj's ministers on the sulijerl of 

Iktv had been defeated; ami in the nuiliiilion of tbe «mpcror of 

propottioD a» ue went on with (he Austria, vsa umvi^.' and ini|)olilic , 

•ar. He were consoli<',iting Ins .and not cilriibteil to ascertain bow 

poBerrtore and more. If another far llie restoration of llie b!essii3!;s 

liiaracler arose, i;evv ii^teresls, new of peace mi.^bt or miijlil nut have 

nt^i, aiid new Ireatus would be been attainiiMe thi'oujh the means 

funned ; and this would happen of -sui/li me«li;ili'.n. 

saoov-r or later. In the mean time, *' 'I'lnit this bouse feels Jt inciim- 

i mj impossible to subdue B>:ona- bent on itself to declure,' tliat there 

parte bv »»ar ; tiiat wis now ob- is riolliinu' in the present circuii>- 

wuos. 'Mr. \V. aKtT ciios.!.-; the stances of the war, lli»t oujiht l« 

'WiL.iveb'.jiesofcoi: t!i;i.iit; tr.ince precliirle bis majealy from etnhr.ic'- 

IfcrDa^h her finance-, prorceded iiig aii> fair o|i|;i>rtu]iity of acceding 

to ilieu the futility of auuilier d(tu- to, or comHicuciiig a ne^ocialioH 

!*m, namely, that Buonaparte would «iUi llie enemy, on a footing of 

be hated by Uk people and the equality, for the lenninalioii of 

anny, anit tbat the ma^s of the po- hoslilllie', on terms of justice and 

poiation of the ilifterenl countries honour." 

he should enter, wouKI rise a4.'ainst Mr. Pnnsnnliy enncnrred viilli 

him. All this bad been proved tu bis honourable tiiend us tu his two 

be completely unfounded. The ta^t first resolutions: and in the tliird, 

pwit be Houhi (ouch upon was die likewise, be agreed in the letter, hut 

lUegatioo, that Buonaparte had ditilrcd as to the s|tiril anil illi rt, 

notn tbe deitrucliou of (bis coun- and as to the propiiity of pasting 

frj. He asked, where and when he such a re^oluUon at the "present uto- 

Mddone so? " Was it during bis ment. The third propoiilion, if 

CotwilgJeT Was it afler be became adopted, would bind ministers ini- 

to^ror of France 1 No. For mediately to take steps towards a 

1^, also, lie had made a|i offer of negotiatioa ; Mhicii must pruduce 



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63 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

one of Uiese^wo resaltt. MmTslers with Mr. Ponsonbj in lib opiaioiC 
liuving tried the inclioalion of the en the last proposition of the bo- 
enemy, would come back to the . nonrable mover, but' tor difierent. 
house oadny," We have tried him, reasons. He did not see that Iher- 
■nd find bim aftrse la oegolialibn ; house <iai called on to interfere in 
or, in auch a slate of irnlatinn, that ' the conduct ofihe executive power, 
h ii in vain to expect him to (rent nnless it appeared that the servants 
onaaythtngltkehonourableternis." of llie crown had mhcoiulucted 
Tliis, ofcout«, they would asst'.rt, themtelves io regard to what was 
and was the eflisct of the passing of pasied. fbe third pTopositiof» 
tbu resoluAoB. Or, again, if they could not be agreed to without 
did enter into terms, and a disho- agreeing abn to (he two fonner. 
noiiFable peace should be the cMi- But he wa* so far from agreeing to 
•equeiice, they would say, " the re- these, that he thoDi;ht ministers 
proach does not lie onus, blame acted with becomiiigcircum^ctiou 
yourselves, you were too iflspalient. in doubting that the mediation of 
lliere was another reasm which Riissia and Austria would have 
operated slron«ly with him. The been impartially exerted towqrds 
bouse was every day receiving; peti- this coiiotry. It by no meahs fol- 
(ions for peace, stating tile pressure lowed that, berause neither of Il»e«e 
under nhich (he petilioiters labour- powers could be supposed to hold 
ed, from the markets on the conli- France in a higher regard than they 
-nent bang shut Against tbem. If did this country, they might not, to 
we were, in consequence of agree-, serre their own purposes, have af 
■ng to the present proposition,, to crificed our interests, 
send ax ajnbcBsattAr to France, Loft] Milton, though Ite agree«f 
might not Buonspaite say, " It is to the two first propositions, could- 
not six weeks since yod sent away not go tlie leugth of the third ; not 
the Austrian ambissttdor, whose being satisfied that there was yet 
mediation you rejected. You talk, ground to address hii majesty tty 
however, of a pressure <m your ma- remove his tuinistera, as being Ais- 
nu^clure^. Is it so ? Then 1 will inclined to peate, whicli- must ne- 
perseverc in following up the mea- cessarily accompany that proposi- 
sures 1 have adopted ; and, taking lion. 

advantage of this pressure, will Mr. J. W. Ward gave his decided 

force you to accept ^ny sort of support to the whole of the reto- 

peace I chuse to grant you." If it liitiOQS of his honourable friend, 

weie once to be laid down as a Among other remarks, he sajd, there 

' maxim, that on account of a pres- was now no point of contact where 

sure on any one branch or part of war could be carried on. We. had 

'tbe community, the whole nation destroyed all the fleets that had' 

must give way, be could not look been opposed to us. Buonaparte 

on Eagtand iu any other light than had iliscomfited all the armies that 

as B conquered countir. If his bad been sent against him. Tht! 

honourable frienil, therefore, would war, iu fact, had died a natural 

not witJidraw bis motion, he should death. It bad been like »a^<v 

move the previous tpiest ion. gouig out for want of fuel. Tbe- 

Mr/Wilhejforce agreed entirely propositions were also supported 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 63 

bf kird HahoiMiMl Mr. J. Snitfa. Hf had hiimelf do doubt tbat tli« 
no^Kike vilb gnat enthasiaun in declantion on Ihe subject of Co- 
fc^ae of the talcnio and iodcpend* peuhagen, was forced on Russia by 
cm of Hr. Whitbread, Flwice. IC was thouglit strange, 
Mr. Canning, pvtng Mr. Wliit- Uiat wbile tbe mediatiofi of Ruuia 
fanad full credil for being sincere was deemed suspicious as betwecq 
im Uw opinion he bad expressed, Britain and Frauce. tbe tncdi^ion 
floalendrd Ibat, adniilliog negptia- of ibat power was solicited as be- 
tianto be desirable and good when tween Britain and Deooiark. But 
Umtif was a prospect of its leading this application was perfectly con- 
to peace, it was a niiscliief when it sistent with the cliaracler of Pr»- 
did Bot dbrd that prospect. It teclor of the north : and by pre- 
Inded to ndle deceiliut hope, and serving a»j part of the mdepead- 
la pvabze exertion. . The honour- ence of that stale, there might yet 
lUe gentleman was satisfied, that be room to hope that all was not 
«bcn Rimia said ne might hare irrecoverably lost. The first offer 
baaourable terms, tbe fact was so. of mediation from Austria was im- 
fttt why, in that case, did uot niedialely subsequent to the battle 
1— ■! state those terms T What ofEylau, described in the gaxette, 
lassa millet have looked upon as published by the htle ministers, as a 
beooMable terms, n)li;lit not be so complete victory on the part of the 
looked upon in this cuunliy. The allies. It was accepted withont any 
■aaiMr in which Russia acted re- other ctmditJan, than that it should 
^ectiae Prussia; that in which she be accepted equally by all the bei* 
Mneodered the guaranteed repuhr ligerent powers. The ofier was 
it of tbe Seven Isles ; Itie phrase of made according;, but v:cepled by 
" KHfitiaae peace," always used by France in terms ea offensive to Bri- 
ftmce iD a.»ense wholly iaconsiit- lain, that it would have been a 
cM with ibe maritime power and question whether any negotiation 
risength of Great Britain j aix) in upon it could have bees instituted. 
tlM sense fwced into all the dipio- But before; this questkiu could be 
■Mic papers of the powers reduced brought to an issue, the battle of 
■idef ll^ cootroul of Buonaparte ; Friedlaud had totally destroyed the 
the in»f«nl compromise of the in- hopes of the allies ; and when lord 
4q>CMeoce of Sicily; — all these Pembroke raeationed the matter at 
wtR grownds'for suspecting tbat^ Vienua, he was told that things wen 
the terms wliicli Russia described as so changed that nolhiDf* could be 
boaoarable, might, in fact, be very done. A second offer of iiiedia- 
far from bdng so ou the principles tion, on the part of Austria, wa» 
ftBlaBritisligovernmeotwasbuund afterwards made, SSth November, 
to Kt Dp«n. A wry material fad, , by prince Stahremberg. But the 
tw da g: to shew the disposition of whole of the proceedings, on the 
fiona, and her devotion to France, part of Austria, rcspectmg this se- 
ns, tbat (be iBcliaaliou of tbe Rus- ' cwid offer, wore evident marks of 
ma govcmmeot to complete the French dictation. 
comiDercial treaty with Brilahi, Mr. Sheridsu was Jetermiueil to 
ceased oo account of the influence sQ[^rt tbe whote of tbe three teso* 
•T France, and was not concluded, lutioni ; which be would have done 

had 



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64 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

bad tliey been conceived in stronger the facts on wliich tie pretended to 
lerms. With r^ard to petitions found it. Hia object was, to pre- 
fer peace, he wai decidedly of opi- vent Ihe repetition of a practice 
nion that the \my to put a slop to which the house had wiinesKd on 
tbmi, would be to satiaff the coun- the 3d of February last,vnd whicb 
try (hat the house was strongly dis- stood recorded on the journals of 
loosed lo peace, when peace was tlie house on the Slh of February, 
lairly altainnble. As a great deal be lioped for the last time. On 
still remained to be said upon this the 3d of Februair, certain papers 
iinpoctant cjuestion, petticularly on had been moved for by a right ho-* 
(he third resolution, into wltich it nourable frieud of Itis, Mr. Poa- 
was DOW loo late to enter, he iiiovmI sonl^; and in tl}e debate H'hieh 
an adjoumtnent of the debate till took place, the discussion embraced 
to-morrow. not only the motion. for papers, but 
Mr. Adam requested his right the conduct of the iiHlividnals lo 
Iionourable friend to withdraw his which those papers referred. On 
motion, and ipt the house decide that orcasiou, the secretary of state 
upon lite resolutions ; for every one for the foreign deparlmeut read 
of whicb he meant to vole affirnia- extracts froin, two of those pRpers 
lively. His opinion was, that mi- which had been nioVed for, for the 
nisters. by their conduct, had put a purpose nf putting the house in pos- 
bar lo any expectation of peace session of (lieinformation necessary 
being proposed bylbem, or lo them; to enable it to form a judgnieot 
and until that bar should be re- respecting Ihe propriety of the how 
moved by a declaration of the sen- tile proceedings which government 
timents of that house, he very much had adopted against Denmark. On 
feared there could be no hope of the 8tli of February, another ho- 
peace fur'the country. Mr. Sheri- nourable friend of his, Mr. Whit- 
dan withdrew his motion ; and after bread, moved for the production nf 
9 few words from Mr. i. Smith and those very papers, from whicb the 
Mr. Wilherforce, and a reply lo Ihe secretary bad read extracts on tho 
latter by Mr. Wliitbread, the hou^e 3d of February, on ihe ground that 
fJivided upon each of the resolu- the extracts conveyed a difierent 
lions.— ^Upon the first the mmiberi impression from that which the wri- 
were. Ayes 70 — Noes 210. — Upon lers of those dis))atches, lord How- 
tlie second. Ayes 67 — Noes 211.— ick and Mr. Ciarlicke, intended to 
Upon the third. Ayes 58 — Noes convey. On the 3d of February, 
317. the reason given for not producing 
- To the debates concerning our re- Ihe whole of the papers was, that 
latious lo the northern powers, sc- their contents could not be dis* 
veral resolutions moved in tlie house closed without delriuient to the put>- 
of commons by Mr. Adam, 4th of lie service. And on the 8th of 
March, rcspecliug ihc law of par- February, the secretary persisted in 
liament, formed a kind of natuml opposing Iheirproductiou, on the 
episoile. Before staling the lerms jiretence that, it) the extracts be 
of bis motion, he found it nrces- had made from them, lie had not 
sary' to enter into some discussion misrepresented the opinions of lord • 
of ceneral prtnciples, aod to stale Howick and Mr. Gariicke. On the 

2tiUi 

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HISTORY OF EUROPE. ■ 65 

t^ of Ffbrnary, however, the coticluclvd with moving til* f«Ilow- 
f^M bonoarahk; secretanr liail ing rewlutions : 
"me down lo th« bouse luiiiKlf, " Thai il »p|>ean to litis liouWi 
W Ibe pirpoie, a« he slated, that oue of his nii>J«stj'> ^rii>ci|>at 
d TiDcIicain]' bU own character, Mrcreltiriea of slate did read to this 
I ai nored /or the prDduction of house dispatches and Other commu- 
I bwTcfj papers, whicfa, on the 3d nications to and from Ibe xccredded 
li Ftbruarv, tie contended cuuld mitiitlvrs of this country at fotaijin 
edbt diKlosnl with safiely, and courtt, reUlive lo the sulyecti n{ 
\ >k[ndiictK>ii ofwbich, onthe »lh their minion: and that he ba» 
^ Febraii;, be had rcfiste<l on slated and read olhiT matters re- 
■Mlbrr: «o that, Bccoidiug to Mr. sjiecling the transactions of this 
^ — wg . the public convt^nience country with foreign powers, none 
ai afety wer« uut lo be put in the of which were cummuuicated to 
Wace witb bis personal feelings this house by Iiis majesty's eam- 
ad ixtretta 1 llie reading of ex- inands, and some of which this . 
iTKb ofl the 3d of February, was hAuse has determined to be uotit 
M preparatory to a proceeding, to be produced. 
^ 00 the very niodel of a pro* " Tliat such conduct is subver- 
oidbg tlial WB* to terminate in aii- srve of the ancient and approved 
.adiatiuD. AjkI it was upon litis usages of parliament, is destructive 
itrnd that be pronounced the se- of fair discussion and decision, and 
vdiry Canning's Conduct to be has a direct tendency lo iijure the 
■UK irregular simI higlily censur- ptil/lic interest, by making the reso- 
itdt. If a libel vTits gmblistwd on lullons of this bouse proceed on in- 
19; BBnber of lh« house, he might accurate statemeuts, which it cau- 
Mte that the libel should be read not correct by reference tu the do- 
it Utcbnase; but the house would camcuts from wliicli tdose slate- 
U pint anv proceedings upon Itie ments are made ; or to force oti the 
EM till it was on their tablt. That consideration of this bouse, papers 
Un pr jctice had been invariably which, in its wisdom, it may deem 
»wed to, and that it was irregu- unfit for public productbii. 
Lit in debate to quote any |)a|>er " And further, that such conduci 
■Udh bad aot been regularly sulv is contrary to the trust reposed by 
UUed to parliament, Hr. Adam (be constitution in the confidentiat 
pwed by many precedents, and a servants of the crown." 
wibra analogy. But if there were Mr. Canrung ^pohe at coosider- 
wpitcedeDt for what lie was about able length iu bis own defence. 
loptoMwe, be reminded the house. The substance of lib speech was, 
Ifat the circunatHDcea were also a statement of precedents for quoU 
intptber novel, and on this grouud ing partial extracts on the part of 
Shaped, that llMt (be Iwnse would former ininisiers ; an inquiry into 
<raie a prec«rient. Mr. Adam some of the statements that bad 
briag pointed a ereat variety of been made by Mr. Adam ; and a - 
fnjodirial cof»equ«ces that niight claim to the tight of using, as one 
ne from the practice of «]uoting ot his majesty's niinislrrs, a discrc- 
panial extracu. If not cbecled, tionary power. Was the honour^ 
Voi.L. [T] ■ %hlm 



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6S ANNUAL EEGISTER, 1808. 

able and letninl grvldtma, who rigfat hpoonr^lQ MCrelai7, whicb 
had ntovecl the resolulioiu. prepared. I|e called in' qunlion, was agaiinsl 
to ja^ tlialdo iufarmatioo was giv«n ttie uiage of parljamept: tliHt thU 
tb parliainefil^but that >*liich capie wos.proTed by itii neTCr apprariag 
iu the more regular )un| aulhrfitic \o have, been I be,, practice df the 
shape i>r a nirssag« Trom liu laa- bopse, and by its beJng checked 
jetty 1 la tUia ca»e, no miiiUter each tjme when it was resorted to. 
coidd aver afford satufactory iiifor. As to modern praclice, vrfaatever it 
natioa to either hotise of paiUa- inight be, be cared not, because 
tneut.. But, it nuglit be said, the tli^t did hot defeat the ancient 
qneition wigbt be, fair, but the an- usaee faimdMl on the princmlea 
swer not correct ! Hon was cor- that, furmed the common la^r ofuie 
reclness, or iHeqrreclRcss, in siicb a country, the practice of the. house, 
case, to be judged oft Was it pro- aiid the acqujeacence of the petvple, 
per lo lelt wlvnce you borr^ed And he cootended, that hi^doctnne 
tbe intelligence? Through what was cAofiraied aod establis^tj 1>j 
chaoael it came). VVas if to be l he entries oftbe 8th ofFebrtm^. 
communicated by extract or in de- which he had read to the; h6'uae, 

' taill ' To all tfaesc modes of goiQ' the only entries of the sort 16 be 
miinication objeclions.were start^, . found on their journals, fie Was 
yet no reason had been started, why perfectly satisti^a that be tiad-dis- 
ooe should be preferred to another, .charged a mont importaDt duty in 
-^ By pailiarBtatemcnl9,,it was sajd. bringing this most important la>v 
great miMhief might be committed, and conslttutton of parliameot io- 
and much injury doQe, to. onr di-.> to .djscu^oti ; both to counteract 
piomalic. ^ents. To. a dt^lvt-'Ofj .tl)e entries, on tlie .jouriials, and 
the information, equally strong ob- i ttjcheck.a .course of proceeding 
jections wer« o^r«l. What, flien, \ whi|^ placed thp means of swa^- 

. cpuld be the guid« of a minister's ing the decisions and acts of tbat 
conduct, but his own discretiool^ bouse, by miirepresentioe facts. 
And wbere could that t]isGTeti«a re- aiid b^ wilbbolding and octiibiDg 
side, Wt with the very person whose the evident ^f tbem'eDti'rely^iii ftw 
discretion llieleani«l and honour- baiidsof tbe pijnis^ersof thecrbwD. 
able gentleman moved resolutions . On tbe. preyi^us .question, which 
t» criminate 1 Mr- Canuine. bav- . b. 
ing coBclndedbis speech, withdrew, o 
notlhinkbg himself egmpelent to .?i 
vote when a criminal charge was .' 
brougbt gainst bis own xoQduct. ' ii 

. A debate enstted. Id which ^.Mr.. ai 
Adam's motion yt3» supported by . al 
Mr. Windham and Mr- Wliitbrjtad ; - a 
tad oppwed by the jchaoceUor o£,n 

* the etcbequer, lord .Castlfireisbr . K 
and Mr.SturgesBourpe, ^l^.^dam , tl 
tc|^d to aU. the arifinKnti ihat,.,^ 
bald been used ag^uut bit piotion, o 
and insisted that the «oiMlnct of tht d 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 67 

Alaandrial Tbis labject, hoiT- mt) to Alexaudria. The frequfnt 

tm, <ra»Dol brAught rato discus- references to ttiese Iransactinns in 

iaa u ■ party measure, of a.inove' the discussions on the tSw of Co- 

AeM tof either mjoistetial. or aali- penlidgen, to which ihty bad been 

niBstrrial tadics'i bat by a gen- assimilaleil in priucipte. Tendered 

rirwan «bo ^^pean to have, been a more particular iuvestigalinn, of 

McfleDcdedwilhaiiypartj.Tboiigb them necesaary. But it was not 

tbf eXpe^ioti tt> Uie Dardanelles merely toestimalelberigfalandpro- 

•n tlM^ by Mr. CawiBgi and priety of ibeie attacks an neutral 

•tfeTifMken oil hb side i)f ,tlie,. powers, llial the papers lie was 

bate, au txttUeal- Argumentiim about to move for uugiit tQ be 

W ktmJMtm, and bad bacome ■ before lite bouse.. B^ these attacks 

Uad-of ilandiDg joke,- neiltter tbe nre were, involved in a >var with. 

JBilice dor (he policy of. an attack Turkey, and oo communication 

* Coptnhogeo, cowld .pontbl^ bi . whatever bad been made to parlia- 

rtwetlbylKeiDJDsticeiitnjiQlicytor. nient on the subject. It was Do 

Ud naaagenieat of the expedition . private or party motive that had .. 

S^^a 'Cotutantino|de. Still less induced bim to bring forward thb . 

£poa^ it may be presumed, were motion. He wa*. tjot. connected 

tbe ]Ue minislets to.recall that rxC^ with any party, and be had com- 

<mSiK allempt lo tbe allentioo of municated wiih only one or two 

tte V^hture and tbe public Yet members on the subject. Having 

tkev wcitf aot allogelher displeased for a short lime iKcn resident iii . , 

tWSfwma brought under review, Turkey, and conversant will) tbe 

htciwt il' afiorded an- opportunity manners of the people and Ibeir 

ofShcwin^ detriy m what it dif- pnliliral attachmrnls, his attention 

iinrf'fi«m tbe attack on Copenha- was naturally engaged by the dis- 

eiS. witli' wfaicb.[ninisierialist* af- . |>alches of lu; majesty'* ambassador 

fafcd' 16 cODfoaod it, in every and conimaoders in the Darda- 

ra^Mcf, except its want of success, nelles ; and with every allention 

fa tkc'debate of Febjuary 6th, on. that he was able to give, he coi>l(f 

the nbtect of the Baltic expedition, . neitber discover wliy tlie armament 

M'-'Whitbrtad expressed great sa- went, nor why it had come away. 

- Whatever might be the mOrpUtv. or 
a the policy of .the Copeuhagen expe- 
it- dition, it at least afforded a eon- 
'i .. ■picuoui example, of judicious ma- 
y nagemeiijt, apd able execution. 
> ..Wbenalransactionof ihatkind was 
k tboucht by some to caH for iuquiry, 
e - be cbuld not think that a bansac* 

., lioD, in which the cjiamcter of the 

- aavy, the fdvoutite service of ihe 

- couotrj", was brnwKlit in question 
y bj ill success, ought to he suff.-red . 
g to pass wi^inut investigatioo. Thrse 
Il were ihe motives wliich imluced 
'S him to' bring this luBject before lli^ 

, [F2) house. ■_ 

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65 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

bouM. He wMiM iMuin from IhalpUce, and of Mr. Arliallinot'* 
)}runouncin« any opinion till the (litpatclies afler tbe ■iriTal of the 
|ni|)«ri, wItTch w«te tn. guide liii iquiiilmii; cnpieiof the initnittinns 
judgment, as well as lliul of llie issued to ItirtfCollingwood, and of 
bouse, should l>e jiroperly coiMt- Ihnse i««iwd. by him to sir Jnhn 
dered. He would, however, cnu- Duckuorlli, relalius to Ihe burning 
mente brieflj tlie circumstances of of a Danish sliip in the DiintaneJlM ; 
tlie InusacliiMi. Tlie British fleet and copies, generally, of .all Ibe cor- 
apiwarad at tbe enlmitce of Ihe resiMMideitce of lord Colliiigwood, 
Dafdaneltet, on ihe 29tb af Janu- and tbe officers teut by bha on tbia 
ary, 1807. while tlie British ambat< semce. 

sador was still at Constantinople. Tbe ear] of Temple seeended 
Tbe British fleet attacked' tl>e cadles tbe mulion. 

and forred jls passage, burning a Mr. c^relary Canning, after 
Turkisti frigate. The Brititb fleet waiting^ a few moinepits to see 'W 
remained twelve days befure Con- any one on tlie <^ipoutian bencliei*, 
■taniinople, aud then came back the tide of the bouse most inle- 
ihe same way. without doing any rested in the present question, would 
tiling further. This utualion was rise to deliver Ms lentinienls, coii- 
ooe, in which no British officer lidered himself a* called on, in 
would ivisli to remain, or ought I o conscquenceortbeirsileuce, to«tate 
be suflered to remain, without in- wliat be thought necessary on Ibe 

auiry. Tbe papers he should move preseut motion. The motion, as 
)T would lend to shew why the be bad observed oti a former occa- 
Britisli sc|uadit>n Iiad gone to tlie *inn, was brought forward williout 
Sardanelles, why it bad come away, bis coocurretKe or knowledge, as 
and ubal bad been done tliere. bad also been slated that night by 
He moved, that there be laid be- tlie honourable mover bintKlf, wilfi 
fure tbe house, a copy of tbe lr*aty whom he had not tbe horiour of «■ 
of aHiancc, offensive and defensive, nc(]iiainlance. He bad no means 
between his Ruyesty aud tlie Olto- of ascertaining the nature of (he 
man porte, signed at Constantinople inforniation be nieaiit to call for, 
Januarys, 1799, by his majesty's till the honourable gentleman tnuis- 
nrinisters, sir .Sidney Smith, and Mr. milted to bim that morning a Ibt 
Spencer Smith; also a copy ef any "f Hw papers he meant to uiore 
secret Article of tlie said treaty, re- for. Having gone over tbe list, 
gulaling tbe passage of Ibe Dar- and stated for tbe satisfaction of the 
danelles by Brilish sbi^M of war; honourable gentleman who had 
a copy of a dispatch of lord Elgm, made ifie motioii, bow Far it wa> 
relative to the exchange of tbe rati- possible and proper to comply witli 
ficalions of the said treaty ; a copy each of the molioni, be declared 
of any treaty existing between tlie that, for bis own part, he saw no 
Poite and Russia on the 19th Ja- ground for inslituliug an inquiry 
Buary, 1807; ct^tes of tiie letters under Ihe present circumstances, 
of the secretary of state to Mr., He was not aware of any practical 
Arbiitlmol,hism^e)ly'B ambassador benefit that could arise to thf cotin- 
at Constant iiiople at tbe time of the (ry from tbe inveatigatioii proposed. 
Sfilbh squadron's proceeding (o But, after what bad been said on ' 

the 

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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 69 

Oe oAcf »de of tlie houw, he did Ibat Ibe house mij:fat be enabled to 
M tliiok himKlf at lifterti; to dit- lake a clear yiew of (be subject.— 
nade Ibe bouw froiu coteriag into Tbe niolion was (hen agreed to. 
iL A l«iig convenatioo ensued. House of Commons, May '20. — ' 
ibool lite iteceisity Hitd proprielj of Mr. Taylor rose, to move bis pro- 
U bquin> un Ibe prf-ieiit Mibject. luised resolutions rrspecting the cx- 
TIm inter I ucu ton weie, Mr. T. pedilion to Ibe Dardanelles. Jn 
GicDvilk, Mr. \\>llvsley Pole, Mr. order to prove Ibe injustice nf that 
Johnitaur, Mr, Windham, lord Cas- expNlition, be reviewed llie oaliire 
Ikmjb, Mr. Tiern*^, the cliancel nf tlie connection between tbii 
Wof Ibeckclicqucr, Mr. Crocker, counlty and llie Porte. Tbe on I j 
nd Ur. Wnberfurce. To tlir se- ground, be maintained, that we dud 
toud motion, ibe oltject of wliich fur interference, was tbe treaties 
n\ lu produce nil Ihe ppers that belivecii Russia, England, and (lie 
misbl tcr^e to shew Ibe lauses that Porle, tbenbligHliouii of which Irci^ 
kd In our present busliliij with tbe lies had become void by tbe peace 
OttoDiafi I'urle, of Amiens. The Rusiiaus bad only 

Hr. JbliDsloue proposed an a- acquired a right to pass from the < 
moidnienl, wliicb. after a few words Black Sea i» single slit|>s, (St tlw 
fton Mr. Ca^iuiag, was ]>ut thus puqmsc uf throwing supplies into 
«id carried; llie lunian republic, which riglil 

"So far as those can srs are roii- waslobtal an end wlieiillialrepul>. 
■kImI with the expediliun to the lie should he settled. And it did 
DardandU's.*" end when ihe whole fell into the 

Tbe other motions, comprehend- power of Buonaparle. With regard 
iojall letters frufn lord Elgin, Mr. To the pulicy of tlie expediiiou, be 
Attwlbuot, sir Sidney Smith, and thou»bl tl wus extremely unwise to 
Uk adniirats Cullingnuod, Dud- alienate from us tbe minds of the 
Muitb, and Lewis, were also put lurks, who had been exlreiiiely 
nj agreed to. — In addition to well disposed to us; Ihe truth of 
Umk papers Mr Ore"viIle, Febni- wbicli propisition be proved by 
irr IS, mered, "That there be reading a variety of ducuroetits> 
Ud<bcfore Ibe house, llie substance By )>a.^sing tlie D^rdanetli's, we had 
orntraMa of lite instructions under cunmienced tioslilitiea before ii^i>> 
whicb bis majesty's iniuisler at the tiation. Ttie attack on tbe Turkish 
Parte WAS acting, it any lime since aliijis was an unless object; tbe 
Ifac commence me nt of tbe piescnt uuinber of s)i(|u nut being equal 
nt, «itb respect to the aid to be to the enterprize. And lord Col- 
erttn to Kusaia. in any discussions lingwood ought to have been allow* 
tbitnuglitariaebetuFen that [lower ed to choose any officer he pleased 
lad Ibe Porte ; and especially so far for conducting the expedition.— 
■ Felalea to tbe instructions, under With respect to the expedition to 
wiodi be acted, af^er Hie formation Alexandria, he bad not been able 
df the contioenlal confederacy iii to discover its object and policy, 
Hk year 1805." and it had been so mismanaged as. 

Hr. Canning agreed with Mr. to bring disgrace pn the British 

Ortniille, tluti the production of arms. He concluded by moving a 

that tupcr was nectssary, in order resolution, " That his majesty's 

[P3] Acet 



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70 ANNUAL REGI,STER,- 1808. 

fleet under ur J. Duckworth hait, «d>ject, and atl of Ibem agn^ llial 
OH the SOlh February, 18U7, ap- a contMerably siualler f^rce Ihap 
peaTed before Conslautinople, and tvlrat vias (li»|ialched> **'?^ cftnsider- 
cfintinu^tt lliere for leu days, with- ably more thatt adequate to the 
out doui^ any thing. And (hat Jt utidertakiug. They uerefi^llyjas- 
waa the opinion of the house, tbat tifieil, (oo, iu vStpertiog co-opera- 
turan^eineiiti had not b«eu made liou and assislnnce from the Russi- 
by the then ministry, adequate to an*, hy whose fleet our squadron 
tlie occasion." was joined four days ufiern'arda. 

Mr. Grenviite expresaed great The siluation. liowev^, was sucit, 
salisfuclloD tha't tlie accusalions and eo capable of defence, that io- 
against Ihe Ule minislers, Iiad at slead of i|)ree's3il of the'^V, wbic^i 
lenglh been made in a manner Ihat aduiiial Lewb had at first declare^ 
rerKlered theirt tangiblir. It was to he sufficient, tito uune gallaitf 
> itirpossible, he said, for any one to admiral liad estimated llie forcf nef 
read the papers oil tlie table, and cessary lo succeed, at ten sail of Ibf 
to say that either (tie justice or ihe lin;. Troops were also talked oif 
policy of interferiiii; in the dispule as,being necessary to- tlie success of - 
between Russia and the Tortegjivas such an expedition. But ))e ask«il 
qiieslionabJe. Tliis right of inter- tlie liouse if it was at all likely that 
fcrence was not founded on the such a body of iroops could bavf 
triple alliance of Ibe 5th January been sent as would have been equal 
only. This treaty respected a long to encounter, 300,000 men, who 
course of negotiation for peace and had appeared in arms along the . 
sUiance between Great Britain, the coast previously ti> our sliips leav- 
Porte, and Russia. With this ob- ing the Dardauelles \ VfUi regard 
ject ill view, the peace of Jassy to the expedition aqd occupation 
bad been concluded between Rus- of Alexandria, this wu a poti of' 
sia and Ihe Porte, under the. influ- the utmost importance : for ibougli 
ence of Great Britain; We had, not intended lo be u$ed,as tlie ^T^t 
therefore, a right to support Russia, step towards the coinpiesl of ^^ypt. 
end tlie late ministry had exercised the capture ofit,wsBin this point ^E 
ft in pursuance of that wist poUcy view, anobjedoftheliigliestimpqrt- 
' that had been adopted both by aiice. Lei it not be fbrgolUn, oC 
their predecessors and successors, whul iiioiiieut it was regarded by 
vii. the maintenance of a connec- Buonaparte, no bad judge in those 
tion between Russia, the Porte, and matters. While matters were grow- 
this country. Tbey saw the grow- ing daily and hourly wane and 
ing influence of France, and the worse at Coustantint^le, nolliiug 
decreased influence of this "country seemed more lo he dreaded, tban 
and Russia with the Porte, and- that Alexandria, and probably, in 
wished to give a check to so unfor- consequence, Egypt, should tall 
tnnate a cbaitge of sentiment. M to into the hands of the French. The 
Ihe quantum of force sent to the snie object of tha expedition was 
Dardanelles, it was suggested b^ Alexandria, and this was accom- 
lord Ci)llinevvood. The late im- plishcd in a creditable, not a dis- 
iiisters took ihetipinion of some of graceful manner. If allempts were 
Ibe first naval character^ on the made to carry the conquest EBtrther, 



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HISTOKY OF, EUROPE. 71 

tbat was done without asy iulruc- might (ben render nMeaury. It 

tmi hongovehuuent. Tlie'rewai wis 90 understood in'thia cbiuili:y ; 

M tcvcity vf prov^us iu Alexan- and the circuiiistanoR to which it 

dm. Oae tfimg onty seemed '6h- was applied, were nKnlioqed in tiM. 

Ktima and unaccountable, pameiy, preaiuUe. Could it be aoeVled, 

Ar ipatuilous abaudocment of the that a. trealv niegutiated'Widi a view 

jhce bjr'tbe present govemruebt, to exisliiig hbslililies, in wUkU all- 

Tliev found it talcn, and Why did llie i>ailiet were engaged, and faU 

thfTf give it up? Wfule'lbe whole lowed, n^t fay a joint "peace, hut 

udttaiy force oflhe enemy did not by separate pacifications, must ue- 

nned 6U00, and tbe g^risoii of cessarily survive ?' 6r thai, if it dit| 

Akundria was full> ebtial to that iiot, it was necessary lo b« viewea 

BuBtber, there could De nothing bri llie renewal of another war, iutq 

tbat could render that step a mea- which any of die parties mi^lit af- 

nre of impcriiius oeceisily, unltfsiy terwardsenteri But this fi^d never 

isdeed, it could be said that ILkj (>eeii the liuderslapding of any. bC 

*M a great waste of the iiubtif fh^ pajties, nor bad the treaty been 

brcc, and that itwaspr^f that so acted ujion. It had h<!cn as-, 

part ot k should be Jet Iciofle^ At serled, that the refUsal of, the pas-'- 

Ae very time' when gnvemirient sage of the Dardanelles to the 

na treating ititb the Porte fur a ^usliiai», iiarl giveo us a right fo 

date ot neutrality, to lay the pos- assume an armed niediatiori, Kut 

Kw» of so iniporlant a place at as' tbe piutage was f.ninte'd by a 

fte feel of their opponent, seemed siibset^iienl couventtoD, to which 

fe be an unaccountable mode of tlis country was not a party, we 

proccedtng. 'But what had becoine had no right, in virtue of an ante- , 

of tfae troops so sia ai liberty 1 He rior treaty, to insisf ,on tlie fulfil- 

hdieved linl,-froiii tlial.mom^ttd liient of tnfU cooventioii, to whicji ' 

the inesenl, ihey bad nbt beeij en- we were not a party. ■ The inter- 

pged in aoy enterpriie of* advan- iereuce at 6opeo)iagen was not, 

tige to the country, and (liat Ihey lAore ded-fve iii principle than 

Md scarcely been beard of. the forcing Uie passage of the 

Mr. Merely Canning,, in r^^ Cardaneltej, and aiipearing, ^ in t 

to Mr. Grenville, said,' if any gcti- fabsiile altitude, betorc Conalan- 

llemagwouldhutloakintbthelreaty tinbple. Here a /iirce was sent to 

•T tnple alliauce in yiSH, tie Would boiiiba'td the capital, not of a neii- 

percctTe that the ar^umtut of the tral, bul of a triple aHy. Vt the 

■ i^^ boDOurabk geqtlem'aii could tale iiiiiusters c'oiild lay upou the 

■ot be^ sustained, it referreit to table a copy of a treaty of de^eo- 

tte sSoation and existiri| c'trciJjii; sive alliauce with Drnrnaik, the 

Haoccc of the coalracling" parties, cases" would be parallel, ' except 

alt equally at that period at war that the Danisk expedition was 

widb Fkaoce. The treaty coDiaioed crowned with success, while the 

a,«ipBktM>o, liauting its operation ptber.was attended with defeat and 

tae^ght years; after whidi it wa* disgrace. It wit impvssibli^ Ihat 

W DMiergo a rev&fon, and stlch the Turkish fire), passing the Pa;- 
dfera^oo as t£e r^pNtive utua- -dauelle^ and the Streights of Glb- 
iHBa of 'the (fi&rent connUie*. raliar, sbouM attack auy' of tbft 
£P4] British 

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7« ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

Briibb pouettioiii. On tbe other slill insUl«d on 1 If not, wlwrc wai 

band, the Dauuh fleet. If once our attrntion lo tbe iiitereUs of 

launched with a hostile view, might Kuaiia 1 Ai to the policy of tbe 

be Qu our ihores without a mo- eipcdtlion, Hussia ought to have 

merit's noticir. An inlerventioii to been induced by all means to cun- 

prcteure, by paciJic ineuoi, the it- reoirale lier whole force agsinit the 

ran>>ement desired by Russia, he masldangerouseneiiiy.BuODapaTte. 

did not condemn ; but to ipter- Tliis ought to have been our po- 

fere, firal by Ibteats, and aflenvarda licy also. '.Then, as lo tbe force, it 

by violence, violence iuidequale to was so inadequate to its ol^ect, that 

lit object and unsuccessful, was if sir Thomas Lewis had nut coma 

what he did condemn. It was away with tbe utmost expedition, 

knowu that tha passage of the Dar- his passage would have been totally 

dandles would be regarded as an cut otf. It wut asked, what S or 

act of hostility ; at lekst, it was 60OO troops, reiiuired by the naval 

quite as intural'to suppose, that COtnriianders^could havedoue,wheu 

the approach to Ci>penhage», the C^stUutinople had 200,000 meu 

hnding of troops, aiid the invest- Sf' nilltary age among its inbabi- ' 

Oient of that capital, would be re- tfipls 7 They might have destroyed 

Ceived without rVsislaiice or a fbdmg tile castle of Abydoa by a coup dt 

of liostilily, arlhat the appearance main, and they ibight have held 

m a meiiHcing posture before Coii- l^e castle of Sestos, where t)i< 

stiiiilinople, would be viewed With $00,000 men from Constant hiople 

calmness and indifference. But \M could not have got at them. But 

eilhnale of the strength of the caS- the troops were sent to Atexandria 

tie; and the afipaiiitmcnt of the to commit a double breach of alii- 

British force, shewed clearly (hat anCe.aud to incur,a double failure*, 

there was an idea tliat tbe olyect He did not think that 5000 nten 

of the expeditint) was hlcely to be could achieve miracles. He could 

re^rded as' hoslile, and to be met hardly conceive that 5000 men 

with resistiiiice. But it was said, could open a communication from 

Ihe expedition appeared before Chili to Buenos Ayres, over the 

Cnnstanlinople purely for Russian highest and most impracticable 

objects. The restoration of the mountains in tbe world t; but he 

Hoipodars was, iudeed, a Russian did thbk ibey might have destroy- 

objcct But how was this de- ed one small castle by a coup at 

inauded by the British commandert main, and taken and bekl another 

With (be allernaiive of giving up io which uo attack could have been 

the Turkish Beet! Ifthefieethad made upon them. VTitb regard to 

htta iiiven up, could the restora- the Iroopi that bad been ordered 

lion of the Hospodan bate been to evacuate Alexandria, they had 



n snd recTimiiiatim), t 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. W 

sft tn* a pari of the fbicc in Sicily, fere, he shotild best do hb duty hj 

wUck «r*s brougbt to Oibnltar moToig tlte nrder of the day. 
«ilha new to co-<q>erate in secur- Hr.WindluunconnderedatRity 

^ Ibe retreat of the royal bmily as binding only with respect to 

•f Porta^ from Lbbon, though what wu in the purview n( that 

that f4»)«cl MBS happily eSeded Iteaty. A friend might becoiaa 

wilbout the Beccnily of cniployiDg «tur very wont coeiay. 
then. Neither he nor hi( col- Col. Hark WoodeiKleavouicdIo 

l eag a e% he obserred, had been for- proceed io a speech against tlic n- ' 

want to X^ke a part in the preient pedilion : but the qoeriion was sa 

fciiiiBliiii He did not see what loudly called for, that he was 

ps atti cal benefit could result from obl^d to sit dowa. The hoaw, 

a fimtrr on persons who were no hnwevcr, gave itray to the n^y of 

liMMi io his majeily's councils. Mr. William Taylor.-rAAer wfaicb, 

Aaa be tbooglit it would be iiyn- (he question that the other orders 

riaas lo faavc op the journals a tc- be now read, n-u put and cariM 

solatHHi refiecting on llw honour of without a diviwMi. 

He- thought, there- ■ , 



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r<r ANWUAi. REGISTER,' I8d8. 



CHAP. IV. 

Otmmtrck^ 9Varfarf.—6rdfrt of CmMcti, « Subjftt of wauital kern- 
wff and pertmaeily of DrbttteT—Mi>Ho»for referring tkr thdera ift 
Cemiteit rt^peettn^ Neutral Trade % the CotamitM af Waya and 
Memts.^iieit&ated Debit'ea Jn hofh Hmues eoneemingb^h the 
Jmt^irt and Lrpdif if, and tkt Policy of ttif Measure.— Charges in 
the Hov^of Vommom of Injustice, Oppre'ssum, and Cruettjf m the 
Condnet of the Marquis of Welksley towards the Jiabobs of Oudt 
and Arrott, declared to pe ttnf6ta<hd : and tie'Tkatiks of tM House 
to the Marpiis, 

THG rommerdal warfare, 6t but Uiat of sii|)erior force. It was 

llif war of pamivity and pri- very generally remarked, that dur- 

vatkin (a novellji io the tiatory of ing the preMnt session the a|>poai- 

I lie world) in wbieh Great Britaia tion to ministry waii unusually keeu, 

and France were now engaged, was vigilant, and persevering. The pre> 

traced in our last volume*, io the gent luinisters were not KupposetT 

decn-es of Ike emperor of the to poasess much abllity^on Ibe 

French, dcpUring the whole island whole, there wa» allowed to be a 

of Great Britain la be in a slate of superiority of powers, of both rea- 

Uockade. A protecting' and self- soning and orarnry among their op- 

. defettdvc system was interposed liy pooeitls : who, tutly sensible of this, 

our order* in council ; and trade seiced every oppnrtunily of hang- 

b^an again to flourish: yet there ing on the skirls of ministers, and 
was no measure of administratioa ' di«tracling and worryiog them with 

dtsciused in tlie present session incessant debates. Those concem- 

tbsl occupied so great a portion of ing orders of council posseitsed 

tbetime and attention of parlia- very little interest.vwere universally 

ntent, or oceasioned such keen and accounted dry, and at length be- 

pcrtinacious debate, tlie Baltic came tiresome at the time. Tliey 

expedition alone, perhap except- cannot appear more intcreiting 

ed. On both these subjects the now. 

memben in oppoailion had the ad- He great quiestion Io which 

vantageof standingnotonly OBwhat they refer is lobe decided not by 

they maintained to be political ex- ai^uraenls, bat by facts. Though, 

pediency, but the plausible ground therefore, there vfos scarcely a 

of justice and the law of ndlions ; week when there was not some de- 

Ibongh there was not now 'mfaet, bate or conversation about French 

any law of nations ; or at least decrees, British orders in coUDcii, 

any such law in force, Buonaparte, foreign licences,' or American trea- 

wfao swayed a sceptre of itdn on ties of commerce, it wiU not be ex* 

the contioCDl, acknowledged no law peeled that onr acconnt of those 

proceedings 

* HiiT. Edr. Oiap. Xlt. 

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HI^TiGftY Of EJJfiOPE. * 75 

rnxtcciiogs ^Ml be ^^Uwr Iffap Bul.vtJne |egalil? of Ibemeiwice 
lapHrj. 785 in the Qptiikin of Ibe DoUe 

H*MC of .Cwnmpns, Feb. 5.-r l^ri, fa far &otu bcine d'fuMiUe 
TV dauKcUor of Ibc qccliCjqaer, a^ t^« policy— l,he fwlv? mixbl U 
bfin^ moved, that t^ orders. qf ))^U,bc diflctipMd firM, aud ihe Ic- 
b Mjeatjr ia c^w^ Kf^P^>V Ki>'i'y aftenwundf.. Hie Bieuunu 
Ml^i l iqiide b^ ^e^ired Jo Uip pow ^ ;forcf: iver« »uCKCi>t^ Jb^ 
emminee of vnjs aiid I9«»u, the proprielj ,uf rcUlulini (he 

pKd H. Petty ail), ibat ap aiegressioiis of the eneviv- AJl 
iMh* were enleitanerl of tjw li;- ^ad* i)i Eugiiili guodi v^s. prtihi- 
pfcy gf IbtMc orden, it waf thie bited, kd<) ?)' a"ci] gocid^ wtif rew 
i^ of Bunisters la bm ibofe fauad, v(C[« dulared lanfiii priM. 
Mais KiBOvcd bjr aboniug to the J^rd Petl; ^d s^id, Ijint tbw was 
imtt in the fint place tbcir neces- pf no .oiamenl, a* the iotctual csfi- 
atv. aad tben bj ifPfiyvig for ^ cuUpn of li)e decree ip France *m 
'■iil»rnj biU af^nit tl)e uoctiQ- 4II Ih^tt \¥a« inlended. It was ra- 
«lalMi«l exercbe of tbfiQ. ' Liv4 titer fingiflar, tiowevar, Ifaat Ibe 
PAj cooKaded that %. onlen ni grft newt qf Ihe piddkatioa of the 
tamti TiolaUd both ibe law of decree at Bertio wa« Kpisipaoieil 
^doH and lb«;iiibDici]Hil lyw of Ibii with an account of its having bcei 
aavlij, and brther, \bfl }o eu> woft rignrowly enforcRd at Han>- 
Ihck Ibeia ynt a m^aiific <tf great burgh. Was this cou^ning Ihe ofw- 
^nbcv- ration of the decree I9 French ler- 

The iMipilitu ^$9^ "'^ QuODBr ritorv 1 Id what maiiticr did Buuoa- 
yte, Jeyiariiig , tjffsji^ and iU parte himtelfe^ipl^iu the decree in 
porta to Lc tp a ^tqile of blockade, aniwer ^o Ihe ren>Oins|nuKe fpini 
iad mev€T been actied upon ; nor, the luercha^tt of Hamburgh, who 
aa&Bcl been dedaijed by the French staled, that a great deal of the 
■niter of gnpoe decrees la g.e- good* teized actually belonged to 
ktkI Ar^wtiftqg, the America en- them, ai^d Hiat the nieaiures be wu ' 
voy, «as it eycr iot^iidcd to be act- pursuing were pregnaal wilh greater 
cd am, «itb regard to neulrala. It ruin to himself tlMu to hit enemy 1 
ni part of a liberty of the su^j^ " To destroy the commerce of the 
that he fbould ba*f; free access to vile English,' said be, " in every 
The orden ia council passible, way is my object. I have 
vM>ta(ioD of Magna i^iu my power; and wish to rum 
HanbHfgh: for that vould pro- 
mote the destruction of English 
commeice." 

The sanctity of every neutral ■ 
flag was, forsooth, to b« moat cere- 
mouiously respected at sea: while 
every principle and every right of 
neutr^ territory was lo be invaded 
and violated by land I 

Mr. Perceval, on Ihe cutitrary, 

maiBtaiBed, Ibat we bad a com|dete 

Ttglit to rataliate on the enemy his 

own 



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76 ANNUAL REGISTER, J808. 

;«wnMe»urA; tlmt if Ibe enem^ lure, - had beta i^lcd bj* Moii 
dechind «e sliouhl have nor trvit, Decres as Iiis opinion onI>, liis «i 
U'chada right lo dMlare lluit tn aulhan»il o|iiiiinn, not his kuo\ 
■bonld have Ti4 (tacle: Itial if the Mge:: If hh niajcily** prttnit m 
nemy ^>roelainie(l'BritMi -nianii- ttialert had viulkled Ma^na Olsrl 
6c<Ufes uiul riiluftial prtxtiKe g<iotl ajid ttieAiatun oTEdivard II).' llic 
priae, we lia.l B' rigliT 1o drclan Had been Ttolaled b; lord Pvtl 
l^ench manufactures «M ]>rod(ire liinitetf ^<l bis tiieuds 'lint ih 
good priae, " fact vvai that thev bad nu/ bcv 

■ With h:<i|>erl lo iRe imture flf ihe violated by either partj : fur tlit- 
letatMlioir, wai it to be vniitnit^' Mated to a dale of peace, »a<S nu 
•la^lly to ihecoitrse pU/Miedliy of war. 

llieeneiiiyl If the prMiri|tle'»l'TigtH As to \he pitlUry of iiit ontrn h 
lo retiiliate vere vdniitted, il tttuit Tbuncil, previously to the i^urtig o 
■Iso be admitted Ihatwe bbd a the onlers of council, rrUnce ei) 
iiglil » choose our mode ofreiaha^ j^jed, hv' the aiaislMKe; UF"ii«a 
tibn: Otberwiw,' iii umu)' inslunc^ mk^ ai ^AU Uilvanlnges 4^frii(t( 
KlaliatHm nVtHild oidy enforce the ,a^ we^s^ilKil withaiirlrfuinpfciiii 
dedriielimf of the power reUlM- navy. Our navy, indeed, as Wlli 
■ig. It ^as an unfonnded asser- perent, ira« neiitTaliied, and Ten 
Hon, Ihal though (ve bad a right to dered useless,' by neutral shipi ir&r- 
Mtjura 111* euetiiy, we li*d no right ryiug to rraiicC all Ibul was' i tu- 
tu do mi bv nreans that would be porlant for France to vblahi. V^U 
prejadiciaV lo neutral powers. had been th^ case fm «»' loo^ u 

The i)iiestion in thepreseirt es«; period, Uiat evA prior to the de- 
ira^ is (he iiijitry lo iietitnd powers cree of the Zlstof NufctAber, it 
only coiMTtf uential ou nieanires ini;>ht have been matter of delicate 
directed agahisl the enemy, or was inquiry, whether this country au<;lit 
the measure oiigioally dinged not to liave retorted to the tnra- 
agaiiist neulril potierst Tire con- «ureof 1756*. But after the de- 
duct ofihe latt admitiislralion, itt cree of the Sl-st of November, a 
blocking up a whole river, noe side tnnch stronser Ineasure become lie- 
of wlikli was occupied by iieutfal cessary. Otherwise French pru- 
powers, proved that they udmilted perty conveyed in neutral bottoms 
tbe justice of this ductTine. It had would have been safe : British pn>- 
been contepi'led tlial we should perly m danger. It had beeu de- 
have wailed to »ee tbe effvct of the dared Ihat ihe French decree w;i« 
French decree on neutral powers ; a dead letter, and tnat it wa$ easily 
or whether France inleuded to put evaded. He was well aware that 
it in force. Tliat the decree did the certificairs of origin gave op. 
not alter tbe practice of neutral ua- portuuities, bythc assistance of for- 
vigalion, nor affect the American gery and (lerjury, for the introduc- 
conveDtiori with Fmace, nor alter tion of our goads into the cunti- 
tbe existing mode of matilime cap- nenl. Such practices, however. 



* Tlie eoaitinK trade of Fiaoce wu prdiibitcd in I75d, «■ tile gronod that 
bcntrakliadouriglit locarrf on tliat coutjug trade for Frtnce in wu, wfaicti 
France wosld have cnmcd >« forberseU'ln p«ace. 



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HISTORY OP EUROPE. 77 

«m w«( to he tnatangtA. And it »ai itnposmhie that tlia Amcri- 

B&r HuflK Fniich decne frnu ram could Inuk tit Ibe onkri ia 

km I iliul Icltfr. that new pro* couacil without prrceiving in ttmo 

•mmveit.froraliinctnliinc.sup- many inslancet of caution not to 

fM tor uuhiiif upilidWtciciicies, itfjure Amirica. 

Ttc diffttcHt cuaslj hail Imkd lioed Dr. Lhw rtnce coDtciided, ihat 

tiii troaps, vid other means of though ' Biiooaparte luixht have 

n|pru*tiimt from time lo time le- bee^ gitilty uf iiijtutice, that would, 

cined lo. ■ not bv a jiutiticalioD o( t)ie houM 

AnoDs the arfnimenls which had hi iinilaliiig liisacta.. Sudi an eue- 

t«i Bijcd a^amU the ocileri in my outfit lu be resisted itot b;/ ad* 

oud, it Ind been said, tliat of violtnce, but by delcruiincil 

i^Bnclheeauieaf the clislreu coumgr. ]l behoved the legisla- 

f^Bti hy oar manuraclureii : ture, iiefure the orders could tM*c 

ilat Frauce bad shut the door~a- any eflVcl on foreign nations, 1» 

laidniir cAinniercF. and tliat Be asccitain whether they were ri»ht. 

kKl bubod it. But tins dislrcss The orders of oiuncil could not (ic 

tntH sntemteullj lo the orders coiiudeted as measures of rctalia- 

a ooixiL It nriginaled in the tiou, because the French decree of 

Fnch decree. It was impnssiltle the 21*t November, \S06, had 

hoTto what extent tKe arbilntry iiever been acted up<iB so as lo n- 

P^inraf France mi^ht coiitpel the ({utre such a retaliation, 

Matnej uwter Iter dnniininn to Will) this doctrine llie master of 

nvrattn their otvn ruin. If France the rolls (Sir Willidiii Graut) a- 

MMndudeour {;oods from the f;''^'' '" part. But. wlien the eno- 

mianti, they wuuld Lave beeu my drparted fioni justice, we were' 

nrtvdcd had our orders never aj>- justified in relalialing in substauc*^ 

POmL If they should be nclud- and not bound to iidlicre to tlie 

"'."taii^l look lo lite rest nfllie form. It was mailer of aslouisb- 

"^^ of tlie trade with which mt-nt to hint, to hear any one who 

t tail, by those rery orders, se- had uttered a syllable m su))poit 

nml 1 monopoly. of Ihe onier of 1 807, whject to the 

'^itb repartl to tlte eBt.'ct whicti ortlers under cousldcraliun. The 

'^ onirn in coimcil might have on very preamble to the former on(er 

TrtiaiiniM with America, loss lo was a confutation of Lurd U, 

^ntiia was km to Great Briiaiu. Petty '3 arguments, and tho^e of liis 

^pTM^ily of Atneiica was tlie learned friend, Lawrence. Tliatpre- 

P'*V*n<> ufGrent Britain, and he ambL-ataledlheifriiss injuslioeufthe 

**« anxious lo preserve peace French decree to he Ihe foundalioa 

"k Ameiica, consistently with the of the ordir. Tbe^rders in coun- 

'^ 10(1 interests of llus country, ci) only declared the purls of France 

*vj ntm. As he hoped that and iier allies, lo be in a slate of 

^ BHgbt be preserved, so he blockade, and llieir produce con- 

ll^edihat Hwouldbepreserved; trabund of war; and France had 

™ it nt imposikle Ibal any can- done tlie snme liv (his cuunlry. He 

W and enlt^hli^ned Anterican cojisidrred the French certilicales 

"■sMconuder the principle oftlie of origin as a prohibilinn 'of neu- 

"dcnin council as 1 cou» efirar. Inll from carr^uig British goods, 
^ aud 



D,£,,t,7P-hyGbogle 



^n ANNU'A^L register', llsos. 

.mid <ionMi<li^' that' rliis' ihi^ ti litiWVver', it'irtiSM'U'come'B qii^ 

bretth'of ibe law of natfoni^ atod tlon on'rit4''ibi#^ of policvi tiotv fa^' 

thai netitrah, by thus atltJirttinglHst' , nc^lrHls; srj'al:^in^, ihokit'd be )d(^'- 

PrMte liwl ttt legiilate Tot tbem, ttfiH willi tjit' tmmt, or' treated 

made . theniMlves inslruitfaint* of tihifile)^. , A' eJtM'Hrarwas to be 

FnAceagAftnl'iri. If Franci.- could sanl'oti (IJIk h'thd, pArtlcularly i^"* 

' continue to etijo^attthf^ailvanla)^!' ^nyt'mjj'ArA^Hi^ii. Mr. Windbattt' 

of commercr thMtf^ n«irtral Ira/lc, jlroreH^ fo niak'e KVcnl aiilniadt^ ' 

whibt we were suRrlflR •"cry '"- Vpriions on what he conceivW hirf' 

jury lliat can renil* from lier de- beenex^r^Mcil by ihemasterDfthe 

otes, «be would bbte no mMiVe rolls. Rdt bek^e it would Wnuga' 

fot peace ; and Ihb country would thry to chter at all into 'tbcse'^ as ' 

Mon be reduced to the aUemaFire' Ifiat honourable cTotTeinan hail de- 

ofeither-iubmittnig to peace upian clar«d,' that he had liot uttered s' 

any tenns,. or of continuing the syllable that conld, justify ihe right' 

wir to an rndlcJs period. But lie honounibfe gentleman in impuluig 

thought Europe might be made to to him Ibe'dbetrines wbich' he <^:is 

feel that a maritime power is much said to' ha^eJakl down; and'lbift' 

less dependant upon Europe, Ihaa Do such iHeai had ever entered hii 

the continent is upon the niarilime mind. Mr. Windham concluded 

power, ^e would not »^tkv his' with declaring, tbai the nieasnre 

country til perish, merely because' before the hmue required mucli i:e* 

the measnres wbicli were necessary consideration; arid the qaestibn of 

for its preiervatiou might press the lefalily or illegaKty of the or- 

upon neutral commerce, which Bu- ders io council, shtiuld be decided 

onapnrte had before vjolaled. — upon before they entered on a dis- 

Tbere wis no contract without a cussion In a comniittec, of the niea- . 

teciprocal obligation ; ind, if neu- sures by which it' was proposed 

trals did jiot oblige Ibe other party that they sbOulffbc' followed up. 

, (oadhere to Ibe law of nations, Ibey Sir Arthur Pifiolt said, thai the' 

cAuld not complaJQ of us for not rigfatof retaliation was ariinddehtal 

adhering to it, Uima tbeie grounds right, growrag out of an injCiry pre- 

be saw no reason to question' the viously received, tf that injury, 

propriety of those orders of coun- the itijtiry- of blocltade, had not 

cil, which would impeach the or- been actilally sufTeredj it was hii- 

der of January 1807, issued by. an poaiible that wc cduld^ accofdtn;; 

administration, — whicii ceriainly to any law either of nations or of' 

claimed to possets a great pTO|0r- reason, or e«en accordhi^ to the 

tian of the wisdom, consideratioa, . obvious meaiiing of (he word, rtta- 

and leandug of the nation. Hate, \>y blockading* the enemy's ' 

Hr. Windloun admitted tb^t the ports. And tf "not don^'as a mea- 
master of. the rolls was rigfat in sure ofretalialioii, tbeactwasilom- 
lhe' position, that if neutrals ac- milled In violation ot ill; l«W wFiat- 
. qoiesc^ in restrjctioin imposed ever. But it was said, thaf a »nii< 
by a be1li|[erent, the other belli' lar measure bad Men adoptecT by 
gerent would be warranted in con- the .bte admin istniti^b. Thai, if 

.udering such neutrals as a party it had been so, would not have been 

to those restrictiotu,. Even'tbco, any j unification. But the coiitral'y. 



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HisTaR:\r op eithope. 79 



■ Eici wtaKtalqribeeiplunlioit ciwty Ihtne vAkb ~wtn pttiper: 

Cbj ^ord llowidi, to Hr. themlbplHntwuof HmorttiiBm^ 
Oc Daniih mairter. ".'It- mitnre; but one- on- which their 



ii Mt o«r uletitiMi Hat AuT onlrrf Ibrdsfaips mTRlIt bMe a grest deal' 
iaM.wtkdt ibt gntnH tade of of trouble; he iftomt the-intclligi- 
NNlnli : but aa\y to prevml Hr bilitrof the orA^n. The injusCice* 
eoastia^ lr«d« nf -France and hW' aadtltef^lity Af tHeordtn, hislortl- 
JepeadcBcio fiom beiiq; anied ttlipiiMiiitsined on twarlr thesame' 
a bj ncBtnb, as that spocies' of iirouhds that were MkHi b^c^jposi- 
tnde w« MKh « properij beioaf- tisit in the hoineof roUmons'. He 
ed la France beiaelf, and to wUcb concluded by iDovin?.' that the' 
BMrtnla wire to. be cfwaidtred^t linoee sbonld reiolve ttseff into a' 
iMlkg the m advea mfkiily.." Gonmrittee, to consid^of tlie orden< 

1^ question that the ardeniB' of'couDcil. Ttie ^mtrargnments. 
u ^ d be referred to a conuaitlK' alio, though -placed ina variety of' 
«f «a^a«d maM beipft pot, wai llghM, Were made uM of by the" 
carfwd wilfaovt ft diraiim. Tl»' lords wbofolIowed.lard'Aiirklaiid' 
dWt of tbe exdaqiMr Ihen' on'Uieaamende of themiestion. 
, iW it-was bi» mteDtibn to - Ji>rd£nldae adnitten, ttiatthe- 
_ _ le t^ Ae ^onae; oh a )iatu« Tiolenr decree of the freoch' go- 
^/, Ibat attrt^lmoRiit of dnty vemment, gare tii aright to retali- 
fac laM oa almost eVery'article of' al«; bufttf Maliate oDth^ ennny, 
CMoaKMc to' be exported from tbia not ou neulraK We hid -'t|t) more 
imwliji. ciuxpt Uie prodacc of' right,- he hnintainbd, to alter Iha 
Gnat Btitaia, and her cotooies. law of oatioin, on oor own ^tho- 
Eoc'ibe prtMut.' 1m stated meraly Ht^foroutown ciAveineiice, than' 
Ui general olyecL A reaoIattoB a'judge here had to alferthe taw' 
espratave of general approbMioii, of tbe land wit^oat the authority ' 
^ tbeti pasted, 'fh> forma. ' of parliament. But afler all, what ' 

The qsialtoa of both IbeTegality was (he value of this decree witicb' 
^d tbk'l^o&CT-of tbe orders in Buonapartej intoxicated with hb ' 
cwnca^^raa bmog&t iiitviliKaason ' victoria, had issued t WbaT was ' 
■ '■ the use to talk of blockading Bri- 
tain, when he had 'scarcely s ship 
on the ocean to enforce his orders! 
He migfat as well have talked of 
bIockadiBg'tt)e moon. 

Lord Km^eiwtended, that FrAtce" 
hid not put her decrees in execu- 
li<R], sftd thrit w^.faad no proof that ' 
ninlrab would submit to tliem. — 
As'to tbe argument that we had a 
right *° hurt our enemy, thought 
neuyoi might be injure<1 coDse- 
qucRtly.'lic^ diaied that we ought 
to do -a great mjuryto a m ulnil, 
itr order -to liurl our enemy a little. 
Wittr rt^rd to'tlie policy of the 
measure 



D,g,t,7P:hy Google 



80 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1S08. 

Duaiufe, Baanaparte could never FVaace. tfae embargo lately laid on 
have put hjs decrees id fexeculioii. ber chippuif, not after recdnni; 
if we faiid not aniited him by stop- the Bfitiih orders in council, but 
|>inf;,our owd goods while finding, a&ts the receipt of advices from 
tlieir way to the contineutal mar- France, would be amply sufficient 
kets. Commerce was mucb ninre for (hat purpose. Tite old ar^u- 
neccssary to ns tliao to France; ruenls which were tiied in favonr 
and Iherefore it was foUy in us to of the dispensing power of rsritiu" 
act u[>o& these orders, which only ship rooaey* &c werci like the 
secured tbe attainment of the ob* present measure, JnstiAed on the 
jects of France. plea of neceaiity. He tiad always 
Lord (irenvillc said, ira ueulnl Ihooght, however, Uiat our ances- 
power granted certain advantages tors ha<l set these queslions, and 
to llie enemy, then we had an un- all of a similar naturci to rest, at 
doubted right to insist on beinjt the lime of the rerulution. Lord 
admitted to the same advantages; G. contended, that in maDT in- 
or, if a neutral power acquiesced stances tbe orders were aninteHigi- 
from weakness,' in the demands of ble. He would underlahe to prove, 
tbe enemy, all tliat we could in Jus- thai in four clauses of the same pa- 
, tice require, was, that in cause- ra^rapb, tbey c^nliiioed four direct 
queoce of this demand, the enemy cool rod ict ions. Lord 6. proceeded 
should not be placed in a belter to shew tbe extreme itapolicy of 
situation in regard to her than we the orders. They tended to ttkct 
were. But we had no right, be- a fundamental change in the whole 
cause iHe enemy violated the rights cOmmeTciul relations of the couo- 
of one neutral, to violate the rights try, both with bemeerent and com- 
of all neulraU; for if tins principle mercial powers. They tended Is 
were once admitted, it.wuuld lead subject (his country to a loas in tlie 
to an.«<(ensian of hostilities over same proportion that they distressed 
the whole civilind world. The (he enemy. This principle of fore- 
foundation of the orders in council iog tr^de into our iitarkets, would 
was statu] in the preamble to be, have disgraced the darkest ages of 
that neutral spates had not obtained monopoly. The orders were cal- 
the revocation of tbe French de- culateiJ to defeat their own objact. 
cree ; a cimmi stance which he con- No ship would submit lo the igno- 
siilered as uf no importance what- niiny of toucliiug and paying trv- 
ever ; -fur if it was not executed, it bute at a British port, merely for (be 
was the same thing as if it had purpose of expusiug itself to c^ 
never been published. It could ture and confiscation by the French, 
not be asserted that America had - h(K4 Auckland was replied to, 
acquiesced in this decree. Having and the orders in council defended, 
then mentioned several facts in bv tbe eaiiof BathuraL The order 
proof of this, he said, that if any of the 7th of January, 1807, be 
thin;, after all the circunistatKes observed, did dislinctty assert the 
which he had enumerated, was ne- right of his majesty to adopt briber 
cessary tn evioce the determination measures of retaJiatioo, if Fraitre 
of America m>t to submit to an in- did not, in tbe mean lime, recede 
vasion of her rights on the part of from th« violent pretensions on 

which 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 81 

«fakfc the decree of the Slst No- was found tbaf the Borplus pro* 

Mstber lSo6, wasfouDded. France duce of oUr own colonies, beyond 

tad oot receded ; bnt on the coD' our own coiisamption, mas not 

tnry, Ibe heait of tix French go< above ■ third of wbat was wanted 

WDment bad ordered a more ri- for the supply of ibe continent, it 

gorous execution of the decree; x as thought cxpedieiit to admit of 

and. ll>errfore, the British order of tlie trade with the ehe*iy's coIo> 

November 11, 1807, and the sub- nies: wilh the intention, howeTer. 

$e[{uent orders, becume necessary, that the pioiluce of sudi colonies 

It was found expedient ta regulate should, in the ctrcuilous trade 

tt«ltnde,wbT'-bcoiddnotbe prohi- through thjs country, be lubjecttd 

btcd. With tlii.4 view Ihe orders ia to a duly, sufficiently high, to pre- 

ewnncfl were issued : which were, in vcut its liafing adrantages orer our 

IkA, a cotnproDiise between beHige- own colonial produce : and also for 

real rights aod coramercial interests, embarrassing tbe commerce of tbe 

la maktog tbe enemy, however, feel enemy. 

lus own acts of violence, every pos- The l^ality and justice of the 

sifalr attention had been paid to the orders in couucil, was also maia- 

ccBuMerctal interests of the country, tained by the loni chancel lof and 

Lord Auckland had expressed bis lord Hawkesbury, From the pre* 

wonder. Ihat nentrals were allowed amble to the French decree of 

b> trade with the enemy's colonies, 'November 21, the chancellor' con- 

wbervta an opposite polity would tended, that Buonaparte must have 

have rmded to relieve our own meant not only to exclude Brilisli 

West India planters and merchants, pfodOM and manufiictures from 

from that preuure which aflected his ports, but also (o prevent all 

tfieai, hi consequence of the sitjter- ttatre wbalefer in Brilfeli comrao* 

abnodance of the produce beyond dltict. Whoever tradetl with Great 

ibe demand. Britain, was to be conaidered as an 

To tbis remark,, lord B^lbtcm r6- enemy to France: which was a 

fiki, ihal this, in fact, was intend- flagrant violation of the rights of 

«d a* a boon to the Americans, and neutrals and the law of nations, 

mat be to them of great value ; Lord Hawkesbury predicted, 

because, wlien intelligence arrived from tbe orders of council, a great 

in Amctka, of the intention of the many commercial advantages. WiMi 

French government rigorously to regard to the point of legalKy, he 

execute ibc decr*e, and tbe era- insisted chieflv on the oM arga- 

bargo wras in coKSeqiience resorted Hienivm ad iomhtem taken from 

%a, Ibe general impression there the order of cotincil, Jau. 7. 

«M, tbal wfe Hoidd resort tomea- The earl of Laude'rdale wished 

Kitet of retaliation, which vroidd the orders to be considered, not on 

aiBoaijt to a probibilioh of their flieir comparative, but their own 

Irjde with those coloKies. It was positive merits. He believed tirat 

isteodcd, Ibvt alt American do- Ibey had been infinitely mi^chteV' 

meslic produce sfaoirid be allowed ous, Tbey injured neutrals niiich 

ta pBN thiougb Ibis country wilb- more than th; enemy ; and were, 

oat the payment of any duty, ex- in his opinion, tantamount to a de- 

ctpt llie article of cotton. A^ ft claration of war against America. 

Vol. L. [G] Lord 



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82 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

Lord viscount Sirfmoulh was de- In the preceding ttiscusMons od 

cirotis, that the ottien might be re- the orders in council, in both 

frrred to a romniittee, that iie houses, the debate was confined 

nu'ehl have an opporluiiily of fully almost solely to the justice, or le- 

investJEaliuji this important subject ; galily of the measure. The ques- 

■on n-htch he lud not yet been able lion of policy seemed lo have beeu 

to form a decided opinion. industriously avoided ; or whea 

Tlit house then divided. For broughl forward, it nas touched oa 

lord Auckland's raoliou 4S-^A- but slightly, lii the debate of tbb 

f^ust'it l(i6. night, and in subsequent debates. 

On the same day, in the Iiousc the question of ))olicy was fully as 

of commons, Mr. Punsonby, who n.ticb discussed as tliuloflegality. 
had moved for:some papers rela- Lord Temple observed, that 

tive lo America, but which were lliere was now .only one neutral, 

not yet ready to be laid befure the by whose means our . cot^iiiej-ce 

houhe, $aid, that be hoped the iui|ht be canicd on, and why did 

chancellor oftlie rxcdequer would we assist the vieus of Buonaparte, 

agree to postpone iIjc second read- by ctosijig up this outlet ! By these 

■ingof thebdi, relative to tlie orders orders we were distressing our own 

ofcouDcil, for three or four days, colonies, by bringing so muct] pr(>- 

ai tlM subject was not only nio- duceinlo coinpetttiou with Iheira, 

' inenloiu but intricate. as far ps exportation to foreign 

The chancellor of the exchequer ' markets was concerned. ,We were 

could not see the necessity of llie prevenliug the Americans from car- 

paprrecalled for. ryiugolT the surplus of our Indian 

Alter some littl^ debate on commodities, and by slopping up 

thii point,' Mr. Whitbreqd moved, their channels of trade, rej^tlered 

" Tliat the secwid reading of the them less able to purchase our own 

said bill be now read, for the pur* manu^tures. 
pose of being discharged." Mr. Hibbert denied, that in these 

Ai^er some observations on both orders there, was ' any particular ' 

aides, the house divided. For dis- view to tlie interests of (he West 

' charging the order SI — Against it India tr^de. The great quantity 

lis. But it was finalJv agnfed, of g^oods which would' be brought 

that the stt^id reading ol the bill licre for, exportation would inler- 

sbould be puil|»ncd till Thursday fere, whatever the duty might be, 

tbe IStb, upon a mutual under- with tlie exportation of our own 

standing, tluit tliere should be no commodities. 

delay required beyond that ^y: Mr. William Smith, having ob- 

vlien, accordingly, the order of the served, that it was not expected to 

day was moved foir the second read- be able lo compel Buonaparte to 

lap of the onlers of council bill. rescind his deprce, end that all that 

The motion was opposed by Mr. couldbcd»oe,was,topressaohea*ily 

Eden, tbe carl Temple, hfr. Htl>- on the people, as to force them 16 

berl, Mr. William Smith, and lord smuggle ; said, that the question 

H. Petty; and supported fay tbe came to this: whether we should 

advocate general, (sir John Nichols) run tlie risk of provoking tbe hos- 

Mr. Rose, and lord Castlereagh. lility of America, oi continuing bet 

embargo. 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. »S 

I, ID OTtier (o try howmncb mule, whelber there ww a naval 

*« could smoggle into tb« oonli< fnrce lufficicDl to execute that 

■rat ! If w ifcre delermiued to blockade according Id the tenu of 

»iiil^ iji . we oHf>ht lo coDsdcr Itow public law. The reault of that 

we ra«M 9inug)i|e most tnccessfully. inquiry was, to shew that lliere was 

ti tlH» Ttew, rbe policy of these or- an ample tbrce, and that force waa 

1 niotl exlraordmary ; for employed accordtogly. The rctft> 

i (bat minislers expeclcil lialkm on (be French decree was 

^., : more, by having all ves- gradual, ntodcrale, and d^nified. 

Kb excluded fram France, thm IT by our relalialion, France should 

ikry conid have dwie if cerlaiu be deprived of maoy of the necaa- 

tamh bad been freely admitted. (ary articles of daily conMuiplioo, 

LmtI Petty observed, that when the French would,. in the. course of 

^ A iw-ika B captain, finding liini' a IhUe time, be forced to beconw 

wMm m British port, should disco- tlie violators of the prohibition of 

wr, thai the ffnrnd figure of the their own goveroment. — There 

hag's prcrt^tive was changed in- were French boute» establidbed in 

to Ibe appearance of a custom- America, to ladiitate, by meatU' of 

homae officer, he m^ht say, " I American sbi|)<i the colouial trade 

ftsaghl I was seiied in right of the of Franc*-, Sfwia, and Holland, 

bg's prenNgitive.' " Oh 1 yes :" And it was from these French 

■ys the otf cer, " but I will agtee houses, that a great part of the late 

to aeH joo the king's prerogative, ^undless outcry ^aiust Great 

1 keep the king's shoj^ and if you Britain proceeded. It should be 

pay me 35, or 301. you may pro- recollected, that in all engagemeiils» 

cead to your orignal desliualton." expreas or hnplied, between belli- 

Tha was so very cotilrary to the gerent and neutrals, there were 

■tcDtioo of the bill, that neutral duties as welt as neutral 

It into his urad tite idea rights; and that belligerenta had 

I Ibreign to that a- direct obligations lotrards Ihei^ 

T pwa nieMMm gbtling into any selves, as well as colhiteral obliga- 

allKr partiaBeiilary proceeding. lions towards their ueigliboun. If 

laddfeooeoftheordcrain couiH a nenttal power allowed ito lerii- 

cB, tbc advocate genenl aaid, that tory lo be violated by one beUI- 

ito FiCBcb government lalaely as- gerent. it was bound to allow ao 

mmimii that the British gbvem- equal latitude to the opposite bel- 

■seal had dedared ports under the ligent. The same principle held 

itaiaininn of France to be in a slate at sea ; and if America subioitled 

af Uockale, without placing aim- to the interventioii of France, Iba 

ei Mps to exercise and enforce intervention should be permitted on 

Ant bfctckade: and dairaii^ a right the part of Britain, 
to Pttaliale on the «me principles, Mr, Rose said, that these orders 

dec lar ed tbe Britiifa islands m n were not intended qs a measure of 

Ato of blockade. Bat the fact was, finance. Tbe dufks were imposed 

Aol ■ Ibe most extensive block- in order to dist'tru Ibe enemy. 

adc, iNiUislMd by Ibis country. Even all our cruiaers could not 

atodi etteaded fioin the Elho to prevent srou^liog. It luiebthe 

Bnit, a patticobr inquiry bad been easily conceived Ukd that Ifae 
[G 2] French 

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M ANNUAL RE.GISTEB,. 1808. 

Ffwch corid not posdUy prerait Mr. H. Mirtio. Uk faowe dividMl. 

oar cotomoilities from being smog- Ay« 113— Noet 33. ' 

^*i into the <*»tinn»t. Fel(n»ry S*.— Tlie Hou*e of 

Lord CuHetcagh uatired tbe Cotnm(Ku in a coniiniHw on the 

havat, thU be aBd hit collogues orden in council bill. 

Hen nttiaiaXy soxioiiitoiYert the A bill for iDterconne with Ame- 

jtAaTaplionof|>cace and uniti^ with rica, bad been iairoduccd into 

America. Bnt we were not, froiti parliament, and went hand m hand 

ttie mere epprebenaion of a. war with tbe orden'of council bill, Be- 

'vMi America, to ifiiink from the tween these two bills, it was ob- 

tkMriion of thote lifiaritime riglilt, seired by certtin memben In op- 

' wtaidi are bo ennntial to our na< poHitiOn, tltat there were aOne 

tiotial strengtb and proiperitjF : our glaring bcobststtnciet, wfaicli made 

Btcans of shnlliilg ilp the produce it impossible ibat they sbould both 

of America in bfert>orti, in conse- be carried inio effect at the aame 

qaedce of oor va>t marine.were fir time. Tlie Aimrican treaty being 

nMv extedtive than lih- minut of referred to tbe commillec on tbe 

exctudiSg hs. And conaequcoUy, orders of council bill, 

a cdusfderabte portion of what ib'ia Mr^ Tienwy wiibed to know, 

country now exports to AiUerica, w4ikl could possibly be tbe otiject 

would And its way iolo thai couti- of tlib absurdity — wbat could be 

try, not with standing a war. (fie propriety of carrying on two 

On k division of the house, there bills at the same time, directly cob- 

tfppeared — For tbe second redd- .trary to each otberl 

•<ttg ^14— AgahMt It 94. Mr. Kose said, lhat>there was a 

. Hekt day, the chanceHor af seeming Incongniil^ t but in tbe 

tbe eiichet{uer, In coitrnquence of American .treaty bill there was a 

an btnendment he intended to in- clause to aHow its being altered or 

Traduce into the orders off cbimcil Te()«alttJ, if necessary,' at any time 

bill, proposed that it ^ould Hint during the present session. In tlie 

Hl^t go thrctugh a tiommiltee pro present bill Anterica was placed on 

'f^ma; that the rtport sitoidd be thi- fooling of tlie most favoared 

received on Monday, and ttntt on nation. 

Tuesday, a r^commitmeht should Mr. Ttemey thought it quiteim- 

talte place, when the bill might he proper to carry on two inconsistent 

discussed, nte firinclple of the bills at Ihesaine lime. Hetlioughl 

alteration, was, to tirait (lie opera- it wOuld be mitch better to delay 

lion of the bill, by rendering the tlfe present prooeedltigslill it shoold 

duties imposed by' it applicable to be ascertained, \vhetliep Vie could 

articles impoiHea in soch vessels coine to any arrangement with 

only as sailed from their olni ports, America. 

ifl^ lln^y had received notice of The diancellor of the exchequer 

(be mea<ilirc. observed, Ibat Mbtl was calted con- 

On 3 molinn for the speaker's tradictiou was no nitfre than this: 

teMlng tbe clnir, after a lillle %on~ that there were certaiu provittoii* 

versation amnng Mr. Perceval, mtliis bill (v)iidi alletvd lliose of 

if r, Davy Giddy, Mr. Brand, and the other. Tlie iotercourM bill 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 85 

I sew wnagcnMOt witl) hiMioa «w to b« Uw salyfct of > 

It was ibe contiauuwe scpwtte bjlL fiut tq \hfi booom- 

^■a oM iMe,ati RctoC Uif a^dof able geAtlcman n^a^ of opiuioq, 

Ackiss. ffliich ««iQigtitaUtiub) that nq i|ifouvqi.eo(* would ^ 

m WW— d ptyprr. It ww judged ftit frota tl)ia (« ;h« cQiitiiw(it. 

wlneaUe tu csntiaoe it « «^ort tf^frP ap|teaK(l in lus o>i^ view t4 

t^e knpr. in order to Mkit 4 dif^ ^Ek qQ gM rtafo^ fqr hU ^lotiaq. 

fam vvit froin Unt of Anierica, H« ub^^fved, jiofrqver, t^t b^ ^q 

«■! kavc bn time to cmnin good info^fttioQ tli^t t(if w^nl of 

noOj of Dk notture the bad bt^ bark atid i^^ was sevfjvl^ 

adoftctl in a momeut of ipleen. f«ll 

So ■eonr ta ieace would roolt from ipt 

fur i fc both logetber. a pi 

Ob the reading of th« Kcond grai 
timat. Mr. Whitbivad rose to . of fa 

aMe, Unt the wonh- '■ Jetuib It v 

larit" be mnittcd. TiKre n* so tbc 

ir—wa wbaterer to luppose, (bat Ih^ Ibe eneny ctiOM to t^mii 

)k« pi f Mil re froB want of commgii otber articjes a| l|ic lame time. |f( 

hack woold be «iich aa lo iiK|uce therefore, tiiey felt any great <fii- 

ttr ^nmy to apfriy for peace. Irets for tlie vant of it, tbey bad 

1W coatioent was iu|^ed witb only to tak^ it an (be prescribed 

bHk n well aa cugar for two copftjliouj. A* (o the oiie Knli- 

yoB coemniptioa ; so Ibat it iniut menial view that bod be«ii dven 

be a lodg tnpc t>eforc tbe tight of a w^r of Ibis kind, tie tbould be 

hiBuiuafale gentleman'i scheme glad to know the disliuctioii be- , 

»«ld opente. It was, id fact, in tveen this and we privation^ in « 

fc view Ikat Mr. Perce* al bad of besieged town. 
(be mile^tet, llw most cbjldiifa at>d Mc. Wilberforce obserred, tjtat 

a^alory Ibat could be conoetved. llie general uf a blociadin^ aruiy 

In Miodier pt^nl of Tiew, .it was Dii^t fu'^'y hope, lliat be ni^bt be 

irtf^hlc, ioJiuman, atrocious, anil likelyjo niaktr some Impression oa 

■igfal occuion Kvete retaliation, the besieged army, or of making 

If the coawiiltee agreed to the the general of the garrison symps- 

pnpoMtMKi of endeavouriifg to pre- tiiize wilh tbe feelings uf the su^r- 

teat baric from reaching the cooti- ing inhabiiaols ; but could it be 

acat. instead of tbrowing the' supposed that a uniilar impres&ioD 

oAini af a nant of Iiumaaity on could bemade on the feelhig&ioflfaat 

fc cbaraeter of Buonaparte, « re- general who at preseitf conwianded 

krtion WDulrf be cast on (lie dia.- ibe great garrisou of tjie French na- 

OtUt of our owp country, wliere- tioDTThemeastireniighlpnssibivvV' 

■tawdi ntij^bt be gained by uiilt- cite a more general uniou of ba^ircd 

plid rifOnrlowudsaDeDeoiv, es- against tfie Eiiglish nation, atiiuitgit 

dasin of all ideas of principles of all ranks »i Ibe French people. It 

kananity. laiglit add lo the frrocily, or unfccl- 

The 4±ancdlor of the eiclieqner ing cbaracl«r of titc contest ; but it 

aid, that (he preseul bill only Im- coidd not |iossibly be tbe oieausof 

pned a duly on baik. Xbe |ho- putting an end to it. 

[G 3] Oft 

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«6 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

On s diviflon of ibe house, the that decree, he read the followiag 

itijeDdment proposed by Mr. Whit- Tesolulioiis : 

bread was ne^tived. For the ori- " That )>reviout to (he 11th of 

ginal motion 167 — Against il 76. November last, his rnHJesly's ro- 

Hou»e nf Lords, Feb. 26.~-On vemment was not in possession of 

the tiiird reading of the American auv proof, nor supiKwwl ground of 

intercourse bill, lord Auckland oh- belief, that the United Stairs of 

jected, as he had done on sundry America had acquiesced in or suk- 

occasions before, to this bill, as be- mitted to, or intended to acquiesce 

iosi in many of its provisions in dt- in, orsubniittotheexeculinDoftuch 

reel contradiction ro (he bill now parts of the decree of the Sistof 

before the other house, intended lo Nov, 1 8O6, as purported to impose 

carry into effect certiiin part* of the on neutral commerce resfrainis in- 

ordei« of council ; and he ur^ed contisleni with the law of oatimis. 
■ the tendency of those orders to irri- ' " That it dnea not appear, that 

tale America, and particularly re< the taid decree, in so far as it may 

tnaiked on the warning to be given have been supposed to relate la 

to neutrals; and the object of captures at sea, was iu any one in- 

which appeared to be to force them stance carried into exerutinn by 

into our ports. the prize courts of Fnmee, or Iter 

Lord Balhurst observed, that the allies, previous to the 1 1 Iti of N»> 

warning was intended only for the vember last. 

purpose, that the neutral should " That on ibe I8tli of October 
refrain from going to a blockaded last, the ministers of Hie United 
port; but the vessel 10 warned States at this court, officially ap- 
woiild be at liberty lo.proceed lo a prized liis majesty's »ecrelary of 
port not blockaded to the ports of state, that llfeir !>overnmtnl had re- 
this country, <h- to return to its own ceived from that of France, sBlis- 
ports. factory explanations and as.<iut8iices; 
Lord Hawkeskury said, tlie ob- andihit, in fact, (be same never 
jecl in passing the pn-sent bill was, had t>ecn enforced against the nea- 
to give time for making arrange- Iral commerce of Hie United States, 
inents respecting American com- '* That no official denial of llic 
merce: which if the former act facts so asserted by the American 
was suffered to expire could not be ministers, appears lo have keeti 
carried on lo this country in Anie- made on the part of his majesl/s 
rican vessels. The hill was read a secretary of stale ; nor any ernuods 
third time and piissed. alleged by him, 011 which the de- 
House of Peers. Feb. 29.— Lord claralion of the Amtrican ministers 
St. John rose, in pursuance of no- could he ipicslioued. 
lice, lo niove certain resolutions re- " That under such circunif^laiices, 
spectiiig the orders in council. Af- IhC issuing the orders of'council of 
ter reviewing the explanations ^iven the tllh and 35ilt bf November 
by the Prench government, of its last (which orders purported to 
decree of I he 21st November, and compel (be trading vessel* of the 
nf the documenlR lendin*; to shew said United Slates, in all their voy 
that the Americans had neitlier ac- a°es to and from the continent of 
rpftesced, nor meant to acquieKe in Enrope, to touch at the ports of 

this 

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HISTORY OF EUROPE 



87 



d to he there tub- 
jtcled. by ibe autborily of tbe Bri- 
tiih gownuueDt, tu nianj' mid 
pintws Te> ncttou), \a a manifest 
wiitiliiMi uf the law of nations, and 
•f ilie r^hb ami iadvpendauce of a 
kitadlj power," 

Oh tbe tint motioD beinf; read, 
IIm d*ke of MtintruK couteudeil, 
■■ tW Bsual gruuudi. Ibai tbe or- 
4as of cuuucil were pro per, just, 
^m1 ■ecessatj, and cODtludcd by 
Miniin. I lie previoui qunlinn. 

A ifaoit debale euiiieil, into 
wbicb (txMuialiug niostlv of the re- 
I of wliat had beeu said 



B aad again) we sJiall not 
In maj fiirtlter than lo notice a 
abrewd arcuiiieiit, brought forward 
by Ibe earl of Galloway, wbo con- 
lewled. Ibat itKJU'.titicatioii of mi- 
lium nughl be draMu froio tbe 
yechei of uoble lords od Ibe other 
ade of Ibe house, who all of Ibem, 
wilhawt vsceptiou, made Ibe rcter- 
vattoo, tbatllic Riaiiileuance of our 
BWTliiite rights ou|[bt tu be para- 
Miniiil lo every other coiistJera- 
ham. Tbe orders of council lie 
coMdered u both a jusi aud a 
«R*e BeaMuw, wlucb should lber»- 
fcac bs*e fait ^upfiurt, 

Oa llie previous question, ibat 
Ibe OMitooas be now put, tite liou<e 
4mded. Cuoleats 4?— Non-Cou- 

How« of Commoos, March 3. — 
Lord H. Pclly, alter adverting lo 
tbe i*poflance of evrrjr topic coii- 
■ected wilti a subject of so great 
pa^ilude a> the orders of coiiH' 
d, said, that tbe bouse must be 
desirous of obtaining as much iii- 
ioilBation respecting tliem as could 
be given. Tlicir object was to im- 
pane duties on tbe re-ex portal ion of 
eenain articles, wbidi were lo be 
■ported iiit o Ibis country before 



they could be carried to llie con- 
tinent; but witboul the co-opera- 
liou of oiir allies this object could 
not be attaiurti, and (be orilerS 
would be as completely nugatory 
as if iliey bad never bem issued or 
acted nj>iii. Tbe Anitricaiis, for 
instance, might curry cotton, and 
the other articles on which it was 
proposed lo impost- a duty, to Swe- 
den ; and wlialasstirancf had mi- 
nisters, that Hie govern mei it of Swe- 
den, instead of iingHisnig corres- 
ponding duties, iiould not avail 
lltemselves of the upporlunity, af- 
forded by the system which we 
were adopting, to convert tint 
counliy into a commercial depAt, 
fur supplying the cooliiient with 
those ver^ articles, which it was the 
object of miuislers to prevent front 
reaching tbe contioenll 

Op this ground, lor<l Petly mov- 
ed, that an humble address be pre- 
scnjed lo his majesty, for ordering 
lo be laid brfore Hie house, the 
substance of all communications 
wbjcli have passed belueen this go- 
vemmeut and tlie powers at enmity 
with this country, in Europe, on 
the su'tject of the orders in coun- 
cil, of the lllbof November last, 
previous or subsequent to their be- 
ing issued. 

The cliancellor of llie eicbequer 
informed the bouse, that there was 
no disincliiialion whatever on the 
))art of bis rnajisly's allies, lo con- 
cur III tbe svsteiii which govern- 
ment had found expeitient to aUopt 
in tbe pri'sent pctio<l of the war; 
and that- assurances bad been re- 
reived frnm Sweden in partitular, 
of the wtltingness nf that govcm- 
luent, to give every facility for car- 
ryiitg that system into full effect. 
Besides, tbe measure itself was not, 
as had been itAted, dependant for 

[O 4l cfltct 



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88 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1803. 

e&ctupontlieoHipaiBlioDof Sife- too stated, Ihat according to the 
den, orof anjF other pow«; for Ks. ettablnfaeJ rales af the houw, it 
principle extended to a deckuation, was impos»ble that the petilioo 
tbataUlfaeportasubjedtotheconlrol could be received, 
ordomiuion of the enemywere held Mr. . Pmsonby observed, that 
in a state of blodutde : and this when the chaoceflor of the ezcbe« 
blodnide might be enforced with quer was first asked, if duties were 
regard to the allies of this country, his object, be aoswered, " Oh, no! 
as well as neutrals. Tbe difficult, it is all matter of regulation — 
therefore, which the noble lord had it rcsla entirely on, the kin^s prc- 
slarted, was in the first place uu- rogative. llie duty ii not th« 
. foimded inpointoffact; and, inthe object of the bill." But now, it 
nextplBce,'ifitdid arise, wehadthe seems, the chanc^lor of the ex- 
remedycompletelyinourownpower. chequer is driven lo another stlif^ 
A debate took place, in the and says tbe duty is everj' thing ; 
course of which Dr. Lawrence and, for that reasou, as it u a mo- 
wished to know, whether any com- ney bill, tbe people of England 
municalion on the subject of the must not be allowed lo pelilioa 
orders in council had been made to against it ; and it was su[^»K<l 
Ibe Dey of Algiers, who, of all fo- that they would rest satisfied wi^ 
reign potentates, was the one to this quilibliflg sort of argument — 
whose general policy Ibci present The wliole substance and design of 
measure was most consonant. tbe petition, as might liave been 
On a division of the house, there collected from tbe speech of the 
appeared — For ibe question 71 — honourable gentleman who made 
Against it 139- tbe motion, was directed against the 
General Gascoigne stated, tliat orders in council and not against the 
lie bad in his baud a petition a- paltry duties, — Then how could it 
gainst the regulatioas of the orders be objected to oo the ground of its 
in council, from some hundreds of being a peljlion against tbe raising 
the most respectable merchanls in ofdutiesf 

Liverpool, not more respectabia After a good deal of farther de- 

for tbeii extensive dealbgs than bale, tbe house divided, for re- 

fheir excellent characlen in private ceiving the petitbo 80 — A^iost it 

life. One half of tbe whole trade I3S. 

of Liverpool would be endangered Next dav, Mr. Ticmey, at Ibe 

by the new regulations. request, and in the absence of gene- 

Tbe' speaker asked, whether it rat Gascoigne, offered a petitioa 

was a petition against Ibe dulj/ bill against tbe orders of council, tnm- 

undcr the orders in counal. ed in consequence of the r^edioQ 

General Gascoigne could only of the petition from Hie merchant* 

' say, lhat tbe prayer of the petition of Liverpool. The petition being 

was not particularly against the inctmipatible with the forms of the 

duties. house, the present was fVained lo 

The speaker staled tbe usage trf* suit tliose forms ; and this wai the 

Uic house to be not to receive any rcasQit why it was eigned only with 

petition against a duty-bill. the names of tbe three gentlemen 

The chancellor of the exchequer who acted as delegates, insteait of 

tlie 

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HISTORY OF EUHOPE.. 89 

■it foot hmdied mercbants who On ibe SSUi *tt Marctit ll)^ or* 

bd agoed ibt othcf. den of council trill was read and 

Tbe ctnDcellor of Ibe exchequer, passed, b; 93 against )9- 
bfiif beard the prayer of the pe- It waa not a little curious te ob- 
01)08 read, feared it ttBI nrilitated Mrre the diScultiea to which both 
quri die fonn^ of the house, the oppoDents and the supporter! 
ut^MTlii^ aod being applicable 6{ the orders af council bill were 
^adpetly, if not exclastrely to the reduced ; while the former endea- 
fatjbill. TDured to reconcile a jtrict ad- 
Mr. TVroey^ said, it was applied heience to Hie principles of justice, 
aaOlj to Um orders of conned, and honour, and the law of nations, to 
Ibt be had tbe authoriW of the pc- tbe intete^s nod exigencies of the 
ntiewn to state, that they did not stale in any situation ; and the lal- 
fttilioa againat.tbe bill, but aguint ter, at the same thnc that they did 
ikonim of council. not hesitate to «xercise the greatest 

After not a little fiulber debate, Mverities against unoffending neu- 
a >Uth other speakers took a trals, c«nlended (hat tliey still re-, 
put, oa .tbe opponte sides of the tpected aod obeyed the law of na- 
^Mftian, the bouse divided. For tions. 'lliere would have been ntt 
mmiog the pelitioD 57~Against difficulty on either side, if the mi- 
ll 111. Other petitions were pre- nisterialists had boldly asserted, 
orttd igatnst tlte bill, with DO bet- with Mr. Hobbes, ihut mankhtd, 
kr mccess. or at least tliat nalioiis (and ihis last 

Houie of CommDns, Murcli 10. position seems to be pretty near 

-AAtt a long debate, the ques- tlie truth) are by nature in a slate 

'ios.thitlhe hill be notr read a of war; and if their »p|>onents had 

ikird line, was carried by HO a- maintained with the stoics, the 

PM67' principle of flal Ju.<:tiHii Ruat 

Kisy were the pelitions pic- Calum. Tlib subtinic doctrine 

snini, and repeateil and long the Was not. indeed, nllo^^ellier iiicim- 

'IscDuions that took {riace on the sistent «ilb that of turd Erskine, 

ubject of the orders of council, in who, when the orders in council 

Ibe houK of peers, which discus- were' brought inio discnssion in the 

tim were the same in subtlauce house'of peers, on Hie 33d of 

>iih those that had so often and so March, recommended, intteud of 

mlDUly occupied the bouse of domioeeringal sea, a circvmnavi- 

^nuBOu. gafion of charily, like th;it of tbe 

The ptiocipal opponenb of the late Hr. Howard ; rekI nKiintaiiieri, 

WDoie, were the earl of Lauder- that an adherence to the orders of 

-^ lord Auckland, lord Rtskine, council would subject Great Bri- 

M Vanal Holland, and iorrf tarn to tbe final, everlnstiiig curse 

Owniille. of " I was sick and ye visited me 

The principal supporters, the not*.." 
^ thaaceUer, the earl of Ba- Tliis doctrine of lord Efdiine's 

""Hi, and lord Hawkesbury. must be very agreealtle to Buona- 
parte: " 

* UN Enkine i* a c liflioBii maa. .See ITu lurdstiip't dedarUioB «n tUia uwt k 

wtaiMrflonlj, April U,18or, Abm. Rao. Vut. KUX. p. Idl. 



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90 ANNUAL REGISTER, )«08. 

parte*; on the ollwr band, all the WcUesley, by an bonaunUe geatle- 
■uhtl« arKumeiitatioi) of thoK wbo man (Mr. Paul) wbn was do loiifier 
attrmpled ta recuBcile meatures of a member of that house. ^11 the 
cppresuon lowardi neutral nations evidence for lupporlin^ the cbarge. 
with the principle) of good failli had been moved for and granted, 
and jtulice,' amounleil to Utile' An inquiry bad been challenged I>j 
more than Ihit, that the British go- the frieuili of the noble marquis, 
vemment would observe the law of The chari^ originally brought for- 
nalioni lo 3ucb blales aa were will- ward had bfen abandoned: but 
JBg and able to enforce that taw in upon tlw papers that bad been pro- 
their cwt) bpiialf, ducrd, otlicr accuialious bad beeii 

House of Commoni, Feb. V2-— founded by a noble lord, and that 
The order of Ibe day having been niftht had been fixed for the bouse 
read, for laking certain papers Tela* to pronouace on the justice or io- 
tive In llie cii II lied ions between the justice of these accusations. Sese- 
£ast India company and the nabob ral members were of opinion, th»t 
of Ou'le into consideration, (he house ought not to hurry a pro- 

Loid Folkatone rauved, that ceeiling of such importance; but a 
these papers should be now taken large majority declared fur coming 
into con tidera lion. 'to an immediate derision. The de- 

Mr. Creevey rose, to give his ne- ' hate was accordingly opened pro 
£alive to the propowtion. Were forma. But as it was allowed that 
partiriincnt to come to a decision it was impossible to eater into the 
iipoii the conduct of the marquis merits that nigbi, the house wa^' 
ofWeilesley, (which was the ob- adjourned to the 9th of March ; 
ject of the motion) by that night's when the order of the day being 
vole, he asserted that it would read, and tbt question put and car- 
commit an act of injustice towards ried that the debate on the Oudc 
that noble person, and be wanting in papers should be now resumed, 
its duly both to itself and the couii- Lot d Polk slone rose, and in a 
try ; and in proposing sotiie far- speech of qreat length as well as 
Iher delay, he fully expected the animation tl]roughout,arraigaed (he 
support of those geiilK'mfu who conduct of lord Wellesley, in Iiis 
had not made Ibenuelves masters Iransaciions with the nabob of 
of the papers, who, he was cod- Oude. There was a treaty eiiler- 
vinced, formed a large majority of ed into in February 1798. bftweeu 
the house. (he nabob of Oude and Ibe East In- 

Sir John Anslnither called Ibe dia company, abrogating all former 
alleutinn of tlie house to llie pro> treaties ii"d rej;ulalitig Ibe grounds 
ceedings in question. Three par- of all Kobse()ueul dealings betweeri 
liaments ago, a charge had been the two parlies. By that treaty the 
brought against llie marquis of nabob was certainly deprived of all 

political 
* Had the Brilnb governnent, unidst the Keiirral Iibtoc of property, lui] sab> 
vcTfiou of all nglits, tafcrn • priUe in ■till uayins homage to the law of nations, Bu. 
onaparic would tavc rnrauraRed iheia, if his ailmiration could have availed any 
thing, (till to maintain tlirir mora] rertititde ; likr ih« Portngueie boys, in a dory 
told in the Spectator, who (cmmpaDicil a poor nnfortimite Jew, condemned for 
hrfety, to (be place of •leciilioB, crying, " Sta pibhb Uo¥EBB,' being sTriud 
last he iliDiild renounce lut litth,and tlwy lose ttwir rport 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 91 

pilkal power, but as oeriainly cusan that an exlraonlinary t<m 
funatttd in ibe eurcise of ^1 should be at all times muiotaiiwd 
wbon'r^ in the conlrcil of his witliin (be Itrrilory.'. 
bsoKhoid a&ire, and megt rela- LonJ Folkstoqe proceeJerl In de- 
bna of tlic interna) ocoaomj of tail llw various oppressions a id ex- \ 
biifBpirc. Ilie naboV* punctual actions practised on the nabob, 
prfoffluoce of the treaty was while he was compelled, aot only 
pW«l beyond controveiiy, by the lo receive an extraordinary foreign 
&d, lint eoloael Scot! was com- force but lo pay Ihem. By vari- 
■Nnoned by lord Welkrslry lo give oua arts his expences were reniler- 
blloDks, for his great punctuality eil so great, that he was at last 
Klbepayment of the kists, though worried into a proposal of abdi- 
'min general said, that tliere eating the government, on conditioB 
bd been before fireat arrears, f n of his son succeeding liim'. The 
Ike ntlinrt period of that noble Bengal eovernment juqped at this 
Ivfi government, his design upon proposal, but the late condition 
lie territory of Oude betrayed it- stipulated wa< absolutely and stcm- 
kK Hwre was a letter before ly rejected. Lord Wellesley re- 
Uk bouse, io which his lordship quired of the nabob lo give up all 
kb himsrir, at ureal length, lo into the hands of the East India 
^ the great advantages likely to company; and when the nabob 
mill to Ilie company, from the an- prefixed the coiidiiion on which the 
muian of that, territory to their proposal was fuimded, he was 
povaions; and also of tlie poliey- charged by lord Wellrsl^y with 
•f compel lin:; the nabob to reduce having made the proposal for the 
taoiJilaiy force, prnspectively to mere purpose of vexatiously de- 
1b tiHire easy subjugation. feiriiig the reduction of Ijis balta* 

On ilie 5tfa of Noveml>eri 17,03. I'ona, and nil imalely de fettling tlie 
l^Wdtesley wrote a letter to tlie proposed sybtem of reform; and 
Mbob of Oude, in whitli he de- he wss expressly given lo under- 
dm<l it lobe the umlmibtcd right stand, lliat if he refused to make 
«f Ibe £drt India company, to in- the levrilorial cession required, the 
nnte, according to tlifir discre- company could not do their duly 
|>M, tlie number of British troops iflhey did n^it lake bin country en- 
■ the Dibob's territory. The jire- lirely into Iheir own possession. — 
twtwiis, the danger which was L<>r<l Folkstone tlien proceeded to 
tk'niroed by Zemaun Sliah, a give a detailed account of (tie eslii- 
nriian prince. This danger, how- bli^iuncnl of a )M>lire and a presi- 
ewf, was very remote, and the dent at Oude, with the consequent 
^nifKny were bound lo assist only remonstrance of the niihob, and tlie 
a ctie of actual and immediate hardships that produced Ihem — 
'■^er. Thirteen thousand troops Lord Folkstone concluded with 
■ere lent in ; and it was agreed, niuving a nuni1>er of rv^hitions : 
■>t if a greater number diuuld be the firat of wliich contained a aialc- 
■4d«l, tbcy should be paid by the ment of llie treaty to winch lie bad 
nlioli; but il was insisted on by advetled. 

^ Wctlesley, that with a view lo This question concerning tlie ' 
iHotery distant danger, it was ne- transactions of lord Wellesley with 

tbe 

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9fi ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. -. 

Um nabob of Oitde, gave rise to a Oude, wis actual by wt nita/t 

Tcrji IpRg debute i wbifh was coa- zeal f« the leraee of his co a yUy , 

tinuedby adjounmeotsio the 15th and aoardmit deatc to proawte 

of Harcb. the safety, interaati, and prospori^ 

On tbe side of the prosecution, of the Bi^uh empire in ladia.* 
(Iiere appealed Mr^Chatlej Graut, On this motioD the house dirid- 

Mr. Lushingtoii, Sir Thomas Tur- ed. Fortbemotiou 189— Against 

ton. Lord Milton, Mr. Sberldui, it 2$. 

and Mr. WiUiaju Smith. — On that Notwithstanding tbii decision of 

against it, and In deCtnce of tlie the bouse of conunons, the tame 

narqiiis of Wclleslcy, Mr. Wliit- questiohuasagaiubroughtfomard, 

sb«d Keen, sir Jotw Aitsltulher, in another shape, on Ok 3tst o( 

colonel Allati, Mr. WalLice, Mr. March, by lord Archibald Hamil- 

Henry Wellestey, lord Ciutlereagli. ton, who moved a series of reso- ■ 

and sir James HalL lotions ; the purport of the last of 

^Colonel Allan (meniber for Ber- which, was, " That it appeared to 

WKk), in a maiden ipeecb, of con- the house, that llie British ^otcri- 

liderdble lenglh, defended the mar- ment was bound in honour to re- 

quis of Wellesley with ability and consider and revise tbe treaty of 

witti spirit. The other niemhen l.SOl, with the nabob of Ou^^- 

also tpoke warmly in his praise; with a view to an arrangemoit 

but that wliicb made llie greatest ntore favourable to the Dahob.*— 

impresiioii, and probably decided A short debate ensued, 
thevole, was, the speech of sir John Mr. Robert l^ornton was not . 

Aiutruther. who to the weight of (btid of renewing debates on tbe 

his own character and abilities, same question ; but ' he thouglit 

added tlie advantage, on the pre- there was better ground for renew- 

acnl question, of having resided for ing the debate on the present ques- 

luaiiy years in a bigli and import- tiou than any other be had evar 

aot situation in Bengal. Sir John known. Tbe treaty now under 

entered fully into the subject, and discussion, be declarW/ did not de- 

ia a spredi cleflr and convincing, serve Itiat name ; for to a treaty, 

shewed, that the coeducl of lord the assent of two parties was neccs- 

Wellesley was in (lerfect copfomii- sary. Tbe treaty was said to haw 

ty to the wislies, intentions, and tc- originated in friendship ; but if it 

Hoof of that kind of conduct »p- began in friendship, it had ended 

proved by bis employers i and, that in injustice and cruelty. The no- 

tbe security of Etengal imperiously ble inarquii seemed to have carried 

required, and deitianded it. to ln<na, a sample of French fra- 

The question being put on llie temizalioD. Tbe treaty was really 

tint resolution, tbe hoi^se divided, a sort of Galilean hiig, in which 

For tbe previous motion 31 — For the marquis had sqaeeied llie n&- 

Ihe previous question 1S2. bob to death. The conduct of 

Sir John Aiislnither then oioved, lord Wellesley was also arraigned' 

*■ l^at it appeared to that house, by Mr. Martin btmI Mr. Howttrth. 
that the marquis of Wellnsley, in Mr. B. Dundas observed, lliat 

his arrangements in the province of it would be difficult lo rescind the 

treaty. 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. g3 

fnttj. T^tt ndhlc Md bad not n'nM fi>r (his conntry. Wben sir 

Altd to the iwnM, bow be intrad- lliolnas rame inlo purtiaMeol, he 

ed UmI the DKbob ifaoald be hi- round the Carnallc (]iieslioii Blill 

dnuilied. If lie iii«iu)t tliat the floating, biiri did rvery ihini; in bts 

Wnitorj, whirb bad been lakeu powH (o Indure «ome olhrr meni- 

ban lurn ihould 4>e rfsloreil, Ih ber to bliiis it fonfard, preferring 

vMild find It very difficult to traiu- lu l>e the seconder rallier than,th« 

Inlbe people of India from llic mover. Nd choice, however, vtas 

Ym loilia cotnpan; to llibir old left him. Tlie l-i^hl lionmirable 

Bblen. If the ooble lord meaut, genll^man (Mr. Sheridan) lo kvhohi 

Ibrt tbc coRipenmlion diouhl be he Imd purtlcnkTlv looked, had 

■lie n the form a( a siibnrfy, he folirtd liinijelf,' nficr the change Af 

n^lohare stated die fornt of .miftMlK, iti clmimstdDCO limi |trc- 

dnogh; and t» baTesheini him- vented his urging llie queilinii, ax, 

tdfpnpared to soIte^U llie diffi- it miglH have greatly emharrtKMd 

tnhn which mml present them- Ihose tvilli \*iht>m he acted. He 

Kbei lo rrerj one, as to tlie luaii- bad ito doubt, hnwtvor, tllitlhBt 

■nof gitiag effect to )m rewhi- liOnoirrebJe gfnileindn ' tvHi Mli- 

tioB. Ttie noble h>rd had pcmed viiirvd< - t)l:it he l»ad Jii»l fciDtinds 

•icr ib silence tbe force Lept up on tur what be Imd dinie it) tiic bnti- 

fte ftoBtito of Oiile, at tJie ek- itess. 

pnce of the romfnmy, and Hie 'I'lie hohnnrable ba^tmct gave a 
tin which, m demice of (he m- brief liiilorintl v1et* of (he ptfigma 
M, tbe rdnlpeny bad mOered of the compaHy's mtlfTfemlc*: n^h 
Iris a^aiml the Mubrattas; nhieh -the earullic, fiom IM begin tit nt( of 
oiliinly ought not to be s^t llie Mt lliat entfed ki 1754, Vrhtn 
Mtof view, nhen the joslice or tHey supjinrled tiiie cattdidtaie Ibr 
tbejloKcy, wlikh was observed in Ihte Miisuitri,' in opposition to anb- 
fpird to biin, *as under comide- ther sitppurted by the Frendi, 
niim. Ona divt^oR ufthebflMe, down to tlie treaty of l70(i, with 
Am i|>peared fur Die flrst rem- Oindwl Ul Oinrab, by whkli ibe 
iuKwi 20— Against it 80. " payment of a cenaiu'tiUl was se- 
A (juestion of a similar nature cured to the cunipauy. That treaty 
■u brought before tlie linusc of continued till tlie deaili of Omdut 
fwsmoos. May 17,— -Sir Thomas Ul Omrab in 1^01, ulientho^ diji- 
Turton rose, lo move bis promised graceful transactions commenced 
tsclutions, respecting the deposi- ftliicli the honounible gentleman 
tiuDafibe nabob of the Camatic. ottposile (Mr. Slimdan) had not 
He had every disposition to tbiuk coloured niorc slrongly than they 
■tU of tbe politics of the marquis deserved. Sir Thomas having also 
•fWdlctley, who bad been edu- |i^iiitcd them in gluiving colours, 
aled in lite same school wjth Mr. cuiiduded »i(h moving a series of 
Pilt, and had for some time ful- resolutions, containing a recital of 
lowed his steps ; but at the same lactK, relative to llie assumplinu of 
6a», b^bad no hesilatioii (o de- the Carnallc, reprobating the de- 
due, that if be was "uiltyoftlie position of (he nubob, aud de- 
Mi dttailed in the papers before daring, Ih^it (tie British parlia- 
'li'ni, lie was a most improper iui- mciit >til) never counleiiancc an act 

of 



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Si ANNUAL REGISTER, 180S. 

bfinjnsticeaudoppTeuioDim India; cuMion, abservetl, that llie num- 

■nd stating tlie propriety of ap< ben on his side were so few, that 

iwiiiliu^ a committee, to inquire is- be should not now proceed to move 

to the best ttieaus of iiidemDi^rng his other two resolutioos, but would' 

Uie fiiraily of Mahomed Aly, and be couteot to postpone ihem, if Mr. 

of ensuring the safety of our Indian Wallace would consent to postpooe 

posussinns. bis resolnljon of approbalion. 

A very loug debate ensued, (vhich Mr^ Wallace said, that after tl(« 
was continuni by adjoumment to complete defeat which the cause of 
the 1st of June. Tlie defence of the honourable baronet bad sus- 
lord Wetlesley. made with great lained. he miftht well forbear mov. 
ubility and eloquence by col. Allan, ing any resolution of approbation : 
Mr. LushinKton. and Mr. Wallace, for what- approbatiou could be 
consisted chiefly of three points: tlronger. tban that testified by lb« 
thal'tbe nabob was not an inde- n^jorities with which the resota- 
pendent prince, but oor vassal; tiont ha<l beeiireiccled I Hesaw no 
ibat the government of the Cama- reason for eolering into any fartlMr 
tic was badly managed ; and that discussions on a future day ; but 
a (reasonable correajKtodeDce had would uow read the resolution, 
been carried on by Wallajah and wilii which lie intended to close ibe 
Omdut Ul Omrab, with our ene- business. " Rfsolved, that it istii« 
nies. All Ibe resolutions moved opinion of this bouse, Ihattlte mar- 
by Sir Tlioniai Turtoii were nega- quts lord Wellesley end lord Olive, 
tived by vatit majorilirs. Thf boiise in their coilduct relative to the Car- 
liaving divided on the 4th resolu- nalic, were iu6uenced solely by an 
tion, directly criminating tlM con- anxious leat and solicitude to pro- 
duct of the marquis of Wellesley, mote Ibe permanent security, wel. 
tbc numbers for the resolution £ire, and prosperity, of the British 
were. Ayes IS — Noes 124. possessions in India." Whidi reso- 

Sir Thomas Turlon, on bis re- luliou was, of cootM, agreed to. 
lurn into Ibe bouse, after Uiis di»- 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



C H A P. V. 

TV B^get.—The huh Bwd^t.—Mr. Percnal't N*w Pftm of Ex- 
damgimg Stock i» th Public Ftmdt for Aimmtit* for Li/f.—Cm- 
£ti»mi om w/ack m Smm of Motuy wot advanced to GowenateHt, % 
tke BoMk of EnglmuL 

TH E proceMfings m parHa- counN. Having gone tbn>uj;h the 
iDPtil, of whirji ne have given supplies, H next liecame necessary 
aaae nxount in tlie pteccedhig fur him to slate to the contrailtce 
d^ilera, irere retrospecliie. We the vsrinua wb>s and mrant, which 
ceax now to give a sunimrirj' nar- had hitherto been piVividcd for co- 
nine of the ninsi iniportatil amon^ verin^ these supplits. The houM 
thoM tkat were ofaprospecliveiia- hud already TOled upon malt and 
tan ; the waoH generally intereit' pensions three millions. The sura 
B> to the present, aixl, it may be usually voted was 3,750.000 1. ; but 
prouned, to succeeding gcni-ra- it was thought more ex|)edient to 
t)M«. take the amount of Kie tax at the 
Hoose of CommoDS, April II. — round sum of three millions, which 
TI« chancellor of the exclietiucr it produced ; the efiect of which 
rase, iMinuant to nf>lice, to bring would only he to reduce the sarpEtn 
fccwavd the budget*. Having of lite consotidated fund by the 
goBe tfarough the various items of sum of 350,0001. the difference be- 
flipply, which Lad been voted in lite Iween tlw vote of three miUinns and 
pKseul sesffon, nnder Ihe various the usual amount at which the mail 
head* of davy, army, barracks^ and [tension lax was estimated. ^— 
cooiniiMary genetat's department. Hie advances from the bank a- 
ntraonlimries, ordnance, miscel- mouirfed to 3^500,0001. The un- 
laiirofis services, and Swedish sub- appropriated surplus of the cousoli' 
lidi, be sUted, that IIk whole of d-dted fund, was on the 51h of 
the luun voted amoimtcd in the April 726,S70I. Upon the rough 
if^rrftte to 48,653,1701. from estimate lie was warranted in lakiif 
■hicfa was to be deducted the prtf- the war taxes at twenty millioni. 
portioD to t;e fumished by Ireland, TTie commiltM would be aware, 
sk 5.713,601 1, which would leave that the duties to be levied under 
« sam to be defrayed by Great Bri- the orders of councU were applies- 
tBo of 4Z,933,60l I. These sums ble to the war taxes, and tlterefnre 
be dated upon a rough estimate, tie fell Ihe more confidence in tak- 
•bkfa, bowever it miglil varyfrom ing tlidr amount at twenty millions, 
perfect accuracy, would yet tte Ttie tottery he should slate at the 
fend lo correspond pretty exactly sum of 950,0001. It would be m 
"ab Ibe actual stati; of the ac- the recollection of Ihe committee, 

that 

' A bad^ of papen lebliTe to tba pablic iacoiae and eipanditar*. 

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8«, 



ANNUAL. REGISTER, 1808. 



Dial Die sum of four millions of ex- 
chequer bills had been funded in 
the course of the present session ; 
and that insubmKting that niea^tirti 
(a the house, he had stated that it 
waeiatendsd to bsiic fuur niilUvfis 
of CKchequer bills in place ot thote 
funded, as part of the tvavs and 
means for tlie year. fty. adding to 
Ihese Hilferent Hems the sum of 
fjthjt iniUiop^ which vk (he whole 
■^ what he appreliended would be 
.wanted for the servioe of Ibe pre- 
sent jear, the a^re»Ue amount 
wo^Ul be 39,J7f},870l. To this 
.acgrfgale, was to be added ilie sur- 
,plt)s of the consolidated tund, which 
lie proposed to bik£j|t the amouut 
•voted hwt year, vfif. 3,750,000. 
.which wouhi carry the irajs and 
neaps lo '13,07(>.POOI. yitldinj a 
(Surplus of wa>'s and mraus above 
.Ihesupplicaof )37>00ut. thesui^ 
4)his of tlie coQsoUdatcd fund, the 
coRiuiit tee would recollect, h^d 
been talicfi Uit.^earat 3,7^.UO(>l. 
but bad produQfd a further sum 
of 72£,S70l. making all Iqgetlwr 
•1^76^70 \r £m the increased vole 
upon malt and pensions w«uld di- 
.nijnish the.pf^uco uf the consoli- 
dated fimA, to . lfa~e amount of 
SSOfOOO I, : and Jiowever sauf>uiue 
liis views utiglit he pf lb« stale of 
.tlie trade uf dte,9>)inlry, lie conUi 
not but ailmit that, from the mea- 
sures of the eiietny. aad the conse- 
«iuenc<s of the course in t^hidi titat 
trade was now to be carried on, 
some reduction might take pUce, 
though not to any material e\Jciit. 
He was of opinion thai tlie surplus 
ought to he taken nt tlic same it- 
moiint as la&t year, Ihouuii lie was 
^Uideiit tliat would be found be- 
low nhnt it would produce. 

Ilavuig staled the supplies, and 
, the wavsatLd maim by nbich they 



were to be covered, it was, m the 
nest place, his duty to slate by 
what means he purpcued lo provide 
for the interest, charges, arid sink- 
ing fund, of the exchequer kills 
funded, and of Hie propoacil 
loan, which amounted to a suta of 
7«0,00« I. Tliere enisled at pre- 
sent a sum of SSO,G001. appltcikblc 
to that purpose, being llie amount 
of the sliort annuities Vrliicb bad 
fallen in. Titere was likewise a 
saving upon the management of Uie 
public debt, of 65,0001. By tbe 
new arrangement uilli respect to tlic 
assessed tajies, a sum of i35|OOOl. 
iVDuld be produced ; and the ar- 
ranaenieiit which he meant lo pro- 
pose, for an improved mode of col- 
lecting the duties on stamps, woul<l 
be calculated to yield 200,000/. 
The whole of (liese sums vool'd 
aiuounl to 770,000/. being a snuill 
excess above the sum actually tc- 
quired. 

He came next to state Uie view 
upon which he gronude<l the ar- 
rangement lip had lo pT0jK)se »eT|Ji 
reepect lo tlic stamp duties. Xli^ 
coroniltee were aware Ibat, in lh« 
course of llie last year, u principle 
lud bcea rccuguized by p^rliument, 
founded upon the suspension of all 
taxation for three years, and for re- 
,wirtjrig lo the war taxes lo cover 
tljC necessary clrarges of loans. The 
poKcyiof tlijs principle had met 
with Ihe concurrence of all sides of 
lite houite, though some of the pro- 
visions of the measure fuunded 
u})ou it had been canvassed. Having 
stated this, he was bound to eiplMiD 
to the ho|U^ why he liad thou^lit it 
necessary to depart from the prin- 
ciple iu the preseni instance, by 
proposing to lay on additional taxes 
to Ihe amount of above 300,000/. ; 
aiH it certainly was not because be 



p-hy Google 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 97 

kd conidend lb« priociple laid sod Ibal the duty od the stanitr 
iama bv Ibe noble lord wlia pre- should be in propor^on. And he 
ecdal bim unwiie. He had felt propoKd to a^pl; this principle, 
bow detinUe il wai lo consoIiHute not odI; to all conveyaDCCs of real 
the difimnt acts relative to the as- estates, but to Ibe admissioit lo 
nmed taxes and Ibe stamp duties, offices of courts and govemiiicnt. 
skI eoasidered that a good oppor- At pre.wiitlhe<luly«'as20/.uponall 
when nuking improved re- offices of the couils, without regard 
I for tbc collection of both, to Uie income. He should propose to 
Id natc a small addition iit cRlaiu reduce llie duly upon the lower offi- 
item. Me had already dune so ces, and to raise that upon the higher 
■ilk topeet to the assessed taxes, offices. Upon all offices, the income 
8mI be was now to propose a sirai- of which should not exceed 6ot. ua 
b eoonc irith req>ect lo tlic stuiiip duty would attnch ; upon all over 
dwtie*. ir, b>r these ineans, without 6o/. and under 1 50/. tlie duly would 
aidbft cooaiderabl; to the burdens be 8/.; upon all over IMl. and 
of Uk piAlic, tbey could contrive under 300/. It was to be 20/. : aud 
la provide for liie prcsenl year, so in propoftinn upon higher in- 
ttcj tufpt io the Dcxt and follow- comes. It ifts also proposed to 
mg yr»n resort to Ibe principle make tome alteration in.ihe duly . 
whidi had been so generally ap- on indentures, but not to carrj^it 
jmred of; onless upou a review of higher Ihart il was before the ^ear 
the state of tlte laies, whoever 1004, and in some cases lo reduce 
■ght fill Ibe situation be occupied, il lower. There vas likewise some 
AiMld be of opinion that, h> regu- addition expected from the duty 
kdioo or roodificalion, a supply on attorney^ indentures. The duly 
caald be obtained without increas- at present on aHicles of indenture, 
■if tbe pressure upon llw public, to an allomey of the superior 
awl lo relieve Ibe war taxes. courts, was I to/., and of the iufe- 

^M addition to tbe amonnt'of rior courts 56l. Tbe same duty 
the stamp duties, he sud, would which applied to iodentuies lo soh- 
arise from an applkalian of tlie ad cilors in chancery, should also apply 
mIwih principle to other instru- to proctors, for he could not see 
■Ots Ibui those lo which il at pre- why, when the advantage was equal, 
lari applied. It bad on a former tlie parlies should not he subject lo' 
nuiiimrhriii in contemplaliou lo simibr thities. He proposed that 
tffij ibat prmctple lo all convey- tbe doty of 55l. should extend lo 
aces of Mol properly, hy making indentures to the wrilert to tlte sig- 
Ihe BBlniilMiil invalid if the stamps net in Scotland. In the duty un 
•en sol of Ihe legal amount ; but, collations and donaiioos, a small 
IS k would be hard to render on alteration was lo take place; for 
Htrainent of no effect merely be- vliere they gave tbe right as fully 
aaicof Ibe stamp not being of tlte as induction and insliluljon, the 
legal amount, tbe design was aban- duty, which did not at present al- 
4Med. He did not mean to carry .tacn, was to apply. With respect 
Us provisioD to that extent, .but lo infeoflbicnts, a small additipn' , 
fat a specification should be made was to be made, the duly hcmfj.M 
•f tbe amouDl of tbe consideration, present only it. Ids, : il was pro^ 
Vol. L. . t HJ posed 



D,£,,t,7P-hy Google 



58 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

pOKft tA raise it to SL, the duty far a licence. The duly Opoti nich , 
applicable to anoliier mode of con- notes was at present three-pence 
vcyin;; real estates hy lease and re- each, and he' proposed to raise the , 
leise. An addition was also pro- tiuty upon all to fotirpencc each ; 
posed to the duty on the grant of but wticn tbe notes were payable 
honours and preferments ; the duty only in one place, the duty was to 
was at present but 30/. in alt cases, be sixpence each. Another altera- 
In Jicland, the duty on thedreatioa lion was intended Tehlive to lb* 
of a duke, marquis, or earl, was manner of transferring the shares 
300/.; on the creation of a viscount of joint stock companies. At pre- 
liOl. ; and on the creation of a sent the duty was collected only in 
baron 100/.; and he could see no proportion to the nominal value, 
reasou why this country should not but it appeared to him that it Should 
adopt the same rale of i^uty which ^ in proportion lo the real value, 
existed in that. Some slight altera- As to law proceedings, Ibey were 
tion was to be made in the duty upon already so highly burthened, (hat 
the grant of leases of crown lands ; no addition could possibly be made 
at present it was 30/. and where the to them. There were only soma 
lease was beneficial, tliat was not small instancies, which we could 
an improper duty ; but as under scarcely consider but as oniissioni 
the present regulations, llie leases of in the year 1801. Thus he pro- 
crowti lands Were not more bcnefi- posed a duty of one shtlliag on all 
cial than those of any private indi- summonses before a master in chan- 
- vidual, the duty ought not to be eery. With respect to probates of 
levied unless where the lease was administration in Scotland, the duty 
beneficial. Th<e public would not was lo apply in the same mannrr 
be a loser by tint reduction, be- as in England. As In legacies, tbe 
cause the party always paid less in duty applied on all above twenty 
proportion to Ibe amount of the pounds exccjit a residue, and Ihca 
duty. the duty did not attach till the rt- 
Upon Ibe grants of money and sidue amounted lo ICml. It w» 
pensions, it was proposed that the proposed that the duty sliould ap- 
duty should attach upon the ad ply indiscriminately to residue and 
mlorem principle, on the higher legacies. It reninined for him only 
grants, lhou),'li it would apply on lo explain how the principle in 
a r«daccd scalit to the lower. A staled was to apply lo conveyances, 
duly was also lo apply to poKcies Tlie duly at preseut was thirty shil- 
of iosunince on lives, which had lin^s on all conveyances bf'^land. 
been exempird in 1804, Ihougli This duty he proposed to lower on 
there wasnureasonwhylheyshould cohi-eyances of smaller property) 
be so exempted. Another head to ami to raise it in proportion lo Ibe 
tvhicli he wished to call the atlen- value on Ihe higher degrees of pro- 
lion of Ibe committee, was the case perty. In all cases where the coa-' 
of promissory notes re-issuahle, is- siderat ion should not exceed 150^ 
sued by |>er3ons calling themselves the duty was to be one ponnd ; be- 
liankens. He proposed (bat every Iween that and SOO/. one pound ten 
person issuingsuchre-issuable notes shillings; Itetween 300/. and dOO/. 
should pay twenty pouodi a vear two pounds ten sbilliiigs ; between 

300/. 

■ D,£,,t,7P-hyGoogle 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. S9 

iOOL and 7501. fire ponnds; be- both housM, were passed inta lain 

TwMH 750/. and lOOO/. seven by the royal assent 9d of July. v 

^eoBiff ten shillings ; but in ao in- Hou^e of Comtnoos, June 8.— 

4Hce to exceed «ne per cent, on Mr. Foster moved, that the houM 

&c cofnidRalion. Upon these in- should go into a committee o(vnyt 

Mtsnenls and the re-issuab)e pro* and means. 

miatory notes, he calcululed for an Mr. Ftister briefly stated the dif* 

■dnnce m the aiiinunt of the stamp fereiil Iwadi of the sums required 

idbts, to "the extent of t"o hun- for tlie service of Ireland for the 

dmt thouiaiid poumls. And he year 1808, amounting in all to 

had bronclit this forward before y,767.WOl. remarking thai this wai 

lie recev in order that genttemen a very lajge sum indeed for that 

■i^t have the loni^ opportunity country. To meet this be enume- 

^cDosideriug the dillereiil parts of rated tbe following items: the or- 

fc measure by referring to the dinary revenue four nailtions eight 

■tbcdiile which ihey would have in hundred thousand pounch : tlie loan 

ihnrbaads. The chancellor of llie for Ireland contracted in Eughmd 

eicfaequer roncluded with moving two millions seven hundred and 

b first resolution, staling the no- eighty thousand pounds Irish cur- 

^ipYipriated surplus of (be coiisoli- rcncy ; loan from the bank of Ire- 

dtfai fimd, on the 5lb of April land, one million and a quarter; 

ISflS, to have been 726,S70/, loan proposed to be raised ia Ire- 

Ob tbe question being put, ' land, seven hundred and fifty thou- 

Mr. Biddulpb declared his opi- sancl pouniU, tuaking together tbe 

■BO, that the arrangements for the snm of ^,7li8,0OUl. 
^rriee of the pre<ient year might With respect to the loan raised id 

^ oogbt to be made without any Ireland, it bad been contracted for . 

additioDal taxes. He recommended in tbe three and lialf per cents, and 

At creation of a contingent fond at an interest ,not exceeding the 

by the sale of crown lands, to interest of the loan raised in Great 

>^ich the public might become Britain, viz. 4l. 14s. 6d. per cent, 

tnottta. Tli« sums for which crown The charges of interest aiid sinking 

Rots might be sold were almost fund on tlie three loans would be 

ncoocciTable. One hundred pounds per annum as follows : 

bd bren demanded of him for a Loan raised in Ireland £ 45,563 

ndofSs-Sd. Such parts as might Irish baok loan - - 75,^00 

W sold to advantage, mi;;ht be dis- Loan raised in England 
pMedof, ami the sum of 600,000/. for tbe use of Ire- 
wi^ easily be created, so as to be land - . . . 59,900 
■arable aiter tbe first dividend; 



Mrpliis of the consolidated fund Total - • 181,362 

ts be brought in aid, whenever any In order to answer this, he would 

<Upeaey sliunld require it. be obliged to impose new taxes ; 

The resoluIioBs moved by the but he hoped the committee would 

dttxetlor of the exchequer beirtg go along with him in thinking 

^eed to, bilb were drawn up for that it would be better to raise the 

onyti^ tbem into effect, and hav- sum, not by a number of small 

^ (one Ihrou^ tbe usual stages in taxes, but Iiy oae large one, im- 
[H 2] posed 

D,£,,t,7P-hyCoogle 



;iQO ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

poMtl in a my that woHld be katt en of 3 per cent, itoek to tnuw- 

' felt b; (lie eoiniMUBily iu Irelamt. fer Uiat slo«k lo Uie commuiioueis 

It wai wel) known tbat in Ireland, for llie reductioa of the national 

as well as in Eaglanrt, distillers debt, whh the view of racuTine in 

evaded tite nialt duty in a romider* its ttead equivalent annuities. Mr. 

abfe <legree by using raw corn b- Perceval rose to propose certain 

stead of mult. He therefore pr'>- resolutions lo the coiDuiiltee for 

posed to extend to raw com used thb purpose*. All, however, ibat 

in distillation the dulies at present lie iutended (or the present was, 

imposed on malt. It was also his atler, having; briefly explained tbe 

■inleution to propose an Hddilioual nature of his proposition, to mi>vc 

dutv on fore^ spirits hnporled the reading of tbe first resohilioa. 

into IgelamL Theae nam, together pro Jorma, and then to propose 

witli a iavinfi in Ike managenient of ibat the committee should report 

the Irufa ualiunal debt, would nmre progress. Thecnmmiltee, lie ol^serv- 

than cover |be charges of interest cd, miut be perfectly aware that Ihe 

and sbkrng fond of the three kiaus, operation of the siiikiug fuw) had 

viz. recently -very roucli increased Ib^ 

Exieiisian of the malt price of slocks. There was every 

dulies to raw com, reason to believe, that b^ the jon- 

&c. - ^- - ^333,000 linuance of that operation, Ibcy 

Outy on foreign spirits 335,003 would still further increase in price. 

:teving in manaiierueot Itwasnottobedoi)bled that, if tbe 

of the public debt 7,500 mejuure were consistent with pub-' 

' lie faith, il would be eitremely de- 

~ Total - - ^65,508 sirable Iu give the nation an opptn-- 

There were certain arrangements tuoity of dtKliargmg tbe whole o( 

dependent upon the measure now tbe national debt at the present 

before paHiameDl, relative to tlie price of Ihe stocks, because Ibat 

distillalionftomsugar,.witbwliidihe would preclude the eficct which any 

would not then trouble the connnit- future advauce in the price of 

tec. He then moved several reso- stocks must have in retarding tbe 

lutioBs correspoadeBt to his state- operation of Itie sitJung fund.— 

meht, which were agreed to, aAer Tliert were two objects which the 

some discussion on tbe terms of tbe siuking fund hud in view : :be one 

Irish bank loan, which were ob- lo provide fur Ihe final redimptkm^ 

jecttd lo by «r i. Newport and of the ualional debt \ llie other tai 

Mr. Parnelt, and defended by Mr. keep up tlie price of stocks in tbe 

Foster and Mr. Perceval, market, so as to enable governmeot. 

The cooiolidBtioo of the stamp whenever the exigencies oftfaestat< 

dulies was not the only hnaiicial niigibl require it, lo make wa ad- 

Mheme proposed by Mr. Perceval, vantageouc loan for the pablic., 

Hay 13. The house of com- Thvse object^ however, w«re t^ 

IBona reaolved itself. into a com- some degree inconsistent. Irfteme 

Inillec to consider of enabling htdd- degree tbeycounteracted cacfaotbar, 

Wtiitevet 



D,£,,t,7P-hy Google 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 101 

Mirincr Bcmirc iwcd Ibe funds, of tnrie. Bui besidet tht objec- 

Md Hm (■mbled gonnimeot to tions to Uie meaiure praptMwd, 

hno*oalbebettten»,pi«*eiit«d drawn fromtbecaicuiatioDaof poli- 

Hk coamioHMien fur tbc reduc- licalaritfaiiMtiG,lbtre wuonemu^h 

M of ibe mtiouJ dcbl, Iroia re- losistcd on ot hh ethical oatuic. .• 

htwf that debt on tbe beit (erms. Mr. Windliam, dbcUimmg M 

Nm the DMifure propoMd would inteDtion of entering iuta amp de^ 

wbin both tbcM objectt. It tailed />b5ervalioas od tbe ^ud in 

■mU tend to increwe the price of the prcMDt early itage of iH q»* 

*>du, s»d it would at tbc tame peeraoce, observed, that ibere was 

te ncaic the KdemptioD al a low this obvioua and fundamental ob- 

rrin, ofaodtueh stock ai'migbt be jeclion to it, Ibat it tended in a 

mHfencd antecedeatly to the rise greater or less degnw to vitiate the 

iwJaad. Every person who iraw- morals of the lower orders of tbe 

nrtcd bk slock to tbe commissioii- people. He was afraid tbnt loo 

■I ■odU be entijled to such an many pnrents wonid be found who 

■Mih as would be equivalent to would be very willing to sacrifice 

fevMeoftbc atodianaof bis life; the future interests of their children 

Ike talcnblioa ptoceediog oii tbe to tbeir own immediate cralifica- 

padfie that tfae sum whicb he tion. Tbe sydem of annuities was 

MaU bave otherwise received as loo generally altended with such 

■tBOt, the additional sum gianlol consequences, and he saw nothing 

■ sa aBouitjf, Ud tbecompound in tbe plan now pro|>oaed, to obviate 

■ferert on Ibe w4iok, would re- such effects in tbe prescDt insUnce. 

ifm Ibe sum or^inally trans- Sir John Newport, too, depre- 

ftnsd, within the period to which cated (he holding out any induce- ' 

tn fifc will be calculated as like- uients to Ibe lower classes to spe- 

It t* extend. Now if the stocks culatc in anuuities. If there were 

(■ifisiKd to rise, tbe redemption of vices in a country, government 

<lal nm could not be eEfected ougfat itot to partake of litem. In 

■ilkort tins measure. Tbc wh<Je France, in the time of the rosfet 



of Ibe expectation stances of peno 



(^ Ibe stodu were Ukely to rise, the interests of their posterity for 

Aad Hr. Pereeval wm ready to ad- - then: own immediate gntificatJoii. 

■ililhat if the contrary shonid tUe Hiis was not cousoaant totlte leel- 

phct, tbe measure wouM have a nigs of the people of Ihb country, 

)ndaicy directly opposite to thnl and ha should deprecate any mea- 

■Ui )k expected. A peal deal sure that would have Ibe efiiecl of 

*f coovcrsatioo cnsoed about tbe ainmilatii^ tbe habits and mo- 

padple and mode of calcnlatmg nit of llus counliy. to those of 

■k value of Uvea, and tbe probable France. Neither could Hr. W. 

ib'or M'of stocks; and af^ne- Smith abstun from bearing liis tet-. 

''~ ' ' 1 by some timony to the immoral tendency of 



*'Aainetnbert,thatthepHce<tfthe this (dan. He lodged upon these 
^■di, iaMcad of rismg, wonld fall ennuilles as a' moral poison, which 
■ eoostquence of a delikniion of should should not be dR-utated. 
"tnt arinoc litom a flanal'iifi But Mc. Huskinson defended the 
[H 3] plan 

D,£,,t,7P-;>yGoogle' 



102 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

flao of his right hoDoural>lefri«n<1. He objected to it u mlerfering 

t gave no bontu to penons for in- vilh tlie sinking fund, aud wilh the 

vetUng their capitali lo the prejii- fiiilh of the country, pledged in 

dJM of their famih'ea. The scale consequence of tbtl measure : of 

vita ca)cnl^ed upon the usual prin- which laith he considered it na a 

dfplea of die probabilities of life, direct infraction. He dwelt parti- 

And, as to the effect it might have cularly on the extravagant induce- 

Oft the morals of the people, it ment which this measure held out lo 

■hould be recollected (hat the short a man of 70 yean of age, lo leave 

annnities which had lately fallen in, his family and relations destitute ; 

to the amount of i er 500,0001. seeing he could thus raise liia own 

per annum, had beeu in the market income in the proportion of 1 2 to 

without producing any such ef&ct, 3 ; or instead of 1 00 1. could pro- 

Ihough upon the priaciples of the cure for his own life 4001. per an- 

gentlemen opposite, they were much num. 

more dangerous, as they required a The chancellor of the escb^ 
greater proportion of capital lo be quer had no especlatiou tliat the 
sunk. progress of tlie measiire would be 
The chaucellor of the exchequer very rapid. The present was not a 
admitted, Ihaf for'pnrenls lo pur- plan, wliich he would have beeuia- 
ehase annuities for their own lives dined lo propose, as afibrdiiig ve- 
to the prejudice of their children sources for the service of the year: 
would be wrong, and ouglil to be but he was convinced from Ibe in- 
disco URtenanced. But would it not fbrmalioii, and the applications he | 
be proper for a parent to purchase had already received on tht sub- 
an annuity for his child, or for his ject, that it would be one of per- 
widow, if the circumslaiKes of lits manent advantage, and of which, 
properly would not admit of any though do question of revenue were 
other provision 1 It would be idle connected ivith it, the advantage 
to provide small annuities, suppose would be generally and satisfacto- 
for servants, or widows, on the se- rily felt. There was nothing UD- 
curity of land, when the expences uyial or inconsistent with political 
of settlement, and perhaps of re- nconomy in allowing persona the 
covery, would render the provision opportunity of providing for them- 
ofno avail. felves in this manner. What were 
The first resolution being read, friendly incielietT Were they cal- 
was agreed to, arid the chairman culated for the advantage of either 
having rejiorted progress, the cum- Ihe widow or the children ] iio. 
miltce.was ordered lo sit again on But by lliem part of the income 
a day appointed. was laid aside ^r the benefit of the 
House of CommonE, Hav 27. — person himself, without any r^rd 
The house , resolved itsell' into a to his family, 
committee on the resoluiion of the X.ord Petty lliought tbe plan al- 
[cammittee respecting the transfer together objectionable in a polUi- 
of S per cent, stock Tor life annul- cal, motal, and financial pomt of 
ties, Mr. Tiemey made a variety view. Would it be proper, would 
ofcalculalions intended to shew the it not «i the contrary bcdaageroos 
inelBcacy and inutility of Uie plan, in the extreme, if the great bulk of, 

the 



D,£,,t,7P-hyGooglc 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 103 

tk properl; or this coimtry were to lay out iheir capital with scr jri- 
liDwcd to be thrown into aoDui- ty. And as a proof liow much be 

tiejl a|^>roTed Ihe measure, lie proposed 

Mt. Darie Giddy llioagbt that . tbat tbe anDuitiea. should be ren- . 

(ke phfl DOW propoaed would have dered more markelable by ftciti- 

Ike rfect of encoaraging a greater taling the imnraiice of the lives of 

d^ree of frugality in the lower the nomiuees; which would be ef- 

riawei, by affordiug them an op- fected by takiug off the tax on the 

pMtimity of applying their nvinga policie* of insurance upon lucb 

*ith perfect security to the increase lives. 

if thoT iDcomee ; and that in this Tlie resolutloas were agreed lo, 

^t of view the benefit would and afterwards carried into efiect 

twetfaalance any evil that might by acts of parliament. 
tBxfmm it. House of Conimaiis, June 1.— 

Mr. Biddulpfa did not think there Hie house having resolved itself . 

cwld be any sound objection to into a cominitlee, the chancellor 

lUiplaB: «n the contrary, he was of tbe exchequer recapitulated 

6iadly lo it* adoption ; because in the various beads of supply, and 

tbeecaiRilTylikethis,lhereshould of the ways and means foe the 

he as great a diversity as possible of year, vis. 
ifliuii, aftMded lo penoos wishing 

SUFFUES. 

Si.y iir.'tije.o*? 

lay ". ]9,4ay,!fii) 

Ordnance 4,534,571 

Ksedhnwous ■ 1,750.000 

Eart India company 1,500,000 

S«di(h subsidy 1.100.000 

Teterfeiedit ^500,000 

Total jdnt cbarga 48,319>80r 

SKPARATB CHABOU OV GREAT BRITAIN. 

y of malt, 1806 ■■ ■•- 275,B«5 

Aon eubcquer bills, IQOS 1,400,000 

Y bills part of vole of credit, l$07t 

wotUmAeA • .• 4,024)200 

EWptreeab, 1797. In bepatdoff 153,696 

,- : ,; - , .. • ■ 5,853,741 

Total supplies 54,173,548 
U<Kt Iridi jmq>ottiQD of supply and civil list ••. 5,8t>8,5}5 

M.t» be defrayed by Great Batata 48,305,039 



(H*3 



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104 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

WAYS ANP means. 

Duly on nislt antl pensions ■••■'• i3,-000,000 

Uauk attvsnces 3,500.000 

Unapproprialed surplus of the consolidaled fund at-5th 

April 728,876 

- Esiimalcd lurplus of dillo to 5(h April, l&OQ 3,500,000 

Surplus of va\9 and means 1S07 • 2,253,1 1 1 

War taxes 20,000,000 

LotUfj ■/ • ■• 300,000 

Exchequer bills to be inucd . lo replace bills not funded 4,500.000 

Do. for the East India company 1,500,000 

.Exctiequer bills, part of 10,500,0001. charged on aids 
1309, to ret>tace the like amount on aids 1808, wbich 

has been funded I.l6l,100' 

Loan 8,000,000 

48.441,087 
Supiiliei 48,905,033 

Sorplusof nays and means 136,054 

He Itien proceeded lo slate to of 13,408,3751. from wbkk, after 
the comnnttee llie terms ou which dedtictng a proportion of two- 
he had cunlrucied for Ibe loan. The seventeenths lot Ireland, making 
sum borrowed for England and Ire- S,954,375l. there would Trmain, 
land was leu millions and a lialf, of as a pennaoent burden upon Orevt 
which eight were for the service of Britain, 9,454,0001. adA- bb an- 
tfais country. The whole sum was nual charge forinterestof 475,536l. 
to be funded in the four per cents. In addition to this, in (lotuequoicc 
and the contTactors for every lOOl. of the measure of funding four mil- 
advaoced to the public were to re- lionsof exchequer bills, there was a 
ceive llSl. 3s. 6d. stock: so that capital debt created of 4,S39,SI5i. 
llie public paid for every lOOU ca- and an annual charge for intereal, 
pilal 4l. 14s. €)d. interest. In iocludiitg the sinking fund and 
consequence of the loan of ten maRagement, of 253.2471- ^ 
millions and a half, there was a ca that the sura to ba proTided for by 
pital of debt created to the amonnt taxes waa : 

FortheinlerMlofthe loan • ^475.536 

For the interest of exchequer bills funded .•'... -..'. j . . 253,247 

- -- Making a lotal of 728.783 

- For tbb annual charge be inrant to provide in the following manuer: 

Short annuities (alien in ■ 375,000 

Annual saving on the management of the idebl '' wf.OOd 

Increase upon the assessed taxea 120,000 

Stamp duties • •. 1 70,000 

Carried over 7».«» 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 105 

Brought funrard • :....... ^730,000 

' Sum to be provided 736,783 

Surplus prorided 1,217 

He chancellor of Ibe ncfirqaer ner, tliou;:h Ifaej sbould e»en ex- 

MUpntceetled to state . tb* eflect cec<l JO,000,0o0l. This arraage< 

lUch hud beeu produced by the ment watfiratiug^eatedby thecom- 

fattcial iiKuum wbicli lie adopted mittee appointed ui tbe last year to 

albecourv oflbe year, and con- enquire into tbe means of redwdng 

tSKJaJ, dial from funding four tbe public expendilure : nbose ae- 

ai£i<uu of excbequer bills, wbta cond report turned upon the ma-, 
*xki were at 63J, and by bor- , nagement of tlie public delit by the 

nmii^ tPD millions and a half in bank, and the nuuiiMr in wbich the 

lk four instead of tbe three per bank wasconnccted willi tbe public 

oiti. there had resulted a saving to revenue, and the public cxpendi- 

Ibi pabbc of four millions of capi- ture. 

hi debt; and ibal by the single This subject resolved itselfbto 

MiMre of contracting fortfae loan" three beads: 1st, the uunsgenieut 

■ tbe four per cents there was a of the public debt; 2dly, tbe ba- 

K>i^ of 3, 1 OO.OOOl. cajHtal debt ; lances of the public money in tiie 

■d alto s nving in the aoaual hands of tbe hank ; and 3dly, tbe 

ekuee, of 20001.; besides the ad< unclaimed dividends. On all these 

tvlage of being able to redeem the beads the committee had brought 

iM at compatatively a very in- to hght such facts as afforded <^ 

(luidendile Iocs. He concluded portumtietofcoiijidenni;how thoae 

bMoDcntivith moving a resoln- matlen might be conducted with a 

liai, that it is the opinion of the saving to the public. The com- 

OBBitlee, that towards providing mittee that bad suggested the im- • 

Ike nys wd means for tbie year, it provements that were now |o be 

linpcdieDt to enable bis m^esty carried into effect, had shewn one 

to nse eight millions by way of principle on which advantage might 

anitiet w Oreal Britain, and he reasonably claimed for the pub- 

tmumoDsandabalf for Ireland, lie. 

«kicb was agreed to. Mr. Pitt, in his arrangement 

Tbe aiteDtive reader will per- with tbe bank, bad asserted tbe 

caveamoi^ thedi&rent«rticletaf ngbt of tbe public to participate in 

•mand means one that needs ex- tbe advantages derived by liie bank 

ptntiioH; namely, imnkadMHtf. from tbe management nod balao- 

Tie resolutions of tbe court of di< ces ; and tliat. whether tliis pariid- 

mion, on which a resolution of pation should be in tbe proporlioa 

iIr compaay of &e bank of Eag- of one third, one fourth, ur one 

had was founded, had ^eed to half, if would be greatly to the ad- 

kod to the public 3,000,0(Kd. vantage of the public. This 

■ilbaut intered, during the war, 'On shewed, that not more than a par- 

>ke cDDdition that the balances of tidpation was intended, aud tlwre- 

fe pubHc money diould be conti- fore, as tbe pro|Kirtion of one 

md in the bank in Uw usual man- third, being the middle rate, was 

what 



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I0« ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

what wu miMt looked to, and pro- whereaj it ought to havcibecn taken 

Iwbly cODudered as most equitable, the day after. But on demaudiug 

that prt^nioii wai agreed to. As 500,0001, of the unclaimed divi- 

ta tb« KDclaimed dividends, this, dendi for the public, iu addition to 

like the otber parts of the present 376,7391. formerly advanced under 

arrangement, originated in the_re- tbe act of 1791, provisbn was 

port of tbe committee of finance, made Ibal the balance ready for the 

llie iknclaimad dividends, accord- payment of tbe public creditor, 

ing to the report of the committee, tiiould nut be reduced below 

amounted on the 8tb of July, 18or. 100,0001. and according as any re< 

to 986,573L and at the lowest pe- duclion below that sum should lake 

riod of some abtecedenl years, tbey place, a proportion of the 500,0001. 

bad not All^ below 900,0001. This should be refunded Iriim Ibe ex- 

calcuhlioo, however, had been chequer to make up the deficiency*. 
takien oa Ibe day before payment, 

* TUs airai^cement wilb tlie baok vat slated to the hottte by the ehaocetlor of At 
ncheqner m early as the laih of Fcbmary. Bat as Ke do not vriih to jninhle a 
■qmbcr of beterogeDcou facts tMCllter, in ttke mere onler of Une, bat raiber to 
ctMHTy tbe n^jecu of oar narrative acconltng to their Dstore, it leeiaed proper 
to iatrodoce this measure, nol by itKlf, but Bsfonning a part aftlie waya and noM 
ht Ibt service of the year. 



CHAP. 

*D,£,,t,7P-hy Google 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 107 



flMndn^ Sute «/ the BritiA Navy.^Armg Estttiuitu.—The Mwliag 
BiiL—CUiue udredmeedfor aOpm'mg an Option 0/ nluling tn/o (V 
^mfftr Life. — Debatet on the tomparatice Adtat^dgrt <>fenlMing 
jm Umitfd amd vmlwUted Streke i* the Armt/.^Otlur 7uw Clautt*. 
— fifaWuAawnJ of m Ldtcal MUitia.'-Ikbalri thereon.—Rewrtian 
BUI pmmd iM the Hoaae of Commont.^R^tctrd by Ike Lords.— - 
A^ktr Raxrtwm BUI vunrd by Mr. Bmki in the Hmte of Com- 
Mw.— PoMn/ m boih Himars.~B>U brought Mo the Home of 
Omauni ht/ eir Somitel RomiUg, for amending the Criminal Law 
Tt^nting pritmie SUaling in Contradutinctionto Rabherg. — Pautd 
M that Some. — Act for tie better Adminufration of Jiutice in Scot- 
Itad.—AnnaiiieM to Ike Judges of the Court of Session JMlidary, and 
Eathrqner of SeotLutd upon the Resignation of their Offices. — Act for 
ng^aliMg the augmentation and modiJicatio» of the stipends of the 
^fgi/ in Scollaaa. — Acts for making more effectual Prorinoufor tie . 
BmUinr and Re-buUdiHe of Churches, Chapels, and Glebe Houses; 
—ifor the Purchase of Glebe Lands, Glebe Houses, and latpro- 
friatioHS ht Ireland: amd for enforcing the Residence «f spiritvat 
Perms M Ireland, on their Beneficet. — Curates Bill—Catholic 
PtUiost—Grmt 14 Maynooth CoUege,~~A» Act to prohibit the Dio- 
tilUim of Spirits from Com or Grain for a limited Jtme. — Dtbatet 
t i en sm. — Affairs of Spain. — Prorsgation of Partiament. 

THEtnnnctiomofgoTcmmeDt, Um yeu, wiU be found in Ifae fini 

for wliose MTvice Uic supplies page of the Cbronicle. Tbeniua- 

jmUcdwere provided, oalunlly berot'Mamen.incliKling liOOioyal 

m bto two ^neral heads, namely, tnaiines voted for tbe service of 

tbt iriations of govemnieflt ex< ISOS, was 130,000. 

■nd and lutemal : tlie defeuce Houae of dimraons, Feb. \6.— 

■d weurilj of tbe country agtiinst — The lioiue having resolved itwlf 

da^ from abroad ; and its inter- into a commiltee of llie whole liouM 

■illnai|(Hlbly and general improve- to' consider of the army estimalei, 

■ent. Uuder ibc bead of furei^cn The secretary at war slated, tint 

KbtioB) and lh£ defence of the there were tivo alteralioos in lb« 

Atcoontry. oar first attentions are form of the esliniales for llu |>re> 

ihe to tbe B>vy and tbe army, sent year. The one was, that roon 

Ik floatbbiDg stale of tbe British contingencies were ranged under 

Mj ia iijOS, snffieKuUy appears one genemi bead of service Ifaas 

|nia tbe immenM cum voted for had been done in forme case^; 

>bnpp^. A pulicular statement and the aecoad was, that a hhiN' 

•f Ost Mvy, aecording to tbe re- ber of heads of expegc^ whicb it 

In* Bwie up to tbe first day of bad beci^ the custom to rang« 

am(nig 

D,g,t,7P:hy Google 



108 ANNUAL REGISTER, I*>8. 

unong the extraordiaHries of the abrosd. The vohinteer tmpt were 

army, were now reduced to eati- neaily id the came itate ia whick 

inaltn. Having premised these two tbey were last year. The faretgn 

observations, he was. happy in being eaipi 'were soinev^at iacreaaedx 

able to siste lo the conimitlce, that from an Edition that had been 

at no former period had the army, made to tttt Geriuaa Legion, Tbc 

of this coontry beeii superior iu royal military college and the coni' 

■pint and discipline; and at no passiooate list were both aomewbrnt 

former time equal in numben; 'augmented. After staling the dif- 

tbe whole eilablishment amonnt- ferent beads of acrvk«, the Mcre- 

tng to no leat than 300,000 men. lary proceeded to compare the ettj- 

Tfae difference also between its ac- mate of expence of each for Uie 

lual numbers, and its supposed present year, nilh the expence of 

establishment, was less than il had the same hrad of service for the 

ever bmi before. The regular last year : the general result of 

infantry establishmeut of 1807> was which camparison was, that the etti- 

109>O90, and that of the present mates for tlje preaent year eaceed- 

year was I33,C^; and the dif- ed that of the last hy 592,0001.; 

l«rence between the actual nuin- but after deductuig from (he esti- 

beri and this establishment was mates now before tlie committee the 

now only 13,000 men, whereas laiit various items of expence which used 

year it had faeeti no less than fonneriylobeiatrodnoedanioiigtiM 

53.000. in cavalry there was a extraordinaries of Ibearmyi the real 

.slight reduction, but it was hardly dtSerence was reduced to aonw- 

mrth Mentioning. The royal wag- what less than 100,0001. He coib> 

con tram was reduced lo ^00 eluded with moving bit resolutiom 

' Sortes -, and (hough last year it was conformably, to the estimates, 
intended to rednce the whole of Lord Oastlereegh stated that, of 

'that corps, ytt when it was recoU the two great military measurea 

lected that these horses were actu- brought ^rward last session, the 

ally employed in the public ser- success bad been most remaikahle 

vice, in the woriti carrying on about indeed. By the militia balloting, 

the different royal jtalacM', and on bill, which was to coqthiDe in ope- 

tiie niilitai^ canals, and that the' ration until Kfay, il was proposed 

' service which thev performed was to raise 47,000 men for dreat Bri- 

performed ut a cheaper rale than tain and Ireland ; and of these, ae> 

could b^done.by hiring botses, lie cording lo Ihe last returns, no len 

did not tliink that any reasonable than 37,000 were already nJsed. 

objectioti could be made lo the By the militia transfer bill, which 

maintenance of this body. Thn was tu continne in opentitm until 

milUia wb nearer to its establish- August next, it was proposed to 

meat than it was last year, nolwith- rabe 37,6S0 ; and of this number. 

Standing that 24,000 men had been according lo the last returaa, 

dnfked from it into tbc regular 23,589 had actually volunteered 

army. In the staff there was a into Ihe liqe. So that a force of 

smdl nriaUoD, from the increase above -60,000 men bad been twsed ; 

that bad taken place tn tbc staff within the last year, in that coun- 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. lOQ 

lij. Illpl I liii| llii ii|iiiijlji iifuliiili Hnall number of 8,000 mm bad. 
b (nonce bku, Ibe bouse bad. been added to the lioe ; and eveq 
koM todi gloony predictiimat — that addition was, lie coolended, 
BtMaled Ibe wholeamouut of our owing to the legacy which liii'pre- 
■fifar raOjlar; force at ileaHy decessors left lihn in the additional 
SOQbOOO nen, which exceeded by force act. The number of batU; 
44000 any force ibis country had lions now io the service, he staled 
ncr posseaed ; and this excess he at 27 A which he averaged at 7Q0 
Adged Io ba*F been produced men each. 

te^ Ibe operatioii of the mea- \(ler a very lengthened conver- 
mn m violently oppotcd by the salion among a great number of 
a^ boBoorable gentleman, diir- members, the foltowui'g items were 
% whose slay m office only the voled : 

Nttmbert, Great Britain. Ireland. 

lad forces iiKlnding various £. t. d. £. s. d. 

OMliBgendes-.- -300^31 5,8SS,d22 9 1 1,385,057 H .6 
IqpMDls in the East Indies 

• 80,884 6i)J,525 8 !> 

T^spi and coni))aoMs for re* 

cnigasdUtq- 437 27,281 12 9 

bAodied DuTitJa ••108,384 2,336,462 4 846,498 17 6 

Satf asd garrisons 363,902 6 5 6%S02 I 4 

M pay to aupernumcrary 

ifiecn 33,213 2 8 778 1 9 

Nbic deputmenU 188,680 I9 6 8,J)2l I — 

WTpay 209,750 26,732 8 I 

laMnoueTRof Chelsea and 

UBambam bocpHal* ■ • • • . 40,960 13 10 16,942 17 7 , 

On p en woBera of dillo - 329,6i9 9 2 46,878 8 6 

■SdW pennons 40.495 10 6 6,000 

VUvtecr cotps 652,000 , 611,437 — — 

hM^poorpa 22,12i 794.647 3 2 70,911 3 19 

>qfal naililary college 21,525 17 — 

lijalsrittary asylum 19.903 9 3 

MhaMm.a to retired and of- 

fioMteg cbapbins 16.OOO 2,852 5 3 

" "' > and boipilal ex- 

100,000 i8,»r6 « 9 

13,500 

brack dcjMrtBKDt (Ireland 442,262 IS 5 

-OMHMsnnat department 

Qldand) 190,253 7 4 

Total 362,661 11,672,390 2 5 3,743,704 5 10 
IMnct Iba t^hncnls m Ihe 

Eaitlndics .•••'•30,884 691,525 8 9 

bamned then to be pro- ■ ■ i-..-_ ' . . 

vided 331.777 10,980,864 13 8 3,743,704 5 19 

BooiatioDS for making good these mms, moved and agreed Io. 



D,£,,t,7P-hy Google 



JIO ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

|IuuK or Gomnioni, MarcliS.— couatryT He maintained that tha 
Ou ibe motioD of the Kcrelary at enlUlment for life of llios« irho, on 
war, ''■< faciise went into a commit- having the option, «houId prefer 
lee on the mutiny bill. Lord Cas- eujia^ing for life, irould not di»- 
tiereagb siiid, that to many parts of courage others from engaging for 
ihe military S}'s1em introduced a years. He coutended, also, that 
abort time since by Mr. Wiulhara, Mr. Windham's plan would nbX 
be had no objection. The induce- cover its own waste and that of the 
meiil held forth (o certain descrip- array in general. Tlie ordinary 
lions of men, by the liuerty to en- recruiting under this plan, was made 
^ge for limited service, and by the more productive than it had been 
creation uflimited service, he highly by multiplying the number of re- 
' approved of. He had no ohjeclion cruiting parties beyond measure, 
lo limited service ; ami be hud for- and also by the threat of reduction 
meily promoted, to a certatu ez- held out to the 54 additional hat- 
tent, engagements limited in space talions, unless they should complete 
as well as in lime, Cut why shoalif their establishment lo 400 men 
limited service he in a manner en- each before six months. One'par^ 
forced, to the total exclusion of tin- onlyof the right honourable gen- 
limited service, even when the men lleman's plan was not speculative, 
wefc )>crfecdy satisfied and desirous and that was llie pennauent bur- 
toeuler without limilatiunl On for- then of 450,0001. n year, which it 
Bi«r occasions, the men for limited imposed on the country in the shape 
icnice were kept in separate hat- of additional pcnsiuns, an incum' 
talions. Mr. Windham h^d mixe<l brance which must i 



Iheni. It wad not intended lo in- liiroally. These i 

lerfere with this or any other part convinced, uuuld be fully sufficient 

of the right boo on rabic gentleman's lo satisfy the house of ihe propriety 

ammgemeot, Tliat gentleman bad of not deprivin<: sudi men as were 

complained mui.h of the change inclined, of a fair option to enlist 

about to be miroduced in the ex- for life. He therefore moved, that 

elusive form of his measure. Hut a clause should be introduced for 

no military system, no measure allowing that option, 
could claim an exclusive aud uTial- Mr. Windham admved the can- 

terahle sanction. II was matter of dour and fairness with which the 

very serious consideration, llial the noble Mrd had uitroduced into the 

96,000 eiibsled this year, would all mutiny bill, a clause subversive of 

be entitled to their discharge at Ihe Ihe svstem which had been already 

■ame period se\-en years hence. It decided upon after long and serious 

was also very material to consider, parliamentary inveeligution 1 It wu 

Jiow this princi[rfe, if exclusively certainly very catidrd in the noble 

acted ujton, would afiect our peace lord to give iiim (Mr. W.) now, for 

and eslablishment, supposing a the first time, intimation of a clause 

peace establishment of 100,000 hostile to the existing military sys- 

men, and 36,000 of these to he tem ; and that loo, in such a way, 

discharged in one year, and a war that this clause was in a manner 

lo follow in .that year or tlie next, surreptidously introduced, and pro- 

what would be the itatt of Ibc pcscd to be made part of a bill 

wbicfa 

D,g,t,7P:hy Google 



HISTO.RY OF EUROPE. Ill 

•Uch flrost, iriUuu a very few d»y», any other counlry be would tbisk 

bt Kceaaril; put into a law. iW the prtodple of liniiied service,* 

mUc lord, however, thougbt it but good oue ; but be (bought that it 

itcaa lo aJfect some kind of oppo- would be dangerous in this counUy, 

■itni to tbe measure in ar|tmicut. dd account of tbe eitcpt of ita co- 

Aod what was the object of the lonies. There was a uccessity lo(^ 

taUt lord's reasoning? To prove of having at all limes a large amy 

till tbe system, tliough sure, was inreadiaeutoopposethosescbeinea 

^« ii its operation. Tiie noble of iuvasiou wliicb Buouaparte never 

M was contented with simplv for a ntoroent lost sight of, in tba 

ttlii^tlib; aud perhaps it was well proteculiou of the present war. 
jidged, not even to try lo prove it. The secretary at war contended, 

FK,vbat were the fiictsl Thepro- that the house bad not been taken 

pcsive iocrevM of the number of by surprize by bis noble friend, as 

Ml raised, in four periods, had nine days notice had been given of 

W in the following prt^rtiuii : bis intention lo propose the clause 

11,000b the fir^t period; 13,000 wliich was now under discussion. 

■ Ihenest: 21,000 iu the third: 1^^ secretary likewise insisted on 
ml 34,000 in the fourth. The the bad c&ects which would result 
MUelord would find it iliflicull Id from the dischaige of a large pro* 
nwtiisct these stalements ; and, )>orlioa of our military force at 
liaitling their verilyi stilt more re^jular staled periods. 

ififioilt to salii^ Ihe'lious^, that Lord Petty observed, that Mr. 

Ikej were not proofs of the ef- Wiodham's measure bad been ap- 

focy of tite measure resorted to. proved of by a m^^ority of the 

—To say I bat if a certain system eiistiug members of Uiat house; 

*ili parchase wUbin a very limiled that it had beeu tried, and met with 

period a certain Dumber of uieo, the uuiversil approbation of tbe 

l^nrnewill, io a regular progres- country, — After some conversuUoo 

"<», be productive in a proportion- between Mr. Wibdham and lord 

•kh period of time, was to say, Casller^gli, the commillee divided 

tktl btause a certain system iv as on llie clause— Ayes, l€9— Noci, 

<fe)lw at 6nt, (no matter how or lOO. 

kj what means) therefore it tvould Tbe secrelaryalwarthen brought 

^Mione to be so, and that loo in upsevcral ne<vclaiiies,amon2 which 

tt mcrtascd pioportioti, was not was one for enacting lliat no mas- 

jvt reasoning. But it had been ter in Scotland should be etiti- 

■u, llni tlie number of recruiting l|ed to claim his apprentice from 

Pitin was ex.traordiiiary. Mr. W. the army, unless he should prodhcc 

n«M only stale, that the increased a cerliGcule, and conform to other 

haber of ludi was not at all lo regulations llierein specified. An* 

bt illiibuled lo his system, and olber clause enacted, that no gene- 

&tt ihey could not be considered, ral court>mattial should coiuisl of ' 

■ f«i, at iu any ^rtat degree pro- less Ihao fourteen members, except 
{•wiive. No nnmbcr of recruit- iu Africa «r tlie Wesl Indies; and 
■K parties, however great, could another, llial treble co^ts should be 
••JK bevond wlisl was required. auurded in ca^s of action, where • 

Gtncnl Tarletoa said, that in the party complaining of a military 

officer 



112 ANNUAL REGISTER, tSOg. 

officer should be noiisuited. The most men would like better lo Im^ 

clauses were all rend and agreed to. a repeated option, than to be oop^ 

The nmtihy^tll was reported, aud fiued to an option once Tor all. 

pasted through the usual stages. The ear) of Buckinghamshire. 

House of peer^ March 13. — taking into consideralion (he nnm- 

Tfae house ^having resolved itself ber of troops waiiled for colaaial 

into a committee on the mutiny service, thought it highly expedient 

bill, that a pari of llie army should be 

Lord Hawkesbury briefly staled aniisled for an unlimited period ; 

the object of tiie alteration Ihqt as, otbernise, great difficulty imd 

had been madfin'it. It was not extwoce would arise in providing 

intended lliat those who had enlisted lliat service with troa|is. 

for limited service should have the The earl of Orosvenor tbouelft 

optioli of entialingfor unlimited ser- that the objection respeOiug cofo" 

vice, until the term for which the^ nial service, might be obviated, .if 

had first enlisted had expired. the present system was suffered to 

The duke of Gloucester urged bave fair play, by the number of 

the inexpediency of altering the recruits wliicb would then be ol>- 

systeni of limited service, from the lained. The proposed alteration 

operation of which it appeared, he considered as an attempt to dh- 

from the returns on the table, the ' dermine that &y*tem. 

most beneficial ef&cts, wjth respect Lord Melville took a relrospec- 

to the recruiting of theariny,and the live view of tlie state of the army, 

prrvention of desertion , had been and of the various plaus that hftd at 

derived. It was a general opinion different limes been resorted to fqr 

among military officers, that recruit- recruiting it. He disliked tl»e fre- 

iog for niilitary senice was the best quent interference of the legislature 

mode of obtaining an efficient army, in what regarded our militat; csta- 

Such analteration asthat now pro- blishnient. In bis opinion it was 

posed, would create great confusion best entrusted to the care and ma- 

m Fegiments, in consequence of the nagement of the- chief execuHve 

difiiireut terms of enlistment; and magistrate; and it was found of late 

was in every pomt of view, in his to improve and flourish under llie 

opinion, likely to he prejudicial, as auspices of the illustrious personage 

It would lead to destroy the system to whose hands the sovereign bad 

now established. confided it. The country never had 

Lord BorringdoD thought it was an army so numerous and well ap. 

highly advantageous to have dif- pointed as at the present moment. 

fereot terms of enlistment in the And how was thai army acquired ? 

army, which might suit Ihe various Not by any one plan or eaerliou : 

caprices of men. not by metaphysical recruiting, and 

Lord King feared, that if thb a pliilosophical investigation of ilie 

alteration was sufiered to pass, every moral habits nnd propensities of 

means would be resorted to to dis- men ; but by a combination of va- 

conrage and prevent, as much as rious plans and various exertfoiM 

possible, enlistmenlYar limited ser- adaplM to the nature ■nd'cmploy- 

vice. As to suiting the various ments of men as they were' to be 

- caprices of men, he thought that found, and to the varying titualion 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



113 



ffldwijcndej of (he coimtry. Of 
(I &t plaiM lo wliicb the present 
WnbJD' stale of liie an»v ii]j;>lil 
h Bcribefl, llic ailditioital force 
UJ,aiid IIk etilitting frarathe lup- 
jhauOar/ militia into tUc Iriie, tie 
awwed to ian been the most 
(ffirariiiui. 

Il ind been laid, tliat the sy»- 
fn of limited aervtce would in> 
tndKe a belter deHTi|)tion of iiieD 
ttb Ifae anny; that it would in- 
htt mprctmUe faimtn to pre- 
)>raomof their MDs lo be a sol- 
fa; in short, that it would make 
1* Bilitaiy service a trade. The 
tndt or a soldier] There n^ver 
«H and never would be such a 
Ink, 'm this sense of It. Wbat 
■» meant by a belter sort of 
M) Wu it that lliey would be 
••t or shorter, broader or Ibin- 
■V? This might be intelligible, 
bilns not the fact. The men 
l^bil hitherto formed the Bri- 
^ mtt* were men of stout hearts 
•*i Inbils; men of spirit and 
<»ingt; lovers of bold enterprize. 
^W were tbe materials of which 
"> ingjr must be com|>osed. Give 
•^a well men, though not of the 
toin description. The wor«e men 
<nTt the Sitcat for soldiers. Keep 
Ih Mier sort 4l home. On these 
{'Mudi 1m most vote for the clause 
oil now stood, 

VuRnoil Sidmoulh agreed with 
^^ Utlville, ■• lo the adv»i)l3ges 
■"iitd lo Ifac army from volun- 
Jl^g from the niilitta, but dif* 
■■nj from him in opinion as to tlw 
Jjowt Bjitem of recruiliujE ; whidi 
* procured a force better iii qua- 
*Ti in Halufc, aad in morals. 

TW earl of Moira compared the 
•ifewil systems as affecting the 
"'^.faiHiseir.aiid bis family; and 
P^ t decided omnion iu favour of 



tSr^ WimlbBin's. Lord Moira en- 
trealed the house lo weigli themat* 
ler well before tliey discounlena»ced 
a system which within less tlnn 
two years they had approved by so 
grmt a majority. 

The earl of Westmoreland de- 
nied, that there ^vas any iuleution, 
by the clause, lo put an end (o tbt 
new system. 

Lord Vassal Holland contended, 
that service for a limited period 
was vfty far from bein^ unsuiled (o 
our jKissessions abroad, particularly 
llie East Indies : and shewed from 
the pn^clice of Spain, that a-limited 
term ofservice was peculiarly adapt* 
ed lo distant colonial possessions. 

Tbe duke of GlouFCsler rejriied 
to the diS^rent arguments iu sup- 
port of tbe clause; which being 
put, was carried; llie amendment 
negatived without a divbion; and 
the other clauses agreed to. In a 
few days afler tlie hill was read a 
third time and passed. 

House of Cooimons. April 12.— 
Lord Ca*llerca<:h was happy to con- 
gratulatc the house, that by tlie 
success which had attended tbe mea- 
sures which it hail been his good 
fortune to propose to the Ijoum 
last year: no legislative care was 
any longer necessary for the esta- 
blbhment of a regular army ; to 
which an addition had been made 
of 40,000 men It was the duty 
of government, hotvever, to attend 
lo all pari* of the military system ; 
and lu provide efiectually for the 
mainleoance aad discipliRe, no) only 
of those deKriptious of force that 
had always arms in their hands, 
but of those that were armed only 
provUionaliy, for tbe purpose of 
training and disctpline, with a view 
to eventual emei^ncy. An act 
waij>assed sometime since for llie 

[ 1 ] general 



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lU ANNUAL REGISTER, Isps. 

rraenl trainiRK of lliepeople. The the nuiiiber tff llw mililis woul6 be 

MtealioQ of it wai, t« enable mU for Qrest Britain 330,000 nwn, 

nUtera to advne his maj«s1f to (he numl>er of rffeclive voluDteers 

'traio UO0,0O0-nic.n outof tiiewlinle in Ireland wai dose on 70,000. 

population. But he considered it tTuder this plan therefore there 

of liltle use to have men Iraijied un- would be a dep6t of 400.000 men 

ku they were regimented. If ready at amoment's notice to fall 

trained in regiments they would be into the re^imeiils of the line and 

of real utility. Instead of training the mililia, according as they mislit 

the whole niititary classes, a sufH- be wanted to make Ihetn up. Thi» 

dent number might be trained lo local militia was to be ballotted-for 

cover any probable e:ii|eDcy (liat in their different counties, in pro- 

inight be expected to arUe. It wag portion to tlie deficiency of volun- 

pn^Msed to have a regular subsi- leers in each, from amdng penont 

diery force, amounting: to sis times between the years of i8 and 35. 

the number of tlie militia, as pro- Persons might be allowed lo volno- 

poted by Mr. Yorke some years teer into this force ; b*t no sob- 

, ago. Iiie training of the whole sttlutei were to be allowed, nor 

number of 800,000, as pri^wsed exeinplions to be made but at a 

1^ the trainijig act, would have vary high fTlie. The officers were 

been a very general harrisliip with to possew the same requisites as to 

~very little benefit. Inslead of train- properly, as those of the existing 

ing the whole militsry classes, a suf- militia, except in one instance, 

ficient number might be trained lo namely, that whoever had held 

cover any probable exigency that tlie rank of a field officer in the 

might he expected lo arise; When Ariny might hold the same rank here 

the gross amount of the effectira without regard to any such qualifi- 

volunteers was compared with six cation. Volunteer corps inigbt, if 

limes llie amount of tlie militia, theychoose, transfer themselveswilh 

there was found on the aggregate a the approbation of his majesty iMo 

deffcieney of 30,000. But when this this local militia. ' 

deficiency came to be subdivided, an The period of service during the 

inequality' was discovered v-someof year to be 28 days exctusive of the 

the counties being more deficient, days for asseinblmg, marching. Ice. 

and some, among whiah were tlie for which pay to be allowed. IIk 

maritime counties, less. In conse- expence would not exceed tbat "f 

queiice of this inequality 60,000 the present.volunteerestAlishinent, 

would be wanted to oompiete the It would not exceed 4 I. per tnwi 

establishment to tlie amount requir- for the year. Having a regimental 

ert. — He proposed therefore lo give force of 400,000 men, in additiso 

ttf" the crown a power to create a to a regular a;my of 200,000, 
local roilit^, lo the aggregate a- which might, if occaslmi requited, 

mount of 60,000 in tbefiralinslance, be augmeoled to 750,000, parlia- 

to be increased iti proportion as the luent might rest content, and trust 

vtdunteer force sfaoald dimiuisli, tbat the empire was secure. Lord 

and to supersede them lotAlly, iti Castlereagh concluded with moving 

in the event of peace they should for leave to bring in a bill to- niahe 

withdraw their service. Six times .better praviuonf>r tbc idternal de- 
fence 



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HISTORY or EimOPE. 



iate of ibe kingdon, wbicfa wsw 

Oa tlie 3d Qf Hay, berore Ihp 
wdrr of ibc dsy Tot tbe Kcond read- 
a^ oflhe local miiitia kill wis read, 
lonfOitlefWghbegBedleftveloUalc 
Ml ar ihr«« Hdititions auil atltra- 
tioB^ wtiieii bv mcBBt to iiitioiluce 
Waiiof upon Die priiici|>Ie of die 
UL It was ptopose<l, in, Ibat 
MwM who bsd Ecrved personally in 
te nililta slmuld be esciupled 
6«ttilbe ballot for the local mili- 
tk. , Sdly, ibal nlten wiy corp of 
loltuitwrs Iransrerred ila service* 
fiMi tbe voluuteer eslabliihiuent to 
dK local militia, tbe officers of such 
cNpa thouli) retain tlieir rank, and 
tkat all men tfaould be admitted in- 
la Ibe loc«l niititia witliout any r«- 
ptd to age ; 3dly; that wbei< pc r- 
MSB dnngcd Itieir residence from 
«M eouDlj to another Ibev likewise 
dhouklbe permitted to transfer tbeir 
MiTices to tbe local luililta of Ibe 
(oonty in wbicb theysbould reside; 
ai 4UiIy, ibal the families nf tliose 
■KB who were drawn, and unable 
to support tbemselves, sboald re- 
ai*e Ibe same allowance wbich 
•as DOW granted to Ibe families of 
nthmleers whea called out on per- 
■anenl duty : tbis allowance to be 
paid iu tbe Ant instance by llieir 
Rspedive parishes, aud to be re- 
paid to tbe parishes by tbe receiver 
piMial of Ibe army. 

Many objectiom were made to 
bbbill in il» progress; IIk prin- 
qnl of whid) uere ^^alcd by co- 
iMd Shifriey, wbo, on lord Casile- 
n^'f bavii^ inoved llial tbe bill 
fe DOW read a second lime, re- 
nrked, that every session vf par- 
hsent aome new plan was brought 
farward coouected with tlie de- 
fmot of tbe counlry: aud thut 
t*cTy succeeding minister, is soon 



lis 

ta b« came iutq' office, set about, 
subverting ihe sysEein of his prede- 
ccsyr. Slid introducing one of iiit 
own. Frwii lliese various expfiri* 
ments tbe counlry derived little ad- 
tional strExiglb, and the soldier do 
benefit at all ; but, to tbe authors 
of them ibey were a tourre of con- 
siderable patronage aud infiui-nce. 
Tlli plan, indeed, which had been 
iutritduced-Qnder the late adniinis- 
tration, was not liable to tbis ro> 
proacli. It ' was projected solely 
wilh ■ view lotbe improvemeDt of 
fhe army, and the good of llip 
country ; aitri, on this account, he 
had most ardently wbhed Ibat it 
might be perinanenl, and that it 
might have prevented in future all 
pew e»))i:rimenl9 of state empirics. 
The nieume proposed by lord 
Casllereajh. he contended, would be 
enormously expensive. lo the <roun> 
try, most oppressive to individuals, 
and al llie same time totally fulile 
and useless. Was it possible that 
the public money coald be more 
idly and wanliuily squaudered, tliaa 
in being given as bounties to the 
volunteers to eoler into ihe local 
ruililia.; by which means, from be- 
ing; an useful, Ihey would become 
altogeiher an useless body. Tbe 
bill before the house was liable to 
all the abjections to Ihe most vi- 
gorous measures, without beine 
calculated to produce any one n 
tlie advantages of a measure of lliii 
description. It would prove injti- . 
rious to tlie regular recruiting of 
tbe army. It was proposed, that 
Ihe local militia should be officered 
in the game wav with the regular 
luilitla. But if it was found im- 
pouible lo tind a sufficient nuin- 
ber of' officers properly qualified - 
fur the Jailer service, how could 
they be procured for (ba faniicr? 
[1«J He 



D,g,tr7P:hy Google 



lis ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

He slto dirapnroTcit biglily of nib> Ardrn, lord ReHdnrfile, Ihe cwl 

ililutes not bring allowed, and coD' of CarJiilr, and Ihe earl of Moin ; 

tended dial thn proliibi1h» would and recommeaded bv lord Boring- 

not only give rise to much frand don, lord Vaual Ho'tlMd, the cut 

and impotiti6n, but that it offered a Grey, and the earl of Lauderdale. 

Strong inducement to p^ijury. Lord Ardeit s.rill persisled in coii- 

The local railitia bill having pas- sidering the bill, ai he had done 

Md tbrongh the tnual stages in tlw before, when the question wa* last 

houM of commoni, was brought in- agitated .as an infringenMnt'of the 

to the house of lords, wiiere, after prerogative of thecrown, and iImai 

some discussion it was, Slst June, an encroachment on the privileges 

agreed to. of llwir lordships' house. He call- 

The ptinciple of the local mill- ed lo muid Ihe measures llial wete 

lia bill for England wjs extended witnessed in this country in the 

to Scoilatid. On (he motion for year ]641. 

the third reading of tlie Scotch lo- Lord Reddesdale, in like man- 
caf militia bill in the house of com- ner, requested their lordships to 
nions, Mr. Yorke said, that he look to Ihe be^nniug of the French 
saw no reason why the training act revolution, and lo consider what ir> 
should not also be adopted in Scot- reparable mischief followed the 
land, as well as in EngLind. advice of Mr, Neckar to increase 
House of Commons, Jan. 95. — tlie number and weight of Ihe Tin-* 
Mr. Baokes, agreeablj' lo notice, £(af, silting and voting in Ihe same 
rose to make a motion, to which assembly with the nobility. Hie 
lie did not suppose there would be TTn-s Etat prevailed ; Ihe nobility 
any objeclioi). as resolutions to the were soon proscribed, despoiled of 
same effect had been agreed lo by their possessions, and driven inio 
the house last session. beggary and exile. And what was 
After a few obserrations on the Ihe pretext and enuft of Ihal vio-' 
beneficial tendency of Ihe measure, lent clmttge? The reform of u- 
and even its tendency ultimately to biisc) ; the adoption of an oecono- 
strengtbeu.ratherthantointrenchon luical system. That the bill was 
the prerc^alive of the crown, he recummendr<l by lord Vassal Hoi- 
moved for leave to bring in a bill to land, and the earl <jrey, as the 
prevent Ihe grant of offices and re- first step of <i plan uf public cecono- 
^versions during life, or wilh benvfit my. If offices were still granted 
of survivorship. After some con- in reveraioii, it must greatly embai- 
vetsatioo, the question was put imd rass Ihe <^ralion of any such 
cai'ried, with the single negative of plan. The bill was suffered to go 
Mr. Wiiliani Duiidas, who had not into a committee, but on |he third 
been present when this question reading it was thrown out by a 
was last beforethe house. great ma jurily. ConlentsSS— Non- 
Mr, Bankes llien brought in the cotitenis 138. 
bill, which was carried tbroueh the House ot^ Comihons, April ?• — 
usual stages in Ihe house of com- Mr. Bankes - moved the commil- 
nions, into the house of lords: merit of anuthcr reversion bill, 
where, on Hie second reading, whicli had been iulroduoed and 
March 10, it was c^msed by loni gone Ihtough some of the usual 

stages. 

D,g,t,7P:hyGoogle I 



HISTORY OP EUROPE/' 117 

iiyi. Mr. Bankn nmiDded ibe bail doI produced any cbaiicc ia 

nouB&tee, ibil b; Ibe KJeclion or our lystem, which was direcH; lh« 

tfccfoniMrbin intfaebouKof lord;, reverse of | hat Doble writer's : for 

Ibet were (vecluded from bringing with us punishmeDli were most se* 

fcrwanJ cxacUj the same measure vere and hioat uncertiun. Haring 

tfab seuioD. Ou this acconul he illustrated tbe truth of Ihb propo* 

lad brought in a bill with a limita- sitiOD, be s^d, that, for tbe present, 

tion in point of lime. If ibis should be would confine liii obserralioos 

be earned it wouM at least secure and his motion to one clau of those 

ene objirct, naiiielv, tbe prevention crimes, which as he hnd before 

of aov new grant during the limit- stated, seldom received the punisb- 

«l period, >hicfa might affect the ment the law had B|^inled for 

pRKrediiigs of tbe cnmmittee of them; a class on which the law io- 

iaanra. Aa to (he limitalitin of Aided extraordinary severity of pa* 

tone, it was bts intenlinn that Ibe nishmeiil, witbtmt any well found> 

bbuk riiould be tilled up with a eti motive In that severity. He 

pnivtsiofi that Ibe bill should be iu meant those rliarges wliere the ca- 

Ibrce for one year from the pauiug pjlal part of the charge depended 

of Ibe act, ami from the close of on the aroouol. By a statute of 

tbat period to the end of six weeks, Willlani and Mary, privately to 

Ima tbe cummeiKement of tbe sub- steal from a person to the value of 

srqnenl session of parliament. A five shillings, was rendered capital, 

leog cooTarsation ensued, in which In queen Anne's reien, to steal to 

Ibm was a very general concur- Hie value of forty siiilliug^ in a 

race in opinion, thai the measure dwelling bonse.was rendered capital; 

was good, as br as it went, though and by a statute of queen Eliza- 

il was much loo limited. This bill belh, a theft of so small a sum as 

was finally passed in the house of twelve pence, ilnder certain .circum* 

IsidsoDtlie ISIhofMay. sUnces, made a capital offence. 

House of Commons, May 18. — — As the necessaries, the conve- 

Sr Samuel Romitly rose, to make aienciet, and the lunuries of life 

his promisi^ motion on ihe cf.imi- bad become dearer, the severity of 

nl law of Ihe country. He, in the laws occasioned (be frequent 

comiBon with ollteni, had -always non execulion of tlieni, Tliere 

famenled, that by Ihe criminal Uw was another circumstance- to whicli 

of tbe country, capital pu nisi iments h^ was desirous of calling tbe aU 

■ere appointed tu be inflicted for Icalion of the bouse; it was Ihe 

w many crimes. He said, " ap- case of persons, who, being at- 

painted, because, in fact, they ciised of crimes, suffered impri- 

nrc not so frequently executed, al- sonmeiil, took their trial, and then 

tbougb no priuciple uas belter esta- proved their innuceuce : there ivas 

Uished tiiaii that Jbe certainty, not nti compeiisalinn for such persons, 

tbe severity of piiuighment rendered unless il could be shewn l)i at the 

it efficacious. Tliis principle had ptosecutiuii was malicious. He al- 

lang been proved, and published to .lowed that under llie best system 

tbe world by tlue marquis of BeC' of criminal law, suspicion must 

carta. Rut Ihe admiratioa which sometimes li<ilit on the innocent 

isswoilc produced in Great Britain, man, and tliat the {•ood of the 
{13] „ public 

D,£,,t,7P-hyGoogle 



118 ANNUAL aEGISTEK, 1808. 

pablic might- require his confine- bocne, June 3i, the solfcitor g«ie- 

dhdI until bis inniumce slinuld be rat propesed a claitse, drclaring 

Wceriained. BtU he conteDcted, tkat stnliug wiliioiit a person's 

that when it tra* SKerlained, the knowledge, whether pririiy from 

sufiercr should be compenMied as the penoa or not, as contradistin- 

&r aa it was pncticible to com- guiibed from lobftei^, shonlil be 

peosale him. Tlie locnis of the poniibed by banishineat for life, 

person acquitted, and lin r^lit to to be re«tuced at the discretian of 

mdemnily might be dcterniinrd by the judge to any period not less 

Se jud^e before whom he was tlian seven years ; leaving it, how- 
led. Such a regBlalinn would tvtr, optiooal willi the ju^lg*^ if 
proceed on slniiliu principles to those tlie cate should seetn to merit it, 
of 1803, relative to the prosecu- to commute tlie puoisliment into 
tioiis by which llie judge was em- imprisonment for any period m>t em- 
powered, laltinf alt the cireum- ceeding three years. Ttie hilt wan 
stances' of the case under congidera- passed ivilli tins Amendment, 
lion, to order the treasurer of the Sir Samuel Komill^signilM, that 
county to jitake such compensation he did not mean to press the " er- 
as justice dcBianded. He wouM quitted person's competisatioit bill" 
Iherefore iiitioduce a similar pro- any fuitlter, but that he should 
position into the bill, which l>« m- brin;; it forward early in ttie next 
tended to propose nn (he' subject, session. 

luthe first place, however, he wouki The necessity of some alteration 

move for leave to bring in a bill to in the constitution of lite court of 

repeal so much of tlte art of queen session in Scollmid, had pven birlli 

Elizabeth, as related to taking away to lord Grcuville's bill relative fn 

tlie heUetit of clergy from persons lliatsiibjt'cl.wliirh fell to the ground 

stealing prirotely from the persons tlirougti the claiige of minbtry, Bn<l 

of others. Leave was given lo bring- the proriijiation and dissolution ol" 

in llie bill, and Sir Samuel Roniilly parlianieni *, A bill for tlie bet- 

aie! with great appltuse for turn- teradministrHtion of justice itiScot- 

iog his enliphtem'd mind 111 the con- land, wa» introilnced in the present 

Bderation ol such subjects sa those session by tlie lord cliancdkir £1- 

on winch he had that evening ad- don, who, on the question for the 

drested the house, second reading nf tlie bill, April M, 

Sir Samuel also moved for leave explained its obfect. 
to bring in ti bill to provide in cer- It was proposed to divide, the 
taio caMs compensation to persons court of acs.<>inii into two chanibers 
tried and acquitted in a cruniiial of seven and eight judges, to give 
court for tlic tlamagcs sustained by those courts certiiiii powers of nmk- 
them, in consequence of baring ing regulations with re!|>ect to pio- 
been detained in custody and ceeilings, and with respect to in- 
brought to Iriil Objections of no terim executions whilst appeals 
inconsiderable wriglil ucre made to weK- pt-ndin:; ; uiid also to issue n 
this proposal: but leave n'as given ' comniisiiou to aacettain in whul 
to bring i« the bill. cases it oiiglit he pro)M:T lo esta- 
lu a committee of the whole blish a trial (iv jury. Me joined u> 

all 
* See Vol XLPK- Hist. Eo«irE> p. l«a. 

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HISTORY OF EUROFE. 119 

dlhacnlo^aiDtwtiichliadbMn hud, to ibe.exlerior of rdipop, 

pacrinpoalbetmlb^jur^, andlo and ttie fniniitfn of religiau. A 

■keh, n EngUod, we felt tlutt we bdl, propoted bv Hie jiuiil hibouo 

oval oar libnty and our htppi- of tbe biiliop of London (I^>rl«usX 

OCX. Bwt it did not fbUoir Ibat it and the chsiKellor of llie eidt«- 

nsnjnalljf ap|>lirable lo Scolland. <\uei, was biougbl into ^rliamuit 

SarwaskapolilKorpnimrinudi: for tlic relief and su|ipoi( of the 

if proceeding to force Ibat node poorer cler^jr of Ibe eJMbliibcd 

J trill upon a couDtry wbere, iu cburdi ; tbe nature and oliject of 

diil cases, its b«aefib were aot un- wbich , bill was ex^aiiied by tbe 

denlood or appreciialed. bialiop wliea be moved the Mcoiid 

Lord Grenvitk still Ibougbt it readingof lhebill(ttlt)diJMdpiUMd 

' touldbc better to divide Ibe court intb'etioufeofcoiuiiiont)antbe27lh 

«fKniaa iuti> three cbaoibers tbao of Jiineintbe bouse of Ipids. If be 

m. And, with retpect to trial by were dispowd, be said, to lake up 

JHj, be Ibougbt tlitre ought to w titeir lonUliipi' time, be migM |>uur> 

1 Acoo^r recommendation of il "m traj' suc)i scenes of distress amongst 

Ik bill than Ibere was at present, a poor curates, as would make tipun 

diOBfcr indication of tbe opinion of their minds a deep and melancboly 

)ke la;islatur« in its &vour. impression. The preseat measure 

Lord MeUitle referred to an opt- bad for its object lo proviile a pro- 

■on of lord M;tn5fietd, respecting per person to resi'ile in those jta- 

a pnpositioD of lord Swinlon, to nsbes wfiich were deserted hj> 

widQce gradually tbe trial by llielr incumbent), where tbe living 

jary in civil cases into Scotland ; amounted to 4001. and upwards, 

ndaid, that after tbe doubts ex- and to allow oul of that income one 

praed on tbia subject by tliat end- fifth fAr tbe support of that person 

Rcat lawyer, be (lord Melville) so appointed to do the dulV' Tlierc 

■■Sbt well Iiesitale with respect to were many benefices at lUOOL 

bfMlicj. On the 3Sth June, tlie SOOOl. and some 30001. a j'car. 
m wai read a third time and But this provision of one fifth 

poxd. was adopted only till it amounted 

A law was also passed for en- lo ^50t. a year. He cotisiderod 

^tliag his majesty to grant annui- that Ihe living of every incumbent 

tiettotlw judges of tbe courts of was condilioual. The cdnona of 

KswMi,justiciai7, and exchequer of '^^ diurch, and various conven- 

Scotland, who might retire after tions, clearly shewed that bi^lwps 

biVBg served in either of these si- bad a ri^ht to interfere wilb the 

tiWions for fifleen yean, or be dis- whole living, by taking it from llie 

fnlified from Ibe discharge of tbeir incumbent who negUcled to per- 

dulj by aoy penuanciit infirmity, furm his duty, uud grantJcg il lo 

Tbe aoDailies lo be equal to ibrce anolber under their own )t)i)iniiit- 

burths of Ibeir salary. men'. 

Ever since Ihc breaking out of Tlic bill was supported by lord 

ibe Trench revolution, an unaiual IIacro» by and Ihe earl of Siiffulk ; 

ifgrtt of allention was paid by the but o)^K>seil by the «prt of Biuk- 

h^ber orders, and all meu of great iughnmshire. the earl of Mnira, 

papcrly in Great Britain and Ire- viscount Sidmuulh. the earl of Lau- 
[lA] derdale, 

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120 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

derdale,lordHawk«hbifry,tIiesTcti- to lint profession such nombffsof 

Uiiliap of Canterbury, the bishop of young men, us it was iiliiiossible to 

Bochester, the biiliopa of Herefnril provifie for. It slio'ulu be atlri- 

anclCarlisle.andtlietonlchancellor. buted to th&l glut of Ibe camiuo- 

Thechiefgrouiidaonwhichitwsaop- dily which ihe reverend prelates 

powd were, that it wu a riolalion of themielves occasioned. He aba 

private, and of tlieseciinty oi'eccle- opposeil Ihe bill as laying a gr«at 

siaitical property, w bile it tended to weight on Ihe possessor of « small - 

an indefinite enlargement of the living, at the same tliat it aflTeded 

power of the buliops, and tbat it Ihe rector with 20O01. a year, in a 

was inadequate to the accomplish- very trifling niHnner. 

mcnt of ita object. Tlie archbisho)> of Canterbury 

Lord Moira observed, that if this did not consider the mrdsure pro- 
bill was to be defended on tlie posed at either oppressive in its 
ground, that a part of Ihe rector's operatioo, or a violqlioii of tbe 
income had been apportioned to interestaof theditircb. The power 
Ifae curate on a former occasiun, it gave to bishops was oidy similar 
why, then, at a future time, (since to that Nviih which they were in- 
according to what their lordships' vested in the early times of Ihe 
liad just lieard from a reverend constitution of the church. He 
prelate, bishops claimed in Ihe cited the case of a bishop of Wor- 
point in question, an uidimited cester, who was rebuked b^ tbe 
powrr) another bill miftht not be in- pope for not allowing a sufficient 
trodiiced, foimdeJ n]Hiii the present, com]feDsalion to curates or vicars 
to a Impropriate the whole of (he in- trm|>onil, as Ihey were ih«n desig- 
cUmbent's living. Even the act of naleri in lib diocese. But jhoiigh 
1 796 in his mind, had been the he was perfectly satisfied with lua 
cHuse of considerable, bardships. principle of Ihe bill, there were 
Hicre tvere livings as low as 1<H>I. someoftlieclauseswhictihe thought 
and yet 7ot.'0Ut of that must be would be atleuded wilh injurious 
paid to the olBcialins curate. (fleets, imd introduce vexation and 

The earl of Burkinglraiiishir* niischief. He should Iherefote vote 

observed, that it was to lie rtcol- that the bill be rejected.— TIte 

fecteil lltilt advowsons were now qiicstiun 011 llie third leadhig hein^ 

bought and sold in tlic same Dnm> called for, llic bill »as thrown out 

iier as any other negoli:ible pro* without a division, 

perly. With whnt jitslice, then. Yet iheobjectof thcbill wasnot 

cuiiid llie leuislafure call upoii a disa|)proved, or lost sight of. With 

beneficed clersvman who had a (iiosjM'ctive vie wlo some fulure bill, 

bought his liviiiK on a calculation The earl of Buckinghamshire 

of havini! thcservirt-sof aciirale at moved,. June Sr'h, 'hat there be 

a certain price, to pay a still larger laid before Ihe house, «n account 

siini. " of the number of livings bejoiHl 

The ear^"of Laiidcrdale said, Uie amount of +OOI. peri aniiiim, 
that perhaps ihe gnat origin of Ihe' disliiiitoisbiug those wliere the in- 

ovil pttipuved to bu rcflicdicd by the cunilient resided, and those where 

bill, wiiiild be found in the fre- a resident curate was employed. 

quKticy of ordioHliuti, and >» calling ' Lord Harrowby proposed an 

amend tueul. 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. Ill 

t, to ]t*n ont the wonts Tlie earl of Moira also (fave h» 

J, tte." On the ques- hearty concurrence to (he motion, 

Im thit tbdc words stand pari of So alio did lord Hawl>esbury, who 

the bill, tbr boiue divided; Con- auur«d his notile friend that every 

lenlsSS— Not Contents 19. Next thing tbould be done b^ him (o 

<in. June 2S, giv« eflcct to bis laudable intentiotn 

Lord Harrowby, )>ursuaat to a and endeavours. 
Mike he had given Ihe Any before. Nor ivai the kirk of Scotland 
me to sabmit t motion to their for^olten. Aa Act was jia^sed fur 
Indsbips, wbich nas sufgested to defining and regulating tlie powers 
bn bv some otnervalioiis thai hftd of the com mission of teinds in aug- 
brai made daring the discussion of menliiig nntl modifying tbe stipends 
tka quotioo. It was agr«d, and of the Scotch clergy. ^ 
Mrmcd to be wished on all hands. An act was also passed, for en- 
tbt somelhing should be done to- forcing the residence of spirrlual 
«anls improving Ihe condition of )>ersun3 in Ireland oil their tMite- 
Iht inferior clergy. It had all along fices; and another to niattc more 
beeohisopioion, thallhebousewas effectual provL«ion for the buildhig 
pncrcding to legislate on a matter andre-buildingofchnpels, churches. 
Impeding which lliey had nolLing and glebe houses, and for the jiar- 
fte aile(]nale information before chase of glebe la/ids, glebe houses, 
tkon. Tliis want of due infornia* and impropriations in Ireland, 
tioa be vasanijous to supply. And Though (he petition of the Ro' 
Ae ol^ect of his present motion, nian calliolics of Ireland for com- 
as to endeavour lu ascertain the plete emancipation from all disabi- 
•DBiber of livings which were under lities whatever, civil or riiilitary, 
160t. per atnmm ; liaw gtrat would af^er the usual discussions, fvas re- 
be tbe sum necesuiry to bring these Jected ; agranlof p.S'ZOl. was made 
^bU livings up to 150). |wr an- fur Ihe current year, for the support 
mm; ami hou; long the |>eriod of oflheKomancaiholiccollegeafMay- 
Rme, under llie present circnm- iiooth. lu Ihe course of the ditcus- 
Aanect, necessary for the attain- sioiis that look place on this subject, 
mttAttf (bat object. Wilh^i view lo Dr. Duigenan read tbe oath of the ca- 
^ at which, he moved an humble tholic priests, in order to shew that 
address to his majesly, praying lie they paid an obedience to tlie |)<>pe. 
voidd be graciously pleused to di- which wasinconsistentwilhlheking's 
icct that there be laid before the supremacy. The provisions li>r the 
haase.snaccoairt of tlienunitteruf etluoatton of Ibe e^lHl>lisli<-d cler- 
ftrings-iDider 1501. per annum. gv, he observed, fell shorl of those 
llie archbistioj) of Canterbury proposed to be granteil to the pa- 
eipresacd bis Ihauks lo Ibe noble pints. Tbere were in the univenity 
baron .fur (tie pains he luid taken of Dublin 30 |>oor scholars, wlta 
ea this subject, and lib readuiess to got but a i'mner onet n dag *, and 
ce-opeiate with him lit the prosecu- 72 scholart of the house that got a 
lioo of his object. dintur once a day, but no lodgings. 

Tlie 

* Tbe doctor, no doulit, mrani onp meal a ilay, which was tlirir dinner. Evrn 
Ae Icflowi af Oafgrd and Cmubriilic, as far a» wc luve liera inlbrcied, dine bnt 
»«aday. 



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12S ANNUAL REGISTEB, 1808. 

Tbe doctor described ihe calholin nouM anaifi tbe igyorance, and 

as bad subjecU aud boslile to tbe piejudicet o/a great portion of the 

stale. catholics. 

Me. Bariwia objected to tlie use Tbe cbancellor of ibe eiclie^uu 

of such langua^ io speaking of observed, that Ibe memorial of the 

Aiur niilUoiu of hismajtst^V sub- calhdics ithicb bad led to tbe estj- 

jecls. blishntenl ut Maynoolb, cUimed uo 

Tbe speaker declared, tbat tlie pecuniary aid. The catholics pro- 
freedom of debate did iiol preclude miscd to dufray the whole expeuce 
such lasguage. Iheniselvei ; and though the gtivcm- 

Dr. Duigenan then repeated bis ment and parliament gave , llieni 

former seuliiuents ; aud he dechired 8,(1001. in aid of the object, Iliat was 

that, if any one would move to no reason why the couutry should 

withdraw the public aul altogether be subject to comtanUj iucreasiog 

from Maynoolb, he would lecotid demauds, for a purpose of wliich 

Ihe motion. there was no precedent in any age 

The original grant to the Roman orcouutry,thal,of educating, at the 

catholic college at.Maynoolh, was public e^peuce, IIk priesthood of a 

80001. Inadidiliontolhissum,tlie rehgion diflering widely from lite 

last parltainent had voted 50001. established one. He Ihonghl it wa« 

jnaking in all 13,0001.-^. Before as much as could reasonably be. 

this votr. however, could be carried asked, to educate 250 persons at 

ipto efiect, that parliament was dis- the' public eipeuce ; who, with 1 1 1 

solved, and when llic new parlia- educated in a private manner, were 

Bient niet, bis majesty's present an abuodant supply for the catholic 

ministers wished (o resort to the miniKlry. It was no part of reliifious 

toriner sum. But finding that tbe toleration, Mr. Perceval said,' to, 

trustees had acted upon the faith of make provision for the education 

receivins the larger sum, they bad, of the clergy of the tolerated sect, 

for Ibal one year, carrieil into eice- If it were so, the niiuisters of llic 

cution the inleoliot) of their ptede- uietbodisls, aoabaptislSt and saude- 

cessors. The sum of 9,250l. con- maniaii:), would on that ground 

nderably more than S.OOOl. but still have as good a claim to education 

more considerably less than 13,0001. as the catholic clergy. — This last 

was a kind of compromise between observation of Mr. Perceval, is no- 

sonlending opinious. ticed on account of the remarkable 

Mr. Giutlau, and other membcit reply that vis made to it by Mr. 

on Ibe same side of Ihe <|uestioii, G|at[aii. — " It was true, he nid, 

eontended, that a provision for ttie the roiiiialers of those sectarians 

education of 250 students tfould be were not educated at the puhiic 

ioHitficient to supply the vacancies, es|>ence; but theywere few itvuum- 

tbut would occur in (be catfiolic her iu comparison of the catholics, 

oleigy by deaths or <;asua!tles. By who formed the great body of llie 

reducing theg'rant of 13,0001. ayear, people iu Ireland." To what rala- 

thougb some addition had been uiities would not this principle of 

made to that of 80001. the bouse vesting political rights on the sole 



■ Sec ml. XLIX. Hht. Eor. p, Sfi. 

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HISTORY OF EUROPE. IfiS 

tea of Rnmbcn lad, if it were Hiat this rappl; in the prewM rtMe 

ptsbcd into aB Hi just conse- of Europe was cut «<t wtthoMt iMjr 

■tKHcs T When ll«f bome, in lb« prospect of a SuHkient reaouree iu 

DtmniitM of supply, April 29, di- tbe last year's crop of tlib country, 

ndnl on the question, there ap- ' ttNWf>bt H rigbl, as a precBatiob 

pnml for the larger sraol of a^intt teniiie, to Stop the distiUa- 
13,CC0l.— 38. — For the ntter of lim) ofcorrh wittt i view to aieady 

^^501.— 93. and iDimediatc, nt wetl '«• a more 

.^moog ibp mort important and ample and latisfaclory siipply of 

pRKtally intereiting laws enacted suslenance for Ibe people. He 

Bibntesion of parliaiiieitl, a dis- entered ii^lo a rariely of calntlh- 

li^tsbetl place b ocrupted by tbf lions to sllew, that the saving by 

Kt to prolitbit the dtstitltdioB of tlie prohibition of the diHilleries 

ipiritt from com or grain for a li- Would coTer more tban half the 

■Jtrd time. It may be T«co[lected lleficiencj created by the stoppage 

kj oor Trtders, that in the last sck- of importation, and mote than Ibe 

son of the lust parliament, the earl wtiole imporlalion of «aa I Lord 

«r Temple moved, in the house of Binning concluded «ilh morii^, 

tonuDuni, the appointment of. a that the report of the conmiTltec of 

ramrainre to cDo»idcr of ihe possi- inquiry be referred to a commilUe 

b£h and propriety of permitting - of llie whole home; ' and be wbKA- 

^ir and niohsses to be uwd iu dpated, from the moderalioa and 

wSeries and breweries ; not lo good sense of the geotlcfflea pre- 

tbe ndnuoB of gram, but on prin- . sent, that the wishes of the com- 

o;4et of fair coin pel i lion*. A com- mitlee would be carried into elfect. 

aoiice was appointed; and it was After a 1oi% debate on tbe question 

ttttfd by loid Dmning, cbairftian for Ibe speaker's leavmg tbe cbafr, 

<tf tbe committee, in the linnse of tbe house ttivided. — For tbe speak- 

nnmons. May 19, that it had be- er's learmg Ihe chair, that is, for 

tmnt necessary to ascertain bow going into a committee, 133. — 

tellte restriction of the distillers to Against it, !0S. A great alarm 

tkeaseorsngaranctmohuieswould was excited amonpt the agifcvl- 

ifcct the agricullnre of the coua- turists throughout out tbe whole 

tij. _ country, and many petitions were 

Hiii investigation, be stated, presented against the bill,' In 

W led to ibe knowledge of fecti both bousei of portiainent it was • 

■tith estabtitbed the wisdom awl opposed warmly, and not whboul 

wtsaty of Ibe restriction, exdn- plausible arguments, (lie most uitld 

anly of all consideratioo whatever of which, in our judgnwDl, was the 

rf the interests of tbe West Iiiilia lenderiey of the nirasure to preveal 

Hatdt: though ibe two questions that acciioiulalion of grain' in tbe 

Muld not indeed be separated, hands of Ihe farmers, which in thi« 

TIm commitlee finding Ibat this country supplies the place of the 

cwurtry was generally dependent magaitnes established in so mauy 

fn' a tufficient supply of corn and other countries. It (ended, if long 

Sour upon fore^n countries, and continued, or frequeutly repeated, 

to 
■ Vol. XUX. (1807) Hht. Eox. p. iia. , 

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I2t ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

to .ile|Hiv<e Ibe igriculluriEt of (bat i part of ^win, should ipreid ofti 
.mtrliet, which by cresting, a de- tbe v^ole of Ibat counb^, I am 
naoft for more, graiu (ban the convinced tbat liuce liie first bunt 
meie support of the population re- of Ihe French revolution, tlicre ne- 
. quires, mducea biiq to raise more : ver existed so happy an opportuni- 
to which- superabundance, in rase ty for Great Britain to strike a bold 
of"a, compaialive fiulan of ibe . stroke for the rcKue of the wor^d. 
crop,, reeowse can be bad fur sup- But, sir, it is said, ' if you do not 
.plying Ihe extreme and claimant dislrust the adniiiiistralion, whydis- 
.wanls of .Ibe people. The bill, cuss this subject in parliament!' 
aAcr a great struggle, ^vas read a Sir, I will tell you why. I am dii- 
thiid tiaie in Ibe bouse of Lords posed to trust Hdniiniatratioii. But 
and passed, on Ihe 3d of July. I nish first to declare, lliat, in my 
Bj this time Ibe object that was opinion, we niust not deal in drib> 
.paramount to all others in the pub- bJets : we mu&t do mucb or do- 
lic ,mind and heart was Spain. — Ibing. Why do I make this decla* 
The Spaniards, roused by the per- raliun ? Because iio cabinet whirh 
fidious and base conduct of Buona- has tiilberlo existed iu Ibis country 
parte and bis -agents towards llie — not even eiccpting that with 
royal family of Spain, to resent- which I had the boiiotir of bein^ 
uenl, indignation, haired, and re- connected — has pursued simply and 
venge, had declared in every pro* plainly one clear and distinct ob- 
vince, though without previous cou- ject. Instead of slritcine: at tlie 
cert, sintullaneously, aud with one core of the evil, Ihe admuiistiations 
consent, their £xed resolution to of tiiia country liave bitberto con- 
avenge llieir wrongs, and free' ifaeir tented themselves with nibbli)^ 
country from the lyranuy and con- at the rind, la this censure, I 
taniuiatipn of the French, or to must not include an Itonouiable 
perish in the attempt; and depu- friend near me, nor Mr. Buike. 
ties h&d come from the Junta and Ttiey would have proceeded direct- 
states of Ihe principality of Asturias, ly aud completely lo Ihe object 
to solicit Ibe aid of the king and which tliey bad in view, «- they 
government of Oreal Britain and would not have advanced to it a 
Ireland. step. But with these excqUions, 
Mr. Sheridan seemed to be no the ministers of EnoUnd have pur- 
more than the organ of the public sued a petty policy ; Ibey have 
- seutimenis and vows, when in the gone about filching sugar islands, 
. bouse of commons, June 15, be ' and neglecting all that was digni- 
rose to call the attention of the le- fied, and all Ibat was consonant 
, gislalure lb llie afikiis of Spaiti, to the truly undersluud inler^ 
and their utmost esertiuiu lo the of tlieir country. I wish Iherc- 
assistance of Ihe -Spaniards. " I fore, sir, la let Spain know, 
am far, said he, from wishing mi- that the conduct whicli we hove 
nistera to embark iu auy rasli or ro- pursued we will not persevere in, 
maiitic enlerprize in favour of but that we are resolved Airly 
Spain; but, sir, if the enthusiasm and Aillv to stand np for the ssl- 
aud animalioD,' which now exists in valioo of Europe. Ifaco-opcia- 

twn 



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HISTORY OE EUHpPE..A its 

llM mifc Spttin be expedient, it anbliinc eiertion, by lh< aAuniKe 
JmU be an e^etual ca-op«ra- t1»l their efforts wll) be cordially' 
im. I itpeat, that I am tarfrom aided by a gnat and powerful im- 
maJMdj's gorern- Uou t Sir, 1 tiihik this a awat iot- 
o ei^ge in any raah ro- portant cnsis. Never waa any thii^; 
CBtcrprini but if, upon so biave, so generous, >o noble, as' 
be the tUte of the popu- Ihe conduct of ihe Asturkm.' They 
in Spain, they find it is have magnanimously avowed their 
mmtd by a patriotic and cnthu- hostility to France, they have de- 
■Uic ardoar, Uwn, «r, all 1 ask clared war agauist Buonaparte ; 
it, ibtt ibal feeling sbonld be met tfaey have no retreat ; they are re- 
Wi«ritlicoTTCspondui|; energy and solved to conquer, or lo perish:, to 
'*fciai im. Buonaparte has hi- thit grave of the honour and ihe 
iWfM run a matt vicldrioua race, independence of their country. It 
Hikito he has had lo coateod a- is tint the British government may 
SMtftriDces without dignity, and advance to their assiitance with a 
■HOlcn without wisdom- He has firmer step, (utd ivilb a faoMei 
faagkt ajiansi connlries ia which mien, that I luive been anxious to 
iki people have been indifferent as afibrd this opportunity lo the Bri- 
tftlaincctw; be has yet to learn tisb parltan^t, of expressing Uie 
«t>t it is to fight against a country feelings which they entertain oa4he 

■ >kich the pea|de are. animated occasion, i move, sir, " That arf 
■itbooe spirit to retUt him. So humble Addresi be presented to 
b. ar, from bringing forward a his ma.ietty, that be wilt be graci- 
Mtiw prematurely to embarrass ously |jeased to directlbat there Ik 
b aijcsly s government, I solemn- laid tiefore tliis house, copies of 
b[ declare, that, if Ihe opportu- such Proclamations as have been 
Uy to which [ have alluded of a received by his majesty's secretary . 
'<;mo|b interfierence ou the part/if of state for foreign aBairs, and 
Esgbad should arise, the present which have been issued since tht 
ainiitiiiatiow stnll have from me arrival of the French army at Ma- 
ntocdial and as sincere a support drid ; whether by (he Spanish go- 

■ if lite man whom I most loved vemment, the French commandet 
*trtRstorcJ to life and power. — , in chief, or by persons since claiiiK 
blbit a vain discusuon ? Let those tng to act on behalf vf the Spanish 
■bo think so look at Ihe present nation." 

Me of Europe. Will not the ani> Mr. secretary Cauning admitted, - 

Mtion of the Spanish mind be ea- that Mr. Sheridan's speed), being 

<i>ed by the knowledge that thur moderate, called fbr a general dis- 

cwc is etpoused, oot by minidera closure of Ihe sentiments of bis 

■W, bat by llie parliament and majesty's ministers as might be 

Ac people of England T If there made without hasird, wiihout a 

W a disposition in Spain to resent dishouourable compromise, and 

UMiaHlts and bjuries, too enor- without exciting expectations, which 

Hits lo be described by language, might never be rcHllzed. He de- 

"U they have endured from the clared, that his mHJeet/s ministers 

lyiaot of the earth, will not that saw with a deep and lively interest, 

*— ^~ ^ roused to Ihe uost the noWe stiuKte which a part of 

the 

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126 ANNUAL-REGISTER, 1808. 

tli« Sptaitk-Utim wu bomp Kialda^ Fraitce ; byt it was dcenwd Irislilj 

to rovM tlw uncsampled Btrocily of impmpet, nat only by Mr. C»i- 

Ffuwe, tad t* prewrve ibc iade- ning mid othir mmKterialUts, bul 

' ptii<t«iKe of tbeir country ; aud by Mr. PooMnby, and others on 
that thvte eutted the itTOtigett di*- bu tide of the hoaie, to oomoMni- 
position on lb« part of Uie Brititfa catc t)ie iiiformalion moved for 
l^oTemnMnl te afford every pmcit- totiw wotM at the pTcicnt no- 
cable aid in a contest so magm- inent. 

iiiiDous. It VTOiild never occur to Mr. Sheridan said, that his only 

miuistry thai a slate of war existed object was, to awaken llie cbnntry 

betweeu Spain and Great Brilaip. to the opportunity, whicb if the in- 

Tliey should proceed upon the formaltoQ from Spain was true, 

principle that any nation of Europe miitht lead to the rescue of Europe, 

(hat started up with a deternitua- and' lo ihe release of <^>pr«ssed 

lion to oppCMe a povrer whicb, wbe- countries from tfae grasp of a rulb- 

Iber insidiously profesatug peace, or less conqueror. He had no objec- 

declaring open war, was the com* tion t« witlidraw bis motion, con- 

moD enemy of all nations, whatever vinced tlut mudt benefit might ac- 

migbl be tbe existing political rela- cnie, area from the present discus- 

tiniu of that nation with Great Bri- sioti. 

tain, became instantly our essenlial I'he saiAt interesting subject wa« 

ally. In lltal event liis m^esty's inlrodured idIo tl>e bouse of peers, 

m in liters would bare Ifaree ot>jecis on the SOlfa of June, by tbedukeof 

in view. Tlw 6rst, to direct llic Norfolk. 

uDJled efforts of the two countries On the third reading of tlie 

against ibe common foe. The Be> stamp duties bill, tbeduke rose, not 

' cond, lo direct those cfibrisin away lo oppose the bill, but at a mo- 

tbal M'ould be most beneficial to aient when parliament was voliog 

Ihe new ally. Tlie lliird, lo direct supplies for the current year, to a- 

tbose effort in a manner cooda- vail himself of the privilef^ of a 

cive peculiarly to BHiisIi interetls : peer of parliament, and offer some 

though llic last of tliese objects advice lo his ' majesty's ministers, 

would be left eiititely out of llie which the preseut posture of affsin 

question when compared with the sucgested to bis mind. It was, 

iilber two. however, by no means bis wish Xa 

To Mr. Wliitbread, Mho cnnsi- draw any answen from the itiinis- 

dered the third of these as narrow lers, which they should not deem it 

policy, subjecling tlkc interests of perfectly proper and safe to make. 

the great cause to Ibe minor con- Tlie most wanton ambition, the 

ccriis of Great Britain, Mr, Can- foulest (lerfidy, the most cruel op- 

^ipg, very consistently indeed wiih pressisn, had lately displayed tbem- 

what be Iwd just decbired, replied, aelrcs in Spain to a degree uuparal- 

tfaat in this contest in wltich Spain - bled, be beliered, in any age «i 

'wasembarkcd,uo interest could be country. These excesses had in- 

so purely Briiiidi as 3pa">^ suio- spired the Spaniards with beoom- 

cess ; no conquest so advanta^ous ing indignation and resentmoilt 

for Dritaiii, as conqueriu^ from mkI they were now endavouring 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. IS7 

bir^id Ibe pnv-^r wliicL was pre- more definite deterfumation of the 

fwin; to overwhelm them. TlierC grounds oii which they were pro- 

•B no itiMD but mutt wish BUctvss- ceediiig to act. He hoped mini' 

to I generous and gtllant ^>eople, slers would take a lesson from past 

tbn sirugsliog in the glorious cause experience, and recollect the result 

«fo>tioral independence. No man, of llie interference of this country 

he was rare, coald more cordially in La Vendee. He tliought it hi> 

•sii th^m success jhah he did, or duly to throw out these Itints, with- 

•wild ntor« Hillinglv concur in out espccljng nny detailed explana- 

tk proper iimns of promoltns llooof what iiiiglit be the viewiand 

■wt ensurin;; that aucceta; but iiiteotions of his majesty's govern-' 

■tot were the most pn^r condi- meiit 

tKMs, and Ihe beat mode of assist- Lord Hawkesbury, after bestow- . 

b; Ibe Spjniards } What |>arl were iMg due praise on llie candid and 

ha majckly's ministers prepared to circum^|iect manner in M'hich Ibe 

mt at so rrilicat a junclure 1 They noble duke had deliviired bis opi- 

hid al present in liiis country dele- nions on a point of tucli delicacy, 

flMes from the brave penple nf said, ihal the peojile of Spain had 

Spain, who seemed delermii^til In manifested a spirit aud delermina- 

ricm Ibe torrent by which they - tion lo resist the attempts of their 

■ete to l>e sHcpt mto servilude. iuvaders, which would have done 

ttma these and oilier sources, he honour lo the most glorimis periods 

liopeil they iiii^Iit l>e able to col- of their history, and which, per- 

Itct the b«^kiiifurmalioii of thereal haps, were not to have' been ex- 

dale of that counlry, and of tire )>ecled under llic )>ressure of such 

probabilily of succrsi, with which tonnidable difbcuUies. Such a 

ubold and hazardous a struggle scene, ev<!ry man in that house, 

a%hl be attended. Wkh such in- and in the counlry, must bail with 

tinnalioa before Ihem, what uould the livelicsl satisfaction. And w hut ' 

he their conduct 1 This was the every geuerous heart must wish 

ponrt that excited his anxiety. — should be done, in support of so 

WouM ihey hold out encourage- glorious a cause, his majesty's mi- 

wrut and asijislance lo the Spaui- nbtera would feci it iheir duty lo 

sob, nim wetc now in arms against do. With regard to what informa- 

>fce invaders, before- they saw any lion tliey had received of Ihe dc- 

fona of |^)vc^^nlenl established in sigus or the hopes of those brave 

■he cnuntry wtib which tliey could aiid resolute men who, in defence 

QMnmunicaltiT Would Ibey malie of tlieir courjtry's iiide|>cnd<-nce, 

cMniuoa cause with the patriots of were exposing themselves lo every 

Spain, before iNoy ascerlaiiieiJ the thing that a |>owerful and san 

principles on which Ihev were act- guinary lymot could dev^e and ia- 

iag, and the end wliiclr llicy were (licl, it coidd rrol be expecird lliat 

cBdeavnuriug to accomplish I He he should rrow unfold it. His ma- 

cnld not think il politic I o embark jesty'sminislers were fully seusibleof 

ii inch a cause, without some pre- Ihcextrenieimporlauceoflhisevent: 

lioui kiiowIrdi.'e of the designs of and, he trusted, they would be 

Ibc Spanish patriots, without tome found to have acted accord itigly. 

House 



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128 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

House uf Loitti, 4U) July.— By indeed, the greater part of Ibe 

virtue of a commission, the royal speech turned, as was natural, oti 

assent was given to a number of the Spanish nalian, loyally and UO' 

bills : after which the lord chaii- biy struggling against the tyrauny 

cellor, having delivered a speech in and usurpation 6( Prance, and 

Itismajesty'sname, tobothhouses*, tlierefnre uo longer to be consi- 

prorogued parliament to (he SOtlt dered as the encidy, but the allj 

of August. The concluding, and, of Great Britain. 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 129 



CHAP. V'l. 

fiwu^urtr intnt on Ihr Subjugation of Spam, by a combiwd Plan of 
'frrwhmi mid Force— Diiisiotts and Distractions in the Royal Fa- 
filil ef Spain. — Fitnfh Tronpa pmtred into Spain — Spanigh Ambai~ 
»ipr- at Pin-M. retarnn to Madrid with lattruclions from Buona- 
ftrit.—A Cinfrrenre brtioeen him and the King and Queen.— Prt' 
firation* of the Royal Family to emirate to Mexico. —General Mu- 
ni tdtanres trilh hi.' Kholr Army to occvpi/ Madrid. — Ferdinand 
fll.Nilinfmig lo conciliate the Fav»tir of Buonaparte. — Report of 
Bwaapmte't betn^ on his way to the .Spanish Capital.— Ferdinand 
feruaded to go to Bur^oi to meet him, and draam on to Bayonne; 
rlMer all the rest of the Hoyal Family of Spain are also attracted. — 
Cirnaulanres eo-inrident in point of Time with then Inlriguea.^— 
Drteriplion of the Frontier of Spain. — Fortresies and other Positions 
vaipied by French Troops.— On what Pretences.— Report that the 
Kittg teas preparing to leave Aranjuez, with a View to Emigration. — 
hturrection at Aranjuez.^The Prince of the Peace arrested and 
impritonrd. — Charles If. abdicates hia Throne in faroar of the 
Pritteof Astwrias.—ProciaimedKins under the Name of Ferdinand 
yn.—Firat Acts of Ferdinand's Reign. — Arrival and Reception of ' 
hhrat al Madrid. — An Occurrence at Barcelona of « nature most 
•upiriaus and alarming to the Spaniards, — Palriolistn of Count' 
upeUata, Governor General of Catalonia. — Effects produced by the 
Jnnfy of Ferdinand to Bayonne on the public Mind. — Interference 
»f Marat, at the fnttigalton of Buonaparte, for the Releasement of 
lb Prince of the Peace. — Unieersal Joy that had been excited at the 
Inpritonmrnt of this Fhvourite. — tlis excessive Etevatien eontraittd 
n(A his Fall.— Arrival of Charles IF. and his Queen at Bayonne.— 
Finltd by Bmmaparfe, 

THE Ireatji ol Tilsif, as observ- never be qiiiel so long as tlie so* 

td iu our last volume, was vereignty of a ueighbourbg, great, 

Wljr concluded when Diinna- and glorious peninsula resJdect ui 

putt, agreeably to wlial had l>e«i the house of Bourbon. The re- 

■mtd on between hinuelf and the duclinn of that noble country nn< 

'■peror Almunder, liirncd his eyes der liis own power, uppeared to be 

liXhtMcri ofF.arope, and resolved necessary to Ihe seqirily of the 

"* lb« subjugaliou of Spain and thrones he had already usurped. 

PwtugaJ. In this, it in*y be pre- and even to his persimal safety. 

iiaed, he fras actuated by a pas*. In tbe combined plan of Ireaclie- 

Hn itill more stimulative than his ry and force, which lie determined 

Mai lust of conquest. His fjuilty to pursue for the attainment of that 

vkI, thoutih perhaps inipeiitlra* object, it was his first care to fo- 

blc t^ the slings of reroorse, could ment discord in the royal family. 

Vol. L. [ K ] Th» 



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130 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

Hie ptince of Ashitias had trans- this aiuHcr diil not accord wilb that 
milled to liis latlicr s sketch Qf the afterwards transmilled by Buona- 
adniini-llralion of the princp of the parte to Ferdinand, in which Ite 
peace, charging him with a nolnrj- ' formally declares, that he liad re- 
ous Hdachmtnt and suhKrvieucy to ceived it. He vielded his consent, 
France. Bunniiparle, apprized of bbwever, to the king's proposal of 
this, itimulaled the niinisler to the a marriage between llie heir i)>- 
proceediiigs at the Escurial, in the parent and a French princes* of 
aninnin of 18D7; and then it was Buonapatlc's family, well foresee- 
bis policy to take the part of the iug that this would affurd a pretext 
oppressed prince against the minis- for tuterfering in the private con- 
leriaJ uppressor. He set himself, by cerns of the royal faoiily ; and, at 
■oiiriihingtlieBnibitionof l1ieson,tn any rate, that it would nitliliold 
excite the resentment of the fiither, or withdraw their atleiilion frnm ut- 
and rendered them mutual objectsot' terior measures for the fiiltilrnenlnf 
litis I rust, jealousy, ar>d liatred ; to his designs in the Peninwla. By 
disarmthetatherfronitakinfiprecau- Ihis conduct also he hoped to ^in 
tions against iheson, while he stillen- the goodwill of llie Spanish nation 
couraged the son iu his views of ini- in general, m it liad a tendency to 
mediate siiccesiioii; to seduce to his convince them of the sincerity of 
side all that was most respectable hii friendsltip tor .|><:rson9 to.wltom 
m Spain, or by infamous proposi- they were so tiiinly attached. |t 
lions aud surmises, to sabject them was, fnrll)cr, calcnhte<l to give cre- 
to (topular suspicion ; and, in n dil to (he insinuations of hi'< emis- 
word, -by striking a luottal blow at sariea in Spain, that Buonaparte 
the head of goTenimenl, and get- was secretly inclined In favour the 
lii^ into Ilia power, or under his in- cause of the prince of Asturias: 
fluence, or debasing the greiit lords while, thronj^h other channels, ihe 
to whom the piiUic eye might, at a minister, and favourite, Gwloy, (lie 
great crisis, be naturally turned, to prince of Itie peace, whose ainbi- 
tcir Rfiuudef all the bonds of the tious view.t must soon have been 
■ocial compact, and plunge the dc- discovered by a person of Boona- 
ficDcelcss nation into anarchy and parte's penettulion, was (»ivalelj 
confusion. encouraged to look forward to the 
Buonaparte, during his affected protection of France, in the ac- 
journey lo Half*, towards tJie compligbmcnl of Ins nefarious pm- 
close of 1607, lltougbt it now time jects. 

16 give an answer to letters he liail By this myhlerijous conduct Bho- 

reccived from Ihe king of Spain, de- naparlethrewihe king, tbequccn, the 

taiUng the parlicnUrs of the inysle- prince of Asliirias. aud the favourite 

rious arrest, aud release of the into extreme disorder. And wl"'*^ 

prince of Aslurias. In his annver, they were all of tbem under tbis 

istrHclion, ihe Freucb troops wert 

illered lo spread thensctveS o*er 

gnat portion of tlie SpanWi ^^ 

rilorj. 

T. Edk. P.STB. 



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HISTORY OF EUBOPE: , Ml 

iilM7. Safar 4id tliit infttualioii JiisdeiMLrlure.fuim the Spaiiith ca.- 

pnni im Ibe adniiDulretion fUni piUl, tlieir iiiiliratie^ began to sbet* 

trita mre bscied for recet«iqg a diipositiou to abandon bulk (li« 

nd Ircatiog tlie Freocb on a more nielrouolU aiiH llie Peninsula^ ^od 

tteni Kale thaa eveu iLetr «wb U> entigmle to Mexico. 

toojM. The recent eiample of llie deter< 

Uv; iDiporlant posts in Spain, miiiatioiii lakeii hy lite |^jal. riiniilj 

»«ellu tfie whole of Portugal, of Portug»r (wiiicli, as sonR' liav* 

bnig BOW in tlie |>ositessiun of llie conjectured, was not uniiiflueuced 

TttaA, Bnonaparte traosiuitted to by secret coimiiuiiications ftom 

tbeUagof Spain a cnmplainl, that Frauce) induced Bnonapatte to 

M fiirttier step* bad Ijeen lukeu ia form a bope ibat tbe example of 

it tSait of tlie marriage of llie the court of Lisbon, in the present 

Mif^ment with his relation. To perplexing and alarming [msluTe-of 

lb Clnrles replied, llial retaining affairs, might be Iblluwed by ihat 

feaaeaentimenb, be was de.sir- of Spain. But scarcely had the 

M tiat tbe marri.ige might take first reports gone abroad of Ihe iti- 

fJKe nnniedialely. Some further tenlions of the royal family of 

ftnedings were necessary lo the Spam to abandon the plac^of Iheir 

■Uoratiou of Buonaparte's pro- resiilrure, a rrsohitioii unetjuivO' 

jxi, and not being arillhig to cum- cally indicated by (be preparalions 

■t itme lo writing, he thought lie which were goiug on, when dlscoD- 

«>dd pot find a filler injirunieut U'ut ami fear wiTe exhibited in the 

tkaDoaEugetiiolzquierdo, wfioni niofi hvety colours in Ihe fealnrei 

kt kwt drtained in Paris, in a slate of all the inhabitants of tbe capital. 

(^ jmt dfjedion and terror, arl- and of all ranks and classes of per- 

Uj impressed upon him, that be ions. This alone was sugicieot to 

■fh ibereby be iiiduce<l ihe more induce their naajrslies to refnte the 

'ftdutly to execule his comniis- rumonr, and lu assure Ihe people 

aia, bj inspirins the royal parents, that they would not abandon ihem. 

nt Ibe ^vourite with ihe same Ni'verllieless sue!) was Ihe general 

^^ gs. Ia|uierdo was oTdere<i'to distrust, such ihe magnllude of the 

t^ to Spain: which lie did in a evils which must have ensued, and 

*J m^eriotu and precipitate such and so many the symptoms of 

asKier, According to bis verbal a fixed drIertMiiielion to emigrate, 

OUtmaOi be did not bring any thai every one was on tbe alerl, 

f|<pMil with bim in writing. On aud all seemed to be impressed 

^ anival, tiader these circum- with the necessity of preventing a 

^atts, at Aranjuez*, llie favou- measure fraught with so many mij- 

'*'< coodueted him lo tbe presence chiefs. The danger ii]rr(a«ed, and 

''tk royal parents, and their con- with this ibe tears of tlw people, 

••♦•fei were coaducled with so A popular commotion burst fortli 

■•diiecrecy, that it was inipoisi- a( Aranjuez, on tbe 17th and lyth 

"e Ibr any one to discover the ol> of March, like a sudden explosion ; 

]'<t*f hit uiasion. But soon alter the per^le being acludle<l tiy a sort 
[K2] „l 

nllie banks of llieTagm, twenty-Uife* 

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132- ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

afiosttactef ulf>preMmtioD. The idea, Ihat the toysl familv were al- 
favoiuite who, withoat the title lesdy on the .coast reaa; to cm- 
of liing, bad excrdsed all the bark; and that, far from merting 
fiinctiotu of royalty, and who ^< the sligbetest obslack on the jfnrt 
vonred Ibeacbeme of emigration, oftlie people, lliey would receive 
in Ihe hope of withdrawing lum- him witli opeu arms as their de- 
self, and sooM portion, at least, of liver and guardian angel. Hecon- 
bb enormous , treasures from the reived tliat tlie nation was in the 
vengeance of au oppressed ami out- highest degree dissatisfied wtlh 
raged people, was tlirown into pri' their govcroriient, not reflcctiag 
sog. Scarcely had Ibis tempestu- that lliey were only dissatisfied with 
ous scene lahen place, uhen the tlie abuses ihal had crept iato the 
royal parent'', finding themselves administration of it. 
deprived of the support of their fa- ' The instant that the grand duke 
vourite, the prince of peace, took «f hvrg Mnss spprised of tbe oc- 
Ihe UDex}>ected resolution which, curreucesat Aranjuez,'he a^vantcd 
according to Cevallus, they bad for with his whole army to occupy tl» 
some time entertained, of abdicat- capital of tbe kingdom : intendtngi 
ing their throne: which they at- no doubt, lo profit by Ihe occasioo, 
cordingly did in favour of their and to lake such steps as sbouM 
son ana heir Ihe prince of As- seem, best calculated to realize the 
Inrias*. Buonaparte, ignorant of plan of making himself masUr of 
this sudden event, uml.pevliaps, ne- Spain. 

ver supposing that the Spaniards Meanwhile the mysterious ob- 

were capable of such resolution, scurily of Buonaparte's projetls, 

bad ordered bis brother in law, Ihe proximity of his troops, anil 

styled 1^ him prince Murat, grand llie ignorance iu which Fenlinsnd 

duke of'^Ben;, lo advance with his VII. wasof the real objcctof Bno- 
army tov<ards Madrid, under the naparte's approach, as vas givt:a 



* According to a French newipaper, (and it is to be ri^rollrclcd tbnt no atvf- 
paper i> pnblisbed in Fnutre not correspoadent to tlie ideu and views uf Boo- 
niparle) one purty in Spain acctitetl tlie prince of peare of euinine into 
a projert with tlie queen hmelf, with wlioai he was univnsall; Iteliovrd Id b; 
m vtry paninilar aud mosl intimate ravonrite, for the niin of her son. tlic I'm a))- 
parent, nnder tbe pretence, of hit iiaiin;; engaatd in a plot lor the drthrDimacrl ot 
liiifatJier. Theprinccof '^Klnrlas, it waa added, liad been drawn into Uiiiconsj"- 
racy by the gHncestions ofliii priDCCra, hi* own <-niisin, a. duijriiler of the king ^tlw 
Two Sicilies, by ■ »i<ter of the ili-fated Maria Ahtuinelte of Fiance. Tbis pii"- 
cess, feeling tlie itecraderi <iInation in wliicLlier busband was lield Ifaroii^i lt>e >" 
flnenre ot'ihe favourite Godoy ovn the Mtcrrign, tunic, it was said, little pum Id 
Hnpprew her HHiiiaenrt on the inbject.— Her avertion to Ilie French nation cannW 
i)e a matter of surprije, ulieo «c rtSrcl on tbe iDdh^Diuei and qiiseriei brought hy 
tlien on berpareul.", and many otliei near relatives at Pari), at Milan, Hid at 
Florence. The qneen could, betides, di>eaver in the princes) of Antaiios, only » 
ribiiv; rival and a fnnire miitreM^ of whou- •entiments renpecTin;; her own roDdnr', 
public and ptivate, ihe probably wai net ignonnt. Wliatcver may hnve been tbi 
cause, it ii knowD tliat Ihe queen and Ihe [princess bad been for Mime time on no 
very amiable terms : no ttiat wtieu tbis yooiiV pi incni wai aualclied away by death 
in tier early year*, penoni were wt wauling lo suinii<e iha,l >lie had fallen a Mcn- 
ilcc to the arts of the queen, tbe favonriic, and ibe French i>iirti(an( >i Hadiii). 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 133 

<at, to Hadridt indncrd Ibit the mem tinir, enlCTe*) Madrid nl ' 

pmce la ulopi such measures at the head of >iii troop), and brguu, 

ipprated best calmlated to eon- without a mnment'i ttelajr, to »w 

(Site hb good vij]. Not ratisfird (he weds of diacocd. He s|Nike in 

•ith fau having comniuuicaled his a niyilerious mRimer^ Ihe abd»- 

Kwuion to the Ihrooe in the most cation of Ihecrown.executed amidst 

UatMy and affectionate lermt, llic the tumults of Aninjuf z, and gave 

\mf, Ferdimnd, apf>oiifted a depu- it to be uiHlerstood, that nntil the 

UlMo of three grandees of Spain emperor acknowledged Fenhnaiid 

Mproeeed to Ba>nnne, and in his VII. it was impoioihie for him to 

■KM to compliment liis imperial take any step that should a))prat 

BJeil)'. He also appointed ano- like an acknowiedgmenl, ant^ tlmt 

tbcT grandee of Spain to pay « si- he was under a necessity of Irealmg 

mlLir coitii<liment to (lie gmnd only with the royal father. Thb 

^oLe of Bers. who had already pretest did not^il to produce the 

urir«d iu tlie vicinity of Ha- effect which the grand duke iii- 

diid. tended. The royal parents, ' tlie 

One of ibe conlrivancet to which montent they were informed <if 
llt^ French '<i^nt had immediate this circumstance, availed tlienv- 
Mourse, was, to assnre the king, selves of- it lo save the favourite, 
nl lo spread the niniour in all who remained in confinement; and 
friers, that Us imperial majesty's in whose fiivour MunA professed 
mini in Madrid might be expect- to lake an interest, for llie mtepun- 
fd every moment. Under this im- pose of flHttering their ttnijesiles ", 
f(t»Mi, the necenary orders were mortifying Ferdinand, and toavin^ 
pna for preparing apartments in fresh matter of dbKord between 
the palace, suitable to the dignity the parents and the son. In this 
•f M augost a guest. And th« state of things, th« new king made 
Wb; wrote again to the erin^eror his public enliy into Madrid, wifh- 
lion agreeable it would, bf lo him but any other parade than Ike most 
><> be pcrsoBally acquaiattd Willi numerous concourse of the ea|rital 
tsmajesly, and to aasare Mm with 'and' Its environs, the strongest ex- 
tm own tips, of Iiij Btdenl! d^re lb pressioni of love and Royally, and 
neagtbeii more and .m9rc f||p -^r. ■ scclamatioiu which sprung from 
hioce wUirJi auUisted between tllft i tile joy and enlbusiasm of his sub- 
two sotcrc^wa. • ■ jects — a seeiie, says < Cevaltos t. 

The JMtiddUtceofBeit^'had, iii (wliom, with ioriie abridjmenl, in 

■".:;".■ ■■ .'.V ■ . [K.3] . .. this 

fi to (lie.Kiaiid dnke of Ben, implarlDi! Iiin inlervralion 
i6*>v "tA hrdatfaii^ aH Uie fond Btlarluneiit and satiety 
nuHMPDoiMa.wanMa^ wiU^seeMHi Apptodia to tlia'Clikeiikle,p. ^40. 

I Eii|Ki«ltiDD ot'lbe prbotic«iBPd±acliiaatian* wkickleiltolheiuuipiiHiDof ilic 
aawn ^ Upm, »ad (tw mnm hdnjited I>y Ike emperor of A* Prciicn to carry it 
Wa enrculw^ < bv Uoa Pedro Cevallot, lint tecrctwy of Hate, ami ili<:piitdm to 
k»c»Uiolkn«)es^, Ferdinand VII. Tbersisbat alitUn iMiontonnKpcct Cemllc* 
<f a tersatilMy- <* chuwrtCR Aftur.acnrag'ChaUa IV. umlcr tite iiriace of the 
r'aKthe went inttitkeaarnre aiFeKlipaiul,'wim Bnonaparteappc^rd iolb*oar 
ttat ^wuf piiM«. He aeconpanied'ba itew matter to Bajomi*. He was ihoic 
■tptuled la aepiliala witfa-Iha Ftmidi agent,. when Ferdinand «u dtsired t« mig," 



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134 AiiNUAt EKCrfiTEHj U08. 

ttiia ^it of our«niMU'weMI«iv) induce dM linftnt Don . CarlMi 

tfiily^ran(laiMlwipFedsiiw,:i» Wbkti (o vt' fiiit to Mccive bis imperial 
{be yniiBg kiui;;fwea seen like a ft- - uiBiestji Hajwlton, on lle'sufpoi^ 

tlwr in iIm mitht at bis chiUr«A, bes tbat Iris rojuri ^)ngbne« Must 

«hlferiHg bisiCiipilBl, ai the regene- meet hau before hs iriMuld Imtc 

Tabv and giiarcfon of the raoaar- prooe«de<l tw* damson bUjoarvey. 

chy. OftiM^ixae die-f;raiid duke His mt^eaty, :FenliDa»c(^, acceded ta 

of B«T|! was a wit««u : iMtt lur firov tbe prafwud.' The enud duke liad 

Mbaudunitig hia>pltw, be resolved to ao sooner sutAeeded in ptnoaring . 

tierae^ere in jt'.wilh greater srdoor. the deputure of Den Curios, than 

Tbe experiment npMlbeMjral pa- he-«nwf«ted the meat anxihuade- 

'itnti .prodtioed ihe detired effect, ^ire that the king sbeuld do tbe 

B«twhik<tFertiinaml,llieidolof the aauie, leaving m means niitried 

A<tinn, was.prcwiit, it. was impoaai- lo.persnade his majctly to take thia 

'bl^ t^Scarry IkepltiD into raiecution. dtap, asatuing'Uiui that it would be 

]t WiW'lherefbre n^easary loimake -alUntkd 'byi the happiest conse- 

'*yitry»S<iH to eemot^ this ^iocie qilences to the king and tlie wbolc 

sfroiji Madtid. Toacctanpiisb this ;kin^Mti. <i 

ofaje<9l, : ihw gr^iid dnke' was ck- r At tbe skmc line that tkc gratitl 

.tntmaly asMuMV is sheading r«- duke of Berg, tbe Fceoch ambaosa- 

fpaTtp:af thearrivalofia fresh -nau- idon, and ak the' olbcr;a^Dti of 

irier &M1 fwht ami 'Ibat -tbeiem- Fnnoej treDe prtfcecding in tkm 

^rfX'.uii^ght be UKpeclrdsfwedily coufsa, Ihcnr were, od' the other 

,ta.aisti^,w tlieSpviM^citpil*)- He -hatia, busily era|>loyed' irith ibe 

^t,ili«i««M*, .ioitteiitiist piaoet'tD .r8^l^)ai«D(9lo|iT»oarefn>mt(Kni 

ii-iwlT'l .-■•■-:. !■• 1 '.i ; r.lv •;':■'■. ■ ■'■■.■•. a fomutl 

b^qiNH) •tvp«i^icaiK(i(joW| , ^>acci^^.t((4iu 'ow»B4Btenient, befOR fo\M4 

iHMiW.'in Hii tk^mykfMh prihitWiiiMei'.' 'Tli'«h Shm% tHStm iMtiDhal aOfi 
of 8|M>aAlvr«d niidia dinn^.'amVai-lie IliMgh(,iM>Hkana»r«!i<HHt current, coau- 
terJ«4^W''l>u'J)i(''ftl>>'m4iinfiMilt(et]r>(MltftMrvncvflri>llnecrjtMsfer. fre 

'" Ai(l> reevifl to CevhUos KihucIT, it ts not Mouih to say, tbal Btt«r M Ms pwtcadMl 
>Hrt^at;DniiM^t'tHeiH^i4n7pt^dVto!eDee»JaH«MlB^ 

-flMr^;llekmMlt<dl»<«KJ^tJofUte^eiifltaratMhUierito«Mt'fci«tKNspeleon, 
fqd-rfcffhj mvtttal aftfkel o^- 'Vhfrr >' do honest msn to whavjni own Mate- 

'hold, uiy more thin ibis revinter, *■ our belief frpin the siory ha tella of the mio- 
lence and the aolrai^oiia ii>ur|iBttons of Baau^Hirte. It bean upaii it ibc intrinsu: 

itdiaraattTof trnthj -ttiieoHcip<tadie<taetlr,jiMinlyt>ill|'tbeRtiiet«lebarM!tcrof 
-tliAftrS'ins reprcMMlwJfvbat wife tbenMUd eaaetutltf JDe tnftiMunhn il proTeMei 
to deMil— bareliteoAidialtTUiilJiHhiait Abebood, asU «pi« '(er<iM«iH •MMiee.'i— 
BdtDhareh H«vie«i,<04lalrffiiena,]>. Utl>..'BHeacaKared4hgriBeirti'tally'iTith odc 
anuUier.ao tn W fo*i torsa^ ediAae. It'lrorildaot-beimdibteal'aay Mebatof 
£(Mhaparle,i of iibon it hsi beiea »id, Ihathe "nirittS'tbe tm]>etDaiky of Hw 
Frenckv (b^ Irescherom aabiMyaC tiienibdefn Itriini'Bid tbe lfa«e*aai and iMi. 

. gi^TTiemiMrof fcftCo'lMcaHit .'Wie nre««miao>ie«nw m ia^i l *ettH«i*fc«l¥<MBe . 

.McniiitiiodnaadilBao>a'fictiti«nijaarTMiMtilinrhifei Hkciotbe#<6cliouSi«««dMII^ 
bfuremSatinHy %a.iibit is poaenlly-fciCHrtiief hoqiaa oatare. — /*tiMMa*«nul«Wn 

-jto^Mia.phi ■««■• patwt. Bnibi, Ibe^atsoi^iiiy faaportHeeitt ihe nunOwt 
Ceiallos, are loo recent and uotoriaiu to be diipntcd. 



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HISTO.RY OF EUROPE. 133 

■ fanMlrratcttig^iB*tilwab«lict- tbaae »f tbe hh^ hu biber; m 
iH of Ibe cro«u. His fu^i«il?, whicbcaMllKcinperoiwoiildftmii* 
Fwfm mmI Vll. bang iiKCHHDlly all comidcntioiw «f wImI IimI pM- 
■pd lo go to meet tlic Prancli Mtd, ia no degnc UufeM b Uw 
«^a*r, pttiafwUj bntdled be- iutcntal ctmccras of ibe kingiAMiir 
)■•■ (be necfMly of perfomiing Wi4 twniMliMcly recogMM fcis ■«■- 
a «* »f coiirtci;, which be wr* jest) ai kii^ of Spain i^ Ibe 1»- 
•HKd iruwU be aHcDdetl witli diet. Th« mMt ntisfMlor]! UMMT 
aih »dmtUgtmu resnlls, uid bis was given to gcactal Swnrjr, aad 
■fcicttuLL to abandou bis loja) and Ibe ruuvenaUoo was caatkiocd ia 
WMnl iieofde ia such critical dr- terna aa SaUeiiag, tiwi pa tf i i a g 
mfclMU-j . C«valloade^i3res,that more couM bave bent deairait. TM 

■ lb embsrramug sittiaUon, iiis audiente Jerminiied wkfa •■ aBW-- 
i>B)taaf o|»BipD, as tlw ting's rai- mux. On Uw put of Suntj, ifcat 
Htrr, was, Ibal Ilia niajestv sliould tbe eaipetor bad alreMl^r kft Paai^- 
aat la\e bio Qipital .until be sbuuld tl»t he was twar Bajroancv aw) an. 
Ipc nceind fltrtaia infoniialjon his waj lo Biadiid. 

te tbe cMBpctof bad adoally ar- Scaiiedj had general Savarykft 

■ad m Sfwu, and was ob fail way the aiHlicnce chanber, when b« 

mi mgmr lo U>dr)d ; aod that even brgau to Make the BMMt urufsl 

tn ba tbauM oolj p«ce^ to a appUealiou to the kiag to waM^ 

^"^- aa sbort ai not lo reader it fotptmr, assuring him that llma^ 
tenlim waald Iw very etaleftil amt- 



J u> skep OBc night out of tenlim waald hr vcrj gtalefti 

U».i*piiaL Hi* ai^iesly pernsted flattehng lo bis impeml nuyes^. 

ImMmedfLjt IB Ibe rcMlutioo of And be affirated so rr|>eaUdl]r,' 

■tqoftUng bfadfid, until be sbould and in aacb positive taims, thai tba 

■Mat «nlma advice o^NafmleoaV emperor's arrival migbl be expected 

^fmacb. And be would liave every numeDl, that it wa»iiiipoas»r 

fMNbl) cMitiuued in thai deterrai- bk, Cevallos observes*, Bot to give 

MioB, bad uol ibc ariivyl of gene- credit to his aasecliont. Tbe kii^ 

srf Savat; added greater weight to at length yiekhd. Tba day ap- 

tka animated solicitatioas of Ibe pmuted for bis depatture arrived^ 

' - ■ ^ and lliQ aiubasmdor General Savary, aflpcting the moat 

. Gcoefal Savary was aealoas and assiduoas atbnitiaa to. 

I as Ibe envoy from tbe his msjcsly, soliciled tbe hDnotK-vf 

>r, and in that capadly he accompanyii^ bim on bis jouiwey, 

^IBaBded an audience fram the which, at tbe fiirtbcat, accordiag to 

Ui^ which was immcdialely grant- tbe infannatioii which he had jtnt 

aL Sawv profcescd thil he was received of the onperaf '■ approacl^ 

■MbylbccsBperarmerclyt'ciNB- caubJ not extend beyond Burgas.- 

linesa bii. majeAj, and In know The ktog, daring his abseste, 

afathar bi» aenliaienb with respect snppoaed lo be ooly for a few day^ 

li Ffaaw were cpofotmable to leAal Madrid asaptraiejunlnf of 
[K 4] government. 



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13« ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

gareniiiinit, coBntting of Ihe secre- To lupport hU ownaontbUocy, he 

ttriet or >Ule, usualtj^ five in num- wilt probably begin bv gt*ii)g 70U 

ber, the prcsiflent of wbidi was hit the title of highness, but in Hvt mi* 

UDcie, tbe infant Don Antonio. — nutes be will f>tve you Ibat of nm* 

Oencral Suvary, in a Mparate tar- je*ty, ani4 in Ihree days every thing 

ngt, followed Ihe kin^ to Burgos, will be settlerl, and your iniyeslT 

Bnt tbe emperor hot baviog arrived may return to Spain immediatoty. 

tbere, the kii^, urged by tbe earned Tbe king, afier Ro.-ne besilalion, 

and pressing entreatie* of geoeral determined to proceeil to Bay- 

S«vary, proceeded to Vittoria.'The onne^ ' 

general, convinced that bis mBJesty Scarcely liad tlie king of Spain 

had reiolved to proceed no farther, get foot on tbe Frencli territ«ry, 

continued hit journey to Bayonne, when Ite remarked, that no 'One 

wbb tbe inleotioD, no doubt, of came to receive bin), until on his 

■MMinUng Uie emperor of aU Ih^ arrival at' SI. Jean dc Lui, Hw 

baa pmcd, and of procuring a let- mayor, attended by the municipar*' 

ter mm him, which should deter- lity, made his appearance, ih* 

luine the kin|r to separate himself carriage slopped, and lire mayor' 

Irom his pcoplet At Vitloria,- bit addressed hit majesty in the most 

n^ty received informalbn that lively eipressions of .foy, at having- 

Napoleon had arrived at Bour^ the Imiour of being the first to 

dcaux, anfl wai on his way to Bay- receive a kin;, who was the friend- 

fMme, where, in fcci, he arrived and ally of France. Soon after b^ 

with hit spouse, on the 15lh of was met by the deputation of three 

April. While the French Iroopa grancieei, who bad been sent off 

were making suspicious moventcnlt by Ferdinand before to meet the 

L in the ncighbonrfaood of Viitoria, French emperor ; and then: rfpre— 

general Savaiy made his appear- sentation, with respect -to t^ie inleO^ 

since in that city, with a letter lA tions of Napoleoi>, were not of the ' 

Ferdinand, from the emperor of the most flalteri:ig nature. He -was ' 

French, dated at Bayonne, April, nmv, however, too near Bayonne 

l6tb*. To the contents of this to think of changiug his crfurse ; 

letter, general Savary added so wlierefore he continued his joiirttey. . 

many and such vehement prolesta- Tbere rnnie ont to meet tlie kin;^,' 

lions of the interest which the em- the prince of Nvnfchatel, and Dn^- 

peror look in Ihe welfare nf his roc, menbal of Ihe palace, with If 

majesty and of Spain, ibnl he even delaclmeut of Ihe iiiiard of honour, 

west so ht as to say, " I will sut which tlie eittzens of Bayonne IukI 

fer myhead to be cut off|, if, within formed to elteiirt his niajesly Naptv- 

a quarter of an hour after your ma* Icon, anil tliey invited hit majestv lo 

jesty's nirival at Bayonue,*tlie cm- enter Bayonne, where a place hwl 

peror shall not liave recognized you baen prepared for his re&idence t' 

aa king of Spain and the ludies. which he did on the ZQIh of April. 

Tbe 

* Sm tbit letter to appendix to Cbronict?, p. Sir. 

tThetqte ofthiapnitealitian, which it that of « low bred Anffianiilconglgiiiuiriis 
thr coniTMi ItttwccD tlie CMirt of Frwce nader tbe Baurl»wi>,aiHt under the sm- 
gmntiy Ihurper.. 

t CcvalliM da«< not ftil M ancrt here, that this ftta) atcp wu uken by hit ma- 
jewyewitnry tahi»«iigDMls, >ad thoM-ot' other penou) ID his trwn, as «dl «s to 
the sapi^Malion of the loya] city of Vittoria. 

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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 137 

Tit nuiiteatt piqnred for tlie exposition in an ioeident&l and the 
^■ppeued to all, and was, in digblat manner; wittch was snfli- 
ffsfilyi but tittle railed to the guest cient for hbipurpose. 
•fe «■■ to occnpy it. Tliis re- From the period of ttie defec- 
■ttlaUe and cxprenive neglect (ion of Spain, in 179^> areordin^ 
ttaaed a striking contrast with the to the treaty of Basle, fnmi the ge- 
*died fnagnificence with which neral coahlion of European jmwers 
Ike king had prepared for tbe re- against France, Spain had sham 
ciptiM of fail ally at Madrid, l^rself so entirely iiibniiuive to the 
WUe Uie kiiig wnt taken up with TariAus rulrrs of tliat distracted 
M>tt coDcemiDg (he menniagof country, as lo app(:ir ralher'in the 
I rKeptkM he so little expected, light of a sttbordinare province 
tiwii infomted that the emperor tlian an iitiJependenI slate, and that 
■n on his way to pay hka a visiL even in the dosest bonds of aniitj 
Is inpenal majesty arrived, ac- aod alliance. The loss of fleets 
nnfnaie«l.by ■ nnmber of hit ge- and colonies, llie complete jnter- 
■rali. TUe king went down to ruption of all matitiuie commerce, 
tke street door to receive hiin, and and of all regular and certain cnm- 
Mbroonarchs embraced e;icli other municatioii witii lier ■ transallantio 
virii every token of friendship and possessions, -on which she more ini- 
JteOion. The emperor of the mediately tlrpenife<l f->r reveiwe 
Fmcfa staitl bat a ekort time- with Itian any oilier European state in 
te n«ajcsty, andtheyembraeed each similar circiinisia trees, nor repealcit 
"Aer a^ln at partin>. Soon hfter, demands ot ^lecuuiary aid, nor the 
Mirdfai Doroc-emne to iiivilb tbc aggreeate lif Hie whule of lliese 
U^C to dine with (he cmfKroc,' conaitlcntinns, litid beeil able lo 
■k«e catriu;:e9 wer^ tnmiH^ ttV rou9e11leS|tttnis!i government from 
amtty the king to ttie'taslle of t^ denradiii^ iYa\e of- Idhargic 
Uamc, Kboat-the (l^rnice- of ai jiibseniency, -A 'trn'W't'wit and' 
xiie ami au hatf frmrf Bayonne;' natiw 'ibat- setnint Wi (levoid' of 
vbndhii impariulni^^ty ^iided, spirit ilhri lAiderstaitdiH^.naiiinilly 
■hichac^rdirfjtkt^Kik'piace. Na- tcntptlHI' trie iinhonii'lwf' aoiMtion' 
fokao came as f A as lbesie)n «f of the iiieti wlio, siiiee l!>t cud of 
ibecoafch lattiU^v hm mfljestvi' Hie yea^-l7pl), reintiWt iviHr des^io* 
viA hawing «iMm«of»(I>Ii1ii> agaW ite iM» in VvMi^i H«ly; flUrt |tarC 
kdifmn bv'Mia haHirMtlieflfan-' <if<i'}titiiiiif. nifeTfcat^concluderf 
■earproviiteit fwliim.- ■■ ' • ilf Tilsit in' llif'sumintt- wf ISO?/ 

Leaving, for-vlillle, thr sinipli!' aS'liasbeeif'reliiffii in i)ur last wo- 
avlill-toed Ferdinand ifttlKlitindt- luffif; 'liail'lml nfily tehhii^led-lh<t 
of Baonaparte, Kke KIotMezcunHl iit- wdV between Russia tiitil' Franc?,' 
those of -Piiarfo, we rrlum'to ilo^ bnt^TmueHe'l Hie'einpi^ror Aleian^ 
■** certain 'ciMMinvtaiices coincl" rterwjltr Bncittapartt', iiV tii'i so in-* 
Jratwilh'ibe nmn aplkin in ' lire liinalethai,'insteMl of apprehending 
^nata, in point of time, iind cdii- from tiiin any obsirurlion or intcr- 
uKled with il by otiirr rehlioiis ; -f-iiptiun in tlio vxccu,'ii>it.*.)f tiifi pro- 
'■kliicb citcunulauces weie either al>; ,iectSrlic.(Icp<.'niled on Ilia watchful 
together foreijju lo ihe design of MOKioin of liis new ally lo avert 
C^alloa, or ontv glanced at in his atiy-hostilc'ntlcmpf,' if'stich could 

rcan-i 



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138 ANNUAL REGISTE R,' 1808. 

Kalljf bave been appreb^ odeH, on Agnwaltly to Ibe ttm*vt of tboM 

lib dominioDS, ur lliote of the cou- wcr«t eafpigeiMnts vk^ Buonil- 

federaled stales under bis prolec- paite, whde ibc Qowcr of Hif~ Sp*' 

lion, andj it tnay be added, not Di«li array had been transk'rred to 

only bii iDlliience butitulliorUy. As the north of Gernnnyl, with a 

be had provided for Mcurily in Wis view, no doubt, to lite ituijeet now 

te^, io he bad sinoolbed the way going fotvatd, boilitM of Frenck 

. btUiK Itini. his ultimate projects troops were speedjt^ Bceumiuulti«d 
is tlu! I'eninsula were so dextrousljr at riiffivcnt poinis <tS tlie iiurtlNfli 
eouceided. or disguised, by pro- frontier of Spain ; of which tracAM' 
tetfiuns of the siiicerest frieodsliip*, it juay be proper here la givfri) 
and pretended plans for the par- b*''^ detcripliu|i. i- ,^ . 
tilion aud settlentent of Portugal, The uoble Pepbitula. OotDpre. 
thereby to secuie to Spain a free lieniling £f>ain and Portugal, is 
(^oiniufiicatiiin with lier Atlantic washed ou. all sideS; bf the »ra. b 
posKssions, tliattUe prince then «« joined Io France by an UtlimtlsAM 
the, throne of Spain, Charles IV. miles iu bieadlli, acPnss which. Ib« 
was far from imagining that liis line 9f demarcatiua . betwoen tbc 
great ally beyond the PyreQeeii eounlries is formed by tlu Pynb- 
coujd possibly entertain any design tifes, a tbain of aioufHaias the ai- 
bostile to the interests of bis cr-owu cond for elevalioii in Eurofie. el- 
and dominioua. On the contrary, lending from Ihe angle of tlte Bay 
Charles, by a tvoeful iofatualion, of BiKay in a south easterly drre^ 
was induced to connect himself by tion, to their abutment od the Me- 
^Kcial treaties with Buonaparte, tliterraoean. Across Ibe I^raicet 
for the f xprets purpose of assisting frequekt lateral vallics prcMut e«itt- 
btni in sei^iug the continental pua>- niuaiqatiooi between Frmuce and 
sessions vf the queeu of Portugal. Spain; of which. bowcvBr, fram 
with whom be bad been long uniUi^ political, but citiedy from natural 
by the fimit^st bonds of inieimar- obstacles, uone have been made 
riage, coqsaoguinjly.and anci^iital- practicable for oarajt^ea except lw«: 
liancef.' , Nut only the natusf and one at each extremity of ibe range, 
object of such treaties ought to At the western estremity the road 
have awahened the Spaniaii monarch. fromBayouncfaUoi^JlwseaGoastto 
to a sense of his sijuatioji, , hm also llie river Vidsssoa, Ibere sepaistiog 
the circumstance, thfit they jiadbeea, the two cotsitries. over whicb a 
coit^ucted by uieana of a ptifate ferry carries the trawelter into Spain 
n^otiator ^nt to ttie court of at Trun, « small opcfilowD, a cau- 
Fntuce, us^ulhorized and unknown pie of jniles below, nhicb. at the 

, to ^^1 brif^cb of the Sftafliftlp adT mouth of the Vidowoa, stands the 

illin|Btraliai( to which, all similar town atid fortress of Fwtanbia, 

oegvciations.were wont to be Gonv ope of the keys of Spaiir, and a 

nuinicatiei), and entrusted. place- jof impurtanee uolili (be ae- 
, , cesiioB 

■ Id a Prencb nempftper, Pebnilrj 1308, is an article, ilatiug, ttiat fifteeu m- 
)t«rb bonH, richly cspatisoued, hul passed tbroo^ Ba^oniic, in dMir way Io Ms- 
ilrid, wot brBoanaparteasapreMqt tothekiaauflipaui. 

t See Vol. XLIX. UisT. Eur. p. STB. 

* p.«. 



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HISTORY OF EUROPfi. 1S9 

onoti of the boiite' of Bonrbail pHutin, tbc ibortMt course lo that 
to Hw Hkom o( -that' kingthm. capital. . , ' 
Flom Ifae VklosMM^ ihe road learfi In aMition to' Hie nalutal ram- 
is ■ Cutting directton lo (tw loolta- part of the fyrenriMi, ilic Spatriah 
««t,«ra<t«aH;(Mcrmlin»lh«>KiHii- jtowenrtnent bad not iw Reeled, in 
ttnVor fifty niHn,- and then ci'm- fermf r ttmes^ to itr«ng(hhi' certain 
M;; (he l i i g e, dnceiids into (lie posiliens ' conimaodhig Ihe most 
fhim of the Eti«, Ihere passed, pratticable entrances info Ihe Jting- 
■Mditierbya bridge or « fbrd, doiw. Hie fortress of Pontarabis, 
hat bv m ferr^, althon!^ Heaftf 500 &t the moiitfi of the Vidus&oa, ma 
■iln from its jwiCli<>a Willi the vlread; menlioned. Twelve miltf 
Medilrrrdm^u. Frorti Ihe Ebro farthei' WHsnard.ori a lew isthmus 
the vAad heixhvmmA to tiM west- between two small bays, stauds St. 
wa«d by Burs^os, VaMilbli't, end -Sebastian, a nndi frvqirented sea- 
tf i i m* ' le ^jallnd, distant' 300 'port.- ft is ^uiroiihded wilb walls, 
wlcs froiH't))e froitlit^ of Fmnre. btsides which, it Is defended witli 
Hw f-omMiuiiicati'Mi' 'fnMi Pranee baslimis'and half luoons; and the 
to SpMn at the eattern estremtty ')oAy - penmsular,- nd rocky biH 
•f (ttC PvreuMcsi proceeds fVom Which connects Ibf ; isthriiiis witli - 
Fefpi^nSM, acrusA tlie plain' of ttfe ittain land, is emwoed With an 
BouuiHon lo tttefocrt >»flhe mooD- ancient castle of ^rtnt natund 
laJD*. tliev* waAod Ity a deep and ■trengfh, coraraandiu^ ' the town, 
rqnri torrent, then ap'it witiHbg ind tteinleU of the se^ on eapb 
atftey «« the sMumil'iFf'ttK Onrge Side.' 

■f 8 t I I I g arde, w4tich ' dirides '' AMess to the' inlerior of ^pafa, 

Frawc e 4^ioin Spaio, -and » com- by tlie dnrcfroad frofA' lUyoniie, 

fkett t f-*x»t»iB»ad4A by tltt forireas across-tlie Pyrenn^-tn Madrid, it 

«f ttnt name, intpending over its 4i^rred by the town and fortreu <i>f 

W € tei'Q aide. The deKcrft on the PaHipeluna, slluattd on a sllgllt 

M«tl», 'tAo(4er <(Mif 'ttrai' Od'the de^ttWi, partly surrounded by a 

Mrth, ibtit^ tlta 1^\'etl^r to La smaH river in 'the nmHl df a IqH^ 

T^ia^i<*Hi,'a iinalt vtllaf^, ^d'the plaitt, ftmu lUo' to thre^ miles in 

iM«>'lll»ce''i» Spain.. 'TIrt noun- brtadth. The town H iricltts^d by 

«Kia - •(■«« (oMsting aT only one ali^ ^tfrki, adapteif 'lit-ttil<'iF]>fln of 

iiiga. the 'dlMaBce aerOts from the grMnid: but Hietiliidfel f'f'ft't'b- 

pbiD'tt>ftain,%«he-r«ad> ia'«My ;g(llit-'fitrt«'cM,' Mmiiictlid'wtlh tile 

■kMU«we ^ri)ciU'''"Pt«m' La l^HI- 1awn;'^rch» well suppfied- -irith 

^DMalI>eMlHliri«dHall|^af^prOl^li^ ejtVy thing neM^Ufj', add gsn^ 

ihr«t»stofllieMeditewati«Guii |ta»- ■otiM'-, ami allfaiMgh,' 'afJceHahi 

iktg fe^ Fif^nii sod 6«ro«tl to -pohits, -fijrhafti loO 'hMr>t«; ^onfe 

Bail II limn and thence by Lerida high' grounds, yet not to be car- 

usd Saragoan to Madrid, dbtant ried but by a namerous attackiug 
kf^timr joale .960 miles fimar dw. army, aA«r alang aDdfftHD«l in. 



ADOl>er mtttn fVihpiented pass, .France, by ';n«^s fff fljie foff^^ 
but ft pnly,foriiaBl^.i?Hdiior,ses,i» ,pf Be(lega«le, b* iog "iii . pwcewoa 
ainated io dieiaad IsMdidg.MiBlii ■ of tfeeea»tainpaa>>.«f tlM-^nm-' 
(ran Bayoonc to Hadrid 1^ ftn- tmi. Spam hu forlneti at Figueraa, 



D,g,t,7P:hy Google 



140 ANNUAL REGISTER* rsos. ' 

a sBiaU town eight tpilu from llt« tiie a<tJoiinag pUip, tud the har> 
foot of the mouDlaius, a very con- bouf; which ii formed by abead- 
siderable work ou a regular plan *, iog, low neck of knd. lined wiUi a 
ounpleteljF, commauding all Ibe nobtc mole of great eKleot, enclot- , 
Burrounding counti^, and qualified ing ipace for a great number of 
to make a long resistance to a vtvy vessels. Tbe water, however, iitoo 
numeroai army. About, twenty sh^otr for receiving large ships of 
miles to the southward of Figueras war, tbe land coiiataotLy aocunm- 
slaiidsGerona, aconsiderable town, la ting at the entrance, as happens 
defended by readable works, on in all barbbun deslititte nf a river, 
an eminence, washed by tbe river or other backwater to keep ibein 
T^r. From this place tbe country open. Barcelona contains about 
is'Opep pll tbe way to Gerona, nine- one hundred tbousaod iuhabitdnts. 
ty miles distant frouji the froulier. Ninety miles westward from Bil- 
Barc,eloDa (■ utuat^ on the margin cel<ma, on the way lo Madrid, 
of an .extensive j^ain, is highly cul- stands Lerjil4> ob the west bank of 
tivafqd, and .very populous. It the Segre, occupying tlie, eastern 
had.^ef^ fortified m the ancient slope, and tbe cnnlined summit of 
£^bio(^) l?<*t tbe viDrks, during the a small detached bill, cooimaDdiiig 
last ceTit;iry,,,Juve been much ne- a rich and well cultivated plain, 
glected. ;^ citqdel of respectable Lerida.oate a place of importance, 
Strei^lb,;,was, qdded at the'^nortli iwhile Spain . was parcelled out a- 
east utreiBityiof tlie towi),. ostensir mong a i^mlwr of |)rinces,haslocig 
Itly for its proleclion, bnl it .was ceased Ut'bf.a place oC, much ocn- 
ijifia^ed at the; tipi^, wilb a view sequence, aud ils anci«it fortifica- 
iff ,reEfKSS . ^1 Htiempt^ of the lions are oow fasl hasteaing (a de- 
town'a people, and the inhabitants cay. Sucharellie principwpMlt) 
of the (leighbpuring counto; [p of defence of the nortbem Oenlicr 
Jtljuow off, ijj^ypke of the bo^sp qf of Swin against etiachs by^lan^ 
' Bourbon ; against v^hicli tliey bail TJin ^rcncb force* ataecnbkd-M 
struggled, v^^grea/L perseyeranu .tbe borders io(^)MKi, rcauan«d but 
during, the ^r.of t)ie siufcessiou. a sliotitime inadiw. .EarV**^''^ 
f^f. t|ue epiwsjte. extremity of the -y«r,. «„«orBs. enterfld iCMiil«HM> 
t9iivt^,ri»e»;*dftw;liedconicail.til!:of flild oft,tl«. i6ib<rfTebrmrj,«b- 
caofi^f^Hk Iwfllrf, «yeriT.bJ)nsil|! ■<ai»ed pMWssioB:«f the loii%*ud 
tfl« ^f. called I^oujnicb,, croifned fillet] of lAanctJoW, with 'lti«>ii>)- 
vijitbanancientcaallcvBliaiEtbriied .)WP^i(Ue,.:pp|iticHii;Af M«iuiwli. 
Witji additioiialwork^of (i^r Uw*^ l^lsM ,]ifiM*-im(MltMi«ly' "P""" 
■*J>»:.F«»i'"o»«.'»^8rS'4* ."**»"• tbip8br-*patn> lliat the Tawb 
4T«l»grt»i«W|qaiHiins M^.-toww, (roppa,uwe:ileeli««ita»»8«liB-de- 
, „; „, ,. ,, ,^, ,..,.,.,,.. . .,' *i ' /,! .,1... . .....CtMW'i 



WlHflftBfipl^Wd spr4 rtic Mine pumosp; (o fowrtlh^TlB im,Av<> sf 
tWM ' w ffi lTJMiieiJJti'lnw Hie Hr^ of iBe rtlrtfess;"4>)(l'tlKy lOire prticeMliiE In- 
at^^talfclUDww4be third, Ttrfi h-a jisl-ekenipMraliM of thet SpuiMi <-**■ 
.CMM^i ^lifgUnniltiratbasiun wUh pitieiicPitonsiamT.aW ptnmtniice. . 



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HIStORV OF EUROPE. HI 

Ibdi*; Uk coMt agaiiMt any insult rive from, Itis own ^vernment. 

Ami tlw British artn;^ or navy. —Hie Freocli commander Ibcn 

MnKttgt bad been lak«D. of the brought t'urward a b«dy of three 

■tioail fcelingB to lull the Sptmi- thousand men, and compelled the 

irIi inio security, by aMerliog that Spaniards, after a severe conflict, to 

UK great object of their powerful surrender. 

Jtiet would be the reduction of The French armies that had en- 
Qballar, and iU restoration to iu tered Spain, instead of proceeding 
latteal and natural masters. Whis- to tlieir pretended deatinalioii, re- 
pen aod- sumibe* loo were indus- luained inactive on Uie banks of th« 
tDMaly circulated of an intended' Ebro, many luilet from Madrid. 
WMiuti of Algien and Morocco. Messengers passing to and from 

Tbe mask was, however, soon that place indictlled the existence of 

iWowa ande, and tbe French anny, negociationi, but their object was 

>Uch bad advanced to Barcelooi, unknown. The Spanish troops re- 

ptrieaditig only to bait for a lew called from Portugal, were rapidly 

i^nfer refreshment, before Ibey advancing towards ihe capital. The 

Aould proceed on their march to court seemed in the greatest anxie- 

ihf soutbem provinces, availio'' ty and uncertainty, the orders of 

tkemsdres of the alliance between one day beiag uniformly couuter- 

ibe two nations, and of the un- maoded by those uf the followiug. 

wtpedii^ contidence of the iahj- Tlie admiiiUtratioi] of public af- 

temts, and even of the garrison of fairs seemed to be arftsted in its 

Ifae i^acc, Mtzed without bloodshed, course. 

■d without difficulty, the citadel, While matters were in tliii lilate^ 

IConjineb, and every otlier import- on the ^Ath vf March a re|>ort was 

m post. The garrisoa of Moii- disseminated that the king was pre- 

juidi, reported to have amounted paring to k'avc Araitjuez for Seville, ' 

taibcdt six Ibonsand men, retired, with a view to emigrate tohis Ame- 

lod made way for the French ricaDdominions.aod that the troops 

■illMut a ttru^le; a fascination recalled from Portugal were des- 

kanlly credible; and indeed the lined to cover his retreat; (hat a 

*b>le coodoct of (be Spanish com- numerous^ councU bad been as- 

■Mders at Darceiona remain} in- sembled on the liiibject, in which, 

tUted in mystery and suspicion. (hough the opinions were uearly 

Tbe fortreia of St. Sebastian and balanced, it had beeii decided to 

P^piens were seised by the French undertake tlie juuroey ; that the 

n a siiaihr way. At Pampeluna, queen, and the favourite, Godoy, 

however, they expertenced a dif- had avowed ilieir desire to depart, 

finnt reccplioo. On the arrival <^ hut that (he prince of Asturias op- 

a French officer at tbe head of a posetl the desigu. The troops 

body of troops from Bayonne, be- quartered iu Madrid, had at the 

fen Pampeluna, demanding ad- same timereceivcilordento March, 
■nition and possession of the place, Hut when the public alarm was 

Ike governor, whose garrison had at its heighib, on the l()lh of - 

fw different reasons been much re- March the kitij issued a proclaina- 

doced, lefiised to comply with this tion, tliaiikjng his subjects, for the 

(teaand, until Ciders should ar- marks they liad shewn of attach- 

n.^..t 

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• I4fi ANNUAL REGISTER/ 1808. 

mrtt to his pemm, and eipluined pr^raHoa. The niidenM of tirt 
Ibe objects oT the French Iroopa, prince of the ptnee t*as protsded 
wbicti bad entered his dominions by his proper gmrds^ (fiir ttfweha 
with the most frien^lly purpoKS, to point of digmly he bad been «Mlt- 
assist iti defending ibe cotinlfy ed) wi(h a peculiar coiMteni;^ 
. against thecomnioii enemy- Tiie »• while (hose of the palnca bad ano- 
sembitng of his giiards it was stated, tber. At four o'clodt in the mom- 
was solely for the purpose of pro* ing of the 1 9th, tbe pcnple rnshed 
tectinc his person nnd family, nnd in cronrts to the tiivoiinte's hotel. 
sot for Accompany iti^. him on a but (hey were driven back by hts 
■ jonmey, which none but evil -mind- p«rrtfl,wlio in theirturn were driven 
«d persons could suppose to have back by the kill's body gtiarda, 
been projected, Th^ king dosed that had ranged tfaeoiselves op the 
this very exlraordinai^ pnblicaliofl, side of the people. Oodoy'sdoon 
witbdirettinf lhp|)eop4elocoiKhict were fbroed; the fiimilure was 
themselves as they had hithetto broken ; the apartments were laid 
done towards the troops of his waste; the prmoess. Iris ipiime, 
freat and good ally. daughter of Don Antonio, aiAl 
Op the folldivin^ day, March niece to the king of Spain, appeM- 
17th, when the Spanish suarris ed on Ike stairs, and was cmirajred 
were to leave Madrid^ (he inhabi- by the people with all the respect 
tants crowded round (hem, beseech- due to her birth and rank, to the 
ing (hem not to abandon their na- kinti's palace. The favourite bioi* 
live counlrv. for tlie purpose of se< self had disiq>petred, aad his bro- 
CH ring the flight of a prince who' ther Don Diego Godoy, command* 
•aerificed bis Bubjecis to private ant of the king's body guards, wras 
eoiMidenilions. arrested by hts own troops- 

" Do yon think," said (bey, " we Tlieir majesties, who had not re- 
bate no more spirit than the peo- tired to rest during the night, were 
, pie of Lisbon Y" early io the momii^ visited by the 
Sonte ofthe mimslen themselves, French ambassador, and soon after 
who opposed the king's retreat, dts- appeared a proclamatioa, ui which 
tribated circular notices in the* the uufortunatasuveieign was m«de 
neighbouring villitges, informinglbe (o say, that having reaolved la take 
inlnbitants of what was going for- upon hinuelf the command of bis 
ward, and of the danger to which forces by land > and sea, l»e had 
tiw country would consequently be thought it proper to relieve Go- 
exposed. doy of the duties of geDerotissimo, 
On thelSlh of Mar^, the peo- and permit him to retire to whatever 
pie poured along the road to Aran- place lie might chnoae. 
juez. Relays for the king's car- When this was known in Ma- 
nages had been provided on the drid, the people attacked tlw houses 
way to Seville. The village of of Godoy, aiid of rertain ministers 
Aratyiiet was crowded with troops ; of stale attached to his party, and 
and the bai^ge of the court lay destroyed the fomiture wittiout op- 
already packed up in the apart- position, on Ibe part of cither liie 
ments of the palace. The preced- magistrates, or the two Swiss regi- 
inj: night had been busily spent is meats in the Spanish service, then 

D,o,t,7P-h»Goo^]e 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



in die towD. The prince 
rfUM peace vu at last discovered 
u t laiTCt, w beie he had beeo cod- 
oaltd for fix sod thirty hours, and 
toBEBided to the closest custody in 
^ commoo jail. 

In the mktst of these disorders 
llKking, on tlw I9^h of Marcli, at 
Annjues, published ■ declaration, 
^tstd. »% wsual, by hiniselF, slatinjE, 
ha on accouni of his constant in- 
Mitin, and of the iieee^iily he 
&ll of withdrawing hijnsdf from 
Hit buriben of public affairs to a 
printc lifr, tu a ch'tnale better 
tdi^ed ttnn that of Madrid to the 
Ale of lii$ health; he had, ader 
fa most delrbtrute considers tioB, 
mailed to abdicate the crown in 
k m ti of bis wtU beloved son and 
kir, the prince of Aslurias. It 
VK likewise directed, that this de- 
oee of his_^«r and rpotUanemu ab- 
fficilitin should be ijistantly and 
pndolly ohejed by all his sub- 
JMl& Cevallos labovrs to shew 
tfcH tliii abdication waji, in truth, 
fiteBBd BacoRxt rained. But this 
hi vcrr reasonably been made a 

TlK firtt act of the new king 
Ferdnand Vlf. was lo publish a 
■mfctto, tkclarine Us own inoo- 
OKc and tliat of hi* ministers, 
ad italing the nature of the pa- 
fn and cyphers found in bis 
VntMcnl at tlie Etcurial, in the 
Malh of October lasL Among 
ka first acts also, was one confiscal- 
■( lU the property of every de- 
uifilioo, belonging to the prince of 
tWpeace. 

hi the naic time, he appointed 
fcdoke of Inlantado, a wealthy 
■ad popular nobleman, of the Jitst 
tW, and partkularly attached to 
fciitetettoflhenefv sovereign, and 
if tsglaid, to the important statioo 



143 

of the president of the great eoancil 
of Caslille, the first tribunal of ibe 
kingdom. To him also he commit- 
ted the command of the Spanish life 
guards. Many salaries and pen- 
sions, which had long remained uD- 
)>aid, were inslifntiy discliarged out 
ai the funds of the late favonrite. 

On the 35tli of March, Ferdi- 
nand, alreaily proclaimed king, 
made his public entry into Madrid, 
wbicli was by this titiie nodcr the 
power of ibe French, 

The circumstances that induced 
Buonapaile to order Murat, who 
commanded the French forces in 
Spain to advance from ibe line of 
the Ebro to the capital, have al- . 
ready been stated in our abridged 
account of the e:tpositioti of Cevat- 
loi ; as well a} the means by which 
the grand project of getting pos- 
session of ttie royal family of Spain 
was cflectedf- 

The grand duke of Berg had, 
March i23d, entered Madrid, at 
the head of his army. The ca- 
valry and a divison of infiiDtry were 
quartered within the town, whiht 
other divisions were encamped on 
the riaing grounds in the neigh- 
bourhond. A corps under gcnerar 
Dnpont was stationed at Segovia 
and the £»curial. This army, which 
ainouated to 51,000 men, accord- 
ing to the French newspapers of 
that day, was received by all ranks 
of people wilh the greatest joy. 
" Above all things, the Spaniards 
admired tlie fine condition the 
French troops were in, and parti- 
cularly lf»e beauty of the rci-iment 
of cuirrassiers, Tlie grand duke 
dcsceadcd from iiis carriage at 
the Ailmimlty. The governor of 
Madrid, the grandees of Spain, and 
tbc troops in garrison at Madrid, 
presented themselves before him to 



D,g,t,7P:hy Google 



144 ANNUAL R E G I ST E R. \ms. 

pay tfaeir r(%|«iU. . The <iube re- raanner in which the French troops 

' ceiTcd thviii with much ajfabUHi/. had hceii recvivtij hy (lie Spmiiards, 

Tranquillity is coniplelely rc<csla- hut Ihe greatest rej;iet nod sorrow, 

bli^hed at Madrid." A Ihe conduct of ,cerlHiii iuditi- 

Whik the governor aud (Rtrri- duals. wtii4:Ii Irad a tendency to iii- 

son nf Madrid, and the grandees of terrupt the good nnderslatidiiig lliU 

SjKiin, submitted to itiis act nfself- happHy subsisted hetreeeii the ua- 

degradation: llie mass of the people tiuns,' and io excite an unjuat and 

felt with pain llie state of huniilin- ridiculous distrust of the ile^igns of 

tion into which llieir counlry had Ihe French lrn<i|>s is Spain. Such 

fallen, ^hey could not rest, but seutinienli either expreascil by 

moved ttbnut in grmi|)s from placp words or deeds were to be severely 

to place, i» di^jtclion and anxious punistieil. 

coiislernalion, insomuch thai the It has been uniformly the poHci 
new government deemed it neces- of Buonaparte^to reconcile Ili^puU- 
sary, for preventing tumults, and lie niiiiil of individttul nations, ajicl 
preserving the traiir|uillity of the of iLiiTOpe, to the execution of hii 
' city, lo issue orders, April 3d, to project^,. Iiy prt>psrtn|i it to expect 
tb« patroles, that had been esla> tbem, andlacunsiderthings asinal- 
btisbed 01) the SOtli of March, lo ersofcaurse,andnotlobe avoided, 
continue their rounds. All keepers The Mouilciir and oIIict French 
of public houses were ordered to newspapers represenlcri . the Sjh- 
sfiul Iheni np before ei|;ht o'clock iitards uot only as over-jo^'^d at thu 
at niKht. Munufacturvrs aqd com- presence of French troops, but in 
raercial people, were ordered tu letters prelcnfled to have been re- 
continue their people in tlieir usual ceived from inhabitants of Madrid, 
employment, to keep them con- state it as the opinion of tlie most 
stanlly el work, and In send the sensible Sjiaiiiants, t'lut in the |>re- 
names of all absentees from their sent siluatioo of uH'airs it was the 
usual oHices lo the police magis- interference of the FreiKli emperor 
tniles*. Masters of families were alone, (who!e speedy approach bud 
earnestly enjoined by llieir advice, been publicly announced hy the 
and above all, by ibeir example, (o graml duke of Berg) in general or- 
restrain llieirchijdrenaiid domestics ders to his anny) that could RVe 
from mixing with crowds, and join- them. 

ing in any upronr. At the desire of Buonaparte, 

A second decree assured Ihe pub- intimated to ibc first secreliH7of 

lie, lliat Itie recent resolution was »itale, Don Pedro Cevallos, the 

calculated to cement and streugllien sw ord that Francis I. kinj: of 

the alliance with France, and en- France, surrendered in the fanioiu' 

' ioiniog all persons to treat the battle of Pavia, in the reign of the' 

French troops with the greatest ro eni|>eroT Charles V. of Sfain. 

lIMcl. Another edict expressed the wliicli had been kept in the rtiyal 

utmost salisfaelioD at the friendly aimenry since 1 £15, was by order 



* ll ha* been conjectured, witli great protuliility. that it was 
tbU sort r<ir iiiuint inning artier in ciiiical liiae^ tliat gave rise U 
sioD of iho peo|>lF iato cstli, in Inclia, 



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HISTORY OF EXtROPE. us 

ef KerdinatMl, on Ihe 5ih of April, E^ellata, raplaiii ;>enetil of Cala> 

loiiHedta hn ini|)«rial and nival loniaj in a |p|!t.T dated al Barce- 

BifntT Napolcmi, at Bavonne,— Innia, ISIIi of March, remoiulrated 

■lamD^u«H« »»t ibe royat or- nilb lliip general on this suspicious ' 

dtr, (il was slated in the Muilrid ai>d alannini; movement/ •' Tha 

ISUFttf) ■hicli »ai e-ven to li{» v%' troops," suid be," tlial occupied tlie 

cUfik) ibe niiirqiiis of Aatnriea, citadel, and the fortress of Mon- 

|iwn>-iiiaji>r lu his maj<>s!_v, llie juicli, niiebt have cousiHered all thA 

oarctH.-ice or tbe tw"rd to liie hou<if<i of Barcelona as so many 

Ugings »f his ini|HTial biglmess inxzazlnes, and Ilie provisions they 

k^nil 'luke of Birc, «as ar- cotilaiiied as tlieir nMti, There was 

mcrd wKh ffvttl poiiipand cere- no enent^ to excite apprehension: 

■oej.' nor any thing to be expected in 

TUi mrrender of Ihe sword, nlncb Ihe inhabitants of the town 

hmcd a presage, ami was indeed were not as much interested as the 

■ lund of enibtem of that of Ihe troops in garrison. Your excel- 

crawa.AIIIbeciTi1itie!,ciimpliances, lency occupied the fortresses in Ihe 

■djubniisMonadrtlieSpaiiisbcourt name of the emperor and king as 

<Miwtlone secure a suitable re- an ally; and it was only on the 

■am of civility and contplaisance, faith of this that the Spanish go- 

Mlbcpartof their French allies, veniment cotisenled to its occu- 

pKlf, and invaders. pancy. It was under tbe tame im- 

Hk altercation and sparriti|F, and pression, that Ibe town opened to 

(Wa some enconnlen that lermi- you and jour people its treasures^ 

lUed iu death, which, notwilli- and resources of every kind, wliicli 

'M&g all the anxioiiB precauliuni yon have received in the bosom of 
«f the Spanish government, tooii ' our families. The city gave you 

pbct between many individuals uf an lionourablereceplion.andshved 

■kc difereot nations, might itave with you the provisions destined for 

W accounted for frc»n the nalu- their own use. Milhaiy law pre- 

nl Icrity and arrofcauce of tbe scribes. Ihe mode of provisioning 

TmtA character, and the pride of garrisons when engaged in actual 

lie Spaniards, awakened by jea- hostilities, or besieged, or when 

I0B17 aad iuapicibn, the country is threatened with fa- . 

But, about the middle of March, mine. In such cases Ihe general is 

Moccarrence took place at Bar- under a necessity of taking men' 

tdma, wbieb if the hostile designs sures of precaution for the subsist* 

'tke French government could ence of his troops, by the formn- 

pnaUy have appeared unequivocal tion of mHi;aziucs. But, where 

Ubit, rendered tbem a* plain as circumsiances of thii kind do not 

■oea day. General Duhesme, exist, siicb measures are calculated 

(■aannder in chief of the French onlyto excite suspicion and mistrust. 

*mj of observation, of the Eastern Neither my conduct, nor tlte cod- 

PjiciBteea, bad been for some time slant moderation of my troops net 

Hsij employed in throwing great Ihe favourable receplion accorded 

^aotitin of ammunition and pro- to llic Frmcliarmy, is ralcntaled to 

WoDs into (iw forts of Barcelona give any ground of alarm, 
id Uonjuicb. The connl of " Tbe town is provided with ne- 

Toi-L. [L] 



D,g,t,7P:hy Google 



U6 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

ceitaries of every sort, ss yoawill citttblish tna^aaiaes, aud form con- 

BC« b; tke ofttcial statements sjgoed ikierabie de^Ats of proriswas mUm 

b)' the inUndaut i and, eveo if ^e far|s caoaot serve an; good puF- 

abuulil fall short of some articles, pose ; lliat kmcU an iatenlion is re- 

jour excetltncy Uns given roe tlie marhable, calculated to rouse at- 

strongest assurance that prepare- teruioii, and oSeosW* ; and tkal it 

tions are at Ibis moment going on niav not perliaps be in your eKcl- 

io the ports of France, for supply- kncy's power, nor nsioc, U> renedy 

lug this place with proviaions free the consequences wliich such a fer- 

frOBi all duties. When bis majesty mentation must excite anMog the- 

tlie empcior and king, whoite f>reat iiihabiiauti." 

uanie' io&[Hres us with contideoce, Tliii letter of count Espclbta, 

at the same lime tliat our fortresses copies uf wh'jcli were haudea abonl 

are occupied by his troops, shall be in Uadrid, ukI over aU Spain, met 

iufenueit of our |4iabilitj wmI ho- with geuerat sympsthy and ep- 

nourable principks. iL will not be plause, aud coalributed rery much 

with pleasure that be will be tot^ to raise and heighten tht na^onal 

thai tlm city, in rcluru for ib de- sviitinent of rcsentmcnl and indig- 

^rence aud conduct, has been nation agaiast the' Fren^ and the 

alarmed by leriible meiaces ami French party, 

preparalioiu. Your CKCelteDcy will It b one among tfae numerogs ia- 

. be pleased to learn fioHi his tnip^ fiances of a itrwing coatrast be* 

rial iu^ity> what be tbinlis of your Ivreen tlie spirit and energy of the 

design before you cafty it into exe- Spanish people, and the liiletsaess, 

caliMi, accompuiyiag your requol and blind igibecility of govera- 

with liiic explanatioit of uty senii- ' aijint, and too many of Ifae hi^lAr 

nieols on llie Bul^jiect: as 1 a\a», oideis, which have hitberlo been 

oil my part, shall lay tbe whole of appafcnl in the cours* of the Spfr- 

tbis matter before lb* hiag niv uieb revohiliut). 

maiteri williout whose orders L 'I'his is ibe le'Ker to which Buo- 

cawuot accord to your euellrncy napai^e patltcuhtily alludes, in his 

what the fuits occupied by the Sin- tetter of tbe l6tb of Aprit, to thi 

nisln troops have not tbeiiiselvcs. piincfe of Asturias, in which he has 

" If, before receiving orders frou the (.■iTioiilery to say : — " I see with 

die empero^ your exceUencyshouUL pam MihI some persons at UadrJit 

iM any reason for bviog wUh iiie- have ditfimiinated cerlaiw letters ol 

caution, aiu) under the tidiience of Uie captain geacral of CaUlonis, 

(t»t in foTtresses to be considcsed, and (iotic every thing to excite di»- 

atpresenl, as forming part of the turiMweAaaion^ the peo{)le*." 

cil^, then indeed it may be pcopri The date of alHairsat BanelM*, 

tp ka^e recourse to the mea«nfe& Bsait bate been kndwn to-tiie Sfe- 

yeu .propose. Out asi- at pseeenl, ush eourt a t^nsidenble time be- 

ti)ere wv no nuessily iti any sueb . fare Ibe detiartnre of F^rdiaawt 

nea«urat I wish to imi^ress yoat from his capital to nieet Bhmmi- 

nind wilU :* cosuricliorh Ihat to parte! 

Tbe 

* ScaAjipeDdix to the Ctiivnlcla, p. ite. 

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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 147 

Tht jonroey ef FerdinniHt lo' nii|i;llt do frith Hapoleon what (hey 

mnbftnnnDc, excited iii all tiie pleased; Hint StJaiiinrds would ne- 

nHigis and lowBs through which ver he slarpt ; and that the natioii 

ht piswd, Ihe gteatest ilucoolent would, miiintatn its independence 

b4 tiielifst indignaiinn; wl;ii'h williotrt llieiti." 

xvfc not appeased hy Ihe prncla- Priiiii Ihe moment thtft Murat 

ma'ma that preceded tiis progress, an hi* root on the Spanish terri- 

decluin; tint he lia<l the most |>o- tory, lie did all in his power to im- 

■to and MliihctofT assiiTance*, press the Spaniards with a co&*ic- 

Ibl iMlbing but Ibe imist profotini) tion, that lie had come among Ihetii 

icfMl would be ahewn to hh per- for their ^ood, b^ brmging atioiil 

m; wllhoal which aisuranres he certain re lorms tti (he gowemmeht, 

mill aerer have accepted Ihe em* gitiug it to be understood withal, 

pntH of the French's invilation< that lie was on Ihe side of the 

ad fat within four or five days^ pnnct of Astutias, mnl in opposl- 

vilb Ike ■sit.tflnce of his good bro- tion to the prince of the peace, who 

itrfiiDd alU, llie afeirs of Spain was nniversalty detested; nor did 

•Mtd be settled to hi* own satis- lie feil to throw out hints sntf a1- 

^ton, aud also lo thaf of bis sub- tusions lo the inSuelKe of llie <]ueen 

JNit. in the great atluir) of llie nation: 

At Viltoria, when Ihe people Iheteby to ingratiate himself with 

ItHBt, even from ihr authotil; of llie people : bnt, Ime to lib pUT- 

ih kiu^ that BB0i»|Mrte was suf- pose cf divition and distraction, be 

bled lo interfere in Ibose aflairs, wm no sooner informed of what 

tWn wiM a general fermentation bad passed at Aranjaez, on Ihe ](RI> 

Boi; the mliabitaKls, who, April of March, than be made a shew of 

1% troirded about the roy-^l resi- lakiog a very wann inferesl in thtf 

lioM, ia ibemodtumnltiioDsnmi- fate of Don Mapuel Oodoy, with 

wr, ^rmt; vent to their sentiments whom, tliOugh personally unaC' 

■itbont nstraint. quainted, he had kept up a coiifi- 

k ntw proclainatian was issued, dentiat and intimate correspond- 

)*d the duke of InFanfando eii- ence. On the hnprisonment of 

^oraufd to impress the aiuertioos Godoy, the queen besieged, as it 

nMiised in it, in harangues to the were, the grand diike of Berg, with 

pwpie. He assured them, Aat llie one letter al\er another, imploring 

'Wntiini of the o^w king was, to Ihe intervention of the duhe for the 

"ptsf at to the French emperor, safety of the favourite's person • : 

Ikt iQlipaftj of the Spanish peo- nor coul<J a person of Mumt's in- 

\k la liie French lro<>|)s that had fornialion, as well as penetration, be 

^ wit nnnng them, and to de* ignorant that his interference in be- 

Mm) their immediate recal. Ttie half of this favourite, would he 

^h «ru somenhBl assuaged ; most acceptable lo licr m-dii.'sly, 

Im ToitM were heard here and mid also, which may 3ppe:tT lo fti- 

W, muttering, " Thai both the lure generatiousnot a little singular. 

^! atd the dnkc of In&olaiidD lotle king. 

[L2] Whilst 

* See AppeniKi to the Chroiricle, p. i4t. 

; D,£,,t,7P-hyGoogle 



U8 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1S08. 

WbiUt Ferdinand lialted at Tit- ton of the prince of Uie peace labe 

torii, he wai inrormed by the su~ sent to France. To thb note 

preme junta, thai the gnmd duke Mural added mtmy verba) IbreMs 

of Berg had niade a formal, and of force, wliieb, being reported, lo 

even an imperious demand of the intiriiidated tbeni, that they ordcr- 

releate of Oodoy. This a[^lica- ed the release of Godoy, who wii 

lion Ferdinand, who had solemnly i mmed hi tely conveyed toBayo^ne. 
promised to bring Don Manae) to The Junta, to cover Uieir own 

judgment according to the laws, di< wealtneai, gave out in tu'o gaaettes 

reeled the junta to resist, Buona- extraordinary, that Don Manael- 

parte had himself, by lelter, made had been released by order of Ferdi- 

• similar application to Ferdinand ; nand VII. They attempted, by dU- 

wlio. III reply, represented the in- guising and garbling, to justify such 

vincible necessity he/ was under of aninterpRtalionofhis lelteritoougli 

bringidg Godoy to trial. But if nothing could be plainer than ttat 

bis imperial majesty should cotili- it was the king's intention not to 

nue to lake an interestio the life of screen Godoy from trial, but from 

' Don Manuel Uodoy, he gave him the last puiiishmeat in case of con- 

bts word, that if the prisoner demnation *. 

should, after nmlure examination The joy that was exdled by tte 
of the charges laid against him, imprisonment of the prince of 
be c(»)demiied to death, that pu- peace, with his principal officen, in 
nishmeni should be remitted, in all the provinces of Spain, is not 
consideration of his majesty^ in- to be described. At Sklamanca, 
tercession. and several other towns, the bells of 
When the French emperor re-, the churches were ruti^ ; and at 
ccivbd this answer froiii Ferdinand, Salamanca six hundred monks and 
be flew into a great passien, and, as many licentiates, danced in tbe 
^Ih his accustomed falsity,' im- m:irket-place ; young women, mar- 
mediately wrote to the grand duke ried women, and old men, mixed 
of Berg, that the prince of Asturias with Ihe monks in this extravagant 
bad placed the prisoner at his dis- demonstration of tlieir joyful trans- 
posal, and ordered him to demand ports. The Spanish, iiewspapenr 
tbe release of Godoy, in the most which had be);un to assume a lone 
energetic manner. Tbe grand duke, of great freedom, styled Don Ma- 
uho was naturally violent and im- nue), Ihe prince of injustice, the 
petuous, tent a very haughty note genera lissinio of inramy, ibe grwid 
lo the junta, in which he rennnded admiral of treason, and Ihe luin of 
ihetn, that Ihe emperor of the the nation. 
Frenth, at Ibe fame time that the Although Ihe history of all ab- 
oulhorily of the prince of Asturias solute monarchies presents maoji 
was staled as a ground of proce- instances of sudden and surprising 
dure to Iheni, acknowledged no elevalions lo great poirer and 
other kiuc Q,f Spain Iban Cliartei weallh, and as sudden and unex- 
IV. He demanded anew the per- peeled falls, there is perhaps none 



■ Ssc DvcteflBtt sBbJoiaeil to U« Expositioa of CevaUoi, No. XU. 

D,£,,t,7e-byGpOglc 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 149 

Mrtnkiiig u tint of Dm Mmucl- by Bnooaparte as a penoD of dii- 

Gwioj. Hb ttorj a not unlike tinclirin and fniiwquenre. 
AA m Dm Rodctigo Calderona, Ttie delermined inlerrerence of 

fc fa ww nH e&flhfdukeof Lcrma, Buooapatte for th« liberation uflbe 

yne ■umirter to Philip III. of priuce of peace, was owJDg lo Ibe 

^iJB. resolution of the Lit)!; and queen iiot 

Ae prittce cf the peace wai ac- lo quit Spain for France, tliougli 

oi^lled I17 far Ibe wcsltbiest and called Uiillier by Buonaparte, un- 

■Mrt powcrfol subject iu Europe, len the favourite ahouM be per- 

I be bad all tbe power, and mitted to do so alao, and to pro- 

e all llw wealtb ceeil on bb journey before them, 
lonarcliy, at bis King Charles IV. and bis qoeeo. 

While tevcral of the Louisa, arrived on llie 27lb of 
9 bad coine to be alienat- ~ April at Burgos, and on tite 38th 

c crown, and were im- at Viltoria. A detachnient of the 

i by certain great fantilics, body guards, to the number of one 

__btlM improvident and pro- hundred, who had accompanied 

ftK &rour of the court, the tbe prince of Aslurias to Bayonne, 

apk were oppressed with new hiippcning to be in this idwn, placed 

il arbitraty taies, burtbensonie in themselves, according to costom, in 

nanelvea, and rendered more so the palace to be occupied by Itieir 

fty Ibc mode of their collection, oiaieslies. Butwbeuthe old king 

Bat tte odium of (he common peo- set his eyes on tht-m, with a degree 

fic a gai nst the prnue minister and of energy that surprized every one, 

** fcvotirite would never have he ordered Ihrm lo be gone — • 

l^bt bis fall, if there bad nut " You betrayed your trust at Arvn- 

■■•■ a very general combinalioo juez, I want iiooe of your services, 

aparnt him ammi); the nobility, and 1 will have none.*" — TJie guards 

vshoai he so greatly eclipsed iu. were obliged to retire, 

sj^OMlour, patronage, and favour, ' On tlie Cplh of April, their ma- , 

Md to whom a predominant fa- jesties remained all uightalTolosa; 

iwails at court is a greater nui- on the SOIh they came, about noou, 

HSMT, perhaps, llian to the nobles tn [run, where they received letters 

■f an other country in Europe, from Buonaparte, and two hours 

itis SB like manner tbat tbe rail, after entered tlie walls of Bayonne, 

■a^ratHUuenl, nnd tragical end of where they were received with all 

Dhi Boderigo Calderona is traced public res{iecl and honour. 
taacMBbbationofthc nobility, by Wlien Die roaring of icannonao* 

al Ihe hbtorians. . nonuced the arrival of the old king 

Don Manuel, in his retreat, was and queen of Spain, Ferdinand, 

■ecsHnpaoied by an escort of two with his brother, Don Carlos, went. 

hmdred bonemen, which appeared lo meel Ihcm, All the Spaniards 

■cDCMaiy for bn protection from llial were at Bayonne also wailed on 

fc fiiry of Ibe people. He ar* their majesties, and wrut through 

mt4 ai Bayonne, April 26. A Ibe ceremony of kneeling aiul kiu- 

castlc in tbe environs of Bayonne ing hands. II hhs a scene of con- 

ms appointed for bis residence; Imint and Hwkwarduess on both 

aad be srasin all respects treated sides; the kiag seemed as much 
[ L 3 ] dissatisfied 

D,£,,t,7P-hy Google 



150 ANNUAL REGISTER^ 1808. 

dii^tiiiGed with tbeq) as hs hul of Hanae wttb NapolMQ «Dd bi* 

been wilh his body guard* «t Vil- qiotue Jowpbina. May 2d, at Tour 

iam- Hb did not speak a word o'clock, P. M. JaMphiaa w«nt to 

tp a^iy one but couot Plgnatellj of pay a yisit to the king sod {[Deea^ 

FucBtes, an URpiincipled aod lup- and staid a long tiaw wilb their 

pie CQUftifr, whom Buonaparte had majesties. 

appointed to infinuate biHiaelf ipto The iiewqiapeni pnnted at itay- 

tjie conHdence of th« prince of onite. under the iBinediate iHpee- 

Asturiaai, (at the purpOK of watch- tjwt ef Talleyrapd and Buonqpaito 

ing «nd betraying him. hinueir, and which caiie every day 

When the ceremoDy of kining under ttie eye of tb« pHnceof A^ 

bauds vtv over, their old majesties, turias, took tlie ude of the d«- 

' being litigued, retired lo their throned king ami tite piiaci of 

apartments; the prince of Aslvriai peace. The Bayoone gaaclte of 

was going to follow lliem, but the the 25tb of April, the day of Fier- 

kiflg slopi hint, saying, " Prince, dinand'a arrival, contained Tarious 

have you not yet sufficiently out- statements in contradiction of Uh 

. raged liiy grey hairs." The prince and rejiorts tha thad been spread of tbo 

the Spaniards who had accompaAied prince's having imnwnie tressurai 

him tq Bayonpe. at these words ia foreign funds^ extenuated the io-. 

were thunder-struck, and wilh- stances of liis mal.«dinini&lratk>D, 

drew in great perturbatiuu. At adverted lo many benefits that r»- 

J^e o'clock, 'P' U. tlieir miyesties suited from his ministry, and abov* 

were visited by the emperor Na- all, catered into elaborate ar|;u- 

poleon, who remained with them a nienls (o thew that (lie abdication 

long time. The conversation turn- of Charles IV. was not voluntary 

ed on the injuries that had been but con)pulsory. In this roaoiMr 

doneto the king and queen, the pe- Buouaparte endeavoured to pre- 

rils in which tiKy had been iavol- pare the mind of Ferdiuaud smd 

ved, the ingratitude of men on his parly, for the catastrophe that 

whom they had lavished fevnurs; awaited him. At tfaesunc time it 

and above all oq the ingratitude wasthe common talk at the court 

aud rebellion, as tbey teid, of their of Bayonne, and re.echoed from 

son. The officers qf king Charles's ' thence by the natnerous on>issariei 

lioui«liold, ware appointed by Buo- of Buo«apaite. in every province in 

n^^rle, all of them Preockmen. Spain, that a strong haud gloat 

On the lal of May, the king aad could save the mouuTEtiy, 
queen of Spain dined at the castle 



hy Google 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. IS! 



■V frttt Btomspaite lo fhrdinand VII. requiring Am and alt 
rti>9g to nmawee the Cntm «} Spain tmk the fndui. — Con' 



fnaa betwmt Cevallet, tkeMmuter et Ferdhumd, and ChiM»agny, 
Bmmaparte't lUtnitter far foreign Affmrt. — htermpled 6j Bwnui- 
ftr1e.—Rt-daiatld wude lentibh that he um tn a gttte of Arrest, — 



dmiea nBuMm to Ferdhumd hh Drtmunation to reimtnte all hh 
JUgilt amd tkeee of kig I^mih/ totht Grown of SpaiK.—Condilionirt 
eisMmt of Ferdinand infavomr o^ hi» Fisher. — Con'espondenet 
■ Ckarif* and Fh^inand on 4kis Snt^t.—The tfneen of SpaOi 
iiiimg her own legitimnte Son, and proclaintir^ her oum In- 
^n/.—Ahotivte RMmctartm % Ferdinand, of M hit Rights to th> 
€rmtm rf Spain, — Action and ReaetiM of Tranaeetioas at Bat/onne 
nd at Madrid — The pnWe Mind m a ttate of Agitatim.-— tnsar- 
netian anddrerndfai Afaitacrt at Madrid — The iGrand Duke of 
Berg appointed Ginemor Genetal of aH Spain, end President of the 
Sifrtwv Jnnta.-7-Proelaination to iis Army.—Cirml/tr Letter from 
lie Genend tnqwisition to aH the Cotcrts ef /nfuisifian in Spain. — 
Diore for Auemiling the Notables if Spain, — Deputies from these 
I* a Kational Junta at BoJ/onne.—Ezaue vf the Eiakepof Orense 
fir Mt arten^g, in Qaaiilg of a Deputy from the Nofabhi, this - 
Aimtbly.—TSe Junta at Bayonne take the Oath of Allegiance, pre- 
mihed btf Bm»»aparte.—ne Royal Family of Spain earried into the 
hterior of l^vnee.— Renunciation of the Spanish Crown.—Jovmty 
*f King Joseph to MaffrW.— Political Morality.— Bmnw- 
forle asserts his Right lo the Crown ef Spain, «n the Score of both 
PaKey and Jusliee.— Indignatlim of the Spaniards, and Defiance of 
IheTynmt. 

THE prim* of Astorias, as he that his Im|>eriDl rax.i^j reJjuirfd 

•s slifl rtjleri bj the Freneli, FenlinSMl, in hi^ own ntinie, uiid 

or Ferditnnd VII. according lo llK thai of M liis Tamily; In renoitnce 

iCKnl *»ice of llie S|)»imh nation, the crou-n of S))Bin and Ibe Indies 

W DO MoncT relumed from din* iti favour of the dynas'j of Buona- 

■^illlw castte of Marrac to his parle. That siirh a |KOf>osiliuii 

RtidiiKe. than ^enerulSaiarVcarue should be niade.aiKl that the beattr 

» nfomi hm, that the eiuperor of of suHi a proposiiion shouM lie lire 

|W French :iiid hiiti* of halv, liad ideiilicat Savory, who, unlil that 

■ncvocabl; determined, lliat the moment had pvrn such solemn »ud 

bmboo fnltall^ should no longer repealed assurances to the Spauisit 

n^ in Spain ; ilrat it should bl- prince, of tUc honHurable and 

tKUOted by his; and, therefore, fliendty seutimenis of Buonaparte 
[ L 4 } iDu^a 



D,£,,t',7P-hy Google 



1st ANNUAL REGISTER, I«08. 

towards him, struck Ike new kmg ample nfihe Fmich lEOTemnKnt it- 
aud the Spanisli chte^ wbobadac- Mlf, which iu (he beginning of the 
conipanied him, with a degree of revolution, had puailivet;^ rejected 
(urprise and consleruation not to as iimdmltsible, the request tender- 
be described, and opened Iheir ad by tli« kio^ vf Spain in favour 
eyes to Ibe horrors of Ibeir situa- of his unfnrlunufe cimsin, Lewis 
lion, XVi. Having stated varioHS rir^ 
Buonaparte, having row Ibrowo cunistances in pruof that Ibe bste 
off the mask, proceeded wilhont kin^', in his abdicalini), \wi acted 
delay to carry liis project intoefiecl, entirely from his onn free chuicc. 
On the fullowin" day he summoned Cevallos was tuld. Dud while the 
|o bis palace Gevallos, who, as house of Bnutliim ret;:neil in Spain 
already observed, had been first France never rotdd l>e secure, in 
secretary of state to king Charles, the ca^e of war Huain breaking out 
and now occupied the aaiue sf^ti-'U iu lh<- north of Euntpe. 
with Ferdinand, and was much in In "pposiliun to this' arKument, 
his confidence. In the palace Ce- Cyvalliii. rea<oiied with Clianipaeny. 
vallos was received by M. 'de or niiglil have reasoiieri. us in fact - 
Chani)ia!;ny, .Btioiid pa tie's minisler be ciors in bis eK|>usltJuii, as fbl- 
for fiireigii aifair;, Ovallos be- liiws: — Ever since Ibe n^ilo'ation 
gan Ibe cctnfereiice with complaints of peace httueen the two roun- 
ofthe^perfidiotis artifices practiced tries, Spain bad adhered to her en- 
on bl^ r'>yal master to inveigle him gagemenis witli France willi uu- 
into Ftaiier, and added that he had- Bkakeu fidelity. The political cou- 
been instructed tp deflare, in the duct of Cburlcg IV, since the treaty 
most fctrnial nianner, that be nei- of Basle, aifurded u recent proof 
llier ifould nor could renounce his that sovereigns had little regard to 
right to the crown of Spain, in &- family interests, when these were in 
vour of any individual or faiuily opposition to the interests of their 
whatever to tlie prejudice Yitber of dominions; that the friendship be* 
himself, prof t be other bmncbes tween France and Spain was found- 
of his bouse; and that no person ed in local and political considera- 
eould be called to tlie throne, but tJons; that the topogni|ihkal situa- 
tiy the voice of the nation itself, in tion of the two kingdoms was of it- 
Vtrtue of the national right it po«- self sufficient to denranstrate, bow 
sessed to select a new family in th^ important it wa) for Spain to pre- 
event of the eMiocjioD of the fami- s^rve a good understanding wilb 
Ij ttwn 0(1 tlie throne, France, the only state on the coOr 
' 'nie frepcb mioisler, in ivlam, tincnt of Europe, with wbicb she 
jnibted op the necessity of the had direct and very extensile re- 
reqifired ^enunciation, chiefly op lations. The only circumstance by 
the ground that the abdication which this fidelity could be flag- 
of king Charles bud not beep gered, would be an attempt oo tbe 
spontaneous. Ceyallos protested part of France to assail the hide- 
■gainst (lie opinion, 'that Bno- |>e«dcnce (if Spain, or the honour . 
uaparle had 8ny riglit to in- of her sovereign. Sucli an attempt 
ierfere jn lite iolemal arrange- might reropen an intercourse willi 
fIttBti of Spain, and cited tbe «- Snglaod, wbicb bad ah%ady en- 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 1J3 

d to efiert a rcfondliation, litis score, Don Pedro Labrador, 

1; to be followeit by mea- who had been miajster at llie 

eumttallj prejudicial to court of Florence, was selected tu 

imm. What conGitrnre cniild conduct (tie negocialion nn tlie 

E*''^ ^Urt in trea'.irit with Buo> jiart of Ferdinand, and inslrucled 

■fvie, were it dbcnvered tlial be to declare that liii master iieitlx'r ■ 

M hmkea Utroii^li itie sacred er»- would rior could conseul to the n- 

WfutrulM contrvded by him but ouiiciatlDn of bis rights, or those 

nRuethitkrrorp, with Charles IV. of liis family, to the Throne of their 

■■WtecrcttrealyofFontainebteaHl ancestors. Labrador's demands of 

IV conference between Ibe llie production of the French mi- 

Fmch and Spanish ministers was nisters full powers to Ireat with 

■*inp4rd by a cotntnaml from him, and for an authenticated stale- 

B»««f«Tle,wbo hail secretly heard menl of the proposals nf Buoiia- 

<Wir dHcaane. to attend bim in bis parte, were evaded by Chanipagny, 

(^wL There, Ccvallos tells us, as matters of merely oflicial form. 

^ n> treated by the French em- Cliampa^y added an insinuation, 

pnr, as a traitor to bis former tliat Labrador might, by falliri" in 

■MtT Charles; because he was with the emperor's view% secure the 

■■*■ ibe serrice of Ferdinand, prosperity of Spain, aitd at the same 

.■xl (cproacbed in the most tusnlt- time promote his own private ad- 

"{■uaer, for baviug maintained, vantage. Labrador required that 

■> s fanner official conference with Ferdinand should be iii!>taiitly per- 

Toenl Houtbion, that however mitted to return to Spain. But lie 

sttosary Ibe iccopitlion of Fer- was told, that matters could be ar- 

^■wi's litfe to tbe throne of Spain ranged only by Ibe two sOTcrei^s, 

■fh be to tbe ptctervatioo of either by letters or in a personal in* 

omQ between Ibe two conntries, lerview. 

tt thai Us title was not to be in- This answer, added to (he other 

w fci s led 1^ tbe withboldiog of any rircumslances, lefl no doubt m.the 

■■^renqgiiiion. mind of king Ferdioand, tttat he 

finding, bowerer, Cenllos in- was actually under arrest, Ijow- 

I rit le B llic principles he pro- ever, in order to establish beyond a 

^■cd, la ire are loM by this minis- doubt the certainty of this bet, 

'~ '' " ~ jiarte put an end Cevallos, by his niajeslv's order, 

these chanc- sent a note to llie French minister 

c a sy^ for foreign affiiirs, tellini^ hiiii, that 

l>* of picdicj of my own; you the king was drtennined to return 

■■fk lo adopt more liberal ideas; to Madrid, to tranquillire the flgi- 

Mbc lessngid on tbe point of ho- latioii of his beloved sutij^rl^; and 

Mar; and not to sacrifice the pros- to provide for tbe transaction of the 

perilT of Spain for tbe iuteiests of important biiitness of tue kingdom ; 

■kc Boarbon FamBy." assuring Mr. Cltanipasny at tlte 

Dtspaaring of fuccess in a nego- same lime, that he hitnself wnnid 

(■Mien wilb Cenlhis, Buonaparte conliniie, in order ^ treat with hb 

trailed Ferdinand to eBlmst his imperial inajealy, on afiktrs recipro- 

tnnm wiUi some olber minnler. cally advantageous. 
1W M difficidly might adae wt Buonaparte finding Ferdinand in. 

Aesible. 

D,g,t,7P:hyGOO>^IC 



Bnooaparti 
ew with tl 



154 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

flexible, kad recourse to other et- >li«nld Le B«wmUe<l ; that fait pn- 
peitiriiU for (letting tit olt|e«t. It sent resigDalioo, wilb bis molim 
wasMilb H viewlo Ibis, that tbe tbereto, thould be duly ai id rcgti- 
old kiiig apd queeu were invited to htly recorded ; IhatCliorlo should 
ic|iair to Bajioiiue, far tlie purpote disiiiist from iiis presence .tbe per- 
of a liiial arraugeiDcot of affairs. ions who bad to jattiy inciirredlhr 
Scarcely bad Charles reached detetUtion of the Mation ; that if 
Bavoiiflf, when he was employed Charles, as it mm mderstood, de> 
to demand, that his sod should re- cUned to tesame tbe reins of »Q- 
•i^D Itie crown so lately. assunted, vemiBenl, Ft-rdrnand would nnder- 
ttsiiifjiiig at tbe same time, his re- lahe th« ad mi nbl rat ion, either in 
solution not to remount iIk throne tl>e name of his fuUier, and as hit 
' binistrir, but to Tetiuuuce all hb lieutenant, or in his own nftitit. 
rights, and tho^e of hb family, in Oh the following day. May ?d, 
favour of Fr<i[ice. . Fenliiiand VII. tbe old king, in q long answer, ev^ 
overawed, a pt'isoner, aud control- dently dklflledby thereat usorpcr, 
led by circurnstauces, on the 1st of author of tlie wliole tragedy *, de- 
May transmitted in writing a ooit- dared fib abdicatinn to hHve bCeti 
ditional renuuciation of llie crown coni|>ul3ory, and attributed bu pre- 
in favour of liis pngutt fatlier. In sent d&trcssful Ktualion lo the in- 
that paper Ferdinaiul observed. ' veterate hatred of Ferdrnand a<;aiiul 
thai though hb father had penon- Fratice, of which evidence in his 
ally declared lib didicatiou lo be owh letters bad been rommani- 
volunlary, it uow apiioiared, lliat it cated, (which hat been above ad- 
was his secret iulviitinn lo retunio verted to) by tl>e empeior, 
the crowp, when it should become Charles concludes with asserting 
advisable^ It now also appeared, his conTidioiii Ibat tJie'dimrden of 
that it was not Ii1s design either to Spain wcicto be reinedied only by 
reniouol the throne himself, or ereii Buniiaparte, whont, from tang ex- 
to return lo his dominiooE; at lite perieuce, tlie a^ed • montarch sayt, 
fame time, that tbe rightful bei« he knew to be incapable of formbig 
w^t directed lo renounce his clii'tais any design hustiie to the honour 
to the succession, and interests of the rojal family of 

Notnilhslandiii<; tbe incKplictible Spain, 

contrariety in Clmrles's condaci, FcrdtiiaDd'a refriy to this cob- 

Ferdinand consented lo resign all. municatioa.dutedlbc 4tbof May-f, 

S resent prelensious to the throne ; togelber with inany powerful re- 
nt upon certain conditions, ci^cu- preseiUntiuns to hb Arther, on tiie 
laled 10 prevent the alienation of future situaiion of the kiugdon, 
tlie sovereigply lo any lorei^ coniaint many strong aif;a- 
power. He proposed, that Charles uicnls for believiug tlie abdication 
sliould return to Madrid, whither of tlie l>Jtb uf March In have 
be would attend him as a dutibil , been voluntary; allliongb the con- 
' ton; Ibat the Cortes, oral least, se(]uenGes to be apprehended tnmi 
tbe great council of tlie kingdom, tbe popular oMnmaitoiii, HiiKbt 

li>v« 

■ Srt Appendix ta Cliroiiicle, p. S3j^ t Appeo. to OinHi. p. 936. 

, \ 

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HISTORY OF EUROPE. IM 

' Uitlad a I niMiiMliiii influeacc Spain, and calamittef ottnry t'ad 

wCluriei't mind. would b« Ibe cofts«qiieiice. Ir Itib 

Ob the mom day. 4th of May, critical juncture, Ite liad cofKerted 

•ka Ikii reply <m ami by Fcrdi- with liis ally, the ewperor of lbs 

Hd to kof Cliarlc*, (wlKther b«- Fnocb, meaiurei for their weffare, 

imt or afl*r it wai received doe* All (hose who qidie agHinsI Fmnct ' 

Mtf>pcar,aBdti perfectly iruRia- thinled for their blood. 'I'hey 

taid) uuHMiBeed to the council of were either the eneuiies of Hk Spu- 

CMfie, hii abdication of all hia nisfa nation, or tke agents of Eog- 

doM on the Spaoisli kiagdaias, in laad, who songht, by. Iheir ii>- 

imv of his friend and ully, the trigiios, to *ever Uw inoth^r cou^ 

nv^nrof the French, by a-trcaty Ity from lier colonies: lo cfiect a 

(befa had been signed aad ratified, separation of her provinces ; or t» 

Kdwbich stipulated for the inic* iavolve the counlry for a long 

pitjud indepeadeace of Ibe Spa- course of years in trouble and di»- 

Mhluagdonu, aiKl (be preaerva- aaler. " Spaniards," laid he, " be 

Quof Ibe holy catholic rtlifion, guided by my eapericooe, tm4 

M «dy as the predominant, but yield obedience lo liM aHtbority 

Mthe sole and excluiive religion in which I dti'ne Uma Ood, and ray 

^u. He had tbouglit proper lo ancestors. Follow my eiampl^ 

W diis Uner, lliat they might aad be assured, under tJie presmt 

nrf sim tbemselfes thereto, pub- circumstances, there is nnlber pm- 

'Jt its contcsits, and make every parity, nor Kitiily fur llie Spaniards, 

otrtioa ID fiiTour of Napoleon, but in the frirudsliip of ttie grand 

* Di^iby," said king Charles, " ibe empenM- onr ally." 

^kA frankness and friendfilnp The negocialion between Ibe 

Iwinli Ibe French ; and above father and the son, for llie pur- 

iH, daect yowr care lo preserve the pote of pracuring (he uncondttional 

f^ttj from instirT«ctioDs and lu- and absolute rfaunciatiort of all 

mAl' r%fat on the part of Ferdinand la 

Bat befsre Ibis letlcr of abJica- the Spanish Ihroue, did not keep 

>■*> tiMnld be delivered, be had pace with the ardour of Buona- 

^■fatcbsd a prodainalion, dated parte ; who, therefore, adopted 

ui te game day, the purpose of measures for brinjiii^ it lo a con- 

^■li was, to prepare the public elusion in his owu peculiar way. 

SM^ in som«-de<(ree, for what At four in tlie afiernooa of Iha 

wsosooB to follow ; in confur- 5lh of Mav, liis imperial inajesiT 

's^wU Ibe usual policy of Buo- went to visit llie old liiii.'[aadi|ueeH 

>^Hi1e, who, on all occasions, was of Spain. At t|iis interview there 

'<tlu«iU(nti«e to inorqt influence were present, besides llieir wajes- 

*a» to pfaystoal foroc. Cfaariea, lies, the Infant Don Carlos, Godoy, 

"itely adopdnj: the senliinents the grandees of Spain, who had ac- 

^ very style of Buonaparte, (old companied the new king in his 

^ * Dear Subjects," that pei£di- jooniey to Bavonne, and the Spa- 

'"■easooght (o mislead Ihem, uish mhiisler Don Pedro Cevntloa, 

'" MB Ibe Spmiards against Ibe After a conference, which was con- 

''mt, and the French agaiosl (he tioaed above an lioar, Ferdinand 

^IWiids; but the derastatioa of was called in by his fiither, ** To 

bear," 



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136 ANNUAL REGISTEB, 1808. 

hear," »<rs Cevallni, " in the pre- jwar any wise incredible. It is b*- 

WDCC of the f miwrnr. e^ipreuions lieved by many that the famous lel- 

to dingnating auii IjumilialinK that I ler, in which Buonaparte tellt the 

dare not record litem." Tlie Gceiie prince of Asluriiu, that he had no 

tonfaicb Cevallos alludes nai thii. ng\it lo the crown of Spain Itat 

TI>e qneen, in a transfiort of pas- through liis motlier, Mas not writ- 

sion, addressing Ferdinand, said, ten on the iCilh of April, bat lub- 

" Traitor, you have for years nie- sequenlly to this interview. It did 

ditated the death of the king your not appear in the Honiteur, till 

father; but llianbs to the vigilance, nearllie middle of May, when it 

the zeal, and the loyally, of the was published, tOis;eiher with the 

prince of the peace, you have not transactions at BayoniK, on tbe firet 

been able to effect your purpose ; days of thai month. If it bad been 

neither you, nor anyoniiehifamous sent lo the prince on the l6tli of 

trailon who have co-operated with April, it must have come to hand 

you, tor the accotnplishmeMt of beforebis arrival at Bayonne.whicli 

yourdeaigns. I tell you to your was not till IheSOIh; and if those 

face, lliatybu are my son, but' not who were about the prince did Dot 

the son pf the king. And yel, interfere for ifie disco nti[iuanc« of 

without baviu£ any other rif;ht lo his journey, uAer the recepliou of 

(he crown than tho.ie of your mo- a kller so gross, so insolcul, so iin- 

' (her, you have soueht to tear il moral, and so menacing, intltad 

froiu us by force. But I agree and of coinmtaerattng their stupidity, 

deniaDdj that the emperor N<tpo- we could not help r^rding them 

Icon sliall be umpire between u* : with detestation and horror. Il U 

Napoleon, lo whom we cede and impossible, nor would it serve an; 

transfer our rights, to tlie exclusion, important end, to unravel all the 

of our own family. I call on him intricacies of intriaue of any kind, 

to punish you and your associate^, inucb less where' they descendlato 

at so many traitors, and ahandonlo profundities altogether unfatbom- 

bim the whole Spanish nation." able, or even to be conjectured by 

This scene of the queen bastani- common experience and obseiy»- 

izing her own leeitiraate son in the tion. What is obvious, is, ihmt 

presence of the king, lib legitimate on the side of tbe Frcndi court 

father: and proclaiming her own there was the utmost subtlety and 

infamy before her husband, is some- blackest perfidy; on that of ifae 

thing so new, surpriiing, and, tingu- Spanish court, if not treachery, a 

lar, that il | ould not liave joined stupidity bordering on ideolbro. 

universal and undoubted credit as There seemed to he no end to 

il has done, if il were not attested the queen's reproaches and nga. 

by so many witnesses. It has been when Kapoleon inlemipled faer, 

supposed by some, on nn impro- by saying, '* No I I give to Ferdi- 

bahle grounds, to have been not nand tlie crown of Naples, and to 

merely an- eflusioii of passion, but Charles that of Etrurta, with one 

to have been precimccrled Iwtween of my nieces in marriage to each of 

the qnee'n pnd Buonaparte. them, ~Let them declare if tbey 

Certainly there is nothing so bad be willing lo accept Ibis offer." 

concenuiig ludi B tvoman aa to ap- After a sliort silence, Pou Car- 
los 



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HISTOEY OF EUROPE. 



U7 



fa tt^aeA, "EmpCToiir, I wu not 
kntobe'akmg, bulan infant of 
^a."CefduisiKl WHS silent. Buo- 
■pMe, aAcr « short pMuse, Mid, 
'Nmc il (tnl optCT eiilre la o^ 
n <l h narL" — Ccuion or death ; 
■4 n bours were allowed him 
iffaaiii^toadeteTnunalion. Kin;; 
(Mm McnDdtng the threat of 
I wi f a ri f, ordered hU son to 
■^tn absolute reagnatiou of (be 
owi, under pain of being treated 
i^iUIiii bouseliold as an usurper 
<f Ac UuoDe, and a conspiralqr 
ipi« the life of his fatlter. To 
b froposilion, FerdmaDd being 
Miajnot to involve in his inis- 
kitan like rtomber of penons 
(■rrtbraded in I lie threat of 
CWh IV. assented. And next 
^Ba)e:ierto his father, afttr 
■Mlf Ibe circtinislancM of cnn> 
iMt in HJiich be was )>laced, lie 
■ric Ike resigcalion Ivbicb nas 
■•aoded*. After tbis, Fercli- 
■■d «>s deprived of bis coacb of 
M^vdsHonl of honour. He had 
M^tbtr ■Iteii'iant than the roiii- 
^•fcr of the partj that w^ktied 
Mi a jew, belonging to the iiiili- 
■ WaalJofuil guards uf Bnvonne. 

Oi iht saiu'e da*. May 3, a 
k<i^ of abdication M!M agreed to, 
■rfsj^fffd bv the prince of peace, 
Mfcptrtofkins CharWlV.aixl 
HnU Duroc on Ifrat of tiuonif 
W^ The mot ires by which 
win was actuated in ibis extra- 
"^■I7 transaction arc staled in 
fc preaml'le to have been to save 
^rii from Ihe agitalion of faction, 
*< *>r bolh internal and external, 
^iracnre together with the colo- 
>»Ae anitir of the nionarcby, and 
^i/m the means of France with 
*<■ of Spain, for the purpose of 
•^t**^ a naritinie peace. In 

* .SecAppcodis ti 



the first article, Charles cedes to 
fab majesty, the Emperor Napoleon, 
all bis lights lo the throne of 
$|MiB, and the Indies, as things iiad 
come to siicli a pass, that be alone, 
could re- establish social order. 
But Ibis cession was made on Iha 
Iwofullowingcflnditinns. lal. That 
the integrilv of the bitigrfom should 
be. maintained ; that the prince 
whom his imperial nn^jesty should 
Ihiiik lit to apiMinl to the throtie of 
Spain, sliuuld be iudependent, and 
that Ihe limits of Spain should not 
undergo any ulleraliiin. 2A\y, That 
Ihe Catholic, Apostolical, and Ko> 
man,«liould be the only religion of 
Spain, as heretofore, and that no 
toleration should \te granted to any 
sect of Ihe rcroniied reli;^ou, much 
less lo iiifidelity. This act of 'treaty 
of abdicaltoi) and cession, as it tvac 
called, contained a number of ar- 
ticles providing tor llie eslablisli< 
meut of Ihe king and <]ueen, aud 
infants of Spain, within Die French 
territory, aud also for settling Ibe 
nink they were to hold, which nas 
lo be the same with that wbicb 
titej possessed in Spain. By -the 
act of cession of the prince of A»- 
turias, signed at Bevonne, May 10, 
llic euiperor of the French se- 
cured to him the title of royal 
higboess, promised lo cede lo him 
Ibe domain of Navarre in (forniandj-, 
and grant him besides, an annual 
revenue in money, the lille of royal 
liigbness, the engagement of llwir 
respective coniniauders id Spain, 
and yearly' |>ensions, (o Don Anto- 
nio, Ibe uncle of Fenlioand, Don 
Carlos, and his nephew Don Fran- 
cisco, provided they should accede 
to the treaty. 

Id the meantime, Ihere was, as 
might be expected, an action and 
ic-actioa 
I Cbroucle. p- i39. 



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158 ANNUAL REGISTER, 180S. 

rc-kclioD between fthat wM goh^ bulletins irere at first saltjfiicloTy, aa 

oil at Bajoinie, am) what tame thfv were rail .of notblng but tbe 

to p«u at Madrid. The pitb- hniicurs done lo Ferdinitiin, iiK) llie 

lie mind in Spain had iKver been friendjy reception Ue met ttilli at 

m a slate uf perfect tnini]uitlity Bajoittie from Buonnparle. By aurt 

sioeethe wicMIe of Marcli, wliea by it nm siirniiticd thai nflliir^ at 

k wai suspected llial CbnrJes IV. the c-astfc of'Mariar, »Arc but a 

tBt<<D(lc(i to remove to Seville, with slomn; nspert ; and eoon *fler it 

all his faniihr. 1^ deposifion of was perfcctW btiown tliat it was in- 

tbe prince of llie peace, the abtlioa- lended tn the ruler of France t» 

lion of Charles, und the accession compel Ferdiitand to resi-n Lis 

ofhissoH Ferdinand, even l! whkli crown. 

look place on the same day, pro- ' The courier e:(pecled on San- 

dweedageneralsstisfitction through' day Itie 30llt of Apnl, did not ar- 

out the nation. But multiplied re- rive ; and the mail looked for boui- 

ports .of the iosnlence of the French, ly, was stilt due on (be evcniu^ of 

and parlicuiarly the leller of the tl>e ^sl of Mxy, when several lliou- 

CountdeEspellata, Ihegoveruor^e- sands of llie rnhabilauts of llie ca- 

Heral«fCit)aloDiH,stiJimglhe hostile pital asseniMed a4 the ptrl of the 

|»oceedingsof DufaeEmeatBarcelo- S'trn, and other alreels near llie 

aa; the arrival of French troops at post-office, on the look out for tbe 

Madrid; the surrender to Mural, of arrivd of the post. Tbe French 

tbe sword of Francis f. ; the de- garrison of Madrkl rested all n>gl)l 

parlurc of the king for Burgos ; the on their arms, and on Montlay t4ie 

deliverance.of Oodoy to tbe French, 2d of May, tlie stin, says an Eog- 

and fiaally, the tlelenninalion of lislimnn* who was present, ^anrt 

Fetdband to pass the frontier, or whom tve here follow, rose on 

to put biniself into the hands of the many sh unfortunate iirhabitant. 

Trench at Bayonne. AH lliese, cir- who was v.t\fs to behold tbe dawn 

. ciumtances raised a fermentation, of another da*, 
which «very moment threatened This was llicdaj finedforlbe cfc- 

some terrible explosion, and it was parture of (he titieen of Einiria, 

not without difficulty that the junta dauabter ol king Charles, aiid Ii«p 

of (sovernraenf, at the head of which son, Don Francisco, for Baynime, to 

was Don Atilonio, were able to calm joiti (he rest of the royal family ; 

tbe alarms uf the people, ao far as for it was determined by Buodr. 

lo rcslTdiii tbem firom insulting the parte, that not a branch or scion 

French and treating tbem with vio- of tliat l^mily should rrmain in 

lence. Spain> Great imuibers of the jieor 

A courier eslraordinary arrived pte crowded to Ihe place that was 

evety evening at Madrid, witli news in front of the palace, to see hct 

af the proceedings ut Bayontie. going away j and among (bese, ma- 

Tbis news was not piiblisbeil in the ny wives and children, lo bid ad^u 

DQselte, but circulalcil under the to ' their husbands and their fa* 

form of letters from particular per- tbers, belonging to the fomily and 

sonsin the suite of (he king. These llie esccH't of the queen, and- to be- 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 159 

mil tkdr oifappj lot, in bein^ left ulh«rs wouiMfed. A IiMiriifuI cM<), 
Ufld, vHbout snji piovisioo be- eight *^i-an ol<t. fctl diiiit Ht a 
•futtiefer (heir future subsist- wiitdnw, oritlie Drstdiscliitrse whicb 
ace- As Ihe first carriage tinw was mwle ubtutt eleven o'clock in 
B|)fatlhe^te, a report was circu- Ihc foreuoon. Tlte news s]>rcaTl 
W b; stnraliudivithials among over the wboltfi'dly willi the rapi- ■ 
iW pc^dc, llial Dob Antonio, pre- ^'Ay a( lightning, nud Jn less than aft 
lidml of ill* junia gr pcoviiiuaal Iiour, tvciy individual of tlie lower 
pwtnHnrat, was abo %f»B^ t« classeSj wbo pussessed the means, 
tmita tbem. And this mislake ajvpeared on the slreel in arms, 
jmlum) a ItinHill. The populace At first itic S)>aDiards ' had (li« 
M tLe Inicei of bis cBrriage, and besi of it in the irrcaler part of the 
^cd it back into tlia court nf city, alllin»!;h the S|>anislt troops 
tW palace. But, on salisfaciory bad do siiare in the en[iii<^nient, 
aaraaces tbat Don A<itonia ' was haviue been confined by Itietr t^- 
H( gomg to quit Madrid, tliej per- cers to Ihrir barracks. A RreKt 
nitlcij the hotses^gain to be put to number of the French weie killecf, 
iIk roach, which drove without ob- and their arms supplied such of the 
^IJoa lo Ifae palace gate. In Spuuiarda as had hoiic ot'tlitirown. 
Ill mtdu of this fni7, nii aid de Itut as toon as thi- di^prisilioDs (ti 
(H^WDl by Murat, to mark and reeted by Murat began to lie car- 
tit in acaount of what was going tied iiilo etlecl, the ailvanlaire was 
tmrd, makes his appearance ; the decidedly ou Ihe Mdeof llic Fiench. 
people (hewed an inctioatinn loin- All Ihe French lroi>|v« in Mailrid 
xiittiusoficerand treathiiurudely, nere set in uiDlion. Each column 
^ bt was extrJcHlcd by some had cm or more pieces of HyiDii' 
Spinith officers who were present, - artillery with which ttiey bcDivcred 
udnffttcd torettim to his chief, the streets as they moved onward, 
AAfT this, the carriages with the and wliich were atieruards placed 
^Kcaof Etniria, and her brother, at thespotsfrom whence they would 
WN puniitted to set out. Tlie do Ihe greatest e\t;culion. Tbe 
■i6at Don Francisco, manifested Fruich poured voDtes of mnsketshot 
suqaiTocal tears of relu^tnnce to into the streets as tliry crossed or 
Wn Ibe pdace. He wasobservetl passed by the ends of tbem, aim- 
md to weep Intterly.wbicb aSected in;^ paiticularly at the wiudans and 
Ik people prod^tously, and raised balconies. For the Spaniards wlien 
te indtgnalioo and resentment to tbey were ilriven from lite streets, 
iIm fa^bot piteb. At this inslant. retired tn tlieir houses, from which 
Ik JitiK aid de ramp returned with they ftred on llie French columns. 

• detachment of French soldiers. In many places, tlie French burst 
■ meed into the houses by force, aod put 

• '. It to the sword, men, wottieii, and 
n ether children. The place where the 
i roops Spanijrds made the most glorious 

• 1 the defence was the store-house of ar- 
f t vol- tillery of Montekone Htmtt, which 
li inno- besides ainniunition, contained arms 
a uat for 10,000 men. Thither Murat 



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160 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



■ent a delachmeDt to take pos- 
aession of Ibe artillery and aminu- 
uilion, bul li« found it occupied by 
a sdihII number of the inltabitanls 
of Madrid and Spanish arlillerj*- 
niei), iniUer Ihe CMninand of two 
' Itravc artillery nfficen, oftlic nnnieti 
nf Doaize and Velayde. A twenty- 
four pounder charged with grape- 
shot, placed at the gate of the 
flare>iiouw, in front of a lung and 
narrotv sCreel, and duly poinleii and 
levelled, made eucIi havoc among 
the French column a* it advanced 
Iiy (his street, lliat the coramander 
was obliged Id tend to ftlurai, for 
a reinforcement. Two other co- 
lumns were dispatchedviiUi alUpeed 
to bis iiiccouT. The French eo- 
lumna altaclced Ibis small garrison 
on both flunks from Ihe windows 
and tops of tUe adjoining houses, 
and repeatedly summoned it to sur- 
render, but Ihe brave and resolute 
commanders refused >n lisleJi lu any 
proposition of tlib kind, and their 
constancy remained unshaken to Uie 
last mumeiil rf tlieir existence. 
Telayde was killed by a musket- , 
■hot. Duatz, ullcr liis lliigb-boue 
was broken by a cannon bull, con- 
Imued to give liis orders as he s:ip> 
ported himself leaning; with his 
elbow ou the jjtruund, with the 
grcali'it coUiposure, till he received 
three other wounds, the last of 
which put an end to his glorious 
career. The command of the little 
arsenal ijovi devolved on a corpo- 
ral of Hililler>>, who, sensible that 
imlhiug good was to be expected 
from lurtlier resbtance, offered to 
cupitnlate. This olTer the French 
general readily accepted. But 
while the articles were drawn up, 
B Spanish officer, Ihe major of tlie 
warlike 'store-house, appeared on 
korKbuck, waving a white hand- 



kerchief, and proclaiming peace; 
on which the French wrtK suffered 
to lake possessiiin of the place. 

The loss sustuiued by the French 
in Ibis point of attack was not ex- 
actly ascertained, it was reckoned 
to be very considerable, as Iweoly- 
S1X rounds of grape-shot were 
fired on the firal column as it ad* 
vanced throuuhthe ]onn and nar- 
row street Just mentioned. In 
about two honr^, the firing in everv 
part of the town ceased; an efl^t 
produced by the jiersonal tuler- 
poution of the mrni bers'if the coun- 
cil of Cast ille and the other tiihmials, 
who flew from one street to atio- 
llicr on bnrsehacb,' accompanied 
by several Spanish noblemen, with 
Mine French generals, nnd escorted 
by parlies of cavalry, cooststmg of 
Spanish body guards and troopcra 
belonging to the French imperial 
guards, mixed logclher. 

The inhabitants of Madrid now 
fluttered themselves Ibat the car- 
nage WHS at an end. But in ibe 
afternoon, Mural issued 'genersl 
orders to bis army for the imme- 
diate fomnlion of a military trj- 
bunal, of nltich gmcral Grouchy 
was appointed president. Before 
this tribunal all persons were brought 
who had been made prisoners iu 
the early part of the day, or fonnd 
in the street with any kind of arms 
about them, or any implements 
whatever that might ponibty have 
been used, or by any construclion 
considered as a weapon : those who 
were found witli muskets, swords, 
penknives, and even scissors, wer« 
all of them considered as. equally 
guilty, and ordered- to be instaiilly 
shut; and the sentence was eaeculed 
H'ilhout a momeut'sdelay. Several 
other persons were oondenmed to 
be shot on (he dny afler lli< nest. 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. ISl 

He trbole of the Erenth troops sovcnimeut aat) of war. Hib d^ 

tafto^td agaisst Madrid,' od the cree may be considered not ooljf 

InnjUe 2d of May, was computed ai a pre^raiory measure, but afi 
wt to buve exceeded 10,000 at actual transfeceuce of all pow«r, 
UHt, And it was sujiposed that military aud civil, to the ^encb. 

iftlw SpaoLsl) troo|)s iii. France Ir^ Astliegiand duke was commander 

bin wITcred to join tlie |)cople^ in-chief of the troops belonging to 

m oDe of those 10,000 H'oiiid bis ally, tlie emperor of the Frencb, 

h<F escaped. But it wtis fortunate, Ciiarles judged it necessary, bie 

HJoubi, for ihti Spanish capilal, savs,to make liini lieulenaoL general 

tial this wm BoL the case ; for be- of Spain, in order k> give the 

odnibose lO,OOOtberewercW,000 whole force within bis kingdoni> 

Mn French ttaopi encamped or for the preservEtlion of pcftcp 

ia tulMOKuts iu the territory and property, the " tame dir«Q- 

BMd Madiid, who wouM Lava lion :" plaiuly insinualiD(b that 

uudialelybeen set inmolian: the witboul suck an arrangement, tl)e 

RniU »f which would have been forcesof Hie diSereut nations ruight 

it Hck aiid ilestiuclion ofMadrid. receive opposite directions. It «# 

It has biren surmised in various also decreed by the FO\al ediel. 

fci'Mlical pull beat ious, that Murat that tbe grand duk( of Berg, in <|tta- 

■d fai) pnud|)al officers studiously lilj: of ^vemor general, sbould be 

me^t fiir an occasion of quar- prenident of the junta of goveiq- 

td isd hostilities, with a view to menl. But iu this the junta bad 

farfrilivn tfruj ronfiscaiioiu ; aud been as forward as his majesty : for 

naUiaifuch means of gralifjiag on Ihe same day. May 4, Ihejuut^ 

Ae uniy were looked to by Bu». baving declared thai there was not 

■parte. It will be recollected, a moment to be lost for prevfotiog 

iMwner, that Buosaparte bad re- the evils |o be threatened by disre* 

<MiK to every metltod he couM jpect to the coustituted authoritieiV 

■Itw for conciliating; the favourof made a lender of the precedencyof 

Ife Spaniards, — This may be at- IhatcounciltothegraDddukeofBerg, 

oatd with certainty, that it wa^ which was accepted. Don Antonio^ 

Ik ittbucuan policy of Murat, as well' as every other branch of the 

■Ml b« well knew would be ap- Koyai fluuilj, was called to Bayoime. 

Pmtd of by bis master, to crusb* The grand duke of Berg, Mav 

'pmible. tbe rising 5|)iHt of Spain 6, issued a proclamation to bu 

■Uwbvd, by a dreadful exaraple. army, in whicli he says, that the 

HmdIioIc city of Madrid, by " 2d of May bad forced thcBi to 

iwt of tlie JHula, was disarmed. draw the sword ^ that they had ac- 

Bj a loyal edict, dated at Bay- quitted themselves to his satisfac- 

*M, May 4^ the gra»d duke nf lioivaud that lie would not fail to 

Bog, aluMBCluuleBcaltshisfoiisb, report tlieir praiseworthy condnct 

Uai^mtadlieuleoaiitgeneuli or to thc; emperor; but ovdcr and 

^«} <rf all Spain. Aad the couiv tranquillity was restored ; tbe guilty 

ol cf Castille, and tbe captains g«- had .been punished ; the men who 

'"''■l *imI go^amon of provinces, had been mbled, acknowledged 

*"» tfireclttl to obey his orders, their errors; in short, a veil was to 

*'>>ch was iatintated to lite junta of cover all ibat bad passed, and that 

Vol. L. [M] - " 

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18a ANNUAL REGISTER, 1603. 

coitfidence Du<;ht now to retun. Spain. Hut Ihf rmiwror (IM oof 

He exiiorted bii suldiers lo return tliin|i that lie ouebt to <lcky uiiHt 

to ibeir old relations of frienilship the (fecision of that important 

with the inhabitants of llie capitai. qtiestioit, to nmlie known the scn- 

l^i conduct of the Spanish troops tinients that {lowed ift hi* breart 

was wortfa^ of euti^y. He bade in ficvoDr of a magimuinious ii^ 

the iilhabiliinti of Madrid to ban- tioti, whom be wisheid to pmerve 

bb from their minds all uneasiness froiir tbe crins of a poKtiod revo- 

and apprehension, and to Me lutioa, andlo cstabliih such poli- 

nothirtg in the soldiers of tlie grand tical institutions as were most ina- 

timo\eoti, Ihe proitctor of Spain, logons to their character. He hatt 

but frienidy troops, and faitliful~al' it in charge to declare, in the name 

lies. Tbe inhabitants of all orders of his imperial majejty, that the 

and degrees, might wearlbeircLoaks integrity of tbe S|<aiiisfa monarch v 

accordir^ to their usual .fa^iiou. Bhonld be preserved mviolate, and 

They wemtd not on that account, , that it sliould not be disiDem- 

b^ any longerarrested,orolherwise bered of tlie smallest portion of 

nolested. He also published ano- its >erril«ry ; no, net so mtirli as of 

ther proc^iation, addressed to ' a single village ; nor should it be 

"Tbe brave Siianiarrfs," to the subjected to those conlribuliana 

same efiecl, but afgn'Sler leugtb. which are authorited by tlie laivs 

He sets out with saying, tlial lh« of wjir in conquered countries: ' 

" 3d of May would be ti day ofsor- which laws could never be thought 

row to him, as it was to them. Hie applicable to an ally. The rnier- 

common enemy lo him and them, ests of tbe army which Ik cOm- 

after behaving lO such amanneras maiided, were l|ie interests of all 

mi^ht have wearied out his patience, such as bad titles, privileges, or 

had finished their provoking con- properly to preserve. Tlie nobi* 

duct with exciting the people of Hty, projmetors of estates, mer- 

Marfrid and of the adjacent vil- chants, and h>anu fact ore r«, were 

hges to excesses, that had reduced called on lo exert all their iuflu- 

to employ the irresistible force un- ence for tbe suppression of sedi- 

der his command. — With wiiat hor- lion; the ministers of reKgioa* 

rid joy wouM not llie enemies of who knew tltc secrets of coa- 

Francc and Spain think of the day adences, awi possessed so grvat 

when tlie ):enerous French , were autborky to undeceive the people : - 

nhliged to hurt tbe misled Spa- and tbe civil and military aulbori-' 

niardsl They hoped to obtain ties, to recollect llieir responsibi- 

other triumphs not less homble in lity, and to crush insurrection in tbe 

other parts of the kingdom. But cradle. Tliese authorities, ifFreueh 
their hopes would be disap- . blood should be shed anew, wouM 
pointed by his own frankness and h«j responsible to the emperor Ns- 
the sound .iudf:ment of the Spa- poteon, whose anger or cW* 
niiirds. Charles IV. and liis son ineii'y had never been moved in 
were concertiiij; at that moment at vain. Biil he promised himself 
Bay'onne, with llie eniperol- Napo- better things, hoping that tbe liii- 

leoit, iIk best measures Cor settling iiisterS of religion, niagistratea, 

ttic allWirs, ami liiiii£ llic Uie of tbe sraoducs, and other nobles of 

Spaiiv 

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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 163 

SfMio, and iasfaort, all classes, would who have ill Ireatcrf afiv Spaniard 
Mkc il their shi(l> tu avert those ia liis person or (troperly." Tliey 
trasblMtiiatinightobstructtlteanie- proceeded, in I lie usual strain of 
Kontioiiiiitemleil. To all tbe Irene- tlie Preiicli on the. same subject, 
nlsaiid oilier officers employed io lo stale tiieir suspicion of evil in- 
the different protiace^ of the monar- tentions disguised under iJie mtfik 
Aj, ibe line of conduct observed of patriotism: Tlic; repre^nted 
«■ tbe mclaiKbol J occasion, alluded the consequences of being governed 
to, by the liDUsefaold troops, the by llie blind impulsion of igno- 
prriMMi of Madrid, and ttie mill- nince, and tlie dreadful conie- 
kn ill the service of the court, pr»- quences of tumultuous proceedings, 
se^ed an excellent model for inii- wlii^ h only served to throw the 
tMioa.' — It b not difficult tu con- country into a state of convulsion, 
jedare how this compliment would by tearing asunder those bonds of 
hereUtbed by tlie honourable part' association on which tbe peace qf 
•f tbe Spani^ garrison of Madrid, the community depended, by de- 
md tbc other regulars specified. straying the feelings or humanity, 
Ob Ibe mrm day a circular let- and annihilating all confidence ui 
br was addressed by the council the government, to which alone it 
at sBpccmc and generol inquisition, belonged to give an uniform direc- 
ts iH tbe courts of ll>e kingdom, lion and impulse lo the sentiment 
Tkis venerable body becoming a of patriotism. These most irapor- 
toa) ia ibe bauds of Murat, with- tant truths could not be impressed 
mC hesitation or reserve imputed by any, upon the miuds and hearts 
ata tbe S}ianish nation culled the of the people wilh nvore beneficial 
■assacT* of Die 2d of May, to the effect, tliaii hy lite minislen ofthe 
peofilc of Madrid. " The nielaiH religion of Jesus Christ, which 
chair coBsequences," said they, " of breathed nothing but peace and 
th»dtignceful tumults in thbcapi- brotherly love among men; and 
tal,<m the 2d Instant, by tlie vio- subjedion, honour, and obedience- 
ka» of the people towards the to all who were in authority. An4 
troopa of the emperor of the us tlie holy college ought fo be 
French, have rendered the most and altvays had been the first to 
Kjiie tigilance necessary on the give qn example to the ministers of 
part of all the ma^istmcies and all peace ; ibey coDceived that it ac- 
the mpectabte boilies of tbe na- corded wilh their office and Ihcit 
tinH, ia. order to prevent the re- duty to address that letter lo tlia 
Bcwal of such ex^essc.H, and lo subordinate courts of the holy in- 
|ves(T*e Irau4)uilhly in every com- quisition, that, on perusing its con- 
■■■iiy actuated by a due attention teitts, they likewise shouUI ciMipcrt 
bits uwn inleresls, no less than by ale hi the preservnlion of public 
Ac hilts of ho.tpilalily toxvards tranquil lily. And they were le- 
fiicndly <^Bccis and siddiers who quired lo notify the same to all 
■gvc no persou, and wlio vp t«' the subordioale officers of tiieir 
liit mtmmt have given the sirdng- respective courts, and also (e tbe 
at proofs of good order and Sis- cnniini^sioners of dt*trict?, that bU 
dpiiH^ by punishing those who and every one of them sliould with 
hve bcoi guilty of excesses, or all possible xeal, v^ilance, and pn^ 
.[Ma] deuce. 



te* ANNUAL REGIStEtt, 1808. 

meiit of M intpttrlttnt an object, md tbe graad duke 6t Bng, lii« 
Ttii» doctrine of pauite obedi' Keotemm). 

•ftcc to whaWvCT power bapp^M The prnehimttofi af Mnral to 
Id be ufilwrtiK^sf tft the time, «c«n-itf the Spanind}, May 6th, in winch 
iMvftcity nirh rhat of BtiODBfnrfe^ h« telli Ihem thaf rh« fate af Spain 
wh0, (QrKkig ike labtMen the as- wat under llie delrtwratmi of 
itttoii af tbe Jia ditfintm oflwre- therr own prHiew, hi concert wifh 
dilaryktt>g»,iRa)Rt*inilhat heltcoin- Ifiegreat emperor Napolmn. within. 
nrbMioiied b; God in liie toatse of the pmincb of France, w*s M- 
pmvldenee ttf reform (lie worM b;; hiwed np by aitolher, May 19, 
new potilieal inalitulinni, as plainly for conveniog (be notable^ whotraic 
appeara by hn posseissiii!> " both the caHcvt on 10 acrid deptitie» fo « 
(tower mid Die kicMniitktn to sur- junta trf be ^Mcttibled at thjonae, 
ihouM all obstacles*." The same for Ihe purpoac of (etlHng aoitie 
doctrliR was inculcated on tlie Tus~ ptan tliat m^l secure IIk trso- 
cam broDght nuder the dominion quilUly aiid happineas of Spam. 
6f BMn^nrle by the Bicbbisliop And on tlw 25(li of Hfly fl pro- 
of Florence, who, in pursuance of etamalion Was i^ued, ta wliitJi 
a drcnlar address from the new go- Buonaparte JMiauBfed to the Sp«* 
TenMneHt, in the bepiming of July, ntards, that be had received acois- 
to all Ihe prelates of Tuscany, trans- fRiarion from heaven to refenn tbrit 
Aihted a pastoral letter to all (he governineDt, aiidtoraakellieniBgnB 
elergy within his diocese. "R«mem- *bat they had been before, a great, 
fcer," tbe prelate writes, "that tbe and gtorroui, and bappy natwn. 
b(dy apostle t*aiil calls kings the mi- "Your princes have ceded to me 
diitera of God ; and the kings of their righli to tbe crown of tbm 
whom the aposUe speaks, were ■» Spains. — Vour nation b old : my 
olbtr Ibad heathens, and adrena> Mission Is to restore in youth. 
tits to tbe eaute of Cbriilt. Hie We are not surpriced at lucA lmo~ 
true christian Is the enemy of no guagc from Buonaparte to Turks 
man, much leu of the einperOr, for and Arabs, and other HustulmeoJ, 
he is aware that his majesty holds bnt It was scarcely (o be ckpedcd, 
lib appointment from God, and oncsbOuldsuppose,thatltWoul(l|;» 
that tie MUff loee and honour down >wilb the Spaniards. 
him, and offer up prayers, for bu The public mind, it was preaam-. 
)>rc*eTvatlon." cd, was now sufficiently prtfMred for 

The council of Castille loo, by the reccplion of an imperial decree, 
poblnfaing md proclniniing, sane- which was communicated to the 
tidocd by the authority of their council of Castille. May sgih, ia- 

formii^ 

• Profltmation ttj Napoleon, Dee. 6, 180S, to tbe people of Spain. 

t OUndnf no doubt » Baunaptrte. 

} In liB proclimatiMu, on lili expedltioa to £gn**t ^ it"** <x>t< *"*** ** all Ms 
O^ratioDi an directed by destiny, to wliicb all tliin|i in this *ut oniretM are Mb- 
ject. — I am Icrrible, at the ligbt of beavm. — A day will r«ine, when all tbe wDrl<) 
Will sec tb>tl~sin directed in nq* cODituct by orders from above, and tbat no bo- 
Man eflbrts Can prevail agaitnt me." See mora <rftU> tort of preacUag, b« Baou- 
panc, to tbe Hnisalmta, Vnl. XL. 1790. 



p.: hy Google 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. i$S 

E the eouicH of Ute sin- He naniett, I9 ,ca8^t.ute Ifaii >»t 

■Has which Ibe emfUBror, hy xattue lentbly, aboitf 1^0 StMWuds vf 
ttU» dgfatt to the cruMui or S|4in. diffeKUl oluKa. icundttioos, bk^ 
rticli hwl bem c«<tad to him, hntl corpwalions : bitt an\^ aUoitf 9j;> 
bi/m for fixing the 'batis of tlie wve fotneiied. A iwrt of tbest;, 

WW ^wcoiueiit <nf 4he kiagdoov xcptsMntiug some dtii's, (rihunalj^ 

•f whieh (hr givui didie of ]B^g oiraltier,pHUti.cit)0()i(9,lvougUt.witb 

m»4a cootinue fa the .meautiwf Jbeiu uurtr^atioiM in llie ivHlure <tf 
J« J>e viceroy ; anil the council powers gtv«o llbem by those whoni 

if CvtiUe were nquiretl Ip affix lliey repnaenleJj ,biit altegctb«r 

Jhc Mid imperial dtsree aa the iitiuffidi^Dt lo (uuwer tlie purpow 

iMnal pWes, tliBi no man might jiiiQuded. The iiiijtiatera of litf 

pntesd i^moraAce of the same, couiicil were without aa^ |>pw«n ' 

Ike decree ordered, 1. Tliat (he or inMructioiii .whtitevcr: ^ pce- 

MKoiblyof the nolablei which baJ .caution adt^lsd hy Uiii Uibumri iti 

^Lsdy been tummotied by llie coitfiirmitv lo. the judgotent oCils 

JTiifiBiiit grnrnil of the kingdon^ .commts^on^rsi ili order to ayoiti 

AaaU be heldoii tfaeiSlh ofjune, »ll iavoluntary compromises . ,M^ 

tf BajWMC. The depulies were of the .deputies Itad nuolhv.pO>v«ip 

efaargcd with the sentiments, dc- :Ui»a merely to liike tdeirdeparlute, 

mta, aod coniplainls of those and iHiuny of them did not beluit( 

Ifcey tvpfrseated : and also to Ak to aiiy Jtiiblic body, or acknow- 

Ifec 'faaaM of Ibe new goy^innieut, letlged cUss pf the commuaity, 

Ar llie kingrtom. S. Napoleon's Buonaparte fuilyexpccleif,f'rom the 

■Mpbi, Ibe .grand duke of Berg, .acqiiitscence of these individuals, 

■■cooiiaued to fulfil IhefuDCttaot .v mask for icoiicealjiig his usurpa- 

^ Eewteoanl-general of the kiitg- .lion, but :he was utterly deceived. 

'^oiB. 3. The inifiiaters, the couii- Juste^tf of finding wnk niep 

di Af state, Ibe council of Castilie, convenient for the .de»ipu of bp 

1 all civil, ecclesiastical, and mercenary ambition, ,he was met 

■~-7 aulborilies, were as :^ V by ministers .iucarruptible ; grah- 

, confirmef). Justice was idces .worthy of ibcir rank, and 

la be wimmislered, tinder the tfltne jepresentulives .wiio were faithful 

ianm, and in the same manner, as defenders of the interests and bo- 

■saL This decree was published JiQur of their country*. Tliey all 

hf Ibe coancilof <Caslille, as they with one accord, iuforineil |mn thtf 

wtpe ocdered and directed. (he powers they held were greatly 

Vtm olued of Bnoaapartc jn irestricteil ; .tlrdt>llHry were nfrf ihe 

nvroliiae this assembly, b obvious, legitiirtate repreMnialives of Spain, 

BMrd us lie WHS b^ the extra- nnditbai lliey .could , not comprQiutsp 

■apMce of hti ambitiou, lie.cuuld her jiHlits.— .\nioug the depnues 

Jtt dbceru haw eiuily those .aols cbooeu,!^ Ibe nulaldes tu.repreatiiit ^ 

rf jrnimrialion ov whieh he hud thamin tbejuiila ut -BiiyQiiue, was 

fMuikd hb prcleqtious |o llie Aon Pedro .Qucvtitloy QuilHnn, 

tamm-oiSftiia, might he evaded. bishop of Oreose. The bishop ex> 

[ SI 3 ] - cused - 

* -Eiposisimi of Una 'Pedro Ovallm. 

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i66 ANNUAL REGISTER, 180!.. 

EUMtt liimwir from accepting tliis cli; of Sfain. But on whSt founifo- 
trust in a letter to the grand fluke lioiitras lliisfreatediiicetobebuihT 
of Bei^, the prcuctenl, and t)ie Waatbereanysnre meaniof arcom- 
ollier memben of the supreme pl'isliing ilits great end, approved 
junta of fiOTernment, which was and talifietl l>y ihe nation 1 Tliete 
publislied in ail llie .Spanish news- were maladies of such a nature 
papers, and afforded to Buonaparte as oolv to be exasperated by [^edi* 
■ forelaste of wbat niigtit be ex- cines. Tangant cultiera ultra 
peeled from ibc literary' geuiiu of ttuHif titanut * . Tlie remediesaj)- 
llie Spaniard!*, awaJtened by the plied by Ihe emperor Napoleon, 
greatest and most animating oc- tiie powerful protector of Spain, 
casion that could be presented to to the royal lamily, liad a-^ravated 
any nation. Itisfr&ught llirough- (he distemper so greatly, that Iherc 
out with the purest mvraliiy and were scarcely any hopes of Rco- 
niost accurate reasoning, covered very. — The rcnuncta lions of the 
with a veil of e>fquisitely fine, aud kings at Rayonne, and of the tn- 
what may indeed be called a kind liints at Bourdeaux, were made by 
of sublime irony. He does not tho^ princes, not in a 'state of free- 
question, but assumes an air of be- dom, but under force and eo- 
Iteving, that the great emperor of ercion. 

the French is animated with an ar- " Tlial those renunciations, on 

dent zeal to exalt Spain to the which all the authority of the 

highest pitch of prosperity and emperor and king with regard to 

glor^. Spain depended, might be vilid 

" Beim; 73 years of age, and and clear, and not an object of 

uai'er infirmities, and not able in suspicion 1o the whole nation, Ihey 

so shorta time to acquire the know- ought I o be ratified by the kings 

ledge necessary to come to a deei- and infiinis of Spain, uot under 

•ion on the points to be discussed, he constraint and terror, but in a state 

sent tlie present letter." — The era- of perfect freedom. And nothing 

peror and king appeared in Ibe dia- could conlribute so much to the 

racier. of a guardian ai:gel of glory oftlie great emperor Napoleon, 

;>eace, the protector ft Spain, of who had iulerested himself so mticli 

which be lind never been foi^etfut, in the affairs of Spain as to send 

but on manifolit occasions had ma- back its august monarchs and all 

nifested the great interest he felt the royal family, IJial having bs- 

. in the Spanish nation, and the semhied the general corles, Itiey 

sovereigns of Spain bis allies, and might consult, deliberate freely, 

his concern for their advancement and concert with their vassals and 

in wealth, power, and all manner subjects w}iat migljt be expedient 

of prosperity. — The ebjecl of the for the welfare of the kingdtua.— 

junta was t« remedy evils, to remove Who had appointed his serene 

prejudices, and to ameliorate the liigliness the grand duke of Berg, 

coudilion of the nation and monar- governor of Spain 1 Was not the 

appoiutment 

* IM M tmrf («a(A lotrtd *«viit. 



\\Qao'^i: 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 16T 

msde ID Fnacel By lidered, vrould admit thtt the nfety 

1 \mf pioui indeed, uid worthy of of S|)ain could not consist in •!■• 

dl mpKl, but not only under an ven/, aod that he would uot think 

muodnt bflDaice,J)ut under con^ of effecltn^ her cure by putting 

Uniiit and cocnjoo t Was it not a her in chains, seeing she nss nei- 

ttnige snd uuMtaral chimera to Iber En a stale of Ammy, nor yiirj- 

' aiM for the lord lieutenant of bis Mu/jroMu/f- These were sentinienls 

bjdom, a general who commanded which he was not afraid to avow 

Mmny that menaced and com- to tiiejuuta ofgo<emnwnl,attdeveB 

pHed ban immoiiately to resi^ to the cniperdr himself. This ex- 

tiiciMra 1" In conclusion, be said, pression of them was demanded by 

"Ifatiatioanwitself wilUoiitaking, bis love for his counlry, and the 

>i4 did uot know what hand to royal timily, and by his. character 

Ara. The reiHMriatioua of its of counsellor (o liis sovereign in 

bft, and Ibe nomination of a go- the quality of a bishop of Spain : 

■naoT of the kingdom, were deeds nor did he consider llie setilitnents 

^B France, and under the be had expressed as useless, if not 

we* of as emperor who has per- necessary to tbe true glory and feli- 

aadcd hiaiself Ihat be can efect city of the illuslrioiu hero who wiis 

Ac Uidly of Spain, by giving it tbe admitalion of all Europe, and 

isnr dynasty, deriving its origin to whom he had Ibe pleasure of 

fim a Amily so fortunate as to taking llie present opportunity 

Une itself incapable of pro- to pay the tribute of' his hum- 

^dog any other princes than such ble, obedieiil, and submissive 

« doll possess equHl or greater nespetts." Oreuse, SStii May, 

lilBib for government, than tbe in- )80S. 

fiKible Slid victorious, Ibe kgis- Tbe fap, ofSt. Anderosletter on 

bfair, and tbe philosopher, the lhesaniesubject,andonlbesBnieoc- 

gm emperor Napoleon. He re- casion, though quite in another stile, 

fttted, with all due respect, that was as much admired and as widely 

■bttheconsideredaiwellgrounded circulated. To Buonaparte, < who 

fan. flight be brought under llie l>ad invited him by letter, to alleod 

anndetation of tbe supreme junta at Bayonoe, Ibe bishop replied, "I 

ofgoreninieut, and even laid be- cannot make it convenient to attend, 

fm Ibe great Napoleon, to be and if I could, 1 would uot t." Tbe 

■tigbcd by tbe natural rectitude of junta at Bayonne held their IwclfUi 

b diaposilion and purity »f his meeting on the 7lh of July, llie 

Init, liee from ambition, and far day appointed fur the acceplanee 

Rauvcd fram all guile and poli- of the new coitstitution. Ip the 

lical arli6oe. And, (he bishop chamberwheretbeysat, wereerecled 

kped, that tbe emperor, after mat- a magnificent throne, and a richly 

Ua should be thus candidly con- decorated altar, the service of 
[ M 4 ] which 

* Sa we would uy in EngUdu The Spaniib-ii, " A la vitta, nnder tba 

t Ph ne ne esta Iocs M fiiciasa. 
ISm OnMicle, p. 71. 



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168 , ANNUAL REGISTER, 3868. 

which wu ptribmied liy the arch- after wineli the snerkl ■wmbcn 
biahofi of Bni^oa. Joseph Buo- look the fallowhtg - oalh : — " I 
. Dop&rte, to whom Napoleon bad iwcar obedimce lo the king, i lie 
tnamkmd the orown of Spain, be- cotnlitulitm, am) the laws." The 
ing seated .on the throne, deliveTed junta then attended his m^esty'* 
a speech to tbe "'gnitlenien depu- Irvee, to pay him tlietr respects 
ties," in which be tolil them, that on the occasion, ^nd his m-^esty, 
ht was desirous ofipresenting him- tre are toid, "^ve llwni the most 
aetf in the midst of them, pre- gncioux Teception, and convened 
viousi; to Ibeir separation horn with Ibero -nearly an hour." The 
each other.—" Aasembled," said riceroy of S|iain, Hnrflt, was ihv- 
Joeeph, " incomequenu of oneof sent at the inai^ivtion -of kitig 
the extraordinary events to wtiich Joseph. He was called Eqr Boo- 
all nations in their lum, and at naparle, and arrived at Bayonne 
particular junctures, are subject; on the6th of July. It was doenwd 
and 'in pursuance of the dtsposi- e^ipedient by Buonaparte, before 
tions of the emperor Napoleon, our the departure of Joseph for'the ct- 
illuslrious brother. — Your senti- pital. to have some coiivenaiion 
inente huve been those of His age. witli the lieutenant gbnesal, con- 
The result'of these sentiments will cerning the present slate of ■Spain 
'be consolidated in the DOnslltutional and diipiMition of the Spaniards, 
act whieli willbe fbrtbwilh read to .'It was judged political wisdom that 
yon. It will preserve Spain from -Joseph should attach anumWof 
nnny l«dious broil), which were the 'Spanish nobility to- his interests, 
easily to be fbreseeo from the dis- by appointing tliem to odiees of 
quietude with which the nation had dignity (as was' conceived) trti»t, iiwl 
been lonf agitated." He proceeded emoltiment. ' On the' Ml of Holy, 
to touch on the graat standing there was a nonitniltioii of ei^lit 
topic, the httrigaea tf t^ maniet ministers, viz. Doa Loiiis Marisno 
^ the continent, who hoped- to de !Un]uijo, secretary of flate, D'ln 
sever Spain from her colodies ; iPedroCeva I los;;m mister fonfonign 
bnt'"-iflhiiSpaniaT(ls«ere disposed relations; Don Joseph de Aruiua. 
tonnlcethesame'sacrificesii^tfahim, ministerfor llie Indies; Adininl 
then should Spain be speedily tran- Don Joseph Mastaredn, .ministtT 
quiland happyathonie.aDdjusland ' of marine ;'DonGonzato Q'panel. 
powerful abroad." — The act of eon- minister of 'War ; 'DontGaspar Mdo- 
•tltutiDtr* wasread over io a loud hior -de Jovellanos, minister of the 
voice, ablttfae mentbors of Ihe junta, interior;, llie count Cabarrus, nii- 
QR tbe question being put, una- nislCr of finaiices; and Son Se- 
ninrausly 'declared thnracccptance bastion Pinuelu, minister of J«^ 
tiw.— Two captains of nhe Ibodj'- 
ta, guflids, vis. 'the duke of Pirk, a 
m- grandee of Spain, and the duW 
lb ; of St. Gernnim, also a grandee of 
Spain. 

iU Fspen, p. 396. 



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HISTORY OF E0ROPE. 



109 



of the regtment oFS^nish ^'ants, 
mi tljc prince of Castel- Franco. 
eak»el of the M/a Hood- guard;;, 
fad officen 6f llie cto\m. The 
■uiqub of Ariza, pv^t cham- 
berlain: rtieduk« of Ht)ar, {(raDfl 
■arter of Ibe ce lenioi tie's ; and 
cMmt Fernando Nunez, grand huilts- 
Bn. Chamberlains ; tbe count 
Snta Collonita, the dpke of 
Oimaa, coant Cakel Florida, and 
Ac duke of Sotomayor, ah grandees 
«fSpain. 

It b painfiil to observe in this lirt 
of officers of the household, court, 
and public service of Joseph, the 
nmn uf persons of the lirst rank 
in the cuui:lr<^, anil even of some 
who Itail laboured long to over- 
ftrow ihu prince of Ihc peace, and 
))|3>« (he prince of Atlurias on llie 
Ihrune uf his' father. True, being 
ktbe power of Biioiiaparle, they 
were undera.uecessitv of accepling 
tbe places appuinte<l for tliem ; nor 
fad they any other mmus of es- 
aFun^lrom the hands of the tyrant ; 
nd'factDg serviceable to tbe cause of 
Ibert country, on any opportunity 
■bit might be offered. 'But who 
forced then) to go to Bayonne? 
Hiis question recurs, notwitustaiid- 
n« ererv effort to excuse them, 

fmniedialtily alter (he abdica- 
liotM, Ilie royarfaniity df Spain was 
burried intolhe interior Of France. 
When ll ley had proceeded as fiir as 
Bourdcaux. May 12, the prince of 
Aiturias, and the iilfants Don An- 
tonio and Don Carios, subscribed a 
kng procta Rial ion addressed to llie 
Spaniards, in which Ibey are ^aile 
lo repeat iheir former renunciations 
of all ibeit rights of succession lo 
tlK Spanish crnim, and to detail 



the most prominent crtcuinnaitcei 
in the slate of the nation, as «vU 
as their own sriualion trader which 
theyliad come to that resolution. 
The htiliappy prinon are made in 
that daborate addressto their couii- 
Irynien, to dUte i» llie struugeA 
'colours the calaniities lo be appre- 
ItenMed from the enmity, but tlie 
inighly advaolHges lo be expected 
from the friendship df France, 
anil even, irhat was a crud mock- 
ery and irault to the princes— ^tt> 
hold forth their dereliction as tb« 
'grealest possible proof of their af- 
lee I ion for the Spanisli nation. 
" Their highnesses conceived Ihfll 
tlii'y afforded the most unitoubted 
proof of their generosity and af- 
1'eciion towards this nation,' by 
sacrificing to the utmost extent & 
their power, their individual and 
personal interests for lis benefit, 
:iLiit by that present inst'tument lo 
as^iil, as they had already assented 
liy a piirliciilar treaty, tothe renun- 
ci:itioii of all their rights lo the 
llironc. TJiey accordingly. releasecl^ 
the Spaniards from all llieir duties 
relating thereto, and exhorted Ihem 
to c<mgult the common interests of 
thejr country by conducting tltem- 
celves iq a peaceable manner, and'by 
l^olifiig for their happiness in Ibe 
(jower and wise anangepiehU df 
the eni|)eror Napoleon. Tlie Spa- 
niards might be assured Ihat by 
tht'ir zeal in conformiog tlieir con- 
durl to those arrangements, .(hey 
would give Iheir prince and the 
two infants the strongest proor of 
their hiyally ; in like manner a« 
their royal highnesses had given 
them the greatest instance of Iheir 
p.itcrnalatl'eclion, in renouncing all 
their rights, and sacrificing their 
own interests, for the happiness ol' 



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iro ANNUAL REGISTEE,, 1808. . 

the Sfraniards, tbe sole object of under nunlial Besderei, propcTlv 

Ibeir svisliea." posted for tliat purpose, Niapoleou 

Tlie kiug and queen of Spain, uecompanied him . as lar ns Tnin, 

arrived on the SUth of May, at twelvemilesdUlanthvmtberroutier. 

Fontaiiiebleau, where be was irnn^e- lu all the towns and villages through 

dialely accoiiimodaled wilti aconi- whkh Joseph passed in hU wuy 

plete equipage for the chate.' From to the rapital, a sullen silence pre- 

tbeore they removed on iIk 32d, vailed. Few of tlie men went out 

to Compiegne. The prince of the of their houses, or interrupted tbeir 

|>eace resided now 'ana then, when ordinaryemploynients; andiomeof 

be did not attend (lie king and the women appeared at the windows 

queen, in a villa in the eovironl aiid Iwlcouies, crjigg oui-i^haFcr- 

ofParis. Hie'qneen of Etniria.and dinaadoVll. On the 2(lth ofjulj', 

her son, were placed under proper king Joseph mnde tiis public entry 

(■areata house ill the village of St. into Mailrid. — On the. same day 

Mendez, near Pxris. Tlie unfnr- Bunoaiiarte. with Josepbiua, setout 

4unale Ferdinand, with his uncle from Bayonne, and arrived at St. 

and brother, arrived May |()ll) at Cloud, ou llie l6th of AugusL 

Vallency, a small town in the pro- Buonaparle had hitherto, in aft 

viuce of Berry, where liiey were bis interf<:reoces and aggressions on 

lodged in a caslle belonging to indejiendent stHtes and kingilonu, 

l^lleyrand. The princes sought given, in declarations of war, his 

consolation in a strict oliservance of reasons for bis ronduci ; wliicli, 

the ordinances of the catholic reli- though they did not jii!itify*,ex|)lHin- 

gion. Tliey ullended ma'^ twice ed his views, and were a kind uf 

everyday, and enjoyed for hours homage to the sentiments of men 

together, the soothing strains of sa- and nations. While Europe was 

cTed music. The incomes pro- divided aniong a number of sepa- 

.niised by treaty to the roval fa- rate and independent powers, while 

mily of Spain, hare not been more there was a contmuuity of slates, 

regtdarly paid than pensions com- and a degree uf public- spirit, at 

inonly are to princes in confine- well as public opinion in Europe; 

nient or exile : which has already • some degree of decent respect for 

reduced Ibe princes to great iucun- these appeared to be, if not alto- 

venience, gether demanded, yet decent and 

l£ing.Jose|>b set foot on the ter- proper. After the peace ofHIsit, 

ritiiry of Sppin oif the 9th of July, when the whole continent of Eo- 

e«corte<l by a guard uf ^000 llaliun rope, Spain itself not excepted, lay 

troops, and followed by upwardsof crouchingalhisfeet.hednesnotKeiu 

an hundred coaches, carrying bis at (int to liave thought any tuck 

nuile, and llie members of the. Bay- nianagenirut at al^ necessary. He 

oime .Hinla. This guard, gradually scorned to put on even the mask of 

■increased. Mil ouuled, by the lime morality.— Hb conduct to tin Spa- 
Josepli arrived at Madrid, to ten : nish nation, to whom be professed 

thuusan<l; but his true ^nard was the greatest frieurlsbip, was base 

an army of eighteen thousand men, aud treacherous bejond all exani- 

• May 1, IBlO. 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 171 

)ile Id Ibe hiilory of mankind, wbe- n benefit to llw two counlriea tlian 
tfatr in ■ nvaae, tmrbarous, civi* a century of peace after three cen- 
fanl, or refiiird stale. Yet he. tiiries of war. The bond that 
amie no a|Nitu;;\ to Europe ; but unilecf the tnp nations -wiis broken 
■fterwarrls, wheii-lie (nuaii he wat ' asunder )iy the French reToUilion, 
ifpoMMl both by the pen an<t the After the Itiird coalilioii, Spuin, lit * 
iwanl witb a keenness lie little ex- llie nine lime that the wu moM 
pedcH, he iHiblislied a kind of.jns- f>rof(ise in her protestations of 
btialion r.f his ronduci towards friendship lo France, pve tr- 
Spun. »bich is the m-*t curHius c ret assurances of aid In (be cAn- 
piece of what may be called /Ki/iVt- federates, as appeared froiii cer- 
oil moralilff, or tlie maralily of" tuin papers comintinicated h> th« 
mMi«n. that had ever belore been parliament of England. 
pKsrnted l« the wnrlil, Tliis Jus- In the present stale of lUllgl 
tifialioii apjieared in tlie form of Spain, fliuler so miserable a snveni' 
• report from the niinislers of rient, was bfno service to tlie coni- 
eitental K-lailons and of war, pre- inon cauie against England. Her 
■mted to tbe conservative senate on marine was neglected; her ma^s- 
tbe 5th of Se<itember, and piib- tines unpniiided ; in every branch 
Ifebed iu Itie Moiiileur, Sepleniber of the adminislralinn lliere reigned 
. 71b. it is duled* at Rayonne, the most horrible disorrtei?; all the 
April n-tlti, 1808.— The substanci; resources nfthemnnarchlf were dila- 
rf it is " thai Prance was under an piddled; yet while Sp«in nesli-cled 
abli°ation to put au end To the in- her marine she was aiigtdL'nting lirr 
tcntal riiHeiitioiis and anarchy that forccatland. Thesetireate^iUtvere 
prevailed in Spain, in order In com- not (o be remedied Ixit by great 
fvl the £iislh*ht;'ivenjment to spare chnngesi — The niariliniu rxtources 
tbe lAiision of buinan bb^. This of Spain were lust fn herself a im I to 
wu for the interest and Itappincss ' France. The country lliat might 
of Spain, France, the coiiliuenl lof comnand the greatest resource.'i of 
Eorope, and all the world. — Uf all this kind was that which in reality 
the slates nf Enrojic there was not had ttie least. They must' be re- 
one between whose cniidilton and itored by gnoil gOTernment, and 
6le, and Ibat of France, tliere was tmproveil by judicious arrange- 
» close and necessary connection ments, that they might be <lirec|ed 
ntbal of S^in. Spain must be by bis imperial ^najeity, for the aU 
dtber a useful friend lo Prance or lainment of tliat peace wbich liu- 
a daq-erous eneiiiy. inanity so loud ly~e-<il led for, and of 
llie greaiuei^ of Lewis .XIV. which l^nrnpe bad so great need. 
<K-t not begin lill, having conquered Every ibing that had » tendency to 
Spain, he fonued an alliance with Ibis euil was allowable ami right, 
(be family Iben reigning (here, by It was not (lerinided to bis m^esly 
vfaich lueaus the Spanish crown by the interests of either France 
ome to be placed on the bead of or Kurope, to neglect tlie only 
iiB gnndson. This provident act, means of waging a succetsful Mar 
•f policy WM productive of no bsj M-illi £ugUnd.— It wa& demanded 

E,, 

* Thoash ivobaUj aot compoicil till (oiMtime aAcrwardi, 

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178 ANNUAL REGISTER, I8Q8. 

tBOM«f FmuB, thata Mr»qcluH)<l mUtaaa^ aud wilboul « «riufic 

tbculd M-ectablisIi ftnler in llir of French blood, hi iliorl, a»uld 

^Numh govenuwat ihat bad blleu your luiyed^ abaadopi ^e S)>intMl 

inlftiuch (Usgnoe, and thtl .«» nation lo.ib &te in the nudst ofcv- 

faasteiiiaf M> quickly to its find t/eme agitaiMn, and mhUetlie ^di;:- 

weilhrow and ruin : tiiat a pfinoc )i«b wene twisy in Camwtiag IfuuM« 

iwfao.waa the/fiedd of France by and aDarcliy? Ouglit yoar tw^estjr 

ioclinattop and by interest, that had to give itp tliia new prei^ I9 be de- 

Dotfaiqg to apprdiend, jiud could vwued by England 1 G(H)£>rbitl — 

never be an object of mistrust to I ^ii«e r^rcMDled llie cwcuiihUmi' 

Fxaaiy.ihouldiioHecrateLlie whole ces iliat oblige w>ur mi>ie.d_v in 

resources of ^laia to its internal oome to agreitt dut«ruiiiiatritii.' U 

fttapeniy, to the re-eolaUishment is rccoroinepded ity |i»liticMl wis- 

of its jnariue, and lo Ifae success of dora, autlioiiaed by .iu%itcr, and 

that cause wliich connected Spain by Ibedisttaclions nt' Sitam. ini|HV 

witb the continent. The work of rioualy demauHed. Vuiir iii)f)»iy 

IjewisXlV. was to be lecomtnen- oufhtto jn-oviile forUic M%iirii.> (lif 

ced. What fwlioy advised. Justice ynuretupire, audio save K)iaiH-t(oin 

sanctioned." the influence of 'Eni'biK I." 

The reporter after BeMing liim- Tiie niinisler fur liireicii t^"- 
self t(j establish this poiat by a re- litHts, ui aiiollier report tnadr ta 
view ,of circumstances adduced lo liie «niperor, Paris. Sq)leiiilirr I, 
prove the lurliing hostility of Spain to he cauiiimaicaled lo the twnate, 
lo France, and its prediiection for says, " If iu iW disposiliixia wltkU 
Ensland, and tbat it was actually vour imjesly has made, llie tecmily 
in a stale of war with his imperiat of France has been \uur pri^icfMl 
lusjesty, sajn, "But, independently object, tl^e iiilensts of Spaio tiaiw 
of Ibeseconsiderations, existiug cir- not been neglected.- In unlliug Ihc 
oinistanoes do not permit your uia- two slate* by the most iiilimate alli- 
jeaty to abstain mm intervention ance the prosperity and tlie gbuy 
intheiafiainorthatkingdora. Tlie of both have been equally consult- 
king of Spun had been hailed from ed; your m^jes^ interposed as * 
faislbroBc, your majesty was called mediator; for llie salvation of Spain, 
tf^judge between tbefatber audrlbe lorn to pieces by intestine broils- 
son. What part oouM your ma- You pointedouttolheSpsoiantsaii 
j«l^ take? Could your innueslyM- the one hand the anarcliy Milh 
ciihce the cause of sovereigns, end which they we re' threatened, and on 
suffer an outrage (o the majesM of the oilier hand England ready (o 
the throne 1 Or aufier a pfince to sit take advanlajge of their disorder in 
«n Ihethione ofSpainMboMias un- order tu appropriate lo lienelf 
able to diseiitaDgle himself if roni whatever might snit her %onv*oi- 
Ifaejoke ofihe Euglish any longer ence, — Shall lEn^knd he penuilted 
than your majesty should mainlain to say, "■'Spaio is one of lUf pn>- 
« powerful army in Spain 1 If, ou vinces," and to domineer at the 
the Dlherhiind,yourmiuestyshould ports of Etancel 1^ the Jtrendi 
determine to restore Charles IV. fight fnr the liberty of ihe seM, 
to the throne,. thb could not be iliey must begin with tearing Spsin 

ftom 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 17S 

bom the lyraut of tbc teas. If lonies, started up mmultsnemiily, 

they fit(ht fur )M^ce, ihty iDUSt as if moved up by one iudignaiit 

dnte from S|kii'i tlie enemies of aoul tnlo an attitude of defence 

pc-irr. — In tliu contest all Ein«po aiiil dctiaiiee, and declared eternal 

p(a\s for success to France." war ;igaii)St their perfidious and io- 

Toos tnr we lta*e teeti BuODa- lolent oitprnsor: aa evest i>bick 

paHe rarniittQ on hi* dtmgn tty in- asletmbed aU £arope, and no one, 

Inguc ainl frdud ; bi^ wliicli ineaua it may be presumed, more than the 

be eiMui'leri^il it as accumplisliecl^ tyrant, who had treated them with 

Bat the S|>aBiaTil«, not only ia the m uucii contaupL ' 
ptavioccs ef SpMH, bat ia lb« co- 



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17-4 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1«08. 



Otttriplion of Spain, Geograpkwal, Moral, and Polilical. — Circum- 
stanceg Imaing to enceurage.the Spamiarda in their Retiitimce ageintt 
the French. 

SPAIN, in, ordinary language, is. vy draws the inoit eaergatic por- 

cneiiidereH as consbtio;; of one lion of iU mariners, 

extensive slate or kingdom ; and so Tlie other purls of Spain are very 

it is in its foreign rclulions, and unequally distributed into those be- 

sundry other pninls of the greatest Iougin<; to the croirns of Castille 

' imporlaiice. But iiii<<er the crown and Arragon. To Castille belong 

of Spain are united many slules or the kingdom of Galliciat (he pro* 

kingdoms, which have gradually viiicei of Biirgos, Leon,. Zatnoia, 

4-oalesced inlo one monarchy ; each .Sulatitnnca, Estrainadui-a, Palencia, 

kingdotn (formerly so c«lle<l) re- Valladulid, Segnvia, Avila, Toro, 

taining still, together with many (lar- Toledo, La Mancha, Murcia, Goa- 

tuiilar laws and usages, a peculiar tlalaxara, Cuenra. Loriu, and Ma- 

and distinct cliaracler, and some of drid : to these arc addcil, the foar 

iheni separate local interests : cir- ancient Moorish kingdoms, com- 

cumslaiices which, no doubt, }>re- posing the provinces nf Andalusia, 

senled to such a mind as Buona^ namely Seville, Corilora, Jaen, and 
partes, hopesofbeiiigabielocalllo. Grenada. To lliecro»n of Arni- 

his aid liie destructive power of di- goii hcloME Ihe kingdoms of Aria- 

vision and di«:ord. The nnrlhem' ^oii and Valenlia, the county of 

districts, containing the kingdom of Catsloniii, and the kingdom of the 

Navarre, the three provinces pf island of Majorca, The stales un- 

BisCay, and lite ]>Tincipalily of As- dcr the crowns of Caslille and Ar- 

turtas.enjpy peculiar privileges, be- ragon, had their several corles or 

ing governed in sonic sort by them- asseniidies of. represeulalion of the 

selves, and by far the greater pari (llOcreiit orders of inhahilunlsj but 

of their contrihulion appropriated those of ttie -iwo crowns were ne- 

to the cKiwnces of tiicirflwn muni- ver united iitlo one body ; and, in- 

ci|Ml eslablialimcnls. Tliese pro- deed, since the <Uyi of Charles V. 

vinccs consisting chiefly of prodigi- wjio resigned the poveniinetil iu 

ous tracts of mountains, produce a 15.'i5, the cortes were seldom cou- 

nice of liardv, aflivc, and industri-' vened. 

ous people, who, for want of siif- ' Tliegoven>ment,bowever,thougb 

^dent employment iu (lie cultiva- in H|i)>earattce dei^lic, and inde- 

Itoii of Ihe ground, or in the iron pendent nf the will of the natioii, 

■nines witli which their country a- was, as is tlie case ia even Ihc 

bouiids, have naturally devoted most arbitrary European stales, 

thcnisejves Iu the sea service ia va tempered by a complicated sysleiu 

rious branches; and from those of councils, in winch if judgment 

tracts of sea coast, the Spanish na- was btrdy, it was coinraoiily just. 
. Tlie 



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HISTORY OF. EUROPE. W 

Tleecnl umI important Penin- norllif tlie sclileand loleinn inba- 

*bofSp«a (iodwliug Pi>rtiif:Bl, bitHiil of Ihe broarl anrl iirid plains 

vkaSj a part of Ihe same coun- of llie two Caililles and L> Mait- 

^ttadtt rarkiiH penods subject tlia ; tlic peiisiv« and ladtume E«- 

lathennesovmisii) is most ad- traniBdiiniri ; tbe volatile and lalk»- . 

■VigecNialy Mtiial«il between the lire Andalnsian ; tlie laborious cul- 

AllMie and Ibe Medilvrrajiv^in. It tivatur ot the shores of the Medi- 

"■iBiiidi ilie MTTuw strait of terraHean — thesr different descrip- 

GikalUr, (lie only con.muuica- lions of the )Mi|>ulalii>n of Spain. 

li«« bdwcm li»ue aeas, antl o<yu- resemble each ottier in so few 

(»o k Mn>e resfierts the centre of jioiiita as to appear to be of »erj 

tk iobilitltle ^lobe. Tliis Pniio- different descent, ami irxleed tbe 

*k ■ iianie bjr which the Sjw- proiluctioii of «ry diSercHt cnun- 

iBnli fiequeiilly designate their tries and climales. Inoneinipnr* 

"■try, extends, where brnadeit, lairt particular, however,- the na- . 

^veato eaal, a bo tit 640 Eti^- timial character xof the Spaniards 

Uiailes: and from north to snntli might b« traced in everv comer of 

i^Mt 540 miles. The population lh« klKgdoui. Eulire and resped- 

of IIr whole Peninsula lias been ful siibifiisMoti to the authority of 

BMputed at belnc«n Ihirlren aii<L the suvereign M-as erery where pre- 

'Mrtwu millions : of »hich Pur<u- dnniindnt. Pur wliile' the Calalo' 

pi ii N(^)osed to enalain two mil- iiiait wai promi to think, that tJie 

«*■ Ttie 'ninaiiHler dblribuled king was not km^^ but only count 

^ Spain will afforJ only about of Catalonia ; and the Bisravan. 



d and dates, ulien promulgated in the 
•f**»ly, on a similar exleot of li-r- ciistoitiary forms of each resqicc- 
niMv;ii,an>ipartsofthe interior bf' live district. That the C^-ilillian 
M; almoit de^liiulil of springs Hnd and Ihe Arntgotie^e should glory 
ftn; and others beiog exceed- in tlicir submission In the royal 
■glj mount si iiotu. Indeed on Ihe anlliorily, is not surprizing, as froni 
^glance at Ilic map of Spain, it l!>e union of (he soverci-ns of 
"Ppfa" to l»« a cniitilr) shaped, Casltlle jiaA Arragnit, spran:; Uie 
nd in R very^reat measure coiv fduiily ivhicb in the course' of tintc 
'Ktin* in bells of mountains, rami- became niastirs of the whole coan- 
^ini; from one anotlier and leav- liy. Arracon and Costillc had 
«S iulerrats of various breadths likewise embraced the interests -of 
nween iImh), yet all of them the house of Bonrbnn in Ihe dis- 
liked lo the same mass or slock, pule with Ihal of Austria in the Iw- 
TWsea coasts of Catalonia, Valen- j3»ning of ihe last cenlmy. Thai 
'''i MuTcia, Grenada, and Anda- the Calalmitans. however, ^liould 
•■», proent amies of nmaiing have evinced in (809 a decided al- 
ietilily.iKtife imiusliy, and crowd- laclimcnt to Ihe reigning family, 
«1 p<^itation. . " acain5t»bom Ihey hud obstinately 
TIk lianly, industtuMU, and ad- undlougconteuded.andfroinwboiu 
- imuiilaitH-er of tiie Ibey hail rcccii'ed no favours, but 



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m ANNUA'L REGISTER, 1803. 

maDymarksardislike, haviug been lionsondie rkhest beoeficei for Ibe 

. diaariufil, aiitl experienced varioiu support of variooi public establisli- 

otbar <pnoh of dnlriHl from tbose mtaU ; so tliat eveu the metropolitBR 

IB power— that iLe Calaloniani of Toledo, tlte most naltrd digni- 

should luauifest now a decided asd tary of tlie kingdom. Httiiough no- 

deltraaaed aUactitneiLt to the in- ininnlly enjoying a revenue of per- 

leteatoof ibe House of Bourboe, heps *100,000 sterik^, could not 

caa be attTibultd only t« an iuveler* in retibty, dispose of ttiore Iban a 

ate avcfsioa to iheir neighbours on fourth pari of that nm. The epen- 

Ibenorllteni iid<e of the Pyietmees, iae af roads, tlie coustructioD of 

uitli whom for ages (bey bad been bridges, the eslaUishineiil of ions 

in almost continued bosUlity, fiom aatf scliools, itie reparation of 

wboseiiiraadsandilevastatians Ibrj' ctiurches and cltapela, and various 

had often severely suffered, and other works of public utility, which 

whose revolutionary doclriues, iu Britain ate carried on al tbee.i" 

nonl, political, and religious, peoc(n>fllKslalc,Of more frequently 

as well as their actions, were of iudividualt and associations, in 

calcuhited to iospire Spaniards with Spam, arc often inq>osed on those 

«f erstoH aud horror. ' enjoying large ccclesisstKid posses* 

Another' feature, strongly cba- sions ; and where such duties have 

ractcrisiog a)I the provinces of not becu imposed, the incumbeota, 

Spaia, and indeed all the subjects from seal to the puUic good, or 

of hb catholic Riajeily in any qnar- even from a dewrc/ to iraitate the 

ter of) Ibe world, was, an absolute conduct of their predecesson or 

devotion, not only to ibe doctrine, contemporaries, have' often charged 

but to the policy of llw see of themselves with that performance*. 

Boinc la Ibis absolute devotion The attacbraent of tlie people to 

to the church, the Spanbrds, with the church atid its ministers was 

perhaps the exception of tlie For- abo wannly cherished by the ex- 

tuguew alone, exceed all the na- emplary deporttaent of the ep^o- 

tiona of Europe. Tlte church or pal body, who from the day of 

secular clergy in Spain possessed their appointmeat, immediately re- 

immeiise revenues, even the . tliird paired to iheir respective «Hoceses, 

part, it has been computed, of the in which (hey uniformly resided, 

vtbble land. But it would be ex- there devoti:ig themselves ealirely 

treemly erroneous to conclude (hut to tlie varsoas duties of their sta- 

Ihose reveiities were appropriated to lion, 

the stik etijoyntent, application, or . The abbies and convents over 

Nccumulalion of trie several incuiu- Spain appiopriated to Ibe rece)>li(Hi 

bents. Of lale years, it became the of'ftmales, were some yean tgo 

policy of government to grant pen< calculated to contain about 34,000 

persons, 

* There arc not a few meuumcnts of the public spirit Bnd ininii6canee >^^ 
, Ranaa Catholic clergy, in vnrioui iwrbi of Brilsin Tbe olil bni^eofer <^J^ 
Wat built at the cKpence of tli« bL>liap of Aberdeen, llial uver tlie Eden, a P^ 
work, HBicoiUtinctedby the nrchhif hoii of SL Andrent. The university, and to* 
hhnry fiibrii of this last mentioned city, would not bare been cacrMdira <"| 'J 
■Winktdi ptoftiwD. ' ' 



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■HlST:QtnY GF EUROPE. 117 

pnoBi, whae thjMc A^.-tif* ur Tbe aoblR. spirit .«f tbt Sospiifi 

ccamoditMii orvOok*4<Hl fliers, gnndta in geoeral,. wnV ini 

afall dcfcriplioM, we/e iqliakitiid linury, indoltiice, and vice, lyf-^ 

^ Bculjr double tfaat nunjljer ; fered a gntdtnl deprewon. To^. 

lilkt kit dcscripriou qF penoof, vveiv ueiUjer invited dq[ ^uiljilioiu 

^ (u titt greater number ralxH tosliare in Uie ei]i{>Ioynitul3 j>f 

cKtMBly be UHuidei^ed in Ipd Ik Hie slatrv 90 lint wUli the 6X7 

tk proipetiiji of the Vmgi'ptn.- cvpiioa Af « Ccw.ancieat nimet in 

hi tbe Beaedictuie, Benwrdiaei tbe eburcli or the ainy, and itUI 

■d wuK otbers «f nnHiki, niigliF, tewer (n the pavj, th^ g^t.hpd| 

ii ivuj respects, be considned of Uie SfH^iisk nobility ccwd b>M 

^ tbe ftopulslioB around, as vu- of *ny . foiiticai iqporlanca ia ^ 

m bsM^Ktim to tiie cuuiiliQ^ bingdoin. 

t^MimUy fixed lo one •pot, in li (• extremely reDiaikable, th^tf 

^ aadtf of tbcir pouusiona, ihey it u»s oot aiuonn t^ great laudctl 

*<a Mbirall; ted to c ui titrate aiul pro)»ielon,wliohadin Ihecomuoti 

■|ka*e Ibeir conmoti .berilsea: pltraseo^gy llie grcakst slak«% 

■ribcii«deilitiil« of ihe puwer uf Uial lite patriolinn of tlw Spaniardi 

"mm^tioa, thej iwfularly «v tboof forth with tbe grealeal ipletir 

fniAiA Ibeir iocoaw ia Um (iMar* dofir; Ixit anong ibccomnu^q) 

krfn« whence it tnu dfawn. cjau, whose property was in s»m« 

Ob tiie other hand, lt|e great measure raoveabke, and the clergj, 

■■Udatxt proprietonof biifL with m'm at best were only lif«-teiiten. 

'Kry few cMcptioo^ ybaiHloniiig Tlie nubility in ^eqer^. did not 

Iki oue of tbeir n»L dwaaiat seem to feel the amor jjiatrii^ 

'• igraia apd tntcodaBta, ftrau^rt Uk allacbiaent to natal uU, m 

Ike tamirj AbcI its cullivalon, Slrot^ly as the clergy of all iMki, 

I* Mn*!? the eaigetwieft of tu wbo resided io their own dio* 

i^ «id aAca diwpaled . life in cases, parishes, and taon/tt/ittr 

'k<apftal and olliw gnat lomts. ie% nor uven as that of tbe po<w 

"^ ^gmioua- dereliction pf. Iha pcasaptis . 

■Miy, ki, DO donbl. 10 be altri- The dreprrooled aversion ajjxf^ 

^*d ia a great lueasurc to the oodced lo tlie Frei)cb,.,was Dot corit 

■>bAk6m of French tnmien, fyxd tu the province of Cataloiu^ 

■dafinolovs twta, and above but pervadojl all the uorthem 

4 to the jealoaty atlarlaioed and middle prov^ci^ o^ tlie .kjt|g- 

^ tW £ht Spuiiih kings, of dum. 

1^ Uoae xif Bourbon, (J Iht From the earhesl perio4% ,d9wa 

•U hUh «f Spain, who in the toIhe.beginHingofl^e^tt^enturjv 

* ef the nKcrauon had very the Spaniards and French were 

P^csUy, and. very naturally, ma- engaged alaiOft without iutvmtssion 

■'mW.b predelictiou ftir )dl the in hostilities Aether reason fbrlhe 

B*«Eof Anslrip. peculiar dial ikpB of|]ie Spaniards to 

A peat HHt.apHlutl {old test- their northfrp neighbours, is found 

^ eeottanily on hb own domain, in the ualional character and <!«' 

*■ m c^jact of dis(rieaiun to the potiment of the Fraicfa, frho nc^ 

MX ; of dMoanteoaooe, and ewo only ySeded or really felt g*ne de- 

■•kstuion. tree of contempt for Ihk Splmards, 

Vol. L. {N] bnt 

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>78 ANNUAt REGISTER, ISOS, 

buloommoniy took verj IHlle pains wiuidercd u the right nay. Am 

to codcmI qt ttiaguiw (h«ir Hnii- by an;r wenioii to their cAni- 

ment* towanb Ibein. In this ■«• paiiT, or their opiuioas on other 

tiOiul dblik«, persons of aH natfom suhjecls : wherea Ihe uaiivr* of 

^ who enlFred Spain from Francv, IrehtDil. fi>rmerl,v more nunMrous 

wereinmlved, until their real conn- in their ter*ice than of la tc year*, 

'ti; was known. who pro>(esKd to bo m comnn- 

As (be Spaniards had their na- nion with the churdi of Rome, 

tional tv^oQs; so (hey had like- were, in many ioalancesr subject to 

wtae tbeir national attachments. It tbe suspickm of a tuBporiaiDf 

would, at fint sight, he difficnlt to policy. 

account for any partiality tbey The frequent wan between Br^ 

diould eoierlaiD for the Brilnh lain and Spain, unquevttonably 

nation. But snch a partiality they kept aKve a spirit of estranf^ment 

certainly did possess, and were m the Spanish nation. Kit thai 

ca^r to demonslrate. The two great portion of lite peopla who 

cmmtriea, it is tme, were formerly pretended not to inquire into the 

closely connected by varions tics, aecret cansea of poetical erenli, 

poHiical and commercial ; and those wck in the habij of attributinc 

ties, notwithstanding (he dissolultDn those public enmities father to 

of the andenl intimacy, by the ac- the predominating inflocDce of the 

cession of the House of Bour- French counsels in tbe adminii- 

bbn to lite throne of Spain, still (ration of oatioflal aAaira, than to 

retained a lirm hold of the steady the exiateace of any just caose 

and . honounhle character of Itw of complaint irame<fiately ' between 

Spaniards. As men are never more Great Britain and Spain. The 

mtitnately united than by scommu- epoch and tbe mannert bowerer, 

nity of sentiments or ftelings, and of tbe ec»Dmencci>enf oftbe bte 

as the Spaniards believed the Eng- heslllilics on tbe part of Britaia. 

Ksh to have no greater respect for bad materially alRxted the ge- 

Ibe French nation than they had oeral feelings of the SpaniUi m- 

tbeniselvcs, this warm-hearted peo- tion with regard to tbcir wmssdI 

pie looked on a Biiton as m some ally. 

mcanircasfaarerinhisownexisteDce. A Ithoagb in estimating thcspnef 

The Spanish traders in general, had happiuesi possessed by any natioB, 

an i^mion that in all commercoil our ealcnlations ongnt not to be 

transactions, nonationoune so near foonded merely on the tbeoretii 

as the British to their own, in pro- system of (heir public canst itUtio»» 

tnty, punctuality, and fairnesa of yet where such a cenatiWina ■* 

dealing. as perfect as hiunaB wMooi o" 

' On tbe subject of religion, the devise, and virlM carry iaAo eAd, 

Spaniards sincerely lamenled tbe iba peo|^ have eattrit f^"*' 

deletion of the EnglU) from their the greatest' ciiance of bappioew 

ancient professions of faith. But in every tense «t (be word. I' 

this sorrow was attended rather by may therefore appear atuiRifiog to 

a hope that at some future period, a Britidi sabjecl, tliata nalionoace , 

Brilai^ might tttutn to what ihey so distinguiabed as tfaa Spoiud* 

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HISTORY OF EUROPE.' . 179 

'n Kiencc, and b amis. Tor so vations, liowevn; are applicable on- 

oMudcrableB lapMof trnw aj Ihal Iv to lite inau of tb« SpanbK peo- 

brtwcm I be abdication of Cliarlei pie; for an improved syilein of 

V. of Austria and Charles IV. of Ibings, botkeiviland Teliginii),had 

BMirboa, sfacwld bave been con- been tong and carDMit; wUbcd for 

iBdcH wttb a sntflB of government b3> muny of the al>leit and moat 

pracaliug so few positive adfaiH mti{>htened iadividuali in the state. 

^et,>itd producing so many real' Others there were uIm who, in- 

nbtoihe nrions classes in the fectt-d. nitb the phUotophum' of 

lUe. Tbr Spanish nation, bow- inodem limes, secretly lunged and' 

enr, had be«D for more than two waited for a general dissolutioa of 

RMiiea in a slate of ^dual de- the admiubt ration in cburcb and- 

c^, M that the deterioration was stale, in order to raise in lis stmd 

Kiralj perceptible ill its progress; aa edifice more cnnfoniiable to 

■■d it was only hy comparing the their couc«pliaiis of a perfect go- 

ifaatfon of the country at diftr- veroinent. 

nt periods, that its decay could be When we reflect that all jxiblic 

Hcnttincd. It is not by any single discussion of matters lelatmg to 

■d, hut by an accumnlatioiS of eitber religion orgbTetntnent, Ivaa 

^cti, examples, cuiloms, prece. almoat entirely prahibiled tfarougb- 

farti, and laws, lliat a nation loses out the Spaniib dominions; aod 

ih liberty. What is considered by Ibat men desirous of iiiformatiaa 

AepresentgeneratioD, qt'tbc ivorst, on these points, had no oUier n- 

Mlj ai a mist, is seen by succeed- source that) secretly to avail tbem- 

a^agesuB dark and twrleutous sdves of the writiafp of aUbaia' 

MmL living ludflt more liberal fyriemnoF 

IV personal character, loo, of goveronMnt, we cax- easily -coAr 

twtereipi, or of a minister, has a ceivci that an avenson, aocl ad*- 

•cry powerful influence in even the grec of hostility Cm, > ntBI uabf 

kM orgatued coMlituiions on the rally bav^ been : produced in tin 

HipiiMss of a state. The general miiids of even good: men: to an ad- 

'■positiom and conduct of some minislTStionby which'SucbiestraiBli, 

ble tovcreigns of Spain bad conse- ««re imposed Ao tIA eurcisc *t: 

4Nolly a Mroog tendency to attacb tl>e human faculties on sntQects lb* 

>|Hople,natunlly honourable and most congenial and importml- !• 

bjal, and of great sennbilily, lo bis nature. Such men maj^ for 

vv go*emment in general, and various leaaaot, canefully oWrvs 

to iadbw Ibem to attribute what the rules of eaterior submiarion i 

Wdibipa Aey endnred, to the ma- but Ibeir wbhes fora chanseimiMt 

^ialiience of corropt counsellors, b the end produce an «ltcntiaa ia 

other than to tbe dispositions or in- their language, and da* ia tbeir 

Hri nna of tba prince. These obsey conduct. lu sudi ft'.caM, how 

[Ns] ; ■ -. k>wr 

'Tbcgicatwparttbfftriortliessvriia kfw all UKOudvc* . 
■«! f\\l'i.fki ealy aa a fMifc«t fiefdav frs^ pi^dwe, aa* 



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ieo AN.NU.Ai. EEGIS.TEH, t808. 

luppy it icfw itM «Miiitr]r of tuyorder, Itnt the nst i 

whidi thfl^eilsblBhcd coutitution riue ctiifUK of Sftata wu <jta- 

ackitowledges Ibe du^, wkI allows blUIwd. 

tkB amis of improvcatfit, mnd Tbe iteadj devolion of the Spa- 

Wun reforowtioa .may nipenedc nivds to llie cliurdi it not tberc- 

Ihe Hcemly of tevolutiau I . ■ foref^uoded in icrvalfi propnubj 

^ TbedreuJlribuail oMbc inpii* la'pisly.UnnisfeltltyotbetBaliooi 

>ilwD in Spain^ Ind for maBV ytm.n aaiy, but ia part, by a recoUcctiou 

bmdt, <bnn unKkwIljr withw^ing oMonoer tiinei ivbeu they were tx- 

Aom public nottoBi Ila powera, ailed to so high a pitch of diory by 

bowwer, tboufcli aeldom exuted, \he nwrd »/ tfm tord and i^ G»< 

vterc Dot diminitbad. Tfae unfor- dtom. Hia hlgh-niinded pnde of 

iHMto Oltntde, the foiuder of th« tbe 5pani»h uatioii, finding no h^^ 

calHbljihiBeDtt for peopliog Ihs port iu recent, turns to tlie contem- 

SisaRAUfBBNA,aaiikjuirter the plation of event* hmg past: to 

power of the holy inquintiMk tbe vicloriea of Pan^ I^cpaDlO, 

tb«^ a*, mucb pnbaWy for hit and St. Quiptoiii, to tiieir MinteiU 

polittcataahuFdigiouio^nccs. In with the Mooa, and with the Ro- 

tbc'bejinniaf of tbt FiQick rvv tttum. They had iufiei«d aWBy 

lutton, wka Mfitbrr pnn nor coat indji^illea and iaialli at Ibe baadi 

wuaparad, daxdesbnely to intiD* of Buonaparte and fait af«iti,wbai 

<faea and -diaemmate tbraugbant tbe nuuiaore of Madrid snd lh« 

Spam fMblicatiow arfapled to ex- oiptivity of Ibe royal fomily liind- 

oilediiotderaib'UM ilair, Ibe foF> led the aociuuulated combtutiUea 

midaH» waopoM <d tbe inquialioB of indignalion «nd levange into ft 

VMccoelivelgLandMeccasfoliy wield- flame, nhicb spread into every poll 

c^ ID defoiMC of ibe ealabliibed of the empire, wrih the i»f^dity of 

i^iteiiiaffovemnieat: feraayaa- ligbtniog. ThefeiiaoitutUKeafaoy. 

snlt on the rigbta of Ibe tcmperal nation, to widely icattrrcd, rnUy- 

tavereigdoftfaekiogdeai wu re- iug to uaanimoiuly, audi wilb.to 

girdoit UK dirsct attack -oa tbo' nwch^a«ijty, aroiind tfae standard 

IrunottBt ButbovitT of tbe ipiri- of their rouutry, llieir nolto wat^ 

tl bead, '(be oftiuiee between " Tie ^anitU Nutd. sArd ol Mt- 

'dhdrcfantd'Vtate iuSpaia, wat'ra< irid;»»lkt .9i*^ May, frimjtr, 

tHnMly doao': or rnier the poft- ^nwMNM" , 

Itoil tad oeelenBitieal aalhoiitiM 'IV flotver of t|w Spaaisl) anay 

"tntt bi a gnat iMaMae identiAed. vaa Hroiiifl under. the baoaera m 

Tbe Ui^ of Spata were Ibe great IhcciwHiy in lbe.DorUt.-«f,£urope. 

Aampioai of dw cbarcK andtbe Tboirwn.trDiiltM'ior ^lapo.oB tb* 

■ iMNiitrflHaaicniintlw UMoiyof north east ww in the. hands of 

Ibe Spuoiarda b tha^ irfMi lb«r French garrisoM. 'Fbe melropolia 

(noeedoil bjb degrees to take poarr aa4thegr!H(erpiirt.of dK>DlUK»^ 

iMiM of tM nmnificent ^onaliAnt and the at^joining kingdom of Ppr- 

of tbe pope, with the jword in one Ingal, were occupied by 100,000 

band, wd the crota in the other. — veteran troops commanded by 
Aitd/iit JtKt,i»Ms«or1<atfay4bc' kbfoiiBdeiiKiicQceidotte«i. th» 

•Mi^ata itsA' of the- nMwmn^- Bptuiiords- .withouc wma, wilhwl 

than the heroic valour of the mill* ammunilion, and villnnit-a'ptib» 

lie 

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ST 



fflSTORY OF EUROPE. ' l«l 

by derfiil,' if not dw most woodcrful 

-. ./To frMutc hi the whole of Fhe origin 

thMMttcs; wmA-otit a for of the and pro^rresi of the gnieral ming 
Cnadeci aad olbcr penam of higb of tbe ^niudi. It was ml cod- 
dUadioa, to wbMD dMv mighl fined to one dan^ sex, or aj^. ft 
ItAvp I6e btia^ag the raoorces was univenat It predominatetl in 
tf Ae neauriij into eoe uaiforia Hie blasts of oM and voui^ of 
^KtM^ tb^ bad reasoo, though tillen of (be ground, shepherds, 
■t qiAe ao niidi profaabi; as tbe^ dio|Aeepers, monks, aad womea. 
^spuLiJ, to consider as traitore tti Tbt entfaosiasni of tbe Spaninrdv, 
■bit Gonrtij. TTw bands of so- though eialled, was detiberale. It 
ody vefc broten asuoder. IVre was the confidence of men who had 
•«i» vitiUe mode of combiaiiig cahulv sofvejed the m^ty powA 
^■w sqwnt* force into any r*gu- opposed to them ; vrha were pre* 
W |kn of co-0|)eratioD! Yet, un- pared to encounter priTat)oiIs,~de- 
in aB tbcae dreomstaDCes, they fttls, and disasters; and tebo were. 
A aot besitale to enter on a con- persuaHed, lliat by bringhig con- 
kl with tbe most taumerous and stantly into phiy all their 'means df 
■M waifike nation of Eur^, annoyance, l(i^ should be able to 
^ aeighboiui, under the direc- exbanst and weary out, at last, the 
. tn of the tnbttcat politician, and enemy whom they were unable to 
bit geseral of (he age. Nor was subdue by s direct encounter. 
*(■■ n arrof;ant and blind pre- The fiist fircnnistance of eii- 
■■^■soa; a ntHc fit of pssdon, or conngemeut, that woiltd natutally - 
node entbiuissm. An act of pas- occnr to the Spaniards, was tbe 
"" oriAreoiy may be committed geographical position and great ex- 
■} a B^ person ; not by a treat tent of ibdr country. Its Penin* 
"^'m, wniHj aprrad over di^ solar form (for Portugal was not 
■Wind distant rcgioAs and coun- only s cmigenial ami friendly 
Inti, iod leatt of at) by the Sp«> power, but part of tbe saute conn- 
*Md^ renowned for ciroim^iec- try) secured it ou hH sides, exce)rt ■ 
^ (bresigfal, patience, and per- that of the Pymuecs, a iMlund 
**tiaDce in designs formed on rampart of no inconsiderable cou- 
^ delibention. Hwogh deserted aequence, from being invaded b? 
°T goieraiDent, they had . couS- laud; and combined with tbe naval 



, they I 

''Mc in the Justice of Ibeir caus^ niperiority of England, the sworn 

■Jaioiit another. It seemed 10 enemyof the ruler of France, open- 

^<dnp)y bnpressed, or nlber In- rd a safe and sure communication 

">(■ fe their minds, that however wilb Iter colonies, with Oreal Bri- 

**ne tbe conflict might W, and lainandlreland, with Sweden; and, 

■» nacb soever nroliactHl, tlie >n short, with every nation on tbe 

Air of Spam wonM gain the a»- face of the earth, that might be 

^''^t at bst, and ultimately con- disposed to espouM: and niaitilaiil 

^ her to national independence the cau^e uf jiolilical freedom a- 

*4gloiy. gainst unprincipledaiiibilionaudsg- 

Thb confidence of ulthnitc sue- gression. Although Die coutiucnt of 

*<*■ udei circunutances so dis- Europcni^ghtnotdarelogiveaoydi- 

**<>n|iDg, u one vt Uie most woo- rect aid, by dedauiff war agaii^ 
[N8] • ,- the 

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183 ANNUAL REGISTER, ,1808. 

ibc conunan <^pre»or, ytt in fact veinment bad drained Uiom posi- 

tbey would, tvea France beiself los for provifioning the army, tent 

oot eicepled, conlrittute aKbtaiice, against Portugal in 1801, and Aut- 

in an indirect and passive manner, ed in its promise to replenish tbem. 

by obliging liim to etupiov a great Nor could Ihe farmen ever be pcr- 

Earl of lib armies in watching and suaded to coiitide thereafter any 
eepiiig them in subjection. portion of tlieir grain or forage t» 
.'iSie principal towns and sea- tbe public granaries. 
ports of Spain, isolated from one The Spaniards, of proper age, 
another, by vasf distances, were mi^tit form thenucWfet at first iatQ 
not all of them to he occupied by snmll bodies, arul take every ad- 
an invading army, however iiumer- vantage tv be derived from local 
oos. In the interior, and particu- knowledge ; and wlten lliey sbould 
lady Itie north ofSpain, the ground, be under the necessity of quitting 
in many parts, is hilly and broken, one district^ orproviace. tlicy might 
rising inlo lofly mountains, with de- retire to another. Tl)ey could 
files here and there, and. in some break uproads, cut down bridges, 
-places, even towns iuacccsuble to intercept convoys and iiilclligence, 
artillery. The plains of the two fall dn the enemy on Im flanks; and, 
Caslilles and Rstramadure, are in short, hatass Iiim in all possible 
scarcely less favourable to Invad- ways, without allowing bim a mo- 
ing armies, tlian the rugged regions ment"! repose by niglit or day*. By ' 
that separate lliein Trtim the rest of degrees smaller would be organized ' 
Spam. Tbe excessive heal of the' into larger masses, and duly traiued 
climate, and the contagion of in- until their local and raw militia 
termilleiit tevers, would be more should become equal, at leogtb, to 
fatal to an army of strangers, than a regular army. It was a fortnn* 
df lacb men ts of natives. The French ate circumstance, thut tbe Spanish 
would have to euci'unier a great armies had always been recruited 
scarcity of provisions and forage, upoiiIimitedservice;bywhicbmeaDs 
. and a dimciilty of transporting there were spread over al) the pro- 
these from one place to another. vinces of Spaja veteran* who had 
In other countries Buonaparte been' trained to arms, and who 
bad supplied bis magazines from could now train othen. Nor wa5 
tbe di'pQls of llie countries he in- it the least favourable circumstance 
vaded, ini providently suffered to to the cause of tlie patriots, that 
fall into his liands. In Spain, no both their kings, tbe old and the 
such depots vere to be foun<l. Out new, villi their courtiers, and so 
of evil some limes arises good. In many auapiciaus charactcrt, were 
former limes there ha'> been in dancing atteudanceii^Uieanticbam- 
every village of Spain small grana- - ber of kitig Joseph, at Bayonne.— 
rics, called Don/M, where the farm- Add to all these favourable circuDt- 
era were ouliged to deposit every tiances, that tbe Spaniard) were pa- 
year a certain porlioR ni llicir bar> lienl under hardships and priva- 
vest as a security against famine, tions, and inany of ihemaccustoo)- 
In the last var with Portugal go* ed to make tone joumies on fool. 

CHAP. 
* Official Paper, entitled vrbcautions, printed and published by the Saprsme 

JiDta of iSevilie, See SUtc Fapen, p. 333. 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



C H A P. X. 

b^rttt&mt ka*te and Impolicy, a» well as Perfidy of Bvetumartt. — 
A»t<mi4hment m» well as Aibniration excited bi/ the General Ituur- 
retti0» mSpmM.— History of the hturreclioa how divided^Before 
tkt EttaitiAment of the Provincial Juntas. — After their Establiih' 
memt : and Rrsohiion into the Supreme Central Junta. — TVagieal 
Emd of Solano, Marquis Del Socorro, Captain General of And^utia 
wmd Gotemor of Cadii.^Coneert and Co-operation belween the Spa- 
nat Patriolsand British Commanders at Sea and Land. — Admirable 
Harmony among all the Juntas. — Spanish Proclamalious, admiraile 
Cempotitions.— All Classes without exception enrolled inthe insurrec- 
tion. — Circtenutances of Eneouraeemeut tothe Spanish Patriots inAn- 
dalusU.—Untonditional SmrTen£r of the FrenchFleet in theHarbamr 
of Cadiz. — Insurrection in Portugal, swporttd and eneourared by 
Admiral Sir Charles Cotton.— AlSance mtiuiee end defensive Setwem 
Spain and Portu^aL — Deputies from Afferent Juntas in London,-' 
Eatktmatm of Britain in the Cause of Spain. 

JUST at (be time wimi bH Buo- to wear a very Miioiu aspect Biio- 

naparte'sarraiigeiuentiiiclaling iiaparte affirded to rcgara il wJlh 

to \he lellleiiicot of Spain were indifiereDce and coiitenipt, and was 

CDfopktcd, and waited only for the at great paint, by iseani of hii 

MBction of tbc juuta be had called jouroaU, to publish ,lbat iodiff^* 

to Baynnne, the insurrectioo hroke euce to the world ; apprebeodiug, 

oat is all the province* not> imni^ not without reawn, that a wriuus 

diilely onder the the control of fail and ell^ual resistance of bii mux* 

arms. Wbat emotions mtut the pationa in Spain, might awaken re- 

ialell^nce of Ihii have excilcd In siitance in other quarters. 
(Ik breasts of tlie Spaniards at Bay- It was a saying among the an- 

oone. aiid ?t the castle of Marracl cient stoics, that it was a great 

As to Buonaparte, the insurrection altsinment in wisdom lo know 

docs not seem lo have given biin' when to restrain, and when to give 

at first much alarm. The sham our sentiments the impetus of pas- 

aational sosemhly was held at Bay- sionf, l^ere was never, perhaps, 

onne; tbe new coiislituliou laid be- a character that was , more seosi' 

fore it; and king Joseph sent to ble of the importance of this muiira 

Madrid, as if nothing had bap- than Buonaparte: one more ca< 

peaed*. Even alter it had begnu pable of limulalion and disumu- 
[N4] lation 

* it nu; lie reniarticd, that it wm not till the lOfli of Jnly, wlieo Joirpb itm 
pntamad, a* in fact Iw did, In have enierpil Madrid, tlut Buonapattf, ImiJDf 
CMpfeud ai Iw coDcrivtd hii boiine**, qailted Baygnae to prucenl lo Pari*. , 



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ISi ANNUAL REG 1ST M, re08. ■ 

htion ; who poald reasou more atcendancy orer the mbul and cod* 
cooUv, or OB some occwioni, giv- duct of Fenlinaiid ; at is fully 
ing iooM to. all his lails, tush proved by eveiy act. of thit prhiM 
on his object with greater ar- when raised to rbe throne, and paf- 
dour. But in hii conduct to- ticularly by bia journey to Bayonnie. 
wuos Spain he betrayed the com- the power and influeuce of Buona* 
mon wnkness of bmns unliijiged parte, iu hia character of ally aud 
by a Jong continued flow of sue- mediator, with so many French 
oess. To the emperor of the troopi in Spain, which might be rer 
tVencb, king of Italy, protector of inforced on varioua pretcncetr was 
the confederation of llie Rhine, uiiliniiluct. It wh« in his power to 
aud niedi'dtor of the republic of occupy CailJEi Qarthageu^, Fetipl, 
Switzerland. ' it was plainly a mat- St Audero, and otiier ports, and 
ter of indifference what individual thus to cut off all regular and sure 
collected Ibe revenues of Sjiaiu for conitnun)c:alion witli Englaad. By "1 
the ben«6t of .France; except that bestowing -as a gift, on FerdinaDiii 
a prince of the house of Bourbon the throne of his ancestors, he niigfat 
might have been expected to col- .have degraded him in the eyes of 
Ject those of America for some his subjects, compelled bim to be- 
years longer t whereas a change of came, like his father, the riiiseiable 
dynasty could riot fail to endanger instrument of French rapapity, aad 
that great source of sujiply, by in- ultimately like hini to abdicate the 
citing those provinces to pursue Ibrone for the ^fely of his person. 
iheir •wn interest and greatness, in In a word,, he might liave pursutd 
obedience to the very dictates of any conduct but that which mor* ■ 
nature *, by asserting their inde- tally wounded .the pride of every 
pendence. Sfuiniard, and which every Span!- 

It is true, as above observed, ard considered as a personal insult, 
.that the guilty mind of Buousparle It nmsl, . liQwever, be admitted, 
could never be at peace, while that the explosion of mdigiiaat pa- 
such a crown ai tlial of the Spains triolism, which burst forth at tiie 
and the Indies, rested on jhe head same moment inall theproviucesof • 
of a Bourbon, But the impelu- Spain, was more tlian Buouaiwrle, 
ons haste with which, aArr a long or any uiie could liave expected, 
■cenc of successful ticachery, he It seems to have astonished even 
threw off tlie mask of friendship, the Spaniards tlieiuaelires. 
and ill violation of all that is n^ost The junta of Seville looked 
sacred among mcDi seized the per- upon it to lie, " as it were, the 'in- 
sons of the royal family, was in- spiration of heaven, and liUle short 
defcniible tm any ground of po- of mintculous t-" And ihii, by 
licy. the hje, may serve, in some lie- 

lie might have gamed his end by sree, ^ an apology for the dokc of 
means, lliough more leisurely, more Inf^nlado, and the other Spenisli 
secure. He had gained a'cainjilcte nobles, wlm accompanied Ferdi- 

naud 

'■• ■Sfie^feoljXLlX. Hmt. E^u. p. .16. Note. 
t See Manifesto of tbe /data nr Seville,— Stale Fapeis, SS6. 

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HISTORY 0F EUROPE. iti 



Tbej miglit ibrfeited, and tb«ir pcrsotu Mtini!^ 

tec dKMgbt Ibat al) atlerapts to in tbe citadel. A few da^s thei^ 

tpfot Biooapatle would be of no af^er Ihev dragged tUe crew of a 

mH, and tend only to inrolve the French abip, wbich had been piiH 

twakyBcahniity and ruin. sued b^ an EnglUh frigate, add 

Tine {Mblw misd was in a state sought refuge on the Spanish coast, 

rffermeDtationever since Ibe horrid lo prison; and nnthe^l4lhof June, 

Id «f MiT, and connioliuta and in a fresh paroxysm oT rage, majsa- 

rmahi hid amen in tliren plaAs ; cred them. At Cuenca, the cor- 

bit it was not DBtil the gtuettc of regidor hikI the intendant wera 

IWrid, May SOIb, bad proclaimed thrown into chains, and carried off 

Ikrougbonl (be land the abdica- by a party of peasants. The go* 

tew of lb* Spanish crown by Fer- vemor of Carthagena wai murder- 

•iBaiid VII. inikiouroflbeeiDpe- ed. General Truxillo, governor of 

ntrf tbe Fietich, that there was a Malaga, was murdtred at Grenada, 

jnal and general cxplosiAt). The His buily was dragged through tbe 

paUcationoftbegaECtte was quick- streets, cut iu pieces, and aller^ 

li followed np by tbe anniversary wards burnt. Tlie French consul 

«r St Ferttiaanil, tbe tatelar saint at Hnbga, Mftmard, ami some 

if die prAre, May 27th, which Frencli nicrchanU of thai place; 

mktotd all tbe seosibilily of aa were secored oh ilie 4tIi of Juih; 

v'eDt, devout, aAd honourable na- from the fury of the (lenple, in tlie 

iioe. It wasonlliat day that tbe Moorifli castle of Gibralforo. A' 

■nnection broke out in' most great qoanlity of arms and am'rnuj 

jiiicn. Httion taken t'nnn ati English priva-' 

Tte history of Spain for what re- leer in ittOO, had been lodged in a 

wins of 1808, afier the close of warehouse iq the suburbs, to be 

tW ntonlh of May, iiuturally di- sold. On llie ?Olli of June a re- 

n^itoelf iaio tforee periods:— port pre railed, iliat tins magazine 

^t, that pRvious to die foritia' had been purchased by Die French 

lioa of the Central juntas; serraid-j consul, for the use of tbe French 

'5. Ibal during the government of umiy. The people of Malaga 

"k central juntas ; and, thirdly, marched to tire ca^lle, and not- 

|bl ouiter tbciupreme and cenlrnt nillistauding all llie remonstraocei 

j>sU. of the depuly-govefnor, and resisl' 

Tbeevmhof the first of these anc« of the guard, burst intd 1];^ 

Vuiuh, which was but very sliorl, castle, pierced their Victim with a' 

irraiher merely transient, were, as thousand daggers, nnii burned bil 

Mtl, io simitar cases, for the most dead body in a bonfire made of the 

put, the efiifcts of popular panion. furniture aiid some wr<^chs of the 

boa Miqael de Saavedra, cnptaju ronsut's hiiuse. Tint dep5t was 

imralof tbe province of Vfllentia, broken open, -jitd all thai it coti.' 

•here tbe nsurrectiou tiisl started, laiiied destroyed. All this itas 

*)» attempted to oppose the views done in spite of every effort on the 

of tbe iilsut^nt», waspat to deilth. part of the niunicipat governrnent 

IV iniargent* then demanded, of Malaga to iir'evcnt It. . ' 

thil alt the goods 'belonging to the The tiinmlt was at bisl iqoelleA 

Itnch iboidd be declared to be by a singular expedieiil. "Hie dead 

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U6 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

nil chapter fell on tlie contri- of Cadri, and tbe fbutKlerin <rf 

Vance 6f a procewion, lo thank Seville. Cadiz tfas divided, though 

Obd for their deliverance from tbe uaei)ually, by & French party and 

«ppKi»or. Tbe niullitude iinme- the Spanish patrinti. The former 

diatety joined tl»^ processinn, sud consisted of French raercbantfMfod 

tranquillity wat restored. The go- Frcncliclerkt in tbacounting-hoUM), 

veriior of St. Lucas . Bararoeila, was with Le Roy, the French consul at 

mawacred. At Jaen, the peasants their head; and admiral Kosilly, 

murdered the corregidor, and with the other officera.of the French 

l^iiudcred the town. &kel, which bad. been moor^ in 

Suuilar scenes were exhibited iti the harbour of Cadiz ever sinca- 

Estramadura and the Canities. Al l!ic battle of Trafalgar. The lat- 

Badajoz, the insurrection broke ter was composed of almost all tbe 

out May SOth, and H*a3 in an in- Spaniards, tbtf English merchaoli, 

alanl matured. The palace of the and those also, for there were 

governor was assaulted. Tlie in- some of other nations, 
■urgent) demanded arnis, lo be WNIe the patriots . with llwir 

enrolled, and formed into a regu- allies entered iuto a corrcspoudence 

laT body. The government, with and concert with air Hugh Dal- 

Ihe bishop, appeared ut thebalcony, rympte, governor of 4ftnltar; the 

Cuborling tbe raidtitude lo retire; Eugltsh adndral Purvis, and gAietal 

but in vain. Tbcj' overpowered Castaros, commaMer of the Spa- ' 

tbe guard of the palace, rushed in, nish camp at St, Koch, for llie 

(cised tbe governor, and dragged purposeof acting against the com- 

him B> far as the Falm-gate, men enemy according to circum. , 

where with knives, and slicks, they stances, the French party kept vp 

destroyed him. a correspondence with KJadrid. 

At Cadiz, May S<)lh, the people Solano came in post baste to Cadtc. 

rose against llie lieutenant geiieral and thundered forth proclamatkiDs 

Solano, Marquis Del Socorro, cap- against all who should ha*e any 

tain general uf the province of An- correq>ondeiiGe with the English 

dalusia, and governor of the city force*, wbUe a strong detachment 

of Cadiz. Tbe inarijuis, with the from tbe mam army of tbe French 

Spanish troo|M under his command, al Madrid was on its march to 

had been recalled for llw purpose Cadiz. An immense number of 

of covering the flight of Charles V. people, May'Upib, conducted by 

, from Aranjurz Ip Seville. At Spanish officers and certam mer- 

Hadrid, lie formed an mlimate chants of Cadiz, assembled aioand 

at>d confidental connection with tbe governor's palace, at Cliulaoa, 

Murat, and general O'Farrel, an a village in the vicinity of Cadiz,, 

Irishman in the Spanish service, demandmg, with loud cries "amu 

but drawn over to the side of ib« and ammunition," Solano appear- 

French. From tlie nwment that ed bL the balcony, and in a loi$ 

a deugn was ' conceived to resist speech tried to perauade the peo- 

the progress of the French in S|)ain, pi* that the power of tbe em- 

, every eye was turned to Andalusia, peror of the French wai allo- 

vdniirably situated, by its silua- gether irreurtable, and that, if 

aiion, for cooperation with the they should attempt resistance lo 

Ebjlisb, and possessing the harbor his will by force,' tbey would only 

pTedpitaM 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. isr 

Mdptlile tbetr o«a deBttuclioii. exlrenicly sliort 4li>ration. Tim 

Thej b«anj bin witli imlieuce a zeal «M cAurU of uncuiiueclcd 

lati time: but inlernipled him al jndividuult, were qukktir l»piigbt 

Iwt. by T^waliiig llieir ci; of iota unity of desinn and aclJM^ 

" inct ami ammuiiilion. Long by the ealablishnietit of provinciat 

be Pcntiit>u<l Vll." Arms wete junias. Ewu before ibe ealablisb- 

trongbt ftatu Ihe barradu, and a nieut of ttieM, tlw, pngular re- 

caBoao from llie bultttili. The stutmeDt was in hmuj' iratancct 

ptt* of the pal4cc K«re instantly calmed by tlw niagislrates and IIk 

tamd : the gawtnor't guard ivat aulborily of good and respectable 

dHfBKdiSuUno binueli; aliaii)^- men uniong botb tlie laity and 

■ig to make liis escape by llie clergy. Tliere is no instance of a 

top* of Ibe bouMs, was setxcd and populai insurrection so widely «x- 

Aigged bto tl>e rirrct. Even in leuiled, and provoked by lucli. 

tbis f itKinily, be proclaimed Ibe outrage* and insuUs, that was aU 

pmeraodlhe venjteaoce of Buo- tended with so few calamities a* 

B^rlr, and declart^, " thut he was tliat of Spain. Tbe borid eKcease* 

ready to die in Hi; caii^e of ibe jusi enumerated, are but as a drop 

(RBil Napoleon." A person, who in the bucket, svlien compared with 

>« near kirn, un lieani^g LJiete the torrents of innocent blood slied 

•onb, diiUi.d his bruins out at in tbe first cbulliliuns of the French 

•ae blow wiLli a dub. revolution. The excesses of Spain 

Some excesses were ci>mm)tled uiireas much uoderDeath the en- 

ia ibe provinces of lA-nn ami omii^ics of France, as the griev- 

iJUuias. At Corrunna, in GailUfii, ances uf wliicli she had to conii 

psfral Fibiighri, an Uaiiuu in )i]aiii, were above any tliat the 

lilt Spanish service. b<vause lie en- Frt^nch were subjected la under 

dciTourett to ni>: ::atc by inrsna- the mild and beueficeot reign of 

tioB tlie fury nf ihe peaian;ry, Lewi? XVI. 

though fae iiad derlared on the What , remained to the Spam- 
ade of the iiL.U'genls, would have ards of their ancient constitution . 
bnn shot, if an aMilltry officer of governnieiil, congenial with po- 
ind um slept bvfore |nm, and pular liberty, presented m^ans of 
pea him l.nie In take Teriif;e U collecting llie public sentiments, and 
the convent of St. Domineo. — fomilng a concert of will and 
On the lit of June, Ibe people' power, without h»ving recourse to 
demanded llial all tin- Frencli re- innovations, for the most part daif 
adiog at Corrunua should be ar- gerous, and always accompanied 
rated. About thirty or forty with confusion. The municipal 
Freocb of dificreal ranks and con- government of the Lawns ofSpaio, . 
ditions, were taken to the common though complicated, wore Ui ge- 
(Ul, but their prc^rty was not neral an air of popular repre- 
ttiied, Slracgling parties of the senlation. Wherever there were 
Frtocb, ia many places were cut 2000 householders, four deputies 
of by tl|c peasauts, led on by and a syndic were named by the 
iKHilu. people, and formed part of tbe 

But, as already observed, the town council. — On tlie 37lli of 

ngo' of mere democracy was of Hay, there was'a convention at 

Seville 

D,g,t,7P:hy Google 



,r«8 AN'l'flJAL UEGrST^X iiOS. 

Serine Af (M smgistrBtM, tbe of the Coriec, or by audi oft* 

consfituted autfaoritiei, aiiS'ttie most mniu as his prudence nifEht n^ 

re^MMable of the mlnbitants of gest fo; ^litattog the' reforms 

all 'classes, Thb ci>ii*ratJDa, bj abused and the general 'hsppioM 

common conseiit, elected a su- of the kingdom, securing it oa 

preme provincial junta. -. fbondatioDS firln and subject to no 

' Tbe sufireme council of Senile, change, for^he preaent, all tte 

, laying hold of soilie statutes in Iheic provinces of Spain ought to eAn6oe 

constitution which authorized their themsehrrs to Ibis general exprcs- 

RJecting the orders of the supreme sioh, hereditary mceesnmt, ' MWr- 

council of Madrid,' when that ca- Jing to the fimdamental Utet ^ 

pital should be in the hands of fb- f A« monarchy" The junta of Se- 

reiga troops, assumed an indepen- vil^e was exceedingly anxious V> 

dentaulhorJly in theoanwofFeTdi- counteract the madiinationaof (be 

tiand Vir V^hom thej proclaimed emissaries of Buonaparte, and other 

'king,andderIaredwaracaiiistlVance. evii-minded persons, who endea* 

Supreme juntas were uso formed in voured to propagate a belief UM 

tile, same manner, in all the other Andalusia affipct«l' a superioril; 

Srovinces not under the imme- over the other proTJnccj. ,AnT 

iate pressure of the Frpcb. But sucb thought, they declared, and 

it wais' necessary, as much as possi- repealed Ibeir dedaration,- had 

ble. to give the separate forces of been far from them. Ahhougb 

all theprovinces thesame direction ; the general good of the nation ind 

btbetwise^ instead of harmonious co- been llieir guide, and as it were the 

<^ration,' they mi^it counteract soul of !all their aditms, certait 

each other, and Ibraw all things circumstances peculiar to Andatudi 

into confusion. The lead in the evinced the propriety of the conduct 

dbirs of' the naliou was there- adopted by tljle junta of Seville, 

fore taken by the supreme junta Veteran troops were more numei^ 

of Seville ; which, with a happy ous in ibat proviijce llian in other 

■ndacity assumed, and fbr a time parts, and ibus an'army could be 

exercisedj all the functions of sover- formed in a shorter lime. It pos- 

ergn authority. Without entang- sessed tlie only foondery of cannon 

ling tfartnselves In any disputes in the kingdom, and arms and am- 

Ihat might arise from Itie antici- munition in a certain degree of 

pation of contingent events and abundance. The superior opO' 

divernty of opinion, concerning po- lence, aiid other peculiar tjreum- 

nii»I reforms, they declared " Ihat stances, ofiered i«sources which 

"theh- only object was, that Spain other provinces wanted. The ft- 

miCht preserve its integrilv and mous Englbh fortress of Gibraltar, 

independence for its lord and was situate m Andalusia. That 

hing, Ferdinand VII. on whose »fe fortress, and tbe English squadron 

Mtum, he, with the supreme go- cruizing near tbe mouth of the 
Temment, would determine what 'Straits, were now hajquly to be 

might be bis royal will, either by reckoned among the resources of 

.commauding "a general assembly ■"•->'-- 



* State Papers, p. 3S6. 

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r HISTORY OF EUROPE. ■ 18? 

TiiMNU {mtiiocea acquietced- in anotbtr, or towards uiir ^unip' 

a tnthori^ axuioMf b; the Junta tion of men, weic caHfully aroided. 

«r Scrille, nor vai it ever opposed The couocil of Castille had muc- 

^ an; of tbem : tbougb parti- tion«il all tbe edict* of Mur^t. of 

nlir juntas w«re etlablithed la ratber his master, Buonaparte. But 

Ik reqwrtivc provinces for ma h- alluwanqe was made for tbe state of 

tainBg order, and calling forth coercion in which they we^e. It 

Ikir KMurces in support of the was observed to ibem indeed, in 

BMBQon cauM. h was a fine, as different addresses, tbat it jnight 

itU ti wopderful spectacle, to be- have liecome men of virlne to have 

Ud 10 great a nomber of pro- fled from Madrid, to some of ibe 

ncei, at the same moment, witli- armed bodies of tlieir couBtfyiuen. 

Nt cofBulting each other, not But wlien, on the restraint t>eing rel 

■^ sgreemg in opiiiion on the moved, Uiey threw, all tbeirweight 

ptkand leading political poi»ts,but into the scale of the patriots, tbey 

a to tbe mauner ia which ihej were haUed and respected as tlie truf 

N|hl to act, forming the same friends of llieir country, and all was 

vittt, taking Ibe same measures, forgotten. Similar irjdulyenc^ was 

«! ctiablishiDg (be tome form of extended to such of the Spanisli 

pctniDenl; this being the most junta at Bay opne, and uoblea Uut 

■■bble and co^enieot for the go- had nccompsnied Ferdinand . \q 

TODMnt of cadi province. that place of confinemeal, ^u d^ 

Knry Ibing done by tlie Spa- aeiled the cause of Joseph as BO<n 

stnb at Ibis period, wpre the as it wasiu.tbeir.power, ssdjoineq 

InMd character of heroism and tlieir countrymen mamu. In trulli, 

ndMSL, Abandoned to themsetvei, tbe extreme imprudence mlh wfatclf ' 

^had lo provide against inter-i so g<^ a nDinber of persons ,of 

nl <)isnnioa and anarchy, as tbe first nuilc in Spaifi coRimiit^ 

*dlucatensal aggtcasioa. Th<y themselves into the liauds of tuct) 

■n «eU aware tbat Ihe cueoiy s ct^ract^r as Buonaparte, (anuot 

nM altenpl to create dJvisioas, be altogelber excused^ But it wa^ 

^ cnatiog a diveraity of opinions not in their power, wliei) oncf . ip 

■id ptctensou. All classes, lliere- , ]i is bands, to extricate, (hemselves, 

^ Here obedient to Ihp autho- or to oppose any etlecUial rf»i^ 

ritjof tlie jiuitas, wiM>OHt.fD raiAch acK« to the will of tlie, tyrant, ^nd 

> tuBtiiig, for tbe presei|l, at asj- the; Vost way to counler^Kt fai« 

akr dhangca Iban wJia^ l^eir uu^ wi^ws and ' bis . liopea, j>erliipS( 

^cttdentcil and most crjfical tHur wa^, to assDiue nn ap|>earao<;e ot 

Uiaa ii^Kfioudy (Ien4>td«d. ITib acwfidjng ,to tbcni. By ilat^riog 

^ftreal juntas wcieaniiaated bjr hirii. on t[ie iipmeosityofliis power, 

■t^iint i}f natiopal ipdignationi and buldiog f<)rth ,lh^ facilii^jirjih 

M readjr-lo adopt whoever mea- wlucb beHii;^ltt accomplish liisp^u; 

Ws appeared to be theresolt of jects, Utej tui^lu lead Jupi in^^ 4 

Ik gr^flit wisdom, Ail topics sniire,.atKl pwpare the wa; fpribis 

Ikl iaig|)t entangle tbem India- discoinfitare. Wlien fve^feflcjqt ipq 

Hm, thatasigbt:Iead,4<^ooldoess Ibe siuallncss of Uie furce sent int.O 

1*4 Wttust, «■ tbe appmnnee of Spain> in cora|)arisDu of ftbat wJuch 

it,b8twc«ii<H)epE0V^KiJtljuDUand b^d baeu led forlh by BaiwajiartA 

.. " himself 

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190 ANNUAL REOISTEH, 180S. 

tiiiMMlf aeatnji Austria, Runia, denb and professon in the iiiitv«F- 

and PniHiia, it eppcara ^ probable ailr, which wai ver^ nQmerotts. 

that llie »obles, and deputies &t TliEre Were nnt less than Iwcuty— . 

Bftyonne, <tid not di'icourage,' but four uui*«rsittet in Spain, aod sev»- 

<in tiie contrary, rncournee an idea ral of lti(^ cruwdnt with numbers 

<which seems all along to have b«en of stddeiils, little ihort of thoae 

entertained by the tyrant, tint what- that were wont to resort to cnir 

ever might be the success of the EnKlish univeratties before & tlamt— 

numerous eniiuaries employed to ingannyconatanlly onthe increase^ 

- corrupt the persons supposed to a navy also still increasing, colonics 

iMve the most influence with tlic and commerce no lon<>'er fbouglit 

people, llie very terror of his arms below a gentleman, attrveted aa 

would be sufficient to retain the ^eat a portion of the English jvuth . 

Spanish nation in awe and subjec- at an early period of lift to tile ' 

tioti ; and that the Spaniards, like walks of bunaess and of ambition. I 

a flock of timid sheep, would rea- Of tlie companies of slndenls, some- ' 

«lly obey any one he should ap- W'ere called the eompmi^o/'ifriifwv, 

point to the throne. Persons of a others the rmM^wmyo/' Cif«, the 

mispicious disposition, i might havti amtpany ef the Ptoplt.aaiby ttthlat 

Uielr doubts about the purity and allusions to the great cauac tlif, 

intention of both the Bayonne, junta, freedom. On their standards was 

' and the standees that accompanied ituciibed Uberty or Dealh t 
Ferdinaiid thither: But, what wai The courage of this literary Hsss 

good poticy, thefc wtfs no public is noticed in the French, as well as 

cxpres^on ofsuchaseDtiment. And tbe Spanhib' accounts of oecmw 

en the whbre, it w^uld occur to the rcnces. Hie companio formed of 

charitably disposed and the candid the monks and armed peasBQts, 

part of the nation, that there are bore tbe names of saints. Manj of 

cirvuinslancea in which the weak- the standards bore the device of 

ness of human nature may natu- the French eagle, t*m to piecei hj 

nilly look for excuse in necessity, the lion of Spain. Among tbe 

iDd when even virtue herself, with* higher clergy, there were many who 

out a blush, may have recouiw to entered at once into the military 

iimulatirm and dissimulation. spirit. The bishop of St. -Aodero 

By this temperate and wise con- #ore' always a cutlass at bis nd«. 

duct all were united in (»«e frater- Though it was not among llw higbcit 

nily, Noblemen and gentlemen, ranks, as already noticed, that the 

the clergy of all conditions, tna- patriotic artl6ur was the greatest, 

nnfacturers, ariizens, and labbiir- ' there wer< 'not a few excepliom. 

crs, all presented 'themselves volun- Among llicM, at this ■tkge''ttf oiir 

larily to be enrolled in the public narrative, it is due to mart dbtin- 

Mrvice. Hiere was yet auotlier guished talents ami virtue!, to m«l»* 

clan of volunteers, of *hkh we liou the Cond6 de Mont^o, who 

find frequi'nt mention. Dot only in spent his whole time, with very 

the papers of the day, published in short interval* for sleep ami other 

various forma by the Spaniards, refieshment, in aniniitlng, insirBcl* 

but in the French bulletins, namely, tng, and dtrtetiRg- his couBhTiBeB, 

the literary dan : tbe class iif slu- by writing, and by travenbig Spaa 



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HISTOUV OF EUROPE. ISI 

jgdiftRBt directions, for the pur- hiduslriously citculated in emy 

put of coovernng with the diffe- prdvince, toWn. villuge, and bamlet. 

ntjnutu, and (be mdividuals of Sermons were predched by lhe.bi< 

At gmtert authority in tite dif- shops in fiivour of the good cam% 

bat provioces. An host of sd- and extracts from Ibem printed 

■nbfe writen iprung up in Spain, and pnbHshed. It is to be ab< 

fhm tiirir esiHeDce wa> not ima- aervcd, that parochial schools bein^ 

fwL The Spaniard, silent by etlnblisbed tbrongtmut al) Spain, 

^^Mtioii, and conccnlnUii^ bis ^ lowest of ibe people, though 

■do^ acquires both precision of restraiiKdbytbciiKjuisition fromin- 

ih^lil Md propriety of expres- dbcriminale reading, can both read 

■•; a laeoBir, antithetical, and and write. Tlic juntas, in their 

piMnt brevity. How different prodamnlions to tlie people, talk 

Mt Hem the loquacity, tbe rcr^ very gravely (we do not tav impciti- 

f %r of the French* I Specimens ticaily or improperly) of the palro- 

•fl|NDish aloqneitce, -involving the nage and protection To be expected 

dMst reasoning, in a continued from their Lady of THE PlLLAK^ 

Ann of pasvon, will Ik found in Nor were pious frauds disdained. 

it Appendix lo the Chroiriclef, in At Valludolid, Saragosim, VHlenlia, 

ifmoA proclamali«MU. and in all and Seville, miracles were solemnly 

^ Spsnidi slate papers. NeVef proclaimed, and by those to whom 

MtK ms Boonaparle treated in such proclamations were addressed, 

■* 1 style! No polite circunilocU- Mriously Iwlieved. 
liwaiid reaerres! no diplomatic At tlie same time that the juntas 

(Nrtesies! no professions of liigb used aH means for exciting aad . 

maderation t nomanagement or forming the whole mass of the 

MioB, indicating doubt or fear, mate population of a reasonable 

1W patriots pour on the ix/Htnum age lo arms, 'and calling forlh all 

■'^rrjCtftMo moMitfr undisguised the resources of the peninsula, ihcy 

i^rach, unqualified' abhorrence, recomnltnded their cause, and had 

■■I amacca of revenge. rccmirse to tbe favour, and aid, and- 

Efa) incentive that could be co-o|)cra1ion of all nalions inimr- 
hn from Ibe religious character cal to usurpation, and friends to 
rf Ibe Spaniards, was employed to tbe righls of independent states 
IHK tbe people lo amis. A' pro- and kiugdoms. Ttie supreme Junta 
dtBHiM from bis holiness Hie of Aaturias iovited (he Poles, lls- 
ptfc. Plus VII. lo the Spani^ ca- liatis, and PorlugucK, bearing arms 
<Uin,-logvtlier with a civil caie- in tbe raoksof the French, toeorte 
or brief compendtMnof'Hte' to tlrnr mountains aad j<nn tbe 
' of a good Spaoiard, was standard of freedom t 

- Tbe 

* As Ae Rwcb Itts Ijeconw Ihe gincrsi Itnnntieof Enrope, and is' that «if many 
<bt«ritn«j il ix, u it Might to be, scn^rally Icimt; jet il is tidiciilans to tie at 
W Mch pain* and expence u lo msn^y lilJy pev^e are, about aetiuirin^ llic tnM 
WitMtBrmniiiciatua of French. It is quite lOfficient for most people ta imder- 
iMttut wiitiiig; and for all'tenMlie thetnseivo nndentood io it. T* beanxi- 
MiUost tbe traeParisiaBprnniiDcUdon »f French, iaa OMt •xtravafKnt eon- 
riBM lo tbe r«Btt e[ Bnonipwte^ 

1 Pp.at8— 117. t Uee Appendix to CbronicU, p. 149, 

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J93 ANNUAL REGISTER,- lg08. 

^.Tlte junta of Seriile, May i9, nuumen, aod bU xtlM^meM to the 

ibyited . (lis co-apenilioa of the |irince of pence. But, at his p^itt 

fteu!;!! nalion, aiid all the pro*incei' rival and adver«rv, g^uenil O'fiu'- 

>uluf;Cl to iU — " Coma to lu, and ral, liad gone over to ilim aide pf 

joa stull £nd valnur, geaeriOMty, the Frencb. liU subaequeut dcda- 

9r>dtriMl|iinQur."~-'Fbe»unejui>la, rdliam of irrecoucilatile hatrcct ta 

ftlaj 30ttw concluded an atVlrcH to that ptiiiy w«f e believed to be sin- 

V\e Furtu^eK uation in. these cere. 

4ar(l4i^ "¥Qur coanlry it not in lii.theineantiioe,iu consequence 

qai^fU-— the danger ii pstt. Maaten of tbe concert above mentiqued, 

^ vn» for ita deliverance and ■»- betweei) general Castaoos aud Uie 

■t9.r^ti9p. Share in the gloijt «f tfatpota of Gtd'ii ou the 'One url. 

Wtting an example la nations groan- and the coqimanden of the Oafisii 

ing uncier <^resaion," Hiuionera fiuca at Gibraltar ami in tlitf^e- 

were teo^ and .a secret corresppu- ditenaDean oa (lie otJier : lord C«l- 

4viCE and undentaadiog enlersd liogwood arrived wtib sbips to t^ 

into, or, ju wa> affirmed by tbe tij# camniand.of (be English fieet. 

Austriausat (he tim^i only attempt- off Cadiz, and geneiaj SjKiicer «i(b 

cd to bcenteied into with tbe couil five or lix English regiiuentt from 

0/ Vienna. Gibraltar, and. the two S«i|B ngj* 

. (Juf H was to. die Englidi nation menu of Mcurou and V^atleDville. 

uuf. .ti*e §paui»}i .coloniei (bat the Lord CoUiiigwood o%r<.'d liia.acr- 

Spanbli patriots lonled for the most vices far the reducliuu of tlw 

(Ofdial,pTopq>t,.vn(] efficient asiist- French fleet : but Motla very fw 

ifnceTnorwieretiwirlic^MidffMired, perly detiirniined, thai jhiitb^uM 

. Af^r Uif tragical end of Sotaiia, be, exclusively, an aclliev«^tr;^«f 

the licuteuaacj^eueraJ nf &ndalu- the Spaniard*. The French ibip* 

^ia and govcrmvefvl of Cadii yvere Uy in the ranal of the arKsal ta 

couferred by (he Sfiprenie junta »( ^uch a poaili»n, tltat tlwy Vtr* nut 

tieyillc, that iww Cfurcited all Ibe of tli^raadi of the cannon of -4be 

patera of. goveinnutnt, on Don castles as well ,a» of tiw iSpaniih 

^jipiiias Morla. Morl» »w a per- sqnadt^of Cadiz. Bu|fgiM^M>«tt, 

fon «/ great talents, as vifW aii a botob-vesMlt. and lictnttidftui bal- 

dwdviL M)d vigorous oluiracler. tene^«(iiistmctcdon tlw>s|«*ri«<ln 

)V'itli equal wisdo^, promptitude, and near furl L-ouis, laoujeducMl 

auij fiuniipss, Ijc bjid saved Cadia admiral Ronliy to surrenilu fU'um 

pnd Spaiu ^om the rava-ies of Ibe I4>) the Frendi fleet,. sfUrv^itring 

pUgue ill 1804, by tluitiiff; up all in win tecnis of ca]HtalaUw. The 

the cJhurclt«a of .Cadi^t .and its vici- Fc^qcb AeBt c<^sisled -of five ships 

nily, in opppsilioa Id the reuion- of lli4ilinfcjafsewnly-rourRiiiii>4w 

Stnmces ol both the monks and llie frigate, and four thousand seamen 

greater pait of the secuUr clergy, and mariners. 

^Kbo i«HK)idered'l4iiS'S« wi act of 'Advice having b«MV ite^jved. 

teedlege, and aganiit the advice of that a small ((eluchment o( FXUIcti 

thf t^anijh physicians too, who Itad assembled "t Tavira, to fOXJ 
'itn^i^^iiff^ th»\ It .was useless. He • Spoin by iiie river Guadianai.gVP*' 

1(V^ b^JwtSAdiouii U> tbe uftbiJity , lai Spenoerv with tbe siadtii^clH 

on account of the severity of hw inent under Ills eommand,^ nt the 
....;■ entieitv 



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HISTOJIY OF EUROPE. 195 

otaaly of genenl Hori^ imme- dence of yoar country." — Oh hoard 

&trij wt nil for the Guadiana, the Hibenua, tff the Tagnt, Jiih/ 

Md tafKlrd his troops at AgwDonte. 4, 1S08. 

nm ahipa had alreadj been sent It u saxct\y nrceswrr to men- 

!• the DKMlh of tlie Guadiana by tion, that the noble effort! of lb« 

iMnl Parvn. In coasetiuence Spaniards were immediately follow- 

«f these moTemcnts, Ihe French cd by peace, harmony, and fn«nd- 

idbcd in all ilirections An Lisbon, ship between that nation and Great 

wA Ibe exception of some weak Srilain, her allies. Proclanialmnt 

dctMhrnenta; lett to occupy the of peace and amity with Eo|;laod 

j^l forts and other positions on and \ivi ally Sweden, were pub- 

" It ode of Porla|al. The Poriu- liahed by the juntas* ; and, as for 

' " fflancf, whi " 



d by the presence of Eogland, whatever power was at 
Ik Enc)<>li, and iImi example, as war with the common enemy of 
vU at addresses of the Spaniards, Europe, was at peace with EnglaiKl. 
mij wbere rose against the It never occurred, ai was declared 
Ficsck Deputations were sent by Mr. CaoRii)?, to the Englisb mi- 
fna ereij part of Porlii^ to ad- sisters, to consider ourselves ns in a 
■nliirCbarlcsColl6n,comma]iri- state of hoslility to Spain. Preli- 
iB{ the Daval forces of Britain in mtnaries of a new and perpetual ' 
iH quarter, soliciting succours, alliance, offensive and defensive, 
Hi adnnal, with due frankness, between the two nations uf Spain 
■■ediilely re|rfied : " Agreeably and Portugal, vere signed at 
Is yoar desire*, I seqd you ships. Oporto, in Ihe name of Fenlinand 
troops, arms, and ammnnilion ; VII. and llie prince regrnt of Por- 
■ri hare giren orders for hoisting tugal, July 14, 1808. The bishop 
Ikt Sag of his royal highness the of Oporto, president of the junta 
prince regent of Portugnl, around of goTemment of that city, which, 
wbfa the wJiola Portuguese nation Lisbon as well as Madrid being in 
oajta instaoUy to rally, and take tlie bands of Ihe French, seems to 
^1 ams in a cause at once , so just have taken a pattern from Senile, 
Md so glorious. To secure success, signed the treaty in tbe name of 
naniroity is ne«es3ary. Unire your- tlie prince, — The Portuguese pro< 
Kkes with your brave friends and vinces of Algarve and Alentejo 
■a|Mmun, the Spaniards. Suffer placed themselves under the guid- 
Mt yauraelves to be either intimi- ance and protection of the junta of 
Wd by threats or seduced by pro- Seville. So also did lite Canary islet, ' 
■■s. From the experience of to which tbe junta had transniilled 
vmt mooths, you must have learnt the earliest possible intelligptice o' 
W to estimate tlM friendship of tbe turn that aflairs bad taken in 
ihe French. It is lo tbe fidelity the Peninsula. They also deter- 
■ad tbe succours of (be Eo^ish, mined to dispatch envoys and com- 
■CBMjed by your own energies, miiisioners to the transmarine esta- 
te yon are lo owe the restoration blishnieuts of Spain in ihe Ameri- 
•f yoor prince, and the indepen^ ras and West Indies, aitd in Asia, 
Vol. L. [ O ] inviting 

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19* ANNUAL REGISTEK, 1808. 

iovitiog tbem to unite with their 3ii}y. LoD^Wfore'ttieirarriral de- 
brethrea in Old Spain, for piaerwr puttea had appeared in London, 
in^ the iolegrity and indepeodeocy from the principality of Anvrias, 
«tf the monarcby for their lord and bearing th< fint certsin intelligence 
kini; Ferdinand VII. For accom- of the insurrection in Spain, and 
ptiiJuBg this end, they applied to soliciting the aid of liie British go- 
lord Collingwood for a pasiport to veninient ; a circumitance that, not 
a ftigale and fonr ad vice- boats ; unnaturally, led theperiodtcaljour- 
mnd also for a corretle to carry out nalists to stale that the- standard of 
a number of officers, whose pre^- liberty ia Spain, was first miwd in 
MRce was necessary in the Atneri- Asturias. The iDsurreclion wat sl- 
can coloniea. Tbey preferred an most timullaneous. But, ifit uere 
English to a Spanish ship for con- of aay importance to ucertain Ibe 
veyinglbeofficers, because it would priority of a few Hays, it might be 
be a proof of pnxx and alliance be- observed, (hat tl^ insurrection fint 
tweenSpaiuandGreatBritain. Their broke out in Vatbntia. 
demand was immediately complied , On the 9lh of June, six Spanith 
with,andall theTessels,afleTaBhort geptlcmen, liaving at their head the 
and pleasaal voyage, reached their viacoimtcIeMalerosa and Don Diego 
destination. Vessels had been sent de la Vega, arrived in Loodoa, and 
before with a number of proclama- they were followed by a succession if 
tioni by king Joseph; but the deputies, or envoys from other pro- 
greaterpart of Ihem fell into the vtnces, bothSpanishaiidPortugtieM. 
bands of English ships of war : Peace wa« proclaimed with Spain in 
Ibe crews of one or two Ibat reach- the Loudon Gazette of the 5lh of 
td the coast of Spanish America, July. The Spanish prisonen in our 
were imprisoned by the colonbts, jaib, to Ibe number ofseveral tbou- 
and the proclamations of Joseph sands, were set free, cloatfaed, and 
burnt by the hands of itie execu'. tent horae to join (heir brethren in 
tiooer. A|^icRiton was alsomade, arm*. TheBritishar«enals,f)eetsand 
June 12, to lord Collingwood, by sijuadrons, and treasures i all tlwl 
the government of Cadiz, for a Spain could demand, or England af- 
frigate lo conduct commissioners, ford, was without hesitalion or ibe 
appointed by the supreme junta of smallest delay liberally granted. The 
Seville, to England, in order lo ministry were neitherremtssnorpsr- 
treat with fab majesty's ministers, aimonious, whereto he alert andpro- 
On matters of great interest and im- fuse was lo be universally populir. 
portance to both countries. As tlie from the king on tlie throne lo the 
admiral who commanded in the beggar on. the highways and strceti. 
port of Cadiz was one of the de- In IhecauseofthePeninsulatbepeo- 
puties, lord Collmgwood thought pie of Great Britain and Irelanil 
it proper. Ihat his departure should seemed ready to rise in a mass, as welt 
be delayed till the surrender of the as the natives of that nobte country. 
French ships in the harbour : with- They bailed (be dawn of liberty, 
in two or three days after which, and stood in admiration of Ih* 
the deputies set sail in the Revenge Spaniards. The emigranU from 
frigate for England, where they France, prone to gra-ip at ippnr- 
furived in spfety oo the 24th of ances infinitely less prMuiwiS- "' 

prctsed 

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HISTORY OF EUBOPE. jgs 

I pnned Ibeir leiwbrlitjr, in exlrava- ntik, nitb time Mccours, nilh a^ 

^i aorf poetical linguasie, but, at luraucea that olhers should be sent 

Ik ante lime, nothing more lh»D from time to time, asw«llaslroopit| 

•laltbcj fell. " The Spaniards, and whatever, the palnott might 

' Aey ni(l> were worthy to contend need. A promise which was ful- 

fv the cauK of liberty, law, mo- filled foilhrully. 

■vrbj, boociur, and Ood. — %min llie depulicf were splendidly es- 

itim Ibr itBiidard of liberty, and tertainec) by the city of London, 

il uturc rcTiTet. —The spirit of the buik, and other public bodies. 

f(y a mute ; the nott inveterate as well as by individuals of great 

latmts extinct; enlhusiam has ba- distinction. Subscriptions were o- 

ssied the spirit of opposition ; the pened in London, Liverpool, Bris- 

nflsof Westminster bait are aslo- tol, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dublin, 

bM at seeing, for the fijst liioe, Cork, Walerford, and many other 

> fitifet iiiiiry of Mulimenls, plares, for supporting the cause of 

■(Hs, and 8clK)as*.'' Spain, and several military corps, 

TV first supply to the Spanish militia and volunteers, offered their 

pitrioti, which wds sent within a services. The supreme junta of 

fc* days after the arrival of the Asturias, did not fail, in a gazette, 

Uniiin deputies, consisted in three dated Oviedo, June 30, lo publish 

Mtrtt ihonsand pounds sterling, with ekpresuons of the nost pro- 

BiUlart, five thousand muskets, found gratitude, the generomty of 

tMy UioKsafMl pikes, am) an im- the English nation. Thenmescn- 

HMc quantity ofpowderand balls, timenli, on various occasions, were 

. Mutrosa'ssecrrlary wassenthorae, expressed with the umc waimtb 

<*pttn with (hrec British officers of by the other jimla*. 

I > L-Anbigii, Ma. 18T, p. 483. 



(OS] CHAP. 

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\96, ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



CRAP. XI. 

^tuation oftht RpanUh Provinett at the breaking oat of the Immrtt- 
tion. — Prrcautions recommendi-d to the Spa$iMt '^^ation bg the Jtatia 
of Seville. — Computation of the Numbm of the French and Spanith 
Forixa. — Horn these mere dUtrilntled.— Battle «/* Baylen and wr* 
render ^ Ibe French Army under General Dnponi.— General Mo»- 
eey repulted with great Com from Valeniia-Siege. of Saragoua. — 
The ■'^iege raised. — Trantaetiona in Catalonia. ^Dnkesme lays Siege 
to Gerona.—Repnlied. — Lays waste the Coantry around Barct]ou, 
— His Rapacitif and Cmell^.^Operations in the North of Spain. — 
Battle of Cabezon ; and of Medina Del Rio Seco.—Retreat of King 
Joseph from Madrid. 

OF tlie fourlem provinces iota could promise au<d lacilitate a itw- 

which Sfma a divided, four cessful i»ue, it appeared indispeo- 

in the beginning ufjuue, after the sable, that lliere should be three 

insurrection had bruken oul, were geueraliasinios, who should act in 

inconteatably in the bauds of ihe concert with each other; one who 

French. These were Navarre, Bis- should contmand iu the four king' 

cay, and Ihe Two Cuslilles. The dnms or provinces uf Andalusia, in 

French were likewise, as alreadjr Murira, and Loner Eitiamadura : 

noliced, iu possession of the for- another in V^lenlia, Arragop, ud 

tress of Barceluua. A paper, Catalonia ; a third in Navarre, Bis- 

frauifht wild Ihe greatest political cay, Asturtas, and the North of Old 

prudence, was published on the last Castille. Each of these generals 

day of May, by. the junta of Se-' and generalissimos would form an 

ville, under tlie lille of " prb- army of regular troops and pea- 

CAUTioNs which it will be pro- sentry united, and put himself in l 

per to observe throughout Ihe dif- situation to undertake enterprizei, 

fereni provinces of Spain, in Ihe and to succour the most exposed 

necessity lo which they have been putnts ; always keeping up a fre- 

driveii by the French, for resisting quent communication with the other 

the unjust and violent possesuon general issimos, iu order that all 

wtiicli llieir armies are endeavour- mi^ht act by common accord, and 

ing to lake of the kingdom *." lo assist one another. Madrid and La 

that paper it was observed, among Mancha, required an especial ge- 

otlier most judicious counsels, that neral, to concert and execute the 

as a combiiii'd union of plans was enterprizes whicli their particular 

Ihe soul of every well concerted local situation demanded. Hbooly 

enterprize, and that which aluue object would be, lo embarrass the 

enemy'* 

* Slate Papers, 3U, 

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HISTORY OF EUROPE. igr 

(■na/i annio. (o take away or cut perieaccd by Sir Jnhn Moore, did 

dT rbrir proruiam, to attack Ibrm infinitely ninre mischirr tliuii guod. 

ii kik ami rear, and not to leave However, there certainly was' not 

tbm ■ tDomeiil of repose*. All any deficiency cillier in MiimlMTs, 

pwnl actions to be avoided. The or individual zeal or courafe. What 

MiMcc into the provinces liy the was really wanted, and not possible 

urtb and east to be blocked up ; at once to be found, was some mau 

detntrance iiilo Sptiiii lo be also of authority, talents, and experv 

iMtd up against French troo|H ence, pre-eminently di*tin<niislicd 

cmrrn; fratn Portugal. above all his compatriots, to com- 

No accurate estimate lias been aiand and ilirect the resources of 

Bade, or could well be made, of the country in one combined plan 

the DDinbers of men bearing amis, - of nperalions. On the other band 

xttnni and new levies, thai ap- unity of deai^n, proniptituile of 

portd in the cause of tbe country action, and aecresston instead of 

a Um proviocefl. In some, all the defence, were mif;bly advantages to 

nits capable of bearing arms, the invaders, 

■tn enrolled from fifteen to fortj" Tlie exact numbers of the Frencb 

in. Id others, from sixteen to armies in ttie Peninsula, at Ibe time 

bt^-six; and in some, to fifty. If- when Ibe iiisurrecliun broke out, 

■E me enrolments were duly made, cannot be ascertained. The French 

■sdill tbe persons enrolled acta- gazettes sometimes eug)terate and 

■Bf brought into tbe field, the a- sometimes extenuate tbe numbers 

Bomt of the whole must have ex- of tbeir soldiery, at particular 

mkd a milUon. But this is scarce- places, and on particular occasions, 

I; la be sui^KMcd. Hw nnmbera just as it seems to suit- iheir pur* 

M have been fluctuating. One jA>se, It is certain that there wer« 

Baamance, wholly unworthy of at tbe end of Muy and begrnniug 

tk tauM of Ibe patriots, is not lo ofJune, three marshals of Franca 

be paned without notice. Tbe in tlie heart of Spain ; namely, 

^wBdal juntas, e^n the central Murat, Moncey, and Bessieret; 

Jiala into which these, in Ibe pro- which supposes three distinct corps 

pta of tiaie' and events were re- of the grand army, or niue divi- 

xhcd, were in the constant habit sions, forming, in all, from seventy 

"'na^gentiog, prodigiously, tbe to seventy-five thousand men: to 

■wben of their fighting men. If which we art to add ibe corps of 

^ would have ditnuiycd Ibe tbe army under marshal Ney, on 

fttadi, or inspired a genetarcoo- ibe frontier of Ibe eastern Pyreii> 

Uaee m the ^lanish oalion, it itees, aud occupying the forlreisei 

■^ bave been excused, nay com- of Barcelona and Montjuich. This 

■nded ; bal tbe trick was quick- corps of Ney's may be computed at 

^ dbcovered. And those false tea thousand men. Adding to tliesc 

ttiaeots, by misieaduig tbeir own twenty-thousand Frencb in Portu- 

Pttfali,aiwa«ftflerwatds«adlyes- gal under Junol, and fifteen thou- 
- [O 3] saud 

^*fc W alter HalrMi, in Us HMery of tba World, iiys, that ttarns migtil liira 
•wfiWd tlie invadinf Oreeks, In Undaring then (nat ta ipaak t€ fbod) avcn 
^ ttUii tbe icfrcsbaMt Of riwp. 

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198 ANNUAL HEGISTER, 1808. 

mid anxiliaries, Hanovcriain, Swiss, Leon, and certain uns»lxlu«(1, or 

an<1 Spaniards, we liave an aspre- a> tlity were called by the French, 

gate of ooe hundred and twenty refractory districts of Biscay. Ge- 

lliousand men. neral Castaoos was commatiHer in 

Ofthese 120.000 men, 50,000 clitef ofthe four klMoros of Ai>> 

were either stationed in Madrid, or daluiria, with the protinces of Or^ 

eocamped in tlie vicinityi nnder the nada and Valenlia, which had oait- 

orders of Murat and marshal Mon* ed themselves with Andalusia. Ad- 

c^. From tliis great body at or miral Cisneros wai captain general 

near tlie capital, delacliinents were of Murcia ; Don Joseph Pelafos 

sent (o take posseseion of Cadie of Arragon, and count Espdlata, 

and of Vflleiitia. One of these de- as already isenlioned, of Catalonia. 

tachmentt proceeded towards its The garrisons of St. Roch and 

destination under the orders of Caula, joined their brethren in 

tbe general of riiyiiion Diiponl : arms, under the general commud 

Ibe other marched to Valenf i^i, un- of Castanos ; those of Majorca and 

der manbal Honcey himself. Mar- Minorca, Ibe palriotsofCalalonti. 

ehal Bestieres, wbow principal It is possible, by entering into 

farce was posted at Vitloria and Ibe plans of commanders, and trat- 

Pampeluna, for guarding tlie two ing the means by which Ihey were 

roads to Madrid, and securing the either frustrated or accomplish«d, to 

communication lietweeu that capi- gireeveninsucha briefnarralive as 

tal and Bayonne, had it in cliarge ours a general, thtrogh by no means 

to push delacbmente to the right a circumstantial or detailed ac 

and left, for bridling as great an countofinililary operatlonsio otdi> 

extent of country as possible. nary campaigns: but not to relate 

The reduction of the city of Va< all the enterprises and skirmishes of 

lentia, would be an im|Kirtanl step the various parties tiiat appeared in 

towaNslfaat of the whole province, arms against tbe Frrncb in tbe dif- 

and also open a way for conibitting ferent provinces of Spain in I SOS, 

tbe operations of marshal Moncey uniler the orders of tlie diferent 

and general Dubesme in Catalonia, joalas; which indeed would lali 

Tinl of Cadiz, besides ttie im- under the denoiuinatidn- ratlier of 

porlanoe of its bnrbuur, ships, and provincial than of national history, 

naval arsenal, would terminate a mi- Therefore we sliall confine ourselves 

lilary liite of potts from Buyonne to a sketch of tlie princi|)al acliona 

by Viltoria, Biir^s, Madrid, Cor- and events; those that were M- 

dova. and Seville, that should com- lowed by the niosi Important r»- 

pletely divide tbe Peninsula from snils, or by which the issue of tbe 

north to south, and cut off all go- contest was most materially aSe«t- 

deration between the eastern and ed. The licroism and patriotic ar- 

webtem divisions. dour, that u-ere displayed by so 

Marshal Bessieres, ubo com- mquy individuals and siniitl pattin, 

maoded the norttiern army of the in a kind of mountamous and de- 

Freoeh, was opposed by general sultary warfare, in different pro- 

Cuesta, who was at the head of the vtnces, <leserve, in<leed, to be re- 

forcM of the foar western provinces corded ; nor, witatever n»y be the 

«f Gallkia. Asturius, Estramadura, final result of tbe prascnt coafiiM, 

wiU 

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HISTORY OF EtjROPE. 199 

■il provincial historians be want- 'cut off bis supplies, by coming 

ing to Iransinit to posterit^f iheir between bim and another div>- 

gfsnHH efforts. sion of Puponfs army, posted 

The aniiy under Dupont, when under the immediate orders of 

k left Madrid, towards the close general Wedet, General DdJmd^ 

ofHsj.amouuted to 15,000 men; iu this straitened and perilous 

but in its progress, it was gradu- situation, dispatched messenger af<- 

■H; dimicisiwd bv sickness, by de< ter messenger to Madrid, calling 

Ritiaa, and by the necessity of loudly for reinforcements. A diVj- 

mding out ^om time to thne, sion of 8000 mett.wassentunder the 

pvties for bringing in fonge and orders of general Belliard, fa* 

pnraions, the greater part of mous for his exploits in Upper 

vfaich were destroyed or taken by Egypt, by tbe Siemt Morena.— 

(■nies of armed peasanttj. Har- And Dupont, io order to facill* 

hg crossed the raountainsof More- tate a junction with the expected 

M, *hiie the insurrection was yet reinforcements, quitted his positioa 

•itbout any thing of consistency at Andujar, andfeUback onBajlen. 

w fbnn, he descended iuto t)ie But Cantanos posted divisiuus and 

plaiDs of Andalusia, and on llie detachments of his army in so ju- 

71k of June advanced to Cordova, dieious a manner as not only to 

of wbich he took possession, with- cut <^ all communication betweea 

oat nuch opposition front tbe the corps under general Wedeland 

Ctv^anish troops quartered there, general Dupont, but ^ also between 

jwi by a number of peasants, this last corps, which was the most 

forlfaree days, the city of Cor- numerous, and Madrid. 

im, was given up to pillage. The deplorable situation to 

TV churches, after being swept which Duponl was reduced, is 

of Ibeir sacred vessels - and orna- thus described in an intercepted 

iwits, were convefied bto stables, letter from him to general Belliard. 

On the 13th, parties of French — "We have not a moment to lose 

•ere advanced beyond Cordova, for quitting a position in which 

On the l6tb, the French com- we cannot subsbt. Hie soldier 

mdcr bring informed that ge- being udder arms the whole day, 

MnlCastauos was marching against cannot now, as heretofore, reap 

tin, at the bead of 3l,b00 regular tlie com and make bread : for all 

Iroops, ialantry, 25,000 cavalry, the peasants have abandoned 

nd a numerous artillery, besides both tlieir halnlels and their har- 

> great number of insurgents who vests. For heaven's sake, send us 

, ^noleered their service, retreated prompt reinforcements; in one 

frDia Cordova to Andiyar; where word, a body of troops forming 

Ik took np a strong position with one compacted mass, of which the 

ik Guidalquenr in front, and' component parts shall be as near to 

akfed to the natural strength of each other as ever it is possible. 

ih place, deep entrenchments. If we suffer the enemy to keep 

Oeneral Culanos being unwilling the Geld, all llie southern pro- 

<« waste an; part, of his force vinces aud tbe other troops of the 

bj ittackiog the enemy io bis line will hasten to take part with 

otttodied camp, delermtned to the rebels. A decisive blow in 
[0 4] Andalusia, 

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200 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

Andaluina, nould contribute preaUy ed prtxligiously. But tbe Spamad* 
to the stibjufcatioa of sll Spain. maintaiiKft their prouDtl, aud sup- 
Sead me.witboiit u moment's delay, ported by Ibeirarliilery.attacked and 
mediciiKsandlineiiforDiewoiiDded;. drove ifae French before tbem at 
for the eoeniy has iutirrcepled for alt ftoiot;. Yet Ibe French kept 
tlie space i>f a monlli, all oar am- up tbe conflict, constantly renew- 
munition waggons, and the (irovi-' uig their assaults without any other 
■torn sent for us from Toledo." interruption than what was unavoid- 
A detachment of 500 men sent out ably occasioned by momentary rc^ 
from the French caiitp at Andigar, treats, for the formation of fresh 
to seek and meet Belliard was columns, tili half an hour past mid- 
CUt off to a man by tbe smug- day. At different times they broke 
glera of the niouqtains, who had through the lines of deteace, wilb 
formed themselves into a body, the boldness peculiar to troops ac- 
4000 strong, and «wom to grant no customed to conquer, and some- 
quarter. The same body, and times advanced even to the Sp«- 
other parties of Spaniards, haras- nish batteries. The last Attack 
>ed the delachmeut of Belliard, in was led on by Diipoid himself, 
the defiles of Morena, night and who with the other Renerals placed 
day. Instead of forming a junc- himself at the head of Ibe columns, 
tion with Dupont, he was seen to underthefireoftbeSpaiiishnrtillery, 
return to Madrid with half the which, on thatday, was admirablv 
numbers with which be bad set well served, ns was admitted by tb^ 
out. It has come to be a maxim Freocb, who owned that Ibey had 
and practice, ttial when a genera) forty pieces of cannon dismounted, 
is hemmed in into any desperate . At two o'clock P. U. tbe advan- 
situation, his only chance of ex- ced guard of the diviHon under ge- 
ttication is, to m^e a bold attack oeral Pena arrived at the scene 
on the eueiny.— On the 201h of of action, ami began to play ou 
July, about three o'clock in the the enemy with bis artillery ; when 
morning, the army under Dupont a flag of truce appeared, desiriaf 
attacked theSpiiniards. There was to treat for a capitulation. An ar- 
8 division of gOOO strong,, under mislice ensued of course. But dar- 
Ihe commiHid of lieiUenaut general Jng this, the division under tbe 
Reding, a Swiss. Tliete was aoo- command of general Pena, was at- 
ther division of. the Spanish army tacked by the Fr^ch division, SOOO 
of 5000, uniler general de Cou- strong, under general Wedcl, who 
pigny; a ihird nnder geiwnl de came up, while Dupout was en- 
Pena, of iiOOO : and a fourth under gaged with the generals Reding and 
genera) Jones, of 5000; in all, Coupigny, from Carolina. The 
25,000 : of these 35,000 the ha If was battalion of Condova was larpriced 
peasants. The force of Dupont did and taken, with two field piecw. 
.not exceed SUOO. The bruot of the The number of tbe French killed 
battle fell on the divisions of the and woundedintbebattle of Baylen, 
genrnils Reding and Coupigny. apiountcd,Kwasconiputed, to3O0O; 
'Fhe fint shpck of the French thatof the Spaniards, to 1200. The 
was to fiirious, Diat the foremost negociation between Dupont and 
eonipaniet of tht Spaniards, sufier- the Spanish commandct-in-cbief, 

gctwial 

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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 9J0 

CONrat CmKimm, did not lanl Iodk. oUier band, he bad to nuinttin m 

Pqwnt ms lotil at once that he conflict with general Caro, who 

■adforrenderatdbcretioB: which had followed the French close at 

k agreed to. General Wedel's 'tlivir heels, for the defence of Va- 

ilitiKKi was couipteheiide<l in the lenlla. An impetuoiu charge wilh 

ci(MtiilatioD as well as that of Du- the bt^onet, made such haroc 

paal, forming together a body of among the ranks of the French, tliat 

' 11,000. It was agreed that general tliej retired, at about eight hours 

Vedel's dnrisiou should b« sent at even to tlieir camp between 

kwe by sea, to Rochfort. Quarte and Mislata, which waa 

ftUisJiall Moncey was not more forti6ed t^ strong eutrencbmenla 

necosful in Votentta, than general and formidable batteries. From 

Dapnnt in Aodaluiia, though be thence be continued hU retreat on 

ociped capture, and made good Madrid, harassed for some days 

hb retreat, lho)igli with a bea«^ by general Caro, as he had been 

loM b kilted, wounded, and pn- on his nwrch through the plain of 

Mnen. to Madrid. The kingdom Valenlia. Of 15,000 men, infantry, 

of Valentia is well fortified by na- cavalry, and arliUeiy, that marcbed 

tare by means of the riven Gabriel ^'^h Moncey from Madrid, 10.000 

nd Xoccar, and by a chain of relumed, and 150 waggons carry- 

iteep and rugged mountains. The ing the wounded. Fifteen hundred 

pHK* through these were guarded were made prisiHieis, and tent to 

ay some Iro<^ of Ibe line, and a Cartbagena. 
raasiderable body of Valeniian The campaign of Arragon wm 

iawgeola. These guards were at- still more glorious to the Spaniab 

txied b; Moncey, on Ibe 21st patriots, than those of Andalusia 

(f June, and routed. — HaTiog and Valentia. Arragon, sitnaled 

rra wed the monnlain*, he marched between Madrid and the firootiet 

tta^t on Valentia. of France, was obliged (o fight 

On the 26\h, he was attacked at with one reinforcement of frMt 

BoDohM by general Caro, a nephew troops after another. In every en- 

rf the illustrious genera) Romanas, gageoient before the walls of Sara- 

vd infiered pretty severely, in both gosia, P^afox was victorious. ThC' 

aralrraod inlantry. He was at- inhabitants of Saragoasa equalled— 

ticked agan by general Caro, be- it vras not possible to exceed the 

twecn Quule and Mistata. when patriotic beroismof tbeNumantians' 

ke abo ■ostiiiied comideiable lota, and Saguntines. Every mode of 

Ncfertbden, though thus haras- deficnce and attack that human 

■of, he cpntmued his march, and itnagioafioo could devise, waa 

m Ike Zfttfa, opened a heavy fire adopted, and whatever human cou- 

ea Vafentia, of both artillery and rage could dare, was performed. 
■Mqnelry, which was continued Saragoasa, tbe capital of the 

wilhoat ceasing froa nid^lay to kingdom of Arragon, is situate on 

the eranv. Tbe ValenUau re- tbe right bank oflhe Ehro, with a 

lined Ina fire with aome pieces of suburb on the left bank, connected 

MiUcfy pbtttcd at tbe galea of tb« with it by a stone bridge. Though 

%, ud by ahowera of inuAelry, the mountains that £>UDd Ibe val- 

tim Ifaa tops of houstt. Ob tba ley ^ tbe Ebro are distant, yet 

Sam- 



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909 ANNUAL REGISTER, I80S. 

SiragoBn is coromaDded b<r somt «Aer bis arrest at Aranjaez. — 

biflfa ground, called the Torrern, Though he bad beeo in tbe Spa- 

aboul a mile to tbe soulh-west. niib giMids aH bis life, be had 

Tbe walls of Saragossa af^Mar never seen adua) service. Hb 

to have been constructed merelji lo lime had been principally passed in 

facilitate the> means of levying the the dissipation of Madrid, where be 

laaes on- every article brought into was uot a bllle disliugiiislied by 

Ibe town for sale. The gates, the splendour and fiubioo of bis 

whicti are nine in number, are of appearance. 

the most simple const rue lion, and At the cooimencemcnt of his 

the bne between tbeni, b in sotiie command, the ne^bbouring pro- 

litaces preserved by the mud wall vinces of Navarre and Catalonia 

of a garden; in olhera, by build- were in possesion of the French, 

ings, or by the remaias of aiV oM The passes of the Pyrenees leading 

Moorish wall, which has a slight directly into Ar.'aijan, were open, 

pan^et, but without any pbilform and Murat, with the main body of 

tven for niusqiielry. 'Hie bouses the French forces, were stationed at 

are Ibree stories in height : tlie Madrid. Thus surrounded by hb 

Gireels very irarrow and crooked, enemy, general Palatbx mustered 

excepting one or two market-places, the regular troops quartered at Saia- 

and the street called the Corso, si- gossa, amounting to 220 men; and 

tuate nea/ly in (he centre of the he found IhepuMic Ireasun of the 

town, Tlie population b estimated province cmrid not Ainiib bim with 

at about b'0,000 spnfs. more than 3,OO0 reals, a sum in 

On the 25th of May, tlie inha- English money, equal to twenty 

bitanls of Ibis defenceless city, and pounds sixteen shillings and eight- 

the peasantry of the surrounding pence. Animated however by Ibe 

country, rose to repel the aggres- patriotbm and the confidence re- 

sions of the Frvncb, and to frus- posed in him by fais countrymen. 

Irate the design of changing the he did not despair of the cause of 

dynasty on the Spanish throne, an- bis country. On the 3lst of May, 

nounced in the manifesto of Murat, fae published a prodamalion, en- 

Alay SOIh. Thp captain-general couragitig tbe Arragonese in tbeir 

of Amgon, Ouilliamah, had be- noble ardour, and declaring 

■rayed an incUnalion to submit to war against France. " Providence 

the enemy. He was, on this ac- has preserved in Arragon a great 

count, seized, and thrown into pri- quantjty of muskets, ammunition, 

son, and the goreniment unajri- and artillery. The nnmertted ho- 

mously conferred on Don Joseph nnur you have conferred on me, 

Palafox, the youiige&t of three bro- constrains me to draw aside the 

thersofoneoflhemoatdistingnisiied veil that covers the most Hetest- 

families in Arragon. Tbb noble- able villany. My Me, which can 

man, at the commencement of the have no value in my sight but in 

revolution, bad been selected from as far as it may be sutocrvient 16 

the officers of the guards, to be sc- your happiness and the prosperity 

coiid in command lo the marquis of my dear country — my Hfe U 

de Castelkir, to whose custody the the least sacrifice 1 can make in 

Prince of the Peace was coniGaed return tor those proofs of confi- 

dcace 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. SOJ 

dtoce and attachment wilh which of his brolli«r, aiid hn imcle. By 

Tou have tmaoured me. Be a*- the ipcoimI it waa declared thnt io 

■red, Amgoniani, doubt it not, case of any vinknce falling on lho»e - 

Ihil nTV hevrt n not made for har- precious heads, the nation would 

bauring a tJiougfit of crinm, nor as- CKCTciw ita ri»h| of e)«clioii in fn- 

sectatin^ with those who commit votir of th« Arehduke Charlei, m 

or protect llietu *. Some of those Ihe nrphcw of Charles HI. in caae 

persons in whom the S|Mnisli na- of tlie prince of Sicily, the infant 

lion pteced confidence, some in Doit Pedro, and other heirs, should 

«hofe haods are placed the jiowers be precluded by any circumstancef 

«f frovemfnenl, are amon^ the of sttuaHon from itic MiccessioR. 

fcmooH to labour for your ruin. This claose wai disapproved bj 

bj aH tite meam that ba«eiiess can most of the other juntas, and par* 

n^pfi, and Io form Iraiteroas ticularly the junta of Seville, h 

connections with the enemy of Ihefr was deemed more e]i|>edieut. tliat 

coantry. I will irot, howcTer, di- tbe Spanish nnlion eliould avoid 

nige Ibeir names. Perhaps some for the jn-eseiit, all anticipaliom 

of Ihe chiefs to whom I allude, of contingent cases, as above ob-' 

sow thai they are acquainted with 9er\-ed, and con&i^ iltelf to me*- 

your f\\td drternii nation, that of nifes indtspensHbty necessary, in the 

your neishfoours Ihe Vuleniians,' present juncture. 

Htd of all tlie provinces of Spain, Early in (Ik month of Jme, and 

have cbanf^d their mind, embraced before any force could b« org»^ 

the cause of justice, and used niied for llic defence of Arrafon, 

then endeavours for sh.ikin^ off a delate limenl of French of 8,000 

tbt yoke which they wished to infantry, and 90O cavalry, undef 

impose on you, by means (lie most the oriiers of the general of divi- 

hue and in fa m Otis. Pcarnot, Ar- sion Le Fevre, bem< to march from 

r^uians ! the troops of the enemy Pamj>eluna, against Sarragossa. 

aow in ^nui, cannot witlistand Afler a succession of skirmish** 

(xir efforts. Let us defend the with the Artagonese, at Tudelai 

BMMl just of causes aud wc shall Mallen Oaul, and Alagon, the 

be invincible.'' French ailvaneed, June 14, wNhm 

TV declaration of war with a very short distance of Saragosia, 

chicli Ihe proctan lilt inn roncluded, where they took up a poailioa in 

was reduced to etglit articles. The the valley on (b« opposite side of 

first made the emperor of the Ihe town, to Ihat st<le wliicli was 

French, all the iiidiriduitts of liis situate on Ihe Ebm. This posi- 

^■nily, and aft his generals and tion was covered by risin|; grotwd 

<4iicers, peraonally responsible for planted with olive trees. Having 

the safely of the king and that occupied this post, they deferred 

Ibeir 

* PAItit *M among Ibc nambcr dT ilioie nohlemro wtra accmipuiied Fetdi- 
ant VII. to Ba^nne. The purity of li In iiunil u undoubted, uid his tense aiid 
pNttntioii as Duqiieilionali'e. He may liuve ri'ii3iil<'>eil it perliaui as u )ioint of 

BODaar not to aliaiiJi^n Fcrilrnaitd, cvpu wlwn lie wa.' dclemiiiieil to tunIi latv tlw 
my Uuiiat o(-il,inier. Up liail rri;<-i)tlj rsiai;fii fioni Bajouoe, in ibe dittuiM 
*'ipnM)ll, tubiscoimlr}' slaI ikU Sara^osta. 



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KM, ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

their leeneral attack on tbe city till of defence, in case of the reduction 

the tuorrow: but a sraall detach- of the capital. He tound from 

, ment of cavalry that penelraled twelve to fonrlern faimdred a->l- 

into the town on the 14th of June, d>en who liad escaped from Ha- 

pdid dearly tor Hieir ra^Lness, dri<l, anil he unilt^ with tlteni a 

TbeAiratjoueie had liastilyplanled sniall division of militia stationed 

>Qine caniinii before the sates ttf in Calatayud. Wilb this force, io 

- theircit\,Biidal9oinu)niefavoHTafole compliance with ibe earnest desire 

pnsilioiu wilhoul the lowii, parlicu- of his inldien, he delcnnined to 

lutly ou a rising e'^nuud railed (he airack the French. He marched 

Torrero, and nn the heisfat near it. iinnie<lialely to Epiln, with the in- 

Oii the 15th of June, the French teutiou to have advanced from 

sent a detachment agaiust the out- thence to the Tillage of La Muela: 

postj on liie canal of Arragon, bv which (iianoeuvre, he hoped to 

while their main body allemjrted to place the French between his little 

stonn the city by the gate called arttiy and the cit; of Saragossa. 

Portdlo. The Arraconese attacked This altempt, however, was frus- 

almost at the moment, both in trated by a, sudden attack ou the 

out-posts and at the Kates of their pari of the enemy hi Ihe night at 

town, fought without order, tAit Epib, wlien the Spaniards, after an 

with extreme fury. . They did not obstinate but fruitless resistance, 

stop to load tbeJr muaketi a second were at length coni)>ell(;d to yield 

time, but at if regardless of their, to superior numbers and discrjuioe. 

Ii?es, rushed on the French co- The wrecksoflhissmallforccretired 

InimiH as they advanced, with the fromthesreneofactiontoCalatayud, 

bayonet and other hand weapons, and afterwards with great difficulty 

Ineir artillery was served by uhy threw themselves into Saragossa. 
persons who chanced to be near it. Meanwhile the French received 

Every one alternately commanded reinforcements of troops and ar- 

afid obeyed. But all were Uniraated tillery from Pampeluna, and he- 

In the same spirit, and their efforts, gan to occnpv the several militan 

aiter a most severe cuuflici, were posilious in the plain covered with 

finally crowned with success. A ohve trees that surrounds Sanigossa. 
party of the enemy that entered the They were not allowed to earn 

town, were iustantly put to death, on ttwse operations unmolesteo. 

and Le Fevre, coi'vinced tNbt it In a short time, however, the French 

would be in vain tn persevere in had invested nearly one half of 

his attack, withdrew hit troops to the town, and on the 28th of 

• position out of the reach of the June they took possession of the 

, Artagfliieze cannon. During this Torrero. Tbebatteryon the neigh- 
retreat, tlie Arra«otieae took 400 bouring height also, which ^d 
mvalry and 37 baggnge waKgmi!*. been entrusted to an artillery officer. 
As soon a.'' (he French were thus and £00 men, fell mto their hands, 
repulsed, general Psiafox set out Tbe otBcer was declared a traitor 
from SaragOssa, lu order to collect to bis country, for not having de> 
Teinforccitieuls anH pronde' resour- fended this important post as he 
cei lor a siege, and ubo to place ought to have done, and on his 
lb* rest «f th« kiucdom in a state letum into Saiagosta, wu iamie- 
■ ■ ' diately 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 205 

a^ttiy bxoftd. AAer the turreo- added two hnndmt of the militis 

<lcr of tbc Tomro tbc ciiy could of LoKrono, who, rouied by the 

Bot CMDmiioirate with Ibe country pr^jf nee of aa enemy, muh learii- 

OB ui; ollwr side than tint of Ibe ed the ordinary duties of the corps 

Chrik to whirh thev belonged. Two pieces 

Durine theie operations of the -of raunnu were procured froid Le- 

totmy \iie K:iifopeae wrre busily rida. Tbe enemy drew his i«- 

empl'iyr^i in pbcirtjt tlicir town in sources from Pampeluna, while the 

be be:tl possible otate of defence Arragoneie, now completely siir- 

tbal 'Orir lender tesourcr* would roundedi had not one tin)tle for- 

admit of Thry lore liowii die tress to which they could have re- 

■uiiuv's from Iheir wind vi, and cour^, either for ammunition or 

femied tliem Into sarks. nhich they for cannon. About the last day of 

filed with sand, and piled up be- June, a powder magazine iu the 

fcre e*ery (.-ale, in tlie form of a heart of tlie nly blew up, and in 

hitler%, <iiti:i»ig round e^ch of a nionicnt nearly a whole street was 

them a deep trench. Tlity broke reduced to a heap of ruins. The 

holes in Hie mud-i^alls, and inter- in hall it ants had scarcely recovered 

nednle buddings, for niusqueiry, friim their consternation at tbit 

and here and there, wbere the po- dreadtiil loss when tbe Frencbr who 

litioa was coniroapding, placed had received mortars, howitzers, 

cuiDOD. The houses in the enri- . and cannon, <^ened a destructive 

rom of the city were pulled down fire upon the city. The sand bag 

K burnt. Gardens and olive battery before the gate called Por- 

graunds were cheerfully rooted up UUo, against whicii the attack of 

by tbe proprietors themselves, tlie enemy was principally directed, 

uhenver they impeded the defence was gallantly defended. It was se- 

of the city, or coveted the ap- veral times destroyed, and as often 

proacfa of the enemy. The exer- reconstructed under the fire of the 

tion* of tbe men were animated by enemy. Here an act of heroism 

»omen of every descriptiop, who was performed by a female, to 

fanned I bemsclves into parlies for which there is scaitely any thing 

tbe relief of the wounded ; and for equal in history. Augu^na Sara- 

cairyipg water and provisions to gossa, about twenty-two years of 

the batteries of ihe gates, while age, a handsome young woman, 

their children were employed in of the lower class of the people, 

nwteving cartridges made by the whilst performing ber duty of car- 

nonks. Scarcely a day pasted rying refreshmeiii to the gates, ar- 

wilbout a sangumary contest be- rived at tbe battery of the Portillo, 

toeeu detachments of the French at tbe very moment when the fire 

sod Amgooeae, in the neighbour- of tbe French Ind absolutely de- 

■g olive woods. In tbe last two stroyed ^very person that was ata- 

diys of the month of June, four tionedon'it. The citizens and sot- 

butdred soldiers of the regiment dieri, for the moment, Jieutated to 

rfEstnmiaduta, small parties £rom re-man the guns. Augustina, rush* 

"ilher corps, and a few artillery- in'g forward over the wounded and 

BitD, contrived to reinforce Sara- skin, tnatphed a lualch from the 

traa. To the artillerymen Were band of a dead aitHleryman, and 

fired 

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SOS ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808.- 

ftred off a efi poawler. Tbra, gnnpowder at SarajfcMta, yieliliDg 

JRinping upon (be gnn, she made a 13 arnibas at Caslille, M 325 lbs. 

K^BiR vow never to quit it aliie per tttj, 

during the aic^e, aiid her fellow- Tuwarrfs the end of My, tbe 

dliaens, slimutaleil by tins daring large populalion of Saragossa was 

act of inlrepidily to fresli enertioDs, but KHRtil]f stipplied wtlli food, and 

imaDtly nulled iirio the batlery, bad but little or ao hope of suo 

and again opened a tremendous cour. Ry (be nnreraitted eser- 

fire on Ibe enemy*. Attack was tioru of forty-six days, Ihetr spt- 

- Bade after attack : Suragossa was rits were exbausted, and their io- 

tnoT/i and more closely invested, dily strength impaired. A despe- 

Above the cfty the Ebro was ford- rate effort was made to recover tbe 

able, and below it the French, in important post of the Torrero, (■ 

•prte of llie eferts of the Arrago- vain : after wtikb, the Arragonese, 

nese, l)ad constructed a bridge, despairing of being able to make 

Having by these means transported any sortie with eflecl, lesolved to 

Iheir cavalry to the opposite bank conquer or to perish witliin tbe 

of Iber river, they destroyed tbe walls of their city. Duruif a 

mills which supplied llie town with bombardment on the 3tl aud 3d of 

flonr, levied contributions in the August, a foiindling hospital, Mhich 

different villages, and Ihwi cot off contained the sick and woumJed, 

the only coininuiiJcation by which who from time to lime had becD 

the besieged could receive any Slip- conveyed there during the siege, 

|)liea either of provisions or animu- unfortunately caught fire, and was 

iiilion. In this critical oitiiation, rapidly consumed. All attention 

tbe active and tntelligeni caplam ge- to private properly was instantly 

sera) of Arragon, established in abandoned. Every body was seen 

Tsrious parts of the city com miHs hastening to the relief of tbe sick 

worked by horses, awl ordered the aiid. helpless children: in which 

monks to be employed, under AH- act of. humanity nofie wer« more 

M directors, m maniifaclurit^ guo- consjNCUOus than Ibe women, who 

powder. All the sulphur the place persisted in their humane excrtioR!, 

afforded was put into iipmediate re- equally undaunted by the shot and 

quisilion. The earth of the streets shells uf the enemy, and the. flames 

waa carefully washrd, in order to of the building before (hem. Ob 

furnish saltpetre; and charcoal was the4thof Aug. the French opened a 

made of tbe stalks of hemp, which tremendous baltery on the quarlerof 

in that part of Spain grows to a very the city called Santa Engracia. I* 

umisual aise. On tiiis simple foun- an instant the mudwalts opposite to 

dation there was formed, after- their batteries vanished ; and tbe 

wards, a tegular manpfodory of splendid convent of Santa Engra- 
cia 

* Mr. Va^tlian, feflow of AU-Sovb College, OxfanI, and one of Dr. RatdAiV 
travelling fellows I'roni that aniveniity, wboae exceltcnt narrative hat brea ear 

" ' "' " ■■ " IMS, relates, tliat when he «" 

r embroidered on flie (leer* 
3 receiving a pension fton tin 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. SOT 

dl wu OQ fire and tottering in venting mortal conta°;ioa that o*- 

tuH. ITie French columns immc- curred to general Palafox was, ta 

<lia[cly nuhed Ihrough thU (ui- pusli forward French priMiierw 

Inoee into tiie city, took tlie bat- MJtli a rope allaclied to tlwm, 

Itnn before t)te adjacent gAtes in amidst the di^sd und dying, to re- 

KftTK, and after a most »angui- move Ihe bodies of llieir countn- 

my amflict, penetraling to Ihe nien, iipd bring them far buri«l : 

i&tel Cono, nearly in tbe centre of an oiHce in I lie .exec ul ion of whtcl^ 

(be town, were in possession before ai it was LteneGcial to botb parties 

tbediy closed of one half of Sara- they were, nut in general annoyed, 

psn. The Frendi general tlien Something loo is, no doubt, to be 

dnaudcd a rapitulalioii in Ihe set down to the account of the symr 

fbliowinenote. — QaarttlGaund — palby of Ihe Frencb. with their to> 

Snlm Emgmeu. fortunate counlrjincn. By . tbU 

Im CqH.'K/afiM. The answer means the evils arising from the 

inudialcly returned, 1Tas^ — horrible corruption of such massca 

Qimiel General— Zaragoia. of dead bodies, were in sume dfr- 

Gturra ol CueMUIo. gree diminblied. 

PAi,AFOX*. Tbe principal season for ^tlack 

One side of the street Corso, was in llib sinsular species of warfare. 

BOW occupied by die French, in from Ihe op)insite sides of the same 

Ibc Motre of which general Verdier street, of only a moderate breadth, 

w«i seen giving bis orders from Ihe was Ibe niglil. The French and 

FnaciKau convent. The Arra- llie Arragonese. under tlie cover «f 

gontse mamlaiiied their positions darkness, frequently dashed agaJnit 

on the opposite side, throwing up each olheis batteries across the 

batleriet at tbe openinga of Ihe street. The struggle begun at llw 

Mtttts within a few paces of similar batteries, was often carried into the 

baUnies of Uie French. The in- houses beyond them, 

tcrreaing space was soou heajied On Ihe £th of August, when iha 

■p with dead, either thrown from French were expected to renew 

the windows of Ihe houses in wliich their efibrts to obtain complete 

they bad been slain, or killed in possession of the city, the Arrag<>> 

the conflicls below. From this nese found their auiinuiiitioQ be- 

cMrawusacctimnlationoftbedead, ginning to fail. The only cnr 

tbere was tbe utmost re.on to ap- iliat assailed the ears of tlie galbiiit 

prebend a pestilence. To an Ar- general, as he roile amongst the 

nciDocse tt was almost certain people was, that if unimunition 

<l^ii to appear in the mkldle of failed, they were ready to attack 

Uk Ateei. The espedieni for pre- tbe enemy wilb <Hily Ihetr kiuvea. 



" TnsN'LiiTioa. 

Head Quarttn, .Srata EngnA. 

■ The CspilnUtiOD. 
Hfod QNsriert, Sivagtfn. 

Wir lo tbe Knifr. 
iMritaesMbat tbekaircin ilieliandi of tkc Spaniards ii ■ verr (brnddsblc w«a 
PM- Tbi HuHtar, wiili tlteir ilutrt cat and ilinut swords, coaqncred ibe world. 



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SOB ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

Al this awful crisis, jiut before the they Ind fre.:|uentiy seen thii youiif , 
ftll of DJght, a convoy of provi-- tielicale, anH beautiful wodud 
noos and amniiinition, with a re- coollf Bttending to the dutte* ihe 
inforcementofaOOO men, composed fapH (iretcribed- to hpraelf, in tbe 
of Spanish f;uards, Swiss, and vo- mi'lirt of the most tremeiidous fire 
lunteen of Arragon, unexpectedly of shot and shells; nor were ihey 
made their entrance into the cily, able to perceive from the first ma- 
under the command of Don Fran- m«nt that she entered oi) this glo- 
cisco Palafox tbe brother of thr rious course, that the idea of per- 
caplain general. sonal danger could produce upon 
.A council of war held, Au- her the ilijEhest e^cl, or bend her 
gust 8th, cametolbe followingever from her l»ene*olent and patriotic 
memorable resolutions : " That purpose. -The loss of women and 
Ihow quarters of tbe dty hi which boys during Ihe siege was very 
the ArragoMse yet maintained great, and fully proportionate to 
them, should conltnue lo be de- that of the men. In tact, they 
fended with the same firmness that were always (be most forward : and 
had billierto been so cani|HcuDus, the difficulty was to teach them a 
— Should the enemy at last pre- prudent and proper sense of their 
vail, the people were to retire by ' danger. 

the bridge over the Ehro, into Ihe During the night of the ISth of 

subnrbs, and having destroyed the August, the fire of the French was 

, bridge, to defend tbe suburbs till particularly destructive ; and when . 

tbey PBRiSHBD." This resolution their batteries ceased, flames were 

of the general, and bis officers, was seen to burst out in many parts ot 

received by the people with the the buildings in their possesnoa. 

loudest acelamalioiif. Tbe most . On tbe morning of.thp 14lh, to the 

sanguinary conflict bad been con- great surprize of the Arragonese, 

tbiued from street to street, from their columns were seen at a dii- 

bouse to house, and from room to tance retreating over the plain on 

room, for eleven days : when (tbe the road to Pampeluna. The re- 

enrajged populace always gaining treating French were followed into 

ground by degrees on the disciplin- Navarre by general Palafox, with a 

ed troops of the French) the space force competed of Arragonese and 

occupied by the French was re- Valenliuis, who had begun their 

auced lo about one-eighth part of march for the relief of Saragosa, 

Ihe city. ,wben tbe uege was raised. 

The spirit displayed by the men, ' Mr. Vaughan, who was several , 
was seconded in tbe most admir- weeks in Saragossa, where he was 
able manner by the-women of Sa- introduced to Don Joseph Palafox, 
lagossa. The countess Burita, a and lived at bis tuble, and who 
lady of great rank iuthat country, took great pains to enquire into 
formed a corps of women for the every particular, tells us, in con- 
relief of tbe wounded, and for tlie elusion of liis narrative, that though 
purpose of carrying provisions and be had seen in Sarago^sa many a 
wine lo tbe soldiers. Many per- parent who had lost bis children, 
tons of the most imquestionable ve- aud many a man reduced from 
racitv in Saragotsa, declated, tliat competency to poverty, be literally 
. ' ■ did 

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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



SO? 



£il Mt nieel with one li am an be- 
to^ who uttered ttie slightest com- 
puil: everj feeling seeming to be 
mlloired op m tbe Oiemory of 
whilthey bad recently done, and 
ill > just hatred of the French. 

Tlie spirit of palriolisni was also 
disphjed, with great glor?, and not 
iho^ber without success, in Ibe 
MigtiboDring province 4f Catdlo- 
DO. Duhestne, the Frencb gover- 
DOT of Catalonia, had been direct- 
si to reduce Gerona, at Ibe same 
(■fe that Lefebre was sent Hgainst 
Smgossa. There is one important 
•bxrnlion that strikes us on a re- 
new of tbe whole of the present ' 
unlest in Spain,, that when Itie 
Sfwiianls act iu compacted and 
boaxtgeneods, though small bodies, 
*lMn there is one definite object 
pfffrcUy known to till, when they 
m actuated by one mind, and 
h<e confidence in each other, Ihey 
■RorupJish great and arduous uii- 
^ikiiigs. It is among a great 
■wbtr of troops belonging to dif- 
fcwnt provioces, in some measure 
^n^neous, and ^read into ex- 
Imiie lines of operation, without 
udentandiog Ibe general or ulli- 
Btie object of Ibe commander in 
ei«r, that we find the most ftlal 
ad iheiDMt frequent failures. Ac- 
mdiofly, it is m Die defence of 
l**ni that the couraige and mili- 
l«ij (enius of the ^triots have 
bbeno shone forth with the great- 
nl splendour, Gerona, in the 
'apaign of 1S08, gave an earnest 
<f that valour and patrioti5tn> 
■Uch wa» found afterwards to e- 
<fai those of Saragossa. Duhestne, 
>fler qjending upwards of a fort- 
Hgbt in the siege of Gerona, into 
*lKh he threw in orK night four 
bndied bombs and grenades, was 
(wad, by tbe Tieoroot nllie* of 
Voui: 



the Geronese, and the moTement* 
of other Cdtalonians, who threaten- 
ed to attack him in fldok and rear, 
to retreat to Barcelona, leaving be- 
fore Gerona some pieces of artille- 
ry, and a con«i<TeraMe (quantity of 
provisions atid amraunilion. In 
his retreat he sustained a great lost 
both of men aiid baggage: in men, 
according to the Spanish accounts 
of llie day, three thousand. For 
by thi^time ihe standard of liberty 
had been raised in every part of. 
Calalooia ; at Mauresa, Bruek, 
Mattaro, Martorell, Holinos del 
Rey, ai)d other places. A great 
nunibef of uniled Calalnnian pea- 
santry had fortified themselves with 
cannon, which (.hey had ibund on 
the coast, on the river Llobre- 
gale. 

Fresh rcinforcemenli of pea- 
sants, having poured down ftotn 
the mountains into the plains, mado 
themselves masters of Montgat, 
cut off the road between Monleat 
and another small fort at Honcaao, 
which they beset, securing them- 
selves with entrenchments. Ilw 
number of the patriots, in arms, 
still rallying atler defeat, and in- 
creased by the junction of one 
party after another, was on the 
whole rather increased than dimi- 
nished; inaomuch that they mad* 
an attempt to cut off the cornmn- 
uicalions of Figueras, and, by 
farming a cordon, to invest and cut 
off the supplies of Barcelona: 
against which they opened soma 
batteries; but Ibej wen driven 
back, and a communication wai 
preserved between the Frencb gar- 
risons in the fortresses and tbe coun- 
try. Another body of peasantry, 
besides that which baa alreadf 
fortified themselves on the Llobre- 
cat, bad leceuUy formed themsclvcf 
[F] MiiBd 



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210 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



behtod that river : nbicb by Ibe 
nielling of the saowi that bad been 
fbrtume rfayi fftlling in (he moun- 
bins, bad iwelled coitsiderably. 
Tbey bad erected at Molinos del 
Bey, ■ battery of three guus, which 
rallied the bridge that bad been 
broken down in leveral places, Alt 
the fordi of the river were be- 
•et down to the mouth of it. Two 
flying field-pieces hovered on tlie 
line of the jiuurgenls. 

Ou the SOIh of June, in the 
tnoTcing, the Freuch, under the or- 
ders of general Goulleij.aud briga- 
dier general Bessieres, nurcfaed 
from Barcelona, againit the main 
itrenglh of Ibe insurgeDt), wbicb 
rested on the right banker Ibe Llo- 
bregat. Proceeditu; lo Ibe mouth 
of the river, Ibey forced the pas- 
sage, and puibing up the right 
hmk, to(^ several Catalonian 
posts in the rear. Undisdplmed, 
without a commander of any au- 
Ihority, or none thai could inspire 
Goafideocc ; and surprised, per- 
haps wilhal, by Ibis manffiuvre, 
though it might have been ex- 
pectul, the peasants submitted to 
the French withoat much lesist- 
ance. At Ibe same lime general 
Leckie,. with a division of French, 
1500 strong, assailed and look pos- 
session of the bridge of Molioos 
del Rey, with tbe three pieces tliat 
guarded ihe passage way ; but not 
without a well-fougbt battle, in 
which tbe loss of the French was 
computed to be equal to that of 
tbe Spaniards. On the side of Fi- 
gueras, general Keible proceeded 
Ibilher from Bellegarde agaiqst tho 
iusnrgentsr on the &th of Xul^. 
The iniurgents being worsted m 
a smart action, and dispersed, be 
threw provisions into llie place, and 
a rMiforcemenI into Ihe ganison. 



General Duheame, in revenge for 
his repulse from Gcrona, burnt 
many houses in Ibe towns and vil- 
lages by whicfa be passed, took 
many prisoners, some of whom he 
killed in cold blood, aud laid waste 
the whole plain or district within 
the jurisdiction of the city of Bar- 
celona ; all the cnltivated fields, 
villages, convents, ami churches. 

During these operations tbe juDia 
of Cutalonia liad established them- 
selves at Lerida, for the conveni- 
eucy of cDinmuuication with Arn- 
pta and Valentia. 

When general Duhesme letumcd 
to BaFCelona, be found Ihs two 
forts in great want of both, powder 
and provisions. During his ab- 
sence about B month from Barce- 
lonar it had been cut off from a 
free intercourse with the neigli- 
bouring counlty. And a vcskI 
loaded with powder for tbeir use, 
and another with salted pork, hsd 
been taken by the English, Du- 
hesme, who bad already acq^iiire<E 
Ibe cognomen of the cruel, pointed 
the cannon of the citadel against 
tliv unfortunate inhabitants, threat- 
ening ihem with death if they did 
not furuish Kim with 13,000 ra- 
lifins of provisions daily, and an ■ 
excessive number of pipes of wint 
and braudy. Under the pretence 
of charges or suspicions or an in- 
tention to rrbet against tbe emperor 
Napoleon, he w»s in Ihe habit of 
carrying an'ay, from lime to tiiue, 
the most respectable persons in Bar- 
celona, separating husbands from 
their wives^ and parents from their 
children,' for the purpose of estort- 
ibg. ransoms fur their liberation. 

In the meanlinw Ihe aifiiirs of 

the patriots in tbe north of Spain 

wore but an unfavourable aspect, 

and a battle wa^ fought at Medina 

^ del 



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HISTORY or EUROPE. 



ddUo Scco, m tbe provioce of 
Idton, wludi turned the lide of 
filtliuie, and might have exceed- 
ii^; damped, if not allogdlKr 
foibfti the insBncction, if thb 
unutage oD the aide of the French 
bd not been counterbalanced b; 
Ike cTcnti in tbe south and the east 
jut related. 

Hanbal Beuieres at the aame 
'mt that be aent a force against 
Suicosaa, pushed forward coliunos 
fet ibc teduclioD of Logrono, Se- 
pnia, Vattadolid, and St. Andero. 
AO liieae objects were eaiUy ac- 
coai)&bed. Hie raw and uii(Ii»- 
dpTaied Icviea of patriota did not 
Uf Msl-jin a conflict ttilh tbe ini- 
ptbions and well-directed esertioru 
of the veteran and viclorioui 
French ; but consulted their safely 
b; Si^t, for the moit part Ihraw- 
at down their anus. On tbe 7th 
ojune, general Prere, having ar- 
tifed witb hi) column within a 
^rter of a mile of Segovia, sent 
in (^cer to the magistrates de- 
Mndit^ a parley. 

Tbe insurgents, 5000 strong, 
with thirty cannons, would tint 
nffer tbe messeitger to approach, 
bat fired on htm with cannon. On 
Has Ibe place vas taken by force; the 
lesttance here was not inconsider- 
lUe ; a great number of wounded 
■d otfaers. fell talo Hie hands of 
&K French, with all their cannon. ' 
Hm city of Segovia, after tbe de- 
leal and flight of the aimed pea- 
nals made its submissions, in the 
BiBDer required by tbe Frencli gc- 
anaU When general La Salle, 
Jane stii, was approaching Palen- 
lia, a deputalioii, witb the bishop 
■I tbcir Iwad, brpught the submis- 
•ion of tbe town. Tbe town and 
e of Palenlia were diiarm- 



Sll 

ed. On the isth of June, geoeral 
La Salle advanced to Dnenifai, 
where' he formed s junction with 
general Merle, and from whence 
he cooliuued his uiqrch to Valla- 
dolid, where the spirit of iruurrcc- 
tion had grown very strong, and 
which was a great tendeivnus of 
the palnots. General Cuesia, with 
7000 men and six pieces of artille> 
ry, had taken post at Cabezon, a 
small town on the Pisuerga, about 
nine miles to the norlh of Valla- 
dolid. General Sabathier was or- 
dered to force the position, which 
had been reccmnoitred, of the in- 
surgents, whilst general Herle wa> 
directed to cut off his retreat to 
Valladolid. Theiiring, according 
to the French accounts, lasted but 
half an hour, when (he .insurgent! 
were completely beaten, ncallered 
in every direction on the field of 
battle, leaving their artillery, 4000 
muskets, and about oue tnousaud 
killed. 

The gazelle of Madrid, tliat is the 
French gazette, slates, thm five or 
six hundred French beat tbuileen 
or fifteen thousand rebels. Tbe 
gazette of Ovii'do, on the contrary. 
says, that tbe nuiiitier of Hie French 
and Spaniards in this engat^enieul, 
was nearly equal; but that tlie 
French had Hie advatita^e of & 
more numerous artillery, while Hi* 
patriots had only four cannon ; yet 
that in ^ite of this disadvantage on 
the part of-llie Spaniards, the 
French had left seven hundred 
dead on Ihc field of Laille, ftout 
whence they carried off tlieir 
wounded. 

Such are the lying nliriuta, that 

not unfrequently embarrass tht 

annalist ; who, if he will not wall 

for the derrlopemcnt of time. 

[ P 3 } sometiDHa 



D,g,t,7P:hyGoogte 



312 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1S08. 

foRiettitiei findi 1itms«Tr under ttie ed Co sw«ar fbatlv to the tiniit>CT, 

necenityof ronningbisopininiis,nii(l 'thus quieloesi wat rcitoTed fof 

framipg his accounts, not b^ Fditli (he present to Nararre, Ouipiuctn, 

in the reports of the day, but hj and Biscay, 

sn estimate of what is most pro- A great number of patriolf hid 

bable, and allending to conse- been assembling;, for loine time, at 

quences. Benevento, under (he slaodard of 

Tbe bishop of Vallarfolid, with general Cuesta. In this number 

tbe principal clergy of (he city, wer« compreliended all thfe Spanish 

came to meet general La Salle, sup^ prisonen who liad been sent back 

ptjeating forgiveness to the city to Spain by the British govemnient. 

and its itthabKants, which was res* With this force, general Coesltf 

dily granted. The city and pro- marched on to Valladolid, with tbi 

vince of Valladolid were disarmed, design of cutting off the cominuDi- 

Ten members of the council of cation between ihe French id the 

^centia, Segovia, and Valladolid, northern provinces of Spain, and 

weK deputed to go to his Catholic those in Madrid. Tt was bis plan, 

najesly (Joseph Buonaparte) at having reduced Valladolid, to ad- 

Bayonne, there to Supplicate his vanco to Burgos. The force ui>- 

forgivetiness, in the act of tender- der Cuesta, is slated by Hie French 

ihg their own feahy, and that of gazette tiV have amounted to not 

their feDon-cilizens. less than 35,000. Marshal Bes- 

Oennal Merle proceeded to the rieres, aware of the design of _th» 

mouDtabs of St. Andero * : on (be Spaniards, and sensible of the im- 

momhig of the Zlst of June, he portanceof mainlaming thepost at 

fell upon the insurgent patriots, Valladolid, advanced to meet (hem 

headed by the bishop, drove them with a force, amounting in all to 

from all their positions, and took 13,000, of which 3000 were caval- 

from them two eighteen pounders, ly, with a proportionate train of 

which, loaded with grape shot, they artillery. On the 1 4ih of July, ■! 

had fired only twice. In other break of day, be came io tight of 

parts of tbe mountaboni district, die enemy, who occupied a large 

parties of the insuigents were driven extent of ground on the heights of 

Rom post to post into St. Andero, Medina del Rio Seco. Besncrei 

by general Ducos. On tha S3d, attacked them on the right. And 

the generals Merle and Ducos en- at the same time general Montbn, 

. tered St. Andero, on different sides at the head of another division, 

of the town, Tbe peasants every made himself master of the town 

where returned to their homes, of Medma del Rio Seco, with fi»ed 

The city of St. Andero having bayonets. AH the positions of tbj 

made its submission. like Segovia, Spaniards were carried ; they M 

Palenda, and Valladolid, was oblig- k great confusion ; and they Io*t 

lU 

* A canloB or small province on tb* coist of Biscay, I>etweeB Astoria d« SMh 
-Want, Old CastJIle, and Biscay. St. Andeni ii one of Hie first commcTCtsI p*"* 

•f Spain, iMiuiii Iha nvm^r of those csJled ^KUMm, Ikat Is, aatbodM W 
furj w evfrykiad cf tj«d% witb America. 

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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 213 

■B Ibor irtillcr;, coHudng of 40 have npplied that dcIicieDc;, wen 
pRM at cannoD. Six tbousaDd obliged to l«ive the field of balUe 
nre made prisooen, according to tLe French, with thirteen of 
la the Fraich Bccoturts, and more their cannon : (hough it wif ni<l 
tim 19,000 left m the field of they retreated in good order, and 
laltlt All their baggage and mi- afterwards rallied. 
Buy (lores fell into the hands of The kind of older obwrred, is 
tke Frendi. The SpaniardB Sed nifficienlly illuBtiated hy tb« ra 
fait lo.BeMveoto, from whence, pidity of their retreat, and the. 
■fttta shoil hah, they continued distance to which they retreated. 
Mr retreat to Labenara, Leon, On the other hand that their di>- 
mi Ariorga. They wen punned asters were not so great as bad 
IfiDanhal Bcssieres, who at Beae- been given out by the French, and 
Koto, July 19th, found an immense that reioforocments were advaocing 
ijniitity of arms and ammunition, to join general Cuetta, is reoder- 
HfR, be received a letter of sub- ed extremely probable by Ibe re- 
moon from Ibe inhabitants of treat or flight of king Joseph Buo- 
JuMta, and <hi the following day, naparte, od Ibe 27tli of July, from 
the 30th, he entered that lown, Madrid. 

Aon whence be proceeded to Ha- After intelligence was received 

jorga. At MiOofg> ^ received a of the surrender of Dupont* at 

dtpubtion from Leon ; which city Baylen, and the discovery that so 

beratered on the S6tb. The hi- many of the ministers nf Joseph 

ibop came two miles to meet him, had made their escape from Ma* 

In the council appearing before drid, the French immediately b»- 

IW gales of the cily, presented the gan lo fortify the Keleiro. Hu- 

ke^ in token of submission. hesme had been repulsed from Ge- 

According to certain accounts io^ rona, Arragossa stiil held out, ar- 

tk Spanish newspapers of the mies from Valeacta and Adaluna 

^, Ibe Spanub army did not ex- menaced Ibe capital. The army 

end fourteen or fifteen thousand of the western provinces, under g^ 

■laiitry, and eight hundred cava!- neral Cuesia, though routed and 

>7- The Spaniards, it was stated, dispersed by the battle of Mcdioa 

*tre in the first onset so fortunate del Rio Seco, manifested a detcr- 

uto beat back the French, and mioalJon lo rally. The FrMch, 

take and spike four pieces of therefore. In the evening oFlhe 

(UDOo. But the field of battle Iwenly-niotb of July, begiu to 

bting in a vast plain, (he patriots, evacuate Madrid. King Joseph, 

*bo were carried by their impetu- with the last companies of the 

oaiy cut of their ranks, without a troops, left Madrid on the twenty- 

"■ticient number of horsemen lo ninth, and look the route of Sego- 

ai^e bead against the French ca- via, from whence be proceeded lo 

*>lty, lud unaccustomed lo any Burgos, the rendezvous of ttfe 

"Kb prompt evolutions aa miglit whole of bis army at and in Iha 
[ P 3 ] vicinity 

, * We omilled to mention in its proper pl«M, that ^ueral Dopant, hi his ar- 

■^ in FtuK*, wn trieil bv a conrt nvtial, cwdaomed to death, and imm^ 
•■djihot by torch ligbL 



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«14 ANNUAL REGI3TER, 1808. 

vidaity of Madrid. The French . ro^ {kinily. Ob wbidi it was 

carried along with them all the ar- merrily obMrred, and became « 

tilleryand aimnunition, fi>r which common mjia^ among the Spa- 

(hey could find means of convey- niard>,UiBt," Because Joseph coiikl 

iog; ipikiDgtbe canniMi, and de». not put the crown on his head, be 

troying the aminunition they were had put H m his pockeL" 

obfiged to leave b«biiid them.— The French army was aocans- 

Thvf plundered the public tret^ mnicd or followed by sudh 6f 

iuryi ud carried off all the jewels the Spaniards as had accepted 

twlonging lo the crown, and all offices under the government of 

4be phte, and whatever was most king Joseph, and moit of the French 

valuable in the palaces belonging established in various situatiwa in 

to Charles IV. and Fcrdioaod VII. Madrid, 

or to any of the branebes of the . 



CHAK 

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HISTOJIY OF EUROPE. 



CHAP. XII. 

frnwvw OpiMM «J Buonaparte terptctng the Sf^arit. — Emm' 
MV ComAM im eotutftutut of (At*. — Attampt to cviKral the extrnt 
mii ihrmgtk tf Ike ^miek IntmrtcHmu Jrvm the Fknch, Gtr- 
mmt, amd Mher fiatioiu.—UberatioH tf the ^anish TWopt lit the 
Nerth af Gtrmtau/. — JUUitary Prepar a timu yAuttria, — Alarm of 
Bmmmarte. — Reaumttramcn and ExplanationM. — TVoopt of tht 
Cai^tdermtion afthe Rhine, takm in/o the Pag of Fimue.—Sent into 
Ranee ta ^p^g the Plate ^ the fireneh Regtatenti to be »nU to 
^mn, — hterview bftvtm tht Eatpenr ^ Ruma and Bwnaperte ajl 
EiJMrth,~Int»metia» m Portt^aL—Britwh Expedition to Por- 
tagel ander the Order* of ^ Artkwr tVelUsby.—Convtnliom of 
Cintn, 



BUONAPARTE. TM^ouing tint n degnc much be^oMl 4lie Uiml 
Spain would be a ver^ eai; luaticbin of ihe inonka in Frwioe 
coa^aot, tboo^ thai the qfwedi- and Italy, among wbom were tom^ 
tH wij la uke pauenioD of tbe timet round men nf Inrning wmI 
mbbIt; would be, not to keep bis talentt. The nionki of Spna be 
Akc* logdber in one itroag arm)-, (ibat b, hii IK«rary etaisnnei, in 
aat^lbave been necetttary where Gonfbnnit;^ to liii will and .ob»- 
u; great resistance was to be ex- dience to bis direetions) described 
petted, bat to push forward dc- as clownisb and uncoutji in their 
tscbments, as we have seen, in personal appearance, and bearing 
cny direction. At first he affected an esact Ukeaesa to so miiny 
Is tttat tbe inauTreclion in Spain butchers. All Ibis was only an 
«itk great coolcmpl. — He was at acknowledgment of what he np- 
RooQinxHi pains to conceal tbe prebended froin the eeal aitd ex- 
nal state of a^rs in Spaia from ertions of that religious body, 
tkt French and Ibe Germans loo. While be laboured to persuade IIk 
Uc ga*c out, in hia newspapers, French, and particularly, it tn;ty 
Fnsch and German, that all (hat be presumed, the Spaniards at a 
"Is mart respectable in the' Spa- distance from home, that the most 
Hh nation was devoted, and that respectable part of the Spanisli - 
nen aealonsly, (o the new dynasty nation was sincerely allached to 
sad order of'^aAursin Spam, and king Joxeph, he used means also 
that it was only the mere rabble for impressing the inhabitants of 
sf day-labourers, peasants, and Spain with a belief tliat their couiw 
I** tradesmen, under the direction t^men that had been drawn into 
of Ibe monks, whom be repre- the French service, were also de- 
nied as fonatical and ignoiaat to voted to htm. It nas published 
[P4] in 



D,g,t,7P:hy Google 



SIS ANNUAL REGISTEB, 1808. 

in the Paris newtpapen, August am), oniler tbe protectioD of the 
12, as an utkle from Hambui^b, British fleet, were conveyed with 
that tbe Spanish troops, under tbe their stores. arifR, and artillerf, to 
narquU of Roniana, had. come for- Spain, where thej landed al Co- 
ward of their own accord, and ruvua on the 30th of September, 
with great ceal, to swear allegi- The marquis of Komana himself 
ance, and had proffered a de- returned home by the way of 
lachmcnt from ttieir corps of London, where be arrived on the 

Jicked men, to form a guard of i6lhof Septeroiter. for tbe purpose 

ODour for king Joseph. But on ofhaviagaconfereocewitblhe Bri- 

the contrary, this gallant corps was tiih miniiiry, and British tailitaiy 

no sooner informed of the forced officers. But one Spanish regiment, 

abdication and captivit}' of the near two tiiousand strong, in Jiit- 

toyal family, and of what was land, was loo distant, and too cri- 

passing in Spain, than they burned tically situated, to eftect ils esope. 

with ardour to join the ranks of And two in Zetland, afier firing oa 

their counlrjinen. Though sur- the French general Friiion. who 

rounded by hostile battalions, commanded tbea, and killing one 

tbey planted their colours in the of his aid-de-camps by his side, were 

centre of a circle which they form- disarmed. While Frision was in 

ed, and swore on their knees, the act of haranguing tltese troops, 

to be faithful to their country. for the purpose of engaging thai 

By a well combined plan, con- to declare for king Joseph, one of 

certed between Kcati, the British tbe soldiers, buruiug with indig- 

admiral in the Bailie, and Roniana, nation, and regardless of coose- 

ten thousand of the Spanish troops queoces, stepped forth from the 

■laliooed in FUnea, Laiigland, Zea- ranksandfiredapistolBtbim.which 

land, and Jutland, emancipated miiarag tlie general, killed the ald- 

themaclvet from the French voke, de-camp*. 

When 



' The Marqnis ds la Boauia was ktpt in proronnd igaonnec i^ Hie gloriow 
event! Uiat had taken place in hia enuiity, uid wioiu atteinpti hod liccn insds 
«B the psrt of the Briiish goveniment, to comBunicate the tiding lo him, aod to 
derite mniu for liis eicape with the troops under his commuid, withoDl effect.— 
Al length ■ Swedish clergynun was foand in wbow honour, good seme, ipd 
enterpriaing disporitioD, tbe finneat conGdaice codM Im placed. This pntlensB, 
diagniied ai a law and traidling trtdeamaii, went by the way of Heligoland, aad 



bsTing overcome many obstacles with the ntmoat patience, prodeace, and forti- 

taile, at Irngth arrived at the jdaee where the marqais and nis troops i '**- 

tioaed. Having aacertahied tbe person of the roarqim, he was obliged lo ' 
cmantly for an opportinii^ crf'addreMing him, withoat excitiBE uie sni 
the nDmerons ipiesliy whom be was snrronnded. The vener^ile agent a 
obliged, as if En accident, to Jostle tbe nurqaii in the street, in order ti 
his attention. Having done so, he apologised, asif inaranlof the pers< 

>.• •ddresied, and conrloded with ottering to sell him <some excellvnv 

marqaii treated tliis offer with contenpt, and signified that he snppwed be 
speaking to a innie^er. The miniiter of die gospel, however, pene**red 
commendtnf his cofiee, and in the course of tbe convefaatioD, foand nwsat 
" ■ - -■ ■ • ■eman.—" Well soon i« ■'-'" 

■peak latia. Hie minii 

D,g,t,7P:hy Google 



to intimate tliathe was not a smngslcr bnl a gentleman. — "Well sooit see that," 
said the maninis, and then asked him if be conld speak latia. Hie miniatcr an- 
swered 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. SIT 

WbfB the real state of ibirs in emploTCd fcr the last three vemu 
SpM bccane ManUest to alt Eu- in bnDging tbeir finanoea inta oi» . 
npebj the Sight of king Juscpfa der, and of late in itro^bening 
am Madrid, aud the coocenlm- their frontier, forming magaxiiwt. 
tin of Ibe French forcei on the and iiioresung their aimies, far bc- 
Mlei of Bscajr, and on the Ebro, ^nd what was at all iM<«»ary foF 
Bannipaite'g Mrcainu agaiul the the prcwmtiun of iatemal Inra* 
■Maignts, and hi« wsrepteiettta- quillity, und Bppa>«ntty with m 
tiHii«f ftctt, were iolerrupled for view not to mere defence, but to 
ilo^tiaie,a« well u his inilitaiy aggtenioo. lliis did not escape-, 
•pcfalioos. Not a word wai nid the observniioa, or Ail lo eicUe 
wSfMffl. ,Evcn tbeMoniteur was the suspidonsofthe French gorem- 
dnk The world cntertiiiwd great uient. A long corrcspondeuce cih- 
anmij to know what fiice would ancd mi the aubject, wfaicfa wa* 
W pal OB the flight of Joseph, aud afterwards publisbed, between count 
Ac aadrritjr of the French in Mettemicb, the Austrian ambautidor 
SfM. Il was girco out bv the at Paris, and Campogn;, ifae French 
Fmch govenuDCDt irt Madrid, that tniuisler of rttemal relationi. The 
Ike Ung found it iiece«ary lo re- French mioislcT, on the part of hk 
tile for a tine from that dljr, for master, aAcr calling to mind Ihe 
Ihc benefit of hti health ; which moderation of the conqueror ia 
Vi ercfj where made a sutyect of the battle of Austerlits, asked the 
lidiodc. But nolhii^ at all was Aiutriaos, what they feared froia 
MdoBlbeimlteriii'lhoiiews|nper« Fnuioe, or of what they bad to 
<f hiMe, lltl;, or Oermaoy. It complain. If certain posts, still oe. 
■M endeat to BNonapatte, that cupied by Ihe French in Silena, or 
tkt fi|Maiili iaaurrectiaa wa* of loo ■■ any other part towards the tVen^ 
wiBQsand fomidable a nature to tiera of Austria had given umbrage, ' 
ktiealcd lightly ki respect of either or caused any apprehension, tliey 
**idt or actioa*. It was mani- sboiild beiaimedialelyevactiated.— 
faUjf Mt to be cnuhed but hy An uncommon degree of earoest- 
> my large force, and a larger ness on the part of Buonaparte to 
aaetoothw any be couM march persuade Ihe court of Vienna, that' 
■gunt it, if the Germans should he did not eatertain any bustile de- 
Mil IheoBselvea of so inviting an signs against Austria, is apparent 
■ctaaon tothrow off bis yoke, and throughout tlie whole of the coiw 
*ko*c all, if the emperor of Eoasia rcapondeooe. " Il u not," sat<t 
AmM swerve from the treaty of Buonaparte," any part of my poli- 
IUl The Auatrians liad bee* tical system, to destroy, or even lo 



■"bH ■ ibe aSnutiTe, snd a coorenaiiMi oxncd, ■pparentljr slwot rttffno. 
oAe faumof both were calcuUtcd to decei*e all wbo Bii(bt obterve ttxai. The 
■■■ffni wu ttten daly iaTonned of c>er; thin;; dial bad occuneil in Spsio, oftba' 
'^UMCCitie Britidi Oofemmrntlud rendered, ind ofilie TeadincH ofhii BrttaB. 
■"■iJH^ ta adopt any ■eaioie ttast nniibt be ibougbt practicable for efitetinf 
fesrcscaesf haHlfiod tail troop*, that Uw J nigbtjoin Ibcir berate eaauujiasa 
■* nsiMng the base atlesspts of France to wwlave them, 

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n« ANNUAL REGISTER, ISOS. 

famnble the House of Auilriai"- were not to be consiikred «i foN 

ud iu thii he wai no doubt, u midable, if the emperor of tbe 

hu nnce appeared, noeere. It North, u Buooaparte bad afiected 

could not be an; part of hispoljcy to style faim, should abide l^ bii 

lo annihilate a barrier so conve- cngsgemeDls. Alexander, at thii 

nient and neccMaty, against the moment, held in his hand the 

poweroflbeRuMtaUigrowing every balance of Europe, the fiite of 

day, by tbe natural progress of po- many itations, their condittoo. 

pulalioo and improvement, in so wheUier as independent slates, or 

vast an empire, greater and greater, a> submissive provinces of a great 

The Austrian minister, on tbe and domineering empire, proNbly 

part of his court, disclaimed all for many centuries! Into which- 

hostile designs against France, and soever of tbe scales the Czar should 

explained tbe increase of the mi- throw his veigfal, that must ineri- 

^ . lilary force complained of, by tably preponderate. To conlinn 

(be general necessity that all the and fix the resolution of Aleaaiidcr 

powers of Europe now felt (hem- was a matter of the last importance, 

aelvcs to be under, of propor- and what Buonaparte did not think 

. tioning tbe scale of their standing it prudent to commit to tbe 
anuies to that of tbdr neigbboura. agency of any of his ministers 
The Austrians pciaevered iu thejr tie deteruiined to have a persoml 
military preparations.— Orders were interview with the emperor of lb* 
transmitted from Paris to the mem- North ; on whose mind it would 
bere of the confederation of the ^ipear be was perfectly contident 
Rhine, lo call out tbeir reflective be should maintain an ascmdairt. 
quotas, which, when asaembled, For on the l)th of September he 
would be very powerful. Of tbe addressed, in print, his soldiers as 
Oerman troops of this confede- follows: '< Soldiers, after triumpfa- 
ratioo, 80,000 were taken into ingonibe borders of the Danube 
the pay of France, clothed in tbe and the Vistula, you traversed Ocr- 
uniform of Preach s<ddiers, and many, by forced marcbea; you are 
sent into France to garrison the now with the same celerity to tra- 
towns quilled by French regiments verse France, 
sent to reinforce the French army " Soldiers, T declare that I have 
in Spain. In tlib manceuvre it was need of you. The hideous leopard 
his object to render it impossible contaminates, by its presence, tbe 
for the Gemiau princes to revolt territory of Spain aud Portupd. 
from him to Austria, while at Let your faces strike him with 
tbe same time he stationed a force terror, and put him to digbl; 1st 
in France better for some of bb us carry our victorious eagle* even 
purposes, such as that of enforcing to tbe [ullan of Hercules. There 
the conscription, than that which we have an affi-ont lo revenge, 
it replaced; in as much as Germans "Soldiers, you have suqMssed 
would not'beso likely,asthe French tn renown, all tbe warriorsof mo- 
regiments, to sympathise and co< dem times. You iiave equalled tlie 
alesce with tlic people. But wb»t- Roman Legions, who in one cam- 
ever, niigiit be the inclinations, or paign triumphed on the lUiine, the 
the attempts of the Germans, they Euphrates, lUyrium, and tbe 'Digns. 

A doiable 

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HISTORY OF EUROPE. Jls 

A dmble pMce and pemnDciit The mhabilants of Lubon, ont- 

fmftiitj (hall be ibe reward of awed b; the army of Juool, were 

yii exploits. No icood French- restrained at first from expres- 

■Boaeafoy anomenl's repose, Nog their joy, otherwise than in 

a it^ M the sea it not fn* and private and conSdcntia] conver- 

ifn. ration. The public voice of Por- 

' SoMien, all that you have tuiial was first heaid at Oporto. 

'knkj achieved, or that reinaiiis lliis town, besides Ibe circunn 

i«t lo be done for the kappineu stance of being situate at a coosi- 

<f dr Fremrk ftoph, and for derable distance ^m the force un- 

■7 0orr.— Be assured, that the der JuDot, possessed another ad- 

MMBibrance nf lo great lervicea vanta^. It bad been occupied bf 

M renaia for ever engraven about llirre thousand Spaubh 

■ ny heart." When the French troops, who before their depar- 

mj perfrctly sensible that the lure to join Ibe patriotic tland- 

mdt ft tfUwtn b a litnation arrf in Spain, took the French g»- . 

At WMl wretched, tbej were re- nrral under whose orders tbeywer^ 

MbM by this harangue that Ifac and all bis staff, prisoners, aiid de- 

taKMobrc of their ruler was his livpred up the govemraent of the 

•H gJbrjr. It is humiliating to city to Lewis D'Olivcda, wbo bad 

^mta aainrev to think that hun- filled that office before the arrival 

4«b of thousands nf amied men. of tlie French. The treachery of 

AsM bear such language, and ihii man, his attachment to tba 

fa^» even feel a pride in ex- French.anti Ihemeasuresbetookfot 

lodbg, by prolonged fiitigue, at restoringtheaulltorilyof theFreneb, 

At nk of ibdr lives, and by the rouced the iodignalian and rage 

nnifice of tbdr country, the glory of the people to such a pitch, ttnl 

tfi brtiiDatc and inhuntan usurper! be found (it impossible to avert 

Tbe pbee arf)rainled for a tneel- tbeir threatened vengeance other- 

■Kind conference between Alex- wise than by yielding up his au- 

tidtrind Naprriemi, was EHiirth, ihotity. Tbey rose, ISthofJune. 

idj m Ibe circle of the louer in onebody,broke open the depots 

Uae, hekMitpng to tbe electorate of stores, and having luppUed 

<fHaycsee. They met here on theniselvet wttb arms, proc«eded 

At t7tb of September. But Ibe lo destroy ever^ vestige of French 

odtr of bme calla our atlentioa power, and to imprison every per- 

^ tbe present, lo the effiirts of son sospccted of beii^ ui their ib- 

tWpalmts with tbeir allies in For- tetcst, Tbe bishop of Oporto, 

Mpt, (prin^ng from tbe tame wbo, with most of tbe other priests, 
nate, gonig hand m hand, and bad been mcesflmt in bis effi>rti 
knag ^ same object in view, with to rouse the people to aims,* waa 

Ask of their oeighboarii^; sod appointed govennr of the city, and 



'ThamnhyfaMkap had nat thoaght it hk dal; ta paj an* regard ta thaau. 
falkt(ct«rtheAr>MMOM(ral «r«JI iMvil'M anddMiMuani belMvini to 
•a CsMn n^tv, neompenJing sabmiMiiin to the Swtdk ** The pawcn tint 
"i* Fstihhti at Isibo^ by ths dimctia*, m doabt, af Baiw^arta, me saans mi 

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J20 ANNUAL REGISTER, I«0«. 

the most vJgoroDs mcwiirei irere ngulttioiu as were requiied i/y 

adopted for defending it against th« peculiar circutniitanca of ibe 

any force. General Lolson, with coudItj. Qporto, in this nspect, 

about 3,000 men, advanced against, vas tlie Seville of Porlugal. Tbt 

the insurgents as far asAmirante; junta having taken such measures 

but on being made acquainted with for raising and svpporting an army 

the deterniiued spirit of the peo- as circuni stances admitted, naltn 

pie of Oporto, he retreated ou rally looked for support and aa- 

LisboQ. Nearly the whole. of the sistaiice to England : nor were Uwii 

northern provinces of Portugal, hopes disaj^inled. An arm^ un- 

rose in amis against the Fcench. der the command of sir Artbur 

llie south of Portugal was re- Wellesley, destined for Porti^a^ 

strained from coming forward so where it ultimately landed, was, 

generally, or in so open a manoer, in Ibe first instanca, offend to the 

by their vicinity to the army of Spaniards. Tbb army, aiimttiag 

Junot, and also by a strong and of about 10,000 men, set sail fraas 

nainerous French party among Cork, on the 13th of July, and ar- 

thenuelves. Notwithstanding the rived at Corunna on tbe SOtll' 

terror, however, of Junot, a frieadly The battle of Medina del Rio 

inlercourse, as bas been above bo- Seco, had taken place a few days 

ticed, was maintained between before, and the Spani«rds ware 

Usbon and ur Charles Cotton. retreating fast in different dicac- 

As siion as Junot received cer- lions : one division of them ^dher- 

tain intelligence of the Spanish ing Id Cucata, proceeded to Salar 

insurrection, be ordered the Spa- maoca ; another, under gencnl 

nish troops to be disarmed, and Blake, made for the niousiaiat. 

put on board die hulks in the Ta- In cousequence of tbis inteUigence, 

gus. combined with bis instruct ions, sir 

The French being expelled from Arthur Wellesley «&red the as- 

the northern provinces of Portugal, sistwice of the force under bii 

and the authority of the prince command to the junta of OaDJai. 

regent re-established, provisional Tbe junta replied, that they d>d 

juntas were formed, similar in not want men, and tbat tb^ 

Ihelr character and functions to wished for nothing from tbe Bn- 
those of Spain. Of these, that, tisb government except money, 

oi Oporto exerted itscIT with the arms, and ammaniLon. But tbey 

most zeal and rSect, in heighten- expressed th^ir fim conviction f^it 

ing and directing the patriotic en- his army nii{>lit be of infinite ser- 

Ihusiasni of the people, and in the vice both to the Portuguese, and 

establisfameol of such orders and their own nation, if it were ent- 

ployed 



all occMions to hsve availed tunuelf, u far u posalble, «f tbe ioflnaiee tei 
■ulhorit; of the •lergy. Me made ■ loot even of Pope Pins VII. for tlM <*- 
tablisbrneut of tbe cviwordat, and the total aiihireraiati of tbe Galiicin cbprrb. 
VMi itaftaid of tbe Pope he odHvoiirnl to exhibit hitwtf to the Froidi >■- 
tkui in the UDiahle disnctw of a true fritod and ddivtftr, and • ae^* P>*- 
icclor af thw Catholic cbaich. 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 921 

pIvRJ to drive tbe Fiendi from towards the expubion of the French 

Uioo. In the north of Portu- from Portngm, while they acted 

mI, ad coowqnenllir at no frrat ierarately. he ^ve orders to gene- 

Mnce from Oalliaa, the French nu Spencer to join bhn. 
vcn dill in for^. Against them. The English genend, baTing 

■ tbt fint place, air Arlfanr mij;ht made hiuMlf acqitainted, as accu- 

firtct hii attack with tmrj pro- tately as he conld, whh the nu- 

Vmitj of niceeK, and wKh the tnertcal strength and disposttion of 

vrtintt of relieving the protince the French army, detemufied to 

ifOAcia, if the imarrection at land bis forces iu Mondego bay. 

Oporto still existed, or coold be where be would be able to effect 

K*ncd when be reached that city, a landing, and to form his army 

SsAitliur WeHesley leaving Cor- into order, without any opposilioa 

«, proceeded to Oporto. On from the enemy ; while at tbe same 

b trriral there, the bishop, who lime, he would be assisted and sup- 

*a the govemoT, informed him ported by the Portngoese army 

Ibl the Portuguese farce was which had advanced to Coimbra. 

afident to deter the French from Before he landed the troops he re- 

Wrng any attacks, or if not, to- ceived advice from the British go- 

npH Hiem. Sir Arthur, however, vemmeut that 5000 men, under 

iliit be mieht be the better enabled general Aoatrulher, were proceeding 

l> jodge what was best to be done, 16 join him, and that 13,000 more, 

Ut hii (brces at Oporto, in order under Sir John Moore, would 

to have a conference with Sir speedily be dispatched for the same 

CbHa Cotton, off Lisbon ; with purpose. He was also informed of 

■boinbeconsHltedB^uttheprarti- the surrender of Dupont, and that 

tUBtj and tbe prudence of forcing the array of Junot was considerably 

IIk atrance of tbe Tagus, and at- weakened by the necessity of send- 

l«kti^ the forts in the near vicinity ing about 6000 men, under general 

tf tloi capital. In tbe mean time, Loison, to quell an insnrrection that 

*Ue he was on boaid the Hiber' bad broken out in the south of 

ill, Ibc admiral's ship, be received Portugal. This inrormatloo in- 

lleltcT from general Spencer, who duced Sir Arthur to disembark hi* 

m then, with about 6000 men, off troops niihout delay. Soon after . 

CnCz. Tfais force was destined the disembarkation was rficcled, 

ts be employed either in co-ope- the corps under general Spencer 

ntinf with tbe Spanish forces un- also landed. And on the plh of 

fcr CaManos, in their operatinns August the advanced guard march- 

■RttBt Dopant, or in conjunction ed forward on the road to Lisbon. 

*itfa tbe expedition under Sir Ar- On the ISth the army reached 

Aar Wellesley. AS tbe junta of Legria. On tbe 1 Sib the advanced 

Sn3k did not "deem the aid of guard came up with a parly of 

(oeral Spencer's corps at aH ne- the French at Ohidos, vhere a 

AMty towards the reduction of slight action look place, occasioned 

vapoot's yrmy, and as Sir Arthur principally bj the eageruess of the 

"B dtodedly of opluion that Lis British to attack and pursue the 

*"« aray, and that of gcnerat enemy.> On the .l6tb tbe army 

Spneer.cotddbebut oflttUeavail baited, and on the neat day tbe 

general 

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133 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1908. 

genenl came to .the detennioalian atUck general Laborde'i pntition io 

of attacking llie French under ge- front*. The enemy wai defeated, 

oeral Laborde al Roleia. but retreated in good order. By 

Rolcia ii akuat^ on an emi- Ihii victory the road wai cleared 

Dence, having a plain in iU front, to Lisbon. On the day after the 

at the «)d of a Valley which cont- battle tlie British army moved to 

neocesat.Caldas, and is cloied to Lourinha, to protect lite landing 

the souUiwards by mountains which a»d Ivcitilale the j unci ion of tbe 

come in contact with the hills form- troops uoder general Atistnilber; 

iog the valley on tbe left. Id the and on the 21it Uiey resumed iheir 

centre of Uie valley, and about march. 

eight miles from Roleia, is the General Junot, liaving been in- 
town and old Moorish fort of Obi- formed of the large reinforcement 
dos, from whence the enemy's eipecled under the command of 
piquets bad been driven on the Sir John Moore, determined to at- 
13th. From that time the French lack the Brilisharmybefore the rein- 
had posts in the hills on both side) forcemeol should artive. For thb 
of the valley, at well as in the purpoK he left Lisbon whh nearly 
plain m front of the main army, the wliolc of tlie forces under hit 
which was posted on the heights command, and'came up will) SlrAr- 
opposite to Roleia ; its right rest- thur on the morning of the 21st of 
iog upon the bills, its left, on which Aug. A hard fought batUe-t ensued. 
was a windmill, and the whole The French, with lised bayoneti, 
ooTcriog four or five passes into tbe attacked the British with llieir 
mountaitu oa their rear. Their usual impetuosily. They were 
Avce amounted to about 6000, of driven back by our troops with the 
which about 500 were cavalry,' bayonet. They renewnl their at- 
with five pieces of cannon. And tacks, in different colmiios, again 
there was some reasim to believe and again, and were aaoften driven 
thatgeneralLoi$oo,who wasat Rio back with cooler mlrepidily and 
M^r on the l6th, would join grealer slrenglli of arm. At lut 
general Laborde by bis right in the they fled from tbe charge, lu ihis 
course of the night. Tbe plan of battle tbe French lost 13 pieces of 
attack was formed accordingly, and cannon, 33 ammunition waggons 
the array breaking up from Caldaa and about iUOO in killed, wounded, 
on the I7'l)> was formed into three and missing. One general oflicer 
columns; the right destined to lum was wounded and ti ken prisoner, 
the enemy's left, and penetrate into and another H-as killed. Our loss 
the mountains lu his rear; tbe left in killed, wounded, and miuingr 
to ascend the hills at Obidos, to amounted to nearly a Ihouiaod. 
turn all the posts on the hh of the After the dispositions for tbe 
vqlley, and abiowatcbthemotionsof battle of Vimeira had heen made, 
G«D. Loiion ; the centre column to Sir H. Burrard arrived ut the sceae 

of 

* For BD Bccoout of tbe action, see Sir Arlliur Veltcslcj's diapatcbti to savemr 
mtnt. Appendix 10 ChnMiictc, p. SS9. 
t Pot a pvticaUr account of wUdi, tee Appetxlii to Cbronldc, p. Kt. 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. SS9 

of Mligi, bnt dcdiwd to take wb^ of the Prencli army to an 

■pM hoBMlf the coomiaiKl of the of the ports hetween Rocbrort aiid 

rajr. Ob the 28d, Sir Hew Dal- L'Orient, Wlieo Ibe arm; arrived 

■pvk. vbo had been called fironi in Fiance, it was to be at liberty to 

M atatiaa of lieutenant-gover- aerve again unniedialel;. All the 

Mr ef Gibnitar, lo take the com- property of Ibe army, as well a* 

aa«l of all the diftrent corpa tbe pervonal property of the indi- 

M by tbe Britiifa govemmentinto ndiuU of tbe anuy, was to be n- 

^wtugal, leaclted Cintra, tlie place cred and nntoucbed. It might 

In wfaicb tbe British army had either be carried off into Fiaoca 

Mmt after tbe batik. Within a or sold in Portugal. lu the latter 

ntjfew boon after bis aninl, a case, full security was to be given 

^ of truce came in from Jimot, by Ibe British to the purchasers. 

P^og a ccsaalion of hostilities, that tbe property Ihey had would 

■ onlcrtfaitaconvenlioDmigbtbe not betaken from them, nor tbey 
"tthd, by whkh theF^ench should themselves molested on account u 
Ricaate Portugal. the purchase." 

ffhni intelligence was rectiived The whole of thb convenlioB 

■ Eo^Siid, that in the words of Sir will be found in another part of 
Aitb"! Welksley, " The whole of this volume*. It was founded on 
AcFrcnchfwce in Portugal, under tbe basis of an armistice agreed 
■^mnmand ofti^dtUceefAbran- upcm between Sir Arthur Wellesley 
^•■^ersMs, had sustained a sig- and general Kellerman on the day 
■iMfeai;" there was an uiiivernl after the baltle of Vimein. But' 
apsdatioo, that it would be fol< the seventh article of that prelimi- 
Mtd up with other victories, and nary treaty, stipubUing that the 
■iimately lead to some solid ad- Russian fleet should be allowed 
'Mige. either to remain in tbe f^igus un- 

mt such an advantage bad in molested as long as it thought pro- 

to btcn obtained, was firmly be- per, or to return home, was after- 

Irwd, when, on Ibe arrival of tbe wards rejected by Sir Charles Cot- 

kUdiipatcbes from (be army, tbe ton ; between whom and the Rus- 

fcnfrftbcPafkaDdTowergunswas sian admiral Siniavian, a conven- 

konl, and that loo, at a time of tion was agreed to for the surren- 

*Ebt very uunsaal, if mt quite un- der of Ibe Russian fleet to the BrK 

pttxdeoted. But bow great was tisb fleet f, on tbe 3d of Scptem- 

(^ saiptise of the public when it ber. 

*» uaderstood that the discharge The r^ret and the indignation 

'f ^ Park and Tower guns re- of the British nation was raised by 

btrdtoacoaveotioti, signed atCin- tbe cuuvendoo of Cinlm, to apain- 

Os, by which it was, among other ful height. The ihroue was be- 

^alalioiis, agreed on, " That the sieged, as it were, with petitions 

Hgbsh goTenunent should be at from all parls of the kingdom. 

Ik e^Mocn of trao^Kirting the calling^ loudly for an inquiry into 



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S24 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

tbat tramacUcH). The mswer to the fa) thia important esse, ibe armulke 

petition from Itw dty of Liindon, and convention, and to desire tlial 

that for " The inititulion of an Jn- they might t>e |*leawd to take the 

^in, there was no need of their nme agmn iuto Iheir most leriooi 

ioterfei«nce," was univeTsaliy deem- couideralion, and nibjoili to the 

«4 nogracioust It was supposed to opinion they lad alreadi^ gt'^en on 

bsre been framed by the inintsler the other points, whether, underall 

voted for briskneu and petulance, the cirenmslanceR tbat appeared in 

Aa inquiry was set on fool. The evidence before them, respecting 

bond in tbor report*, after giving the relative rituation of the two 

m wc1l>arranged, and jK)t altogether armies, on the 33d of August, it 

an oncircumstanlial account of Sir was their opinion, tliat an armis- 

Artfaur Wellesl^y's expedition, de- tice (ras adTiiable, and if so, wbe- 

«lated, " That on a consideration ther tbe terms of the armistice 

of all circumstances, as set forth were soch as ought to have liecn 

in tbe report, they moat humbly agreed on T And whether, upon a 

submitted llieir opinion, that no like consideration of the rdatiTe 

further military proceeding was ne- situation of the two armies aubte- 

cessary on that subject. Because quently to tbe armistice, andVhen 

•ome of tbem might differ in their all the British forces were landed, 

■entiments respecting the fitness of it was their opinion, that a convea* 

Ibe convention in'the relative situa- tion was advisable, and if so, wbe- 

tion of the two armies, it was their ther the terms of that eonnntioD 

tmanimous declaration, that un- were lucli as ought to have been 

<|ne8tionablc zeal and firmness ap- agreed upon. The board met a- 

peared Ihrougbout to have been gain. The questions proposed by 

exhibited by lieutenant-general Sir the commander in chief were put 

Hew Dalrymplc, Sir Harry Bur- to each of the members. Some 

nrd, and Sir Arthur Wellealey, at approved the treaties in question, 

weltas thatthenrdourandgallaulry adding; the reasons of their ap- 

cfthercatof the officers and sol- probation :othen<lisapproved them, 

diers, on every occaiion during the giving tlie reasons of their disap. 

cipedhioo, bad done honour to the probation. A formal declaiatioB 

troopa, and reflected lustre on bb of disapprobation on the partof tbe 

majesty's arms." king, of both the armistice and con- 

BdI his rojal highness the duke veutioD, with reasons, was officially 

«f Toil, in a letter to Sir David communicated to sur Hew Etaliym- 

Dundas, president of the board of pie*. 

inquiry, observed to the board. Sir Arthur Wellesley bad strenn- 

that in their report, their opinion onsiy recommended a pursuit nf 

respecting the conditions of the the French ; and great pains wu 

trmislice and convention hitd been taken by his friends at bonie, to 

altogether omitted. He therefore screen him from the odium of both 

tbongbl it his duly to calllheirat- the armistide and convention; with 

tntion to these two principal pouts which Sir Arthur appears indeed to 



* laa AppendlK to Chrraicle, p. 37r. t Ste Appen: to Una. p. It*. 

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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 22i 

kiK dprCMed much ituatis&ctran IIk enemy, not with stamling the su- 

toUsfrieodi iiiprivite, Iboiigh lie |>eriuril,v o( cavalry. I( wasgrnc- 

W Dot fainted any disapprobation rally believed, and it was prolialily 

vko in cousultalion with the olher the (ruth, thai Sir Arthur, coittid- 

gtaoals. But the board unaoi- iiig in ibe bravery of iiis troops, 

■Mdy approved the judgmeut of burned witli a desire to have a 

St Harry Buriard, in abclaiuiuK brush with tlie French, before 

fraapuiiuil. " Asuiwriorcavalry," he shoulil be supcrwdeil in the 

*^ obferved, " relmrdJng our ad- command by the arrival ofSir Jt»lm 

nice, woukl have allowed tbe ene- Moore. 
m\ n&atiy, without any degree AH Spain and Portugal, as well 

■ mk, to coatiuue their retreat in as the English garrison at Gibial- 
k most ^^>id manner, till Ihcy tar, was indignant at tbe Convenlioa 
^nU hate arrived at any given of Cintra. 

•d tdvaulageous point of inlying As the deleat of Junot and tlie 

■d fbnnatioa : nor did Sir A. deliverance of Porlu>;al were only 

Vdedey, on Ibe 171h of August,' mediate, and not the nltimale ob- 

■te tbe atemy had not half the jects of tlie British army, it march- 

only be hitd oa Ifae 21st, purine ed from Lisbon, but not till the 

1 Bore iooonsiderable and beaten 27lliof October, nearly two months 

■»;. with any marked advan- after the convention of Cintra, uu- 

^' der the command of general Sir 

In short, the report of the board John Moore, to tlic assistance of the 

IS 10 indirect censure on Sir Ar- Spanish palriols. Tlie general't 

tbr; for if Sir Harry Burrard was instructions were, to march through 

^il&d undet- all the circumstances Spain nithhj« face towards Burgos; 

■ Dot advancing until the arrival which was to be the general ren- 
rf tlie rebforcements under Sir dezvous of the British troops: not 
loki Uoore, Sir Arthuj Wellesley, only of those now under Ibe com- 
■h> knev-tbat he mutt be speedily mand of that officer, but of those 
^"iototd, judged ill in pushing with which be was to be reinforced 
wward and esposmg himself to au from England.' And he was to 
*»ck, frmn which the enemy could combine his operations wfth those 
**ly ciperience, at the worst, the of the commander in cliicf of the 
tiiiliiiitage of a repulse, instead Spanish armies. But the bsue of 
*r Muting for a day or two, for this expedition, together with tlie 
*(k aa augniealation of numben aidaous struggle that preceded il, 
B nold have entured the ruin of carries us into the year 1 80^. 



[Q] CHAR 

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326 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808; 



CHAP. xm. 

hfen^no ietwetn the Emperort Alexander and Jiappkon «f BrfiaiM— 
ArtftU PoHtp of Bumaparte.— Offer of a NegoUmtMn, m tki Part 
^ Fi-anee and Rtmia, for Peect witk En^tmi, refeeled.—Bil*- 
khkmmt of a Central jtmto At Spmi.—Their dttiartd PtiiK ip ki 
andJirU Acts of Government.— 'fUlaliee Forilmna iff tke Onmi 
Fi-mch amd SpanM Amuta. — Arrival of BuoittparU at ntteru.— 
Siiaxiahe EngagemaUa and Defeati ^ the SptmUrdt. — 7%r AmeA 
enter Madrid.~~Entkanaam of the Spaiihk Cohmet In tke Camf 
of King Ferdinand, and of their Mother ComUrg. — JBH^ Re- 
trotprct of the Affmri of the Northern Powers ef .finvpr.— JTo^.— 

THE two wnperere, when Ihey Vmcert, arriwd st ErfurA, *!>• 
met at Erftirlb, were each of tcrabe* 3Stb, wilb n tpol^yfrMii 
tbeni atteaded by a very Dnmerons the emperor of Auitrn, for not at* 
and brilliant suile, and ktngi, so- tending the eanftreiice, and m 
Tereign princes, and other persons doubt the strongest and most p9- 
of high oistinctioD, came day after Kte aastirances of frieadahip to- 
day, to do homage to the great it-nds both the French and Rimmu 
emperor of the West Among emperor. Count St. Vincent was 
Others who attemted Alexanffer, ctoseted a hmg tiine -with Baoofr 
were his brother the pand duhe parte. Great wss the pomp and 
Constantine *, the count Roman- ceremony, and most spiemfid Iba 
sow, and the tira counts Tohson, fcasis and other entertaiBmenb, ""* 
one of whom was the Russian «n^ totdc plaee on the occasion (rfthis 
bassatfor at Parb. "nie suite of nipenri and royal convemioD. The 
Buonaparte was composed of Ber- little town of Brfarth was ario* 
fbier, TUIeyrand, Caathtcoort, iiislMd to irilnes a f n ap i lfi ceace , 
Champagny, secretary Haret, the lint woaM have been paired il 
principal writer of official reports, Paris. The Crst dimicr was pm 
tte generah Lasnes, and Dupoc, by Buonapaite. N^>fdeoa and 
«II of them bearing tbetr new titles AhnRiider lieM their eo iifcjen ws 
of prioee^ dukes, and comits, and erery dsy at ten o'doek. These 
in short all ttie staff cheers belong- beipg over, they rode out timber, 
ing to the French army cantoned in either in the same carriage or on 
Bavaria. The kings and sovereign horseback, to lake a view of tbc 
princes of Oeraiany, walled for (he adjacent country. In one of these 
most part on Buonaparte in person, rides Alexander consented toti» 
llie Austrian general, count St. verse together wilh Buonaparte the 

whole 



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HISTORY OF EUROPK. *tf 

iM» fl«M of )Ma, Iht tiorrim; 4rt*)ng of hh tnops Ibe Bpf>nr'' 

pmai, or gn*^ it my be nlkd, aiice of btinf the resall of ■ D^;o< 

if Ibe kflj 10 whan Im had iwom thtlon ; an act of fafonr to (lie 

Mnd frimdibip over the asbei of •a««rcigns of Roam and Prnuia, 

b gml fVedcrick I Wbal opinion A ne^Uation was efitered into rt 

MBt Kapolran hart cnterlaimd uf Erfurlb undcT llw nwdtaHon of 

ka bratb«r Mnperor when he gave Alexander, ia comeqnence of wbich 

Ub (o aflfrontiiig an tavitatlen, and Napoleon engaged to evacuate the 

■fat era the imtM aod posterity Prnniaa territory, qi soon n the 

tWakafAlexnider for accepting ill eonlributions should be paid up! 

Tbe anMnke Cotutantioe, wblle which he graciously retfuced to 

MltfiiTlli, appeared every day in one third of their total amount. 

" n of the hcme-gaanis ff And he wrote a letter to tbe qoeen 

a. ltwBiibegreal<d)ject of Pronta, with bh own hand, liir 

npart«, !■ Ibe eonferenees wfaleh ha protnUed her liie coni' 

■i cowfcntioa at Erfurth, to conci* pletioa of all ber wislie«. He bIm 

Irit tbe goodwill ofallpnties there, retaxed in the severity of his re> 

Ibl be mighl be enabled, having sfrfctiom and imposts on the cohh 

amad yw c lae w ia Ma rear^ to nerce »r Holland. 

kir with all bm dispoieable force With ragard to Alexander, it wal 

M SpMB Bftd Purtugal. Inslgai- ewy to penoadie hitn that the in- 

fcaat at tbe Oennsn powen bad surrection m Spain wai only the 

baeane, conibiDalims might be natural cnnseqaence, and what was 

faraedby which they might di>tr«ss t« be apprehended from the cotf 

Urn g i nUj io ibe present moment, dasbnt of ifae treaty of Tiliit *. 

A^ ««accMioR, Iherefare, lliat In conse<(uen£e of lb* caufer- 

wuM aeenre their cnnnitanca af emxs at Tiltil, (be garrisons of 

Ui taoj e e ta in the west, it would be Prussia were evacaaleo. And the 

pwd t l in Mm, in tbe prewnl clr- veteran troops of Prance be^u to 

caMlaMWS, Id make : fttlly awarti march from the Oder to llie Ebro ; 

IkH If be ineceede d h Spvb, it whHe, on the other hand, 40,000 

■Mid be aa e«iy ttnk again to re< Freireh conscripts were sent to Oer. 

daea tbe countries ia Germany, many.— AnolhVr visible effect of 

«Hek be no* oceofried. Dot, at tbe meetfpg at Erforth was an oSet 

the smne time ttiai be fothtd Mm- of peace on the part of Russia aud 

wtf Older the necesdty of retaRing France to the Brititb govemnieof, 

U» Hoopa from Gcranny, be wtdi- A flag of truce, wHh two cheers, 

<d t» Wde M much aa pMdhte tbe one a Frenthman, the other a Rua- 

natHiiii ibereia Implied, mid a- siarr, arrived October Slit, at 

*nt Ae des^m to which a ftrif con* Dover. The Frenchman, tiy or- 

vMnw of (bat weaitoess imght ders of lord Hawkesbury. who 

gtic birth. He therefore de^te- happened (hen to be at Walraer 

MMh cmiirtreil to give Ibe with- Caslle, was detaioed. The ltu»< 
[Q 2] siaa 

* TUi sentinieBl wa* eiipreHed on tondrj occ 
teatoPeieisba**. Aadk aiay he y i e w wi ri, 
I^Bt apd, by the eampaniiHi ud fuideof liui 



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SS» ANNUAL REGISTER, 18M. 

.'•iiui menfng«r was allovod to pro- contending for the fireservntion o^ 

ceed Qii tbe 22d to London. It all (hat i> dear to man, and whose 

wai the object of BuoDaparte in eKerlioiis in a cause so unqcstion- 

this overiure to lull itie British gg- ably jiul, his majesty has solemnly 

vernment inln a neglect or delay of pledged himself to sustain *." 
sending assistance to Spain,, and to Wliile the army of France lay in- 

excite a distrust of England in her active on the Ebro, and tlie passes 

allies : for, as to any effect that into the mountainous province of 

professions and. pacific dispositiuus Biscay, and Buonaparte was cm- 

on tiie part of^ Buonaparte might ployed in avertint; danger to fail 

bave on tbe minds of tbe French cause on the side of Germany and 

people, ttiey hfld become stale and Russia, the provincial juntas had 

altogether effelle. It was proposed, leisure to resolve themselves into 

by the overture to his Britannic one supreme and central junta, 
tn^csty, to enter into a negotiation The situation of I lie Spaniards,, 

for a general peace, in concert with when their country was ansuiled fay 

his majesty's allies, and to treat (he intrigues, the Irt^chery, and 

cither on the basis of utipoMHJcfu, the arms of Fnince, was without 

or on any other, ba«is consislent exwiiple in. their history, unfbre- 

wilb justice. Tbe king professed seen b; tbeir law^ and in op- 

his readiness to enter into such a position to their habits. In such 

negotiation iu concurrence witli his circnrostauces, it was necessary la 

allies ; ki tbe number of whom be give a direction to tbe public 

comprehended the Spanish nation, force, correspondent with tbe will 

In (n* reply returned by France to and sacrifices of the people. This 

this proposition of bb majesty, necessity gave rise to the juntas in 

(he Spanish nation was described tbe proviocss, which collected into 

b^ Ibe appellation of (be "Spa- themselves the whole authority of 

nish Insurants;" and the demand tbe nation, for the purpose of ei- 

for adnutting the existing govern- peiling the common enemy, and 

went of Spain, as a party to any maintaining mtemal order and ttan- 

negotialioD, was rejected as inad- quillity. Bat as soou as tlie capi- 

miasible and insulting. A declara- tal was delivered from the invaders, 

(ion, therefore, by bis majesty, was and Ike communicatiuu between 

published on the iSlbof Decern- the provinces re-estnlilisliHl, it he- 

ber, concluding as follows, " His came practicable, aa well as nect»- 

m^iesty deeply lameuts an issue by sary, Iu collect (be public authority, 

which the sufieriogs of Europe are which bad been dividi:d into is. 

aggrax'ated and prolonged. But many parts as there were provincial 

neither (he honour of bis majesty, govenunrnts, into one centre from, 

nor (be generosity of the Briti:ih whence the strengtli aud the will of 

nation, would admit of bis^m^esly's the nation mighl l>e called into >c- 

consenting (o commence a nego- (ion. A supreme and central junta, 

tiation by (lie ahanduoment of a formed by deputies nominated by 

brave and loyal people, who are tbe res^tective junta^ was tDslatled 

It 
• See tbe Wlink DccUratioa. State Piym, p. 3C4. 



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■ HISTORY OF EUROPE. " 239 

«t Aranjuez, -on Ibe 251h of Sep- lence Was subjoined: " If you do 
Iraiber. Tlie pmtdent per tnlerim this, may God help you. If not, 

*» Ihe TcncratHe count Florida may he, punish you, as liuving 

Bhnfa. Among ibe members we sworn in vain, by (lis holy name." 

fisd hro other distinguished iinmi's. The subscriber said. Amen, 
n. Don FVaneisco Palafoi, one of After a solen)n Te Deum, the 

tbe dtr^ties from Arra^on, and deputies walked between two lines 

Don Melchior de Jovellanos, one of troops, to the rojal palace, • 

of tbe two from Aslurlas. After liall of wbicli was cnnsecraleH to 

litanug mass, which was cele- their sessions. An immense mul- 

hittd by the primate of La- tiUide of all ranks and descriptioiu 

itrKra, auo arclibishop, and otie of persons, that liad asseuibled to 

of Ihe members of the junta for Se- see this ceremony, giving way to 

TJIf, the following oath, aelaii- the mo^t ardent enthusiasm, made 

oiilered aa Ibe hoty Evangelists, the air resound with the cry of Ftp* 

■w taken by' all the deputies — Fernando Srptimo. 
" You swear fay God, and all the On the openJug of the gates of 

M; Evangelists, and by Jesus Ibe paUce, tlial had been so long 

Christ criiciAed, whose sacred shut, the sad solitude of (be mag- . 

iatgge is before you, that in the niticeni mansion of tbeir kings, and 

anax of the supreme and sove- the recollection of the epoch at 

in^ centr^ junta, you will de- wbich, and of tlie reasons for 

(ad and promote the conservation which the gates had been shut, 

Ml advancement of our holy, Ca- drew tears from every eye, und 

•liolif. Apostolical, anil Roman re- an universal cry of vengeance 

^<pofi ; liial you will be faithful to against the authors of so profound 

oar august sovereign Ferdinand calamities and such pungent sor- 

^n. and Ihat you will maintain his rows. 

ligbls, and lib sovereignty. That Tbe oalli taken by the supreme 

}(>« will cmicar in the support of junta, a kind of Spanish Bill of 

«v r^bls and privileges, our laws Rights, they repeated, or re-eclioed 

^ customs, and above all those, in a proclamation to the Spanish 

mncemin^ the succession of the nation; in which, after a variety of 

icigiiing ^mily, according to the most judicious observations, Ihey 

wder established by the laws afore- say, " Let us be constant, and we 

^. Id short, that you will ^ive shall gather the fruits of victory : 

TOfir vole for every measure calcu- the laws of religion satisfied ; our 

taed for the general good, the monarch either restored or aveng- 

prwi)eriiy of the kingdom, and the ed : the fundamental laws of the 

•wlioration of its customs. That monarchy restored, and consecrat- 

!<n wilt observe secrecy in all cases ed in a manner solemn and con- 

•bere secrecy is proper. TTial you sonant wiHi civil/liberly ; the fbun- 

■ill protect the laws ag^nst all lua- tains of public prosperity pniiriug 

Im^nice, and prosecute tbeir ene- benefits aponlaneously anrl without 

"^ even at the expence of youi' obstruction ; our relations with our 

Sfc, jour personal safety, and your colonies drawn more closely, be- 

fettnue.'' come more fraternal, and conse- 

ThefonDola of assent was, " / quenily more useful; in fine, ac- 

WMT tUt/* Ibt fbllowtDg KD- tinty, industry, taknii, and virtues 
[Q 3} aUmtdated 

n ,1 -i.Gixi'^le 



890 ANNUAL EEGI8TER, 180S. 

^timublcd um] ivmrded : lo lucfa prcssion of iheaipencuof iherojF- 

t dfgree of splendour and for- itl housclwld, llie enohnous luaw 

luUBi w« flliall raJK our country, if which had iK^n uuiuallji devourtd 

we ourulvei corpespoiid with the by the irMiliubU avarice tind prafuM 

inagnific«at circuQulaucei tUtit sur- dooalioot of the farourite, aud the 

round ui. These are the viewa, conluration of ihe cstilea of thou 

and Ihii is the plan which lh<> juals unworthy Spaniard* who bad Ndni 

yropoMd to itwlf from Ihe titst iiio- and fled with the uiutper from 

meal of itl iostallalioii. Iti rmib- Mttdrid. Tlieie resource! sufficed 

btn, cbnrged with au authority ■« for their fir«t operations without 

grMti and raikdcr^ni; IJieiuselves le- any new taxes on the people. The 

Ifonuble by entertaining afid en* lint vftorts of tbe junta were di- 

eenraging hopes so Haltering, ace reeled to the setting in inolioD 

Dcverlheleu fully aware of the dif- all the troops in Andalu- 

^cullies they have to conquer is sia, Grenada, and EstntiMadura, 

order lo realize them, the enormi- as well as the new levies) (o the 

ts of the weight that bangs over tnuisportation if Pupoot'i amyi 

tfiem, and the dangers to which agrcrably to treaty: and lo the 

they are exposed. But they will furnishing of the Engtiih ariay, 

tfaiflk Ibeir fisligues, and the de- that had vanquished Junot, wiih 

volioueftlteirpersoni to the service the mean* of uiarchiug from Por- 

•f their eouiilry well paid, if lltey tugal to join the SpatiiariU. la 

fuceeed iw inspiring Spaninrds with the midst oftiiese cares, Ibay stot 

)bat cwfidfBcc without which ibv envoys to demaiid succours from 

public good cavHot be secured, Britain. Tlie liirces of the p>- 

•nd, which tjie country dares to trioti, includii^ now the enny of 

affirm. It weiils, fntni the recti* Runiaua, and the Spanish rcgi- 

tude of its principles and the pu* ineBis that bad been cuobned ia 

Vity of its inletitioiu *. Iiullts of ships by Junol, were di* 

The supreme eeutrat juuta was vided ii)to three, aud disposed ia 

|wkauwlM%«d by the caunctl of suchamaaueraslofiirnilo^h«r,tO' 

Ctslille, and dl the other coosti> uards^teendofOctober.oDegrand 

tuted aHlboriliu in Ibe hiagdooi. aniiy. The eastern wing was coni' 

The , junta, amongst its fint ftcia, nisndvd by geuenil Joseph PalafuK i 

appointed a xew council of "war, the nuiilt-westero, by general Blake; 

, «w)sisllsg of five iiienibars, the pre- the centre, by geaend CaslBOOs.— 

aidcnl of which waa general Cus- The numbw under gener»[ Blake 

taoba. The other runr tovrabera was csmputtd at £5,000 : that uo- 

ware Pon Tiiwus Mtirla, the maf' der general Castuios at 6i,000) 

qui* He Castetar, Ibe mar«|His del and that under the orders of gaio- 

Fdacia, and Dm \idonie Buerre. ral PatafM, at 30,000. Oeweral 

In pfueeuulion «f their designs it CiwtaMi was cMHuiander in chief, 

WHS neeesMry, iu the first place, ta Beside* these there waa a null k< 

MIend to the grand ^iug of g»- nty in EatraiHadura, vtd another in 

TCrnmeiil, tba tineuces. Great Catalonia. Tb« position* of the 

aavhigi war« onhU frew tin hi|^ Fnnch army tamuMd, with soma 

vantlioiit 

««Mllll<()l>)B«r<Ua|«Mlanialisn. ClMnApeMs MA 

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HISTORY OF EUROPE. fiSl 

oa tbi wbole pretty by which the fint niHary «mb> 

■Mn ine nme v in AugMt ; ill nmoder in Ibe prcMot, Bod one ef 

1^ lonnb Ibe oceaot its lell on the greatett of my tgt, st the 

An^D^ iU ftoai on the Ebro, heftd of a Dumerous wcU etjuip* 

Ilwu slfengtbenecl Itdb time to cd, iDit veleniianny, Bccustomed 

liMebyreiurofGeiueDtirromFrance. to conqaer, and of which liie dif- 

Ik deapi of the ^moiudi wai, fereiit difiuoot were ako uDderlbe 

with the right and left wii^ of orders of the ablest genenb, — it 

Ihcir gntnd army to turn the wiiifti wquUI be idle in tlie preseot p^ 

tt the French amy, whilst Casta- riod of atriking events Collow- 

aoi Aould make a *igorous attack, ing each other in rapid tueoeesion, 

ad break through their ceotie. to detail the steps by which auch 

B ao na pnita having onlervd a ■ comroaadef, with such an amy, 

Iny uf IfiO.OOO conscripts, set tkrongh tlie boldness of hi* tactic^ 

traopi in molioB for Spain, and, the combination of Itis maventenl% 

^nwidcd for all thai might be de- and the rapidity of his marches ' 

■andrd by tiie cooliiwencici of defeated armies scarcely yet oign- 

«ar, set a«t from Paris for Spain nized, chieiy composed of new te- 

■ilhoet waitiiig fpr an anawer to the vies, without being properly eqa^ 

omtmfar a ncgotinlion with the ped, ivilhout ngular supplies of 

Bnlisb go>Tereaieot, in like manner provisions, and extended over too 

M he had bailened (o meet the large a qmce o£ greaod wilboat 

PnwriBi, leaving lord Lttudeniale suficiently stivngtbuiag the liue of 

Is di^Mita with his minieters about their cowmunicalion. AgrecaUjr 

the basis of a negotialion in ibe to (be general plan of operalioM 

Wimma of 1806. With his usual above Hated, general CaManoa 

oisrity, haviiv set out freai Ram> crossed the Ebre at the three poiato 

t s u iB i i , October SOtb, be arrived at with only a shew of rcsistBoce^ aari 

l i j iw n OB Um Sd of November, be was au&red to Mb farwat<d 

■d oa ibc Sih, aceoMpaaied by a detachment^ and Islw po 



t of 13,000 Bien, be of Lerin, Viana, Capporaao, and 

jsMdbisbcolberJascpbatViHoria. other Frewcb pods on the left bank' 

htisMof ficafleBuonapvtsfaaf of the Ebro. The French did not 

fnper peraoDi oni^oycd to fitr> oppooe hb onwaid course towaiids 

■lb him witfa the meet correct to- Pampehitia, my Arthcr than wm 

iwyipytji na^ <rf difiennt 4er- acccsuuy toconceal Ibeir own pfau 

■teif^ on a great scale: by which of operatiotN. Uarshal Monocv* 

■on^ beiif made acijUBinted by the duke of Coniegliaoo, waa <»• 

b generals with the ivlative po- reeled with the left wug of tb* 

atiam of Ibe of poaU armies, be French army to advance alowg tb« 

JiMabkH to gvn g— end dirac- bmiks of the Alagoaand tbeEbro, 

tim^ CMB «1 a great disUnoe.— and inslead of opfMMmg tbe pa^ 

1W BMMpaigi Md been apm c d sage, by preaenlii^ a weak front, 

waadmg to bis diMctian^ a lew to decoy general Caslanos acrMS 

*^ befara bis arivaL tbe Ebro. Tbe siralmem lari 



ift befara bis arivaL tbe Ebro. Tbe siralmem bmnag 

k wsulJ Mt wrvc way pa tp aw sHceeetled comptetely, Maeshd 
wlbv of amuaamaat or butniUiaii Ney, the duhc of Etchingcq. wilh 
B«ing tba bna of tb* 
£bro» 

D,g,t,7P:hy Google 



toaiM into cfMailof I^jmum biii division, wyng tba bna of tb* 
[Q4] £bro» 



S32 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

Ebro.anddashingforwardwithgreat sition, bir a stratagem similar to 

celerity tiiK|)aralecolumns,tooklhe lliat wliicb had drawn general Cas- - 

Spanish poslit al L'^gfono and Co- tanos to the left bank of the Ebro, 

lahora, threw (he whole couDtry tn advance lo Bai^os, of which he 

into alarm and coiifusioD, and cut took pouession without resistance, 

off the cnmmunicalion between Herelhe French fellon bimwithsu- 

Ihe armies respectively under the periormimbers and muted bis army, 

command of general Blake and aft<r a gallant resntance' for twelve 

general Castanos. hours, and almost annihilated it. 

In a series of actions from the The count, with the small remains 

31st of October, the army under of his army, fled to Lerma, and 

general Blake was driven from post from thence to Aranda. 
to post ; fromDiii'ango toGuenas; The French, having routed and 

from Ouenai toValmaseda; from dispersed the armies of (he norlh- 

Valmaseda to Espiiiosa. In a of Spain, and of Eslramadnra, 

strong position there, the Gallician next fell on the central army un- 

anny made a stand, in order to der Castanos; and an engagement 

save its magazines and artillery, in ensued at Tudela, 33d November, 

vain. After a brave resistance, con- which fixed the tate of the ctin- 

tinued for two days, they were paigu. It is thiu described clearir. 

obliged tn retreat with precipitation, intelligibly, and, we doubt not in 

During the conflict at Espinosa, a the least, ^ithfully, in the eleventli 

detaclmient was sent a;;ainst the bulletin of the graud French army, 

last retreat of the (Tallicians, Rey- " On the 22d of November, at the 

nosa. At break of day, 1 1tli of break of day, the French army be- 

Novetiiber, tliey were suddenly at- gan its mard). It took its aireo 

tacked on both their right, left, and lion to Calaliorra, where on the 

centre. Tliey were force<l to con- evening before, were th« head 

suit tlieir safely by flioht ; throwing quarters of Castanos. Finding that 

away their arms and colours, and town evacuated, it marched on 

aban<louing their artillery. Gene- Alfaro, from whence the enemy 

ral Blake, with the remains of his had also retretited. On the 23d, at 

broken :irmy, took refuge in Astn- break of day, the general of dtvi- 

rias. Wliat'remained of the corps sioD, Lefevre, at the head of the 

of the marquis of Koniana, that cavalry, and supported by the di- 

bad formed part of the Gallician vision of general Morlat, forming 

army, fle'i first to St. Andero, and the advanced guard, met with the 

afterwards to Asturias. Tlie enemy. He immediately gave in- 

Spauianls were ptirsued closely by formation to the duke of Moote- 

marbhal Sonlt, duke of Dalmatia, bello, who found the army of the 

the van of whose army entered St. enemy in seven divisiont, consisting 

Andern on the l€lh. The bishop of 45,000 men, under arms, with 

of St. Aiidcri) tuuk refuge in an its right before Tudela, and its left 

English frigate. occupying a league and'an half, r 

In the mean time the Estrama- diapositibn altogether fanlty. The 

■durau army, umler the command Arragonese were on the right, the 

ot the cuodt Belvedere, a young Iroopsof Valencia and New Caitille 

past, was permitted wjibont uppo- in the centre* and the llirec divi- 



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HISTORY OF EUROPE. ajj 

•MMs of Awlalusia, wbich peaeral \rhich had betn cut off fled in dis- 
Catanos commaiided more especi- order to Tarragona anil Agreda. 
alt*, formed the left. Forty pieces Five ihnusanil Spaniards, alt troops 
of caoDoa coTered the enemy's of the line, were taken prisoners in 
line. the pursuit. No quarter was given 
** At nine in the morning Ihe co> to any of the peasants foiiod in 
Umot of the French army began arms. This army of 45,000 men 
tn di^tlay themselves with that or- has been thus beaten and defeated, 
der, regularily, and coolness, which « ithout our having bad more than 
ckaraderise veteran troops. Situa- 6000 men engaged. TheT>attle of 
Hoas were chosen for establishing Burgos had smitten the centre of 
briierieg, with sixty pieces of can- the enemy, and the battle of Espi- 
Don; but the impetuosity of the nosa, the right ; the battle of Tu- 
French troops, and the inquietude dels has struck the lett Victory 
of the enemy, did not alton time has thus struck as with a thunder- 
fer this. The Spaniards were al. bolt, and dispersed the whole 
Rtdy vanquished by the order and league of the enemy." 
Movements of the French army. The By tbe battle of Tudela the road 
dake of Montebello causMl the was laid open to Madrid, On the 
centre to be pierced by Ihe divi- S^th of November, a division of 
son of general Maurice Matthews, the Frencli army, under tbe com- 
Tbe general of division Lefevre, mand of general Victor, duke of 
with his cavalry, immediately pas- Belluno, arrived at the pass of the 
std OD tbe trot through this open- Sierra Morena, called Puerto, It 
JDg, and by a quarter wheel to tbe was defended by 13,000 men of 
left, enveloped the enemy. The the Spanish army of reserve, under 
aiomenl when half (he enemy's line tbe orders of general San Juan, 
feond itself thus turned and de- The Puerto, or narrow neck of 
Irated, was that in which general le land forming tlie pass, was inter- 
Gnnge attacked the village of Cas- seeled b^ a trench, fortified with 
ante, where tbe line of Castanos sixteen pteres of cannon. While a 
was placed, which did not exhibita part of Ihe French advanced to the 
better countenance Dian the right, Puerto by the road, with six pieces 
bat abandoned tbe field oF battle, of artillery, other columns gamed 
leaving behind it its artillery, and the hei;;hls on the left. A discharge 
a great number of prisoners. The of musketry and cannon was niain- 
(avalry pnnued the remains of the tained for some little lime on both 
enemy's army to Mallen, in the di- ndes. A charge made bv general 
recttoD of Saragossa, and to Tarra- Monlbrun, at the head of the P»- 
gosa, in tbe direction of Aereda. Ush light horse, decided tbe conleit. 
Seven standards, thirty pieces of Tbe S^taniards fled, leaving behind 
ctBDoo, twelve colonels, three ban- tliem their artillery and standards ; 
<Ued cheers, nere taken. Four and, as tlie French Bulletin states, 
tbonsand Spaniards were left dead their muskets: but this, from sub- 
on the field of battle, or driven sequent evenls, appears not lo have 
into the Ebro, While a part of tbe been truth, 
fb^tives retired to Saragoma, the Advanced parties of tbe French 
Ml ttiii; of the Spani^ um; cav^h^ appeared on the Isl of De- 



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f54 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

cnnber, before Madrid. At Ihii Mr. Stuart, the Brilith trnay U 
period, the inhabitaiUs of ihii city Mndrid.wupreMot DouT.Moda 
>>ere busily employed in laising pa- took ilie fead, and eipatiated aj 
lisadei, and couslrucliug redoubta. great leiiglh on tlie bopdew Hale 
breaftiiiig a delemiiued spirit of re- of sflaira ; and urged the neceuitjt 
•ictance. Tlie tnemy was beaten of imwediatelyrapilulalu^ for Ma- 
back from ctrtab galea several drid. Wbeii he lat dowo, aaother 
limes: but on the third, lliej' were councellor roar, and reproached 
in Besaesuna of the gale of AlcaU : Morla for Iiu proposal. He wid 
KDualMof ltwiteteiro,thereduclion thai litis advice was more auiled to 
of which place coat the assailants a minister of JoiepU BuouaparUi 
very dear, in the loss, it was com- than to one ol' king Ferdinand, 
putad, of geur iOOO meu in killed Two days after this discussion, Doa 
ud wounded. The jiinla tlkcn T. Morla, logalher with Ibe prince 
Iroiiled a white flag. The people of_^ of Castel Franco, to whom tbe d>> 
Madrid pulled down the flag,* fence of the capital bad been sow 
and persisted in tlieir desij^p of dc- milted by the supreme junta, sent a 
lending tbe city ; but thi* ealbu- di^palch to Sir John Moore, de- 
siasm soon began to subside, for scrdjiogtheformidabieSpanishfrna 
want of leaders to keep it up and to that was asvembled at IVladiid i and 
direct it. And when lliey learat for presaiug faim to advance, with all 
Mrlain that tbe French were forli- possible expeditiou to tbe capital, 
fying ibemselvei in the Releiro, they If Sir John Moore had imI potltt- 
D^an to retire to their teopective sed, iu an exiraordiiiary degree, «f* 
Iwuses. cumtpeclion. pestetratiuu, and firn- 
Duriog tbe oight of December nen, thetoJiciUtionsofOwtraitor^ 
tbeSd, aSpaoiib officer who had andtbotetooofUr.HooklianiFrerei 
been taken prisoner in tl>e afiiir «f minister pleupoleDtaiy frora bit 
Somosierra, brought a meata^ from firitiinnic' in^esty to tiw suprCMe 

Sneral B«rtliier, summoning for juotaibutawrstcbedodDitlerofwar, 

E second time Madrid to surreo* would bflvethrownhmandbislittlc 

der. The Marquis of Castellar, army completely uOo Ui« bonds of 

captain general of C^stille, sent in lli« Freneb. 

jKuwer a letter to Berihier, demand- We find many inisnpreacntaliaM 

lag a susjKiuioN of hostilities, that in tbe Spaoiib gasettes of tbat tiaw, 

be might have time for coiKulling and are at a loss in some instansfi 

tbcsaperior autboritiet, Bat (here wbctbertoset ibeaidowii tetbcac- 

ifm no need or use in this. Tba cauiit of folly, or a traitaroas design 

fuperior autborilies, who ^^ipear to lull tbe SpoDtards, prane to be 

- plainly tu bave bad a secret sorres- so lulled, into a state of fidse kcwk 

ponduKe with iIk anaf^y, bad af> ly and maclioo, AlW^aotwiBWu 

icady come to a detemuiation on had olficiatly notilied ta tbecenltal 

thcsultject Madrid was undoubt- junta, abouttbe middle of Oclobafi 

edly given up through treachery, tbat the army be bad bcoi able t* 

When iatelUgence tliat the French collect amouwled to ii» nwrc tliaa 

bad forced ihe passage of tbe Sierra from Q2 to 33,000 men ; we fiad il 

Morcua reached Madrid, a coNncil slafced in the Madrid gaaelte of Oc- 

VH bek^ «t whidi the boiwunblc tober tbe If lit, tbat f o,IWO mm 

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HISTORY OF EUROPE. S3S 

M pHSed tliroueli tbe town of for mod faith: but Iwvtng agtvcd 

Lifo. — At Madrid. November the to tlie coDventian of Cinira, tbef 

SM, was publuhed Ihe following observed it." Morla's fortune mat 

prodaoiatian, " Spaiuards, ihe cen- military rank were preserved to hin>. 

Iril junta of the government of (lie Ttie same indulgence was stitwa t« 

kisgdom, after having taken all liis associates, who having joiuerf 

neasores in its power (o defeat the him in helrajin^ lfa<ir country, did 

nesiy, who, continuing hit attack^ not disdaio to live under the (>r»- 

Ini advanced into Ihe ne'^hbour- teclinnof the usurocr. Mwla, iaa 

beod of Soruosa. addresses you lor eircular letter addressed to the Aw 

the purpose of putting you OD SKHif dalunans, endeavoured to 4nw 

pnH a^Dst the intrigues with Ihem nver to the tide of king Jo- 

■hicfa tite perfidious aseiits of Na- seph ; who, he told tbein, was a 

pokon endeavour to alarm and de- man of great mildness and hunta- 

cote you, bj increasing the num- nily of disposition. 

bcTDfLbecnemy'stroops.whohard- Buonaparte addressed a nwnf> 

hunount to SOOOmeo, accordinj; to festo to the Spanisli nalbn, in which 

uertport of the general whom the he promised tliem all anod ttiiags 

JBotahascbargedwitbthe defence of if they received JoscpFi fnr ihwr 

ibeiaiportant post of Guadarama." king sincerely and with aU ihev 

He letter of the marquis of Cas- beari. — If not, lie would put tli* 

Idhr, sent In Berthier io the rooro- aawn en his own lieat^ treat then 

ii|oflhe 4(h. produced apercra|v as a conqutred province, and find 

lory samraons to surrender imme- another Kingdon fur his brxttlier ; 

&lcly. In tiieeveoingofthcsame for God bad given him both IIm 

diy, Don Thomas Murla and Don inclination and the power to ttH^ 

BntrandoTriale waited on Berlhier, mount all obstacle*, 

vid were introduced hybJm to Buo- The tro^M that had fled fromtb* 

a^orte: wliolold them, with aster* Puerto, or gate of GuadaraiM, 

cwiultBUice, and in a decided haviog arrived, ob the 3d of D*. 

Uae of voice, lliat if the city did c«ml>er, almost under tfic walk •( 

M tender iU suhmission by five Madrid, demanded with loud ciieR 

or six o'clock next morning, it to he led to its defenca. Thair 

**uU be taken by assault, and even commander. Count St. Juan, who 

«H foDttd with arms in his faanw OpfMaed so dangerous an attcDql^ 

put tb the iword. The Spaaish was mastiacred. 

troops m Madrid were sent off in Though Ibe praragativr* of m> 

thedaad of night, hjr the gates of ture may be often oeglaele4 fof 

Suovia and Tudela. aga^ it> ibe progrew of tinw u4 

Buonaparte^ with effected mag- evawls tbey are aacriad looMr «t 

naimity, eitcoded his clemeac; later. Lcog bad nen at grniinl 

to Ibe degraded depnlalion from views and jyecMlaUoN r«igral4«d thai 

(Ik junta. Ta conceal their con- so fait a paction of liw fUbe, s<t 

ttit witk bias, and al the same abimdaut in all the — ttsarki wi4 

(MM to gntifj bis splenetic hu- even luxaries of life, and sa wcH 

■oar, h« cunningly taunted Mnr- sttualed for t&e coduhmco wf Mm 

bforhii^nner^tfidy inltrtialung world, as South AqKiica, iha«ldba 

>^ OlMlulaUon WW Dupout. " The auAeied U languith under m ilMrtt ' 

In^iibi" laid tic" are qalrcaowned aisled ijialaaiof tynaqy aad ^» 



P:h»GO()'^ic 



S36 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

Eression. The grand interest excited of the monster who wislwd to usurp 
y Ihe slate of Spain in 1 SOS, was, his Ihrone. The vengeance of ma- 
Ihe consideration that it would in all ny, as is natural in burning dtmates, 
probabilityseverthemothercouiitry would have been wrecked on on- 
from the colonies, and open a new offending iuitividuali of the French 
theatreontheotbersideoftheAllao- nation. Intlie Flohdas the French 
licthatwouldchangethepolilicsand wereso apprehensive of fdllingvic- 
improve the condition of lite world, tints to the vengeance of the Sjia- 
The balance of Europe being over- niards, that they fled with Iheir 
thrown, it was a consolation to look efTects into the tcrritoTTes of the 
to a balance on a grand scale : a United Stales. But Ihe modeni- 
'bilance of the world. It was not tion, wisdom, and Justice of men in 
indeed the contemplation of a autliority, restrained the furv of 
magnificent order of afiairs that at \hi populace. The proclamations 
first aroused the Spanbh colonies of the Spanish governors in the co- 
to tbe exercise of their fdcullies, lonies; for sense, reason, and justice 
but that ardent devotiou to the mo- equal those of old Spain, and for a 
Barch, by which the Spaniards are fervent eloquence, perhaps even ex- 
particularly distinguished, and in- ceed them. The proclamalinn of 
dignatioD against his cruel and per- Marcius Somernelos, commander 
fidious oppressor. But it was easy in chief of the land foixes, and go- 
to foresee, that the great Spanish vernor of the isles of Cuba, in a 
continent iu .\merica with the ad- proclamation 18th of July, exhorts 
jacent isles, ibrcedinlo a situation the natives to repress the natural 
in which it was under a necessity of irapetuosity of their cliaracter, and 
governing and acting for itself, to let the peaceable French who 
would never return to such a slate hadsoughtan asylumamongsttfaeni 
of dependence and d^ection as that from oppression, find protection. 
under which it had laboured for The marquis ofVilla Vicen^s, com- 
centuries, even though king Ferdi- mander in chief of the marine, in 
nand should be restored to hb one of the same date, says, " Let 
throne, which became every day us swear that if every Spaniard b 
less and less probable. our mother country sbould fall. 

The central junta, in conformity which ought not and cannot ' be- 

with the uniform intentions of the feared, Spain, notwithstanding this, 

central juntas, declared thatthecolo- shall not cease to exist. Is not tliis 

nies in Asia and America should not country also Spain? Arenotwealso 

be considered as dependent provin- SpaniardsT AncUhall notFerdinand 

c«,butenjoyaUlheprivilegesoflbe VII. and his successors reign over 

metropolisandmotbercountry. This usi — Remember I— The French in 

wasalsodeclaredjnthenewconstitu- Cuba are not mercenary assassinst 

tionframedforSpainbyBuonaparte. Not servants or subjects of Napft- 

In the Canaries, in Mexico, and leon." General Unieres, goveraor 

the Floridas, Cuba and the other of Buenos Avres, a Frencfaman, in 

islands, and throughout Ihe whole bis proclamation upon the stale of 

«f South America, every Spaniard, afiair8,afterreGommeiidingconcord, 

as if animated by tbe same soul, said, " Let us imitate the example 

hrealhed tbe saine sentiments of of our ancestors In this happy land, 

4evo(iootothe king and delestatioa who wisely escaped the disasters 

that 
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HISTORY OF EUROPE. 237 

Ite ifBtthd SfMin in Ibe mx f^ tbe of povemiDeal. The most remark-. 

wcctwoD, byawailiogtbefateofUie able article iu Ibe statement is the 

Bother GouDtry, to obey tbe legiti- creation of hereditary nobililv, . 

Mte aothority occupyug itie w- which is declared to be eaeutial ui 

wwgnly." HoatiJities were e»ery a hereditary monarchy. The main 

•bere ebe declared against France, drift of Buunopiirte, in his internal 

■d Ibe most liberal and piompt regulations, aeems to be to root out 

oatributioDs leoutted to tbe pa- all iDemorialsof liberty.andtoesta- 

Hiols in Old Spain, This year the blish in France a despotic ganm- 

Fnacb were driven out of tbe menl, a military costume, and a 

afaodt of Porto Rico, Dcseada, and military spirit. Sweden in the be- 

Korie Galantc ginning of tbe year might have 

TV great a&ira of Europe in made her peace with France and - 

im ire exhibited in the contest Russia. Tbe king, with the general 

ktliteni Spain and Portugal, with voice of the nation, chose a braver, 

tifiially Great Britain, on the one but ni'ore impolitic part. Aflerthe 

|art;aDd ttie ntler of Prance, aided basest attempts on tlte part of Ibe 

1? ijii vassal princes and kings, on Russians, tutored, it would seem, in 

Ike otbrr. Tbe annali of otbev'' Ibeacbool of their alliesihe French, 

mutiies sink almost into provin- to seduce the Swedi^ nation from 

Oil hijloiy. What is most promi- their allegiance to their king, aitd 

■Dt and important in the history tbeir duty to their country, t and a- 

ofSfnin, Great Britain, uid France, rapid succession of the most san- 

jlttiBig that period, has been seen guinary battles, where the Swedes 

■ the pesent Barialive, To nbal nere bendmg, and ready to fall, 
"(Mini France, however, it may never to rise again, under the over* 
^proper to add, that in the b^n- wbelmingpowerofRussia, theSwe- 
ng of tbe year Buonaparte, as a disfagovemmentsignedacouvention 
pnptralion for the farther esten- on the 7tli of November, by which 
iHa sod consolidation of bis enifHre, Finland, tbe granary of tbe kiog- 
■■Mied to France, and took posses- dom, was virtually given up to 
■« of the military posts of Kebi, Rustia. The heroic king of Sweden 
Vctel, CasMl on tlie Rhine, and was iiot deserted in this extivmity 
^luU^. It was probably vitb si- of fortune by bis ally. Britain. A 
bdu virin that he established and naval force under admiral Keats 
(BdtnredaOreekbisboprickinDal- drove the Russian squadrons into 
■Mit. Tbe atateof tlie French em- their ports, where they were held 
file in its mtemat as well as external in a state of blockade. A land force 
nlitions, as exhibited by the mini- of 10,000 menjUndertbeconimand 
^ of Buonaparte, wilt be found of Sir Joba Moore, was sent in Ibe 

■ another part of this volume *. mmth of May to assist Sweden, 
Svcli papers, notwithstanding their against a combined attack from 
bht colouring and misrepresntatton Russia, France, and Denmark. On 
^ Axt^diMilosc the spirit and views tbe 171b of May, this army reached 

Oottenbnrgh, 
' Stare Papen, p. MS. 
^IV tmie arts af tbe Rebsoub do not «eem to Iwve been altoaettter frnitlesi. 
^lw»f ilieSweWiiili fOTlresmxlfloliDa of Swe«bflrg, there JatTcryreawn tiabe-- 
*^**stlie<ftcroftrcadmT> The {i>rtj«ii efSweabarf is second only t«tbo» 

•fSikntUr awl Malta. ' 



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«S» ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

0»llmbur^,bulwasmtpennitlad, b^ Ifae aaquililwR of Smtfiih tit- 

toiaBd, Sir John Uoare reptiKd t« land, llwy ilill liept e ttrady ey« 

Sbntklraliu la communkalt; bti ar- on liie long^medllaMd pr(>}ert f»f 

den, Md I* CMtterl innMirM ftir esteDding (heir em|)lre to the Bm« 

ttwfecurity of Swfldm. He th«ra plmnis, bytlra ■ic^kition of Htrt- 

IhiimI. Id his turyriM, tfaal tfaoaoh dam, Walladiw, mkI Benaraltta. 

ttw Swfdiili >Miiy wu qnhe isHiffi* Tbe nimilNr of thair troopt in Mef- 

cinrt for twem dcfemivd opemion*, davii and Wallaelib, in IbcBUlaiini 

b« aHtjntj'a thouglrts were wkolly »f 1*00, «as ralMd lo opvnnis of 

iot*»t 01) OMiqual. ItwHifintpto- tOjOOOiuni. To lic«lbe«eB great 

|Mie4,lbatllw British AouMr«niain iiuintMr of TurkWi troops marcfaed 

m tbeir ittipt, till aoait SwadMi regl> from Itme to lime froa ConataBtioo- 

MMDta ifaailld b« coUected a( Got- pie and otfcet places, (o tb« Danube : 

iMburgk. and iImI IIm combimd and of tbae no iatoqMderable Dinii> 

faf«« shmriil laad, and conqiiar bcr had been IraliMdlnlbaEuTepeaB 

Zealand. Upoa an etaaiaalian o# nianiMr, and taught the nse of tht 

tbe pUo, it was fo«ind and adiniUMl, bayoMel. TIm reignfc^ sultmi bad 

IbatllM iriaod of Zeabnd,bawd« beeodepDwd, ■sdanewonephcctl 

■evttal atioog farlresKS, oMttaiuad M the tfaroM, under the ini«em« 

m regular farce, tar lupflrior to any ef Mnstapba Balraclar, a rigor* 

tiaU eould be braugbl I* bear et», bold, aad, hr a Tark, n en- 

agaiiut k i awl abo, tliat tke iskmd ligklaned maa. HMwilhtrfmHng 

of Fua«M was faU of French and tbe many aitaniple* sf the deHrut- 

Spmuik Iroopi, which eodd net be tiea sf ikosa wIm olMmptad ina»' 

pferealed from erowDg over in vatiene, be dared, wllb an energy 

small parlies. It was naal prepoe. Ibst ikewed no mercy, to ^iee of- 

ed thai tke British ateae abmid fiuica t» Mte Jaaksaries, by tbe h*« 

had •■ Fiaknd, itarw a fortiwai, troductiasi of knpoeiaot veGulatleiM 

«nd take a peailio a there. Bat Sir into the army, which be ptoneded 

JohD IMoere repeeanlcd, that ten iaaewnadellkig, Bsm4laaiMerew»- 

tkousacd British troepi ware wbaUy i«g iti ■mabem. He was e^iMjr 

JUiBftcicattaeB t aw tn theprwdpwl atlenlive M lke> Nmigth and im- 

fteee ef tbe EiMsian eapare, wUeb proveoMnt of theTurlmk Seet, M* 

«*nld tpiitkly be broagbt against detnaaded « oetMa auiAer of 

MitnatapelBlsoMaaPelanbttrgk. handi, not only from aM tradfag 

■*"Sir JohBcatapcd froai ike rewn^ vrntik, ket atw> frem lidnag beala. 

Meat ef his awettisk nrajes^ in die- Tbe eneer of Bainelar, tn |>rop«v. 

DMA Md coirformablv to kia hi- lie* lo ke vlgoni sad awhcily, was 

«nHti0M, kemwkl baak Ma Mite of ikort damflont on Ibe I4(fc of 

WW to fiaghaid. In caaeeqaeiiee Ke w eaiber, ai day-bMak, tbe jBBi»> 

of Iw diMilaaiM ami MeaMi^ m- sarier fidi upas tbe sieneDe, pHiici> 

|NM> of aAare ia Swadea, Lewie pal oOaere •# flhc NiaDainl Oedid.* 

XVttU tt Finoa^ wbb Nh ■wmi ml MaHKretl all Iha pwdaaiu ot 

«4 Iba dMbaae t4 AngwaUnn. «rtbe gnmd tWarfbM eime ki Aeir 

toakfdiiga,ti the month of August, way. The ttemcns were forced to 

inEogland. siibiii|La(tetaloti2rc»islaiKe. Qa 

Aa tke Rtrahm acquired an e^ Ae Iftn.fhe ianiemrieiSHaunej (^ 

InnioiiofteiiitinjeauMowbuul kigk vaU* of ika Mn|li»p >nwy 

• te Vol XUX- Hkt Bw. p. If 1. 

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HISTORY OF EUnOPE. 9«9 

AMy M tUt, tiM graw) vizlet nHmtTntv, kgaUat lie irwiligiuMi 

<iMlli A the unfariunatfl Musta- and uigutt pioiwifaig of lW«n»* 

pta IV. who wd • pmoaor (hara, perar af tb* ^YHcti towardi Uie 

Umt hiiiwrif lip in Us mm pniaec bolj' Bpoilalieal sec. He foriMllj 

*rilh pw ptwwlef , of wlitcli b« hMl exeoramwitatod Inhi, laproelam** 

pw rp ai el y provrdod a lar^ c|uaiilit;f tiooaa^dresMit lo Ihc Spmbh, Pmw. 

bttee-fau^ lo premit bit fallHig luffutse, aod all aahef Calbolic n^ 

•life iato the bands of bis eiitmie*. Uom, be ciliortacl UieM to the do> 

TIm mm the Ibird rvrdatwa tkti ftnt* of Um altar smI tba thiMO, 

W hafipcaMd at CoBitaaliiiafrio n at iha Inniil of Ihoir livas, aa m«H 

Ihcipacc of eif!lile^it ■HOHths: uO' a* the vi^aaa of tkcir lartuao. 

*rr be<MC had the lnibdeot im- Tbo affvotiafr paswe in Iba EvaiK 

banlil^ of thaTnHuaii gowanmeat gdarta, deacrihuig ate raniorac of 

htm 'ahiUUd in lo atvUuHg a tile diioiplc and apaalk Pattr, at 

■aHwr. tm bHJiig dooiad hi* Savioar, wa* 

In Ilnl; llie m—t p t owaw iil finely and pathetictUy applied hj 

tnatt iMte tke trauferancc of Iha tba Ronwa Calbolic lo Pius VII. 

mmm tit Naplaa lo Uural, Buona* " AikI the Lord turned and loohfd 

{■Ma's bnthar-in-law, Iho gaand i^mm Pehir. And P«lcr remani* 

dake of Berg; tfaa luwpalion of berol lli« word* af Jesus, bow Im 

tta pnpd tbpooe, and annaaatioii liad tiud noto liim, before the oooh 

itf AoM, with alitbc accltaiMticnl ciowlboii*hiiUdeii«nM tltrkei ainl 

MIb^ Hneintia,' I^imo, and An- Fctcr wcat eiit, miJ veptbitlefiw.'^ 
tm». In the French nnipife. Tha It temwd nntm ai mIoumIi- 

caHin^warabaaMhcd from Roma, mantlomany, that lo Mibtta and 

bat alknaad no Jwcawiiferahh pen. peAitad a poliiiciaa as Bnonnpart*, 

■na. Hie pawon of his holions shosU incur the hnaud ofnciliDS 

«w wannJ in a stale of cnnfinc- l|w aiilipnation, aad a spirit nl i*- 

■mL Bnonajjnrta wmA, that ha Mttaacclohia aggTcsHiani,iB all C»< 

oaly took badt adial bad been thohc covnlriei, In Ihe •p[>li^iti«» 

^m In iIm aboMh for tha support and iwpriiannwnt of IIk pepe. But - 

«f ia%M and prwnoliaa of piety: Buona|nit*'Bpa«rarhaJ bylhitliaM 

hat aa Hk wnniiitat donnlioH VHum lo lO tmrtrmam a pitah, that 

of hii pradacotaor, CharteoMgna, ho did at thipk it naatsi iw y to inn- 

hnl baan mmJ (oa vtij different iM|te or haep an; tema Mitb Ik* 

pnrpnani, it nss aeiy fit that thay optnioot and prgwlicas of nan or 

ihanld be aaaalkd. IW kingihm uations. Uii pcaarel ptaa wai^ to 

af Christ, baabaetwd,tika»aoMi4 arm and diroel one half of tba 

4ni^sranatnf thssworU. world agawst Hk Mkn: ndano 

The same pope. Pin* VII. that and ntlim apMut men of goo* 

W goM to CMwn Kspoleon at Pa- pnwiplM and pancaoMa ilirporiri 

■i^ Md agian d lo tba sobversionoC ooa and hnbilat nnd to aMh« cvcsy 

IhcGattitaaabaR^ and Iha dtaw. tMoR bend nndar tha icaigtit <d 

ntioa of llie apoalolical ponnr, by Mttlilary daapaliaii. tt ia » maiM 

the ntabfirimant of llie concordat, of UjuMantf s, that *»bn a poMn 

in thi* terrible crisis, asaumed llie wanta to establish his poirer on 

courage and tbecbaraetero/anaF- ehangvi, be should leave noltiiiig 

tjr. He protested, b}' a public of the old Fjstem, but niube aU 

Ihinn 
■Luke uii. 61-*. 

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240 ANNUAL EEGISTER, 1808. 

tbin^DCw. Buonaparte, who is no in Ibeir pastoral tellers, as well as 
doubt well acquaiuled with Macliia- Ibeir sennons on public occasion), 
vel, appears not to have considered do not hesitate to call Buonaparte a 
bimsclf as secure until all Ibe ve- " new Cyms whom God Itas chosen 
nerable institutions of society bad and supports for tlw accomphsb- 
been trodden under foot. — It is pos* ment of his impenetrable designs — 
sible to overrun and subjugate na- whom God brought back from 
lions by a war against both morali- Egyf^, in order to make bim tlK 
ty and religion : but whether a vast man of his ri^ht-hand. Hniis is Ibe 
empire is to l>e long preserved with- doing uf the Lord, and it is wonder- 
out both, is a problem that Aperi- ful in our eyes," 
ence has not yet resolved. The In British India, tbe company's 
foundation of Buonaparte's empire ministers made great progress in re- 
is military force and iugenious com- dudng, according todirections from 
binalion ; tbe spoib of proprietors borne, the public expenditure, wilb 
distributed among military adven- other improvements ; and in conci- 
turers; and the effi>rls of states and liatingthe ikvour of the PerNans: 
kingdoms against one another, dex- both of tiiem subjects to which our 
trously turned to tbe destruction of attention will be pardcuUrly called 
the whole. But Ibb career of des- by events of 1809. 
truction seems to be calculated, by An attempt was made by the go- 
its very nature, to comr, at no great vcmment of Bengal to secure tbe 
distance of time, to a termination, possession of tbe Portugueze settle- 
The altar indeed was restored, ment of Macao for tbe prince tt- 
in some ^fashion, by the concordat, gent, under British protection, in 
but not religion, Lucian Buoiia- the same manner, or by similar ar- 
parte and Porlalis, recommending rangements, as Madeira bad been, 
the concordat to the assembly, said. But the emperor of China sent or- 
that " Religion was an useful instru- ders to (he governor of tbe district, 
ment in the bands of government, within which Macao is situated, 
as well as n consotalion to vxalc not to allow (be Engllsb- company's 
mind* an4 timoroiu conaciencti." ships to trade, until such concestioa) 
Such a nation as (he French cannot and apologies should be made, Ibr 
venerate a system of pomp and ce- tlie attempt to station a mililaiy 
lemony, avowedly adapted merely force in that iriand, as might be 
to such purposes; and considered amply sufficient for the purpose of 
by Ibe legislature ainiere mummery, inducing him to pardon them: — 
"^e Roman Catholic cle^, too, concessions were made to the ctia- 
bave been vilified and brought into tial empire ; and harmony was re-' 
contempt; not bv the nlingpowersof cstablisbed,t 
Prance, but by themselves: by swear- The Americans still held onl 
ingli abjuring, and swearing again, against the British orders in council: 
iccording lo circumstances, and by and Britain still held out against the 
tbe blaspbemons adulation of so American embargo, 
auuy bisfat^ and archbishops, who CHRONICLE. 

* See Appndis lo Cbrouide, ]f, tK. 



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i: 1 3 



CHRONICLE. 



JANITART. doubtful, bawevcr, la the «TaiiiDg 
of Moinlaf, CapUii^Ljdiard stood 

M. Tie Britiih rTillE. state of off again to the lauthw&rd ; «h«n 

Nrnvy. — the Btitbh oa< a coniultation being held, it wai 

fj, according to the returns op to once more roolved to bear up for 

lie prewnt day, is as follows : — Falraouih. Running eastward and- 

TWre are in commission 795 shipi northward, still under the fatal 

tt war, of which 144 are of the persnasioD that the Lizard was on 

Gae, 30 from 30 to 44 gons, 178 the north-west of them, they did 

li^atet, SSS stoops of war, 327 Dot discorer the mistake till tb« 

UMd brigs, ice Besides which man on the look-out a*head, called 

thre ire building and in ordinary, out "breakers!" The ship was 

lUpi which make the total amount instantaneously broached to, and 

fl the British navy, exclosiirc of tha liest bower let go^ which bappi* 

otten and other small lessets, ly brought hemp; but, the rafd* 

lOQO ships of war, including 353 dity with which the cable had feared 

«ftbeline, 3B from 50 to 44 guns, out made- it imposnble to aerr* 

Ul fr^siM, SOD sloops, 358 armed it, and it soon parted id the hawse* 

luip, hole. The sheet anchor was thea 

Fartiadart of the Lot* of the let go, which also brought np th« 

iuoMFr^gofe,— Thflfollowingfar. ship; but afterriding «id on for 

tbet particulars of the melancholy a short time, this cable parted fron 

Iw of this ship are given, chiefly the same cause, about eight in th« 

N the aithdrity of tfie officers who morning, and the ship went plunp 

*«e sartfl : — The Anson sailed on shore, upon the ridge of tand 

fnn Falmouth on Christmas-eve which separates the Loc>pool from 

Tdt W station off the Black the %y. Never did the sea rn« 

Socks, as one of the look.out more tremendously high. It brok* 

''iitcs of the Channel fleet. In over the ship's masts, which soon 

Ik mtlewt stonn of Monday, went by the board; the main-BMlk 

Uowhig aboat W. to S. W. sba fonning a fioating raft from tin 

UMd across tha entrance of the ship to the shore ; and the greatoi 

CUuel, towards Scilly, made the paft of those who escaped, passed 

Uad's-Ea'di which they mistook by this raedinm. One of the men 

Im the Jigard, and bsce up, as saved, reports, that Captain Lydi> 

lW|lb«ngb^ for Falnouth. Still ard was near him on the main- 

VouL. A mast; 



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t ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

mut; but heieemedto bave-loEt scampered ofT as loon as ihej 

the flse of his faculties, with horror reached the shore. Among the offi. 

of the scene, and soon disappeared, cere saved, we heard or the follow. 

Wc bare not room to go further infc ; — Capt. Sulllran, a passeagei ; 

into particntars, nor language that Messrs. Hill and Braily , midships 

will convey an adequate picture of taen ; Mr, Ross, assistant sni^eoo { 

Ihe terrific view that presented iU and some others, 

self; but justice demands' that we Gltugow, Jan, 2. lfotke.-'"ln 

notice the conduct of a worthj consequenco of an application from 

tnomberof a sect but too much vt. a considerable number of respect, 

lified. ablegentlemcn, I request a meeting 

At a time when no one appeared of the merchants and mapufactareis 
on the ship's deck, and it was sup. of this city, in the town-hall, on 
posed the work of death had ceased, Thursday next, at one o'clock, 
a Methodist preacher, venturing p. m. for the purpose of consider. 
Ills life through the surf, got on ing the propriety of expressing to 
board, over the wreck of the main, his majesty, at this important crisis, 
mast, to see if any more remained their firm determioation to support 
—some honest hearts followed him. by every means in their poorer hri 
They fouod several persons still be- jtist rights and the interests of the 
low, who could not get up ; among British empire, and at the sane 
whom were two women and two time to congratulate his majesty en 
children. The worthy preacher the vigorous and active line of con. 
and his party saved the two women duct which has been pursued in the 
■nd some of the men, but the chil- prosecution of the war, and upoii 
drea were irretrievably lost. About the brilliant sncceises with which 
two p. m, the ship went to picfts ; those 'energetic measures have so 
when a few more men, who for happily bf-eo 'crowned, notwilh. 
tome crime had been confined In standing the strong confederacies 
irons below, emerged from the which have been formed against us. 
«rreck— one of these was saved, . « JAMES MACKENZIE, 
By three o'clock, no appeiirance of ' " Lord Provost." 
the vessel remained. She was an Longccily, — A Mrs. Mary Trap- 
old ship (a 64, we believe, Cut son is now living in Ketit.slrecl, 
down) which account] for her beat. Liverpool, in good h^ltb'and spi- 
in(r to pieces so soon on-a sandjr rits, a;t the advanced age of 110 
bottom. ' yean, having been born in Scot- 

Tfae men who survived, were land the 1st of January, l6()8.' She 

conv^ed to Helston, about two had lived in the reign of (t*t sue- 

K)jlesdi9taDt,wherelheyvcrc taken ces^ve tnonarchs, beginning with 

•tare' of by the magistrates, and king William. She boreatliAUn- 

afterwardt sent t'r Falmouth in guiriicd part in the baMe bf Det. 

Khar^of the regulating captain at ttngen, Coltodeo, Pontent^, '&o. 

that fiort. ' We are aware that se- iindcr the duke of Cumberland. 

Beral report has Hated the number ' .' Lately 4as shot, ' by George 

rfrowned to be greater than we have PHnglei at Staingale, abar Daoby- 

fiven it! but of the miisinc, we Lod^ .'(*** sporting.s*f of the 

Hndersland many are dcKrters, who risht hon. lord titcanrt (>ownr) 

1 <.■■■■■.. . ■ ■■ ■• . an 

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CHRONICLE. a 

in a^le of ttie following remarjc- dia CompaD^ 'a terflce, has, wiAIn 

aUe dfmeDsions : its breadth be- these few days, airired in (owa 

tweea the tip of the wings two from ladia. He iotended lo com* 

Jink ten inches, the length from orer.laoJ, and waa charged with a 

hs beak to the lip of the tail, 38 mission to lh« King of Fnissii, but 

inebet, the cstreme breadth of the on his arriral at Bngdat, he wai 

tail 35 inches. When placed id an stopped, and informed thathecoold 

erect postare, its height (wo feet not proceed further. He learned 

sereo inches, its weight 16 pounds that the Persian camp, which wm 

two oancea; the colour a mixed honoured with the pretence of the 

brewn and white, ihe back almost Persian monarch, was in the oeigbi> 

nearlf while. Thb eitraordinar}' bourhood ; and was told that no 

biid has been put into a state of foreigners cpuld be received there, 

pitser*atian by Mr. Frank, at unless they had previously visited 

Duby-Lodga. the Persian capital, and brought 

CaalincourtjtheraQianwhoseiKed cerlificalcs from.it to entitle them to 

ftellukeD'Enghian, has arrived at admission.: To the Persian capital 

St, Petersburgh, as representative colonel M'Carr accovdingly went, 

•f Bonaparte, whe^ he has been and having there esplaineilthc na. 

inrived with marked distinction, ture and object of hb mission, he 

A snperb edifice has been purchased returned to (be camp, provided 

for him by the government, with (he necessary passports, and 

4, The Lansdown library of ma- ob(aio«d admission. On bis arri- 

■nscripts has been purchased by Tal he learned that a French em. i 

puliament for the British Museum, bassy had been with the Persian 

it an average of the valuation made monarch at the camp, that he hid 

by three parties, being 4,935^. concluded a peace with all his ene. 

Mr. Plania, the principal librarian mies, and entered into a strict and 

of the Museum, estimated their va. close alliance with France. Under 

JDc in the following manner : these circumstances he was refused 

Barleigb and Cecil papers, 'an audience in the most pasitive 

liOloli, at 10/. . ,^1S00 terms, and returned (o Bagdat 

Sir JbIids Cesar's papers, vritbout having accomplished the 

50 vols, at \0l. - - 500 object uf his mis^iou ; but there be 

Twenty.seven volumes of was not suffered to atop, or to pro. 

original registers of abbeys, secnte his journey from it by the 

at 10/. . . , S70 usual way ; he was obliged to take 

One hundred and fifty vo- a new route, and explore a new 

Imcs, a( 5/. • • 760 passage. He crossed the Caspian 

Nioe hundred and ei^ty. Sea, entered the terrilorici of Bus. 

five ditto, at 3/. . - J970 sia, and came to England last from 

Forty nnmbers of royal Sweden, 
letters, at 5/. ■ . - SOO 6. His excellency Ihe minister of 

^ht volumes of Chinese war addressed to bis majesty the 

drawings, at 10/. - • SO emperor, on the 6th of January^ 

' the following report, relative to the 

^4970 measures adopted by Prance la the 

CoImsI M'Carr, «f the £ast-lK- present circurostaooes :— 

A»2 v™- 



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4 ANNUAL REGISTER, 180». 

Tour najcfltj' has nrdt^red me io for France. It would hava ren- 

toTta the first and second corps df d^rrd imiK-rfcct the great resulfa 

obaerfalion of the armf of fhc Or- n'hich you hare jirnpared, Ye«, 

ronde. The &r«t of ibeec corpj, eir, your majesty, far from r«. 

voder (he commaad nf general Jii- ducini; your armies, oiiRhl to ails', 

not, has cotiquercd Portugal. The ment Ihrm, uotil England shall 

head of the setoad is already a J. have acknowledged the indcpen* 

TMioed to follow the first, if cir- dencc of all powers, and restored 

cuiDstanGei require it. Your ma- to the ceas that tranqaillify wbtck 

juty, whose foresight nefcr fails, your majesty has secured to Ibe 

wisbes that the corps of obscrra- conlinent. No doubt, your ma- 

tioD of the ocMO, coBfided to mar. jeity most sufliir in demanillng from 

■hal Moocey^ should be In the 3d your people nuw sacriliccs, and inu 

line. posing upon them new obligatioiit. 

The neceesity of shatling the but you must also yield to th« cry 

ports of the ocean against our i>^ of all th« Frencb— '* No repose 

TMoncilable enemf, lind Of' hating until the sou thai) be freed, and an 

considerable means upon all poinis pquitable peace has oslablished 

of attaqji, for the ptir|ra£e of taking France In the most just, Ae tnMt 

adrantage of such fortunate cir. useful, and the most necessary of 

canittuices u may presekt them, her rights,*' 

■fllTee, in order to carry war 9. Sortkamplon. — We lament to 

into the bosool of England, Ire. state, that the ditieate of canine 

land, and the Indies, may reitder madness stilt preTails In a raon 

fliecMs&ry the raising of the coit. alarming degree. Two mad do^ 

tcriptioD at I8O9. went tbroagh Titchfietd and Stnbw 

The party which prevails at Lon- bington last week, and bit a great 

don has prociahned the principle of numberof cattle. There is soarcdj 

perpetual war. and the expedition a place in this neighbourhood that 

against Copenhagen has revealed its has not been infleste^ with mad doga, 

drimlnal intentions. Although the and the magistrates in the different 

Indignation of all Enropc is railed districts have lised every exertion 

agaitiBt England ; although France for the protection of the public. 

M*er had such numerous armies, In this town, the dvgH have been 

-this is not yet enough. The Kn- confioed for the last three CBonlhs, 

glish influense must be attacked and the mayor and magbtraies ara 

wherever it exists, nnlil the ma- crvtitted to the warmest thanks <rf 

tnent when the aspect of ao many the inhabitants, for the vigo/ona 

dangert shall indutx England to re- eKcrfioDS of their oolice, in pn(tif»g 

' novefrom her councils the of igarchfl into ei ecu (ion orders calculated to 

who direct them, and to conAde eniare in a great measure the safety 

tbe administration to men wiie and of individuals fran this most torri- 

Capable of rrconcillng the love and ble disease. • ■ 

Interest of the country with the in. On (ho morning of Friday ga'n. 

terest and lirre of mankind. A night, Joseph Geraid, of ^easkig. 

tulgar policy might have determined ton, near Blackburn, died very 

your majesty to disarm, bnt this suddenly. He had supped irith the ' 

poJiry would Hie been a icovrge family on ■naBsIa*' tbe a^ht pre- 

ceding 

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CHRONICLE. S 

teiatf hh doth, tnd retired to bsd Maotaa, m conference with tb« 
■ppvendf well ; he anuke about pi>pe) which laited abore two 
foar o'clock in the moroitig, in the hours. 

greatnt agon/, aod wni a corpse Paris, Jan. 33. Decret,~~T]M 
bj Gre. An ioqaest wu held, conserTaCire senate assembled to 
«ben the attending sortceon de. the number of moaibers prescribed 
poted, that in hii opinian the by art. 90 of the act of the consU. 
death of the deceased was oWiog tuu'on of (he 33d of Frimair, year 
lo the muscles he had eaten thu 8, haring considered tba project of 
■igfat before: this testimony was the senatusconsultum, drawn in thn 
corroborated by other witnestcs, form prescribed by article ij of th« 
atd alM by the syraptoois which contliiiitional act of the 16th Thar., 
•wiftjr accompany those who are mldor, year l6. — After hafioc 
■bat is generally called miudej/ufrg. heard, on the notirct of the said 
to. Mrs. Elizabeth Williams, project, th'b orators of the cooacil 
>o« lirinx at Brentoa near Tari. of state, and the report of tfas spe- 
ttoch in Deron, is in the lUOth cial commission nominated in th* 
rear of her age ; she has almost a silting of the l6th of this month ; 
■ev Set of teeth. About 30 years the adaption having been discossed 
■{0 she had recourse to spectacles, with the number of voices prascribcd 
b((Iat pretent makes but little use by article 56 of the organic senatns. 
rfthem, as she can read the smallest consultum of the 18th of Tbenni- 
priil without tbw assistance. She dor, year 10, decrees as follows : 
hu two sons living, the eldest M, Art. 1. Eighty thousand con. 
ud the youngest is only 70 yeara scripts of (he conscription of the 
if age, but remarkably strong; he year 1809, are placed at the diipo. 
WoBgs to a carder's warehouse, sal of goTcrnment, 
ud lately took a case from a wag- 2. Thej sh^I be taken from 
im of nearly three ewL,.andcar- among the yontha born between 
Dsdit the disUnce of 500 yards. the Ist of January, 1789, and Ja- 
l3.^coTeyof partridges, consist- nnary lat, 17^. 
isgof IS birds, come daily to the 4. They shall be employed, 
^oor of Mcary Wilson, esq. at St. should there be occasion, to com- 
Hdeoi, near Lancaster, to bo fed ; plete (he legions of reserre of (he 
tbej feed among the poaltry, and interior, and the regiment having 
m to tame, that they will even their depots in France. 
{•A com out of the hands of any The present seoatusconsutlom 
tf the dometticks. shall be transmitted to his imperial 

17- Great preparations are ma. and royal majesty. 
Ingiu the arsenal of Venice fur The President and Secretaries, 
■he bntUling of a considerable num- (Signed) 

Ur of ships of the fine and fri. CAMBACERES, Arch Chancdloi 
ptes, lercral sre alr^y npon the of the Empire, President. 

*«kss in a few years that cjty T. HEDOUVILLK HEllWYN, . 
*ill have in Ut port a foraudable Secretary. - 

l«4. Seen and sealed, the Chancellor of 

It. We learn that prince Lucien the Senate, 

fiioDapatte had, vn his return from (Signed) LA PLACE. 

As W« 

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fl ■ ANNUAL REGISTER, 180S. 

We nqniic aad command, that light to demiBd and eipect, depend 
th«e presents, sanctiotiEd by the entirely upon the powerful inter- 
■eala of itate, and inserted in the TentioD of France. 
Bulletin des Lbix, shall be ad- Considering, io fine, ttat hoire> 
dreswd to the courts and tribunals, ver great the sacrifices bitharto 
and administrative anthorilies, that made by this country may be, and 
they may be inserted io tbcir re- hovever punful its situation, botk 
apectite registers, and obserrfid, under the relalions of commcrcs 
and caused (o be obserred ; and and those of finance, it is oX much 
our grand judge, the minister of greater interest to dissipate all tb* 
justice, is charged to superintend doubts that might exist vith respect 
the publication. (Signed) to our intention, and to prore to 

NAPOLEON. Europe, in the most signal manner. 
By the Emperor, the Minister Sc- our attaciiment, and that of onr 
crctary of State. people, to the common cause, faav* 

(Signed) H. B. MARET. decreed and do decree as follows ; 
Sees by us the Arcb-Chancellor of Art. I. From the publicalton of 
the Empire. the present decree all the ports of 

(Signed) CAMBACERES. our kingdom shall be shut against 
By another decree of the con- all ships, whatever be their denomi- 
serratory senate,')n the same form, nation. Those only are exceptsd 
and in like manner signed by Bo- from this disposition (and prori. 
naparle, the towns of Kebl, Wcsel, siunatlj till a new order), of which 
CasscI, and Flushing, are to be mention is nfada in the 3d article, 
ubited to the French empire. Kehl II. Armed ships- of our allica 
to the department of the Lower are not Included in the ezclnsitm 
Rhine ; Coisel to the department directed by the preceding arlide. 
sf Mount Toonere ; Wesd in the They may enter and quit our porta, 
department of the Koer ; and and bring in their prizee, by con^ 
Flushing ID the department of the fbnning to the ordinances issued 
Scheldt. relatire to the entrance and^depw- 

HoUaad.~Rogal Decree. ture of ships of war. 

Louis Napolcan, &C. Jll. Ships of the allief or nen- 

Considering thai crery European tral powers, whicb may eater, our 
nation ought to co-operate with all ports, to aroid th* danger of th« 
Itsmight to the triumph of the cause tea, shall bare no communicatioB 
of the Continent, in a contest which with the interior of our kingdom, 
will not be of long duration, and They shall ba subjected to quaran. 
whose result is not doubtful. tine, and be under the most senr* 

Consideriqg that our particular euperin tendance. The command aol 
daty as well as the dearest interests of the port shall make thorn put ttyea 
«f our people command us to ac as soon oi the weather shaU parmiL 
cede in all points to the desires IV. Fbhii^ boats are under tlia 
of his majesty the emperor of the direct su peri n ten dan oe of the cini 
French, ourillustriouB brother, and and military aathorities upon tb* 
even to surpass his hopes. coast. These authorities shall tak« 

Considering that the Indemnity care, on their rceponiibUity, tluU 
Md relief vfaicb our kingdom has a no commuoic^^OD tal(« idace bj 



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CHRONICLE. t 

ncui of the fistienoeo, with the general Whilelocke, beTora & £(n«t- 
(aeaij''s «bipa a.nd other ships. To martial consisting of 21 Dicaabeni^ 
Diit end, there shall be placed commenced at Chdiea College.* 
H a sentinel, a soldiei «n. board General sir \V. Meadows is pr^ 
ooh fiahing.boat. On the return sident, and (jencral Moore the ju- 
of the boat, the sentinel shall nior ofTicer at the loAcrendof the 
Bike his report of what has table, wlio will of coarse he first 
paued daring the fisher}', contrary cittled upon for his opinion, 
to the dispositions of -the present The fuUowuigare the names of 
decree, and the owner of the boat the officers cojnpasing the courts 
aa4 crcur shall be prosecuted with martial. 

^ the rigoor of the laws. Sir W. Meadows, president. 

Giien at Utrecht, 23d Jan. Generals Garth, Norton, Lake, 

(Signed) LOUIS. Monson, Moore, Nugent, Uolse, 

He Dutch official gazette con. Duodas, Pigot, Oanricard, Coyler* 

tuu a Tcry strong article upon the Ogilry, Fo<, sir E. DuSe, Harris, 

tondacl which the Dutch com- Manners, Wclford, Garth, Stavea 

■erce ought to pursue at present, ley, and rir C. Ross. . 

Tfce fodowiog are the most striki^j 

pHsages ; — ~" 

" Abandon common ipecniation ; FEBaUARY. 

do not suffer yourselves to be «. 2. ScTeral American lessels hara 
daded with impanity from the em- been bronght into Leghorn by. 
pireof the seas. Fit out privateers French privateers, and there con ^ 
to wrest the prey from the enemy, demned as in the ports of France. 
to procure provisions, become al> That place, as welt at Curta, Vac 
■Oft of the first necessity : it b in . chia, and Ancooa, according to rn. 
Ac enemy's ships that you ought to mouts contained in the foreign pa' 
icek for your colonies; it is at pers, is to be unittid to the kingdou 
their espence you ojght to furnish of Italy, 

fonr correspondents with, the mer- 7. Official dctull of the actionr 
cfcudise Ihey want. Recollect the at Buenos Ayres have been pub> 
oMrago of your ancestors ; recol- H^hed in the Madrid Court Gazette, 
ktt that you are fellow-countrymen They arc ol great length. Liniers 
•f Kayter and Trorap ! Mutt the asserts, that the English army lost 
Ikaea be, of the least popular na- 4,UO0 men. It is also stated, that 
Sons, the only ones who dare attack General Wbitdocko niade him % 
tke English in open sea ? Must his. present of a sword, as an acknow- 
lory say that the Danes were iu the lodgment for the humanity sbewa 
19th century what the Dutch were by the Spanish comniander , to the 
>■ the ]7tb f Aim, Dutchmen 1 English prisoners, and the wound. 
Let all your ports be filled with ed. In return, general Lioiers 
Wed vessels, ready to fall upon presented some valuable ' minerals, 
tie enemy.'' . and other curioiitica, to general 

98. This momiog the trial of Whitelocke. 

* For an account of the char|:e« against General Whitelocke, and the tesolt of 
V trial, see History of Europe, laOf, pp. 391—3. 

A a 4 3- It 



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8 ANNUAL REGISTER, 180». 

' Si It ii with conoWB we itata, with « dhpiteh fmn die geaera}, 

Ibat in cooMqaence of the lost of of whicb the following ii a cepf :— 
tbe Rambler, belonging to L&th, no £iin^ OVuz, Dec. 37, IIO7. 

leM IbftD 150 emigruiU, wlioen. My Lord, 

barked at Tbano, were drowned In Being in a date of prapantiM 

her off tke American coait. From and rcadineti to more a luffieient 

whenee those emigrants came, ii no- force agabst the Danish islands in 

certain ; but it is said maojrnBall te. these seas, in coosequeace of joar 

Quits hare been removed, and their lordship'adispatcliafthe StkofSep- 

IHtleCanm letto sbeep fannei«,iB tfae tember, no time was lost (aftar tba 

parishes of Fare, Lairga Creech, and arriral of his iDaiest}''s final con- 

Rogitrt, in tbeconntyorSutkerlaDd. mands, signified to ma hy lord 

The diminution of the inhaWUnts Hawkeibury's lettor olKorembei 

of our i$laii4 ■■ B^ all times a snb> thelbirdtinjonrlordship'sabienes, 

jectofr^ret, and the annals of our by the Fawn aloop of war, which 

oountry cannot point out a period arrived early on Tneiday morning, 

when the emigration of tbe High, tho 1 5th instant at BarbadoM), la 

]anden wonld haie been nore n- tmbarUng the troops at fiaibaioM 

grcUed than (he present, when re- on.board the men-of-war app<riatad 

emits for our standing army and to receive them by rear-aABtral ns 

mililiaaresobardtobefound. From Alexander Cochrane, who imswdl- 

thirty to forty gnincas. Is, we an- ately diipatcfaed other* ta tbe is* 

derstand, the comnion bonnly paid lands to leeward to tak« on-board 

in Scotland for . Bubitltotog, and in such aa were inder orden in eveh 

most of tbe coanties of the king- of than, with directions to proceed 

dom. *o tl>e general raodeivons, Aewhole 

A beautifnl specimca of vii^in of which, except one huiidred raak 

gold was latelyfiotind ioatin^tream and file of tbe 90(k r^nentfron 

work in'Comwall. It i* about tbe St. Vincents, joined the adnlrsl 

length and thicknees of a little lady's beforo,or loon.afferoor arrivaloff 

little finger, though Uu regntarly tbo idand of St Tboniat, on t&e 

formed, anii weighs above two Zlif instant. It wa* thn tboaght 

enncei. Its intrinsic valoe is equal proper to send a sninnioat to g^ 

totiinegutneas; biit,asa8pccimen, lemor Von SchoIten,iB diargeof 

it is invaluable; for though gol^ brigadicr..geoeral Shipley, and cap* 

has been freqnently found in tbe tain Fahie, comtnaading bis majei- 

atreanuworki, and that in hu-ger ty^ ship Etfaafion, to Hrrender the 

quantitiee than is generally known, islands of St. Thooas, St. John, 

Aat is unqttMlioaably the largest and their dependencies, to hb Bri- 

and mqst boMtifiil specimen ever tannic asajesty, which be did th« 

found in Cornwall. next day, on tenna agned npon be. 

Dowimgstreetf Feb. 8, ISOS.^ tween him and major-geBeral MaiL 

Captain Berkeley, fint aid..d&camp land, and captafa Fickmore, of hi* 

to general Bowyer, arrivei! yealer- majesty's iVipRamillieajWhichwor* 

day morning at the offce of vis- sftcrwardi ipprarEd of and ratified 

connt Casltereagh, one of his ma. by rear-admiral the hon. sir Aleb 

jM^'i principal secretaries of state, andcr Coicfaiwio and m/seifi a oopr 

w 



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CHRONICLE. 9 

of wbkl I ban tbe faononr to in* I coacdre nyialf, the officorSf asd 

eloK, ud hop* they uttll meet with loldian, to be under to rear-admirU 

kiiB«jeity's approbation. the boa. lir Alexander Cochrane^ 

Oa the 33d, in the eT«ning, after the captain* and officcra of the royal 

Icaring a garrisoa of three hundred navy, who haio uDiTersally aS'orded 

on of the 70th reginent, with «b n* every com farlable accommoda- 

•ficer and detachment of (he royal tion in the^ power, and I am lun 

irtilfery,at!>t. Thomas's, onder the much to their own inconvenience. 

coamand of hri^dicr-general Mac- i am cout iiiced, that bad it beea 

leu, whom I have alto directed to oecewary to hsTO called for theex- 

mtae the nvilfOTernmeatof Um ertion of the sea and land forcM 

uaie, nntil kis maJMty'a pieaiurebe employed upon thtaexpedition, that 

apificd thereofl, we proceeded to they would hate added another 

StuU Cmi, tke admiral batbg pre. laorel to the many already acquired 

•iMiiy Mat hia Bwjeity'i ship E(ha- by British valour and discipline, 

liM, with brigadier-general Shipley Copies'of [be two letters of sau- 

■ad captain Fahit, to summon that raons, with the answers of their 

abad; whoretumedthenestmorn. respective gov e mors, are herewith 

lig, the 31tfi, with a letter from the traosmittcd, togetb<;r with a return 

{•Kraer, offeiiag to surrender it of ordnance and ordnance. store* 

Inhii majefty, provided We would takeu pofisesslon of, both at St. 

>I» three Cbnish officers to view Thomas's and Santa Crnc, ^ 

w>board tlie sfaipa the number of This dispatch will be presented 

inoft brought against it, which *»e to your lordship by captain BerLe. 

pRvitled, that his excellency's milii ley, of the 1 6th infantry, an iatel. 

bty hoaoor might therdby not be llgent officer, who will auwer ftBy 

nfacted en. These officers having question yon may be pleased to ask 

>ade thatr report to the gpvcroer, him, and 1 beg leave to recommwd 

Mimed early the nest morning, him to your lordship's notice. 

<k Sjik, to the flag-ship, with a Captain Berkeley is my' first aid- 

■Nsage that the governor was wil- dc-camp. 

Ksg to treat for the surrender of the Hen ht Bowtek, ~ 

hlud, when major^eoeral Mait. General and command^sf 

iud and captain Fickmore were the forces, 

■pia sent on shore to settle the The lummons to the iskands, and 

ttRBs of caiMtnlation, a copy of the terms of capitulation, ore of 

vUchlabo tnutmit; which being little interest; being couched in 

spprovcd of bj the admiral and my. the asual ezpreasions and forms. 

Ktf, troops wero landed, and the This Gaxette also contaios tfce 

'•rtt and batl«riM taken possession copy of a letter friHn rea;-adBifal 

•f IB the name of his majetfy the the hon. sir Alexander Cochrane, 

Uag of t)ie United Kingdom of K. B. conmamler'in.chiciF of hi* 

Gmt.Britaia and Ireland, a royal majesty's ships and vessels at tha 

^Dle being fired on the British Leeward Islands, to the hon. W. 

ubBn being hwted. W. Pole, giving an account of thn 

I ihonld be nngrateful In the ex- capture of the ^ove islands. 

tnaw did I not atate to your lord. Hydrofialiia.~~ — A. professioml 

■Up the great and naoy obligaUoni lantlenuB, (Mr. Twemlow, of Stone- 
Chair, 

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10 ANNt/At REGISTER, ISOff. 

Cbair, near I>awton, in Chesliire,) Ttiisauehesari was.lhjune I80(t* 
otKenes, In a pablication last week, aad I believe the parties are all 
OB this subject, that *' ctDioe nad- lifing. I preferred the muriatic 
Bess, durintf the lastniDter and this to any other acid, in conseqoence 
aularon, has been so frequent in of thu old custom of dipping dogi, 
London and its neij^hbourhood, aa &c. in brine, who were bit by a ra> 
to came uoiTerial alarm, especially bid animai, and am confident of ill 
a& the efficacy of the Ormskirli and superior success to incision, actaal 
every other internal remedy is to. cautery, or any dry caustic, u the 
tally disproved." — He then states washing the woond with the acid 
the cue of a man being severely finds .the depth each tooth pene. 
bitten by a diseased dog, and tays, trates. ' I am so confident of its 
" he directly qame to me, much success, that I fancy 1 should oot 
alarmed; I washed the woondsvith feel the least uneaGiness in being 
mnriatic acid, orspiritof salt, which obliged to try its efficacy on myself." 
brought on inSammation, and an 7. An inquisitton was taken at 
ibjcess was the consequence, but St. George's hospital on the body 
considering the extent of the wound of Mary Carpoieal, who drowned 
was little trouble to him. He took henelf in the Serpontine river, on 
both the Orniskirk medicine and the preceding dky. The doeeucd, 
ash.coloured liverwort, to appease a fine young woman, IS years of 
his mind. The dog bit a pig which age, was the niece of the late Mr. 
went mad, and was so violent they Carpmeal,. of Bow-street police 
were objiged to shoot him." la a ofiice, and her father recently kept 
sMoud case of a bite from a dc^, thv Coach and Horses in Moonl* 
the author used the same remedies, street. It appeared in eridcnca, 
A third case is given as follows : that the deceawd was walking in 
"John Downs, an apprentice to Mr. the Park, with her Uster and of hen, 
Twisi, smith, in Odde Rode, was whom she bad gone that afternoon 
bit hya neighbour'sdog: be leixed to visit, and on a sudden she ran 
bim just above the shoe, and there away from her companions, attd in 
was a wound at least two inches their sight threw herself into the 
long, on each side the /endiR ccAt/. river. A gentleman's servant who 
lit. I did not sec him until mors , was on the spot, but unfortunately 
than twenty.four hours had elapsed, could not swim, tied three baniL. 
I washed t^e wound with mnriatic kerchjefs together to save her, 
oeid, and applied a common pool, which she attempted to seite hM 
tice to prevent inBaromation ; on of, but at length sunk. A man of 
the third day 1 repeated the appli- colour plunged into the water soon 
cation of the acid. He took three after, and he succeeded in getting 
or four times a day two spoonlols the body to the shore, but every 
of 9 mixture composed of half aa means to restore animation proved 
ounce of the acid, a pint of water, unsuccessful. It was slated that a 
and a little synip. No other means love attachment had deprived the 
werensed, very little inflammation deceased of her senses. Verdict— 
•ucceeded, and the boy did very well, ' Lunacy. 

tlioogh several animals went uHtd A dreadful fire broke out at 
that were bitten by the same dog. the piinliog.ofi&ce of Mr. NicfaolS} 



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CHRONICLE. It 

fa Red lion Fuiage, Flttt.Btreet. obserred that his nota ms for teA 
Tkcre ia do certaiBl; as to ihe raan- ponnds. By thil stratagem, wJiick 
■cr in which it originated, raore was so dexteroaslj executed, the 
tku> it is geatnity supposed to major obtained possession of the 
kne began from a (nnff of candle goods, wad the tradesman faund 
barii^ been dropped in the ware- himself duped. . He howcror es> 
now. The whole of that Tcrf pied his customer oa Wednesdaf in 
eiteMive coiKcra is censnined, and Seytnonr.street, and demanded hie 
talnaMe works that hare been ac- money, but the toajor wasdestitnta 
e^nolsting for many years have of either cash or note, and he took 
ten entirely lost. Mcssra. Ni- refogein thehouseof a Mr, Frear, 
dMla and Son were insured to the to avoid the mob, and a constaUs 
MBO<nt of 13,000/, bat that ram is wasctiarged with falm. The I^ri of 
hy no BenM oqnnl to csrer their U. was passing by, and on perceiving 
loH. There b a remarkable ctr. a crowd, inquired into the business, 
camstance related, which Is as fol. and on the tradesman tnaking hh 
t»wi: A semnt girl was in the case known, his lordship paid the 
kitchen, almost suffocated with the demand ; but there were other da. 
iBoke, and anaUe throagh terror morous creditors in the street, and 
aad tke deprintion of breath to to avoid their nap%saDt importi- 
aovc; a fiicnan diicorered it, broke nities Mr. Semple decamped from 
opca Ike window, and at the risk the back part of the house, 
ef his own life tared Ihe girl's. Libel on tSe College of PkysiciMi. 
The Red Lioo pubtichonse, Mr, The King r. Hector CampbfU, 
Edwards's printing. office, the Scot- 10. The defendant was brought 
taA hospital, and some other ad. np to receive the Judgment of the 
JBoent places, sustained partial in. court, when Mr. Justice Grose ad- 
jvy. The 9d London and some dressed him to Ihe following effect: 
odMr Tolnateen mnsb»«d with " Yon hare been convicted of a 
pramptitade, and were extremely gross libel upon the collie of pby- 
KrvioeaUe. sicians, a body of learned and ho- 

The celebrated Major Semple nourabte Inen, acting in the dis. 
met with another onexpected de. charge of an iinpOTtaot and nicful 
tantioa on Wednesday, In Upper duty, acting also under letters pa. 
S^Mour.stTeet, in consequence of tent from his majesty, and con. 
lis kariog forgotten to satisfy Ihe firmed by the legislature. Part of 
dies suds ot a tradesman a few days their duty was to keep from that 
■■(«, and he met with a very nn- teamed profession illiterate and pre- 
apectedddiverancebytb'eliberali. sumptnois men, and to confine the 
^ of Ike Earl of B. The major practice of physic to persons of 
aUti at the shop of a perfumer a real merit Such a duty is not less 
Cm day since, and looked out or- advantageons to the individuat ad. 
■umits to the amount of 95 shil- nitted to practice, than to tbepab- 
R^^ and requested the tradesman lie who are benefited by that prac. 
to fire him lbs chaoge for a 5l. tiee. That body thought proper 
Mta, and oa his beiog aboot to do to interdiet you from practice iit 
Mf (be major begged pardon, and consequence of ^oar oontnoiacions 
liiOt aa idr of aStcUd nrprise, behaviour, and your sobseqaent 

conduct 

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12 ANNUAL REGISTEJl, 1808. 

conduct clictved ■ conscious unfit- 13. Joseph Ftweet, of Keatidi 

neai to attend tlie/chamber of the New Anil, killed a Hampiliire hdg 

lick. To prevent, thcrerorc, a re- whiob tneasuiwl, from the extreiai^ 

petition of such offences, and to oftbehead to that ofihe tail, nine 

prove that the cullega of physicians foet two incbci ; and from the liiii. 

wore justified in the interdiction derfeet totheeitremityoftheliMd 

they sent, the court adjudges you to eight feel two iochesii and wdgh- 

pay a fine of 50/. and (• be impii- cd forty-two stooe and six ponnds. 

soned three months in the King's 15. A boy, foarteen yean of 

Bench Prison." age, who luid been missing since 

Dover, 11. — Prince Esterhasy the 3d instant, waa fsu&d alire in 

and suite embarked here irilh the the Lee-field collicFy, near Ch^ter* 

heavy bagitagc of Count Starhcm* le.itreet. When he wont into the 

berg yesterday, and sailed for Cs- pit, lietng unwdt, aad unable la 

laisio two cartels ubout four o'clock work, be walked inlo some of Ibe 

this morning, having a fresh wind ont-workings, and lost himself. Ha 

from the westward ; they will sare hati nothing to eat since the day on 

their tide in, and may be «xpe«ted which be was lost He heard per- 

b<ck tD.niorrow. sons in search of him several tina, 

A letter fru) Dover, dated Feb. and callcti to them; biitfaeiaKse 

H, says: "This morning, about weak, they could Dot hear htm. 

' seven o'clock, the wind blew a hur. Notwithstanding this astonishing 

rtcane, with thick snow. Several fact, te is in a fair way of leco- 

Tessele between the snow showers very. 

were seen to go past with loss of. Nfvxastle, 16.— Oa Friday night 

their anchors and cables. Between coaie on from the north, oneoftb* 

two and thr«c o'clock, an East- most dreadful storms of snow which 

Indiaman was seen goiug past, and has been eapsrienced here for sere. 

shortly after another, with the joss ral years. It was accompanied 

ofmain-top-mastandotherdamage; with a severe gale of wiod, and 

. one of oar boats went tfiit to their continued almost withont joteirapi 

usislancc. Several picfcs of tim- tion till the following day in the 

iter and wr^k continnc to go afternoon. We fear that the ae* 

past." conntr of the shipping from th« 

■Guttmburgky 12.— The Stock, coasts round the isUnd wiU be 

fcolm post of to-day bas brought highly disastrous, as bf the differ* 

the important intelligence that Rui. eat reports which hare akaadf 

eia bas declared war against Swc, reached us, the storm appears te. 

dea ; and some accounts state that have been felt very geaeratly. No 

the Russians havfi already entered London mails,DOr, indead, anyaiail 

Swedish Finland. Both M. Alo. south of YoHt, b^ve readied u 

pens, the Russian minister, and since Friday at noon, so that w* 

count Mooike, the Danish minister, are led to believe that the storm has 

are about to quit Stockholm. Tbe been even mare severe is the mid> 

ofSccTS and staff of the Swedisk land and suuthern couwlifs of l^n. 

army in Finland, had recdfcd or- gland than iu the north. Such a 

den to join witb all pouible ei|^ circumstance is nnprocedenled in 

dition. 1^ jDomory of the oldest person 

liiing : 



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CHRONICLE. 13 

twiog : conches bare b«en sometimes quarters, centitiels bung placed bi^. 

stopped for two ur three days, but fore the doors, 

tbe mail was ne»er detained above Singvlur Coiiicidetice. — The only 

I daj, being always fortrardcd by two mansions anil estates ever *oted 

■one route or othcT on horseback, by a Dritish parliament fur naval . 

At York they are completely nnac- and military scrTices, were thoie of 

qninted with the cause of the de. Blenheim, to John, the first duks 

tnitioii of the mail, nor do they of Marlborough ; and of Trafalgar, 

nen know at what p^irljculnr spot to the rclatlviiS of our lamented 

or place the great interruption it, Nelson. It is observable, that In 

io completely are they locked up both thne cases the heir apparent 

fnta tny intercouTse with (he died b^'fore hg camf- of age; the 

■oath. first marquis of BlamjfWd whitest 

A serious alTray took place at the unitcrsity, and the lirst viscount 

Aadwell. A drunken sailor pass. Trafalgar in his 20lh year. It ii 

kg by the reshlence of the Lascar further obscrfable, that in conse- 

•eacMo, gate one of them some of. qnciicc of the premature decease of 

fesce. A quarrel ensued, and the each of these young noblrmea, tha 

nlor best his antagonist, nho ran honours decreed by the nation bar« 

to his quarters. —The Lascars, passed into the feu^lc line, Thtts 

nnrly 400 in number, then sallied the Churchill honours arc rested in 

«t to attack the sailor, srmed with the' Spencers, and those of Nelson 

blndgeons, pokers, &c. The sailor are about to pass into the Boltoa 

nade an obstinate resistance, and family. 

fought desperately, with a knife in CaAel, Feb. 10. — A deputatton 

«M hand, and a bludgeon in the of the Jews in the kingdom of 

other. In the scuffle the sailor Westphnlia has assembled here, 

itabbed one of the Lascars in three constating partly of rabtus, partly 

parts of lus body, and finally effect- of elders. On the 8th the dcputa- 

td his escape to a public. house, tion, were introduced by M. Israel 

The Lascars then surrounded the Jacobson, counsellor of Gnancci, 

koose, and brought the sailor out. to the minister of state,. SI. Simeon, 

They would hate conTeyed htm to and afterwards to king Jerome, 

flleir quarters, >vhere he would Mr. Jacobson addressed bis majesty 

doubtless have fallen a sacrifice to in a short speech, and the followin{[ 

their fary, bad not the funeral train is part of the reply which was 

of a Tolunfeer happuncd to oh- made: — , 

itruct their prog r^s. The rolun. *' I am satisfied with your speech, 

tcert, who belonged to one of the That article in the constitotion of 

Wfattechapel corps, hearing the my kingdom, which establishes lh« 

dnnls of the Lascant, and being in- eqaalify ofall religions, is in per. 

formed of the catisc, immediately feet unison with the feelings of my 

nt offthc retreat of Ihcm, by push- heart. The law ought to interrupt 

te; roTwaril with fixed bayonets os no man in the exercise of his war> 

each side the street. The i^a^cars ship. Each subject is as mnch at 

inmadiatety surrenilered. I'hey liberty to obserre' the roles of his 

«ert then made priseners in their fUth, as the kiog is to follow hit 

nligioD. 

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14 ANNUAL E-EGISTER, 1808. 

ftligioB, 'Hie duties of the citizen one ia which the dereodant chi)'. 
•TB the onlj objecta which the laws leaged that " Itanp of arrogance," 
of the govcrnmeDt can regulate." Mr, Ingleby (who had denominated 
I7f Court oJ'Comman Pleas.— The himselt emperor of the conjwrertj, 
TOpe^ancer and the conjurer ! Price lo a trial of skill in the art of dt. 
T. Moritz. Mr. serjeant Shepherd ceplions,{otiheiamoilAretiuiidrti 
stated the plaintiff's caie: it was guineat. He had not wily cfa*l< 
so action, he said, to recorer ten Tenged him, but bad gone further, 
{ulneas (being the amount of salary and bid the world enter the lists 
for one moBth, at the rate of ' two with him — a second Bnonaparte, in 
{uioeas and a half per week), from point of detepiion, — After maldng 
the defendant, manager of the some farther obserTations, be pro* 
Temple of ApoUo, in Catherine, ceeded to prere bis case, and called 
■trect, in the Strand. Tbe plaintiff CTidence to establish the facts of the 
is a lady eminent for her abilities engagement at the stipulated sam 
as a rope,dancer[! She was with her of two guineas and a half per week 
husband at Cambridge, when the — that she was ordered on tbe S3d 
defendant was exhibiting his aion- of November to quit the theatre, 
. dtrjul performances as tbe emperar and nerer come diere af-ain ; and 
' »ffA0coi{;'urrrff and astonishing the also, that she bad oflered herser- 
grare and learned members of that vices to fulfil the engagenteot the 
UBiTersityithethoughtleasandgay, had entered into, 
and, in short, every description of Mr. serjeaot Best, for the de- 
persons ! !>— Allnred by the splendid fendant, lamented that tbe case 
offer of an engagement for (ilree should not hare fallen into abler 
tKtmths, the pluntiff and his wife hands than his. He wat no matcli 
were iaditced to come to London, for his learned brother (Shap. 
where, under the high-sounding herd) ; he never attended these sort 
title of Signora Belinda, this con. of places; but his learned brother 
jtcriag manager announced his fair did, and consei]ucotly was well ac- 
tlient to the world t — She per- quainted with their Irkks and de- 
formed, and the consequence was, ceptioiu; and could of course ma. 
that crowds ran to witness her per. nage such a cause with better skUt. 
fonoance ; the conjurer contrived to He had described his client wrongly 
pocket the cosh ; and the public — he was not the emperor of the 
was pleased with his dtceplttrnt. conjurers, nor did he wish to beso 
The piaintilf, however, now com. considered — he was nothing nnie 
plained -of a species of deeeptioUf than a proftttor of the art of cm- 
vhich he had neither inserted in his juration I Whatever Mkill Buona* 
.bills, nor, indeed, in the agreement parte might have in making and un. 
which he had entered intowith her. making kings and emperors, ff^' 
He had turned her from the the. ^/rtror il/ori/a did not wishlo bepnt 
atre, after performing two or three on a footing with him in that re. 
weeks, and refused to fulfil his en. sped. His was biit an homble d(^ 
gagement, The learned gentleman ception of the world ! With respect 
read a variety of hand.bills and bills to the present action, the lady hid 
of perforngnce. Ameng them waa herself to thank for the dismissal ; 

far 



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CHROlsriCLE. U 

bribeluddlsmlsaed herself! — Not the ststement in nearly the samm 

on) J tint, bat she baiJ thrnst her. words. 

kU inio the priTate apartment of Mr. Serjeant Shepherd, io tha 

frofttivr MorilZf while he was sd- coarseof his reply, introduced mat. 

jwting vith Miss Wood tfarar odd ter whkh served to smnie the au. 

WKtien, and tutlancing aicemnti ; dience. Araong other obserratioiis, 

hid strack him with an umbrella, he said, that the conduct of the«nt. 

■nd ahmed bim in the grossest pn-or was such that no s^unt;;/ dam* 

terms ; calling him *' a liUU Ger- could pot np with ! There were ccr- 

MB ismbug!' Adding, that she tain epithets, which, if applied ta 

VDBld ncTer enter his theatre again, women, they ncTcr sither forgot or 

nor grace the Apollonian temple foigite. No woman 'likes to an. 

v'i(k iiu agiie frail. Under lhe<e knowledge a mailer, especially if 

comiderations the jury vo'-.'A ha*e she were in the habit o! vearing the 

BO hesitation in turning her round, ireecAes ! Was it to be wondered 

ud £nd a rerflict for. the de> at then, that this lady should resent 

fradaut. sach language? None, whatctcr 

Sereral witnesses were callod for station qf life they might fill, ap. 

tke defendant. proved of degrading terms. That 

A Mr. Dtnham, one of the rocid the conjurer was manager, she wat 

ttffi, stated that Signora Belinda ready to admit ; but, to insult her 

hi, late on Saturday evening, th« with the epithet of tntater, was too 

SSd November) bonnced into the much. In observing upon the feL. 

(Mm in which Mr. Moritzand Miss tlmooy gircu respecting the ntlaclc 

WkkI, his partner, were settling upon the conjurer^ he said lAat 

tie accounts of the evening. That could not be seriously meant, for 

Mr. Moritz rcqveited she woald she had been described as a little 

withdraw for aJew minntcs, as he woman, not more than four feet 

vss engaged.- She rcfosed; and hi^, and the conjnrer was an atb. 

then be said, " Am Inot yourmoi. letic man, fir /»< high aud upwards, 

(tr, and the manager, and have the (Morits, who sat behind scrjeant 

^ht to insist upon your leaving the Miephcrd, rose up, and said^ 

IWHD?" The Xignura rejoined id ■<* Here I am, sir, atyoar service!" 

vimtb, '^ What! yonmy mtuffT.' This incident excited much mirth; 

dtmn }'on 1 you diriy litt4e German for he appeAred to be a liltle man, 

kiatbug!" Not content with' this,' 'not more than _^iie _/er/, although 

■be lifted np her umbrella, and possessin^ja pairofhcavy sliouldersl 

itreck the manager twice, eaying Alutual civilities passed between lh» 

Ac would not cater his theatre Serjeant and the ruiperur.) 

^ain. Air. Moritz told her that The leaxned Serjeant then pro^ 

Wr wages were not dne ttil Mon. ceeded, and observed, that them*, 

tey ; that if she would coino then, peror^ however, was determined 

ike sbwrld have her money ; and that Jie should not be. deeehedt 

never should enter the theatre after The exhtbitioa of his person wai 

that night. He said the lady was certainly intwided to d* anay any 

fttr ftet Jive inehet high. impressiDO which the jury might 

Several witnesses corroborated «ntertuD of his inteotion lo Aun. 

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16 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

tug then ! He was, in fact, an atb- proved by Samuel Harrii, tier lady- 

letic man! Aftar some further ob. ship'i serTanl, and W, Robimoo, 

aervatiuM, ha concladed with truit- the book-keeper at the WbHeUorw 

ing (hatthey would find a vardict for Collar. 

. tU client, and thereby oul-eonjure Mr. Laweajthadefendant'ieooB. 

tke sonjtirer, and tikk him at his ae), took sereral objocliont to ikt 

own trick* ; for this dafenca waa a indiclltoent, which lord Ellan- 

irick to defeat the plaintiff'i juat boroogb over.ruled, and tha yuj 

demaad. therefore, found him guilty. 

^ir James Mansfield wished that Mr, Gnmey, as leading coamal 

titia nnfortunate cause bad not bacn far the prosecution, obserred to Vk 

brought into court. It would bare lordihl|i, that the reason why Ihh 

'bean better for these poor persoos severe courM bed been adopted !•• 

that some friend out of court had wards the defendant was, that ha 

undertaken tosettlc the difference*, had defraodcd.the countess, in (Ms 

Actions of this natore only scrred way, no less than seven times 1 
tbe purpose of attotneyst The 

learned judge then observed, that — — — ^-^^--^-— — ^^— 

from the evidence it was clear that MAUCH. 
the plaintiff had discharged herself 1 

If the jury believed the teeCimonf 1. Hertford, Mr. justice Hcalb 

cf the defendant'i witneisea, Ihey arriTedyeiterday morniDg, aodreid 

vonld find a verdict for him. He the king's commission for holdiBg 

■aw no reason to doubt tbe eri- the assises for this connly ; bat ■■ 

dence, as they agreed in all the it was late before his lordship arri. 

leading facts. — Verdict for tli&de> ved in town, o»ly one cause was 

feodant. tried in the course of the day, which 

A prosecntion was iaatitnted by was wholly uninteresting. 

the coanless^dowager vt Jkheater, Murder at Hodiletdon Thoisu 

for the benefit of the pnblic, against SimmonGwasindtcted, for that heat 

aporter at tbe White Horse Cellar, Broxbourn, in this coo a ty, on the 

Piccadilly, for having defrauded her 30th of October Ust, did make tn 

ef the sum of 3s. 4d. in the carriage assault on Barah HuDHncrBtone.aad 

of a ttasket of fish from Dorchester, wilfully gave her a mortal wooad ia 

It appeared that fraqncnt com- the neck with a knife, of which the 

plaints had been made agoinat the instantly died, 

defendant for extor^oo in the csr> This ia tbe casa of the inhonaa 

riage of parcels, which he waa in wretch who murdered the two aa> 

the habitofdeliverlag, and thepar* fortnnate woaen at Heddesden, 

ties concerned being desirous of and the court was crowded M an 

deteetiog his malpracliGes, a da> early hour in thi mOming-lobear 

piicatOAf the ticket which was tent the trial. It did not laal long, as 

with the basket in questiim, was the facta lay in a very narrow Goat> 

enclosed in It, slallitg the real charge pass. 

to be 6s. fid. but the defendant, not Mr. Pooley, 'as counsel fftr tha 

knowing of this, altered bia own to prosecation, stated to the jnrf, that 

9s, lOd. which her ladyikip'a ser- it was not posiilrie bat they mnst 

rant paid him. This wu fully hare heard of tha case. He in. 
9 treated 

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CHRONICLE. 17 

tratol them tb dismiss from their into the house, ind he immediateljr 

tAais aXl they had heard elaewheri*, falloired her. The witness imioe^ 

tnd altifiid only to the eridenca diatelj h«ard theshrieks or murder, 

which would be laid before them, but did not know from vhom. All 

He then stated the facU as below the rami I y were in Ihe room. The 

detailed, and called the follow iog Ihrae young ladies, Mr. Boreham's 

vilneucs: datighlcr, Mra. Wamer, the mar- 

Samitel James, n surgeon, at ricd daaghler, Mr. Boreham atut 

Boddesdon,. deposed, thiit on the his wife, and Mrs. lIummcrstODc. 

lOtb of October he went to the In a very short time, the prisoner 

kotse of Mr. Iloreham, at Iloddcs- came la the wash-house to her ; she 

dfto. Ongoing to the house, he shut the door, and cried outmur. 

■ ■ der! The witness rin into the 
sitting, toom. She .there saw sume 
one lying under the wiadow; she 

KiauCes ef a wound in the neck, immediately r^n Trom tliencc down 

near the spine. a passage; the prisoner followed 

Sarah Harris, servant of Mr. her; she there met her master with 

Bareham, said she had li Ted four the poker in his hand; in running 

years with him ; Simmons, the pri. hastily, her master,' who is a tery 

Miier, had liVed there three years, old and feeble man, was knocked 

asd qDitted'it Fast Michaelmas ; thti down. The prisoner caught her 

pmoncT wished to marry her, but and threw her down, and drew a 

her mistress disapproved of it: they knife on her. He Hire* her across 

had quarrelled before be quitted the Mrs. Warner, who was lyinj; dead, 

Krrice — on which occasion he beat as she belie?ed. He drew the knife 

fcer; and when he had done, he across her Ihront, but she gaardeil 

iial he did not care if he had killed it with her hand, nhich was cut. 

ker. He has often said, he would lie made a second blow, when she . 

make away with her, because she wrested the knife out of bis h.ind. 

wantd not marry him. He immediately ran away, and she 

Abont half pasleigbtin (hee>en. saw ho more of him, 
injof the 20!h of October he came Sarah Cakebtiry said she IJTed 

h> the h«u*e; the was In the kit. near Air. IJurehani. and heard the 

then, and heard him coming along cry of murder. She passed Mrs. 

tkeyard; he wasswearingTioiently, Hnmmcrstone and went into the 

Became np to the window and house ; she saw Mrs. Warnerjying 

ttrnck at her through the lattice, de-id under the window, 

aadfwore be would do for them all. ■ George Briltonsaid, on thcerea- 

She desired him net to make a noise, ing of ihc 20(h of October he went 

V they bad company: he said ho to Mr. Boreham's, at Ifoddesdon : 

fid not care for the cempany, he Jinding what had been done, be went 

woafd do for them all. Mrs. Hum- in search of the murderer; in the 

serstooe bearing the roice, opened cow-house he found Tom Simmons's 

titerooowdoorandcame to theyard. hat; he went in further search, but 

Sm told him to go away. Ha gare the priijoner was found by another 

hei a blow on the head, which parly, 
kmeked off her bonnet; — ihe ran Thomas Copperwheat went in 

Vou L. . ^ B Marcli 

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18 ANNUAL REfclSTER, 1808. 

uarch of the nnrderer. UidiscD. heis aot to old » there Mpr«UBted( 
Tered .SironioBs concealed under Rorhaiiie thit rellow nda«ero«i 
■ome straw in e crib tn the farm- appearance ; on the contrary, ha 
jui ; he had on him aimock frodc has a Tcry young look, and a good 
very bloody: the place where he coBRtenaoce^'beiDg rather a wetl- 
vas found wu abont 100 yard) from looking youog man than othcrvitc. 
the bouse. Ha heard the fientence of death with 

Benjamin Rook, the coroner, great Indifference, and walked rery 
Mid, when the eTidence of Harris coolly from the bar.—. The yon^ 
was read to the prisoner, ho said it girl, whom he attempted to mnrderf 
wa9 Tery true, he had Murdered was in great agitation, and wu 
them, and.no one else. - He added, obliged to be supported while sba 
that ho did not intend to have mur- ^as in court., 
dcred Mrs. Hiimmeratone, but h^ A striking display of the «innu 
went with an intention of mnrder- potence of lore occurred at tlia 
iogMrs. Borebam, Mrs. Warner, High Church, Hull) afew daysigo. 
and Harris, (he maid-serrant. A young woman haring^gi*en her 

The constable who carried him heart to a sailor, who was impretaad 
to prison, deposed to the tame and carried on.board the tenderly 
effect. Tlie prisonar also told him, the interference of her friends, Te< 
that when he had got Betsy down, sobcd nevertlielcss to marry th« 
he heard something flutter uTer bis object of her choice. He was ac 
flfaouldcrs, which made him get up cordingty brought on shora, and 
And runaway. escorted by the press-gang to the 

The prisoner being called upon church, from whence, after tbemar* 
to know if he had any thing to say, riage ceremony, he wu again cos- 
answered, in a careltu tone — No 1 Tcyed^ the tender. 

Mr. justice Heath told the jury, Da6naparb> hai lately fitted up 
the case was so very clear that it his library in the English taate, and 
nnt be unnecessary for him to ad. rather plain thu otherwise; it il 
^ress any obscrTations to them ; the decorated with marble bnsta of ee- 
prisoner, a^ they had heard, had lebimted characten, anongit which 
more than once Toluntarily con> are thofe of ,Mr. Fox and lord 
fcsied bis guilt. Nelson. 

The jury fonnil him £K% ; and ]3. The fif (h ^port of At coB- 
the learned judge immediafely pro. miseioners of military inquiry eon- 
nounced tbe sentence of the taw— aiits of 274 closely printed folio 
that he should be hanged on Mon. pages. Th« commiasiooert -remark 
day nest, and bis body anatomiied. oo (he great incouTeotencc ariuog 
It is a matter of curiosity to en., from adiTisioa of patronage, which 
quire what are the features which baa ucouioued ^ much gre^r e^ 
mark a wretch of such abandoned penditu're than would hare ather> 
principles. The pictures published wise occurred. The army general 
of him in towodonot byany mcaoi hospital system has been carried to 
' conrey a correct idea of bis person, too great an extent, and h>l been 
The general outline and character icry disadfaDtageous. Theeipen- 
of his face is best represented by diture for medicioei is enofnout. 
itfae froot-Eace portrait of him— but The medicines, fflfdicat stores, and 

sprgicid 

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CHRONICLE. 19 

nrgkJitoKt, and surgical iottra- (tU. STT). He tben left ttie atcue 
mentt^ arc Mipplied both Kt homiv tobedeTOurud b^bcarsan^ wolvei; 
aKi abroad, b^ a Mr. Garaier, who bat, previouslj to which^ he bad ft 
baa a patent for the purpose, (hough rude drawing tnatle of it, which re. 
■o reason hai been assigned for tiiis presents it with pointed ears^ rer^. 
Ttloabte moDOpolj. Mr. G. exc imull vyos, hone's hoofs, and a 
cntet DO part of the butiaesj bin- brisily mane, extending along tha 
«lf, and receives a salary in addi. whole of its back. 
lioa to bit profits, which appear to Mad Dogi. — At Xewbury, » 

be vary great indeed! His chargei greyhound almost tore .off the doi« 
en a jetrlj average amount to of a child aboot three years of age; 
67,HOl. The whole institution loon aftirr he btta man in the haad, 
•eemi to haye beCn conducted io a almost through ; an(14t is feai'ed ha 
WMt estraragant manner, and af. baa bitten many other persons. Ha 
lords another instance of the mode was at length killed. Seven peca 
in which the public money has been 'sons who have been bitten, abont 
iqaaadered. The expenditure of Newbury, passed throngh that town 
^ee, spiriti, and porter, has been in a caravan about a week sinca, on 
tondderable; for whose aie,canno< their way to the salt water at 
be easily ascertained. A pipe «f Southampton. 
wine in tea days, at tha York has. Pedettritu /of el/>^rnc«.— — Mr* 
pital, waa 'a common average. Halifax^ of the Royal Lancasbira 
&AMg the many abuses which the Militia, who lately, for a consider* 
npart discorers, ^re those com- able bet, walked thirty miles per 
ntlcd in the accouoti of the Ply- day for twenty shcceuive days, m 
BOB th hospital, in the yean 179S, detailed in aereral pftpers, and who 
IW, and 1798. These consist of thereby established his fame as * 
4<nbla charge* ; of alterations in pedestrian, haa now undertaken a 
wscheri for the purpose of intro. labour mubh more severe than tha 
dseteg larger sums in the place of one he has already alchieved ; it ii, 
■nller; and of false entries in the to walk twc^ilesan hour for ona 
■oatbly charge, under the head of hundred succetsive hours. The 
" mall bills." ground selected for the performaaca 

A complete mamnfoth has lately is near Tiverton, on the road to 
^ found (though not alive) in a Halbcrton. He went tbllhcr in a 
'"it of perfect preservation on the poslchaisc, and commenced the un- 
Widersof tbe Froaen Ocean. It dertaking el four o'clock oo Weda 
*M discovered by Scboumacbolf, a nesduy evening East. This explait 
Tsngoose chief, in the autumn of will occupy upwards of four tiaya 
l799i in the midst of a rock of ice; >»>' nights successively, allowing, 
ixt it was not till the fifth year after at no time, more than one hour fur 
^otg it, that the ice had melted repose or refreshment. The ge- 
tSdeotly to ditaugage the mam. nerai ophiion is very m'lch against 
■»tli, when it fell over on its aide his winnliij; : — eonbiderablcbels ar« 
*° a bank of tand. Schoumachoff laid, and of course the odds are in 
'^catoffthetusks, which he bar- his favour. 

'md for goods with a Russian mer- A mtlancholy inslance of inlcids 

^ut to the value of 60 rubles, occurred at Bristol. —A gentleman 

B 2 . ,1 

D,£,,wh»Google 



so ANNU AL. :rEGISTER, 180S. 



of respectability, from Bath, who 
liad been on a tisit at a fr'tcnil't 
Louse ill that city, ciitliis throat, 
and olherwiiie l^icerated himself in a 
Bhueking manner. The ntirortn. 
Date gcntlrman had been conlint'd 
to his room for some days through 
■ ii]iiesG ; and, at ten o'clock on the 
abof<t morniug, the serTant girl, 
b^arin^ him groan, looked through 
the key. hole of his chamber door, 
gnd discovered him weltering in his 
blood. Medical astiitancc was 
procured, but the wounds he had 
inflicted oohfinself were BHch as to 
occasion his almost immediate death. 
A coroner's inqnest was held on 
the body the same day, when it ap- 
peared that he had before, on se. 
verat occasioua, discovered strong 
■ymptonis of roealal derangement. 
Verdict, Lunacy. — Tha deceaied 
was 70 years ot age. 

18. — Paris. By an imperial de. 
cree at Iheday before yesterday, an 
nnirursity is established, to which is- 
•ntruslcd (he care of slipi^rriiing 
public inslructioQ through the 
whole French empire. 

The followiog is the oalh to be 
taken by the new nubility: . 
' " 1 swear to be faithful to the 
•mperor and his dynasty ; to be 
sbcdiunt .to the conslitutiun, laws, 
and institutions of ihocmprre; to 
■erre his majesty as a good, upright, 
■nd faithful subject ; to educate ray 
ehtldien in the same feelings of fida- 
lii) and obedience, and to march 
in defence of my couirtry as soon as 
its territory shall be threatened, or 
as bis majesty shall go to the army." 

Tie Ki»g of Df-maik.-Thn 
death of Christian the Vlllh, king 
of Denmark, is announcvd in the 
Gottcoburgh mail which arriTcd 
yesterday. Uo was bdrn on ibe 
Sjltb of J«aiiary, 174i;. In tho 



year 1760 he was married to Ibt 
princess Carolina Matilda, sister of 
our rcTered monarch. The unfor- 
tunate history of that princess, 
owing, it is generally supposed, to 
(he enmity of her step-motber, bat 
long been a subject of regret in this 
councry. The late king of Den- 
mark came to "Englaiui in the year 
1767, and was received with every 
possible (I em on siralion of respect by 
all ranks of people,' as well as by 
the illustrious family to whom be 
had beei^ recently allied. Soen 
after his return to Denmark, hii 
faculties, which were nevci {"'ig'^'i 
sunk into a decay, which wholly 
unfitted him for the dalles of hh 
siluaiion, and his kingdom has ever 
since been governed nntier hii mine, 
without the least chance that be 
would be able to resume his royal 
functions. Before this melancholy 
event in his life, there was notbiog 
in his ciiBracter morally or intcU 
leclually calcnhiled to excite admi' 
ralion br provoke censure. 

le. The inhabilants of the town 
of Stoney Stratford were thfo»a 
into the utmost constttrnafion by 
information which arrived from 
WolvertoD, that the three large 
aijuediict arches under the im- 
mensely high embarkmeot, made 
about four ye^rs ago, for carrying 
the new lino of the grand janctioo 
canal aeross the valley, about -a 
mite below that tonn, had fallen 
in ; and that the r'^ver Ou*c ws* so 
dammed up thereby, that the town 
must shortly be entirely inundated 
to a great depth. The fears of 
those who hastened l« the spot, 
were much allayed, by finding', that 
one of these arches, « hich had been 
propped up underneath with tim- 
ber, soon ^Icr the centers were 
atruck. was atiU itanding; and that 
this 



D,£,,t,7P-hy Google 



CHROKICLE. »I 

lUiintetrtA, owidb to there being Thti morning > dreadful fire 
■o load in Ike riTCr, w«s able to broke oat, about three o'clock, at 
OTTfofftheiialeras fastas it cane Mrs. Smith's, milliner, in Middle- 
dawn. On eiamininf the other two row, Chelmsford. The inhabi- 
irc^, it appeared that about taots nf the house, consisting alto- 
taen(/<two jardi in length, of the gether of females, seven in nomber, 
■iddle part of each had fillen ia^ were in a most perilous situation, 
•ad blocked up the openings, lay. They appeared at the windows of 
if the canal above in complete the second floor (for the first waa 
nrini, emptying it as far as the on fire), as they had risen from 
■earcsl stop.gate on each side, and their beds, uttering the most pier^ 
aponng the remains of fire bun- ,cing shrieks. Ai the mast likely 
dtid quarters of coke or cinders, means of rescuing them, two lad- 
iiUch the contractors had laid on ders were procured, and raised 
tk arche*. The ends of each of against the burning front of the 
At broken archet were found house; but, such was th« danger of 
tuading in a crippled state. ascending to their relief, from the 
Liis Herquiada, for the wilful riolence of the flames, that a mo- 
■trder of Francisco Romaro, was menlary irresolution ensced among 
Mar eyed from the new gaol, to the the spectators of their tremendously 
phce of execDtion, near Win. awful situation ; till, agonized by 
ckerter. >te bchared wiih great their screams, and actuated by the 
yeaitence, and made a conresiiun of feelings of humanity to a contempt 
tkenimefor which he was going of personal safely, a young man> 
Knffer. At the place of etecu- Mr. Henry Guy, and Mr.Sorret, 
wd a most melancholy eircum- a near neighbour, made an attempt 
Muee took place owing to the hang, to preserrc them. The former 
■a not understanding his duty, in iucceeded in rescuing a little girl, 
hing the rope on the gallows at a about nine years old, niece lo Mrs. 
proper time. The rope was pnt Smith, Themaid-scrrant, whubad 
iMod the malefactor's neik, and got out of the garret-uindow, and 
tkcart instantly moring away, he climbed to the roof of the house, 
Ml, tnspended, and, in the con- was brought down by the latter. 
>iWfe agonies nf death, his feet Hobinson, a waggoner, who first 
■rre partly on the ground ; and he discorered ihe fire, ascended a lad. 
nd«rwent a most liulent straogu- der, with the intent of bringing 
luien. Hu dying groans were down Mrs. Smith; but so extreme 
taking. He remained in Ih^t was hrr trepidation, that she was 
■ilMlion for some time, and then incapable of using any exertion, 
•poke, in great anguiith, requesting and it became necessary lo drag her 
tohe putoutof his misery. One froin the window by force; in 
rftbe JBTcIin men look him round delog nhich, owing to her conrula 
Ibe body, and lifti-d him up, in or. sire slntggtes, she fell upon the 
dcrlo reraoye the rope, which wis jiaTcment bclow^ but miraculonil^ 
(W« under his chin, to under his wiihoui having any bones broken, 
left ear. He was again thrown off, Almost at the same instant, two 
Md eas some time before death put young ladies, miss Williams and 
1 peiiod to hi* iiifleringi. miss Wilkinson, rendered fnntie 

as bj 



D,g,t,7P:hy Google 



92 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

' bj terror, precipitated themMlres for John Baker to cone i» Um ia 

from the trindowB into the street, the parlour, and r«nonitrated with 

and were so Mrerely brniied, that him. Baker opon thti frew Tcry 

doubt was long entertained of their iniolent, clenched both bis fists, 

recovery, ai well as of that or Mrt. and thrust them in a menacing 

Snith. Two amiable young ladies, manner in hit face. Upon thia b« 

misi Woolmer, aged 19, whose pa. said he wu alarmed, and seeing kn 

rents reside at Hornchai'ch, and old gun in a corner, wllich he kne*r 

miss Ere, daughter of Mr. C. Ere, to be unloaded, he tuok it up with a 

of Barnith.hall, became rictimi to *tow to defend himself, when Baker 

' the devouring element... Notwiih. seixed hiti, and beat him to th« 

standing the most strennons cxer. ground ; he was jmned by the other 

lions of ihi^ populace, and the sol. two Bakers, who dragged bim ant 

dierS' from the garrison, by, sis of doors to the greeoj on wfaich 

o'clock the honicB of Mrs. Smith, there were lereral people, some ol 

Mr. Peck, drnggist, and Mr. Hill, whom cried out; " give it'btm 

shoemaker, adjoining, were totally well." They afterwards dragged 

destroyed ; and those of Mr. Rood, him to the public-house, and nade 

plasterer, and Mr. Nash, hair- him sit down in a little room. Af_ 

■ dresser, were so greatly damaged ter he had been there a short titnei, 

that they must be r«btiilt. ho ran out, and escaped about lOO 

Kpiiaph in Kirkeel church.yard : yards; but James and Boojamia 

Here lie the remains ot Thomas Baker purttied him, and forced hia 

Nicols, who died in Philadelphia, to return to the house; here the j 

March 1733. Had. fie Ihdd, ht kept him all night, and toog pro. 

xoould have bfen burird here. taM« and indecent songs iu bb 

S3. John haker, J times Baker, hearing. In tlic morning Ibey said 

Bfjanun Bukrr, and three others, they would take him beloro a na. 

were indicicd for assaulting the gistrate; but by his intrealifs, Ibcy 

Ite*. H.Williams, and keeping him permitted him to go hone and 

in iinprisonnrent the whole of the change hu clothes. KMridge and 

night of Sunday, the^Otfa of Decern, Hillyer accompanied hira ; swd 

ber, and making him sign a pro- they frighteued Aim by telling bra, 

mise to pay 5/. as a consideration that he had cammilted a trans. 

for being released. portable offence, by her ing taken 

The ReT. Mr. Williams was cal. the old gun. Uo was s« much 

lad. He was a young man, and alarmed, that be was induced to 

told the rolloiriDg extraordinary sign a promise to give then five 

tale: be said he was curate of the pounds, if they would let him go. 
parish' of Kirfford, in this county, On his cross.examinatiun, it ap. 

and that he permitted John Baker pcarcd, that he had actnally point. 

' to live in the vicarage house with ed the gun at Baker, and that he 

bim, who, in retnrn, performed tit. signed the paper, which was writ. 

tie domestic »er*icot for him. Oa ten by his own dictation, aa a cou. 

Sunday, December 90, after the promise for an assault, which be 

performance of his clerical duties, acknowledged be had commttled 

he nturned home, and hearing a oq Baker. He also contradicted 

great aoile in the kitchtn, he sent himself in so many particulars, tfaal 
3 - tho 



CHRONICLE. ?5 

At jaf^ tmmeffifttelj fonnd the The RiTeisDae offica wu IikewU« 

fnaavi—Jfot guilty. broken open, but notbiog itoleu. 

RMery at tht Ruyal Ejcchange, LtOfd's CofTee-hgiiM being w«II 

^On Sitnrdaj ss'imigbt, about w^tcheil, the thJcies did not at> 

Uf past thrae o'clock, tbe rwge of tempt it. Aa effurt to break open 

oAca ia the gallerjr o*eT the Rojal the Royal Exchange AuDraoce* 

EtdMage were discoTsred, by the office tras made, but the Tillaina 

witrinnaa going his round, to be failed. Etcry exertion Is makJog 

kokeo open. On exatniuing ibore to trace the robbers, 
tfocly, he percdred that Dot one A shocking accident happened in 

of the oSca in that part of the the Home Park, belonging to hil 

WUing had eacaped. Some of the royal highness the duke of Keot^ 

iaaalwd been wrenched open with near Kingston. As a labouring 

ean, or other burglarious imple- nan waa passing throngh the park, 

MBb; othera were found open, hi. was attacked by • ferociou 

wi&ovtany apparentmarks of TiD- bull, and gored in such a maomrf 

kKe,thelocki having been pick- as only tosurtireavery short Ume. 

tL In the merchitnt-iea&iaD's of. His royal highnest gara immediafa 

Ibc the Tillaina found no pinnder ; orders to th« keeper of the park to 

TUW. which bad been setaparlfrom shoot the antma). 
Aefimd for a payment that mom- A remarkable occorrance took 

■■J to the seamen's widows, escaped place at Spithead. A man, belong. 

lUi hands, owing to the impreg- ing to the Salcett* frigate was sen. 

MUc ttiengtb of the iron chest, in teoced to be flogged tbroogfa the 

«Uch the money was contain^, fleet for thieving. The boats from 

Fran Mr. Chapman's office two all the men.of.war, as is customary 

^niten of a lattery ticket in the upon those occasions, were assem^ 

TRKut lottery were takta. Mr. bled i when, at the moment the 

Bedgm loit from hit c^ce two panishraeat was about to be in. 

Pi<aiof Irish cloth. Mr. Wart, flictett, he jumped overboard, and. 

Mhj's premises were also broken was never afterwards seen. It ii 

•pea, but the plunderers found no. conjectured he had previously coo. 

'Ifaf'hat they coald carry off; a cealcd. some shot in his packets, to 

khannch of DHttton, which hnng prevent the possibility, of rising 

^ for this gentleman's Sunday's again in the water. 
^na, fortonately escaped their. The remains of Miss Ev« and 

fages. M{» Woolmer, the two young la. 

The thioves also broke open the dies who perished in the late dread* 

■traag iron chest in the coonting. fulfireat Chelmsford, were oo Sa. 

^em of Mr. Secretan, ^d strewral turday sa'nnight interred in one 

A Ibe pBpen about the room. Mr. grave, in the chorcb.yard of that 

™A lost about 40^. in cash, and town. The funeral was conducted 

'DUI, in bills. Mesin. Rivai and with peccliar solemnity. Twenlys 

^BgCrsIeiD lost about got, in mo. four young ladies, habited in white, 

**7- Mr. Parish lost about 40^ preceded the coffins. The palls 

^Mgit which was a djatt for 5/. were borne by twelve yonog ladias, 

*hich the villains contrived to get in white dresses and boods, sop. 

Mora the draft conU be stopped, ported by the tame number of 
B'4 young 

D,£,,t,7P-h»Goo^le 



24 ANNI;AL, REGISTER, I80S. 

young mm in blacky with wbite Brighton, about tbr«e hundred 

hat-bands. The rdaliies and rriendi yards to the north of the Priace's 

i>f the deceased, and a nufaierous PaTilUon. The flames made luch ■ 

tram of the principal inhabitanU of rapid progress in the buildings, 

the town, in deep, mourning, fol- that the whole of (he lower pai>t of 

lowed. Mri. Smith, at who^e house it was completely in a blaze almost 

the fire broke out, died the same as soon as discovered. By four 

morning. Miss Williams is in a o'clock (he danger «as considered 

, A!r way of recoTcry;' but Miss at an end, though the fire was not 

'Wtlk^naon still remains in a very entirely extinguished until Friday 

precarious slate. afternoon. 

Last waek a cat, in Greenock, Horrid Murder. — (From a Ja- 

hrought forth the most wonderful matca paper.) " I witnessed on 

and perfect monster of 'her onn Monday Ian, in (be parish of St, 

species (hat is to be met with; it Elizabeth,, the most horrid and most 

lias one head, four ears, eight feet, cruel sight that probably ever was 

and two tails : it is one body from seen before. Mr. James Jenoings, 

thcnatL-t up, as if it were breast to nho was settling a coSee planta* 

hreast, and from the naTel back lion about three miles Trqm this, 

forms two distinct kittens ; what is had hts throat cut; his house.keep- 

remarkable, Iheonc is male and thfi cr^ a Sambo woman, had her head 

other female. It has suckled for severed from her body ; their el- 

•omc days, and, from alt appear- dest daughter, about cightyearsold, 

aoce, would haio lived to matu. her throat cut ; the next boy, about 

rity; but most unfortunately for sli, his throat cut and scalped ; (he 

ttie admirers of natural curiosities, . third, a surking child, strangled; 

wat deprived of its life from super, and a black child, about six, his 

fltitious motives. It is now in the throat cut and scalped ; there is 

possflssion of Mr. Gameron, a tur. also Ofie of Mr. Jennings's brown 

£eon Iherr. children missing, about three years 

A heifer belonging to Mr. Thos, old, which, there is not the least 
James, of WBdding:(on, acar Lin- doubt, has shared the same fate, ' 
coin, last KIM k produced the fol- as it was seen in company with 
lowing wonderful calf. It had two (he ethers (he day before by a gen. 
heads united just above the eyes, ticuian who lives in (he neighbour- 
find perfectly formed, cicn the teeth hood ; and the murderers, to cuD- 
jn rach mouth being precisely alike; pkie (heir barbarity, cut the throat 
one neck, eight legs, two (ails, four of a milch.goa(, which they left 
Itidneys, two Ihroals, one heart, weltering in its blood along vith, 
and one liver. It was full grown, the other dead bodies. These cruel 
and of a dull colour. The hcil'er and dud barbarous murders were cod- 
calf wern kilted in the parturition, mitlcd on -Sunday, the day befor* 

planning Fire at Brrghlon,—^ I saw them, and supposed to be 

About a quarter before twelve, on done by six Coromantee negro. 

Thursday se'nnlght, a fire broke men, purchased by Mr. Jennings 

out in the lower part of an unfinish- alioul six munths ago. We under. 

ed lodging-house, belonging to D. stand that one of the above negroes 

6anda,e»i.onMarlboroughSteyne, was discovered in Ihe woods, by a, 

pari; 



D,g,t,7P:hy Google 



CHRONICLE. 25 

piriy of DegroM who were sent in mode of (hinking in." " If I had 

punuit of tbem. They found him U in lay power," taid (he angry 

uleep, and we understand shot him' justice, " 1 would hare your bat 

en the spot; his head was ' after- noi'/cd lo your head." " 1 thonght," 

*ud( cot off and 'stuck una pole, said Obadiah, '^ that thou Iradst 

He «u wrapped in the clothes of giren oror the trade of driving 

the unfortunate woman they had nai/t." 

to cruelJy inurdetftd, and her neck- 6. The Royal Jcnnerian Societj 

tue was tied about bis ancle." hare published a report on th« 

_^ supposed failures of Vacciaallon 

at Kingwaoil, in Hampshire. Tha 

APRIL. inquiry was conducted by a medi. 

3. Fatai Fright, — (Eitract of a cal deputation, conualing of John 

Irtler from FeTersham, dated April Ringt esq- t ice- p res id ant ; Williain 

J) " A boy, who liad been watch- Blair, e^q, direolor j and Dr. J.S. 

ng crows, on his return honte a Knowle^, the resident inocalator, 

Stm days since, left his gun in the assisted by Dr. Fowler, an emioeot^ 

corner of the room. ' A litile fcl- physician of Salisbury, and eni> 

hir, niDey<;ars old, runninfi.iolo ployed two days at a public meet, 

(he room, and taking (he gun, ex- ing, where were also present the 

fkiaied, " Joe, 1 will shoot you !'* right honourable George' Rose, 

palled Ihe trigger, and wounded his Wm. Mills, esq. M. P, ; S. I'nncks, 

young friend in the hand and thigh, esq. a magistrate ; the rev. Messrs. 

Twagenllcmeo riding pnst, alight- Taylor, Darie, and Middleton ; 

cd, and gaTc ercrj assistance in Messrs. U'estcutt and MacilwaiO} 

tbeir power. One of theui, sha- burgeons, &c. 
kiagthc litlle fdlow, said he would 'ihe following is the result of tha 

hare him hanged ; nhich had such inquiry as reported by the medit^ 

u rffect on him, that the next committee io the society, and ac- 

laoming he was unable to rise, curded to by Ihe other medical per« 

He cried, and hoped Joe would get sons present : 

better. }Itt was assured he was " The tmall-fiux appeared at, 

jetting butter, and that he might go Uingwood about (he middle of 

and KF him.: he did sn, and ap- !)cptembcr, and rapidly spread 

pnteA mure composed ; but lijs through the town and neighbour- 

(wlings were loo great for his hood, partly by means of inoeula- 

Xtengtb, and on Thbrsilay motn. tiun, ami partly by natural infcc- 

in^ he died. The wounded hoy it tion. 
BOW walking about." " Vaccine inoculation did not 

A Quaker, a ffw days since, ha. conimi'nrc until Ihe 33d of Octo. 

•log been cited as an etidcnce at a ber; it is thcrcfurc .cridcnt, that 

^Barter sessions, one of the inagis. all tlioKc persoiu who were vacci> 

I'ltcs, who had been a bbcksmilb, nated had beeu previously exposed 

'rtired la know why he would not to the contagion of thi; small. pox. 
Uke off hi« lia( ? "It is a privi. " Some of these persons had the 

^t," iatU the vtltness, " that the small pox at the same lime with 

I»i aud liberality of my country the cow. pock, in consequence of 

tadulgg people of Aur religious previous infection. In others, Vai;. 

D,£,,t,7P-hyGoogle 



«S ANNUAL REGISTER, 180S. 

tJminoenlstioB MnottakeeSect; '* It was alEajnisifoaBly report. 

aod consequently tiny wen not «d, that twe pcnona died of tba, 

Teli'ered insusceptible of tk« infec- cow.pock (or, as it bas been tem.' 

tioMoSthesnian.poz. _ ed, ■' the vaccine ulcar;") fast it is 

** In Tarious instance*, Atj cow. positirely assarted bj the nirgeoas 

yftck matter, received from sereral who inoculated Ibem, that no vac- 

fBArters, was dissotved in water at- cine ulcer, nor cow. pock, took 

■Mt boiling, preTioHs to iasertion ; place in either of those inst&nccB; 

nd >4 is pVobable, that on this ac. and (hat tke patieata died of other 

coDDt, it fre^acntty taiteA to pro- diseases—ODO of them of aqT apo. , 

•hicc anj effect Afeore two hun. plexy." 

drcd persont, bowerer, were tuc- Atucdalt of tie tate Ciumltts of 

(easfallj Taccinatadf and hare been Boti. — ^The foll<ft*ing deaerres to 

yrotactcd . from tiie small.pox, be recorded among the many cha. 

tfcoagb ranch ^iposed to its infec- ritabte actions which ditlingaished 

liom hi different ways. the ckaracter of the' late imiabl* 

*< it waa asserted Ibtt the imall. and regretted conntcss of Bath, and 

pox waa more fatal at Rivgwood wili be read with pleasure by Xh<M« 

aad the BeighbouriDg riltagea, to who are kcquaintcd with her nuaie. 

. tfcoie pertans who were inoculated roits virtues, — A cnr&te in one of 

lor the cow-pock than to others, the parishes in Shropshire, (on tli« 

Tiat report appeared to be totally late sir WmUn) Pvlteney's estate* 

4estituteof foundation. The in or. ia that county,) who bad atmaJI 

taKty was indeed considerable, (tipend witii a aunerous family, 

•wtng, in some instances, to tha applied to sir William for a living, 

want of air and cleanliness, and in which was promised him, when an 

Athcrs to tha iainodtratB nSe of opportunity otliered. Unfortonate. 

•pirittious liquors, particularly at ly the baronet died soon after, and 

the time of t^c eruption, which .this poor but worthy curate lost 

tad been recommended by a Ihresti- all hopes of the living. Some 

er, who inoculates for the small, friends, howerer, suggested ta hia 

pM. the propriety of applying to hia 

^* It was reported, that several daughter, the bte countess of Bath, 

|Mt>ons at Ringwood, who were - and to show her the letter wriltea 

inocalated wfth the cow. pock some by her father to the curate, whermfi 

-ynanago, lately had the small.poz; the promise was made. <Tbe vena. 

bnt no satisfactory evidence wat rable pastor, in an inclement seuoit 

l^ivea to establish the fact, as it of the year, travelled all tbo way 

appeared cither that their arms had from his parish to London, fnirU 

Bot been inspected by the inocuia. doubts and fears ; but both were 

lor after vaccinatioa, or (hat there soon dispersed in the first interview 

wa> no proper scar left behind ; with her ladyship, who, with that 

QTf on the other band, when they chearfal alacrity which characteri- 

wore pat to the test of variolous led ber filial affection, declared 

mocnlation, ao other effect was (hat il was not only her duty to ful. 

prodoced than what is occuiooally fil her departed father's contmand% 

produced in those who have previ- bnt even his intentions ; and without 

•Biljr bad the small-pox. delay employe^ ft conideotial per. 

■oa 

I . D,£,,t,7P-h»Google 



CHRONICLE. sy 

MB to endcarotii to procure & tbe pateiit.plAca of 'clerk of tkv 

firiig for ihe oid man, prererriHg conimoii pleas in the court of ox- 

the hoiiourai,i'j path of purchasing ebcquer in Ireland ii reduced I* 

«lth her ample meana the girt the two lires of hii lordship and 

■tiich fcclesiastical pride might hi& son, the hon. Cbarlet Yotke. 

hare rrfased her> All methods to Theis 'were on board I9 pouen. 

procure a lirinf by purchaie were gers, of whom three wtre- childres 

iaeffednal ; aa<l her ladysliip paid and six were aetranti ; and tti^s 

tets the haiidaai the worthy corate were nine bclongiog to the rcsad. 

a san adequate to the income of a The following were washed orer. 

liiinfE of 300/. per annum, with board anddrawned: lortfUoystoa 

vbich he retnrned to his family, and two senants; colonel Pollen 

ioploting blessings on tbc bencro. aad one servant ; D. T. Barclay, 

lent countess. from Petersburgh; Kenny^ , 

?■ Shipwrecked at tea, by the from Kiga ; — Becker, from 

ilnadiDg of the thip Agatha, of Hamburgh ; and oae serraat, on« 

Lnbeck, in a storm, not far from nurse, and fire of the ship's crew. 

Hemel, lord Koyston, eldest son of Mr. Poclce, of Hamburgh, and oas 

Ikefsrl of ILardwicke, who would serrant-maid, died on-board the 

htir been S4 years old had he lircd ress el during the night of the 7tb 

till tbe 7tb of May, and promised and 8th. Of those who were 

to b*conw wi hJinour to his house, bronght on shore, and who tike> 

tit left Iretaad afaont two yean wise died, were one sailor and the 

■fo for the continent, accompani. yoangcst child of Mn. Barrif. 

•d by two serranli, both of whom The others who were rescued were, 

perished with him. This amiable the lady of colonel Pollen; Mr. 

sad accomplished yonog noble- Holliday, from Petersburgh ; Mn. 

■an bad been abote foor years Barris, with two children ; M, Fe- 

fnxn Ihia country ; and not one of reira, who was sent by the Purta- 

Ammc by whom he was accompa. gnese charge del affaires from 

■iedbas,nni*ed him. His tutor, Petersbargh toPortogal, and who 

private secretary, and steward, all died the nett day, in consequence 

dia^ a aatural death some time of bis extraordinary exertions ; the 

^nce ; and his other atteodanti, captain of the ressel and serrant, 

together with the compaoions of and two sailors ; in all, ten souls. — 

fcis toar, sank with hi* into tbe Colonel PoUen, aforesud, was the 

ntery grartv His lordship had only son of the Rer, George P. of 

twlee^ rince he went to the conti- Little Bookham in Surry. ~ Me 

nent, narrowly escaped being was In the 33d year of fail age; 

drowned. In the coarse of iast and, possessing a fine and vigo. 

wiaterhewent down in a sledge, rous undetstwding, highly im- 

ud was rescued by a Mr, Poole, proved by education, and by his 

who took him out of the ice by the very extensire and interettiog 

hair of Uiehead, for which Mr. P. travels, there is no doubt, if he 

was haodsomely rewarded by lord had returned to his native country 

Haidwicke. By his lordship's (as he was nttempting to do when 

death, tbe rererMenary interest of this dreadful accident put a period 

the eatlof Hanlwicke's family in to all Ijis hopes), but, he would 

hare 

n ,-i>,Google 



n ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

hate proved a distinguished orna-. distance for some lime; but afier an 

mentor it. His TorCime noiild attack was made, the do^ leized faia 

hare been large, and his abilities thastcr on (ho boriy, and verymuch 

«nd his cxpcricnta 'nould have ni3iined,?)lm. After he had loosed 

amply qiialrfird him for n seat in his hold, he seized Anthony by the 

parliament. In 1790, on his corning hip, and the officer being within 

of age, }ie opposed (he interest of ' reach of a kDifc, which he took off 

ihvdiike of Neifolk, fur the repre- (he counter of a chandler's shop, 

sentation of the po(mIouB borough he cut the throat of the dog, and 

of Leominster, which he carried by released himself. The prisoner was 

a majority of one. ' He afterwards at length secured. The warrant of 

jaiscd a regiment of fencibles at commitment was produced, and the 

Itis own espcnse, for the ser»ice of prisoner was conTicled. 

goTcrnment, and attendrd with it Extraordinary Pedestrianam- — 

on its being ordered to Halifax, in It has been stated that a. Mr. Paul 

Kova Scotia ; biit for several years hadmatehadfaimselffor lOOguincas, 

lie has been constantly travelling on (he Arst event, ^nd An guineai 

on the continent. At St. Petcrr. oo the second, to go from Koighti. 

tinrgh hcmarricd oneof (hc.daiigh. bridge to a spot near Windsor in 

' ters of sir Charles Gajcoigne (sfstpr two hours and a half, a distance of 

to the countess of Haddington, now something more than 20 miles, and 

■wrried to Mr. Dalryirple), who to return to Knightsbridge in three 

was with him when the wreck took hours within twelve hours. The 

place, bat 'who nas happily sarcd. pedestrian started at eight o'clock 

9, Breaking out of Prinm. — on Wednesday morning, walked 9 

CiurletWhite^ a notorious swindler, miles within the first hour, and had 

was indicted for breaking out of arrived within a mile and a half of 

Tothill-Fields Bridewell, a few Slough at the expiration of the 

weeks since, behaving been fully second hour. He (hen had two mil*) 

committed for fraud. and three-quarters to walk in the 

The prisoner had been (ried and other half-hour, which he did with 

acquitted on no less than four in- rase. After laying on a straw bed 

diclmenis curing (he prcfeni ses. belwetn blankets four honrs, tha 

sions, by points of taw ; and on be. pedestrian started on (heneKtma(eh 

ing arraigned for (his ofTence, ho at ,to return in three hours, but the 

£isl pleade<l guilty, but afterwards rain fell in torrents, and he went 

recalled I is plea and took his trial, seven miles in the first hour with 

which (li-closed some curious cir. an umbrrlja. He would, in fair 

cnmsianccs. )t appeared that the weather, doubtless have won buth , 

prisoner had broke out of brtde. matches, but on his arrival on the 

well by forring an iron bar, and he second, at Hounslow Heathy with 

was afterwards heard of, at Straf. wind and weather against him, he 

ford, whereAnthony theotficcr and prudently resigned, winning 50 

the 11 ri son. keeper of Toihill. fields guineas by^is day's fatigue. ' 

went to secure him. - The Chase. — The earl of Derby 

-The prisoner made a stout resist- (urncd out a fine stag, on Thursday 

ancc, and, lugelhrr with a fero. se'nnight. The day bdng very Gne, 

ciouB bvU-doK} kept the officers at A and bdng his Imdsbip'a last bunt 

lbi> 

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CHRONICLE. 



29 



Qb Kuon, X nnmerou^ field oE 
(portmen assembled by half past 
ten, at WaltoQ Heath, where the 
Mag Was turned oat, ami went off 
b fine style, across Bos Hill, and 
b; Dorking. He then made for 
Ibe Sossex road, towards Brighton, 
after which he headed back, and 
«ai taikea three miles on the other 
■de of Uorshao), af;er a hard run 
of fire hours and a iMlf. Ualy 
men geotlenen were ia, several «f 
the horses being knocked up ; one 
ofthem dropped down dead, and 
two others are not likely to Burvive. 
It was allowed t« be oae of the 
greatest days' sport of the season, 
Kii lordship took a chaise and four 
[ron Horsham to town. 

Lately, a Tery valuable mare, he. 
loDgiog to Mr. Fadmore, farmer, 
aear Ha warden, Klinlshire, was 
(nddenly taken ill, after drinking 
some water in a pond, and all efforts 
to get her to swallow any thing 
proved ineffectual. She swelled re. 
oarkably large, and lived two or 
three days in the most rscrutiating 
agony, when she ilied. On open, 
ng her, nothing was found in her 
hovels that could occasion her 
<l-aih ; but, on cutting open the 
•indpipe, a large toad was disco. 
tered alive ! — which she is supposed 
to have takeo into that orifice on 
drtokiDg the water. 

Smcide. — Mr> h. an eminent 
ilockbroker, put an end to his ex. 
iteoce on Monday last, by shoot- 
tog himself with a pistol. He rode 
to town that morning from his villa 
in the country, about 14 milt-s (lis. 
tant. When be reached his house 
)k Corahill, he read a letter put 
into bis hands by his servant, which 
Kened (o affect him mach. Short. 
\j afterwards ha coroplarned of 
btigD* and indisposition, and said 



he would retire to h!> bed.raom. 
He did so, and was fount! there, in 
the course of the day, dead, with 
the pistol lying by him. It was 
Supposed that the pistol was fired 
about eleven o'clock, but no report 
was heard by the servants, ]^r. L. it 
appear*, was under cunslderahleeml 
barcassmcnls, which were unknowa 
even to his partner or family, bat 
which had occasioned a depression 
of spirits that led to the unhappy 
catastrophe. On a minateexamina* 
tion into hi» affair!, it appears that 
he is minus to the amount of 
60,000^ and upwards. One per- 
son alone is a sufferer to the amount 
of 36,000/. another twcnly, and 
many others in sraallitr sum*. Mr. 
L, left behind him a letter, the ten. 
dency of which; was to exculpate 
Mr. Chis partner) from ady blame 
' which might ba imputed to him. 
The deceased was in an extensive 
line of business ; gave elegant en- 
tertainments to the nubility in thp 
country ; sJid had a fasle fur build. 
log. lie has left a wifA, and ws 
believe a family. The coroner's 
inquest has returned a verdlcl of — 

W. We hare seldom witnessed a 
more tremendous ealc of wind than 
that which commenced on iMon. 
d.iy, and raged with uncommon 
violence from ten till near three 
o'clock. Several ships in the river 
drove from their moorings. y\bout 
one o'elock a large sheet of lead 
was raised, by the violence of the 
wind, from off the top of a house 
in Cudgate.hill, and thrown down 
on the pavement. In its way it 
broke a part of the parapul wall, 
which fell on the ground with a 
terrible crash. The hand of Pro. 
vidcncc was nevermore visible thaa 
in this instance, for tbough the 
street 



D,£,,t,7P-.hyGoogle 



30 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

atreetwascTOvdctl frith panengen, Undims lowBTd* liini. The prl. 

]>et~ none recei*a<l the smallest in. sonar was fonnd guiHy, and eiecib 

joiy. ted on Wcdntsd&y morning. 

SimlLPox. — ThefotlowingKfibct. The late king of Sweden, x few 
Ing imtauces of (he fatal effects of hours prerions (o his demiMi, ord«r. 
the makl.pox, erince the urgent ed that a large colleGtion of papeis 
neoenity of the inoculation for that in hia own hand.wriiing, should be 
disease ,b«ng either prohibited, or deposited' In an iron chest, under 
•t least put under such restriction, three ke}-s, and placed in a certain 
tiiatthe public may no longer mf. department of the Unireraity lA 
ferso merely by its contagion, as Upsal, with a strict injoDclion that 
ftey haw recently experienced ;— the chest should not be opened till 
At Lyme R^gis, in Dorsetshire, a the end of twenty years after hit 
gentleman not being able readHy death. It is supposed these pspsrs 
to procnre raccine matter, insisted contain some very interesting srii- 
' onhafing his child inoculated with cles on the state of Europe at the 
the iraall.poi; the contagion was titne that prince died, 
thereby codimunicated to the in ha- 16. T'ieiMeJametPaiiIt,Etq. — 
Utants, and so great wa^ the mor. An inquest was held upon the body 
tality )D that small town, that sixty of (he Jate James Pa'ill, esq. at hit 
penons tost their IJTes in *% few house, No. 2, Charles -street, St 
weeks, Mr. MansGeld, No. g, James'i-aqoare. The first witn«H 
Bishopsbead-conrt, G ray 's. inn -lane, called was the buller, Mr. P^iuli'i 
bas recently lost all his four child- confidential serrant. He stated, 
Ten by 616 snall-poz. At the that a great alteration had taken 
School for the Indigent Blind, in ' place for sejcral months in the coa- 
St.Otorge's.fields, two thirds of the duct of his masler. His orders 
objects admittt-d into that charity were frtqucntly contradictory — ha 
ba*e lost their sight by the iniail- was irresolute, fluctuating, anil de- 
pox, pressed ia spirits. The change was 
11. iturder. — AtStaffurdassiies, so remarkable as to bo perceired by 
«D Monday last, William Ilawkes. erery one acquainted with his mau 
wood was found guilty of poisoning ter, who, he was convinced, was 
kis Blaster, Mr. Parker, of Swin. very much disorded in his under- 
4on, in Staffordshire, by adminudir. standing. About half aftc fouroD 
iog to him poison (corrosirr subli. Friday, knowing that Mr. Paull 
Bate), In a cup of camomile tea. was engaged to dine out, ha went 
The prisoner, when called upon for Dp to his bed. room, knocked attba 
Us defence, offered a written paper door, and reminded hira of the en- 
wherein he acknowledged his hating gagement. The answer was, he 
administered 'the poison, wiihovt should be rang for shortly. [{*• 
the Inowledge of any other person, »in| remained below for some time, 
but that he did not do it with an he was alarmtd by the xcreains of 
latention of injurini; any one ; 1 hat the servant maid, who had atleodol 
be thereby meant it as a " trick Mr. Fault in his long illness. He 
upon the old woman, the house, instantly returned to thebcd-room, 
keeper." Healaospuketery high, which he entered, and found hii 
Ijr of Ut r " '"^e deceased) master weltering iu his blood, r^ 
I cUuiog 

D,g,t,7P:hyGOOglC 



CHRONICLE. ^l 

iMnniwilliiilirit. lillhii thiiil go into the bed-ehuibw Iif s die. 
wp fetolj severed Itom ear to tv, dosr, wbich opened frem a dreu* 
1 nil npceed ia ba> right ntm^ end leg cleset. Sbe mccofdiBgly went 
MitWrwoeBd in the o^per pert of op eg«ia, aiul kevMg entered tlMit 
Ac SIM. He nid Mr. PeoU wu way, she foBitd her muter ia tfae 
ULhaeded. He foand aeer the lituation doKiibed by tlif butler, 
M, a biae, oa kk drosiiig teUe^ .irfcom the celled up by her ehdeka 
■Mdytwo tUrdi full ef blood, a and icreeau. The jury, after a 
IBM-, and I laocet, both of wUck thort deld>eTatioD, retmaed a nc* 
nnUaody. He toet no time ia dkt ef — L«nacy. 
ndiag for tai^eoa Bredie, who SUepimg &««fy.— ^rafc SaiHh, 
hJilliailail bii laasta deling his Ae young women wbo tlopt et 
hteaiawi. Cnckfield nine days in AngBrt tait, - 

Svgtee Rrodie depeied, that' namely, from the 15th to thet&d 
bd^ attdded Mr. I^all ia^ hit tf that month, hat, unce that tiBe, 
tmg ille M i, he had atany apporta- had freqeent ilee^ for Krersl deye 
ttn of ebeerriBg both then and and night*, without the potsibilily^ ^ 
bm that ti*e the aUenlion whidi ef being awakened. Thi* extnoE. 
W takcH place ia his eiiod. He dioary female kai lately been mar. 
nt pctCcctly cenrinced that hi* tied to a ion of Man. 
■t d lB ri i had nndeigeoe a material Oa Sanday last, George Tapp, 
immmuit; and itated, thathii aliis Godbeere, wu eoainiitl^ <• 
tatt wn cwued by the wfrnnda tbeOeronconaty gaol, for thewiL 
«U had been ioUcted oa Faday. M nnrder of Robert Leach. The 
IV liilbiinj of Mr. Brodie, ai to following ctrcvmilancas .wlAch at. 
Acdinageacat «f hit mind, waa tended the comminioa of (his crim^ 
Uy ceafimed by Mr. Pamll't u luigtilariy premeditated a* it «■• 
Und% Mr. Sl^wr aad Mr. Bat- inhnman, hare been cooGnBad by 
kr, I^P ilBt^ ^i* appreheniioB, It 

The lemnt-maid, who di*eoecr- appeara, that the priaoaer and &• 
td Mc Pkea ia the dreedfel iiiea- deceased (the fomar a taylor, the 
tiM dteoibcd, wm nest called, latter a batcher,) werebotb inbaM. 
^ nid that} kaowing her auitcr tanta «f the parish of Horcbard. 
Hi (o diae oat, abe went to call M^op, aboat thirteeo miles frea 
^ betwecB foar and fire. She that d(gr, and lived oa-tems of th« 
^mked et the d«ior, aad was aa- greatest intimacy. 
**acd by bias. laa very Uatvmoe, Oe Saaday, the 941h of April, 
^ be worid ring presently. She they woesceaat apaUichoeseta 
Mi Kech afccted at the tiwe ia the village, and were observed to 
V^Kk be spoke, and recoUeded ^ait it together ; after which ligM 
^ hie altwatioa ia cood<*ct, and Leach was wMng. Variooa ca- 
■■te paitjcalaily what he had said tjiiirics were made respecting Urn V 
**Wrsaaeday>befeTe, when, ex. baton the Friday following, hit 
pcMmg his co at c ia fet the great friends being alanned at his costs. 
liMhle he bed pnn her, he added, aned absence, infesiigatcd more 
"McadviU be^ortly pat to it diligeatly the cvcfila which preceded 
*■•" She aoqaainud the butler hbindden departore; when astroag 
Vil^htr fan, and deteraiaod to smpicioa fdl upon Xapp, fiom his 

hating 

D,g,t,7P:hy Google 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 



Jtafingbeen the last person in vhou 
Gompaay he wag aoticed, and from 
his being observed to have mora 
money than usual : added to which, 
■nforination was giren by a neigh- 
bour, that on the Saturday prece. 
(ling the 34th of April, Tapp was 
pbsermtl, Tery late at night, dig. 
ginga pit in )u> garden; and, on 
being qneetioned at the time, his 
reason for working there at bo late 
an hour, he replied, it was merely 
for the purpose of burying some 
, dung to make a encumber bed. 

On these grounds, search was 
made in the garden, when, sbock. 
ing to relate, the mangled body -of 
Leach was found, tiirowo into the 
TBry pit which appears to ha»e 
been preriously designed for its 
receptioh. Tapp was Immediately 
apprehended, and, when in custody, 
loluntarily confessed his Clime, 
which he stated to have comnitted 
in the following manner:— That 
fitej walked together from the 
pnblic-house to that of the pri. 
■oner, and, on going into the gar. 
den, Leach complained of a pain in 
his head) and aat himself down on 
a fallen tree ; that while he was in 
the afit of tying a handkerchief 
round his head, Tapp came behind 
and struck him a violent blow with 
ma old axe, which he had fitted up 
for the purpose, repealini* his blows 
tilt he had flnished his bloody deed ; 
that after taking from the pockets 
of the deceased cash and bills to the 
amount of about sixty pounds, he 
thrrw the body into the .pit he had 
prepared for it ; — that he after- 
wards burnt the handle of the axe, 
and put the iron part into a run- 
ning stream to wash oir the blood. 
lie also burnt his hat, an^ cut off 
the marks of blood from the tree 
with a hook.— On being asked bow 



long he had premeditated the mnr^ 
der, be replied, about a week. 

It does not appear that there 
had been any quarml whate*cr be- 
tween the parties ; on the contrary, 
the strictest intimacy existed be- 
tween them, 'rhero had been some 
money transactions, in which ths 
prisoner was considerably indetribd 
to the decea.ied. These, added to 
a knowledge of hiE having property 
about him, are sappund to have 
instigated him to the commission of 
this atrocious murder. 

Tapp's mother Jias since been 
committed as an accomplice. 

An extraordinary circumstance 
is stated to have happened recently 
at Baffa. A gentleman of family 
and fortune enterlarned, some time 
ago, a young man in, his serrici*^ 
who was seized with a sudden in- 
disposition, which required that he 
should be immediately bled. Pro- 
fessional assistance was not at band,' 
and the gentleman, who understood 
phlebotomy, procredcd to hire this 
arm, when he discovered the initials 
of his own name, which had been 
inserted in the manner common 
among sailors, Tlus brought to 
bis recollection, that, many years 
ago, a child of bis' own had been 
thus marked, bclore it was en- ' 
trusted to the care of certain per. 
sons in an inferior situation of life : 
and upon an enqairy, conscqucntbl 
to this dlscovcrv, the gentleman 
ascertained that the servant was liii 
own ton! On this r»j»Mn/ic anec- 
dote, we shall not make any far- 
ther fibserration, than that the 
mftsier, who has not any other' 
children, has now placed the young 
man in his proper rclafton — and is 
likely hereajler to perform the du- 
ties of a father, ' 

MAY. 



D,£,,t,7P-hy Google 



CHRONICLE. M 

MlmiHd. SoMii OgxttU Exiraor* happiest contequenoti: whereforfl 

diavnf, April 32. he enjoin) th^tn to nske themtelvos 

The board of governmcat, pre. e«7, and fa hope, that, befora 

sided Over by hif most lereae high, foar or five dajs are elapsed, they 

aeu the iafant Don Antonio, hu, ^11 thank Ood, and the prudence 

this daj, i«c«ifed dispatches, wilb of his majesty, for Ibe absenca^ 

the welcome intelligence, that our Tbieh, at present^ giyes them unea- 

Iwd the king safely arrived at Irnn iineH." 

W 1*0 iflth instant, at ekien _ 

o'dock at ni^ht; and that his ma. mav 

jetty cipected to hare, on the Dent MAY. 

^y, tbe saliifaction uf seeing ^is From the French Paptn. 

ntimaieaad faithful ally and friend Bayomie, Maj/t- — Our newspa. 

tbe emperor of Ibe French, king per* contain the following psrtkf 

of ItAly. lar* ratpapting the joarney and ar. 

For ihii n»joii, -and on account rival of the Prince of Peace : — 

of the Hncommon attachment which *' The Prince of Peace was, on 

the layalinhabitantB of Vitoria and his arriral, accompanied by colonel 

of the province of Alava have ex. Maries, oid-de-camp of his imperiai 

pressed to our lard the king, upon bighness the grand duke of Berg ; 

bu setting out from that town, his be appcart to have suffered muck 

majesty has been pleased (o issue during bis imprisonment. Not a 

(he falloMing royal decree, which day passed by, during which per. 

tbe board has received in print : — sons di4 not come to his dungeon. 

Copy of the royal decree issued and tell htm he woiiM soon be led 

by bis majenty at Vitonia, oi) the to tbe scaffold. AVheo he was 

l9lh of April, 180S. taken from prison, in order to be 

** The king feels the otmpst grt. delivered over to tbe officer who 

titiwle for the cstraordioary attach, was to Uke him to Bayonne, he 

Riant of the loyal inhabitants of had a long board; during a whole 

this town aad of the prmince of month ho had no clean shirt ; he 

Alnra ; but is concerned at ili ei. hod no person to wait upon him. 

eecdingall doe bounds, and being " On the road, ^o had ihe con. 

tioblo to degenerate info want of lolation of receiving a letter from 

respect, under pretence of giving king Charles IV. and the queen, 

luB proofs of that sentioMnt. His full of testimonies of their affcc. 

majesty, however, being aware, tion. It is said, that on receiving 

thufatfsnEysdsareactaatedbythnr the king's letter, there were tbe 

leader Jove for his royal person, marks of bis tears. When Iba 

•■d by the lotidlHde (o which It prince received tbb, be said, * See 

prea rise, coDceivei himself bound there, the only consolation I have 

to nadctrcive all and each of them, had this month ; every one aban. 

bf naaaring theta that he would not doned me except tbe king; theun. 

mdertake this important journey, grateful, whom I had loaded r'"^ 



if he coald not depend upon the benefits, did not dare to raise % 
iineere and cardial friendship of his voice in my favour, i'he garth liu 
' - - • ' J gQi(i theif king, will " " 

10. I have oo other 

U 

D,g,t,7P:hy Google 



ally Ihe emperor of the French^ cDr;fu, who sold their king, will sdl 

end tbtt it will be aUeodcd by tb* his son also. I have oo other am. 

Vol. L. . C UtiM 



94 ANNUAL RECIST'ER, 1808. 

bition now, thin to find an ujlaiR SmtUiid, meotion that it hj ra 
in franco, and (o hate my childre* On grcnnd for two days, 
about me.*— The oScer who- ac> 6. A litter of lu foang foiw 
compankd him, shewed htm oa the was a Tew dajl unca discovcitd ia 
way the newipapen, which aflirml the iry orer ooe of the gatcwifi of 
•d thai he poHeued a fortune of WarvickX^tle. 
500 millions. The prince answer. Nea Gau Lami. — Maay pn. 
cd — ' Slander will never ceate la miu are of oi»inoB, that 6eufuM, 
fltatn my actions ; yet I dare cbal- larltttand tparrowt, might hetn- 
leoge my bittertit eoemici to lay eluded in the claU of gama, with u 
any thiog to my charge in thii re. much propriety ■■ waMtcoeks and 
fpcct. NoOiing farther could he snipa. Howerer thit opioioD may 
found by me than the lumi neccs. be well or ill fomded, thata atall 
lary to difcharga the daily eipences "T^i"**^ wMi rural economy, 
of a honse like mine. 1 pouess no know that it Butt be ks miichia. 
^nndi in Engtand, France, Italy, or voni to pratect rabbita by thit de- 
Genoa, and I can appeal to the icriplion at it would be to include 
testtmony of Ihe merchants of tboae rati therein. \\'ber« the toil ii dry 
countries. I hare employed tbe and light, if rabbits are tuffered to 
benefactionr which 1' byTc received abotrnd, the mischief thejr doii ia. 
from my eorcreigo in purchasing calcslable, not only by deroatiiif 
estates in Spain, which cTcry ooe com, turnips, dorer, dec but StDl 
knows, and which hare now been more by nodcrmining and thereby 
taken from me by injustice and ar- destroying fenees, and cathig down 
biliary ppner. Ijaiiojc now wit- tbe young quick and MWly planted 
ncsscd the horrid deeds which I treei of every dCKription ; and it 
foretoM, I wish now for nothing is only by coalinoal attenUon, and 
but peace and repose. The ap. no inconsiderable d^ree of labour, 
probation and friendship orCharlea ttiat they can be prevented from 
IV. are cnODgb for my oonsci- awarming wherever thej once gain 
aiice." a footing. Naturalists have eah». 

The following important docn. taled that a single pair of rabbils 

ment has.bccn piiblislied here: — o**?* *b the apace of fow jeaiii 

('By authority, traveller* and inctease to the aitonUhiog aunbei 

the public arc informed, that all of 1,874,840. 

passports and ulhrr inslrumeats is. CMrftoN.— Ann Watti, of Bury, 

sued by the Spanish government id in Lancaihire, eat a quantity of 

thcname of Ferdinand theSeventh, plniM in September last, and sauJ* 

sioca the S^^th ult. will not be ac Anted the tlonei. lo December the 

knowledged by French civil aad began lo belli, and continoedw 

military o&cers." till Jannarr, when ibe felt so over. 

S, At thu period of die year it loaded in her stoouch as to be ta- 

b very ancommpn to eiperience' duced to takean eatetic, and threw 

inch severity and change of wMther op a few plunuitones. Sho after. 

as has' been for tbe last ten days, wards tow several atfterics, and 

The fall of now during the last each ti«M threw up more Moms; 

veA. was ainott gcoeral through, tketau emetic was taken on Friday 

enttite country. Aecounli from «aWght, when she threw npiisty* 

Caisbridgcshire, LlncolnAiit, «iid foai'itOMi, qukiagiBall-OMl"'"* 

dtid 

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CHRONICLE. $5 

4icd m4 ntoefj-siz itone* lo dls- wlUi tlw usirtance of two odiav 

Augcd, tfnce the fint of January, men, with great riolence forced her 

,Ste begin to be unwell verj man into the j a rd without any clothei 

iner abe bad iwallowcd them, and on; here a most barbarous asMult 

vote awaj at if in a decline. wai committed npon her person bf 

A wwB ttoderlook one day lait three women, aided and abetted by 

veck, fer a soiall wager, to carry Mreral men ; her head was injured 

capper to the anunnl of 10/. in by the pin or stick which fastened 

■Mley tram Stockport to Man. the door on the inside; »he received 

tknier withont reating; It weighed a wound under ber right eye ; her 

lOS peand« ; and he cfTected the right breast was *ery mnch braised^ 

ardaeu task with difllcutty in two whilst her anni and legs and other 

ha«n. parts of her body were lacerated 

A at^nlar instance of canine whh pins or some sharp pointed In. 

npdtj occurred a few days since Kruraents, till they were literally 

ii the Thames below BUckwall : corered with blood. On tb« neil 

Hr. Tumball, the master of a erenlng an ananlt, very nearly li. 

eatsflsg trader, kept a Newfound- luilar, was again made upon her. 

hod iog on board. Whenever the The parties offending were brought 

*utJ dropt aodiof in the rivor, the before the bench of magistrates of 

dag awna to shore, and geueraltjr ITontingdoo on Saturday se'nnight. 

Swam o« board again the sameeven. aitd were bound over to keep tb4 

lif . Haring recently attempted lo peace, and to appear at the ensuing 

|ct to the ship in his usual way, the assiies, to answer the charges 

lid« drifted him with so much velo. which shall theu be preferred 

titjf that be could not reach the against them. 

vcasd ; he was consequently forced 8. Bonaparte and tit I^yaJ J^ 

Is rcland, and to the astonish, fifify of Spain. — The following par- 

ment of all who witnessed the sa- ticulars respecting the Bayonne 

Edty of the animal, he went near usurpation, are given iir a private 

V a nile from the spot where be tetter from that city, dated May 

lad fcnt started up the bank, and 8 : — 

by swimming across the stream, " On the first arrival here of 

nde an angle, which enabled him prince Ferdinand, there were a 

to gain the ship. The master of number of private intcrviev't be* 

Ae dog does not say the animal is tween hlni and Napoleon ; in the 

a mathematidaa, but be asserts, flratofwhich the emperorofferedto 

with reference to this instance of him the crown of Etruria, and }fh 

sagadty, no waterman on the river' nkce in marriage. Subsequently to ' 

eoald ban reached tbe ship with Ihcm, however, Ferdinand was de. 

BMre judgment. prived of his carriage and of hit 

7- Abotit b^f past nine' o'dock guard of honour, remaining only 

en Saturday night, the house of with the commandant of bis privato 

Wright Isnrd, of Great Paxton, guard, a Jewish officer of tha na. 

in the county of Huntingdon, was tionol guard of Bb^oddc. 
bmkcn into, and Ann Izsard, his '* The object of these conferen* 

wife, was dragged out of bed by a ccs seemad lo be that of gaioinft 

Vaof at present unknown, «ho, time for the arrival of Godoy, and 
C2 of 

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St 



ANNUAL R E I S T E R, 1808. 



iag sinongst the otban, lis found 
there were two more Imog, anj 
folloirini; their damt with their 
< Declu bloody, aitd in the caiito 
(tate aa tho dead one. The Kmall 
onetof the othrr two died. latbe 
afterDooB, Mr. John ScarneiU a 
sear oeigbbour, seat down to hin 
a large male cat, ai judging him to 
be iho munierer by the f^llowiog 
circumstances': I Jin cerrants having 
two kittens in (he hajr-l^ft, nuar 
half-grown, and Dot having leeii 
thcin in the 'course of tho day, one 
of Ilio men went up to see if ho 
cofflid find tliem, this cat wai foend 
lyiog by them; he s)iut tho door 
and secured him. On talcing tlio 
kitten*, they were fonnd. to bu 
•uc^ed ]u6t under the ear, in the 
iaae way as the lambs were, and one 
of then) having the bind part au4 
half ihc body, with its iuiidc, catun 
up. Air, Burton had observed, 
when the ground wa:« corered by 
•now, the footing of a cat quits 
aromt^ the turnips, and among tbe 
«we* and laubs ; but yet never 
thou^t that a cat would interrupt 
tha Iambs. 

10. Dover-^A fire broke outon 
Tuesday afternoon in the warehouse 
of Medisre. Fector and Co. adjoin. 
Ing the ordnaoc« storehouse and 
buildings, through the carelessness 
of some peoplo employed in eoo- 
perinf; some casks of turpentine 
throwing tho snuff of a ligbti-d 
caudle on the floor, « hich C4ught 
■omc oakum that had been WL'tied 
with turpentine: it was prevented 
from biasing foraome time by about 
120 bags of wool ia a toft over 
where tbe fire commenced; but the 
ll&nies having at length reached 
many cariks of turpenlino, it burst 
foilli witKos^fury nothing could re- 
svit 'i'b« wholo raoge .of store. 



houses of Klessn. Fector, which 
fronted the York flousu, are en- 
tirely ihi^lroyrd, with a.rery iir;;e 
quhotity.of prize goods taken frooi 
the Ddni(b &hips j (lie Ordnance 
storehouse, at the buck of lite 
store keeper's house, is also entirely 
consumed, and many of . the ad> 
joining builiiings much damaged. 
A Greek thip at the quay was ul^io 
damaged. Some of (he adjoining 
buildings were ileposiiories for Mr. 
Congreve's rockelii and other cuui- 
busfibles, which could not all Lo 
got ou(, and several explosion! 
took place, the last of which car- 
ried away the roof, rafters, and 
natoriala of the building*, and 
caused great alMrm. No furllwr 
damage was however done, and 
tho Grt; was got under betwrfn 
eight and nine in the evening. 
The loss is supposed to cxcceiL 
30,000f. 

7^ Dmieu of York's Fife at 
OalUnd*. 
On Saturday se'nnigbt a grand 
f4(e was given at Oatlands in ho- 
nour of ber royal highuesi's birth- 
day. The preparations uerc unu- 
sually costly. Tile l(in;i, qut-rn, 
the priocesbBG Auitusis. I:^itzabeth, 
Mary, Sophia, and Aiuclia ; (ha 
prince of Wales; dukes of York, 
Kent, Clarence, Sussex, and Com. 
bcrland, were present. Indi&po. 
sition only prevented the duke of 
Cambridge from attending. Tiifgf 
majesties and (he princesses arrived 
about i»u o'clock. The dukcend 
durbess of York were, in wailing 
to receive their illusirious relatives; 
from the bottom of the flight pi 
steps leading into the great hall, 
the duke escorted the queen to the 
gran<l saloon. After viewing and 
admiring the tmprorements made on 
the tavn, Uc ^a rqyal party par- 
took 



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CHRONICLE. 39 

iHk «r » nott nna{tta(M» bu. h ft« moming Unt tte mnilc c « Mid> 

qoet, (crrad up in ■ coitl; lerrlce and then the cooipanr retireri. 
«r tUter ^t pimte. Dnriw th« TIm priDee of Wdei iltpt >t 

tine ofdiniwr, tkednkeaT riark'B OailaixU that uight. The duke af 

baod, in (oU naifonBf phfed ua> York retained to town tbe uon 

fcr the Tinuda on the green. The night to attend a military coaaoit. 
king wore the Windsor nniform. AutnUarentartainmeBtwasgiTaK 

TIte qneea and the priDcauei vera at York Houte in the StaU».f ard, 

dMBed in piain irldte. Hia majes> the same night, 

Ij, it wai remarked, looked un- Froacv.— BM^rfc** Uturfctian in 
commonly veil, and posMuaed hb Spain. 

araal flow of spiritt. 'nirir majet. Sngotau, Mag 11,— By ttmty 

Stt and tke princeswi departed concladed betweoi the emperor 

ahont eight o'clock, eKcorted, as Napoleon and king Charlea, and 

■■aal, by a party of dragoooi.— which bai been acceded to by tha 

Aboat nine o'clock the fan and prince of the Astariai, and tlio 

msrinient took pfaue. Tbodnclien infant Don Carlos, Don Francisco, 

kanag ordered tile park gatei to be and Don Antonio, who compose 

thrown open, the popolace (prind. the whole of the members of the 

pafly compoaed of the ndghboartng honae of Spdn, all the existing 

pauantry) rashed in, and made the diffisrencat bare been adjusted. We 

btttof tkeirwAj tothelovsrpartof are still ignoruit of the conditioot 

the home, wherein a TUtnnitilMr of of the tiv^ty. According to tht 

(ablei were set out with hot fowls, constitution of oar goremment, it 

*tal, ham, beef, aod matton ; to. cannot ba made public titi it has 

gether with abundance of strong been commnnlcated to the senate. 

ala and porlar, all arrai^cd with But we perceire by the proclama. 

perfect order. After partaking of tlon of the king of Spain, and that 

this good chear^ a au^aai baium of the prince of Asturias, that tht 

(about six qaarts) m axoetlent ,emperer Napoleon b clotbod wllk 

pouch wm placed upon each table, all the rights of the botue of Spain. 

The lirely notes of tbe fiddle King Charles and queen Louisa 

aroised the lads and lanes aboot Maria, queen Maria Louisa, and 

piae o'clock. The tables were in. the Infant Don Francisco, dine to. 

stantaneonsly dtMrted for the 11- day with tbe emperor, and set off 

braiT, where the dochem led off to.jnorrow for Bourdeanx. Thej 

Ike fnt daace called tie Lakgriiilkt will make this journey In fow 

"^ the hon. colonel Upton. Her days, and will repair to Fontaine. 

■ aerer appeared to better bleau, whence they will go to Com* 

aarantagfl ; sho is improved in peigne. It is believed that this re- 

bcaltt, and is grown rather embon' sidence has twea destined by bla 

ftitft tion otherwise. Tlie very majesty to king Charles, that bo 

ankwardmannerlta which the coun- may spend the remunder of hit 

try people paid tikeir respects to the days there. The prince of Astn. 

heir apparent (in their going down lias, the infant Don Carlos, and 

(he daace) oxcited the risibility of tbe infant Don Antonio, spent thHr 

Ae royal par^ to an extreme dc- evening yeateidsy with their majes. 

mt. Jt ml aot until two o'clock ties the emperor a^d ampttti. Tfaef 
^ 4' wi« 

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40 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

■rnOl Bpesd two days at BoardMOX, tad ilw wat made very niMUf by 

aod will afterwards proceed to Va- tka oontioaaace of that iatiiDacT, 

leacy,' whenca it ii probable thty which bad heeome tha lopp of 

will go to Navarre. It u beliernl public coaienatiim ; that ibe bad, 

that bis majesl]' has ceded (o (hem in cansequeoce, cooiultfd with 

'that superb dopuioi and the fortst some fendie frieodB, who tbot^b' 

•ppertainiag to it. It is said, that (hat (he boaiaew woold bo best Mt- 

siany Spaniards of diitisction are tied by a taarriage, aod that an in. 

on the road to Bayoane, where it Itaatioa to that effect sone way or 

«ppean that the emperor ii ahont other, tboogfa not strictly frea 

to hold a general junta. It is pre- Mrs. BMuiaont, conrajed to lb* 

aumed that he will be occupied, not young couple, who, it was admit. 

only in regulating the succession to ted, were since married at Gretna- 

tlia throne, but also in filing cer- Green. The caaie shewn >giia*t 

■tain ameliorationi, which all good the attadnsent via allowed a* t* 

Spaniards call for. Eiery thing b Mr. BeanmOTit, and Mrs. Beaa- - 

uitirely tranquil in Spain. Things moot was ordered toanswerfar^ar 

Are on the best footing there. personal interrog^ories ; the at. 

Lorif Gflentworth't Marriaga.— tachment waa not to issue in tha 

Dublin, May 14.— This momiug, mean time. Miis Edwards, now 

in the Court of Chancery, the at. lady Gtcntworth, is a boantifal giri 

torney-gencral (Mr. Saurin) mored of 17 yean of age, and is nieoe (• 

the court on the part of the Karl of Sir Jonas Barringien. The conrt 

Limerick, foranattachmeatagUBSt was amaziogly crowded. Th« 

Mr. Wm. Beaumont of Sackville- duchess uf llichmoRd was accon. 

atreet, an ^inent lolicitot ef that modaled with a seat on the beach, 

court, and against his «ife, Mrs. and near her were arranged all Ibo 

Sesumont, on (he ground thatthoy fashion, rank, and beauty DubHa 

liad adTised and procured tbo mar- can boast. The maKhionesa of 

nage of Miss Edwards, Mrs. Boau- Donegal and Thoawod, lady Elbn. 

mo nt's daughter, by a former bus- heih Littieh^es, lady Hd ward So. 

band, with tho noble earl'i eldest merset, lady Denny Floyd, lady 

aon, lord Glenlwortb, who it a mi. Hossmorc, lady Cox, tte. 9te, 
nor of only nineteen years of age, ' 15. Siiklerratieen TVrafwn,— JV 

altliough a prohibitory order bad latter from Trieste, dated May 15, 

issued from that court, cautioning in (ha foreign papa«, states the f«l- 

tbeai against such pioceediog, and lowing cnrious particolan: 
that tho same would be considered " Some time luck an old Gcwh 

as a high contempL Mr. aod Mrs. norehant died, amongst whose pa. 

Beaumont's affidarits were after, pers wis found a mannserlpt left 

wards read, in order to op|>OH this him, as tome |)ertoni atata, by hie 

application. Mr. B. admitted he father, or, according to others, by 

was well aware of the intimacy a clergyman, on his deatb-bcd, wMi 

that prevailed between lord tilent. particular request to preserve it 

worth and his daughtor.io.law, but carefully. The manasei^t was ar» 

declared, that ho had carefully ah. dored to be Iranslalad. Its coa. 

•stained from talcing aay step to leotswarein sabstancafbondto ba, 

farther it. Mn. ifoaamont admit, that ia a pariiaalar spot near tlw 

town, 

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CHRONICLE. *1 

Mm, wWh WM «imt mintilelf Itfe, mi tbe integrity of lier no- 

d miiM y there lay coDceited a narchy mult be niambihied. ^ It». 

iirie fnnfihr of money. It stated, speet aod eternal gratitude to hiM, 

tbton diggR^ « good way down, to whom ihe thall be indebtod for 

Acre voald be foaod a Xone pnte- those beoeflta.'' 
Meat; below drif aqoanttty of ku. With resitcct tothePrincaof lb* 

■■ bmra ; sliH farther down, a le- Peace, report! diSer as to the pteca 

raad alone pavenent; and on rr- filed for hii residence. One paper 

Boring thai, a irell lecnred wooden assert*, that ha » to live along wiA 

4wr, whieh would open into a the hing and qaeeo of Spain, in <bo 

ntit GOalaining the treasure. The palace of Compiecnes ; anotberai- 

gnenor of Trieate thought proper serts, that he is to reside at Bo«r- 

Mtransnit tbe paper to the minister dcaux. 

It Vjanoa ; but the court declined Hr. Sparks, who has a laiT^eAuni 

■■rfartiieriaitutry into the bMlnesi, near Guildford, had npnardl of 

rrprdiag it as a story merely cal. 800 sheep together, when iniag 

nbtnl for (Jie amusement of chil. affrighted by a do^, they jumped 

int. Upon this aome pri Tale in. into an adjoining fieid, which ii on 

diridaalt in this place subscribed a a great descent, and they followed 

n» of money to defray the eapence each other over the gap of the hedge 

«l digging up the spot pointed out. io fast, that l23of them were killed. 
Tkt etperinient completely agreed In Ihe present high price of oati, 

"•ilhthe description In themanu. it should be known, that barley faai 

■oipt; hat, on reaching the door, been found, by repealed experi. 

■< was thought necessary to apply inentu, to be equally wholesinne, 

I> tha governor, ami he has now mnch more nutritious, and in the 

•tifioned a cenduel there, to pre. whole cheaper food for horsci, aa 

'Mit it* being opened nntil the plea, well as other cattle, than oats. All 

loKoftfaecourtii further aignificd. who keep large numbers of bortcn 

Tk ciriority of every body is ei- should make accurate comparisons 

ominithrespoct to Ihe contents of of the merits of those two article! 

'b •suit. We omitted to menlinn of fodder. 

ttstbelwecn the humin honas and OnThnraday,the*!IIageorStock. 

■WpavementOTcr them, >f ere found, land, in Dorsetshire, was visited by 

utfte paper also described, a bier a most afflicting calamity. A little 

•ad KFcml small empty coffins. " before one o'clock in the afternoon, 

Parii, Maj 15. — Great prepa. a fire broke out in the house of 

miMs are making in Atieh for the Mr. William Mathcwi, which, in 

^Meption of their majesties, who the space of about two hours, en. 

■Keipccted soon to snirc there, tircly coniumcd the same, tosether 

-~One of our joDmals~ contains a with nine other dwellings, bmng 

'■tter froB Toledo, in which the nearly half the village ; whereby 

Mawiog expresaion has b^n par. more than forty inhabitants were 

<<nlariy rvmacked :.„." The seen, bereft of their comfortabtc homes, 

'^1 af Spain reqnires, that she and (cattercd for refuge among their 

Atildbennited to France, by bonds sympathizing ooighbonrs, Tfaemii- 

^» nora strict than treaties. Her fortune is supposed to have arisen 

FWraisniaiBitbe pteMrTedlnrjo. from soma furte in the foom, tha 

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48 ANNUAL REGISTER, 180S. 

«*e af wbicb, manj recent dimten Hatn ap Howd) ap David, tp Tafk 

shew to be very duiferoo*) onleM wsrlh, sged 105. He bad bee* 

attended to witii ^M«t care. Had Ifarice marriod, hii firit wife waa 

not a put been iDsured,; tbe togj £llan fercb Willian, bj h«r be had 

woiild bare been rninoui to some, S^ children ; the second wUa waa 

M^ >r'n now be leierely felt. Cathcriae Terch Kicliard, by Jier fta 

On Thursday, at the poor;.boiue, hi^ ten children ; and the third wife 

.StoVe.upon-Trent, Hannah Baunie, was Etlenuuh William, now lin^;, 

a deformed dwarf, measuring only by her he bad fonr cfaUdren. He 

,SJ incbei in height, wai^ after a had also two concubines, the firat 

tedJOBi and diJScoU labour,- lafely was Jonet ferch Willram, by her b« 

delirered of- a femaie child of tbe had twochiMrcn, andtheother wa* 

ordinary uie, meaiurtDg 21 inches l^ecky Lloyd, and by ber b« bad 

and a hair, being anly three inches five children. His eldest too was 

and a half shorter than the mother. Griffith ap William, now liTin^ 

Tha child was in erery respect per. aged SI . 

/ect, but slilUbom ; the motbM, He has children'* children to the 

contrary to expectalion, is likely fourth generation in abundance. 

to do well. This very singular in. Hit yonn|;est son is also (ailed Grif- 

statice furoishci the medical world fitb ap William, aged two years and 

with an extraordinary case, that a half, now living in tbe Said .pa. 

will throw some additional light on rish; and the difference between die 

tbe obstetric art. two brothers' sge is 81 years and a 

.16. About fonr months since, half, for tbe eldest was of that age 

Mr. BartJett, of tbe Halfway- when the youngest was born. His 

Hotfses, died suddenly, as he was eldest daughter is called Alice ferch 

going to. receive his pay. One of William, aged 73; she baS beea 

his ditughtcrs, who had lost the use thrice married, and bath a nnmc. 

.of ber limbs, npon seeing the dead rous offspring. There is now living 

body of ber father brought into of the said old man's offspring, in 

the home, received sDch a shock, the said parish, 80 persons ; and at 

that, from that time, she began to his funeral there were compnud ta 

recover, and is now in perfect health, be aboat 300 persons that desoended 

end has the full use of her limbs, from him. The Mid old man was 

Site attributes her recovery to the of a middle staton, of good eouu 

effect produced on her frame by the plexion, never trouUed with the 

sudden death of her father. — Hampm cholfcgout, or stone, seldom rick, 

Mrt Telegraph, of moderate diet, lived by tiUtge, 

AcopnofttveiyrtmaTkabteiiuimee exercisad himself much In fishias 

1^ Old ^ge and a nunwruut Off", and fowling, and had his ■««■ 

tpring ; taken out of an obi Re- perfect to the last. 

M/er, betoHgingto liepariih af Parit, Mag 30. — ^The contarva- 

Trtgeitrnf wiiehu a part of tie live senate has jnst been convoked 

Rectory aj Llangrftiit in ^orli for ait extraordinary meeting on 

Waits. Friday next. After the important 

There died on the 1 1 th of March, document relative to Sp^, pab* 

]581, inlhe parish of Tr^aicn, in lisbcd by theoSicial journal, thereis 

(be county of Anglcsea, one Wit. every reason to aappose that tbit 

3 extner< 



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CHE ON I CLE. 4» 

WMiiimTj mwttoit mnt be &e Spanurdi, both dated ofr tiM 

cnoecUd with tht aflUn of .thst 4tb of Majr ; * proclamation of 

ki^dam : aiut it ii probable tkal th« 5th of May, from the jttnta ts 

ite treatj by which (he emporof the iafaabitaDtl of Madrid; a cir- 

Kipolcan hu juit acqcirtd all the colar (prodamalionj Mat on tbs. 

ritlit of the hoBie of Boarboo la Sth bj the iaquiiitioD, to all tho 

4c tiroae of S^ahi.vill be con- t^buuto of the kia^itQai ; a&d 

■Htcaied 2t tbit litiin; to the chiaf fiaallj', a letter from tho kiaf t» 

ptblic body of the itate. Wa are tha lapntw couacJI of Caitile, and 

ibqiwutcd, that there wiil be pre* to the coancil of the inquUtion. 

KMa! for the lanciioD of the ie> The 6rat two of thcae pieces are to 

nton, the project of a tauttiteim- tho tenor foUowiox :^ 

ititc, relative to the naioa of Tui:. To tie Suprtine Junta qf the Go- 

ch; with the empire; and that the vemment, 

lantaucnt general of thoae dc- *< DaTing judged it expedient to 

puifflentt which heretofore com- give one ume direction to all the 

pMcd the kiogdom of Etmria, will forces of our kingdom, in order ta 

WtrNlfd into a great digoitjr of maintain leeurltj' of property and 

iIk enpire, sod gif en to general public tranquillity agaiut eaemies, 

Utoou. It V added, that in tfaii as well esterioi a* interior, we have 

att there will be eilablistacd io that tbonght fit to noninaCe our couiia, 

Motry a jonta, o*er which a go. the grand duke of Berg, lieutenant- 

•VMr^eneral will preaido, and general of the kingdom, who, at 

■kich will be compoMd of three the same time, commands the troop* 

BMtcn of reqoeiti, and an auditor of our ally, the emperor of the 

ef lUte caoocil, performing the French. We command the conncil 

hictioni jtf B lecrelary-iieBeral. of Ca»ti)c, aad Ihecaptains-general 

Beuda tbe official papers rclatire and goremon of our provinces to 

laS^o, published io the Monileur, obey his orders. In the lamc qoa- 

ud tbe ioBcrlion of which we haie lity he shall preside 01 er the junta 

Ixfan in oor paper of this day^ of the government, 

lb Jlwtteur has published also* '* Given at Bayonne, at the im, 

prndamation addressed to tha in- perial palaco, styled (he pa. 

Witaots of Spain, by the . prinoa lace of the government, 

sf Atluriat, and the other princes 4th May, 1808. 

•( the royal family: wherein their (Signed) '• I, THE K.h\G." 

^Boses anoonnco to tbe Spa- trodamafM, 

tiards, (bat they have ceded all "Spaniards — My beloved sob. 

tkir right to the crown of t»pain to jects, perfidious men loek to mis. 

tk CBiparor Napoleon. On tbe lead yon. . 'I'hey would pat arms 

lith inst, the king and queen of into your hands against the French 

'psia arrived with their wite at troopa ; they sevk alike to ana 

Beardcau. A mandate from king you againM the French, and tha 

^^kadttiotbejantB of the govern. French againat you. The sacking 

■W, aooooMM tbe nomin^tioB of all Spain, calamities of everjr 

sf the grand dake of Berg, lieu- kind, would be tbe resalt. The 

^unt-general of the kingdom; spirit of faction, the ssd effects of 

«d a proclanntiea addrascd t* which I have already felt, is still In 

mottOB, 



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44 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

motion. To the midst of theie im- itep and measure tliat bare bMb 

portant and critical circa ois tan oes, adopted rince iny eialtation to tbk 

I aai occupied in concertiog with throneof m'y augunaoccston, Iutq 

nyally, tlmeDiperorof thcFrench, been directed to those just pnr- 

all fhat concerns ^ur welfare. Be-, po^-s and could not be directed to 

ware of fisteniog to the enemies of My other. This day, in the ei- 

it. All those vho speak to you traordlnary ciicamstaaces io wbidi 

agaliut France, thirst for yoor I am placed, ray conscience, my 

bloody they are either the enenios honour, and the good name I ought 

of yout natioi), or agents of Eog- to leare to posterity, tmperioasly 

land, «ho are busily availing them, reqalro of me, that the last act pt 

■elves of circumstances, end vhose my sorerai^ty should be SolHj 

intrigoes would inToIre the loss of pointed to that end, viz. to the 

your colonies, the separation of tranquillity, prosperity, security, 

your provinces, or a senes of years and integrity of the monarchj 

of calamity and troafale for your whoBe throne f quit, to tbe grMteat 

country. happiness of my sobjects of botk 

*' Spaniards I trust to my ei|»e- hemispheres. Therefore, by ■ 

rience, and obey that authority treaty, signed and raiifled, 1 faavs 

whieh I hoM frinn God and my ceded to my ally and dear friend, 

fathers; follow my example, and the emperor of the Prench, all my 

thiniL that in the position in which rights to Spain aiid the Indiea, 

you stand, there is no prosperity hating stipulated that the crosm of 

and safety for Spaniards, but in the Spain and tho Indies Is always to be 

friendship of tiie great emperor, independent and entire, as it was 

our ally. Under my rule, and likewise that 

*< Given at Bayonne, from the oorhofy religion is not only to bo 

imperial palace, styled Falace the predominant one in Spain, bnt 

of the Goremment, May the only one to be observed in all 

4tb, 1808. the dominions of the monarchy. 

" I, TBE KING." Of all whieh you will take due no. 

Mladri'l, May SO. — ^The king, the tice, and.communlcale it to all tho 

prince of Asturias, tbeCr royal "Mundls and tribunals of the king. 

h^hnesses the infanta, Uon Carlos dom, chiefs of prorinces, civlf, nl- 

and Don Antonio, have abdicated litary, and ecclcdasticat, and t» 

the crown and their right thereto, all the justices of districts, in order 

as appears by the following docti. that (his last act of my so*ereig&ty 

ments, viz. may be notorious to all and every 

" I have thought proper to give one in my dominions of Spain and 

my^ beloved subjects this last proof Indies; and you ore all to concnr 

, of my paternal k>ve. Their hap- and assist in carrying into etfect Um 

piuess, tranrjuillity, prosperity, and dispositions Of my dear friend, tbe 

preservation, and the integrilyof the emperor Napoleon, as they arc di> 

dominions that Divine Providence rected to preserve the peace, friend. 

had placed under my sway, have ship, and union between France 

been the sole objects of my con. and Spain, avoiding disorder and 

jtant care during my reign.— Every popular commotioos, tht efket of 

vhicft 



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C H R O N I C LE. is 

rk and ile< rocks and quicksandi, thej had bo 

-he ruia other remedy, bat to chgaeaoiODg 

many evils, (be one that would b» 

.. the least productive of calamit;— 

,0. as such they fix^ed upon a journey 

lay^ to Bayonnc, 

*< On their royal highnesses' ar> 

.kiNG." rival at Bayonne, (he prince, then 

ilerim, of king, unexpectedly Toand that the 

Mli/e. kioj; hH father had protested a^nst 

prince or As. his abdication, prctending.it had 

jDts Don Carlos not been voluntary. Not having 

a, graterul Tor (ha accepted the crown but in the good 

^Dt fidelity that all faith that the abdication was voIdd.- 

.ve maDlTcstcd towards tary, he had scarcely ascerbuned 

.1 the most poignant grief the existence of the protest, when 

, in the present day plunged through filial respect he restored 

i greatest confusion, and (he crown; and shortly after, the 

atened with the most direful king bis father renounced in hit 

Jimitiei resulting therefrom ; and name, and in that of all the dy. 

1 knowing that it arises in the major nasty, in farour of thecmperor of 

jHTt of them, from the ignorance the French, in order (hat, looking 

tity are in of the causes of the to (he "welfare of the nation, he 

tflnduet their royal highnessw have should elect the person and dynas- 

Uiherto observed, and of the plan ty who are to occupy it hereafter. 

MW chalked out for the greatest " In this state of things, their 

hppiness of their country, they royal highnesses, considering the 

tuilD no less than endeavour to situation Ihcy are in, the critical 

andeceive tbem, in order that its circumstances of Spain, in which' 

ueculion may suffer no impcdi- all the efforts of its inhabitants in 

ant; and at the same time to favour of their rights, will not 

lotify to them tlie sincere affection only be iiscless, but monrnful, as 

(bey possess for thera. tt>ey would only cause rivers of 

" 'fhey cannot conseqncndy blood to Aqh, and cause the loss at 

aiMd manifestbig to them, that th« least of a great part of the provio. 

drecmstanccs in which the prince, ees, and of all the ultramarine 

by the abdication of the king his possessions; and reflecting, on the 

btber, took the reins of govern, other hand, that it would be a most 

nnt, many provinces of the king, efficacious remedy agaiust so many 

don, and all the frontier garrisons evils, for each of their royal high- 

luu occupied by a great oumbcr nesses to adhere by himself aepa. 

of French troops, and more than ratety (o the cession of their rights 

6a,000 men of the same nation, sU to the throne, already made by the 

tuted in the metropolb and its king their father ; reflecting also, 

adghbourbood, and many other that the said emperor of thcFrench 

dm that no other person could binds himself in this case to pre. 

possess ; all conspired to periuade scrvethe absolute independence and 

tkem, that being turroanded by inl^rity of (he Spanish monarchy,. 



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4« ANNUAL HEGISTER. U08. 

«nd of alt uItraRi3Tine poiEcuioni, circalar letter fo all l}ia carditiala 

wilhout rcscrTing to himseir, or who had received orders to quit 

ditmembcring the Ifnst pmt of iti Home, cancclrcd in theie tcrmi : — - 
dominions; to maintain the unity "His holinesi, our muter, bas 

of tbe Catholic rcfif^lon, property, commanded his secretory of sUte, 

]aws, and DnagfS, which he wcurea cardinal Doria Pamfila, to make 

for the future, and on 3 lound ba- known la your eminence, that hii 

lis ; alio the power and prosperity heart has been penetrated with Iha 

of theSpanish nation ; — Their royal most poijcnant grief, on being in- 

highnesses beliero they gire the formed of the order giTcn by thv- 

greatest proof of their generosity, French general to so many roem- 

Inve and gratitude for the affeclion bcrs of the sacred college, to qait 

they hare experienced in ncriScing, Rome within' three days. His ho- 

as much as is in their power, their liness, who clearly aees that this 

penonni interest for tbe benefit of loeasnro tends to orerthrow the 

the country, adhering aa they hare emfrire of the chorch, since thoss 

done, by a particular agreement, to members are romored from his per- 

the cession of their rights to the son who are necessary to thcdircc- 

throne, absoltingaJISpaniards from tion of his aflairs, and at last his 

their duty in this respect, and ex- minister, hii *icar, cannot in con. 

horting thetn to lnuk to the iutetest science permit (his departure. Hs 

of their country, remaining tran. prohibits, thcre(bre,everyonenpon 

quil, and expecting their happiness his oath of obedience to remova 

from the sago disposition and power from Rome, unless absolutely com- 

of the emperor Napoleon, and by pelled by force: and his hoUnesa 

■hewing their readiness to confonn foreseeing this can, that after 

therein, they wilt give (he prince haring torn year- eminence from 

and tho twn infants tbe greatest his bosom, yon might be left at & 

testimony of their loyalty, as certain distance from Home, u of 

tbetr royal highnesses gire them of opioion that yon should not eonti. 

their fatherly Ioto and affection, by nne your journey, onless compnU 

g;iving up all their rights, and for- aion shonld be used, to the plaM 

getting their own interests to mak« de^gnated to you ; in order that it 

them happy, which is the sole object may beamatter of public notorie. 

of ibcir wishes. ty that year rcmosal from the head 

(' I, THE PRrNCE. of the chnrrh has not been volun. 

*< CARLOS. tary, bat from compultlon. The 

'• ANTONIO." Tirtnet of all the indiriduah who 

tlalg. — T^nnv "/ Bonaparlt at have, rccelred the order to depart. 

Homr. aloae support the afflicted sanl of 

Aonw.— His holiness persists still his 'holiness, and are > pledge tm 

In the same ditposilion with re- him, that, according to his eism- 

l))ect to (be concessions which pie, they will support these persa. 

haT* been requireit uf bim. To- cutions with patience, and that (ha 

wards the end of the last month, seotlmenll of (ho sacred college, 

his bolint'is addressed, throujth his far from hein^ weakened, will b* 

secretary of State, the following strengthen^." 

Ettnm 



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CHRONICLE. 47 

itbwct of a Letter from a Lady m ctilhe pooetuon i>f ths lower pail 

Uidnd to htr Brathfr m Duitim. of the houM ; they soon broke opeik 

" Wonis cannot doeribe the the crIUn, which they pluDdered, 

honor witb which we hive been nor could the pnseiice of tha 

■tnMDded nnce the first of thii friendly officer I bi«e mentioned 

MMrih ; the xpfitiMcliin^ Btorm was prtveiit them. The following raoro. 

VIMdMi, bnt on the ad, inimedi. ing wu Indeed ■ iccno of horror. 

Mf atler breakfut, it broke ont Almost everjr person that puscd 

littesost furiQBi manner. Our tbrongh the slroels was ilained with 

fcicDd T. kad prorided a retreat at blood, and the dead bodies lar hi 

Ui cowrtry^hoase, abootsis miles heaps; it was reported, snd I be- 

iiitBDt, to wUch we were to re- licTa with some (ru(h, that Mnrat, 

wre that very eteuing, bat the the French general, intended to 

HsfB overtook us, and stopped erect some works onlside the town, 

Mrjoaraej. The thunder of tho to batter it to the ground, in re. 

VtBlery aanotmced 'the lieginning *ange for the lites of his soldiers^ 

of die bnsineis, and in a few mi- This, bowerer, ho abandoned. 

Htu after the whole mate popula- The next day, when the tomalt bad 

tin of the city appeared in arms ; a little abated, T. end I got soma 

*hereier a French soldier was di«. articles of plate and the books of 

corered, be was instantly cut down the boese, and Ihroogh the inters 

or shot ; six of tbem were put to couion of onr French friend wer« 

'otk nnder oar windows : the suffered to remore to his retideoco 

■ctae was dreadfnl beyond deserip- at Ombro, where we now are wllh 

■ioa. After two or three hoars' the children. You shall hear fros 

onagc, particularly in onr grtat ne by the Snt possible conteyance. 

stnet called AlcaJa, a reinforce. The chance I haro of sending tfab 

■eat of Frenchmca poured Into to Lisbon is but small, but it may 

(he town, and in tbeirtarn becaate possibly reach yon." 

IhcassailaBta; ourdoortwerebont SI. A decree was published at 

«pn by tbc defeated populace, and Rome, ia the name of the Freech 

*•« or eight of the inhabitants gOTemmenI, whereby the pope waa 

iMk rcfoge nnder tlie couches, and deprived of all hn territory, be* 

'* difinent parts of the hoase; but canse his holiness refused to declare 

the FrcfMk soldien followed titem, war against England at die requbi* 

■sd in my prasonce they most un. tion of Bonaparte, and nnder the 

Benifally bayoneted those who had pretext that the states of the chnrcb 

(ntcUeied the room, where 1 and had been granted by Charlemagn* 

■J childm nt shiTering with hor- for tho prosperity ef the Roman re. 

Wr, The presence of a young ligion, and not for the assistance of 

fmidieficer protected us; andhe heretics. Against this decree the 

hsd the baouoity to cpatiaue la pope protested. 

tW keaw the entire of this fatal MtnclitUer, Mag 35. — In con. 

^, to whOBi I certainly owe the sequeoce of the rejection of th« 

Hnt U Byaclf and children. AU bill for fixing the mtmewm of 

>^t the iebabifanU were forced wages, a very great agitation bu 

ts Ulaniaate dieir windows, and been excited amongst the wearera 

MsraJrcadfaMookiag fellows took in thb tofra and vicinity. Tester- 
day 

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48 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1806, 

d^ and thii d«y many (houfudi lidsrabli* mUchief fau 'been doge i 

itt tbem assembled in a field near one tn^n is killed, and many wound. 

St. George's chorch, h^ Netrlon- sd. About 20 poreuns fiavo like- 

hnt, and appointed delegates to wise been apprehended, and com- 

attend the magbtraleB with a state- nitted to prison. The ulraoat con. 

Meot cf their griefances, which Blernatiou still (at eight o'clockt 

they aascrt arose not so much from p. m.) pcrradcs the town, and efnj 

a scarcity or employment, as from one dreads the result, 
tbe unparalleled redoclion which Eleven o'Cloci.—'* All it quiet; 

tbe prices of their work hare re- bat I hare been informed, thai in 

ceotly ex pertenced, insomuch, that, the course of the eTening two mett 

after labouring for six days, at the hare been shot, who are since dead,- 

late of fourteen or fifteen hour* and seTcral have been wounded by 

per day, they cannot possibly earn the swords of the cavalry. Abwit 

jmore than seven or eight shillings ! forty prisoners have beea com* 

A pittance whi^h will not support mitted to the New Buley." 
JUUnre. Their employer!, on the On Saturday oiorning the hooM 

contrary, insist that, owing to the of sir Vicary Gibbs, at Hafei, in 

Jtagnation of trade, tliey canoot Kent, was rubbed in tbefollowiog 

afford to pay higher prices, bihI extraordinary manner. When mist 

promiie to ipcreaie them to their Gibbs, daughter of sir Vicary, 

wonted standard a> toon as the re. awoke in the morning, sha disco- 

■tontion of peace shall enable [hem. vered that all her clothes were taken 

So this u it may, a very serious away, the quilt off the bod, and 

alarm has been eicited. The pco- every tiling that was porlnble io 

pie have ibis day flocked hither the room. On examiniug the pre- 

irom all the circumjacent town, misoa, it was discovered that the 

■bips, viz. Stockport, Bolton, Bury, robbers had, by tying some bitrdks 

Oldham, Asbton.undcr.Linc, Ec. together, made a Jadder, and as- 

def, &c. and becaina so formida. cending a colonnade, which got* 

ble, though certainly ut Crst or. round the bouse, Tound easy accMi 

derly and quiet, that the military to miss Gibbs'e room, aed toad* 

from the barracks (4th dragoons) off with the property without aira* 

were drawn out, and all the voluo. kening her, A large stick was UA 

leer corps assembled. The magit. upon the bed. 
tratet repeatedly requested the peo. Analhtr Suicide. — The last tea 

pie to disperse, and used every days have perbape produred mora 

pouibla means to appease them ; acts of sdf. destruction than boi 

but ai they persisted in their right rardy been heard of. There ban 

to assemble, and remained nnmofed been no less than ten lecordeJ, 

on Ibe &dd, the Riot Act was at which have taken place in this a>^ 

length read, and the soldiery made tropolii aod its ennroos ; and the 

several apparently furious charges, eleventh occuried on Sattrd^ 

merely with a view to enforce com. morniDg, la a gentleoiao, ' a natrre 

pliance, at (he same time carefuUjr of Swilierland, of the- aanw of 

avoiding any serious injury. Not. Bonvden, who hu been in tik 

withstanding this fotbearanca, how. country fro« a yontfa, and wh« 

aver, the mob persevtradj and coa. bad contlderabla reputatioi m h 

artii^ 



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CHRONICLE. AQ 

trfbt, vho ibit himsdf with % feot ([iiarda, had tA$o trrWed sons 
piitul, at foor o'clock that morn- da^s before ; and notHitbitanding 
U(. He had laboared under de- the prearat tina of th« jcar is ndt 
prbiioD of tpiriU doring tbe week, tbo propter icason for hunliog, the 
aod be bad spent the ercning of emperor, who knowa the prcdilcc- 
Ftidaj with a party of frienda. tion of his royal gaests for this eo- 
Tbe landlady of the hoase, and M r. joy ment, has sent the whole imp«- 
B.'i servant, were alarmiu] by tbe rial huntiiig 6lat to ronlaiacblean. 
fatal report, aod on going into bb — Their najeslEes reside ia th« 
M-roofl], it «u percBired that spartaients Inlcnded for <fae king 
tbe ball bad entered his left ear, and queen of Holland, and known 
and gone throu^ the top of the under tbe appellation of the pope's 
hnd. The unforf uoata mai Ian. apartnents. It is in the same part 
fusfaed half an hoor. of the palace where Charles V. 

The following nnpleasing intelli- lodged in 1559, when he passed 
genee has been reccired in town through Fiance to qucit the itupr^ 
from Lirerpoo), in a letter from a rection at Ghent. 
gMdcaan who arrired there from Tbe prince of Asturias and h!9 
Oemerara on Thnrsday laat ; *< I brother Don Carlos, arrired on tbe 
!■ extremely sorry to infora yoa, 1 9th Inst, at the castle of Valency, 
that tbe 4(h West-India regiment belonging to the prince of Deneren. 
(UKks) at Surinan, hava risen to, and situated in the department of 
■pon their officers, and murdered the Indre, at die leagues dislaoce 
•cTcral of them." The letter gircs from the town of Lorenx. 
Bo brtfaer perticnlan of this roe. Several persons of the first rank 
lucholy ercQt, bat gees, en to rode to Fonlainebleau yesterday, 
Me, that at the time the writer to pay ibdr respects to the king at 
kflDcraarara, "ihetewaiaplenti. Spain. 

(il luppjy of lumber and prorisions At Cardiff assizes, which tertni- 
^Bi America, and that, iwtwith. naCed on Saturday sc'nnight, Wil. 
itonding the abolition of the slare. liam Williams, aged \(}, was tried 
tiadc, there were so many negroes for the wilful murder of David 
for ide, that a market could not Williams, of Lantrisscnt, about 
be fonnd for them." I) years of age, nnder circum- 

Parit, May 35. — On Monday atancos of peculiar atrocity. It 
at noon, th«! khg and queen of appeared in evidence, that the pri. 
^tin «rri*ed at Fontaincbleau, ac- loner and the deceased were in ha- 
bits of intimacy, and that the lat- 
ter had mentioned to one of bis 
playmates, that the prisoner had 
been guilty of a horrid crime. 
This coming to the knowledge of 
the prisoner, he threatened to kilt 
theT'boy, and throw his body into 
the river. The deceased resided 
with his grandfather, tvhosc house 
-he left on Sunday moruiu^ the 33d 
of AugDSt last, and vrni traced to 
X> afSf* 

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50 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

K farm irt the netghbotiTbood, where sunnned Dp, the jorjr ibortly •ftar 

he rcMained plftying with some declared the prisoner guilty. He 

bojs tilt about 12 o'clock, when beard ha fate without emotion, but 

the latter were called to dinner, confeseed that be wai guilty, and 
and (be deceased returned home- /seemed penitent. Hewaiencntsd 

ward, promising to mieet his com- on Monday last, on the Nqw Dropf 

' pan ions iu the evening, but was at Cardiff, amidst a great eooconite 

never lEeen alive afterwards. His of people, wbo aisembled on tht 

absence occasioning alarm, selu^h occasion. 

was made, and on the following Cambridgt, M<a/9S.-—0itth.an- 

Tuesday liis body was foand in a day morning, about ten o'dock, ft 

ditch, with semi wounda on the terrible fire broke oQt at Aldrey, in 

neck, and one on the belly, all of the parish of Haddenham, in the 

which appeared to hare been in. Isle of Ely, which raged with graKt 

iOicted with a sha^p instrument, and faryforie*eralhoiirs,anddestroyed 

each was slated to be mortal. On nine dwelling.houMS, witlf barM 

the, day (he body was discorered, and oal-boildings belonging. Part 

the prisoner absconded ; but a vcr. only of the property WM insured. 

diet of wi"^l murder having been It was occasioned by a farmer*! 

teturned against him, anarch took son incaotiously firing at a bawk 

place, and the clothes he bad worn who was carrying off some poultiy, 

on the Sunday morning were found when piurt of the wadding fall apoa 

in his father's house, with evident the thatch of a barn, 

marks of blood-Stains attempted to Lately, in digging into a monad 

be washed out, Pursuit was'tm- of earth adjoining the south side pf 

mediately made after him, and be the ruins of Tyncpiouth Priory, a 

was apprehended at Gellygare, capacious cemetery or arched tomb 

where he had applied for work, was discovered, with several hamm 

saying he bad come from Danhar- hones of a large lise, and skulls on 

ry, a place about six or seven miles the floor. It i^ not known that 

distant from Ijintrissent, and had the place has been opened since the 

been employed by one Ltcwellin dissolution of the priory in 153(}. 

Yorath, but having quarrelled with It is to be converted into • gun. 

bis master, had quitted his (service.' powder msgar.ine. 

A clasp-knife was found upon bim The late admiral Rainier has left 

when taken. In the prisoner's de. property to the amount of nearly 

fence it was stated, that'he came 250,00O/.andaffDrpToridii^amply 

home about twelve o'clock on the for his near relations, he made (be 

Sunday, eat dinner with the family, following truest : 

went with them in the eveivng to a "J bequeath one-tenth part of 

place of worship, afterwards vi. my personal property to the chan> 

■ited a young woman to whom ke crllor of the excheqaer, for the 

was attached, then returned home, time being, towards the redaction 

went to bed, and followed bis o§ual of the national dubt, in acknow- 

labour for two succeeding days, ledgment of the generous bounty 

during the whole of which be ma. of the national establishment of the 

nifcs(ed the most perfect composure royal na*y, in which I have ac. 

of mind. The cvidcnceiiaving been quired the principal part of the for. 



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CHRONICLE. S\ 

tmt X BOW hare, whidi hts ex. faoase, cellar, or garret, and tak« 

cniedajmeritaiidpreteDsiaiii.'' it from them. TTii», I am Borry to 
* ^ orfcf has been bmed to in- My^ U too trn«. Great naraben of 

Mna^eaamber of tb« royal ma. wearers walk in small parties about . 

^M wnviBg in the na»y, as fol. the streets, and in apeaceabto man. 

fcwsi— *i to a ship of the first, ner, I am happj^ to saj all is quiet. 

nia; 90 to a second-rate ; IStoa —Past lO o'clock, Wednesday 

AM.nte; 10 to a fonrth-rate night, June t." 

Mdla^o frigates, and in propor- We are soriy to learn, that on' 

fitti to nailer ships. Monday last, the market day at 

; Rochdale, I2 miles from Manches- 
ter, a tumult took place amongst a 
JUNE. number o'f working weavers, seTe. 
1. Tbe dnchcM of Brunswick's ral of whom were apprehended and 

AMMi^Jrill was read a third time, committed to the New Prison. Tbe 

imi pa»ed. mob, howefcr, in the ereuing, re. 

MtKtAattry June 1.— — " I am leased the prisooer*, and set fire to 

aanj toinfonn yon that the nnme. thegaot, which was burnt to the 

imm body of cotton- wearers, in ground. 

tHi townand ndghbourhood, are 3. The following is a copy of tb« 

yet iflll flimatisfied with the propo. bill from the wearers of Manchei- 

ali wbick the master manDfacturen ter :~. 

hare agreed, on at their meeting last " To the Public in grneral, and la 
■i^ at the Ball's.head iqn here, tie Cotton Manufactareri and 
witcb i! lOper cent, advance on all Wtaven. 

kMa of cotton gooda wearing, to "A number of hand.bilb hare 

tAo place this day (June 1), and been printed aud circulated, pur- 

WperceaL again adTance, to take porting that an agreement has taken 

|tee tbe 1st of August ocit — this place betwixt the masters and wea* 

■Aa a full SO per cent, which docs wen : — This is to inform the pub. 

■otaaeet the approbation of this )ic, that the persons who signed 

great body of useful men. Their inch an agreement (if any) were 

demands are, and they do stand out not authorised in any respect, en 

^id persist in baring Sj. Sd. to the the part of the wearers, to do so, 

pe— d sterling adrauce) an adrancc and wc declare the same nnll and 

wAs^ B 33 1.3d per cent, so that roid ; and that nothing less than six 

batwaen the manufacturer and wea. sihillings and cight.peucc in tfao 

Ttrlhere is jast 13 l-3d per cent. ; pound (being ooe-third in adrance 

■■d I am sorry to add, at this mo- upon our present wages) iritl be 

■Mat, not any of then will go to sufficient for our support ; and all 

thekxKO, neither here nor in any manufacturers that will gire the 

part at the neigh boo rhood, and . abore adrauce, their wearers will 

■pia a modcrata calculation, there immediately go to work; that all 

ate aot leu than 60,000 looms, in gnods that may be taken in from 

tteeitton trade only, standing still the dale hereof, shall be paid for by 

m tU« torm and neighbourhood of the yard, accoidiag to its length', 

tw^e miles. If any of them are at breadth, and strength, sikI a list ot 

tbe sbctdej partie* rush into the the prices will be prepared for the 
D% usa 

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5% ANNUAL HEGISTER, 1808. 

UK dtOit public u toon u posii. I wilt relie** them. Yoar gnU- 

ble. nefis maket « part ot niiaa. ' 

**SignedoD.b£h<ilf oflheneKTeis, " Vohr princes lixva coded to 

" M. MoKRAK." me all tfaeir ri|))» to tbe Spaakh 

" Manchester, Jnae 2, ISUtJ." . crown. I vill not reiga ovec jronf 

3. Ireland, A mast daiing provinces, bat I wiU aeqouB an 

attack bai recently been made b; eternal right to tbc Iot« and grali. 

the Thrashers on a rcEpectaUe gen- tude of your pos(critj[. 

tlemaa neat Ballynamoro, in the " Yoor monarch]' is old ; it vast 

,£011111/ of Roscommoa. After ha-> be renOTated, Aat ywi raaj enjoy 

viog foiced their way into the bouse the blessings of a renovation, which 

in the middle of the oighlj tlio shall not b« purchased by cirlt'wir 

usual oath was tendered to him,, or desolatioD. 

which he refusing to .take, one of ^' Spaniards ! I haw coiHened 

the Tillaios eihibited to his asto- a general' assembly of the deputtea. 

nished eyes a dreadful machine ia of your protinces and towns, th«t 

tbs form of a wool.card, filled with I may know your desires and 

crooked iron spikes, aafl a weighty wants. 

hammer, ready to infix them in bis ** 1 shall lay down my rightf, 

back at one blow. It b not to be and place your illustrrous crown 

wondered at, (hat this horrid pre. upon the head of one who i«sem< 

paration produced his immediate blcs roe; secnriag you a constita- 

coropliance to their demand, and tion, which will unite ihe salutary 

they then swore him to the fullow. power of the sovflreigD with the li. 

ing terms :...*' 1st, That heshoold bertics and rights of the Spaniih 

not purchase tithes, encept from a nation. It is my will, (hat my me. 

minister ; 3dly, That ho should pay mory shall be blessed by yoar lateat 

only the old dues to the Uoman potlerity, and that they shall say... 

clergy ( 3dly, That he »hauIdnot he was the restorer of onr country. 

^*e eridence against a Tbrashc; in " Giren at Bayonue, S5th May, 

the court of justice; 4thly, That 1808." 

ho would be faithful, and bear truo By lirtuc of a mandate of his 

allreiatlce to captain Thrasher." imperial and royal highnesa tbo 

Oft tliu next morning he surrender- grand duke of Berg, dated the 33d 

«d himself, and gave an account to iuitant, the existing commissioa of 

lord A9hlawn,wlioimmeiIiatelyap. consolidation of the royal ^afr« is 

prehcndcd several of the miscreants, abolished. The commisstuii is in 

and lodged them ingaul. future to be composed of the pre. 

Madrid, June 3.— .This day was i^iilent of gii*ernnieat, of the sn. 

published, in tlie name of his ma- prcmc council of Castile^ two nu. 

- jesly the emperor of France, &C. nisters of the same council, a isi. 

a proclamation to the Spanish na^ nister of t^a couueil of the indies, 

tion. The following is a trsnsla. and ef the council of the factory, 

tlon of the more important pai. and a secretary. The functions in. 

sages : trusted to this cwiUDissioD are to se- 

"Spaniards! after a long linger- cularizc and sell, asfarasis reqni. 

ing disease, your Nation sunk into site, the chorch lands, and to dia. 

decay, I halo seen your tulTeriiiKt; patch all other pressing butiaeta. 

ilii 



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CHRONICLE. t» 

Sb faopnul bjibocsa bu apmU the eiistiog act 8id not enipowvr ' 
■•fed eolond CatnrfDi to be iii> the offenders to ba taken btton k 
'•endut-geiMnl io chkr of the con. mtgislute, &nd maQy of them wen 
CoBda loi of the royal Ko/e*, with forged. He .therefore Bond*' for 
Ae title of mutrx of the iccounu, leare to bring va a bill to rectrala 
utd the fonctioni of minister of the the oegodation of promicsory nolei, ' 
CDmmissioii of the gOTeramcnt. or bills of eichanga, nBdcr twentj 

4. Satorday was the anoiTersarj ihlllingr, in that part of Great-Bri- 

of his majesty's birthday, which tain called Eogland." After a few 

eeoipleted nil 70(h year ; and, with wordj from air J.Newport and Mr. 

tbc eiception of hii eye-iight, his Phmel, the motion waa pot and 

geiKnt health b ai good as ft has agreed to. 
hetm at any period of hii reign, ' The old aocnstoned pastime of 

Tb« noramg was osbered in Grceo-meeting, was rained on Sa> 

vitli the ringiog of bells, and at turday le'Dnight at New HorOMir, 

aoon the Park and Totter gaU in the parish of Etleamere, Skrawt. 

WCTo fired. (f- bury, where the largest au#mblBge 

Their aajestiea receired thcju- of persons met that was eT'r knows 

■ior part of tiie royal family at in that part of the toupoj. The 
Backlngham.hoaseio the morning, ^ first dance was taken by Mr. N. 

vhete they breakfasted, and con- Daries, gent, (who ft now in bit 

fntalated their loyal parents on 93d year), wHfa all fbe hilarity «fa 

the return of the day. Soon after yonth of 1$; afler Ae meeting 

MKO'dock. die qneen and the prin- . broke up, he attended bis Mr part. 

cetsa prepared to leave Bucking, ner to her bone, anA enjoyed her 

bas.Aonse, and they arrived at St, company many a happy hour tilt 

James's at a quarter past two, ta. the moon rcmioded Um of rcUriH 

corted by n party of life-guards, ing to his hcKoe. 
Her majesty was nshered into the General Milhaud, who c«mma«d* 

council- chamber by his grace the at llanoter, hasrecelredfromBHO. 

dnke of Portland, with whom she naparte the tide of coant, and a 

convvned f«r some time. The pension for life of 30,000 francs. 

princcSKf formed, as usual, on the Similar faronrs have been conferred 

left of the ^ueeu, a^ree^bly to se- on nniMTOW Other French gene- 

Miority. The lord - chamMrlain rats. 

wated his wand '>>r the perfor- Siockiiig Afarifrr. ... Early «• 

manoe of the .oA;, under the direc. Thursday, as a man «as gomg to 

tion of sir W. Parsons. R,ttend some cows in a fiold at Iho 

/s/mV iVonusory Natet. — Mr. back of the Qaeen's.hted and A.r- 

Hi«fc>^*nn moTod for leare tu bring tichoke publi&honse, leading to 

b> a bill to restrain the cirmlation Caraden.town, be fonnd a maOy 

«f inland promissanr notes, and genteelly dressed, who appeared Iv 

bOb of exchange of small value, have been shot. He proved to be~ 

Be observed, tWt notes were issued a Mr. Joachiss, of Pralt-place^ 

■Oder twenty shU lings in the pot- Cunden.town. In the afternoon, 

leria and other manufactories and he went to visit Mr. MosSj who 

In tbecolHerie*, someof which were resides at .Comber tand..pUGe, lis. 

Bosr taken aod of no *alne, and son-green, and nciinA ntoe mo. 
DS aty^ 



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«* ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

vty. When be left Mr. Mou, be confederates, broke into end u- 
•aU be .was sotog to Saliaburj- tuallf set fire to tbe bpilding. Fut- 
Vticc, wberc iie itopped to tee' ther mitchief would probably baT& 
WQie perions play at ikittlei till a been effected, had not a detach- 
late hour. It is supposed Mr. Joa. tnent of dragoons from Mao ohcctert 
cbin was attacked by robbers, and and the Ualifai Tolanteen, arrived 
that he, being a retohite man, had in lime to prcTent it. Several ^r- 
rcsiited their attack. In corrobo. soni arc In custody, charged witb 
ration of this, his stkkwas found riotous procoediogs in ftochdale 
vith some largo marks upon it, as and its Yicioity. At Oldham alio 
if it bad given some violent blows, some injury lias been done to fac- . 
His watch was stolen, and it is sup- toriesanddweltinp, such as break- 
posed he had bank-notes about ing windows, &c, , 
b'tmto the araouDtof LOO'.ofwhich Soldiers are pouring in^ Man- 
it U conjectured the villains had by chestur ~from all quarters, tbongb 
aomemeaos had information. On the ti^wn Is perfectly tranquil; 
Thursday a surgeon opened the three rcgini%t$, one of cavalry and 
body, and found that a Urge bullet two of iofautry, are expected id a 
had enteral the left side, through day or two. 1 pity the publicuu, 
the ninth and tenth ribs, and passed who are likrly to be severe sufl'erers 
throegh hii iKart on this occasion. 

Friday, an inqaest was held at the A !<pccial commission is expected 
Southampton-Arms, Camden-towp, . to bo appointed for trying tbg pri- 
on the body. The evidence went soncrs, in order to make a striking 
chiefly to eitablisb the foct of the and speedy example of the guilty, 
nunler, bat did not differ very 7. Yesterday the ibagislrates bad 
materially from the civcomstaDcei information where the committee of 
already stated. His pockets were the weavers had asiicmbled ; the 
rifled, aad his money was token constables, with three companies of 
away, bnt his pocket-book, with the West York militia, went and 
nomo notes and drafts, remained in surrounded a house (sign of the 
Ills pocket. On the whole etidence Ptaslerer's arms) in Newton-street, 
adduced, the jury found them^ves Ancot-strcet, in this town, in wbicb 
jostiGed in bringing a verdict of they toc^ 37 men, with a large 
«' Wilful murder against some per- bundle of papers. Some of iSe 
son or persons unknown ;" but at men were disinissed. as not having 
pT«ent we understand there is no any conpeclioo viith the weareis. 
v:Iue whatever to lead to the detec- There are about tweUy of the lat- 
lion of tile' vUlaJny. Ln some re- tcr kept in the New Baylo^ prison, 
apAU the fate of this unhappy gen. to be examined in a day 01 two, 
tleman reminds us of that of (he The magistrates have all this Aar 
unfortunate Mr. Steele, and may been very busy in lookingo*er(ho»B. 
be as long in coming to a discovery, papers, and to make sucb arrange- 

Mttncketler, June 6 — -The re- mcnt as may appear Decetiary. 

port, mentioned in my last, of the The town appears very quiet, nod 

prison at Hochdale having been many of the weavers are coDtant. 

burnt, is but too Uue. I'he mob, ediy taking their work again. TUs 

fp order to release lome of their morning I was inTormed, by « 
. . friend 

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C H RaN I C L E. 55 

Hnd Fran BolUw, that ytHeti»j ing to pua the cart, called ont in ■ 
■ won tb^re anemblod many tnanner that frighteacd Mr. Muad'a 
naran, but tba two troops <^ bone, iniomudi that bQ bccaqv 
onlrj tbat ai« itatianed there nngoTeraabk', they still perscTered. 
woa djipaned then ia erery dircc. in following his cart, and kept up 

lisa, panning MTersi of them for the same noise ; the dreadful cen- 

ttne or four miles opon the moor, . sequence was, that just as the Car. 

*Udi s dote by the town. ...P. 8. nago was pasting the cart, Mr. 

Iimtfiis moment I^ aathortty in. Uead's horse" sprang out of llt« 

fMBcd, that inrornution hat been road, threw the cart over, and pre- 

pci to the magialrates of thb cipilated all the pauenfters directly 

pise*) of there being an intention niider the wheels of the carriage, 

flf spme of the weaters to meet at which p4Sscd over the head of Mr. 

I pita called White Most, a few Aiead, and the breast of his wife ; 

wiki from Manchester. There is they recelred so »e»ere_ aa injury, 

MlhetmaUestdonbtafthoir being that a few minutes after being re. 

Ma ditperaedt as there is every mored to the Nag's Head, Brook, 

curlioa made accofding to the ne- street, they both expired, leaving a 

MHityof the timcs^ family of nine children, tn lament 

AthockingwcDnstance occurred their melancholy fate, 
b the naifhboaThood of Wolrer- Jtmeriea. Firt at Trinidad..^ 

knpton, on Wednesday se'nnigbt : We have been faronred by a cor- 

llt. Webb, of HoMley^wos mar- respondent with the following ac> 

M n the preceding Sunday to an count of the dreadful and citcn- 

■>i>hl> yoong lady of that place ; >i*e conflagration of the town of 

■d only a few- hours after, be as. Port dXspagao, ia the ill-fated . 

tii^lted the family with symptoms island of Trinidad, where every 

sfiaimity. [a this sad state, be house has been burnt to the ^trouad. 

a Wednesday destroyed .several The fire began at a cliemist's shop- 

*lwp, and obtained a pair of loaded in Frederick- street, about Im 

r)^l»li,with which he alarmed tbe o'clock in the evening of the 34th 

Milbbourhood by threatening to of March; by eleven o'clock that 

in ipon many persons. He next street was consumed, and beforo 

|M possession of a razor, and, twelve the whole front of the town 

'tadfal to relate, he first cut his vras burnt, extending from the cor. 

^c') throat, and then his. own; ner of the old Ordoancc-yard in the 

ilBMteJerypertoD who attempted east, down to Unwin's.corner in 

toiecurs him was wounded. Nei- the west, excepting the commissary- 

fxr be nor hb wife are expected general's houseand stores, Mackin- 

t^recorer. tosh's and Ciprian's brick buildings, 

l4)( week as the carriage of sir which are opposite on the sea* 

noaaa Gooch was travelling on shore, and which were saved by 

''>( road from London to Sntfolk, knocking down the wooden build* 

*i>li four post-horses, near the 15- ings at each end. From Unwin'it. 

■ileslone, it overtook a cart, in corner, the fire extended up to ibe 

■fcieh were Mr. Mead, a fanner, of new buildings owned by Dr. Wi|, 

"^■*ildaii, his wife, and a female liama and others, to the- north of 

' ' The post-lads Willi* Brunswlck-iquare, from whence it 

.D4 rati 



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56 ANNUAL vREGISTER, 1808. 

mn op oUiqnely to A« «od of St pran himHflf to tiwt effect. t«M- 

Ann'i-ttreet, and to the narfceU ar, M It ■{tpeent tkan la'b««- nii> 

pUce in the eut, where it stopped, der tlta tortnrei cf je^ousj, ba 

Thic d^Kfibet the circamference of foraied tbe dtcwlfnl reioltitioa Mf 

' this dreidful crtnflagmtioii ; within connitttng lekide, and ktd iiilv> 

"which there is not a houHRtaDding. ence enoiigh o*er Ui wife to prevail ' 

Such wu the rapidity of the Barnes, on her to qait the world with Mm. 

. that many of the inhahitonts with Fron the lituatlon in wUch tite 

difficulty escaped with their liTH. wench wai foatid rittlng, ft ia anp- 

The coniequeQcea that must eniue poaed the fellow had aMftted in her 

froni the dreodral barock made by death hefore he proceeded in the 

thi« fire are at this time (April 3d) ciecntisn of himself. The banda 

almost incalculable. It is said that of boUi were at liberty, to then in 

ISOO houses are consumed, to^ do room to suppose that Mther had 

4her with their furniture and stores sot consented to die. They eri.^ 

ef merchandize, supposed to be dently had been drinking, aa tws 

Ihe Tsluc of one million and a half emp^bottleawoefonnd uaarthan, 

sterling, and that 10,000 people both of which had eontaiaed bm« 

sre without booses, beds, clothes, dy," 

and food. Franee. Tarit, JmtiO. — Intha 
Some time last year a young man Monilear is eoatalaed the follow. 
nt Locbside, in the parish of Blair- ing from Bayonne, dated the 4th 
Sowrie, Scotland, having shot at instant: — *' The day before yestar^ 
«nd wounded a yoong otter, carried day his majesty received at hie le- 
ft home, itiiere it soon recorcred, ree the deputation of Ihegraotlaea 
and has now become as tame as a of Spain, and had a very long con. 
lap-dog. Itfollows the young man ference with tbem." 
X'hercTer lie desires it, and obeys From Madrid we learn the fol. 
his commands with punctnaltty. lowing, under Uw date of 1h» 30th 
Lately it has been in the practice of May: 
of accompanying him to the loch " Yesterday Ae coundl of Caa- 

. and riTers in the neighbourhood, tile held an extraordinary BS»eraUy» 

where it.dlves for fish, brings them in purtuance of a command eooi- 

- to land, leaTes them with its keep- municatedby their exeelteneses Da* 

cr, and returns in search of more. Sebuiiaa Pinncla and Don Arte 

' Social Suicide !—^A letter from Mon, the seniors of the coudcU ; 
Charleston, (America)dated March "Sir, his royal highness the 

31, states as follows : grand duke of Berg, liceteoanL. 

*' Last night a fellow helfingjng general of the kingdom, comroanda 

to Major Jlouac, and a wcucb, his that at eight o'clock in the momkif 

■wife, belooging to Mrs. D'Azefc of to-morrow, the 30(h of May, 

da, pat an end to their existence the council do assemble, in order 

bystrangling thcmselTrgwithropcs. to proceed to the execution of a 

It is supposed that the fellow, who decree and a proclttmatlon of Iria 

^ras about (o go into the country msjesly the emperor of the Frenflh, 

for some time, anlicipaled some in. king of Italy, and protector of tha 

fidelity in his wrfa during his ah. confederacy of the Hhine. 
sence, as he bad been heard to ex. " In thia deciae itfaai pleaied 

bia 

, ■ , D,£,,t,7B-hyGOOglC 



CH RON I C LE. J57 

K» inpei ial aaJ wyri mjoty, b; tlie fanctiotii of lieateiiant-geiierd 

vtftae •' the rights to the crown of of the kiagdom. I 

Spate «Uch hvn been ceded to " 3. The minhlen, the conndl 

Um, to inform the eovncil of Ca>. of itste, the council of Cwlile, and 

tin of the meaanres which he all cWil, ecclesiutical, and mHiUrf 

ha> taken in order to fix the bari) anthorttiea are, ai far w it reqnL 

for the new governraeBt of die site, confirmed. Justice shall bs 

k wg doai. Hii majesty commands adminiitcred under the same forinst 

at Sk same time, that hb highness and in the tame manner u h 

Ihsgnmd dnke of Berg shall contU asoal. 

■*c to fnlfil the fnnctions of lieule. '* 4. "the conncil of Castile b 

uatigeneril of the kingdom; and charged with the publication of (his 

h*mt«lrea the conndl of CMtila to decree, and with the ftffiiiog it on . 

fmUuh and afix the said imperial all placcs'where it may be neceua- 

deeree, diat no one may pretend ry, that no one may pretend ignoi 

i g ao fance of the same. ranee, of the sa^ie. 

" ^naant to this, and an ex. " Giren at our imperial royal 

pteas conmand from' his serene palace at Baynnne, the SStk 

highiew the licntenaat.general, I of May, I SOS. 

pn yvu excellency notice, that (Signed) ^' NAPOLEON.** 

the coart will ocsemble to-morrow Extract from Ike Oviedo GazetU t^ 

■onisg ewly." tH< I \th of June, 

The ioiperid deeree Itself was to " The governor of Cartbsgena, 

Ac following effect: who has reccixed orders to gire up 

** Napoleon, emperor of the the place to the French, and was 

French, king of Italy, protector of about to execute them, experienced 

the conrederacy of the Rhine, £cc, (he fitne fate as Atvala. The Al. 

** The king and the princes of the mighty, who watches oTer the I i ret 

haascof Spain having ceded th«r or the iunocent, and who regatdt 

right to the crown, as is known by his loyil and c&tholic people with 

thortreaties of the Olh and 10th of an eye of compassion, ordained 

May, and by their proclamations that on the approach of the ene. 

paMiahad by the junta and the my's squadron to this port, with 

eeancil of Castile, we hare decreed, 8000 French troops for disembark, 

■ad do decree, ordered and do or< ation, it should fall in with one be- 

der as follows : longing to the mighty island of tha 

** Art \. The assembly of the ocean. The latter came up with, 

- sotaUes, which has already been attacked, and defeated them ; two 

eonveoed by the lientcnanl.generd of their frigates and all their tmns. 

of the kingdmn, shall be held on ports were sunk, and two ships of 

the lAth of June at Bayoone. "Hie the line which remained were board. 

depaties shall be charged with the ed, and -their crews put to the 

aentiments, desires, and complaints sword. The English lost two (ri. 

of thoM diey represent ; and also gates, and receired some damage in 

with fnll power to fix the basis of the the other ships. The engagement 

^w goirmment for the kingdom, took place between Alicant and 

" 3. Oar cousin, the grand duke Carlhagena on the %4th of lut ' 

•f Beif, shall contimit to fulfil montb, and lasted two daj-s. 

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^S ANNUAL REGISTER, isos; 

" AFrenchituphaTingonburd fie wu s Frcndunaii by birtfa, baf 

arm*, stores, aad moDey for Car- hfldbMn manj jean inoBr iBrrieey 

ttaagefla, belieiing that part still in in the conru of whicb he had more 

possessioB of the French party, than once risked his life, by making 

entered it on the 2Sth, and was im- incursions into France, and retarp. 

mediately compelled to strike. ing in an opeii boat to our thipm 

" Tbe Andalusians have fortified off Ibe coast, 

the Sierra Morena with artillery." An extranr^nary Cate.-^Fow 

The whole province of Arragon some dme ^last, a sow pig, be* 

U stated (o be in a situation of the longing (o Mr. Tudor, of Lea. 

greatest ferment. The Puke de miiuter, has be«a increasing in 

rinfantado is betieTed to have in> bulk^ and was supposed to be 

dignantly rejected the proposition breeding; but not Arrowing witb- 

of going to Bayonne to humble him. in the usual time after she vas per* 

self at 4he feet of Bonaparte. teived to be enlarging, and dulj 

The per centage due to Mr. Pal. increasing in bulk, Mr. Tudor aiu- 

iner, on the net revenue tff the pected that she was not tuwediog, 

Post-office beyond SiOfiOQl. from and consulted a medical gentlemaB, 

the 5th' of April, 1793, to the &th who, npon viewing the aoimal, 

of Jan. 1808, dednctieg the pro. pronounced that her complaint was 

duce arising from increased pott, thedropsy; aodlatt weak,tbesowy 

age and restriction in franking (ac under the direction of an eminent 

cording to the amount at which seneon, was t^ped, and full Ifl 

they vere severally t^en), and galK>ns of water was takm frbat 

abo the sum of 3,O0M. a year re. her, and ahe it now recovering, 

celved during that period, amonnts Manditiler, Jwu li,— We hu 

to €d,3i7l. St. 4d. ment that the refractory spirit 

Mr. Hammond, formerjy pilot of amongst the weavers in thii towu 
the Saturn, (a person well known and nesghbourbeod still exists. 'It 
in this neighbonrhood) has been has been continued hy acts of the 
arrested in France as a spy, and most oppre»sive kind towards their 
shot, by order of the French go. fellow workmen who have been 
vemment. Other accounts state, inclined to follow th^ employ- 
that he was beheaded, aa^ his body ment. From these, besides taking 
dragged round the town, the name away their shuttles, their pieces 
of which b not meutioncd. He hare, in several insbtncei, been 
had been sent from the Saturn, on cut. To prevci^ such daring out. 
board I'Aigle, captain Wolfe, to rages, the military hate patrolled 
reconnoitre the French coast, and for severd mifes on the different 
landed at a port near L'Orient ; he avenues to the town, for the pro- 
. had bceD on shore twelve days, and tection of the indostrious and 
was preparing t» come off in a. boat, wetl.disposed workman.— That the 
when he was arrested by two cus. weavers arc at a body, a loyal 
tom-house officers. He received a. people, we cannot doubt; but it 
peneioQ of £0f. per annum from seems certain that artful agents 
our government, for Ibe informa. amangst them have mixed politick 
tion he obtained some time since, sentiments with thdr claims, and' 
by landing on tka enemy's coast, have thoa been the cause of conti. 

Duiag 



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C H RO N I G UE. 59 

maag- m tottper Aftt teems to rife ultnd were to be gorened hy tfaeir 
■B it>deiB«ndi, u tlie mumfactii- owd, mmel)', tfaeSpaobh Uws, un. 
itn offer coacilUtim. Ala; they til his raijefity's pLeuare sfaoutd be 
ue tkeir error, and. return to their koown. It was the cDstom of that 
Ine iotereat ! Could the goiem- country that pertoos ■honlil marry 
nent nffer itself to be forced by at ao terly age ; and the unhappy 
lioloia iato particular meuuret, female, who gate rise to this pro. 
ihcra would be a proof of lU in.- secation, (Louisa'Calderon,) hi<d 
cficiency, aad thai it coald not been contrabted to a persun of the 
£itbrd protection to peaceable tub. name of Pedro Lewis ; but by the 
jecls. Such attcmptt miut, there, artifices of his serrant Carlos Gon. 
SmSf be resisted by force. salez, she was by him seduced, and 
KiHo's Bench, Jaoe II. he afterwards robbed his master of 
Tie Kmg t. Governor Piclon. SOOO dncals. The robber escaped. 
This canfo came on again to be but the girl was taken up, and ap. 
tried this day, and occufued the plication was made to thegorernor, 
eoart (which was extremely crowd- to permit tortare to be inflicted, in 
ed the whole day], from oine order to compel her to confess what 
a'dock ia the morning until eight she knew of the facts. The manner 
at night. ' in which this torture was inflicted, 
Ur. Garrow, in stating the case he should abstain from describing, 
•0 the part of the prosecution, ob. but the jury would have the pain to . 
■KTTCd, that as the eridence which hear it described, by the aDfartD. 
be was agaiB aboat to adduce in nate suli'erer herself, corroborated 
Hpport of this prosecution, had by other eridence. Before in flictiug 
ken already fully laid before the the torture, it Was necessary how- 
public, be had no matter of novelty ever to show that the defendant, a 
Usfate to the jury; and whaterer British gOTeraor, had consented to 
■light be the personal feelings on it. In answer to this, it was said, 
the other side, he protested for him. that tlw defendant was authorized 
itif, that ont of this case he knew by the law of Spain in nich cases ; 
DDtliiag of the deleudaD^ and had but in reply to (his, he should show 
ao otlier view bat wishisg justice that no such law existed in (fae 
night be done to all parties, deter- Spanish code, that no Spanish go- 
auDcd on bia part to do his duly to rernor could hare inflicted such a 
the public. The horrid barbarities punishment, and that it was re. 
charged against this. defendant were serred for governor Picton to be 
iDch M bad ncrer before been char- the first to introduce <torture into 
|kI against any British goremor, that island, which by the Spanish 
tlMt of cruelly torturing a female laws could only be resorted to in 
at the tender age of fourteen years, cases of withcraft, and Louisa Cal, 
He then stated, that in the year deron was the only instance of the 
IgOl the island of Trinidad was kind ever known in (hat island, 
ceded to the British forces, under where torture was inflicted for a 
Itaeral sir Ralph Abercromby, different crime. If, however, som'- 
wheo the defendant was appointed thing shonJd be shown on the other - 
KOTcrnor of that island, and it was Side, from the old Spanish books, 
'tipoUtcf! tbat the peopl* of the recognising t,orture in such caseii. 



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60 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808.' 

Wiroald ibow, •■ the contmy, jurywentorefleDeetjOmt tbtiitei 

ttat ancb'taws vera obooletc, and of kpglying tin tortnrcdM notori- 

thu thii, andthicotilf, was tlMOBe gintte with gMeraor l^don, ^txt 

voliUry cue wlutre tortore kad CTBT witk the jadge of the country. 

Itcen inflicted, and he woi tntrj to With respect to its senAtf, he had 

repeat that it wu fint istrodnced noAiag to saj, bat It must be n- 

iy a British gorenior; and he eolleetetl that the proMCDtrix wm 

thoDid further contend, that fVora accused or a crime which, ift this 

the introdiction of the British go. caontry, Mould be Mnxidered a cf^ 

TenimeDt,a]lsBchlaws,ifthe7e*«r pital offence, and ietdta«n igDO. 

did eiitt, moit cease, and be wholly mioious execution. In older thu 

void and ougAtory. the jury miglit judge rightly of the 

Loaiift Calderon was then est. case, It was Accessary they shonld 

nined, and described the maoBer in see ud nnderstand wbCt the charge 

-which the torture wks infiicted, in tinly was. It Iras not for camii^ 

veariy the same way she had done Louiea Caldervn to be cmelty lor- 

on the former trial, with die eicep. tured, bnt giring an order that tor. 

tion that she now gave her erideece tare shoald be applied. He did 

in the English laognage, with much not, boweror, mean to saj, that ff 

flnency and correetiets. Having his conduct was illegal, be was not 

described the pike on wbkh she by the laws, and in a moral point 

stood, iDspended by a rope amd of view, answerable; bat the in- 

{MHey from the ceiling, her fkiot. prisoOmcnt and severe trMtment 

Ing, kc. fee. she farther stated, that were not applicable to bhn, unlaw 

the penana present were Beger'et, the govemor^fea to be considered 

the judge, who first applied to the U (be gaoler and execntloner. Th« 

gorernor for the order to tortare ; nnty point, therefore, whidi tiie 

de Castro, the escribado, or secre. jury had to-try was, whether go- 

tary ta the judge; and Ralpho vernor Plcton had ordered the tor. 

Shando, the alguazil or constable, tore to be applied unlawfally and 

She also stated, that when brought malicioasly, or otherwise; bnl, in 

before tha governor, he said if she fact, tbc malice might be of coarse 

did not declare who had got the inferred, if the thing wu done ill6> 

money, he would make the hang, gaily. If the law was in existence, 

man paw his hands over her. 1^ was authorized aad bound by it 

Ralpho Sttando corrobwaled her to exercise that power. 

itatemenL A great nomber of deposi li t roa 

The order for apl^ying Ac tor. were then read to prove the lawt at 

tore was then produced, and ap. Spain 09 this snbject. 

peared in the words following:— After a vast body of evidence 

^^ jipptiguez la queiliom* i^Louiui beingaddciced, to show that tortarb 

Qslderoni." was authorized by the Spanish laws, 

(Signed) Tns GovanitoR. ind much argument on both ride*, 

Mr. Dallas, inatafli^ the case of it was at lengih agreed (hat a »pe- 

the defendant, admitted the facta cial verdict should be taken ; and 

to have been full}' proved ; but the after » charge from lord Ellcnba. 

• The tortnre. 

rongh. 



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C H R O N IC LE. 61 

no^ in wUdi be obsemd, that kibitker, tlis vater aerer, todcbed 

hawew a the law of Spain »othoriied ma till the lastoight, vbiin 1 ww 

taatara^ &>d that gofioot l^toe ai>o obliged (o msTe. When we 

kid not acted malicioiuly, ia hit came within forty mUes cf Carli* 

afaiua» he had acted extta.judicu cr«tta, the triad became direct weet, 

a^, for Qm denier appeal was not and blew a gale: we were Mreral , 

In the faversor, bet to tbe king of tine* close to (be island ef Olau], 

Ftlind, asd dietefete the conrt but could not land on accottRt of 

woaU iifcr that he wee guilty of tbe ice i but tiut would not baro 

tbafaet. prcreated our attempting it, had 

Tbe jmry then retaraad a ipe- not tUe captain said Ibat theie wat 

cial TcnUct: Thal^ at the time of no placfl far anclprage, aqt wu 

fbeeeaMoBof the idond of Trini. there a barbou-; w we tacked 

dari to the Britiib fovea, tbe law of aboat till the Stb, all tbe tine the 

Spua mtboriud tortwe, and Ibat pamps going, and all baodft baling 

gwenior Pictoa bad not acted ma. tbe ship; but we did not gain on 

liciositjr^ esc^ ao far at the law the leak, and bad always four or 

iubired frain tbe facts. Upon the fire feet water in tlie hold. 

etba- coanta of tlie indtebnent, the " On the 6th iuct. at noon, colo. 

jeiy Isaad a gaoetal vardict nf — ■ iwl Pollen asked tbe captain if b« 

<mUf. thought the ship could stand the 

Tha trial did not temioale uttii tea? He answered, that * It was 

near dght o'clock at night. impossible;' whence it would ap. 

^ttiing Narraiive.—V/e have pear, that had- celoael P. not put 

iirttdy nmlioned tbe melancholy the question, the ship raust the 

bte olf Lord Royston. The fol- next day baie funndcrcd with at 

towing letter froia one of tbe pa*, all. 

wagers on-boerd tbe toimI gives " Upon receinng that answer Troin 

farther partiealan of tbia uniortn. tha obtain, colonel Pollen ordered 

■aleevMif: — bim immediately to put back, and 

** MemeK Ap^ \% 1808, li.S. make (he firat port (this was Me. 

*' Ofl Saturday, tbe 2d int. N. S. mel) ; and as it blew a gale, and 

ti 1? o'clock at noon, we sailed the wind quite fair, we were sure 

front liebaa with a fair wind, and of reaching it early next oiorniug. 

ipe for about two vents only, after During the whole of the day and 

wUeb we got into dear water, and night, we were employed in clear. 

hem that time eaw no morb ice. ingtheship of watcr,aDd prevented 

TUi fair wind centinaed for about it exceeding five fuet. At two 

twentjrJbur hours, and carried ns o'clock in tha morning of the 7^1, 

witUn forty Engliib mile* of Carls- we saw the coast, and, at four, Me- 

-croita. Tbe ship began to make a tpel. I immediately want into the 

little water the first ni^t, but it hold, opened w,^ desk and took out 

«u a trifle ; the second night bow- what money I had there, placing it 

(verincreasedsomuch,thatMessn. in (he pocket of my kibilker, that 

Sayley, ' Becber, Renny, Focke, I might secure it at a momei)t's 

■sd Ftoreyra, who were lying upon warning, in case of diingcr ; I tben 

kay, were obliged to move to a locked my desk, and left my ser- 

higher plaaa; bnt aa I lay in my vaat to put it avay. 

" Wiiaa 



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62 ANNUAL R EGISTER. I80». 

** WTten I came npoa deck, we on bia knees; Mn. Barnes ut opoa 

were cImc to the bar; I had not another chut, irith her little one at 

been there fire minotes, when the ber breast, the water MTBring the 

ship strnck with such violonce, that cheiti. 

the ladies and children in the (»bin, " Tbat night we all wMt to 

and the passengers in the hold, had prajers, forgave oar enemies, and 

just time to reach the deck, when resigned onrsdves to the Almightf. 
the ship filled with water, and im- "Nextmeniingateighto'clock, 

mediately after the rudder was Anthony, who wasont, garanotioe 

knocked off. that the lifeboat waa at the bow. - 

** The women now too^ rrfuga sprit. I went out with Mrs. PoU 

in the sailors* eaUn apon deck, lea and the yonngest child ; Mn. 

where I alA put the children, V. with great difficnity reached the 

*' The sea mnning dread'nlly life-boat I was twioe knocked 

high, we were obliged to cat away down by the sea, with a chiM In 

the mast, to prcTent the ^p up- one arm, but succeeded in keeping 

wtling ; the boats were then cat fasi hold with the other. Finding, 

loose and launched, . and lord howcrer, my strength failing me, 

Royston, with fonr or fife others, I gare the ebitd to Aon (Mrs. &.'■ 

jumped into them, but wer« npset maid}, deairing her to retrfain wherw 

la a moment. she was, till I coald send one of 

*' I determined to lake roy the men from the life-boat to take 

chance with the women, and fol. the child. Whether she attempted 

lowed them into the round-house, to follow me or not I cannot ny, 

where I found eleven persons; but justas I threw myself into the 

Mrs. Pollen, and' three senranti, boa^ the sailors called oat that the 

Mrs. Barocs, three children and woman with the child, and a man, 

maid, Pereyra, and Pocke. All were washed orerboard ; this man 

the rest of our dear frieuds, except was Hearn, Mrs. Pollen's sernnt 
those who were io9t by getting into " The weather was too boister- 

the boats, were immediately washed ou« to permit the boat to redam 

oterboard. long- where it was; it therefore put 

" Shortly aflcr, the life>boat off with Mrs. Pollen, her servant 

came alongside, and found the cap- Anthony, Mrs. Peroyra, and mj- 

tain and three sailors upon the self. 

bowsprit, who telling Ihe- captain " When we reached the shore, I 

of the life-boat that every one clce 'old the people there were sttll four 

was washed orerboard, it pat off, living persons on board, y'a. Mrl. 

lonring iis twe],Te in the round- Barnes, her two children, an|l the 

house, in water up to the middle. , third aerraal of Mn. Pollen. They 

" Thrrc was only one dry bed- were with difficulty persuaded to 

place, into which we put the chil. return, and succeeded in sa^og 

drcn. but Mr. Focke prayed for them. 

God's sake wo won Id permit him "Mr, Foetid had died daring the 

to go in too, as he conid not en- night, from cold, in Ihe little bed- 

dure the cold. Mr. Pcreyra sat place beCorc described , the body it 

npon a chc!<t, and had Mrs. Pollen now on shore, and is to be butied 

to-morrow. 



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CHRONICLE. 63 

luurraw, aeeorAng to thf Anc- the general lent hither to command 
tioDi he gave me about half an boar (he troops, air Charles Rots, I be- 
before hii dealfa. liere, who humandy adviicd them 

'* Mr. Pereyn if not expected to retam to their emptoymeot, lest 

(o nrrive thh day. ' * contrary conduct ahoald subject 

** Mrt. Barnes a laid up, having them to dimgreeabic consequencei. 

bd her feet fmeo. Mrs. Pollen Erery thing has been tranquil du. 

ii tolerable, but, ai yon can ima. ring thit day. 
pae, Tery low. We were upwards Manchrsler, Jvne SI, — Owiqg 

of forty boon without meat or to thfr perfect tranquillity which 

dirak, and mnrt hare alt perished, reigned here during the greater part ' 

bd we remained six hours longer. of last week, I bad cherished the 

" An estafette bu been sent to hope that every thing was settled, 

Ae king at Konipgsbe^. The >n<l any further commuuicatioa 

Fradi cooanl here is Tery ciTil, from tne, on >o disagreeable a sub- 

ud bu offered to do any thing in ject, rendered ornccesaary. Tbii 

Ui power to assist us, eren to write hope, however, I regret to say, 

(o hris for pamporti. has been disappointed. Yesterday, 

" 1 have loat every tiling bdong. large bodies of refractory weav.eis 

i<>{toii>e; and there is Uflle hope again assembled in St. George's, 

■f ny recoTering any thing, as the fields and neighbouring streets, and 

Aip is going to pieces. Mrs. «ot only stopped all the looms they 

BtruM saved only a small trunk of found at w^rk, but intercepted 

fc cbildrea's liiwo. every weaver coming in with fioitb. 

"The hupitai..y and attention ed pieces, or going out with fresh 

w poor iDrvlron meet with at work, forcing the workmen' to re- 

ttia place, are beyond eipression,?' lurn ftom whence they came. 

LOST. Some pieces, indeed, are said to 

JLord Royston, and man servant, bate been actuslly cut out, or de. 

Colonel Pollen, and onj; man- siroyed in the looms. Considerable 

Nrvant. bodies of the above deluded arti- 

Mrs.Bames'sman-servanl,maid- sans have likewise met in the same 

unant, and youngest child. places this day, bot indicated ra- 

Mr. Holiday's servant, Thomas ther a peareable disposition. Par. 

D. Bayley, Mr. Becher, Mr. Ren. ties of the fourth dragoon guards 

vf. havo patrolled the .Streets ia that 

Mr. Pocke (died on board), and vicinity during the day; a measure 

Hr. Pereyra (rince dead on shore), which has probab'y prevented a 

A&iTE. , repetition of the scenes of yaster. 

Mn. Bamet, and two children ; day, and afforded the we] (.disposed 

Uts. Pollen, and two servants. country- weavers a ^uiet iogreM 

Mr. HalKday, captaio, and three .and egress, 
"ilots. 52. Duei titrnordinar^. — A 

Mimckestfr, Jme 15. — Parlies very novel species of duel has lately 

(fike weavers assembled yesterday taken place at Paris. M. de Gran- 

ttnd near (be New-cross, and in pree and M. Le Pique having quar.r 

^ewionlane; but they dispersed relied about Mai^emoiselle Tircvit, 

pncMbly, after being cautioned by a celebrated opera.danrer, who was 

• ko« 

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64 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1«08. 

kept by tlie fonner, bat tiad been tban ^ any period fof tbe dii. 

ducofered in an intrigne with the pute. Tbej ]i*Te burnt in cffifj 

btter, a challenge enined. Being, senral respectable' mannfacturent 

both men of elerated mind, ttfey wbom tfaev deem the Boit batilc 

■greed to fight in balloooa, and in to tbeir claims, and stopped nerj 

«rder to gire time Tor their pre. loom in that part of (he town, 

punliao, it was determined that which b nn fortunately the teeat of 

the due) thonld Ubc-plaf« oo that their nnliofnl Beetingt. Many 

daj munth. Accordingly^, on the pieces of different goods bare beea 

3dof May, the parties met at a field malicionsly deitroyed by meant of 

adjoining the ThDHlerics, where >pirit of Tttriol or aqua fortis, 

their retpeclin balloons were ready which tbey artfully convey to the 

to receire them. Each, otttBded loonu through ifae medium of m 

by a second, ascended his car, syringe, fr«m which the dectructlTe 

loaded with blnnderbvues, » pis- ingredient is sqnirted throngh tbc 

tola could not bu expected to be broken panet in tha windows ; nod 

efficient in their probable lituations. Bomeliroes it is dropped npon th« 

A great multitHcle attended, hear, bags hung orir workmen's aboul- 

ingof the balloons, but little dreani- ders^ containing pieces, 
ing of tbeir purpose: (he Parisians The women are, if possible, ntore 

merely looked for the novelty of a tarbulent and mischierons (tiiiB the 

balloon race. At nine n'clock the men. Tbeir insolence to the *oi- 

cords were cu(, and the balloons diers tuid special constables i« id. 

ascended majcttically amidst the tolerable, and they seem to bec<»i_ 

•houU of the spectator). The nmd fident of derivM^ impunity from 

was moderate, blowing from the their sex. Two men were appre- 

N.N.W. and they kept, as far as bended yesterday, and three thn 

could be judged, within about SO day, and lodged in theNew Bayley 

yards of each other When they prison. One of the persons cod.. 

bad mounted to lilt' height of about ccraed in burning the prison at 

DOU yards, -M. Le Pique firod his Rochdaie has likewise been taJtea 

piece ineffectually ; otmost imme- into custody, and coinmitted toLna- 

dialely after, the fire was returned caster- castle. 

by M. Qranpree, and penetratetl To such a length have these de- 
bts adversary's balloon; the cun. loded mea carried tbtir audacity, 
sequence of which was its rapid that wrilten papers were this day - 
descent, and M. Le Eiqoe and his stuck upon the walls In Newton- 
second were both dashed to fneces lane, &c. threatening des.tructioft 
on a hoBse.tup, over which the bal> to the houSM of all weaver^ wha 
looD fell. The victorious Gran- shall attempt to throw a shuttle, 
prce then mounted aloft in the until every manufactorer agrees to 
grandest style, and descended safe an advance of wages. ' 
with his second, about seven leagues The military continue upon duty 
frora the spot of ascension. night and day, and the magtslrafc4 
I am citremcly sorry to fay, and constables are indefatigable in 
that the refractory weavers ha<8 their eiertions to preserve the pub* 
aiet again this day, and evin- lie tranquillity. With exception of 
ood a more turbulent diipositioB this totni and iti vicinity, all is 
4 (]aic(, 

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CHRONICLE. 65 

qiiet, nott of'theiTMren baring hlouelf utMe that part of the 

rcRtmcd tbttr work. spire which the storm had beat 

' Singular ^nimal.-^A naptcU into a horaonta] position ; he had 

dde hrmer of WeilHp, in the scarcelf done lo, when, to the hor> 

cosDtjT'of Gloucester, has a calf, ror of those below, (be whole gave 

nor aboDt sereD weeks old, which wajr , and, with the ball and about 

\ut bat tbruti legs. The two fore one ton of the itone.workt the 

legs are perfect but there is only uobappj' wretch was precipitated 

one behind, which, howerer, serres in a momeDt : he felt upon the first 

hiu (owalk with; which he does scaffold, and was carried by the 

with as modi freedoin as if he pos- wrighl throngh the two neat itagts> 

Kswd the other. when his clothes eqtangied in the 

Aa axtraordinaiy large fish was timbers, and he wqs detained j ths 

naght a few days ago, in a mao- bail passed down to another stags 

koel net, at Moant'a.lMy, of a of the scaffolding, and the stone> 

^ecies to which the fishermen were work, hurled from an Jieigbt of 

ftnogen ; bat we are informed, by 200. feet, was forced nearly a yard 

a gentleman of considerable aoolo- beneath the snrface of the pare^ 

giol science, who saw it, that it meat in Patrick's^ose. The man 

vu a male of the Gih Jbnominated soon extricated himself from his 

Ou basking shark. It was foil 30 difficulties, descended exultinf^y to 

feel iang, and of great bnlk. [ts the street, and' was carried in per- 

Bm alone was eslhaatod at a ton feet safely to the neit whiskey- 

' weight. A man might easily hare shop, to celebrate this extraordi- 

mpt down its throat. The strength flary exploit. The ball was put ap 

ef )ts jaws was so great, that the iu the year 1754- 

(Aeraan having thrust his boat. 37. This morning his reverence 

kook iato its month to turn it, the nnncio from his h'oUneis the pope 

while straggling in the net, it snap- had his thial audience of Messrs. 

(xd off the shaft of it, he said, u If Conning and Perceral. He after. , 

it were a pipe.stero. A fAnale of wards took a friendly leare of his 

Arbaikiogshark, bntof lessbnik, .grace the duke of Portland and 

n> caoght a few years ago on the lord Mulgrare respectirely. "Be- 

eoait of Dorsetshire. Iween eight and nine at night, his 

Inland, June i7, — On Monday rerarence left town for Portsmouth, 

x^onight, the sratTolding which ha* from whence he a to proceed with 

been rmsed ronml the spire, of St. a Tcry large conf oy of merchants, 

^trick's cathedral, Dublin, (in or- adrenturen, and Portuguese, emi. 

dcr to readi the top, some lime grants, for the Brazils, of which 

liocedistnrlMdbyathander-slorni,)' territory he it to be the metropo- 

hinag been completed to within litan. 
i«B feet of the bait, a thonghlless 

wretch, for a imall wager, deter. •' '" '" ' ■* 

aioed to be the first who shontd .... „ 

rneh the ball. He accordingly JUL^- 

dsBbered np tfy hit hands and On Friday (he following letter 

ksMs, and, to the extreme terror was sent by lord Castloreagh to the 

rfa BiltitvdB of ipcclatorS) placed lordnayor:— 

Vol. L. ' ■ E Downing, 

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<6 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

Damting-Mmti Juiff 1, 1804. poiionooi maUtr wu trnlf uttb' 

*' Mt Lokd, nishiag ; for on bii going bonM in 

" 1 bate the hanMv ta acquint tke evening, ba complained to hi* 

yaor loTdihip, tbat dispucbss liafc wifa «■ that he bad inoculated hua- 

bseiv retMived from major-general lelf, and fae already be^tn to feel 

Spencer, dated off Cadit the Sth the bad coawquencei of it oier all 

ultimo, by which it appears that a that side of his bod)>«n which lbs 

n^ocialioR bad been entered into finyei was cuL" At five the next 

batwMn bit raajetty's natal and morning, medical auiftance was 

military commanden off that port, Knt for, but no kiad of rehof 

wHb deputies appointed on the part could be given ; and with lach ra- 

ef the- proTisional gotemmeot of pidity did the morbific matter at- 

the protiiice of Andalusia, aueiB- tack his syatetn, that ha became a 

Wed at SetUlc, the reinit of which corpse, ia the higheft degyee of 

had been forwarded for the appro, patiidity, by eleven o'clock thaC 

batiun of the laid ^aternment. day, twng leH than twenty-foor 

" Every arrangement bad boaa burs from the IntroduclioD of til* 

taken for tb« nidaction wf the matter* 

Fivnoh ships, and admiral Portia \3. DaaHrftluMarquuSolmm, 

bad been Invited by the Spanbh <— Thedeitiof theniarqaIiSalaa«» 

comraaoden to anchor hii fleet at late govnnqr of Cadiz, did, not, as 

the mouth of the harbour, wilb a it has been coafidantly stated, take 

view lo co-operate in compellinf placo. at tha village of Chlclana« 

the common enemy to surrepder. about three leagues from Cadis, bot 

" It appears that the loutlMm at his palace, or the govemment* 

protincei of Spain had declared boose, in tfaat-city. SoIano*s inti. 

t^aiast France ; and dispatches of macy with the French admiral, and 

the 4(b ult. received from lleut> bis great attnchmeat to tho French 

general sir H. Dalrympto, at Oib. interest, bad long been the subject 

raltac, mention that the Spanish of much susfMcioa and distrust with 

army beforo that fortress, rein, severalof the principal inhabitants; 

forced by the greater part of the but it was not until the reported 

garrison of Ceuta, had raotinied approach of the French troops 

against the French, t am, &e'&c from Madrid, the arrival of which, 

" CAsT&KREAeu. Dnder the Command of Dnpontt bo 

" Bight Hon. Tjord Magor," anxiously looked for, that the po. 

10. — A remarkable instance of polar indignation broke forth. Th« 

the fatal effects of the introduction people, In great nuniliera, and 

of virulent animal matter into the headed by several Spanish oKcern 

human iiyKten, lately happened in and merchants, having coUc^ed 

(he case of James Grey, a shep< about hii palace, made an eamest 

herd, in the service of Mr. Arch, and formal demand foi* aims and 

bold, of Hetton, who, in the act of ammunition. Solano preacDted him. 

skinnitiK a sheep which had died of self at the balcony, .«nd, in a long 

diseisedhe thorter III) and was at speech, endeavoured to eonvioGO 

(he time in a stato of putrescence, them that the power of Bonaparte 

accidentally cut one of his fingers was irresistible, and that by having 

with the knife. The effect of- the teconne to force, they wonid an. 

celerate 

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CHRONICLE.- Of 

calente tlKir ««s nh. Hvwu c»k or tarn to piacet, and faic kMrt 

hand for a conrideiabla- tim« witb was taken ont, Mipeaded od tb« 

gamt patienM) bat wai at Ingtb pirint of a apaar or pike, and car- 

Merpowered . by tha shoati of riad tkiDngh Cadfe as that of mm 

** Annl amnuBitloa! loof lUre iDfamooa' trntor to Us king sat 

V«<diiMBd tke Sweath )" The? in. courtrj. 

iMcd opoB adausfioDy and enddu A ategnlar iaitance of the mfft~- 

toarad U> forca an eatrance. So- dtj of a Newfoun^and dog oc. 

luo tfaea tntraated a ccnftranoa eurred a tetr dayi since on tlie 

*3k any two delegalea tbcy migbt rirer. Ai Mr. Cook, who ke^o 

■aaanate, to whoai h» promiud a Utstb [k Cle*eland.street, and » 

atawMJan^ provided the- pobpU party offnettda, were- returning 

vonld dMht front lioknoe. HI* from Richmond, where they bad 

n^Bt was fiMtod. Tlwtwode> been spendiog Um day^ the boat 

patter went accordiBgly appobiledy upiet a iitde bekiw Kew.bridge, 

nd aHowcA to cntsr (be bouM. in coniefoenooof Mr.C, who bs 

The batant tbeyenlerad the apart, vaiy corpdeat man, Bhifting fron 

Mat in wbich b* war, bo shot ona Ua tide of the boot loo aoddenly; 

of tboM tfaroagb Hba baai witfa a Having a ^ewfonHdhmd dog on 

prtol; tbe other was leitodbybiai boaid^ the futhfa) anim^ immek 

MdbiaattBBdaniSjandpnd^teled diately laid hold of Us muter, and 

bam Ibe balcony into the street, took biro on shore, aad returrted 

lUadespemle nolence, instead of again with an aitooiabing speed to 

iMpiring Ike popnlaee with terror^ the boat, aad coatlnoed to go 

uSola<o.roigbthB«e hoped, sorred backwards and forwards until ha 

bat to ezdte tbcii aainiority, and bad rescned six men from their 

■fame tbelrtodignatioB.Tbe doors perilons Anations in ien than a 

w»e forced in an instasit, all his quarter of an hour, to the adminu 

pnrda and aUandaiib were diai tion of s mnltitude of spectaten, 

inted, and Solaao' biaual^ after who had assembled on die bridge, 

■ttemptij^ to oacape by the reef^ Tbe frilowing account is given 

«asMited and conreyed for exe^ I>y the gardener of tiie rev. Dr. 

eatiaa to tlie pabiio square or Dnke of Amersbam, respecting tha 

plaee. WUle threatened with' im. cxlraordinary produce of a single 

iiliilii death, such was his pc»ti> grain of wbeat in the garden of that 

aadtyin favenr of France, that he gentleman. " On the tst day of 

coatnned toicxtel Bonaparte, and August, I sowpd/or rather set, a 

Wnace bis coontrymeB witii de. single gtain of red wheat; and in 

stadien, li>r what he called tlteir tbe latter end of September, when 

lefcrilloQ. AnoDg the varient ex- the plant had tillered, I took itnp, 

pi isiiiiiiii of that nature, bnving and slipped or divided it into fonr 

fcrrcat^ caidaiin^ that *'be Was sets of slips. Those four sets I 

mdy to die in tbe cause of the planted, and they grew and tillered 

ptat Napotaon," o»e< of the per. ai well as the first. Id the cod of 

Mu nsar bira was so esasparaled, November I took them up a te- 

(hit be stmek bim on tiie bead cond time, and made tbirly.tix 

*Mi a dab, and literally beat ont pbots cr sets. These I ' again 

hit Imiat. Bk body was nearly planted, which gr«w tlil Mards in 
£ 3 which 



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ie« ANNUAL REGISTER, 18©B. 

Tbicb nohtii, I, a fhiti thne, took At half put derai tfcii 

«p my plant*, tnd diTtded then in. montosi.. 90 

to Safi pluiti or s«ts. For Os And at Oia bnaot, at 

iMUising part of (be ignmer, till one, haTeflmeBto....88 

the jBODth of Aagnit, th^ had The hot Sraday and TtUMdny, 

aotfaing dona to them, ezMpt hoe- i* the year 17V0, onlyamoooted to 

ing th« ground dean from the 8S degreei -in opea shaded dtna- 

veodi, till tha eorn wu ripe. tioU. The arerage heat of the 

When it wat gathered. 1 had the Weit Indiea li about 8S degree*. 

tan counte4 or nnraberefii and The thermometer nnder the 

they were 3,31 1 ; a great part of northers eatraace of the Royal 

which prored u good gralh ai erer Eichange, waa Thnraday at noon 

grew out of the earth. Many of at 87. The thermometer far the 

the ears meaiared six inches in shade at a window h) the open air, 

length, 5on« rery middling grafauj opporite St. Jamea'a park, (withont 

some very light and thhi. This any reflection of nieit), waa on 

Waa the reason I did not nnmber .TaesdayUst,atthreeo'clocltP^M. 

the gr^Ds; but there wai better at 8S{, and on Wedneaday at S4< 

than half a bashel of con in the In a transparent glan therawueter 

whole produce of the one gr^ of at a window id the Strand, -oa 

wheat in one year." Wedneid^ afternoon, it waa lOI. 

Suap-iuds, after washing, is not The heat of the atmoaphere In 

eely an excellent mannre, but Is a the nortii-ea>t«ra parts of [iBcoln» 

remedy aguut the Insect* which on Wednesday the IStfa, exceeded 

bifest wall tree*; it will dblodge what it ii (tatad to hare been in 

. and destroy the insects which hare any other part of (he khigdom. A 

already formed Ihdr nests among thennometer,- made by Nalnit and 

the leares, and if used early in the Blunt, hanginp In the shkde, in -a 

year, will prarent their settling on north aspeet, at Gainsboroogh, at 

them. Common potash, dinolred one o'clock in the day stood at 

ia water, may be used instead of mituhf-faur dtgrw (ten degrees 

loap-auds, and six or eight wa- lri|ber than the metedroli^ical re- 

terings at the bef^ning of the wda of this eonntry state -it to 

spring wilt secure the plants from hare erar been before). Hnosan ' 

insects. efloTtf were pandlaed under sucfa » 

Mmor.kovsft Hayetf Middle, temperature, and many of (he 

texj Jut]/ 13. 1S02. brute Creadon died. A retplectable 

The extraordinary heat of yes< correspondent assures ns, that " ■ 

tcrday and to.^ay, which exceeds hu^e quantity" of sheep was fomd 

any erer prerioasly esperiraced In dead at Bnigh ia the Manb, and 

Bogland, indnces me to send yoa a in the adgltonrbood «t SpUsby, 

correct account of i(, as obterred whi^ bad perished by (he heat. 

in a north open aspect at this On Friday sa*nnfght, after a da j 

honte, by two thermometers, bv of the most oppremln and excea. 

ttaratden and Cary, quite detachea. sive heat, the ndghbomtood of 

On Tuesday tbelSth Inst, at two Bath was vMltdwlth a more tr«- 

.P.M. both stoodat ...87 deg. maodou atorm of dinider, l^t. 

Ataidiii^t 9$ nlDg, and h^> than was ent n. 

MBbarwt 

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C H R O N I C L E. 6? 

■ M bflwd to han beeo ciperi- bj BroTo wu, tbat he ww > wine* 

■ced. Tke rolling of Uie difbut merchuit of eminence, and carried 

ttnder,'aBd qaick mcnnion of on buitncM in the city, whore he 

the luliet of vitid Hghtidng, com. bed e suitable counting.faoiise; and 

pJetelf Qlomfaring the hemuidiera that he had estates in Scotland.' 

(ma coanderabte length of -time, The fraad vat copsannnated bj 

tvrmed to the iohabitanti bt that confeuiog a Judgmeut to Roberts, 

dtj a tmlj grand and awful spec- who haring entered the honse upon 

tide.. The storm extended beyond that judgment, sought to sell the 

Bristol, in which city, hailstoDM goods in execution endcr the she'. 

*ere picked up of nearly an inch riff*! hammer. In defence, it was 

■ drcamference. At Newton, attempted to be shown, that Ro- 

CriIob, and Kelston, most of the berU was not a party to the rolire- 

wtadows that lay in the direction pretentationi, and that the coo. 

ef tte itom bare been broken, as fested judgment was gircn to him 

well as the glass of the hothooccs, for moneys he had lent Brown. It 

Ik. in the gardens of Gore Lang, was dso iniisted, that, notwith. 

ton, mq. at Newton, and air Cesar standing Mrs. Roberts had passed 

liswhios, &c at Kelstoo, where for Mrs. Brown, nothing criminal 

teosiderable damago has Mm done had taken place between them, and 

tedieyonngpUDtattmijai thafaail that she was the ansednccd wifii of 

dacended in sereral placos in la^ Roberts. The jury found all the 

Uus of (wo inches in thickness. defendants guilty. 

The effects of the storm in So. Lam Report. —SHer^t Cmtrt, 

■met and Glonceater are most Be<^ord>rom, TWfday, Je/y 19. 

distressing. Some farmers hare Crim. Cm. Lard BonngdoH 1. Sir ' 

Hftred damage in their corn, &c. .^. Pi^.— An inquisition to asseu 

to a considerable amonnt-^rooi 2 damages in the above action, was 

to 3, 4, aad 5001. and upwards. held this day before Mr. Borchall, 

14. Lan /nfeO^eftee.— In the the deputy-sheriflT of Middlesex. 

Uag's twach, an indtctraent was The action was brought by the no. 

tried against Edward Brown, £d. ble lord, the plaintiff, against sir 

*>rd W. Roberts, and £lfaabcth A. hget, for criminal conrenatiott 

Dorediy Roberts, aliis Brown, «ith lady Boriogdon, and the dc. 

atts Cole, for a conspiracy to feodant had irst pleaded the ge. 

dieat dircra. tradesman of their neral issne ; aftes-wards he irithdrew 

pods, by deceit and misrepresen- that plea, and snfiered judgment to 

fMien:— Brown took a house at go by defaalt. 
Ne. M, Great Canun.str«et, Rai- Hr. Parke, on the [wrt of the 

MUqaan, and Mis. Roberts passed plaintiff, addressed the jury:-.-He 

hr hit wife, liiey bad a chariot stated that the noUe plaintiff was a 

asdsa^aata proper for soeh an es. person of the highest rank, who- 

tsUasbment, and their iiabit ww to complained against the defendant 

4n*a to tradesmen's hoasca and for one of the greatest iajerics 

pn thair oidos, the maasiOD in which a man conld suffer In dril 

Conaumat serving as aconveni. society. The defendant was also 

at itfit tot theartidea fomiAed. a pcrsoii of high rank, and was the 

The daort nnifoiB r^rescatatioB ••^wl aon of a noble fimily, and 

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70 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

Iradl^i ealrbsted'by biaaoTcreiga otme to the knowMge «f tbe 

•miih hish official fiituatiom. The plfdatiff; but at last be racdred «n 

plaintiff sDd derendaiit had been at tntimatiBn of the frequ^icj of tbm 

HQUege togetlier, and' were ce-Bta- defendant'* Tuiti darkig bit ah. 

deali on the same foandation, aeace, which indoced him at let^th 

<fhi(^ w«t a circuisftasce, ai he to neniioa the fMt to tho lady, 

thoQght, of great aggr»ation. The and enqnire ioto the ocouioa at 

ladj to whom the plaintiff was them. The rwnlt of tbia was, that 

uoitei), wu the second daughter of on the next day, tbc lOtb of Hftjr, 

the earl of Westmoreluid, who, at the tody quitted her- bnibKDd'« 

a very early age, attracted the boote, and had from that time bat* 

a£bctioa> of the plaintHf. He be- liring Duder the protectitw of the 

cacne aoqaainted wilh iier in the defendKit. The proiinoe of the 

iDQDtfa of May, 1601, aod in the jury now wu, to detemiae wlwc 

Joce, fullowiitg they were married ; damage they would giTs the pUia> 

ihe .lady st tliat time not being tilf, ae a recompeuce for the injarp 

mch .more than eighteen year* of sustained. He asked not vindictiv* 

Ige. Titey continued to live to. danage*, for he admitted their daijr 

gather in a slaie of the qlmoit hsr- was not to puaith the ileftMlaat, 

Viony and . fdiciiy, a* he should but to recompense the plaintiff, 

prate by many witneuei of tbe They were not the aul»dei morvm 

itghest . respectability, until the of tbe people, but ihwr duty waa 

period when her affections werfi to any what wa« tha fit aeasnn) 

wdiH^ ity (htf artifices of tbe de. of damage* to be awarded to tbe 

fondant. M'hen, or at what pe- plaintiff for tbe injury ke had sos. 

riod 'the' crimimil jnterconrse toek tained, and surdj no injury could 

ptooe, be was not preftared to be greater, nor bad ever nan 

prove; but it was remarked* that deserted it le». His lordship de. 

lately Sir Arthur Paget was very fied the world to ihow any spot on 

coMtunt in his Tisits to tbe lady, hit character, either as a busbind 

and those visits were alwayl when or a* a man ; and with respect to 

the plaintiff was from home. His hi* conduct to his wife, her own 1st. 

lordibip was, in the halrit of drietly ttn wtfuld show how fondly attached 

aUending to his .partianeotary dn- . to turn she was before her affec- 

tics; aod as soon as he bad left the tiens were seduced. The learped 

home, the defendant caaM there; counci here road extracts from two 

so that he ttust aiisolntely have letters, dated in 1S04 aed 1806, 

been upon the watch, loiajnul him. raplete with eipresuoni of fond- 

adf of the moment of hi* lordship's neis uqd affection, in ooe of wbidi 

sbsenco. Lady Boring on was also Ao - apologizes for not going to 

in the habit of going to Kcnaington. ohUrcb, according to hu orders, oo 

gardens in the morning,i and air the ground of her ill boaltb; and 

AiTtfaur Paget as regularly met kcr iittlie other Bhelamented the delay 

tbere|; and a> soon a* tfaCy Bet, the of bis eompauy for a tiiyle day, 

partwl fromheriiBneandhereiiBd, Having coacluded these topics, Mr. 

and wdked away in private wlA Parke said he demanded sueb a 

tbe defendant. Thi* ialeraanrte Tcrdicl, as justice, reatOD, and re. 

ooaUaued for some tine before it ligion deuianded, 

3 Lord 

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CHRONICLE. 71 

Loii As^ntnid betad known apcdu to ^m *i«ti of lir Arthur lo 

Imd S min g iom for niMteea yaut. bit lanbhip'* abeemot. 
Ha ■urwd tbv MMMd dangkUr of Mr, Garrow thav, on tha put 

imi Wc^nerelai^ in Ju»a 1804. .of Uw defmdwt, addretsed the 

Ke had Utad mlk Uteat io great io. jory. He iatiftBd oa tbe known 

tiaa^, and tbey alwa^i appeared a inability of >ir Artbur to pay targe 

wrjh»ppf ctm^e. damagaa, and attributed the lapM 

Tbe kon. Gewge Villua idd be of the lady to the fashioni of high 

■■ liud (k« Ktler of the plalatiff, Itfe, which leavee a wonun wpwod 

■dthcbwiiaa find in gnatinti- to tbeattackiof awducer, todtbtt 

jMSf. Uw plaintiS' and hii wife sbe Calls frequently beforfl she i> 

«ppaart«l ntotually a4igotioM(«, aware of her danger. 
Ib^ frwiseoted churchy wi4 par- The jory, after tome considera. 

tatk tiie Moiuaant tt^etber. tioo, fottnd damages Ten Thoosaod 

Dr. Vangban had attended lady Pounds. 
BoriDg4oB in iUneu, on which oc. SO.^ Joseph Bonaparte has at 

w iioB the ptaiotiff had shown (he .icngtk entered Spain: bo wa« 

nlidtnde »d anxiely of no afiite. crowned king At St. Sebaitian'i on 

tieute fanshaod. the 9th initant. The moU gloomy 

'SirW. Elfiardlnediatheiriieigh- liteoce prevailed daring the cere. 

boaAood in Devonthica ; be TiiiMd .»eny. From &t. Sebulian't he 

Atm, and they appeared affeclioo- proceeded to Tolosa, nnd thence to 

ate, altaatire, and polite to caoh Victoria, where he wai again pre. 

ether. daiined on tba lOib, and intended 

The jev. Mr. Hade, Tictr of to bvit proaecuted his route tu 

CnmptoBj Imt Da*4iubira, in ttw Burgos. Adidoce from marshal 

puiib lord Borngdon'a Mftt was, Be^Heres had, . however, indueed 

■ilhewM iB«cb with tbenr when Jhim to delay his dcpariDre, aod be 

alane, and (bey. appeared to live in remained at Victoria on (he iHk. 

gnat aCectioB aod hnrmony. . . The condu«t-of die bishop of St. 

Klinhea.Groft, qnUe to. iady Andero '» highly eilolled ity tbe 

Bori^nti's tkilAf said Hib family .friend* of the good cause. Bona. 

CUB to town laat' January. Ai .parte had addressed a leiter to bin, 

tke sprav.advaaeed, (hey went full of piiimiaA, and inriting hiat 

wary day to KentingtoB gardens; .to attend at Bayoane. The f<rilnw- 

Ihcte ,t^ alvaya met sir Arthur iog itsaid toharebeen tbe prebte's 

hget, who walked wi& lady Bo- •nlwer:^^'^ I camtot make it coH. 

iBgdoo nl n distance from herand veaiest toxttesd ; and if I could, I 

^child. woaldoot. i judge of your since. 

Eliuintb Danielt) lady's-maid, ritj towarde Spain by year con* 

Aid, air A. Pqiet nlwayi fiiited at duet towards Portugal, and (>tber 

tbe boa(» wImb hit' lordship was .kingdoro* withwbich you ba*e in. . 

eat; he c«n(iaaed with heriidy in terfered. If yon are in earneat iit 

tke back drwMDg*roon for two -yonr offer to befriend the SpaniA 

baan at a lime* and went awny be- nation, let tbe fint proof be your * 

late Ut.lordab^irs fttnm. liberating oar toMrcsgn and famU 

"nM parts r aftd a footmnn aJi* ly, nod wHhdmwiag yoor tro9p« 
£ 4 from . 



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72 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

from unoBg at : but tbia we do not *' Juit as Mr. M'Lon had 

expect you will do of yoar own fiuihed pimyer, Mr, Gardnor, tbe 

accord; and therefne it becoom jailor, cane isto the room to Idl 

the Spanish nation to nttite, ai I him that it was the line, and it 

tmst they will, to compel yon." was an UDpleaiant part of his dnty 

21. EaecatioHofJama&Uekriil. to add, that he must allow fcisMlf 

—The foUowisg particolan of tbo to be bound. He exprCMed his 

execntion of James Gilchrist, for ready acquicaceaoe ; and, before 

the murder of his wife, contained leaving the room, requeMed diat;,'iit 

in. a letter from Glasgow, dated any Aitnre dcvotioBS, noae of the 

Ju)^ SI, will be found inlereit> dergymen should tay any thing 

iag;-— - that looked like- sDipidon of lua 

<* This unfortunate man died as guUt, ar.doabt of his vetadUr in 
he had liied, solemaly declaring dedaring his ionocence. Tbb 
his innocence of the crime for seemed to refer to a sentence In 
which he was to suffer. Soou af. Mr. H'Lcan's prayer, ia which he 
ter one o'dock, he was attended in had alladed to the embamsMMM 
Ms room by the rer. Mr. M'Leao, and perplexity wbidi tbO' 
gf Gorbdi, Mr. Brodie, of Dore- caodid mind must fed. In cons 
hill, and Mr. Macdonald, of Edin- ing the judgment of an vpright 
bargh. They ctmrersed with him court, as set in opfioiition to faia 
for some timej in the coarse of positive and coDtinued dedamtioiw 
which he repeated bis dectaralion of innocence. The dergymeageaU 
of innocence in the strongest terms. ly hinted to him, that it was not 
Taking up one of the books, lying tiicir province to dedde on the ons 
besiije him oh the bench on which or the other, but to take them pr»> 
he sat, and holding it before Mr. dscly as they stood. 
M'Lean, he ssid, * I am as inlio- '*.What passed in the hall m^j 
cent of the crime for which I am to be summed op in a lew words. 
suffer, as that book is ;* then rising After part of a psalm was snngf 
from his seat, and going to (he Jainos asked for a glass of wine 
window of the room, he poured from Mr. Gardner. When tho 
out some bear or porter from a first prayer was finished, be re- 
bottle, into a tumbler, and lurAing quested the attention ofall p r esMt^ 
routiil before he drank it, he said, and, in a dear audible voice, 
" I never did any injury in my ' cdled the lord provost, and all 
li/e to any man." This gave Mr. who heard him, to wttnoM at the 
M*Lean occaaiDn to observe, that tribvoal of God, that he was in- 
such a declaration wbuld certainly iioCent of the crime for whidi he 
not bear an wiqnalilied interpret*, was te suffer.' After the second 
tioa; for we might unintentionally prayer, the loid provost told him 
' aod unknowingly injure onr neigh, he might stiU have a little (mm 
bonr: every thing wrong in our longer. He replied M am igao- 
behariour gave him a bad prece- rant of the rules of Ihis-place^i 
dent, and we might thus injure am ready—I g j as a sheep tothe 
him by our bad example. He then slaughter.' The lord provost than 
etplaioed, and said that by ({pjory suggested that Mr. M'Doaiddmight 
be meant" violpnce." ' pray Hiih him. James exprened 

hia 

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CHRONICLE. 73 

Tke tUrd' prajsr patj of Mr. I^con. Ske tflsK. 

Mb{ Ofer» Mr. ll'Leu rcqwtlail wuilt receiTed hi* ii^joriy'i pw. 

k «oaU excaM hn tnn going to don. On beisg liberated from con. 

IW Kaffold, to which he iwdUr iMmeat, the pluotiff arrested her 

cQueattd. Before hnring the baU, for the nbore debt, coatredcd, «■ 

h npaUedly dedired his inno. itated by two wi tn an at , dnring « 

Mue. flk lut word> to the lord residence at Brighton, in the an. 

praroet ware, ' My laid, yoa are tam& of the la>t jear. The learned 

pirtio)t with an innocent man.* j"dge summed up the erideneo. 

' "Hea^ieaMd on tbexaffold at The jurj, after askort deliberation, 

■ 4«rter put three pteciielf, de. returned a rerdict for the defend- 

nHf drcMd in blaok. There he ant. Mr. Garrow advocated t)K 

Med jnet ■■ be had done in the nuse of the latter with greMeneifx 

bU, caliiag attention, and dedo- nod feeling. 
Btf hb inooeeace almoat in 'Ae 3&. Jk mmpAm Ckmrattr. — A 

•me words, indeed, befoee he moet eccentric character hat lalelf 

idt the hall, he nid, he thought it appeared among tbe pictarfc<faaten 

*v hii dntj to do M, aa K might in the garb of a Poliih Jew. A 

W the meant of lanog tome ether moaie for pmntiag wd dir^ ouirae 

i i i etait man, aad atked permik hat rendered thU man rerjr conepi. 

doe from the lord ptovoat to tpeak cnou in London, Aboat three or " 

la (hii eSHt, After tinging two fonr jeata lince, be iUed tbe ra» 

pocfioBi of the 51tt ud lOSd ailed itatioD of diinr of a itagft. 

pabt, both aeleeted by Jaaea coaoh, and he has reoenllT difreD a 

i o uii^ nod wUck be anng with a trade among &t cwtnauienn at 

dear aad ateidy loiee, ^ with Chrittie's, and other pnUie picture. 

tkt Kiit attoaisMag firmneM aad mlcs, whioh excitei wonder." 

maponre, mounted tli« platfom, Wkile Ibe whip oacafned bit am. 

md at twenty minntet patt tkree bitioo, he eibibited pngilittic ta. 

vmltHndMd inin eternity. Aftar Icnta iq tbe true Belcher ityle. 

haiging abdnl half an hour, he wai Among hit friendi, tko late George 

mtdown, and hit body tent to the Morland itood foremott; and from 

petcaaor of anatomy for dinec tho convenatJon of tlmt celebrated 

■let." artist, ho was induced to qait bit 

S4. t^co» T. JfeamoH.— This lUble, and becoam a popij in the 

am aa action to mcorer the ti^ ackool of pictare^lealing. Willt.a 

^iSL far necestariea, Aa It wna few drawiogi obtained from kit 

tase which ezciled an unconnoo friend George, he opened » thop 

degree of intemt. The pbuotiff, in the neigbbourhood of Golden- 

•■Hiner and dreta-maker, arrirted aqiiare, and commenced cleaner and 

Ikn drfeadaat nnder pecnKar dr> dealer. He Uien frequented a boata 

f^ltutJUi. It may bo necemary near Sereo-diaU, the rcaort of 

to aentioa, that Um defendant wai palnten and artittt, who fornKd 

tkt anbapi^ yoong woman who themtelvei into a sodety, under 

noiTed teateace edT death at tbe the insignia of a pallet. He ob- 

Oldfisiley, Btaay months ainee, for tained his admission by describing 

^deiniag certai* artidea, the pro. Uogarlh't line of beauty, and was 

duly 



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74 ANNUAL REGISTEE, 1808. 

M7- deeted u Mttitt. In 1M don Hlohu] JoMt^ d« 1 

atylnm he ■tadiei many technical minuter for the \adiet ; adnlM] 

4«nBS nied by the cooiMtMMir, «nd don Joiepli Hawaredo, ulBiiter at 

In a ikort time Im #as able to ipk the Dsariae ; general don Goni^o 

«pon a fittkjr piace of painting iritk O'Farrlllt miniiter of mr ; doi 

jnoroBod gravity, wipe it, tken Gatpar Melchor de Jovellanoi, 

■hake hii head, and prooonnee it a ninistcr of the intarior ; count Ca- 

vile copy of 'the divine original, barmi,' miniiter of fiKanoe; and 

whicb he fasd Men at Rome, the Sebaatkn Railela, misister of juk 

houm, the earl of WiJton'a, tbe tice. 

narqaif of Stafford's^ or in the ' Caplaint of tit Btis-gmHi. 

collection of •omeaobleman, who, llieir exeeUendeadukedelParqMy 

•keording to bta'iiiforeiation, wai grandee of Spoio; dokode St. Gcr* 

an admirer of the arts. By pre<. nain, grasdee of Spain. 

tomion be obtalMd mbo celebrity, Calwiei* ffGuardt, — Tfadr exeel. 

•Dd maay pi^tare-dealen coml- Uocieadoliode t*InfaKtado,calaiMl 

dared Mm M'iBStrtimeiit*eiyaH. of the-Spaoiah gnardi; prioeeCai. 

fttl in th^ line. He wai miwing «d Franoo, odaoelflf tfa^WallooB 

«nioBg - the freteniity some Ubc gaardi ; marquii d'Anaa, gmt 

atooe, dnring'wMcfa he BoSsMd Me -ihaiHfaerUia ; dok« de Hijar, gnad 

Iward to grow oTer hit brMat^ asd jnaster at tiM oeremooiea; coimt 

he finally made his tMrie tt Ae iFerdiimBd'NBBst, grand benttman; 

aniM al h Tortfign Jew of great count Santa- Col oma, ehambertaiK 

learning ; hit garments, like -the (AU grandeai of Spain.) 

)M-ie9ts of the tribe of Leri, are - The following ebamheiluns baie 

long and looie, and be perfonns been appointed lo'attead king Joe, 

the part of a Jew admirably. It mi bitionTneyto Madrid':— - 

does not, bowersr, appear, that " Their eioelleacie* oount Orgaa, 

■ny of the tribes of Israel ba«« grandee «f Spain; narqait Santa 

noknowledged him to be a eonrert, - Criii, grandee of Spain ; dnke 

and many «f 'bis <dd companions D'Ossana, grandee of Spain ;caant 

areata loss to detennine whetber Caetrf Florida; and dnke De'Sola 

bb ditgake is oecasioned by inaa- Mayor, grandee of Spain, 

nity or dwign. He lately sat to Contlanlmoplct July 31. — This 

several distinguished artists for a , capital hat been, since theetening 

Sgare in their historical pi(itiii«s; of the 981b,' in a state of tlMgreat- 

nnd, under ^1 the circumstances of est donstemation. Sultan Sdim 

hli conduct, he is considerod a most wished to re-establish the authority 

eitraordinary character, of' Ihe Porte, and to keep a welU 

Jmepk BoHaparle't Gevenhknt. paid standing army on foot. It 

— ^The French iMpera state, that Jo> was this which occasioned his fall 

seph Bonaparte, in his assumed on the 38th of Uay, I SOT. Mm^ 

character of kin;; of Spun, has tapha Bairactar, pacha of Rod. 

nad« the following appointment: sehnck, a man of the bast intcai. 

Mitrittert. — Their escellenciei (ions, proposed a plan for le-aL 

don Louis Hsriano de Urqaiso, se. tahlishing tfast which the SSth of 

crelary of state; don Pedro Ceval. May bad destroyed. Ue case to 

loi, minister for foreign aflain; Constantinople with a corps of 

trusty 

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CHKONICLK. 7$ 

itmly tMMfSf caued tbefuawM iiiitractedUminl]uiH4flfflpv«m> 

Kan^y-OglM, GomsunAuU at umt 

th« eatOm of tke Dwda«dl«> nd On tlw SSth, tii« DofortURto 

dMf sutbw of coBtpiriAg i^kwit Sefim wat btui«d »t Your, bj Oa 

Mltan Setim, to tie behe>4<4, tbe ride of hU btber. Xbe puha of 

mal& and sU th« atm nuoiaUat «f Kudickudk^ the vhal« of tui aroiy, 

thenUlMMMtapbii tobedepcaed, sod all th« retpeetattle iohab^tanti 

Ika «fK at the jwwtorict to be of ' this <*piBU> attended the fanen 

•tmicled, and the nost ispDiteRt m). During theaa vielaD^el/ oc 

porta of ConatnttaAfJe to be «c oureMH, Ae public ..traaqwUitr 

rapiod bghm troopi. The grand vaseetja the alighnft'idafTMia. 

ffiw ei , the naar nufti, and sennl terroptod. The gewtor, part oKDm 
edMT ■Mnben of the diwi, de> 'aMusw of Sdiiv hait-^miB'eMw 

dMcd tbonselra the pwtiaiH of coted^ W« know aoC whelfcer tha 

Mttttapka BfUEKtar. . dopoaedidtaii iaatiUliTiiC. Sons 

TJw snltMi had us mpicion of people asiert that he hat beam 

hia project: on the contmrx* ha atrsagled. MefltaphaBairaclarhaa 

dno^ huMlf If seanra, tliat am talwn p«Msaion of the graad aeali 

Ika Slh kutant, he rapaired ia tho The gmad Tiaior h a priKMur id 

mrtmiag to fieaaotach. Bot tha hit camp, for hating revealed ta 

■aUan oiothar having (ot infimna- the suUni notbM the piaa of ra. 

fiaa of it on the SSO, Miatapha placing SeliH on the ihrane. There 

IF. tabtraad with ■UapaAtion.br U aO doobt that the poclw viU imh 

Kft to the aenglio, whihtAa paaha be flpptdnlad gnsd >liier. 

of Badwiwck WM oalariiig it bf ftateoiif the principal par&aaot 

lawl. The pacha araaod the aev of.the;siiltan Mustapha.vera thii 

wtfti to farfbrai bin that ScUa day Ktan^cd in the MragUo. Tha 

matf «•> lawfaJ emperar. -Mai. kiola-aga {Met at the ednnefaf) 

tap nn > ^ fron following tbaax. vbo atsisted in the aurder of So^ 

■nplegiveaon thaSMhofUaffoy lia, va> eaecgtod w the 3&th. 
hia aoele $elini, who Tolonlaiilf 



d from the IhrooB, ordered 
the Uaer galei of the ter^lio to be 

*^. The a^im of the pacha, . AUGUST, 
bwerar, Bpeediljc cfilectad «i en* 

taaaee, but tbej' fbnad tha nnfor. Fnm 4ltf Owde GaaUi Stira- 

taMleSelnndcad,udcoreiadwitii ardMary.— iM«lri^ Aug* &~On 

btood. Soaed with horror at ihia the39aiBliiino,aho)itroar«'cloc)i 

lyctaele, Mastapha B^netar and in the evening, it »ai reported that 

tha grandees of the porta, cansad Jot^fk Napoleon wai nwrching, 

pftaae lUraowt, Ibe Uat braocA of that aU tha troopa in tha sitjr .wen 

ibanigaiBg d;wal7,to be imnab fclWwIiig Mv- The report waa 

tmtdf prodaimcd oaperor. TUa confimed by tha «ov(meo(» jnarfa 

^vee, who » afaoot fiftMo psan hj the French niUlBera, and aV 

^ age, hai for tha lait fftaa& thoM of that nation who did oat 

Baate baen eonfined with tte nl- balong to the armf . Tha WM« 

^ Safin, who daiiav that ^aaa afaning thajr withdraw fron 4bo 

hotpitaliy 



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76 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1808. 

hotpllili, Bod conducted to RelJro towkrdi tin parade, wheoMtbe^ 

sll the iofina Mldien. Th^ put lOBrcfaed off. . Scarcely did itj sp. 

' in reqiusitios all the caroages and pear, when all the people ran 

herHS that could be found, and the through the itreets, and- the poets 

troopi prepared to marcb. In of the goarda, bot oothlDg waa to 

fact, thai T#ry night, and on the be found. They passed to the 

DOmii^ of the 30th, a great part Retiro, and there thej fotind 001]* 

of the army, the sick, miUiDers, a few dying wretchas, and here end 

tradespeople, &c. of (he French there a dead body. They beheld, 

nation, tet ont. On (be whole day wkh amaiement, the ditches, pal. 

of the 30th, there followed prepa. lisadoes, and terrible batteries, fllm 

tations far thti march of Josephand reeled against (his city. The gnn- 

th«^ rentahider of the army. He carnages were in flames, above 70 

dined at half past fonr in the af- cannon were spiked, and abont 

' temoon, in order to proceed, in tbo SOOO barrels of powder thrown 

dusk, to steep at Chanartin. -The into a large pood. The iebibltants 

caniages were harnessed, and re. of Madrid, on seeing tbemselrcs 

paired to the court of (he palace, 'deliTered from ihis destrnctive ap- 

bnt (he coachmen and mule-d rivers, pantos, gave thanks to the Sepreme 

aitd most of the attendants of the Being, - and immediately began to 

royal carriages, had disappeared j assume, fo^ their ba^g^i U>" P*>'- 

on which account Joseph could n»t ^>t of Ferdinand VII. ' 

depart that night, and was obliged The houseof asupposed {iMperr ■ 

to suspend Ms journey to the in Colchester, who. has taken relief 

noming of ihe 3ist, when he de^ from hii pariah for nine years past}' 

parted on horseback, as he was to the sum^of 4Sl. 7*. was latelr' 

. nnable to pnt the carriage* in mo. searched under circumstances whica 

tion. ' The same moming,-he took led to a supposition (hat be had 

from the stables all the mnlea, Mfficient property to support bim- 

horses, and harness, and shame, self; when the Sum of ISQf. 7/. 6i. ■ 

fully sold all at the lowest price, in cash, was found hoarded upoii' 

Ib- the ereoing of the same day, the pmnises, together with seveH 

th^ forced open the gates of the chests, Ach having from three to' 

public treasury and bank, putting six locks, and contuning thefol- 

ihe people in such terror tiiat we lowing articles ;— 33 costs, 1 1 jao- 

passed a most anxious night, think, kets, 42 waistcoats, 3S pairs of 

ing that a general pillage was abont breeches and pantaloons, 33 pairs 

(o take place. Tbey took from of stockings, SO sheets, £ new bate« 

those buildings aboTe fourteen mil. 1% pairs of boots and shoes, 7- paiiw 

Uons. At (wo in the morning of at silver shoe and knee baeklee, 

the 1st instant was heard a can. 14 ^Ik and other bandken^iefa, 

nonado, which, though at first it Ac, all of whish it appeared he had 

was taken for a fatal signal, was regularly pnrdnscdat diffsrent pe» 

in fact but the precursor of the riods, and which were uf th« beet 

brightest and happiest day that quality. 

ever rose over Madrid. On this A plain stone in CanMrthea 

signal all the guards were with, otturch.yard coven the ramaiM of 

4nwD, and all the French filed off .the once celebnted sir Richard 

Steele, 



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CHRONICLE. 77 

Stale, whflM boDM in flnt town b knbtber, Fame snpportinf a ine. 

WW coarerted mta the iTy-basfa dallion, on which were inscribed the 

■i. names of the dEffsreot proTinces af 

4. GraHd Dhmr to Ike Spamtk Spain who ItaYe stood the foremost 

D^adb, bif the MtfekanU and in resisting the common eatmj ; in 

fliMbrt «f Lamion, at the Ctty of another, the figure of Time crown. 

Landau Tinvni.— This snmptnous tog the Spanish Patriot's flag with 

fast, ladicatiTe of the tympaAy laurel ; in another, the figare of . 

lAidi Esglasd feds fa the gtorioog JTope Jeaaing on the rock of Jus. 

cute of Spain, wai ori Thundajr tice ; in ether parts, the anna and 

iHa d e i bjr a company of noUe. standards of Spain IntGrmixed with 

xaaadgeBttemeD, comprehending those of Engtaod. with different 

imrluigepropArtionof themer- mottu, such as <* Veneer AMarir,** 

oatile weaitt of the British me. " Success to the Spanish Heroes,** 

Inpoli*. No former occasion within ftc. be. The ornaments stood from 

sar awmory, was equally distin. aerentoeightfeethtgh, poartraj^g 

|Mhed bj tiM respect and opulence in one part, th'e battle of the tiUt, 

sf the company. It was not a with the blowing np of I'Orient; in 

party meeting, for men of all par. another, trophies of flags, ftc ffcc ; 

iss are equally ardent and sealous at the tops of all, the royal stand, 

ia the caaae which has arooted the ards of England and Spain, thn 

psople of Spidn. And we saw, iriiole finished with garlands and 

tkncfore, embodied the heads of all bouquets of flowers, China figures, 

tte great companies of the first vases, ftc. ftc. 

■ercaatUe and bank ing.ho uses, to. The dinner consnted of one JiiU 

ptket with sevtral minlaten of the aercbx, wUk rtmtne*—^ plan of 

MCDtry, slafesmen out of place, dinner for so large a company 

ferc^n ninbten, and other illus. infinitely better adapted to com. 

trims cluinGteis — all eager to tea. fort than that of dirtsion Into se> 

lity to the illustrious deputies from reral courses. It wfa serred with 

Spiia, the interest which they felt the regularity and alacrity of t 

is the ddirerance ef their country, private board. There was diest for 

The company did not sit down to the day SSOOtbs. weight of turtle, 

Aaer till seren o'clock. There and the inierTala between the tu. 

nte sbt tables lengthways, and one reens had every dclicac]' in season 

crats table in the large room, In — the removes were haonches of 

which SS8 nobiemen and gentlemen venison. The dessert was extremely 

■t down; and in the adjoining magnificent in ices and fruits, and 

raoia tlMre were 72, making toge- contained about 600 pieces, 

tfer 400 persons; and it is not an Inn-heepersandotfaers, who keep 

oiggeration to lay, that their horses to run this very hot season 

■ailed property was not less than of the year,' ought to provide the 

Hteen millions of money. The following medicine, that every 

decoration of the head table was coachman or poit.boj may have 

•plndid. It in readiness to give to those 

The parterre, or sand work, re. horses taken sick npon flieroad:'* 

pMientad, is one place, Britannia Reeipt. — ^Taketinctnra balsamic, 

oftring her assistance to Spain ; in and compound spirits of amnonfaw. 



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7S ANNUAL RE'GISTER, 180S. 

each one omncc; prepared kali, two A cnriow lum n t ty r m appeared 
dnchmi ; one coidial ball, or, in it* in a broed of three yoaag caaaiiM, 
■tead, ene ounce of ginger root, hatched laielf at Abeideen ia a 
freth peiwdered: to be given. hi a biecdiDg-cafe. — Tkp birdi are all 
pint and a half, or a qnut, of cold healthy^ aad new fnllj fledgad* bat 
walu. ,Thu will greatly refresh thej are endrelj witbont tet. 
(be animal ; and in geoenil prevent Suvrntary Enctttun t^Initke.^ 
(hoM iU consequraccs which occor On Wednesday evening, aboat ae* 
duly throngh heat and OTer^riTiiig, Ten o'clock, as the dangltter of a 
If the beating or palpitation of the noUe peer wa> walking up tbe 
btart be leTare, add two dracbmt Uaynarkel, leaving her cainag»at 
•f tinctnrs of opium to the above, the entrancs intu Pall Mall, ihe 
which maybe repealed every two was accosted by » middle-aged per- 
fconra, if required. ■(» in tbe most indeoent maoMr. 
BnjgifM, Augittt 4w— A melan- She pud do attentioa to what he 
chalj affair took place o».board uid. At last, hewever^ b« at. 
the Part Mahon gan-brig, lying to tempted to Um her, maA take otitet 
«ff tbe (own, on Taeed^ evening, indecent liliertlei, when cbaMaeaB- 
Mr. Tkom, tbe Mirgeea of tbe vca. ed, aod faialad irilh fright. A 
•cl, wke hid long been in nther a geodemaa eanght h^ of hv and 
decanged etate, connitled an act supported hei. T^ cnlprit war 
- of saicide, by catting hi* throat in sewed by sone gentleiaen who had 
a moat dreadful manner with a witnetseid hismitcondnct, and coa. 
razor. He had retired to rest in docted to -a piunp, where be w« 
the veiKl' abont nine o'clock on drenched for baU an hour. They 
Tactday evening, hwing previonsly then delivered hiai to the mob, wiio 
observed to hit servant that be was introduced him to another pilmp at 
ill, and desired him to procure an Chan'ng-cross, where they amnsed 
opium piU from tbemedicinecbetl, themselves by pumping upon him 
which the man accordingly did, for an hour longer, and then aU 
and then \vtt him. On the follow., lowed him to depart, with a noia- 
itiK morning, oa entering hi* mas. bor of bruises aud a broken head. 
ter's room, he fovid him quite Joseph Bonaparte arrived at 
dead and welteNng in his Uood ; Hadritl so early as the SOth of 
and to all appearance he bad been July, seven days before he was 
to for several boars, as the blood eipected. fie was recerred with 
bad coagulated about him, and sullen silence ; no gnns wc^e fired 
the body was cold and stiff. The by (he SpanieidR, nor did any spe. 
wound wa* inflicted under the cies of rejoicing take place on (he 
rigbl ear, towards the windpipe, occasion. The bell.ringers refasad 
tlie latter not b^g injured ; in Ihoir usual office, which being eon- 
length about four IncbaB, and in sidered an unpardonable offence, 
depth quite as many. The body tbr^ of (hem were taken into cak 
wa> removed from the vessel to tbe tody, and on the foDowiog day. 
Town-bouse here last night, where after a summary trial, put to death, 
the coroner'a inquest waa held to- It is said, that a few hir«d tinfcen 
dey. Verdict— iMROcy. Wis rr. (mesdm of saucepans and ketUw) 
■Miaa will bn lotcmd this evening, appeared befiwe the paUc^ and sn. 



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CHRONICLE. 79 

hM. IW mim MTCniga by the wen told, that cbtBMWjr aad afft. 

Mile pkodacML bj bnting their bilit; were in hia train,^ — lie pw. 

^■ti utd kcttkt with aticlu, and' dooad theguillfihecoaverMd tritli 

AaHBtea cried, " Lob^ Swtktng iha ntntott §radouiiiets with tbe 

JuByk." Tkfl pmple poiitiveijr poorest of his new subject) ; km 

■fTid t» UKnble ob the occa> much was described rather a» the 

iiaa, and evirj appearaaca ladi. march of a mooafch whohad sand 

tated m. ipaedj renawal of tfae oc bia countrrt asd who, after mow 

cairMca of tke Sd af M». great aad dednve nclory, waa reb 

1% Tho fuUowiof oocial bal. tumiag in trioiaph to hi* capital, 

Mb was lamed }tf oar governoiaat amid the thanlts, tha gcatitutley ami 

aatfca llthiDttt the benedicttoaa of bii paoplo. H« 

latal^eocewutbii'moniiilg ra. cotere the capital oa the aOth, nad 

nifed by y ^ ei ament front liea. oathe27tb hetBcalufronitJa tJta 

imaMt-eoloaet Doyle, dated Co- dead of the n%bt witb Cmt usi 

mna, AngMt 4, at midn^bt. The treatUiDS ; he eolvr it with aU tha 

fitatMsaat-eoloKt Blate», that ha pride aad retinae of as eaatiM 

had read a laUer, dated Madrid. sulUn, and he it glad to deput 

snh Jaly, which sayt, that on that with the coort plate in hii pocket 

■enoBg the French bad com. to p^ theospsnees ^bia joanej. 

MB«ed their retreat from that city ; On the Monday he 01^1 am Ua »m* 

Oat Joaeph flonaparte bad quitted gust penoa to tbo cagce new (tf 

IMrid, aad had taken away crery the popiibrae, aad on the Sataid^ 

Oiig of nhie belonging tu the he is glad to take away bii aagwt 

caed, Every Frenchman was fol. person with all pooiiUe leertcy Mai 

Is ■ lag hum, aad they wok taking dispatch ; he eater* Madrid as a 

tte direelioa to Bnrgos. The wri- powarful monarch, he qaits it as a