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Full text of "Annual report .."

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Papers 

and 

Proceedings 



1914--1915 

NUMBERTEN 



Bergen County 
Historical Society 



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CORRECTIONS TO BE MADE IX YEAR BOOK 1915. 



First — On page 7 date of the erection of the Andre Prison 
should be 1755 instead of 1775. 

Second — On page 40, fifth line from bottom, for the year 
1628 should be substituted the year 1682. 

Third — The following criticism by Mrs. Frances A. Wester- 
velt has been made on Mr. Christie's papei'. On page 46 he 
is in error when he states that David Demarest, who he found 
was an elder in the Old Dutch Church at Hackensack, June, 
1750, was a son of the French pioneer. It is a long waj^ as 
far as human life is concerned between 1677 and 1750. 
From manuscript volume of Debaun's records from original 
notes, Yost Debaun married Elizabeth Drabba, came to this 
country 1680. Their daughter Matie maryied David Dema- 
rest, son of Samuel Demarest, one of the original settlers (son 
of David, the pioneer), November lOtli, 1705. Was read in 
church membership Hackensack, April 6th, 1706, and Matie, 
his wife, the same date. The David Demarest mentioned as 
an elder in the Hackensack Church, June, 1750, was a son of 
Samuel and grandson of David, Sr., of 1677. This is from 
original document in the possession of the Bergen County 
Historical Society. 



Papers and Proceedings 



OF 



The Bergen County Historical Society 

\9U-1915 

NUMBER TEN. 



List of Officers. ----- 1914-1915. 

The Andre Prison House at Tappan, N. Y. 

William Alexander Linn. 
Petition from Bergen Co., to the New Jersey 

Provincial Assembly of 1755. 
Church Days in Old Schraalenburgh. 

Mrs. Frances A. Westervelt. 
Early History of Bergenfield - - - Walter Christie. 
An Incident of Bergen County - Rev, John C. Voorhis. 
Report of Archive and Property Committee. 
Supplement to 1914 Catalogue. 
The Amended Constitution and By-laws. 
List of Ex-Presidents. 
List of Members. 



illustrations. 



The Old South Church, Schraalenburg, N. J. 
Andre Prison House, After Restoration. 
Andre Prison House, Before Restoration. 
The Old Stone Church of Saddle River, N. J. 



'-' 'i 



OfC 20 iste 



OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR. 



PRESIDENT. 

Mrs. Frances A. Westervelt, - - Hackensack. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

William O. Allison, - - - - Englewood. 

R. A. Adams, - - . . . Saddle River. 
H. I. CoGGESHALL, - - _ _ Wortendyke. 

M. W. Jacobus, ----- Ridgefield 

F. H. Crum, ------ River Edge. 

Edward Stagg, ------ Leonia. 

Cornelius Doremus, _ - - _ Ridgewood. 
Abram DeBaun, ----- Hackensack. 

W. A. Linn, ------ Hackensack. 

Byron G. Van Horne, - - - - Englewood. 

SECRETARY AND TREASURER. 

C. V. R. BoGERT, - 167 Main Street, Hackensack. 

EXECUTIVE committee. 

Robert T. Wilson, - - _ . Saddle River. 

Everett L. Zabriskie, - - - - Ridgewood. 

Howard B. Goetschius, - - - Little Ferry. 

Matt. J. Bogert - _ - _ - Demarest 

ARCHIVE AND PROPERTY COMMITTEE, 

Mrs. F. a. Westervelt, - - - Hackensack. 

Hon. Wm. M. Johnson, - - _ Hackensack. 

John L. Marinus, - . - - Rochelle Park. 

Arthur Van Buskirk, - - - - Hackensack. 



Official Photographer, 



Charles Curtis. 



The Publication Committee, after deliberating with the 
Executive Committee, was authorized to draw on the fund 
given to the society by Mr, William O. Allison, of Engle- 
wood, for the expense of the publication of this book, 
otherwise there would have been no year book this year. 
Acknowledgment is hereby made of the generosity of Mr. 
Allison. 

The Executive Committee also advised that the book be 
not published until some time after the annual dinner. 

It had been thought that the publication of an orderly 
book of General Green, of the Revolutionary War, for the 
midsummer of 1776 would be a valuable addition to the 
year book. The book had been recently purchased by the 
society and all the members would thus have a better op- 
portunity of knowing the contents of it. But on investi- 
gation it was found that it was not a history of events that 
tianspired in Bergen County, nor of contiguous territory, 
but of Brooklyn ; therefore, it was deemed inadvisable to 
incorporate it in the year book. As there were several 
pages that had become quite faded and some words that 
had become almost illegible, a typewritten copy of the old 
manuscript was made, consisting of thirty-nine pages of 
closely written legal cap, and filed away with the original 
in the society's rooms in the Johnson Library in Hacken- 
sack. 



ANNUAL REPORT. 



By C. V. R. BoGERT, Secretary and Treasurer. 



During the past year seven new members were elected 

into the Society, making the total enrollment no regular, 
9 life, and 3 honorary. 

The Treasurer's report was as follows: 

Balance on hand, Special Account . . . $1,030.20 

Balance on hand, General Account ... 125.15 

Outstanding Dues 166.00 



Total Assets $1,321.35 

The thirteenth annual meeting and dinner of the 
Society was held at the Union League Club, Hacknesack, 
on Saturday evening, April 17th, 191 5. Ninety-five mem- 
bers and guests sat down to dinner, after which reports 
from the various Committees were read. 

The President introduced Mr. P. C. Staib, of Hacken- 
sack, who delivered an interesting and entertaining ad- 
dress, after which he acted as master of ceremonies. 

Judge William H. Speer, of Jersey City, was the prin- 
cipal speaker of the evening and delighted his audience 
with a very scholarly address upon the importance of a 
knowledge of history. 




Andre Prison House, After Restoration, 



THE ANDRE PRISON HOUSE 
AT TAPPAN. N. Y. 



By William A. Linn. 



Any one passing north through the main street of the 
village of Tappan, N. Y., will notice on the left, just south 
of the road branching east to Piermont, an old stone build- 
ing, bearing on its front a signboard with this plain but 
conspicuous inscription : 

ANDRfi PRISON 

76 HOUSE. '^^ 

Erected lyi^. 
Restored 1897. 
This old house was the place of imprisonment of Major 
John Andre during his trial as a spy by the Court of In- 
quiry, and from this house he was conducted to the place 
of execution, a short distance west of the village. 

From the time of its erection to this day, except for 
some years after 1857, when it was out of repair, the build- 
ing has been used as a tavern, Casparus Mabie having been 
the original tavern keeper. About the year 1857 it gave 
evidence of its age, the moss-covered roof partly caved in, 
and it was closed until 1897, when the present owner, R. T. 
Collignon, gave it a new roof, made some enlargement of 
the front piazza, and added a bowling alley in the rear. 
The house stands practically, however, as it was erected, 
even the bar in use today being unchanged. 

Architecturally unattractive, it is a plain stone building 
of the Dutch design of the day, one story in height. The 
bar room occupies the south front, and a hall extends part 
way through to the rear. In Andre's day a ball room, be- 



8 THE ANDRE PRISON HOUSE AT TAP PAN, N. Y. 

hind the bar, extended back of the hall, to a small room 
which Andre used as a bedroom, and in front of this was a 
larger room which he used as a reception room. The bed- 
room has since been thrown into the ball room. "No other 
building," says William Abbatt, in his "The Crisis of the 
Revolution," "can boast of more historic interest for the 
same period than can this plain, heavy Dutch tavern. Al- 
most, if not quite, every general officer of the left wing of 
the army (and possibly Washington also) was a visitor to 
it, when it was Greene's headquarters during the autumn 
of 1780." It is a matter of regret that no means have been 
found to rescue this building from private ownership, and 
make sure of its preservation. 

John Andre was born in London, England, in 1751. 
His father was a native of Switzerland, and his mother 
was French. The boy had every educational advantage, 
spoke several languages, and had a knowledge of military 
science, as well as of literature, music and art. When a 
lad he entered his father's counting room in London, and 
when his father died, he took charge of the business. Mer- 
cantile pursuits were not, however, to his taste, and in 1772 
he was commissioned a lieutenant in the British army. In 
1774 he joined his regiment, the Royal English Fusiliers, in 
Canada, making the journey for some reason by way of 
Philadelphia. It has been suggested that he took this route 
at the suggestion of Gen. Carleton, Governor of Canada, 
in order that he might pick up useful information on the 
way. When Montgomery captured the fort at St. Johns 
Andre was made prisoner and with the other captives was 
removed to Pennsylvania. His pleasing manners and his 
accomplishments enabled him to make friends with the best 
people of Lancaster and Carlisle, and he enjoyed many 
social privileges. Exchanged in 1776, he joined Gen. 
Howe's army in New York City, where his good address 



THE ANDRE PRISON HOUSE AT TAPPAN, N. Y. 9 

soon obtained for him the rank of captain as aide to Gen. 
Gray. He was in Philadelphia with the British in 1778 and 
easily secured there the position of a leader in social affairs. 
His pen was always busy with verse and with art sketches. 
After the evacuation of Philadelphia by Clinton, Andre 
accompanied Gen. Gray on an expedition to New Bedford. 
When Gray returned to England in 1778, Andre became 
aide to Gen. Clinton, and in 1779 he was promoted to the 
position of Deputy Adjutant General of the British Forces 
in America. In New York City at that time he wrote his 
well-known poem, "The Cow Chase," and a prose com- 
position, "A Dream." Accompanying G«n. Clinton, he 
assisted in the capture of Stoney Point and Fort Lafayette, 
on Verplank's Point, in 1779. It was in that year that 
the anonymous correspondence between Arnold and Clin- 
ton began. 

Gen. Benedict Arnold, his natural disposition excited by 
what he considered unjust treatment and unfounded 
charges, including the refusal of Congress to act on a re- 
port exonerating him from some of these charges, sent a 
letter, signed "Gustavus," to Gen. Clinton, who succeeded 
Gen. Howe as Commander-in-Chief of the British Forces 
in America, saying that the writer, an army officer of rank, 
might, through disgust wtih the American alliance with 
France, "and other proceedings of Congress," transfer his 
services to the British for a consideration. This corre- 
spondence was continued for some time, the replies to 
Arnold's letters being written by Major Andre over the 
signature "John Anderson." 

To carry out his plan as matured, Arnold obtained from 
Gen. Washington the command of West Point, where, after 
Burgoyne's defeat, strong fortifications had been erected. 
Clinton had not at first known the real name of his corre- 
spondent, but now Arnold grew more definite in his sug- 



10 THE ANDRE PRISON HOUSE AT TAPPAN, N. Y. 

gestions, and Clinton embarked troops on the Hudson to 
be prepared to take over the West Point defenses when 
Arnold was ready to deliver them. To bring these negotia- 
tions to a head, arrangements were made for an interview 
between Arnold and Andre while Washington was making 
a trip to Connecticut. The two conspirators met, on the 
night of September 20, 1780, in a piece of woods about 
four miles below Stoney Point. Andre was sent up the 
river by Clinton on the sloop-of-war Vulcan, and Arnold 
sent his own boat to convey him to the place of meeting. 

Now the happenings began which led to Andre's cap- 
ture and to the undoing of Arnold. Their interview was 
so prolonged that dawn was breaking when Andre was 
ready to return to his vessel and the American boatmen re- 
fused to row him back to the \'ulcan. He and Arnold 
therefore walked up the river some two miles to the house 
of one Joshua Smith, about whose exact sympathies in the 
war there is some uncertainty. They were to pass the day 
there and Andre was to have been sent back to the Vulcan 
at night. The American commander of a fort on the op- 
posite side of the river interrupted this plan by opening 
fire on the British vessel and compelled her to drop down 
stream. Andre, however, did not think there would be 
much difficulty in boarding her at the place where she would 
anchor, and Arnold supplied him with the following pass : 

"Permit Mr. John Anderson to pass the guards to the 
White Plains, or below, if he chooses, he being on public 
business by my directions. 

B. Arnold, M. Gen." 

Then Smith, who was to accompany Andre, interfered 
with the programme, declaring himself unwilling to run 
the risk of being fired on in attempting to board the \'ulcan, 
but offering to accompany Andre in an all night ride by 
land to the British lines. He, too, was provided with 



THE ANDRE PRISON HOUSE AT TAPPAN, N. Y. 11 

passes. Andre, it is stated, with reluctance accepted this 
proposition. 

And here mistakes began. Andre borrowed some of 
Smith's clothes as a disguise, and he disregarded the advice 
received from Clinton not to carry any compromising 
papers. He accepted from Arnold descriptions of the 
West Point fortresses and forces, in Arnold's handwriting, 
and before starting on his ride concealed these papers be- 
tween his stockings and his feet. 

Smith and Andre crossed the river at King's Ferry and 
rode south until they reached White Plains, where Smith 
turned back, Andre riding on alone toward Tarrytown. 

What was called "the neutral ground," extending north 
from King's Bridge almost to the Croton River, was over- 
run by bands of men who preyed rather indiscriminately on 
the country. The so-called Cow Boys and Skinners paid 
little regard to property rights, the Cow Boys making a 
special business of driving cattle into the British lines. On 
Friday, September 23, seven young men belonging to the 
American militia obtained leave of absence and set out from 
Salem (which lay about nine miles west of Peekskill) on 
an independent scouting expedition. Arriving at Tarry- 
town the next morning, they obtained breakfast at a private 
house and then continued their march to a place where 
two roads led to New York City. Three of the party — 
John Paulding, David Williams and Isaac Van Wart — 
were stationed on one of these roads, above Tarrytown. 
Toward them rode Andre. When Paulding presented his 
musket and brought the rider to a stop, a few questions led 
Andre to believe that his captors were British sympathizers, 
and he said, *T am a British officer; have been up the coun- 
try on particular business and would not wish to be de- 
tained a minute." He showed Arnold's pass. There seemed 
to the militiamen to be some contradiction in his declaration 



12 THE ANDRE PRISON HOUSE AT TAPPAN, N. Y. 

that he was a British officer and the possessor of a pass 
from Arnold. Paulding has been quoted as saying, "I would 
have let him go had he shown his pass first." His captors 
thought it best to search him, and, taking him into the shel- 
ter of a wayside thicket, they found Arnold's papers con- 
cealed in his stockings. This discovery convinced Paulding 
that the man was a spy, and they set out with him at once 
for the nearest outpost. 

They kept off the main road, Andre going along quietly, 
but seemingly much depressed. Lieut. -Col. John Jameson 
was in command of Sheldon's dragoons at the time, and 
they found him at Sand's Mill, in the town of Armonk. 
Jameson accepted Arnold's pass as entitling the bearer to 
proceed "on public business," and when Andre requested 
him to inform Arnold of his detention, Jameson wrote a 
note to Arnold, explaining the circumstances of the cap- 
ture, detailing Lieut. Allen and four men to conduct the 
prisoner to Arnold, but sending a messenger to Gen. Wash- 
ington, who was returning from Connecticut, with the 
papers found in Andre's stocking. Andre's hopes rose 
again. Soon after his departure, however. Major B. Tal- 
mage returned to the headquarters, and, on being told of 
the capture, at once declared his belief that Arnold was a 
traitor and Andre a spy, and he took the responsibility of 
ordering Andre's return. A messenger, riding at top 
speed, overtook Lieut. Allen near Peekskill, and by nine 
o'clock that evening, when he was within an hour of safety, 
Andre was brought back to Sand's Hill and thence sent to 
Sheldon's headquarters at South Salem. 

Jameson, who seems to have been of a very unsuspicious 
disposition, while consenting to Andre's recall, deemed it 
proper to inform Arnold of Andre's capture and of the 
documents found on him, sending his dispatch by a mes- 
senger. This letter was handed to Arnold at the Robinson 




Andre Prison House, Before Restoration. 



THE ANDRE PRISON HOUSE AT TAPPAN, N. Y. 13 

House, opf>osite West Point, as he was breakfasting with 
Hamilton and others of Washington's party, all of whom 
were to have met Arnold that morning on their way from 
Connecticut. As soon as Arnold acquainted himself with 
the contents of Jameson's letter, he placed it in his pocket, 
and remarking that he was suddenly recalled to West 
Point, he went up to his bedroom, where he told his wife 
that he was ruined, and, entering his barge, was rowed 
rapidly down the river some eighteen miles to the Vulture, 
which conveyed him to New York. But for Jameson's let- 
ter he, too, would have been a captive. 

From his place of confinement at Salem, Andre wrote 
a letter to Washington, "to rescue myself from an imputa- 
tion of having assumed a mean character for treacherous 
purposes or self interest." He confessed to his correspond- 
ence with an American commander, his meeting with this 
officer and the events which led to his own capture. Hamil- 
ton, after reading this letter, Jameson's communication and 
the papers found on Andre, had no doubt of Arnold's 
treachery, and it was from Hamilton that Washington 
learned of the conspiracy and of Arnold's flight. 

From the Robinson House, to which he was conducted 
on the morning of Monday, September 26, Andre was taken 
under a strong guard to West Point, and thence by boat 
to Stoney Point and by land to Tappan, where he arrived 
on Thursday, September 28. 

Washington, who reached Tappan on the same day, 
ordered a Court of Inquiry, consisting of five major- 
generals, including Lafayette and Steuben, and eight briga- 
dier-generals, to "report a precise statement of his case, 
together with your opinion of the light in which he ought 
to be considered, and the penalty which ought to be in- 
flicted." The verdict was that Andre "ought to be con- 
sidered a spy from the enemy. . . and to suffer death." 



14 THE ANDRE PRISON HOUSE AT TAPPAN, N. Y. 

The report was approved by Washington on September 30, 
and Andre's execution was ordered to take place the next 
day at 5 p. m. The execution was postponed to October 2 
in order that a communication from CUnton might give 
Washington "a true state of facts." But all efforts to save 
Andre's life were in vain. 

At noon on the appointed day a large number of people 
("many hundreds, if not thousands") assembled in Tappan 
to witness the execution. Some five hundred troops filled 
the street on which the prison house stands, and Gen. 
Greene and all the other generals concerned in the trial 
(with the exception of Washington and his staff) were 
drawn up along the road. Andre, dressed in a British offi- 
cer's uniform, was escorted from the building and the pro- 
cession took up its march. Turning to the west at the first 
road to the north, they proceeded about a quarter of a mile, 
and then turning south reached the appointed place. It is 
a sightly spot, with the village, as it was then, lying below, 
and a long extent of the west face of the Palisades visible 
to the east across an intervening valley. At the head of the 
procession was an army baggage wagon containing the 
coffin. 

Andre had requested that he be shot, and is said to have 
exclaimed, on seeing the gallows : "This is too degrading," 
adding that the method of his death would be a mortifica- 
tion to his mother and sisters. 

I follow now Abbatt's account of the execution : 

"The gallows had been made by setting up two forked 
trees, with a third laid across. It was unusually high, and 
under it stood the cart, or two-horse army baggage wagon, 
in which was the coffin. Andre waited a moment. His first 
attempt (to get on the wagon) failing, he said a few words 
to his servant who was standing- by, overcome with grief, 
and then, putting one hand on the wagon body, made a 



THE ANDRE PRISON HOUSE AT TAPPAN, N. Y. 15 

determined spring and succeeded. Stepping on his coffin, 
he deHberately surveyed the scene, surrounded by the five 
hundred and fifty infantry on guard and a great number 
of additional soldier and civilian spectators, including, un- 
fortunately, women and children. 

"Col. Scammell, as adjutant, read the order for execu- 
tion in a loud voice. Then the commanding officer — Glover 
— said: 'Major Andre, if you have anything to say you can 
speak, for you have but a short time to live.' Standing 
with hands on hips, the prisoner bo\yed to him and replied 
in clear, unfaltering tone: 'I have nothing more to say, 
gentlemen, than this — I pray you to bear witness that I 
meet my fate like a brave man.' 

"The hangman, a Tory named Strickland, who was un- 
der arrest and had been promised liberty for performing 
the odious office, had disguised himself by smearing his face 
with stuff like shoeblacking, producing a hideous effect. 
Some of the stuff probably adhered to his hands, for on 
approaching Andre he was repulsed with the sharp com- 
mand, 'Take off your black hands.' Removing his gold- 
laced cocked hat and handing it and his watch to his ser- 
vant, who stood by the wagon, he next took off his white 
neck-cloth and put it in his coat pocket, unbuttoned his shirt 
collar and turned it down. Taking the noose from Strick- 
land's hands he put it over his head and drew it close around 
his throat ; then, taking a handkerchief from his pocket, he 
bandaged his eyes and stood awaiting death. The hang- 
man fastened the rope to the cross-beam, when the com- 
manding officer suddenly ordered Andre's hands to be tied. 
Andre immediately pushed the handkerchief from his eyes, 
took a second one from a pocket and handed it to Strick- 
land, first replacing the one over his eyes. The hangman, 
having bound his arms behind him with the handkerchief, 
for an instant the slight figure, attired with coat of bright 



16 THE ANDRE PRISON HOUSE AT TAPPAN, N. Y. 

scarlet, faced with green, waistcoat and breeches of buff, 
and top boots, stood bareheaded, sharply outlined against 
the clear sky and the forest covering the distant hills. The 
multitude was perfectly silent, overcome with emotion. 
Then Col. Scammell signalled the wagoner, by dropping the 
point of his sword, the horses were led forward, and the 
pinioned figure swung violently at the end of the rope." 

The body was wrapped in a shroud and buried near 
the gallows. As late as 1818 stones without any inscription 
marked the head and foot of the grave. When in 1821 
Governor De Witt Clinton, of New York State, gave the 
British authorities permission to remove the remains to 
England, a party, led by James Buchanon, the British con- 
sul at New York City, found the grave in a cultivated field, 
marked only by loose stones, two cedars and a peach tree, 
the latter, it is said, planted by some lady. Buchanon's re- 
port of the removal of the remains says : 

"As soon as the stones were cleared away not a tongue 
moved among the multitude — breathless anxiety was de- 
picted on every countenance. The earth was removed with 
the hands, as we soon discovered the coffin lid was broken 
in the center. With great care this was removed, and there 
lay the bones in perfect order. The roots of the peach tree 
had completely surrounded the skull, like a net. After al- 
lowing all to pass round and view the remains as they lay, 
which very many did, with unfeigned tears and lamenta- 
tions, the bones were carefully removed and placed in the 
sarcophagus of mahogany lined with crimson velvet (which 
had been provided by the Duke of York). I did not find a 
single button, nor any article, save a leather string that had 
tied the hair, in perfect preservation, coiled and tied as it 
had been on his hair at the time. This I forwarded to his 
sisters in England. The sarcophagus was borne amid the 



THE ANDRE PRISON HOUSE AT TAPPAN, N. Y. 17 

silent and unbought regret of the numerous assemblage, to 
Mr. Demarest's house." 

The remains were conveyed to England on the frigate 
Phaeton, and interred in Westminster Abbey. 

The grave was refilled and later a small boulder, marked 
"Andre — Executed Oct. 2, 1780," was placed on the spot. 
This in time disappeared. In 1879 Cyrus W. Field, at the 
suggestion of Dean Stanley, erected a monument on the 
place of execution. Some local objection was made to the 
erection of this monument to "a British spy," and soon 
afterward an attempt was made by two men, perhaps in- 
spired by others, to blow it up with dynamite. Little dam- 
age was done by this explosion, but two years later a much 
larger charge was exploded under it, which blew it to pieces, 
except the upper stone of the pedestal, with the inscription. 
This was replaced on the foundation, and it rests there to- 
day, surrounded by a high iron fence of circular shape. 



ANDRfi BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Crisis of the Revolution. — Abbaft. 

The Two Spies, Nathan Hale and John Andre. — 
Lossing 

Life and Career of Major John Andre. — Sargent. 

Andreana. — Smith. 

Vindication of the Capture of Major Andre. — Benson. 

History and Capture of Major Andre. — Bolton. 

Minutes of a Council of Inquiry Upon the Case of Major 
John Andre. 

Last Twelve Days of Major John Andre. — Oglesby. 

David William and the Capture of Andre. — Raymond. 

Authentic Narrative of the Causes Which Led to the 
Death of Major Andre. — Smith 

A very full bibliography of Andre will be found in Ab- 
batt's "Crisis of the Revolution." 

2 



PETITION FROM BERGEN CO.. TO 

THE NEW JERSEY PROVINCIAL 

ASSEMBLY OF 1755 



Introduction by H. B. Goetschius 



In the course of the researches made by Gen'l Sadler 
and Chancellor Walker, for the purpose of properly re- 
storing the Barracks at Trenton to their original state, 
the subjoined petition was found and brought to the atten- 
tion of Senator Hennessy of Bergen County. Recognizing 
its historical interest, he requested the writer to transmit 
it to the Bergen County Historical Society for publication, 
along with the other matter finding place in the Year- 
Book of their transactions. This petition, addressed to 
the Provincial Assembly of New Jersey, was received 
April 8th, 1755, and by that body "committed to a com- 
mittee of the whole House." 

While papers of this sort seem often to be more inter- 
esting than valuable, consideration of them frequently 
serves to throw new light on the life and conditions of a 
vanished time, and to clear away the obscurities in the 
general story of a given period. In this petition, for ex- 
ample, we find 177 names representing many of the most 
important people of the County. The signers declare their 
intense loyalty to the English Crown and gratitude for 
the "inestimable privileges of Englishmen which they have 
enjoyed." Yet these names are, for the most part, Dutch. 
They are the names of those whose fathers were conquered 
by a foreign power and who might be supposed to cherish 



20 PETITION FROM BERGEN COUNTY 

a bitter enmity. Yet this and other documents all go to 
show that there was comparatively nothing of this senti- 
ment. These thrifty New Netherlanders, who were wont to 
part with money only after fasting and prayer, cheerfully 
recommended a levy of many thousand pounds, in aid of 
a power that had subjected them; and this, as may be seen, 
with many complimentary allusions to the government at 
London. And this was no politic attitude on the part of 
the Dutch, but a real sentiment of esteem for a government 
which they had gradually come to look upon as a barrier in 
Europe against what they considered dangerous enemies of 
civil and religious liberty. Moreover, English rule had 
proven profitable, and these careful traders and farmers 
were ever prone to give the golden calf an honorable place 
beside the tables of the law. Besides, over three-quarters 
of a century had now passed by, with ever increasing ship- 
ping beside the docks ; and of this the descendants of the 
Holland settlers had received their share, being at the same 
time set free from the domination of the Dutch West India 
Company, and the annoyances of government under a 
trading trust. The English rule had, in general, not been 
unfavorable to the original settlers. Intermarriage be- 
tween those of the two nationalities was not infrequent, 
and all these circumstances working together had helped 
to form a Dutch aristocracy in New York whose influence 
extended throughout the New Netherlands. 

It is curious to notice that while the English were grow- 
ing more and more restless under government from Lon- 
don, the Dutch, faithful to their conservative instincts and 
influenced by the causes already noticed, were largely in- 
dififerent to the agitation. This state of mind might have 
continued, and might have become a serious menace to 
Revolutionary success, if a di.sturbance which arose among 
themselves about ten years before the date of this petition 



PETITION FROM BERGEN COUNTY 21 

and culminated about the same time as the rebelHon of 
the colonies, had not influenced many of them to throw in 
their lot with the patriots. 

This dispute concerned with the right claimed by the 
Synod of North Holland, to govern the Dutch Reformed 
churches in America without representation (so to speak) 
and therefore, without effective information as to the needs 
of the people here, led to the formation of an American 
Classis known as the Coetus, and to a violent strife within 
the congregations, which was adjudicated by the Classis 
of Amsterdam just prior to the Revolution. But no con- 
troversy can go on for a generation as violently as did this 
one, without every question, remotely or directly connected 
with it, being brought out into the light; and as a result it 
was seen that the rights of self-government in the church 
and in the state were one, and that in the great movement 
for separation from England, and its demand for the power 
to solve our own problems in our own way was included 
the only real and lasting settlement for their own difficul- 
ties. So when the great day of cleavage came those who 
had fought the fight for freedom within the church were 
found later outside in the field of war, fighting the same 
battle for the freedom of the state. 

Nevertheless, this change of sentiment had not been uni- 
versal, and considerable numbers of the Dutch continued 
loyal to Britain, some remaining here, but many joining 
the English tories in Nova Scotia, as related in the inter- 
esting article by Dr. Byron G. Van Home in a previous 
Year Book. 

This petition, therefore, showing as it does that those 
of Dutch descent had, contrary to common opinion, become 
at least as English as the English, has a unique value in 
appraising the state of mind existing in the colonies as the 
revolutionary movement took form. 

The general anxiety concerning the state of the militia 



?? PETITION FROM BERGEN COUNTY 



is reflected in it, also. The Indians had been fairly quiet 
on our borders for many years, and to the great bulk of 
colonists had ceased to be a menace, but this war roused 
them to activity and revived memories of what had been 
both sleeping and waking, an ever-present fear of the 
earlier times. Stories were circulated of atrocities com- 
mitted, and along with these others of the inefficiency and 
unpreparedness of the colonial militia. So poor were they 
that Washington, who had abundant experience with them, 
declared later that they were next to useless as a depend- 
able arm in either defensive or offensive operations. The 
document, illuminative of this posture of affairs, speaks of 
the insufficient drilling and so on, and prays for additional 
legislation as a corrective, unaware then, as each generation 
that has followed, that legislation by itself accomplishes 
little. Finally the receipt of this and other petitions of a 
like tenor caused the Provincial Assembly to take some ac- 
tion, and one result was the erection of the Trenton Bar- 
racks, the restoration of which at the present time led to 
the resurrection of these and other ancient records. After 
the French and Indian War had become more than a dispute 
of the Colony of Virginia with French fur traders, and 
had grown into a contest between the two great nations 
of the world for supremacy in Septentrionale America, 
troops had been sent hither and quartered on the inhabi- 
tants, and this was complained of by the citizens of Trent 
Town, who found the practice "very annoying," and the 
"habits and morals of the soldiery undesirable." The 
Colonial Assembly was in consequence, requested to build 
barracks for the housing of the forces, and eventually a 
portion of the monies rai.sed, according to the recommenda- 
tion of this and other petitions, was used in the erection 
of the Barracks, which were completed in 1758 under the 



PETITION FROM BERGEN COUNTY 23 

authority of the Hon. Jno. Reading, President and Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the New Jersey Colony. 

The letter following is from the Adjutant-General of the 
State, setting forth the circumstances under which the res- 
toration of the Barracks and other historical buildings was 
undertaken. 

State of New Jersey. 
Office of the Adjutant-General. 

Trenton, March 19, 191 5. 

About six years ago, while I was President of the 
Chamber of Commerce of this City, I decided to attempt 
to get the City and the State to buy the forty-five acres 
of swamp land lying in the rear of the State House and 
between it and the Delaware River, fill it and make it into 
a park. 

It struck me that we could gain a splendid entrance to 
the park by restoring the Old Barracks, which was built 
in 1758, by purchasing the old Masonic Temple, which was 
built in 1793 and which stood directly across the alley from 
the Barracks, and moving it to the entrance to the park, 
and purchasing the Douglass House, which was the build- 
ing in which Washington held his famous conference the 
night before the Battle of Princeton. 

I managed to get the Legislature to provide money for 
the purchase of the property on Delaware Street, and after 
these purchases were made called on Chancellor Walker to 
get him to assist me in preparing a resolution to present 
to the Daughters of the American Revolution, who were 
holding their annual meeting at Morristown. When I 
took up the subject with the Chancellor, I found that he 
had, a few weeks before and unknown to me. had a reso- 
lution passed by the Sons of the American Revolution to 



24 PETITION FROM BERGEN COU NTY 

the effect that the Barracks should be restored, and we at 
once joined hands on the project and have been working 
together since that time. Forty buildings surrounded the 
Barracks, all of which have been bought and removed. 
The streets have been closed and the restoration is almost 
complete, and to no one do we owe more thanks than to 
Senator Hennessy for his earnest and hearty co-operation 
in the matter, because, as Chairman of the Appropriation 
Committee, he went out of his way to assist in this very 
laudable undertaking. 

I don't know whom to name as the man who has been 
most helpful in moving the Masonic Temple and the Doug- 
lass House, as many have been of great service. 

Nelson B. Gaskill, the ex-Assistant Attorney-General, 
has conducted all of the legal proceedings without charge. 

When the Douglass House is moved it will be turned 
over to the State, and the Masonic Temple will be turned 
over to the Grand Lodge, and the Barracks will be run by 
the patriotic women from all sections of the State, who 
bought that part of the building which stood on the south 
side of Front Street, in 1902, when it was about to pass 
into the hands of contractors, who expected to erect a row 
of brick dwellings and use the stone of the historic old 
structure for foundations. 

Very truly yours. 

W. F. S.VDLER. Jr. 

To the Hon'ble the Representatives 

for the Colony of New-Jersey in General Assembly conven'd 
The Petition of the Freeholders & Inhabitants of the 
County of Bergen in Behalf of themselves and the rest of 
the Freeholders and Inhabitants of the said County 
Humbly Sheweth 



PETITION FROM BERGEN COUNTY 25 

That Whereas Your Petitioners are informed that the 
French and Indians in their AlUance have for some time 
past made Encroachments on several of his Majesty's Ter- 
ritories in America and particularly have invaded and 
Erected several Forts upon his Land within or near the 
Governments of Virginia and Pensilvania and have actu- 
ally in open violation of the most Solmn Treaties com- 
mitted Hostilities agains his Majestys Subjects sent from 
Virginia with commission to check their Insolent progress 
and disposses them of their Lands so taken into their pos- 
session by means of which Lawless and Hostile proceed- 
ings Your Petitioners know not what Bounds so treacherous 
and perfidious an Enemy intends to prescribe to their In- 
vasions and Hostilities or how soon they may presume to 
extend their Arms & Incursions into this his Majesty's 
province of New Jersey. 

And Whereas Your Petitioners do humbly conceive 
that his Majesty's approbation of the Bill, lately agreed 
upon by this Honourable House for providing the Sum of 
Ten thousand pound for his Majesty's use (which may 
probable be presumed to Supercede the Necessity of any 
other Supplies) cannot be depended upon with sufficient 
certainty to create an Objection against making farther 
provision for the good ends thereby proposed But are 
furthermore apprehensive (considering the great Activity 
of the French & their restless indefatigable Zeal in defiance 
of plighted faith & the Laws of Nations to Enlarge the 
Territories of the Rapacious Monarch) even was there the 
utmost certainty of the said Bill receiving the Royal appro- 
bation that the Monies thereby proposed to be raised would 
come too late to answer the present Exigencies of this 
Colony which at this Critical & precarious Juncture require 
the most speedy and expeditious provision 

And Whereas Your Petitioners observe by his Excel- 



26 PETITION FROM BERGEN COUNTY 

Icncy's last speech to the Council and Assembly of this 
province that our Militia is greatly deficient in the Military 
Art (which must Necessarily afford our well disciplined 
Enimies an Infinite advantage) partly arising from the 
want of more frequent musters and partly from the lowness 
of the fines for non appearance by means whereof the 
Militia act as it now stands is found insufficient either to 
enable the Officers to instruct the Men in martial discipline 
o' to compell Delinquents to their duty, Whence Your Pe- 
titioners Humbly infer that this Hon'ble House will con- 
ceive it Necessary for his Most S?cred Majesty's service 
and the safety & defence of the Inhabitants of this prov- 
ince, to revive & amend the said Act in the particulars 
Above mentioned 

And Whereas our most Vigilant Sovreign (whose 
righteous designs against the Enemies of his Imperial Dia- 
dem and the tranquillity of his American Dominions may 
the King of Kings abundantly prosper) hath been 
graciously pleas'd out of his Royal Bounty and paternal 
Affection to order Several Regiments to the assistance of 
his Colonies & therefore undoubtedly expects their oppps- 
ing themselves vigorously in maintaining the Honour of 
his Crown by raising Men & money, as he has been pleased 
to shew himself in protecting their lives liberties and prop- 
erties without which dutifull Junction & concurrence there 
i"> great reason to fear that his generous & Salutary 
measures may prove inefifectual to the completion of his 
great and princely purposes. 

And Whereas Your Petitioners out of Zeal for his most 
Sacred Majesty's Intrest, and from Hearts inspired with 
Loyalty & gratitude to the best of Kings as well for the 
Service of their most gracious Sovreign & the Honour and 
dignity of his Crown as the preservation of their own lives 
and Fortunes & the inestimable priviledgc of English Men 



PETITION FROM BERGEN COUNTY 



27 



uninteruptedly enjoy'd under his glorious and Auspicious 
Reign are willing to the utmost of their power to contribute 
towards all Necessary preparations to repel any Invasions 
that may be made by the said French or Indians against 
his Majesty's Colonies and to drive them from our Fron- 
tiers, for what is Life in Slavery? or property under a 
Popish arbitary Prince? 

We therefore Humbly pray this Hon'ble House that 
they would be pleased to pass such Bill or Bills as will be 
Effectual for the purposes aforesaid in such full propor- 
tion as this Colony ought to bear in the expence with the 
Neighbouring Colonies and in such manner as to this 
Hon'ble House shall seem meet and Reasonable 

And Your Petitioners shall ever pray 



Peter Bourdett 
?Yanter Huyn 
Ryer Ryerson, Ju. 
Jacobus Bargin 
Hendrick Boesch 
Harman Lucan 
John Van Houten 
David Hennion 
John Vreeland 
Jacob Hoppe 
John Fr. Ryarson 
Robbert van Houten 
Cornelus Bogert 
Arent Schuyler 
Jorys Vrelant 
Stephen Rauldwin 
Waling Van Winkle 
Yan Durie 
Roelef Westerhelt 



David Jacobus Demerest 

John Allen, Senier 

David L. Ackerman 
Judges of the George Ryerson 

S^QSatfr S J/~bus Peek 
ions for the Coun- Samuel More, Junier 
ty of Bergen. Lowrance Van Boshert 

Johannis Van Boshert 
Egbert Ackerman 
Cornalus Ackerman 
Abraham Van Boshert 
Johnnis Cadmiss 
Gerrcbrant Van Houte 
?Johannis Van Rijsejse 
Cornalus Van Deen 
Joarge Everse 
Ram Simmense 
Theunis Dey 
Joost Beam 



28 



PETITION FROM BERGEN COUNTY 



Helmigh Post 
Yacob Toers 
George Ryersa, Jr. 
William van Blarcom 
Hessel Van Wagenen 
Abraham Toers 
Jon Dorremus 
Helmigh Van Houten 
Hessel Dorremus 
Jacobus Post 
John V : Houten, Lent. 
Gilyeen Bertolf 
Joseph Woolcox 
John Rattan 
Albert V. Voorheese 
Casparus Schuyler 
John Range 
Dou'as Rattan 
- -an'r Ratten 
John Anderson 
Sam'el Smith 
Chris'r Tice 
Elias Crowfoot 
Joseph Board 
Ab'm Bean 
Joost Beam 
Chris Trickey 
Josep Hagan 
John V : Voorhees 
Elis'r Franssisco 
John Kerrest 
Edward Martin 
Herry Ridner 
Jacob Franscisco 



Lowrence Egbert Acker- 
man 
?Jacob Von Venken 
Stephen Bourdett, Sinior 
Fauconnear Volleau 
Lucas Lozier 
John van Boskerck 
Job Smith 
Isaac Schuyler 
Par Parmyter 
Jost Van Boskerk 

Thomas 

Nicholas Kip 
James Board 
Peter Schulyer 
John Burden 
Samuel Sidham 
John Rush 
Andris Debow 
John Myer 
Peiter Wannemaker 
William Ginkins 
John Parliment, Sen'r 
Mattey Barbery 
David Harris 
John Bartolf 
John Berry 
Phillip Berry 
Samuel Berry 
Abraham Berry 
William Berry 
Nathanel Earl 
Thomas Rardon 
John Freeland 



PETITION FROM BERGEN COUNTY 



29 



Peter Stott 

Jacob Roelfse \' : Houte 
John linheus 
John Mangle 
Wm. Belsher 
Paul Rattan 
Andries Hennyon 
Cornelis Westervelt 
Gerrit Van Houten 
Yan Van der Beck 
Harnianus Van Bosse 
Johannis Van Winkle 
Staets Degroodt 
Hartman Blinkerhoef 
William Day 
Johannes Waldron 
Rorlof Westervelt 
Casparus Teindus 
Jacobus Bartholf, Jun'r 
Dirrick Terheunen 
Samuel Degroot 
Lowrence Ackerman 
Jacob Oldwater 
Jacobus Bartholf 
Jacob Roomer 
Ab'm Brower 
Tobias Rykman 
Enoch Sealand 
Thomash Vanboscarch 
Albert Banta 
Steven Zabriskie 
Peter Post 
Tomas Vanriper 
Jacobus Bartolf 
Cornalus Gerretse Vanvoost 
Peter Demeray 



Arye Boos 
Charles Kingsland 
John Schuyler 
William Kingsland 
Josiah Hornblower 
Roger Kingsland 
Stephen BourDett, June'r 
David'n Provoost 
Theodore Valleauz 

Isaac Kingsland 

Egbert Van Emburgh 

John Oldwater 

William Ennis 

Hendrick Rys 

Hessel Brower 

?Semion Orelant 

Lendert Degrauw 

Isaac Kingsland, Sene'r 

FGerebrandt -- 

Jacobus Boogaert 

Guelyan Bertholf 

John Williams 

Morris Earle 

Jacobus Huysman 

Isaac Concklin 
David Damarast 
Abraham Gouvernear 
William Provoost 
?Jacob - -sort 
Johannes Rcyerse 
William Earle 
Abraham Ackerman 
Peter Van Deburgh 
Jacob Van Piese 
Jacobus Jan Bogert 
Gerret Post 



The 

Grand 

Jurors 
^for 
'the 

County 

of 

Bergen 



30 PETITION FROM BERGEN COUNTY 

— Endorsements — 

Fiom Bergen County Bergen County 

One Hundred & Seventy Seven Names Petition's 

are Annexes to the within petition for Raising Forces. 

177 read & Considered 



The illustration on the opposite page is a recent one and shows 
the church as it is today, 1915. It was re-modelled in the year 1866 
at a cost of eighteen thousand dollars ($18,000). The re-modelling 
consisted of extending the rear end of the church northward thirty 
feet. A slate roof replaced the shingle one, a gallery was put in 
on the east, south and west side. Prior to that time the church had 
no gallery. An arch was sprung in the south end over the gallery 
and under the steeple. The space under this arch was allotted to 
the colored people of the congregation. The old pulpit was discarded 
and a modern one erected in the new extension. The large windows 
which had extended to the ground in the south, or road, end were 
reduced in size by having the lower portions made into doors, so 
that the present church has three doors on the south side instead of 
one in the center, as in the old church. 




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CHURCH DAYS 
IN OLD SCHRAALENBURGH. 



(Courtesy of Dumont High School Booklet Association.) 



By F. a. Westervelt. 

There was an organization, South Dutch Reformed 
Church, in 1724. 

First church built in 1725, a few rods east of present 
site. 

Second church built in 1728. 

First marriage records, 1724. 

First baptismal records, 1724. 

In 1730 the original congregation of 83 members were 
seeking a regular pastor and teacher. He was to preach 
the word of the Lord in its purity, and to take charge of 
the catechetical exercises ; to administer the Lord's Supper 
four times a year and visit the members twice a year, etc., 
and was to receive a yearly salary of sixty pounds ($300) 
of current New Jersey money — thirty pounds from each 
congregation (Schraalenburgh and Peremis), payable 
every half year. He was to have a good, substantial par- 
sonage, built with a stable for horse and cow, attached, to 
be built at Schraalenburgh or Peremis. They wrote : "We 
wish with all our hearts that we were able to promise your 
Reverence a higher salary, but our poverty prevents us. 
Nay, only our love towards your Reverence has made the 
salary as much as it is." 

The Rev. G. W. Manicus accepted the call in 1731. 
The church was very small, built of stone, with one en- 



34 CHURCH DAYS IN OLD SCHRAALENBURGH 

trance. The pulpit had spiral stairs leading up to the 
Pastor's seat and Bible desk. There was a high canopy 
of wood covering the speaker and desk. There were no 
seats in the building. Each person carried his own chair, 
and those who went by wagon used their chairs as wagon 
seats. There was no stove. In cold weather the ladies 
carried foot stoves. They were tin boxes, seven inches long, 
five inches high and six inches wide, the sides, top and door 
being perforated. Inside was a small tin box, in which the 
hot coals of hickory wood were placed. The box was 
fastened in a frame of wood-work, with a wire handle. 
The feet were placed on the frame and were kept very warm 
for a long time. These were home-made and a very popu- 
lar gift to a sweetheart or bride, as their initials could be 
combined with the favorite designs of hearts and ring.s, 
shown in the perforations. 

For lap robes they used the beautiful, and now, highly- 
prized blue and white homespun bed blankets, called in 
"Jersey Dutch" Batte Clates. These were carried in the 
church and placed on the chairs. 

"It was an old-time habit to reach church early. The 
horses having been hitched, the worshippers collected in 
groups under the trees or about the church doors, when 
greetings all around were in order and inquiries made about 
absent relatives and acquaintances. It cannot be denied 
that the state of crops, the condition of the market, and 
the aspect of politics were occasional features of these pe- 
culiar gatherings." 

The services began at ten o'clock. The "Voorleser," or 
"head reader" (also schoolmaster), stood on the floor be- 
low the pulpit and opened the services by reading the Scrip- 
ture selection. The chorister, or "fore singer," lined out 
the verses of the hymn ; then, with the use of a tuning 
fork, started the singing, the entire service being in Dutch. 



CHURCH DAYS IN OLD SCHRAALENBURGH 35 

The sermons were long and doctrinal, the prayers fervent 
and loud. 

The collection was taken up with a bag fastened on a 
long stick. Sometimes it had a bell on the bottom of the 
bag to "awaken the sleepers." At twelve o'clock the ser- 
vices closed. As the dinner was always taken along, it was 
then eaten and a general visiting time was indulged in. The 
horses were fed where they were lined up on each side of 
the Schraalenburgh Road, in front of the church and 
around the corner on the River Edge Road. There would 
be one hundred or more wagons. At one o'clock the ser- 
vices began again, the Pastor expounding the catechismal 
text according to the order of the Heidelburg Catechism. 
At four o'clock they disbanded. 

The girls, in winter, wore homespun woolen under- 
garments, dresses, coats and hoods ; home-knit mittens and 
stockings, hand-made leather shoes with leather laces and 
copper toes. Their pantalets were made of nankeen, 
fastened at the knee and hung to their shoe tops. In the 
summer they wore the homespun linen undergarments, 
calico dresses and pantalets, also sun bonnets. 

It was a progressive age and we next learn of the 
building of another church in 1728, the stones from the old 
building being incorporated in the new. We learn of pews 
with high backs and no cushions, each having a little door. 
Holland's color was in evidence in the paint on them, yellow 
with orange rails. 

The first stove was just inside the door and was a long, 
high iron box with a door at each end, with the pipe ex- 
tending across the church, entering a chimney behind the 
pulpit. There was a ''wood box" well filled with large 
sticks. There were circular seats at each end of the stove, 
where the people sat to get warm before going to their 
pews. 



36 CHURCH DAYS IN OLD SCHRAALENBURGH 

When there was a death among their members the 
Sexton went far and near over the church district to notify 
the people of the event and time of funeral and inviting 
those who were to act as pall-bearers. 

At each funeral the Pastor and Doctor, side by side, 
preceded the corpse to the grave, each wearing a homespun 
white linen sash, three yards long, across the body from 
the right shoulder to the left hip, the ends hanging loose. 
On the shoulder and hip was a large black rosette made 
of lute string, three inches wide. The sashes were the gift 
of the family, and the richer the family the finer the linen. 
The families of the Pastor and Doctor used the linen for 
special clothing. The son of one of the Pastors, when mar- 
ried over fifty years ago, wore a shirt made from a funeral 
sash. The shirt, beautifully made, with a tucked bosom, 
was a fine specimen of hand sewing. It is in perfect con- 
dition and is to be loaned to the Bergen County Historical 
Society. 

One of the chairs, 150 years old, that was carried to this 
church in the early days, is still in use by a grand-daughter 
of the first owner. 

The Revolutionary Period stirred the hearts of the 
people in those days, in church as well as home affairs, 
and it was not unusual for the early ministers to wear 
cocked hats and swords, which they took off and laid be- 
hind them in the pulpit. 

A five-inch cannon ball that was ploughed up on the 
farm of David Kipp, of Schraalenburgh, has been loaned 
to the Bergen County Historical Society. 

Note. — To Mrs. Margaret Demarest Westervelt, 112 
Sus.sex Street, Hackensack, N. J., credit is given for much 
of the data in the foregoing article. Mrs. Westervelt is 
now seventy-nine years of age and is a daughter of the 



CHURCH DAYS IN OLD SCHRAALENBURGH 37 



Rev. and Mrs. C. T. Demarest. Mrs. C. T. Demarest was 
Margaret Lydecker, daughter of the old Cornelius 
Lydecker, whose homestead is at Englewood, N. J. Her 
parents attended the South Church. The early history 
given by Mrs. Westervelt is from her mother and grand- 
mother's stories of its early days. The history of the linen 
scarfs was given Mrs. Westervelt by her father, and she 
has a piece of the last scarf given him in Bergen County, 
as in New York City it was not the custom. 

Much of the early church customs was given to Mrs. 
Westervelt by her father, Rev. C. T. Demarest, her mother, 
Margaret Lydecker, and her grandmother, Cornelia Brink- 
erhofT, and their ancestors, all of them attendants at the 
South Church, Schraalenburgh. 



EARLY HISTORY OF BERGENFIELD 



By Walter Christie 



The name of Bergenfield was given to this place in the 
year 1872, not by popular choice nor by approval of its 
citizens, but by the order of the leading officials of the 
Jersey City and Albany Railway Co., the details of which 
I will give you later in this article. The first municipality 
within the limits of New Jersey was erected by order of the 
Director General Stuyvesant and his council of New Am- 
sterdam on September 5th, 1661, and christened "The Vil- 
lage of Bergen." The exact location of the original vil- 
lage of Bergen was a point mid-way between where the 
Marion depot of the Pennsylvania R. R. is located and the 
Hudson River on a line directly east of Marion. The 
origin of the name "Bergen" rests in some doubt. Some 
writers claim it to have been derived from "Bergen," the 
capital of Norway prior to the year 1815, while others as 
confidently assert it to have been derived from "Bergen op 
zoom," an important town in Holland. I am of the opinion 
Bergen was named after the latter town, as Hollanders and 
their descendants predominated in the early settlement of 
this county, and it is not likely Dutchmen, with memories of 
the fatherland, would name any of their new settlements in 
honor of a city of a country foreign to the fatherland. You 
will notice that the erection of the •'Village of Bergen'" by 
Stuyvesant was in 1661, which was towards the end of his 
administration as Director General of New Amsterdam, or 
Manhattan Island, and I have wondered what impelled him 



40 EARLY HISTORY OF BERGENFIELD 

to act, and am led to believe he intended at least that the 
"Village of Bergen" should forever be controlled by the in- 
fluence of New Amsterdam, if not annexed to it and made 
a part of it. During the seven years following the 
christening of the "Village of Bergen" new settlers rapidly 
purchased and located on lands outside the Village, and it 
also should be noted that the control of New Amsterdam 
had been wrested from the Hollanders by the English, and 
that in 1665 Stuyvesant returned to Holland. It is also 
interesting to note that with the change from Dutch to 
English control of New Amsterdam, Jersey remained under 
control of New York, not having a complete separate Gov- 
ernment of her own until the year of 1738. The many 
families who had settled outside "The Village of Bergen," 
desiring better protection from the ravages of the Indians 
and wishing to be in closer touch with the authorities, in- 
duced Governor Philip Carteret, an Englishman, and his 
council, on April 7th, 1668, to incorporate the Town and 
Corporation of Bergen. This new town comprised all the 
territory, now a part of Hudson County, lying between the 
Hudson and Hackensack Rivers, and extending from Bell- 
mans Creek, on the North, and to Constable Hook, on the 
South. 

As time went on and the population increased, courts 
became necessary ; and as all the Colonial officials were Eng- 
lishmen and many English immigrants had settled in the 
community, it was but natural that they should desire tlie 
adoption of the English system of County Government ; 
therefore, on the seventh of March, 1628, the pro- 
vincial Legislature passed, and Deputy Governor Rudyard 
approved, an act under which New Jersey was divided into 
four counties, viz., Bergen, Essex, Middlesex and Mon- 
mouth. 

You will notice that the names given to the counties 



EARLY HISTORY OF BERGENFIELD 41 

upon their erection were all English except Bergen, and I 
presume the name "Bergen" given to our County was due 
to Dutch influence solely, and that had the Dutch not made 
their influence felt at that time, the English rulers would 
have given our County another and an English name. 

The County, as erected in 1682, comprised all the lands 
lying between the Hudson River and the Hackensack 
River, extending from Constable Hook to the North most 
bounds of the province, which was the New York State 
line, which line was then in dispute. Bergen was the small- 
est in area of the four original counties, and later a part 
ot Essex was annexed to it, and again later Passaic County 
and Hudson County were erected out of Bergen's territory. 

All of the earlier records were recorded and filed in 
New Amsterdam, and the oldest record I have been able to 
locate in our County is written in English, is dated 171 5, 
and contains information regarding County Government 
and transactions relating to the building of a Court House. 

As the court was established under English procedure, 
in 17 1 5, it may interest you to know how the same was 
constituted. 

The records of our County from that date are in Eng- 
lish and all crimes were tried before Justices of the Peace, 
whose judicial acts were all in the name of the King of 
England. The office of the justice is very old and is an 
office borrowed from English custom and law, and while 
still a constitutional office, has lost much of its former im- 
portance and dignity. 

In 1716 the inhabitants elected five Justices of Peace, 
viz., David Provoost, Thomas Lawerence, George Ryerson, 
John Berdan and Martin Powlson, the first-named being 
the presiding Justice. 

The following persons were elected Freeholders : John 
Stagg, Ryer Ryerson, Rutt Van Home, Cornelius Blincker- 



42 EARLY HISTORY OF BERGENFIELD 

hoff, Nicholas Lozier and John Bogart. These two bodies, 
acting jointly, constituted the Court, the Freeholders act- 
ing as lay Judges. 

The small cases, such as petty thieving and assault, were 
tried before any single Justice, but grave crimes such as 
arson, atrocious assault, murder, etc., were tried at the 
Court House before the full bench of Justices and the Free- 
holders. 

Scarcely fifteen years after a comprehensive County 
Judicial system had been established, they were called to 
try a murder case, which was held December 13th, 
1 73 1. The accused was a negro, named Harry, a slave oi 
one Garret Hoppe, who supposedly had killed another negro 
slave named Sepeo by treating him to a drink of poisoned 
whiskey. Sepeo was the chattel of one Col. William Pro- 
voost. There was a full attendance of the Court sitting 
at the trial. The verdict being that Harry was guilty, the 
Court ordered the Sherifif to hang him by the neck till dead, 
on December 14th, 1731. 

You will notice that the date set for his execution was 
the very next day following the trial and conviction. 

On April 26th, 1732, the Court met again to make 
awards and pay the bills incurred for the trial and execu- 
tion. 

The records show that they awarded Garret Hoppe, the 
owner of Harry, the slave, 30 pounds sterling for his loss, 
that being the current price of a healthy young male slave. 
Paulus Van Derbeek, who was Sherifif, was awarded 5 
pounds for his services as hangman. The Court awarded 
themselves 5 pounds for their services, and 5 pounds was 
paid in constable and other fees, making a total cost of 45 
pounds sterling, or $219 in our coin. 

For meeting this extraordinary expenditure a special 
assessment was ordered to be levied on the taxpayers of 



EARLY HISTORY OF BERGENFIELD 43 

the County, to be paid within 30 days from date of sitting 
of the Court. 

Having given you a brief historical outline of the 
geography and government of our County, I will now give 
you the early history of Bergenfield. Prior to and after 
the Revolutionary War and up to the year of 1872, this lo- 
cality was known as Schraalenburgh. 

Schraalenburgh was known as all that territory lying 
west of the Tenakill Brook and extending to the settlements 
on the east side of the Hackensack River and extending 
from the village of Harrington Park on the north to Tea- 
neck, which then included West Englewood on the south, 
and originally embraced lands given in the year of 1669 un- 
der patents by Governor Carteret, numbered 17, 18, 19 and 
20, also part of patent No. 16. Each one of these patents, 
or grants, contained an area of approximately 2,000 acres, 
and each patent or grant was bounded on the east by Tena- 
kill Brook and on the west by the Hackensack River. What 
is now Bergenfield was in patent grant No. 17, and its 
boundary was the New Bridge Road on the south. River 
Edge Road and Hickory Avenue on the north, through to 
Tenafly. This section, or grant, was given to one Matthew 
Nicols, in the year of 1669. 

These grants contained a stipulation that the patentee 
should settle on his patent a certain number of families 
within six years. All the patentees failed to comply with 
the stipulations and their lands were forfeited. 

In the month of June, 1677, or eight years later, and 
just two years after forfeiture, David De Marest, Sr., 
a French Huguenot, appeared upon the scene as a landed 
proprietor. The four patents having been forfeited, 
Demarest did not attempt to secure patents from the Gov- 
ernor for them, but quietly bought up approximately 6,000 
acres of land from the Hackensack and Tappan Indians. 



44 EARLY HISTORY OF BERGENFIELD 

This was a shrewd move, as it at once put him in a 
peaceful relationship with the Indians, who were a factor 
to be reckoned with; also, it put him in undisputed pos- 
session at once, and as the patentees had failed to comply 
with all the requirements, nevertheless, it was undoubtedly 
a question in Demarest's mind whether by a partial com- 
pliance the patentees did not have some equity in these 
lands, for it is a matter of record that, after having pur- 
chased and paid the Indians for these lands, he sought to 
complete his title by patent grant, and did succeed in get- 
ting grants for sections i8 and 19. 

The four original grantees, or patentees, imder Gover- 
nor Carteret were all Englishmen, and I know of few in- 
stances where Englishmen have been outdone by the 
French, but this is one of them. 

The area of Schraalenburgh was co-extensive with the 
area of Demarest's lands, but as Demarest's lands were 
sometimes known as Old Hackensack and sometimes as 
Schraalenburgh, it is difficult to determine when or how 
the name became applied. My own notion is that when it 
was originally conveyed it was known as Old Hackensack, 
and that after the death of the original owner (David 
Demarest) his children and grandchildren, having nearly 
all of them married Holland descendants, they renamed it 
Schraalenburgh. 

The name is Dutch, and means a barren knoll or hill. 
The first church erected in Schraalenburgh, as then com- 
prised, was built by this pioneer, and was located on the 
southeast corner of New Bridge and River Roads and north 
of it on lands on the east bank of the Hackensack River, be- 
tween River Edge and New Rridge their cemetery was 
located and still can be seen from the wagon roads along 
the Hackensack River, and is known as the French Ceme- 
tery. 



EARLY HISTORY OF BERGENFIELD 45 



Having now given you early history which I can cor- 
roborate from various sources, I will pass along to the 
Revolutionary Period and paint a picture in your mind of 
what this place contained in the way of roads, railroads, 
schools, churches and dwellings and industries during that 
time, and will take them up in this order. 

ROADS. 

Bergenfield, as its boundaries are laid out today (and 
they have never been changed since the date of incorpora- 
tion, 1894), in revolutionary days had only six roads, as 

follows : 

( I ) . The Schraalenburgh Road, now known as Wash- 
ington Avenue. 

(2). West Clinton Avenue, running from the east side 
of Washington Avenue to Tenafly. 

(3). Church Street. 

(4). Prospect Street, from Church Street, north to 
Madison Avenue in Dumont. 

(5). Old Bridge Road, from Prospect Street to River 

Edge. 

(6). New Bridge Road, from Washington Avenue to 

Cherry Hill. 

RAILROADS. 

There were no railroads. 

SCHOOLS. 

There were no schools. What is now Dumont con- 
tained the school site for generations. My parents and my- 
self attended schools that were located at the junction of 
Madison and Washington Avenues. 

CHURCHES. 

There was one church— the old South Church. This 
building stood about 250 feet east of the present structure 



46 EARLY HISTORY OF BERGENFIELD 

in what is known as the old burying ground, and its erec- 
tion was completed in the year 1725. This building was 
used continuously until the year of 1799, when the present 
building was erected. 

David Demarest had erected a church probably not later 
than 1680, and of which little is known historically. I am 
of the opinion that both the French and Holland Dutch 
language was used by its pastors, for the following reasons : 
First, that Demarest, being a Frenchman, naturally sur- 
rounded himself with French helpers as well as neighbors, 
which is evident from the fact that numerous graves are to 
this day visible in that old burying ground, and, secondly, 
that he himself spent some time in Holland to escape re- 
ligious persecution, and had acquired a mastery of the 
Dutch language, and as his children and grandchildren 
nearly all married Holland-Dutch descendants, it is rea- 
sonable to suppose that they insisted that the services 
should at least be alternately held in the French and Dutch 
language. 

It is also reasonable to suppose that with the erection 
of the old South Church in the year of 1725, and fifty years 
after the establishment of the French Church and practi- 
cally the entire population being Dutch, that it filled a popu- 
lar need, and I was not surprised in searching the old 
records at the County seat to find that on June ist, 1750, 
the Elders were David Demarest, Garret De Baun, Jacobus 
Peek and Cornelius Lydecker; the deacons were Abraham 
Lydecker, William Bogert, Arrie Banta and David Christie, 
the David Demarest above mentioned being the son of the 
French pioneer. 

Of the Consistory, as constituted at that time, nation- 
alities were divided as follows: French (2), Demarest and 
De Baun; English (i), Peek; Holland-Dutch (4), Bogert, 
Banta and the two Lydeckers; Scotch (i), Christie. 



EARLY HISTORY OF BERGENFIELD 47 

In 1730 the old South Church congregation secured the 
services of a minister direct from Holland, and again in 
1768 sent to Holland for a pastor. 

Its pastor during the Revolutionary War was one Dirck 
Romaine. 

The Dutch language was used exclusively until about 
the year 1827, and from that date the English language was 
used, although not exclusively until a later date, which I 
am not able to fix. 

As the North Church at Dumont was not built until 
after 1799, and as the French Church had long since de- 
cayed and crumbled, it is a fact established beyond dispute 
that the old South Church was the only church building 
within not only the boundaries of Bergenfield as comprised 
today, but of the vast territory known as Schraalenburgh 
in Revolutionary days. 

DWELLINGS. 

The only dwellings that I can be sure of having been 
located in the Borough are the following: The South 
Church parsonage, which was a brown stone building, many 
of the stones of which were used in the construction of the 
foundation and the south wall of the present parsonage; a 
stone house which stood on the hill about 400 feet north of 
Church Street, about 100 feet west of Ann Street ; a stone 
house on the east side of Washington Avenue, just north 
of the present residence of Ex-Mayor E. Howard Foster; 
the stone house which stood at the head of West Clinton 
Avenue on the west side of Washington Avenue, owned 
by Mr. Hough. This house was built by a great uncle of 
mine for hotel purposes and was occupied as an inn and 
tavern for many years, and it is said that George Washing- 
ton stopped there at various times. A stone house stood 



48 EARLY HISTORY OF BERGENFIELD 

on the very spot on which Councilman Head's house is 
located. 

I do not know whether the frame house which stood op- 
posite the South Church parsonage was built before the 
Revolution or not, but am inclined to think it was. I am 
quite sure that the house now occupied by old Mr. Derfuss 
is the oldest house in the borough, and that perhaps its 
erection antedates the revolutionary period. 

INDUSTRIES. 

The oldest industrial sites were located on the two 
streams in the central part of the town, one of them being 
on the south side of Church Street. 

Doubtless you have noticed that just south of the 
southerly side of Main Street there starts what to the 
casual observer might appear to be a ditch. This ditch or 
canal parallels the brook all the way from south of Main 
Street northward to the bridge on Church Street, and as 
you follow the canal northward from its source, you will 
notice the canal becomes deeper and the embankment be- 
tween the canal and brook grows higher and heavier. As 
you stand on the bridge on Church Street and you look 
south you will notice an opening through the embank- 
ment; to the east of this opening directly south of my old 
homestead stood a mill operated by water power, and the 
water wheel which furnished the power was located in 
that opening in the bank, and the water used to furnish the 
power was gotten by shutting off the water in the stream 
south of Main Street and sending it through the canal. I 
suppose there are many persons who have walked down 
the stream passing under the railroad by Ex-Mayor 
Stumpp's place and at a point about 400 feet west of the 
railroad on the property of Mr. Umenhofer who have 
noticed on each side of the stream two high mounds. This 



EARLY HISTORY OF BERGENFIELD 49 

also was a mill site and extending from these mounds on 
either side was a dam long since levelled by time. When 
I consider the sparsely settled condition of this neighbor- 
hood, I am convinced in my own mind these were gigantic 
operations for their day, as a large portion of the base of 
the canal's west bank is of stone, and I feel sure their erec- 
tion was by the help of slave labor in vogue and legalized 
at that time. 

I have been told that the mill on Church Street was a 
flour and feed mill, while the mill on the Umenhofer prop- 
erty was used for wood working. The erection of these 
mills antedated the revolutionary period. 

I will now pass along to the time when I came upon 
the scene. The first event of which I have any recollec- 
tion, outside of daily home affairs, was the reconstruction 
and enlargement of the South Church in the year of 1866, 
the details of which are too lengthy to recite. 

At the age of seven I was sent to school. As this whole 
section was under Township government, the school dis- 
tricts were erected out of Townships without any regard 
to Township or any other lines, and the Schraalenburgh 
District, known officially as District No. 11, extended from 
the southerly line of Haworth south to the southerly line 
of what is now the Oser farm, and from what is now the 
westerly line of the Borough, to a line about 500 feet east 
of the Knickerbocker Road, and as I have previously stated, 
the school was located opposite the North Church on Madi- 
son Avenue in Dumont. 

To trudge this distance winter and summer was no light 
task, and was a lonely trudge as well, for there were only 
17 houses in all the distance from my old home at the bridge 
to the school. There were no streets intersecting Church 
Street nor Washington Avenue except Hickory Avenue and 
Maple Street, consequently no houses were in sight except 



50 EARLY HISTORY OF BERGENFIELD 

my own house on Church Street and the houses along 
Washington Avenue. I traveled over that same route lately 
and found 49 houses, to say nothing of more than 150 new 
dwellings that I counted in sight along side streets inter- 
secting Church Street and Washington Avenue. 

School opened then, as now, at 9 A. M., but we were 
all kept at work till 4 P. M. The building was one story 
in height with but two rooms, built without a cellar, with 
a large cylinder stove to heat it during the winter — quite 
a contrast to modern methods of heating. This stove was 
located in one end of the building, and on very cold days 
was entirely inadequate. The teacher on such days would 
fill it with fuel and start up the draught until the stove be- 
came red hot, and then shift the scholars around the room 
from time to time so that they alternately froze and 
thawed. 

Just before I entered school the district furnished the 
building with a janitor, but during the school days of my 
sisters and a brother, who were older than I, the girls were 
obliged to do the cleaning and the boys to cut and bring in 
the fuel. Not only did I, with other children, have to walk 
to Dumont to school five days in the week, but six days 
as well, for I have already told you there was no post office 
in Bergenfield ; it was necessary to make the trip on Satur- 
day to get the mail, the nearest post office being at Du- 
mont. There being no railroad through this section, the 
mail reached us by being brought over the Erie Railroad 
to Tenafly, and from thence it was brought to Dumont by 
a postman. 

Nobody in country or rural districts read daily papers 
those days, but nearly every family was a subscriber to a 
New York weekly and a weekly county paper, and they 
were all published on Fridays, arriving in Saturday's mail, 



EARLY HISTORY OF BERGENFIELD 51 

so you can imagine how important it was to make the trip 
to Diimont on Saturday. 

The building of a railroad through this locality was 
agitated immediately after the close of the Civil War. The 
fact that local capital and enterprise had succeeded in ac- 
complishing the construction of the Northern Railroad of 
New Jersey through the Northern Valley, also New Jersey 
and New York Railroad through Hackensack Valley, the 
leading citizens and property owners of this section, by 
persistently keeping at it, finally succeeded in raising a 
large amount of money by sale or by popular subscription 
of bonds and stock in a corporation known as the Ridge- 
field Park Railroad Company, which had secured a charter 
from the New Jersey Legislature to build a line of railway 
from Ridgefield Park to the New York State Line. 

The road opened in 1873 with great ceremonies. The 
day before the road was opened for regular traffic a train 
consisting of a locomotive and three cars started from 
Ridgefield Park with a brass band aboard, and all the rail- 
road officials and such persons only as were holders of 
stocks and bonds. The train stopped at every station along 
the line to take on bond and stockholders, and as my father 
was one of them, he saw to it that I was taken aboard, and 
I believe I am the only person alive in Bergenfield today 
who rode on that train, and I am sorry I am unable to 
remember who besides my father and I boarded the train 
at this place. Arriving at Tappan we found the place in 
gala dress. The band headed the parade, followed by the 
reception committee of citizens of Tappan. 

The line of march was from the station at Tappan down 
to the open space on the west side of the Reformed 
Church there. A platform had been erected and from it 
speeches were made, and after the conclusion of speech- 
making we were all invited to inspect the old '76 house, 



52 EARLY HISTORY OF fiERGENFIELD 

and from thence return was made to the train and we 
started homeward. 

Two trains a day were run over the road, the pas- 
senger coaches being switched at the T^idgefield Park junc- 
tion of the Susquehanna Railroad and attached to the Sus- 
quehanna trains and hauled into the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road depot at Jersey City. 

The enterprise was a failure and no dividend was ever 
paid on the stock nor interest on the bonds, but the men 
back of it had faith, and they went back to the legislatures 
of New Jersey and New York and secured a charter for a 
corporation known as the Jersey City and Albany Rail- 
road, under promise that they intended ultimately to build 
the line to Albany, and through the influence and liberality 
of the late Governor Samuel J. Tilden and Ex-Treasurer 
Conrad N. Jordan, both of whom had acquired lands along 
the line, money was again poured into the enterprise and 
the road was extended to Haverstraw, the mountain at 
Haverstraw being crossed by a switchback instead of by a 
tunnel as at the present time. 

This was to be the first link in the line to Albany to 
be constructed by local capital. When Haverstraw was 
reached, however, the railroad people encountered a new 
experience, the townspeople being hostile to the project. 

The New Jersey and New York Railroad had already 
tapped it, and as several freight and passenger steamboat 
lines touched at this point and river traffic had already suf- 
fered by the entry of one line of railroad, they at once 
started a systematic campaign against the entry in their 
territory of a second railway, and, of course, the influence 
of the New Jersey Railway people was exerted against fur- 
ther railway encroachment. 

The switchback had been surveyed and the building of 
the road completed to the foot of the mountain at a point 



EARLY HISTORY OF BERGENFIELD 53 

about 50 feet below the north entrance of the present tunnel 
and from that point they had started to build the roadbed 
up to the village line about 2,000 feet north of the tunnel, 
and reached a narrow stretch of land crossing the line of 
the road and belonging to a party having large steamboat 
interests. 

This man believed he could stop the Company from 
crossing his land and thus block. entrance into the town, and 
in order to accomplish his purpose dug a ditch about 30 
feet wide and 15 feet deep across the roadbed. 

The Railroad Company laid their tracks on their road- 
bed right up to the ditch, then brought up several old racks 
ot cars, and one evening, when everybody had quieted 
down, hitched an engine to the cars and sent them bowling 
down the tracks into the ditch, levelled off the debris and 
built their tracks over the wreckage before he had time to 
get an injunction. 

Upon the completition of the road to Harrison all the 
Bond and Stockholders again had an outing, and it was my 
good fortune to be taken along on that trip by my father 
and to ride in the first passenger train that passed over the 
Haverstraw mountain switchback. 

The reception given the railroad officials and their 
backers at Haverstraw was tame in comparison with the 
reception given them at Tappan a few years before. The 
owners._of the road were sober and grave on the return trip, 
and, as .a financial crisis was upon the country, they spoke 
of the enterprise as one likely to fail — quite in contrast to 
their former demeanor. 

Several trains were put on the schedule, but the 
schedule was shortlived and the second failure was worse 
than the first. 

The rolling stock, consisting of two engines and five 
passenger coaches and a few freight cars, were sold to pay 



54 EARLY HISTORY OF BERGENFIELD 



pressing debts of the Company. A third attempt was made 
by inducing the Ontario and Western Road to operate it 
with their roIHng stock. 

This they would not consider unless a certain sum of 
money was subscribed and paid into their treasury to save 
them from a financial loss, as they were willing to give the 
use of an engine and a few cars, but they did not want to 
lose actual cash. Accordingly a meeting was called at 
Dumont in a building used as a private school and owned 
by Isaac Dixon. 

As the owners of the road had all lost their money, only 
such persons as were commuters or shippers, as well as 
stockholders and a few commuters who were not stock- 
holders, attended this meeting. 

Mr. Isaac Dixon and Mr. William P. Tyson, both of 
them commuters, who, by the withdrawal of train service 
from the road, were obliged to drive over to the Erie Rail- 
road morning and night, led the movement and subscribed 
liberally toward a fund for the Ontario and Western 
Management, and they again opened up the train service 
between Louden and Ridgefield Park. 

As no money was subscribed by persons living north of 
Dumont, and as the country north of the north line of 
Dumont was sparsely settled, it was not thought wise to 
open up train service beyond Louden. No doubt Louden 
is a new name to many of you, so I will tell you all about it. 

A man by the name of Mr. John Sloat, who lived in and 
owned the house in which Captain Fessenden now resides, 
sunk every dollar he had in the world in the railroad, and 
as a partial reward for his enterprise the company estab- 
lished a depot in the deep cut or pit just west of Captain 
Fessenden's place. Here, also, the original Railroad Com- 
pany built a pumping station and a water tank, and there- 
fore, in this last desperate effort, those people who were 



EARLY HISTORY OF BERGENFIELD 55 

willing to make further attempt to open the road once more 
for traffic, decided that Louden should be the terminus of 
the road. The rolling stock furnished by the Ontario & 
Western Railway consisted of one engine, two passenger 
coaches and two box freight cars, and the service consisted 
of an early morning train down from Louden to Ridge- 
field Park, where the passengers were unloaded, or, rather, 
unloaded themselves, as it was too expensive to pay the 
other roads to haul in the coaches. 

A return trip was made back to Louden, and at about 
8 o'clock the second train departed southward to Ridgefield 
Park ; then a freight train was made up, consisting of such 
carload lots as might have been brought over the Susque- 
hanna, together with such parcel freight as had been trans- 
ferred from the Susquehanna road into the two box cars 
before mentioned. 

The only car load lots of freight that passed over the 
road those days was the manure for the farmers and coal 
for the coal yards of J. Z. Demarest & Co. at Bergenfield 
and for the yard of David Demarest at Dumont. In the 
afternoon the schedule was reversed, the freight train leav- 
ing Louden at 2 P. M., and at 5 P. M. we had a train north- 
ward ; at 5 130 P. M. a passenger train southward, and at 
6:30 P. M. a train again, and the last for the day from 
New York or Ridgefield Park junction northward. 

This service lasted as long as the fund raised by sub- 
scription and such revenue as was collected from traffic held 
out, and then the road closed down. Many people thought 
it would never open again. 

The Bondholders foreclosed and the entire line from 
Ridgefield Park to Haverstraw, including roadbed, rails, 
depots and rights of every sort, was sold for $19,000.00. 
As near as I can judge the road was sold in 1876. 

In 1877 a panic had overtaken the country, due largely 



56 EARLY HISTORY OF BERGENFIELD 

to land speculation. Industries were paralyzed, mechanics 
were out of work, and so general was stagnation that my 
father hired journeymen carpenters to do farm work at 
$i.oo per day, and we hired darkey farm laborers at 75 
cents per day, and under such conditions during the year 
the railroad was sold under foreclosure, and for several 
years after when any enthusiast spoke of the rehabilitation 
of the railroad he was looked upon as a joker; and when 
in 1880 it began to be noised about that the road might be 
pushed through to Albany, people who took stock in the 
talk were regarded as fit subjects for an insane asylum. I 
need not here recite the fight which took place between Pull- 
man and the Vanderbilts which led Pullman with his friends 
to build the West Shore Railroad. But in 1883 the road 
was again opened under the auspices and management of 
the West Shore Railroad, only to fail, and while there was 
no interruption in traffic the road passed into control of 
the Vanderbilt or Central Railway system, and I want to 
say it has been my belief that had not the early settlers 
along the line started the little old Ridgefield Park Railway 
the West Shore would never have existed, for this line with 
its franchise was an inducement for Pullman to carry out 
his vindictiveness, which has proven a distinct benefit to 
this section. 

The first and only man who served as agent or depot 
master during the early struggles of the road was John J. 
Christie, who donated the land to the company for a depot 
site. 

He served from the opening of the original road till it 
was sold under foreclosure, and in 1883 Harry B. Sugden 
was placed in charge as agent, serving several years and 
graduating as a full-fledged United States Government em- 
ployee. 

During the period just prior to the completion of the 



EARLY HISTORY OF BERGENFIELD 57 

first railway, the inhabitants of this neighborhood began 
to reahze that we could no longer be known as Schraalen- 
burgh, as what is now Dumont was destined to hold the 
old name Schraalenburgh, in consequence of the old post 
office being located there, and naturally the people did not 
want to give up the old name, and, of course, the United 
States Government would not change the name of the post 
office without some action of the people in that immediate 
section. 

Many of the people in this section wished to name this 
place South Schraalenburgh, while others opposed it 
through prejudice and some others opposed it because the 
name was too lengthy. 

No agreement could be reached, and with the opening 
of the railroad for traffic the company issued a time table 
designating this depot by the name of Bergenfield and sent 
a ticket stamp here with the die cast Bergenfield. When 
the West Shore was about to begin to operate the road 
early in 1883 an attempt was made to change the name 
to Avon, but no action was taken by the railroad and very 
shortly after the post office was established in the store of 
J. Z. Demarest & Co., in the same building now occupied 
by Mr. Demarest as a general grocery store. 

With the establishment of the post office under the name 
of Bergenfield all agitation for changing the name ceased. 

In concluding the railroad history I pay a tribute in 
honor and in memory of the foresight, public spirit and lib- 
erality of the following men: George Foster, Samuel S. 
Demarest, Major Samuel D. Demarest, Cornelius J. Wester- 
velt (familiarly known as "Tony"), Albert A. Terhune, 
Tunis R. Cooper, Andrew D. Westervelt, John D. Wester- 
velt, James Kipp, Cornelius Christie and William P. Tyson. 
Some of these men contributed liberally toward the build- 
ing of the road, while others contributed toward the erection 



58 EARLY HISTORY OF BERGENFIELD 

of the first and finest depot along the hne of the road and 
presented it to the Railroad Company, and a few con- 
tributed to both projects. Of the list here given Mr. Tyson 
is the sole survivor. 

Having concluded the railroad history, I must relate an 
incident of a somewhat personal nature and connected with 
railroad matters. The assurance that a railroad was to be 
built through this section boosted land values every week, 
if not oftener. A neighbor who owned the farm to the 
east of my father's saw a strong probability of the road be- 
ing built, and approached my father with a proposition that 
as the road might be surveyed and laid out on a line on one 
side of the dividing line between the farms and, in that 
case one or the other of them would be shut ofif from the 
railroad by a narrow strip of land, that they agree upon a 
certain price per acre, at which the one so shut off by the 
strip could purchase from the other, and they agree upon 
a price at the rate of $500.00 per acre. This neighbor was 
not a contributor to the railroad enterprise and feared my 
father would have influence enough with the railroad and 
its surveyors to have the railroad bed entirely on his prop- 
erty, and therefore desired a low value placed on the land. 
This agreement was not placed in writing and was purely 
a gentleman's agreement. After the survey had been made 
it was found that the west line of the right of way of the 
railroad was two feet east of the line of my father's farm 
on the south end of the farm and about 20 feet east on the 
north end of the farm, leaving a strip containing about one- 
quarter of an acre of our neighbor's land between my 
father's east farm line and the railroad line. Immediately 
after the road was completed my father requested him to 
deliver his deed for the strip and receive his money. There 
was delay and after waiting several weeks my father called 
on the neighbor to ascertain why the deed had not been de- 



EARLY HISTORY OF BERGENFIELD 59 



livered as requested. His answer was that he thought he 
had been very hasty in agreeing to fix a value of $500.00 
per acre ; that as land had steadily risen in value he thought 
he should get at the rate of $1,000.00 per acre, and, more- 
over, he had just discovered that there was a very valuable 
shell-bark hickory tree standing on the strip. 

My father replied, saying that he did not think the tree 
was a very heavy bearer, and reminded him of their pre- 
vious understanding and agreement. To this the reply was 
that the tree was good and would bear for many years to 
come, which should be taken into consideration, and finally 
my father, seeing he had a hard nut to crack, paid nearly 
$300.00 for a narrow strip of swamp land, and at the rate 
of $1,000.00 per acre, in order to have a railroad frontage. 
Many were the time during the twenty years he owned that 
tree that he reminded me of what sweet nuts it bore, and 
jokingly remarked that he hoped that the tree would fur- 
nish hickory nuts for the Christies for ever. I am sorry 
to inform you that while that tree looks as healthy as it 
did forty years ago, it does not bear as well, and I fear my 
father's wish will not be fulfilled. 

I believe I have wearied you with too long an article, 
but I have not told you one half the interesting things I 
know about Bergenfield, and at some later date I will favor 
you with another chapter. 



AN INCIDENT OF BERGEN COUNTY 

By Rev. John C. Voorhis 



Suppose one of the worthy burghers of our good County 
of Bergen some ninety years ago had decided that he wished 
"to shake the Schraalenburg dust from his feet" and move 
to the then expanding metropoHs of New York, do you 
think he would have called to his chauffeur and say to him : 
"Charles, get my family Hmousine ready to take the chil- 
dren, and see that my automobile trucks are packed with my 
furniture and other effects, as we intend to move to New 
York today." 

Oh, no. He would have called his hired men (or per- 
haps his slaves) and instructed them to load these same 
effects on his old hay wagon and see that the oxen were 
properly hitched to it so that they might safely be taken 
to the dock either at the Old Bridge or New Bridge and 
there stowed on the sloop which he had hired for the pur- 
pose of their transportation. 

Such was the case with one of the old "Christies" of 
Schraalenburgh (William by name). Born in this County 
May 6th, 1776, living the quiet farmer life of those days, 
working as those farmers did, from daybreak to very late 
candle light, rearing a family of eight sturdy children (four 
boys and four girls), he decided in March, 1827, about four 
months after the death of his wife, Catherine Westervelt, 
that he would go South, to New York — (Horace Greeley 
had not as yet given that advice of his to "go West") — 
and we can imagine him calling his little flock around the 
old open fireside, and impressing on their minds the neces- 
sity of leaving the old farm so that they might have in the 



62 AN INCIDENT OF BERGEN COUNTY 

then great City of New York opportunities for their ad- 
vancement and well-being that they could not in "old 
Schraalenburgh." 

After due consultation and many tears shed on account 
of the severing of the old ties, they consent ; and in our 
mind's eye we see them bundling together the treasures so 
dear to them by life associations and packing them on the 
sloop awaiting that purpose. 

Their journey starts auspiciously and they sail down the 
then majestic Hackensack, speeded on by the Spring breezes 
(their motive power) until they reach the turn in the river 
at Hackensack opposite "Bogert's Dock," from which some 
of us have caught crabs and also fine fish (when the river 
was not polluted by sewage as it now is), when all of a 
sudden a strong gust of wind comes, swings the boom of 
the sloop around, striking the father of this family in his 
back and knocking him overboard, and, although he was 
celebrated as an expert swimmer, yet his injuries were so 
severe that his expertness was of no avail. The waters of 
the river claimed him and he was drowned in the presence 
of all his sorrowing children. 

Thus, the untimely ending of one of Bergen's Christies 
in the prime of life. Every day that we now scan our papers 
we read of numerous accidents from the speedy automo- 
bile. The above shows that accidents can (and do) also 
happen from the slow-moving sloop. 

This ancestor had made a grand determination for the 
future welfare of his growing family. He decided that 
benefits they could not receive in the old "burg" should 
be theirs in the new home, yet God, in His Providence, dis- 
posed otherwise. 

As a matter of history connected with this subject of 
our sketch, let us here name his children : 



AN INCIDENT OF BERGEN COUNTY 63 

Isabella (Balcha) ; born August 4th, 1798; married John 
Demarest. 

Margaret (Peggy); born September 12th, 1800; mar- 
ried John Christie. 

Deborah (Debby) ; born January 15th, 1803; rnarried 
Daniel Cole. 

John Christie ; born January 5th, 1805. 

Peter Christie; born September 5th, 1807. 

Henry W. Christie; born January 19th, 1811. 

Cornelius W. Christie ; born February 20th, 1814. 

Maria Christie; born August 6th, 1818; married Blanch 
Smith. 

"A." 




Old Stone Church, Saddle River, N. J. 

Built 1789. Re-built 1812 



ARCHIVE AND PROPERTY COMMITTEE 



REPORT AND ACTIVITIES 



The value of this committee is so vital it can be called 
the heart of the Society. To it flow gifts, purchases and 
the tangible results of the work of the standing committees. 
From it is diffused the real essence of its valuable proper- 
ties, ii] the form of exhibitions, historical information, use 
of books, manuscripts, photographs and antiques, to those 
doing historical research work, not only from Bergen 
County, but many other places. 

It is very encouraging to receive the many letters of 
appreciation and praise of our valuable collection from 
those who have been assisted by information given and hav- 
ing had access to our archives. 

That it may keep alive to the fast-growing demands be- 
ing made upon it, it is very necessary that every member 
and friend of the Society help sustain it by gifts. 

Our Year Books have been presented to our members 
and are on file at the Congressional Library, and ex- 
changes have been made with many Historical Societies and 
Libraries. 

To Miss Bogan, the Librarian of the Johnson Public 
Library, and her assistants, the Misses Labagh and Shot- 
well, a vote of appreciation is given for the courtesy and 
attention shown to our visitors. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Frances A. Westervelt. 
Wm. M. Johnson. 
John A. Marinus. 
Arthur Van Buskirk. 



66 ARCHIVE AND PROPERTY COMMITTEE 

On June 17th, 1914, Hackensack had a "big day," en- 
tertaining 500 Exempt Firemen of the State, in connection 
with the local firemen's annual parade. 

By invitation there were a number of floats in line. Our 
Society was represented by one, in three sections, the main 
one bearing in an historical setting descendants of the 
Bergen County Indian and slave, first white settler, early 
minister, Revolutionary War Captain, War of 1812, Judge, 
Sheriff and a G. A. R. Officer 82 years of age; also the 
historic Court House bell, 1792- 191 2. which was rung en 
route by a veteran court officer. 

In August, 1914, by invitation from the managers of 
the Bergen County Fair Association of Hohokus, for five 
days this Society had an exhibition of one hundred antiques. 
This exhibition was the means of interesting many young 
persons and brought forth many reminiscences of the early 
days, by the elderly grandsons and granddaughters of those 
who had lived in the period of the antiques. 

At Thanksgiving time was given a two-day exhibit, with 
talks on Early Hearth Stone Doings. Around the fireplace 
in the children's room in the Johnson Library on tables 
were many articles relating to the oven and fireplace cook- 
ery — a Dutch roasting oven containing a chicken ; waffie 
irons and waffies ; wafer irons and wafers made from a 
recipe one hundred years old that forms the modern ice 
cream cone ; earthen pie dishes holding pumpkin pie ; fire- 
place toaster and bread toasted on it. There was a pie filler 
made by the slaves of the Kipp family more than one hun- 
dred years ago. It was a one-quart wooden bowl with a 
handle six feet long, and was used to fill the pie dishes con- 
taining the bottom or lower crust that had been placed in 
the large brick oven (a dozen at a time), with the equally 
long-handled shovel. 



ARCHIVE AND PROPERTY COMMITTEE 67 

In the large room, decorated with home-spun coverlets, 
etc., occupying the center of the room on a rag carpet, were 
antique chairs around a Colonial table. It was covered with 
a home-spun linen table cloth, set with historic china, pew- 
ter, glass, silver and early cutlery. 

On sideboards were coppers, brasses, glassware, an his- 
toric New Jersey pottery hound-handled cider jug and 
tobies. 

The talks related to the history and usages of the fire- 
place articles and the story of the evolution of a board and 
its furnishings from Colonial days to the modern table and 
its furnishing. The fact was brought out that very few 
forks were in use before the Revolutionary period, fingers 
being used instead — hence the use of napkins was an abso- 
lute necessity. Over 500 attended this exhibit. 

The Newark Museum Association issued a call for loans 
for exhibit of New Jersey pottery, to be held in the Newark 
Library during February and March. A special request 
was made for "historic" pieces made prior to 1876. Our 
Society, through its possessions and loans, exhibited the 
work of nine historic potters and a large collection of 
Bergen County Indian pottery fragments. Of special in- 
terest to us were the articles and histories of the early local 
clay industries. On lower Hudson Street Jacques Mirgot 
had a pottery bake shop, 1869-72. Four flour pots from 
his shop have been given us. Near River Edge, 1830-50, 
George Wolfkill had a pottery bake shop. Two of his 
earthen pie dishes that never had been used were exhibited. 
These are such fine specimens of early slip decoration the 
association wants to purchase one. An historical article on 
Bergen County clay industries on the Hackensack River, 
1835-1915, was asked for by the association and given. 

Jersey City is called the cradle of New Jersey pottery, 
and it is very interesting to know that Hackensack had 



68 ARCHIVE AND PROPERTY COMMITTEE 

quite an active part in rocking that cradle, through a colored 
woman who owned land on lower Hudson Street. She sold 
clay from 1847-69, that was carried by boats to the Jersey 
City Pottery and other places. It is said she paid $1,500 
for her land and sold for $15,000. 



CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS 



AS AMENDED TO FEBRUARY 2$, I915 



ARTICLE I 



This Society shall be known as the Bergen County His- 
torical Society. 

ARTICLE II 

Its object shall be the collection of natural history; 
papers incident to the civil, political, military and general 
history of Bergen County and adjoining counties in New 
Jersey and Rockland County, N. Y. ; genealogical, bio- 
graphical, and topographical information, and the diffu- 
sion of a sound historical taste and the encouragement of 
a patriotic sentiment. 

ARTICLE III 

The Society shall be made up of resident and corre- 
sponding members. Resident members shall be persons 
residing in Bergen County; corresponding members those 
residing elsewhere ; and both classes shall be chosen by open 
nomination and election at any regular or special meeting 
by the Society or by the Executive Committee at any meet- 
ing thereof. If a ballot be demanded, a majority of votes 
cast shall be necessary to a choice. Any corresponding 
member may become a resident member upon filing with the 
Secretary a written request therefor. 



70 CONSTITUTION AND BY- LA\V1S 

ARTICLE IV 

The Society shall hold the annual meeting on the Satur- 
day nearest the 19th of April, at which a general election 
of officers by ballot shall be had wherein a majority of the 
votes cast shall constitute a choice; and immediately there- 
after proceed to some suitable place and dine together. 
Special meetings may be called at any time by the Presi- 
dent, and at all meetings nine members shall be a quorum 
for the transaction of business. 

ARTICLE V 

Each member shall pay on or before the twenty-second 
day of February two dollars each year, or in satisfaction 
thereof a life membership fee of twenty dollars ; and mem- 
bers in arrears for dues two years or more, after notice in 
writing from the Treasurer, shall cease to be members. 

ARTICLE VI 

The officers of the Society shall be a President, ten Vice- 
Presidents, a Secretary and a Treasurer. The office of 
Secretary and Treasurer may be held by the same person. 
These officers, with the ex-Presidents and the chairmen of 
the standing committees, shall compose the Executive Com- 
mittee. The officers shall be chosen by ballot at the annual 
meeting, and shall hold their offices for one year, dating 
from the day after the annual meeting, or until their succes- 
sors shall be chosen. Any vacancy in the list of officers may 
be filled by the Executive Committee. 

ARTICLE VII 

The following Standing Committees shall be appointed 
by the President, to hold office for one year: Archives and 
Property ; Publication ; Historic Sites and Events ; Ancient 



CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS 71 

Cemeteries ; Wars and Revolutionary Soldiers' Graves ; 
Topographical and Historical Geography ; Genealogical and 
Biographical Subjects ; Colonial Household Furnishings 
and Belongings ; Membership. The person first named on 
a committee shall be its chairman unless the committee votes 
otherwise. 

ARTICLE VHI 

The President, or in his absence a Vice-President, or in 
their absence, a chairman, shall preside and have the cast- 
ing vote. He shall preserve order, decide all questions of 
order, subject to an appeal to the Society, and appoint all 
committees unless otherwise ordered. 

ARTICLE IX 

The Secretary shall keep minutes and records of the 
Society, make and furnish certificates of membership, and 
have the custody of papers and documents deposited with 
the Society, subject to the authority and oversight of the 
Executive Committee, and discharge such other duties as 
may be required of him by the Society or the Executive 
Committee ; shall make a report of the transactions of the 
Society at the annual meeting, and shall conduct such cor- 
respondence as may be entrusted especially to him by the 
Society or the Executive Committee. 

ARTICLE X 

The Treasurer shall collect, receive, keep and pay out 
such funds as may come to the Society, subject to the con- 
trol of the Executive Committee, keep an account of the 
receipts and disbursements, rendering a statement thereof 
to the annual meeting, and shall give a bond with approved 
security for the faithful performance of his duty. 



72 CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS 

ARTICLE XI 

The Executive Committee are charged with the duty of 
soliciting and receiving donations for the Society, recom- 
mending plans for promoting its objects, digesting and 
preparing business, authorizing the disbursement of the 
Society's funds, and generally superintending and guarding 
the interests of the Society. At all meetings of the Execu- 
tive Commitee five members shall be a quorum. The 
Executive Committee shall be convened by notice from the 
Secretary. 

ARTICLE XII 

In case of the dissolution of the Society, its books, 
papers and collections of every sort shall belong to and be 
delivered to the Johnson Free Public Library of Hacken- 
sack for the use and benefit of that association, if not con- 
trary to the stipulation of the donor. 

ARTICLE XIII 

At the regular meeting of the Society the following 
order of business shall be observed : 

1. Reading minutes of previous meeting. 

2. Reports and communications from officers. 

3. Reports of Executive and other committees. 

4. Nomination and election of members. 

5. Miscellaneous business. 

6. Papers read and addresses delivered. 

ARTICLE XIV 

Alterations or amendments of this Constitution and 
By-laws may be made by the Society or by the Executive 
Committee on a two-thirds vote of the members present, 
provided that notice of the proposed alteration or amend- 
ment shall have been given at a previous meeting. 



BERGEN COUNTY HISTORICAL 
SOCIETY 



LIST OF PRESIDENTS 



1902— 1915 

Hon. W. M. Johnson 1902-03 

Cornelius Christie 1903-04 

T. N. Glover 1904-05 

Hon. Cornelius Doremus 1905-06 

B. H. Allbee 1906-07 

Byron G. Van Home, M. D 1907-08 

W. D. Snow 1908-09 

Hon. D. D. Zabriskie 1909-10 

F. L. Zabriskie 1910-1 1 

H. B. Goetschius 191 1-12 

M. J. Bogert 1912-13 

Robert T. Wilson 1913-14 

Mrs. Frances A. Westervelt 1914-15 

LIFE MEMBERS 

Allbee, Burton H Paterson 

Allison, William O Englewood 

Cameron, Alpin J Ridgewood 

Foster, W. Edward Hackensack 

Green, Allister New York 

Preston, Veryl New York 

Voorhis, Charles C New York 

Zabriskie, A. C New York 



74 BERGEN COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



HONORARY MEMBERS 



Bogert, Isaac D Westwood 

Vroom, Rev. William , Ridgewood 

Demarest, Milton Hackensack 



MEMBERSHIP LIST 



Abbott, John C Fort Lee 

Ackerman, Daniel D Closter 

Adams, Dr. Charles F Hackensack 

Adams, Robert A Saddle River 

Asmus, Grover E West Hoboken 

Bennett, Henry N Hackensack 

Bierbrier, Edward Saddle River 

Bird, Eugene K Hackensack 

Blauvelt, J. H Paramus 

Bogert, Andrew Englewood 

Bogert, Matt J Demarest 

Bogert, Daniel G Englewood 

Bogert, Albert Z River Edge 

Bogert, Cornelius V. R Bogota 

Boyd, John T., Jr Hackensack 

Brinkerhoff, Charles V Hackensack 

Britton, William R East Orange 

Cafferty, Charles Hackensack 

Cane, Fred W Bogota 

Coggeshall, H. Ingersoll Midland Park 

Cooper, Richard W New Milford 

Cosse, Edwin F Paterson 

Criss, Hugo F Hohokus 



BERGEN COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 75 

Crum, Fred H River Edge 

Crum, Mrs. Fred H River Edge 

Cubberly, Nelson A GlenRock 

Curtis, Grover D 51 East 58th St., New York 

Curtis, Charles Hackensack 

Dalrymple, C. M Hacknsack 

De Baun, Abram Hackensack 

De Baun, Airs. Abram Hackensack 

Delemater, P. G Ridgewood 

Demarest, Jacob R Englewood 

Demarest, James E Westwood 

De Ronde, Philip New York 

Diaz, Jose M Hackensack 

Doremus, Cornelius Ridgewood 

Eckert, George M Saddle River 

Englehart, Charles Ridgefield 

Esler, John G Saddle River 

Goetschius, Howard B Little Ferry 

Goetschius, D. M Little Ferry 

Grunow, Julius S Hackensack 

Haggerty, M. L Hackensack 

Haring, Tunis A Hackensack 

Hay, Clyde B Hackensack 

Hester, Earl L. D Hasbrouck Heights 

Howell, Mrs. Henrietta D Hackensack 

Jacobus, M. R Ridgefield 

Jeffers, Daniel G Hackensack 

Jeffers, Mrs. Daniel G Hackensack 

Johnson, William M Hackensack 

Johnson, James Le Baron Hackensack 

Kelder, Rev. Edward Englewood Cliffs 

Kipp, James Tenafly 

Keiser, Isaac B Hohokus 

Lang, Dr. E. A Palisade 



76 BERGEN COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

Liddle, Joseph G New York 

Linkroum, Courtland Hackensack 

Linn, William A Hackensack 

Mabie, Clarence Hackensack 

Mabon, John S Hackensack 

Marinus, John A Rochelle Park 

Metz, A. Russell, Jr Hackensack 

Meyer, Francis E Closter 

Morrison, William J., Jr Ridgefield Park 

Morrow, Dwight W Englewood 

Packer, J. E Hohokus 

Parigot, George W Allendale 

Piatt, Daniel F Englewood 

Potter, George M Allendale 

Ramsey, John R Hackensack 

Richardson, Myron T Ridgewood 

Riker, Theo Paterson 

Rogers, Henry M Tenafly 

Sage, L. H Hackensack 

Sloat, B. F Ridgewood 

Spear, William M Leonia 

Snyder, George J Ridgewood 

Stagg, Edward Leonia 

Stewart, Dr. H. S Hackensack 

Staib, P. C Hackensack 

Staib, Mrs. P. C Hackensack 

St. John, Dr. David Hackensack 

Tallman, William Englewood 

Terhune, C. W Hackensack 

Terhune, P. Christie Hackensack 

Terhune, Mrs. P. Christie Hackensack 

Thompson, Robert W., Jr Ridgefield 

Vail, Carl M Ridgewood 

Vail, William L Fairview 



BERGEN COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 77 

Van Buskirk, Arthur Hackensack 

\^an Home, Dr. Byron G Englewood 

Van Nest, Rev. J. A Ridgewood 

Van Winkle, Arthur W Rutherford 

Van Wagoner, Jacob Ridgewood 

Voorhis, Rev. John C Bogota 

Wakelee, Edmund W New York 

Wandell, Francis Livingston Saddle River 

Wandell, Mrs. Francis Livingston Saddle River 

Watt, Salina F Hackensack 

Wells, Benjamin B Hackensack 

Wells, George E Hackensack 

W^estervelt, Mrs. F. A Hackensack 

Wilson, Richard T Ridgewood 

Wilson, Robert T Saddle River 

Wood, Robert J. G Leonia 

Woodman, Charles Ridgewood 

Wright, Wendell J Hackensack 

Zabriskie, David D Ridgewood 

Zabriskie, Everett L Ridgewood 



78 



BERGEN COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



Bogart, Peter B., Jr Bogota 

Brinkerhoff, A. H Rutherford 

Christie, Cornelius Leonia 

Clark, Edwin Ridgewood 

Currie, Dr. Daniel A Englewood 

Demarest, A. S. D Hackensack 

Demarest, Isaac I Hackensack 

Dutton, George R Englewood 

Easton, E. D Areola 

Edsall, Samuel S Palisade 

Haggin, Mrs. L. T 

Hales, Henry Ridgewood 

Holdrum, A. C Westwood 

Labagh, William O Hackensack 

Lane, Jesse New Milford 

Lane, Mrs. Jesse New Milford 

Lawton, L Parker Ridgewood 

Nelson, William Paterson 

Romaine, Christie Hackensack 

Sanford, Rev. Ezra T New York 

Shanks, William Hackensack 

Snow, William D Hackensack 

Terhune, Peter O Ridgewood 

Van Buskirk, Jacob New Milford 



« 



SUPPLEMENT TO 1914 CATALOGUE 



Gift of the entire publication of Volume No. Ten: 250 
Copies, Year 191 5, of the Papers and Proceedings of the 
Bergen County Historical Society. 



Books 

Two Vols., Officers and Men in the Civil War.— Gift of 

Mrs. H. E. Hamilton. 
Four Vols., Johnson's Dictionary, Published 1804. — Gift 

of A. S. D. Demarest. 
The Van Winkle Record. Genealogical. — Gift of W. O. 

Allison. 
Three Vols., Holland Society Year Books, 1904-5-6.— 

Gift of J. G. Ackerman. 
The Star Spangled Banner. Sonneck.— Gift of Library of 

Congress. 
Bureau of Statistics of New Jersey, 1913. 
Three Vols., Architectural Record, containing article, illus- 
trated. Some Early Dutch Houses in N. J.— Gift of 

John Boyd, Jr., the author. 
Atlas of Bergen County, N. J., 1776-1876. A. H. Walker. 

Revolutionary. — Gift of Mr. Cruett. 
New Jersey Historical Collections. Barber.— Purchased. 
One Hundred B. C. H. S. Year Books. Catalogue. 
The Chas. G. King Collection of Books on Customs, 1914. 

Index.— Gift of the Western Reserve Historical 

Society. 
Accounts of General Washington with the United States, 

June, 1775-1783. — Gift of W. A. Linn. 



80 SUPPLEMENT TO 1914 CATALOGUE 

The Tribute Book. A record of the Munificence, Self- 
sacrifice and Patriotism of the American People during 
the War for the Union. Frank B. Goodrich, 1865. — 
Gift of Mr. Cruett. 

Almanac and Year Book, First National Bank, Woodstown, 
N. J., 1915. Historical. 

Two Vols., Journal Continental Congress, vols. 22, 23, 1782. 
— Gift of Library Congress. 

History of the Colony of Nova-Caesaria, or New Jersey. 
Samuel Smith.— Gift of W. O. Allison. 

The John Bogart Letters, 1776- 1782. Revolutionary. — 
Compliments of the Pres. of Rutgers College. 

Three Vols., Proceedings of New Jersey Historical Society, 
1908-09-09. Van Buskirk Genealogy. — Exchange. 

Bound Vol., Christian Advocate and Journal, Aug. 1825- 
1837.— Gift. 



Household Articles 
Dutch, or Roasting Oven. — Brinkerhoff, Polifly Road. 
Kitchen Candle Stick. — Brinkerhoff, Polifly Road. 
Foot Stove. — Brinkerhoff, Polifly Road. 
Deed Box, decorated tin. — Brinkerhoff, Polifly Road. 
Wafer Iron, with Initials "J. B." and "E. B." — John Berry 

and Elizabeth Terhune. 
Four Hand-made Strawberry Baskets. — J. Berry. 
Waflle Iron. — J. Berry. 
Six Hand-made Baking Tins. — J. Berry. 
Indian Hammer, found on Brinkerhoff Farm, Woodridge. 

— Gift of Mrs. Margretta Berry Conant. 
German Silver Ladle. — Gift of Mrs. Margretta Berry 

Conant. 
Framed Picture of the Brinkerhoff Family Reunion. — Gift 

of Mrs. Margretta Berry Conant. 
Colonial Lock, with Brass Knobs. — Gift of the Misses Kipp. 



SUPPLEMENT TO 1914 CATALOGUE 81 

Four Home-made Wooden Articles — Dipper, Butter Ladle, 
Butter Stamp and Scoop. — Gift of the Misses Kipp. 



Colonial Household Articles 

Soup Tureen and Platter, "Willow" design. — Gift of Miss 
Margretta Westervelt. 

Sugar Bowl, early glass. — Gift of Miss Margretta Wester- 
velt. 

Earthen Pie Dish, with slip decoration (never used). Made 
at George Wolf kill's Pottery Bake Shop, 1840, below 
River Edge, on the bend of the river. — Gift of W. O. 
Allison. 



Miscellaneous 

Large Wooden Shoe, bought in Holland.— Gift of Mrs. 

Catherine Van Buskirk. 
Section of a Deer's Horn, used to splice rope. — Loaned 

by Mr. J. C. Blauvelt. 
Cannon Ball, five inches. Plowed up on the Kipp Farm, 

Schraalenburgh, after the Revolution. — Loaned by 

Mr. J. C. Blauvelt. 
Collection of Bergen County Indian Potsherds and Four 

Arrow Heads. — Gift of Prof. Frank G. Speck. 
Bricks, from site of first yard in Hackensack. 1853. — Gift. 
Collection of "Dolls of All Nations."— Loaned by Miss 

Florence Angle St. John. 
Small Trunk, brass studded, 100 years old. — Loaned by 

Mrs. Francis C. Howell. 
Sand Shaker ; containing sand for drying ink when writing. 

Is very crude in workmanship, and old. — Loaned by 

Mrs. Francis C. Howell. 

6 



82 SUPPLEMENT TO 1914 CATALOGUE 



One Pair of old Hand-painted Button Screws, used to 
hold back curtain. — Loaned by Mrs. Francis C. Howell. 

Sugar Tongs ; silver, hand-made, about 1790. — Loaned by 
Mrs. Francis C. Howell. 



Revolutionary 

Hand-made Bayonet and Crude Leather Case. — Gift of 
Miss Margrette Westervelt. 

Powder Horn ; crude leather. — Gift of Miss Margrette 
Westervelt. 

Knapsack; crude leather; marked "T. R. U STATES." 
Used by T. Ralphson in Revolutionary War. — Gift of 
Miss Margrette Westervelt. 

Home-spun and Hand-made Linen Shirt, made from a 
funeral Scarf. — Loaned. 

Large Collection of Samples of "Home-spun" Linens and 
Woolens. — Gift of F. A. Westervelt. 

Home-spun Linen, from Berdan Home, that stood on the 
site of the Johnson Library. — Gift of Mrs. J. W. 
Bogert. 

Specimens of Fine Flax, Bleached Linen Thread, Un- 
bleached Linen Thread, and a piece of Home-spun 
Linen. — Grown and spun on Haring Farm at Closter. 

Flax Hetchel.— Gift of F. A. Westervelt. 

Trammel and Hooks from fireplace. — Gift of F. A. Wester- 
velt. 

Four Sleys, for linen weaving. — Gift of Mrs. Henry C. 
Smith. 

Embroidered Cape. — Gift of Mrs. M. L. Lutes. 

White Marseilles Wedding Vest (1830), embroidered with 
cooing doves and flowers ; hand-made. — Gift. 

China Tea Pot, over 100 years old ; Lustre decoration. — 
Loaned by Mrs. C. E. Loper. 



SUPPLEMENT TO 1914 CATALOGUE 83 

Antique China Plate. — Loaned by Mrs. W. E. Harper. 
Two Brass Candle Sticks. — Loaned by Mrs. T. E. Van 

Stone. 
Brass, Three-jointed Swinging Candle Stick, over 100 years 

old ; formerly fastened between the oven and fireplace, 

and could be turned to light the oven or pots over the 

fire. 
Steel Candle Snuffers, 75 years old — Loaned by C. D. 

Haring. 
Old Two-tined Fork. — Loaned by C. D. Haring. 
Dutch "Double Door" Latch, from the Baron Steuben 

house, built 1752. — Gift. 
Brass Door Knob. Ames house, 1800. — Gift. 
Hand-wrought Sad Iron Stand ; used in Peter Bourdette's 

home during the Revolutionary period. — Loaned by 

Mrs. Allair. 
Four Small Flower Pots, made by a potter — Jacques Mirgot 

— on Hudson Street, Hackensack, 1867-73. — Gift of 

Nicholas Shafer. 



Photogr-\phs and Pictures 

Photograph of the Three Sections of the Bergen County 
Historical Society's Float in the parade on June 17, 
1914. — Gift of Charles Curtis. 

Frame for Above. — Gift of W. O. Allison. 

Pictures of Historical Buildings Xow (1914) Standing in 
Xew York erected prior to 1800. — Gift of Manhattan 
Banking Company. 

Photograph of Rev. Cornelius Blauvelt, of the True Re- 
formed Church. — Gift. 

Copy of a Rare Print of Old Xew York, the earliest pic- 
ture of original Xew York, 1717. — Gift. 

Picture of Hoboken. — 1830. — Gift. 



84 SUPPLEMENT TO 1914 CATALOGUE 

Framed Photograph, taken from an oil painting, of Rev. 
David Marinus, pastor of churches : Acquackanonck, 
Totowa and Pompton, 1752-1773. — Gift of John A. 
Marinus, great grandson. 

Framed Copy of Declaration of Independence, with Coats 

of Arms of 13 States.— Gift of A. R. Metz, Jr. 
Large Photograph of (South) Church, Schraalenburgh, 

erected 1799. — Gift of Mr. Chas. Curtis. 
Cut of (South) Church, Schraalenburgh. — B. C. H. S. 
Large Photograph of the Baron Steuben house, with insert 

of photograph of the tablet that was on the house. — 

Gift of Mr. Chas. Curtis. 
Some Early Dutch Houses in New Jersey. Illustrations of 

doorways, stairs, mantles and interiors. Published in 

Architectural Record. — Gift of John Boyd, Jr., the 

author. 

Historical Engravings of Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln, 
Hamilton, Franklin, Marshall. — Gift of John Mabon. 

Frames for Above. — Gift of W. O. Allison. 

Six Half-tone Plates of Appalachian Indian Pottery. — Gift 
of Christopher Wren, Curator of Archeology of the 
Wyoming Historical and Geological Society. 

Photograph of the ''76" Stone House, Tappan. — Gift of 
Mrs. Bacon. 

Half-tone Cut of Original "76 House" at Tappan. — Gift of 
W. A. Linn. 

Half-tone Cut of the Re-constructed "76 House" at Tappan, 
—Gift of W. A. Linn. 

Six Small Half-tone Cuts of Saddle River Houses. — Gift 

of Robert T. Wilson. 
Large Half-tone Cut of Paranius Church.— Gift of Robert 

T. Wilson, 



SUPPLEMENT TO 1914 CATALOGUE 85 

The First National Bank of Woodstown, N. J. ; 50th Anni- 
versary Pictorial Souvenir, 1864- 19 14. 

Photographs of ex-Presidents of the Society: Hon. W. M. 
Johnson and Byron G. Van Home, M. D. 

Illustrated Souvenir of Hackensack Dramatic Association, 
May, 1894, fifth season. — Gift of W. A. Linn. 



Pamphlets and Newspapers 

Parable of the Prodigal Son, in the Jersey Dutch — Written 
and presented by Hon. John D. Prince. 

The Bergen County Watchman, Hackensack and Engle- 
wood, February 22, 1873 ; L. D. Hay, editor. — Gift 
of Miss F. Kipp. 

The Daily Citizen, Vicksburg, Miss., July 2, 1863 ; printed 
on wall paper. — Gift of Miss Isabel Shotwell. 

List of Stockholders of Hackensack Hall and Armory As- 
sociation, December 21, 1887. — Gift of W. A. Linn. 

Song, Tribute to Old Glory. (Gettysburg, 50 years after.) 
— Composed and presented by John A. Marinus, Ser- 
geant Co. D, 22nd Reg., N. J. Vol. Inf. 



Pamphlets 



The Pottery and Porcelain of New Jersey ; prior to 1876. — 

Gift of Newark Museum Association. 
The Clay Products of New Jersey ; at the present time. — 

Gift of Newark Museum Association. 
Ships and Shipping of Old New York. — Gift of the Bank 

of Manhattan Company. 



Withdrawn, 1914 
Revolutionary Gun and Doll's Cradle. — By Chas. Curtis. 






^ =Mi 



Papers 

and 

Proceedings 



1915-1916 

NUMBER ELEVEN 



Bergen County 
Historical Society 



Democrat Print <^^> Hackensack. N. J. 



-z 



~- ■■ o-f 



'-?. 



Papers and Proceedings 



OF THE 



Bergen County Historical Society 
1915^1916 

NUMBER ELEVEN 



List of Officers 1915-1916 

Wind- Jammers of the Haekensack - - Eugene K. Bird 
''Facts and Figures" from Manuscripts 

Mrs. Frances A. Westervelt 
The Lutherans of Haekensack - David D. Demarest, D. D. 

Address Made in Presenting to Leonia the 
Washington Commemorative Tablet 

George Heber Jones, D, D. 
A Bibliography of Publications. 
Reports of Committees and Officers. 
List of Ex-Presidents. 
List of Members. 
In Memoriam. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 
Wind-Jammers of the Haekensack. 
An Early Demarest Homestead. 
Cane of Peter P. Demarest. 
Signatures to Deed. 

Home of Jacobus Demarest at New Bridge. 
White Blanket of 1800. 
Indian Blanket, 
Blue and White Blanket. 
Strawberry Baskets. 
Home of Abraham DeVoe. 
Certificate of Loyalty. 
Homespun Blanket. 



CORRECTIONS TO BE MADE IN YEAR BOOK 1915. 



First — On page 7 date of the erection of the Andre Prison 
should be 1755 instead of 1775. 

Second — On page 40, fifth line from bottom, for the year 
1628 should be substituted the year 1682. 

TJiird — The following criticism by Mrs. Frances A. Wester- 
velt has been made on Mr. Christie's paper. On page 46 he 
is in error when he states that David Demarest, who he found 
was an elder in the Old Dutch Church at Hackensack, June, 
1750, was a son of the French pioneer. It is a long way as 
far as human life is concei'ued between 1677 and 1750. 
From manuscript volume of Debaun's records from original 
notes, Yost Debaun married Elizabeth Drabba, came to this 
country 1680. Their daughter Matie married David Dema- 
rest, son of Samuel Demarest, one of the original settlers (son 
of David, the pioneer), November 10th, 1705. Was read in 
church membership Hackensack, April 6tii, 1706, and Matie, 
his wife, the same date. The David Demarest mentioned as 
an elder in the Hackensack Church, June, 1750, was a son of 
Samuel and grandson of David, Sr., of 1677. This is from 
original document in the possession of the Bergen County 
Historical Society. 



U?ho 



Bergen Countg Historical Societp. 



Hackensack, N. J., September 11, 1916. 

My Dear Fellow Member : 

The Publication Committee takes pleasure in presenting to 
you the Society's Year Book of lesearch work done during the past 
year. This is a record of interesting and valuable historical facts. 
Wj trust you will carefully examine its contents and be stimulated 
with a desire to assist in making this year's efforts of the Society 
equally successful. 

Now is the time to collect and record Bergen County History. 
The loss of documents and the passing away of the older residents 
makes it harder each year to supply the missing links in the chain 
of historical events. Planning for the future comes more natural to 
us than trying to recall the past, but a knowledge of the past is a 
valuable asset in future undertakings. 

Can you not personally assist in bringing to the notice of the 
executive committee some historical facts relating to Bergen County? 
Can you not recomm.end for membership into the Society residents 
who would like to see a more complete history of Bergen County ? 

This is the fifteenth year that the Society has been organized 
and we trust that you will help make it the best we have ever had. 
The executive committee is planning to have a meeting of the 
Society in our new quarters at the Library in the Fall at which time 
the Allison prizes will be awarded. Further notice of this will be 
given and we trust you will be present. 

With kind regards and again soliciting your interest in an 
active year for the Society, 1 beg to remain 



Faithfully yours, 



C. V. R. BOGERT. 

President. 



OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1015-16. 



PRESIDENT 

Mrs. Fr.\nces A. Westervelt Hackensack 

VICE-PRESIDENTS 

William 0. Allison Englewood 

Robert A. Adams Saddle River 

M. R. Jacobus Ridgefield 

Fred H. Crum River Edge 

Edward Stagg Leonia 

Francis L. Wandell Saddle River 

Rev, Edw^vrd Kelder Coytesville 

David D. Ackerman Closter 

Eugene K. Bird Hackensack 

secretary and treasurer 
Cornelius V. R. Bogert 167 Main Street, Hackensack 

the officers, ex-presidents and the following members 
compose the executive committee 

WiLLL\M A. Linn Hackensack 

Rev. John C. Voorhis Bogota 

Miss Salina F. Watt Hackensack 

Arthur Van Busklrk Hackensack 

archives and property COMMITTEE 

Mrs. Frances A. Westervelt Hackensack 

Hon. WiLLLiM M. Johnson Hackensack 

John A. IVIarinus Rochelle Park 

Arthur Van Buskirk Hackensack 

publication committee. 

Byron 6. Van Horne, M. D., Chairman Englewood 

WiLLLiM 0. Allison Englewood 

Robert T. Wilson * Saddle River 

Hon William M. Johnson Hackensack 

Official Photographer Charles Curtis 



The Publication Committee of the Bergen County His- 
torical Society will be pleased to receive any authentic his- 
torical data or arty historical article relating to Bergen 
County, 

The Committee takes it for granted that each contributor 
in presenting data or papers will consider it of sufficient 
value to have it published in the year book. 

To be of historical value, it is absolutely necessary that the 
facts stated shall be accurate and the dates correct. While 
the Committee will use every care to eliminate any mistake 
that they may find, nev(!rtlieless they will assume no re- 
sponsibility for any of the statements or accuracy of dates 
made by the contributors. 

The Committee would appreciate it very much if any one 
detecting errors or, if any one can give additional informa- 
tion in regard to any paper contributed, he would communi- 
cate the same to the Committee. It will add much to the 
historic value of any article to tell whence the information 
was derived and, if from a manuscript or book, the title and 
page be given. 




-! 



L 




A "Wind-Jammer" of the Hackensack 



WIND-JAMMERS OF THE HACKEXSACK. 

By Eugene K. Bird, 

Editor of The Hackensaek Republican. 



" Wind- Jammer " is a derisive term applied to sailing 
vessels, and men employed on them, by those who claim the 
greater dignity of association Anth steam craft. The title 
goes as well with the mean'est Japanese junk as with, stately 
clippers, majestic full-rigged ships in the Far East and 
Atlantic trade that jammed on all possible sail to make quick 
voyages and thereby gain bonuses offered by consignees or 
owners who profited by getting goods on the market ahead of 
rivals. 

Wind-jammers of the Hackensaek were far different vessels 
— they were piraguas, sloops and schooners — unpretentious 
craft, which nevertheless filled quite as important a place in 
their humble sphere as did the great argosies with towering 
masts and wonderful spread of canvas braving every stress 
of weather on the seven seas ; even the uncouth piragua 
(Spanish, piragua; French, pirogue; English periauger; a 
dugout canoe; the same widened by cutting in two and in- 
serting planks in the bottom and at the ends ; also, a two- 
masted flat-bottomed boat, undecked except sometimes at the 
ends,) had its legitimate mission in former days, when it 
was frequently an object of interest moving sluggishly with 
the tide and such wind as could be induced to fill sail or 
sails. A full-rigged ship under all canvas is said to be one 
of the most inspiring sights that can greet the eye at sea, 
and when to the picture is added the flag of one's country 
floating free in the wind, he is a stolid and unpatriotic clod 
who does not feel a sensation of enthusiasm akin to that of 
meeting friends after long absence. Such a man would be 
as Peter Bell — 

A primrose by a river's brim 
A yellow primrose was to him, 
And it was nothing more. 

So, with all its unromantic lines and general unattractive- 
ness, the periauger was a picturesque object when seen across 
the meadows as it moved upon the water with only mast and 
sail in view. The broad stretches of our swampland with 
thousands of acres of tall grass billowing in the summer 
breeze, and the ravishing color schemes of fall flowers that 



6 WIND-JAMMERS OF THE HAavEXSACK 

set the borderland aflame, have been a theme for many de- 
scriptive and poetic pens. Thus Owen Terry writes of ''The 
Marshlands ' ' : 

Oh, the marshlands of New Jersey: 

Oh, the broad moors near the sea, 
Where the salt winds off the ocean 

"Wander far and fast and free ! 

Oh, the tides in winding channels 

Hidden in the meadow grass, 
Where with hulls unseen, ghost vessels, 

Gliding schooners bayward pass ; 

And the nodding and the lisping 

Of the zephyr-haunted sedge, 
And the mallow's flaming petals 

On the sluggish ditch's edge; 

And the meadow lark, sky scaler, 

Mounting up on tiny wings, 
Flooding upper space with music 

Largesse, free, but fit for kings; 

And the fleecy flocks of cloudland, 

Browsing o'er their sunny leas, 
And the flitting of their shadows, 

Placing with each vagrom breeze ! 

Oh, the brave life of the marshes, 
Jersey's moorlands, green and ^^^de; 

And the brotherhood that crowns it, 
Blowing wind and flowing tide! 

Between these marshlands the Red Man paddled his birch- 
bark or dugout canoe centuries before the wind-jammers of 
the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries sailed the waters of 
the crooked Hackensack. And those who came in (chiefly 
from Holland) to occupy the lands of the disappearing 
Indians found the river their most convenient channel for 
travel and transportation, even as they and their forbears 
had utilized the rivers and canals of the homeland. It may 
be interesting to note that the disreputable looking old dug- 
out, found buried in the nuid of the river's bank some years 
ago and now preserved among the Historical Society's relics, 
is a ship; for the etymology of the word shows that, in its 
origin, "ship" was something shaped — as the trunk of a tree 
scooped out and shaped to glide safely and smoothly through 
the water. 

But to the " Wind-jammers of the Hackensack," the 
periaugers, sloops and schooners that connected trade of the 



if 



WIXD-JAMMERS OF THE HACKEN'SACK 7 

Hackensack Valley with city and other marts. The men who 
manned the craft were a rugged class, some of them braving 
dangers of the deep, even to shipAvreck and destruction, 
while others pursued the safer courses in the bays and rivers 
around Manhattan, and as far north as Albany on the 
Hudson ; the last a trip barbarously monotonous in seasons 
of baffling winds. 

The old-time boats were general freighters, especially on 
the return voyage, when they carried all manner of merchan- 
dise for individuals and stores as far up the Hackensack as 
the head of navigation at Xew Milford. There Jacob and 
Henry Van Buskirk had a noted grist mill, where grain was 
ground for individuals, and flour as well as animal feed were 
shipped in large quantities. In addition to groceries, 
muslins, boots, shoes, hardware, farming implements, etc., 
liberal supplies of "fire-water" were shown on the manifests 
of a century and more ago, indicating that the people of that 
period were not concerned about prohibition even though 
they may have been temperate in using the cup that could 
cheer and inebriate — could fiil the mind with rainbow dreams, 
visions of houris and peris, drive out carking cares of life 
and bring in beams of brilliant sunshine; for all of which 
Natui'e had her compensation : when the veil was rent by 
the morning's glow ten thousand devils reigned in the brain 
cells, drove out the kaleidoscopic visions turning the inflamed 
grey matter with redhot forks and tapping the walls with 
fiery hammers. Glancing at an old account book of 1797 it 
is seen that one sloop carried in six months eight hogsheads 
spirits, two tierces spirits, four tierces porter, barrels and 
"cags" of spirits, many pipes of wine; two hogsheads, six 
tierces and five barrels of " ' mathiglen. " But there is noth- 
ing surprising in this ; nearly everybody drank some form of 
liquor, and down to a much later date farm hands had their 
"little brown jug" of rum or applejack for companionship 
in hay and grainfield. Xot all the strong drink came up the 
river, however: large consignments of applejack (the real 
article) were shipped from Bergen County distilleries to Xew 
York and the South, for it was then a famous beverage. 

River Edge, where Captain Stephen Lozier had a general 
store, was one of the important "ports" of the Hackensack. 
Tradition tells us that two substantial sloops were launched 
from a "shipyard" below the bridge early in the last 
centuiy. Here, in the winter and early spring, long lines 
of woodsleds awaited their turn to unload, and by the time 
navigation opened thousands of cords of wood in great rows 
were ready for shipment to the city and the South. 

James Blair, a gentleman whose years carry his memory* 
far in retrospection, tells of the schooner Charity, which ran 



8 WIND-JAMMERS OF THE HACKEXSACK 

on the river in the thirties of eighteen hundred ; and he had a 
bill, dated March 24, 1842, for making mainsail, foresail, 
gafftopsail and jib for the schooner A. C. Zabriskie, Avho was 
owner and captain of the boat. Mr. Blair's father was the 
sailmaker; he and a partner had their sail lofts on West 
Street, New York, where they fitted out many clippers and 
other full-rigged ships that won fame on the Atlantic and 
Pacific. 

And this brings us to the vehicles of carriage of merchan- 
dise. One of the best known up-river boats of earlier days 
was the Kate LawTence, OAAaied by the Van Buskirks of New 
Milford. She was first commanded by Captain Joe White- 
head, and then by Captain "Bob," a colored man whose 
surname, if it ever existed, does not appear on the tablets of 
time. The Kate Lawrence was caught in the ice near the 
Peter I. Ackerman place (north of Captain Phelps' Red 
Towers) and destroyed by fire. Another early boat was the 
Stewart, a lumber and coal schooner of which Dick Hawkey, 
one of the most fearless men on the river, was captain. The 
Jasper, owTied by the Demarests of Old Bridge, was a noted 
freighter that afterward became the John Lovett in the brick 
trade. The Farmer, Captain David A. Zabriskie of New 
Bridge, owner and master, plowed the raging river for sev- 
eral years and then laid her hull to rest on the jagged rocks 
of Bergen Point, her cargo of potatoes going to feed the mer- 
maids of Newark Bay and the Kills. 

Captain David A. Bogert, a brother of Andrew, also ran 
a schooner, in the coast and Long Island Sound trade. He 
was knoA^Ti as the most fastidious captain who walked the 
deck of a Hackensack sailing craft. It is told of him that 
when he saw a vessel approaching which would pass near, he 
called for his frock coat and "stovepipe" hat (marks of 
dignitj^ and distinction), and thus attired would salute with 
the grace of an admiral on quarterdeck parade. But in 
stress of weather, when winds raved and sang through the 
rigging, Dandy Dave Bogert was in his element, as cool and 
masterful as the captain of a seventy-four frigate maneuver- 
ing to pour a broadside into an enemy. He carried every 
thread of canvas the masts would stand under, and caused the 
foam to fly from the bows in wide-rolling waves. 

A large and staunch schooner was Christian Cole's Henry 
Brown of New Bridge, in the Albany and coast trade but 
doing general freighting; a fast sailer that maintained the 
lead of a steam freighter from New York to near the flats 
south of Albany. Barney Cole's Onward carried coal, wood 
and lime. So did the Caleb Wood, Captain Tom lianta, her 
name being changed to that of her owner, Ira W. Hoover; 
she was subsequently sailed in Chesapeake Bay trade by 



WIND-JAMMERS OF THE HACKENSACK 9 

Captain Joseph Kiiizley, who became a noted veteran of the 
brick fleet on the river, and is now a "land lubber" basking 
in the gathering shadows of time, enjoj'ing well-earned peace 
as an employe of the connty. 

The Two Sisters was commanded by Captain Henry Berry. 
And the A. 0. Zabriskie was run by Captain Dave Pareells, 
succeeded by Captain Henry Lozier, two of the most cele- 
brated men on the Hackensack. 

Among some noted sailing craft of the sixties and seventies 
were the John Anderson, commanded by Captain Berry and 
later by Captain Patrick Brown, father of "Strong-arm 
Bill" of the Hackensack police force; the boat was in the 
Carolina trade, bringing north many cargoes of lumber, and 
shingles that were split and trimmed here. The Mary B. 
Kimball ; the Dr. Hasbrouck, named after the noted physician 
who was contemporaneous with Dr. "Hen." Hopper; the 
Tradesman, the Fashion, the John Lawrence, the Sunrise ; 
the Mary B. Jewitt, o^^^led and commanded by Captain 
Kinzley; the Mary McCabe — all came, had their day and 
passed to that "haven under the hill" where bleach the 
keels of triremes of old, stately ships, luggers and other craft 
of high and low degree. To many sailormen their ships were 
sentient entities, and their loss was occasion for sorrow. 

In later years a considerable fleet of brick schooners came 
into being and ran its destined course. The John Schmults, 
Fancy, Ophelia, Magic, William Low, Joseph Hammond, 
Elizabeth Washburn, Robert Blair, Samuel Cunningham, 
Albert G. Lawson, Philip Mehrhof; Stephen Underbill, 
changed to Annie Mehrhof ; Nicholas Mehrhof, Wm. S. Peck, 
Peter Mehrhof. Most prominent of the captains was Joe 
Kinzley, Sr., w^ho by seniority of service was the admiral of 
the fleet and retired from the quarterdeck a year ago (1915) ; 
Captains Fred and John Christie, two rugged sea dogs and 
able navigators ; Captain Mike Brown, Captain Hank Money, 
Captain Louis Bradbury; Captain George IMehrhof, one of 
the youngest but most competent sailors of his day, who did 
not live to attain great age, but had the esteem of all river- 
men; Captain Jack Fitzpatriek, Captains Patrick and Peter 
Fagan, Captain John Orth, Captain Walter Kinzley, and a 
few others not recalled. 

Five and six men constituted a crew, and naturally a num- 
ber of those in the service were not crowned with sainthood, 
for the life was not conducive to the development of high 
moral or social ideals. Many are the wild and roystering 
incidents related regarding them. One of these stories con- 
cerns the disregard for matters religious manifested by mis- 
chievous before-the-mast men who foregathered with certain 
bibulous chairmakers of Cherry Hill (North Hackensack, 



10 WIND-JAMMERS OF THE HACKEXSACK 

since the great cyclone). Instigated by the Devil, who was 
assisted by his insidious ally Apple Jack, these rakehellies 
attended a Sunday service where ''JMart" Vreeland, a local 
preacher, expounded the text, "Look not upon the wine when 
it is red." Familiar with the special wickedness of some of 
his congregation and the general worldliness of most of them, 
the preacher seemed inspired on that bright Sabbath after- 
noon, with the world bathed in the smile of God. He de- 
nounced sin in all its hideousness, telling the unregenerate 
what port they were steering for, and how some of them 
w^ould be engulfed in the lake of fire that never cools unless 
they took a true course for the harbor of salvation. Just 
then a fuddled wind-jammer cried out, "That's a damn lie." 
This interruption was passed by with a rebuke and caution- 
ary admonition, but when another disturber repeated the im- 
polite and emphatic contradiction the whole party w^as sum- 
marily compelled to w'alk the plank out of the holy temple. 
They returned to their cups while the "dominie" issued 
more vigorous fulminations against the sons of Belial and 
the "three-cent hell fire" that w^as "turning them into 
svidne. " Billy Sunday could not have given the incident a 
more lusty and waspish turn than did "Mart" Vreeland, 
who made no pretensions to sensational evangelism, counting 
himself but a meek follower of the Master. 

Wind-jammers continue to carry brick from the several 
yards of Schmults, the Mehrhofs, the Gardners, and others; 
but the glory of the old days ended with the passing of those 
who were actors in the old-time comedies and dramas of river 
life. The men who sailed out on their last voyage to the 
haven of the blessed are remembered by relatives and ship- 
mates who expect to greet them wiien their own craft shall 
beach upon the shining sands of eternity. 

Few serious disasters befell the Haekensack River sailor- 
men; but Captain Andrew^ Bogert, brother of Captain David 
A., and father of Cornelius A. Bogert, now a resident of 
Haekensack, was overtaken by the fate of so many who "go 
down to the sea in ships." Captain Andrew was master of 
the 300-ton schooner Judge Baker. He sailed from Sandy 
Hook on a Saturday morning in November, 1855, in tow by 
a sea tug that had another schooner, and he hoped to get to 
Philadelphia in time for church on Sunday. A terrific storm 
came up after they W'ere outside Sandy Hook headed south ; 
during the night the Judge Baker was lost by her tow and 
went ashore near Long Branch, proving a total loss with her 
valua])Ie cargo of dyestuft's. On Sunday morning the bodies 
of Captain Jiogert and his wife were washed asliore and re- 
covered ; no member of the crew was found. Instead of hear- 
ing worldly chimes on that Sunday morning, the devout 



WIXD-JA^^niERS OF THE HACKENSACK 11 

captain and his faithful helpmeet were listening to the music 
of the choir invisible that sings praise to the Lamb. 

While a steam-propelled vessel is not a wind-jammer, it is 
proper that reference should be made to such craft as played 
a part in Hackensack River trade. First of these on record 
w'as the Thomas Swan, owned by Schmults & Dunges, but 
she was found to draw too much water for the shallow 
channel. 

Next came the Hackensack, built at Belleville for Judge 
Huyler, John H. T. Banta and John S. Lozier. She was of 
175 tons, 110 feet long, 23 feet beam, and was commanded by 
Captain Henry Lozier, then a young man. Intended for the 
coal and lumber trade between Philadelphia, Albany and the 
Hackensack River, the boat was soon diverted to the more im- 
portant and profitable service of carrying suttlers' supplies 
from Philadelphia, New York and Washington to City Point, 
Va. The Hackensack was at City Point in April, 1865, while 
the last great battle of the Rebellion was being fought at 
Petersburg, Va. Captain Lozier tells us that the boom of 
the big guns could be distinctly heard when the wind was 
right, and at night the sky was illumined by the flash. It 
was a trying time for the Union men. General Fitzpatrick, 
provost marshal at City Point, ordered Captain Lozier to 
have his boat, the only steamer there, ready to tow away a 
fleet of sloops and schooners in case of disaster. This was 
unnecessary, as word came the following day that the rebels 
were defeated and in retreat for Richmond. 

The last steamboat to be owTied and run by Hackensack 
River men was the tug Wesley Stoney, also built at Belle- 
ville; she was the property of Captain D. Anderson Za- 
briskie, who was pilot, and Captain Henry Lozier, engineer. 
The Stoney, named in honor of a gentleman then of Cherry 
Hill, became known to all rivermen within the waters con- 
necting with New York harbor. She towed hundreds of 
scows and sailing vessels up and down the river. After be- 
ing sold by Captains Zabriskie and Lozier the tug was 
burned; rebuilt and called Elsie K., she continued in service 
until 1915, when she was sunk and her then captain drowned 
with her. 

There is prospect that the silent sail of wind-januuers of 
the Hackensack wall eventually disappear — give way to elec- 
tricity, the propelling power of the future. Then will 
romance and adventure have ceased to lure men to go down 
to the sea in ships; the broad reaches of the stream will no 
more see spreading canvas stretched abroad to catch the 
favoring wind. River life will be void of interest — a mourn- 
ful monotony. 



12 WIND-JAMMERS OF THE HACKENSACK 

Xo more will be heard the sympathetic exclamation of the 
old tar in a howling gale: 

''A strong nor 'wester 's blowing, Bill; 

Hark ! don 't you hear it roar, now ? 
Lord help 'em, how I pities them 

Unhappy folks on shore now!" 

Having exploited the wind-jammers proper, it may be ap- 
propriate to pay tribute to another, more dainty style of 
craft, designed for pleasure rather than to forward the in- 
terests of money-grubbers. This refers to the yacht class, 
those beautifully modeled boats that "walked the water like 
things of life." With tackle trim, sails filled and streamers 
waving, they were courted by the winds as a frolicsome flirt 
alluringly attired drew in her train susceptible gallants. Of 
the modern yacht there need be no mention, but going back 
more than half a century, here is a local item from The 
Journal, a Hackensack weekly, of the summer of 1858 : 

"The nautical spirit was strong upon some of the young 
men of the day, one of the leading spirits being John J. 
Anderson — in fact Uncle John was always one of the boys, 
ready for any legitimate diversion. Thus we find him com- 
mander of the yacht Ino, largest in the fleet on the river, 
sailing against the other tars of the to\\Ti. Christian Miller 
sailed the Rebecca, George Ackerman the Mary R., R. R. 
Hawkey the Ripple, C. Huyler the Flirt. The Ino, being 
the largest boat, had to give her competitors a handicap. 
The course was from Hackensack to Secaucus, but variable 
winds made it impossible to meet time requirements. So 
there was no race, and the beautiful silver cake basket was 
put away in its case," 

Let these vagrant lines pass on to their mission with a brief 
appreciation of a woman who was as much at home on or in 
the water as in the social circle. To man or woman his or 
her loved one never grows old. When sunset days crown the 
beauty of serene age, and the bride of the once beardless 
youth can say she has still "lost the husband in the lover," 
there is compensation in life of unspeakable value. So the 
friends of Mrs. John W. Schmults see in her smiling face and 
laughing eyes the "Kittie" Miller of earlier days: a woman 
with a remarkable record as a Diana of the chase, adventur- 
ous traveler, crack shot with the rifle, expert rower, swimmer 
and all-around athlete; and the first woman to ride a bicycle 
in Hackensack. As Kittie Miller, daughter of Captain Chris. 
Miller, she took part in a sailing race on the river. Her little 
craft, which skimmed the water like the flash of a swallow, 
was painted black on one side and gold on the other, thus 



WIND-JAMMERS OF THE HACKENSACK 13 

proving a great puzzle to the judges, who failed to recognize 
the "flicker" as it returned after rounding the stakeboat. 
Mrs. Sehmults is a familiar figure in Plackensaek today, and 
delights to recount the merry days of the La Favorita Boat 
Club, when there was real life on the then clean watei's of 
our river. 

Acknowledgement is made to Joseph Kinzley, Jr., son of Captain Kinzley, 
for valued material supplied for this paper. 



HACKENSACK TOWNSHIP, 

BERGEN COUNTY, 

PROVINCE OF EAST NEW JERSEY, 

1693. 

Facts and Figures from Eight Hundred Manuscripts, the 
Gift of Abraham R. Collins. 

Compiled by Frances A. Westervelt. 



These manuscripts, pertaining to the Township of Hacken- 
sack, date from 1742 (and by inference to almost a century 
earlier) to 1835 and touch on the lives of a people during 
three periods: Colonial, Revolutionary and the beginning of 
a government "By the People." 

The paper used (the writing being mostly in English) pos- 
sibly suggests the scarcity and value of paper. Many pieces 
bear two or three documents dated several years apart. 

They are written in ink, some still dark while others are 
faded. The spelling and penmanship in some cases are good 
and in many very poor. 

The signatures to the instruments are also interesting for 
while many are simply "his mark" some have signed their 
names and then affixed their "thumb mark" (as shown by 
cut). 

The deeds, some of which are on parchment, alone make 
an interesting collection and the close study of their contents 
required for this compilation, produces the impression that 
a personal acquaintance has been made of these worthy 
people of long ago. 

On the following pages will be found extracts from these 
manuscripts and it is the intention of the compiler to give 
to the Society a review of these important i)apers and to so 
arrange it that the interest of the reader will be retained. 

"Dutchland, beloved! Dear old New Jersey! 
Where the true hearted come forth as of yore; 
Winding thy rivers, fertile thy lowlands, 
Upward thy Palisades loom evermore." 

INTRODUCTION OF BERGEN COUNTY. 

1682. 

"The first session of the Colonial Assembly was held at 
Elizabeth Town March 1st, 1682. An act dividing the ter- 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 15 

ritory into four counties — Bergen, Essex, etc., was approved. 
For the first time commissioners were appointed to lay out 
roads, provide ferries and bridges; the militia was established 
upon a sound basis and jails and i)ounds were authorized in 
all counties." 

INTRODUCTION OF HACKENSACK TOWNSHIP. 

1692-3. 

The first division of the counties into townships was made 
pursuant to two acts of the Colonial Assembly, one approved 
in September 1692 and the other in October, 1693. The rea- 
son for this division was set forth in the preamble to the sec- 
ond of the above mentioned acts as follows : 

''Whereas, several things is to be done by the inhabitants 
of towTis, hamlets, tribes, or divisions within each county, as 
chusing of deputies, constables, &c., taxing and collecting 
of several rates for publick uses and making orders amongst 
themselves respectively about swine, fences, &c. " 

"Whereas, a great many settlements are not reckoned 
within any such town or division, nor the bounds of the re- 
puted to^\^ls ascertained by means thereof the respective con- 
stables know not. their districts, and many other inconven- 
iences arising from them, and fore as much as the act made 
in September, 1692, for dividing the several counties and 
townships the time for the returns of the said divisions, being 
too short and the method of dividing by county meeting in- 
convenient. Therefore, be it enacted, &c. " 

"It appears from this act that the ToAvnshhip of Ilacken- 
sack (this does not refer to the village of Hackensack, which 
was in the County of Essex and Township of New Barbadoes 
luitil 1709) was bounded on the north by the province line of 
New York, on the east by the Hudson River, on the south by 
corporation line of Bergen, and on the west by the Hacken- 
sack River." It was ten miles long and from three to five 
miles wide. It covered nearly the whole tableland of the 
Palisade Mountains, and the beautiful valley of the Hacken- 
sack. The scenery of this region, including the Palisades 
and the views of the Hudson and its valleys from their sum- 
mits, is picturesque and romantic. Here the Indians loved 
to roam before the advent of the white man and their bark 
canoes glided down the smooth waters of the Hackensack and 
Overpeck to their summer resorts on Staten Island. This 
was their avenue from Tappan to the Kill von Kull and out 
among the inlets and bays around New York." 



16 FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 

PERSONAL HISTORY OF THE DEMARESTS APPEAR- 
ING IN THESE PAPERS. 

David des Marie, whose date of landing in America is taken 
from an entry in emigrant's account-book, is as follows: 

"David des Marie from Picardie for passage and board, 
when he came here on board the Bonte Koe — Spotted Cow — 

the 16th of April, 1663 £39 

For his wife 39 

& four children of 18— 11— 6— &— 1 y £175—10—0." 

This David was the pioneer of the French Demarest fam- 
ilies who settled in this township, 1677. 

A LETTER RELATING TO THE ANCESTRAL PLACE 
OF THE NEW JERSEY FAMILY IN PICARDY. 

As you probably count among your readers many hun- 
dreds of Demarests in Hackensack and Schraalenburgh, you 
will, I hope, accord a welcome in your columns to an account 
of my visit to the ancestral village of Beauchamps, in Pic- 
ardy, from which Jean Demarest, the father of them all, set 
forth about 300 years ago. Last week, finding myself about 
to travel from Paris to London, I determined to see with my 
own eyes the village which I had so often painted in fancy. 
The journey is quite simple and may be accomplished by one 
day's detour on branch lines. My tickets allowing stop-over 
privileges at Abbeville, I left the fast express here and trans- 
ferred to the local trains, spending an hour's interval in 
wandering through the picturesque streets and churches of 
this ancient city. Here I came upon the name over a shop 
''Demarest." A ride of three hours in the local train Avitli 
the loquacious commercial traveler and the silent priest, 
buried in his tiny Testament, brought me after dark to the 
town of En, in Normandy. Here I spent the night at the 
excellent provincial Hotel du Commerce, which stands on the 
market place in the shadow of En's famous church. Here 
already I began to feel on my native heath, for as the intelli- 
gent bookseller of whom I bought my guide informed me, the 
town is swarming with Demarests, and its towers overlook 
the plains where, about four miles away, lies Beauchamps. 
An early morning train bi'ought me in about twenty minutes 
to Incheville, and upon debarking I could see the red-tiled 
roofs of Beauchamps not ten minutes' walk away. 

The village is well named, for it lies snugly in beautiful 
meadows, surrounded by high hills. The tiny river Bresle 
curves in and out along its borders in the shade of willows 




B. H. Allbee 



An Early Demarest House (builder and date unknown) 
East of River Edge 



FACTS AXD FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 17 

and poplars, and on crossing its bridge I stepped from Nor- 
mandy into Picardy, and found myself at last in the village 
of my ancestors. As I walked through the narrow streets 
past the old stone cottages people came out to stare in won- 
der, little guessing the strange nature of my visit. Many 
houses seemed old enough to have been standing when our 
emigrant Jean Demarest left the place to found a family in 
the New World. It is a dull and sleepy village today, but as 
I walked my imagination was busy picturing the excitement 
of the old days with their fierce quarrels or their narrow 
escapes. Passing the cafe, where one or two market wagons 
had halted, I followed the road up the hill to the church. 
This, except for a very new slate roof, is evidently the iden- 
tical old structure where undoubtedly Jean and his fellows 
refused to worship, a simple, unornate building of ancient 
date. As we approached, a flock of school children came out, 
followed by the cure, who disappeared into the milliner's 
shop opposite. Thinking he would be as intelligent as any 
one, I modestly knocked at the door and was shown into the 
milliner's parlors, where were the cure and several women. 
They were very much interested in our story and to learn 
that their village had thousands of descendants in the New 
World, and even a village named after one of its families. 
The cure, however, evidently loved old \nne better than old 
facts — called history — and could give no information on 
either church or village archives. If any records still exist 
they would be found at Amiens. 

The milliner pointed out to me the house, four doors below 
bers, which he called "la maison Demarest." In it lives 
Madame Alphonse Poignj-, whose maiden name was Augus- 
tine Demarest. Upon knocking, the door was opened by a 
woman of sixty — Madame Poigny herself. I endeavored to 
explain to her the strange nature of my visit. As I put it, 
she and I were undoubtedly cousins 300 years ago! "And 
you are still young!" exclaimed her husband to me, his vil- 
lage mind not being able at once to stretch three centuries 
and to comprehend at a flash so extraordinary a reason as 
mine for calling. When they really understood who I was 
the old lady was much interested. I asked her to A\Tite her 
name, which I only heard pronounced in the French, like 
Demare, and to my surprise she wrote "Demarest" — just as 
we spell it today in our new home. This is undoubtedly 
the correct spelling. The most astonishing fact about the old 
lady was that she had never heard of the Huguenots. How- 
ever, she was apparently very intelligent and well educated. 
She had light brown hair and large blue eyes, with a rarely 
sweet smile, and was evidently of an ingenuous and un- 
worldly nature. I felt towards her the greatest interest. She 



18 FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 



offered me the frigid hospitality of her "salon," but I pre- 
ferred to remain in the living-room. Here was a fireplace so 
big that we could sit in it and look up to the sky. Over the 
logs hung a kettle containing, I suppose, the family dinner. 
There was a tall clock and old copper and brass utensils shin- 
ing like mirrors. 

This Augustine Demarest-Poigny is the last to bear the 
name, her daughters bearing just the name of Poigny, then 
of their husbands. As this house had been built by her 
father, Pierre Demarest, madame directed us to a much older 
one, where her grandfather, Pierre, had lived. On descend- 
ing from the church I turned to the left on the high road to 
Gamaches. The house is some distance along on the right- 
hand, opposite the Cafe Le Paul. It is a very ancient stone 
building, Avith hedge-bordered gardens running down to the 
river Bresle, and numerous old stone barns. It is at present 
rented to a man named Flamaud. Whether our Jean, 300 
years ago, lived in this house on this site we mil probably 
never know, but the present structure bears evidence of being 
several centuries old. Bidding good-bye to madame, my 
cousin, I recrossed the bridge and walked over the "beautiful 
meadows" to the station, where I caught my last glimpse of 
Beauchamps, nestled in the trees. The visit had been full of 
interest, knowing as I did that I was treading the very roads 
of my ancestors — men of whom we have every reason to be 
proud, for they loved home and country and suffered perse- 
cution rather than prove false to their consciences. 

Comparatively few of our old American families have pre- 
served the memory of the names of their native villages, and 
few old settlements have, I fancy, changed less in 300 years 
than the sleepy little hamlet of Beauchamps in Picardy. 

Caro Lloyd Withington, 

of Nutley, N. J. 
London, April 19, 1900. 

(Courtesy of Bergen County Democrat.) 

Ill Peter (Jean--Davidi) ' youngest child and fifth son of 
Jean and Jacomina (De Ruine) Demarest, was b. at Hacken- 
sack, N. J., in 1683; died at New Bridge, Aug. 31st, 1763 
Buried in French Cemetery. 

He was a man of marked ability and wealth and possessed 
large tracts of laiul in and about Schraalenburgh. His will, 
a (juaint document dated April 1st, 1763, can be seen in the 
archives of the State at Trenton, N. J. 

His eldest son, Peter P., seems to have been the most 
favored of all the children. He gave him his walking cane 

(marked P. M. M. R., 1724) 
and silver buckles for his birthright and twenty pounds New 



( 





The cane bequeathed to Peler P. Demaresl in 
1763, who willed it to his son-in-law Abraham Ely, 
from whom it has descended through four genera- 
tions to William Ely, 1916. It is of malacca and 
has an ivory top and silver band. 






















o ^jr. 



m^cJ^ 



■'^^,u£{c>!>^^"- 



mf 




"Hands and Seals" on the Article of Agreement 



FACTS AXD FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 19 

York currency because he had no trade. (He was the only 
son that made "his mark.") 

He also received a part of the woodland and clear land 
where he lives, bonding- on the wood edge and on the road 
which leads to Schraalenburgh, also gives him forty acres 
and his seat in the "meeting-house." Jacobus receives laud 
"where he now lives," also shares in real estate; carpenter 
tools, wearing apparel and farm implements. To his twelve 
daughters he left all his movable estate. 

He married 1st Marritje Meet, May 14, 1709, at Hacken- 
sack — he a young man and she a young daughter. They had 
many children, one, Petrus (P.), b. March 30th, 1715, and 
by second wife Maria — dau. of Jack and Margaret (Sans) 
Batton, b. March 6th, 1704; d. Jan., 1794 (she married 2d 
Barant Cole) — They had John, b. December, 1732 (a Revo- 
lutionary soldier), and Jacobus, b. Apr. 21, 1735; d. 1807; 
collector and justice of peace. 

Arlirlr of Agrrpmrnt, made and concluded this sixteenth 
day of April, one thousand, seven hundred and sixty- 
eight, between Petter (Peter) Demarest, John Demarest 
(Eev. soldier). Jacobus Demarest (Esqr.), David Dema- 
rest and Samuel Demarest, all of Hackensack, in ye county 
of Bargin and provence of East Jersey, are as fol- 
loweth namely where as we have made a division of 
all ye lands that was our Honored Father Peter Demarest, 
dec'd, which land lieth in ye Township of Hackensack, we 
for our selves and our heirs, executors, covenant ])romise 
engage to each other and their heirs, executors & admintra- 
tors in ye Penal sum of one thousand pounds procklamation 
money that we and our heirs, executors and administrators 
shall & will from time to time and at all time here after pay 
our equal proportion (according to our division) of costs and 
charges to defend our said land against all ye lawful claims 
and demands of any person or persons whatever, in witness 
hereunto we set our Hands & Seals the day and date above 
said. 

COPY OF JACOBUS DEMAREST, ESQ.'S, FAMILY 
RECORD, WRITTEN IN DUTCH BY HIMSELF. 

Ik. Jacobus Demarest ben Gebooven April Den 21 n 1735 
Myn Vrouw Maria Smith is gebooven April Den 1st 1741 Wy 
Syn Getrout February De 26st 1758 (marriage) onji soon 
Peter is Gerbooven January 13 1759 onje soon Phillip is 
Gebooven May 26st 1761 onje soon Jacobus is Gerbooven 
December 31st 1766 onji sou David is Gerbooven June lOd 
1769 onji Doghter Rebecka is Gebooven September 26lh 1771 




v^.I^.^. ..^iC./:-^.-'- ''"^"''^ll OC^^ w6^ 

•/ r^-^^ r^^ 4^0 ^^A"*^ wtx- vs^ 




"Hands and Seals" on (he Article of Agreement 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 19 

York currency because he had no trade. (He was the only 
son that made "his mark.") 

He also received a part of the woodland and clear land 
where he lives, bonding on the wood edge and on the road 
which leads to Schraalenburgh, also gives him forty acres 
and his seat in the "meeting-house." Jacobus receives land 
"where he now lives," also shares in real estate; carpenter 
tools, wearing apparel and farm implements. To his twelve 
daughters he left all his movable estate. 

He married 1st Marritje Meet, May 14, 1709, at Hacken- 
sack — he a young man and she a young daughter. They had 
many children, one, Petrus (P.), b. March 30th, 1715, and 
by second wife Maria — dan. of Jack and Margaret (Sans) 
Batton, b. March 6th, 1704; d. Jan., 1794 (she married 2d 
Barant Cole) — They had John, b. December, 1732 (a Revo- 
lutionary soldier), and Jacobus, b. Apr. 21, 1735; d. 1807; 
collector and justice of peace. 

Artirlf of Agrrrmrnt, made and concluded this sixteenth 
day of April, one thousand, seven hundred and sixty- 
eight, between Petter (Peter) Demarest, John Demarest 
(Rev. soldier), Jacobus Demarest (Esqr.), David Dema- 
rest and Samuel Demarest, all of Hackensack, in ye county 
of Bargin and provence of East Jersey, are as fol- 
loweth namely where as we have made a division of 
all ye lands that was our Honored Father Peter Demarest, 
dec'd, which land lieth in ye Township of Hackensack, we 
for our selves and our heirs, executors, covenant promise 
engage to each other and their heirs, executors & admintra- 
tors iu ye Penal sum of one thousand pounds procklamation 
money that we and our heirs, executors and administrators 
shall & will from time to time and at all time here after pay 
our equal proportion (according to our division) of costs and 
charges to defend our said land against all ye lawful claims 
and demands of any person or persons whatever, in witness 
hereunto we set our Hands & Seals the day and date above 
said. 

COPY OF JACOBUS DEMAREST, ESQ.'S, FAMILY 
RECORD, WRITTEN IN DUTCH BY HIMSELF. 

Ik. Jacobus Demarest ben Gebooven April Den 21 n 1735 
Myn Vrouw ]\Iaria Smith is gebooven April Den 1st 1741 Wy 
Syn Getrout February De 26st 1758 (marriage) onji soon 
Peter is Gerbooven January 13 1759 onje soon Phillip is 
Gebooven May 26st 1761 onje soon Jacobus is Gerbooven 
December 31st 1766 onji sou David is Gerbooven June lOd 
1769 onji Doghter Rebecka is Gebooven September 26th 1771 



20 FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 

onji Doghter *Maria is Gebooven January 18d 1776 onji 
Doghter Margretie is Gebooven December lid 1778. 
(*Maria married William Ely.) 

(Deaths.) 

Myn Vaeder Peter Demarest is overleden den 31st Au- 
gustus 1763 out Zyde 80 yaer onje Doghter Rebeeka is over- 
leeden Augustus 12 1780 Myn Suster Margretie is overleden 
November 18 1790 Myn moeder Demarest is overleden Den 
January 6th 1794 onje soon David Demarest is overleden Den 
10th September 1803 

"DEI^IAREST" AND THE VARIOUS SPELLINGS 

FOUND. 

1663 — des marie. 

1722 — On a document signed is David de marest. 

1724— P. D. M. R.— Peter De Ma Ra. 

1732— Mares. 

1754 — de Marry. 

1755— piter De More St. 

1768 — Demaree. 

Domorie. 

Mrs. De Wedue Mareest. 

Demera. 

Demorest. 

De Marest. 

Marest. 

De Maretz. 

Dumorist. 

Demarest. 
1807 — Demamerest. 

1807 Death of Jacobus Demarest, Esq., 

Oct. 21, 1807. 

Death of Maria Smith, wife of Jacobus Demarest, 
Oct. 12, 1829. 

Peter Demarest Bougt of Lucas Van Boswerck 
For the funeral of Esqr. Demarest 
Oct. 22, 1807 

5 Gallons of wine £2.15.0 

1/2 Do of Spirits 5.0 

6 Doz. of pipes 0. 2.9 

3 half pound papers of Tobacco 0. 1.6 

Rec'd payment 

Lucas Van Boskerck. 




Home of Jacobus Demarest, New Bridge 



S. Bennett 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 21 



1807 November 21th 1807 

Received of Mary Demamerest the sum of three Dollars 
and twelve Cents for tending the funeral of Jacobus Dem- 
arest Decease. 

Albert N. Van Voohis. 

1807 

Rec'd October 27 1807 of Mary Demarest Excntrix of the 
Last will of Jacobus Demarest Deceased four Dollars fees for 
proving, Engrosing Probating Recording & filing the will of 
said Deceased including proof to be taken on inventory. 
$4.00 John A. Boyd Surogate. 

1807 

Rec. Nov. 1807 of Mary Demarest Executrix Peter Dem- 
arest & William Ely Executors of the last will of Jacobus 
Demarest Deceased Ninty six cents for Recording and Filing 
Inventory of the personal estate of said Deceased. 
$0.96. John A. Boyd Surogate. . 

1807 

Received December 4th 1807 of William Ely the sum of 
two dollars in full for serving as auctioneer of effects of 
Jacobus Demarest Esq — Per Joh. Johnson 
$0.96. John A. Boyd Surrogate. 

Received Dec. 4, 1807 of William Ely the sum of one shil- 
ling for serving as Clerk at Vandue of effects of Jacobus 
Demarest Esq dececeased. 

(There were 128 sales.) 

James Heaton. 

1829 

Nov 4, 1829 Paid John Andersen for Sundrys for Mother's 

(in law) funeral $8.88 

Pade Albert Van Vorhis (undertaker) 3.00 

Pade Dr. Hopper 1-50 

" Cornelus Herring for the Coffin 0.75 

' ' Black Wooman for washing 50 

7) $14.63 



$) 2.9 



22 FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 

SLAVE PAPERS. 

From a fragment of the 1783 tax list the following is 
taken: **In 1783 there are 55 slaves." The names of only 
9 of those being taxed for slaves is found : 

Peter Degrot, Charity Etsell (2), Cornelious Yreeland, 
Hartman Brinkerhoff, John Brinkerhoff, Abraham Montanga 
(2), Hendrick Brinkerhoff, Jacob Demott (2), John Benson, 
Esq. 

From the complete tax list of 1784 the names of those taxed 
for slaves is given: 

John G. Benson, Peter Degrote, Aury Westervelt, Lisabeth 
Banta, Johannes Brinkerhoff, Marte Roelfse (2), Sibe Banta, 
Roelef Westervelt (2), John Westervelt, Hendrick Brinker- 
hoff, J. M. Goetschius, Eve Banta (A\adow), Peter D. Dem- 
arest, Daniel J. Demarest, Daniel Demarest, John Christie, 
John Buskirk (2), Jacob Lozier (2), Johannes Van Wagne 
(2), Jacobus Brinkerhoff, Albert Zabriskie, Hendrick H. 
Brinkerhoff, Casparis Westervelt, Cornelius Bogert, John 
Powlese (2), Dirk Banta, Johnis Bogert, Jacobus Bogert, 
David Demare, John Buskirk, Bakeman Van Buren, Rachel 
Demare, Isaac Nicoll, Jacobus Demarest. 



DAVID ACKERMAN'S SLAVE PAPER. 

Know all men by these presents that I David Johanas 
Ackerman of Tapan this Goverment of New York Miller for 
and in consideration of the sum of twenty pounds current 
money to me in hand pade or secured to be pade by Petter 
Petterse Demary of Hackensack in the County of Bergen, 
Yeoman whereof I do here by acnoledge and my self fully 
sattisfied and pade. Have berganed sold and let over and 
delivered unto the said Petter Petterse Demoray one negro 
boy about three years of age named Less In plain and open 
market according to the due form of the law provided for 
that purpose, to have and to hold the said Bargened premises 
unto the said Petter Petterse Demoray his heirs executers 
administraters and assigns to the only proper youse benefit 
and behoof of him the said Petter Petterse Demoray and I 
the said David Johanas Ackerman for my self my heirs ex- 
ecuters and administrate!^ the barganed primises unto the 
said Petter Petterse Demory his heirs exrs. and adminii*s. 
and assigns against all and every person or persons what so 
ever and will wan-ant and for ever defend and by these 
presents in witness hereof to gather Avith the delivery of the 
berganed primisis I have here unto set my hand and seal 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MAXUSCRIPTS 23 

this thirteenth day of June one thousand seven hundred and 
sixty seven & in the thirtieth year of the reign of our Soveran 
Lord George King Defender of the Faith 

David Ackerman 
(The seal of black wax bears a coat-of-arms.) 

Signed sealed & delivered 
in the presents of us 

John Hk^ton. Richard Hkvton 

THE PERRY SLAVE PAPER. 

Know all men by these presents that we John Perry Peter 
Perry Isaac Perry Jacobus Perry and Daniel Perry for and 
in consideration of the sum of thirty five pounds current 
laAvfull money of the Colony on New York, to us in hand 
paid by Peter Demarest of Hack Hensack in the County of 
bargen and the provence of East new Jersey where of we 
do hereby acknowledge the riceipt and our selves thare with 
fully satisfied have bargained sold setover and delivered and 
by these presents do bargain setover and deliver unto the said 
Peter Demarest a negro wench named Henn. aged about forty 
jears to have and to hold the said bargained premises unto 
the said Peter Demarest his executors administrators and 
assigns to the only proper use and behoof of the vSaid Peter 
Demarest his executors, administrators, and assigns forever 
and we the said John Perry, Peter Perry, Isaac Perry, Jaco- 
bus Perry and Daniel Perry for our selves our heirs execu- 
tors and administrators the said bargained premises unto the 
said Peter Demarest his executors administrators and assigns 
shall and will warrant and forever defend by these presents. 
In witness whereof we have hereonto sett our hands and seals 
the Fourth day of October In the eight jear of his Majesties 
Reign and in the jear of our Lord, one thousand seven hun- 
dred and sixty eight. 

John Perry X Isaac Perry X 
Petrr his Perry 
PP 
mark 

Jacobus Perry X 
Sealed & delivered in 
the presence of us 

John Perry Junier 
J.VRMiNis ? Van bossum 
(John Perry was of Orange Co., New York.) 



24 FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MAMJSCRIPTS 

PIETER PIETERSE DEMAREST. 

Slave Paper. 

Know all men By these Presents that I Pieter Pieterse 
Demarest of the Pricent of Haekensaek in the county of 
Bergen in the province of East Newjersey, farmer for in the 
consaderation of the sum of Nyninty pounds to me in Hand 
paid by Dirck Terhuen of the Pricent of Sadel Rievr in the 
county and provence afore said before insealing and delivery 
of these pryents the Recept whereof I do acknowledge have 
bergained and sold and delivered and by these Prisents do 
bergain and sell into the said Dirck terhiun a Nigro boy 
Named Cezor about seventeen years of age to Have and to 
Hold the said Nigro boy named Cezor by these Presents Have 
bergained and sold unto the said Dirck terhuin his heirs 
excuitors administrators and assigns for ever and I the said 
Pieter pieterse Demorest for myself my Heirs Exucitors and 
administrators all and singular the said Negro boy unto the 
said dirck terhiun his heirs executors administrators and as- 
signs against me the said j^ieter pieterse Demarest my ex cui- 
tors administrators and assigs and against all and every per- 
son or persons what so ever I shall and will warrent and for 
ever defend by these present the seal of the said nigro boy. 
sound and in good Haelth at the delivery of these presents. 
In witness whereof I Have sett my Hand and fixed my seal 
this fifth day of march 1771. 

ANNE VENTON'S SLAVE PAPER. 

From fragments of the paper it is shown that Anne Ven- 
ton, Bergen County, Provence of East New Jersey, for the 
sum of Forty Pounds sold & delivered a certain Negro wench 
named Dinah to Abraham Ely &c. In witness whereof I 
have hereunto set my hand and seal this twenty fifth of Sep- 
tember seven hundred and seventy six. 

Anne Venton (Seal) 
Signed, sealed & delivered 
in the presents of us 

Elenor Maglocmly 
her X mark. 

SIR JAMES JAY'S SLAVE PAPER. 

Whereas Glaus, a negro man, for the purchase of whom I 
have agreed with Richard Ryerson of Pompton, has lived 
with me four weeks on Trial, and is so well satisfied with the 
usage he has received, that he declares that were he sure to 
be always treated in the same way, he would like to live with 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 25 

me all his life. Now as the usage he has received is no other 
than I have always held, and will ever hold to an honest and 
industrious Slave who behaves well, as he has during the 
above Trial : and as it appears to me that the fears he has of 
being ever afterwards liable to be treated with unmerited 
severity, have been infused into his mind by mischievous 
people, I am induced from a desire of removing such fears, 
and quieting the mind of the said Slave, to promise, that if 
the said Claus shall within a year from the date hereof show 
just and sufficient cause to complain of ill usage, I will sell 
him within six months after such complaint, for the money 
I am to give him and the expenses I may be at on his 
account. James Jay. 

August 20 1790 

The sum to be paid for the above Claus is £81.17.4. 

THE JAY FAMILY. 

"In 1688 Col. Jacobus Van Courtlandt of New York had 
a grant of 2120 acres, in Ilackensack Percint. In 1738 he 
conveyed it to Abraham De Peyster &, Margaret his wife, 
John Chambers and Anna his wife, and Peter Jay and Mary 
his wife all of New York City. The wives of these three men 
were daughters of Van Courtlandt. Mrs. De Peysters third 
included the present village of Tenafly. Mrs. Chambers de- 
vised her share to her nephew. Sir James Jay, who by his 
father's will also received the latter 's third. 

Sir James devised the north third to his son, Peter Jay, 
and the other third to his daughter, Mary Kill. ' ' 

1784 Seacaucus May 14 1784 

Dear Brother 

I understand by your accounts that you like the country 
very much and that you have seen my negro France and that 
you can with a Bill of Sale from me get him and dispose of 
him, which I trust that you will sell him to the best advantage 
and for that reason I have herein enclosed you a sufficient 
Bill of Sale, and if you should sell him I desire that you vnll 
give a sufficient order upon your brother George Van Geson 
for the sum you sell him for and he will pay me. If you can 
hear anything of Daniel Smiths negro Jack I desire that you 
will send word by your next letter and let know if you can 
with an order from him sell his negro so no more at present 
but that we all remain in good health at present except your 
sister Onchy and she is very ill — I hope these lines will find 
you well so I Remain your affectionate 

Brother 
Isaac Van Gesen. 



26 FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 

P. S. I will satisfy you for your trouble and defend to you 
the property of the said Negro. What money you get for 
him you can dispose of at your pleasure only give me an 
order upon your brother George. 

1794 PAYMENT ON SLAVE. 

Reed. New Bridge August 8th 1794 of Jacobus Demarest 
the third and last payment for negro Benn the sum of twenty 
shillings in full of all demands til this day pr. me 

MORRES ACKERMAN. 

DOCTORS' BILLS FOR ATTENDANCE ON SLAVES. 

1799 July 15. Mr. William Ely Dr 

to Doctor Beekman Van Buren 

to medicine for mothers winch £11 

Reed, the ful contents in full per mee 

Beekman Van Buren. 

Received of Peter Demarest the sum of twenty shillings 
for medicines for a negro child. 

Garret J. Van Wagner. 

1782 

ELIAS ROMINE'S SLAVE PAPER. 

Know all persons whom it may concern that I Elias 
Romine of the County of Bergen and State of New Jersey 
for and in consideration of the sum of seventy six pounds 
ten shillings New York Currency in gold and silver to me 
in hand paid by Abraham Ely. The receipt whereof I do 
hereby acknowledge have bargained sold and released a^id 
by these presents do according to the due form of law, grant 
bargain sell and release unto the said Abraham Ely a Negro 
man named Tom and a wench named Dinah with her two 
children named Sam and Luce. To have and to hold the 
same Slaves unto the said Abraham Ely his executors assigns 
and administrators against all persons. Shall and will war- 
rent and forever Defend by these presents, provided never- 
theless that if the said Elias Romain my executors adminis- 
trators and assigns or any of us do and Shall Will and Truly 
Pay or cause to be paid unto the said Abram. Ely his execu- 
tors administrators assigns the sum of seventy six pounds ten 
shillings with interest for the same both principal and in- 
terest in Gold or Silver on the first day of May next ensuing 
the date hereof for redemption of the said slaves, there this 
present bill of sale to be void. But if default be made in 
payment of the said sum of seventy six pounds ten shillings 
in part or in the whole contrary to the manner and form 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 27 

aforesaid that then the obligation shall remain in full power 
and virtue. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand 
and seal this Twenty second day of May one thousand seven 
hundred and eighty two. 

Elias Romain (Seal) 
(Captain in the Revolutionary war.) 
Signed sealed & delivered 
in presence of 

Marla. Wessells 

Wessel F. Wessels 

1801 SLAVE PAPER. 

Be it remembered that on the tenth day of August Anno 
Domini one thousand eight hundred and one, a Negro man 
slave named Sam aged about thirty three years belonging to 
and residing with Peter Christie of the Township of Hacken- 
sack in the County of Bergen and State of New Jersey came 
and appeared before me Jacobus Demarest Esquire one of 
the Justices of the peace in and for the said County of 
Bergen and being privately examined by me declared his 
consent and desire to have his residence or place of abode 
changed to the City of New York, in the State of New York 
and assigned as reasons, first because his wife resides there 
and secondly because an opportunity will thereby be afforded 
him of obtaining his Freedom after eight years servitude. 

Jacobus Demarest Justice, 



28 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 



DEEDS AND MAPS, ETC. 

1687. 

"The oldest deed on record in the County Clerk's office at 
Hackensack is one from John Berry to Zuarian Westervelt, 
dated January 13, 1687, conveying a portion of his estate in 
the Old Township of Hackensack, March 6, 1687." (Nelson) 



peter peterse De Marest 

of County Bergen and 

province of East New Jersey 

and 

Isaac Ver Veelen of 

tappan in County of Orange 

in the Province of New York, 



Bond— 1756 
the sum of twenty pounds 
current Lawpful Money of 
the province of New York, 
etc., etc., Sealed with my seal 
dated the fifteenth Day of 
May in the twenty-ninth 
year of his Majesties Reign 
and anno Domini one Thou- 
sand Seven Hundred and 
fifty-six 

his 
Peter Pieterea X DeMarest. 
mark 
Witness (Seal) 

Petries Haring, 
John Haring. 



Jost Van Buskirk, Gentle- 
men, County of Bergen 
Province East New Jersej^ 
to 
Peter P. Demarest Youmen 
of County of Bergen 
& Provence aforesaid 



Deed 

June 6, 1766 

Land situated next to 

Lourense L. Van Buskirk 

5 acres 

£18.50 



Peter P. Demarest, Tavern- 
keeper, County of Bergen 
Provence of East New Jersey 
to 
Abraham Ely of the 
same place ( a sou in law). 



Deed 
July 21, 1767 
Two lots of land — Pre- 
cent of Hackensack, Begin- 
ning on South side of the 
New Road or highway which 
leads from the New Bridge 
Easterly to Teaneck contain- 
ing Twenty one acres and 
Ffty five hundreilths. 
£178.13.9. 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANTJSCRIPTS 



29 



Peter Demorest 

to 

Abraham Accorman 

both of Hackeiisack Precinct 



A Note 
May Is 1767 
£36. currant 
Money of New York- 
Interest 6 per cent one year. 



Abraham Ely, Yeoman 

and 

Peter P. Demorest, Farmer 

to 

John Masseles, Weaver 

all of Haekensack Precinct. 



A Note 

May 6, 1767 

£45. 



Peter Pr. Domorie 

"of the New Bridge' 

to 

John Perry 

Orange Co. N. Y. 



A Note 
October 3d in the eight 
year of his Present Majesties 
Reign Anno Dom. 1768 £35. 



Abraham Ely 

of Haekensack 

County of Bergen 

Provence of East New Jersey 

to 

Jacobus Van Buskirk 

of County and Provence 

aforesaid 



Deed 
Oct. 23-] 767. 
The certains lots of land 
herein on the other side men- 
tion. (Two deed on one 
paper, refers to deed Peter 
P. Demarest to Abraham 
Ely — preceeding — 
£193.13.8. 



Peter P. Demorest, Tavern- 
keeper 
Haekensack Precinct 
County of Bergen 
Provenco of East New Jersey 
to 
Isaac Vroomen, Esq. 
Schonectedy Albuny Co 
Provence of New York. 



Mortgage Deed 1767 
To all Christian People to 
whom these Presents Shall 
Come Send Greeting, July 
2, 1767. 

Land lying & being in the 
Precenct of Ilackensik Be- 
ing part of the farm late be- 
longing to Lourans P. Van 
Buskirk Deceased. 82. acres 
more or less. 

£425.2.6. 



Abraham Ely 

to 

Peter P. Demoree 

Both of Haekensack Precinct 



Deed 

May 1st 1774 

Land near New Bridge. 



30 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 



Sebe Hen Banta 

and his wife 

Layer 

of English Neighboorhood 

to 

John Williams 

of Hackensaek 

in Precienet of 

New Barbadoes. 

John Williams 

& wife Onte 

to 

William Lazier blacksmith 

all of Hackensaek Precinct. 



Deed 
1775 

Land in 
English Neighborhood 



Deed 

March 17, 1783, 

in the 8th year of 

American Independence 

Land in 

English Neighborhod 



These two deeds preceding are on the same paper. 



William Ely 

of Newark 

to 

Abraham Ely (his son) 

of New York (formerly of 

Hackensaek Precenct) 

Walter Clendene 

of Bergen 

to 

Hendrich Van Der hoof 

John Campbell & 

Jane his wife 

of Hackensaek Precienet 

to 

William Charlton 

of City of New York, 

Pietor Christee, Sadler & 

Elizabeth his wife 

to 

William Ely Yeoman 

All of Hackensaek Precinct. 

William Ely 

Precinct of Hackensaek 

to 

Catherine Ely — widow of 

Abraham Ely. 

City of New York 



Deed 

January 15 1785 

Land in Newark on the 

Peiassaig (Passaic) River. 



Deed 

July 16 1792 

Land in Bergen Township. 

Deed 

March 15 1799 

House & lots near the New 

Bridge. £350. 



Deed 

May 2d 1800 

Property situated between 

the New & Old Bridge in the 

Precenct of Hackensaek. 

£528.10.0 

Bond 
May 14, 1800 
Twenty fourth year of 
the Independence of United 
States. 

$760.00 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 



31 



Mortgage 

May 15 1824 

Land 

Harrington township 

"a place commonly called 

and Known as Closter Old 

Dock. 



Land 



Deed 
January 1838 
in Hackensack 
cinct— $175.00 



Pre- 



James Kearney & 
Rachel his wife 

to 

Jacob Powles, 

All of Harrington Township. 



John Durie & 

Eliza his wife 

of County of Bergen & 

Township of Hackensack 

to 

David S. Demarest 

of same place 



Map— 1864 
Map of the property late of Barant De Klyn deed. Situ- 
ated in the township of Hackensack Bergen Co N. J. Con- 
taining a description of the shares and to whom allotted to 
the respective original tenants in common 
Surveyed and drawn by 

Simeon Zabriskie A. D. 1864 
Joseph B. Miller, Alexander Cass, 
Maurice Fitzgereld Commissioners. 



Map of Samuel Demarest. 
No date. 



Lot of meadow and woodland 



1787 

My house (Jacobus Demarest Esq.) New Bridge, Septem- 
ber 11th 1787 appeared before me for trial the following 
persons, viz. : 



Selvester Yong Plantitf 
Beekman Van Buren Defd. 



they agreed among themselves. 



Justice Fee 

to 1 Summons £0-0-6 

to 3 Supeanas 0-1-6 



2-0 



Constables fees 
to Serving a Summons £-2-0 
" Ditto 3 Supeanas 0-6-0 



0-8-0 



1787 



The above Cost paid to 
the Constable P. Dem^vrest. 



Bergen County State of New Jersey. "My house," &c 
(A paper similar to above.) 



32 FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 

1788 

John Van Sice Plaintiff Isreal Passel Def.d 

The plaintiff appear before me the 29th Day of December 
1788 and made oath that Isreal Passel was indebted to him 
in the Sum of one Ponnd Sixteen Shillings & that he verily 
believes that the said passels is or \^all be absconded so that 
he is afraid to loose his just Due, therefore gave Judgment 
for the Plaintif 

£1-16-0 
Cost 5.1 

Jacobus Demarest. 
1790 

This Day personally appeared before me Sir James Jay 
who being duly sworn deposeth & saith, that in the month of 
March last he hired Henry Valentine for nine months from 
that time to work for him; and that the said Henry Valen- 
tine this day positively & repeatedly refused to do the work 
which he the said Sir James Jay ordered him to perform, 
& that the said Henry Valentine moreover behaved in a most 

insolent and profane manner swearing that he would 

not do the work & stretching out his arm & fist in a threatin- 

ing posture toward the said Sir James Jay, said to him. 

James Jay 
September 3d 1790 sworn this day before me 

Jacob Demarest 
Justice of ye P- 

IMPRISONMENT FOR DEBT. 
1790 

New Jersey State, Bergen County. 

To any constable of said county Gr. tr. Whereas Jacob 
Smith hath recovered before me against William Hammel the 
sum of five pounds six shillings Debt & seven shilling & one 
penny cost, these are therefore to require you in the name of 
the said State upon sight hereof to levy the above sum with 
costs on the goods & chatties of said William and for want 
of sufficient Goods & Chatties whereon to levy you are to 
take the body of said William Hammel and him safely keep 
& Deliver to the Gaolkeeper of said County which Gaoller is 
hereby required to keep him in Close Costedy until the Debt 
& Costs is paid or till he be therefrom Dilevered by due 
Corse of Law. hereof fail not at your perel Given under my 
hand & seal this 22 Day of March 1790 

Jacobus Demarest (Seal) 
Justice of ye p- 
You are to return this money 
within twenty days from Date. 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MAMJSCRIPTS 33 

1792 

State of New Jersey, County of Bergin 

Personally came and appeared before me Jacobus Demar- 
est Esc} one of the Justices of the Peace for said County 
James Thompson of the said County Esq., and deposeth on 
the Holy Evangelist of Almighty god that on the Eleventh 

day of September Margret, wife of John Ryersen of 

Plaanty yoeman, asaulted him, the said Thompson & threw 
a peice of timber at him which struck him betwen the 
shoulders & threatened him much injury and ill usage both 
in her actions and with her tongue, in bad Language which 
she used toward him with provoking indecncey on many 
occasions at sundry times. 

James Thompson 
Sept 13- 1792 
Jacobus Demarest 
Justice of ye p. 

1792 

"We the Judge of Elections, Assessor and Collector of the 
Precinct of Hackensack in the county of Bergen do hereby 
certify that having proceeded to receive the votes of the 
electors of the said Precinct of Hackensack the following is 
a list of all the persons voted for, of the appointments pro- 
posed for them and of the number of votes for each, 

FOR MEMBERS OF THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL 

Number of Votes 
Peter Manning Esq. — Fourty Three 
Isaac Nicall Esq. — Thirty three 
John Cutwater Esq. — One 
John Benson Esq. — One 

FOR MEMBERS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY 

Henry Berry Esq — Forty Seven 

John Terhune Esq — Forty Six 

William Kingsland Esq — Thirty 

Richard Day Esq — Four 

Peter Ward Esq. — Four 

Benjamin Blackledge Esq. — Forty eight 

FOR SHERIFF 

Number of Votes 
William M. Bell Esq.— Fifty Eight 

FOR CORONER — Number of Votes 
Adonja Schuyler — Seven 
Alexander P. Waldron — Two 



34 FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 

John Van Horn — Six 
Dower R. Westervelt — Thirty Three 
John Earle — three 
Caspaus Pryor — Four 
Elias — Bervoort — Fourteen 
The whole Number Received 

In Testemony whereof we have hereunto Subscribed our 
names and affixed our seals the tenth day of October in the 
year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and ninety two. 
Cornelius Lydecker, Collector (Seal) 
Albert C. Zabriskle, Assessor (Seal) 

John Poulison Judge 
of the Election (Seal). 

1792 

We the Judge of Election, Inspector, and Clerk of the 
Township of Harington in the County of Bergen, do hereby 
certify that having proceeded to receive the votes of the 
Election of said Tow^iship, the following is a list of all per- 
sons voted for as Representatives to Represent the State of 
New Jersey in Congress of the United States. 

Elias Boudinot — Twenty Six 
Abraham Clark — Thirty two 
Jonathan Dayton — Twenty Three 
Aaron Ketchel — Twenty Six 
John Haring — Sixty Seven 
Lambert Cadwallader — One 
John Chetwood — One 
Thomas Henderson — Two 

In testimony whereof we have hereunto subscribed our 
Names and affixed our Seals this Fifteenth Day of October. 
In the year of our Lord, One Thousand Seven Hundred and 
Ninety Two 

Abraham Haring Judge (Seal) 

Abraham Demarest Inspectors (Seal) 
Thomas Black (Seal) 

Isaac Morris Clerk (Seal) 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 35 



MARRIAGE CERTIFICATE. 

1801 

I do hereby certify that on the 10th day of March in the 
year of our Lord eighteen hundred and one I have joined in 
the marriage relation John Pettit and Elizabeth Brower 
affirming herself to be wddow of Peter Demarest. 
(Jane Hardenbroeck Witness) 

Given under my hand at New York this ninth day of June 
eighteen hundred and one. 

Signed) 

Jno. N. Abeel one of the 
ministers of the Protestant 
Reformed Dutch Church in 
the City of 'New York. 

1808 

ARTICLES OF SEPARATION. 

(Sequel to Above Marriage.) 

Between Peter J. Demarest of Tovmship of Hackensack — 
of the one part — Elizabeth Brower formerly the wife of 
Peter J. Demarest & John Pettet. of City. County or State 
of New York of the other part. 

Where as some unhappy difference having arisen between 
the said Piter Demarest and Elizabeth his former wife she 
the said Elizabeth having Eloped the bed & board of the said 
Peter Demarest about seven years past. & joined her self in 
marriage A^ath the said John Pettet in consequence of said 
Elopement and many other considerations they have mutu- 
ally consented and agreed to live seperate and apart from 
each other & do by thesie presents mutually covenant and 
agree from henceforth for & during their respective natural 
lives to live separate and apart 

It goes on to say Peter Demarest shall not frequent her 
company or conversation at any time or times hereafter with 
out her consent. He also permits her the said Elizabeth 
from time to time to live apart from him and to go, reside 
and be at or in such place or places, family and families and 
\\dth such relations and friends as she shall from time to time 
at her will and pleasure. Notwithstanding her coverture 
with the said Peter Demarest and as if she was a fcmme sole. 

He is not to claim at her death plate, rings, clothes, goods, 
chatties, land tenements or other estates which she shall 
hereafter get, acquire, or be possessed of, or be devised or 
given to her. 

And Further that the said John Pettet & the said Elizabeth, 
their heirs, executors or administrators shall & will from 



36 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 



time -to time and at all times hereafter well & sufficiently 
save defend and keep harmless, and indemnify as well the 
said Peter Demarest 

She was to have no claim on Peter or his estate since her 
elopement & separation. 

In witness whereof the parties to these presents have here- 
unto set their hands & seals the day & year first above 
written 

Peter J. Demarest (Seal) 
Elizabeth Pettit (Seal) 

his 
John X Pettit (Seal) 
mark 
In presence of 
William Ely 
JosiAH Johnson 

Sam. L. page J. R. 

1826 

Mr. William Ely 

Sir — I summon you to attend at the Court House at New 
barbadoes on the 24th day of this instant at 10 oclock A. M. 
to serve as Grand Juror. 

Andrew H. Hopper Sheriff. 
Signed 
Jan 9th 1826 

1827 

A subpena to William Ely — to appear before me in your 
proper person at Albert P. Alyeas Inn, in the Township of 
Saddle River to testify in case between Josiah Johnson & 
Catherine Collins (of New Bridge) — fail not under the pen- 
alty of $20. 

Garret P. Hopper J, P. 



1829 
Sir 

You are hereby notified to meet in conjunction with your 
colleagues and a chosen free holder of the Township of Her- 
ington on Saturday the 4th Day of July at the house of 
Samuel P. Demarest in the Township of Hackensack. three 
oclock P. M. for the purpose of granting a Priviledge of 
Driving and riding to my lands across the lands of John 
Anderson and Land of Jacob Vershe (Forshay). In ^ntness 
where of I have precents set my haiul this 2!) Day of June 
In the year of our Lord Eighteen hundred and Twenty Nine. 

Samuel P. Demarest 
Mr. William Ely— 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 37 

1831 

To William Ely — one of the chosen freeholders of the 
township of Haekensack You are hereby reciiiested to meet 
in conjunction with two other freeholders, of the County of 
Bergen at the house of Richard Ver Valen in Closter on 
Monday the seventh day of this instant at 10 oclock in the 
forenoon of said day — on purpose to open and lay out an old 
by Road which I & others have used for many years back, 
laying over the Land of Henry Montanye in Closter till by 
my Lots of Land which the said Henry Montanye has partly 
shut up, and refused me to ride through said by road which 
puts me to an immediate inconvenience and difficulty, there- 
fore apply to you as freeholder to open the same agreeable 
to the Law. 

Signed 

Jacob Jordan 

February 5 1831 

LIST OF OFFICIALS. 

AS POUND ON THE DOCUMENTS, COURT DOCUMENTS, ELECTLON 
RETURNS, ETC. 

1688 — "At the house of Lawrence Andries (Yan Buskirk) 
of New Haekensack w^as to be held the court of small 
causes. ' ' 

1717 — "Ordered that there be raised the sum of ten pounds 
proclamation money for defraying the charges of 
killing wolves, panthers and red foxes for ensuing 
year." — 1715 Book of Records, Freeholders and 
Justices. 

JUDGE OP COMMON PLEAS, 

1768 — Lourance T. Yan Buskirk. 

CLERK, 

1763— William Provost. 

1766— " 

1767— " 

1768— " 

COLLECTORS. 

1758-93— Cornelius Lydecker. 
1779 — Isaac Yan der Beek. 
1779 — Abraham Westervelt. 
1779-1783-1784— Jacobus Demarest. 
1793— Cornelius L. Coe. 
1795— John G. Benson. 

Geder Comes (no date, but early names). 

John H. Anderson (four years; no dates). 



38 FACTS AXD FIGURES FROM MANTSCRIPTS 



1816- 



DEPT. 

-John Westervelt. 



COLLECTOR. 



SHERIFFS, 

17-44 — "Procalus Parmeton." 
1760 — Isaac Kingsland. 
1826 — Andrew H. Hopper. 

JUSTICES OF THE PEACE. 

1682-3 — "First appointed" after county organization. 
Hendrick Joris Brinkerhoff 

and 
Albert Zabriskie. 
1685 — Samuel Ettsal. 
No date — Barant Naugle. 
1738-48 — David Jacobus Demarest. 
1742 — Lourens Van Buskirk. 
1756 — Samuel Moore. 
1786 — Garrett Lvdecker. 
1786-87-88-89-90-92-95-97-1801— Jacobus Demarest, Esq., 

New Bridge. 
1813— Joseph Post, Esq. 
1827 — Garrett P. Hopper. 
1756 — Bargin County. For Peter piet. Demerest 

You are hereby Supened in his Majis. name to 
be and appear at my house Satterday next at Twoo 
of the Clook in the afternoon to give your Evedence 
in an action depending Between Andre vanboscark 
plantif agst. Andre Conter Defendant hereof you 
are not to fail on pennilty of Twenty poonds under 
ray hand this Twenty second Day of October Anno 
Dom. 1756. 

Samuel Moor. 



1785 

Jacobus Demarest 

Planteve 

Dugles Carrens 

Defendent 

Evidence for the 

Plantif — Sworen 

Jacobus Bogert 

Rachel Van 

Ilouten 

John Demarest 

William Ely 
John Westervelt 



August 13th 1785 in an action of Debt. 
The Plantif Demanded a jury and a 
venire was granted the Plantif. Moved 
to the Court that it be returned and 
the trial came on, the venire was Re- 
turned and the following Jurors ap- 
peared. 



1 Garrit Lvdecker Esq 7 

2 Aurie Westervelt 8 

3 John P. Westervelt 9 

4 Dirck Banta 10 

5 Daniel S. Demarest 11 

6 John Christie 12 



Johanis D. Demarest 
Daniel N. Demarest 
Jacob Bogart 
Henry Bogert 
Cornelius Bogert 
Stephen Bogert 



FACTS ANT) FIGURE.S FROM MAXTSCRIPTS 



39 



And were Duly Sworen and after hearing the Evidence 
and allegations of the Parties the Jurors Went out to con- 
sider of there Verdiek and John "Wester^'elt Constable Being 
Duly Sworen to attend them the Jurors returned into Court 
ajad Ware Caled over and Gave their Vardick By the fore- 
men for the plantif. Six pound fifteen Dammages Xew 
York money with cost of Sute and Judgement was given 
agreable to the Tardict 



Justice fees 

Summons £0.0.6 

Venire 0.1.0 

2 Supeenys 0.1.6 

Sware Evedence 1.8 

Judgment 0.0.9 



Constables fees 
Serving a Summons £0. 2.0 
for 2 Supeenies Sarv- 



0.6.5 



mgr 




0. 4 


Sarving Teriire 


Evi- 


0. 5.0 


Juries fees i: 
dence 


0.11.0 
£0.12.0 


12 Juris 

2 Evedences . 




0. 2.0 

0. 6.5 
0.11.0 



1.11.5 



17 



6 — There is 14 Lycence Granted at this Court June 1786 

out of which money I have received £0.6.0. 

Jacobus Demarest. 
1786 — A tryal at Cornelious Hogland. 
17S9 — Xov. 11 — The court was adjourned for one hour then 

to meet at the house of Cornelius Hogland. 
1789 — Trial adjurned to appear at Hoaglands. 
1789 — A summons against Henry Oldis who Kves nigh W 

Fell to appear 2 oclock in afternoon at Hoaglands 

Xew Bridge. 
1794 — If a constable failed to subpoena a certain party the 

penaltv was twelve pounds — bv order of Adam 

Boyd, J. P. 



40 FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MAMJSCRIPTS 

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FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 41 



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42 



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FACTS AXD FIGURES FRO^^ ^fANT'SCRIPTS 43 



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44 FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 



JO innoTHV 



JO junorav 



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no ajaq^W CQrH iH r^rn ,Hrtrt iHiH r-lT-lT-lr-(iH r-l 

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3 S SS ^l! S9SJ0JJ COCOIO lO Tl(-*M'*C3cOM'*'*COt- M" t14 nc^ rHHCONNincOHCOCJiHO 

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lo in o (D m oin in m ■* to o o to 

IH >H IH IH IH IM T-* iH r-t 



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FACTS A^^) FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 



45 






JO ^nnotny 



t-c- 1- t-x 



COM CO CO CO 



X '— 00 X ;o X 



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no ajai^^ M i-I,H r-l >Hrt r-|r-l,-l rH rHr-l rHrH r-l iHr-lrH r-lrHrHrtrtrHT-lr-lT-lr-ll-11-1 

l^iOjj ocon<co coc-MO> OkOcoxoioxft'HtortXi-iHtO'Ht-t-coO) a"^?2«*^rIS!225SS2 

OJ J^'^'^^" t-lNCOTl" (MincO r-l WIMr-lTt (Ne<JC0lOT)t-*C0rt0> CartCOr-l'-l-*(M<Nt-(MIMeO 

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31UB0 paujOH "* =^ 1^ '^ '"'° '^ coco-i(Ncopaco-<l< corHWMrHifiTjtcDtocoo cjNMNNconcoin NW 
• OQ JO aniBj\. <* 

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FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 



JO lunouiv 

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'S SS 1^ S3SJ0II (j,^ COCOCO Tl(C0IMC0CO(M'^(Nin'*CO-<tC0 CO(M'*(M N COCOCO'^'^ 1ICOCO'*-<*ON 

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s%(yj pae sastiOH 

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puBT paAOJcIinr ooo -^cDiorHOONioioiooinooooo moioo 
inioc^ (Minc-iHoocoriNNioNinoiooo «st~050> 

iH iH rH rH H (N COW N i-l iH 



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FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 



47 



o 'O to'^o CO toco 



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■gggjBsasaoH t-wmcj 
OQ JO aniBA 



00 o th in in o wt-inioo o> o m lomoo wt-<M "o ooo 

i-i tH iH r-l iH rH iH rH rH iH tH "H r-l iH iH 



CO fH N in 10 CO IN m IN N CO in in ca 00 o) CO rH in i-i "-I 

lOcoiNCJinco r-HcoiNNcoincoiNaocoTi(C5e<iN 



siioq pnB sasnojj 



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puBq paAOjflmi SoS2 
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48 



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JO junoiuv 


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Q 
uo ajauAV cc^^rtH rt^^^;-; rt' 

tCC0T)lr-4 t- iH Tjliom CC O O tH ONm M i-ICON •* -"tCJ O rH (N CO 

Cfj e0N(O coco (MNWOrHlO CO W rH iH 0> CO N r-l Ol d 05 P] 

^IW^O panjoH co«o«50 mio cqeocoo^co •* TitcocoocoTjiiHTji(M t-co co TJ<(^q n ■<tco 



' o»!a JO oniBA 
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FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 



49 



JO ^unorav 



CO CO X CO a 



JO jnnoiuv 

2nu3A03 

Sinn A\BS 

siiBq3 SuipiH 

S8ABIS 

a3H ai^nig h 

S8SJ0H ^? 
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siUH ;sHO 
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^'^*'^'^ crt cqt-ooo-^t-mmpHt-o.cooo^cocooi^cnmS-'S'^SSSSS^'^S'^S § 

^ SrtCl IN (Mr-l'*-<ll'*<0'H'Hr-liHiHr-l(M IM 05C0C0<^^(M'^' ^ '"' '•^ 

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gSSJBSaSJOH -* '^^<=''" ^ " (MTj.Cl^-HrHC]<MinCOCJ rn COCOCJCO CO 

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50 FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 

COLLECTOR'S RECEIPTS. 

Belgrave May 4 1779 Then Received of Jacobus Dumaree 
Collector of Haekinsack Precinct the Sum of One Thousand 
four Hundred & Seventy Pounds Ten Shilling, and Eight 
pence Tax Money for the following taxes Viz for Raising 
the Sum of One Hundred Pounds &c Passed Dec 5 1775 for 
three years old Sinking fund — for discharging the New Jer- 
sey Expences of the State of New Jersey Passed the 26th of 
March 1775 Together with three Exempt Taxes Raised agree- 
able to Law Pa Abr. Westervelt Coltr. 
£1470..10..8 

Received Totewah November 23 1779 of Jacobus Demarest 
Collector of the Precinct of Haekinsack the Sum of Seven 
thousand two hundred and Seventy Seven Pounds, ten shil- 
lings on account. 

By me — Isaac Van derbeek Cont. Colt. 

Reed. Leberty Pole March 29 1793 of Peter J. Demarest 
constable on a return to Jacobus Demarest Justice of last 
years Tax — the sum of five pounds Nine Shillings and ten 
pence Rec. per me Cornelius Lydecker Collector. 

John Benson Collector this day 28 day of January 1795 
made oath before me that he lawfully Demandid the within 
Taxation of the several Persons herewith named, &c — Rec. 
New Bridge March 10 1795 of Jacobus Demarest the sura of 
Four Pounds four shillings & two pence it being collected 
from the several dillingquents within naraed &c. 

John J. Benson Collector. 

The Poor Tax Raised at the To^^^l Meeting 
the Second Tuseday in March 1784 

Poor Masters 

The List No. 1 amounts to £15 — 19 — 5 Daniel Demarest 

" " " 2 " " 7—18—9 Hendrick Brinkerhoff 

" '' ''3 " " 8—15—6 J. M. Goetschius 

" '' " 4 " " 11—16—1 John Demarest 

The above written Dated the first day of May 1784 

Jacobus Demarest. 

1784 

Deducted of this List the Sum of £0-11-0 
Deducted the above Sum of J. M. Goetscheus 
which w'as a mistake 
as he had no Nigro man. 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 51 



The Amount of the July Rate 1784 
The Quotas of Hackinsack Precinct 

Amount of State Tax ^'^lo~]l~' I 

Government Suport " oT nn -in 

County " 81-19-10 



Total Sum 



453_ 8— 6 



the amount of State Tax ol'~'^l~~'o 

Government Soport " ^n o o 

County " • ^9— ^-^ 

Total Sum 414— 6-4 

1784 ^„„^ 

The Number of White inhabitants J-^^^ 

the Number of Blacks '^^^ 

Total ^^^'^ 

1865 . „ _ , , , , 

"By the census of 1865 the Township of Hackensack had 
a population of 7112, and by the cenesus of 1870 which was 
the last eneumeration before the division and final cessation 
of the Township it had a popolation of 8.039. 

GEDER COMES, COLLECTOR^PAPERS 
They bear no date but the names appearing are of those 
active before the Revolution. The great amount of money 
recorded is of interest. 
8 Paks at J. V. S. of £1000 each 

Johanna Day Due to me. wid 12 Dols 

John Jo. Buskirk Due to me 1 ^ ^ 

Jacobus Brinkerhoff Ditto 4 ^^ 

John Poulese Due to me 4 21 

I am Due to the Tax 87 Dol 

Jacobus Buskirk Due to me ID w 1 

Thomas Harris Due to me 1 Dol 

Marta Myrs Due to me 8 Dol 2T 

Samuel Etsel Due to me 3 Dol IT 

Samuel Etsel Due to me of old Tax 8 Dol IT 

John AVestervelt ^l'"^— 2—6 

Samuel Demarest 13 

William Clark "^'''""'"n ^ 

Andris Coole 7— Q— Q 

30—12-6 



52 FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 

TAX MONEY IN PAKS 

1 Pack of 2666 Dol— 2F 

2 Ditto " 2666 D— 2T 

3 Ditto " 2666 D— 2T 

4 Ditto " 2666 D 

5 Ditto " 2666 D 2F 

6 Ditto " 2666 Dol— 2T 

7 Ditto " 2666 Dol— 2T 

8 Ditto " 2666 Dol— 2T 

9 Ditto " 2666 Dol 

1 Pack of 1185 Dollars 
ditto 914 Dol 

ditto 31 Dol 

ditto 27 Dol 11 Pence 



2157 , 
Among this money is £26 — 12 — 6 of old Tax. 

Adam V. Norden £45—0—0 

Jacobus V Syle 8-0-0 

Richard Dykeman 10 — — 

These men is gon to New York for which reason there Tax 
Cannot be Gadered or Collected. 

£50 — — in Debted to me Due to me 

Like Wise 34 Dol 2T IS and Reed, to 

Reed 40 Dollars Geder Comes 

to 78—1- 



The following extracts from an article in the Newark Even- 
ing News will show the present day taxpayers of Bergen 
County something about the methods of assessing taxes in 
said county in 1816, that is one hundred years ago. 

Jacobus Demarest whose name appears several times in the 
papers contributed by Mrs. Westervelt was according to data 
found among the Collins collection a tax assessor of Hacken- 
sack Precinct. First Collection District in the years 1779, 
1783, 1784, and no doubt his assessments were made very 
much in the same manner as John Dodd made his thirty 
years later. 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANTTSCRIPTS 53 

ARRIVAL OF ITINERANT TAX ASSESSOR 

WAS BIG PUBLIC EVENT 100 YEARS AGO 



John Dodd j\Iade Rounds in First District of New Jersey on 

Horseback in June, 1816, When Householder, Landholder 

and Slaveholder Gave Exact Accounting of Property. 



Townsfolk Gathered at Pubijc Taverns and Made 
Visit a Holiday. 



Assessors of property, re?fl and personal, are, in compliance 
with the law, now making rounds of various districts, seek- 
ing new valuations and arranging the figures on their books 
to meet 1916 requirements. For years this season has been 
devoted to this foundation work of the public financial sys- 
tem. A century ago John Dodd, principal assessor of the 
First District of New Jersey, was the most thought of man 
in this section of the state. Then there was a state tax to be 
met every year, besides the one levied locally. 

His formal announcement in May that he would begin his 
rounds of the district on June 7 brought about more or less 
activity in the respective towns visited. Practice was at that 
period for the assessor to go to a public place, swap stories, 
indulge in refreshments and then open his book and invite 
the people to walk in and declare their taxable property. 

John Dodd was, at the end of his trip, the best informed 
man on about every subject in the district. He knew of 
every public house or tavern, every home and much of the 
gossip. Every householder, landholder and slaveholder were 
required to give an exact accounting of estates. 

The first day was spent at the court house in Newark, 
where he finished the w^ork in one day, making additions and 
subtractions and indulging in the forecast of his financial 
trip, which was to be made entirely by horseback. Saddle- 
bags were required for filing books and papers. 

Arising with the chickens on Monday morning, June 17, 
1816, Dodd Avas again in the saddle and on his way up Broad 
street to the turnpike road (now^ Bloomfield avenue) and 
over the mountains by way of Pompton turnpike to Pompton, 
a place equally important 100 years ago as now. Here the 
farmers came "in from the outlying territory for exchange of 
produce and gossip. 

other tavern HExVDQUARTERS. 

Ryerson's tavern was the point of rendezvous for the en- 
tire day. On June 18 the sitting was at Goodman's tavern 



54 FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 

in Paterson, June 19 at Van Houten's tavern, Saddle River; 
June 20, Hopper's tavern, Hopper Town, June 21, Dema- 
rest's tavern, Harrington; June 22, at the court house in 
Haekensack, where a well-earned rest was taken till Monday- 
morning. 

June 24 was spent at Coulter's tavern in Bergen, and June 
25 at Vanderbeek's tavern in Old Haekensack. 

At each of these places the assessor made a speech to the 
assembled group in this manner: 

"Fellow citizens, I am here for the purpose of securing in- 
formation that may be furnished as to the changes which may 
have taken place in the assessable property of individuals 
since the last assessment, made under act of June 9, 1815, and 
previous to the first of June, 1816, which information must 
be given in writing under the signature of the person whose 
tax may be affected thereby. 

''First — Assessable property omitted to be assessed at the 
preceding assessment and property that has ceased to be ex- 
empted assessment, such as property belonging to the United 
States or a state or otherwise exempted, which on its transfer 
became assessable. 

"All such property is now to be assessed. But no altera- 
tion is to be made in the previous valuation of real estate 
in virtue of any improvement thereon. 

"Second — Transfer of real estate and slaves according to 
w^hich an abatement in the enumerations and valuation of the 
person transfering them will be made and a corresponding 
increase in the enumerations and valuations of the person to 
whom the transfer may be made. 

"Third — Change of residence. These will merely require 
a transfer on the books from the list of residents to that of 
non-residents or vice versa, as the case may be, of the prop- 
erty in the ownership or agency of which such a change has 
occurred. 

"Fourth — Burning or destruction of houses or other fixed 
improvements of real estate, for which an abatement equal 
to the injury arising from these changes is to be made. 

"Fifth — Exemption of property ceased to be assessable. 

"Sixth — Slaves that have been born or have died or have 
run away or have otherwise become useless since the pre- 
ceding assessment. 

"Any person becoming the o\\nier of a slave by transfer 
to liiin from a collection district other than that in which 
he resides is re(|uired under penalty of $10 to render a state- 
ment, specifying the age and sex of such slave, who is to be 
valued according to his or her existing value." 

"Ahem!" The assessor waits for the citizens to walk up 
to his desk and make their statements. Tax dodging is im- 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MAXI'SCRIPTS 55 

possible, for every man -watches his neighbor earefiillv. All 
are on trial. 

John Dodd, according to the law, was the arbiter in tax- 
ation from whom no appeal could be taken. His decision 
was final. Arguments were not allowed on the first visit. 
Statements property made were submitted as meekly as the 
exigencies required. 

Then came the days set aside for appeal, or readjustment. 
Notices were sent out by the assessor that he would appear 
at the Newark Court House on Monday, July 15 ; Tuesday, 
July 16, at the Elizabeth Court House; Thursday, July 18, 
at the court house in Hudson for the purpose of receiving 
appeals that may be made in writing as to the revised enu- 
merations and valuations. 

It was necessary to specify Avith minuteness the property 
of the individual of the preceding assessment properly 
omitted then to be assessed and its value, including transfer 
of real estate and slaves. The latter were thus enumerated : 
Males above fifty years, below fifty years and over twelve 
years and those imder the latter age, and for female slaves, 
between twelve and fifty years and under twelve. 



TAVERNS. 
1763 

A RATE FOR TA\^RN KEEPERS — 1763 

(Can't 

A warm Dinner £0 — read) — 3 

Cold Dinner — 1 — 

Supper — 1 — 

Breekfast — — 9 

Bottle good Meadeary wine — 5 — 

Common wine — 3 — 

1 quart bool. of Good Lime Punch — 1 — 6 

1 quart Bool, with out Limes — 1 — 

1 quart of Good Matiglum — 1 — 6 

1 Gill of Rum — — 5 

1 quart of Beer good — '0 — 5 

1 quart of Syder good — — 5 

1 (luart of Oats — — 3 

good English hay for one night — 2 — 

good salt hay for 1 night for horse — — 9 

1 Gill of Brandy or Gellwine — — 8 

a Lodging one night for Person — — 5 

Pastering one horse Day — 1 — 

By Order of Court April Term 1763 

David W. Provoost, Clerk. 



56 FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 

TAVERN KEEPERS. 

1766 — Peter Demorest 
1767 — Peter Demeray 
1774 — Peter P. Demoree 
1783 — There were five taverns 
1783— Mary Day 
1783— Peter Bordett 
1783— John Hays 
1784— Michel Teefer 

" —Mary Day 

" — John Benson Jr 

" — Cornelieus Hogland 

" — Jacob. Campbell. 
1781 "Abraham D. Demorest, on the road to Old Hook kept 

to — a general store. In 1809, a tavern where elections were 
1799 held & other public business transacted." 

Bergin County cfs 

Peter Demarest John Christie & William Christie do 
jointly & severally acknowledge themselves to be justly In- 
debted unto our Sovereign Lord the King his heirs & suc- 
cessors in the sum of Twenty pounds Proclomt. money of 
New Jersey to be Levyed upon their & Every of their goods 
& chatties on the conditions follo\^^ng. 

The condition of the above Recognicance is such that 

whereas the above bonden Peter Demorest is Licenced 

by the Court of General Quarter Sessions for the County 
of Bergen to keep a Tavern or public house in & at the place 
he now dwelleth in the Precinct of Hackensack in ye County 
aforsd. if therefore ye sd. shall not game hinself nor suffer 
any person to game in his house for money or the Valine of 
Money but Shall during the s. time in all things Respecting 
himself as a pul)lic house keeper use and maintain good order 
& Rules. & find & provide good & suffict. Entertainment for 
man & provisions for horses then the above Recognicance to 
be Void otherwise to remain in full force & Vertue. Taken 
& acknowledgd before me by order of Court. June Term — 
1766. William Provoost, Clk. 

1767 

Bergen County cfs. 

At a Court of General Quarter Sessions of the peace Held 
at New Barbadoes in & for the County of Bergen on the ninth 
Day of Juno in the Seventh Year of his Majesties Reign 
Annoy-Domino 1767. Present Lawrence L. Van Boskerk. 
Application being made to this Court by Peter Demeray for 
a Licence to keep a Tavern & Said Peter Demaray being 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 57 

Recommended to the Justices in such manner as by a Law of 
this province is Directed the Justices in Session have thought 
fit to Grant & hereby do grant him full Licence to keep a 
Tavern for the term of one year Entering into Recognizance 
Persuant to the Directions of the Act of Assembly in Such 
Case made & provided. 

William Provoost. Clk. 
By Order of Court. 



1766 

QUARTER SESSION APRIL TERM 

To the honourable Court, in and for the County of Bergen, 
We the Under Subscribers Recommend Peter Demarest Of 
the precinct of Hackengsack that he is a person of Good 
Repute for Honesty and temperence and is Provided with 
two Good Spare feather beds More then is Necessary for ye 
famlies use. and is well aecomedated with house Room, sta- 
bling and Pasture (for use of Drovers). Agreeable to an act 
of Governor Conneill and generall Assembly of the Province 
of New Jersey Made and Provided for that Perpose — 

(List of names missing.) 

1798 

COPY OF ONE MAN'S TAVERN ACCOUNT FROM A 
DAY BOOK— NEW BRIDGE. 

Oliver Dr 

June £ S.. D 

24 to Grog, Bitters & Milk punch 3. 6 

24 to Beer & Milk punch 2. 6 

July 2 to wine Grog & Spirits 5 

7 to wine Sling & Sundry 4. 6 

24 to Grog & Bitters 5. 3 

27 to 2 Supper & Dicker 12. 

29 to wine Wather & Milk punch 2. 6 

Aug. 10 to Licker & cord wood. & Cafh 7. 16. 9 

11 to Spirits wine & Grog 5. 6 

15 to Grog wine & Gin 3. 9 

19 to 41/. glases Grog 2. 3 

Sept. 13 to Cheair (Riding Chair) hier & Milk 

Punch 9. 

to 1/2 Cheair hire to fort Lee & Licker 5. 6 

17 to Brandy & Milk punch 1. 5 

19 to 2 glases Grog 1. 

23 to Milk punch 1. 3 



Oct. 


1 




5 




20 




25 


Nov. 


5 


Nov. 


6 


Dec. 


11 



2 





3 





4 





5. 








8 


3. 


6 


2 


2 




.9 



58 FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 

to 4 Quarts Cyder 

to Dinner & Breakfast 

to Cold Supper & Dicker 0. 

to Grog Bitters & Cyder 

to 1 Glas Gin Grog 

to Rum Grog Cyder & Bitters 0. 

to Sundrys 1. 

to 1 Grog & half Gil Bitters 



VOCATIONS. 

1747 — Peter P. Demarest, yeoman. 

1767 — Nov. 16 — Surveyor. 

This Day Received of Peter Demoree the sum of four- 
teen shillings 6 pence being in full of all accounts 
to this day Except 15 for surveying the Dands of 
the heirs of Lourans P. Van Buskirk Desd. & if 
Isaac Vrooman is willing to pay me for the same & 
dos pay it then this will be in full of all accounts 
whatsoever. Jacobus Van Buskirk. 

1768 — Peter P. Demarest, Farmer. 

1769— June 22— Blacksmith. 

Received of Pieter P. Demerast in behalf of Abraham 
ele (Ely) for shoeing of 1 slight in full — £.15.8. 
by me — John Terhune. 

1773 — General Store — George Jansen. 

1780 — Carpenter. 

Reed, of Jacobus Demaree the sum of fourteen shil- 
lings for making a coffen for the Deceised MoUey 
Goelet — Reed by me 

his 
Abraham X Devoe. 
mark 
1783 — There was one Brewerie- 

1783— John More had two Grist Mills 

1784 — William Day was 0A\Tier of 1 vessel- 

1784— Isaac NicoU had 1 Saw Mill 

1784^Grist Mills 

William Lozier, Richard Udall, William Udall, Nicho- 
las Lozier, Samuel Demarest, Simon Simouse, Ben- 
jamin Demare- 















»• - - «.V0\-^i.I>J' 









White Blanket. Harin^, Weaver. 1800 



C. Curtis 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MAMJSCRIPTS 59 

1795— Apr 9— Fish Dealer- 
Jacobus Demarest. 

To Abraham Brower Dr- 

£ S. D 

To 200 clams 2 

" '' " 2 

'' 500 " 5 

" 200 " 2 

" 500 & 50 " harts 11.. 3 

1.. 1.. 3 
Rec. the contents in full by me. 

Abraham Brower. 

1779_Stone Cutter- 
New York. 
The estate of Abr. Ely Dec. Dr 

To A, Labagh- 

To 20 ft of steps @ 2 f £2. 

" one Grave stone 1 .12. 

'' cutting 248 letters @ 11/2 1 11 

£5. 3. 
■Rec. Payment in full. A. Labagh. 

1800— Nov. 25— Surveyor- 
Jacobus Demarest 

To Joh. Johnson, Dr, 

To surveying 2^/2 Days $5. 

' * mapping 1 

' * writing 2 deeds 2 

" 21/^ Days bearing the chain 1.25 

$9.25 
1801 — Sebe Brinkerhoff, Carpenter 

1802 — Jacobus Demarest paid 0.4.0 for a pair of shoes made 
for him. 

1806 — John J. Demarest, Shoemaker 

1807 — Lucas Van Buskirk sold Liquor. 

1807 — Luke Cooper, Blacksmith 

1807 — David Brower made two bbls. cider — 0:1.3 



£ S. 


D 


1 





3 





2 








9 





6 


1. 








6 





3 


4. 


6 



60 FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 

1808 — John Ileatou a metal worker — 

To putin an Ear to a bucket 

cleaning a Sword 

puting an eye to a hoe 

mending a link 

' ' a watering pot 

soddering a kettle 

mending a scissors 

wire 

making a Coat For William Ely. 

13. 6 

1820— July 5— Undertaker 

Eec. of William Eale, one of the executors of Peter 
Demarest Dec. the sum of three dollars for tending 
the funeral. Albert N. Vanvoorhis. 

1820 — Joh. Johnson received 65 cents in full for auctonure- 
ing Goods. 

1821— Stone Cutter 

To a Head & footstone £2.16.0 for Peter J. Demarest 
Dscd. Old Bridge- John P. Demarest. 

1821 — Samiel Freeland to making a boat. £0.16.0 

One of the earliest vocations was that of lumbering. Men 
from New York took up large tracts of land, including the 
Palisades, very early and began cutting the timber, which 
was "pitched" down the Palisades to the shore and then 
rafted away. There was a "Pitching Place" on the Corne- 
lius Lydecker property near the site of the Mountain House, 
Englewood. 

1767 — John Masseles, weaver. 

Jacobus Demarest Esq. Dr for w^eaving 17 els of 

woolen, £0.11.4. 
Mis Leacraft for weeven 35 els of linnen- £1.3.4. 

1779 — An Old Inventory. 

The following is an extract from an inventory of 
Johannes l^lauvelt of Harrington, made in 1779: 

£ S. 

57 yards homespun linen 57 00 

15 yards tow cloth 15 00 

59 shirts 84 08 

Boots, jackets and breeches 80 00 

2 hats, stockings and mittens 22 00 

2 rugs 18 00 

6 woolen shirts 14 08 



1 












1 

; 
- •■-' -^ 




'^^^H 


^^^■^^^i^if^ 


7 '' 


^^^^■L '- 


X'^^^^^iSi^liig?! 


4 


^K.\fe:--i 


r";- ■^^:;--.-^:^. '^ 








li 


il 



Cheriokee Indian Rose Blanket 



C. Curtis 




Blue and White Blanket 

DaTid D. Haring, Weaver 



C. Curtis 



FACTS AXD FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS Gl 



IS lineu sheets oi 12 

13 tow sheets 31 04 

4 table clothes 6 08 

12 pair pillow cases 14 08 

1784 — Sold at a vandue. 1 Bush. Flaxseed — £0.5.4. 

1807 — Apr 14 — Luke Van Buskirk Dr. to Peter J. Demarest 
for weeven Seventy Nine and half els (91 yards) 
of linnen— £2.13.0.' 
John Xaugle weaver 

1S07 — At death of Jacobus Demarest Esq — the following was 

sold at the vandue — 

To a weavers Loom £0. 19. 

To a Crackle 2 3 

'• •• Hetchel 1 

'' a Spool Wheal Swift 3 

" " lot of gear 4 

" " R^al 6 9 

" 4 Shuutes 1 

3 " 1 

'' a Cask. & flaxseed 5 

" " Wooling wheel 10. 

"'' Lot of Spools &c 1 4. 6. 

1812 — Abraham Brass to. Spinning 

one lb. of flax £0. 3. 6 

four-^ '• '• 0. 10 

•' '' " '• 10. 

Spining 7 lbs of toe 8. 

1824 — James P. Demarest 

for weaving 9. ells of linnen 0.6.0 

1825 — James A. Haring Weaver — West Norwood, called 
Back neighborhood, Old Tappen. Quilts & Coverlets. 
(Many in fine state of preservation — 1916.) 
David D. Haring Weaver same neieghborhood made 
Coverlets — Table — covers : rugs with tufted sur- 
faces — Indian Rose blankets &c. 

1815— July 5— William Ely and William Bettel and Robert 
Adams the executers of Robert Berahill Decesed Dr 
to John J. Demarest 

for Proving the Will 0. 4 

for taken the invetory 0. 6 

for Going to Hackensack for wine and 

pipes for the funel 0. 12. 

for Bringing the Corps to Hackensack. .0 S. 



£1. 10. 



62 FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 

1820 

STRAWBERRIES. 

Mr. James C. Demarest, 92 years old (1916), gave the fol- 
lowing facts in regard to strawberries: Bergen County was 
the first to send the berries to market. The demand was 
great. His grandfather, Samuel, and father, Cornelius, were 
raising them about 1820. There was an early variety, which 
did not do well. The standard was the "Scotch Runner." 
"I will never forget the fragrance from them when a wagon 
passed on its way to market." They carried a thousand 
baskets at a time as a load, and for the first shipments they 
received fourteen dollars for a thousand pints. As the 
money from the berries was the first to come in after a long 
winter, the best of care was given to the beds, that were laid 
out in rows with a path wide enough, that the pickers could 
work comfortably from both sides. The small baskets were 
placed on wooden trays and the berries, without the hulls, 
were placed in them. Before packing for market each basket 
had a green leaf tied over the berries. The pickers received 
one cent per basket. School children that asked the privilege 
were excused from school during this season. 

From The Bergen County Journal, July 2, 1858: 

"Capt. R. R. Hawkey informs us that 1,100 wagons con- 
taining 1,500,000 baskets of strawberries passed the second 
gate (toll) last week." 

STRAWBERRY BASKETS. 

Some of the farmers made their own baskets during the 
winter, the women of the families assisting. Our people hired 
a man from Manicus (above Ramsey) who was a basket- 
maker. He came in the fall and from the woods gathered 
the hickory timber and worked it up into splints, and during 
the winter made thousands of the baskets for the berries (and 
for other use). Each shipper had his own mark — applied 
wdth paint to each basket — to assure its return. Some used 
initials, others made a stripe of some color, around or up and 
down, and others a color on the bottom, etc., and even then 
they miscarried, from the variety of marks seen on a collec- 
tion lying in an attic. 

The shippers in the section near Old Dock — Closter Land- 
ing — sent by the Periogus to the other side of the Hudson 
and to New York. Others sent via Fort Lee, also Hoboken. 
At one time wooden bowls and then pottery cups or bowls 
were used to ship the fruit in. 

The apple crop was one of the most important of the town- 
ship products. Many peaches were raised, and the thrifty 




Strawberry Baskets 



C. Curtis 



These baskets were used for strawberries, the berry being stemmed and oak leaves 
laid over the top to preserve them 




H. W. Phillips 

The home of Abraham De Voe and Elizabeth Parsells, his wife. 1771. 
Now the home of Mrs. Andreas 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS G3 

housewives spent the evenings peeling and slicing them for 
drying, as Avell as the apples. 

1854 

CLAY INDUSTRIES. 

Brickyards in the Township. — At Bogota, on the river, on 
Mnnn's property, was a yard owned by John Marclis — after- 
ward owned by John Smultz until 1869. 

1855 

]\Ioses and Andrew Sears started a yard in 1855 on the 
Kipp property on the Hackensack River. In 1860 it was dis- 
continued as the clay gave out. 

1867 

On the island at Ridgefield in 1867 a firm started a yard 
to make pressed face brick. They installed steel ovens, etc. ; 
expended a large sum of money digging a hole 80 feet deep. 
After three seasons it was declared a failure. — From article 
on "Clay Industries of Bergen County," F. A. Westervelt. 

1776 

ABRAHAM DE VOE AND ELIZABETH PARSELLS, 

HIS WIFE. 

Abraham DeVoe bought a small farm near New Bridge, 
1771. He worked on his farm and, being a carpenter, also 
worked at his trade in the surrounding country. The battle 
of Long Island, however, changed his plans. ' His country 
wanted his services : one of his sons had became large enough 
to help his mother, and with her consent' her patriotic hus- 
band joined the American army in a company under Cept. 
Demarest, where he shortly after became an under officer. 

It was not long after when Tory thieves were organized 
and began to steal cattle, horses, hogs, fowls and everything 
that was at all valuable in the surrounding country!^ His 
premises were several times visited by both the black and 
white desperados, who took his cattle, robbed his house, 
abused his family, especially his brave wife, who would not 
disclose to them where his money was hid. He having con- 
siderable gold and silver, part of which was from the sale of 
Fort Washington property, he concluded to invest it in Con- 
tinental money, just then issued, and this he held until it 
became almost worthless, and in the end he lost the greater 
part or all of it. 

Several interesting facts have been handed do\ni to and 
through his generations, one of which (a great-grand-daugh- 



64 FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 

ter) gives an account of his sufferings and his wife's bravery- 
Cleaving out names), which appeared in the press under the 
head of "A Perilous Night." 

In the year 1776, at the time the English troops were en- 
camped near Hackensack, on the east side of the river, there 
stood on the old Hackensack road a large and commodious 
farm-house. One night, just at dusk, there might have been 
seen a man dressed in the uniform of an American officer 
cautiously wending his way toward it. As he entered he 
was joyfully welcomed by the family, for his wife and chil- 
dren were rejoiced to have the husband and father spend the 
night with them. 

At midnight they were suddenly aroused by the tramping 
of horses and the sound of voices. In an instant the husband 
and ^vife were on their feet, and looking from the window, 
perceived a large company of English soldiers surroimding 
the house. Already a soldier was stationed at every window 
except one — a small window leading from a store closet, 
which was so completely overgrown with shrubbery as to 
be unnoticed by them. 

"This is your only chance," exclaimed the wdfe; "go at 
once." "No," replied the sturdy soldier. "T will stay here 
and defend my family." "Stay and be slain or taken pris- 
oner," replied his wife. "I wdll do all the defence that is 
necessary; for my sake flee." Thus urged, he dropped noise- 
lessly from the window. Hat and shoes were handed him by 
his wife, and he crept silently away, expecting every moment 
to be taken prisoner by the enemy. 

In the meantime the British soldiers were thundering at 
the door, loudly demanding admittance; but the lady of the 
house was in no hurry to admit them, knowing mat if her 
husband could but reach the woods he might so make his 
way to the fort and be safe. Finally she withdrew the bolt 
and the leader demanded, "Where is your husband?" "He 
is not here," she replied. "Don't tell me that; we saw him 
come here at dusk and we have sworn to have him dead or 
alive. ' ' 

They searched the house from attic to cellar and Avhen they 
discovered that he had really escaped they were filled ■\\dth 
rage. The leader flashed high his sword before the lady, 
angrily exclaiming: "Woman, do you see this sword?" "I 
do." "Well, to-day I broke it over your rebel son's head, 
and I would have served your husband the same could I have 
found him." 

For an instant the mother's heart failed her; then, think- 
ing he had said this merely to frighten her, she again took 
courage. Had she known that her eldest son had been taken 
prisoner, was wounded and apparently dying in the Englisli 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 65 

camp at Fort Lee, her courage might have forsaken her. 
After helping themselves to every eatable in the house they 
departed. 

The lady did not again retire, but at dawn dressed herself 
for a walk, leaving the children in charge of the faithful 
colored servants. She took her youngest boy by the hand and 
walked quickly to the English camp. Arriving there, she 
demanded an audience with the chief officer. A little sur- 
prised, they admitted her. As soon as she entered, the officer 
arose and re(iuested her to be seated, for he was as quick to 
recognize the true lady in the woman as she was to perceive 
that he was an English gentleman of the old school. Declin- 
ing the proffered seat, she inquired : ' ' Sir, did you come to 
this country to fight men, or to rob and plunder women and 
children ?"' 

' ' To fight with men, madam ; it is only villains and cowards 
who will harm defenceless w'omen and children." 

She then recounted the events of the previous night, add 
ing: "This is the third time your soldiers have entered my 
house and despoiled it of everything they thought would 
prove to their advantage." 

"And was your husband at home when the soldiers ar- 
rived?" inciuired the officer. "He was." "And did you 
assist him to escape ? " "I did ; I should not have been a true 
Avife if I had not." 

The officer's face lit up with admiration as he replied: "J 
must say j^ou are a brave woman to come and tell me +his. ' ' 

Then, calling two of his most trusty soldiers, he com- 
manded them to escort the lady home and to guard her house 
day and night as long asi they were encamped there; and if 
ever she was again troubled by his soldiers he would require 
an apology at their hands. But she was never again molested 
and ever after was heard to speak in the highest terms of the 
English gentleman. 

After peace was declared Abraham DeVoe was found on 
his small farm and hard at work at his trade. Among his 
papers appeared a bill made out in 1799 for 119 days' work 
on the " Scaullenburgh Church" at 10s. per day, now called 
the "South Church," alongside of which is the burial place 
or cemetery where lie the remains of Abraham DeVoe and 
his brave wife — she dying in 1818, while he lived on to the 
great age of 91 years, as he died in the year 1826, 

Abraham and his wdfe had but five children to grow to the 
age of maturity, named Mary, John, Elizabeth, Sarah and 
Abraham A. — From the history of the DeVoe family — 1885. 

Abraham DeVoe was the descendant of Nicholas de Vaux, 
a Huguenot refugee, who wdth others, came to this country 



66 FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 

in 1674, accompanying the new Governor, Sir Edward 
Andros. 

Nicholas de Vaux went first to Harlem but afterward 
joined other French refugees (Daniel du Voor, Jean Durie, 
Jacques Laroe) on the Demarest purchase, commonly called 
"The French Patent," where David des Marest was en- 
deavoring to form a French colony, but succeeded only in 
building "The French Church of Kinkachemeck. " The 
house of worship was built near upon a knoll just below the 
Old Bridge, where still remains "The French Burying 
ground." — Riker's Revised History of Harlem; chapter 21-22. 

Note — ^While the oath was taken at an earlier date the 
entry was evidently made after the preceding ones and per- 
haps shows the fallibility of man. 



1776 

The following is from some leaves of a diary. The grand- 
father referred to was Cornelious Lydecker, and it was writ- 
ten by the Rev. Cornelious T. Demarest, his son-in-law: 

"Grandfather Lydecker when the Rev. war broke out 
moved his family 1st to Goshen and lived there with Capt. 
Bradnor who had served in the French War. When Howe 
put out his proclamation Bradnor told Gr. that he could take 
advantage of it. Grandfather said 'Not, so long as he could 
find a quarter part of America Free,' &c. 

"He went to several places & then returned to Bergen Co. 

"Grandfather Ly was here yet when Fort Washington was 
taken for he stood on a point (Palisades) & saw it. Wash- 
ington was at Fort Lee at that time. Col. Peters and Major 
Stephen — fine men — put up here at Grandfather. Soldiers 
slept in the Barn — very dirty and lousy. Col. Peters ad- 
vised Grandfather to take his family back into the country 
which he did that fall, and came back again & staid here 
until the British landed at New Dock, and he had to leave 
all. The two horses of Peter & Steven were let go by the 
Negroo. They thought if they could get over the New Bridge 
they would be safe. The negroo and his wife remained and 
went with the British. Grandfather had 30 fat hogs a large 
number of cows and sheep a large Barrack stood where 
meadow hay lays E. of Barn full of wheat — clean wheat in 
his garret — a Barn full at the Lower place, all fell in the 
hands of the British. 

"He put in his horses, tied 3 greys behind the waggon — 
was so confused could think of nothing, left new hat and 
every thing behind — the 3 horses broke loose & lost them too. ' ' 



%. A. 












Certificate of Loyalty 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS G7 



1776— Nov. 23 

Taken from Jacobus Deraoray 
4 waggon load of hay by order 
of Corporal Sampson 

Quartermaster Richardson. 
Also taken from him 

14 sheep 

3 heffers 

5 hogs 

2 pigs. 

1780— Sept. 1st 

This may Certify that Cobus Demeris has furnished to 
dragoons ^^•ith hay and oats to S. I. Belonging to Capt. Bed- 
kins troop Light Dragoons Being Detached upon the rear 
Guard William Reynolds 

D. D.? 

to Cornelus herry ? forage master. 

1783— Feb. 11 

Received of Jacobus Demarest the sum of 3£ 9s, 4d. in 
part of cost of the money taken of John Lyie Prise. 

Cornelius Huyler. 

To the Justice £2. 0. 

to the "Waggoner 12 

to William Day 

for expenses 1 12 

7 14 
Paid to Comelious Huyler for costs. 

1776 

The oath of adjuration of the kingly authority is in the 
words following — to wit. 

"I, A. B., do sincerely profess and swear That I do not 
hold myself hound to hear allegiance to the King of Great 
Britain. So help me God." 

The following is the oath of allegiance to the popular 
government : 

"I, A. B., do sincerely profess and swear That I do and 
will hear true Faith and Allegiance to the Government estah- 
lished in this State under the authority of the People. So 
help me God." 



6S FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 

1787 

The following Persons has taken the oaths of Abjuration 
and Allegniance before me the 14 day of Nov 1787 — 
Jacobus Bogart 
John J. Bogart 
John Ackerman 
The 14 Day of May 1787 
Jacob. J. Banta 

1788 

The 30th Day September 1788 
John Walker, Schoolmaster 

Jacobus Demarest. 

"During the Revolutionary War when the word was re- 
ceived that 'the British are coming' the famlies gathered up 
their valuables, silver, jewelry, & c. & hid them in many 
places. At Liberty Pole (now Englewood) Cornelious Ly- 
decker owned a farm — part of it lying on what is now Pali- 
sades Ave. In front of the Presbyterian Church site was 
w^hat the Dutch called a Slankey (ravine). In its depths & 
at the foot of the large trees many valuables were hidden and 
for many years, occasionally articles that had been left would 
be found." 

"In the To^vnship stood Fort Lee, Howe's Headquarters, 
Closter Dock and the old Block House so famous as the place 
of refuge for a band of the most unscrupulous Tories of the 
Revolution. ' ' 



,'. // 






^ 



^^, 



•'/»>, 



•*''.'»i» *^ 



Vv^ •■ 






Remnant of Homespun Woolen Blanket bearing 
Crown of Kine George 

From home of Peter Burdett. Fort Lee 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 



69 



TO MISS CATY VAX GEISEN 

AT 

PULIFY— 

The above address is on the outside of a folded paper 
sealed with red wax, and, within, the following: 



I Justify Every part of 
of Whig with all my heart 
for to support I'll try 
the Friends of Liberty 
I think the Association 
An honour to the Nation 
It Swells my heart full big 
For to be stiled a Whig 
I wish the Best success 
Unto the Grand Congress 
All Luck below the sun 

To General Washington 

To General 

Caty Van Geisex — 



king and parliament 
I hate the Curst Intent 
Friends of Administration 
are troubles of the Nation 
a cruel Base Intent 
The act of Parliament 
When I am called a Tory 
Is more a shame than Glory 
to North and his conclusion 
the worst of all Confusion 
To Manissgle bute & North 

(Mansfield) 
Destruction & so forth 

Washington 



This appears the sentiments of a Whig, but when you pay 
no attention to the dividing line and read the full line, the 
Tory sentiment is strongly shown. 

This information is given in regard to the above "From 
the original Journal of Nathaniel Croudy of Reading Mass. 
this song was copied." It was a revolutionary song by Enoch 
Benson Carter (died on Prison Ship) (supposed to have been 
written while regiment was at Liberty Pole). 

REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIER AND WIFE 
WILLEMPIE BOGART. 

"Jan. Demarest, son of Peter Demarest & Maria Batton 
(see genealogy) was a Revolutionary Soldier serving as a 
private in the Hackensack Company. It is said his wife 
Willempie Bogart was a strong and fearless woman. They 
lived in the neighborhood when the plundering and persecu- 
tions of the Tories was a constant menace. Mrs. Demarest 
is said to have guarded well her husband's property, even 
to chaining the horses and cattle, from the marauding par- 
ties." "It is said of other wives that they guarded their 
property during the daytime with guns while their husbands 
slept." What a pity there is not more kno^\^l of the women 
of the Township during that period. 



70 FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 

1794— Sept. 17 

I Henery Rixon do voluntarily enlist with Peter Hassen- 
fretz to serve for him as soldier if required in Captain Helers 
Company or any other Company he is wanted in, and to 
receive in lieu thereof twenty Dolars bounty, but in ease I 
am not wanted to serve or doth not serve, I am entitled to no 
more than Seven Dollars. Note, I received One Dollar in 
hand. Therefore if I do not go or serve I am to receive only 
Six Dollars but I go or serve I am to receive Nineteen Dollars. 

his 
Henery X Rixon. 
Signed, Sealed and acknowledged mark 

the Day above wTitten in the presence 
of 

MiCKL. KlERAN 

Nicholas Losye 
William Waset 
Hugh Cassidy I sine of this indenter to 

his William Ely. 

William X Magee 

mark Peter Hassenfretz. 

1794— Sept. 20 

I Peter Horsenflox of the County of Bergen and State of 
New Jersey, is firmly bound, and I do hereby bind myself, 
unto William Ely, of the County & State afore said to find 
a good able Body Man to march at a moment's warning in 
the Quota of the first Battillon of the Second Regt. and for 
such service I do hereby acknowledge to have Received the 
sum of Sixteen Pounds in full — York Currency. 

1794— Sept. 19 

We the underwritten are hereby firmly bound to each other 
in the sum or sums of Money which shall be lawfuly assesed 
on us, for the paying of a substute to serve in this the Millitia 
of the Class of the underwritten. 

William Ely John Paulusson 

Thomas Howard Peter J. Demarest 

Yacobus Poulis Jacobus Demarest 

Albart Waldrom John Demarest 

George Wilsson Peter Demarest 

Paulus Paulusson Jacobus J. Demarest 

Burckhart Klotback ? Phillip Husman 

Abraham Devoe Jur. Guiliam Demarest 

Jacobus Waldrom Jane Demarest 

John De Hruseh ? 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MAKUSCRIPTS 



"Every man over 18 years of age had to train each year 
until they trained 10 years. They wore white trousers, blue 
coats, high hats. The officers wore a red silk scarf across 
their 'bodies and high red feathers on the front of their hats. 
June -Ith was annual training day, all meeting at Hackeu- 
sack." 

' ' The Continentals — of whom Garret G. Ackerson Sen was 
Captain wore drab knee breeches & vest & blue coats & three 
cornered hats, 

1802 

Capt. Cadmus, one man (Seal) Returned Ruben Hemmond 

^ 1 Dol. 

A Return of all the men who have been fined for Deficiancy 

and uon attendance at the Battle Muster on May 17 1802— 

Rynier Earle Capt. 

Also a Return of Regiments Muster fined for the same on 
June 1802 and October 

Rynier Earle Capt. 

Rune Ludlam $3 John Evens $2 

Matthias Wade 2 James Ludliam 1 

John Lumliam 2 Henry Speer 1 

Ezecle Stillwell 3 Able Smith 1 

Robert Renwick 2 William Crum 2 

Michel Floy 3 Nathan Slaker 1 

Nathaniel Bud 1 John Post 1 

Samuel Pryme 1 

1812— March 26 

Notice is heare by given that an election will be held for 
Military Officers wanting in the 3d Company 1st Battilion 
2d Reg. Bergen Bergade on the forth Day of April next at 
one oclock in the afternoon of said day at the house of Peter 
D. Christie, inn keeper at Scraalenbergh 

John D. Haring Maj. 



1812 



1812 



John J. Jr. Demarest Dr — 
A hat, feather, sword and belt. 
£7.12.0. 



Gabril Purdy— Dr— 

to horses goen to traing. £0.8.0 



Barant Naugle was in command of a training band. 



72 



FACTS AXD FIGURES FROM MAMJSCRIPTS 



SCHOOLS. 
1773— Sept. 25 

Mr. Berry Roniine to Geo. Jansen Dr — 
To 10 lbs nails deld. Roelof Romiue for 

the School House at the Ponds £0. 8. 4. 

To 13% years Interest 8 



£0.16. 4 
1785 

Dr John Van Giesen 

to Peter "Wilson 
To Tuition of Paul Van Giesen from Oct. 

15 1785 to Nov 15 Do at writing £0. 10. 

1736— To Do at Do from July 3rd 1786 to Oct. 

3 Do 0. 10. 

1^87- To Do from Augt. 21st 1787 to Sept. Do. . 0. 10. 



£1. 10. 
Mr, Van Giesen 

Please to pay to Jacob. Smith the sum one Pound 
ten shillings the amount of the above acct. & his 
Receipt shall be your discharge from your humble 
Servt. Peter Wilson. 

1788 — John Walker, school master. 

1794— Oct. 22 

Received of Isaac Kipp for schooling your son Peter Aley 
the sum of four shillings Lewis Tichenor. 

1798 

To Thomas Grace teacher of school Dr 

to 4 Glasses Gin Grog.— 0.2.8. 
1798— July 19 

Received of Jacobus Demarest Esq — the sum of eighteen 
shillings it being in full for school teaching for Bess, and all 
other accounts till this Date 
£0.18.0. Per Joh. Johnson. 

1800 

"Margaret Lydecker attended school in a small stone build- 
ing on her father's — Cornelius Lydecker — farm, Liberty 
Pole. The teacher was James Forester, son of Dr. Forester." 

"James Forrester was born in Edinburg Feb. 25, 1775. 
landed in America Oct. 16, 1794. In 1795 at the age of 20 
years he commenced teaching school at Closter. He remained 
3^/2 years when he returned to Liberty Pole. Here he taught 
8 years. He then accepted a position in N. Y, City." 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 73 

1800— April 5 

Received of Jacobus Demarest Esq — the sum of ten shil- 
lings it being in full for one Quarters School Teaching for 
Bess — 

£0.10,0 JoH. Johnson. 

1811 

James Carson Cr. for one Qr. Skuling 

0.12.0 

1818— Aug. 8 

Reed, from Mr. Wm. Ely Twenty eight and one sixpence 
in full for Tuition, New Bridge Wm. B. Kipp. 

1818 

"Liberty Pole School House opposite the Tavern was one 
of the oldest in Bergen County. It was replaced in 1818 by 
a new school building erected by the Liberty Pole School 
Union Company. Children from under the Palisades at- 
tended school there. School was from 9 till 5 in summer and 
9 till 4 in winter. Only vacation at Christmas holidays. 
During strawberry time children desiring to pick strawber- 
ries were excused. About 1845 the teacher was Mr. Robinson. 

"Many years, after 1818, it was torn down and rebuilt 
at Highwood, N. J., about 1 mile above, on the Tenafly Road. 
All the original material being used. Now in 1916 it is occu- 
pied by a family, after being converted into a bungalow. ' ' 

1843 to 1860 

"The Schraalenburg School had as teachers Peter De Baun, 
Abram De Baun, Cheesebrough & John Meyers." 



THE FIRST PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

From "First Centennial History of Schools in Bergen 

County," by Supt. Demarest. 

"Previous to the passage of the school act of 1846 the 
schools w^ere supervised by township committees, elected at 
the annual town meetings. Prior to 1842 the school com- 
mittee never had reported to the board of trustees of the 
school fund as the law required them to do. The newlj-- 
appointed committee, in conformity to a resolution adopted 
by the people assembled at town-meeting, were instructed to 
report at the ensuing town-meeting the condition of the 
public schools in the to^mship." 

Part of report read at the annual town-meeting 10th April, 
1843: 



74 FACTS AXD FIGURES FROM MAXl^SCRIPTS 

''Section thirteen of the act to establish public schools in 
the State of X. J. imposes upon one or more of the members 
of the school committee to visit and examine the schools in 
their respective townships at least once every six months, 
and on or before the first Monday in March report their state 
and condition, the number of scholars taught, the terms of 
tuition, the length of time the schools have been kept open, 
the amount of money received of the collector, and the man- 
ner in which the same was expended," 

''In obedience to the mandate contained in this section 
the school committee did visit a majority of the schools last 
fall. In the early part of February last they sent circulars 
to the trustees of all the schools, inclosing a blank form of a 
legal report, and requesting the trustees to complete the same, 
for which the committee would call on or before the first 
Monday in March." 

"They visited school No. 6 — New Bridge — and No. 7 — 
Schraalenburg. At New Bridge the average number of 
scholars taught is thirty-four; terms of tuition, $1.50, $1.75 
and $2.00. The school has been kept open all the year; the 
amount of money received of the collector $74.80, which has 
been .expended for the education of poor children, and for the 
expenses of the school house." (The school house was op- 
posite the tavern.) 

"The average number of children taught at Schraalenburg 
is forty-seven ; terms of tuition, $1.50. School kept open the 
w^hole year; amount of money received of the collector $83.60, 
all of which, except a balance of $5.48 has been expended for 
the tuition of poor scholars, for extinguishing the debt on 
the school house and paying the expense of the school." 

"School No. 4 at the Liberty Pole is in good condition. 
The average number of scholars taught is forty-five; price of 
tuition, $1.75 ; school kept open the whole j^ear with the 
omission of a few days; received of the collector, $100.00, 
$62.23 of which has been expended for the education of jioor 
children ; the surplus funds of last year, added to the re- 
mainder of this year, have been used for erecting a cupola 
on their school house and the purchase of a bell, for keeping 
the school house in repair and i)roviding the necessai-y articles 
for the use of the school." 

"School No. 2 at Fort Lee was visited. The school build- 
ing ai)pears to be the best, largest, and most commodious of 
any in the township. A becoming spirit animates all in the 
furtherance of popular education. The average number of 
scholars taught is fifty-two; the terms of tuition, $1.50 and 
$2.00; the school has been kept open the whole year; the 
amount of money received, $92.44. Out of this sum was paid 
for interest due on the school house debt $30.00; to paying 



FACTS AXD FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 75 

teacher, $30.00 ; for stove and fuel, $24.00, leaving an unex- 
pended balance of $8.40. Poor children are admitted free 
of charge, the teacher being engaged by the year at a fixed 
compensation." 

"First free school in Bergen County was at Fort Lee and 
still flourishing. April 3, 1858." — Bergen County Journal.) 

"No. 3 at the English Neighborhood was next visited. The 
school at the time contained only eighteen scholars whilst the 
number residing in the district is eighty. The principal 
cause of this discrepancy is that another school is taught in 
the district. Price of tuition, $2.00. School kept open eight 
months in the year past; received, $79.20, of which $43.17 
has been expended for school furniture, for cleaning and re- 
pairing school and paying the teacher." 

"School No. 5 at Teaneck was visited. There were about 
sixteen scholars present. The only report we obtained from 
the trustees merely mentions the number of children in the 
district, which is fifty-six; the number taught, which is 
twenty-eight, and the amount of money received, being 
$49.50." 

' ' School No. 10 at Upper Teaneck was visited. The average 
number taught is thirty-eight; price of tuition, $1.50; re- 
ceived of the collector, $59.40, which according to the state- 
ment of the trustees 'has been expended for the use and sup- 
port of the school.' No vacancy the last year." 

' ' The report from part District No. 8 at the Flats says that 
the number of scholars taught is twenty-three ; price of tui- 
tion, $1.50 and $1.75; no vacancy the past year; $31.99, 
money received; 75 cents of this has been expended for re- 
pairs and the remainder equally dividend among the cJiil- 
dren." 

"The report of part District No. 9, Closter, merely gives 
the number of legal school age residing in the district, which 
is thirty-four, which barely enables them to receive their 
portion of the school money." 

"The report of part District No. 1 at Bulls Ferry gives the 
average number of children taught as sixteen ; terms of tui- 
tion, $2.00; received of collector, $17.60; expended in repair- 
ing school house and purchasing fuel." 

Signed (Johx Van Bruxt'/) 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 



PHYSICIANS AND THEIR BILLS. 
1749 

Doet. Kemraena, 1749. 

Dr. J. Van Wagner, 1779. 

Engelbart Kemmena, 1780-83. 

Beekman Van Bueren, 1779, 1784-86-90-83-99, 1805-06-07- 
09. Deceased in 1812.) 

Dr. John Van Bueren, 1788. 

J. Lewis, 1804. 

John Campbell, 1808. 

Isaac N. D. V. Froligh, 1815. 

David Marvin, 1814-15-16-19-20-23. 

Dr. Abraham Hopper, 1829. 



BILLS FOR MEDICAL ATTENDANCE. 

1749 

New York. Received ye 13 November 1749 of Peter Dema- 
reay (Sen) ye sun of Six Shillings Be it in full of all ac- 
counts Per DocT. Kemmena 



£0.6.0 
1780 



Mrs De Wedue Mareest To 
Dot Engelbart Kemmena 
To tending and medecins 

for Mrs Mareast £3.13.0 

To purghs for the Negero boy 2.0 

Rec. the full contents wydt 
in for me Engelbart Kemmena 
November 17 1780 



1784 



Mr. Jacoby D. Mereft 

To Doctor Beekman Van Bueren. 
Feb. 

28 to innocloting 7 of your family £4. 

31st to a visit 0. 

" to a Dose annodyn 0. 

April 

1st to a Purge 0. 

" to 2 Doss anodyn 0. 

13 to a viset 0. 

to Bleden 0. 

" to a mixter for the fity (city) children. . . 0. 

14 to a viset 0. 

'' tp a Purge 0. 



1. 





1. 





2 


6 


1. 


6 


4. 





1. 





1. 


6 


2_ 





1. 





1. 


6 



FACTS AKD FIGURES FROM MAm:SCRIPTS 



May 

8 a Dose for Worms 0. 1. 6 

June 6 to 6 Worm Powders 0. 6. 



£5. 7. 6 
Oct. 29 Red. the ful Contents in ful of all acct. Per Mee 

Beekman Van Bueren. 
1800 

REMEDY FOR THE EPEDEMIC. 

1 oz Rochelle Salts 

2 oz. Manna 

desolve them in half pint of warm water & take it in the 
course of 3 hours with as much Tamarind Water, if vometed 
up Repeat the Dose — 

TRANSPORTATION. 

1768 

"Andrew Van Buskerk erected a stage wagon in Hacken- 
sack at the New Bridge to set out for Paulus Hook on Sept 
17th to go twice a week, for two shillings sixpence." 

1775 

"He changed the terminal to Hoboken & like the others 
called his vehicle a 'Flying Machine.' " 

1768 

"In the same year Jerdine Elsworth brought out his new 
caravan 'between the Hook & New Bridge.' He informed 
the public that his horses were very quiet & the caravan new 
& in excellent order. During the Revolution regular com- 
munication ceased." — Bergen County Atlas. 

"Liberty Pole Tavern Omnibus that left every day (Sun- 
day excepted) at seven oclock in the morning reaching Ho- 
boken in 3 hours Returning, left Hoboken at 4 p. m. & 
reached the Pole at 7 p. m. " 

1783-1784 

Michel Feefer was taxed for a "Ferry." 

Schooners & Sloops sailed the Hackensack River as far as 
New Milford. At New Bridge was a Dock. 

"Stages left New Bridge for Fort Lee. John Ackerman 
o^\^aed an omnibus with the door in the rear. Evers'body 
liked to ride -with Mr. Ackerman as he had fast horses." 

The boats carried all kinds of freight. 

The stages carried pasesengers & packages also mail. 



78 FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 

RIDING CHAIRS. 

1784 

On the tax list of 1784 one of the many things taxed was a 
"Riding Chair" — which seems to have been the Dutch term 
for a chaise. They were taxed $2 per year for them. There 
were only three in the township. 

"Chaise — A one-horse vehicle for two persons, with body 
hung on long leather straps, having long elastic shafts, a 
calash top and two high wheels." 

1788 

Reed, of Jacob Bamper at Paramus 28th August 1788 a 
cow which he valued at seven Pounds. Said sum is to be 
deducted of a Riding Chair I am making for him which chair 
I promised to make complete in the Coarse of Six Weeks — 
Agreed with Mr. Smith for forty pounds Jersev Currency 
£7.Y.P.M. 

Byrne Phillips Smith. 
Witness 

Geo. Jansen. 

Mr. James C. Demarest, now 92 years old, told of his re- 
membrance of a Riding Chair. 

"His mother, EflPy, b. 1804, was a daughter of Peter C. 
Westervelt of English Neighborhood, who owned a chair 
which M^as considered 'very fine.' His mother when a young 
girl and her brother dressed up in their best clothes and 
started off in the chair to spend the day at Hobokon. When 
they reached the bridge, nearby were some sailboats. The 
horse became frightened and bolted. All were thrown in 
the river. The men from the boats hurried to their rescue. 
One cut the harness and the horse escaped. Another caught 
the boy and got him to the pier and told him to 'hold on;' 
then he swam to the girl, who was bobbing up and down for 
the last time, and caught her by the top of her bonnet, which 
fortunately was tied under her chin Avitli ribbons that were 
strong enough to hold, so she was rescued." 

FERRIES OVER THE HUDSON RIVER. 

"Closter Landing was called The Great Rock Reach." 
"At one point a little rowboat is struggling across, tossing 
among the whitecaps. An old Dutchman plies the oars, row- 
ing sturdily, and at last lands his passengers on the other 
shore. A few miles beyond and you see another rowboat 
ferry — and another. What are those (piaint little sailing 
vessels wending their way? Periougas they are called, carry- 
ing both passengers and freight from bank to bank. So at 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 



many points the Hudson was bridged by the rowboats and 
the periougas at much the same points — in fact, where you 
can bridge it today borne by the power of twentieth century 
mechanism. 

"Burdett's Ferry, Fort Lee, was the only communication 
between the sister forts, Washington and Lee, and while 
Mollie Sneden, that valiant and famous little Tory, was oper- 
ating the ferry at Sneden 's Landing, five miles above Alpine, 
the loyal patriot Peter Burdette was assisting our army to 
transport ammunition and supplies, as well as soldiers, from 
shore to shore, while his better-half cooked flapjacks for 
General Washington. "—From New York Times, 1914, by 
Sarah Comstock. 

CHURCHES. 

REV. SOLOMON FROELIGH. 

In 1786 called to Reformed Dutch congregations of Hack- 
ensack and Schraalenburg ; officiated thirty-nine years. 

In 1800 he wrote in regard to the religious revival in the 
above congregations: 

" Schraalenburgh, March 17, 1800. 

''Sir, — I feel myself prompted to transmit to you a detail 
of the surprising work of the Divine Spirit in the congrega- 
tion under my care, which is of several years' continuance. 
Thirteen years ago, when I became pastor of these congrega- 
tions, I found religion among them in a very low_ ebb ; noth- 
ing appeared the least encouraging but a disposition to at- 
tend ordinances ; family worship had nearly become extinct — 
the young people were generally addicted to levity, and the 
slaves exceedingly vicious. This was the deplorable state of 
my flock for a series of year. But the first season that the 
epidemic prevailed in Philadelphia I preached on a fast day 
from Psalm ixxvi.11.12. This was the beginning of a glorious 
work of conversion among the people of my charge; it af- 
fected persons of every rank and age, from fifty years and 
upwards down to twelve, and a considerable number of black 
people. Both black and white prepared for church member- 
ship. In the space of nine months, I admitted nearly two 
hundred communicants, and baptised a large number of black 
people. Prayer meetings were set up, and have continued 
ever since. We frequently have a meeting season under 
preaching on the Lord's Day — especially on sacramental oc- 
casions, when the Lord's Supper is generally administered to 
between two and three hundred persons, which, though not 
an over-large number in a city, yet in a country congrega- 
tion, much larger than usual — &c." — From a Lamentation 
over the Rev. Solomon Froeligh, SS.T.D. & P— 1827. 



80 FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 

1799 

"Fees for registering children be at least two shillings and 
that one half be paid the clerk if the child be baptized where 
(the clerk) officiates. The remainder belongs to the min- 
ister." 

There were many papers referring to pew rents, pastors' 
salaries and other monies, but simply references. 

TWO BAPTISMAL RECORDS IN DUTCH. 

(Parents.) (Birth & Baptism dates) 

Het Kint van Roelef Gebooren Den 10 May 

Bogert. Endo moeder Gedoopt. Den 8 June 

Jannitie Banta in Het yaar 1788 het Kinto 

naem Jacob. 

(Witness) 

Jacob Banta En Eyn 

Huisorow Catrinna Lam 

Syn getuigen 

Wort Een Damkseggenge Begert voor Een Kramvrou. 
(A thanksgiving in church is desire for a lady in childbed.) 

Ouders Kint Ganygen 

(Parents) (Child) (Witnesses) 

Petrus Bogert Grietie Gb. Jan Bogert 

Maria Christie Augustus d. lOd Margriettie Demarst. 

1788 

This prayer was written by Jacobus Demarest on a scrap 
of paper about 1800: 

"0 lord wilt thou Revive thy work Amongst us. May a 
genral Reformation take place within our Selves, within our 
Nabourhood & throu out our Common Country. May we all 
be flocking to the standard of Jesus the Rock of our Salvation 
Lord we thank the that our lot is fauling in pleasant 
plaices and that we have a standing into a Land of Gospel 
Light and Liberty and that we are blest with priviledg far 
and above our fellow creature." 

This prayer was written in Dutch by James Demarest : 
"The Lord grant now abundantly to the needy and poor 
in the land, for they are evidently those whom Christ has 
left in his place. 'Give a portion to seven, yea to eight for 
thou knowest not what evil shall be upon the earth.' The 
Lord grant you a hearing ear and an understanding heart in 
order that we may add something to the glory of God 's most 
holy name and to the salvation of our souls. Amen." 



FACTS AXD FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 81 

BRIDGES. 
1682 

"For the first time commissioners were appointed to lay 
out roads, provide ferries and Bridges," after formation of 
Bergen County. 

1759 

Action taken on "Building & repairing bridges." 

Freeholder & Justices' book. 

1764 

Johannes Demarest and John Zabriskie shall procure iron 
chains & fix the same to the draw bridge over the Hackensack 
river instead of ropes. — 1st Freeholders & Justices' book. 

1765 

Ordered that Lawrence Van Buskirk Esq and John Za- 
briskie do take the chains that are now on the New Bridge & 
dispose of them to the best advantage for the benefit of the 
county and ordered that they shall buy good Pitched Ropes 
& fix upon the Draw Bridge & have said Bridge put in good 
repair. — Freeholders and Justices' book. 

1768 

That the Bridg commonly called the New Bridge between 
Lawrence VanBuskirk's Esq. and John Zabriskie shall be re- 
paired. — Freeholders and Justices' book. 

1797— March 7 

"Samuel Ogden and 36 other contractors were incorporated 
as 'The Proprietors of the Bridges over the Rivers Passaic 
and Hackensack,' and under their charter claimed the ex- 
clusive rights to erect bridges over these rivers." 

1819— May 13 

The Board of Freeholders adopted the folloA\'ing: 

"Resolved, That a committee be appointed to superintend 
the following bridges, viz., Old Bridge, New Bridge and 
Hackensack Bridge. 

"Resolved, That Messrs. P. C. Westervelt, J. A. Wester- 
velt and P. A. Terhune be said committee. 

"Resolved, That the committee be and are hereby author- 
ized to prosecute all offences that may be for the future com- 
mitted against the act of the Council and General Assembly 
of the State of New Jersey entitled 'An Act to prevent the 



82 FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 

Draws of Certain Bridges in the County of Bergen being 
left open." — From Bergen & Passaic County History. 

"Albert Voorhis son of John Voorhis was drowned at New 
Bridge through an open draw." 

1826— Nov. 10 

Bergen County Dr. (to William Ely) 
Dr. for Labor Don to the New Bridge. . .£0. 1. 

one lb of Spiks 0. 1. 

17 Dr for Inspecting A. Bridge 0. 8. 

19 Dr for inspecting A. Bridge 0. 8. 

County Cr for old timber 0. 12. 

Dec. 2 Dr for Inspecting A. Bridge 0. 8. 

Ditto for inspecting A. Bridge & Seling 

the old timber 0. 8. 

11 Dr for Repairing the Draw of the New 

Bridge 0. 8. 

29 Dr for Labour Don to the New Bridge. .0. 4. 
1827 

Jan. 24 Dr for Repairs Don to the New Bridge. .0. 8. 
27 Dr for taking the Spileings of the peare 
out of the Ice and bringing them on 

Shore 0. 16. 

Mar. 5 Dr for Repairing the Oraw of the New 

Bridge 0. 7. 

24 Dr for viewing A. Bridge 0. 4. 

26 Dr for Repairing the Draw of the New 

Bridge 1. 0. 

Apr. 4 Dr for planking the Draw of the New 

Bridge 0. 12. 

Dr for 13 lbs of Spiks 0. 3. 

Dr for Bolts & Nuts 0. 1. 

(From an account book.) 

1830 

Article of sale of repairs of the Old Bridge near the house 
of Casparus J. Demarest. The repairs of said bridge and of 
the draw of said bridge to be put up at public vendue and 
to be struck oft' to the lowest bidder. The bill of timber 
necessary for repairing said bridge and draw are as follows, 
viz. : 
For Draw — 

inches feet 
4 pieces 6 feet long, 4 in. by 7 — 20 
1 do 7.6 8 "12 — 20 

1 do 7.6 6 8 — 15 

1 14 3 5 — 17.6 

Also 2 pieces for South Wheel 
5.6 long 3 — 6 



F ^ctsandjiguresj;ro^o^ 

mmmmm 

:;rank"thU° ^e^'noHn ?l.e\aid draw and to be spiked do.™ 
lale sublet to an acyournm.nt. The n-on work .HI be 



for $32.75 
1831 



Articles of Sale of the repairs of the New Bridge across the 
B^:^cS^i^eJ! TogetLr with the timber wanting for 

'"FirT'tWepairs of said Bridge i. e. timber work, iron 

work, and spikes to be furnished by the P^^'^^^^J- ^^^^.^^^ 

2d The repairs of said bridge to be struck of the lo^^est 

'^^hSw^g is^=S^f timber wanting for said 

^Tlff^et inch measure of plank White Oak Bl^ek Oak 
timber pTank to be a stout inch thick and to be^ll tt long 

46 6 Sch measure of plank to be one inch and one half 
inch thick and to be 11 fLt long to.be put --//- .f- ^ 
thick plank to be put on the east side and the thm on the 

It^es ^oist .r t.e t.p o. sa. d.w 5 . C in Ion. .. tU..- ^ ft . in 

1 Rabbit piece an 

g 11 4-4 — O " 

2 hand rail posts 

of timber 93 10 

Plank 5S8 6 



Inch measure ? 632 



84 FACTS AOT) FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 

4th The purchaser is to find & bolt with screws and nut 
to fasten the hinges of the tip part of said draw. 

5th The plank to be well spiked down and the timber to 
be White Oak except the plank which may be of Black or 
White Oak as the purchaser shall chuse the purchaser shall 
also fasten the hand rail post or posts which want fastening, 
the whole of the above repairs to be finished on the first of 
October next in a workman ship manner subject to the in- 
spection of William Ely and John Zabriskie 

Sold this 30th day of August 1831 to me 

Simon W. Demarest 
for $21.00. 

At one time the "draw" was the "lift" type — one end 
being elevated. It w^orked by balancing weights and turned 
by a large key. Note article 4. 

At another time the "draw" was of the "slide" type. It 
was drawn over the roadway of the main bridge. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 
1733 

On a map of 1733 the Overpeck Creek is called "Oversack 
River." 

1742 

The oldest document in the collection : 

November ye. 13th 1742 
Carman. 

Mr Peter Demorrest Sir Pay or cause for to be paid unto 
Danniel Trasy or his order ye sum of fifteen Schillins and 
that wdthout delay and this shall be your Suffititent Discharg. 
Sir I Remain Yours. Lourons Van Boskerck. 

New York April the 12 Day 1743 

Received of Peiter Demeray the sum of four pounds four 
shillings and nine pence for cart work in full of all accounts. 
I say Received by me 

Richard Boogerth. 

The bill, 
the Large Boolt. wt 17 lbs at 9 pence p. pound 
the 2 Skaines & 4 Bands wt. 33 pounds 
the 4 Boxis wt 18i/^ pounds 

the 8 Staples & 2 Linch pins & 2 bolts 08 pounds 
the Back Band & Chancs wt 10 pounds 
the coller rings & chains wt 141/2 pounds 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 85 

May In all the weight is lOli/s £3. 17. 3 

8 to new Shews for j^oiir hors 8 

15 to old Shews 1 6 

21 to a huck and ehane for your cart wheel. ..0 3 



Dr to Richard Boogerth. 

1757 

Ordered that there be a sufficient Stock made in the Pre- 
cinct of Hackensack to be managed & ordered by the Free- 
holders Cornelius Lydecker & Barant Cool at ye convenient 
place near the New Bridge — 1757 — Book of Freeholders and 
Justices. 

1769 

Shall be set up Posts and Painted Markes directing the 
several roads in said County and to be put up in Precint of 
Hackensack by direction of Lawrence L. Van Buskirk and 
Peter De Grote. — Book of Freeholders and Justices. 

1783— Single men were taxed £0.12.0. 

1784 — Single men were taxed £0.7.3. 

1786 

Beekman Van Buren 

to Nathan Squire Dr 

To Chocolate and Cakes 0. 2. 

To 1 handkerchief 0. 6. 6 

1790 

The name "teanafly" appears on a document of 1790. 

1796 

Reed New Bridge Oct 22 1796 of Jacobus Demarest the 
sum of four Dollars it being for a Colt, of the Bold Hunter. 

Ural Meeker. 

(The Bold Hunter is often referred to in these docu- 
ments. ) 

1800 

PARTITION PAPER. 

Whereas the Heirs of Peter P. Demarest late of the pre- 
cinct of Hackensack in the County of Bergen and State of 
New Jersey decesed have made partitin of the Real Estate 
of the said deceased, and whereas the Widow has 



86 FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 

a life interest in the Real estate aforesaid and it being possi- 
ble that she may disturb, interrupt, and injure, one or more 
of the said Heirs in the enjoyment of their Respective Shares 
& Portions, Agreed that while the said widow shall be con- 
tented to receive a support from the said heirs, in lieu of 
enjoying the said Real Estate &c, she shall be at liberty to 
board or live with such of the heirs as she shall from time to 
time, select, prefer & choose and the price of the board & also 
the Doctors Bills, & the money wanted to purchas wearing 

apparel shall be borne & paid by the said heirs Provided 

always that no more than 37 Dollars and 50 cts. per annum 
shall be charged for board. Signed 



1802 

New York, Oct 18 1802 
Dear Christian friends 

Mr & Mrs Elley May the Blessing of the Lord God of Israel 
under whose wings I hope you have been enabled to trust. 
Bless You and all that appertains to you Boath in the upper 
Springs and in the nether Springs. Be so Kind to give our 
Christian Love to your Honored father and Mother in law, 
Cobes & Pege, our Kind friends Judge & Mrs Haring & 
family to geather with those Christian friends that use to 
meet with us at a throne of grace not forgetiug your worthy 
Pastor. I often reflict with comfort the time T lived amongest 
you and the many sweet oppetuntys I enjoyed at a throne of 
grace with 3^ou in the Little Retired habitation the Lord was 
please to provide for us tho at the expence of our Landlord 
happeyness, that little hut the Lord hath (blessed be his 
Holy name for it,) often been please to meake it a bethel to 
our soules. and a Palace weare he as King of Zion had often 
come in to sup with ous and we with him. I am grieved to 
hear that it has become a den of theeves, that the walls if 
they could speak, togeather with the trees and hedges would 
bear witness of our secret Converse and connnunion with our 
Dear Lord Jesus Christ should now hear nothing but that 
blessed name in whom your Souls Desire to trust and rejoice. 
Blasphemed from Day to Day. Mrs Chalk and my self being 
boath fond of solitude, the Lord hath been pleased in the 
general to cast our lot in the cities hath often caused me to 
admire Dr Watts paraphrase on the 55 Psalm weare he saith 

0. were I like a feathered Dove 

and innocence had wings 
Id fly and make a long remove 

from all these restless things 



FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 

Let me to some mid Dessert go 

and find a peaceful home 
Where storms of Malice never blow 

temptations never come 

Riit this world is not the Christian rest and to be Delivered 
fror^ troubre we must be Deliverd from this body m ^vinch 
wP dwell in the world ye shall have tribulation saith our Dear 
Lord but in r^e ye shaU have Peace therefore the Doctor goes 
on an saith 

Vain hopes and vain invalations all 

to scape the rage of hell 
the Mighty God on whom I call 

Can save me here as well. 

And may it be his blessed will who hath saved ^^ with an 
ev^rlastlng'salvation, save, us from ^^^ ^^ fy by ^^ 
ing of regeneration and the renewing of the Holy l^ost even 

^^^? ^i^^VrSLtZii tt y^u some time ago to counter 
order t^ie cyder contrary to our intencheu I should be g ad 
herefore S'you could fill that one barel tMt I left .o^h you 
for that Durpos with such as you know will suit. ^"^^^ "/^^ 
Mr Buskerks Schooner and if you could send me a Bushel 

monev to vou by Mr Haring or pay it to any ot jour oiciex 
as you shaU think best. Be so kind to naU «'« <ln-ect.ons on 
Se'barel, direct, for Mr Chalk at Mr M-^.<,';™ »«) ""'^ 
Pnf^^l fttorp Greeuwich oppisite the btates rnson. 
Sb vou have heTrd no doubt by Miss Peggy Demarest your 
l^er the Lords disposale of us in a way of piM^vidence since 
I tad the pleasur of seeing you I shall therefore only sub- 
scribe my self your in Christ Jesus. Affectmatly 

James Chalk. 

This letter was folded and sealed with wax in the cus- 
tomary manner and directed to 

Mr Elley farmer 
New Bridge 

New Jersey 

By favor of Mr Samul Bering 
Mr. (Wm.) Elley's wife was a daughter of Jacobus Dem- 
arest, Esq. 



88 FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 

The following may have reference to the ' ' den of thieves ' ' 
spoken of in the letter of 1802 preceding : 

"When the old school house at Liberty Pole opposite the 
Tavern was torn down prior to 1812 (the new one was built 
then) it was found to have been 'a den of thieves.' There 
was a quantity of silver articles that had been pounded and 
broken ready to put in a melting pot. Other articles were 
found showing it had been a meeting place for lawless 
people." 

1806 

Notice is hereby given that I the Subscriber have received 
into the pound on the 18th Instant Seven old Sheep marked 
^dth a Cross on the left Ear and a Slit in both ears and three 
young ones without mark. The owner or owners is Requested 
to come and pay the Cost & Damages and take them away 
or they will be Sold at Public Vendue at the house of 
Abraham Collins on the twentieth Day of August next the 
Vendue to begin at one oclock in the afternoon of Said Day 
When attendance will be given by 

William Ely Pound Keeper. 
July 15 1806 

1806 

Came to the Pound by order of the Widdo Nickle teen Sheep 

on the 18 Day of July 1806 

Damages 50 

for Receiving 20 

for tending, keeping 1.20 

for hay During that time fore day. . . 1.20 



$3.10 



Received of Albert 

A Westervelt the sum of $2.40 July 22 1806 



1810 

"We have no Law concerning Dogs killing Sheep but the 
Looser of Sheep is intitled to Damages as in all other Cases. ' ' 

1809 

An Inventerry takin this twentififth Day of August. 
In the year one thousand eight lumdred & nine, of the 
Goods and Credits of Abraham Ely Dec. after the Desies 
of the widow Catherine Ely. 

One feather beed & two sheats one pair of poUocaseis two 
pillows one bolsters one blanket one green Rug one spread 



FACTS A\T) FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 89 

& A suiet of Curtains & Beclsted one bod & bedstid two sheats 
one pair of pilloes & caises two cover Lid & one Green Rug 
& Boelster one Easy Cheare & Cobard & Seven Bags & Cloase 
Basket, one ax & two skoops one chafein Dish, two half 
Bushels one half peck. & horse whip one Case & Drawers 
three tables and one stand Eight AVindsor cheares & fore 
comon one lucking glass Six pictures three brass candelsticks 
& one common, one pair of hand Irons & one pair of Dogs, 
one shovel two tongs one Large Bibel & Seven other books 
Sixteen plaits two large boels one Coffee mill & pair of 
candl moles, one Safe & Book case one Belloes & teakittel one 
watering pot & two funnels chease toster one bason one pint 
cup one Skimmer one Laidel & one fork, one brass kittel one 
pot. & Griddale & frying pan & toster three smooding Irons 
two trammals two Carthings pots fore Breth of Carpting one 
box & Knieffs & forks one Ceder Washtub one pail Small tub 
three Barrels & bake tray one grind stone & hammer one 
trunk & Cloth Cloak, & one Sattin Kloak one Black silk 
Gound one callico Gound one Quilt & petticoat, one woding 
hors. 

Witness Preasent 

Peter Ely 

Mary Ely 

James J. Demarest 



FROM AN ACCOUNT BOOK. 

1807—1 lb butter 0.2.0 

1807— One Bushel of tators 0.4.0 

1807—1 pt of milk 0.0.3. 

1807 — For going to Hackensak (from New bridge) 0.2.6 

1807— Gidion Ackerman Cr. Eight Cheairs 3.4.0 

1807—31/0 bushils of flax seed 1.18.6 

1807—1 bushel of Sault 0.8.0 

1 lb of to-bacco 0.1.6 

1/2 bushel of Corn 0.2.9 
1808— One Calf Skin 0.10.0 

1/2 Gallon of Oil 0.5.0. 
1809— To one Beurow 6.8.0 
May 
1809—19 shad 0.15.10 

125 herren 0.5.0 

1 Drake 2 6 

31 cabbage heads 8.0 
1809—1 Gal. vinigar 0.2.0. 

1 Qut. Rie Flour 0.7.0. 

For matting one Chear 0.2.0. 



90 FACTS AND FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 

1810— To 48 feeet of Gum Bords for his Mothers Coffin 

0.16.0 
1810— To one hogg 

7 cts lb amounts to 18 dollars 9 cts 
1810—1 Gallon of Cider 0.1.0. 
1810 — $37.50 it being the one equal half of the price of a 

new waggon 
1810 — For the youse of the Cider mill 
1812— To Rideing Chearse to Hoboken £0.16.0 

Paid Gates .0.5.0. 
1812—1 Shad 0.1.0 
1812— Two lbs Cotton 0.2.0 
1812— A half loaf of bread 0.1.0. 
1812 — for making one trowsers 0.3.6. 
1812—7 lbs of Indian flour 0.1.0. 
1 lb. of Lard 0.1.3 
11/, lbs of Pork 0.1.6 
1/2 "bbl. cider 0.7.0 

Sept. 15 

1812— Dr Campbele Dr. three Loads of Apples Avith 38 
Bushels in each Load at eight Cents per Bushel 
come to $9.12 ct. 
1813 — to one pair of sled soles 2 
1813—71/9 Bushels of Ashes 0.7.6 
1813— lO^Bushels of Oats 2.10.0 
1814— One Qut Mutton lli/g lbs at 7D po .0 8.6 
1814 — one beasts hide waying 55 lb at 6 cents per lbs 1.6.5 
1814— Three pare of Stockens 9. 

1 Sheap Skin 0.1.0. 
1815—1 Qt. Lam £0.5.0 

Oisters 0.6.0 

1 lb pepper 0.2.9. 

1/2 lb Tea 0.6.6. 

14 lbs wheat flour 0.7.0. 

7 lbs. Sugar 8.9 
1825— To exepences to New York 0.10.0. 

Cartage 0.1.6 

horskeeping 4 

Pikeage 2.6. 
1825— one lb of candals 0.1.0 

1829 

We the subscribers freeholders of the township of Hacken- 
sack where called to Charles Cluss to view the damage done 
by a certian Bay horse on his premises August 26th 1829 

Peter J. Ackerman 
Carinus Bogert 



FACTS AXD FIGURES FROM MANUSCRIPTS 91 



Davs 35 keeping 
10 



350 

8 bringing & receiving 
50 Damage 
50 Advertising 



$4.58 



ELIZABETH ELY XOTV POULUFSOX DR. 
(Evidently wedding outfit.) 
1831— Apr. 22 

One Beurow & field Bedsted & Cord $35,871/2 cts 

15 yars Bedtick 6 yards Muslin & quilt cotton. . . 4.81 

One Washkittel & teakittel & Candelstick 8.25 

One closeline & butter tray & ladel & wash ma- 
chine (board) .88 

Fethers & one pare Blankets 19.50 

one pare Smoding Irons .88 

one Lookinglass 13.00 

one pare hand Iron & Shovel & tongs 6.00 

one tub fore kelors, (colors) three pales, one 

churn 10.25 

one Sope tub 2.25 

A half Dozen Chairs 5.00 

One Cow 15.00 

One tabel $9, Ditto one $4, one Stand $4 17.00 

1832— March 10 

Eight fancv Chares 14.00 

Sept. 16 

Dr to Cash 60.00 

the Above account must not 
Be chard against her. 



(Above is from an account book.) 



THE LUTHERANS ON THE HACKENSACK. 

BY 

Da\td D. Demarest, D. D. 

Read before the New Brunsw-iek Historical Club, Nov. 18th, 

1897. 

(Courtesy New Brunswick Historical Club.) 

It was mj^ privilege a few years ago to read before this club 
a paper on the Huguenots on the Hackensack. In it I at- 
tempted to show that the Huguenots who, under the leader- 
ship of David de Maret had in 1678 settled on the eastern 
side of the Hackensack River, about three miles above the 
present village of that name, had built a church about the 
;s'ear 1682, in which the French language was used and which 
was occasionally visited by D'Aille and Peiret, the French 
Huguenot ministers of New York City. De Maret had ob- 
tained from the Proprietor a patent for two thousand acres 
■uath the expectation of obtaining from France a number of 
co-religionists to occupy it. His church building antedates 
that of the Reformed Dutch in the Village of Hackensack 
by about fourteen years, the latter having been built in 1696. 
The cemetery adjoining the church is known as the French 
burying ground. It is the oldest in that part of the country. 
I visited it last summer and found that it was fairly well 
cared for. 

About one mile south of this, on the same side — that is, the 
eastern bank of the river, and close to the water's edge, on 
a bank twenty-five feet above the river, another church was 
built by the Dutch people. The chief exception was Albert 
Zabrowski from Poland, the ancestor of the Zabriskies, for 
besides the Huguenots almost all the settlers of this region 
were Low Dutch. The large stone ante-revolutionary build- 
ing kno\Mi as the Zabriskie house stands at the western end 
of the New Bridge. It is an interesting fact that Baron 
Steuben purchased it after the Revolutionary war and oc- 
cupied it for a short time until the State of New York pre- 
sented him with a large tract of land from which Steuben 
County is named. *Here he lived to the end of his days. 
We find, then, in close proximity three ecclesdastical or- 



*Dr, Demarest in his statement concerning the manner in 
which Baron Steuben obtained the "Zabriskie" house, is in 
error as will be seen by referring to the very able article 
WTitten by Mr. William A. Linn and published in first Year 
Book of the Bergen County Historical Society. 



THE LUTHERANS OF HACKEXSACK 93 

ganizations and three church buildings. First and oldest 
of these was the Huguenot congregation, which, having 
been reduced to nine commmiicants, dropped out of ex- 
istence in 1696, when, of course, the worship was aban- 
doned. In that year the Low Dutch Reformed people, who 
had been organized into a church in 1686, and had worshipped 
ten years in some temporary building, began to build the 
first house of worship in the village of Hackensack. The 
Huguenots, being perfectly familiar with the Dutch language, 
which had been, in fact, adopted among the younger families, 
and also being in full accord with the Dutch people in doc- 
trine, government and mode of worship, threw in their lot 
with them, aided in building their house of worship and 
identified themselves with them completely. So the Huguenot 
congregation came to an end so eft'ectually that their de- 
scendants of the present day are filled with surprise when 
told that their ancestors read their Bibles, prayed and sang 
Maret's psalms in the French language. 

Immediately after this came in the Low Dutch Lutheran 
element, which formed a congregation and built a church, 
which continued far longer than the Huguenot had. 

At the time of the colonization of the Xew Netherlands 
the Calvinistic faith was the prevailing type of Protestantism 
in Old Netherlands. The state church was Calvinistic. At 
no time was adherence to this doctrine and order more 
strongly felt than it was when the first congregation 
was established on Manhattan Island in 1628, for the 
Arminian controversy had just been settled by an exaetment 
of the Canons of the S.^Tiod of Dort, which had adjourned 
only nine years before, in 1619. In Old Holland belonging 
to other faiths, Jews. Anabaptists, Lutherans and others had 
long been tolerated and were numerous. In the city of Am- 
sterdam there were thirty thousand Lutherans. The Lutheran 
congregation of that city has a grand history. Among its 
members were many excellent, enterprising and prosperous 
people, some of whom came to this new country very early. 
In 165-1 they had become so numerous in New Amsterdam 
that they proposed to have a minister of their own denomina- 
tion. They asked permission of Governor Stu^-vesant to call 
one and to open a place for public woi*ship. The request was 
denied by the Governor on the ground that he was sworn to 
allow the privilege of public worship only to the Reformed. 
The Dutch ministers Megapolensis and Drisiur were with 
him. The directors of the New Jersey company, not wishing 
to antagonize so valuable an element of the population, in- 
structed Stu^'^'esant "to use all moderate exertions to allure 
the Lutherans to the Dutch church and to matriculate them 
in the public Reformed religion." 



94 THE LUTHERANS OF HACKENSACK 

But Stuyvesant had no idea of moderation in dealing with 
persons who would not conform to his ideas. In 1656 he 
issued his famous edict against conventicles and unlicensed 
preachers who were not in harmony with the established 
religion as set forth by the Synod of Dort. Those who ven- 
tured to disregard it were punished by fine or imprisonment. 
The edict was especially aimed at the Lutherans, who com- 
plained of it to the New Jersey Company. The Company 
rebuked Stuyvesant, saying: "We would fain not have seen 
your worship 's hand set to the placard against the Lutherans, 
nor have heard that you opposed them with the punishments 
of which they have complained to us, because it has always 
been our intention to let them enjoy all calmness and tran- 
quillity. Wherefore will you not hereafter publish any simi- 
lar placards without our previous consent, but allow to all 
the free exercise of their religion within their own houses. ' ' 

On the strength of this the Lutheran congregation of Am- 
sterdam, without consulting the Governor, or the New Jersey 
Company, or the classis of Amsterdam, sent a clergyman, 
John Goetwater, to organize a church and to officiate pub- 
licly in New Amsterdam. Stuyvesant ordered his return to 
Holland by the same ship that had brought him, Avhich order 
was not enforced from a humane consideration of Mr. Goet- 
water 's health. The New Jersey Company did not rebuke 
Stuyvesant for his proceeding, but thought that it might have 
been done in a "more gentle way." 

The Lutherans felt that they could not let their children 
remain unbaptized and so they were compelled to bring them 
to the Reformed ministers for baptism, but it went against 
their consciences to answer in the affirmative the question : 
"Do you acknowledge the doctrine which is contained in the 
Old and New Testaments, and in the articles of the Christian 
Faith and which is taught here in this Christian church to 
be true and perfect doctrine of salvation?" The question 
had been put in this form by the Synod of Dort. But there 
was the older form of 1591 which required the promise 
that the child should be "instructed in the doctrines of 
the New and Old Testaments and in the creed." To this 
they did not object, urging that the Reformed ministers in 
the Netherlands use the old form as well as the new, consider- 
ing it a matter of little difference. But the ministers in New 
Amsterdam would not take this view of the matter. The 
New Jersey Company here came to the relief of the Lutherans 
by ordering that the old formulary, word for word, should 
be used in New Amsterdam and that the ministers should 
not by too great preciseness alienate and drive away other 
persons. But the ministers insisted that this was a purely 



THE LUTHERANS OF HACKENSACK 95 

ecclesiastical matter, and so it was referred to the classis of 
Amsterdam. 

Happily this dif^culty and all the other obstacles were re- 
moved after the province came under the authority of the 
English. Xicolls, the first royal Governor, at once granted 
permission to call a minister from Holland. After some dis- 
appointments one arrived in 1669, Jacob Frabricius, whose 
life was so scandalous that he was at once removed from his 
charge. It is due to his memory to say that he afterwards 
for a number of years did good service as pastor of the 
Wicano Church, near Philadelphia, and lived to a good 
old .age, highly respected as a pastor and preacher. 

At this time, 1671, a house of worship was built somewhere 
beyond the fortifications of the city. Two years afterwards, 
when the Dutch returned to power temporarily, they took 
do^vn this building for military reasons, but they compen- 
sated the congregation for their loss. They soon proceeded 
to the erection of a new house of worship built of stone on the 
corner of Rector Street and Broadway. 

The successor of Frabricius was Bernard Antony Areusius. 
He died in 1691, having served the congregation twenty 
years. It is presumed that he was a faithful, industrious 
pastor, prudently pursuing his work in the troublous times 
of changes of rule from English to Dutch and from Dutch to 
English and the many dis([uieting circumstances connected 
with these changes. His death occurred in the same year 
that Leister was executed. Now a vacancy of ten years 
occurred. 

In 1701, Andrew Rudman, one of the Swedish Lutheran 
ministers, pastor in Philadelphia, was taken in charge of the 
congregation in New York. He waited the arrival of Pastor 
Sandels from Sweden to take his place and did not come to 
New York until the next year (1702). He found things in 
a very low state. The church building needed repairs, and he 
saw that they were made. He also perfected the organiza- 
tion of the church. He had a census taken of all the Luth- 
erans in the city and on Long Island, and the church master, 
Lawrence Van Boskerck, furnished him with a list of all the 
Lutherans living on the Hackensack. This is the first notice 
we have of any Lutherans living there. There were a number 
of families there. The principal ones were Van Boskercks. 
They attended the Lutheran Church in New York, which was 
about fifteen miles distant, of which Andrier Van Boskerck 
was an elder and Lawrence Van Boskerck a church warden. 
The Van Boskercks had settled there about twenty years be- 
fore this, and no doubt their children had during this time 
been taken to New York to be baptized and their parents had 



96 THE LUTHERANS OF HACKENSACK 

gone thither to cominune and the most devout of them fre- 
quently to the ordinary Sunday service. 

In the records of the Proprietors there is a certificate by 
the surveyor Vanquellen as follows: "Surveyed and laid 
out for Mr. Lawrence Andriesser (Van Boskerck) a tract of 
land upon the Haekensack River containing 1,076 acres, be- 
ginning with a stake planted by a small creek that parts 
David de Marais land from this — from thence running as the 
brook runs forty chains to a black oak tree marked on four 
sides by a spring — running thence E. Northerly 98 chains 
upon the edge of a great swamp to a white wood tree marked 
on four sides — thence running west 136 chains to the Haek- 
ensack River — and thence running N.N.E. as the river runs 
78 chains to the stake where it first began. 

"Bounded on the N.E. part by John Demarest and part 
by a small creek, S.E. by a great swamp, and the brook of 
the W. branch of Overpeck Creek, S.W. l)y a highway, and 
N.W. by the Haekensack River — allowance for barren land 
and highway is to remain for 900 acres English measure. 

"Dated the 1681. 

R. Vanquellan. 

"Liber 2, 141." 

Another Van Boskerck, also named Lawrence, lived in 
Bergen Neck, about twenty miles from this place, or very 
near to Bergen Point. He was an elder and being in poor 
health was occasionally visited by Lutheran ministers, who 
sometimes held special services at his house. This was done 
as late as the year (1746?). 

I cannot learn that Pastor Rudman visited the people at 
Haekensack at any time. Indeed he remained in New York 
only one year, for he felt that at his time of life he could not 
undertake the work that was to be done and that a younger 
and more vigorous man must be found to occupy the field. 
You will appreciate this more when you consider that his 
predecessor had been accustomed to spend part of the year 
in Albany and to look after the scattered communities of 
Lutherans along the Hudson and even in Schoharie. He 
therefore returned to Philadelphia. 

He there found Justus Falkner, the son of a pastor in 
Saxony, and grandson of Doctor Franke at the University 
of Halle. He had come in contact Math his older brother, 
Daniel, who was a land agent for the Frankfort Company, 
which had purchased 25,000 acres of land from William Penn. 
Rudman proposed to him that he should place him in charge 
of the congregation in New York, to which Falkner consented. 
He was accordingly ordained to the ministry by Swedish 
ministers, Rudman, Buick, and Sandel in the Swedish Church 



THE LUTHERANS OF HACKENSACK 97 

in Philadelphia, November 25, 1703, and he immediately pro- 
ceeded to New York, where he began his work on the second 
day of Deceniber. This was the first ordination performed in 
America by Lutheran ministers. He labored diligently in 
his extensive field, spending his first six months in Albany, 
visiting other places in the north, and six in New York and 
its vicinity. He also labored among the Indians and negroes. 
Among his earliest baptisms recorded by him was that of 
Maria, daughter of the Are of Guinea and his wife Jora. It 
was his custom in the case of every baptism to record a brief 
prayer or collect. In connection with the baptism of this 
negro child he wrote: "Lord, merciful God, thou who re- 
gardest not the persons of men, but in every nation, he that 
feareth thee, clothe this child with the white garment of in- 
nocence and righteousness, and let it so remain through Jesus 
Christ, the redeemer and saviour of aU men. Amen." 

The fact may be here noted there were in this country, as 
in Europe, two types of Lutheran ministers, which will ac- 
count for many of the difficulties that arose between ministers 
and also between ministers and congregations. There were 
those who though learned men of good character and faithful 
in the performance of the routine duties of a pastor, were 
however not of a specially spirited mind, who made much of 
ministerial prerogative, were exacting in their demands and 
overbearing in their intercourse. Others equally learned, 
correct and particular in the performance of parochial duties, 
were prevaded by an evangelical spirit, laid great stress on 
personal, experimental element which is in religion, and 
showed by the sweetness of their intercourse that they pre- 
ferred to be servants of the people rather than their rulers. 
The latter had usually been trained in the University of 
Halle and had imbibed the pietistic spirit of Spenser and 
Franke. There was a disposition on the part of the former 
to look down on what were called Hallistic preachers. It Avas 
well for the Lutherans of New York and New Jersey that 
Justus Falkner belonged to the latter school. 

The first visit made by Falkner to the Hackensack Luth- 
erans was made on the twenty-second day of February, 1704. 
On that day he conducted public Avorship in the barn of 
Cornelius Van Boskerck and baptized three children. How 
frequently he came to this place to conduct worship we have 
no means of knowing. The demands upon him in his exten- 
sive charge would not allow him to visit his people in Hack- 
ensack; besides they could usually attend service in New 
York, it being distant only fourteen miles. Falkner con- 
tinued in his pastorate until his death, at the age of fifty-one, 
in Claverack, where a parsonage was selected as a convenient 



98 THE LUTHERANS OF HACKENSACK 

center of a parish that included New York and Northern 
Jersey. 

Whether a church organization was effected at Hackensaek 
during Falkner's ministry or whether the people continued 
their membership in the church in New York I have not been 
able to ascertain. The probability is that an organization 
was effected during Falkner's time. If so, then it is also 
likely that a house of worship was not built during his min- 
istry. The people are referred to very early as a congrega- 
tion, but the word may have been used in a loose, general 
sense, because they assembled for public worship, and not 
because they had an ecclesiastical organization. Rev. Mr. 
Deyo, a Lutheran minister, said in a letter to Rev. D. T. B. 
Romeyn: "It was probably organized into a congregation 
about the year 1745 or 1746." But he must be mistaken, for 
in 1731 the united congregation of New York and Hacken- 
saek made a call on a minister who was to labor in the summer 
in New York, and in the winter in Haceknsack, and to pay 
two visits yearly to the Palatine Lutherans at Newburgh. 
Also in a conference of Lutheran ministers and elders held 
in 1735, in what was called the Raritan region, there were 
two delegates present from Hackensaek, Abraham Boskerck 
&Jid Jacob Van Orden, besides the minister. 

There was another Lutheran congregation in Northern New 
Jersey, which was also under the care of the minister from 
New York, and who managed to visit them on successive days 
of the same week in which he visited Hackensaek. This was 
Remmerspach or Ramapo, which was sixteen miles northwest 
from Hackensaek. This settlement was composed of Ger- 
mans, and the German language was used there in their serv- 
ices for the most part, though sometimes the Low Dutch for 
the benefit of that portion of the congregation. Nicholas 
Mansenger (Messenger) and Dietrich Wannemacher entered 
the Raraapo region when it was a wilderness. Other German 
people followed ; a congregation was formed of German Luth- 
erans, a house of worship was built, and services performed 
by the New York ministers. After a time the two congrega- 
tions of Hackensaek and Ramapo supported a minister be- 
tween them independently of New York. The Ramapo con- 
gregation seems to have been the stronger of the two in the 
latter part of their joint history. Their last minister left 
them in 1775. They were too weak to call a successor — only 
about twenty-five families remained in the Hackensaek 
church, with the prospect of further decrease. Occasionally 
services may have been held in the churches by the Lutheran 
ministers, but it cannot have been long before the houses of 
worship were abandoned and the congregations broken up. 



THE LUTHERANS OF HACKENSACK 99 

The remnant at Ramapo doubtless went to the Dutch 
church at Ramapo, and that of Hackensaek to the Dutch 
churches of Hackensaek and Schraalenberg. Circumstances 
connected with the extinction of a rural church may be such 
that we must see that it was inevitable, and also that true 
religion does not suffer thereby. Yet we cannot contemplate 
such an event without a sad interest, nor visit a spot where a 
church was once located, and especially if ruins and traces 
remain, Tvdthout calling up in imagination scenes of the dis- 
tant past. We see in these instances the people coming in 
all directions on a Sunday morning in their farm wagons 
(some have come many miles), gathering about the church 
and exchanging greetings, finding their way to their seats at 
the sound of the bell, the minister ascending the high pulpit 
with the sounding-board overhead. We hear the elaborate 
sermon, the fervent prayers, and the singing of the psalms 
with loud voices by young and old, and we see the high days 
on which the Lord's Supper is administered. Who does not 
feel that he stands on hallowed ground, or that it is a solemn 
thing to realize that more than a hundred years have passed, 
the last pastor here ministered and the last congregation here 
worshipped, and no one of that congregation is found here 
among the living. A friend of mine living in Hunterdon 
County who is interested in the Lutheran history visited the 
site of the Hackensaek church in 1890. He says: "I visited 
the locality of the old Hackensaek Lutheran Church. The 
site is on the east side of the river, about a quarter of a mile 
from the place called New Bridge. The point is a sandy steep 
shore between the water and the highway, scarcely seventy 
feet and at least twenty-five feet above the river. Formerly 
the plot was evidently wider than it is now, but it is clear 
that at least one-quarter of the churchyard has been washed 
away by reason of the caving in of the shore. Only four 
gravestones still remain and all bear the name Van Boskerck. 
(He does not mention the vault.) 

''The church stood broadside along the road and had a 
pointed roof. It is probable that in the attempt to straighten 
the road some of the original space was lost. Now the place 
is overgro^vn with small trees, brush and ferns and it appears 
to have met with some consideration, though no fence pro- 
tects it. 

"I met a very old man who said that he had always lived 
near New Bridge and could well remember the church before 
it was burned down. He had often thrown stones at it at 
bats. The structure was still in pretty fair condition; the 
roof leaked only here and there and the pulpit was good 
enough to preach in. When preaching had been done there 
lie did not remember. One day as he was working in the 



100 THE LUTHERANS OF HACKENSACK 

corn field he saw smoke ascending and soon the mterior was 
burned out. A spark from a brush fire in the neighborhood 
had set it afire. 'That took place, so they say, in 1812, for I 
was a boy and am now eighty-nine. Well do I remember Dr. 
Shaffer of New York in the summer of 1821 preached in the 
churchyard; he stood upon the ruins of the old church and 
tried to awaken a new interest in the old congregation, but 
he did not succeed.' 

"With the exception of this old man and a woman equally 
as old I found nobody that coidd give me any information." 

The same gentleman says concerning the church of 
Eamapo : ' ' There are probably few persons in the neighbor- 
hood of its location who can point out the exact site of the 
primitive straw-thatched log building which for so many 
years served as a house of worship for the Lutherans of upper 
Bergen County. Tradition is silent as to the time of its erec- 
tion, and also of its disappearance, but it is explicit in desig- 
nating the precise spot on which it stood and the materials 
out of which it was constructed. In traveling the highway 
leading from the Ramapo Reformed Dutch Church to the 
village of Ramsey one passes very near to the site of the 
ancient meeting-house, which may be described as about a 
mile south of the before-mentioned church on the western 
side of the road about a hundred yards below the residence 
of Mr. Richard Wannemaker. There are still extant some 
fifteen precious pages of a church record book whose title 
page bears the inscription : 

" 'Kirchen Buch vor die Rembachishe Evangelische Luth- 
erische Gemainde, angefangen im Jahr Christi 1750.' " 

In another connection he says that he found these pages 
in the possession of a mulatto in the neighborhood, that he 
endeavored to procure them for the Lutheran Historical So- 
ciety, but failed because a white man made the possessor be- 
lieve that they would command a large sum of money. 

The date of the opening of this church book (1750) is not 
the date of the organization of the church which is referred 
to in Falkner's time, and which had elders in 1734. Perhaps 
an older book once existed — perhaps records were kept on 
loose sheets of paper by the minister. 

With the extinction of these churches Lutheran public wor- 
ship ceased among the rural native population of Northern 
New Jersey. Reformed Dutch churches had tlie sole occupa- 
tion of the ground. But in the year 1820 the Lutheran Zion 
Church of Saddle River was established, and a house of wor- 
ship built a few miles east of the site of the old Ramapo 
church. I am not informed of the circumstances of the found- 
ing, but among the nine founders were three Van Buskercks 
— Thomas, John and Lawrence; also the name Ackerman ap- 



THE LUTHERANS OF HACKENSACK 101 

pears. These must have been the descendants of the Ilacken- 
sack Lutherans. This church is still in existence and fairly- 
prosperous. It is believed that this is the only Lutheran 
church to-day in Northern New Jersey except such as have 
been formed in the cities by foreign-born people. (See note.) 

I call your attention to the other succession of pastors. 
Falkner died in 1723 and the vacancy thus created was not 
filled for two years. Meanwhile Daniel Falkner, the brother 
of Justus, the land agent hereinbefore referred to, had been 
ordained and placed over congregations in Hunterdon and 
Somerset counties. He made a visit to the congregations in 
New York and New Jersey which his brother had served. 

William Christopher Berkenmeyer was sent to New York 
in 1725 and took charge of the congregation there, of all the 
Lutheran congregations on the Hudson and those at Hacken- 
sack and Ramapo. Berkenmeyer finding after laboring six 
years in the very extensive field, that the work was beyond his 
strength and could not be done satisfactorily by one man, 
resolved to confine his labors to the churches that were north 
of New York City, and let the churches of Hackensack and 
Ramapo unite in calling another man, together with New 
York City. He accordingly removed to Lunenburg, the pres- 
ent Athens, where he continued until his death in September, 
1751. 

The united congregations of New York and Hackensack 
now (1731) sent a blank call "to the worshipful consistorium 
of the Holy Trinity Lutheran Church in London" to have 
ordained and selected a suitable minister for them. They 
promised the new pastor the expenses of his journey hither, 
a salary of sixty pounds, a free residence, wood and light, 
and the following perquisites: Twenty shillings for a funeral 
sermon, six shillings for a prayer at the grave, twelve shil- 
lings for marrying outside, three shillings for a marriage 
notice, six shillings for marrying at the house, and one shil- 
ling for christening, three shillings for a baptismal certificate, 
one shilling for churching a recent mother, and sixty shillings 
for services outside of our corporation, whereof twenty shil- 
lings are to fall to the church. He was to labor in the sum- 
mer in New York, in the winter in Hackensack, and pay two 
visits yearly to the Palatine Lutherans at Newburgh. 

This call was presented to Michel Christian Knoll and he 
accepted it. This was the beginning of troubles, for which, 
however. Knoll was not responsible. A man named John 
Bernhard Van Dieren, or Van Duuren, or Van Doren, a tailor 
by trade, had been sent over by the Lutheran ministers in 
London as a colporteur. He was a warm-hearted pietist of 
the Halle school, and in visiting the various congregations he 
preached. The congregation of New York was so taken with 



102 THE LUTHERANS OF HACKENSACK 



his popular gifts and fervent spirit, with which he won their 
hearts, that they sent a letter to the eousistorium at London 
to the effect that they need not send a minister because one 
was serving them with great acceptance. Knoll, however, 
came on in December, 1732, and as Van Dieren had not re- 
ceived ordination Knoll was readily accepted. But the coun- 
try people of Hackensack were not so compliant. Knoll was 
received, but a strong party adhered to Van Dieren and the 
opposition was organized. Van Dieren sought ordination 
from the Swedish ministers at Philadelphia, but they refused 
to grant it. Berkenmeyer and Knoll bitterly opposed him, 
for he was of the Hellestic pietistic school, which they ab- 
horred. The Swedish ministers wrote a strong letter against 
him, also the Amsterdam Consistorium. Berkenmeyer called 
him an illiterate tailor, an interloper, intermeddler and mis- 
chief maker, but very likely he put on airs and acted impru- 
dently, and trampled on the laws of the church. Knoll wrote 
him a very abusive letter, and then his friends in Hackensack 
and Ramapo came to his defence. They posted up in Hack- 
ensack the following placard, headed "Public Notice": 

"We the undersigned elders and deacons of the two Luth- 
eran congregations of Hackensack and Ramapo herewith de- 
clare Domine Knoll to be a falsifier and a disgrace to the 
Lutheran Church and his letter to be a slanderous letter, 
until he before the magistrate of Hackensack makes good 
what he has written of our Domine Van Dieren. 

"John Fox, Jacob Van Buskirk, Peter Wannemaker, Die- 
derick Wannemaker, John Teys, Joost De Groot, Matyr Cor- 
nese, Conrad Fredericks, Nicholas Massinger, Conrad Frey." 

Van Dieren retired from the field, and it is said that he 
was finally ordained by a minister in Pennsylvania named 
Henkel. Knoll continued as pastor twenty years, but owing 
to dissensions and the unspiritual character of his ministra- 
tions, without spiritual results. The spirit of God was 
grieved. 

Knoll also had trouble in New York because of the conflict 
between the German and Low Dutch elements in his congre- 
gation, which resulted in a pronounced separation. He left 
the field, but most of his time was spent among the Lutherans 
of Dutchess County until his death, in 1765. 

The Germans had so increased in New York by immigra- 
tion that they greatly outnumbered the Low Dutch, who were 
rapidly losing their children to English-using churches. The 
Germans wished for just a share in the services in their lan- 
guage, which the Low Dutch obstinately refused to consent 
to. They had controversies on other points which were very 
bitter, and finally withdrew and engaged a preacher for 
themselves. 



THE LUTHERAXS OF HACKENSACK 103 

The congregations of New York, Hackeusaek and Ramapo 
were at this time in a truly deplorable state. Their eyes were 
turned to Rev. Henry Melchoir Muhlenberg as the man who 
with God's blessing would be able to extricate them from 
their difficulties, remove their divisions and start them on a 
new career of prosperity. 

Muhlenberg was a native of Eimbeck, a town of Hanover. 
He was educated at the Orphan house at Halle and had im- 
bibed the pietistic spirit. He was sent out as a missionary 
to labor among the Germans in Pennsylvania. He arrived 
at Charleston, September 23, 1742. After spending some time 
with the Germans in South Carolina and Georgia he pro- 
ceeded to Philadelphia, where he arrived the twenty-fifth of 
November. The field to which he was assigned included the 
congregations of Philadelphia, New Providence and New 
Hanover. His influence speedily extended among the German 
Lutherans far and wide, for he was not only a man in whom 
the grace of God dwelt, but one of excellent gifts and to whom 
the hearts of all men were irresistibly drawn. His missionary 
labors extended to the German communities on the upper 
Raritan, and even to the upper Hudson and Schoharie, and 
into the interior of Pennsylvania as well. A regular call 
dated February 1, 1757, was sent to him by the church of 
New York. His sense of importance of the field led him to 
consider this call very seriously and to take time to consider 
it. He finally decided that he could not leave his work in 
Pennsylvania and in Central New Jersey, the ministers and 
people in those parts strongly urging him to remain. But he 
went to New York to spend six months, in which time he ac- 
complished a great work in reconciling the conflicting parties 
and in bringing order out of confusion. He also during that 
time visited the congregations of Hackensack and Ramapo. 
This was the first one of the seven visits made by him to 
those congregations 1757 to 1760. Unable to take charge of 
these churches, he provided a substitute in the person of 
Weygand, who began his work in 1753 and continued until 
1767. Muhlenberg made in all seven visits to Hackensack 
and Ramapo. He kept a diary, in which the minutest details 
of his labors are recorded. It was regularly sent to the au- 
thorities and has been recorded by them. Parts of it have 
been translated into English and published in two volumes 
by the Lutheran Publishing Society. In making these visits 
he would generally cross New York Bay, in a small boat, of 
course, and land near the residence of the aged and infirm 
Lawrence Van Boskerck, near Bergen Point, where the neigh- 
bors would sometimes gather and he would hold religious 
service. Then some one who had come from Hackensack to 
meet him would conduct him thither, making a drive of 



104 THE LUTHERANS OF HACKENSACK 

twenty miles. When he would hold public services in what 
he would call the large stone church, preaching and adminis- 
tering baptism, and the Lord's Supper, his congregations 
contained many of the Reformed people as well as Lutherans, 
On one occasion, at least, he mentions the presence of one of 
the Reformed Dutch ministers of Hackensack. Both those 
pastors called upon him and treated him courteously. All 
the time that was not occupied with public services he gave to 
visiting families, going where there were sick or infirm peo- 
ple, and especially to those who were seeking for themselves 
some spiritual good. He was welcomed to the houses of the 
Reformed Dutch as well as the Lutherans. He says that 
when he entered a house there was no time consumed in mak- 
ing preparations to entertain him with something to eat or to 
drink, but all, both men and women, composed themselves at 
once to listen to him. At the close of the interview they 
would invite him to partake of such refreshment as they 
happened to have at hand. His manner of dealing with 
classes of persons of various types gives evidence of profound 
knowledge of the human heart, and skill in exposing its 
secret motives and subterfuges. He gives at length a . con- 
versation with David de M., the grandson of the original 
David, and a son-in-law of G. Bertholf, the first Dutch pastor 
in New Jersey and who at that time was over eighty years 
of age. He lived to be over ninety. He was the man of the 
greatest note in the neighborhood, had held the most impor- 
tant offices of the town, and for several years in succession, 
a member of the provincial assembly. The spiritual tone of 
their conversation is remarkable and at parting the old man 
gave the preacher on his request a blessing like an ancient 
patriarch. He told Muhlenberg that some of the Dutch Re- 
formed people found fault with him because he had friendly 
intercourse with the Lutheran preacher. But he said he 
could not help it, for he believed him to be a man of God, and 
that he certainly had received from him spiritual food and 
comfort. 

He also mentions particularly the courtesy of the two Re- 
formed Dutch pastors, Curtenious and Goetschius. Goet- 
schius, the junior pastor, was in sympathy with the awaken- 
ing spiritual work of Frelinghuysen, the Tonnents and John 
Edwards and thus was in sympathy with Muhlenberg. This 
Goetshius was a man of considerable note. He was an elo- 
quent man in the pulpit and active and faithful as a pastor. 
He stood in the rank of contenders for the independence of 
the Reformed Dutch Church in this country, and for the 
establishment by them of an institution. He was one of the 
first trustees of Queen's College, named in both the first and 
second charters, and it was at his call that the trustees held 



THE LUTHERANS OF HACKENSACK 105 



their first meeting in Hackensack, second Tuesday in May, 

When Muhlenberg had spent with the Hackensack congre- 
gation all the time he could give them, a man from Ramapo 
would appear and take him to that place, and give the people 
there similar services. We may well believe that the Lord s 
people of these flocks went in strength of the meat thus re- 
ceived many days. , . , . . , , 
Muhlenberg had these people constantly m his mind and 
in his heart. In 1760 he sent them a young man, William A. 
Graaf, who independently of New York served these two 
congregations. His labors closed in 1775. He was the last 
one of their pastors. _ . 

Graaf was born at Grunstadt, m Rhenish Bavaria. When 
about twenty-six years old he was brought to Muhlenberg at 
Providence, Pa., with the request that he might be used m 
school work He was fairly well educated— had studied the- 
ology for a time at Halle, when his father died and left him 
without means to continue his studies. He then went to Eng- 
land and thence to America as a cadet in company with many 
others in the train of Col. Prevost. Instead of returning to 
Europe, he remained and found his way to Muhlenberg, who 
gave hi'm instruction and counsel and perceiving m him a 
gracious disposition, conceived the idea that he would be a 
good man to take charge of the Hackensack and Ramapo con- 
gregations. He took him to those people and he preached 
for them They expressed their willingness, provided he re- 
main a while longer with Muhlenberg to better qualify him- 
self in the Low Dutch language. The conclusion was that m 
May 1760, he took charge on trial for three years, having 
been duly licensed and ordained. The three years were ex- 
tended to fifteen. He made his home at Ramapo and rode 
on alternate Sundays to Hackensack. 

Concerning the character of his ministry in those fields I 
have no knowledge save what Muhlenberg says m his diary. 
He says- "Since that time I have heard m letters trom 
Pastor Weygand of New York that he preaches very edity- 
ingly and catechises in much wisdom; that he grows m his 
conversion and in the grace of consecration, and labors with 
many blessings. From others I have heard that he is in good 
repute in that district, and the congregations lately wrot^ 
and thanked me a thousand times that I had sent them such 
a man, who tried to build them up with healthy teachings 
holy living, wisdom, love, gentleness, and humility. God 
grant for Christ and His name's sake that it may con- 
tinue so." ,. . rru^„^ 

But the field was in one respect a discouraging one. ^ Ihese 
churches were doomed to absorption by the neighboring Re- 



106 THE LUTHERANS OF HACKENSACK 



formed Dutch churches. Pastor Graaf could only strengthen 
the things that remained that were ready to die. Accord- 
ingly, when a united call came to him in 1775 from Zion 
Church in New Germantown, Hunterdon County, and St. 
Paul's, he accepted it, and remained with those churches 
thirty-four years, until his death in 1809, aged eighty-two 
years. 

A friend living in New Germantown says: "Mr. Graaf 
preached alternately in German and English, but his efforts 
to conquer the latter tongue were never successful. It is said 
that to the end of his life he persisted in calling the village 
of his residence New Shuurmantown, and the location of 
St. Paul's Church Blookameen. The good rector may have 
been a little uncertain in his language, but there is no doubt 
that his virtues and his attainments were of the most positive 
character. All the testimony is concurrent as to his having 
been a devoted, diligent and loving pastor and a truly learned 
and pious man. Possessed of an eminently happy disposition, 
he was esteemed and beloved by his people, as well for the 
many amiable qualities of his character as for the faithful 
performance of his pastoral duties." 

He was a striking figure riding horseback with cocked hat 
and high military boots. Whenever he went to Spruce Run, 
a preaching place some miles distant, the farmers' sons along 
the way would saddle their horses and join him so that he 
would reach his place of destination with a strong bodyguard. 
He entertained the young men with pleasant and profitable 
conversation. 

The last funeral that he attended was that of an old and 
loved friend, Aaron Melick of Stone House, near Pluckemin, 
with which his descendant, Andrew Mellich, has in his ' ' Story 
of an Old Farm" made us familiar. He says: 

"In fancy we can see the aged and feeble rector, robed in 
his Lutheran vestments, standing at the foot of the stairs, 
before him a little mahogany table upon which rest the big 
family Bible and the pastor's well-thumbed prayer book. At 
his side the tall clock ticks in solemn unison with the slow, 
well-measured and sad tones of the holy man, who speaks 
from the heart, for he is bidding a last adieu to the dust that 
is dear to him. His voice grows husky as he dwells on the 
virtues of the departed, and points out to the sorrowing hear- 
ers how the common w^alk of tbe good man of the house had 
been beyond that of everyday life. He cannot refrain from 
speaking of his own bereavement as he remembers that dur- 
ing his thirty-four years of ministrations over Zion's congre- 
gation he who now lies before him shrouded for the tomb had 
been not only a parishioner but a friend as well." 

In a few weeks he went to join that friend. Of course 



THE LUTHERANS OF HACKENSACK 1(^7 



concerning such a character many anecdotes must have been 
handed down by tradition. One night he detected a neighbor 
carrying away a bundle from his hayrick. He stole up to 
him softly, took his tinder-box and flint, struck a spark and 
set the hay on fire. "Man," he shouted, "your hay is afire. 
The man, affrighted, dropped his bundle and the domme put 
out the fire, the domine remarking that he thought there was 
enouo-h left for his poor cow, and suggested that when hay 
is wanted it is better to ask for it than to steal it. 

He had four sprightly, fun-loving daughters, who were 
greatly disappointed at one time because their father would 
not allow them to go out to an entertainment of some sort 
Through the cracks in the floor he heard them chattering 
about the beaux and bewailing their hard luck, when he 
knocked his cane on the floor to command their attention and 
Sled to them: "Yes, yes, gurls, you shall all be married 
yet. ' ' To which they responded m sorrowful chorus : i es. 
Poppy, but when. Poppy, when?" 

When his daughter Caty was fully grown she desired a 
trunk for storing her nice clothing, so her father allowed her 
to so to old Henry Miller's store, which was close by, and 
select one and have it charged to his account. \ou may 
imagine the domine 's surprise^ and consternation when on 
examining his bill he found this item: 

1793, June 15. Rev. William Graaf, Dr. 
To one drunk one pound S. one. 

Mv friend informs me that this was no great orthographic 
feat for Henry Miller, Sr., for he spelled cabbage m just 
twelve difl^erent ways, not one of them being as we spell it. 
Cabets, capits, cabbigs, chabbeg, kapegs, chabbage, kapige, 
capesh, bahigh, cabesh, kabesh, capes. , , , 

It is worthy of notice that the first American-educated 

Lutheran minister in this country came from t^- H^ckensa^^^ 

congregation. M. says in his diary: ^apt J. A an I.usk k 

has conferred with me about his son, aged ^^ven -two ^^ho 

has chosen the profession of ministry, and with this view has 

alreadTbeen under tuition of Rev. Mr. Weygand for several 

years has also attended the English Presbyterian College 

and atferly has studied under Mr. S. As L perceived m he 

young man a suitable temperament and an inclination to the 

[rue Christianity, I promised to take him under my care and 

as much as possible,%vith God's favor and blessing to give 

Sm further\.struction." His -f^^y. ^"^.^^^^^^^ 

cised in Pennsylvania until his death m 1800. He had 

charges in Montgomery County, Germantown, Lehigh and 



108 THE LUTHERANS OF HACKENSACK 

Chester counties. He was one of the charter trustees of 
Franklin and Marshall College at Lancaster. 

The remarkable earthly career of Muhlenberg came to an 
end October 7, 1787, aged seventy-six years one month, at 
Hanover, Pa., where he preached his first sermon after his 
arrival in America. Among the clergymen who were present 
at his burial was Jacob Van Buskirk. 

Note — It is the intention of the Publication Committee to 
have in a future book an account of the Lutherans in North 
Jersey. 



ADDRESS OF GEORGE HEBER JONES, D. D., 

PRESroENT OP THE Men's NEIGHBORHOOD ClUB, 

111 Presenting to Leonia the Washington Commemorative 
Tablet, July 4th, 1916. 

Tlie Honorable the Mayor and Borough Council of Leonia 
and Residents and Fellow Citizens — 

The soul of a city is its past. To be linked M^th great 
events, to have produced great personalities, to have been 
the scene of events that overleap local boundaries and pro- 
ject themselves out into the larger life of the world for weal 
and for woe; these things are more than memories, they be- 
come community consciousness, ennobling and dignifying as 
they have made for good or humiliating and lowering as they 
have made for evil. 

Leonia is rich in the first kind of these memories. Before 
Hendrik Hudson sailed the water of the great river east of 
us, here on these hillsides and along these brooks and streams 
was the home of the Indian Delawares immortalized by 
Cooper as among the noblest of American natives. Here 
came those sturdy Dutchmen, the companions of the Stuyves- 
ants. Van Santvoords, the Van Nordens, who helped lay the 
foundations of an intellectual and moral culture that em- 
bodied opportunity and exercise for all the powers of man. 
Here came the English who gave to the adjoining metropolis 
its name and also gave to us our first name, the English 
Neigsborhood, but which in view of their success in establish- 
ing a reputation for naming New York, we felt was not neces- 
sary to be maintained and so changed for Leonia. Here, too, 
bivouaced the soldiers of the colonies in the struggle that 
gave to the world a government of the people, by the people, 
and for the people; and, from the generations which lie be- 
tween us and that day, doubtless came many a sturdy North 
Jerseyman who, in the various walks of life, has helped to 
make the world richer and better. Surely we are rarely 
favored with a Soul-Past which has the maturity of age and 
the nobility of being linked with great events. 

Today, we as citizens of the borough, single out one of these 
events, and here on our principal thoroughfare establish a 
permanent memorial to it. We do so with the intent that in 
the years to come our children and our children's children 
may understand that we did not lightly esteem the historic 
line from which we have come. On the contrary, we here 
place in bronze and stone our witness to the high value which 
we attach to our relationship to a great chain of historic 
events in the founding of our Republic. We are proud of 



110 ADDEESS OF GEORGE HEBER JOXES, D. D. 

the fact that tlie line of march taken by the Continental 
troops under General George Washington and General 
Nathaniel Greene, on their way to the victories of Trenton 
was through our town. 

The story of those events is a tradition among us to this 
day, for here in Leonia live the descendants of the families 
and the lineage of some of the men who took part in those 
eventful days. Fort Lee on the top of the hill just across 
our borough line was the scene where for months during the 
year 1776, a command of 2,000 battling farmers kept defiant 
watch on the big British array over in Manhattan. Joined 
with them in this work was another force of American Con- 
tinentals located in Fort Washington just across the Hudson 
at the upper end of Manhattan Island. General Burgoyne, 
however, was so determined that these Continentals should 
share the hospitality of his British regulars and Hessians in 
the town at the lower end of the island that he penned them 
all up and detained them much against their will as his 
guests. 

Not content with this the British then marched north 
along the New York shore until opposite what is now the 
Village of Alpine and, 5,000 strong, crossed to the Jersey 
shore determined to include Washington and Greene and 
their 2,000 men in the list of the British guests at New York. 

This, however, was not as easy as it appeared. Washing- 
ton and Lee defiantly held the fort until the last moment 
and then, on the night of November 20th, 1776, for "strategic 
reasons," or in other words, rather than risk a bloody and 
fruitless engagement, withdrew without the loss of a man, 
and coming down over the hill marched through Leonia to 
Hackensack and to Trenton.* This is usually designated as 
the retreat from Fort Lee but, in view of the chain of events 
of which it formed a part, we feel we are justified in re- 
fusing to use the word retreat and to regard it as a piece of 
matchless strategy, the preliminary of far reaching victories. 
A retirement accomplished in the face of a superior foe, 
without loss does not classify Avith what we usually call a re- 
treat. We prefer to call it the advance on Trenton. 

And so today we, the citizens of Leonia, have prepared this 
memorial in bronze and stone that our town may be linked, 
as long as bronze and stone endure, with the memor}'- of 
Washington and Greene and their fellow patriots who 
suffered, and bled, and died that democracy might be estab- 
lished, preserved and extended on the American continent. 
Is is too much to believe that these great personalities look 
down upon us today and reassure themselves that they did 
not suffer and labor in vain ? 



ADDRESS OF GEORGE HEBER JONES, D.D. HI 



Allusion has already been made to the distinguislied sculp- 
tor oT?eZ' citizen, Mr. Yonng, who has designed tins 
able? I is ^^'orthy of the subject ami of tbe piuTOS. I 
Ssh also to call attention to the stone to which the tablet is 
fastened It! too, has high value for it is a direct survival 
nf the davs of the American Revolution, and may have wit- 
ness d he march past of the Continental troops. This stone 
stood before the door of the old Moore mansion which dated 
from pre Revolutionary times and the descendants of he 
fa„"b So occupied it'are still among our most honored citi- 

''tHs said that in the raiding which followed the withdrawal 
of the Amercan troops the British and Hessians attacked 
?he Moote farm and carried off all the cattle and practically 
evervthinl th^ bad. The family numbered twenty-three 
persons a! the^time and the outlook -s a glocnny on or 
+1,^,^ T+ iQ «;aid however, that one ot their cows leiubeu 
In The bandSmentrot the men who tried .to capture her 
nd succeeded in eluding .them. One oft'jf^hors^ found 
the eomnanv o£ the Hessians so nndesn-able that watcumg 
his onZtunit"' he slipped away in the night and returned 
trthrMoo-e farm. About the same time the cow also came 
tack and with these two animals the family d|d the best they 
pnnlrl to carrv on the work of the farm. I teJi this story not 
?oUnk the stone with the memory of these patriotic animals 
lut to indicate that the stone itself was a participant m the 
evens which we memorialize today. . .i at 'a 

Mr Baize I have the high honor as President of the Men s 
Neighborhood Club of Leonia to present to our town through 
vou as the chosen representative of the Mayor and Council 
of our borough this memorial. I do so in the eaornest hope 
?hatTt may become in the thought of our citizens not simply 
a stone ma^rking the fleeting march past of an army_ that has 
disannea^ed into the shadow-land, but as a tes imonial to the 
f'c? that a Ion- as Leonia shall last the principles for which 
Wash ngt^n and Green and their brave and heroic soldiers 
Jotu^Z all kindred principles and truth that made for 
he bekerment of to^^al, and state, and nation and ^^^rld, 
shall be cherished and maintained in their purity by us, m- 
Sreted aright in our lives, and passed down undiminished 

and im mpair°ed to our children I ^^^r^^'"' ^^Zl^s 
in the name of the citizens of Leonia, and of the ^len s 
Neighborhood Club, this Washington Memorial Tablet. 

*It is interesting in this connection to refer to Mr. T N. 
Glover's pf^^^^^^^^ "Ketre.t of /TG, published in Book 

No 2 of the Bergen County Historical Society, 190o-190b. 
?his note \s published for the benefit of those members who 



112 ADDRESS OF GEORGE HEBER JONES, D. D. 

have joined the Society since 1906, as Book Xo. 2 is out of 
print. Mr. Glover spent considerable time and money in 
gathering data for his paper and may be considered as ac- 
curate as anything written on the subject. 

In the course of Mr. Glover's paper he states: By Nov. 
12, (1776), the army (American) except the garrison at Fort 
"Washington was in New Jersey, one part crossing from 
Tarrytown to Sneeden's Landing, and the other from Croton 
Point to Tappan Creek. General Heath, with a small de- 
tachment, held the passes to the nortliAvard — the river and 
the Suffern Clove; General Putnam had been appointed to 
the command of the army of New Jersey (whatever that may 
have been), and to General Green was assigned the command 
of Forts Washington and Lee, under immediate direction of 
Washington himself. Washington having spent two days 
wdth Gen. Heath inspecting the works, crossed the river at 
King's Ferry, just below Haverstraw, and on the 14th 
reached Hackensack, where he immediately established head- 
quarter, at the residence of Peter Zabriskie — now the 
Mansion House. Here he stayed nearly a week and sent 
from it the letter to Lee to join him; here also Reed wrote 
his famous letter about Fatal Indicision. 

The fall of Fort Washington on Nov. 16th rendered Fort 
Lee useless and its abandonment became onl^y a question of 
time. Yet it had been considered quite safe — army supplies 
had been gathered there, and Congrss had resolved that 
prisoners of war should be transferred there for safe keep- 
ing. But now that Fort Washington was gone General 
Green began the work of evacuation in earnest ; he even made 
a memorandum of the march which is still in existence. As 
fast as he could get wagons and wagoners he sent away the 
stores, some to Acquackanonk (Passaic) others to Newark, 
Elizabeth and Paramus. He posted sentries on the cliffs who 
would watch the movements of the enemy. The night of the 
19th was dark and rainy. Then it was that Lieutenant-Gen- 
eral, the Earl Cornwallis, a brave and capable officer, a bosom 
friend of General Howe, the l>ritish Cammander-in-Chief, act- 
ing under direct orders that we can never know, crossed the 
Hudson River and scaled the Palisade cliff by means of the old 
Closter landing road, which led away to Paramas. Before day- 
break he was on the heights and was inarching towards Fort 
Lee. He was not foolish enough to think he was surprising the 
Americans, neither party in those days could make the 
slightest movement without his opponent knowing all about 
it, so he did not hasten. He knew well that the Americans 
had been evacuating the post several days and that certain 
acts of their Congress had not been executed because of it. 
When he formed his colunuis on the heights he was only two 



ADDRESS OF GEORGE HEBER JONES, D. D. 113 



miles from the present Englewood and from Fort Lee only 
five. By what road he marched it is now impossible to say. 
WJien the news of this approach reached the Americans at 
Fort Lee their camp kettles were over the fires and breakfast 
was preparing. General Green, whose first thought was 
battle, ordered a retreat. The evidence seems to show that 
he did not wait for orders from Washington but set his 
column in motion as soon as possible. To make the bridge 
was the quickest and surest, to go to the ferry was to lose 
time because the boats had not been gathered there. So over 
the hill towards Leonia they came— hungry and cold— but de- 
termined. An English officer who evidently pitied them 
wi'ote: I believe no nation ever saw such a set of tatterde- 
malions. There were but few coats among them but what 
was out at the elbows and in a whole regiment there is 
scarcely a pair of breeches. I may add, boots and shoes were 
very scarce, though that did not make so much trouble as it 
would now, for people went barefoot so much. They reached 
Leonia and swung into what is now Grand Avenue, then the 
Kings Road (for there was no possibility of crossing at this 
point) and went on to the Liberty Pole, now Englewood. 
'They expected a fight— a most natural idea since the enemy 
had' been in the neighborhood for hours— but no resistence 
was shown, and General Green giving up command to Wash- 
ington returned to the fort to collect stragglers. He had 
been gone two hours but no enemy was there. He gathered 
two hundred men and probably led them across the dam and 
down to the ferry. Dr. English who had the benefit of close 
touch with the men of '76 speaks of this crossing as by the 
beaver dam (where was this?). When Washington took 
command he led the army across the swale by the road that 
leads to Teaneck hill, except that the road today is much 
straighter than it was then. Once on the hill he turned and 
followed up the present road to New Bridge. I find that the 
road has not changed much except that one approaches the 
bridge directly by a new street a few blocks long. He went 
around the hill. During the march from Liberty Pole the 
army had felt comparatively safe and crossed the bridge \\ath 
light hearts. Once across the bridge the army followed the 
present road past the old Baron Stuben house directly 
towards the south side of Cherry Hill, crossing the bridge 
and thence direct to Hackensack. 

The men could not have been entirely without food. One 
person who remembers seeing them told Mr. Barbor that they 
marched into Hackensack and encamped on the Green after 
dark, and the rain was falling. Possibly they spent the day 
between the village and New Bridge. No one mentions re- 
ceiving food from the people along the road. 



114 ADDRESS OF GEORGE HEBER JONES, D. D. 

From the account written by the Reverend Theodore B. 
Romeyn we learn that Washington at the head of his army 
consisting of about 3,000 men crossed the new bridge into 
town. This crossing was made at a point about four miles 
north of Hackensack village. It was about dusk when the 
head of the troops entered Hackensack. The night was dark, 
cold and rainy, but I had a fair view of them from the light 
of the windows as they passed on our side of the street. They 
marched two abreast, looked ragged, some without shoes to 
their feet, and most of them wrapped up in their blankets. 



A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PUBLICATIONS 115 



BERGEN COUNTY BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Compiled by S. F. Watt. 
Newspapers. 

I Bergen County Journal, 1858. 

I Bergen County Index, 1875-1890. 
Bergen County Democrat, 1877-1912. 
Bergen News, 1912-1913. 

Evening Record, 1901-1915. 
Hackensack Republican, 1879-1913. 

Directories. 

Allen's Hackensack and Englewood Directory, 1894-1895. 
Directory of Hackensack, Bergen County, N. J. A full and 
complete compilation of the residents of the town. 1879. 

Books. 

t J Bergen and Passaic Counties. History. W. W. Clayton- 
William Nelson. 

t History of Bergen County, N. J. J. M. Van Valen. 

tlWinfield's History of Hudson County. Charles H. 
Winfield. 

tj Old Bergen. Daniel Van Winkle. 

X History of Hackensack. Historical Discourse. Rev. T. B. 
Romeyn. 

t$ Atlas of Bergen County, 1776-1876. A. H. Walker. 
Atlas of Bergen County, N. J. Two vols. 1912. G. W. 
Bromley. 

t Heath's Memiors. 

t New Jersey as a Colony and a State. F. B. Lee. 

t The American Crisis. 

t Thomas Paine 's Well Known Description of the Evacua- 
tion of Fort Lee. 

t The American Archives. Library of Congress. 

t$ Bergen County Historical Society's Year Books, 1902-1915. 

tj The Bergen County Journal, 1858. One year issue bound. 

t History of Hackensack. Bergen County Democrat. 

I I Washington Papers — Correspondence with His Officers. 

Four vols. Library of Congress. 
JA Historical Collection of the State of New Jersey, contain- 
ing a general collection of the most interesting facts, tra- 
ditions, biographical sketches, anecdotes, etc., relating to 
its history and antiquities, with geographical descriptions 
of every towTiship in the State. Illustrated by 120 en- 
gravings. Tuttle, New York, 1844. John Barber and 
Henry Howe. 



116 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PUBLICATIONS 

$Record of Fifty Years, 1855-1905, Second Reformed Church, 
Hackensack, N. J. Arthur Johnson. 

Passaic Valley, New Jersey, in Three Centuries, Historical 
and descriptive cards of the valley and the vicinity of the 
Passaic, past and present. 469 p. il. por. Q. N. Y.-N. J. 
General Co., 1901. 

JRecords of the Reformed Dutch Churches of Hackensack 
and Schraalenburgh, New Jersey; with the registers of 
members, marriages, baptisms and the other consistories, 
to the beginning of the nineteenth century. Vol. I, Part 

1, Reformed Church of Hackensack, N. J. Vol. I, Part 

2, Reformed Church of Schraalenburgh, N. J. Holland 
Society of New York Collections. 

Copy of East Jersey Proprietors' Release of Quit Rent to the 
Trustees of the Freeholders of the Towti of Bergen, 
October 5, 1809. Newark Advertiser Steam Printing 
House, 1886. 

JAnnals of the Classes of Bergen of the Reformed Dutch 
Church and the Churches Under Its Care, including the 
civil history of the ancient township of Bergen, in New 
Jersey. B. C. Taylor. 

Genealogical History of Hudson and Bergen Counties, New 
Jersey. N. Y. The New Jersey Genealogical Publishing 
Co. Cornelius B. Harvey. 

List of Damages by Americans in New Jersey, 1776-1782. 

List of Damages by English in New Jersey, 1776-1782. 

Map of Bergen County in New Jersey, 1902. E. Robinson. 

The Indian Lore of Northern New Jersey. Max Scrabisch. 

Report Relative to the Bergen Tunnel, made to the Legisla- 
ture, 1865. 

Bergen Turnpike Road Act. An act for the establishment of 
a turnpike road from the Town of Hackensack to Hobo- 
ken, in the County of Bergen. 1805. 

The Presbyterian Church of Englewood. Historical dis- 
courses delivered on the 25th of March on the anniversity 
of the organization of the church. 1885. Henry M. 
Booth. 

JThe Huguenots on the Hackensack. A paper read before the 
Huguenot Society of America in New York, 1885 ; before 
the New Jersey Historical Society at Trenton, 1886; be- 
fore the New Brunswick Historical Society, New Bruns- 
wick, N. J. The Daily Fredonia Steam Printing House, 
1886. D. D. Demarest. 

Early Settlers in Hackensack, New Jersey. 

Papers Concerning the Bridges Over the Rivers Passaic and 
Hackensack. 

Passaic Floods and Their Control. C. C. Vermenk. 



A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PUBLICATIONS 117 

Manual and Record of the Church at Paramus, 1858. Pub- 
lished by order of the Consistory. N. Y. Hosford Co. 

Sketch of the early history of the Reformed Dutch Church 
of Bergen in Jersey City. Compiled from the ancient 
church records and deacons' account books of Bergen, 
Communipay and Hasymua. N. Y. Versteeg, 1889. D. 
Versteeg. 

In the Matter of the Committee of Five, Appointed by the 
Assembly to Investigate Alleged Unlawful Expenditures 
in Connection with the Acquirement of Lands and the 
Erection of County Buildings in the County of Bergen. 
Hackensack, N. J., October 5, 1911. Bergen County In- 
vestigating Committee. 

Englewood, Its Annals and Reminiscences. J. A. Humphrey. 

Hackensack Up to Date. Supplement to the Bergen County 
Democrat. 

t Pertaining to the War of the Revolution. 
t Signifies in the collection of the Society. 



118 REPORTS OF COI\]lVnTTEES AND OFFICERS 



ANNUAL REPORT. 



By the Treasurer, 



From April 17th, 1915, to April 22d, 1916. 
Allison Special Accounts 



RECEIPTS 



Balance in Bank April 17th, 1915 $1,030.20 

Account Interest to April 22d, 1916 40.70 

DISBURSEMENTS 

Paid for Revolutionary Document. $ 25.00 
Transferred to General Account to 

purchase 1915 Year Books 75.00 

Balance in Bank April 22d, 1916.. 970.90 

$1,070.90 $1,070.90 
Allison Prise Account: 

Balance April 22d, 1916 100.00 

Available $ 100.00 

$ 100.00 $ 100.00 
General Account: 

RECEIPTS 

Balance in Bank April 17th, 1915 125.15 

Dues received 289.05 

Dues unpaid 134.00 

Receipts 1915 Dinner Tickets 42.18 

Sale of Year Books 3.55 

Transferred from Special Account to purchase 

1915 Year Books 75.00 

Receipt 1916 Dinner Tickets 127.50 

DISBURSEMENTS 

Paid 1915 Dinner Account $ 51.40 

Postage, etc., Secretary's Account.. 20.03 

Purchases, etc.. President's Account 59.04 

1915 Year Book Account 81.95 

1916 Dinner Account 171.00 

Dues outstanding 134.00 

Balance in Bank April 22d, 1916. . . 279.01 

$ 796.43 $ 796.43 



REPORTS OF COMMITTEES AND OFFICERS 119 



ANNUAL REPORT. 



By the Secretary. 



The fourteenth annual meeting and dinner of the Society 
was held at The Warner, Hackensack, on Saturday evening, 
April 22d, 1916. 

It was announced at the meeting that the Society would 
be granted the use of the large room on the second floor of 
the new addition to the Library building and a vote of 
thanks was extended to Hon. Wm. Johnson for the kind 
offer. The Archives and Property Committee will have 
charge of equipping the room with proper cases and stands 
for displaying the Society's historical collection and will re- 
ceive contributions from members to assist in defraying the 
cost of this work. 

It was also announced that Mr. W. O. Allison, of Engle- 
wood, had placed the sum of $100 at the disposal of the 
Society to be used as prizes for historical essays by attend- 
ants of the schools of North Eastern New Jersey. It was 
voted to extend the thanks of the Society to Mr. Allison for 
his thoughtful and generous gift. 

The Secretary's report showed that during the past year 
there have been added to the roll eighteen regular members, 
two life and one honorary. 

Three have been dropped, two resigned, three deceased 
and one transferred to the life membership list,' 

Making the present membership 113 regular 

10 life ' 
4 honorary 



Total 127 

The report of the Nominating Committee was read and the 
following officers elected for the coming year : 

For President — 

Cornelius V. R. Bogert Bogota, N. J. 

For Vice-Presidents — 

William 0. Allison Englewood, N. J. 

Fred H. Crum River Edge, N. J. 

Edward Stagg Leonia, N. J. 

Francis L. Wandell Saddle River, N. J. 

Rev. Edward Kelder C(^tesville, N. J,. 

David D. Ackerman Closter, N. J. 

Eugene K. Bird Hackensack, N. J. 



120 REPORTS OF COMMITTEES AND OFFICERS 

Richard T. Wilson Ridgewood, N. J. 

P. Christie Terhune Haekensack, X. J. 

William A. Linn Haekensack, N. J. 

For Secretary and Tresaurer — 

Theodore Romaine Haekensack, N. J. 

The following resolution was introduced: 

Resolved, That it is the sense of this meeting that the 
Society is greatly indevted to the President, Mrs. Frances A. 
Westervelt, for indefatigable and valuable work performed 
during the past two years, and that the work of the President 
has been of great value to the Society at the time when most 
needed. 

The resolution was adopted unanimously, upon a rising 
vote. 

It was decided to amend the constitution so as to provide 
for the establishment of a Woman's Auxiliary to take the 
place of the Committee on Colonial Household Furnishings 
and Belongings, and to be composed of all the women mem- 
bers of the Society. A Committee on Church History was 
also established. 

The meeting then adjourned to the dining room where 
covers were laid for eighty-five. 

At the close of the dinner reports were read from Chair- 
men of Committees and a brief but impressive address de- 
livered by the President. 

Mr. P. C. Staib acted as toastmaster and introduced as the 
principal speaker Mr. A. C. Monagle, of Brooklyn, who de- 
livered a very scholarly and edifying address upon ' ' Victories 
Worth Winning." 



LIST OF PRESIDENTS 



1902—1916 

Hon. William M. Johnson 1902-03 

Cornelius Christie 1903-04 

T. N. Glover 1904-05 

Hon. Cornelius Doremus 1905-06 

Burton 11. Allbee 1906-07 

Bvron G. Van Home, M.D 1907-08 

William D. Snow 1908-09 

Hon. David D. Zabriskie • 1909-10 

Everett L. Zabriskie 1910-11 

Howard B. Goetschius 1911-12 

Matt J. Bogort 1912-13 

Robert T. Wilson 1913-14 

Mrs. Frances A. Westervelt 1914-16 



REPORTS or COMMITTEES AND OFFICERS 121 

REPORT AND ACTIVITIES OF THE ARCHIVE AND 
PROPERTY COMMITTEE. 

In the year ending April, 1916, nearly one hundred articles 
have been added, by gift and purchase, and in connection 
with these a gift by Andrew R. Collins of a chest containing 
800 documents pertaining to the Township of Hackensack. 
His name has been placed on our honorary list. 

On the Fourth of July Hackensack had a safe and sane 
celebration. As we stand for patriotism, we had an exhibi- 
tion of our Revolutionary articles, and some that were loaned, 
artistically arranged in one of Mr. E. McFaddeu's large 
windows, kindly loaned for the occasion. 

Due to the construction of a large addition to the Johnson 
Public Library (where we have our collection) our property 
has been stored until the work is finished. 

We could not give the exhibitions during the year as 
anticipated. 

We are planning for an opening exhibition, to be followed 
by others during the year. 

Our Indian dugout canoe has been identified as a "rare 
Indian relic." Correspondence has been carried on with 
those interested, the wood has been identified, a line drawing 
and cut made — all in view of an article for our next year 
book. 

Research in regard to the history and specimens of the 
work of George Wolfkiel, the Bergen County Potter, on the 
Hackensack River near New Bridge, 1830-60, has resulted in 
identifying him as having made, about eighty years ago, the 
first historic pottery in New Jersey in the form of red earthen 
pie dishes, bearing a medallion of the bust of Washington 
and thirteen stars. There are only two known to have with- 
stood the ravages of time, and one belongs to the Society. 
An article illustrating examples of his fine work and history 
in regard to the clay and beautiful glazes used will be pre- 
pared for publication. 

The Newark Museum Association gave an exhibition of 
New Jersey textiles, historical and modern, in February and 
March, with an attendance of 50,089. Our Society was repre- 
sented by a very fine historical exhibition of our homespuns 
and weaves, the work of "the early days in Bergen County." 

Our 1915 year book has been distributed to the members 
and exchanges and several copies sold to parties interested. 

CATALOGUE SUPPLEMENT NO. 2. 
Bound Books. 
One Vol., The History of Bergen and Passaic Counties. 
Walker & Nelson. 1882.— Gift of W. 0. Allison. 



122 REPORTS OF COMMITTEES AND OFFICERS 

One Vol., Tombstone Inscriptions — Crooked Pond, Franklin 
Township ; Orangeburg, Rockland County ; Demerest 
Farm, Oakland; Van Blarcom Farm, Oakland; Van 
Houten Farm, Oakland ; Christian Reformed Church 
Yard, Leonia; De Wolf Farm, Old Tappan; Dundee 
Lake, Bergen County. Copied by John Neafie. N. Y. 
B. C. H. S. 

One Vol., Annals of Classis and Township of Bergen. 
Taylor.— Gift of Mr. H. S. Ihnen. 

One Vol., Hackensack Year Book, 1915. — Gift Bergen 
County Democrat. 

One Vol., Hackensack, New Jersey. 1900. — Gift The Evening 
Record Publishing Co. 

Four Vols., Washington Papers: Correspondence with the 
Officers. — Gift Library of Congress. 

One Vol., History of Hudson County. Winfield. — Gift W. 
0. Allison. 

One Vol., Old Bergen: History and Reminiscences. Daniel 
Van Winkle.— Gift W. 0. Allison. 

One Vol., History of the Reformed Church of Tappan, N. Y. 
1894. Rev. David Cole, D. D.— Gift W. O. Allison. 

One Brass-trimmed Holland Bible, 1716. Contains some 
Bogert records. — Lent by Mr. Thomas Sprigg. 

One Vol., Christ Church, Hackensack, 1863-1916.— Gift Miss 
S. F. Watt. 

Reminiscences of Some of the Older Physicians, by David St. 
John, M. D., Hackensack, from Journal of the Medical 
Society of New Jersey. Illustrated. 

Authenticated Copy of the Last Will and Testament of 
George Washington of Mt. Vernon, with Historical Notes, 
&e. Pub. A. Jackson, 1868. 

One Copy, Washington's Farewell Address to the People of 
the United States. Pub. 1858. — Gift of Frances Living- 
ston Wandell. 



Household Articles. 

One pair Andirons, Trammel, Pots, Griddle and Frying Pan, 
Old Fireplace Furnishings, one Pottery Churn, one pair 
Pewter Candlesticks, one pair Early Glass Lamps use 
when "fluid" was burned, one Foot Stove. — Gifts Mr. 
Thomas Sprigg. 



Manuscripts. 

The Lutherans on the Hackensack. Dr. D. D. Demarest. 
1897. Typewritten copy. — Gift New Brunswick History 
Club. 



REPORTS OF COMMITTEES AND OFFICERS 123 



Copy of Rev. Cornelius J. Blauvelt's Call to the :Ministry of 

Schraalenburgh Church (South), July 1, 1828.— Gift J. 

C. Blauvelt. 
The Mutiny of the New Jersey Troops at Pompton in 1781. 

Rev. I. L. Kip. 1899. Typewritten copy. — Gift New 

Brunswick History Club. 
Eight Hundred Original Manuscripts of Hackensack Town- 
ship, 1742-1830.— Gift Andrew R. Collins. 



Revolutionaey Document. 

Camp — November 27, 1776. By General Chas. Lee, Major- 
General. Sent by hand of General Heath to the inhabit- 
ants of eastern part of Bergen County, etc. B. C. H. S. 



]\Iaps. 

Bergen and Passaic Counties. 1861, 
State of New York. 1854. 



Photographs axd Half-tone Cuts. 

The "Green" in 1820— Hackensack. Photograph and half- 
tone cut. — Courtesy of Bergen County Democrat. — 
B. C. H. S. 

The Indian Dugout Canoe. Line Drawing and Line Cut. — 
B. C. H. S. 

The Abraham Devoe Revolutionary Homestead, and half- 
tone cut.— B. C. H. S. 

A Cane — ivory and silver mounted — marked P. D. I\I. R., 
1724. Formerly the property of Peter De Ma Rest. 
Photograph and half-tone cut. — Courtesy of ]\Ir. William 
Ely, B. C. H. S. 

A Fragment of a Homespun Wool Blanket from the Peter 
Burdette Home at Fort Lee, having embroidered on it a 
crown and R. G. — King George. Photograph and half- 
tone cut.— Courtesy Mrs. M. AUair, B. C. H. S. 

Three Photographs and Cuts of Homespun Coverlets, Bergen 
County— B. C. H. S. 

Eleven Photographs of Early Bergen County Houses. — 
Gift H. S. Ihnen. 

Framed Lithographs of Twelve Pictures of Hackensack, 
1878.— B. C. H. S. 

Photographs of the Jordan, Parcell Tavern, and Naugle 
Houses at Closter. — Gift Mrs. H. Bennett. 

Photograph of Mouth of Geo. Wolfkiel-Kiln..— Gift Fred- 
erick Kraissl, Jr. 



124 REPORTS OF COMMITTEES AND OFFICERS 

Photograph David Marinus House — Glen Rock. — Gift John 

A, Marinus. 
Souvenir Menu of Testimonial Banquet tendered to William 
M. Johnson.— Gift W. A. Linn. 



Miscellaneous, 

Banknote of the First Bank in Bergen County. One Dollar. 

State of New Jersey. Washington Banking Company. 

W. G. Doremus or Bearer. George W. Youtres, Cashier. 

Hackensack, April, 1833.— Gift W. 0. Allison. 
One Indian Pestle. — Gift Robert T, Amos. 
One Civil War Gun.— Gift C. Van Winkle. 
Specimens of Pottery from the Geo. Wolfkiel-Kiln. — Gifts 

or Cornelius and Frederick Kraissl, Jr. 
Historical Souvenir Programme Fiftieth Anniversary of the 

Palisades Reformed Church of Coytesville, N. J. — Gift 

Rev. Edward Kelder. 
Toll Gate Sign, and Tablet with Rates. Used on Turnpike 

from 1804-1915. Gates abolished.— Gift of Freeholder 

Martin J. Brestel. 
Hand-made Lath and Plaster Made of Mud and Straw (early 

method of building) from Holdrum Homestead, Camp- 

gaw, N. J., built 1810, burned 1915. The plaster after 

the fire showed it was clay. 
A Branding Iron — ''David Marinus, Sloterdam" — used be- 
fore the Revolution by David Marinus (a cooper), who 

was a captain in the Revolution. — Gift of John A. 

Marinus. 
Old Lock.— Gift John Ryan. 
Piece of Shell Fossil found on farm at Campgaw, N. J. — 

Gift Albert Young. 
Certificate of Stock, Hackensack and New York R. R. C, 

$1.00 each. 1869. G. G. Ackerson, Pres.— Gift J. C. 

Blauvelt. 
English Stirrup dug up near New Bridge. — Gift. 
One Grape Shot dug up near New Bridge. — Gift. 
United States Flags with thirty-five stars. — Gift Albert 

Young. 
Clippings for Envelope System- 
History of Wampum made in Bergen County. — B. C. H. S. 

Clipping of Earlv History of Newark. 1666. Founders.— 
Gift B. II. Alibee. 



REPORTS OF COMMITTEES AND OFFICERS V25 

Strawberry Baskets and Round and Square Molds used sev- 
enty-five years ago. — Gift Albert Young. 
A Colonial Threshing Flail.— Gift. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Frances A. Westervelt, 
Hon. Wm. M. Johnson, 
John A. Marinus, 
Arthur Van Buskirk 



126 LIST OF MEMBERS 



LIFE MEMBERS 



Albee, Burton H Paterson 

Allison, William O Englewood 

Britton, W. R East Orange 

Comeron, Alpin J Ridgewood 

Foster, W. Edward Hackensack 

Green, Allister New York 

Phelps, Capt. J. J Teaneck 

Preston, Veryl New York 

Voorhis, Charles C New York 

Zabriskie, A. C New York 

HONORARY MEMBERS 

Bogert, Isaac D "Westwood 

Collins, Andrew R New Bridge 

Demarest, Hon. Milton Hackensack 

Vroom, Rev. William Ridgewood 



MEMBERSHIP LIST 



Abbott, John C Fort Lee 

Ackerman, David D Closter 

Ackerson, Garret, G Hackensack 

Adams, Dr. Charles F Hackensack 

Adams, Robert A Saddle River 

Asmus, Grover E West Hoboken 

Bennett, Henry N Hackensack 

Bennett, Mrs, Harry Teaneck 

Bierbrier, F. E Saddle River 

Bird, Eugene K Hackensack 

Blauvelt, H. H Ridgewood 

Bogert, Matt J ■ Demarest 

Bogert, Daniel G Englewood 

Bogert, Albert Z River Edge 

Bogert, Cornelius V. R Bogota 

Boyd, John T., Jr Hackensack 

Brinkerhoff, Charles V Hackensack 

Cafferty, Charles Apalachin, N. Y. 

Cane, F. W Bogota 

Christie, J. Elmer Nyack, N. Y. 

Cooper, Richard W New Milford 

Cosse, Edwin F Paterson 

Criss, Hugo F Hohokus 



LIST OF MEMBERS 127 

Crum, Fred H River Edge 

Crum, Mrs. Fred H River Edge 

Cubberly, Nelson S Glen Rock 

Curtis, Grover D New York 

Curtis, Charles Hackcnsack 

Dalrymple, C. M Ilaekensaek 

DeBaun, Abram Ilaekensaek 

DeBaun, Mrs. Abram Hackensack 

Demarest, Jacob R Englewood 

Demarest, James E Westwood 

DeRonde, Philip New York 

Diaz, Jose M Hackensack 

Doremus, Cornelius Ridgewood 

Eckert, George M Saddle River 

Englehart, Charles Ridgefield 

Esler, John G Saddle River 

Fay, A. M Hohokus 

Goetschius, Howard B Hackensack 

Goetschius, D. M Little Ferry 

Grunow, Julius S Hackensack 

Haggerty, M. L Hackensack 

Haring, Tunis A Hackensack 

Hay, Clyde B Hackensack 

Hester, Earl L. D Hasbrouck Heights 

Howell, Mrs. Henrietta D Hackensack 

Jacobus, M. R Ridgefield 

Jeff ers, Daniel G Hackensack 

Johnson, Hon. William M Hackensack 

Kelder, Rev. Edward Englewood Cliffs 

Kipp, James Tenafly 

Lang, Dr. E. A Palisade 

Liddle, Joseph G New York 

Linkroum, Courtland Hackensack 

Linn, William A Hackensack 

Mabie, Clarence Hackensack 

Mabon, Miss Elizabeth Hackensack 

Marinus, John A Rochelle Park 

Metz, A. Russell, Jr Hackensack 

Meyer, Francis E Closter 

Morrison, William J., Jr Ridgefield Park 

Morrow, Dwight W Englewood 

Parigot, George W Allendale 

Piatt, Daniel F Englewood 

Potter, George M Allendale 

Ramsey, John R Hackensack 

Richardson, Milton T Ridgewood 

Riker, Theo Paterson 

Rogers, Henry M Tenafly 



128 LIST OF MEMBERS 



Romaine, Theodore • Hackensack 

Eomaine, Mrs. Theodore Hackensack 

Sage, L. H Hackensack 

Sloat, B, F Ridgewood 

Spear, William M Leonia 

Snyder, GeOrge J Ridgewood 

Stagg, Edward Leonia 

Stewart, Dr. H. S Hackensack 

Staib, P. C Hackensack 

Staib, Mrs. P. C Hackensack 

St. John, Dr. David Hackensack 

Smith, Miss Dora Hoboken. 

Stumm, F. A Areola 

Tallraan, William Englewood 

Terhune, C. W Hackensack 

Terhune, P. Christie Hackensack 

Terhune, Mrs. P. Christie Plackensack 

Thompson, Robert W., Jr Ridgefield 

Vail, Carl M Ridgewood 

Vail, William L Fairview 

Vail, Mrs. William L Fairview 

Van Buskirk, Arthur Hackensack 

Van Home, Dr. Byron G Englewood 

Van Nest, Rev. J. A Ridgewood 

Van Winkle, Arthur W Rutherford 

Van Winkle, Chas. A Rutherford 

Van Wagoner, Jacob Ridgewood 

Voorhis, Rev. John C Bogota 

Wakelee, Edmund W New York 

Wandell, Francis Livingston Saddle Rivea' 

Wandell, Mrs. Francis Livingston Saddle Diver 

Ware, Mrs. John C Saddle River 

Watt, Salina F Hackensack 

Wells, Benjamin B Hackensack 

Wells, George E Hackensack 

Westervelt, Mrs. Frances A Hackensack 

Wilson, Richard T Ridgewood 

Wilson, Robert T Saddle River 

Wood, Robert J. G Leonia 

Woodman, Charles Ridgewood 

Wright, Wendell J Hackensack 

Zabriskie, David D Ridgewood 

Zabriskie, Everett L Ridgewood 

Zabriskie, Fred'k C Hackensack 



IN MEMORIAM 129 



In fl^emoriam 



P.ogart, Peter B., Jr Bogota 

liogert, Andrew D Englewood 

Brinkerhoflf, A. H Rutherford 

Christie, Cornelius Leonia 

Clark, Edwin Ridgewood 

Currie, Dr. Daniel A Englewood 

Demarest, A. S. D Hackensack 

Demarest, Isaac I Hackensack 

Dutton, George R Englewood 

Easton, E. D Areola 

Edsall, Samuel S Palisade 

Haggin, Mrs. L. T Closter 

Hales, Henry Ridgewood 

Holdrum, A. C "Westwood 

Labagh, William Hackensack 

Lane, Jesse New Milf ord 

Lane, Mrs. Jesse New Milford 

Lawton, L Parker Ridgewood 

Nelson, William Paterson 

Romaine, Christie Hackensack 

Sanford, Rev. Ezra T New York 

Shanks, William Hackensack 

Snow, William D Hackensack 

Terhune, Peter Ridgewood 

Van Buskirk, Jacob New Milford 



PAPERS AND 
PROCEEDINGS 



1916-1917 

NUMBER TWELVE 



BERGEN COUNTY 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



iniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii>iiiii"i>7 

DEMOCRAT PRINT, HACKENSACK N. J. 



BjBi 



/■■ 



Papers and Proceedings 



OF THE 



Bergen County Historical Society 
1916^1917 

NUMBER TWELVE 



Page 

List of Officers, l!)l(i-l!)17 2 

GeiiiM-al L('«^"s Letter (copy) ..... 3 

General Lee's Letter (i)liotogi*a])lLs) .... 4 

William Alexander Linn ..... 7 

Interest on Siii'plns Revenue — W. A. Linn . . .10 

►Snrplus Revenue IJond (photograph) ... 15 

Loui'ence V-au l)Oskeark's Deed . . . .17 

The Final ('cntnry of the Waiiipuui Industry in Hergen 

County, \. J.— Frances A. Westervelt . . 20 

Public Schools of Ilarringlon 'Powiisliij) — Matt. J. 

IJogerl 39 

Allison Prize ( "ompositious ..... 46 

Andrew Dciiiarcsl Kogcrt . . . . . . o5 

Re|)()i'ts of < "oiiiiiiit tees and Oflicers .... 56 

List of cx-Pi-esidents ....... 63 

List of .Mcndx-rs ....... 63 

In ^IcMuoriam ........ 67 



OFFICERS FUR TllK YEAR 1916-17 



PRESIDENT 

Cornelius \'an Reypen Bogert l^ogota 

VICE-PRESIDENTS 

William 0. Allison Englewood 

Richard T. Wilson Ridgewood 

Fred H. Crlim River Edge 

Edw^vrd St^v.gg Leonia 

Francis L. Wandell Sacidle River 

Rev. Edward Kelder Coytesville 

David D. Ackerman ( "loster 

ErcENE K. Bird Ilaekeiisack 

P. (". Terhtne Ilaekeiisack 

William A. Linn Haekeiisack 

secretary and treasurer 
Tin:(!D{)RE Rom AIM-; \')S ]Maiii Street, Ilaekeiisack 

Till'; OFFICERS, ex-presidents AND THE FOLLOWING MEMBERS 
COMl'dSK TllK EXECLTnE COMMITTEE 

George E. Wells Haekeiisaek 

Rev. John C. Voorhis Bogota 

Miss Salina F. Watt Ilaekeiisack 

Arthur V\\ 1')Uskirk Ilaekeiisack 

K' KM Mil) T. W II. SON Ridgewood 

AKClllNKS AND I'RoUKin'Y COMMITTEE 

Mrs. Frances A. Westervelt Ilaekeiisack 

Hon. William M. Johnson Ilaekeiisaek 

John A. Marinus Roehellf Park 

Ain'll UK- X' \N lilSKlK'K IlackcllSJirk 

PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

Byron (4. \'an Horne. ]\I.I)., ('liainnaii Eiiglewood 

William O. Allison Eiiglewood 

Robert T. Wilson Saddle l\iver 

Hon. William M. Johnson llaekmsack 

( )riicial Pliotograplier ("ii \RLES Curtis 

eifi 



TO THE IXIIAIUTAXTS OF THE EASTKT^X (.XAK'TKR 

OF lJER(iF.\ CorXTV.* 

To Be Forwarded bv (Jciici'jd llcalii. 



Camp, N^ovenir ye 271 h, 177(i. 

CxtMitM-al Lee is extremely sensi])le of tlie distressful situ- 
aliuii of the Inhabitants of tlie Eastern Quarter of IJei-gen 
County, but he can comfort 'em with tlie assurance that the 
staunch inunovable Friends to Liberty and their C^ounti-y's 
I'ig-lits will ultimately (whatever may be their ])resent hard- 
ships) })revail, whereas those who either fi'om fear or a base- 
ness of Principle, repair to the Standard of Tyi'aiin\- must 
infallibly l)e I'uin'd. The Oongi-ess must vouyht to make up 
the losses of the Sufferers in thr Country's Cause. I shall 
Avith the blessing of God be inunediately in a situation of giv- 
ing sufficient protection to the adherents of Freedom and in- 
flicting a most just and severe chastisement on its opponents; 
in the mt^antime, I wou'd advise 'em to secure the most val- 
uable and i)ortable artich^s of their Proj)erty. The Foes and 
DeserttM's of theii" Country's rights on fhis si(l( have already 
tasted of tlu^ l)ittei' eui) the\' had prei)ared foi- their Country. 
They were first jjlunder'tl by the Mercenary Ruffians whom 
they had preposterously invited to protect 'em. The shells 
of their houses were alone left standing, these I have most 
justly, as I think, order 'd to be set on fire and this mode 1 
am determined to observe wherever I mai'ch. People of this 
stamp are utterly ruin'd. They never can l)e indemnified, 
whereas, those on the side of their Country nuiy dej)end on 
a certain and am])le compensation. ] shall now only re(|uest 
that the Inhal)itau1s of the Eastern (^uartei- of ]>ergeu will 
stand fii-m against the threats and artifices of the Instruments 
of Tyi-anuy — that I am preparing a Force for their i)ro1ec- 
tion, and repeat that they have only in the meantime to find 
a temporary secure ])lace to dej)Osit theii- most valuable and 
least bulky (effects. 

To the Ldiabitaiits of \he Eastern (Quarter of Uergen. 

CHARLES LEE, 

-Nfajoi- Ceneral. 

*Tlic liody of tills letter is not in the hand writ ins of (ienc'riil Charles T.ee. 
I)ut probably is that of his secretary or amanuensis. The signature, however, is 
that of Cieneral Lee as well as the sentence in the lower left-hand corner, "to 
the inhabitants of the Eastern Quarter of Bergen." This is on the authority of 
Mr. Leech. stenogra|ihev in the 1 )i'partuient of Manuscripts. New York Public 
Iiibrar^•. 









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WIIJJAM ALEXANDER LIXX. 



WILLIAM ALEXANDER LLW. a piominrtil cilizcn 
of Hackensack, one of the founders and aclivc iiionhrfs of 111;' 
])ergeii County Historical Society, and one of its \'iee-l'n'si- 
deuts, died suddenly at his home on the evening of Fehi'uary 
2:S, 1!>17. ^Yv. Linn was born in Sussex County, New Jersey, 
September 4, 1846. the son of Dr. Ah'xander Linn, and grand- 
son of John Linn, who was a Revolutionary soldier and a Rep- 
resentative in Congress in L817-2L 

Graduating from Yale in the class of ISliS, in which he 
was a prominent figure, being class })oet and ediloi' of the 
"Vale Literary Magazine," Mr. Linn went to New Voik and 
became a reporter on the Ti-ibune. He was called ui)on to in- 
dex ^L'. (ireeley's "Recollections of a i>usy Life." a task of 
magnituth' when the peculiai- handwriting of the great editor 
iv considered. This work, howevei", proveil of inestimable 
value to the \'0\nig man, laying foundation for a future biog- 
raphy of Mr. (Ireeley which he wrote. During four years 
on the Tribune he l)ecame night city editor, editor of the 
weekly and semi-weekly, and night editor of the daily. 

Mr. Linn went to the Evening Post in 1872, under Will- 
iam Cullen Byrant as editor and Charles Nordhotf, assistant. 

He later became telegraph and general news editor, from 
wliich he was ])romoted to be managing editor, in which im- 
l)ortant department he found wider scope for his ability. He 
was at his desk for many years. The Evening Post, in its no- 
1 ice of ^Ii-. Linn 's death, sa>s : 

"His (|uick, certain and comprehensive gi'asp of the sa- 
lient elements in the news situation of the coinitry as it pi'c- 
si iited itself from day to day, and of the manner in which 
they could be most pi'omptly, wisely and etfectively handled, 
excited the enthusiastic recognition even of so hard-headed an 
observer as E. L. Godkin, and the efficiency with which he dis- 
cerned and followed the general outlines of journalistic poli- 
cies was not more noteworthy than his masler\- and intimate 
])t'rsonal &upervision of the innumei-ahie minor details which 
contribute so greatly to the general excellence, dependahility 
and value of the modei'ii newspaper. Xotliing in the office 
routine was too small or trifling to escape his ovei-sight. .\ 
hard taskmaster over himself he demanded, and, as a rule, ob- 
tained the prompt, faithful and accurate |)ei'formance of al- 
lotted duties from all his subordinates. A nervous, excitable, 
hot-tempel-ed — but essentially t eiidei'-heart ed — man. he could 
be tiei'y in rebuke and eutting in contempt, but when Ihe 
storm was ovei-. there was no remaining griex'ance oi' ill-will, 



William Al( .raiidi r Litnt 



and no victim of his anger ever bore him malice, lie was a 
thoroughly just, honest, kindly man, held in honor and respect 
by all his associates, and in deep affection by those who knew 
him longest and most intimately. 

"Ills great executive ability, his discriminating taste, and 
his sober judgment bore fruit in all the departments of the 
paper under his immediate guidance. He was a man who saw 
and thought clearly, was singularly free from fads and prej- 
udices, had a fine natural instinct for what was right, numly 
and democratic and the courage to avow and act up to his 
principles. Sycophancy, deceit, shirking, or false pretence 
he loathed. 

"He continued his newsi)apei- work with unabated energy 
for thirty years, in spite of a wearing dyspepsia that would 
have incapacitated many a far more robust man, and cruel 
domes/tic losses." 

In addition to his newspaper work, Mr. Linn's litei-ary 
labors included a biography of Horace Greeley, "The Story 
of the Mormons," "Kob and His Gun," a story for boys, and 
magazine articles on building and loan associations, a subject 
upon which he was an authority. 

Mr. Linn's "The Story of the JMormons"" is recognized 
as the most exhaustive and authoritative work on the subject. 
In gathering the material for this volume he nuule personal 
trips to rtah and pursued a research recpiiring j^atience, j^er- 
sever-ance and extensive correspondence. It deals with ]\Ior- 
moiiism from its inception, giving a full account of tlie ti'avels 
and settlements of tlie followers of Jolin Smith bcfoi'c their 
tinal settlement in Utah. 

Mr. Linn came to Hackensack in 1875. He bought a 
home on dinton place, living thei-e during the forty-two 
yeai-s of liis residence in the town. There his wife (whose 
maiden name was Mai'garet Astor ]\Iartin) died IMarch 5, 
1897; there he reiiuiined until the sinnmons came which called 
him hence; took him literally "in the twinkling of an eye." 
They had no children. 

Mr. Linn was always interested in advancing the interests 
of the connnunity, the first impoi'tant action in this connec- 
tion being in the organization of the Hackcnsiick ]\Iutual 
l>uilding and Loan Association, in 1887. 

To William A. Ijinn more than any other individual is 
due the reiiiar-Uable prestige of the Ilaekensaek Mutual l'>. 
and L. 

He made a success of the Peoples National l>ank of Ilaek- 
ensaek, in the organization of which he was the Lruiding head, 
and for ever\- interest of which he ga\e his best talent while 



Will id))} Alr.ra ))(]()• Linn 



ill tlie president's chair. The Hidgcficld Park Xalioiial Uaiik, 
an offspring of Ihe Peo|)U^s, was another of his far-seeing 
fliianeial enterprises. 

Mr. Linn was associated with llic -Tolinsoii Pnlilic Uhi-ary 
from its organization, and at the time of his (h'ath was its 
})resithnit. His interest in the work of the iibrai'v was untii'- 
ing. His literary experience and wise counsel made him most 
helpful in the consideration and settlement of the various 
ipiestions aff'ecting the work of the library. 

^Ir. Liiiirs interest in the Historical Society was fruit- 
ful. He took an active part in its organization, and was a 
fretpient contributor to its publications. 

The Year Books of the society have the following impor- 
tant articles from his pen, the result of original investigations 
on his part, "Slavery in New Jersey,'' "Tlie Andre Prison 
House at Tappan," "Tlie Baron Steuben House" and "In- 
terest on Surplus Revenue," the last of which he had pre- 
l)are(l just before his death and is published in this issue. 

The Board of Freeholders elected him county collector 
in P)16 and re-elected him in 1917. The duties of the posi- 
tion were of an especially onerous character dui'iiig 1916, 
due to peculiarities of the large bond issues by the county, but 
Mr. Linn was master of the situation, and details of the 
varied accounts are reported as in splendid condition. 

He was prominent and active in matters aff'ecting tlie 
civic welfare of the town of his residence and wielded an ex- 
tensive influence in all movements of a public nature, and did 
much to promote good governuK^nt and tlie developuieiit of 
the town. 

Funeral certMiionies for Mr. Liun were lieM in the Sec- 
ond Reformed Church at 10 a. m., ^Londay, Feb. 26, and were 
attiMided by many friends, the Freeholders acting as pall- 
hearers. The service was read by the pastor, tlie Rev. Arthur 
Johnson, D.I).. The remains were taken to Haiiduirg, Sus- 
sex County, and interred in the family |)l(it \\\ old Xortli 
('hui'cii cemeti-ry. 

Mr. Linn, b\- his will, gave the sum of ^2(),()()() to an asso- 
ciation to be formed in the town of Sussex for the establish- 
ment and maintenance of a hospital in memory of his father, 
Dr. Alexander Linn. 



"INTEREST OX SFRPLFS REVENUE" 

History of a IJci-gcn ('oiiiity Appi'oprialion. 
l>v William A. Llxx. 



Pcisoiis iiitri'i'stcd ill 1li(' annual budget of thr lUTg-i'ii 
Couiilx' iioard of l-'fcclioldcrs will find in that hudo'et the 
t'ollowiiiu' item: " " I ntfi-cst on Surplus Revenue, $1,795.08." 
The eouuty annually appropriates this sum without change 
in tlit^ amount or the desitjnation. The liistory of this api)ro- 
priation runs back through the history ot'the Tnited States 
for eighty years. 

During the administi'ation of President Jackson the 
I'nited States Govei-nnieni found itself in the unusual posi- 
tion of having moi'e money than it could use. Thei-e had been 
a vast expansion of bank capital. In 1S;}0 there were '.VAO 
banks in this eounti-v. with a eajntal of .tBl.OOO.OOO. In 1S;57 
there were B-'U banks, with a capital of $525,000,000. The 
note circulation had increased from $61,000,000 in \^'A0 to 
$14!>,000,000 in IS.'IT. This inflation was a source of specn- 
lation. and IIk^ principal speculation was in public lands. The 
j)rice of government land was $1.25 an acre. Speculators 
bo\iglit vast areas of this land, paying foi- it in hank notes, 
which were (le]>osited and loaned again for further specula- 
tion. In this wa\ the recei])ts of the government from land 
sales increased from $2,62;},000 in 18:52 to $24,877,000 in 18:5(5. 
.\t the same time thei"e was a great increase in the customs 
revenue, from $l(i.200.000 in 18:U to $2:{,40(),()00 in 18:{(i. 

As the public deposits in the l)anks inci'eased there arose 
an outcry against the political power rendered possible 
through the control oi' hanks, and Congress was urged to tind 
a way to dis-pose of the sui'plus. As the |iublic debt had all 
been |)aid this Avas a difficult ju'oblem. .\ iiiendiei- of ('ougress 
from South ('ai'olina llius drscrihrd ihc silualion: "'Tli' de- 
parliiients wei-e stimulated ami goaded on to find out how 
much 1 Iic\' could spend, while the majority in ( 'ouiri'css secned 
to Im' employed in linding out how much they could gi\c."" 

Till' only feasible plan for disposing ol' U\r Miiplns 
seemed to be to (li\ide it among the Slates, ('alhoun argued 
that a dislributioM of the funds as a gift woidd bi' unconstitu- 
tional, and as a sort of com prom ise, a hill was passed autlior- 
i/iuL;- the deposit of the surplus wilh the Stales, in pi'opor- 
lioii to their represeiilal ion in ('ougress, to be paid buck at 



"'Infcnst (>)i Surplus Rrvcnur" 11 

tlie call of the Sceretai-y of the Treasiii'v. This saviiiy' clause 
(lid not sfMMu to deceive any one, and Ilciiiy ('la\ told his 
cniisl it ueiits that ""he did not l)cli('\c a sin<i'le iiieiuher of 
eilhei- hduse iiiiayiiicd a dollai- wouM he I'ecaUed."" Says 
('ai'l Schufz, ill his "" Henry ('lay"": "'It was a had law in 
itself, hut pei'haps no woi'se tliau any othei- availahh' e\|)e- 
dient, sinei' the aeeinnulation of the siirphis had not heen pi-e- 
vented by a timely reduction of taxes."" 

New Jersey received her share of this surplus on January 
1, 1887. and the Legislature of that \eai- passed a law pi-ovid- 
ing that the (rovernoi". Treasurer and Speaker of the House 
should apportion the money among the counties, "'in the ratio 
of th(^ State tax paid by the several counties into the ti'easury 
of the State during the past year; the Boards of Chosen Fi-ee- 
iiolders to j^ledge the faith of tlK^r i'esp(>ctive couidies foi- 
the safe keeping and I'epayment thereof."" The hoards of 
Freehoklers were autliorized to loan this dej)0sit "upon bond 
and mortgage, or* other good and sufficient security, and to 
])ay the intei'est to the sevei'al townships in the i-atio of their 
county taxes."" 

At first the interest as apjioi'tioned among the townships 
was set aside at the annual town meetings for the ''dueatiou 
of poor children. When the schools becanu' free it was voteil 
that the entii'e intei'est be devoted to school purposes, and the 
item now found in the annual l^ei'gen County budget pro- 
vides for six per cent, on the sum that Uergen Countx' finall\' 
received. 

The first two (|iiar1erly payments of this fund, ainoiinting 
to ^27,454.76, were made to iJergen County in 1>^:>7, and the 
County Collector, when he reported this receipt, was aiilluu-- 
ized to I'etain ^f), ()()() "for the use of the County."" .\ |)art of 
this -t'). ()(){) was later loaned out. .\ third i)ayi!ient of .+;l;*).- 
727. MS was received from the State Treasurer the following 
July, making the total received h\- the ('ouiity $41.1S2.14. 

In May, 1H.']7. a committee of the iJoard reported resolu- 
tions providing thai the rniid then in hand he ot'fered for 
loans "to the inhabitants of the several townships in |)ropor- 
tion to their (|U(ita of Stale tax," the loans to be made on 
bond and mortgage on a .lO per cent, valuatioji, in sums of not 
less than .i;500 nor more than .^.'},000, and for not longer than 
a yeai'. At the inee1iii<>- of the ]>oard on ^lay 26, 1S.)7, the 
following loans w ere made : 

Henry \V. Uanta, N'ew l>ai-badoes .^l.-'iOO 

l*e1er I. Ackerman and Tunis Cole. Hacken- 

sack ;10()() 

Francis Salmo, Franklin ;5,000 



12 '"I)il(r(sf OH Surplus I\( lu )iuc" 

John F. Gray, Saddle River 2,500 

Charles Kinsey, Franklin 2,000 

Peter A. Kip, Lodi .4^1,500 

Asa Wright, Hobokeii 2,000 

Cyrus S. drowning. West Iloboken 8,000 

John Tise, P.ergen 2,000 

Isaac I. Underhill. Secauens 1,500 

When the last payment was received fi'oiii the State 
Treasurer ten additional loans wei-e made, aggregating 
$13,700. 

When, in 1840, the county of Hudson was created out of 
a part of Bergen County, a division of the sui'plus fund had 
to be made between old Bergen County and the new Hudson, 
and there was a further division when a small part of l>ergen 
County was added to Passaic County. Quite a complicated 
computation was recpiired to arrive at a correct division. For 
particulars of this the readei- is referred to the liersren County 
Freeholders' minutes of .May 1, 188i), and ]\lay 6. 1840. The 
amount due Hudson County was fixed at .$!),460.28, leaving 
Bergen County, after deductions for interest and the payment 
to Passaic County, $29,918.14. This division Avas not satis- 
factory to a later Board of Bergen County Freeholders, and 
there seems to have been a i-ather prolonged dispute with Hud- 
son County over the subject, but with no result. 

We now tind this surplus fund connected with the i)ro- 
ject to purchase for Bergen County a i)oor house farm. The 
subjt^ct of a i)Oor house for the county had been under dis- 
cussion in the late forties, and in A|)ril, 1849, a resolution was 
offered at the meeting of the Freeholders that a poor house 
should be built, but the Board refused to consider it. In 1850 
a motion to refer the mattei- to the voters of the townships was 
tabled, hi ^Ia\', 1851, the iJoai'd voted tiud a committee of 
one from each township be ai)pointed to look into the cost aiul 
location of a poor house, and at a special meeting of the P)Oai'd 
the following uionth. on the i-ecommendation of this com- 
mit lee, it was voted lo oClVf Jacob X. \'oorhis $40 an acre for 
his Tanii on the road from the Paramus I'oad 1o Xew Milfoi'd. 
and tliat all further business I'egarding llie purclwise he w- 
ferred to the Committee on Surplus Revi'uue. In Xovembei-, 
1851, it was voted that counsel be oi'dered to call foi- May 1 so 
much of the surplus revenue loaned on moi'tgage "as will be 
sufficient to pay for the whole expenses of the poor lunise I'ai'm 
l)uilding, and slock 1 he same. '" 

The atiinial repei'ls ol' llie coiiiiiiil tee on surplus I'eN'enue 
to llie l')oaf(l are no1 all \rr\ elejii'. In the report of .May, 



" I )ii ( )•( st on Siirphis R( lu nut '' 13 

1854, there is ;iii ilciii of "to townships I'or pooi' pui-poses, 
$400." Part of the surplus fund was loaned to Ihc Tri- 
township poor house, and interest ou this sum was paid for 
several yeai-s. The I'epoi't of ^lay, ^H'A, was as follows: 

Loans on bond and niortg-ages .ti;5.S.')0.00 

To townships for poor purposs 400.00 

To county 6,502.82 

In the early sixties, when successive calls for soldiers were 
made by the Federal Government on the States, iJergen 
County had to supply a good many men. These were obtained 
'atei- by offering bounties, and the bounty money was raised 
by the counties. IJergen County made more than one issue of 
bonds to meet this expense. In November. 1863. the Free- 
holders i)assed this resolution : 

"Resolved, That no more of the surplus revenue now in 
the hands of the Collector be invested at intei'est to the cretlit 
of the county, but that whatever amount may be in his hands 
shall be used to li(iuidate the indebtedness of the county aris- 
ing from the payment of bounty to volunteers." 

Tn ^lay, 1864, the Board passed the following resolution: 

"Resolved, That the surjilus i-evenue invested to the 
credit of the county be collected by the County Collector, and 
api)ropriated to paying off the county indebtedness." 

The i-eport of the Committee on Surplus Revenue, sub- 
mitted May 8, 1872, showed: 

J^ergen County, dr .tll),664.04 

Interest to date $1,179.84 

New Barbadoes, Midland, Washington, 
Ilohokus, Franklin, Saddle River, Lodi 

and Union 9,000.00 

Interest to date $2,160.00 

Ilaekensack Townshii), 5 years' 

intei-est " 2r)6.00 

Estate H. B. Hageman 400.00 



$20,!I1S.14 



The 1-eport for l.s7r) showed a total of $29,918.14 and 
$400 received fi'om the Ilageman estate, with a reconnneiida- 
tion that this be paid into the county fund. 

The county, the pool' house and some of the townships 
seem to have paid intei-est into this fund until about ISSl. 
In 1883 the Comiidttee on Surplus Revenue was omitted from 
the list of standing connnittees. The following apj)ropi'ia- 



14 "Ini(r(s( on Surphis R(V(ini(" 

ions for interest on sui'iilns revenue were made in the budget 
in tlie years named : 

11)10 $1,203.84 

1911 1/203.94 

1912 1J43.84 

1913 642.4S 

1914 1,795.08 

The latter amount has been ai)propriated in each succes- 
sive year. This interest is distributed among the school dis- 
tricts by the County CoHector on warrants drawn by tlie 
County Superintendent of Public Schools on the basis of .^1.80 
to each teacher employed. 

[Tiiere is evidently an error in computation of these 
figures which Mr. Linn furnished a few days before his death, 
and is copied from the Minutes of the Freeholdei's ; therefore 
he had no opportunity of correcting same. 

The Connnittee learns on in(iuiry from the present 
County Collector that the State of New Jersey claims 
$28,819.14 as the total amount due Surplus Revenue, and 
now contemplate calling on Bergen County for its payment 
in the near future. 

It will be found that this amount is set aside as a reserve 
in the Financial Report of the County for the year 1917.] 



VV HLREAs by an Act of the Legislature of the State of New- Jersey, entitled '• An Act making pro- 
vision foi ihe defKJsite and dislribution of so much of the surplus revenue of the United Slates as 
now is, or may hereafter be, apportioned to and received by this state," passed March 1837, it is 
enacted, " That as soon as the Governor, Treasurer, and Speaker of the House of Assembly, of 
this State, and the survivors and survivor of them, and their successors in ollice, and the survivors 
or survivor of them, shall receive, or may have received, ia deposite, any portion of the surplus 
revenue of the General Government, which fell to the share of this State on the first day of Ja- 
nuary last, and which may fail to the share of this State at any lime or limes hereafter, they shall 
apportion the same am<jiig the several counties of this state in the ratio of the stale tax paid by 
the several counties into the treasury of the slate duriny ihe past year.*' 

And whereas the said Governor, Treasurer, and Speaker of the House of Assembly, of this Stale, 

have received of sajd surplus revenue the sum oi )f' ^ ^^^/^y^^ y/^>^ ^^WV^ 

dollars, it being the 6m- quarterly payment due to the Stale of New-Jersey on the first of jhtmi- 
jtry last past. 

And whereas upon an apportionment made of said amount, agreeably to the provisions of said act, 

the county of /J'^'/^'"^ is entitled to receive, as their proportion of said fund, the 

sum of ^^^^<^^^^^ '^^^'=2^'^ •"'^^^'^^^ ^<^r^yf-raf /it'iST,/^ ,^^-iftr>x. yy^7/? J<<:^ wliicli amount the 
said Governor, Treasurer, and Speaker of the House of Assembly, of ihis State, have delivered to 

.yj^"-' ^'-^^^^;^- ^^'^^.<^^^^^>'k'.^ ^ , being the 

competent authority authorized by the Board of Chosen Freeholders of said county of /i^i^t-y^ 
to receive the same. 

]>}oVi\thereforc,heilhnoion,1\\9.\\, /U-Z^^^^'^ \^ <^ C^U.^r-y-t-t.^j^ ^ , Director 

of the Board of Chosen Freehohlers of said county of /^-^ 'j?^^' do hereby 

certify that the said sum of^//«///',^ '■^y/^>^ _^^ has been de- 

posited by the said Governor, Treasurer, and Speaker of the House of Assembly, of this Slate, with 

the county of ^^••^^^:<*>-' and that fiir the safekeeping and re-payment of the 

same to the State of Me .'-Jersey, accordir.g io the provisions of said act. the county of Ai^j'>'^ 

— i^ legally boun J, and itc f^iiih is sclen-.nly pledged; and in behalf of said 

county of /^ a^^^ 'f-^- ~ — I do hereby ciTis my sigiiature in testimony of the pre- 
mises, and of the faith of the said county of yOr/f'^'--- _ to pay the said money 
so deposited, and every part thereof, from time to time, whe.iOver the same cliall be required for the 
purpose of being returned into t!;o T!T;asury of l':c; Ignited States, according to the previsions of an 
Act of Congress to regulate the public deposites, passed the 23d day of June, A. D. 1830, or when- 
ever, in the opinion of the Legislature, the interest of the State may require its return. 

SIGNED this ^^^i^>-- <^<ii>»ojS^- day of ^<^ta^ _ in ih- year 

of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven. 

Attest : /^ '^X^f^^^V^ 



NEW- JERSEY TREASURY OFTICE, 



Sir 



Tkentcn, ^iC^ /'^y^^'^ 
c^^^^^, C^^y^y>*. Esq. Collector of the county of <^.y 



an Act of the Legislature of the State of New-Jersey, entitled " An Act making provision 
; deposite and distribution of so much of the surplus revenue of the United States, as now is, 
y hereafter be, apportioned and received by this Slate" — it is made my duty, as Treasurer of 
ate, to notify the Collectors of the several counties of this state, of the sum apportioned to 
ounty, respectively. In compliance with said act, I hereby notify yo_ij that the sum appor- 
to the county of ^ oo^-^^ '\% J^/J,?ii)' '/y^^^> *'^t^/A^ *y^'j'/97^>^-c^^i^ 

!. I also send herewith a form of the pledge of the county, to be signed by the Director of the 
of Chosen Freeholders, provided they elect to receive the same 

'^il<i.^^ t^'^^^^^iZ^ Treas u rer 




LorinvXcK \A.\ i',()SKi-:.\in\s dhki) 

Auunist S. 171(), I'di- l.iitlici-;iii Cliuich. (Ill KjisI hank of 
1 lackciisack', alxuil one mile soiilli of New liridgc. 



To All Cliristiaii Proplr, to Wliuiii TIicsl' i'l-csjiil.s Shall 
Come : 

I. Louveiice \'aii bnskcark, of Ilackcnsack. in the ("ouiity 
of I)t'i-gt'ii, ill the Province of New Jci'sry, yociiiaii, Sfiuh'tii 
greetings : 

Know ye thai I, ihr said Loui-fiicc \'an Ixiskratk. i'oi- 
and in ronsiih'i-at idii ol' the hive, uood will and affi-ction which 
ican't read I doe heai' toward the Liithefan Chui-ch, have 
gi\-eii and granted and l»y these jireseiils doe fnlly. Trecly, 
clearly and ahsolntely give and grant lo the Pi'otestant Luth- 
eran Congi'egation at and about Ilackensack a certain piece 
and parcel of lauil situate and being on Ilackensack ('I'eek 
(II' K'iver. joining to a small i-uii that runneth between the 
lands of Nicholas Lassui'e, shoemaker, and the said parcel of 
land l)iginning on the King's Koad ten foot fi-oin the small 
run Ol' ('reek i)el\veen Xicliolas Lassure. shoemaker, and the 
said parcel of land and running all along that said small run 
only, k(H'ping always the distance of ten foot from it to the 
mouth of the said run in the great Ilackensack Creek or 
Pivei' and then along Ihe said Ilackensack Ci-eek or Kiver 
northerly two hinidred and twenty-three foot, and then from 
tlienc(^ again eastei'ly to the King's Road in such a (MUirse 
lliat the whole i)readtli thereof on ye said King's Road may 
i'nily be one hundred and sixty-three foot. The be<.''inning of 
tile said breadth is to be made on the said small run between 
.Nicholas Lassure, shoemaker, aiul the said i)ai'cel of land 
only, keeping t( n foot distance fi"oni it as afoui'said, altogether 
with the rights, gifts, interests, claims and demands what- 
soe\-er which 1 now have or which any oi- either my heirs, 
executors, administrators or assigns may liereaftei- have of, 
to 01' in the said granted pi'cmises or any |)ar1 ihei'eof, to 
have and hold the said parcel and piece of land unto the said 
T'rotestant Lutheran ( 'ongregat ion. Now being and hereatfer 
at any lime being for me pro\ide(l nevertheless that the said 
i'rotestant Jjuthei'an Congregation shall build and ei'cct on 
and upon the said granted and given parcel of ground a house 
for Divine woi'ship foi- ihe use of the Protestant Lutherans, 
in and about Ilackensack, and that within the term of four 



THE FINAL CENTURY OF THE WAMPUM INDUSTRY 
IN BERGEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 

Compiled by Frances A. Westervelt. 



In presenting somewhat of an industry that is now ob- 
solete, it is thought that the bare facts and illustrations to be 
given would be practically meaningless without the following 
references, that will show the use and value of wampum to 
New Jersey and Bergen County during the Colonial period. 

''These voices of the past tell of treaties that mark the 
stei)ping stones of a nation's progress — they epitomize the 
dark days of endeavor, when the infant States fought for life 
and prosperity. ' ' 

"To the Algonkains must be credited the establishment 
of the first medium of exchange within the boundaries of the 
State of New Jereey. When the Dutch and Swedes came to 
the valleys of the Hudson and Delaware they found the 
Lenni-Lenape and kindred peoples possessed of a money 
which, while crude, was satisfactory — so satisfactory indeed 
that the settlers provided by custom and law for its use 
among themselves and in their trading relations with neigh- 
boring tribes. This money was the wampum — the shell 
money of the peltry dealer and of the signers of treaties." — 
Lee. 

1658 

"In order to remove any causes for friction with the 
Indians on the account of adverse claims to theii* territory, 
and to reassure the timid settlers. Governor Stuyvasant and 
the Council of New Netherlands purchased of the Indians 
January 30, 1658, a tract of land by the following descrip- 
tion : * * * Comprising the old township of Bergen for 
eighty fathems of Wampum, &c. " 

Van Winkle. 

1667 

YE TOWN ON THE PES A YAK. 

(NEWARK) 

was purchased by the settlers from Connecticut July 11, 1667, 
from the Hackensack Indians. Numerous articles were in the 
purchase price. The first mentioned was eight huntlred and 
fifty fathems of wampum. — Historic Newark. 



^V<(lHl)lnll Iiidiislrii in H( r(]( u ('(tunh) 21 

UNION TOWNSHIP, 1668. 

That jiortion of l>ergen County whicli inchides what now 
constitutes TTnion Township was originally known by the In- 
dian name of Mig-hec ti cock (New l^ai-badoes Neck). It 
embraced five thousand three hundred and eight acres of up- 
land and ten thousand acres of meadow. In 1668 Captain 
William Sanford purchased in the interest of Nathaniel 
Kingsland of the island of liarbadot^s, tiiis land from the 
proprietors, on condition that he would settle six or eight 
farms within three years, and pay twenty pounds sterling 
on the 25th of each succeeding March. On the 20tli of July 
of the same year he purchased from the Indians their title, 
''to connnence at the Hackensack and Pissawack Rivers, and 
to go northward about seven miles to Sanfords Spring (after- 
wards Boiling Spring). The consideration was 170 fathoms 
of black wampum. 200 fathoms of white wampum (each 
fathem was 12 inclu's long, and the black was worth double 
the white) ; 19 watch coats, 16 guns, 60 double hands of pow- 
der, 10 pair breeches, 60 knives, 67 bars of lead, 1 auker of 
brandy, 3 half fats beer, 11 blankets, 30 axes and 20 hoes." 
It is noticed in all these purchases that the wampum heads 
the lists. — Nelson. 

1669 

"The ferry was established between Connnunipaw and 
the New Nt^therlands. Fare in wampum 6 stivers, e(|ualiiig 
12 cents." 

WAMPUM BELTS AND STRINGS OF WAMPUM 

"Although many wampum belts were made during the 
earlv Colonial i)eriod, they are now very rare. There aiv a 
few' in the museums and some still remain in the hands of 
public ofHcials and county clerks as records of treaties Avith 
the Indians." "In all aft'airs of state the chief and sachems 
wore wampum belts around their waists or ovei- theii- shoul- 
ders. In negotiations with other tribes, every imi)ortant state- 
ment was corroborated by laying down one or more sti-nigs 
of wampum or belts. Friendships were cemented by them. 
Alliances confirmed, treaties negotiated and nuirriages sol- 
enniized In all these the giving of wampum added dignity 
and authoritv to the transaction." "This belt preserves my 
words," was" the common phrase among the Iro(iuoise when 
pi'omises were made. 



22 WdinpK))! Iitdiislrjj In I>(r(j(ii ('(Jiinfii 



1758 

"Given uiuler my hand and seal at arms, the 2y>\\\ day 
of June, in 32d year of his Majesty's reign. 

By his excellency, Francis liernard, Esq., captain-gen- 
eral, governor and connnander-in-chi(4' of the colony of New 
Jersey, &c. 

Brethren: The Minisink or Munsy Indians and those at 
Pompton : 

It is with great pain T am to tell you that some Indians 
have invaded our province on the upper part of the Delaware 
and shed nnich blood, and that you are suspected to be con- 
cerned in it. 

A STRING. 
Brethren : 

Tf you have been instigated to this by the false sugges- 
tions of our enemies, the French, we pity you, for these pro- 
ceedings, if not immediately prevented, must cause a discord 
between us, which, though it may be greatly hui'tful to our 
people, must ui the vud entirelv ruin vours. 

A STJvLNG. 
Brethren : 

The throne of the great king is founded on justice, and 
therefore if you have received any injury from any of his 
l)eople living within our province you should have made yoiir 
complaint to me, who am ordered to do justice to all iiii'U, 
and I would have heard you with open ears, and given yoi! 
full satisfaction. 

A STRING. 
Brethren : 

Tf therefore you have any anger boiling in your bi'eiists, 
/ hij I Iris helt, invite you to Burlington, in five weeks, at which 
time our great council will be together; there to unouilhen 
your minds, and root out of your hearts the seeds of enmity, 
before they take too dee]) a root. And T will kindle a council 
fire, and bury all the blood that has stained our ground deep 
in the earth, and make a new chain of peace, that may bind 
us and our children, and you and your children in everlast- 
ing bonds of love, that we may live together as brethren, un- 
der the protection of the great king, our common father. 

A I^ELT. 
Brethren : 

If these words shall please you, and you should choo.se 
that we should be your friends, rather than your enemies, let 
all hostilities immediately cease and receive this passi)ort, and 
go to Fort Allen, from whence you shall he conclucted to 



Wampiun Jndiisfru in Px r(j< n CoiDihi 



Bristol, wiiere you will find (leputics, who will t;ikc noii l)y 
the hand and lead you to nie at lUn-lington. l)Ut it llic time 
and place 1 have mentioned be inconvenient to you, [ shall l)e 
ready to receive you in this government, when you can more 
agreeably to yourselves attend. 

A STRIXO. 

At a couferenee held at Burlington, August 7, ITil.S: 
Pi'esent — His excellency, Francis Bernard, Es(|., and 

others. 

His excellency sat, holding four sti'ings of wampum in 

his liand, and spoke to them as follows: 

]>rethi'en : 

As you have <'ome from a long joui'uey, through a wood 
full of briars, with this string I annoint your feet, and take 
away their soreness. With this string 1 wi})e the sweat from 
youi" bodies; with this string I cleanse your eyes, ears and 
mouths, that you may see, hear and speak cleai'ly, and 1 })ar- 
ticularly anoint youi" throat, that (n-ery word you say may 
hav(^ a free ]iassage from your heart, and with this string 
T bid you heartilv' welcome. 

TIk li Ik (l(lif(i-((l (ill llii four siriin/s. 

His excellency then informed Ihem that he should be 
ready to lu^ar what they had to say in answer to the message 
he had sent to their chiefs, as soon as would be convenient to 
them, when they informed him tlu^y would be ready in the 
afternoon; and thanked his excellency for using the customs 
of their fathei's in l)idding them weleome. 

MONDAY AFTP]RXO()X. 

Present ; 

As in the morning. 

The Indians being informed that the governor was i-eady 
to hear them, Benjanun, on behalf of the Muuseys Bidians, 
holding a belt in his hand, spoke sitting, not being allowed 1o 
stand till the Miiif/oian had spoke. 

Brother: 

At first when your messengers came lo us 1weii1y-seven 
days since our ancient people were glad to hear tliem, and oui- 
young men, women and children rejoiced at Hie tidnigs. 
We know you are great and strong, and we look it kindly. 
All our friends and relations were in soi'i'ow, and pitied the 



24 Wa)npum Industry in Bergen (Uninfy 

condition of the women and of the children, who are grow- 
ing up. The kind words of our brethren, the English, we sent 
to our uncles, the Minigoians, and one of them is come down 
here to the place of our meeting to be a witness of what passes 
between us. Then John Hudson, the Cayugan, above men- 
tioned, stood up and spoke as follows : 

Brothers : 

In confirmation of what has been said to you, I, who am 
the Mingoian, am, by this belt, to inform you that the Mun- 
seys are M^omen, and cannot hold treaties for themselves, 
therefore I am sent to inform you that the invitation you gave 
the Munseys is agreeable to us, and we have taken hold of 
your belt, and T desire you may write down my attending 
here, though while I am here I left my family in danger of 
being cut oft' by our enemy, the French. 

Further, Brother : 

I have told you your belt was agreeable, and received by 
us as an earnest of your friendship. * * * 

This belt confirms what I have said. 

He then delivered the governor a belt, on one side of 
which are three figures of men in black wampum, represent- 
ing the Shawause, Delawares and IMingoians living on the 
Ohio; on the other side, four figures representing the united 
councils of the Six Nations, in their own country. By these 
being now joined in this belt, he declared it expressed their 
union. That the western Indians having consulted their 
uncles, now joined in sending it, in pursuance of a belt of 
invitation sent them above a year since, by George Crogham, 
on behalf of the English. 

August 8th, 1758. 
Present : As before. 

His excellency delivered the following answers to what 
the Indians said yesterday. * * * The great God whom 
we serve, and who protects us, and gives us all the blessings 
of life which we enjoy, hath commanded us to be just and 
bem^volent to all mankind. * * * Qf \\x\^ \ y^-xW give 
your people fui'ther assurance, when we meet at the council 
fire. Ill the m('aiitiiiit% 1 eoiifinn what J have said bv these 
belts. 

His excellency then delivered one belt to John Hudson, 
the Cayugan, and one to Benjamin, the Munsey. 



Wampum ludiisfrji in B(r<;()i Coiiiifii 25 



The 21st of October, 1758. 
Governor Bernard, requesting the attention of the In- 
dians, addressed them as follows : 

Brethren of the United Nations : 

Vy\ this string- vou spoke on behalf of onr brethren the 
Minisinks, and said," "that they were wronged in their lands, 
that the English settled so fast they were contnnially push- 
ing them back, and when they asked for their lands they were 
told that they had sold their land, and had got drunk and 
forgot it Tf thev had swallowed their lands, they nnist be 
content i)ut tliey'did not believe that they had swallowed all, 
but that some was left. They desired that I would en. pure 
after their lands that were left and do them justice. 

Brethren : 

1 am o-lad T have an opportunity, in the presence of so 
nuuiv nations, to express the desire I have of dmng .justice 
to everv one. The throne of the great king is founded on 
iustice'and T should not be a faithful servant to him it 
neglected to give redress to all persons, that have received 
infurK's from the p.'ople over whom the great king has placed 

""'■ I have therefore had a conference with the ^linisinks in 
the presence of some of their uncles, and have come to a lull 
agreement with them, and proceedings of whieli ar.- nou 
ready to be read to you. 

Brethren : . w i 

I have another proof to give you of the uprightness and 

iustice of our province. We have come to an agreement with 

he Delawares and other Indians for the uncertain clainu. 

thev had on the southern parts of our province I lieu bv 

■o^luc' the deeds that have been executed on th- occasion 

hat the subject of them be explained to you, and be lud in 

perpetual remembrance by all the nations present. And I 

e h'e at vou may all remember that, by these two agree- 

mSs he province of New Jersey is entirely tree.l and dis^ 

charged frmu all Indian claims. In contirmation ol ^^h.eh 1 

give vou this belt. 

Easton, 26tli of October, 17.)S. 

Present: His excellency, Governor Bernard. 

* * * * 

Brethren : -, ^ i +hn 

As we have now settled all differences, and continued the 

ancietit leagues of amity and brightened the chain ot Irumd- 



26 Wampum Indiisfrij in Bcrgoi Coioi^ij 



ship, we now clean the blood off yonr conncil seats and pnt 
them in order, that when yon hold conncils at home yon may 
sit in yonr seats with the same peace and trancinillity as yon 
formerly nsed to do. 

A string consisting of a thonsand grains of wampnm. 

Brethren : 

With this string of wampum we condole with yon for 
the loss of your wise men and for the warriors that have been 
killed in these troublesome times, and likewise for your women 
and children, and we cover their graves decently, agreeable 
to the custom of yonr forefatliers. 

A string of a thonsand grains of wampum. 

His excellency, Governor Bernard, produced the follow- 
ing deeds ; * * * One dated 12th September, 1758, and the 
other dated the 23d October instant at Easton, from the chiefs 
of the Munsies, Wapings, Opings or Pomjitons, sixteen in 
number, and including all the remaining lands in Xew Jer- 
sey beginning at Cnshytnnk, and down the division line be- 
tween New Jersey and New York to the mouth of Tappan 
Creek at Hudson River and down the same to Sandy Hook, 
^^g * * * Endorsed by Nimham, a chief of Opings or 
Pomptoms, who was sick at the execution thereof, and ap- 
proved by the Six Nations, which was testified by three of 
their chiefs, signing as witnesses thereto ; and Governor Ber- 
nard desired that all present might take notice of the same 
and rememher that the Indian titles to all tJic lands in New 
Jersey were conveyed by those two deeds (for a valuable con- 
sideration) (such parts only excepted as were reserved for 
the use of those Indians that inclined to live under the pro- 
tection of this government). — SmifJi's Histonj of New Jersey. 

THE BERGEN COUNTY WAMPUM MAKERS. 

In Ireland in 1718 was born William Campbell. In 1785 
he came to Bergen County and settled in Schraalenburgh. He 
married Elizabeth Demarest in 1735. His son John, two 
grandsons, four great grandsons and two or more great- 
great-grandsons became the renowned family of wami)um 
makers. 

The original homestead of Jolm W. Campbell and wife 
Letitia Van Valen, of one hundred acres, was at Pascuck, 25 
miles from New York. They settled there prior to 1775, and 
began the manufacturing of wampnm. When the church 
was built across the road from them in 1812 thev united 



WarHpinti TiKhixinj in B(r(/(H Cotnthj 



27 



witli it and i)i'(>'ent(Hl lialf of the eeiiK^ci-y site. Their liousc 
was of red stone, l)uilt on the beautiful Dutch lines, wilh 
overhanging- roof, in front and rear. 
It was demolished al)0ut 1887. 



WHERE THE WAMPUM WAS MADE. 

While the business was in its infancy it was carried on 
in Ihe liouse, mostly during tlie winter months, as the makt'rs 




il 

1 

1) 


«*— « 


h 

1 









fe • 




aminuu Factory or Mint, Built Late (vO's, Pascack, N. J. 



Warn] 



were also tillers of the soil. The women of the families often 
helped in its manufacture. 

The rapidly increasing business was handicapped by 
their primitive methods, including foot power. 

A change was nuide from the house to the mill by rent- 
ing and fitting out the lower part of an old woolen mill that 
stood on the present site of the electric light plant at Park 
Ridge. Water power was installed, that ran the grnu ing 
and polishing wheels which were re(|uired for all of Iheir 
products. Thev occupied this "Mint" for many years, making 



28 Wampum Industry in Bergen Count}/ 

thousands of dollars' worth of the wainpiiin money within its 
walls, besides the ornaments. The next step in progression 
was to erect a new mint on their own property on the banks 
of the Pascack Creek, a tributary to the Hackensack River. 

This was the last home of the industry, and now lies in 
ruins with the scrap heaps nearby, from which many valuable 
specimens of their work have been recovered, even if they are 
' ' failures, ' ' and are in the Society 's possession on exhibition. 
A center discharge wheel was installed, with other improve- 
ments. The great amount of work recpiiring the pick and 
chisel, grinding and polishing, drilling of holes in beads, 
moons, etc., was carried on in the lower part of the building, 
while the upper part was used for the working out of their 
discoveries, which were kept secret, the results being: "The 




CainiibeH's Wliitt' ^\'alnllul^. 

finest wampum nuule, " the term covering both ornaments and 
money. 

"The interior of a workshop resembled a lime kiln. The 
floors were hidden from sight by great heaps of shells, and 
the rude benches and tools covered entirely with white flying 
dust, as the shells were being ground and drilled, and sug- 
gested the application of innumerable coats of whitewash, 
which, in fact, it really was. ' ' 

The following extracts are from Barber and Howe, 1844: 

THE METH(3D OP MAKING THE WAMPUM MONEY. 

"Wampum, or Indian money, is to the present day 
(1844) made in this county, and sold to the Indian traders of 
the far west. It has been manufactui'ed bv the females in 



Wdinpum I n(h(.'itri/ i)i Px r<jt n Couuiji 29 

this region from very early times for the Indians, and as 
everything connected with this interesting race is destined, 
at no distant period, to exist only in history, we annex a de- 
scrii)tion of the mannfacture. 

"The black wami)nm is made from the thick and bine 
part of sea clam shells, and the white wampnm from the conch 
shell. The process is simple, bnt re(iuires a skill only attained 
by long practice. The intense hardness and brittleness of the 
material render it imj^ossible to produce the ai'ticle by ma- 
chinery alone, it is done by wearing or grinding the sliell. 
The first process is to split off the thin part with a slight 
sharp hannner. Then it is clamped in the sawed crevice of a 
slender stick, held in both hands and gronnd smooth on a 
grindstone, until formed into an eight-sided figure, of about 
an inch in length and nearly half an incli in diameter, when 
it is ready for boring. The shell then is inserted into another 
piece of wood, sawed similarly to the above, but fastened firm- 
ly to a bench of the size of a common stand. One i)art of the 
wood projects over the bench, at the end of which hangs a 
weiglit, causing the sawed orifice to close firndy upon the 
shell inserted on its under side, and to Imld it firmly as in a 
vice, ready for drilling. The drill is nuide from an untem- 
pered handsaw. The operator grinds the drill to a ])roi)er 
shape, and tempers it in the flame of a candle. A rude ring, 
with a groove on its circumference, is put on it; around which 
the operator (seated in front of the fastened shell) curls flu- 
string of a conunon hand bow. The boring conunences by 
nicely adjusting the point of the drill to the center of the 
shell," while the other end is braced against a steel plate, on 
the breast of the operator. About every other sweep of the 
bow, tlu' drill is dexterously drawn out, cleaned of the shelly 
particles by the thund) and fingei', above which drops of water 
from a vessel fall down and cool the drill, which is still kept 
revolving, by the use of the bow with the other hand, tli(> 
same as though it were in the shell. This operation of boi'ing 
is the nmst difficult of all, the peculiar motion of the drdl 
rendering it hard for the breast, yet it is performed with a 
rapidity and grace interesting to witness. Peculiar care is 
observed, lest the shell burst from heat caused by friction. 
When bored halfway, the wampum is reversed, aiul the same 
operation is repeated. The next process is the finishing. A 
wire, about twelve inches long, is fastened at one end to a 
bench. Under and parallel to the wire is a grindstone, fluted 
on its circumference, hung a little out of the center, so as to 
be turned by a treadle moved with the foot. The left hand 
grasps the end of the wire, on which are strung the warn- 



30 



Wampum hidusfri/ in Rcrgoi founfji 



1)11111, and, as it were, wraps the beads around the lioUow or 
fluted eireiunference of the grindstone. While the grind- 
stone is revolving, the beads are held down on to it, and 

turned round by a flat piece 
of wood liekl in the right 
liand, and hy the grinding 
soon becomes round and 
smooth. They are then strung 
on hempen strings, about a 
foot in length. From five to 
ten strings are a day's work 
for a female. They are sold 
to the country merchants for 
twelve and a half cents a 
stimg, always command 
cash, and constitute the su})- 
port of m a n y poor and 
w o r t h y families. ' ' — Bar- 
hcr and Howe. 

To procure the hard 
shell clams to obtain from 
them the "black hearts" to 
make the valuable black vam- 
pum, necessitated a long, te- 
dious trip by rowboat from 
New Milford on the Hacken- 
sack River to Rockaway, 
Long Island, via Newark 
Day. When they returned 
the clams were placed on the 
ground under the trees, and 
the neighbors were invited to 
take all t h e flesh t h e y 
wanted, but to leave the 
shells. These, with the Rock- 
away sand, were carried by 
wagon six miles to Pascack. 
When Washington Market in 
New York ( 'ity was opened 
the thrift of the Campbells 
was shown when they made 
contracts for all the empty clam shells. At stated times 
th<w went by boat to the market and with a small ham- 
mer the black hearts were skillfully broken fi-om each 
shell and placed in barrels. They would return with ten or 




Campbell's Black Waminuu. 



Witnipiiiii 1 11(1 list fji in li( r<i( n ('iniiilii 



;u 



twelve bai'i't'ls at a time. They sold many of the black hearts 
to the farmers" wives and daughters for miles ai'diitid. who 
made the wampum. The Campbells would put chase it fi'om 
them direct oi- througii the country store dealers, who tw- 
chauged merchandise for it, ami with whom the Campbells 
made contracts for all aeipiired. "1 went on many ti-ips with 
my father when a boy," said one of the descendants, '"one 
place being at Schraalenburgh to a general stor(^ kept b\- a 
man named Conklin. "Sly father would often pay him in cash 
as high as $500 for the wampum taken in trade. As tliis is 




Unflnislied Moons (Prom Old Site). 



only one instance as to the financial ]>art of it, it shows some- 
what of the industry that was carried on in the homes." 

Jane Ann Bell, of New Milford, was an ex|)ert and 
worked for seven or eight years about 1850 for the Cam|)i)ells 
in her home. There were many that worked out the blaid<s, 
as the unfinished work was called, the Campbells doing the 
polishing and finishing at the mint. The finding of shell scrap 
heaps around the county is thus explained. John iJross. an 
expert on the black wampum and the last to woi'k for the 
firm, died March, 1917. 

The firm sold the black wampum beads for $5 per thou- 
sand, every string twelve inches long and each string counted 
as fifty. Twenty strings e((ualing 1,000. 



32 



Wcnnpuin ludusirij in Fhrfji n (Uniufij 



The white vvampmn beads were only half the value of 
the black. , 

THE WAMPUM MOONS. 

The conch shells, from which they were made, were 
brought from the West Indian ports as ballast to the New 
York City docks, five and ten thousand at a time and sold to 
the firm. They were loaded on the Ilackensack River sloops 
and taken to New Milford, the head of navigation, then by 
wagon to Pascack. From the decks of the s]ooi)s and dock 




Finished Aluim 



many of the shells were stolen. This accounts for the great 
number found in the old homes and along garden paths. 
After 1858 the shells were transported via the newly opened 
Northern Railroad of New Jersey to Nanuet and from there 
by wagon to Pascack. 

"From the conic centers of the shells the concave disks 
for the moons were made, each set composed of three to five 
disks, ranging in size from one and a half to five inches in 
diameter, the smaller placed in the larger, according to size, 
with the beautiful natural, highly glazed pink and white side 



Wdtnpuin IiKJuslrij in B( rf/cii Count tj :};} 

up, tied together through two hoh'S in each center with tin- 
re(|uii'e(l bright red worsted, the ends h'ft to form a tassel." 

The Indians were very fond of disphiy, and the greater 
their wealth the more they wore of tlie (h^-oi-ations. The 
chief's motive in adornment was to mark individual, tribal 
or ceremonial distinctions."' 

The moons were very popular and were worn mostly as 
we wear breastpins. The wealthy chief having a full set, 
whih' the poor brave had only two or three of the smallei- size, 
whih^ even single ones were worn. (See cut of Indian chief.) 

The cost of the shells could not have been great, as like 
the clam the flesh was eaten and the shell discarded. Near the 
point of the shell will be found a slit, made by the natives 
with an instrument that was used to obtain the flesh from 
within. 

The moons sold for three dollars foi- a flve-pieee set. 

Two dollars for a three-piece set, one dollar and fifty 
cents for one-piece. 

From the concli they also made disks called chief's but- 
tons, that were a little smaller than the snuiUest moon, the 
price being governed by the beauty of the shell. 

Another West Indian shell prepared by the firm for the 
much-sought ornaments was the " Tro(|uoise." This was a 
conical wliite sludl almost uniforndy one and ont^-half inches 
long and at the flare about the thickness of wampum. They 
took their name from the lro(|Uoise Indians who wore them in 
profusion. 

From the conch they also made a large lozened shajx-d 
bead, with a large hole in the center, similar to those found 
in the Indian graves on Iroquois sites. 

"The poi)ular charmed necklace" was composed of about 
twenty sections of white wampum from the conch, alternat- 
ing with twenty shells, the latter being selected for peculiarity 
of formation and tint. 

They treated and polished "red air" and "green aii-" 
shells, bringing out the varied tints and changeable hu(\s. 
These, with the polished mussel shells, wei-e not pi'ofitable and 
were abandoned. 

The use of the ornaments was not alone for sliow. but 
were used in connection with religious ceremonies. 

THE WAMPUM PIPES. 

They were made from the large ridges or ribs on the lips 
of the conch shell, broken out with a i)ick and chisel. The 
five-pound shells were the choice om^s, as they yielded larger 



84 



Wampum Industfij in l>()'</( it Couniti 



pieces for the pipes and niooiis, the remainder being used for 
the white \vanii)niii beads. The pipes were made one and a half 
to six inches long, larger than a lead pencil, tapering from 
center to each end. Bleached with buttermilk and highly pol- 
ished with Rockaway sand and water, they were sold for six 
cents per inch, up to four and a half inches, then eight cents 




Wampum Pipes. 



per inch to six inches. Their special use was as breast plates 
worn next to the body, also over the coats in rows from one to 
four in width. 

They were also called "Hair pipes," and were used to 
ornament the long hair of the Indians by running some of 
tile hair through them and tying them with bright colored 
strings. 

The moons and pii)es ac<|uired a standard value in trad- 
ing among the Indians of the plains. 



Wdinpinn / ii<l iisl ri/ in Ih r(/< ii Coinih 



THE WAMPUM PIPE MACHIXE. 

David and James were the mechanics of the firm, and 
prior to 1850 they invented (not patented) a machine to' drill 
hoh^s throuc^h the h^igth of the pipes. Tt was e(M-tainly an 
ingenions affair, made fi-om the matei-ial at hand. The wood 
work crude, the flywheel a griiulstoiie, the heltiiig heavv 
leathei'. It was always turned l)y luuid, generally hy lli'e 
hoys of the families. Six si)Ools were arranged to* hold the 




A\'iuiii>uiii Pipe Drilling Macliiiie. David :nul .[aiiics ( 'aiii]jl><'ll ' s Iiivcnlion 



hand-nuide drills, of tine steel, like a medium si/ed kinttiiig 
needle, temperd in a candle flame to a cherry heat, then 
dropped in sheep's tallow that had been melted. Oi)posite 
the drills wei'e six jointed arrangements that held Ihe pipes 
that had been ground to the re(|uired form. l>y the use of a 
lever the drills and jiipes were brought together in position 
for the critical task — the holes through the center of the very 
hard shell, Avliere the least change in the line from the ceidcr 
would burst and ruin them. By another lever the ])ipes and 
drills were immersed in water contained in a tank beiiealh 
them, then the power was applied. When the drills had gone 



■A 6 



M^atnpion ludustrij in B< r(j(n Vouniij. 



half through the length of the pipes the inaehine was stopped, 
the lever reversed, withdrawing the drills. The pipes were re- 
versed, the drills set and immersed and the machine set in 
motion again until the holes were through the entire length 
from one and a half to six inches — six of each size. done at one 
time. The art of drilling under water, the use of buttermilk 





^< 


^'i^Ks^l 


H^ 




■ 


M ""**" ' IMV^ 


^^W|l 




iff' 


T^^^^^^H -"^<^^^Pjlp|j| 


p 


, ''^^^^^H^^H|^aHP^*'#J^H 


■■- 


■:/i:=-^^ 





Indian with Wampum Moon and Pipes. 



for softening and bleaching were their discoveries and secrets, 
and with their valuable machine M'ere guarded and kept from 
the public. 

The machine was always kept on the second floor of the 
factory, under lock and key, and to this day the number of 
persons, even of the families interested in the industry, that 
have seen it are few. 

It is through tlie courtesy of Mr. Daniel Campbell, who 



Wdnipiiin 1 11(1 list rii ill H< i-fji II ('oiiiihi. 37 

was a wainpiiui maker, tliat the histoi'v and the privilege of a 
photograph being made of wliat was tlie means of thonsands 
of pipes being well made, si\ at a time, and ([niekly. was 
given. As there was no other machine in existence, the feai- 
of its being copied if seen was the reason for tlie great care 
and secrecy in regard to it. 

TO WHO:\r SOLD. 

The descendants and historians make the statemeiil that 
■■John Jacob Astoi- laid the fonndation of liis great wealth 
through the Campbell's wami)nm." There may be some trnlh 
in the statements, it is found that John Jacob Astoi-, boi-n 
in Germany in 1768, came to this country in 17(S.'{, and was in- 
duced on the voyage to engage in buying furs fi-om the In- 
dians and selling them to dealers. lie learned the details of 
the tra(h" in New Yoi'k with a Quaker furrier, and then l)egan 
business for himself, the i)eriod being about the same as when 
the first Campbell began his wami)um industry. In iSll he 
established a tiioroughly American system of fur trading and 
sent out expeditions to open up intercourse with the Indians 
on the Pacific Coast. Abraham and William, the second gen- 
eration of wampum woi'kers, were expei'ts and did a great 
amount of work for John Jacob Astor. Abraham died in 
1847. 

William was of a roving disposition and not to be (h-- 
l)ende(l on to fill the orders promptly. ^Ir. Astor visited 
Abraham's sons and induced them to fill his orders, and what 
they did not know he would explain to them, and thus tlie 
firm of the four Cam})bell lu'others was started. ^Mi". Astoi- 
died in 1848. 

It would appear that Mr. Astor nuiy have been instrn- 
mental in opening the way for the Campbells" extensive trade 
on the plains and far west that lasted about oO years after 
Mr. Astor 's death. The list of those to whom the wampum 
was sold is : 

John -Jacob Astor. 

P. Cheauteau & Co., Xew York. 

Secter, Price & Co., Philadelphia. ' 

Robert Campbell, Chicago, and 

A firm in Texas. 

United States and Government agents for the Indians. 
The wampum was through them sold to Indiajis of lln' plains 
and the far west. 

Those living nearer did not use it. The business had ils 
fiuctuations, due to the recurrent upiisings, and until peace 



38 M''a>npinn htdusirji in Bergen (k>uniri. 

was restored almost ceased, causing the firm much anxiety as 
to the outcome. Large orders would indicate business was 
restored, and to fill them promptly they would visit the 
country merchants and buy at low figures their stock that had 
been considerd ' ' dead. ' ' 

The day of wampum money began to decline about the 
year 1830. The moons, pipes and other ornaments were in 
demand for many years after, until the Government gave the 
Black Hills Reservation to the Indians ; this, and the death 
of Abraham in 1899, the last of the firm of "four brothers," 
put an end to this extensive business that, in the long period 
of time by four generations of one name, in output and wide 
distribution, exceeds any other industry in Bergen County. 

There is no question that wam])um was made in the 
county at an early period by the settlers who learned to make 
it from the Indians. In 1916 there was a Colonial site found. 
Tradition says "furs were traded for wampum there in 1750." 
Manuscripts speak of it in 1764. Over 4,000 scraps of beads 
were found on it. The site is on an Indian trail from the 
Ponds, via Sicamac to Hackensack, and near a large Indian 
burial ground. 

Credit is given to the following descendants of the wam- 
pum makers and others for assistance : 

Alonzo Campbell, Park Ridge. 

Daniel Campbell, Woodcliff Lake. 

Luther A. Campbell, of Hackensack, now Circuit C^ourt 
Judge, and Nicholas 1). Campbell, an attorney and counsellor 
at law of Hackensack, both sons of Abraham D. Campbell, de- 
ceased, once prosecutor of the Common Pleas of Bergen 
County. 

Neamiah Vreeland, Paterson. 

E. K. Bird and Clyde Hay, of Hackensack. 

Mrs. Harrv Bennett, Teaneck. 



PUBLK! SCHOOLS OF IIAKRIXGTOX TOWXSIIIP. 

Papei- read by ]\Iatt. J. liogcrt, of Demaivst, X. J., Presi- 
dent of the Harrington Township Poard of Education, at the 
opening of the new public school buihling at Closter, X. J., 
June, li)01. Paper has been revised by Mr. l')0gert to August 
1. liH7. 



When it was first suggested that it wouhl lend foi-iiudity 
to this occasion to have the Poartl of Education give some of 
the causes that led up to the erection of this buihling, and as 
representing the board it would fall to my lot to present that 
part of it, I gave little attention how far back in the past 
such a train of thought might be carried, but on taking it up 
I found one thought led to another, initil 1 conchuhMl it 
might be interesting to this amlience to go back about eighty 
years, ami bring to your attention the advancement tluit lias 
been made in public school education in the townshii) dui-ing 
that period. 

In si)eaking of Harrington Townshi}), we will deal only 
witii that section known to-day as Harrington Township, 
leaving out the "Porough of old Tappan" and othei- terri- 
tory formerly comprising the towaiship of Hari-ington. We 
would also uu^ntion that for many of the early facts and in- 
cidents 1 am al)Out to bi'ing before you, we are under obli- 
gations to some of our oldest and most esteemed citizens and 
neighbors. 1 would particularly mention Mr. Abram C. Eck- 
erson, of Harrington Park; Mr. Garret Z. Demarest, of Dem- 
arest, and Mr. Garret J. Aurayanson, of (Uoster. 

About the year 1820 there were four sciiool buildings 
in the townshi}), situated as follows: One at Gloster. about 
where the white cottage of Mr. Harvey Waddam (now John 
W. Ver Valen) now stands; one on the west side of the old 
Closter road, a little way south of the road leading to Mr. 
Earl Ferdon's, nearly opposite the Es(|uii-e Taylor's (now 
the Lewis place, al)0ut one-quarter mile southerly of Mr. F. 
M. Dyer) place; one at Demarest, at the turn in the main 
road a short distance south of Mr. Garret Z. Demarest 's (now 
Dr. A. W. Ward), and another at the corner of the Schraalen- 
burg road aiul the road leading to Demarest. The first three 
were built of stone, the last one of fram<\ You will notice 
the locations were not very convenient to scholars living at 
what is now called Norwood, Northvale and Alpine. 

The buildings at old Closter and Closter were abandone.l 
about 18:}0, and a frame building erected on the east side of 



40 Public ScJiooIs of Harrington ToH'ii>liij>. 



the oUl Closter road, a short distance south of the present 
school building at old Closter. 

About 1885 a frame building was built at Harrington 
Park, near where the Pumping Station on the West Shore 
Railroad now stands. This building was afterward moved 
to Norwood at the corner of the Tappan road and the road 
leading to Closter, opposite to Mr. Jacob jNIills, and when in 
later years it was replaced by a more modern building, it was 
again moved across the road to Mr. Mills' place, where it is 
still in existence and can be seen by any one having suf- 
ficient curiosity to compare the past with the present.* 

The frame buildings were generally painted red, so this 
period can well be called the period of the little Red School- 
house. 

The old stone building at Demarest was occupied for 
school purposes until about 1850. 

In this building 1 couunenced my school days. There is 
one incident connected with my first day at school that I 
always recall with pleasant memories of my teacher. His 
name was "Roberts." It M'as a warm day in May or June. 
I had very little or nothing to do after I had said my little 
lesson (primary teachers will note that thei'e was no busy 
work in those days), and toward the middle of the afternoon 
the teacher must have noticed my inclination to take a nap, 
so he kindly allowed me to stretch out on the broad bench, 
made a pillow of something for my head, placed his red silk 
handkerchief over my face to protect me from the flies, and 
I had a good, sound nap the rest of the afternoon, and got 
awake to go home with the other scholars at the close of 
school. Quite ditferent from the kindergarten methods of 
to-day, but still in one respect somewiuit similar, that is, 
to obtain the friendship and good will of the young be- 
ginner. 

These early buildings were all built very much on the 
same plan ; about 25 feet square, no hall, the door opened 
directly into the classroom ; two or three small windows in 
each of the two sides; a continuous desk, fastened against 
the side of the l)uilding, extended along th(^ two sides of the 
room. This desk consisted of a shelf about 30 inches wide, 
which inclined towards the scholars, who sat on benches that 
ran the whole length of the desk. The benches were broad 
slabs, 20 or more inches broad, supported on each end by two 
stout legs. The tops, through constant use, were worn to 
about a piano finish in smoothness. There were similar but 

*-A>iout 1838 a frame Imildiiit; was erected at Alpine, very iie.ir (o wiiei"'. 
the liuildinK known as tlie old schoolhonse now stands. 



I'lihlir Schools of H arriii(jloii Totrnship. 41 

smaller benches in the l.ody of the nM.in for 1h,- nsr ..f the 

smaller scholars. 

At the oi)i)Osite en.l of the room I rom Ihe .l()or was a 
s.uall teacher-s .lesk, at which sat the stern .lise.p Inianan 
vm the proverbial l>irch or hickory rocl close at hand I Ins 
'od was generally of pretty good length, .0 he con d chas ise 
at sone distance! 1 recollect being told that one nne w e 
the teacher ^vas chastising a scholar he accidenlally <, 
s'verelv struck the next scholar, for which he was v.m-> so. > 
nd dulv apologized, and that closed the incident. II wonh 
s-n that corporal punishment was a part of he course o 
I V in those days 'and not, as now very «trie ly prohi^^ted 
'iJefore stoves came into use, which was about LS-^O th. 
,,„,,dino^ were heated by great open fireplaces m which large 

^""" if was also lH.fo,v tl vs of ha-f.- .aat,-!,,., so tlu- 

«,.esi;a;t:^.eo,...,iy.;;.^;.a^..«;-:-;;-M;;;;- 

l\°r:ii:h^';ap;::t;° ,:^e'ofte; .s:5n,e „.„. i,aa u, .. . .„. 

TaVvst hous. for a sKov.lful o''"'?'":: t. ^,1 I o lu. s«,.,.|.- 

^^^^,!.«:;;;:r;ri;;'?;;^e:i;iVsSl"^a^=^^^ 

1 lie ai It ii(uiin-< 111 1 ^,„ .w> miiiimei 

ablv mo,r in wint.T than .., »»'"'7'\^«>;;,f° *^,;:' ,"', 'i,l.,| 
and 30 to 40 in -.vint.r.at .-ac . f*""';,," ';,„;, |„.|a 
into fonr Mnsvters of 65 «■'»» ''"^^ ,;;,'•';,•',':', olii.lays no,- 

1- -rri' ::^ra*'^ri^::i^»' -™^ ^ 

*"'xcne of these early sel.ools were f, The seholars were 

^" "^;;td!^S of teaehers varied -"-'f ^ .lll-V^^^f;" 
localities, son.e of the t^"'''-'" {^^I'.'.V^ ■• . ' the M-hol- 

eaeh ,lay a -'«"-,?'.?-;";;';„:': 'it was ealh.l a, that 
ars. ir'viTiK troni +1..>0 (1- ^"■"'"t, •.,.., „rre p;n.l a reuu- 
tiinel to >t-:K.0 per onerter. ami '•*'l' " ' ^ , „,„,|' n,,, is. the 

ls;:S,:L;fifr;5£;S s- " 

the school teacher a week oi two in 



42 Public ScJtools of Harrington Township. 

This had one advantage over the present system. It en- 
abled the teacher to get aeciuainted with the parents of the 
children, something which is qnite neglected in these days, 
very often to the detriment of all concerned. 

When paid a regular salary it was raised by apportioning 
it among the scholars. Those most advanced paying more 
than the beginners. 

There were no blackboards and no school bells. The 
scholars were called to their duties by the teacher rapj^ing on 
the window or against the side of the door casing with a 
book or large flat ruler. 

The school hours were 9 to 12 and 1 to 4. Xo forenoon 
or afternoon recesses. 

The principal studies were reading, writing and arith- 
metic, or, as they have been called, the three R's — reading, 
riting, rithmetic ; and a scholar who could figure as far as 
proportion, or "Rule of 8," as it was then called, was con- 
sidered a very apt scholai". A part of arithmetic that would 
seem rather odd to our scholars of to-day was that in all ex- 
amples pertaining to money, it was not dollars and cents, 
but pounds, shillings and pence ; and, in one respect, in these 
days of extended commercial relations with other lands, it 
might be a good idea to give foreign money a little more at- 
tention, particularly so in the reckoning of ])ercentage and 
interest. 1 wonder if our graduating classes of to-day can 
(|uickly figure a discount of 4 per cent, or interest at 5 per 
cent, on a bill of goods made out in pounds, shillings and 
pence or in francs and centimes. These are not improper 
<|uestions for many a bookkeeper of to-day. 

Our public schools became absolutely free schools in 
1867. Before that date the school doors were open only to 
those who were willing to pay for their education. Their be- 
ing made free, gave the people an interest in public school 
education never realized before. The law of 1866 gave us a 
State iJoard of Education. 

Before that date there was no uniform course of study 
and each teacher decided what the studies should be for his 
or her particular school. The conse(|uence was that in a 
school where the teacher had a fad for mathematics, you 
would find the scholars very much advanced in that particu- 
lar study at the expense of being behind in other studies. 
Another teacher might prefer some other special study; there 
being no particular head, there was no uniformity in the ad- 
vancement of the scholars, but when a uniform and systematic 
coui'se of study was worked out all this was changed, and now 
scholars can change from one school to another in the town- 



Public Schools of Harrington Township 48 

ship and practically in tlie county, and continue right along 
in tlic same studies. This is certainly a great gain. 

Our first county superintendent was appointed in 1SG7. 
Our present county superintendent issued his first course of 
study in 1887 and covered a course of nine years" work. 
Previous to 1894 the scholars had to furnish their own books 
and supplies, but the law of that year obliged the lioard of 
Education to furnish everything. Tlie present uniform 
course of study was approved in 1895, and. together with llie 
uniformity in text-books and supervision generally, has done 
more for our county than anything else. 

Some years ago, about the time our County Supei-inten- 
dent began to systematize the grades of study, putting all the 
schools in the county on the same basis, one of our teachei-s 
sail! to me that the County Sui)erintendent was asking for 
too much work in a given time, and that it would be imi)ossi- 
ble to do it. That what he laid out for foui- years woukl take 
at least five. 1 told him if teachers in other parts of the county 
could do it, we could do it, and that he could do no more 
than ti'y, on the systematic plan of dividing up the work. 
that is, a certain amount of work to be accomplished in a 
certain length of time. 

The result was that he found he could accomplisli the 
whole course in the prescribed time and to S]>are. So lliis 
eventually led to our looking up what could he doiu' 1o kec]) 
our children in school two or three years longer instead of 
exhausting our course of study at 14 years of age, and caused 
us to recommend the ninth and tenth grades in our town- 
ship. These grades being the first two of the four years' i)re- 
pai-atory college course, and I trust the time is not far dis- 
tant when the public schools of our township will add the 
11th and 12th grades, thereby giving our scholai's a full pre- 
paratory course, entitling them to admission to college. This 
gaining of time has been accomplished only by system, and 
working on a systematized course of study. 

In 1897 tlie State ordered the County Superintendent 
to make uniform rules for promotion from grade to grade 
and for final graduation. In this res])ect too nnieh |)raise 
cannot be given to our worthy County Superintendent. .Mr. 
John Terhune, for his untiring fidelity to the cause of public 
school education. Most of the present systematized work ni 
all its branches and also the matter of sehool libra i-ies, not 
only for the children, but also for teachei's, has been brought 
about through his endeavors. 

But as he is present with us this evening he may tell you 
something about the position r>ergen County holds in this 
respect. 



44 Fublic Schools of Ilarringloii Township. 

In about 1852 this township was divided into four school 
districts, as follows : 

Closter, Tappan, Old Closter and Alpine. 

The Closter district consisted of what is now Closter, 
Deniarest, Haworth and a part of Alpine. 

The Tappan district consisted of what is now Norwood, 
Northvale and Harrington Park. 

The Alpine and Old Closter districts were substantially 
as they are to-day. 

The school building for the Closter district was at Deni- 
arest, the same building as is now known as the "old school- 
house," now the Catholic Church, and was built in 1852. 

The school census for Closter district in 1856 (including 
Demarest and Haworth), was 88 children. The building at 
Demarest answered for this entire section until 1871, when 
the Closter district was formed and the brick school at Closter 
was erected. A sumll i)art of the distrid vvas ap])ortioned 
to Alpine in 1868. 

Between 1855 and 1860 Tappan, Old Closter and Alpine 
erected school buildings similar to the one at Deniarest, and 
at that time they were considered thoroughly modern and 
"up to date." 

The building at Tappan, now Norwood, occupied the site 
of the little red schoolhouse on the corner of Tappan road and 
the road leading to Closter, and was used by the entire dis- 
trict (Norwood, Northvale and Harrington Park) until 1893. 
Tt was abandoned in 1898 and moved to near Noj-wood depn. 
where it is still in use for other purposes. 

The building at Alpine still stands where erected in 1857, 
but it has not been used for school purposes since 1898. 

The district of Northvale was formed and its ])resent 
building erected in 1898 and enlarged in 1898. 

The Haworth district was formed and building erected 
in 1898. 

The building at Old Closter is still in use where erected 
in 1855, but enlarged and modernized. The present school 
buildings at Norwood and Alpine were erected in 1898. The 
one at Demarest in 1894, the one at Harrington Park in 1900. 

For the sake of comparison it may be interesting to 
group some of the statistics I have mentioned in j)eriods of 
(juarter centuries, beginning with 1825, but in doing this to 
recollect that of the four schools in the township in 1825, two 
of them stood very close to the southern boundai-v of the 
townshiji and were patronized by many children from our 
neighboring township. T refer to the stone school building 
that stood just Ix'low Demarest and the frame building corner 
of Schraaleiiburgh Road and Hardenburgh Avenue. 1 un- 



I'lihlic Schodls of Il(ifriii(jl<)ii Toiniship. 45 

derstaiid that the one at Demafest was atlciidcd hy clnldrcii 
residing as far south as Teiiatiy. 

The I'ecord wouhl stand ahout as follows: 

iJuildiiigs Teachers Scholars 

1825 4 4 125 

1850 5 5 200 

1875 5 6 400 

At i)ivst'id 9 li) 550 

This inehides this huildiny', which was authorized hy the 
township meeting of August 2!)th, IS!)!). 

I have tried in a crude and limited way to give you 
some idea of the advancenu^nt of i)uhlie school education in 
this township during the last 75 or SO years. The advance- 
ment of the last few years has only l)een iiuule |)ossil)!e hy 
working on a systematic plan as provided for hy our reccut 
laws on this subject. But the work has been still more aided 
l)y the taxpayers sustaining those having the uuuuigement of 
school atfairs and l)y their libei'al approi)riations fi'om year 
to year, although there may hp i)ersons who say tlu'.t our 
forefathei's did wry well on their limited system of educa- 
tion and that our system is not worth what it is costing us. 
Well, our forefatliers got along very well without a great 
many othei- things that we now consider necessaries, i'or 
instance, railroads, tht^ telegraph, telephones and the modei'ii 
printing press. 

We certaiidy cannot atfortl to economize on the education 
of our children, and so prevent them fully en.ioying and ap 
pi-eciating the advancement which we know is takimj;' u\-\iv 
all along the line of the age in which we live. 

It therefore behooves us to be up and doing if we arc li> 
ket^p oui" |)]ace in the march of advanced education. Ii i.> 
not l(uig ago that a college education was considei-cd some- 
thing <(uite b(\vond the attainment of the ordinaiy public 
school scholars, but tiie gap is being lessened vci'y rapidl.w so 
that even now we can tell the graduating class of "01. to 
whom it is our pleasure to i)resent diplonuis this e\(nnig 
that you are only two years from being able to present your- 
selves for admission to any of the best colleges in oui- land. 

Now it is our i)rivilege to know what has been done in 
the past, and as we to-night dedicate this l)uilding in all its 
solidity to the cause of j)ublic education, it is oui- sincere luype 
and trust that as we of this day and generation have sti'ixcn 
to keep up with the march of progress, so may future genera 
tions continue to advance, and Harrington Township will 
then always be, as we think she now is, in the front ra?;'cs of 
all that i)ertains to nuddng hei' public schools among the b(;si- 
in the land. 



ALLISON PRIZE COMPOSITIONS. 



At the animal meeting of the Society in 1916 Mr. W. 0. 
Allison, of Englewood, placed the sum of $100 at the dis- 
posal of the Society to be used as prizes for historical essays 
by attendants of the schools of northeastern New Jersey. 

On the afternoon of March 30th, 1917, the connnittee as- 
sembled at the Closter High School to award these prizes. 
After singing the National Anthem by the school, Mr. 
C. V. R. Bogert explained the object of our visit. Mrs. 
F. A. Westervelt spoke upon "Scrap of History," using 
wampum to illustrate. Miss S. F. Watt spoke about the 
"School Spirit" foiuid in the compositions. Mr. Howard 
B. Goetschius gave a rousing pati'iotic address, end- 
ing wdth a re<|uest that the scholars try to locate the 
"l^oundary Stones" on the State Line. Dr. Van Horn talked 
about local history. The prizes were awarded by Mr. M. J. 
Bogert. There were twenty-nine compositions, fifteen of 
which were selected as prize winners, over 50 per cent. 

In behalf of the prize winners the following speech was 
delivered by Master Lathrop Vermilye. 

Also the following letter : 

S. F. Watt. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, representing the Historical Associa- 
tion of Bergen County : 

In behalf of the prize winners and of the schools included 
ill the contest held by your association, I wish to tluuik you 
for your generous awards. 

The contest aroused our interest in the past events of this 
section, and we began to realize that our local history was as 
interesting and worthy of our attention as that of Massachu- 
setts or Virginia. 

We hope that we are not the only ones who have been 
benefitted by the contest, and that in the papers submitted you 
have found some facts which may be of value to your associa- 
tion. 

Closter, N. J., March 23, 1917. 

To All Who Have Helped Us: 

The contestants of the Closter Public School wish to thank 
their friends for their kindness in giving us the information 



Allison I'riz( ('ontp()silii>)is. 47 



which led to our winning twelve of the fifteen prizes given by 
the Bergen County Historical Association. 

We feel indebted to you for having given so much of 
nur time, but we have gained much information, iind we will 
take pleasure in passing it on to others. 

Yours truly, 

Closter Public Schooi,. 

The following excerpts are from the papers subuiilled. 
The accuracy of some of which the Publication Co.nnnttee 
has not been able to confirm : 

DERIVATION OF XAIMES. 

Alpine was named by Miss Evelyn XordhotV. be.-ause its 
scenery resembled Swit/An-land. 

Palisades was called Closter Mountain. 

Kino- George gave Oount Henry Closter, or Ixlas er. a 
o..an 0^2,000 ^res, exteiulmg from the Hudson to the lae - 
en'ack He was killed by Indians. In 1886 two English sea- 
? ring'men named Oloster, descendants of this man, came lu.v 
wi^li Tleeds and claimed the land. The papers were legal, but 
tbev lacked monev to establish then' claim. 

■ aostev moans cloister or convent. The conv.-nt hm-„,.,l 

'^""■"iuU^Ferrv «-as n.,,,,.-.! affr a fan,il.v by the na.ne of 
Bnll Mi» I'-nU ."a,h. pancakes in.partially for Cornwalhs 

^"•' Ital.'^l'Zn.Un, .as nan.ed fro,,, the Snedcn fa,,,,:,.-, 
uany of whom live there. 

NAME^^. MEANING OF. 
Hoboken— Hacking-Land of the tobacco pipe. 
Tappaii— On top of a hill. 
Hackensack— Low land. 
Bergen-op-Zoom — Hwampland. 
Tenaflv— Sweet flag in the meadows. 
CresskiU-Brook through Low Country lull <.t • n sm s. 

ROADS. 

(Foster Dock Road follows the lead of ^"' J-';^;^^''^,,! 

IHS3:SSS;?'^t;:t,. 



48 AlUson Prize ('omposifionf;. 

Closter Dock, New Dock (also called Iluyler's Landing) and 
the Tenafly stage. In 1858 the railroad was built to Pier- 
mount Pier, where boat could be taken to the city. 

To the north of Alpine Dock there is an old road to a 
plateau, formerly called Cape Fly-Away, where some of the 
descendants of the oldest inhabitants live. 

The road to Utter 's Dock: The Continental Road was 
used by Cornwallis and Washington. Tt was then almost 
straight up the hill and very steep. It was not used for 
wagons, but sleds were drawn by ox teams. In 1803 a sur- 
vey was made and the road changed and built new. In 1840, 
1854 and 1857 other surveys were made, from which the 
present road was built. In 1866 Hillside Road was ojiened 
to Cresskill. 

The oldest road in Harrington Township is the »Schraal- 
enburg Road, once called The King's Highway, now Wash- 
ington Avenue. 

Rockland Road ran from Xyack to Jersey City. 

TRANSPORTATION OR MODES OF TRAVEL. 

The products were sent by sloop from Closter Dock to 
New York. Trip : One week. 

John J. Johnson established and operated a stage line 
between Pascack, now Park Ridge, and Closter. Ii] 1858 the 
Northern Railroad was opened. 

They gathered strawberries and put them into tiny splint 
baskets with handles, holding about a pint. Fifty of these 
baskets were hung on a stick, and two persons cari'ied two 
such sticks away down to the ferry at Closter Dock. 

BOUNDARIES. 

Mr. Ludlow, one of the early settlers, dug a ditch for his 
boundary line, and it is so still used. 

WAMPUM. 

Most of the land was bought from the Indiajis for wam- 
pum. Wampum was Indian money. It was made fron^ lli«' 
blue part of sea-clam shells. Among the whites wampum was 
freely used and passed current anywhere. 

INDUSTRIES. 

Closter was an old trading town. The chief occupation 
of the early settlers was farming. Qinte a trade in pig iron 
was carried on with the iron works at Ramapo. Money was 



Allison Prize Coti)positio)is. 49 

not plentiful, so groceries wei"e ('xcliaiiti'''! for \)\'^ irmi. wliic'i 
was shipped to New York. 

In Montvale there was fouiid some iiiii('liiiicr>- wliidi iis- 
dieated lliat there lind been a hi-ickyai'd. 

TAVERNS. 

Dowie TahMiia, eorner Alpine and Old Closler Ivoads. 

The Ohl Jug, near Lafayette's Camp, between N(M-wo()d 
and H. Pai-k. 

When Washing-ton came thi'ough Closlei-. on liis retreat 
from White Plains, he stopped at tlie White St;ir Hotel. It i.>> 
said this hotel still stands, only llu' I'oof has l)een i-eiiewed, 
and is oecui)ied by tht^ family of Mr. Van Seiver. 

Corner called "Tlu' Hookies." 

In 1758 one David Henion, of Saddh' Rivcv Precinct, was 
allowed to open a i)ublic house on giving hoiuls in twenty 
pounds that it would be a (piiet and oi'derly i)lace. 

INDIANS. 

The Indians raised maise on small patches of cleared 
land. l"'(ir fertilizer they used tlsh, putting one or two in 
each hill. Several of these cleared patches may still be seen 
in Alpine near Rucknian"s Point. They were called "mais- 
lands" by the Dutch. The Indians picked strawberi'ies and 
sold theiii to the settlers. The chief Indian settlement was at 
Norwood, another at (_)ld Tappan. Near the creek, beliin.l 
the house of Fred Eckerson, they are sui)posed to have bad 
a village. An Indian ti-ail extended from the Hudson River 
up the Alpine, or Old Dock Road, through the M. S. I'.ogert 
property, now the Van Valen and Lincoln pi-operty. along 
the south line of Closter Public School to the Ilackensack 
River. 

The last Indian seen in Closter lived in a tent by the puie 
tree near the Clam Bake Woods. One day he disappeared, 
and no one ever knew what became of him. The only d.- 
scendants of the Hackensacky Indians are a few halfd)i-ee(ls 
living in the Ramapo ^Mountains. 

NEGRO. 

Piergen County had more slaves than any other county ui 
New Jersev. Sonie of the slave owners were the Ferdoiis, 
ancestors of Mavor Warren Ferdon, and the Naugles, ances- 
tors of Mr. David Naugle. In Norwood thei-e is a field owned 
by Mr. F. M. Dyer, in wdiich some of the Fei'don slaves are 



50 Allison Prize Compositions. 

bui'ied. After the Civil War many of the freed slaves settled 
on the Palisades. The ruins of this settlement are still in ex- 
istence about a mile north of Indian Head Point. Lilacs, 
which the slaves planted on this settlement, still bloom, and 
are often picked by explorers. 

FIRST HOUSES. 

The oldest house in Bergen County is still standing and 
is occupied. It is on the County Road. This old stone house 
was ransacked twice by Tories, and was used by Lafayette for 
a hospital. Later the Naugles lived here, the Naugle who 
found Andre's cane. This stone house replaced a log cabin. 

Auryanson's blacksmith shop, 1720. 

House owned by William MacBain, l)uilt 17-10, low ceil- 
ings and open beams. 

J. P. B. Westervelt's house at Cresskill. 

SCHOOLS. 

The oldest schoolhouse in the township, of which we have 
any account, stood on the lot owned by Mrs. Eliza Campbell 
and Albert Anderson. It was a stone structure one story 
high, with two rooms, one for the school, the other a dwelling 
place for the teacher. The school was built by subscription. 
The land was given by Abraham Ackerman, on condition it 
should always be used as a school lot. Conveyances of land 
adjoining this lot by the Ver Valen descendants about 1830 
mention it in boundaries as the "School Lot." The deed 
was written in Dutch and was never recorded. 

About 1858 a sjjecial act was passed by the Legislatui-e 
authorizing the trustees of Closter, Demarest and others to 
sell the schoolhouses and sueli lots as they had title for, and 
appropriate the money towai'ds b\iihling a new schoolhouse. 
The Closter and Schraalenburg schools were sold and a school 
built at Demarest. 

The first teacher of whom we have any account was Ben- 
jamin Blackledge, grandfather of James P. Blackledge, of 
Closter. It is said he was the first teacher of English in 
Bergen County. He taught both English and Dutch. In 
1764 he came from Elizabeth Town to Closter, on foot, to 
teach school. 

The first schoolhouse in Demarest stood upon the land of 
Samuel R. Demarest. It was twenty-two feet square, with 
one room. This school was supported by rate bills and the 
teacher "boarded round." The next school, about one-(|uar- 



AUisoit Prise Composilidns. 51 



ter mile westerly of the depot, hecaine notorious beeause a 
band of I'obbers stored their i)lnnder in th(^ loft. 

Thei-e have been three school bnildings at Alpine. The 
fii'st was known as the Closter Monntain School. 

Rp]V()LUT10XARY SITES. 

The British soldiers had an encampment on tlie ontskii-ts 
of Closter. It is snpposed to have been on the east side of tiie 
County Road, a short distance north of Ruckinan's Road. 
The Americans held the swamp lands that are now the vil- 
lage of Clostei-. There is an old stone house on the Closter 
Road which was looted three tiuK^s by the Tories. The sec- 
ond time they looted it they took a wagon load of provisions. 
They got as far as the bridge that is now the dividing line 
between Closter and Norwood, when the Americans fired on 
them, causing them to leave their booty and flee. 

This house was also attacked by Indians, who left toma- 
hawk cuts on the doors and windows. It was also used l)y 
General Lafayette as a liospital. A few of their graves may 
be found in a corner of a field owned by Mr. Wm. MaclJain. 

1 British coin are found here which jiroves the location. I 
found two old ones last year. 

This field adjoins the Old Cemetery, which may be seen 
from the Ruekmau Road. 

On the County Road opposite the i-esidence of ]\Ii-. David 
Wark, and on the proi)erty of Mr. Tully, may be seen the 
ruins of an old stone blacksmith shop. Before and aftei' the 
Revolutionary War this shoj) was one of the gathei'ing i)laces 
of tile neighborhood. Washington is said to havi^ had his 
horse shod here when on his way to his head(|uarters at Old 
Tappau. Owned by Mr. William MacBain. 

The stone part of the MacBain house was ])nilt in 1740, 
roughly hewn, massive beams of oak support the ceilings. The 
barn on this place, now torn down, was built in 1720, and was 
used as the comnuuiity blacksmith shop. In place of nails 
the rafters and beams were riveted together by hai'd oak pegs, 
varying in length and thickness. 

American camp on a sand pit on Counly Koad in Demai'- 
est House of J. P. B. Westervelt, stood in lime of lu'voint ion. 
Washington at home of Mrs. MytM-hoff. The stone pari of 
this house is 200 years old. 

EARLY SETTLERS. 

Barent and Resolvent Xaugle, on Api'il 10, 1.10, boi!,ilit 
of Captain Symes 1,080 acres of land nortlieast of Closi."' for 



52 Alliso)! Prize Compositions. 

225 pounds. The two brothers cleared and tilled portions of 
their tract jointly, and built each his family residence on 
what is now^ called the "Rockland Road." Resolvent joined 
the Hackensack Dutch Church, and Barent the church at 
Tappan. A few years before their deaths they divided their 
original purchase between them, Barent taking the north half 
and Resolvent the south half. 1748. 

The first Jordan came from France with Lafayette. 

David and Cornelius H. Tallman, Isaac J. Meyers, Mar- 
tin Powliss, Walter Pearsalls and Ver Valens, Hendrl :k Cei- 
mer, Mathias and Jacob Conklin, John Reyken, Abram 
Abrams-Haring, Tennis Van Houten, Johannes H. Blauvelt, 
Cornelius Smith, Jonathan Lawrence, Nicholas Ackerman, 
William Campbell and Jacob Van Weart, William Jayox Du 
Bois, 0. Casine. 

Cresskill — Colonel Jacobus Van Courtlandt, Captain Jolm 
Huyler, Johannes Rolofse Westervelt, Samuel Peters Dem- 
arest, Barent Jacobus Cole, Peter Mathews Bogert. 

Closter — Balthazer de Hart, Matthew M. Bogert, Peter 
M. Bogert, Lancaster Symes, Barent and Resolvent Nan pie, 
Henry Ludlow, Wilhelmus and John H. Ferdon, 1748 ; Demar- 
ests, Auryansens, Zabriskies. 

Tappan — Dr. Lockhardt, Daniel de Clark, Peter .1. Har- 
ing, Jan Peterson de Vries. 

Sneden's Landing — About 1740 John Sneden l)ought of 
Henry Ludlow a large farm at what is now Sneden's Land- 
ing. This farm was partly in Bergen County, N. J., and 
partly in Rockland County, N. Y. His descendants are still 
nunun-ous in northern Bergen County. 

John Haring, school teacher and lawyer, who lived in 
Tappan, was a delegate to the First Continental Congress. 

ANDRE'S CANE. 

The following is on the authority of Mr. David Naugle, 
of Closter : 

An English officer, who came for Andre's belongings, 
was driven from Tappan to Sneden's Landing by a slave of 
Mr. David Naugle. Andre's cane was left in the wagon and 
has been in the possession of Mr. Naugle 's descendants until 
lately, when it was lost. It was a riding cane, made of raw- 
hide, with his name and the British coat-of-arms on it. It 
had a horn handle and a gold plate. Andre's sister stopped 
at a house on Blanch Avenue. A few old willow trees mark 
the place where it stood. 



AUiso)i Prize Coinposiiions. 53 



MILLS. 

About a (iiiarter oi' a mile \v(^st of Lafayette's liospiinl 
there used to be a iiiill in wbich the fanner's g-raiii was 
ground and paid for in tiour. Mr. David Naugle ran this 
mill for many years. 

The grist mill at Demarest M'as burned by the British. 

The mill at Ilaworth, owned by the Durie family, was 
run by Albert Zabrisky. I>ogert's Mill was at Harr'inglon 
Park. At Upper Closter was J. float's sawmill. At Ander- 
son Avenue and County Road thei-e was a mill for making 
fence posts. 

On the County Road, about midway between Demarest 
and Cresskill, there is the ruins of a saw^ and grist mill, owned 
in Revolutionary days by Patriot Samuel Demarest. The 
mill stood on the south bank of a small stream, which was 
dannned to provide water power for the undersliot wheel. 
Not far from the opposite bank stood the miller's home, whei-e 
he lived with his Avife and two sons, Cornelius and Ilaneomb 
or Hendriek. 

On ]\Iay 10, 1779, Van Buskirk's corps landed at Closter 
Dock and proceeded to plunder and destroy houses and barns. 
Beside this mill they killed Cornelius Demarest, wounded his 
brother Hendriek and carried off Miller Demarest, after firing 
the mill and barn. Tiie buildings were only partly bui'ned. 

While the marauders wtM-e returning to theii' boats at 
Closter Dock with their l)00ty and i)risonei's, Samuel Demar- 
est escaped. He fled toward the south, and finding himself 
closely pursued, he dropi)ed over the edge of the Palisades 
into a ravine. His thi'ee pursuei's followed his example and 
plunged headlong to their death, four hundred feet below. 

CEMETERIES. 

At Norwood — North Hook Cemetery stands on the ]->rop- 
erty of F. ^Monroe Dyer. It was used as ajmrial ground for 
the slaves of Wilhelmus Ferdon. 

On the property of Mr. MacBain, near the Stale Road, 
is another old cemetery containing British soldiers' graves. _ 

One cemetery on the State Road at Demarest, another is 
in Alpine and several in Harrington Pai'k, and one on Ruck- 
man Road. Not many of the stones are standing, but a few 
mav be seen. 

At Englewood— An underclifiP settlement aiul cemetery. 



54 Allison Prize Compositions. 

A SILENT RECORD OF THE PAST. 

While wandering around I came across a place of rest 
by tlie roadside, ^vei'grown with wild vines ^nd Joushes, a sort 
of barrier for the protection of those who have been laid at 
rest until the final day. Being of a curious mind, I trod care- 
fully among the graves and looked down on the graven rec- 
ords of the pioneers and their descendants of this locality. It 
was certainly more than interesting to note and try to read 
some of these old epitaphs. Among the oldest I could lind 
was : 

In memory of Leonard De Graw, born Sept. 5, 1721. De- 
parted this life March 2, 1814, aged 92 yrs. 5 months and 25 d 

This cemetery is on the Blauvelt estate. It was for the 
Blauvelt family. In the northeast corner is a burial pbce for 
negroes. 

All the old tombstones are of red sandstone, which was 
probably quarried between Piermont and Nyack. Some of 
them were so old that they would almost fall apart at the least 
touch. This cemetery lies on Schraalenburg Road in Har- 
rington Park. 



OBITUARY. 

Andrew Demarest Bogert. 
Andrew Demarest Piogert, one of the oldest and l)est- 
known residents of Englewood, died at his home there on 
Wednesday evening, March 29, 1916. 

Mr. l^ogert was born at Teaneek, May 29, 18:i"), and was 
the son of Gilliam and Marie Demarest Bogert. The Amei-i- 
can ancestor of the family was Gilliam Bogei't, who emi- 
grated from Amsterdam, Holland, in the year 1662. Mr. 
Bogert 's father was a volunteer in the War of 1812. His 
mother was a direct descendant of north of France Huguenot 
stock. 

After fitting himself by an apprenticeship in Xew Yoi-k 
City and a course at Gooi)er Institute, Mr. Uogert in IS.")!) en- 
gaged in the contracting and building business in Englewood, 
which was continued until li)08, when he i-etired. A large 
numbei- of homes in this city and vicinity were built under 
his direction, and his extensve business included many large 
hotels and public buildings, among which may be enumerated 
the old Englewood House, Highwood House at Tenafly, Pali- 
sades ]\Ioiuitain House, P^rt Lee Hotel and Octagon Building, 
the Methodist, Presbytei-ian and Reformed Dutch churches 
and the Englewood, TeaiK^ck and rndei'clifC school buildings. 
He was also active in real estate dev<^lo])ment in Englewood 
and Leonia. ^Ir. Bogert was a member of the Englewood 
Presbyterian Church, of the Holland Society of New York, 
and was vice-president for Bergen County for eight years. 
For many years he was a director of the Englewood Loan and 
Building Association, and had been president of the Citizens 
Sewer Company since its incorporation in 1882 until the past 
year. 

For many years Mi". P)Og(M't took an active pai-t in the 
atfairs of his home town. In politics he was a Democrat and 
held many offices of trust. In 1895 he was elected Chosi'ii 
Freeholder from Englewood and served in that otifice for si.x. 
years. He had also served as chairman of the Democratic 
County Connnittee for three terms. His life until his retire- 
ment i'rom business in 1908 had been an e.xti-emely busy one, 
and a fair share of his time was occupied for the public 
service, intelligently and conscientiously directed in the in- 
terests of those whom he served. 

The interment was at l^rookside Cemetery, Fnglewood. 
N. J. 

Mr. Bogert is survived by his wife (Eugenie Ben<') and 
one daughter by a previous marriage, Mrs. Huyler Bogert. of 
Highwood. — Etujlcwood Press. 



56 Reports of Committees and Officers. 

ANNUAL REPORT 

By the Treasurer 
From April 22d, 1916, to April 21st, 1917. 

Allison Special Account 

RECEIPTS 

Balance in Bank April 22d, 1916 $970.90 

Account Interest to April 21st, 1917 34.50 

DISBURSEMENTS 

Transferred to General Account to 

purchase 1916 Year Books $210.00 

Balance in Bank April 21st, 1917 795.40 

.$1,005.40 .$1,005.40 
Allison Prize Account 

Balance in Bank April 22d, 1916 100.00 

Prizes awarded March 30th, 1917 $50.00 

Balance availahle 50.00 

.$100.00 $100.00 
General Account 

RECEIPTS 

Balance in Bank April 22d, 1916 279.01 

Dues received . . 238 . 00 

Dues unpaid 98 . 00 

Sale of Year Books 13 . 50 

Transferred fi'oni Special Account to i)urchase 

1916 Year Books 210 . 00 

Receipts 1916 Dinner Tickets 3.00 

Receipts 1917 Dinner Tickets 88.00 

Receipts Showcase Fund 181 . 50 

DISBURSEMENTS 

Postage, etc., Secretary's Account.. $54.57 

Purchases, etc., President's Account. 48.20 

Paid 1916 Dinner Account 49.75 

Paid 1917 Dinner Account 3.00 

Paid Expenses Allison Prize Essays. 6. 06 

New Showcases "... 389 , 98 

1916 Year Book 210.00 

Unpaid Dues !)8.00 

Balance ill I'.aiik A])ril 21st, 1917 251.45 

$1,111.01 $1,111.01 



luporis of ('()ninutl< < s atid ()ffic<rs. 57 

AXXrAL REPORT 

T>y lli(^ Secretary 



The fifteenth annual meeting and dinner of the IJergen 
County Histoi'ieal Society was hekl Saturday evening, A])ril 
21st, 1917, at the Warner, Hackensack, N. J." 

The minutes of the preceding aiiinud meeting wei-e i-ead 
and approved. 

Tli(^ I'cpoi'l of the Xominating (*onniiittee was read and, 
upon motion iiuuh' seconded and carried, the Scci-etai-y was 
directed to cast the IjaUot tV)i- the foUowing oi^cers foi- 1lie en- 
suing year : 

Presick^nt 

C. V. R. BoGERT. Bogota. 

Vice-Presidents — EastiM-n District 
William 0. Allison, Englewood. 
Rev. Edward Kelder. Coytesville. 
Daniel G. Bcjoert, Englewood. 

Central District 

F. H. Crum, River Edge. 

E. K. Bird, Hackensack. 

P. C. Terhtwe. Hackensack. 
L. ]\r. ]\Iiller, Leonia. 

W(^stern District 

F. L. Wandell, Saddle River. 
Richard T. Wilson, Ridgewood. 
II. II. Blauvelt, Ridgewood. 

Secretary and Treasui'ei- 

Theodore Romaine, Hackensack. 

It was the aim of the Xonnnaling ( 'oiiiiuitlee 1o divi(h' 
the county into districts and give eacli dislrici an (M|nal rep- 
resentation as nearly as possibh\ 

At this point Hon. William M. Johnson took occasion le 
speak a word of connnendation upon the hd)or expeiuh'd by 
Mrs. F. A. Westervelt, the chairman of llie Ai-chivcs and 
Properties Committee, in re-arranging onr exhihils in the ni'W 
room and showcases. 

The President appointed an auditing coniiiiittee. cpm- 
l)Ose(l of Messrs. P. C. Terhune and C. .M. Dali-yniph-, to 
audit the Treasurer's accounts. 



58 Reports of Committees and Officers. 

Adjournment was then made to the dining-room, where 
covers were laid for eighty. 

After dinner our President, C. V. R. Bogert, in a short 
speech, related the accomplishments of the past year. Of the 
new showcases set np and paid for ; of the gift of a showcase 
from G. G. Ackerson for the dugout canoe ; and the work of 
the Archives and Properties Committee in getting the room 
and exhibits ready for visitors. 

The Hon. William M. Johnson then made a speech of 
tribute to the sterling (jualities of the late William A. Linn, 
with whom we were all so well ac(iuainted, and about whom 
we really knew so little. 

The yearly reports were then given. The Secretary re- 
ported that during the year there had been added to the roll 
13 regular meud^ers, 5 had been dropped, 1 resigned, 2 de- 
ceased — 

Making the present membership 119 regular 

9 life 

4 honorary 



Total 132 

a gain of 5 for the year. Other reports were given by 
Mrs. F. a. Wester velt, 

Chairman Archives and Properties Comuuttee. 
Miss S. F. Watt. 

Chairman Women's Auxiliary. 
Mr. Everett L. Zabriskie, 

Church History. 
Dr. Byron G. Van Horne, 

Publication Committee. 
Which were t>laced on file. 

President C. V. R. Bogert, acting as toastmaster, then 
introduced the speaker of the evening, the Rev. A. H. Brown, 
who gave us a pleasing address on "Being Oneself." 



REPORT OF THE WOMEN'S AUXILIARY. 



During the year five meetings have been lu^ld. Tliree 
took place in the Johnson Public Library, giving members a 
chance to become familiar with the properties of the society. 
One meeting was held at the home of Miss S. F. Watt, and 
the last at the Mabon bome on Essex street. A delightful after- 
noon was spent, inspecting the house and familiarizing our- 
selves with more than two centuries of local history. 

We ai-e eagerly anticipating our May meeting at thr home 
of Mrs. Wandell at Saddle River. 

We expect to entertain the Daughters of the Revolution 
of Ramapo Liberty Pole and liergen on May 16th at the 
Johnson Public Library, in order to promote socud uiterest, 
mutual co-operation and to introduce our societ>- and col- 
lections. 

During the coming year papers upon historical subjects 

will be presented at each regular meeting. 

We hope to interest the wives of all the members of the 
society and draw them into membershii). 

Respectfully submitted, 

SALTXA F. WATT, 

Ch. of W. Aux. 



REPORT AND ACTIVITIES OF THE ARCHIVE 
AND PROPERTY COMMITTEE. 



During the building of the large addition to the Johiison 
Public Library, wherein our collections are housed, it be- 
came necessary to pack up our ]30ssessions for nearl.v one 
year. In November, 1916, we were granted the use of the 
large and beautiful new room through the kindness of Hon. 
William M. Johnson, for which a vote of thanks has been 
given. We disposed of most of our old glass cases. With the 
few remaining, the room and articles were arranged as best 
they could be. Invitations were extended for an evening 
mid-year meeting and ojjening, for the members and friends 
of the society. During the afternoon there was an attend- 
ance of one hundred and fifty, mostly the school children, 
who welcomed the event as a restored pleasure in the op- 
portunity given them for daily visits to the room which con- 
tains great attraction to them. At the evening meeting the 
Woman's Auxiliary received the guests, one huntlred and 
■fifty. After a social period the meeting was called to order 
by the president, C. V. R. Bogert. A few short addresses 
were made and then the president told of the object of the 
meeting, that was, discussion for the best plans to acquire 
enough cases to have our exhibits suitably and safely cared 
for. It was carried that the Archive and Property Com- 
mittee were to ask for subscriptions from all members, start- 
ing with those present, and to all others a circular letter be 
sent. The result to date is $11)6.50. Thi'ough our presi- 
dent's good jiulgment and valuable assistance, we now have 
the room, 50x;^5 feet, fully e(iuipped by the addition of the 
following newly ac(iuired cases: Five very tine cases, with 
glass shelves ; one 8-foot post, with twelve double face leaves 
or wings of glass, and the addition of glass doors to a 15-foot 
set of shelves. 

We expended foi" cases, cai'i)enter work, ti'ans])ortatioiu 
painting and varnishing, cleaning and ari-angins' .i^89S.i)S, de- 
ducting the amount of subscrii)tions, .$1!)6.5U. leaves a short- 
age of $198.48, which amount we ajjpropriated fi'om the So- 
ciety's treasury. 

The following letter from a miisruin expert on Indian 
relics is given in i-egard to our dugout canoe: 

"1 should suggest that in the first ])lace it ])e carefully 
cleaned and then wdien ready for exhihilion it should be 
placed under cover in a glass case. 

"The s|)c('imcii is veiy valu;d)Ie, and no expense shduld 



R< port of Archive and Properhj Committee. 61 

be spared in its preservation. If left uncovered it will he only 
a matter of a few years when you will find yourselves iiiimis 
a canoe. It is not alone the damage it would he likely to re- 
ceive from the hands of the public, but the constant eleanin^'- 
or dusting which would be necessary would gradually wear 
away the soft and partly decayed wood. Therefore, consid- 
ering the value of the canoe, 1 should again strongly i-econi- 
mend the use of a glass case in which to exhibit tlie sjx'ci- 
men. " 

As Mr. G. G. Ackei-son and the late G. II. liandall had 
been the donors of the dugout canoe, Mr. Ackerson was intei-- 
viewed as to what assistance he would give in regard to its 
care. The following report of what he has done speaks well 
of his great generosity and interest in his County Society : 

Mr. Ackei'son has had the canoe (it is 15 feet long) in- 
closed in a fine glass case, made to order under the supervision 
of our })resident), with two oak standards, also a very beau- 
tiful and artistic brass tablet fastened to the canoe l)eai'ing 
the following inscription : 




DUGOUT GAXOE 

UNEARTHED IN 1868 NEAR THE HACKENSACK RIVEK ON TIIK 
PROPERTY OF 

JUDGE GARRET G. AGKEKSON 

HTTDSON STREET. HACKENSACK, NEW .IKKSKV. 

In 19(14 it was Prcscnti-d t(i 

BERGEN COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

. . . by . . . 

GARRET G. ACKERSON AND (iARHKT A. KANDAI,!, 

Grandsons of tlic .Inilur 

In 1914 it was identified l>v Alfred Ronk as a very rare Indian reli<-. 
The United States Forestry Deiiurtinent lias ideiitilied the wood as white oiil 



62 Report of Archive and Property Committ 



€C. 



The exhibits as now placed are classified and marked as 
follows : 

Bookcase, 15 feet — Books, pamphlets, and in one end 
large exhibits. 

Case — Indian relics and wampum specimens. 

Case — Fine specimens of pottery, tools, etc. George 
Wolfkill, 1830-60. 

Case — Mummy. 

Case — Old blue china, lustre, etc. 

Case — Colonial and early house hardware. 

Case — A miscellaneous collection of small valuable 
articles. 

A group of early fireplace furnishings. 

Platform — Artistically furnished with anti(iue table, 
three chairs and rag carpet. On the wall back of it a large 
picture of General Washington underneath an American flag, 
and a Revolutionary gun. 

Group — Spinning wheels, wool and flax and reel. Colonial 
home-made cradle, hair trunk. 

Group — Hackensack Academv bell, 1770, courthouse bell, 
1819. 

Case — Household articles. 

Case — Canoe. 

Case — War relics. 

Post and Wings — Contains manuscripts, photographs, 
homespun textiles, wool and linen, flax-lace, flags, etc., etc. 

On the walls are historical pictures, documents, etc. 

A large filing cabinet contains over 200 negatives of his- 
toric houses, sites, etc. 

In large envelopes, contents classified, are clippings from 
newspapers, etc., referring to Bergen County's important 
events since 1902. 

Many valuable additions have been made during the year 
to our collection. A revised catalogue will appear in the next 
year book. 

To Hon. William M. Johnson, the trustees of the John- 
son Public Library, the President of the Society, the 
Women's Auxiliary and the contributors to the fund for 
cases, we extend thanks for favors and assistance given us 
in our efforts to place and keep our historical room one of the 
best sources of interest and information pertaining to histor- 
ical events and history of Bergen County. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Frances A. Westervelt, 
Hon. William M. Johnson, 
Arthur Van Buskirk. 
John A. Marinus. 



List of Memhcrs. 6:5 



LIST OF EX-PRESIDENTS. 



1!)02— 11)17 



Hon. William M. Johnson 1902-0:^ 

Cornelius Christie l!)();^-04 

T. N. Glover li)04:-05 

Hon. Cornelius Dorenins li)05-06 

Burton H. Allbee l!)06-07 

Byron G. Van Home, M.D l!)07-()iS 

William D. Snow l!)08-0i) 

Hon. David 1). Zabriskie li)0!)-10 

Everett L. Zal)riskie 1!)10-11 

Howard B. Goetsehius 11)11-12 

Matt J. Bogert 1912-18 

Robert T. Wilson l!)i:M4 

Mrs. Frances A. Westervelt 1!»14-16 

Cornelius V. R. Bogert l!)l (M 7 

LIFE MEMBERS 

Allbee, liurton II Paterson 

Allison, William Englewood 

Britton, W. R East Orange 

Comeron, Alpin J Ridgewood 

Foster, W. Edward Ilackensaek 

Green, Allister New York 

Phelps, Capt. J.J Teaneck 

Preston, Veryl New York 

Voorhis, Charles C New York 

Vail, Carl M Ridgewood 

HONORARY MEMBERS 

Bogert, Isaac D Westwood 

Collins, Andrew R New Bridge 

Demarest, Hon. Milton Ilackensaek 

Vroom, Rev. William Ridgewood 

MEMBERSHIP LIST 

Abbott, John C ^"^vi Lee 

Ackerman, David D Closter 

Ackerson, Garret G Ilackensaek 

Adams, Dr. Charles F Ilackensaek 

Adams, Robert A Saddle River 



64 List of Members. 



Bennett, Henry N Hackensack 

Bennett, Mrs. Harry Teaneck 

Bird, Eugene K Hackensack 

Blaiivelt, H. H Ridgewood 

Bogert, Matt J Demarest 

Bogert, Daniel G P^nglewood 

Bogert, Albert Z River Edge 

Bogert, Mrs. Albert Z River Edge 

Bogert, Cornelius Y. U Bogota 

Boyd, John T., Jr Hackensack 

Brinkerhoff, Cornelius V Hackensack 

Cane, F. W Bogota 

Christie, J. Elmer Nyack, N. Y. 

Cooper, Richard W New Milf ord 

Cory, Mrs. Catharine East Xorthvale 

Cosse, Edwin F Paterson 

Criss, Hugo F Hohokus 

Crum, F. H River Edge 

Cruin, Mrs. F. H River Edge 

Cubberly, Nelson S Glen Rock 

Curtis, Grove D New York 

Curtis, Charles Hackensack 

Dalrymple, CM Hackensack 

Del >aun, Abram Hackensack 

DeBaun, Mrs. Abrani .Hackensack 

Deniarest, Jacob R Englewood 

Demarest, James E Westwood 

DeRonde, Philip Englewood 

Diaz, Jose M Hackensack 

Doremus, Cornelius Ridgewood 

Eckert, George M Saddle River 

Engle, j\Iiss ]\Iary J Fairview 

Englehart, Charles Ridgefield 

Esler, John G Saddle River 

Fay, A. M Hohokus 

Franck, Dr. A Hackensack 

Goetsehius, Howard B Hackensack 

Goetschius, D. M Little Ferry 

Greene, Robert Hill Leonia 

Grunow, Julius S Hackensack 

Haggerty, M. L Hackensack 

Haring, Tunis A Hackensack 

Hay, Clyde B Hackensack 

Hester, Earl L. D Hasbrouck Heights 

Howell, Mrs. Henrietta D Hackensack 

Jacolms, M. R .Ridgefield 

Jeffers, Daniel G Hackensack 



IjIsI of Mrnilx IS. 05 

Johnson, Hon. William M Ilackcnsack 

Keldei-. Rv\. Kdwjinl Eiitrlewood (Miffs 

Ki])}), Jaiiu'K. Tcnafly 

Liddle, Josepli G Xew York 

Linkroiini, C'ourtland riackensack 

]\lal)ie, Clarence Ilaekensaek 

Mabon, Miss Elizabeth Tlaekt-nsaek 

Marinus, John A . Hoehclle Park 

Metz, A. Russell, Jr Ilaekensaek 

Meyer, Francis E Closter 

Miller, Lewis M Leonia 

Moore, Sidney H Kidgewood, R. P. D. 

Morrison, William J., Jr Ridgefield Park 

IMorrow, Dwight W Englewood 

Osborn, J. Ilosey Passaic 

Pai'igot, George W Allendale 

P(dl, ]\Iiss Katherine Saddh^ River 

Piatt, Daniel F Englewood 

Potter, George ]\I Allendale 

Ramsey, John R Hackensack 

Richardson, Milton T Ridgewood 

Riker, Theo Paterson 

Rogers, Henry M Tcnatly 

Romaine, Theodore Ilaekmsack 

Romaine, ]\Irs. Theodore Ilaekensaek 

Sage, L. H Ilaekensaek 

Sloat, B. F Ridgewood 

Spear, William M Leonia 

Snyder, George J Ridgewood 

Stagg, Edward Leonia 

Stewart, Dr. H. S Ilaekensaek 

Staib, P. G Ilaekensaek 

Staib, Mrs. P. C Ilaekensaek 

St. John, Dr. David Ilaekensaek 

Smith, Miss Dora Iloboken 

Stnmm, F. A Ai'cola 

Tallman, William Englewood 

Terhune, C. W Hackensack 

Terhnne, P. Christie- Hackensack 

Terhune, Mrs. P. Christie Hackensack 

Vail, William L Fairview 

Vail, Mrs. William L Fairview 

Van Bnskirk, Arthur Hackensack 

Van Home, Dr. P,vi-on G Englewood 

Van Nest, Rev. J. A Ridgewood 

Van Winkle, Arthur W Rntheidord 



66 List of Members. 



Van Winkle, Charles A Riitherf'oi-d 

Van Wagoner, Jacob Ridgewood 

Voorhis, Rev. John C Bogota 

Wakelee, Ednuind W New York 

Wandell, Francis Livingston Saddle River 

Wandell, Mrs. Francis Livingston Saddle River 

Ware, Mrs. John C SadfUe River 

Watt, Salina F Hackensack 

Wells, Benjamin B Hackensack 

Wells, George E Hackensack 

Wesley, F. R Bogota 

Westervelt, Mrs. Frances A Hackensack 

Willich, Theo Leoina 

Wilson, Richard T Ridgewood 

Wilson, Robert T Saddle River 

Wood, Robert J. G Leonia 

Woodman, Charles Ridgewood 

Wright, Wendell J Hackensack 

Zabriskie, David D Ridgewood 

Zabriskie, Everett L Ridgewood 

Zabriskie, Fred 'k C Hackensack 



/// 3Iemonam. 



3Jn iHrmnriam 



Bogart, Peter 1^., Jr Bogota 

Bogert, Andrew D Englewood 

l^rinkerhoff, A. H Rutherford 

Christie. Cornelius Leonia 

(Mark, Edwin Ridgewood 

Currie, Dr. Daniel A Englewood 

Demarest, A. S. D ITackensack 

Demarest, Isaac 1 Hackensack 

Dutton, George R Englewood 

Easton, E. D Areola 

Edsall, Samuel S Palisade 

Haggin. :\Irs. L. T Closter 

Hales, Henry Ridgewood 

Holdrum. A. C Westwood 

Labagh, William ( ) Hackensack 

Lane, Jesse New Milford 

Lane, Mrs. Jesse New Milford 

Lawton, L Parker Ridgewood 

Linn, W. A Hackensack 

Nelson. William Paterson 

Romaine, Christie Hackensack 

Sanford, Rev. Ezra T New York 

Shanks, William Hackensack 

Snow, William D Hackensack 

Terhune, Peter Ridgewood 

Van Buskirk, Jacob New Milfoi'd 

Zabriskie, A. C New York 




Eighteenth Annual Report 



OF THE 



Bergen County 
Historical Society 



Number Thirteen 



1920 
Hackknsace, New Jersey 



ta 



EIGHTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



BERGEN COENTV HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



-'f-m 



I 



Robert T. Wilson 

Twelfth president of the Bergen Cotmty 
Historical Society {igiS-iQli) died Feb- 
ruary igi6 in his forty-second year. At the 
time of his death, he was treasurer and 
Deacon of the Upper Saddle River Church. 
He was also a member of Fidelity Lodge, 
■No. 113 F. iff J. M., Ridgewood, New Jersey. 







Eighteenth Annual Report 



OF THE 



Bergen County 
Historical Society 



Number Thirteen 



19 2 

IlACKENSACK. NEW JKKSKV 



Press of The Hackonsack Republic:in 



The Bergen County Historical Society. 



Officers for the Fiscal Year 1920-1921 



President 
Lewis Marsena Miller Leonia 

Secretary 
Theodore Romaine Hackensack 

Treasurer 
C. M. Dalrymple Hackensack 

Curator 
Mrs. Frances A. Westervelt Hackensack 

Vice-Presidents 

Closter William H. Roberts 

Englewoocl William O. Allison 

Fort Lee John C. Abbot 

Hackensack William P. Eager 

Hackensack P. Christie Terhune 

Leonia Robert J. G. Wood 

Oradell Elmer Blauvelt 

Ramsey John Y. Dater 

Ridgewood Walter W. Wilsey 

Ridgefield M. R. Jacobus 

Rutherford A. W. Van Winkle 

Westwood Isaac B. Hopper 

Former Presidents 

Hon. William M. Johnson, Hackensack 1902-03 

Mr. Cornelius Christie, Leonia 1903-0.1 

Mr. T. N. Glover. Rutherford 1904-05 

Hon. Cornelius Doremus, Ridgewood 1905-06 

Mr. Burton H. Albee, Paterson 1906-07 

Dr. Byron G. Van Horne, Englewood 1907-0S 

Col. W. D. Snow, Hackensack 1908-09 

Hon. David D. Zabriskie, Ridgewood 1909-10 

Mr. Everett L. Zabriskie, Ridgewood 1910-11 

Mr. Howard B. Goetschius, Little Ferry 1911-12 

Mr. Matt. J. Bogert, Demarest 1912-13 

Mr. Robert T. Wilson, Saddle River 191 3-14 

Mrs. Frances A. Westervelt, Hackensack 1914-16 

Mr. Cornelius V. R. Bogert, Bogota 1916-18 

Mr. Arthur Van Buskirk, Hackensack 1918-19 

Mr. Lewis Marsena Miller, Leonia 1919-21 



The Rergex Couxtv I-Tistorical SociI'Tv 



*Standing Committees, 1920-1921 

Archives a)id Pr()pcrt\ 
Mrs. F. A. \\'estervelt. Hon. \Villiam M. Johnson, Frank 
B. Plympton. Hackensack ; David Hopper, Mahwah ; Mrs. 
Harry Bennett, Teaneck. 

Ancient Cemeteries 
Matt. J. Bogert. Demarest ; Walter Christie, Bergenfield ; J. 
Z. Demarest, Closter. 

Church History 
Walter Christie, Bergenfield ; Rev. Edward Kelder, h'ort 
Lee ; Rev. J. A. Van Nest, Ridgewood. 

Current Historv 
Reid Howell, Rutherford. 

Cenealoyical and Biographical 
Mrs. John Christie Ware, George M. Eckert, Saddle River; 
Mrs. F. A. Westervelt, Hackensack. 

Historic Sites and Events 
Dr. James M. Hackett, Robert Hill Greene, Leonia : Emile 
Stange, North Hackensack ; George W. Hood, Ridgefield. 

Membership 
Cornelius V. R. Bogert, William T. Knight, Ikigota; 
Walter G. Winne, Hasbrouck Heights. 

Publication 
Dr. Byron G. A^an Home, Englewood ; Dr. Charles F. 
Adams, Hackensack; Reid Howell, Rutherford: Robert Hill 
Greene, Dr. Roscoe Guernsey, Leonia. 

Publicity 
J. W. Binder, E. K. Bird, Hackensack; Joseph H. Tillot- 
son, Engle\vood; J. E. \Mlliams, Ridgefield Park. 
Topographical and Historical Geography 
Joseph Kinzley, Jr., Hackensack; Prof. B. T. Butler, 
Leonia ; William Conklin, Englewood. 

IVars and Revolutionary Soldiers' Graves 
Dr. Charles F. Adams, Hackensack; Carl M. Vail. Ridge- 
wood ; John \\'. Bellis, Oradell. 

JVomen's Auxiliary 
Mrs. A. Z. Bogert. Mrs. Harry Lewellyn, River Edge; 
Mrs. Byron G. Van'^Horne, Englewood; Mrs. Clayton Dema- 
rest, Hackensack; Mrs. F. Hayden, Rutherford; Mrs. Harry 
Bennett, Teaneck. 

*The President is ex-officio a member of all Committees. 



The Bergen County Historical Society. 



Aims of the 
Bergen County Historical Society 



To make research into historical facts and collect data re- 
lating thereto ; 

To suitably mark by Monument or Tablet sites of historic 
interest to preserve them from oblivion ; 

To collect and preserve genealogical records and family 
traditions ; 

To cultivate a spirit of Patriotism, which is love of Country, 
and aid to respect and uphold its laws ; 

To foster National, State, Local and Family Pride, and the 
Intellectual Cultivation and Development of its members. 



The Bek(;i:x Couxtv Historical Sociktv. 9 



Eighteenth Annual Report 
Bergen County Historical Society 



President's Report 

The several reports of Standing Committees submitted 
herewith tell of the activities of the Society during the hscal 
year 1919-1920. which has been a year of progress and gives 
promise of further advance during the eighteenth vear of the 
Society's existence. 

The numerous interesting relics of the past which have 
been added to our Museum during the i)ast two years bear testi- 
mony to the alertness and efficiency of our Curator. It is to be 
hoped that members owning articles of historic interest will 
arrange for their ultimate addition to this niuseiun. if for any 
reason they are not available now. 

The limited resources of the Society in the past has re- 
tarded the carrying out of all the aims of its organizers, but 
the report of the Membership Committee showing increase 
from 145 to 432 members during the year demonstrates a 
quickened interest and the possibility of increasing our Mem- 
bership Roll to one thousand before our annual meeting in 
April. 1921. The annual dues paid by that number of mem- 
bers will enable the Societv to give due attention to two 
neglected duties : 

"To suitably mark by monument or tal)let sites of historic 
interest, to jjreserx e them from oblivion. 

"To cultivate a spirit of Patriotism throughout the County 
and to foster National. State. Local and F"amily Pride." 

Our Committee on Historic Sites and Events will make a 
record during the coming year and suitably mark some of the 
points which have been too long neglected. 

Good speakers should be sent to the several boroughs in 
the County to stir up interest in the work and aims of the 
Society, to'cultivate a spirit of Patriotism and preach the gospel 
of Americanism. Such meetings should be arranged for once 
each month. November to ]March. inclusive. A look over our 
Membership Roll discloses the names of many of the most 
prominent and influential men and women of the County. I 
doubt if another such aggregation for good and patriotic work 
can be found in the County of Bergen, and I believe thi'> influ- 
ence will respond willingly to intelligent leadership by the 
officers of the Society designated for the coming fiscal year. 
T hope that opportunity will soon knock at their doors. 



lo TiiF. Ber(;en County Historical SocTET^•. 

One resident of Bergen County, who has been a hfc mem- 
ber of this Society ahnost from its inception, has shown his 
interest and generosity by two gifts of $i,ooo each, creating the 
"Allison Special Fund" from which the cost of jniblications 
is defrayed. The Treasurer's report show's the present healthy 
condition of this fund. 

But in evidence of his increased interest, Mr. William 
C). Allison of Englewood made his third gift to the Society, 
this time for $10,000. The Executive Committee in its i-esolu- 
tion of thanks to Mr. Allison named this the "Allison Invest- 
ment Fund" and instrvicted the President to invest the amount 
in the United States Fourth Fiberty Foan Bonds. Eleven 
thousand dollars ])ar value were bought at QO.30, at which 
hgure they yield 4.71 ^'f- These eleven one thousand dollar 
bonds are registered in the name of this Society. The April 
Treasury warrant for the semi-annual interest, with a small 
addition from oin- general fund, secured three one hundred 
dollar coupon bonds of the same issue, so that now our safe 
deposit box holds $11,300 of these securities, the value of which 
no red-blooded American citizen can doubt. 

The Bergen County Historical Society is not soliciting 
alms or bequests, but it confidently expects that other wealthy 
members will give a demonstration of real interest by building 
up this investment fund until the assured income is sufficient 
to warrant greatb' cUigmented acti\'itv. 

Fender the intelligent leadership of INF's. A. Z. Bogert the 
Women's Auxiliary has grown from twenty-one to ninety-four 
members. AF's. Bogert's report of the activities of the women 
members of this Society will interest every reader, audi venture 
to suggest that it would be difficult to pick from our Alember- 
shi]i Roll another ninety-four who ha\"e shown so much interest 
ni the work of the Society. The exam])le of these earnest 
women is commenfled to the consideration of members who 
wear trousers ! 

By far the most important event of the past year, and 
probably in any year of the Society's existence, is our under- 
taking to build a memorial to mark the site and commemorate 
the activities of Camp ]\Ierritt. where a third of all the men 
sent o\er seas received their equipment and were |)repared for 
doing their share in the undertaking to "make the world a 
decent place to live in." More than half a million of those re- 
turning have been cared for there until ready to be sent for- 
ward to the camp of demobilization nearest their home towns. 

Fi the report of our semi-annual meeting last October 
a])pears the address made by the Executive Officer of Camp 
]\Ierritt, Major Max Sullivan, in which he gave us the details 



TiiE Bekcex Couxtn' Histokkal Soni-n'N-. ii 

of the organization and system which made j)ossi])le the re- 
markable work done at Camp Merritt in so short a time. In 
this address will be found undeniable justification for our 
undertakings this i)atriotic work. I want the members of this 
Society to understand the reasons for this undertaking and the 
arrangements which have been made for its accomplishment. 

The project was brought to us liy Major P^rancis (i. Lan- 
don, the Morale Officer of Camp Merritt, who addressed our 
Executive Committee at their meeting last August. Senator 
William M. Johnson also addressed the committee in favor 
of the monument. On adoption of a suitable resolution the 
chair appointed Cornelius V. R. Bogert, Dr. liyron (J. Van 
Home and ^Ir. ]\Iatt. J. Bogert a Special Committee to take 
charge of the matter and report to the Executive I'ommittee. 

This S] fecial Committee, with the President as ex-officio 
member, a])])eared before the Board of Chosen b^reeholders 
asking their co-operation and appointment of a committee of 
the Board to work with us and the camp officers. ( )ur appeal 
was listened to with close attention by each member of the 
Board, and after due consideration, on August 6, 1919, the 
following preamble and resolutions were adopted : 

Whereas, during the late war with German}-, the (Govern- 
ment of the United" States established a large and iniportanl 
camp in this county between Dumont and Tenafly. designated 
as Cam}) Merritt. which has been used as a camp of em- 
barkation and debarkation for men in the army, and which has 
received from time to time more than a million men in the 
aggregate, and which camp will in the near future be disr.-,antled 
liy the Government ; and 

Whereas, in order to establish a permanent memorial of 
Camp Merritt, it is tliought projier to erect a monument on a 
plot of ground at the corner of Knickerbocker road and Madi- 
son avenue now belonging to William O. Allison, who is wiU- 
ino- to convey the same for such puri)ose. provided assurance 
can be given' that said memorial and plot will be properly and 
permanentlv maintained ; and 

Whereas it has been suggested that the title to said i)lot 
be lodged in the County of Bergen, in trust, to mamtam. pre- 
serve and i^rotect said memorial in perpetuity ; and 

\\hereas the I'.oard of Chosen Freeholders of the County 
of Bergen recognizes the very distinguished honor which the 
■establishment of Camp Merritt has conferred upon the county 
and the propriety of a suitable memorial to perpetuate the 
historic associations connected with the camp, and appreciates 
the patriotic impulse which has led to a contribution of funds 
for the purpose. 



12 The Bergen County Historical Society. 

Now, therefore, be it resolved, that the Board of Chosen 
Freeholders of the County of Bergen will, in behalf of the 
county, accept the position of custodian of the proposed me- 
morial and will take title in the name of the countv for the plot 
on Avhich it is to stand, in trust, to maintain said memorial and 
plot in suitable condition and subject to a covenant and agree- 
ment that said county will forever protect, maintain, and keep 
in good repair and condition the said monument and plot, to the 
end that it may be a public and lasting memorial of the events 
and history connected with Camp Merritt ; and 

Be it further resolved, that said County of Bergen hereby 
agrees to build said monument and memorial of such funds as 
may be contributed for the purpose, and such funds, if any, as 
may be hereafter appropriated by said Board in accordance 
with the statute ; and 

Be it further resolved, that the County Counsel be in- 
structed to take such action as may be necessary for the proper 
transfer of the plot hereinbefore mentioned. 

Following adoption of these resolutions the Director, 
Joseph Kinzley, Jr., appointed Reid Howell, of Rutherford, 
William H. Roberts of Closter and Charles K. Allen of Ridge- 
wood. 

This action being communicated to the Camp Command- 
ant, Major-General G. B. Duncan appointed Major Francis G 
Landon, Major Max W. Sullivan and Major Jesse I. Sloat to 
serve with him on behalf of the military authorities. 

These three committees met at the Officers' Club and or- 
ganized as the "Camp Merritt Memorial Association," electing 
Cornelius V. R. Bogert, President, \\'illiam H. Roberts, Vice- 
President, Major Francis G. Landon, Secretary, and Matt. J 
Bogert, Treasurer. 

Subsequently. Mr. Bogert resigned to become jointly with 
Harvey Wiley Corbett of New York the Architects for the 
Association and prepare plans for the proposed ^Memorial. 

On acceptance of Mr. Bogert's resignation Dr. Bvron G. 
\^an Home was elected President. 

The Special Committee of this Society was augmented bv 
the appointment of Abram De Ronde, Dwight \\'. ]Morrow, 
Daniel E. Pomeroy and William Conklin of Englewood, Ed- 
mund W. Wakelee of Demarest, Hon. William M. Johnson, T- 
W. Binder, Clarence Mabie and George Van Buskirk of Hack- 
ensack, these gentlemen becoming automatically members of 
the Camp Merritt Memorial Association, which now includes : 

Charles K. Allen Ridgewood 

Matt J. Bogert Demai-est 



The Bergkx County Histork.m. Soci1':tn'. 13 



J. W. Binder Hackensack 

William Conklin Englewood 

Abram De Ronde Englewood 

Gen'l G. B. Duncan United States Army 

Reid Howell Rutherford 

Hon. William M. Johnson Hackensack 

Joseph Kinzlev. Jr Hackensack 

Major Francis G. Landon New York 

Clarence Mabie Hackensack 

Lewis Marsena Miller T.eonia 

Dwight W. Morrow Englewood 

Daniel E. Pomeroy Englewood 

William H. Roberts Closter 

Major Tesse I. Sloat United States Army ■ 

Major Max W. Sullivan . . .United States Army 

George Van Buskirk Hackensack 

Dr. Bvron G. Van Home Englewood 

Edmund \\'. Wakelee Demarest 

Every one of these names will be found in the :^Ieml)er- 
ship Roll of the Bergen County Historical Society. 

The site for the memorial has been definitely tixed and 
mainly acquired without cost, half the area being a gift from 
Mr. William O. Allison. Knickerbocker road and Madison 
avenue at their intersection wdll be diverted around a three 
hundred foot circle at the apex of which will rise a monument 
which, to be commensurate with the mighty accomplishments of 
Camp Merritt. must be lofty, dignified, artistic and above all. 
inspiring— a memorial worthv of Bergen County and m which 
we can all take a just pride. Eventually this memorial will un- 
doubtedlv be connected bv a parkway with the Inter- State Park. 
The' State of New Jersey, under a bill which has become 
a law will pro^■ide one-third the cost of this memorial, fiftv 
thousand dollars. P.ergen County is due to raise one hundred 
thousand dollars, and the military authorities have ahxady 
contributed to this fund seven thousand five hundred dollars, 
whichisinthetreasurvof the Association. _ 

I cannot stress too greatly the patriotic duty ot our Society 
in furthering this project and carrying it through to an early 
completion. ^ We are sponsors for this undertaking and are 
oroud of it The Memorial will,not only mark the site of Camp 
Merritt but will commemorate its wonderful activities and 
achievements, in enduring bronze and granite 

It will also stand a lasting testimonial to the patnoti.m 
and energ}' of the Bergen County Historical Society. 

LEW IS MARSENA MILLER. President. 



14 The Bergen County Historical Society. 

Secretary's Report 

There have been added to the roll during the year 256 
resident, 5 life and 4 honorary members ; we have lost 4 through 
death, making the present membership : 

Resident 378 

Honorary 8 

Life 16 

402 
a gain of 261 for the year. 

Treasurer's Report 

From April .^6th, 1919, to April 17th, 1920. 
Allison Special Account : 

Receipts 

Balance on hand April 26th, 1919 $1,123.37 

Interest to January Tst, 1920 39-00 

Transferred from Allison Prize account 45-00 

Gift from W. O. Allison 10,000.00 

Disbursements 

Purchase Liberty Bonds $10,000.00 

On iVccount of Freeholders' Book 

and Gen. Greene's Orderly Book. . 339-31 

Balance on hand April 17th, 1920. . 868.06 



$11,207.37 $11,207.37 
Allison P}%se Account: 

Balance April 26th, 1919 50.00 

Broadway School Prizes 5.00 

Transferred to Special Account 45-00 



$50.00 $50.00 

Coicral Account : 

Receipts 

Balance in Bank April 26th, 191 9 $242.59 

Dues Received 684.00 

Dues Unpaid 412.00 

Received from W. O. Allison for Ma]) General 

Greene's Orderly Book 231.00 

Transferred from Special Savings Account to 
a|)ply on printing of Freeholders' Book and 
Gen. Greene's Orderly Book 339-31 



The BercjEX County Hisforical Society. 15 

Received from W. O. Allison for Curator's 

Salary 300.00 

Sale Year Books 2.40 

Receipts Tickets Annual Meeting 1919 i^A-5^ 

Cash in exchange for check 35-00 

Checks Lost 9-OC' 

Interest on Liberty Loan 233.75 

Disbursements 

Expense Annual Meeting 1919 $51-75 

President's Account 76.67 

Secretary's Account 299.62 

Curator's Salary 400.00 

Maintenance of Room 29.40 

P'reeholders' Book. (ien. Greene's 

Orderly Book 570-31 

Checks Lost 9-00 

Check in exchange for cash 35-00 

Balance Paid on Liberty Bonds 73.25 

Unpaid Dues 4i^-00 

Balance April 17th. 1920 546-55 

$ 2.503.55 $ 2.503.55 
BALANCE SHEET. April 17th. 1920. 
Assets 

Cash in Bank, Allison Special Account $868.06 

Cash in Bank. General .\ccount 546-55 

Total Cash $1,414-61 

*Annual Dues from Members 412.00 

United States Bonds, par value 1 i.ooo.oc 

Total ■••• S12.826.6L 

Liabilities 
None. 
*Mostlv dues for current fiscal year liegiiming Feb'y 22nd. 



i6 The Bergen County Historical Society. 



First Annual Report of the Curator 

At onr last annual meeting we unveiled, so to speak, our 
reproduction of the early Dutch kitchen, including the open 
fireplace and brick oven ; with the many original articles used 
in the kitchens of the early homes. Posters announcing the 
exhibit and the talks were sent out to all members and to 
every library in the county and over the lines, and to the school 
principals. Prizes for the three best papers about "The Talks" 
were offered. In the first month there were thirteen classes 
(400 pupils) from the schools during school periods, and hun- 
dreds of visitors to hear the story of the early kitchen and its 
activities, illustrated by the use of the real antiques. As the 
kitchen for about two hundred years was the center of life and 
education there is a broad field to cover. From the Broadway 
School (mostly foreigners) were submitted fifteen papers, 
which were excellent. The three prizes were presented there 
Up to date we have had twenty-four classes averaging forty 
each — eight hundred ])uj)ils. and a class from Moonachie ( more 
foreigners ) 

A "talk" illustrated with about fift\- articles was given to 
the Woman's Club at (3radell. at which five new members were 
enrolled ; and to the ^\'oman's Club of Bogota. Many groups 
and single visitors have been taken on the tour of the room, 
hearing the many stories. 

At the monthly meeting'; of our \\'omen's Auxiliary there 
is always a new exhibit set out and its story given. Plans are 
being made for the classes of River Edge (their transportation 
being paid). Hasbrouck Heights and Bogota, the Girls' Patri- 
otic League of Ixidgefield Park, and the Men's Club of one of 
the Hackensack churches. On the iqth, an illustrated talk at 
Rutherford to the Women's Reading Club is to be given. 

A loaned exhibition of glass, china and pottery was given 
from Feb. 15th to April 15th. There were three hundred 
articles exhibited, including some of the very rare early Delft 
ware, and other rare and choice specimens. Of the work of 
Bergen County's "own potter" ( 1830-1860), Geo. W. Wolfkiel, 
there were fifty pieces, (still on view). Tt was a great suc- 
cess ; visitors from far and near. During the two months we 
averaged a daily attendance of twenty-fi\e, and it was during 
our very severe weather. 

The next exhibit was the articles of the Colonial period 
of 1700. The schools were studying that period. As we have 
a fine collection it was of great interest. 

Then came the Revolutionary period of school stud\' and 
our collection, which is good, was displayed. 




PRIMITIVE SPINNING WHEEL. 

A handle on the rear turns the disk with the pegs. 
From the Zabriskie-Van Dien Home, Paramus Road. 

An old author says: "The action of spinning must he learn.l hy P''-;;- '^^ ''^ '^;^ 
tion." Suns by the poets, the grace and beauty of the occupat,o„ has ever sha.e.l p,a>.e u .th 
its utility. 

Wool-spinnin. was truly one of the most flexible and alert -^^^-:' ^^^ ^X 
world, and to its varied and graceful poise, our grandmothers may owe pa.t of the d.gn.ty 
of carriage that was so characteristic of them. 

twenty miles. 



^^^^^^^^^^^ 




ADJUSTABLE CANDLE STAND 

From a Hoorn Family, Upper Saddle River. 

Possibly around 1735. 



MEXICAN WAR HAT AND BUCKLE 

On home-made band box. David Zabriskie, 

from homestead at Oradell. later known 

as the "Grant" place. 





PARSLEY POT 

Used by Mrs. Sally Ann Zabriskie of Ramsey. 

Made to order for her by GeorRe W. Woli- 

kiel the historic Hacken ^ai"k River 

Potter. 1S30-G0. 



HAND CARVED SPOON RACK 

Dated A. N. 1731 A. H. From the Zabriskie- 

Van Dien hoine on Paramus Road. 



Till': Rergrx C()U^"r^• Historkal Soc ii:tv. 17 

The next will be a view of earlv house buildiiii^' material 
and colonial house hardware, of which we ha\e a wonderful 
colection. including- timber })es4'i^ed together, the lart^e laths, the 
clav mixed with straw used in the cracks and spaces, and the 
iron hand-wrought household articles, nails, etc. The exhibit 
will include ])hotograi)hs of the earlv houses, many of which 
are now demolished. The "talk" will be of the early building 
and the practical reasons for some of the methods that resulted 
in the "tyi)ical Bergen County house." 

This ])a])er could be extended to a great length, rei|uiring 
hours, inste;id of minutes, in its reading, and then the half could 
not be told of the activities, keen interest, education, and en- 
joyment given, not onl\' to the children ( who love this room and 
roam through it at ])leasure, asking ((uestions ) and the middle- 
aged, but es])eciallv to the aged men and women who come and 
enjoy living over in memory the days long past, wliich the 
relics recall. It will not l)e many years when there will be none 
to say as the few do now, "1~hese things carry me as in a dream 
to my grandmother's home '." W'h)' the\- do not sa\- ( irand- 
fathe'r's home, as surel\' there must have been some of them 
is explained when they saw "r)h ! what good pies she made in 
the old red pie dishes that' were just like these. And the cook- 
ies ! And the bread from the brick oven ! How I wish 1 had 
some now !" showing that the taste for the products of the 
early kitchen still lingers and can never die. It is not only that 
history has been imparted, but that which has been told herein 
by visitors of the joys-, sorrows, romances and customs of earlv 
Bergen County homes, has been so instilled in the Curator's 
mind that a glance in any direction, some relic could call forth a 

storv. 

'I thank you for the privilege given me tor th(> o!)portunUy 
to live so close to that which tells of the worth while lives m 
the making of dear old I'ergen Countw 
Respectfully submitted. 

FRANCES A. A\KSTF,BVKTT, Curator. 



Annual Report of the Archives and 

Property Committee 

During the vear now ending there have been added by 
purchase, gifts, and loans, three hundred articles all of which 
!a-e of interest and value. Many visitors to our Museum have 
been so impressed with the care and interest shown in the col- 
lections that thev have presented many things. 1 he list ot 
. n Xitoi-s and-artick.s\voul<l be too long to present at this 



i8 The Bergen County Historical Society. 

meeting, but special mention should be made of the gifts per- 
taining to Camp Merritt, of our own County, now practically 
closed. The Monument Memorial Committee of the camp have 
placed in our custody the bronze tablet (that was removed from 
the huge boulder) until called for to incorporate it in the Me- 
morial Monument to be erected on the cantonment site. Major- 
General Duncan presented an official linen map, 14 feet by 6 
feet, a plan of all the buildings, (over 1,000) in the camp with 
the key to the plan. Its proper and fitting care is being consid- 
ered. He gave also an aerial photograph of the cafnp. Another 
important gift is a large panoramic view of the cantonment, 
framed by the distant Palisades and the beautiful surrounding 
country. The post and wing case bears in one wing valuable 
data and photographs relative to the camp. The Camp Merritt 
Dispatch, published weekly, has been bound and is on exhibi- 
tion and for reference. 

Medals and certificates used to present to the Hackensack 
soldiers and sailors have been placed in the collection. The 
Liberty Loan Committee presented a large cannon, a French 
machine gun, large shell, German overcoat, helmet and haver- 
sack from a French battlefield. 

From a mother of Bergen County (who wears a gold star) 
has come to us a very sacred trust, her son's diary, working 
maps (he was an engineer), and other interesting data all so 
closely related to the great war. 

Many of our gifts have been of great value in the work 
being done in our Museum. 

Many calls have been made for our Year Books, several 
being from New Jersey school supervisors. One call from the 
Chinese Educational Commissioner to America for a history of 
our Museum. 

Several classes in the Stite Street School issue monthly 
papers, the printing being done in the High School printing 
department. To the class in the fourth grade was given Hack- 
ensack History and the loan of a cut of The Green in 1820 
which was used in the May number of the "Bird's-Eye News". 
From our archives almost daily data is being given on Bergen 
County history, many coming from out of town, showing an 
awakening in historical research for which the Bergen County 
Historical Society is mostly responsible. 

Respectfully submitted, 

FRANCES A. WESTERVELT, 
WILLIAM M. JOHNSON, 
MRS. HARRY BENNETT. 

P.S. From the publication of our last report, 1916-17, 



The Bergkx Couxtn 1 1 istork ai, Sf)CiKTv. 



19 



the activities, increase, and the orowth of oin" archives and 
I)ro])erties has heen continuotis. 



Report of the Committee on Ancient Cemeteries 

The committee heing uncertain as to just how mncli work 
had heen done hy their i^redecessors, has 'formuhited ])lans hy 
which it hopes to cover the scope of its held (or work) 
thoroughly. In the meantime, it would he very nuich appreciat- 
ed if any memher of the .Society who may have any data hearing 
on the work would comnunucate the same to the chairman of 
the committee. It is natural to suppose that those memhers 
Ii\ing in the \icinity of old cemeteries would he likelv to know 
most ahout them, and if such meml)ers would resolve themselves 
in1o suh-committees and report all the\- could find out ahout the 
old cemetei'ies in their own localities it would ver\- much help 
the work of the committee. 

AiATTHRW I. iu)(;i-:in\ 



Report of Committee on Church History 

^'oiu' clKiirman. at heginning of the year just ])asse(l. 
looked into the ftittu"e expecting that, the war being over, things 
would return to normal and some of the ])lans worked out for 
thks committee could he put into action. Rut. as the \e:ir ad- 
vanced, big ])rohlems loomed up claiming time and a'tention 
both from a ])atriotic and civic stauflpoint. thus forcing the 
abandonment of work in ])ros])ect. W'e look forward into the 
ftittu'e hoping that some definite work can l:)e accomplished in 
the coming vear. 

E. L. ZAHI^LSKIM 

Report of Committee on Current History 

The chairman of the Current History Committee liegs to 
report that during the year work was started upon ])rocuring 
the names of the bovs serving their country during the great 
war, but owing to the lack of c()-oi)eration and the almost ini- 
possible nature of the task it was deemed best to postpone this 
w^ork until such time as Congress has (-omi)iled and indexed the 
names of all who served their country. When this is dtme. as 
Representative Ramsey assured the chairman that it will he, 
he recommends that the Current History C\)mmiltee i)rocure 
a copy and file same for futtu-e reference. 
Respectfully submitted, 

THEODORE ROMATXE, Chairman. 



20 The Bergen County Historical Society 



Annual Report of the Genealogical and 
Biographical Committee 

The chairmanship of the Genealogical Committee was 
turned down by other people before it finally landed on me 
and I think I have discovered why. I am about the only mem- 
ber of this Society who is diligently locating ancestors and 
"how often, oh, how often" I have written to people something 
like this : "Your great-great-great grandmother and mine were 
sisters ; do you know any previous family history ?" Once in a 
while they reply, but usually they keep my stamped envelope 
and also the information. IMr. Miller probably thought "What 
a nuisance that woman is. We will put her on the Genealogical 
Committee and let her bother herself." 

Now this introduction explains my report. While Chair- 
man of this Committee, I discovered where two of my remote 
ancestors were buried in a field, and they were perfectly satis- 
factory ones too — they had gravestones wnth the dates of their 
birth and death engraved thereon. It's lucky they turned up 
in time to report, because no one has asked me to do a single 
thing. 

Respectfully submitted, 

A. ELIZABETH WARE. 



Report of Committee on Historic 
Sites and Events 

Our report will be brief. We can only report progress. 
We have been greatly disappointed in that we have been unable 
to set up on the site of the Protestant Lutheran Church and 
Cemetery on the River Road, just north of the residence of 
Mrs. W. W. Butler, the monument which we had ordered to 
mark that historic spot ; but because of labor shortage Mr. 
Elmer Mabie, who has so generously donated this monument, 
has been unable to complete his work. He hopes, however, to 
be ready some time this summer. 

ARTHUR VAN BUSK^.RK. 



Report of Committee on Membership 

Soon after Mr. Miller became President of the Society, 
he stated at one of the Executive Committee meetings that in 
order to increase its usefulness he felt that the Society should 
increase its membership, and suggested a plan similar to that 
used bv the National Geographic Society in obtaining members. 



Till-: I)i:r(;i:x C'()u^^^■ 1 1 isiokhai. Sociirrv. 2T 

With the api)roval of the Executive Committee, the plan was 
jnit in operation, and through Mr. Miller's activity and interest 
in seeing the Society grow, the C^)mmittee is ahle to make the 
following very encouraging report : 

Membership Roll. 

1919 April 26th Annual Meeting t_|t 

Elected 4 145 

May 15th Executive Com. Elected 6 

July 25th Executive Coul Elected 10 

Sept. 1 2th Executive Coul Elected 42 

Sei)t. 26th Executive Com. Elected 14 

Oct. 25th Semi-Annual Meeting, Elected. . 31 

Nov. 20th Executive Com. Elected 15 

Dec. 19th Executive Com. Elected 38 

1920 Jan. 9th Executive Com. Elected 2^ 

Jan. 16th Executive Com. Elected 14 

[an. 30th Executive Com. Elected 31 

Feh. 27th Executive Com. Elected 12 

Mch. 26th Executive Com. Elected 25 

Apl. 17th Annual Meeting, Elected 30 291 

436 
Deceased 4 

432 

Xet gain during year ~^7 

The same membershi]) i)lan is still in operation, with slight 
modifications, and consists mainly in having the various mem- 
bers of the Societv recommend to the Meml)ership Committee. 
on blanks furnished for this purpose, the names of i)ersons 
whom they believe would become memliers of the Societv. 
Many members have not yet responded to the recpiest fo'- 
nominations and yet the Society has increased to three times 
its membership of a year ago. It is the aim of the Executive 
Committee to have ainembership of one thousand by the next 
annual meeting. When we see what was accomplished during 
the past yeai, this should be a very easy task if all members will 
kindly submit their nonnnations of i)rospective members 
promptly. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Membership Committee, 

C. v. K. BOGERT, Chairman. 



22 The Bergen County Historical Society, 



Report of the Publication Committee 

The chairman of the PubHcation Committee reports that 
since the printing of the last year book, 1916-1917, it was ahiiost 
impossible to secure contributed articles for the new Year Book 
or get research work done until this year. Those who might 
have contributed were devoting all their energies, as good 
patriotic Americans, to help win the war. The Society is for- 
tunate this year in having a number of excellent articles as a 
perusal of the succeeding pages will show. The Publication 
Committee wishes to thank the writers of the articles as well 
as the chairmen of the various committees, most of the latter 
having made full reports. 

The chairman for some time has had in charge the publi- 
cation of two books which are unique in their way in that they 
are reproductions of original history of Bergen County. They 
record history as it was made at the time. The first book will 
be an exact copy of the "Minutes of the Justice and Freeholders 
of Bergen County," from May 19th, 171 5, to August i8th, 
1794. It is the earliest record extant in the County Clerk's 
office at Hackensack, New Jersey. The second is the Orderly 
Book of the New Jersey Brigade while in Bergen County. New 
Jersey, and the then adjacent county of Orange, New York, 
during the Revolutionary War, from July 30th to October i8th 
1780. From the fact that so little original historv of Bergen 
County has been preserved, the chairman has given much in- 
tensive study to this book requiring considerable expenditure 
of time and some little money of his own, with the result that 
every pertinent detail in regard to the officers, men, and places 
has been thoroughly worked out. From the subject matter, as 
presented in the book, some of the framework of all the regi- 
ments that were constituent parts of the army during that time 
has been found. From this and various other sources of in- 
formation I have been able to know the regiments that were 
actually present in Tappan, Closter, Englewood, Teaneck, 
Leonia, River Edge and Paramus, and how many regiments 
there were in the army and why the army was in the various 
places. Copies of newspaper extracts of the time, copies of 
many letters written during the period, copies of several 
diaries written at the time, all in regard to the territory in ques- 
tion, are included. These as well as much contemporaneous 
history serve admirably to elucidate the book and map. The 
book has been thoroughly indexed, both as to names and places, 
and the officers and men have been arranged and clas'.ified as 
to their various regiments. 

To get all the above has required numerous trips to librar- 



The Bkrgex C"()uxr\- 1 1 isiokicai. SotiiyiN-. 23 

ies in New York, Newark. I'erlh Amboy. Trenton and Wash- 
ington. D. C. Most of tlie work lias been com])leted. .Some of 
the members of the Society, knowing something of the historic 
^•ahle of the book and ma]), and being ck'sirons of seeing them in 
print, it has been decided that the i)ook and map will be pnb- 
lished without any addenda. At some future time, when the 
chairman, has completed the work, be ma\- at his discretion 
publish the result of his labors. 

BYRON (i. VAN HORNE. 



Report of Committee on NVars and Revolutionary 
Soldiers' Graves 

During the annu.al meeting of the Bergen County Histor- 
ical Society held during the year i»)i-| a rejjort was made of the 
work that Society had undertaken in locating the burial ])laces 
of all Revolutionary soldiers in Bergen County, with the ulti- 
mate object of marking them in some suitable manner. 

President J. L. :\lerrill of the New Jt'i'sey Society. S. A. R..* 
was a guest of honor at this meeting and during his address told 
of a similar work the New Jersey Society was doing in this 
respect. He suggested that here was an excellent op})ortunit\ 
for the two Societies to work together, and stated that it the 
Historical Society would notify the New jersey Society of all 
cuch graves they are able to locate, that the latter wftuld gladlv 
mark them with the regular S. A. R. bronze marker. 

Following Mr. ■Merrill's suggestion. ^Irs. V. A. We^vervelt, 
•he President of the Historical Societv. a])iH)inted the following 
committee to co-operate with the New Jersey Society and 
Paramus Chapter. S. A. R.. in carrving on the work: K. L. 
Zabriskie. Ridgewood, chairman; Daniel (1. I'ogert. kjigle- 
wood; Richard T. Wilson, Ridgewood; (irover I). Curtis. 512 
East 59th Street. N. Y. C. 

From that time and uj) to the ])resent. with the exception 
of the i)eriod during which members of the comtuittd- were 
ixtive in war work, the committee has ])rosecuted the work 
assigned to them and. as a result, has furnished to a similar 
coiumittee of Paranuis Chapter. S. A. R.. the following graves 
as worthy of being marked \nth their regular marker: 

1 lAeKl'.XSACK. 

Henry Berden. Eieutenant in 15ergen County State Troop, 
born August i. 1752. died March 25. 1849. Buried in aban- 
doned graveyard of the Christian Reformed Dutch (diurch on 
I-Iudson Street, Hackensack. 

.\l)raham L Brower. Private l*.ergen County ^Iditia. born 



24 The Bergen County Historical Society. 

June 21, 1763, died March 21, 1837. Buried in the graveyar '. 
of the Reformed Church of Hackensack. 

Benjamin P. Westervelt. Private Capt. Christie's Co., Ber- 
gen County INIiHtia, taken prisoner Sept. 6, 1781 ; exchanged: 
received a pension ; buried First Reformed Churchyard. 

New Bridge. 
John Demarest, Private Bergen County MiHtia. born Janu- 
ary 26, 1732, died May 14, 1809. Buried in French Cemetery 
between River Edge and New Bridge. 

Closter. 

Dan Van Scivan, a Pensioner in 1841 at which time he was 
hving in Lodi, born 1748, died July 10, 1843. Buried in Sautie 
Taves Burying Ground on property of Mr. Matt. Bogert, be- 
tween Closter and Demarest. 

Garret Auryansen, Private Bergen Comity Militia. 

Resolvert Auryansen, Private Bergen County Militia. 

Joseph Demarest, Private Bergen County Militia, also 
Lieutenant Colonel Fell's Battalion, N. J. State Troops. 

Barent Naugle, Private Bergen County Militia. 

David Naugle. Private Bergen County Militia. 

All of whom are buried in the Auryansen burial ground. 

RiDGEWOOD 

James J. Blauvelt, Private Bergen County Militia, born 
1763, died T842, a Pensioner in 1841, at which time he was liv- 
ing in Franklin Township. Buried in the graveyard of the 
Paramus Reformed Chiu'ch. 

Arcola. 
Albert P. Van Voorhees, Private Bergen County Militia. 
Buried in the Voorhis Family Burial ground. 

Bergenfield. 

Wiert Banta, Private Bergen County IVIilitia. 

David Campbell, Private Bergen County Militia. 

James Christie, Captain Bergen County Militia. 

John W. Christie, Private Bergen County Militia. 

Samuel Demarest, Captain Bergen County Militia. 

Jacob Westervelt, died in British Prison, New York City. 

All of whom are buried in the graveyard of the old South 
Schraalenburgh Reformed Church and whose graves have been 
marked by Post No. 52, G. A. R. 

Demarest. 
Dourve Talema (Dow Tallman), murdered by Tories. 
Buried Sauchers Taves Begraven ground. 

These names have been accepted by the S. A. R. and 



The Bergen County Histokral Society. 25 



arrangements have been made, when the markers can he ol)- 
tamed, to so mark the graves. 

In addition to the foregoing work the Committee in cor- 
responderce with proper authorities in Washington, have 
secured necessary data and forms required by the War Depart- 
ment, so that they are now in a position, when graves are 
located without headstones, to see that such headstones are 
placed by the representatives of the War Department. 

The Committee at present consists of : Grover D. Curtis 51 ^ 
East 59th Street, N. Y. C. ; H. H. Blauvelt, Ridgewood ; Carl 
M. Vail, Ridgewood ; Richard T. Wilson, Chairman, which 
chairmanship he has held since 191 5. 

Annual Report of the Women's 
Auxiliary Committee 

The first meeting was held in September to organize and 
make plans for the meetings for the winter. Fourteen mem- 
bers were present, and the underlying purpose of the progran' 
there suggested was to increase the interest in the aims of the 
Bergen County Historical Society, and by increasing that 
interest, gain more members and by these means accomplish 
.^:ome of the objects for which the Society was established. That 
we have succeeded, in at least one endeavor, is shown by oiu 
membership of nearly ninety members. 

The October meeting was held at the home of the Chair- 
man, Mrs. A. Z. Bogert. After a short business meeting the 
members motored to Camp Merritt. where they were met by 
Major-General Duncan and Major Landon, and by them were 
shown the cam]) with special interest in the site of the proposed 
memorial. 

The November meeting was held in the rooms of the 
Society, and Mrs. Westervelt gave a most interesting talk on 
"Household Ways in Old Bergen County." illustrated by 
articles drawn from the wonderfully rich collection in the 
Museum of the Society. 

The December meeting was omitted because of the many 
demands of the holiday season, but January was ricli enough to 
compensate. Then was held an exhibit of china, glass and 
pottery of which the Society could be i)roud, and again our 
Curator shared with us her fund of knowledge regarding the 
choice collection. This exhibition remained open six weeks, 
during which time there was an average daily attendance of 
twenty-five people, and this during the days of storm and bad 
roads. 

Owing to the unusual difticulties of transportation, the 
February meeting was very small, only four being present. 



2() The Ber(;kx Couxi^' Histokicae SocrETW 



1 he interest of the March meeting was given hy the 
nieinhers, who contrihuted items of local historical interest. 

In April the Auxiliary was given a rare treat, for Mrs. 
Mabon opened her house on Essex street to the members, and 
the old stone house with its treasures was thoroughly enjoyed 
and admired From there the members were taken to the old 
Anderson house on Main street, where Miss Anderson showed 
the Auxiliary the same gracious hos])itality and the members 
ex])lored every corner of one of the interesting old houses of 
I-)ergen County. 

Before closing this report, it seems but right to speak of 
ihe far-reaching- influence that our Curator, Mrs. Westervelt 
is exerting in the thoughts of our school children in stimulating 
their interest and creating in theiu a reverence for the things 
of the past. Surely they will be better Americans for this 
charming way of studying the history of their county. One 
needs only to spend an afternoon in our Museum to realize how 
very real the interest is that will bring so manv children to 
browse among its treasures. 

Respectfully submitted, 

MRS. A. Z. BOGERT. Chairman. 



The Patriotic Duty of An Historical Association 

An Address made at the Annual Meeting, April 27, 1920, by Captain Arthur H. 
Brown, Senior Chaplain, 80th Divison, A. E. F. 

The invitation to speak to you met with my unhesitating 
acceptance. Possibly this was due to the pleasant recollections 
of a similar privilege which came to me three years ago. Then, 
too, the subject suggested was one that appealed to me very 
nuich, for whatever else my army experience did or failed to do 
for me, to this I can testify — it awakened an interest in such 
work as your society aims to accomplish. 

After the armistice and before sailing for home, during 
that long interim when hope deferred made the heart sick, one 
of my duties as Division Chaplain was to issue a weekly histor- 
ical bulletin, descriptive of places of interest which lay in the 
neighborhood of our training area. 

It was my custom to sally forth, armed, not with a 
Baedecker but with an interpreter (my own French 1 am sorry 
to confess never matured), and to invade a town which prom- 
ised to yield some treasure. My assault would be directed on 
the mayor, the schoolmaster or the village cure' as the likeliest 
sources of information. Generally, it was the old cure' wh.T 
proved to be the best repository of local lore. Can one ever 



The Bergex Couxtv Histokjcal Sdcietv. 



forget or cease to admire those simple-hearted priests who. 
with the reverence which knowledge inspires and the love which 
long association hreeds, would show me the cherished reliques 
of an older day ? 

_ What information their own rich memories failed to hring 
to light was generally availahle on the shelves of their lihrarie's 
where books stood ranged, books which looked as though thev 
outrivaled in age the neighboring church itself. Here, where 
everything fairly reeked with the'past including our little snuff- 
loving, cassock-clad priest, he would adjust his glasses over 
the yellow page of some ancient volume and discover for mv 
use the forgotten fact. 

How delightful to me were those days of lesearch, to me 
who used to be quite awed by the extreme antiquity of some of 
the Dutch houses in Bergen County ! I got so that I would 
pass by with indifference a i6th Century church, even though 
built at a time when contemporary America was but a woodland 
wilderness. Why waste one's precious time with things so 
modern when there were plenty all about which could boast 
an age ])erhai)s twice as great? 

If you want to be made keenly aware of your own national 
youth fulness, poke around in one of those French villages. Our 
soldiers would be billeted in some unimpressive little town, out 
of the main current of life and events, and they would imagine 
that they were bringing to it, for the first time, name and 
fame ; when, like as not. it antedated our entire American 
civilization by half a thousand years and their coming was 
only one more chapter in a long and glorious story. 

The relative significance, from an historical point of view , 
between the old world and the new was well brought out by 
John Burns of England. He was conversing with two soldiers, 
one of our own men and a Canadian, as they stood together 
just outside the Parliament Buildings in I^ondon. Pointing to 
the Thames the American asked. "What's that. Mr. Burns?' 
"That." was his answer, "is the mighty Thames!" "Humph!" 
was the rejoinder. "Have you seen the Missouri River?" Then 
the Canadian spoke up : ''Before you answer that tell me. Mr 
Burns, if you have seen the St. Lawrence." "Yes," said John 
Burns quite undisturbed, "yes. Pve seen both your rivers. Your 
St. Lawrence is just water. Your Missouri is only muddy 
water. But. gentlemen, this is liquid history !" 

\\'hat interesting things I found as a reward for m\ 
search, almost within the limits, too. of one of our counties — 
the partiallv excavated ruins of a Gallo- Roman town ; the tomb 
of St Valentine, a 6th Centurv holy man, as well as the skull 
of that distinguished gentleman carefully preserved and an- 



28 The Bergen County Historical Society 

nually exposed to the reverend gaze of pilgrims ; a Gothic 
cliurch built in the era of the Crusades, four hundred years be- 
fore the adventurous voyage of Columbus but still standing, 
opened-doored to the worshipper, though bearing all the marks 
of venerable age ; a 14th Century feudal castle, a fine example 
of that sturdy form of architecture called Norman, majestic 
even in its decay. These are but a few of a host of things, 
remnants of an elder time, found in a secluded, luifrequented 
part of La Belle, France. Now you see why I share with you 
all the enthusiastic interest which you are taking in the tradi- 
tions of this historic region. 

But while speaking of the mere pleasure one derives from 
it, I realize that it is something more than a fascinating pastime, 
Ihis delving into things dead and gone. Dead did I say ? There 
is where we err. How foolish to suppose that the Past is some- 
thing extinct and powerless ! Why, the Past is a hand, stronf^ 
and masterful, stretching through time and moulding that 
which is and that which is to be. The Past, in relation to the 
Present, is like a father who gives to his son so many of his 
qualities and characteristics that, when the former is no longer 
in the flesh and we see the boy, we justly say, "His father lives 
again in him." So far from yesterday being a thing without 
vitality, we may say that in many an instance the Present must 
become the Past before it makes its fullest impression, before 
we can begin to form any just estimate of its far-reaching and 
never-ending influence. Home and the dear folks who i)eopled 
it never meant so much nor affected us for good so greatly as 
when they took their place among the things that were. So 
with the War. During its progress conjectures were rife as to 
its meaning, its significance. But they were only conjectures. 
We knew not, nor do we now know, the implications of that 
struggle. The most we can say with certainty is that the face of 
the world has been changed forever and only eternity will 
reveal all that is involved in that bloody cataclysm which for 
four years convulsed the earth. 

In that sense the Past is ever living and powerful, whether 
we will it or not. But in another sense, it lies within our ability 
and choice to make much that is in the Past dynamic or other- 
wise. Here lies the function, the patriotic duty, it seems to me. 
of an historical association. It should keep alive, by making it 
known, all that is best in the Past so that it may continue to 
carry on a ministry for good in the Present. 

On a neglected shelf in the Bodleian Library at Oxford 
there lay for two centuries several volumes of closely written 
cipher. At last someone had the ])atience and the skill to un- 
ravel the mysterious code and in doing so discovered the now 



The Bergen County Historical Society. 29 

famous diary of Pepys, a diary which pours a flood of hght on 
the period of the Restoration in England and affords a wealth 
of entertainment to those who delight in reading of the ways 
and whims of other times. The antiquarian, to whom we owe 
the translation, was veritably resurrecting a portion of the Past 
What tremendous inspiration may be found in the Past, if 
we be bent on making the most of it ! Early in the War. Lord 
Kitchener died, but he did not cease to live. The North Sea 
swallowed up his gallant form, but England, who held him in 
her heart, decreed that his spirit should persist. A poet of ou^ 
very own, Miss Amelia Burr of Englewood, wrote thus of him : 

"Not the muffled drums for him 
Nor the wailing of the fife. 
Trumpets blaring to the charge 
Were the music of his life. 
Let the music of his death 
Be the feet of marching men. 
Let his heart a thousand- fold 
Take the field again." 

When Canada wanted fresh volunte-rs. she put out posters 
with those last two lines upon them — 

"Let his heart a thousand-fold 
Take the field again." 

Those Avho understood the inspiration of his career and rallied 
in response to that appeal, constituted what in all justice was 
still called "Kitchener's Army." How admirably, too, this 
thought is illustrated from the annals of our own Civil War. 
John Brown was hung two years before the first shot was 
fired on Sunday, but what was the expressive song sung on the 
long tramp by weary men who needed every possible spur to 
keep them going? 

"John Brown's body lies a-moulding in the grave, 
But his soul goes marching on '" 

How much of inspiration there may be in a great Past the 
returned soldier is especially well able to judge, for he has been 
in a land and among a people who could boast one. As I have 
intimated, France is saturated with the Past. On every hand, 
in old chateaux mellowed by the touch of centuries, in beautiful 
cathedrals wrapped in all the mystery of the Middle Ages, 
other days looked down upon him and spoke of fine achieve- 
ment It stirred him mightily to find himself walking the very 



30 Till-: Ber(;ex County Historical Society. 

highways which once beat to the tread of Caesar's own legions 
or to be housed in barracks as at Pontanezen, the very barracks, 
n'hich \vere once peo]:)led with the brave soldiers of Napoleon, 
that "little corporal" who for the sake of a great name knocked 
half the world to pieces. In almost every church in France 
there stood a statue of Joan of Arc, clad in armor and uphold- 
ing the banner of her country. Well did we express in song the 
spiritual significance of it all — 

"Joan of Arc! Joan of Arc! 
May your spirit guide us through. 
Lead your France to victory. 
Joan of Arc ! They are calling you." 

Tne\itably thoughts like these bring to my mind those words 
from Scripture : 

"Seeing we are compassed about by so great a cloud of 
witnesses, let us run with patience the race that is set before 

us. 

Do you remember how Gibbon came to write the Decline 
and Fall of the Roman Empire? The idea first started in his 
mind while on a visit to the Eternal City. To use his own 
classic words, it was "in the close of the evening, as I sat mus- 
ing in the church of the * * * Franciscan Friars, while 
they were singing Vespers in the Tem])le of Jupiter, on the 
ruins of the Capitol." Inspiration enough for a task even so 
tremendous as that which Gibbon undertook I 

Here lies the justification for the Bergen Comity H'-^torical 
Society in this region so rich, considering the brevity of its 
years, in that which ought to make men proud : the justification, 
too, of that splendid proposal to mark by fitting monument 
the site of Camp Merritt, through which so many of our fight- 
ing host passed on their way to a war magnificently waged. Not 
that we can honor these men by tablet of bronze or monument 
of stone ! Their own deeds are their sufficient praise. But in 
commemorating them we benefit ourselves, in drinking from 
the wells of memory and admiration we gather strength to up- 
hold the blazing torch they lit and continue the fight which, 
we pray God, may ultimately mean a new earth, as well as a 
new heaven, wherein dwelleth righteousness. 

But while there is inspiration in the Past, there is also peril 
to which we must not blind our eyes. There are things in the 
Past which we have laboriously kept alive but which ought to 
have been left to die a natural death. It is like a patient whose 
heart-action is sustained by artificial means. One could' I't help 
but feel that in certain ways the Past was too much with them 
on the other side. How provoking it was to see jieople iog on 



The Bergen County Historical Society. 31 



contentedly behind some outworn tradition, some age-old cus- 
tom which, if brought to the trial of reason, could not iustify 
itself. -" ' - 

This is illustrated by an incident that happened in a 
village where some Americans were billeted. The mayor re- 
quested that in case of fire the soldiers should assist in manning 
hose and pump. To this the colonel readily agreed ; even went 
so far as to a])])oint a special detail for the purpose. The lieu- 
tenant in command thought a little practice would be a wise 
precaution. But the mayor would not listen to the idea. "We 
cannot allow that." he said in ill-concealed astonishment at the 
absurdity of the request. "We cannot allow that. The hose 
hasn't been used for twenty years. It is old and rotten, and if 
you go to fooling with it, might burst." 

The peril of the Past is that one may anchor to it rather 
than draw incentive from it. Some people seem intent on mak- 
ing the Past a goal rather than a point of departure. They have 
an inordinate reverence for mere age. They worship the God 
of Things as They Were, and the liturgy of their worship is 
"What was. should be now and ought ever to be." Deliver me 
from such blind devotion ! Ral])h Adams Cram may dilate oi- 
the glories of the 13th Century and we find ourselves in hearty 
accord with much he says, but when he ])aints it as a sort of 
Golden Age and laments the decadence of these modern times, 
we part company. The truth is that wc have cast the veil of 
romantic imagination over some of those Mediaeval towns 
They were as picturesque and interesting as I ha\'e hinted, but 
if. with our modern tastes, we were transplanted, like the 
Yankee in King Arthur's Court, into the long ago, we would 
probably refuse to live in them. They have "a glory from their 
being far." Hopeless dirt, incredible stench, want of drainage, 
scanty light, accumulated garbage — ah. yes. I think I may safe- 
ly say that the old haunts of chivalry and love would have 
been quite intolerable to the modern American who expects his 
daily bath and an ample amount of fresh air. He would have 
pined for these degenerate times. 

The degree to which imagination enters into our concep- 
tion of the Past is suggested by a story of Archbishop Whate- 
ley's. An antiquarian found what he supposed was an ancient 
shield. He prized it highly, incrusted as it was with venerable 
dust. He loved to muse on the splendid appearance it must 
have had in its bright newness ; till, one day, an over-sedulous 
house-maid having- scoured off the rust, it turned out to be 
merely an old pot-lid. 

Now I think it is the duty of an historical association to re- 
vive the Past in so far as it deserves revival and then to use the 



3-^ The Bergex County Historical Society. 

remaining material of its find to emphasize and praise the ad- 
vances which ^^-e have made on times gone by, remembering 
ever that "to Hve is to outHve." Unless we want to be classed 
with the "have beens," we must keep our minds in a healthy 
state of hospitality toward the new. interesting ourselves as a 
society, not only in history that has been made, but also in his- 
tory that is being made. 

We were never so open-minded as during the War. This 
was doubtless due to the enormous scale on which the fight wa^ 
conducted. Precedents had to be abandoned. Old ways of 
doing things would not suffice. We were compelled to blaze 
new trails through virgin forests. The War also made us crit- 
ical of what was old. -\ vast judgment seat was set up in the 
world before which governments and institutions, men and 
gods, were brought to trial. Our most cherished convictions 
were subjected to searching examination. The rooted habits ot 
a lifetime had to justify themselves or go in the discard. We 
were all saying that a brighter future was being forged on the 
dark anvil of the present. But with the armistice a re-action 
set in and it has been spreading ever since, so that the peril is 
that we will fail to reap the full harvest of benefit from a war 
successfully waged. In our recoil from the extravagant ideas 
of radicals, we give every evidence of playing into the hands 
of stand-patters, who hate disturbance even as they love their 
incomes. Apparently, they would like to have the greatest dis- 
aster which ever befell the world, a disaster which can be traced 
to very evident and remediable wrongs. — they would have 
such a disaster come and go with no result save the death of 
ten million robust men and certain commercial advantages 
accruing to the United States. 

There is a type of mind which such can influence, and they 
are doing so by every possible means — those who deprecat" 
change, the kind who at every new projwsition only entrench 
themselves the more strongly in the old position, saying "What 
is new isn't true." They forget that the progress of the race 
has come only by the breaking of precedent and that everv 
thought, every custom, every method which we honor today 
was once brand new without an antecedent to sustain it. "There 
is nothing new under the sun" is a saying often on their lips. 
They overlook the fact that it was uttered by the arch-pessimist 
of the Bible and that after his day even Christ Himself came 
The writer of Ecclesiastes must have been the spiritual ances- 
tor of a certain man who in 1832 resigned his position in the 
Patent Office. The reason he gave was that he felt sure every- 
thing had been invented that was ever going to be. that the 
Patent Office would soon have to close, and that he had best 



The Bergex Couxtv Historical Society 



33 



forestall the inevitable by looking elsewhere for emplovment. 
That was in 1832 ! 

Of course, extremists on the other side are just as bad. 
the men who like to affect what is new, very often too when its 
newness is its chief charm and sometimes its only recommenda 
tion. They are men who have no loyalties to the Past, but who. 
like the fickle weather-vane, follow the shifting impulses of the 
moment. Xo finer word has been uttered here this evening 
than that which told of work done by this Society among the 
children of foreign parents. To initiate them into the great- 
ness of our national past, to acquaint them with those things 
which stir the soul to patriotic pride, to reveal to them the 
roots from whence sprang all that is best in American life, is 
both a safe-guard for us and a God-send to them. 

In this day of clamant voices, some crying "Halt '" and 
others, "Double-quick. 3.1arch !" the member of an historical 
society ought, it seems to me. to occupy a middle position, a 
kind of Golden ]\Iean. He should be a man who honors the 
Past, gratefully seeks, accepts and employs all of good it has to 
3'ield him. He does not speak and act as if no one. before he 
appeared, had ever lived or thought. He understands that, 
were it not for the Past, we would have to start afresh speech- 
less savages in the forest. He appreciates the fact that the day 
of some things is past, forever past, like empty sea-shells, whose 
work of protection is done ; very curious, very picturesque, very 
interesting, it may be, but no longer useful. He is not blind 
to the fact that the Past made its mistakes, that it left a few 
problems for the Future to solve. Therefore he is not a slave 
of predecent ; he does not make a fetish of the Past. He is hos- 
pitable to change, orderly change. He is open-minded toward 
tomorrow. He knows by the experience of the Past that the 
fanaticism of today will be the fashionable creed of tomorrow. 
He perceives that there are "new and gigantic thoughts in the 
air which cannot dress themselves in the old wardrol)e of the 
past." He is. therefore, willing, if necessary, to make a "haz- 
ard of new fortunes." \\'ith reverence for the Past with 
o-reater reverence for the Future, assured that Truth hath 
shown him but half her face and that beyond and above still 
tower the vast heights of unattained possibility, he presses on 
with Lowell's magnificent lines upon his lii)s — 

"New occasions teach new duties ; 
Time makes ancient good uncouth ; 
Thev must upward still, and onward. 
\\'ho would keep abreast of Truth ; 
Lo, before us gleam her camp-fires ! 
A\'e ourselves must Pilgrims be, 



34 The Bergen County Historical Society. 

Launch our Mayflower, and steer boldly 
Through the desperate winter's sea, 
Nor attempt the Future's portal 
With the Past's blood-rusted key." 



The Nation: What It Is— What It Costs 

Address by Lieut. Col. E. W. Halford, Leonia, N. J., 
July 4, 1916 

Unveiling of W^ashington Commemorative Tablet — Passage of 

Revolutionary Troops from Fort Lee through 

Leonia to Hackensack and Trenton 

The commemoration of a retreat may be regarded as some- 
what anomalous. Monuments are usually raised to victories, 
and tablets mark the path of advance. As the eye of memory 
looks toward yonder hillside, and follows the line to and beyond 
where we now meet, it is to see a small company of men, not 
with bands playing and banners flying in the blatancy of 
triumph ; but marching in grim silence, without conf us'um it is 
true, yet equally without the elation of success. But November 
20, 1776, was a necessary day in the calendar of events \^'hich, 
beginning with the preceding 4th of July, ended at Yotktown, 
and fruited in the founding of a nation and a government, now 
the greatest, and potentially the mightiest, among all the na- 
tions and governments of the world. 

Retreat is not always disaster. Xenophon won immortal- 
ity through retreat ; and it is of interest to us in New Jersey, at 
least, to recall that it was his work within the borders of this 
state — those masterly maneuvers of which this retreat was a 
part — that gave to Washington an international reputation as a 
soldier, calling forth from Frederick the Great of Prussia, the 
comment that "these strategies had never been excelled in all 
the annals of war." 

I. THE NATION. 

This tablet here unveiled and speaking of but one in^.ident 
and that comparatively minor, would be measurably me-ining- 
less were it not intended as the expression, for oursel ,'?': and 
for posterity, of the soul and spirit of the nation it coi: notes. 
As Jerseyites we may well and worthily engage in these exer- 
cises ; for New Jersey has an honorable record in connection 
with the entire struggle. Before the Declaration was made its 
people deposed from the speakership of the State A-sembly 
Robert Ogden, because he failed to unite with them in me-norial 
and protest to the King and Parliament of Great Britain against 
the wrongs from which they suffered, and it was the third state 
to ratify and to adopt the constitution of the new nation, 



The Bergen County Histokicai, Society. 35 

while within its herders were fought some of the most (].>-isive 
struggles of the Revolution. 

A nation, with all the word implies, was created ii\' the 
Fathers. There were those in the early days and ha\e been 
all along our history, as there are some yet. who atfect to be- 
lieve that it was an isolate, self-contained and self -satisfied com- 
munity that was then formed. Within the last ninety days I 
read in a leading editorial printed in one of the most prominent 
daily newspapers of the country this choice morsel : 

"God swung his deep and stormy Atlantic seas between 
Europe and America. We would not suffer materiallv or other- 
wise if those seas were never crossed by a British, a German, 
or an American keel, for we are sufficient unto (jurselves in 
every way." — Los Angeles Times, April 3. 

These have ignorantly if not wilfully misinter,ireted 
Washington's wise warning against "Permanent politicr;.! alli- 
ances" with other nations, and have assumed that the Father of 
his country believed that the Nation he assisted into being 
should and could have a reserved and restricted life ; a li^e with 
privileges to be sure, but without resi^onsibilities. They have 
not read history wisely nor well. 

On the /th of June. 1776, on motion of Richard Henry 
Lee. the Continental Congress adopted a resolution de-'laring 
it to be "expedient forthwith to take the most effective meas- 
ures for forming foreign alliances." Twelve colonies voted 
for this resolution. New York alone abstaining from voting, 
and a committee was at once appointed upon "relations with 
foreign powers." The Declaration of July 4 proclaimed the 
purpose of the Colonies to l)e "to assume among the powers 
of the earth that separate and equal station to which the laws 
of nature and of nature's God entitled them." Third in the 
catalogue enumerating powers belonging to such a nation, 
was "to contract alliances"; and on July 6. 1778, "A tre:ity of 
alliance and commerce" was formed with France, soon fol- 
lowed by others of a like nature with other governments 

The Constitution of the United States, adopted Sep. ember 
17, 1787, provided that Congress should have "power to regu- 
late commerce w'ith other nations." and that the President 
should, "by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, 
make treaties," without qualification as to their terms, so that 
they be within the scope of universally-accepted national 
sovereignty. This constitution was signed by George V\^ash- 
ington as President of the Convention which framed it. Wash- 
ington had no belittling idea of the power or purpose of this 
Nation, and he cannot be quoted against the fullest and largest 
function of our National life. 



36 The Bergen County Historical Societv. 

The United States is a world power, a member of the 
family of Nations, with full international relationship and re- 
sponsibility. It cannot exist for itself. It cannot stand aside 
from the development of civilized society througho'jt the 
whole earth. 

II. WHAT THE NATION IS. 

This Nation has its own genius. Fifty-three years ago, 
on the greatest battlefield of the civil war, yVbraham Lincoln 
said : "Four score and seven years ago our fathers 
brought forth on this continent a new nation conceived in 
liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are 
created equal. We are now in a struggle to test whether that 
nation or any nation so conceived and dedicated can long en- 
dure." One hundred and forty years is not much of a period 
in the life of a nation. Two lives such as mine carry us to a 
point six years prior to the Declaration and to nineteen years 
iDefore the government eventuating the reform was formally 
inaugurated. Other nations have lasted through many cen- 
turies, if not milleniums. The testing time to which Mr. Lin- 
coln alluded is still on. We speak of "Independence Day." 
Except in a restricted sense the term is a misnomer ; an infirm- 
ity of language. In the large sense no person or no nation is 
independent : The thoughtless use of the word tends to breed 
arrogance and selfishness. The only "independent" condition is 
the condition of irresponsibility. The moment a mar. or a 
nation comes to himself or itself, there is established tbat "in- 
terdependence" which is the law of all sentient and responsi- 
ble life. In one way or another the United States must be at 
charges with the other nations of the earth. We shall be forced 
to enter into their fellowship, even the fellowship of their suf- 
ferings, and to an increasing degree as the distances of the 
world grow smaller and the fellowship of man becomes more 
instant and constant. 

The principle to which this Nation is dedicated is the 
equality of all men — the universal Democracy of Humanity — 
"All men," as used in the Declaration, means all men. It 
means democracy and freedom for the Mexican as well as for 
the American, for the black as well as for the white ; for far 
Cathay as well as for Europe or the United States. We stand 
for that supreme and conquering principle of universal democ- 
racy in which "none shall dominate but all shall share" ; ? prin- 
ciple essential and applicable to all life — political, social, eco- 
nomic, mental, moral, s))iritual. It is one world, one hui^ianity, 
one law, one destiny. This may prove a difficult lesson to learn, 
and an unpleasant theorem upon which either to make or to 



TiiF. Brrgen County Historical Society. 37 

interpret history or to regulate conduct. But it is eternally true 
and eternally inescapable. 

Upon this principle this Nation is dedicated to Peace. Said 
President Harrison. "Our people are smitten with the Icve of 
peace." That is the prophylaxis in our essential nature which 
will saYe us from developing the desire for war. despite the 
efforts of a few to inoculate the country with the viru-' now. 
eating out the vitals of outworn autocracies. The spirit of war 
is the spirit of conquest. That spirit is hateful to us, and alien 
to our birthright. We will have none of it. With unerring in- 
stinct there is chiseled on the face of the monument of our 
greatest military chieftain, "Let us have peace." Washington 
wrote : "I am led to reflect how much more delightful to an un- 
debauched mind is the task of making improvements on the 
earth than all the vain glory which can be acquired from ravag- 
ing it by the most uninterrupted career of conquest." \iiierica 
is committed to development, not to destruction ; to order, not 
to chaos ; to the inalienable rights of all men everywhere to life, 
liberty and the pursuit of happiness. W^e make uncomrromis- 
ing battle against whatever stands in the way of these things, 
whether at home or abroad. To bring to perfection these fruits 
of a normal life there must be peace within our own l)orders, 
and elsewhere — a peace to be secured and maintained at vvhat- 
ever cost. We stand ready for, and responsive to, the call of 
duty toward the peoples and the nations of the earth in the con- 
stitution of international agencies for the determination, the en- 
forcement and the maintenance of those rights and privileges 
which make for justice and righteousness — the only stable 
foundations of the peace we desire and will have, not for our- 
selves only, but for all mankind. 

HI. WTIAT IT COSTS. 
Nothing is so costly as all this, for these are of the spirit 
of a man and of a Nation. In the garden of the sprrU the 
hnest fruits ripen on the higher branches. "Freedom in its 
deepest and broadest sense is never a bequest ; it must be b con- 
quest." And it is always of the Soul. Said Daniel \A'ei)ster: 
"Be it remembered that it was a thinking communitv that 
achieved our revolution before it was fought." The minds of 
men are the first battlefields, and conscience is the arena in 
which issues are met and fought out to wise or base conclusion. 
Much has been said of one or other infallibility — infallibility of 
popes, of churches, of authority, or of custom. There is but one 
infallibility — the human conscience, which Shakespear.^ called 
"This deity in my l)OSom." Quoting Washington again : 
"Labor to keep alive in you that little spark of celestial fire 
called conscience." Unless men shall keej) their mind-- their 



38 The Bergen County Historical Society. 

own, and back their untrammeled judgment, reached through 
an educated, intelHgent and sane conscience, with a wil^. that 
leads them to the end no matter what may be involved, their 
enslavement is but a question of time and of occasion. All that 
is worth while in human history has been worked out through 
a science knowing no unworthy compromise of principle, and a 
spirit ever open to the influences of a virtue untainted by sel- 
fishness and unweakened by fear. 

"Yet still there whispers the small voice within : 
Heard through gain's silence and o'er glory's din. 
Whatever creed be taught, or land be trod. 
Man's conscience is the oracle of God." 

In 1 761 James Otis cried out before the Supreme Court of 
Massachusetts : "To my dying day I will oppose with all the 
powers and faculties God has given me such instruments of 
slavery on the one hand and villany on the other" — referring 
to entry and search of a man's house without authority of law. 
Speaking of this protest by Otis, John Adams said : "Then and 
there was the first act of opposition to the arbitrary claims of 
Great Britain — Then and there the child Independence was 
born." 

The protestant conscience is the father of freedom : The 
protestant conscience must be sacredly guarded as the final 
bulwark of liberty. John Hampden declining to pay the ship 
tax, and going to jail rather than obey an unrighteous law 
enacted by tyranny : Abraham Lincoln resisting through an 
entire night the advice of weaker-minded men who preferred 
to walk in dalliance with opportunism, saying to them, "I am not 
bound to win, but I am bound to be true" — and in the morning 
uttering the debated words that doubtless contributed to the 
defeat of his political advancement for the time, but which in 
the near future proved the golden stairs upon which he f limbed 
the heights, to become 

"On freedom's crowning slope 

The pillar of a people's hope. 

The center of a world's desire" : — 

William E. Gladstone saying to his opponents in the British 
parliament in the debate upon the extension of the ballot— 
"The great moral forces which move onward in their might 
and majesty, and which the tumult of our debate does not for 
a moment impede and disturb — these great forces are against 
you" : — 

The ])rotestant conscience that will say with Tennvson — 



The Bergen Couxtv I lisTOkicwi. Society. 



39 



"Because right is right, 

To follow right were wisdom in scorn of conse(|ucnce," — ■ 

this is to he cultivated and maintained at every hazard. Men 
still stone the prophets; yet in after ages the stones hecome 
their monuments. 

But let those who assume to he ])rophets and teachers he 
careful of their title. An inflamed conscience is not necessar- 
ily a reliable guide, and protestantism may be only a name for 
narrow prejudice. The spirits which voice themselves to man's 
conscience must he tried and can he tried, and are to be accepted 
or rejected according to their reactions. One safe and sure test 
is of their harmony with the soul of, and their contribution to, 
the development of a stable democracy. 

There must as well be a corporate conscience. There are 
other agents and responsible units than individuals through 
which life is functioned and the work of the world carried 
forward. The corporate conscience can only be born out of and 
developed f roiu the individuals who com])ose the corporation — 
social, economic, civic, religious. An individual can no longer 
hide behind corporate impersonality for either action or non- 
action that would be culpable or cowardly in himself. The old 
legal lie that "corporations have no souls," in the sense that its 
members are thereby immune from responsibility for corporate 
misconduct, has been driven into exile by the social forces of 
these later days. Guilt is not only personal : l)ut responsibility 
for corporate guilt is personal. Whether of a family, or of a 
firm, or of a corporation business or political — each of us is held 
for the acts of those to whom he relates himself: sometimes 
and in some ways more directly perhaps than at others : but in 
the last analysis responsibility inevitably accrues, and penalties 
for action or inaction are remorselessly levied and executed. 

This corporate conscience must be quickened and kept pro- 
testant against social and .political unrighteousness. \\'e are 
our brother's keepers, and wrongs unjustly inflicted or allowed 
cry from the ground until avenged and righted. Said Mr. Lin- 
coln in the dark days of our great civil conflict : "Fondlv do we 
hope, fervently do we pray, that the mighty scourge of war may 
soon pass away. Yet if God wills that it continue until all the 
wealth piled by the bondsman's two hundred and fifty years of 
unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood 
drawn by the lash shall be paid for by another drawn by the 
sword, as was said three thousand years ago, so still must it be 
said, 'The judgments of the Lord are true and righteous a|to- 
gether.' " These words are as vital now as when they were first 
uttered. They measure the demand that will be made upon 



40 The Bergen County Historical Society. 

America by reason of its trusteeship for humanity, as they indi- 
cate the peril and penahy of ignoble betrayal. 

Non-conformity is seldom easy, unless when made a virtue 
in itself to"minister to vain self-complacency. Ease lies along 
the path of least resistance. But non-conformity is the atmos- 
phere of freedom. The tendency in all organization is toward 
crystallization, institutionalism, in which is ever lurking the 
danger of tyranny, caste and hierarchy. Dissent is the necessity 
of democracy : a dissent founded in conscience, guided and 
restrained by wisdom, but without fear. In the degree this 
spirit of non-conformity be absent from, or is lost to indi- 
viduals, to society, to the state, to the church, there ensues a 
like measure of arrested development, of decay, of tyrarmy, or 
oligarchy. 

If this government, acclaimed today not only in this land, 
but wherever its influence and its hope have extended and pene- 
trated human society, is to be preserved, it must remain "a 
government of the people, for the people, and by the people." 
Virtue and morality must ever be the twin pillars upon which it 
shall stand, these pillars firmly fixed upon the only foundation 
strong enough to bear them and their superstructure. There is 
a constant disposition to belittle and to cast aside the authority 
of religion ; not the form of its expression, about which men 
may justly differ; but the spirit of religion, which is essential 
to life. Washington cautioned his fellow-citizens against the 
folly of indulging the hope that free government could exist 
except through virtue and morality, and he warned them that 
these traits could only be maintained through religion. Writing 
to his wife on the 3rd of July, 1776, John Adams said of the 
day upon which the question of the Declaration was determined, 
that the day "ought to be commemorated from this time for- 
ward forever, from one end of the continent to the other, by 
solemn acts of devotion to xA-lmighty God, as well as with guns, 
bells, bonfires, and illuminations." • 

Fundamentally the American spirit is deeply religious. 
When Columbus discovered America the first thing he did was 
to dedicate it to Almighty God in the name of the King of 
Spain. When the Pilgrim Fathers landed on our shores, they 
praised God for bringing them to a new world where thev could 
enjoy civic and religious freedom. And during the years of 
the Revolution the Continental Army as well as the colonists 
generally, besought the Almighty to help them in their struggle 
for freedom. John Adams gives a very graphic picture of a re- 
markable scene — the first prayer ever offered in Congress. The 
chaplain — an Episcopal minister — invoked the Divine blessing 
and guidance upon their proceedings. Patrick Henry, Samuel 




C X 

Z 5 

< — 

r; .if 

> X 




OLD BRINKERHOFF HOUSE 
Demarest's on Teaneck Road, not far from N. Y. trolley track. 
specimens now standing. 



One of the finest 
Dormer windows were added a few years ago. 




THE SMITH OR McMlCIIAEL HOUSE. 
English Neighborhood Road. 



The Berckx Couxtv Historical Sociktn-. 41 



Adams, Randolph, Riitledge. Lee and Jay were amoiii^- those 
who stood with bowed and uncovered heads, but Washington 
sank upon his knees. In this way did the first Congiess ac- 
knowledge their dependence upon God. and one of tlu-ir acts 
was to proclaim a fast day on which they called "the inhabitants 
of all the English colonies on this continent to humiliation, fast- 
ing and prayer, that the Almighty, the most merciful Governor 
of the world, would hear the voice of His people, redeem them 
from all their iniquities, grant an answer of peace, and convince 
their enemies of their mistaken measures, and of their injurious 
and vain attempts to deprive them and unborn millions of that 
inestimable heavenly gift of Freedom and Liberty." 

When W'ashington was inaugurated in New York as our 
first President, he first repaired to St. Paul's church where re- 
ligious services were held, and then went to the spot on Wall 
street where the civic ceremonies took place. On the centennial 
of that event it was hiy fortune to attend the then President of 
the United States as he followed the example of his illustrious 
predecessor. Again have I gone down to the old church, and 
sat in the pew in which Washington thus attested his s use of 
ultimate dependence both for himself and for the Nation, and 
thought of the lesson his act would convey. 

A free government nuist be a righteous government. Such 
a government means ecpial opportunities for all and special 
privileges for none. It means just laws, equitably enforced. 
It means halls of legislation, and temples of justice, and offices 
of administration free from favoritism, from selfishnes;, from 
the suspicion of bribery in any guise — free of anything and 
everything that would corrupt or impede the flow of righteous 
life through these arteries of our national being. 

The citizenship of America must recognize that "the State 
is organized for society and that its ordering is holy : it is not 
enough to make politics clean: they must be made sacrificial and 
redemptive." The permanence of free government means 
that business and society must have a regenerate spirit. "When 
men go out to the day's task they nutst go in the di\ine temi)er.. 
W'hen they commit themselves to citizenship they commit them- 
selves to things sacramental, and when^they walk the ways of 
fellowship thev walk them as Sons of God." 

No apology is ofi'ered or needed for the serious disposition 
in which this address is conceived. The honor and privilege of 
speaking upon this occasion have not been lightly esteemed. 
There has i)urposely been no direct reference to the immediate 
unusual conditions either in our own country or abroad :_ condi- 
tions that must sober the mind and temper the spirit of every 
thoughtful man and woman. No assembly of i)eople could 



42 The Bergen County Historical Society. 



come together this day without realizing that the whole world is 
brought face to face with the fundamentals of life. 

We believe this Nation was conceived and brought forth 
for high service : to render that service, either for our own or 
for the world's weal, both people and Nation must be made 
worthy to serve. One of the foremost of Europe's writers re- 
cently wrote : 

"The underlying watchword of the preparedness issue 
which is sweeping the United States, is the idea that the power 
of America should be used to deliver humanity from the toils in 
which it has been enmeshed by the past ; that it should be the 
weapon of a new dispensation, and that the affairs of men shall 
henceforth be subject to the arbitrament, not of force, but of 
justice. The sword which America is forging will be used not 
to make war, but to make war on war, and to lay the f'junda- 
tion of world security." — London Daily. News. 

It is "sweet and proper to die for one's country," but Mon- 
talembert, the great Frenchman, added the higher and more im- 
portant half to that truth, when he wrote "to die fo" one's 
country is fine, but to live for one's country is better." 

Properly do we glory in the greatnes, of this nation. Na- 
poleon said, "Great is he who uses his greatness for all." Such 
is America's commitment. "It is a high day in the human story 
when a great principle reaches its hour." This is the hour for 
the apotheosis of the principle of service. No matter what 
labor or what sacrifice devotion to this principle may entail, in 
the words of the great charter of our freedom, to this commit- 
ment "We pledge our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred 
honor." 



*'OLD DAYS IN LEONIA/' 

Robert Hill Greeue. 
Jiiue 14, 1920. 

As a self-governed community Leonia is a comparatively 
voung municipality, being but little over 25 years old. Her an- 
cestry can, however, be traced not only through generations of 
men but through divisions of territory back to the earliest set- 
tlements on Manhattan Island and the Jersey Provinces : 

Her generations may be paraphrased as follows : Leonia 
was set off from the township of Ridgefield. that was set off 
from the townshij) of Hackensack, that was one of the original 
•divisions of the Province. 

The old township of Hackensack has no connections with 
the village of that name except that the ancient township and 
the modern village, one lying on the eastern shore and tV.e other 



The Berc;i:x County Historical Sociktv. 43 



on the western, l)oth received their names from the river that 
for uncounted years was the highway of the Indians. 

In the year 1682 the Province of East Jersey was divided 
into four counties ; liergen. one of these four, comprised the 
strip of land lying hetween the Hudson and the Hackensack 
rivers and extending north to the boundary of the ])rovince. 

The old township of Bergen had been constituted in 1658 
and comprised the southern part of this strip as far north as 
the present boundary of Hudson County. 

In accordance with an act passed in 1693 the remai:ider of 
the county was comprised in the township of Hackensack. 

In 1709 the boundaries of Bergen County were changed 
and Hackensack village, which up to that time had been in 
Essex County, became the county seat of Bergen. 

In 1668 Samuel Edsall, a prominent man in New .\mster- 
dam, pru'chased 1,872 acres in the southerly ])art of Hacken- 
sack township. This land extended from the Hudson river to 
the Overpeck creek and the northerly boundary was within the 
present confines of Leonia, probably at Park avenue. Appar- 
ently Edsall settled on this proi)erty immediately, as much is 
said of his constructive work and of his prominence in local 
afTairs. 

The purchase of this land had an important bearing on the 
future life of the community as it established an English settle- 
ment among the Dutch along the Hackensack river. 

This section became known as the English Neighborhood, 
and in some old records the Overpeck creek, or Overpeck's 
creek, is referred to as the English creek. 

The bounds of the English Neighljorhood are indefmite, 
but from old maps and records it is evident that it ex-ended 
along the eastern side of Overpeck creek from as far south as 
Fairview, through Leonia to Englewood. 

In the records of the Governor and Council of EasL Jersey 
for the year 1684 we find reference to the Indian ownershij) of 
the land' in this section as follows : "The petition of Casper and 
Alattys Jansen, setting forth that about seven years since 
( 1677 ) tile petitioners obtained by gift from Indians a ])arcel of 
land Iving at Hackensack, on the North side of the Creek, etc." 

From the 171 5 Book of Records, Freeholders and Jiistices, 
we find an entry which throws light on other inhabitant < of field 
and forest and that helps one to form a mental picture of con- 
ditions existing at that time. "Ordered that there be r-iised the 
sum of ten pounds proclamation money for defraying the 
charges of killing wolves, panthers and red foxes for tlu' ensu- 
ing year." -i r 

Amono- the earlv settlers within a radius of a few miles ot 



44 The Bergen County Historical Society. 

the present boundaries of Leonia may be mentioned Hendrick 
Jorisen Brinkerhoff. In 1865 he purchased land on the east 
bank of the Hackensack river and the old homestead bitilt soon 
after is still standing. 

Hendrick Brinkerhoff was the ancestor of Cornelius 
Christie on his mother's side, and many other descendants are 
living here and in adjoining boroughs. 

Derick Vreeland obtained by royal grant a tract of land 
extending from the Hudson River to the Overpeck creek. It 
included all of the northern part of the borough to as far south 
as Christie Heights. 

In the year 1784 Vreeland was taxed for 250 acres of im- 
proved land. As indicating the relative size of this tract, it is 
interesting to note that only six men in Hackensack township 
were taxed for an equal or greater amount. 

The first house on the Vreeland grant stood about 100 feet 
southeast of the residence of Thomas B. Freas on Hillcrest 
avenue. This house was destroyed by fire and another was 
built a little to the northwest. 

Not far from the year 1800 a more commodious house was 
erected on the east side of Grand avenue and north of Lake- 
view. This is considered one of the best examples of the later 
Dutch Colonial period and should be studied by those interested 
in architecture. Amar Embury devotes several pages of text 
and illustration to its description in his book on "The Dutch 
Colonial House." 

The ^English Neighborhood, made up as it was of Dutch 
and English settlers, was the scene of trying times prior to and 
during the Revolutionary War. Sentiment was divided from 
the first and as time went on and the British troops appeared, 
many who had been quiescent openly allied themselves v.-ith the 
invading army and in some cases became the leaders of 
marauding bands. The English Neighborhood road was the 
only thoroughfare leading northward to Closter Landing and 
was therefore of considerable military importance. Several 
times this section was laid waste by those who came up from 
New York through Bergen. 

One of the most tragic of these raids occurred at Closter 
on May 10, 1779, when men were carried away, women abused 
and buildings burned. The record ends with these words : 
"They (the marauders) were of Buskirk's corps, some of our 
Closter and old Tappan neighbors." 

An interesting episode has been brought to light in some 
un})ublished papers of Cornelius Christie, as follows : "Sam 
Cole was one of those who proved false to the patriotic cause 
— a refugee. After the war had commenced and when the 



The Bergex County Historical Society. 4^ 



country was ravaged by tories and the British troops, he re- 
vealed his true character by a deed which rendered him de- 
servedly infamous. He went to his neighbors, who were in 
great fear for their cattle, and induced them to surrender them 
all in his power, he representing that he would enclose a piece 
of land on his place in a retired spot where they all m-ght be 
kept entirely safe. They confided in his sincerity. Rut he had 
no sooner secured the cattle in this lot than he posted directly 
to the tories and furnished them with all information necessary 
to carry ofif this rich booty." 

Mr. Christie goes on to say that the country became too 
hot for Cole and that he went to Nova Scotia. He came back 
after the war was over and had hardly landed from the boat 
that brought him down the Hudson when he met one of his old 
neighbors who proceeded to lash him with a rope's end Soon 
after he was treated to rotten eggs, but even this recepJon did 
not deter him from returning to live in his old home on the 
English Neighborhood road, although he was never ix-rmitted 
to vote. Descendants of Sam Cole continued to occupy the 
house for many years. After changing owners several times it 
was recently purchased by the artist, Rutherford Boyd. Under 
his treatment it w^ill become one of the most interesting places 
in the borough. 

Leonia is rich in association with the struggle for inde- 
pendence, and it is unfortunate that so little attention hiSS been 
paid to preserving records and relics that would be of inestim- 
able value. Old Fort Lee stood near her eastern border. A 
camp of French soldiers was located near what is now Oak 
Tree place, and judging by relics found it is evident that at 
some time a body of British troo]:)s were encamped near the 
present location of the Methodist church on W'oodridge place. 

When Washington's troops evacuated Fort Lee in tlie early 
morning of November 20, 1776, they came down the western 
slope of the Palisades, some veering to the south toward Little 
Ferry but the majority bearing to the north to make the cross- 
ing of the Hackensack river at New Bridge. Whether tl.ey fol- 
lowed what is now Central avenue to its junction with Grand 
avenue and thence northward to the Liberty Pole Ta\-ern. or 
deserted the road for the shorter cut across the fields, is a point 
that is open for discussion. 

It is said that some crossed the creek at an old gr^'st mill 
located near the present dye works just north of the Leonia 
boundary line. This was a tide mill and was probably owned 
by John or Alichael Moore. 

" To commemorate the fact that the troops passed llirough 
Leonia the Men's Neighborhood Club erected a memorial 



46 The Bergen County Historical Society. 

tablet and presented it to the borough on July 4, 191 5 The 
presentation address by Dr. George Heber Jones, president of 
the club, was published in the Papers and Proceedings of the 
Bergen County Historical Society for that year, while extracts 
from the oration delivered by Col. E. M. Halford at tiie time 
are published in the present volume. 

This tablet was designed by the well known sculptor, 
Mahonri Young, a member of Leonia's art colony. The sand- 
stone slab on which the tablet is mounted was probably pressed 
by the feet of many of the men in Washington's army as it was 
the door step of the old Aloore homestead where the troops 
received aid. 

This house stood on the high ground west of Wood's Ter- 
race and about two hundred feet north of Woodridge place. It 
was approached by a lane running north from Central avenue 
and located just west of the residence of ex-Mayor R. J. G. 
Wood. 

The Moore house, like most of those of that period, was 
built of sandstone gathered from the adjacent fields. It was 
one-story high, faced the south and had an ell on the east end. 
Near the house were the slave quarters. The family, including 
slaves, numbered 23 persons. 

As the Continental troops came down the hill after the 
evacuation of Fort Lee, they stopped at this house for provis- 
ions and were given what could be" spared. A little later the 
British carried away practically all the live stock and all of the 
slaves. 

In a day or two one of the slaves returned but died in a 
short time from exposure and fright. 

Previous to the war (1771-1775-1776) Thomas Moore 
was a Justice holding his appointment under King George, and 
as he was loyal to the American cause he was arrested and was 
at this time confined in the Old Sugar House prison in New 
York, where he died either of starvation or by poison. At the 
same time his brother was in New York in the service of the 
King and undoubtedly knew of Thomas's condition. 

An interesting chapter in the religious history of Placken- 
sack township also centers in Leonia. There were two churches 
in Bergen County, one at Bergen Hill, and the other at Hacken- 
sack Village called the "Church on the Green." Many of the 
settlers from the English Neighborhood attended the latter 
place of worship, but in 1768 steps were taken toward the erec- 
tion of a Dutch Reformed Church east of the Overpeck creek. 

From an old record dated November i8th of that year we 
learn that Thomas Moore gave an acre of ground for that 
purpose and that the work of building had been started. 



The Ri-rc.f.x Couxtv ITistoricai. S 



OCIKIN' 



T u i^ trustees were Abraham Montaiiv. Stephen Bourdette 
John Day, Michael Moore, Thomas Moore and John Moore' 
Garrett Ly decker was ordained and installed as the pastor in the 
year 1770. There were at that time 19 members. 

It would be interesting; to know intimately the group 
of men and women who formed this, the first organized society 
m the present confines of the borough. Besides the six trustees, 
the members were : Samuel Moore, John Lashier, Dav'd Day' 
Edward Bylestead, John Cahy and "nine females". Of the 
Trustees, Thomas Moore is already known to the reader. 
Stephen Bourdette was part owner in a royal grant of land that 
comprised a large part of what is now W'eehawken and Ilobo- 
ken. He also owned 400 acres in what is now h^ort Lee village 
and his house was not far from the present location of the Fon 
Lee Monument. 

Abraham Montany (or Montanye) was also a large land 
owner and during the war sutifered the destruction of much 
property. According to an old inventory, his losses an^ounted 
to 275£-5s-9p. 

John Moore is mentioned in the tax lists of 1783 as owning, 
besides land and cattle, two grist mills and a "riding chair", 
this being the name by which a chaise was then known They 
were uncommon at that time, only three being mentioned in the 
tax lists for Hackensack township in the year 1784. 

John Day was taxed for 150 acres and live stock It is 
said on good authority that a man by the name of Da\- kept a 
hotel here at that time but apparently there is no record of his 
first name. There is an old record however which states that 
Mary Day was a tavern keeper and the two taken together 
would seem to prove that Leonia was the site of one of the early 
taverns of this section. 

All seemed to go well with the new organization for a few 
years, but here again the love of king as against the iove of 
country wrecked the congregation. 

The Reverend Garrett Lydecker went with the Tories, 
taking with him most of the church records. He reiualned in 
New York for a time officiating in the Dutch church and then 
went to England. In the list of confiscated estates in Bergen 
County appears the following: "Garrett Lyndecker, t-'^wnshi]) 
of Hackensack, 180 acres and tenements". \Miile there is noth- 
ing to prove that this record refers to the tory pastor, it e^-ident- 
ly relates to him or to some of his relatives. Other members of 
the Lydecker (or Lyndecker) family were very loyal, and it is 
said that they brought back all of the ]-)roperty confiscated dur- 
ing the war. 

For sixteen years the chiu'ch was without a ministei , when 



■\S- The Bergen County Historical Society. 

the Reverend John Cornelison was installed as pastor of this 
church and of the one at Bergen — one-third of his time was 
spent in the English Neighborhood. During this time, Thomas 
Moore had died in prison and title to the land on which the 
church stood had passed to Michael Moore. 

In 1793 a new church at Ridgefield was built but before 
work on it was started a notice was issued stating "That Cath- 
arine, widow of Michael Moore, deceased, and Michael. Jacob 
and Samuel Moore, his sons, gave full power to the elders and 
deacons for building up or pulling down or removing the (old) 
church without any molestation from them or any person claim- 
ing under them." 

Nothing is recorded of the condition of the building, but 
the elders and deacons stated that they "had long seen the ne- 
cessity of having a place of public worship, having by <:onsent 
and it also appearing to be their right, thought most beneficial to 
the said congregation to pull down the old church, and have laid 
a plan to build and erect a new one in a more proper place." 

According to one tradition the old building was used 
as a barrack for the Hessian soldiers and the interior practically 
ruined ; according to another tradition it was burned by ma- 
rauders. Whether the church was partially destroyed by fire 
or was used as a barrack is at present a matter of conjecture, 
but the fact remains that it stood idle for several years after 
the political and social storms had subsided. 

As the normal life of a building of that period was greater 
than at present, it is not at all likely that a new church would 
have been erected had not the old one been mutilated in some 
way. 

No description of the life of the English Neighborhood can 
be complete without some mention of slavery. Just how many 
slaves were kept here cannot be told, but it is safe to Gay that 
the percentage was as great as in other parts of Hackensack 
township. In the year 1784 nearly 25% of the population of 
the entire township were slaves. In 1800 there were 2,825 in 
Bergen County. 

Between the years of 1735 and 1767 four slave:' were 
burned at the stake in the village of Hackensack, not through 
mob frenzy but after deliberate sentence had been passed by 
the Justices and Freeholders. 

It must not be inferred that all slaves were bad nor that all 
masters were cruel, but the evil existed and continued to exist 
until 1846 when it was decreed that slavery in the state of New 
Jersey be abolished. 

A woman still residing in Leonia recalls attending the 
funeral of perhaps the last slave woman in the present confines 



The Bkrcen Couxtv HisTOkic.\r. Soc iktn'. 



49 



of the borough. This was at the Smith, or as later known, the 
McMichael place on the south side of Highwood avenue near 
Grand. 

The funeral of "Old Betty" was held in the kitchen, but 
was attended by her white as well as her colored friends There 
was a burial plot for slaves on the Vreeland property av;d until 
a few years ago the graves were marked by rough stonej- This 
plot was located a little to the west of i3road and south of 
Lakeview avenues. By a peculiar turn of fate, this very spot 
is now being laid out as a garden l)v the Englewood Nr.rseries 
Co. 

The old Smith house just referred to deserves more than 
passing notice. It is said that Major Andre was a frequent 
caller in the old da\'s. The ])asser-by on Highvvood avenue 
sees only the rear of the house as this, like all others of the 
period, faced the south. The illustration on another page shows 
the porch and entrance on the south side. Much of the original 
beauty of the house has been lost due to the addition of dormer 
windows and other useless ornamentation. 

Growth in the English Neighborhood was slow, but as 
children grew up and married, the large farms were divided. A 
few others from remote New York came in and pirchased 
land. What was occurring here was true of other nu'a! places, 
while villages like Hackensack made a more rapid growth. 

Finallv, it became necessary to have more direct Hues of 
communication between the village of Hackensack inid the 
Hudson river, and the Hackensack and Fort Lee Turnpike Co. 
was formed. A new road was built across the meadows from 
Hackensack to the English Neighborhood road (now called 
Grand avenue) making a continuous thoroughfare of the Fort 
Lee road up the hill through Fort Lee village and down to the 
old steamboat landing on the Hudson. The location of the 
Fort Lee road (now called Central avenue) through T eonia 
was not changed until it reached a point just east of Paulin 
Boulevard, when it was swung slightly to the north to avoid 
the steep grade. The location of the old road bed is still dis- 
cernible. 

There were two toll gates across Central avenue — one on 
the east and the other on the west side of Grand avenue. A small 
hotel or road house was built on the southwest corner where 
these streets crossed, and the entrance to the toll road for pedes- 
trians going west was by way of the hotel porch. In later years 
this road house was moved out along the pike just west of the 
railroad tracks, where it still stands. 

A stao-e coach ran between Hackensack and the Hudson 
river whel-e it connected with a steamboat that touched at 



50 The Bergen County Historical Society. 

several points and finally landed its passengers at Spring street, 
New York. The running time between the Fort Lee landing 
and New York was one hour. 

The True Reformed Dutch Church on Grand avenue dates 
from the year 1824. although the building was -not erected until 
1 83 1. From an old record we read that "In the year of our 
Lord 1 83 1 the new meeting house of the True Reformed Pro- 
testant Dutch Church of the English Neighborhood war built." 
* * * "The church was built on the west side of the English 
Neighborhood road, a little distance below where the road from 
Hackensack to Fort Lee crossed it, on ground given b)^ Garret 
Meyer and John Cole ; and to this David Christie, who bought 
G. Meyer's farm, and John Cole afterward made handsr-me ad- 
ditions on each side." It is interesting to know that the build- 
ing cost about $1,500. The names of the various pastors indi- 
cate their Dutch lineage ; they were as follows : Brint-'erhoflf, 
Demarest, Blauvelt, De Baun. Van Houten. Iserman. Wyckoff. 
During the pastorate of the Rev. James Wyckoff doctr'v.al dif- 
ferences arose and the pastor and forty-eight members left the 
church and with others became charter members of a church 
of the Presbyterian faith in February, 1899. Services have 
been conducted in the old church for a part of the tin"!e since 
that date, but recently none have been held. There is a small 
burial plot north of the building. 

Perhaps 70 years ago Mr. Roehling purchased land north 
of the brook that parallels Hillside avenue. Like many ouother 
prospective American, this man decided to change his name and 
at the suggestion of a friend who perhaps had some of the blood 
of old Ireland in his veins, Mr. Roehling became Mr. Riley ; 
hence the name Riley avenue now known as Hillside. 

On the land purchased by Mr. Riley was an old cemetery 
dating back to pre-revolutionary times, where it is said many of 
the early settlers were buried. There being little or no interest 
manifest in the preservation of this burial plot, the stones were 
removed and it has been commonly reported that they were 
used in grading around a house built nearby. 

When Hillside avenue was constructed human bones were 
found, and this has occurred frequently as excavations for new 
houses have been made. This is not the only instance of the 
desecration of cemeteries, as those who have read Burton 
Allbee's article "Our County Disgrace" in the 191 3-1. ^ year 
book are aware. 

From 1835 to 1850 several families came to Leoria who 
have exerted a great influence in the community ; among them 
were the Christies, the Woods, the Gismonds, and the Moores 
(James V. and Stephen H. V.) 



The Ber(;kx County Historical Sociin^- 



W ith the invention of the steam engine, came a new era in 
development and on February q. 1854. the Northern Railroad 
of New Jersey was chartered. This road was completec' Octo- 
ber I, 1859, and ten years later it was leased to the i-.rie Railway 
Company. ^ 

From an old timetable dated April 2, 1866. it is inf restincr 

to note that four passenger trains and a "milk, market and 

freight tram passed over this road daily en route for Tersey 

City, and that an equal number of trains with an additional 

way passenger" on Saturday went to Piermont. 

For years the little community that had grown ui. at the 
junction of two of the most imi)ortant roads in the township 
had been designated as "The English Neighborhood near the 
Fort Lee Road." With the coming of the railroad and the es- 
tablishment of a i)ost office this practice had of necessitx- to be 
changed. The railway station was at first called Fort Lee, but 
this name could not be applied to the post office without confus- 
ing It with the office in Fort Lee village on the hill. Wishing 
to retain the historic name "Lee," the name Lee-onia or Leonia 
was suggested. In 1865 this name was formally adoi)ted and 
Leonia became a village in Hackensack township. 

There were at that time about 25 houses and a sma'l store. 
Grain was taken to the grist mill on the creek" near the dye 
works, and there was a saw mill on the brook that crosses 
Grand avenue a little beyond the present southern boundary of 
the borough. 

Li 1 871 the large township of Hackensack was divided. 
The southern portion extending as far north as the Engle- 
wood line comprised the new township of Ridgefield. Leroiia re- 
mained as a part of Ridgefield township for 23 years, when on 
December 4, 1894, the Borough of Leonia was incori>orated. 
There had been talk that a part of the village would be ir:cluded 
in a proposed borough to the south, but through the active ef- 
forts of some of the citizens this unha])pv division of t!;e com- 
munity w^as avoided. 

At the time of incorporation, the po])ulation was not far 
from 700. At present it is over 3,300. 

The quiet beauty of the place early attracted some of the 
leading artists and illustrators, until now the Leonia Art Colony 
numbers half a hundred well-known names. 

Increased traffic facilities brought also the city business 
man and the college professor and among them all has grown 
up the spirit of community life and a real love for the town 
of their adoption. 

The writer is indebted to Mrs. George Gausman, Thomas 



52 The Bergen County Historical Society. 

Moore. ex-Mayor Robert J. G. Wood, James V. Moore Lor- 
enzo Gismond. Isaac Vreeland and John Brinkerhoff for much 
valuable assistance in the preparation of this article. 



The Locating of Camp Merritt 

The prelude to the location of Camp Merritt dates back 
to the Vera Cruz incident in the fall of 191 5. During that per- 
iod when it looked as though there might be trouble between 
the United States and Mexico, the commanding officer at Gov- 
ernor's Island received word to select a site in and aroand the 
port of New York, which would be available as an Embarka- 
tion Camp for troops. 

Major General William M. Black was then stationed in 
New York as the senior colonel of the Corps of En^>ineers. 
The writer, through his official position as president of the 
Board of Commerce & Navigation of New Jersey, came vlirectly 
in contact with the Engineering Corps regarding the que:>tion of 
transportation and the development of the waterfront of New 
Jersey in general. It was but natural that Col. Black -hould 
ask the New Jersey authorities for information regarding 
available sites. 

The writer had the privilege of accompanying the Army 
Board and pointing out to them various localities in New Jersey 
which offered rail and water facilities as well as the proper 
drainage and all the other needs of a camp to accommodate 
thousands of soldiers. 

Of all the sites looked at at that time, the two which most 
impressed the board was the one where Camp Merritt is located 
at the present time, and the other was the old Cresskill Mill 
Dam site east of the Northern Railroad. 

The War Department realized in 191 7, after the departure 
of the first troops for Europe, that it was very necessary to 
have an Embarkation Camp close to the port of Ne^v York 
where troops could be held pending the assembling of ships for 
the transportation of troops abroad. 

A special board consisting of the following officerF — Col. 
F. P. Reynolds, Col. A. C. Blunt, Major U. S. Grant. T,r\ Capt. 
Oury — was designated to select various sites and report en their 
availability to the staff at Washington. 

Gen. Black, remembering his experiences in 191 5, sug- 
gested to Major U. S. Grant, engineering officer of the Board, 
that he communicate with the writer when he reachei^ New 
York, which Major Grant did. 

I explained to the Board what we did in 191 5 and they 
asked if they could be taken over the same ground. Knowing 



The Bercex Couxtv Historical Society 



Mr. Watson G. Clark's (chairman of the Execv:tive Committee 
of the New Jersey State Highway Commission) i-itimate 
knowledge of various localities in the Northern Vallcv, as well 
as having a very high respect for his engineering ability and his 
knowledge of drainage, it seemed to me that "he was' '.he one 
best fitted to conduct the party in their search for a site. When 
I placed the proposal before him he, like the good patriot he is, 
said he would drop everything and not only place himself at 
the disposal of the Board but also his car. 

The day, July 6th, 1917, was spent in traversing the North- 
ern Valley and looking over the various sites and in the evening 
we returned to New York, and before the Board left for \\'a5h- 
ington that evening we had been in communication with 
Mr. French of the Hackensack Water Co., Mr. Stone of the 
Erie Railroad, Mr. Frowley of the N. Y. Central, Mr. Wakelee 
of the Public Service Corporation. Because of the informa- 
tion furnished by these gentlemen, the Board was able to re- 
turn to Washington and make a complete report concerning 
the water, gas and electrical supplies as well as the railroad 
facilities that the present Cam]) Merritt site offered. 

Mr. Clark generously volunteered to secure the options on 
the property for the Board and was able to give the Board a 
great deal of general information regarding the o\\'r;ership 
of the various lands that would be needed for the camp. 

When many of the citizens immediately around the camp 
heard about the prospects of locating the camp at its present 
site they were alarmed because of the disturbances thut they 
feared would come to the community life owing to the ])resence 
of so many men. It is needless to say these fears were ground- 
less, and subsequently the same citizens were vieing with each 
other to help make life pleasant for those cjuartered at the camp, 
and they took great pride in the fact that the camp was located 
in their midst. 

Too much credit cannot be given to Judge William M. Seu- 
fert, who was Judge of the Court of Common I'leas. and Judge 
Thomas J. Huckin, Prosecutor of the County, for the i)r( serva- 
tion of law and order during the j^eriod when the camp was be- 
ing constructed. These gentlemen took time by the forelock 
and inaugurated measures which i)revented disturbances from 
arising and they co-operated in every way with the camj) au- 
thorities. They did it without any publicity and without look- 
ing for public recognition of their splendid work, only a few 
knowing of the abi'lity they displayed and the many hours of 
ceaseles'^s activities which they ])Ut in for the common good. 

One of the incidents that was most interesting in connec- 
tion with the location of the camp was the first visit pn'ul to the 



54 The Bergen County Historical Society. 

proposed site by Major General David C. Shanks. One of the 
parties whose property was afterwards taken over, objicted to 
the laying of a sewer pipe through her property. The Govern- 
ment agreed to lay the pipe and replace the soil so that no one 
could ever detect that the pipe was there and to pay h'berally 
for the privilege, but because she was opposed to the location 
of the camp, she apparently thought by opposing the laying of 
the pipe that this would possibly cause the site to be located 
elsewhere. This was all explained to General Shanks and he 
said he would like the opportunity of meeting the lady. The 
General, in company with Mr. Clark and myself, found" her in 
one of her fields. The writer will never forget the sight of the 
General approaching her with his cap in his hand in true Vir- 
ginia style, and with all the gallantry that Virginians are noted 
for he made his appeal for the privilege of crossing her land 
with the pipe. It is needless to say he won. It seemed ^o those 
of us who were watching the episode of this little drama that 
we were witnessing an incident that represented the ideals that 
the world powers were clashing over. 

Picture if you will the United States at war in a life and 
death struggle for Democracy, appealing to one of its citizens 
through one of its representatives, a gentleman in command of 
its forces, for the privilege of laying a pipe across a field where 
no damage would be done to the property but yet wouM serve 
as an accommodation for the men who were going to lav down 
their lives for the defence of their country. Contrast this if 
^'Ou will with what would have taken place under like conditions 
in Germany. Would there have been any appeal for the privi- 
lege or would the order have gone forth to do certain things 
with all the powers of a fiat ? Could there be a more vivid pic- 
ture of the difiference between Autocracy and Democracy? On 
one hand the rights of the individual being respected as against 
the autocratic rule of those in control. Then again, what a testi- 
mony to the American Army and to its officers as exeT.iplified 
by General Shanks. 

Bergen County may well be proud of the honor of having 
had located within its midst the camp which housed and shelt- 
ered the boys just before they left for what was to many to be 
their last experience. 

To those of us who lived close by the camp and witnessed 
the many farewell scenes which were always in evidence due to 
the parting of loved ones. Camp Merritt will always be a hal- 
lowed spot. The Bergen County Historical Society deserves 
the thanks of the community as well as the people generally for 
its efforts toward preserving what will become one of the most 

historical spots in the United States. -. 

J. SPENCER SMITH. 



The Bergex Couxi^- 1 Iistoricai, Society. 



The Location of Camp Merritt at Tenafly, N.J. 

From an Kngiueer's X'iewpoitit 

Camp Merritt. Tenafly, Bergen Countv, Xew jersey, as 
first located was on the ridge lying between the West Shore and 
the Northern Railroad of New jersey in the boroughs of Du- 
mont, Cresskill, Haworth and Demarest. The southerly bound- 
ary line of the camp was the northerly boundary line of the 
borough of Tenafly. The camp was known at first as "Camp 
Tenafly" and later as Camp Merritt. This was due to the fact 
that during the early negotiations all official communications 
were dated from Tenafly. and the site was referred to as Ten- 
afly. N. J. 

The eleyation of the ridge on which the camp is located 
is approximately 150 feet aboye sea level. The topography of 
the land was such that the site could be readily drained, and 
sew^ers. water and gas were within easy extension distances of 
the location. On the easterly boundary of the camp, the North- 
ern Railroad of New Jersey being a double track branch of the 
Erie, connected it in a southerly direction with the main line at 
Jersey City, and in a northwesterly direction at SufFen- The 
West Shore railroad ran along the westerly side of the site. 
Railroad facilities were thus all that could be required. Had a 
connection been made as was originally intended at Ho'iiestead 
from the Northern Railroad to the Pennsylyania lines troops 
could have been brought directly from the south, and south- 
west, into the camp without either transfer or congestion, via 
Pennsylvania and Northern Railroad. The West Shore afford- 
ed ample transportation facilities from the northwest. 

Mr. J. Spencer Smith, President of the P)Oard of Com- 
merce and Navigation, had been in communication with repre- 
sentatives of the War Department, and on July 6, H)i~, at his 
request, the writer proceeded with Mr. Smith in an automobile 
to the Union League Club. New York City, where we met a 
committee appointed for the special ])urpose of selecting a suit- 
able camp site within easy access to the Hoboken port of em- 
barkation. The committee was comprised of Col. F. P Rey- 
nolds, representing the Medical Corj^s, ]\Iajor U. S. Grant. 3rd. 
representing the Engineering Department, and Captain Oury. 
a line officer of considerable exi)erience, also Col. A. C. Rlunt. 

They had been unsuccessful in their attempts for the past 
two or three days in locating camp sites on the main lines of the 
Pennsylvania and Jersey Central. 

The entire committee proceeded with us in the automobile 
by Riverside Drixe to Dyckman Street Ferry and thence to the 
proposed camp, pausing for a few moments en route at Tyrant's 



56 The Bergen County Historical Soctetv. 

Tomb while Major U. S. Grant, 3rd. paid homage to his grand- 
father's memory. While en route the committee discussed the 
probable size and requirements of the proposed camp We 
drove directly to the westerly slope of the Palisades in the bor- 
ough of Tenafly, where a bird's-eye view of the site could be 
obtained. From here the committee proceeded to Knickrbocker 
road in the borough of Tenafly and made a careful reconnais- 
sance survey of the entire territory lying on either ride of 
Knickerbocker road, extending from Tenafly to Closter. The 
easy method of sewerage, water supply, lighting, and railroad 
connections were pointed out. Then we drove to the top of the 
Palisades at Alpine. Here the committee alighted and proceed- 
ed on foot to the Alpine Ferry. It being explained to the mem- 
bers that the troops could be marched to this point and shipped 
directly by river craft to the steamers lying at the port. It is 
curious to note that this road down the Palisades over which 
hundreds of thousands of American soldiers later marched 
on their way to attack the "Huns" in their own home district, 
is the very road over which the "Huns" marched up in 1776 
under Cornwallis to attack George Washington's little army at 
his encampment near Tappan and Fort Lee, starting the his- 
torical retreat of Washington across New Jersey. The commit- 
tee was so impressed with the advantages of the site and 
surrounding territory, that they decided that they would look 
no further, and decided to return to W^ashington at once. On 
reaching New York, while waiting for the train. Captain Oury 
and the writer prepared tentative plans showing the facilities 
wnth which the camp utilities could be installed. Mr. Smith 
took up with the railroads the possibility for immediate connec- 
tions. 

Within a few days later I received a request from General 
William M. Wright, commanding officer of the port of Embar- 
kation, Hoboken, N. J., that he wished to make a reconnaissance 
survey with me of the entire territory, which we did. The re- 
sult of this reconnaissance survey was that General Weight 
finally selected for the camp site the lands beginning at the 
northerly boundary line of the borough of Tenafly, extending 
northerly on either side of Knickerbocker road practically to 
Hardenburgh avenue in the borough of Demarest. The easter- 
ly boundary of the camp was irregular, but extended generally 
to the brow of the hill on the east with a few specific instances 
where the lands taken extended to the Northern Railroad in the 
valley below, on the west to the westerly slope of the crest of 
the hill extending in the borough of Dumont along Grant ave- 
nue to the West Shore Railroad. He also selected two sepa- 
rate sites on Knickerbocker road for extensions in the boroughs 




GEORGE B. DUNCAN, 

Colonel, 21st Infantry. 

Major General A. E. F. Commanding 77th and 82d Divisions in Franci; 

1917-18. Commandant Camp Merritt 1919. Brigadier General 

United States Army 192Q. 






.1.. . f. ^Ji^i 










„ it^titif^ 



f 1^ 




The Rergen County Historical Society. 



of Demarest and Haworth, which \vere later vised for the camj)- 
ing of tented troops and drill grounds. 

The General requested me to obtain the consents from the 
owners aiTected to lease these lands immediately to the 'Jnited 
States Government. The work of securing these leases in con- 
junction with an army officer was exceedingly interesting, 
knowing as I did many of the owners of the lands from early 
boyhood, having been born in the stone house on Madison ave- 
nue just west of Ivnickerbocker road, Cresskill. which later be- 
came the home of the camp commandant. 

It was necessary to obtain these consents as time was the 
essence of the whole matter, and the Government was exceed- 
ingly reluctant to resort to condemnation proceedings at this 
juncture, ho])ing that the patriotism of the citizens would make 
such steps unnecessary. 

Among many interesting occurences in obtaining these 
leases I recall two which are worthy of note. One was ihe case 
of a newly married couple, whose home was located on die line 
of the ])roposed railroad spur, connecting with the West Shore 
Railroad. They had built their little home with the aid of the 
building and loan, and were looking forward to enjoying the 
results of their home building. I had occasion to call on them 
early one Sunday morning and told them that the following 
morning the Government would like to start moving their 
house, excavating a deep cut across the front of their proi)erty. 
Without any ((uestion as to compensation, or thought of the 
consequences, they immediately volunteered to turn the'r prop- 
erty over. Of course the army officer and myself started ne- 
gotiations at once, and arranged to give them suitable compen- 
sation. The result was that within twenty-four hours the men 
were there tearing down a portion of their home that the_\- had 
so patiently constructed. 

The other incident was that of a veteran of the Civil W'dv. 
who had for forty years lived in a beautiful home in the center 
of the camp where' he had raised a large family. At th^st tniie 
four of his boys had volunteered and were accepted mto the 
service, as well' as two of his daughters. He had lieen toid that 
he could probably remain on his property, but due to camp ex- 
tensions this became impossible. I called on him m conjunction 
with the United States representative and exi)lamed the situa- 
tion. His reply was : "Gentlemen, this is my country : von can 
have my home and place. I had hoped to have died hei> , l)ut 
am readv to move." When asked what compensation he would 
require he stated he would leave that entirely up to the Govern- 
ment Within a few days thereafter this man who had ex- 
pected to spend the remainder of his life there was. .ike the 



58 The Bergen County Historical Society. 

rest, moving out to permit of the construction of this camp that 
was to house over a million men. These are only two ir stances 
of many where only patriotism counted among the families af- 
fected. Land being obtained in a great many cases upon a nom- 
inal rental basis. 

I quote from a letter of Brig. Gen. William M. \Vright, 
Headquarters Port of Embarkation, New Jersey, dared July 
24, 1917, written to the writer, upon the completion of tie work 
of securing the consents to lease from the various property 
owners : 

"The question of this camp site is one of the most 'mport- 
ant problems facing the War Department today. One might 
say that on it hinged the success of our overseas shipments of 
men. I do not consider a great problem of this sort sati'^factor- 
ily solved unless we take suitable and proper ground, and when 
you see those who have met the Department with a patriotic de- 
sire to be of assistance to the cause, I hope that you will express 
to them my appreciation." 

The camp was located and the consents to lease fr'jm the 
property owners of the various tracts originally contemplated 
were obtained from July 6th to July 26th, 1917. The construc- 
tion work started within a few days thereafter and tl.e first 
troops were marching into the camp in early September. 

WATSON G. CLARK, 

Tenafly, New Jersey. 
June 15th, 1920. 



The Bergen County Historical Society. 59 



Letters 

In selecting a subject for an historic letter one is indeed 
fortunate if he may choose from so rich a field as is presented 
in the border-land of Bergen and Rockland counties. " In turn- 
ing to the buildings of Colonial times, those that are yet stand- 
ing and nearly all of them have some history or legend at- 
tached, \ve naturally turn to the oldest of them all, the j';e Wint 
House of the Revolution but the Washington Headquarters of 
today. Iliis house is situated at the northern end, on the west 
side of the New Jersey highway known as Livingston street, 
about a quarter of a mile north of the state line. 

It was in 1700 that John Stratemaker did himself p^oud in 
building for himself a stone house ; the sandstone of which the 
house is built was carried in hand barrows across the swamp 
from where it crops out under the Palisade range ; the b'-ick 
used to trim having been brought from Holland. In 170.1. [oliu 
sold the i)lace to Dick Stratemaker, who sold it to Rem l\^Mn^en 
of Long Island, and he in turn, in deed dated May 1st 1746, 
sold it to Johannes De Wint. 

De Wint was a man of means and of affairs He was in- 
terested in the West Indian trade, and as this was tabooed bv 
England, it may in a measure account for his stanch adherance 
to the cause of the Colonies. It is from him that the house de- 
rived the name of De Wint House. The rooms are large, but so 
low-ceiled that the Dutch builder had need to contrive - recess 
in the ceiling to ])ermit of a place for the tall Dutch clock he had 
brought from Holland. Around the chimney-piece were Dutch 
tiles." These tiles, which the writer remembers well, were re- 
moved a score or more of years ago by the present owner of 
the house to ])revent them from being stolen. 

In this house transpired many stirring events, and rot least 
among which was the night of Sej)!. 30th, 1780. That night is 
described as having been so clear and beautiful that from the 
camp on the low hills nearbv the bugle calls and the s'-und of 
horses neighing filled the air. It is said that the tall fi.i^ure of 
His Excellency, uneasy and restless, would now and agam be 
seen passing "across in front of the windows. In Mabie's 
Tavern, not" far awav, was the man of whom the Creai C hief 
wrote-' "He was more unfortunate than criminal, an accom- 
plished man and a gallant officer." In Washington's hands lay 
his fate Both men were to be pitied, for it is no easy nic.tter to 
be sternlv just. (The desk which it is said Washington used 
when he signed this death warrant is said to be ,n pos.se> -ion ot 
the family of George Sneeden at Red Bank, N. J.) Al^xander 
Hamilton has been quoted as saying, "His Excellency w-.uld 



6o The Bergen County Historical Society. 

have agreed to a change in the form of death, but Generals 
Greene and' SuIHvan were strongly of opinion that to do so at 
that time would have been unwise and unpolitic. The Generals 
said to condemn a man as a spy and not at last to deal with him 
as Hale was dealt with, would be impolitic and unfair 10 men 
who were as gallant as Sir Henry Clinton's Adjutant General." 
Great as is the interest in that historic event it is not the climax 
of the events that happened under the roof of this house, but 
the following that takes the house entirely out of the class of a 
local "Washington's Headquarters" ; so that our whole nation 
can well turn with reverence to this old house. Who that has 
ever visited Independence Hall in Philadelphia and has not felt 
that thrill of "Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness." 
And yet the consummation of it all was right here wiihin the 
De Wint House in Tappan. It was a- great and glorious thing 
to declare that these Colonies "are and by right ought to be free 
and independent states." but quite another thing to make proud, 
powerful Old England and her King acknowledge it. For more 
than seven years the Father of His Country and those stanch 
patriots that were associated in the cause with him, both officers 
and men, had fought and starved, and bled and died. You know 
the story, but now it was over and here in this very house was 
the consummation. Here on May 6th, 1783, by appoiiitment, 
came the conquering hero. General George Washington, and to 
this house was sent Sir Guy Carleton, representing His Majesty 
George III. and they there arranged the closing of affairs for 
the exchange of prisoners and the return of stolen property. 
The war was over. 

Great was the Declaration, but greater the Consummation, 
because the desire and determination had become a fact. 

On the centennial of these events patriotic feeling in these 
parts was strong, and the Rockland County Historical Society, 
a then prominent organization, had their headquarters in this 
house. It is to be regretted that that society has gone out of 
existence ; but it is a pleasure to state that the Rockland County 
Society, a more recently formed organization, is now function- 
ing largely in this field. 

Long after the Revolution this property passed from the 
De Wint heirs and the owners since have been Arthur Tohnson, 
Dr. Smith and William Rogers. The frame or western part of 
the building as at present was added by Dr. Smith. Aside from 
this the house is as in the original. The old sweep well which 
the older ])ictures of the house -show, has given place to a more 
modern well curb. 

HARRY RYERSON. 

Tappan, N. Y., June 10, 1920. 



The Bergen County Historical Society. 6i 



Leonia, May 29, K)20. 
Dr. Byron G. Van Home, Englewood. 

Dear Doctor : Yonr kind note received, and I wil' try to 
answer some of your questions, althou,2:h anything relating to 
the Westervehs can be found in the Library of the Society in 
the Westervelt geneology by Walter Westervelt. 

My grandfather, Jacob A. Westervelt, was born in 
Schraalenburgh, and was the first child baptized in the church 
his father built there. I do not remember exactly where the 
house was, although I remember distinctly going to an old 
Dutch house there with him. We afterward went up there to 
see an Aunt Jane Bogart, who I think lived in the hous-. So it 
may be known as the Bogart house, for my great-grandfather 
died very soon after my grandfather was born. 

My grandfather was a shipbuilder; i)erhaps the mos<: noted 
of his day wiih the exception of William H. Webb, his intimate 
friend. His masterpiece in the line of sailing vessels '>vas the 
"Margaret Evans", celebrated yet all over the world in the 
chanty 

The smartest clipper you can find 

Is the Marg'ret Evans of the TUack Star line. 

His finest steamship was the U. S. Frigate Brooklyn, 
wdiich he built esi)ecially to suit the views of Captain Farragut, 
afterward Admiral. He was elected Mayor on the Deniocratic 
ticket, but as a rei)resentative of the mechanics and tra.:iesmen, 
as opposed to the politicians. The most conspicuous feature of 
his administration was the organization of the Metropolitan 
Police, and he received the first police badge, which is now in 
the New York Historical Society. Another feature was his veto 
of the "Broadway Railroad Steal," which was eventually over- 
ridden, in later years, by Jacob Sharp and the "Boodle Alder- 
men." ' In the last years' of his life he was called to office after 
the Tweed Ring was broken, as President of the Dock Depart- 
ment, and as such made tremendous improvements in piers and 
docks. His chief engineer, whom he selected, was General 
George B. McClellan, and his secretary. General Louis Fitz- 
gerald. 

He was President of our first International Exhibition in 
the Crystal Palace. 

He built the two first really practical steamships (for the 
Savannah and Brittania were only experiments, out-classed by 
the clippers) , the Hamburg and Bremen. Both were lost at sea 
in a single month. 

He was the "Colonel House" of the Lincoln administra- 
tion, having no official title, but constantly consulted m naval 



62 The Bergen County Historical Society. 

matters, and suggested and built the double-end thirty day gun- 
boats, which broke up blockade running between Nassau Island 
and the South. 

My great-grandfather Aaron J. W'estervelt of Schraalen- 
burgh was a well known builder. Many of the houses he built 
in Franklin street, New York, were standing recently. He built 
the Dutch Reformed Church at Schraalenburgh. I know little 
about him as he died at a comparatively early age. 

My great-great-grandfather was John Westervelt, Pr-'vate in 
Captain James Christie's Company, Colonel Theunis Dey's 
Regiment of Bergen County. He was taken prisoner and died 
on the prison ship Jersey in Wallabout Bay. 

My great-great-great-grandfather was Johannes Wester- 
velt, private in the same company and regiment. Was taken 
prisoner by the British September 6, 1781, and subsequently ex- 
changed. 

The Adjutant General of New Jersey can give you all 
desired information about the Bergen County regiments. 

There is no complete record of the Prison Ship martyrs, 
but it is known that 11,500 were buried at the Wallabout The 
Society of Old Brooklynites, or Martyrs' Monument Associa- 
tion, could give full particulars, probably the first, as I imagine 
the last is extinct. 

The monument at Fort Greene was unveiled Nov. i.i, 1908. 
I will inquire about the Trinity Churchyard monument, which 
was erected between 1850 and i860. 

Yours very truly, 

CHARLES S. CLARK. 



105 Ames Avenue, May 2, 1920. 
Dr. Byron G. Van Home, Englewood. 

My dear sir : Your note received. I do not know that I 
could add much to what I told you about the "Prison Ship 
Martyrs" ; and would only suggest that in the Year Book be in- 
serted a notice somewhat similar to that annexed. 

Yours very truly, 

CHARLES S. CLARK. 



The Bergen County Historical Society would be gla 1 to re- 
ceive from descendants of soldiers of the Revolution, and par- 
ticularly from members of the Sons of the Revolution and 
Daughters of the Revolution, the names, companies and regi- 
ments of men who were captured by the British, and confined 



I'liE Bergex County Historical Socihtn-. 63 

in the "Jersey" and other prison ships in Wallabout Bay, 
Brooklyn. 

Bergen County has been singularly remiss in fjiiling to 
honor the memory of these heroes, hundreds of whom came 
from Bergen County, although New York has honored them 
by erecting the im])osing monument in Trinity churchyard fac- 
ing Pine street, and Brooklyn by erecting the noble shaft in 
Fort Greene Park. 

From the time Washington fled across the Hudson, after 
the fall of Fort Washington and Fort Lee, until the close of the 
war, no locality suffered more than Bergen County, and every 
raid by the Tories or the British left families without their sons 
and fathers, who were hurried to the prison ships. 

In these noisome hulks, reeking with plague, wit!; ports 
nailed up and hatches battened down to prevent escapes. 11,000 
prisoners were confined during the Revolution and died by 
hundreds. Every morning the order was given "Rebels, bring 
up your dead", and the emaciated bodies were brough* ashore 
and buried. 

After the Revolution a rude pavilion of wood was erected 
in the burying ground, but soon fell into decay. Xo other 
memorial was erected until Mayor Westervelt (a son of Ber- 
gen County) was Mayor of New York. 

Certain real estate interests were anxious to have Pine 
street cut through Trinity churchyard at the same time the pro- 
ject of building a monument to the Prison Ship Martyrs was 
discussed. Mayor Westervelt vetoed the ordinance for the 
street opening, and suggested the memorial be placed where it 
is. thus effectually blocking any attempts to invade Trinity's 
holy ground ; and subscriptions were readily obtained. 

In our own time the Society of Old Brooklynites and an 
association formed for the purpose, secured $25,000 subscrip- 
tions and $150,000 from the city and state, and erected at 
Fort Greene ^a beautiful marble shaft, unsurpassed in this 
countrv. under which lie the bones of the "Martyrs." 

In common decency, should Bergen permit strangers in an- 
other state, to thus honor the Fathers of Bergen, and itself do 

nothing? 

CHARLES SYDNEY CLARK, 

(Descendant of three of the "Martyrs."). 



64 The Bergen County Historical Society. 



Necrologfy 

(See Frontispiece) 

I wish to contribute my mite to the memory of Robert T. 
Wilson, one time President of the Bergen County Historical 
Society and for several years my fellow co-worker on the year 
books of the Society. 

At that time he was suffering from the ravages of the 
"great white plague" and on the advice of his physician he spent 
much of his time in the country at his home in Saddle River. 

While working on the year book, it was his custom to 
motor over in the morning to. my house, have luncheon with us, 
and return to his home late in the afternoon. \Yt spent many 
pleasant hours in getting the material of the various year books 
ready for the printer. 

He was one of the most courteous gentlemen it has ever 
been my good fortune to meet and we always enjoyed having 
him as our guest. A poem written by him to my little daughter 
Jean, then aged five years, is one of our treasured possessions. 

As often as I think of him, this verse of scripture is 
coupled with his memory : "W'hat doth the Lord require of thee, 
but to do justly and love mercy, and walk humbly with thy 
God." How well this describes his character his church, lodge, 
neighbors and business associates will testify. In whatever 
sphere of influence his lot was cast, he made the world the 
better for having lived in it. 

BYRON G. VAN HORNE. 




J Is 

S| 

O ^ 
CO >? 
2 c 

w S 

CQ 



The Bergen County Historical Society. 



31 n iirmoriam 



Maria A. Bellis Oradell 

Andrew D. Bogert Englewood 

Isaac D. Bogert Westwood 

Peter B. Boyert, Jr Bogota 

A. H. Brinkerhoff Rutherford 

Cornelius Christie Leonia 

Edwin Clark Ridgewood 

Fred. H. Crum Rive'r Edge 

Dr. Daniel A. Currie Englewood 

A. S. D. Demarest Hackensack 

Isaac I. Demarest Hackensack 

Sarah F. Demarest Hackensack 

Oliver Drake-Smith Englewood 

George R. Dutton Englewood 

E. D. Easton Areola 

Samuel S. Edsall Palisade 

August M. Fay Hohokus 

Mrs. L. T. Haggin Closter 

Henry Hales Ridgewood 

A. C. Holdrum Westwood 

George Heber Jones, D. D Leonia 

Hugo F. Kriss Hohokus 

William O. Labagh Hackensack 

Jesse Lane New Milford 

Mrs. Jesse Lane New Milford 

I. Parker Lawton Ridgewood 

William A. Linn Hackensack 

John A. Marinus Rochelle Park 

William Nelson Paterson 

Christie Romaine Hackensack 

Rev. Ezra T. Sanford New York 

William Shanks Hackensack 

Col. William D. Snow Hackensack 

Dr. David St. John Hackensack 

Peter 0. Terhune Ridgewood 

William L. Vail Fairview 

Jacob Van Buskirk New Milford 

Jacob Van Wagoner Ridgewood 

Francis Livingston Wandell Saddle River 

Salina F. Watt Hackensack 

Robert T. Wilson Saddle River 

A. C. Zabriskie New York 

David D. Zabriskie Ridgewood 



66 The Bergen County Historical Society. 



Birth of the Society 

By Kugeiie K. Bird 

The Bergen County Historical Society was born March 4, 
1902. in the Johnson Pubhc Library building, Hackensack, 
when a few gentlemen met and formed a preliminary organ- 
ization, with William A. Linn presiding. The Rev. Herman 
V'anderwart was made temporary chairman, James A. Romeyn 
temporary secretary. Encouraging words were received from 
a number of prominent citizens of the county, upon which 
assurance Caleb Van Husan Whitbeck, the Rev. E. T. Sanford 
and William O. Labagh were named as a committee to circu- 
larize in the interest of the enterprise, inviting all citizens of the 
county to join. Those present at this meeting were : The Rev. 
Herman Vanderwart, William A. Linn. James A. Romeyn, 
Wm. O. Labagh, Alfred T. Holley, the Rev. Arthur Johnson, 
the Rev. E. T. Sanford, the Rev. H. B. Leech, F. W^ Orvis, 
James M. Smith, Mr. and Mrs. J. E. Esray, IVIrs. L. Kirby, Dr. 
L. S. Marsh (dentist), Eugene K. Bird. Henry D. Winton, H. 
Wetzelberg, C'ornelius Blauvelt, Isaac L Demarest. Caleb Van 
H. Whitbeck Joseph Kinzley and Wilkin Bookstaver. all of 
Hackensack ; the Rev. W. H. Vroom of Paramus, and William 
H. Zabriskie of Oradell. 

A second meeting was held March 2y, when Charles Bur- 
rows, F. M. Glover and C. L. Crear of Rutherford. Gen. J. 
X^reeland Moore of Leonia. Mayor Isaac D. Bogert of W'est- 
wood, Counselor Cornelius Christie of Leonia. Mrs. Elizabeth 
Vermilye of Englewood, the Rev. Dr. W. W. Holley of Hacken- 
sack and Colonel Wm. D. Snow of Hackensack were among 
names added. 

This committee was appointed to name candidates for 
office : The Rev. Dr. Holley, Chas. Burrows. Mrs. Elizabeth 
Vermilye, the Rev. W. H. Vroom, Isaac D. Bogert. Col. W. D. 
Snow. Cornelius Christie. They presented the following names, 
and all were elected : 

President, William M. Johnson; Vice-Presidents — Wm. A. 
Linn. Hackensack ; J. V. Moore. C. Christie, Leonia ; Elizabeth 
Vermilye, Englewood ; the Rev. W. H. Vroom, Paramus 
(Ridgewood) ; I. D. Bogert. Westw^ood ; Recording Secretary, 
the Rev. E. T. .Sanford. Hackensack; Corresponding Secretary, 
Arthur Van Buskirk. Hackensack; Treasurer, James A. Ro- 
meyn, Hackensack; Executive Committee — F. M. Glover. 
Rutherford ; Miss Adelaide W. Sterling, Englewood ; Abram 
C. Holdrum, Westwood ; Abram De Baun, Hackensack. 

A newspaper report of the day says that "Mr. Glover, who 



Tin; l)KR(;i-:x Coi'xi^- 1 1 isioRicAr. S()(■lI•:■|■^•. 67 



IS a hneal descendant of Historiens, "ave a ])leasant. little talk- 
on historical fossils and the necessity for avoidinj,^ the ruts that 
mark the trail of historical societies throughout nations where 
livino- and dead languages are recognized." 

Mr. (ilover. as chairman of the ex(>cutive committee, was 
informed that he could exercise his most acute and active 
faculties to avert the fossilization of the hodv with which he 
had allied himself. 

And so the Historical Societ}- of Bergen Countv was 
launched. Its meml)ership at the present time is as follows : 



HONORARY MEMBERS 

ANDREW R. COLLINS NEw BRIDGE 

HON. MILTON DEMAREST HACKENSACK 

GEN'L. GEORGE B. DUNCAN UNITED ST.^TES ARMY 

THEAPHILUS N. GLOVER LINCOLN PARK 

MAJOR FRANCIS G. LANDON NEW YORK 

JOSEPH C. LINCOLN CHATHAM. MASS. 

MAJOR JESSE I. SLOAT UNITED STATES ARMY 

MAJOR MAX W. SULLIVAN UNITED STATES ARMY 

REV. WILLIAM VROOM RIDGEWOOD 



LIFE MEMBERS 

BURTON H. ALLBEE PATKRSOX 

WILLIAM O. ALLLSOX ENGLEWOOD 

JOHN BORG TIACKEXSACK 

MRS. JOHN BORG IIACKRXSACK 

W. R. BRITTON EAST ORANGE 

ALPIN J. CAMERON RIDGEWOOD 

ABRAM DE RONDE KXGLEWOOD 

WILLIAM J. ECK . IIACKEXSACK 

W. EDWARD POSTER H.\rKEXSACK: 

E. HOWARD FOSTER ENGLEWOOD 

.\LLISTER GREEN NEW YORK 

WILLIAM C. GREGG HACKENSACK 

HOW\A.RD B. GOETSCHIUS ROSCOE. N. Y. 

ARCHIBALD C. HART HACKENSACK 

ARTHUR C. HOPPER RIDGEWOOD 

DAVID HOPPER ' MAIIWAH 

WILLIAM B. MACK.\Y, JR HACKENSACK 

J. G. C. MANTLE LEONIA 

H. V. D. MOORE ENGLEWOOD 

CAPT. J. J. PHELPS TEANECK 

VERYL PRESTON HOHOKUS 

W. R. SCHOONMAKER HACKENSACK 

.ANDREW STERTZER HACKENSACK 

JOHN STEWART GARFIELD 

CARL M. VAIL RIDGEWOOD 

CHARLES C. VOORHIS ^'EW YORK 

MRS. FRANCES A. WESTERVELT HACKENSACK 



68 



The Bergen County Historical Society. 



ALLENDALE 

WILLIAM H. ACKERMAN 
WILLIM DEWSNAP 
MRS. WM. DEWSNAP 
MRS. WILLIAM C. LEE 
AMBROSE K. MERRILL 
MRS. A. K. MERRILL 
MRS. HAROLD MILLER 
GEORGE PARIGOT 
GEORGE M. POTTER 
MRS. GEORGE M. POTTER 
W. C. TALMAN 
ARTHUR TOMALIN 
A. L. ZABRISKIE 

BOGOTA 

CORNELIUS V. R. BOGERT 

MRS. C. V. R. BOGERT 

MRS. CATHERINE V. BOGERT 

MISS EMMA L. BOGERT 

BENJAMIN R. BUFFETT 

MRS. HARRIET ANDRUS BUFFETT 

W. F. CANE 

DR. GEORGE L. EDWARDS 

GEORGE C. FELTER. JR. 

MRS. GEORGE C. FELTER 

WILLIAM S. HOPPER 

MRS. WILLIAM S. HOPPER 

WILLIAM T. KNIGHT 

REV. STODDARD LANE 

MRS. \V. R. LEERS 

MRS. CATHERINE C. MUNN 

WM. ST. JOHN TOZER 

REV. J. C. VOORHIS 

F. R. WESLEY 

BERGENFIELD 

WALTER CHRISTIE 
KATHERINE FOSTER 
JOHN W. RADFORD 

CLOSTER 
DAVID D. ACKERMAN 
HERBERT BOGERT 
CLARENCE A. CLOUGH 
RICHARD W. COSTNER 
ABRAM DEMAREST 
■lOHN J. DEMAREST 
J. Z. DEMAREST 
MRS. J. Z. DEMAREST 

D. S. JOHNSON 

E. W. LOZIER 

F. W. MATTOCKS 
FRANCIS E. MEYER 
DWIGHT MOORE 

DR. CHARLES A. RICHARDSON 
WILLIAM H. ROBERTS 
ALBERT T. SNEDEN 
W. GERARD VERMILYE 

DEMAREST 

FRANK ACHILLES 
MATT J. BOGERT 
CLARENCE A. BOGERT 
VIRGIL BOGERT 
EDWARD MALCOM DEACON 
DR. A. L. WARD 
EDMUND W. WAKELEE 

DUMONT 
REV. C. W. GULICK 



ENGLEWOOD 

WILLIAM O. ALLISON 

JOHN B. ALLISON 

WILLIAM BECK 

MISS JESSIE BENSON 

HENRY W. BLAKE 

DANIEL G. BOGERT 

CHARLES A. BOGERT 

JOHN V. BOGERT 

STEPHEN H. BOGERT 

PERCY M. CHRISTIE 

MISS ANNA B. CLARK 

WM. MARVIN COE 

WILLIAM CONKLIN 

MISS SARAH J. DAY 

JACOB R. DEMAREST 

ABRAM DE RONDE 

PHILIP DE RONDE 

PETER S. DURYEE 

J. H. EMANUEL, JR. 

ADOLPH L. ENGELKE 

HON. E. HOWARD FOSTER 

MRS. EMMA GEROW 

HON. W. IRVING GLOVER 

EDSON B. GORHAM 

GEORGE W. JOHNSON 

REV. EDWARD KELDER 

THOMAS W. LAMONT 

JOHN B. LEWIS 

HENRY MANN 

MRS. HENRY MANN 

D. J. McKENNA 

J. R. MELCHER 

H. V. D. MOORE 

DWIGHT W. MORROW 

REV. THORNTON B. PENFIELD 

DAN FELLOWS PLATT 

L. J. PLUME 

DANIEL E. POMEROY 

SEWARD PROSSER 

FRANK C. PUTNEY 

ARTHUR B. REEVES 

WM. E. H. SCHNEIDER 

CYRUS D. STAGG 

D. F. SWEENEY 

WILLIAM TALLMAN 

J. H. TILLOTSON 

DR. S. S. TREADWELL 

MAXWELL M. UPSON 

DR. BYRON G. VAN HORNE 

MRS. B. G. VAN HORNE 

CAPT. EDGAR VAN NAME 

O. C. WEATHERBY 

SIMON L. WERTERVELT 

WINTON J. WHITE 

EAST ORANGE 
W. R. BRITTON 

EAST NORTHVALE 
MRS. CATHERINE CORY 

FORT LEE 

JOHN C. ABBOTT 
EDWARD J. KAUFER 

GARFIELD 

WILLIAM WHITEHEAD 
JOHN STEWART 



The Bergen County Historical Society. 



69 



HACKENSACK 

DR. C. F. ADAMS 

GARRETT G. ACKERSON 

GEORGE G. ACKERMAN 

REX B. ALTSCHULER 

MISS CORNELIA H. ANDERSON 

V. C. ARMSTRONG 

C. W. BERDAN 

HENRY A. BERRY 

J. W. BINDER 

E. K. BIRD 

MISS EFPIE BLAUVELT 

WILLIAM D. BLAUVELT 

THEODORE JiOETTGER 

MRS. THEODORE BOETTGER 

MRS. JOHN W. BOGERT 

HENRY MYERS B0(4ERT 

MRS. HENRY MY'ERS BOGERT 

.rOHN BORG 

MRS. .JOHN BORG 

GEORGE K. BR.\DPIELD 

GEORGE M. BREWSTER 

CORNELIUS V. BRINKERHOPP 

MRS. geor(;e ALYEA HKLXKKRHOPP 

DR. M. R. I5KIXKMAN 

JOSEPH A. BROHEL 

CHARLES W. BROWER 

T. HOWARD BRUSH 

W. P. BURDETT 

HON. LUTHER A. CAMPBELL 

H. B. CANNON 

MRS. H. B. CANNON 

CHRISTOPHER E. CASEY 

JAMES P. CLARENDON 

CHARLES S. CONKLIN 

MRS. CHARLES S. CONKLIN 

DR. E. K. CONRAD 

PAUL H. CROMELIN 

JOHN H. CRONK 

MRS. J. H. CRONK 

REV. J. J. CUNNEELY 

CHARLES CURTIS 

C. M. DALRY'MPLE 

A. DE BAUN 

MRS. A. DE BAUN 

CLAY'TON DEMAREST 

MRS. CLAY'TON DEMAREST 

MISS ELENORE E. DEMAREST 

HON. MILTON DEMAREST 

JOSE M. DIAZ 

WILLIAM S. DOREMUS 

S. LESLIE DOREMUS 

WILLIAM P. EAGER 

WILLIAM J. ECK 

T, HENRY' ECKERSON 

MRS. T. HENRY' ECKERSON 

OSMER W. EICHOFP 

FRED V. FERBER 

DR. GEORGE WILLI .\M PINKE 

MRS. GEORGE W. PINKE 

FREDERICK T. FISHER 

MISS MAGD.VLENE E. FISHER 

W. EDWARD FOSTER 

MRS. M. REBECCA C. FOSTER 

CHARLES S. FOUNTAIN 

DR. A. FRANCK 

DR. FRANK PREELAND 

JAMES J. GOVEY 

WILLIAM C. GREGG 

J. S. GRUNOW 

WALTER T. GUDEON 

A. C. HART 

VICTOR HART 



M. L. HAGGERTY 

(iEOKGE IIARING 

TUNIS A. HARING 

DR. L. T. HE WES 

R. A. HEWITT 

.1. W. HOLBERTON 

(JEORGE E. HOLLANDER 

MRS. HENRIETTA 1). HOWP.LL 

ALFRED T. HOLLP.Y 

LEWIS W. HYDE 

HON. WM. M. JOHNSON 

D. G. JEFFERS 

JOSEPH KINZLEY', JR. 

MISS JENNIE H. L.\BA(ilI 

•lOSEPH G. LIDDLE 

COURTLANDT LINKROUM 

MRS. COURTLANDT LLNKKOU.M 

CHARLES H. LOZIKK 

MRS. C. H. LOZIEK 

CLARENCE MARIE 

MISS ELIZABETH MABON 

CLINTON M. MACARTHY 

MISS JENNIE S. MACARTHY 

DR .H.VRRY' G. MACDONALD 

TYNAN S. MARSHALL 

HON. WM. B. MACKAY, JR. 

WILLIAM M. MEAD 

GEORGE C. MERCER 

.LVMES W. MERCER 

WILLIAM W. MONT.\LA'0. -IR. 

WILLIAM MORSE 

HOW.\RD NEWMAN 

ROBERT OKIN 

WILLIAM L. PAULISON 

CHARLES H. PLENTY 

FRANK B. PLY'MPTOX 

JOHN R. POWLES 

EDWIN W. PRESTON 

MRS. E. W. PRESTON 

CHARLES C. RAMEY' 

HON. JOHN R. RAMSEY 

WILLI.VM F. RIC.VRDO 

THEODORE ROILMNE 

MRS. THEODORK ROM.MN'P. 

L. H. SAGE 

W. R. SCHOONM.VKER 

MISS GR.VCE S]jTX(;KRL.\ND 

CH.\RLES E. STAPPOKI) 

P. C. STAIB 

MRS. P. C. STAIB 

ANDREW STERTZER 

DR. H. S. STEWART 

MRS. H. S. STEW.VRT 

DR. A. A. SWAY'ZE 

FREDERICK K. STILLWELL 

HON. P. U. T.\YIJ1R 

C. AV. TERHUNE 

HOW.\RD D. TERHUNE 

I'. (^HRISTIE TERIirXE 

MRS. P. C. TKRHUXE 

.lOHX W. TIIO.MSOX 

Airi'lH'R A\\X BUSKIRK 

(;K()R(iK \-.\X BUSKIRK 

in':RM.\N VANl)Pin\'.\RT 

.1. R. V.\N DYCK 

H. H. V.\N S.\UN 

.I.VMPS .\. VAN VALEN 

RALPH N. VOORHIS 

MRS. RALPH N. VOORHIS 

PR.VNK H. VREELAND 

B. B. WELLS 

MRS. FRANCES A. WESTERVELT 

WARNER W. WESTERVELT 

WENDELL J. WRIGHT 



/' 



The Bergen County Historical Society. 



WILLARD T. WRIGHT 
FRANK YOUNG 
HON. JOHN B. ZABRISKIE 
FRED C. ZABRISKIE 
JESSE F. ZABRISKIE 

NORTH HACKENSACK 

EMILE STANGE 
EUGENE C. BENNETT 

HARRINGTON PARK 

P. M. CURTIS 
MRS. P. M. CURTIS 

HASBROUCK HEIGHTS 

J. HENRY BEHRENS 

MRS. L. P. BKRNSTKIN 

MILNOR B. DOMIXICK 

MRS ALICE ZABRISKIE FIELD 

EDMUND E. FIELD, JR. 

FRANK S. FLAGG 

MRS HENRIETTA BURR HARRIS 

E. L. D. HESTER 

MRS. ANNA M. LAWSON 

E. C. LITTLE 

GEORGE H. WEBB 

WALTER G. WINNE 

HOHOKUS 

VERYL PRESTON 

HOBOKEN 

MISS DORA SMITH 

JERSEY CITY 

JOHN W. BANT A 

JERSEY CITY FREE LIBRARY 

LEONIA 

GUY J. AGRATI 

PAUL BALZE 

B T. BUTLER 

ANDREW A. CHRISTIE 

CHAS. SYDNEY CLARK 

MRS. FLORENCE M. DUVAL 

JOHN ETTL 

ROBERT HILL GREENE 

DR. ROSCOE GUERNSEY 

CAPT. JAMES M. HACKETT, M.D. 

COL. E. W. HALFORD 

DR. WILLIAM HALLER 

DR. HERMAN H. HORNE 

ORISON M. HURD 

FREDERICK IMMOOR 

MISS MAUD KIDDER 

.r. G. C. MANTLE 

LEWIS MARSENA MILLER 

MRS. LEWIS M. MILLER 

DAVID B. MULLIKEN 

WILBUR F. OSLER 

E. D. PAULIN 

H. G. RAMPSPERGER 

DR. C. P. SEGARD 

MRS. C. P. SEGARD 

.rOHN W. SHARP 

R. A. SIGSBBE 

W. M. SPEAR 

EDWARD STAGG 

THEODORE WILLICH 

R. J. G. WOOD 

LITTLE FERRY 

D. M. GOETSCHIUS 



LODI 

WILLIAM W. AMMERMAN 

LYNDHURST 

REEVES D. BATTEN 
:\IRS. REEVES D. BATTEN 
ROBERT L. FISS 
PETER A. KUHN 
DR. ROBERT W. RODMAN 

MAHWAH 

MRS. ANNA C. HOPPER 
DAVID HOPPER 
MRS. CLARA D. LORD 
ELMER J. SNOW 
MRS. ELMER J. SNOW 

MAYWOOD 

JOSEPH A. DUFFY 

MIDLAND PARK 

HENRY WOSTBROCK 

NYACK, N. Y. 
J. ELMER CHRISTIE 

NEW MILFORD 
MISS C. VAN BUSKIRK 

NEW BRIDGE 
ANDREW R. COLLINS 

NEW YORK CITY 

HERBERT STEWART ACKERMAN 
GEORGE H. BUDKE 
GROVE D. CURTIS 
ALLISTER GREEN 
MISS ADELLE SADLER 
MA.JOR FRANCIS G. L.VNDON 
CHARLES C. VOORHIS 

NEWARK 

MRS. TDABELLE S. KRESS 

NORTHVALE 

LOUIS CAMPORA 

ORADELL 

ELMER BLAUVELT 
MRS. ELMER BLAUVELT 
MRS. ELIZA A. BLAUVELT 
DAVID D. BELLIS 
MISS ANNA BELLIS 
MISS LIDA S. BELLIS 
JOHN W. BELLIS 
MRS. J. W. BELLIS 
ALBERT R. BOGERT 
M.'iTTHEWS BROWN 
MRS. MATTHEWS BROWN 
MRS. J. D. CHRISTIE 
JOHN G. DEMAREST 
DANIEL I. DEMAREST 
DANIEL E. DEMAREST 
ISAAC D. DEMAREST 
MRS. ISAAC D. DEMAREST 
E. P. VELDRAN 
MRS. E. P. VELDRAN 
JOHN J. VAN WAGONER 



The Bergen County Historical Society, 



71 



PATERSON 

BURTON H. ALLBEE 
E. F. COSSE 
HON. JOHN W. GRIGGS 
MISS ALICE OLDIS 
THEODORE RIKER 

PASSAIC 

•T. HOSEY OSBORN 

RAMSEY 
.JOHN Y. DATER 
JOHN FRANK DE BAUN 

RIDGEFIELD 

EVERETT F. CURRIER 
ALFRED DIEDERICK 
CHAS. ENGELHART 
MELLINGER E. HENRY 
GEORGE W. HOOD 
M. R. JACOBUS 
FRED P. SMALL 

RIDGEFIELD PARK 
C. FRED BRE^VSTER 
JOHN A. AY. DONALDSON 
FRANCIS V. D. LLOY'D 
FRANK A. MORRISON 
W. J. MORRISON. JR. 
JOHN E. S. PETRIE 
J. E. WILLIAMS 

RIDGEV/OOD 

CHARLES K. ALLEN 

ALFRED E. ASHFIELD 

C. L. AUGUR 

H. H. BLAUVELT 

FREDERICK Z. BOARD 

ALPIN J. CAMERON 

LEWIS R. CONKLIN 

CH.AS. S. CHAPMAN 

HON. CORNELIUS DOREMUS 

.\ DOUGL.'\SS GESSFORD 

HENRY W. H.\LES 

ELMER J. HOPPER 

J SMY'LIE KINNE 

JAMES MADDEN 

J. R. MALTBIE 

M. T. RICHARDSON 

JUDSON B. SALISBURY 

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN SLOAT 

MARTHA WANDELL STILLWELL 

I. W. TRAVELL 

C.\RL M. VAIL 

REV. JOHN A. VAN NEST 

DR. W. L. VROO]\I 

REV WILLIAM VROOM 

WALTER W. WILSEY 

CHARLES WOODMAN 

RICHARD T. WILSON 

EVERETT L. ZABRISKIE 

RIVER EDGE 

WILLIAM F. ALBERS 

MRS. W. F. ALBERS 

A. Z. BOGERT 

MRS. A. Z. BOGERT 

MRS CHAUNCEY W, BROWN 

MRS. F. H. CRUM 

MRS. ANNA M. KRAISSL 

CLYDE B. PLACE 



MRS. CLYDE B. PLACE 
CHARLES B. RICHARDS 
MRS. C. B. RICHARDS 
MRS. HARRY LEWKLLYN 
HENRY VOORHIS 
MRS. HENRY VOORHIS 
MISS MARY K. ZABRISKIE 

ROCHELLE PARK 

HENRY S. IIEXKN 



HOWARD 



ROSCOE, N. Y. 

COKTSCHIUS 



RUTHERFORD 



MRS. A. E. C.VSTER 

COOK CONKLTNG 

GUY L. FAKE 

F. HAYDEN 

MRS. F. HAYDEN 

REID HOWEIJ. 

WALTER A. KIPP 

MRS. HELEN G. LUCE 

MRS. MARIE E. LUCE 

MRS. ELEANOR B. SPEER 

EMIL STEFFENS 

A. W. VAN WINKLE 

MRS. ARTHUR W. VAN WINKLE 

CHARLES A. VAN WINKLE 

STIRLING VAN WIXKLK 

WINANT V.\N WINK[.E 

SADDLE RIVER 

R. A. ADAMS 
J. G. ESLER 
MISS LOLA W. ESLKK 
GEORGE M. ECKKRT 
MISS KATHERJNK PENL 
MRS. FRANK D. I'KLL 
WESTON w. w.\(;kk 
MRS. WESTON W. W.\(iKK 
MRS. JUANTTA L. W.VNDELL 
MRS. JOHN CHKISTIE WARE 
JOHN CHRISTIE W.\RK, JR. 

TAPPAN 
H.\RRY RYERSO.X 

TEANECK 
HARRY BENNETT 
MRS. H.VRRY BENNETT 
MISS S.\RKTTA 1)E^E\R!■:ST 
MISS HELEN GEMMER 
.lOIEV H. HAYWARl) 
BERNARD LIPM.\X 
MRS. BERN.VRl) LIl'JLVX 
MRS. A. V. MEEKS 
(WPT. J. J. I' HELPS 
MISS DOROTHY SOHNKER 
MISS M.\RTON SOHNKER 
GEORGE E. WELLS 

TENAFLY 
E. ST,\NLEY CL.\RKE 
W.VTSON G. CL.VRK 
JAMES KIPP 
HERBERT (i. L()WI=: 
RALPH S. M.VUGHAM 
HENRY :\r. ROGERS 
H. B. PALMER 
ALEX. B. ROBERTS 
J. SPENCER SMITH 
WALTER STILLMAN 
JOHN A. WILSON 



72 



The Bergen County Historical Society. 



WESTWOOD 

MRS. JOHN G. BERDAN 
JESSE E. BRANNEN 
MRS. WILLIAM BREIBY 
MRS. THOMAS E. BRICKELL 
JAMES E. DEMAREST 
ISAAC B. HOPPER 
GEORGE H. HOWELL 
DR. GEORGE M. LEVITAS 
WARREN H. STAGG 
EDWARD VAN WAGONER 

WOODCLIFF LAKE 

RANDOLPH PERKINS 



WYCKOFF 

THOMAS D. RAMBAUGH 
MRS. THOMAS D. RAMBAUGH 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

JOHN T. BOYD. JR. 

YONKERS, N. Y. 

PETER A. H. VOORHIS 

U. S. ARMY 

MA.JOR GEN. GEO. B. DUNCAN 
MAJOR MAX W. SULLIVAN 
MAJOR JESSE I. SLOAT 



SUPPLEMENTARY 



ALLENDALE 

MRS. S. M. PRITCHETT 

BERGENFIELD 

MRS. MARIE ESLER WILLEY 

CHATHAM, MASS. 
JOSEPH C. LINCOLN 



DUMONT 



JACK L. FOX 



H. 



ENGLEWOOD 

LeROY PITKIN 



HACKENSACK 

JOHN M. CONTANT 
MRS. WM. P. EAGER 
JOSEPH F. O'SHEA 
HENRY M. POMARES 
MISS MARTHA STAGG 
JOHN VOLK 

LEONIA 

FRED D. BALZE 
MRS. E. D. PAULIN 

LINCOLN PARK 

THEOPHILUS N. GLOVER 

LYNDHURST 

ALFRED H. CRANKSHAW 
MRS. A. H. CRANKSHAW 



MORSEMERE 

WILLIAM D. WHEELER 
MRS. W. D. WHEELER 

RIDGEFIELD 

VREELAND BANTA 

DR. LAFAYETTE TALBOT 

RIDGEFIELD PARK 

MISS ROSE WYETH LEWIS 

RIDGEWOOD 

EDWIN EARLE 
MRS. HOPE D. EARLE 
MRS. JOHN HAWES 
ALBERT P. HOPPER 
ARTHUR J. HOPPER 
J. M. LAWTON 
CLARENCE L. LERSNER 

RUTHERFORD 

GEORGE A. K. SUTTON 

WESTWOOD 

MRS. CHARLES H. HAYWOOD 

WEST NEW YORK 

E. G. THOMSSEN 







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