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Papers and Proceedings 



or 



The Bergen County Historical Society 

1902— 1905. 



Number One. 



Organisation and Proceedings Rev. Ezra T. SanFord 

Report of the Committee on Colonial and Revo- 
lutionary History and Historical Places Col. W. D. Snow 

Baron Steuben's Estate William Alexander Linn 

The Poor Monument Celebration Eugene K. Bird 

Oration Upon the Unveiling of the Statue of 

General Enoch Poor Hon. Henry M. Baker 



m. / 




GEN. ENOCH POOR 



Frmu a Faintuiy by Kosciusko. 



Papers and Proceedings 



or 



The Bergen County Historical Society 



1902-1905* il~ 



Number One 



Organisation and Proceedings Rev. Ezra T. Saneord 

Report of the Committee on Colonial and Revo- 
lutionary History and Historical Places Col. W. D. Snow 

Baron Steuben's Estate Wiluam Alexander Linn 

The Poor Monument Celebration EugEnE K. Bird 

Oration Upon the Unveiling of the Statue of 

General Enoch Poor Hon. Henry M. Baker 



Press of the Evening Record. 
1905 



o 



l^ 



orriCERS, 1904-1905. 



President— T. N. Glover, Rutherford, N. J. 

Vice Presidents — Cornelius Doremus, Ridgfewood, N. J. ; 
B. H. Allbee, Hackensack, N. J. ; Isaac D. Bog:ert, Westwood, 
N. J.; W. M. Johnson, Hackensack, N. J.; W. D. Snow, 
Hackensack, N. J. ; Henry D. Winton, Hackensack, N. J. ; A. 
W. Van Winkle, Rutherford, N. T- 

Recording Secretary — Rev. Ezra T. Sanford, Hacken- 
sack, N. J. 

Corresponding Secretary — Arthur Van Buskirk, Hack- 
ensack, N. J, 

Treasurer — James A. Romeyn, Hackensack, N. J. 

The officers and the following compose the Executive 
Committee — C. Christie, Leonia, N. J. ; A. C. Holdrum, West- 
wood N. J. ; E. K. Bird, Hackensack, N. J. ; Abram DeBaun, 
Hackensack, N. J. 

Publication Committee — C. Christie, H. D. Winton, W. 
A. Linn. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Rev. H. VanDerwart Hackensack 

Rev. A. Johnson 

Rev. E. T. Sanford 

Rev. W. W. Holley 

Rev. J. C. Voorhis 

W. A. Linn 

W. O. Labagh 

E. K. Bird 

C. V. H. Whitbeck 

L L Demarest 

J. A. Romeyn 

L. S. Marsh 

J. E. Esray 

Arthur Van Buskirk 

Leonard Kirby 

Mrs. Leonard Kirby 

H. D. Winton 

W. M. Johnson 

Milton Demarest 

Abram De Baum 

W. D. Snow 

A. S. D. Demarest 

Christie Romaine 

H. N. Bennett 

John S. Mabon 

B. H. Allbee 

Peter Bogart, Jr. . . .• 

D. D. Zabriskie Ridgewood 

Rev. W. H. Vroom 

Cornelius Doremus 

Capt. Andrew C. Zabriskie 52 Beaver Street, N. Y. 

Alister Greene i E. 62nd Street, N. Y. 

T. N. Glover Rutherford 

Arthur W. Van Winkle 

Miss E. B. Vermilye Englewood 

Geo. R. Dutton 

A. D. Bogert 

Frank R. Ford 

Dr. Byron G. Van Horn 



Col. J. V. Moore Leonia 

Cornelius Christie 

Edw. Stagg 

James W. Pearsall Ridgewood 

Isaac D. Bogert Westwood 

Abram C. Holdrum " 

Rev. D. M. Tallmadge 

R. W. Cooper New Milford 

Jacob Van Buskirk " 

Henry D, Sewall May wood 

Coleman Gray Hackensack 

J. R. Lamb Cresskill 

George W. Wheeler Hackensack 

David Talmage Leonia 

Dr. David St. John Hackensack 

Mrs. F. A. Westervelt 

R. J. G. Wood Leonia 

Rev. H. M. Dodd Rutherford 

Dr. C. F. Adams Hackensack 

Rev. H. Iserman Ridgewood 

Henry Hales 

Fred. W. Cane Bogota 

Geo. J. Ackerman " 

Lewis Lord " 

Edward E. Easton Areola 

E. E. Wakelee Closter 

Milton J. Richardson Ridgewood 

J. A. Van Nest 



ORGANIZATION AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE 
BERGEN COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



By Rev. Bzra T. Sanford. 



On March 4, 1902, a company of those interested in the 
formation of a Historical Society in Bergen County met in the 
Johnson PubHc Library at Hackensack, and was called to 
order by William A. Linn. Rev. Herman Vandewart, Pastor 
of the First Reformed Church of Hackensack, was made 
Chairman of the meeting, and James A. Romeyn, Secretary. 

A Committee was appointed to perfect the organization, 
consisting of W. O. Labagh, C. Van H. Whitbeck and Rev. 
Ezra T. Sanford. 

On March 26 the Society was formed, a constitution 
adopted and a Committee appointed to nominate officers. The 
Committee made its report to a meeting held April q, 1902, 
and Hon. William M. Johnson was elected first President. In 
connection with the other officers and various committees 
appointed by the President considerable work was done the 
first year. 

On June 7 William Nelson, of the State Historical 
Society, made an address of encouragement. 

On November 21 the Rev. Ezra T. Sanford gave the 
Society a lecture on "Old Bergen County Days," Mr. George 
Walker kindly furnishing a stereopticon to illuminate the 
pictures used for the lecture. A generous offering was made 
by the audience on the occasion, towards erecting the proposed 
monument to mark the site of Old Fort Lee. 

At the first annual dinner, February 23, 1903, in Odd 
Fellows' Hall, Hackensack, addresses were made bv Cornelius 
Christie, William Abbott, D. D. Zabriskie, C. Doremus, H. D. 
Winton, C. V. H. Whitbeck, A. De Baun, W. D. Snow and 
T. N. Glover. 

At this meeting Cornelius Christie was elected President. 
During the year several articles of furniture were purchased 
for the preservation of the historical documents and relics 
belonging to the Society. 



On November ii, 1903, Mr. B. H. Allbee gave a most 
interesting lecture on "Old Houses of Bergen County," illus- 
trated with stereopticon views kindly furnished by C. Newman. 

On February 22, 1904, the annual dinner was held at 
Oritani Hall, Hackensack, where addresses were made as 
follows: Rev. H. Van Derwart, on "George Washington;" 
W. A. Linn, on "Baron Steuben;" T. N. Glover, on "Corn- 
wallis in Bergen County ;" Rev. E. S. Wheeler, of Boston, on 
"General Greene;" Byron G. Van Home, on "Descendants of 
Bergen County Loyalists in Nova Scotia;" B. H. Allbee, on 
"Monuments to the Builders of Bergen County." 

At this meeting the following Committee was appointed 
to co-operate with the Sons of the American Revolution in 
erecting a monument to General Enoch Poor in the open 
space in front of the County Court House : C. F. Adams, W. 
W. Holly, A. T. Holly, E. K. Bird, B. H. Allbee, C. Christie 
and Rev. E. T. Sanford. With the Committee, by request of 
the Sons of the American Revolution, W. M. Tohnson was 
asked to serve. 

Thomas N. Glover was elected President for the ensuing 
year. 

Various gifts of relics and historical documents were 
received during the year, among them being- publications of 
the Minisink Valley Historical Society, The Newburg (N. 
Y.) Historical Society, State Historian Hugh Hastings, of 
New York, and the Holland Society. 

In the month of April, under the management of Mrs. F. 
A. Westervelt, the Society conducted an interesting exhibition 
of relics and historical documents in its rooms in the Johnson 
Library Building. 

During the year the Poor Monument Committee, Dr. C. 
F. Adams, Chairman, raised five hundred dollars towards the 
erection of the proposed monument, the State of New Jersey 
giving one thousand dollars, the State of New Hampshire five 
hundred dollars and the Sons of the American Revolution five 
hundred dollars. 

On November 13, Frank G. Speck gave a lecture on 
"Indians in Bergen County." 

On December 12 the two hundreth anniversary of the 
Old Stone House on Essex Street, Hackensack. was observed. 
The house was built by Abram Ackerman and his sons an<l 
was sold to Albert A. Brinkerhoff in 1825. J. G. Ackerman 



read the Ackerman family history and the Rev. E. T. Sanford 
spoke upon the subject, "When the Old House Was New." 

At a meeting of the Executive Committee on December 
23, the Editorial Committee were authorized to issue a publi- 
cation containing a brief History of the Society by the Rev. 
Ezra T. Sanford, the address of Col. W. D. Snow at the first 
annual dinner, the address of W. A. Linn at the second annual 
dinner, the oration of Hon, Henry M. Baker at the unveiling 
of the Statue of General Enoch Poor, with a brief introduction 
to said oration by E. K. Bird, and in addition to the foregoing 
appropriate incidental matter; two copies to be distributed to 
each member of the Society and other copies exchanged with 
Historical Societies. An edition of five hundred copies 
was thought desirable. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON COLONIAL AND 
REVOLUTIONARY HISTORY AND HIS- 
TORICAL PLACES. 



Read at the Annual Dinner, February 22, 1903, by Col. IV. 

D. Snow. 



The writer of this report presents it with hesitancy as 
the Report of the Committee. The field assigned is so broad, 
the material so abundant, the difficulty of co-operative worl<, 
arising from the scattered homes of its members so great, that 
the writer has been compelled to assume a responsibility he 
would have preferred to avoid, could he have had larger 
opportunities for consultation and advice with his fellow 
members. 

Justice requires that he should make this avowal, so that 
those who are associated with him, may not be held responsible 
for the errors of this document, and that he, solely, may bear 
the brunt of whatever is here set down, which shall not satisfy 
the critical taste and wider knov/ledge of the other members 
of the Committee or the Society itself. 

On a subject so complex and in part so obscure as the 
Colonial and Revolutionary History of New Jersey, for want 
of earlier societies of the nature of our own, the Committee 
has thought, that it ought to proceed upon a system, which 
should first present as briefly as possible the ascertained facts 
of History, which have affected our territory generally or 
locally; whether proprietory, political, military, judicial or 
legislative. 

Should they succeed in this, tho' in a hasty and frag- 
mentary way, covering but a small segment of the circle of 
events of the past of New Jersey and the Bergen region, they 
feel that they will at least have striven for the position of Friar 
Tuck; who is said not only to have*"pointed to Heaven, but 
led the way" in that, at least they will have emulated his many 
imperfect steps and numerous back slidings; of which, it will 
be remembered, he was a most accomplished past-master. 



That unmitigated martyr to unexpected and undeserved 
good luck, by the grace of the treachery of Major General 
Monk, to the cause of the people whilom Duke of Albemarle, 
the Second Charles, King of England, among his early 
acts after the restoration of Monarchy, in utter disregard of 
the pledges of the English Commonwealth, under Cromwell; 
proceeded with true kingly arrogance in 1664, to bestow on 
his brother James, Duke of York and Albany, the property of 
other people, which, he with gracious magnaminity described 
as "all the lands lying within the sweep of a line drawn up the 
Western bank of the Connecticut River from its source, to the 
sources of the Hudson, thence West to the head of the Mohawk 
branch of the Hudson River, thence to the Eastern side of 
Delaware Bay (March, 1664), and thence to the ocean. By 
one of those rare chances of inscrutable History, these lines 
correspond with the outer boundary of the Dutch Republic, 
sprung from the discoveries of Henrick Hudson in the 
Republic's service, and the occupancy and peaceful settlement 
of the citizens of that government acquiesced in and respected 
from its first settlement. In persuance of this generous scheme 
of high-handed robbery, the next step of Royalty was the 
sending of Col. Richard Nichols, Sir Robert Carr, Col. George 
Coborough and Samuel Maverick, to take possession as Com- 
missioners of the regally bestowed territory, to revoke their 
charters and assume the Government of this and other territory 
claimed as the heritage of Charles 11. from the royal martyr, 
the first Charles. 

The third step was in a time of profound peace between 
the Dutch and England, without notice of claim to the Dutch 
Republic or notification to the citizens of New Netherlands, 
with 450 soldiers and 120 guns mounted on three men of war, 
to take possession of the land. This proved easy. Gov. Stuy- 
vesant, taken by surprise, without instructions from home — 
so secretly had the movement been made — finding himself with 
but 120 trained men to arms and only 20 guns at the fort, was 
forced to surrender without a blow. There was no choice 
between surrender and slaughter, and he succumbed. The 
crime was consummated. Bergen and its outer territory was 
part of the land seized. A medieval afternoon miracle has been 
performed, and the Dutchmen who had gone to bed, members 
of the glorious little republic, woke up Englishmen. 

New Jersey became a political entitv for the first time in 
July, 1665, when the English Governor Nicolls, who had 

10 



taken possession of New Amsterdam in Augfust. 1664, and 
included New Jersey as a part of the grant was first apprised, 
that two months before he had taken possession, His Royal 
Highness, the Duke of York, had granted to his two friends, 
Lord John Berkley, Baron of Stratton and Sir George Carteret 
of Saltum, "all his rights, within the territory of New Nether- 
lands, between the Hudson River and the harbor of New 
York and the Delaware River, and the sea ending at Cape 
May in the South." Col. NicoUs, who had been acting as 
Governor of the whole territory, was not a little disturbed at 
the confusion likely to ensue after a successful year's work oi 
pacification. As the proof of the grant presented by Phillip 
Carteret, who had been designated as Governor by the new 
proprietors was incontestible. Col. Nicolls at once surrendered 
the territory. Before this, however. Col. Nicolls in ignorance 
of his want of power had already authorized a settlement at 
Elizabeth, and had granted rights and titles along the Hudson 
and outer bay ; particularly in Bergen, Hoboken, Weehawken, 
Pavonia, Ahasimus and Constables Hook ; the settlers of all of 
which were profoundly exercised by the uncertainties, which 
beset their political and pecuniary rights and titles. 

Instructed by the ideas born of the Civil War, resulting in 
the conflict between Kingly prerogative and the fundamental 
rights of the people. Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret 
had authorized Phillip Carteret to offer gifts of land to settlers 
on most liberal terms, among which were religious toleration, 
and a free Government. This document was called : 

"The Concessions and Agreements of the Lords Proprie- 
tors to and with, all and every of the adventures and all such 
as shall settle and plant in their territory." 

It v/ill be observed that these concessions were far in 
advance of the Governmental plans of most of the other pro- 
prietors, and that for the times, New Jersey started on her 
political career on a higher plane of recognition of human 
rights, than any of the then colonies enjoyed, till the advent of 
William Penn as proprietor some years later. 

The Governor assiduously made known throughout New 
York and New England the lilDeral terms he was authorized to 
grant, and almost immediately a remarkable immigration, 
organized by whole companies, set in from New York, Con- 
necticut and Massachusetts as well as from Sweden, the Neth- 
erlands, France and England. 

The region known as Bergen comprised the present 



II 



county and what is now Hudson county, with undefined limits 
South and West, and from its accessibiUty profited most in 
numbers, as is shown by the fact that in the first assembly 
called by the Governor, May 26, 1668, Bergen was allotted 
more so-called "Burgesses" than any of the other divisions of 
the colony. 

The assembling of that body revealed the significant fact 
that the largest immigration came from Massachusetts, and 
that region of Connecticut, which still maintained a theocratic 
Government, denying political rights to all who were not 
members of the prevailing church in good standing and com- 
munion. 

The Puritans controlled that Assembly and passed a bill 
of fines and penalties against various sorts of offenders, which 
was drawn in some of its parts directly from the Book of 
Leviticus. 

In that age, characterized by historians as one in which 
all sects wanted toleration for themselves, and none were 
willing to accord it to others, the New Jersey Puritans found 
religious toleration imbedded in the organic contract called 
The Concessions and left it untouched, as a basic fact whicli 
had brought to New Jersey, and especially Bergen, unbounded 
prosperity. 

How great a boon they preserved to our forefathers is 
strikingly illustrated by two contemporary acts fourteen years 
later. The debasing effects of religious rancour even on the 
superior minds of devout men, were never more strikingly 
illustrated than in the following letter, from one of the most 
celebrated divines New England has ever produced. 

It is addressed to another distinguished personage of the 
Colony of Massachusetts and is as follows : 

September ye 15, 1682. 
"To Ye Aged and Beloved, Mr. John Higginson : 

'There is now at sea a ship called the Welcome, which 
has on board an hundred or more of the heretics and malig- 
nants called Quakers, with W. Penn, who is the chief scamp, 
at the head of them. 

"The general court has accordingly given secret orders 
to Master Malachi Huscott, of the brig Porpoise, to waylay 
the said Welcome, slyly, as near the Cape of Cod as may be, 
and make captive the said Penn and his ungodly crew, so that 

12 



the Lord may be glorified, and not mocked on the soil of this 
new country with the heathen worship of these people. 

"Much spoil can be made by selling the whole lot to 
Barbadoes, where slaves fetch good prices in rum and sugar, 
and we shall not only do the Lord great service by punishing 
the wicked, but we shall make great good for his minister and 
people. 

"Master Huscott feels hopeful, and I will set down the 
news when the ship comes back. 

"Yours in ve bowels of Christ, 

' "COTTON MATHER." 

A few months afterwards the scamp, William Penn, hav- 
ing escaped the fate so unctiously designed for him, was 
assuring by written mandate the settlers in his broad domain, 
which had cost him 16,000 ($80,000) that: 

"They should be governed by laws of their own making ; 
that they should be at the mercy of no Governor, who comes 
to make his fortune, that all sects and conditions of men should 
be free to worship God as their consciences dictated; that 
there should be no class privileges in Church or State, and 
that he proposed by extraordinary precaution to leave himself 
and his successors, no power of doing mischief; that the will 
of one might not hinder the good of the whole community." 

Repugnant as the spirit of Cotton Mather's letter is lo 
the enlightened consciences of our day and glorious as seems 
to us, in the enjoyment of the fruition of the policy of Penn 
two centuries and a quarter later ; who, knowing the infirmi- 
ties of sincere human judgment, shall judge between the 
Puritan and the Ouaker? Except to say, that the erring one 
must not be condemned by the ethics of a later century and 
that the other through the susceptibility of a more exquisitely 
attuned soul, caught the pearl and crimson morning glow of 
the ascending sun of human liberty, while that sun was yet 
below the horizon to the earnest gaze of the other, and that 
each was honestly true to the light that his nature permitted 
him to rceive. 

Thus was New Jersey, chiefly Bergen (the Hill County) 
bravely launched. 

Except for the episode of the reconquest of the New 
Netherlands by the Dutch a few years afterwards, their pos- 
sessions of seven months before the treaty of Westminster 
restored it to the English, and the consequences of that treaty, 
the division of New Jersey into East and West proprietor- 

13 



ships, and the surrender of the proprietory rights to the crown 
thereafter, history has only to record a peaceful, orderly 
growth in population, wealth and comfort; until the griev- 
ances which produced the Revolution began to be discussed 
almost a century afterwards. 

The growth was cosmopolitan. It came from every 
discontented population, suffering from the disturbed state of 
warring Europe, and the narrow doctrines and policies of 
some of the surrounding Colonies. 

An examination of the records of Bergen County dis- 
closes from the names attached to Wills and Deeds, that 
among the earliest settlers came many with scriptural names, 
such as Hezekiah, Rheoboam, Jethro, Azariah, etc., now sup- 
posed to represent the Puritan element. The Hugonots, then 
fleeing from the results of the revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes, were represented by the Debauns. Demarests. DeVoes, 
Duboises and other names of pure Norman construction, while 
the Teutonic immigration was clearly defined by the numicrous 
Dutch Vans dotted all over the Countv, occasionally varied by 
the German Von. 

As a whole the immigrants were a religous people. From 
Smith's History of the Colony of New Jersey, published in 
1765, we learn that there was at that time 160 meeting houses 
in the Colony, owned by six denominations. The Presbyteri- 
ans held about one-third, the Quakers one"fifth, the Episcopali- 
ans and Baptists one-eighth each, and the Low Dutch and 
Dutch and Dutch Colonist a little less than one-fifth. In 
Bergen County at that time, the Low Dutch had the lead with 
seven edifices, the Presbyterians came next with six: but the 
Quakers, Episcopalians and Baptists were without Houses of 
Worship. It is needless to add that the Unitarians — if there 
were any — were in a like plight homeless, tho' later history 
discloses that the first TTniversalist Church in America was 
founded in New Jersey in Monmouth County. 

In 1761; Bergen County's lines were exactlv defined and 
embraced what is now Hudson County, East of the Hacken- 
sack River, and to the North of Hudson territory approximat- 
ing its present limits. 

Among the intermediary Governors of New Jersey were 
two of England's nobilitv, whose names were nopularly 
regarded as significant of their character. Lord Cornbury 
was hated and recalled because of his brutality, and for the 
fact that he left his wife and family to starve at Alban)^, and 

14 



Lord Lovelace, who was popular on account of his refined 
taste, suavity of manner, and his sympathetic conduct. It 
is not known whether he visited Bergen County, but it is safe 
to say he would have been welcomed by the ladies at least, 
through the suggestiveness of his name. 

It fell to the lot of an unusually good man to be the last 
Colonial Governor. 

William Franklin personally irreproachable, wise, and a 
statesman from the Royalist point of view, encountered the 
first mutterings of the storm of the Revolution. 

It is not too much to say, that by the weisfht of his char- 
acter, the adroitness of his acts of conciliation, and the just- 
ness of his temperament, he delayed for more than two years 
the climax of that political action, which was to be, and it is 
from the tumultous session of the Assembly of 1774- that we 
catch the first view of the political feeling of Bergren Countv. 

The official record of that session does not out Bergen 
County, as repreesnted, as anxious for the Revolution. On the 
first of New Jersey's famous resolutions : That the Assembly 
heartily accept the invitation of a mutual correspondence 
and intercourse with its sister colonies, Bergen County voted 
in the negative, and therefore had no representation in the 
Committee of Revolutionary Correspondence. 

At the first Provincial Congress of the State, held bv 
invitation of the General Congress (1776) thirteen Counties 
returned 65 members. 

On the resolution : That the proclamation of William 
Franklin, "late Governor of New Jersey, appointing a meet- 
ing of the Legislature for June 20, of that year, ought not to 
be obeyed," there were but eleven negative votes, and Bergen 
County cast five of them. 

On the following day, on the resolution that Governor 
Franklin had acted in contempt and in violation of the resolu- 
tion of Congress, directing New Jersey and other Colonies to 
frame for themselves Independent Governments, there were but 
eight votes in the negative and Bergen County cast three of 
them. 

The third resolution that William Franklin had discov- 
ered himself an enemy to his country and should be arrested, 
was passed by 42 affirmative votes, including two from 
Bergen, yet three of Bergen's votes were still cast in the 
negative. 

On the fourth resolution, that the Governor's salary 

15 






should cease, New Jersey's thrift re-inforced its patriotism, 
and there was but one Bergen vote in the negative. Governor 
Frankhn was arrested; his salary was stopped; he was trans- 
ferred to military custody in East Windsor, where he was 
held two years ; was exchanged and disappeared under British 
protection in New York. 

A.> early as June, 1774, a large spontaneous meeting of 
the citizens of Bergen County was held at the Court House, 
Hackensack. The meeting demanded the Repeal of the Port 
Bill, and offered to become parties to a closer union of the 
Colonies to redress all the grievances, which affected not only I 
New Jersey, but all the Colonies. 

Not to be outdone the Loyalists, citizens of Hackensack 
to the number of 37, as late as March 14, I77^, met and 
declared "their loyalty to the King, and their willingness to 
venture their lives and fortunes to support the dignity of the 
crown. 

The crisis had arrived. Meetings were held throughout 
the County, resulting in a decided preponderance of sentiment 
for redress and independence, though to the last there existed 
a considerable body of loyalists, until the war either drove 
them into the ranks of the English or to New York City. 

In the New Jersey Gazette of December, 1777, appears a 
peculiar appeal of the first Governor of the State of New 
Jersey, particularly addressed to Bergen County. 

In a letter addressed to Isaac Collins, Gov. William Liv- 
ingston says : 

Sir : I am afraid that while we are employed in furnish- 
ing our battalions with cloathing, we forget the County of 
Bergen, which alone is sufficient, amplv to provide them, with 
winter waistcoats and breeches. It is well known that the 
rural ladies in that part of our State pride themselves in an 
incredible number of petticoats; which, like house furniture, 
are displayed by way of ostentation, for many years before 
they are decreed to invest the fair bodies of the proprietors. 
Till that period they are never worn, but neatly piled up on 
each side of an immense escritoire, the top of which is decor- 
ated with a most capacious brass-elapsed Bible, seldom read. 
What I would, therefore, humbly propose, is to make prize of 
those future female habiliments, and after proper transforma- 
tion, immediately apply them to screen from the inclemencies 
of the weather those gallant males, who are now fighting for 
the liberties of their country. And to clear this measure from 

16 



every imputation of injustice, I have only to observe, that the 
generality of the women in that county, having:, for above a 
century, worn the breeches, it is hig^hlv reasonable that the 
men should now, and especially upon so important an occasion, 
make booty of the petticoats. 

It is pleasant to know that this sug^g^estion was met by 
patriotic women, who organized a society for the purposes 
indicated for the whole State; that they accumulated a large 
supply of material, and the records show, that notwithstanding 
the Governor's clumsy humor about the century worn breeches 
of the ladies, this country responded nobly, and that on its 
most important committees are found the names of the two 
Misses Deys, Mrs. Fell, Mrs. Knyper and Mrs. Erskine of 
Bergen. 

Of Historical Places, the attention of the Committee has 
been called to houses and events in Rutherford, Lodi, Kings- 
land, Carlstadt, Fort Lee, New Bridge, Paramus Plains, 
Ridgewood, Mawah, River Edge, Sufferns, Tappan and 
Riverdale; all teeming with Revolutionary Romance, relics 
and incidents, which merit the attention of the Committee, 
when it shall have more time, and a better co-operative 
organization. 

As yet the Committee have had opportunity through the 
reporter to give attention to but one of these places, and that 
the last mentioned, Riverdale, three miles northeast of West- 
wood. 

On September 23, 1778, Sir Henry Clinton, just returned 
from his Bedford expedition, sent his forces along the New 
Jersey coast to capture some American privateers, and their 
prizes, and destroy grain mills, salt works, &c. 

To divert attention and forage for meat and provisions, 
he ordered Lord Cornwallis, afterwards the Commander-in- 
Chief, captured by Washington at Yorktown, with c^.ooo men 
into Bergen County. 

He also ordered Gen. Knyphausen to Dobbs Ferry with 
3,000 men to collect all description of craft possible to trans- 
port the whole 8,000 across the Hudson. 

Gen. Washington had just left White Plains, and estab- 
lished headquarters opposite West Point. He thought from 
the direction the two columns were taking that an expedition 
up the Hudson was contemplated, and ordered Col. George 
Baylor, with parts of three companies of Light Dragoons — 116 

17 



men to move from Paramus and post themselves on the upper 
Hackensack River to watch the CornwalHs movements. 

Col. Bayer arrived at the bridge crossing the Hackensack 
at River Vale late in the afternoon of September 28th, and 
learned that Gen. Wayne, with 3,000 militia, was just north 
of Tappan. Deeming Wayne's command within supporting 
distance of him, he resolved to stay over night at that point; 
stabled his horses and men at the barns of the Holdrum's, De 
Voe's and Haring's of the immediate neighborhood on the 
west bank of the river, threw out a picket of twelve men at the 
bridge with orders for patrols of two men each to watch each 
of the four roads for a mile from the bridge, and then selected 
the house of Cornelius A. Herring for his own and his staff's 
dormitory, and Herring's barn for the sleeping places of 
twenty of his men. 

CornwalHs was at New Bridge and his force scattered 
from there to Liberty Pole. Apprised by a spy of Col. Bayer's 
whereabouts, he immediately formulated a plan to capture his 
contingent and simultaneously have Knyhausen attack Gen. 
Wayne. Maj. Gen. Gray was ordered with a regiment of 
Light Infantry and the Second Battery to attack the sleeping 
Baylor. 

Just before midnight Gen. Gray struck the west bank road 
silently and in good order, about two miles below the bridge. 
Here he forced a guide to take the troop through the fields and 
around the patrol in such manner that he captured all of them 
but one. 

This accomplished, with picked men of six companies of 
his command, he went directly to the house of Cornelius A. 
Herring. The escaped sentinel had arrived and given Baylor 
the alarm but a moment before Gray's meji burst in the doors. 
Simultaneously all the barns in which the Americans were 
sleeping were assaulted. 

Col. Baylor and Maj. Clough, realizing the situation, en- 
deavored to conceal themselves up the wide Dutch fireplace. 
Both were discovered and brought down by bayonet thrusts 
up the chimney. Col. Baylor received three wounds and Maj. 
Clough died instantly. Cornet Morrow, after being bayoneted 
seven times, begged for quarter, which was refused and he was 
stabbed again and stripped of his clothing. Dr. Thos. Evans, 
surgeon, was wounded, but with Col. Baylor made a prisoner. 

The party attacking the barn used the bavonet freely. 
Lieut. John Steth, in command, finding himself surrounded, 



called out that they surrendered, but was immediately 
wounded with a sword and yet escaped. 

At a barn attacked by Sir James Bond's cotingent one 
British soldier was killed, but of the sixteen Americans in the 
barn nine were killed and seven made prisoners. 

Ensign Morrow, stripped and left for dead, was found by 
Lieut. Sleth the next morning and ultimately recovered. 

The general result was of the ii6 Americans thirteen 
were instantly killed, seventeen left behind supposed dead or 
dying, thirty-nine taken prisoners and forty-seven escaped. 

Col. Baylor was the personal friend of Washington, had 
served on his stafif and had been one of his family; was the 
first man to report to Washington the surrender of the Hes- 
sians at Trenton; had been complimented by Congress and 
presented by that body for gallantry with a hosre fully capari- 
soned and promoted to a Colonelcy of Light Horse. 

His disposition of his men on that fateful night was se- 
verely blamed as unmilitary. Congress ordered an investiga- 
tion. Wayne, warned by surrounding patriots of Knyp- 
housen's advance, retreated in time to save his own command 
from being surrounded. 

The main object of the expedition was therefor a failure, 
but as for Col. Baylor his ascending career as a soldier was ar- 
rested. The mistake of that night was fatal. 

The graves of the humble soldiers killed still remain 
marked by tottering headstones in a lonely field beside the silent 
flowing Hackensack. Wounded and a prisoner. Col. Baylor 
disappeared into the mass of the unfortunate and no man 
knows for a certainty when and where he passed the Rubicon 
of death. 

A single mistake had blasted a patriotic career and all we 
can say is, that his fate has only added another illustration to 
the truth of the poet, who has said : 

! 

' "There is a time, we know not when, 

A point we know not where. 
That turns the destiny of men 
To glory or despair. 

"There is a line, by us unseen. 

That crosses every path ; 
The hidden boundary between 

God's patience and His wrath." 

10 



BARON STEUBEN'S ESTATE AT NEW BRIDGE, 
BERGEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



WITH SOME ACCOUNT OF HIS EUROPEAN EXPERIENCE AND HIS 
SERVICES TO THE AMERICAN ARMY. 



Read at the Annual Dinner, February 22, 1904. 



BY WILLIAM ALEXANDER LINN. 



All of you who have passed over New Brid.sfe, about a 
mile above Hackensack, have doubtless noticed the dwelling 
of ancient architectural design on the west side of the river, 
facing the bridge. It is one of the "old houses" of Bergen 
county, and some interesting things in connection with its his- 
tory were presented to those of us who were fortunate enough 
to listen to Mr. Albee's address at the Park Street Church last 
autumn. Sometime within the last ten years I read in one of 
our local papers a statement that this property was given to 
Baron Steuben by the State of New Jersey, after the Revolu- 
tionary War, in recognition of his services to this country dur- 
ing that struggle. Ever since that time, whenever I have 
ridden or driven over the bridge, I have looked with peculiar 
interest on this house, and have imagined the old soldier sitting 
on its porch in his latter days, smoking his pipe and slapping 
mosquitoes. For I accepted the statement of his ownership 
without question. 

But when, after the organization of this society, I men- 
tioned this incident to some of those who were looking up local 
history, I found that the ownership by Baron Steuben was in- 
volved in some doubt. Then I began an investigation of the 
matter on my own account, and I have found the results so 
interesting, and the Baron's story so connected with our local 
history, that when I was asked to say something: here this even- 
ing, I decided to give you the results of my inquiries. 

The subject of my investigations, William Augustus 
Henry Ferdinand von Steuben, was the oldest son of Capt 

20 



Wilhelm Augustine Steuben. The Steubens were of noble 
family — "I am a Baron of the Holy Roman Empire," said our 
Steuben in later life — but like so many German families in the 
years following the Reformation (they were Protestants), 
they had lost their landed estates. Capt. Steuben was a Prus- 
sian soldier of scientific attainments, who, after serving his 
own country with distinction, was in 1733 ordered by King 
William I. to enter the service of Russia, and later served Prus- 
sia again in the Seven Years' War. 

The Baron was born at Magdeburg on November 15, 
1730. His father could afford no special educational advan- 
tages to his son, who said in later years that he "did not re- 
ceive any better education than that which a poor young noble- 
man in Prussia always received." But he was without pro- 
fligate habits and he was naturally studious, and so he learned 
to write and speak French and was well grounded in mathema- 
tics and history. 

His father's calling attracted him, and when only fourteen 
years old he served under him during the war ot the Austrian 
succession. The accession of Frederick the Great to the throne 
when Steuben was only ten years old gave the young man op- 
portunity to take part in some of the greatest militarv struggles 
which the world has witnessed. Entering a famous regiment 
as a cadet, at the age of seventeen, he was promoted to be an 
engineer in two years, to be a lieutenant in four years and to 
be a first lieutenant two years later. 

His military service was of the most practical and active 
character. He was wounded in the battle of Prague in May, 
1757, helped rout the French in the battle of Rossbach in the 
following November and, joining von Mayr's "free corps," he 
participated with distinction in that daring officer's exploits; 
after his commander's death was appointed adjutant-general 
under von Hulsen and was again wounded in the disastrous 
battle of Kunersdorf in 1759. In 1761 he was on the staff of 
Gen. Knobloch, whose brigade operated against the Russians 
in Poland, and to him was intrusted the negotiation of the 
terms of surrender of Colberg, in which city Gen. Knobloch 
was blocked up ; and he, with other offigers, was sent thence a 
prisoner of war to St. Petersburg. 

His imprisonment ended the following year with the 
armistice effected between Peter HI. and Frederick, but he had 
made himself so popular with the Russians that he was urged 
to enter the Russian service. This invitation he declined, and 

21 



returning home, he was made a captain and appointed aide de 
camp on the King's staff, and in that capacity took part in the 
siege of Schvveidnitz, with which the active campaigns of the 
Seven Years' War ended. Steuben's services, especially as an 
organizer, were so highly appreciated by the great Frederick, 
that he was one of the few chosen officers whom Frederick 
personally instructed in the military art. 

Steuben, however, soon resigned from the army. Various 
reasons have been advanced for this step, the one accepted as 
most probable being a slight to his rank by Frederick, who was 
very inconsiderate of his officers' feelings, his favorite ex- 
pression when an officer made any complaint being, "He may 
go to the devil." 

If Steuben received that advice he did not act uoon it. On 
the contrary, he made a trip to Hamburg and was there intro- 
duced to the Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen, from whom 
he accepted the office of grand marshal of the court. This 
place, the duties of which gave him supreme direction of the 
Prince's household and the arrangement of all court cere- 
monies, he held for ten years, and a contemporary has testi- 
fied that "he filled his post with all that dignity and knowledge 
of his duty which it eminently required." But Steuben was a 
Protestant, and the court was Catholic, and finding that he was 
the object of the plottings of certain priests, he retired, and in 
1769 joined the court of the Margrave of Baden, after refusing 
liberal offers to enter the military service of the King of Sar- 
dinia and of the German Emperor. He now held an honor- 
ary military position, leading an easy life, and having oppor- 
tunity to visit France and make the acquaintance of many 
distinguished Frenchmen and Englishmen. 

To form a just estimate of Steuben's services to our own 
country we must keep in view not only his military career, but 
his social opportunities, and remember how his previous life 
and surroundings corresponded with those of Valley Forge and 
the other camps of the poverty-stricken patriots. Had he been 
a mere hireling, or a mere seeker after military honors, a short 
period spent with Washington would have sufficed to dampen 
his hopes in America. 

We now come to the events which led to Steuben'§ throw- 
ing his fortunes with the American cause. The outbreak of 
the rebellion of the American colonies seemed to many French 
statesmen to give to France the opportunity they had longed 
for, viz. : to take revenge on Great Britain for the humiliation 

22 



to which France had been subjected by the peace of Paris in 
1763, which had deprived her of her North American posses- 
sions. But the King, Louis XVI., was timid, and while he in- 
trigued in secret, he refused to give open aid to the American 
cause. His ministers did not conceal their sympathies, and 
FrankHn's work at the French court was making progress. 

While this was the situation there, Steuben set out for a 
visit to England by way of Paris. Arriving at the French 
capital he let his friend, the Count de St. Germain, then min- 
ister of war, know of his arrival. The Count's reply mystified 
him. It asked him not to go to Versailles, but made an ap- 
pointment to meet hinv at the Paris arsenal. As Steuben was 
traveling merely for pleasure and was not an official person, 
he could not understand all this precaution. But he allowed 
himself to be conducted to the Count's apartment by an officer, 
and was warmly received. The greeting over, the Count 
opened a map, and pointing to America, said : "Here is your 
field of battle. Here is a republic which you must serve. You 
are the very man she wants at this moment. If you succeed, 
your fortune is made and you will gain more glory than you 
could hope for in Europe in a great many years to come." 

Several elements entered into the making of this proposal 
by a French war minister to a German soldier. France wanted 
to help America and yet not to appear to do so. To European 
soldiers the American army presented itself merely as a gath- 
ering of citizens made up wholly of volunteers, without mili- 
tary organization, without drill masters, without orderly camp 
inspection, and without method or economy in the handling of 
supplies. No greater practical assistance, it seemed to these 
French well-wishers, could be given to the Americans than to 
send them an officer of Steuben's experience in all these mat- 
ters. His selection had another feature. He was not a French- 
man. If he was captured by the British, or if Congress did not 
accept his services, France could in no way be held account- 
able for his mission, and the French could simply wash their 
hands of him. 

The scheme did not at all appeal to Steuben's inclinations, 
and he gave the Count no encouragement. But other inter- 
views followed, and he was introduced to Dr. Franklin, who 
also urged his acceptance of the task. But when Steuben 
brought up the subject of his expenses, Franklin declared that 
he had no authority to make him any pecuniary offer, except 
perhaps a grant of land of doubtful value, and his manner so 

23 



offended Steuben that the interview ended abruptly, and 
Steuben told his French advisors that he did not want to hear 
anything more of America. The Count continued, however, 
to urge the project on him, and at a dinner at which the Span- 
ish Ambassador was present the Count, referring to Steuben, 
said: "Here is a man who will risk nothing; consequently he 
will gain nothing." 

Instead of continuing his journey to England, Steuben 
returned to Germany, where letters from France followed, re- 
newing the American proposal. Steuben accordingly took 
counsel of his friend, Prince Louis William of Baden, who did 
not hesitate to advise him that he could never hope for a better 
opportunity to achieve distinction. This was the turning point. 
The King of Prussia gave his consent to Steuben's departure; 
he conferred on a cousin his civil position, which brought him 
a yearly income of 4,600 livres, and returning to France in 
August, 1777, he made his preparations for sailing to this 
country. The decision arrived at was that he should ask for 
no definite promises from the American agents — not even 
money for his traveling expenses — but should simply propose 
to make one or two campaigns with the American army as a 
volunteer, thus avoiding the jealousy of the younger American 
officers. 

With letters to Washington, Samuel Adams and other 
American leaders, he sailed from Marseilles on September 26, 
1777, in the 24-gun ship I'Heureux, whose name for this voy- 
age was changed to Le Flamand, entering his own name as 
Frank, and carrying, as a disguise, letters to the French gov- 
ernor of Martinique. M. de Beaumarchais, a warm sympath- 
izer with the American cause, advanced to Steuben his travel- 
ing expenses as a loan, and sent to the patriots, in the same 
vessel, supplies of powder, cannon, mortars and small arms. 

The voyage was a perilous one in several ways. Terrible 
gales were encountered, three times the powder-laden ship was 
on fire and the crew of eighty-four mutinied and had to be 
brought to terms by the fourteen officers and passengers. But 
after sixty-six days they entered the harbor of Portsmouth, 
N. H., where the vessel was saluted by the fort and the vessels 
in harbor, and the passengers were welcomed by the inhabitants 
who had just been cheered by the surrender of Burgoyne. 

One little piece of deception was practiced in connection 
with Steuben's mission. In a letter to Alexander Hamilton, in 
1790, concerning his remuneration, Steuben observed: "If I 

24 



should be charged with having- made use of ilHcit stratagems to 
gain admission into the service of the United States I am sure 
the army will acquit me." This "stratagem" was the presenta- 
tion of Steuben as a Prussian lieutenant-general. It was sug- 
gested by the French statesmen who induced him to serve us 
that not a member of our Congress had ever heard of the Mar- 
gravite of Baden, and that, to limit his title to that dependency, 
would deprive him of the rank that was necessary to secure him 
the recognition that was mapped out for him in America. 

From Portsmouth Steuben sent to Congress and to Gen. 
Washington letters defining his object and enclosing his intro- 
ductions. The short letter to Congress sets forth his purpose 
in a few words : 

"Honorable Gentlemen : The honor of serving a nation 
engaged in the noble enterprise of defending its rights and 
liberties was the motive that brought me to this continent. 1 
ask neither riches nor titles. I am come here from the remotest 
end of Germany, at my own expense, and have given up an 
honorable and lucrative rank, I have made no condition with 
your deputies in France, nor shall I make any with you. My 
only ambition is to serve you as a volunteer, to deserve the con- 
fidence of your general-in-chief, and to follow him in all his 
operations, as I have done during seven campaigns with the 
King of Prussia. Two-and-twenty years spent in such a school 
seem to give me a right of thinking myself amongf the number 
of experienced officers ; and if I am possessed of the acquire- 
ments in the art of war, they will be much more prized by me 
if I can employ them in the service of a republic such as I hope 
soon to see in America. I should willingly purchase at the ex- 
pense of my blood the honor of having my name enrolled 
among those of the defenders of your liberty. Your gracious 
acceptance will be sufficient for me, and I ask no other favor 
than to be received among your officers. I venture to hope that 
you will grant this, my request, and that you will be so good 
as to send me your orders to Boston, where I shall await them, 
and take suitable measures in accordance." 

Proceeding to Boston, John Hancock told him that it 
would be necessary for him to journey to York, Pa., where 
Congress was then in session, and he was provided with the 
equipment necessary for the trip, including saddle horses, 
vehicles and five negro servants. The start was delayed for 
five weeks, awaiting a reply to his letter to Washington (com- 
munication was very uncertain in those days), and he did not 



get under way until January 14, 1778. His party included 
Duponceau, his interpreter (the Baron could not speak a word 
of English), two other Frenchmen and a cook whom he had 
brought with him from Europe. They rode on horseback, and 
the journey was by no means free from peril. The American 
army was suffering the deprivations of Valley Forge; the 
British had possession of Rhode Island, New York and most 
of Pennsylvania, and the travelers were liable to encounter 
parties of Tories, or to ask shelter of a Tory who would not 
hesitate to betray them. For instance, they had been warned 
against a certain landlord near the Connecticut boundary of 
Massachusetts, as a bitter Tory. But a snow storm left them 
no alternative against seeking refuge at his house. He recog- 
nized their affiliations and absolutely refused them food or 
beds. Steuben thereupon called for his pistols, and with these 
in hand and the assistance of a volley of German oaths, he sooni 
brought the landlord to terms. 

They arrived safely at York on February 5, and Steubeni 
was warmly welcomed. Pleased with his reception, he wrote i 
to John Hancock: "Now, sir, I am an American, and am 
American for life." Three members of Congress, including,' 
Dr. Witherspoon, the only member who could speak French,, 
were appointed to ask Steuben on what terms he proposed 10 ) 
serve this country. In his reply he reiterated the declaration 1 
of his letter to Congress, but said that he expected to have hisi 
expenses paid, as he had relinquished his only income on leav- 
ing Germany; that if the Americans failed to win their inde-- 
pendence he would hold them free from any further obligations 3 
to him, but if they were successful he should expect full in-- 
demnification for his sacrifices. Congress by resolution ac-- 
cepted this offer, and asked him to repair to Washington's? 
headquarters as soon as convenient. 

It would be almost impossible to exaggerate the condi-- 
tions that he found on arriving at Valley Forge. Washing- - 
ton had written to Congress that unless something was done,, 
the army must either starve, dissolve or disperse to seek food. . 
There was neither organization, discipline nor supplies. Men, 
enlisted for three, six and nine months, were coming and go- 
ing as their terms expired. "Sometimes," wrote Steuben, "a 
regiment was stronger than a brigade. I have seen a regiment 
consisting of thirty men, and a company of one corporal. There 
was no established system of maneuvres, no settled regulations 
for discipline or good order, and no uniformity in the service. 

26 



The soldiers were scattered about in every direction. We had 
more commissaries and quartermasters than all the armies of 
Europe. The arms were in horrible condition, covered with 
rust, many from which a single shot could not have been fired. 
The men were literally naked. I saw officers at a grand parade 
mounting guard in a sort of dressing gown made of an old 
blanket or woollen bedcover. The idea the officers had of their 
duty was that they had only to mount guard or put themselves 
at the head of their regiment or company when they were go- 
ing into action." 

Washington at once asked his new assistant to sketch a 
plan of inspection, and he undertook the task, knowing full 
well how necessary it was to avoid the jealousies of officers 
coming from different States, and all looking askance at a for- 
eigner. When his scheme was in order it was approved by 
Washington and by Congress, and from that date Steuben's 
influence made itself felt. He taught the value of an efficient 
staff, and provided Washington with one of which it has been 
said that it was one which Frederick would not have despised. 
The men themselves he had to teach such elementary practices 
as presenting arms, firing by platoons and the use of the bayo- 
net. He would make his officers drill a single man first, then 
a company of six, and so on up to a platoon. "In less than 
three weeks," he says, "I executed maneuvres with an entire 
division in the presence of the commander-in-chief." 

All this was done by a man who had to give his orders 
through an interpreter. Of course, he lost his temper at times, 
but his patience never gave out. It must have been an amusing 
picture to see this military expert trying to drive the first no- 
tions of order and discipline into the minds of these rawest of 
recruits. Speaking only a few words of English, he would ex- 
haust his store of German and French oaths, and then call on 
his aide to curse them in English. "Viens, mon ami Walker," 
he would cry. "Vien bon ami. Sacre bleu, gott vertamn, de 
gaucherie of dese badauts. Je ne puis plus. I can curse dem 
no more." "It was a brave attempt," says His friend North, 
"which nothing but virtue, or high-raised hopes of glory, could 
have supported." 

It must be remembered that Steuben's task was performed 
by a man who had for years had charge of the formalities of a 
German court, and was accustomed to all the refinements and 
luxuries of such a life. Now, however, he got up at 3 a. m., 
smoked a pipe and drank a cup of coffee and was on horseback 

27 



ready for parade duties at sunrise. Even his imported cook 
could not stand what his master did. Finding little to cook at 
Valley Forge and no utensils to cook with, the cook asked a 
wagoner what he should do. "We cook our meat," was the 
reply, "by hanging it on a string, and thus turning it before 
the fire." Whereupon the cook presented himself to his mas- 
ter and resigned in these words: "Under happier cimcum- 
stances, mon general, it would be my ambition to serve you, 
but here I have no chance of showing my talents ; and I think 
myself obliged, in honor, to save your expense, since your 
wagoner is just as able to turn the string as I am." 

Three months after Steuben's arrival at Valley Forge Con- 
gress showed its appreciation of his services by adopting a 
resolution appointing him inspector-general with the rank and 
pay of major-general. The army, too, appreciated his work. 
There was jealousy when his major-generalship was announced 
and later, but officers who first felt hurt were glad to serve un- 
der him. After the battle of Stony Point, which was won by 
the bayonet alone, the use of which he had first taught our 
soldiers, the younger soldiers, when Steuben visited the field, 
gathered around him and assured him that thereafter they 
would use their bayonets for something else than utensils on 
which to broil their steaks. The result of his discipline was 
strikingly shown at the battle of Monmouth, where he brought 
retiring troops to a stand under a heavy cannonade as easily as 
if they had been on a dress parade. 

I cannot do the justice of even a mention of the many 
things he did in putting our army on an efficient basis. He 
wrote the "Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the 
Troops of the United States," which was the army blue book 
for many years to come. This work of twenty-five chapters 
was first written in German, then translated into bad French, 
put into good French by his interpreter, and finally translated 
into English by his aide, Capt. Walker. He made recommen- 
dations, planned campaigns and commanded troops in action 
as an officer of the line. With Washington in New Jersey, he 
ascertained Clinton's route from Allen town, took a very prom- 
inent part in the battle of Monmouth and believed himself that, 
in command of the left wing, he saved the day, after having a 
meeting with the traitor Lee, who tried in vain to make him 
believe that he had mistaken his orders to push on with his 
troops. He was with Washington in the camp at Morristown, 
where he received neither rations for his servants nor forage 



for his horses, and where a loan kept him from starvation. 
Then Congress allowed him 250 louis d'ors (which netted him 
$575), for his expenses in coming to this country. From 
Moristown he was sent by his chief to West Point when Clin- 
ton threatened that position, and thus he came to be a member 
of the court which passed sentence of death on Major Andree, 
He pitied, but could not save, and exclaimed, "Would to God 
the wretch who drew him to his death could have suffered in 
his place." Sometime later, hearing a soldier answer to the 
name of Jonathan Arnold on parade, he called him to his quar- 
ters and said : "You are too fine a soldier to bear the name of 
a traitor. Change it at once." "But what name shall I take ?" 
asked the soldier. 'Mine is at your service," was the reply, 
and his name was duly changed to Steuben by the Connecticut 
Legislature. 

Sent to Virginia to help Gen. Greene when the invasion of 
that State by Arnold occurred, he found a condition of things 
worse in some respects than he had encountered at Valley 
Forge. He remained there until the surrender of Cornwallis, 
being in the trenches when that event occurrd, putting forth 
all his energy to discipline and reinforce his commander's 
forces in the face of almost countless discouragements. 

Without attempting to do any justice to his further mili- 
tary services we come now to the dark picture which his bio- 
grapher draws of the ingratitude of the republic in telling the 
story of Steuben's long contest to obtain from Congress some 
pecuniary recompense for what he had done. The whole busi- 
ness does seem petty in the light of our days, when the nation 
appropriates hundreds of millions annually as pensions for 
those who rallied to the defense of the nation in her time of 
need. But our days are not Steuben's days. The country 
then was very poor, the government newly organized, with 
scant means of communication, and few newspapers to spread 
abroad the story of each man's achievements. Congress was 
slow, lamentably slow, in making an appropriation for the 
veteran soldier. But let us blame the times and not the men. 

In 1782 Congress voted him. $2,400 and $300 per month 
to enable him to take the field. In 1787 it voted him a gold- 
hilted sword. Finally, after seven years of efforts on his part, 
an act, approved June 4, 1790, gave him an annuity of $2,500 
during his life, in full discharge of all his demands. Had the 
appropriation been larger it would not have gone further with 
him ; for he was no financier, and his generosity knew no limit. 

29 



If he was in funds his table must be filled with guests, and 
rank was not regarded in his invitations. "Poor fellows," he 
once remarked, when giving orders that some subordinate of- 
ficers be invited, "they have field-officers' stomachs without 
their rations." When he took up his residence on his farm in 
New York State, he made to more than one needy soldier a 
present of from forty to one hundred of his acres. Washing- 
ton observed that Congress did well to make his recompense an 
annuity and not a gross sum, as in the latter case his generosity 
would have made him die a beggar. Even this precaution did 
not save him from his debtors, and we find on record an assign- 
ment which he made in his later years, to cover an indebted- 
ness of 2,271 pounds, in which he deeded 16,000 acres of land 
and one-fifth of his annuity. Among the creditors named are 
Alexander Hamilton and Brockholst Livingston. 

If the nation seemed disregardful of Steuben's services, 
the States in. which he served most actively did not. Pennsyl- 
vania made him a grant of 2,000 acres and Virginia gave him 
10,000. What disposition he made of these gifts his bio- 
grapher does not say. 

We come now to the gift that concerns us locally, and 
makes the Baron an object of special interest to Bergen 
county. Knapp, in his life of the Baron, says : "New Jersey 
had given him a life lease of a forfeited estate of John Za- 
briskie, lying in the county of Bergen, township of New Barba- 
does, at the New Bridge, in the immediate neighborhood of 
New York ; but Steuben, when informed that Zabriskie, in con- 
sequence of that confiscation, was left without means, did not 
accept the gift, and interposed in behalf of Zabriskie." 

If this statement was correct it settled the question of 
ownership of the New Bridge estate, without further research. 
But as I undertook the work of verification, I found that the 
statement was very questionable, and by the expenditure of a 
good deal of time and a little money, and the kind assistance 
of the State Librarian and the librarian of the New Jersey His- 
torical Society, I think I have obtained all the facts as based on 
official records. 

The New Jersey Legislature passed an act which bears 
date of December 23, 1783, setting forth as follows : 

"Whereas, the Legislature are informed that Maj.-Gen. 
Baron Steuben is anxiously desirous to become a citizen of the 
State of New Jersey, and are also impressed with a sense of 
the many and signal services by him rendered to the United 

30 



States of America * * * that that part of the real estate 
formerly belonging to John Zabriskie, and which has been for- 
feited to and vested in this State, lying, situate and being in 
the county of Bergen, township of New Barbadoes, and at the 
New Bridge, shall be, and the same hereby is, appropriated to 
and for the use of Maj.Gen. Baron Steuben, to hold, use and 
enjoy the said estate, and all the emoluments that may there- 
unto appertain and belong, in as full and ample a manner as 
if the fee simple of the said estate was vested in him. Pro- 
vided always, and it is the true intent and meaning of this act, 
that the said Maj.-Gen. Baron Steuben shall have, hold, occupy 
and enjoy the said estate in person, and not by tenant" ; other- 
wise the estate was to revert to the State. 

The Baron did not propose to occupy the estate in person, 
and to meet his wishes a supplement to this act, bearing date of 
December 24, 1784, was passed, which set forth that the Legis- 
lature was informed that the conditions of the gift interfered 
materially with his views ; but, being "deeply filled with a sense 
of the many and signal services by him rendered to the United 
States of America, and desirous to testify to the world the 
grateful sense they entertain of the said services." therefore 
the agent for forfeited estates was authorized to sell this esate 
to the highest bidder and pay the money into the State treasury, 
and the interest thereon should be paid to the Baron during his 
life. 

The estate was sold, in accordance with the act, on April 
I, 1875, the successful bidder being the Baron's aide-de-camp, 
Capt. Walker, and the price bid being 1,500 pounds. But the 
terms of payment were not observed, and again the Legisla- 
ture manifested its generosity. A further act was passed, bear- 
ing date of February 28, 1786, which provided that, if the pay- 
ment was not made by the following March, then the Baron 
should have the use and benefit of the estate during the time of 
his residence in any of the States. The bid for the estate by 
Walker was evidently in the Baron's behalf, for we find a letter 
from him to Gov. Livingston in the State library, dated No- 
vember, 1785, speaking of having purchased the estate, and 
complaining that a certain wood lot was withheld at the sale. 
Undoubtedly the Baron had not the money to meet the pay- 
ment, and this was why the Legislature again came to his re- 
lief. 

Still he was not satisfied, and once more the Legislature 
manifested its generous spirit toward him. An act, bearing 

i 31 



date of September 5, 1788, was passed, repealinsr all the pre- 
vious acts conferring on him any rights in the estate, and pro- 
viding as follows : 

"Whereas, the Legislature are still anxious to evince to 
the world the high sense they entertain of the important ser- 
vices rendered to the United States of America, during the 
late war by Maj.-Gen. Baron de Steuben; and whereas, the 
acts of the Assembly heretofore passed on behalf of said Baron 
have been found not to be so advantageous to him as were in- 
tended; therefore, be it enacted that (dropping the full legal 
text) the Baron be vested with the full title of the State in the 
said estate, "for the sole and only use of the said Baron de 
Steuben, his heirs and assigns forever." 

Thus the State of New Jersey paid finally its share of the 
debt which the nation owed to the old soldier. And thus it set at 
rest any doubt as to the ownership of this estate by the Baron. 
But he did not occupy it. Unquestionably he visited it, and he 
had a knowledge of its value. But he needed cash more than 
land ; and if you will go down to the court house on the Green 
and ask for Liber F of deeds and turn to page 2, you will find 
a deed dated three months after this act became a law, in which 
for the sum of 1,200 pounds he conveyed back to John Za- 
briskie all this estate, "together with all and singular the edi- 
fices, buildings, grist mill, barns and stables, fences, right-of- 
way, privileges and advantages, hereditaments and appurten- 
ances whatever." 

In May, 1786, the Legislature of New York, as a public 
testimony to his "very essential service," voted the Baron a 
quarter section of a township (16,000 acres), a part of the 
lands recently purchased from the Oneida Indians. He made 
his selection near the present city of Utica, and there he spent 
the summers in his later years, returning in the winters to the 
city, where he had the entre to the most exclusive houses. 
While at his farm, in November, 1795, he was stricken with 
paralysis, and he died on November 27. He had made a will 
in 1794 in which he gave certain legacies to his servants on 
condition that "they do not permit any person to touch my 
body, nor even to change the shirt in which I may have died ; 
but that they wrap me up in my old military cloak, and in 
twenty-four hours after my decease bury me in such a spot as 
I shall, before my decease, point out to them, and that they 
never acquaint any person with the place where I shall be 
buried." 



32 



He had not designated such a place, but he was laid away 
under a group of trees which he had mentioned as a food place 
for a man to be buried under. Not many years later a high- 
way was laid out directly over his gfraye, and in time the earth 
was so worn away that the coffin became exposed, and it is 
said that some one opened a corner of it and tore off a piece of 
the coat that formed his winding sheet. A friend came to the 
rescue, and gave to the Wesleyan Baptist Society fifty acres 
of land on condition that five acres, to the middle of which the 
coffin was removed, should be kept fenced and uncleared. 

I do not doubt that if the Baron had chosen to become an 
actual resident of our township, and had died at New Bridge, 
we would have seen to it that his grave was properly rever- 
enced, and that there would be to him today a monument in 
this town erected in grateful tribute to his memory. 




33 



THE POOR MONUMENT CELEBRATION AT HACK- 
ENSACK, OCTOBER 7> 1904. 



BY EUGENE K. BIRD. 



In preparation for the formal unveiling and dedication of 
the monument many private residences, business and public 
houses displayed the national colors, some of them being ela- 
borately decorated. This evidence of interest in the patriotic 
event was an appreciation very encouraging to the committee, 
in charge of the celebration, indicating, as it did, that public 
spirit was in accord with the demonstration. 

Preceding the parade the local committee entertained 
the invited guests from abroad at luncheon, served at the 
Hackensack Golf Club House. 

The parade was under the direction of Maj. Charles F. 
Adams, M. D., and Lieut.-Col. Alfred T. Holley, marshals, 
the line forming as follows : 

Robinson's Fifth Regiment Band, of Paterson; Fifth 
Regiment, New Jersey National Guard, Col. Edwin W. Hine, 
commanding; Battery A, Field Artillery, of Orange, Capt. 
Oscar H. Condit, commanding; delegations of Sons of the 
American Revolution, other guests and the committee in car- 
riages. 

The procession formed on State street at the Armory of 
Company G, Fifth Regiment, and covered this course : North 
to Central avenue, west to Union street, north to Anderson 
square, east to Main street, south to Court square and the 
statue. Here the immediate exercises attending the dedication 
were carried out at the monment with flawless accuracy of ar- 
rangement, an assemblage estimated at 4,000 or 5,000 persons 
being massed around the grand-stand. The stand itself was 
crowded by delegations of Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution from several States, among the ladies being a number of 
distinguished for active prominence in the national body of the 
organization. Many gentlemen conspicuous in the Sons of the 
American Revolution were also present in rcognition of the 

34 



merit due him in whose name the shaft and figure were set up 
as an inspiration to all who love their country. 

The formal program of the unveiling and dedication was 
as follows : Prayer by Rev. Charles L. Pardee, chaplain New 
Jersey Society Sons of the American Revolution ; presentation 
of the plot of ground to the municipality of Hackensack by 
Mr. B. B. Barkman and its acceptance by the Rev. E. T. San- 
ford on behalf of President Jacob Bauer ; unveiling the statue 
by Mrs. Frank E. Dunbar, of Lowell, Mass., a descendant of 
Gen. Poor, followed by a salute of twenty-one guns by Capt. 
Condit's Battery A, light artillery. 

The Hon. John Whitehead, president of the New Jersey 
Society Sons of the American Revolution, who was the first 
speaker, confined his remarks largely to a detail of the work 
involved in securing the monument. He gave credit to Eugene 
K. Bird, of Hackensack, for conceiving the idea of rearing the 
monument; to A. W. Bray, secretary of the New Jersey So- 
ciety Sons of the American Revolution and chairman of the 
committee, whose alertness, patience, perseverance and deter- 
mination were so largely instrumental in carying the enter- 
prise to a magnificent completion, and to all others directly 
concerned in forwarding the patriotic enterprise. 

The Hon. Edmund W. Wakelee, of Bergen county, at 
that time president of the State Senate and acting Governor in 
the absence from the State of Governor Franklin Murphy, 
represented the chief executive. Following Judge Whitehead 
Senator Wakelee spoke as follows : 

"Ladies and Gentlemen : — It is fitting that at the dedica- 
tion of this monument, erected in part through the aid of the 
State, that the highest executive officer of the commonwealth 
should be present ; but because of other official duties he is pre- 
vented from being here, and I have the honor of representing, 
upon this happy occasion, his excellency Franklin Murphy, 
Governor of New Jersey. He is an honored member of the 
Sons of the American Revolution, and commander-in-chief 
of the National Guard of this State here represented, and I 
know he regrets his inability to be present, as I do my inability 
to more worthily represent him and more eloquently to ex- 
press thoughts which he would wish expressed. 

"It is for others here today to speak of the life and works 
of Brig.-Gen. Enoch Poor, whose memory we have assembled 
to perpetuate. He served his time and generation faithfully 

35 



and well, and we serve our time and generation best by being 
faithful to the traditions of the past; by honoring those who 
by honest work and patriotic service at the birth of this country 
as a nation laid the sure foundation of our present greatness 
and all our future glory. 

"I was more than interested in the diary of Col. Israel 
Angell, now in the possession of Judge Angell, of Etna, this 
county, where I read under the date of September lo, 1780, 
the following: 

" 'In the afternoon the remains of Gen. Poor were in- 
terred in Hackensack church yard amidst a numerous con- 
course of people.' 

"Today, one hundred and twenty-four years after that 
date, another and more numerous concourse of people is gath- 
ered upon this historic spot. But how things have changed 
since that September afternoon when those cold remains were 
laid in their last resting place over there in the church yard. 
Then the articles of confederation had just been adopted by 
the Continental Congress, and only the year before had New 
Jersey agreed to them. There was no national existence, only 
a league of friendship between sovereign States; only one 
house of Congress ; no national executive or judiciary, with no 
power in Congress to levy taxes or to protect itself, with the 
great tractless West unexplored and unknown. Those thir- 
teen weak States were even then in the midst of that struggle 
which has been the marvel of the world and which resulted in 
setting up here the standards of liberty, justice and equality. 

"And unlike that other concourse, we are not dressed in 
funeral garb ; we are not surrounded by the sound of war and 
the dread fear whether our arms would finally be victorious 
and freedom be made secure. To-day, becaiise they were faith- 
ful and true, we meet happy and prosperous — all citizens of 
this greatest, grandest and freest country in all the world, at 
peace with all nations." 

The Hon. Henry M. Baker, of New Hampshire, a former 
member of the House of Representatives at Washington, was 
next introduced as the orator of the day. He delivered an ad- 
dress embodying a just and comprehensive estimate of Gen. 
Poor's life, services and character, given in full in the follow- 
ing pages. 

The exercises closed with the benediction by the Rev. 
William Welles Holley, D. D., of Christ (Episcopal) Church, 
Hackensack, and "America," sung by the audience. 

36 



ORATION UPON THE UNVEILING OF THE STATUE 

OF GEN. ENOCH POOR AT HACKENSACK, 

N. J., OCTOBER 7, 1904. 



BY HON. HENRY M. BAKER, OF NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



His Excellency, the Acting Governor of New Jersey, Mr. 
President, Members of the Hackensack Commission, Com- 
patriots, Ladies and Gentlemen : — By monuments and statues 
the living commemorate and honor the dead, illustrious for ser- 
vice to country and humanity. Such tributes become incen- 
tives to high endeavor and brave deeds. Poets and orators, 
sculptors and painters vie with each other to express fittingly 
the approbation of the people and the people applaud their best 
efforts and achievements. Patriotic societies promote and 
sustain this natural tendency to perpetuate the honor of the in- 
dividual and the glory of the State and in that they find ample 
justification for their existence and prosperity. 

The period of the revolution is replete with examples of 
the highest excellence in patriotism, personal service and 
moral purpose. No other era of our history presents so much 
of high thinking and noble action. Then wise statesmen, hrave 
as wise, enunciated principles in government which have found 
hearty approval wherever men have aspired to personal liberty 
and self-government. 

They began with the assertion that taxation without rep- 
resentation is tyranny and through a series of sagacious 
aphorisms declaratory of the rights of mankind passed to those 
sublime self-evident truths that all men were created equal and 
that governments derive their just powers from the consent of 
the governed. The idea of civil liberty grew in their minds 
until, before the war ended, they had established upon an en- 
during basis the right of mankind to constitutional govern- 
ment administered for the benefit of the governed. Wherever 
men prayed for liberty and struggled for self-control the suc- 
cess of the American revolution gave sympathy and encour- 
agement. A new epoch was begun in which manhood was the 

Z7 



ruling factor and the rights of each were secured and main- 
tained through the safety and honor of all. 

We cannot too often remember or too greatly honor those 
who endured hardships and perils and freely made sacrifices 
that liberty might live and men be ennobled by representative 
government. 

To-day, two of the original States — New Hampshire and 
New Jersey — and two societies of the Sons of the Ameican 
Revolution representing those States unite in erecting a statue 
and monument to the memory of a brigadier-general of the 
revolution who served the common cause as the representative 
of the one and, dying in the service, was buried in the soil of 
the other with the military honors due his rank and merit. 

We honor ourselves and our respective States by the re- 
spect and devotion we pay the memory of Gen. Enoch Poor, 
who enjoyed the confidence and esteem of Washington and 
the friendship of Lafayette. 

Enoch Poor was born on the 21st of June, 1736, in that 
part of Andover in the State of Massachusetts which is now 
incorporated as North Andover. The family was of good 
English stock. In the mother country it had held responsible 
positions in both civil and military life with a marked prefer- 
ence for army service. Gen. Poor was of the fourth gener- 
ation in America. The homestead farm was on the Shawsheen 
River, near its junction with the Merrimack. Both rivers are 
of clear water and picturesque beauty. The country is diversi- 
fied by hill and valley, river and lake. The combination is 
pleasing and inspiring. 

Here his ancestors settled in the first half of the seven- 
teenth century and at once began to clear and till the soil. His 
great-grandfather, Daniel Poor, was one of the town officers 
and also a member of the first military company organized in 
the town. His father was at the siege of Louisburg in 1745. 
They were all of the Puritan stock, faith and practice. Their 
homes were religious and their lives exemplary. 

Amid such suroundings and influenced by such examples 
and instruction the boyhood of Enoch Poor was passed in the 
usual routine of New England farm life. His education was 
that of the district school and the home circle. He appears to 
have been an industrious and thoughtful boy with a wonderful 
adaptation to details. Whatever he attempted he generally 
accomplished through persistent effort and careful thought. 
In his early manhood he was apprenticed to a cabinet-maker 

38 



and served his time as such. Some of his handiwork remains 
to attest his skill and ingenuity. 

When nineteen years old he enlisted as a private in the 
French and Indian War and was assigned to the expedition 
under Gen. John Winslow, which subjugated the Acadians of 
Nova Scotia. His brother, Thomas, was a captain in the same 
service. A few years later he removed to Exeter, N. H., which 
remained his home through life. There he engaged in trade, 
but soon became a shipbuilder, employing many men. Before 
he left Andover he had fallen in love with Miss Martha 
Osgood, the daughter of a neighbor. Col. John Osgood. She 
fully reciprocated his attachment, but her father did not give 
his approval. So when Enoch Poor called at the Osgood man- 
sion for his bride he met with firm opposition. Col. Osgood had 
locked his daughter in her chamber. He would not permit 
young Poor to see or communicate with her. Defeat for the 
lovers seemed imminent. Col. Osgood's tactics appeared to be 
beyond their power of resistance or immediate skill. Just then, 
however, Martha appeared at her open window and quickly 
jumped into Enoch's extended arms. Their marriage speedily 
followed and Col. Osgood, in due time acknowledging his de- 
feat, became fully reconciled to his son-in-law. 

Gen. Poor's married life was happy. Three daughters 
crowned the union, each of whom survived him. His widow 
resided in Exeter until her death in 1830. 

No record has been found which determines the date when 
he removed to Exeter and began business there. It was prob- 
ably prior to his marriage, but diligent inquiry and search have 
failed to discover the exact date of his marriage. It is gener- 
ally admitted that he must have established himself in New 
Hampshire about 1760, for by 1765 he had become sufficiently 
prominent in the town to be one of the thirty principal citizens 
who united in an agreement to maintain peace and order dur- 
ing the excitement occasioned by the Stamp Act and the de- 
termination of the people not to conform to it. Five years 
later the town voted not to purchase tea until the tax upon it 
should be repealed and to encourage so far as possible the use 
of home products. Mr. Poor was one of a committee of six 
to enforce the vote. When the Continental Congress of 1774 
passed the famous non-importation resolution Exeter ratified 
them in town meeting and elected a committee, of which he 
was a member, to secure a faithful compliance with them. The 
following year he was elected to the third and fourth Provin- 

39 



cial Congresses of the colony. On the 24th of May, 1775, he 
was selected to muster into the service of New Hampshire the 
men at Medford under the command of Col. John Stark. The 
same day the Provincial Congress, of which he was a mem- 
ber, authorized the enlistment of three regiments to serve for 
the year and elected John Stark, Enoch Poor and James Reed 
colonels to command them. Stark, with about 800 men, was 
already encamped before Boston. Reed's regiment was made 
up of two companies detailed from Stark and from enlistments 
made before and after his election as colonel and soon en- 
camped at Charlestown. Both were in the battle of Bunker 
Hill. Col. Poor's regiment was to be wholly enlisted and en- 
listment papers were promptly issued and rapidly filled. A 
careful examination fails to disclose that Col. Poor ever held 
a military commission before he was appointed colonel. We 
have already noted that he served as a private in the French 
and Indian War and he must have had service in the militia 
of Massachusetts and New Hampshire. In his business he 
had had great experience in the control of men and his ap- 
pointment to muster Col. Stark's regiment into the service 
indicates that he was known to have military knowledge and 
experience. That he was believed to be competent is proved 
by the fact that his selection to command the second regiment 
appears not to have been criticised and from the further fact 
that men did not hesitate to enlist under him. The wisdom 
of his selection is attested by his subsequent service. From 
May, 1775, until his untimely death, he was constantly in com- 
mand of a regiment or a brigade. He was not at Bunker Hill. 
Prior to that battle the people of New Hampshire were ap- 
prehensive that their territory might be invaded with the pur- 
pose of capturing Portsmouth, which led the attack on Fort 
William and Mary and Exeter, where the rebellious Provin- 
cial Congresses held their sessions. Col. Poor's men were 
stationed along the coast, at Portsmouth and at Exeter. At 
Exeter they were building fire rafts with which to destroy 
any vessels which might attempt to ascend the river. The next 
day after the battle the Committee of Safety of New Hamp- 
shire ordered the regiment, with the exception of one com- 
pany which was stationed at or near Portsmouth, to join the 
other New Hampshire troops before Boston and they arrived 
there on the 25th of June and encamped at Winter Hill. From 
that time until the following March when the British evacuated 
Boston Col. Poor and his men were performing their usual 

40 



routine duty in an army of investment. The records show 
that the regiment discharged its full share of guard and fatigue 
duty and that the men were perfected in the manual of arms. 
The nine months during which the Americans besieged Bos- 
ton were valuable to them for instruction and discipline. Be- 
fore the evacuation of the city they had learned that a long 
contest was inevitable and that they must prepare for it in 
earnest. However much the patriots failed to profit by this 
experience they knew the necessity for drilled troops and for 
long terms of enlistment. They also learned the necessity for 
supplies and that the demands of an army are multiform and 
incessant. The stern realities of war confronted them and no 
man who loved his country could neglect or disregard the 
duties of the hour. On the other hand the British had been 
taught to respect the foe they despised at first and to recognize 
that a man fighting for his home and liberty is a braver soldier 
than the hireling of despots. 

Boston having been occupied by the patriot army it be- 
came evident that the British intended to make New York their 
headquarters. Washington immediately ordered a march 
upon that city. Among the troops selected for that service 
was Gen. Sullivan's brigade, including Col. Poor's regiment. 
The British troops evacuated Boston on the 17th of March, 
1776, and ten days later Col. Poor and his men marched for 
Long Island. Soon after their arrival there they were ordered 
with other regiments to join the ill-fated expedition under 
Montgomery which had attempted the occupation of Canada. 
At that time there were no steamboats and no railroads. The 
march of an army was literally a march. All the privates and 
many of the officers were on foot. There were few roads and 
they were in poor condition. Frequently the troops followed 
a trail or cut a road through the forests as they advanced. The 
country was too sparsely settled for an army to subsist upon 
it and the transportation of munitions and other supplies was 
by horse and ox teams or occasionally by boat. Such a march 
from Long Island to Canada is a hardship from which the 
veteran troops of today would shrink. The patriots began it 
without complaint and endured reverses and disasters seldom 
equaled. To add to their losses and ill fortune smallpox rav- 
aged the American army to such an extent that in some regi- 
ments hardly a man was fit for duty. Col. Trumbull said: 
"I did not look into a tent or hut in which I did not find either 
a deyd or dying man." Everything went wrong and the army 

41 



abandoned Canada and retired to Crown Point. There a coun- 
cil of war was held July 7, 1776, and it was decided to retire 
to Ticonderoga, which then became the only fortress held by 
the Americans on Lake Champlain, 

Against the evacuation of Crown Point Cols. Stark and 
Poor, with others, protested in writing and it is conceded that 
Washington believed the surrender of Crown Point unneces- 
sary and ill advised. 

While at Ticonderoga Col. Poor became president of the 
court-martial which tried Col. Plazen, who had been arrested 
upon charges presented by Gen. Arnold. In the course of the 
trial the court refused to admit the testimony of Maj. Scott, 
who was one of Arnold's principal witnesses, on the ground 
that he was personally interested in the result. Gen. Arnold 
protested in a vigorous communication which the court held 
to be disrespectful and prejudicial to its authority. They re- 
fused to enter it upon their records and instructed their presi- 
dent to demand an apology from Gen. Arnold. This Col. 
Poor did in a letter which would have done credit to an ex- 
perienced lawyer. Gen. Arnold returned an intemperate re- 
ply in which he refused to apologize and suggested his readi- 
ness to fight a duel with any member of the court. Col. Poor 
then reported the whole transaction to Gen. Gates in a cour- 
teous and dignified letter, but Gen. Gates thought it unwise to 
enforce the rights of the court at that time against an officer 
of Arnold's standing and popularity. Hence he dissolved the 
court and the trial ended. Col. Poor continued to serve under 
Gen, Arnold and did not permit this episode to influence his 
conduct toward him. In this he exhibited a magnanimity and 
Vdvc of country worthy the emulation of all soljliers. 

The British commander, Sir Guy Carleton, went into win- 
ter quarters in November and the danger of an attack upon Ti- 
conderoga being removed. Gen. Gates sent a considerable part 
of his troops to reinforce Washington in New Jersey. Col, 
Poor's regiment and two others from New Hampshire were in- 
cluded in the order and joined Washington in December. These 
troops enabled him to win the battles of Trenton and Prince- 
ton. 

On the 7th of January, 1777, the army under Washing- 
ton arrived at Morristown, where it built log huts and went 
into winter quarters. The army suffered for supplies of every 
kind. The destitution of that winter was exceeded only by 
that of the next at Valley Forge. 

42 



Gen. Howe occupied New York as his winter headquar- 
ters. Neither army engaged in any extensive offensive oper- 
ations during the winter. The Americans were active in per- 
fecting their mihtary organization, in recruiting and in secur- 
ing suppHes. The army was estabhshed upon a more perma- 
nent basis, enhstments were made for three years or during the 
war and the officers were commissioned accordingly. 

To meet the new conditions and to provide for an in- 
creased army, Congress appointed additional generals and on 
the 2 1st of February, 1777, Col. Poor was commissioned a 
brigadier-general. Col. John Stark was the senior colonel 
from New Hampshire and had had considerable service prior 
to the revolution. He was a brave officer, conspicuous at 
Bunker Hill, and had proved himself capable and vigilant at 
all times. Therefore when Congress promoted Col. Poor and 
other colonels and did not promote him he felt the slight bit- 
terly, especially as he believed that his merits had once before 
been unrecognized. He at once resigned from the army. Col. 
Poor offered to decline his promotion and ask for the appoint- 
ment of Col. Stark in his place. This Stark positively refused 
and congratulated Col. Poor upon his promotion, which he 
said was merited. There was no enmity between them and 
they remained friends through life. 

In the early spring Gen. Poor was assigned to duty in 
the Northern Department and stationed at Ticonderoga. His 
brigade was composed of three regiments from New Hamp- 
shire and detachments from Connecticut and New York. 

It was the purpose of the British commanders to extend 
their posts from Crown Point southward and from New York 
north until they should have a complete line of fortifications 
from Canada to the sea, thus segregating New England from 
the other colonies. To that end Burgoyne was to fight his 
way to Albany, where forces from Gen. Howe ascending the 
Hudson were to join him. The plan was excellent and almost 
successful. 

Gen. Schuyler, who was in command at Ticonderoga, had 
neglected to fortify or occupy Sugar Loaf Hill, which com- 
manded the fort. The excuse was that he did not have troops 
sufficient to hold both places. This may have been true, but 
the result was unfortunate. The British occupied this hill, 
sometimes known as Fort Defiance, on the 5th of July, 1777. 
A council of war decided to evacuate the fort, which was done 
early in the morning of the next day. Gen. Poor favored the 

43 



evacuation. Congress was excited by the abandonment of the 
fort and demanded the immediate removal of Gen. Schuyler 
and that the other officers be tried by court-martial. The wiser 
and cooler judgment of Washington prevailed. The court- 
martial was not held and Gen. Schuyler remained in command 
until superseded by Gen. Gates on the 19th of August. 

At that time the tide of victory had turned in favor of the 
patriots. The advance of the British upon Albany by the 
Mohawk Valley had been defeated and the glorious victory at 
Bennington under Stark, who had returned to the service of 
his country under the authority of his State, had been 
achieved. The spirits of the patriots revived and confidence 
again ruled in camp and field. 

Meanwhile Burgoyne had great difficulty in supplying his 
army with provisions. The devastation he had accomplished 
counted against him. It was almost impossible to procure 
sufficient supplies from Canada and there was no immediate 
prospect of a union with Gen. Howe. His Indian allies were 
importunate in their demands and failed to obey his orders. 
The Americans harassed him upon every side. They had 
abandoned Fort Edward ancl Fort George, but they made it 
difficult for Burgoyne to profit by their retreat or to follow in 
pursuit. Their numbers increased daily and by the time the 
Americans were encamped at Stillwater Burgoyne was com- 
pelled to provide against an attack upon his rear. 

Upon the 19th of September, 1777, soon after noon, the 
British attacked the American camp. The battle, now gener- 
ally known by the name of Stillwater, ensued. On the part of 
the Americans it was almost wholly fought by the left wing, 
commanded by Arnold. Gen. Poor's brigade, then consisting 
of about 1,600 men, constituted one-half of Arnold's division. 
The battle was not decisive, though generally favorable to the 
Americans, whose loss was only one-half that of the British. 
The total Ameican loss was 321. Of this number Gen. Poor's 
brigade lost 217, or more than double that of all the other 
troops of the patriot army. 

The battle of the 7th of October — one hundred and 
twenty-seven years ago today — became a necessity to the Brit- 
ish, for inaction was assured starvation. There was no safety 
in camp or in retreat. Victory alone could save Burgoyne and 
his men. Therefore the British again assumed the initiative. 
The attack was met by a superior force and the British were 
soon driven from the field. Poor's brigade was in the thick 

44 



of the fight and in conjunction with Morgan's regiment really 
won the battle of Saratoga, as it did that of Stillwater. 

Gen. Wilkinson says in his Memoirs : "After I had de- 
livered the order to Gen. Poor, directing him to the point of 
attack, I was commanded to bring up Ten Broeck's brigade of 
New York troops, 3,000 strong. I performed this service and 
regained the field of battle at the moment the enemy had turned 
their back, only fifty-two minutes after the first shot was fired. 
I found the courageous Col. Cilley (of Poor's brigade) 
astraddle of a brass 12-pounder and exulting in the capture." 

The victory was complete; the enemy being pursued and 
driven from his own camp. The surrender of Burgoyne oc- 
curred ten days later. 

It was well known to Gen. Gates that about 2,000 men 
under command of Sir Henry Clinton had left New York and 
were marching up the Hudson with the intention of joining 
Burgoyne at Albany. They had captured Forts Clinton and 
Montgomery and in consequence Forts Independence and Con- 
stitution had been abandoned. Everywhere the Americans had 
retired before him. Hence it was a matter of supreme import- 
ance to occupy Albany before Gen. Clinton could arrive there. 

To accomplish that Gen. Poor's brigade marched forty 
miles and forded the Mohawk below the falls in fourteen 
hours. Clinton, having heard of the surrender of Burgoyne, 
returned to New York. 

The campaign on the Hudson having ended gloriously, 
Gen. Poor and his brigade joined Washington near Philadel- 
phia. The battle of Germantown had been fought, nearly won 
and then lost. Washington, being urged by the Assembly of 
Pennsylvania and some of his officers not to go into winter 
quarters, but to attempt the capture of Philadelphia, required 
the written opinion of his officers as to the advisability of an 
assault upon the city. Four of them favored the attack and 
ten, including Gen. Poor, advised against it. The prevailing 
opinion was that the army was in no fit condition to risk a gen- 
eral engagement which might prove fatal to the patriot cause. 
The army went into winter quarters at Valley Forge on the 
19th of December. To those who objected, Washington re- 
plied as follows : "Gentlemen reprobate the going into winter 
quarters as much as if they thought the soldiers were made of 
sticks or stones. I can assure those gentlemen that it is a 
much easier and less distressing thing to draw remonstrances 
in a comfortable room than to occupy a cold, bleak hill and 

45 



sleep under frost and snow, without clothes or blankets. How- 
ever, although they seem to have little feeling for the naked 
and distressed soldiers, I feel superabundantly for them and 
from my soul I pity their miseries, which it is neither in my 
power to relieve or prevent." 

Gen. Poor was no growler. He did his duty fearlessly 
and so far as possible accommodated himself to his environ- 
ment. He wrote few letters. Probably there are not a score 
of them relating to public affairs now in existence. Such as 
have been found are well expressed, direct and positive. 

Just before the troops went into winter quarters he wrote 
to a member of his State Legislature, stating their condition 
and needs and the duty of the State to them in simple, but burn- 
ing words. An extract from that letter is as follows : 

"Did you know how much your men suffered for want 
of shirts, breeches, blankets, stockings and alioes your heart 
would ache for them. Sure I am that one-third are now suffer- 
ing for want of those articles which gives the soldier great rea- 
son to complain after the encouragement given by the State to 
supply those of its inhabitants who should engage in their ser- 
vice. 

"But there is another circumstance more alarming still; 
that is when you engaged your men to serve for three years or 
during the war they were promised a certain sum for their ser- 
vices ; your State at the same time fixed a reasonable price upon 
such articles as the country produced and which they knew 
their families must be supplied with which would but barely 
support them at those prices. But after they left home it seems 
by some means or other the contract on the side of the State 
was broken and those very articles which their families must 
have or suffer rose four or five hundred per cent.; soldiers' 
wages remain the same. How can it be expected that men 
under those circumstances can quietly continue to undergo 
every hardship and danger which they have been and are still 
exposed to ; and what is more distressing is their daily hearing 
of the sufferings of their wives and children at home ? 

"I don't write this by way of complaint, but do wish that 
some mode may be hit upon that the families of those in service 
may be supplied or I fear we shall have many of our best offi- 
cers resign and many soldiers desert for no other reason than 
to put themselves in a way to support their families or share 
with them in their sufferings; and should that be the case I 
fear the consequences." 

46 



Later, while in camp, he wrote the Legislature of New 
Hampshire: "I am every day beholding their sufferings and 
am every morning awakened by the lamentable tale of their 
distresses." 

Gen. Poor's camp was on the extreme west of the encamp- 
ment at Valley Forge. The best that can be said of his troops 
is that they suffered no more than the othvs. During the win- 
ter a committee of Congress visited Valley Forge and made a 
careful report of their observations. In mid-winter Baron 
Steuben arrived at the encampment and the troops were sub- 
jected to stern discipline and exacting drill. Gen. Lafayette 
again joined the army here. Plans were discussed and formu- 
lated for the coming campaign. It was not a winter of idle- 
ness. On the 7th of May, 1778, there was great rejoicing in 
camp. The treaty of alliance with France was announced to 
the troops while on parade at nine o'clock in the morning. 
The chaplains thanked God that He had given them a power- 
ful friend. The troops sang "Praise God from Whom All 
Blessings Flow." 

Everywhere in camp there was thanksgiving and rejoicing 
with cheers for the King of France, for Washington and 
liberty. 

The encampment at Valley Forge was not broken up un- 
til late in June, but on the i8th of May Washington sent La- 
fayette with 2,100 chosen troops, including Gen. Poor's brig- 
ade, to occupy Barren Hill, an eminence about half way to 
Philadelphia. This was Lafayette's first independent com- 
mand and it gave him an excellent opportunity to observe and 
prove the ability of Gen. Poor. Subsequent events show he 
was well satisfied with his ability and efficiency. Gen. Clinton 
sent 5,000 troops to surprise and capture Lafayette and his 
men. 

The surprise was nearly complete, but Lafayette, with 
great wisdom and coolness, ordered Gen. Poor to lead the re- 
treat, which was done so promptly and in such good order that 
their guns were saved and the loss in men was only nine. The 
British returned to Philadelphia. 

At three o'clock of the morning of the 18th of June Gen. 
Clinton began the evacuation of Philadelphia and before noon 
his entire army was in New Jersey en route to New York. 
Washington had anticipated this movement and immediately 
bridges were burned and roads obstructed so as to impede his 
progress. A series of skirmishes led up to the battle of Mon- 

47 



mouth. Clinton did not wish to fight, but desired a safe and 
expeditious march to New York. Washington hoped to en- 
gage him in battle and win a victory. 

Rev. Israel Evans, a native of Pennsylvania and a gradu- 
ate of Princeton, was the chaplain of Gen. Poor's brigade. He 
was a stanch patriot and a firm believer in the rights of man. 
He was one of those outspoken, independent and arrogant men 
who 

"Would shake hands with a king upon his throne 

And think it kindness to his majesty." 

When the brigade was about to engage in the battle of 
Monmouth it paused for a moment for prayer by the chaplain, 
in which he is reported to have said : 

"O Lord of hosts, lead forth thy servants of the American 
army to battle and give them the victory ; or, if this be not ac- 
cording to Thy sovereign will then we pray Thee stand neutral 
and let flesh and blood decide the issue." 

Each was partially successful. Clinton escaped and 
joined his troops to those in New York, but Washington com- 
pelled him to fight and would have won a decisive victory had 
not jealousy and treachery prevented. The Americans re- 
mained masters of the field, but the British fled under cover 
of the night so quietly that even Gen. Poor, who was near 
them, did not know they were escaping. The heat was intense, 
the suffering extreme. The thermometer registered 96 degrees 
and the troops contended not only with the enemy, but with an 
inexpressible thirst which could not be satisfied. Washington 
and the whole army slept upon the field of battle. Gen. Poor 
was active in efforts to retrieve the fortunes of the day and re- 
ceived the approbation of Washington. 

There were in that year no extensive field operations in 
the Northern States after the battle of Monmouth. Washing- 
ton stationed his army so that it could be easily concentrated 
and at the same time restrict the British in securing supplies. 
The Southern States were rapidly becoming the theatre of the 
war. 

By intrigue and purchase the British frequently availed 
themselves of the service of the Indians. They were unable 
satisfactorily to control them in the camp or in battle. The 
hatred and independence of the Americans thus engendered in 
the hearts of the Indians broke out in frequent depredations 
and in the massacres of Cherry Valley and Wyoming. Wash- 

48 



ington determined to end these brutalities by such an object 
lesson as would prevent their repetition. The so-called "Six 
Nations" were selected for punishment. 

A total force of about 5,000 men was detailed for that 
service. The command was offered to Gen. Gates, but declined 
for the reason that in his opinion a younger man was prefer- 
able. Gen. Sullivan was then given the command. His orders 
were to devastate their country, destroy their villages, crops 
and orchards and capture those of every age and sex. Gen. 
Poor and his brigade constituted the right wing of Sullivan's 
army. Evidently from the records of the expedition he relied 
upon Poor and his men for faithfiil service in difficult situ- 
ations. The Indians were overtaken on the 29th of August, 
1779, and the battle of Newtown was fought. Gen,. Poor was 
ordered to gain the enemy's rear. In doing so he encountered 
some 600 of the savages and a warm fight took place in which 
twenty of them were killed. 

The Indians fought from tree to tree until our troops had 
gained the summit of the hill and captured their stronghold 
by a bayonet charge when they fled in disorder. In his ac- 
count of the battle Gen. Sullivan said Gen. Poor, his officers 
and men deserve the highest praise for their intrepidity and 
soldierly conduct. The bloody work was continued until the 
Indians were completely subjugated. 

Gen. Sullivan made a full official report of his expedition 
to Gen. Washington, in which he gave great credit to his 
troops for bravery and efficiency. Upon its receipt Washington 
wrote to Congress congratulating it upon "the destruction of 
the whole of the town and settlements of the hosile Indians in 
so short a time and with so inconsiderable a loss of men," and 
to Lafayette rejoicing that the Indians had been given "proofs 
that Great Britain cannot protect them and it is in our power 
to chastise them." The Indian confederation in New York 
was broken and their lands opened to peaceful settlement. A 
historian of the expedition has said : "The boldness of its con- 
ception was only equalled by the bravery and determination 
with which its hardships and dangers were met and its object 
accomplished." 

It was late in the fall before the expedition rejoined the 
main army. Soon after the troops went into winter quarters. 
This winter was an exceedingly severe one and the hardships 
and suffering endured by the army were scarcely less than those 
of Valley Forge. 

49 



Lafayette, availing himself of the winter's inaction, went 
home for a visit, returning the latter part of May with renewed 
promises from his government of substantial help. Again he 
offered his services to Congress, which were gladly accepted 
and recognized by an appointment to the command of a division 
to be composed of two brigades of light infantry, a troop of 
horse and a battery of artillery. 

He selected Gen. Poor to compiand one of these brigades. 
The whole division went into camp in New Jersey and the 
work of drill and discipline began under his own direction. 
Largely by his generosity the soldiers were uniformed. The 
division was known as the best clothed, equipped and disci- 
plined in the Continental Army. It has been said that in the 
essentials of drill and efficiency it equaled the veteran troops 
of Europe. By the fortunes of war they were to see no im- 
portant service during the year. 

While in camp on the 8th of September, 1780, Gen. Enoch 
Poor died. Universal sorrow pervaded the army. He was 
popular with officers and men. Two days after he was buried 
with full military honors. The officers of his brigade followed 
immediately after the coffin. Then came Gen. Washington and 
Gen. Lafayette and other general officers of the army. The 
escort consisted of three regiments of light infantry and a 
troop of cavalry. At the grave the chaplain of the brigade de- 
livered a eulogy in which he said : 

"Oh, sacred liberty! with thee this day we condole the 
loss of one of thy worthy sons ! Early he saw thy danger and 
early in this contest espoused thy cause. Happily he united 
the love and defense of thy glorious person with the practice of 
sublime virtue. That glory which results from the generous 
protection of the privileges of our country and that righteous- 
ness which exalteth a nation he laudably pursued. * * * 

"The State of New Hampshire in tears will lament the 
loss of a brave defender of her rights. To him she may not 
fear to decree the title too rarely found of a patriot. * * * 
No charms were powerful enough to allure him from. the un- 
utterable hardships of the American war and the dangers of 
the field of battle. * * * 

"He was an unchangeable friend of the moral and social 
virtues and taught the excellence of them more by his amiable 
example than by a pompous parade of words without actions. 
He was an invariable advocate for public and divine worship. 
His virtues laid the solid foundation for all his other excell- 

50 



ences to build upon and stand immovable amidst all the seem- 
ing casualties of time. Intemperance and profaneness and 
every vice were strangers to him. * * * 

"From the time when he with his country first armed in 
opposition to the cruelty and domination of Britain and pre- 
cious American blood was first shed in defense of our rights 
near Boston * * * he was entitled to a large share of 
those laurels which crowned the American arms." 

ij One of his staff officers, Maj. Jeremiah Fogg, in the in- 

1 tensity of his love and grief, wrote : "My general is gone. A 
cruel, stubborn, bilious fever has deprived us of the second 
man in the world." 

In a communication to Congress announcing his death 
Gen. Washington said : "He was an officer of distinguished 
merit, one who as a citizen and a soldier had every claim to 
the esteem and regard of his country." As a further mark of 
respect and esteem the Congress ordered Washington's letter 

. to be printed as the nation's tribute to his memory. 

I Governor Plumer, of New Hampshire, said of him 

' (quoting almost literally from the eulogy of Chaplain Evans) : 
"As an officer he was prudent in council and sound in judg- 
ment, firm and steady in his resolutions, cautious of unneces- 
sary danger, but calm and undaunted in battle, vigorous and 
unwearied in executing military enterprises, patient and per- 
severing under hardships and difficulties, of which he had 
many to endure, and punctual and exact in performing all the 

I duties assigned and devolving upon him. His mind was de- 
voted to the improvement of the army. He possessed great 
self command. * * * jjg promptly obeyed his superior 
officers, respected his equal and subordinate officers and 
thought no man who was faithful and brave unworthy of his 
notice. The soldiers when distressed had free access to him 
and he was a father to them." 

Of very few of the men famous in civil or military life 
during the revolution are there authentic and accurate por- 
traits. The friends and relatives of Gen. Poor are to be con- 
gratulated that his features have been preserved to them and 
posterity by a talented artist known to us more by his generous 

j patriotism than by his artistic talent and accomplishments. 

I Among the friendships Gen. Poor formed in the army 

was that of the distinguished Polish engineer and general, 
Thaddeus Kosciusko, who was an artist of considerable merit. 
Gen. Kosciusko had several times requested him to sit for his 

51 



portrait, but he had not done so. One day Kosciusko handed 
it to him. Gen. Poor was greatly surprised and asked, "How 
is this, general, I have never sat for my picture?" Kosciusko 
replied, "I drew it in church on the fly leaf of a hymn book 
and have since painted it for you." Gen. Poor presented it to 
his wife when on his last visit home. It represents the general 
in Continental uniform and is now in good preservation. From 
it the oil painting which adorns the hall of the New Hampshire 
House of Rerpresentatives and all other pictures of Gen, Poor 
have been copied. The graceful statue unveiled today repro- 
duces the features preserved to us by Kosciusko. 

The war of the revolution is crowded with events of pa- 
thetic and dramatic interest. Possibly no life, not even that of 
Washington, presents more incidents in the same number of 
years to attract the attention and secure the sympathy of the 
observant student than that of Gen. Poor. His rank was less 
and his field of service more limited than that of many others 
and hence he does not fill the space in history to which they are 
entitled, but there was no officer in the revolution more con- 
scientious or more faithful, who gave more attention to de- 
tails and performed within his sphere of action his whole duty 
more wisely and discreetly than he whom we now commem- 
orate. He was equally beloved by his superior officers and the 
soldiers of his command. His courtesy was constant and un- 
influenced by rank or position. He was courageous in mind 
as well as in body and stood firmly upon the right as he saw 
it. He withheld his approval from no one whose conduct was 
meritorious or whose intentions were kindly and honorable. 

In the highest sense of the words he was a soldier, a pa- 
triot and a man. Had his life been spared fresh laurels would 
have crowned his work and his chosen State would have en- 
trusted to his keeping her dearest rights and conferred upon 
him her highest honors. 

In behalf of the people of New Hampshire I thank you, 
gentlemen of New Jersey, that you have guarded and honored 
his memory and his grave and that to-day you have distin- 
guished yourselves and them by this further testimonial of your 
respect, esteem and love for one of the purest and bravest men 
of the most renowned era in our history. 

"Long may our land be bright 
With freedom's holy light. 
Protect us by Thy might 
Great God, our king." 

52 



Papers and Proceedings 



OF 



The Bergen County Historical Society 
] 905-1 906 



NUMBER TWO 



Secretary's Report, - - - - Abraham DeBaun 

Retreat of 76, T. N. Glover 

Bergen County Dutch, - - - Rev. John C. Voorhis 

Historic Houses, - - - - - Burton H. AUbee 
Old Family Papers, - - - - Cornelius Christie 

Historical Loan ELxhibitions 

List of Officers, 1905-06 



Papers and Proceedings 



OF 



The Bergen County Historical Society 
1905-1906 



NUMBER TWO 



Secretarj''s Report, - _ _ _ Abraham DeBaun 

Retreat of 76, T. N. Glover 

Bergen County Dutch, - - - Rev. John C. Voorhls 

Historic Houses, Burton H. AUbee 

Old Family Papers, - - _ - Cornelius Christie 

Historical Loan Exhibitions 

List of Officers, 1905-06 



OFFICERS. 
1905-1906. 



President — Cornelius Doremus, Ridgewood, N. J. 

Vice Presidents — B. H. Allbee, Hackensack, N. J. ; 
Isaac D. Bogert, Westwood, N. J.; W. M. Johnson, Hack- 
ensack, N. J. ; W. D. Snow, Hackensack, N. J. ; Henry D. 
Winton, Hackensack, N. J. ; A. W. Van Winkle, Ruther- 
ford, N. J. ; A. DeBaun, Hackensack, N. J. 

Recording Secretary — Rev. Ezra T. Sandford, 234 
W. nth St., N. Y. 

Recording Secretary pro tem — Abram De Baun, 
Hackensack. N. J. 

Corresponding Secretary — Arthur Van Buskirk, Hack- 
ensack, N, J. 

Treasurer — James A. Romeyn, Hackensack, N. J. 

The officers and the following compose the Executive 
Committee — C. Christie, Leonia, N. J. ; E. K. Bird, Hack- 
ensack, N. J. ; T. N. Glover, Rutherford, N.J. ; M. T. Rich- 
ardson, Ridgewood, N. J. 

Archive and Property Committee — Arthur Van Bus- 
kirk, J. A. Romeyn. 



BERGEN COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 
MEMBERSHIP LIST. DEC, 1905. 



B. H. Allbee Myers Street, Hackensack 

Mrs. B. H. Allbee 

G. F. Adams, M. D Union 

Georg-e G. Ackerman " 

W. 0. Allison Englewood— (life) 

J. C. Abbott Fort Lee 

E. K. Bird Hackensack 

H. N. Bennett 

A. D. Bogert Englewood 

Peter Bogart, Jr Bogota 

Daniel G. Bogert Englewood 

John W. Bogert Hohokus 

Irving W. Banta Hackensack 

Charles Brenden Oakland 

A. H. Brinkerhoff Rutherford 

Matthew J. Bogert Demarest 

C. Christie Leonia— (life) 

R. W. Cooper New Milford 

Fred W. Cane Bogota 

George Corsa Ridgewood 

Fred'k L. Colver Tenafly 

George R. Dutton Englewood 

Milton Demarest Hackensack 

Cornelius Doremus Ridgewood 

Abram De Baun Hackensack 

I. I. Demarest 

A. S. Demarest " 

P. G. Delamater Ridgewood 

J. Esray Maple Ave., Hackensack 

E. D. Easton Areola 

A. L. Englke Englewood 

Maud Englke " 

S. S. Edsall Leonia 

F, R. Ford 24 Broad St., New York 

Rev. J. A. Fairley Hackensack 

T. N. Glover Rutherford 

Coleman Gray Hackensack 

AUister Green 1 East Sixty-first St., New York — (life) 

Howard B. Goetschius Dumont 



MEMBERSHIP LIST 



Rev. W. W. Holley, D. D Hackensack 

A. G. Holdrum Westwood 

Henry Hales Ridgewood 

Teunis A. Haring Hackensack 

Harry B. Harding " 

John Heck Westwood 

Rev. Harvey Iserman 

Rev. A. Johnson Hackensack 

William M. Johnson 

Joseph Kinzley, Jr 

L. Kirby 

Mrs. L. Kirby 

W. 0. Labagh 

C. R. Lamb 23 SixthAve., New York 

W. A. Linn Hackensack 

Rev. H. M. Ladd Rutherford 

Lewis P. Lord Hackensack 

George W. Lyle 

Mrs. George W. Lyle 

J. C. Lincoln 

J. S. Vreeland 

J. Vreeland Moore 

Dr. L. S. Marsh 

Clarence Mabie 

D. A. Pell 

Fitch Porter Englewood 

Rev. Jacob Poppen Midland Park 

J. W. Pearsall Ridgewood 

Miss Imogene Phillips " 

Miss Helen Phillips 

C. Romaine Hackensack 

James A. Romeyn 

J. R. Ramsey 

Milton T. Richardson Ridgewood 

John H. Riley Hillsdale 

Henry M. Rogers Tenafly 

Edward Stagg Leonia 

Dr. D. St. John Hackensack 

Rev. E. T. Sanford West 1 1th St., New York City 

H. D. Sewall Maywood 

W. D. Snow Hackensack 

George T. Schemerhorn Rutherford 

Frank Speck Hackensack 

Miss Elizabeth Semple 72 Engle St., Englewood 

W. M. Seufert 

L. H. Sage Hackensack 



6 MEMBERSHIP LIST 

William R. Shanks Hackensack 

H. P. Stoney 

Charles G. Seufert Leonia 

Rev. D. M. Talmage Westwood 

David Talmage Leonia 

Peter 0. Terheun Ridgewood 

Rev. J. C. Voorhis Bogota 

Rev. W. H. Vroom Ridgewood 

MissE. B. Vermilye Englewood 

Rev. H. Vanderwart, D. D Hackensack 

Jacob Van Buskirk 

Arthur Van Buskirk 

Byron G. Van Home - Englewood 

A. W. Van Winkle Rutherford 

Rev. J.A. Van Neste Ridgewood 

Frank 0. Van Winkle 30 Cottage Pic, 

D. W. Van Emburgh 

Jacob H. Vreeland East Rutherford 

C. V. H. Whitbeck Hackensack 

H. D. Winton 

Mrs, F. A. Westervelt 

Robert J. G. Wood Leonia 

G. W. Wheeler Hackensack 

E. W. Wakelee Demarest 

W. C. Willis Tenafly 

Dr. F. A. Young Hackensack 

Captain A. C. Zabriskie 52 Beaver St., N. Y. City— (life) 

D. D. Zabriskie Ridgewood 

Everett L. Zabriskie 

HONORARY. 

Captain A. A. Folsom Brookline, Mass. 

William Nelson Paterson 



ANNUAL REPORT 
By Abram De Baun, Recording Secretary. 



Reports of Secretaries are generally dull reading. They 
deal with cold facts minus enlivening fires. The poor Secre- 
tary is generally blamed for this resulting condition of affairs 
when he should rather be praised, as he is the one that tells 
the most truth. He can only state facts as his book of min- 
utes discloses them. 

Our anniversary dinner last year was replete with honor to 
General George Washington, and the speeches all abounded 
with full glory of historical research from many different 
standpoints. The press announced that its popularity was due, 
first, to its one dollar dinner ; second, to the fine speeches we 
all listened to ; third, to its social features, and fourth, to the 
management by the ladies. 

We recall the masterly handling of those 120 historians 
there gathered by President Glover, our historical Hercules ; 
the interesting talk given us by Burton H. AUbee, concerning 
the "Old Houses in Our County," of which so many were 
still to be found, and the ideas he advanced as to why histori- 
cal spots and buildings should be kept in memory by marking 
with monuments and tablets ; the society's detail history by 
the Chairman of the General Committee, Ex- President C. 
Christie ; the historical sketch of General Washington as de- 
lineated by Edward Hagaman Hall ; the historically correct 
document of Miss M. E. C. Banker, of Englewood, entitled, 
" In Washington's Footsteps" ; " Archaeology, " as shown by 
Harlan 1. Smith, who was so honest that he admitted his 
knowledge of this grand old County of Bergen was "nil" ; the 
merry and witty remarks of both Frederic A. Ober, of this 
town, and Miss Adeline Sterling of Englewood, and then the 
continuation of this vein of pleasantry by a dissertation on the 
good old Dutch tongue by the Rev. J. C. Voorhis. And don't 
let us forget the advice given us by the then newly elected 
President C. Doremus as to the outline of work to be done In 
the then coming year. 



8 REPORT OF SECRETARY 

Incidentally, it might be rennarked that the general opin- 
ion of the Executive Committee, and of those connected 
with the society's management is, that our President has 
shirked no duly. 

So much for our last anniversary. What have we 
accomplished since? Nothing? Have we remained in 
statu quo ? Oh, no, you would not think so had you attended 
and listened to the address given by ex-President Glover (as- 
sisted by Burton H. Allbee) in the Unitarian Church, in this 
town on the topic of "Washington's Retreat Through Bergen 
County," and for which address the Executive Committee ex- 
tended a vote of thanks to these gentlemen. And had you 
attended the Historical Exhibit given at Ridgewood, N. J., 
under the society's auspices, and feasted upon the historical 
relics there gathered together, you would probably come to 
the conclusion, that, judging from the large number of an- 
tiquities there shown and the general interest manifested in 
the exhibit, there is room for several societies of this kind in 
our county. 

What a fine addition it would be to our museum, if the 
Committee on Historical Records could secure for this as- 
sociation only a few of these interesting exhibits. 

But, alas, this committee asks to be relieved from its 
arduous duties of soliciting exhibits, especially so, when they 
are advised its President is held personally responsible for the 
return (undamaged) of any antiquities that may be loaned for 
exhibit and inspection. 

The Committee on Historical Sites and marking them 
with suitable monuments and tablets has been very active 
during the past year. Its members have devoted considerable 
time to securing proper data for the location of a suitable 
monument on the old "Red Mill Site" at Areola, and while the 
monument has not been placed as yet, it is hoped that when 
certain minor details are overcome, one of Bergen's largest 
boulders will raise its head to show to future generations that this 
society marked this historic spot. The celebrated "Washington 
Mansion House," on Main street, Hackensack, through this 
committee's efforts and by the kind permission of Its present 



REPORT OF SECRETARY 



owner, Samuel Taylor. Esq., has had placed upon it a suitable 
bronze tablet which will be a continual reminder of its occu- 
pancy by him whose birthday we annually celeb-ate. 

This committee has in contemplation the placing of other 
tablets in various parts of our county, in the near future. 

The Archives committee has secured and placed in the 
Johnson Library building, a fine cabinet to be used for the pres- 
ervation of historical matters, and it is sincerely hoped that 
all who have in their possession any relic connected with our 
past history will forward the same to this society where it will 
be sacredly cared for in a fire proof building. 

The resignation of the Rev. Ezra T. Sandford, who has 
so ably filled the position of recording secretary of this society 
from its organization, was presented to the Executive Com- 
mittee on December 13, 1905, and accepted with regret by 
them. The occasion of the resignation was not loss of interest 
in the society and its welfare but his removal to a new charge 
in the City of New York. Abram DeBaun was thereupon 
elected secretary pro tem. 

This is a resume of the Society's work as the minutes 
enlighten us, but it shows only a small part of the work done. 

The officers and each committee have done a large 
amount of work which cannot be shown to you by the Secre- 
tary's report. 

Our list of membership shows a healthy increase and it is 
hoped that each member will appoint him.self a committee of 
one to secure further additions, so that the interest in this 
n,ble work shall not wane but on the contrary increase. 



THE RETREAT OF 76 ACROSS BERGEN COUNTY. 

An abstract of a paper read before the Society at Hackensack on 
Nov. 20, 1905. 

BY T. N. GLOVER. 



I note here at the beginning that this evening is the 
129th anniversary of the event I shall describe. 

In the last six months of the year 1776 affairs in 
America vacillated astonishingly ; the feelings of the patriots 
went from sanguine expectation to the depths of despondency 
and thence to the summit of the highest exaltation. On the 
fourth of July they had declared the country free from British 
rule, and in less than two months had experienced the crush- 
ing defeat on Long Island. They had won in the little skirm- 
ish at Harlem but had retreated to the hills of Westchester 
county, and the armies had met at White Plains on the hills 
just south of the present business part of the village and 
fought the battle of Chatterton's Hill. It is counted a defeat 
for the Americans, but that is doubtful, for the British re- 
turned to New York as soon as possible, leaving the Ameri- 
cans undisturbed in their camps but a short distance off. As 
soon as the smoke of battle had cleared away, Washington 
had called a council of war and the resolution had been 
unanimously adopted that since it was evident to all that the 
British were planning an attack on New Jersey, the whole 
army ought to be led across the Hudson river. The com- 
mander had modified this resolution a little and, because of the 
feeling in New England, allowed the troops of those states to 
remain east of the Hudson under command of General Lee, 
until such time as they might be needed. 

The battle was fought on October 28, and by November 
12 the army, except the garrison at Fort Washington, was in 
New Jersey — one part crossing from Tarrytown to Sneeden's 
Landing, and the other from Croton Point to Tappan Creek. 
General Heath, with a small detachment, held the passes to 
the northward — the river and the Suffern Clove. General 



12 RETREAT OF '76 

Putnam had been appointed to the command of the army of 
New Jersey (whatever that may have been), and to General 
Greene was assigned the command of Forts Washington and 
Lee, under immediate direction of Washington himself. 
Washington having spent two days with General Heath, in- 
specting the works, crossed the river on November 12, at 
King's Ferry, just below Haverstraw, and on the 14th reached 
Hackensack, where he immediately established headquarter, 
at the residence of Peter Zabriskie — now the Mansion Houses 
In spite of the many changes this house has undergone, it 
keeps many of its original features and is worth a visit. The 
date of its erection seems somewhat doubtful, but if we assign 
the year 1750, we shall not err by many years. It was then 
a comparatively new house of the good class of Dutch home- 
steads. Washington stayed here nearly a week and sent from 
it the letter to Lee to join him ; here also Reed wrote his 
famous letter about "Fatal hidecision." 

Fort Washington remained the sole possession of the 
Americans on New York Island. Colonel Megaw, of the 
Pennsylvania line, commanded. It was directly opposite Fort 
Lee and on a clear day one could easily see it from the cliffs. 
It was built in the summer of 76 at the same time as Fort 
Lee. The tv/o forts v/ere to work conjointly in preventing the 
enemy from going up the river. Garrisons were kept in both 
tho' that at Fort Washington was always the larger. 

General Howe, the British commander-in-chief, was urged 
to attack Fort Washington immediately after the battle of 
White Plains, but he waited. His army, especially the 
Hessians, became impatient, still he delayed, In these later 
years his reasons have become apparent. First he was in the 
battle of Bunker Hill and saw the terrible result of storming a 
fort held by Americans and secondly he had an agent at work 
preparing the way who was not yet ready. On the evening of 
November 14, William Dumont, adjutant of the post, left the 
fort, taking with him plans and a statement of the distribution 
of the garrison and went directly to the headquarters of Lord 
Percy. On the 15th, General Howe sent to Colonel Megaw 
a summons to surrender. A defiant answer was returned and 



RETREAT OF 76 13 



on the ]6th the Hessians led the attack. A short, sharp fight 
followed and in a few hours the fort that Br.tish officers had 
declared all hell could not storm, surrendered and its defenders 
were either cut down at their posts or sent to languish and 
die in the sugar houses of New York. 

As soon as Colonel Megaw had sent his reply to General 
Howe's demand, he despatched a copy of it to General Greene 
who, in turn, referred it to Washington here at Hackensack. 
He at once started for Fort Lee, which he reached after dark. 
Then he learned that both Generals Greene and Putnam were at 
Fort Washington in council with Colonel Megaw. He started 
to join them, but, in the middle of the river, met them return- 
ing. A hurried conference was held. His own idea was to 
abandon the post and bring off the garrisons, but both opposed 
him. Both assured him that a successful defence could be 
made ; that the men were in high spirits and anxious for the 
fray ; that Congress and the patriots generally expected it ; 
that they had passed resolutions concerning it ; that even if the 
battle should turn against them the garrison could be drawn off 
under the guns of Fort Lee and that here was a chance to re- 
deem the disgrace of Long Island. Here came in Reed's 
" fatal indecision." Washington yielded and remained with 
Greene all night at the Taylor farmjhouse. Little did they 
dream of the treachery With which they were dealing. 

The fall of Fort V/ashington rendered Fort Lee useless and 
its abandonment became only a question of time. An enemy 
holding a fort across the river, the river commanded by their 
shipping, a navigable river in its rear — all made it decidedly 
unsafe. Yet it had been considered quite safe — army supplies 
had been gathered there, and Congress had resolved that pris- 
oners of war should be transferred there for safe keeping — and 
so, when before leaving V/hite Plains, Washington had ordered 
the evacuation of it. General Greene had delayed. But now 
that Fort Washington was gone he began the work in earnest ; 
he even made a memorandum of the march which is still in 
existence. As fast as he could get wagons and wagoners, he 
sent away the stores, some to Acquackanonk (Passaic), 
others to Newark, Elizabeth and Paramus. He posted sen- 



14 RETREAT OF '76 



tries on the cliffs who should watch the movements of the 
enemy. But the army was growing smaller each day ; terms 
of enlistment were expiring and the reverses of the campaign 
had turned the enthusiastic heat of July into the frigidity of 
winter despondency. 

Let us picture to ourselves, as best we may, how this fort, 
Lee, looked at this time. It was probably not very preten- 
tious, though its camps extended over a good deal of ground. 
The first mention of it that we have is in Washington's expense 
book, where the entry occurs : "To expenses of 'self and party 
at Fort Lee, £8 15sh." This was on July 15. 1776. On 
September 3d, following. General Mercer was ordered to lay 
out additional works and a military engineer was sent him. 
Most of our knowledge of it, however, comes through tradi- 
tions and remains which lasted long afterward. It was never 
destroyed by the enemy ; it simply yielded to the changes of 
time and weather. It was little else than earthworks and they 
seem to have consisted of : 

1. A main earthwork inside of the cliff ; of this not a trace 
remains, even in tradition. 

2. A redoubt on the bluff somewhat above the present 
Main avenue. 

3. A large earthwork with bastions on the hill near Park- 
er's Pond. 

4. Two batteries of heavy ordnance ; the one on the edge 
of the cliff below the fort and the other above it at a place 
where in the '60s a telegraph line crossed. 

Dr. Thomas Dunn English, who is known all over the world 
by his song, "Ben Bolt," " Don't you remember sweet Alice, 
Ben Bolt," was for years a resident of the present village of 
Fort Lee and made the best study of the old fort, not only as it 
stood in the '60s, but in Revolutionary days. He says ; "The 
main work was a square enclosure about 250 feet on each 
side with bastions at corners, a ravelin on the eastern side, and 
was litttle more than breast high. Most of the embankment, 
beaten down somewhat by time and weather, with the bastions, 



RETREAT OF '76 15 



the great entrance in the curtains and the demi lune were plain 
enough as late as 1855. Now, ( 1871 ), all that is left is part 
of the curtains and one bastion." This enclosure was on the 
east side of Parker avenue, between Sychon avenue and Eng- 
lish street. Now if you would get this matter clear in your 
minds, recall the landmarks as you see them in going by trol- 
ley from Leonia junction to the present ferry. The car climbs 
the hill and goes on into the present village of Fort Lee, 
along Main avenue. It crosses the track of the Coytesville 
road and you note Schlosser's Hotel on the right. It 
goes along till it comes to the corner of Palisades 
avenue where it turns to the southward. Five 
hundred feet beyond (down Palisade avenue) is the switch 
and here the car generally stops. On your left, you notice an 
open space extending to the avenue beyond ; on the south, is 
a stone church (the Episcopal). Sometimes a little pond oc- 
cupies the center of this area, at other times it is dry. That 
is Parker's pond and the street, parallel to your track, east of 
this is Parker avenue. Looking a little closer, you note a street 
running eastward at right angles to Parker avenue — that is 
English street. On the north side of this intersection is a 
large house, the residence of Mr Becaze which is built close 
to, though probably a little in front of the southwest bastion. 
The owner told me awhile ago that when he built this house 
he removed the last remaining part of the fort. Now if you 
will start at the rear wall of that house and measure a square, 
250 feet on each side, one side parallel to Parker avenue, 
you are tracing the lines of old Fort Lee. In a letter written 
just before his death. Dr. English confirmed this locality. But 
the roads have changed very much. In the olden times there 
was no Parker avenue or even Palisade avenue. Indeed they 
did not exist in the boyhood of men now living. The one road 
led up from the ferry, which was under the cliffs just east of the 
village. The present ferry is not twenty years old. That road 
came up the hill at an angle and must have been very steep in 
certain parts. It passed over the hill very close to the north- 
east bastion of the fort. Many traces of it remain ; many 
people can remember the closing up of the last section. Old 



16 RETREAT OF '76 



buildings are standing which were evidently built beside it. 
The site of the Taylor farm house referred to above which 
stood by the side of it, is still shown. It intersected the pres- 
ent Main avenue just east of Palisade avenue, coinciding with 
it as far as Schlosser"s hotel where it bent to the southward and 
ran over the hill down to the Leonia road to English Neighbor- 
hood. Ex-President Christie writes me "The road from Fort 
Lee to the English Neighborhood (Leonia) has been changed 
since the Revolution by a bend to the north. This change, I 
think, was made at the time of the construction of the Hack- 
ensack and Fort Lee turnpike — about 1828. The old road 
was only a few hundred feet south of the new turnpike. Mr. 
J. F. Burdett of Fort Lee tells me that it intersected the pres- 
ent road at Schlosser's hotel." Another road went off to the 
southwest below the fort toward Little Ferry and was known 
as the "lower road." 

A few of the outlying works of the fort remain. Every vest- 
age of the old batteries is gone. Mr. Burdett writes me that 
some years ago there was a place on the top of the cliff about 
400 feet from the point, where it would appear that a swivel 
gun had been planted to command the river. I never heard 
of any earthworks under the hill, but on the top of the hill or 
point of the Palisades, I did while building a summer hotel re- 
move some stones which I do believe were placed there by the 
army for the sake of defence — they were placed in a circular 
form around the point where it would be the natural and easiest 
place for an army to attack from the top an enemy coming 
from Fort Washington across the river. Rifle pits were 
numerous only a few years ago ; some were on the top of the 
hill between the road and the fort ; others were opposite 
Schlosser's hotel. The camps were extensive and well 
planned, but the garrison was never large enough to occupy 
them. Opposite the Episcopal church is a well, stoned up 
square — now known as Washington's well — ^which tradition 
says was dug by the soldiers. While your car was standing 
on the switch opposite Parker's pond, had you looked to your 
right, you would have seen some ice houses. The brook that 
flows past them is the same now as when the soldiers drew 



RETREAT OF '76 17 



from it their supply of water. Just up that brook is an em- 
bankment which appears to have been part of a redoubt. It is 
built with sharp angles and is now about breast high and per- 
haps 200 feet long. Gen. Morgan's men were encamped there 
for some time. Right beside the road some of the old fire 
places are standing. 1 have dug charcoal out of them. They 
are built by piling up stones against a rock so as to form 
jambs, and kettles could be set directly on them. One who 
sees them will not fail to recognize them. On the hillsides 
around Suffern, N. Y., and in the Ramapo pass are many of 
them, of which family tradition gives the history and family 
pride preserves. Opposite Schlosser's hotel, too, were a few 
years ago remains of soldiers' huts. 

This is about all we need to say about Fort Lee. Its life 
was of only a few months' duration and its garrison always 
small. Our old maps show some errors — we can call the 
statements by no other term and many cannot be reconciled 
with established facts. 

I now resume my narrative. Fort Washington had fallen 
and General Greene was busy sending away the stores at Fort 
Lee. Washington was in Hackensack writing letters to Con- 
gress, to the Governor of Nev/ Jersey (Livingston), and 
others, urging measures for recruiting the army, even though 
he was discouraged at the apathy of the states. The 15th 
of the month passed, the 16th, the 17ih.and the 18th — all was 
quiet. The night of the 19th was dark and rainy. Then it 
was that Lieutenant-General, the Earl Cornwallis, bosom 
friend of General Howe, left the New York side of the river 
with 6,000 men and landed at the foot of the Palisades at the 
old Closter landing. A queer picture of this landing represent- 
ing soldiers scaling the heights by a blind road, was found 
some years ago in a country house in England among the 
papers of Lord Rawdon, an English officer, and was later pub- 
lished in Harper's Magazine. Before daylight his troops stood 
on the top of the Palisades, about five miles above Fort Lee. 
and one and a half from the Liberty pole. General Greene 
had posted sentinels in expectation of this move, but he says 
they kept such a slack watch that the enemy had scaled the 



RETREAT OF '76 



heights before they knew it. News came to General Greene 
while in bed. The men were preparing their breakfasts, but 
he at once ordered them into line for the retreat (at first he 
thought he would give battle but he soon gave up that idea), 
and sent a despatch to Washington at the old house on the 
Green. Then began the march from darkness to daylight ; 
from weakness to strength. 

Records relating to this march are very full and there 
need to be little mistake in regard to it. Washington and 
Greene, Howe and German diarists, besides contemporary his- 
torians, have left accounts. Good maps exist, and yet there 
are many points omitted which we, here on the spot, would 
like to know. Washington's account shows that he was some- 
what misinformed and nervous. He says in his letter to the 
president of Congress: "As Fort Lee was always considered 
only necessary in conjunction with that on the east side of the 
river, it has become of no importance by the loss of the 
other. Viewed in this light and apprehending that the stores 
would be precariously situated their removal has been deter- 
mined on. The troops at Fort Lee will continue till the stores 
are got away." Then he adds to this letter which had been 
held two days: "Yesterday morning a large body of the 
enemy landed between Dobbs Ferry and Fort Lee. Their 
object was evidently to enclose the whole of our troops and 
stores that lay between the North and the Hackensack rivers 
which form a very narrow neck of land. For this purpose 
they marched as soon as they had ascended the high grounds 
towards the fort. Upon the first information of their having 
landed and of their movements, our men were ordered to meet 
them, but finding their numbers greatly superior and that they 
were extending themselves to seize on the passes of the river, 
it was thought prudent to withdraw our men, which was 
effected and their retreat secured. We lost the whole of our 
cannon except two 12-pounders and a great deal of baggage, 
between 200 and 300 tents, about 1 ,000 barrels of flour and 
other stores in the quartermaster's department. The loss was 
inevitable. As many stores had been removed as circum- 
stances and time would permit. The ammunition had been 



RETREAT OF '76 19 



happily gotten away. Our present situation between the 
Hackensack and the Passaic rivers is exactly similar to the 
late one, and we are taking measures to retire over the waters 
of the latter." 

On the next day Washington writes to General Lee in a 
similar strain, yet in a day or two General Greene writing to 
Governor Cooke, of Rhode Island, says that many of the re- 
ports current about the evacuation, are false. Not an article 
of military stores (or anything worth mentioning) was left 
there, for everything had been sent on ahead and the road was 
clear. Yet General Howe, in his report, confirms in a general 
way Washington's statement, and the question arises how 
valuable were these cannon ? The tents undoubtedly were a 
sad loss. But let me quote General Greene's whole report : 
"The loss of Fort Washington rendered Fort Lee useless ; 
his Excellency ordered the evacuation accordingly. All the 
valuable stores were sent off. The enemy got intelligence of 
it, and as they were in possession of Harlem river, brought their 
boats through that pass without our notice. They crossed the 
river on a very rainy night and landed about five miles above 
the fort, about 6,000 strong, some say 8,000. We had at Fort 
Lee only between 2,000 and 3,000 effective men. His Ex- 
cellency ordered the evacuation immediately. We lost a 
considerable quantity of baggage and a quantity of stores. 
We had about 90 or 100 prisoners taken, but these were a 
set of rascals that skulked out of the way for fear of fighting. 
The troops at Fort Lee were mostly of the flying camp, ir- 
regular and undisciplined, and had they obeyed orders not a 
man would have been taken. I returned to camp two hours 
after the troops had marched off. Colonel Cornwall and 
myself got off several hundred men, yet notwithstanding all 
our efforts near a hundred remained in the woods. We re- 
treated to Hackensack." 

Tom Paine 's account is probably the best known but by no 
means the most accurate. He was serving at the time as 
aid to General Greene. It is the first of a series of articles 
which had great influence, called "The Crisis". He says : 
"As I was with the troops at Fort Lee and marched with 



20 RETREAT OF '76 

them to the edge of Pennsylvania, I am well acquainted with 
many circumstances which those who live at a distance know 
little or nothing of. Our situation was exceedingly cramped, 
the place being on a narrow neck of land between the North 
river and the Hackensack. Our force was inconsiderable, be- 
ing not one-fourth so great as Howe could bring against us. 
We had no army at hand to relieve the garrison had we shut 
ourselves up and stood on our defense. Our ammunition, 
light artillery and the best part of our stores had been re- 
moved on the apprehension that Howe would endeavor to 
penetrate the Jerseys, in which case Fort Lee could be of no 
use to us. for it must occur to every thinking, man whether in 
the army or out, that these kind of field forts are only for 
temporary purposes and last in use no longer than the enemy 
directs his force against the particular objects which such forts 
are raised to defend. Such was the condition and situation of 
Fort Lee on the morning of the 20th of November, when an 
officer arrived with the information that the enemy, with 200 
boats, had landed about seven miles above. Major General 
Nathaniel Greene, who commanded the garrison, ordered 
them under arms and sent express to General Washington at 
the town of Hackensack, distant by way of the ferry, about six 
miles. Our first object was to secure the bridge over the 
Hackensack, which lay up the river between the enemy and us, 
about six miles from us and three miles from them. General 
Washington arrived in about three-quarters of an hour and 
marched at the head of the troops toward the bridge, which 
place we expected we should have to brush for ; however, they 
did not choose to dispute it with us and the greatest part of 
our troops went over the bridge, except some which passed at 
a mill en a small creek between the bridge and the ferry 
and made their way through some marshy ground up to the 
town of Hackensack and then passed the river. We brought 
off as much baggage as the wagons could contain — the rest 
was lost. The simple object was to bring off ihe garrison and 
march it till it could be strengthened by the Jersey and Penn- 
sylvania militia so as to be enabled to make a stand. * * 
Our troops remained at Hackensack bridge and town that day 



RETREAT OF '76 21 



and half of the next, when the inclemency of the weather, the 
want of quarters and the approach of the enemy obliged them 
to proceed to Acquackanonk." 

Irving's "Life of Washington," being simply a compilation, 
gives no help; no more does Chief Justice Marshall's, or 
General Howe's report. Steadman is the great English 
authority ; he does not differ from the others. The Rev. Wil- 
liam Gordon, of Roxbury, Mass., published a history in the 
'90s which is regarded as a very valuable work. Congress 
gave him access to government documents, and General 
Greene gave him much information. His story is as follows : 
"On the 18th (of November) in the morning, Lord Cornwallis 
landed near Closter, only a mile and a half from the English 
Neighborhood. News of this movement was brought to Gen- 
eral Greene while in bed. Without waiting for General Wash- 
ington's orders, he directed the troops to march immediately 
and secure their retreat by possessing themselves of the Eng- 
lish Neighborhood. He sent off at the same time information 
to General Washington at Hackensack town. Having gained 
the ground and drawn up the troops in the face of the enemy, 
he left them under command of General Washington and re- 
turned to pick up the stragglers and others, whom, to the num- 
ber of about 300, he conveyed over the Hackensack to a place 
of safety. By this decided movement of General Greene's, 
3,000 Americans escaped, the capture of whom at this 
period must have proved ruinous. Lord Cornwallis' intent 
was evidently to form a line across from the place of landing 
to Hackensack bridge and thereby hem in the whole garrison 
between the North and the Hackensack rivers, but General 
Greene was too alert for him. His Lordship had but a mile 
and a half to march, whereas it was four from Fort Lee to 
the road approaching the English Neighborhood. General 
Washington arrived, and, by a well concerted retreat, secured 
the bridge over the Hackensack.'* 

From these reports and with our knowledge of the country 
let us construct the story, noting discrepancies of dates and 
distances. On the night of Nov. 19, 1776, Earl Cornwallis, a 
brave and capable officer, a bosom friend of General Howe, 



22 RETREAT OF '76 



the British commander-in-chief, acting under direct orders 
that we can never know, crossed the Hudson river and scaled 
the PaUsade cliff, by means of the old Closter landing road 
which led away to Paramus. Before daybreak he was on 
the heights and was marching towards Fort Lee. He was 
not foolish enough to think he was surprising the Americans — ■ 
neither party in those days could make the slightest move- 
ment without his opponent knowing all about it — so he did 
not hasten. He knew well that the Americans had been 
evacuating the post several days and that certain acts of their 
congress had not been executed because of it. When he 
formed his columns on the heights he was only two miles from 
the present Englewood, and from Fort Lee only about five. By 
what road he marched, it is now impossible to say ; some 
persons tell me there are remains of an old road on the top of 
the Palisades and they can be seen at points south of Englewood, 
others say they never heard of the road. But the statement 
of Washington and other Americans that he was spreading 
out his troops to form a cordon from river to river is not 
borne out by facts as we can see them now. It was purely 
imaginative just as we now know that General Greene could 
have let the men get their breakfasts and save their camp 
kettles before they marched. The English must have kept 
well up the hill and Mr. Gordon's statement that General 
Greene drew up his line in the face of the enemy cannot mean 
that the enemy was very near. When the news of this ap- 
proach reached the Americans at Fort Lee, their camp ket- 
tles were over the fires and breakfast was preparing. General 
Greene, whose first thought was battle, ordered a retreat. 
The evidence seems to show that he did not wait for orders 
from Washington but set his column in motion as soon as 
possible. To make the bridge was the quickest and surest 
— to go to the ferry was to lose time because boats had not 
been gathered there. So over the hill toward Leonia they 
came — hungry and cold — but determined. An English officer, 
who evidently pitied them, wrote, "I believe no nation ever 
saw such a set of tatterdemalions. There were but few coats 
among them but what are out at the elbows and in a whole 



RETREAT OF '76 23 



regiment there is scarcely a pair of breeches." I may add. 
boots and shoes were very scarce, though that did not make so 
much trouble as it would now, for people went barefoot so 
much. They reached Leonia and swung into what is now 
Grand avenue, then the King's road, (for there was no 
possibility of crossing at this point) and went on to 
the Liberty Pole, now Englewood. They expected 
to fight — a most natural idea since the enemy had 
been in the neighborhood for hours — but no resist- 
ance was shown, and General Greene, giving up command to 
Washington, returned to the fort to collect stragglers. He 
had been gone two hours, but no enemy was there. He 
gathered together 200 men and probably led them across the 
dam and down to the ferry. Dr. English, who had the benefit 
of close touch with men of '76, speaks of this crossing as 
"by the beaver dam." (Where was this?) When Wash- 
ington took command he led the army across the swale by the 
road that leads to Teaneck hill, except that the road today is 
much straighter than it was then. Once on that hill he 
turned and followed up to the present road to New Bridge. I 
do not find that this road has been changed much, except that 
now one approaches the bridge directly by a new street a few 
blocks long. He went around the hill. During the march 
from Liberty Pole the army had felt comparatively safe and 
crossed the bridge with light hearts. No description of this 
bridge exists. Tradition says that it was built a few years 
before the Revolution in the interest of up-country people who 
wanted a more direct route to New York than had existed. 
It is marked on all the maps of the day and called the New 
Bridge. Army men wrote of it as Hackensack bridge and 
rem.ains of fortifications, built within two years of this event, 
are there. It is said that it crossed the river at an angle, the 
abutment on the east side being furthest up the river. It was 
probably of wooden stringers resting on framed supports. It 
was considered quite strong. Once across the bridge, the 
army followed the present road past the old Baron Steuben 
house directly towards the south side of Cherry Hill, cross- 
ing the bridge and thence direct to Hackensack. The road 



24 RETREAT OF '76 



has been changed but little. A detachnient was left at the 
bridge with orders to give alarm if the enemy should appear. 

The men could not have been entirely without food. They 
had blankets. One person who remembered seeing them told 
Mr. Barber that they marched into Hackensack and encamped 
on the Green after dark and the rain was falling. Possibly 
they spent the day between the village and New Bridge. No 
one mentions receiving food from the people along the road. 

This was on the 20th, and in the afternoon of the next day, 
the 21st, a detachment of Hessians and English marched up 
the east side of the Hackensack from the ferry. English 
maps say that the Americans crossed at the ferry and General 
Vaughan was following them. They did not attempt to cross 
the river but that night their camp fires stretched from below 
Bogota to New Bridge, and Washington may have looked out 
at them from his headquarters across the lonely grave yard. 
They did not arrive on the Green till noon of the next day 
(22d), when the Hessians, with their big hats and fierce 
mustaches, were objects of curiosity to the inhabitants. 

Mr. Paine says the army remained in Hackensack one 
and a half days, so it must have left at noon on the 21st. 
Washington must have remained, behind because the conver- 
sation with Mr. Campbell took place in the iorenoon after 
Washington had been down to the river to view the British 
camp. 

It was evident that the army must move again. So on the 
21st down Main street it marched, into Essex, across the 
present railroad and up to the Pollifly road. Here it turned 
and marched down to the old Kip house recently burned. 
Somewhere in that neighborhood a brook flowing from the 
hill crossed the road and ran down into the swamp. Right 
beside that brook the lower road to the present village of 
Lodi branched off over the hill. It could never have been 
much of a road for old settlers referred to it as Cow lane and 
It is said to have reached the Paramus road between the 
houses of Richard Terhune and Dick Paul Terhune. Mr. 
Haggerthy of Lodi showed me the bed of it about 500 feet 
back of his house just beside the present trolley line and he 



RETREAT OF T6 25 



knew of it at the corner where the trolley line crosses the 
present road beyond his house. The present lower road from 
Hackensack to Lodi was built in 1824 but this old road was 
in use even later. Just north of the Kip house today is a 
narrow strip of land covered with trees and bushes running 
over the hill to the westward, crossing the Newark 
trolley just below the Lodi switch and then continu- 
ing until it comes near to the village. I think 
this must be the old road bed ; if it is not, the 
old bed is not far away. Into this road or lane the 
men turned — it was the shortest way — followed it over to the 
old Paramus road and turned down toward Acquackanonk 
bridge. (There is a story that in following them the British 
Colonel HarcDurt did not take this road but went down by 
Carlstadt and East Rutherford. ) This road has been changed 
a little since those days, but they must have reached the 
bridge about noon. The story that the British was close after 
them is not true. Mr. Nelson describes this bridge. "It had 
been erected about ten years before by an act of the legisla- 
ture. It was a frail structure, v/ith spans eighteen or twenty 
feet long and abutments of logs ; its piers were of timber 
partly resting on cribs filled with stones and partly driven into 
the bottom of the river. It was twelve feet wide — one wagon 
or four men could cross. The western abutment rested where 
Speer's store house now is." I may add I have always un- 
derstood the eastern abutment rested in the door yard of the 
present Simmons house. The army crossed it undisturbed, 
and as a matter of safety the bridge was ordered cut down 
Mr. John H. Post, whose grave may be seen in the old yard at 
Passaic, volunteered to lead the gang of workmen. Here 
traditions conflict ; one declaring that it was only weakened 
and the other that it was totally destroyed. The first seems 
to have the weight of authority. When it was done is also 
uncertain ; but probably not till next day when the 
British were approaching. Colonel Harcourt did ap- 
pear with his forces on the 22nd, but when he crossed we 
know not. Earl Cornwallis, having received re-enforcements 
of two brigades, arrived on the 26th and crossed by the ford 



26 RETREAT OF '76 

just below the present Dundee dam. Mr. Nelson outlines his 
march : "Down the road now covered by the Dundee drive, 
Lexington avenue and Main and River roads," Washington 
had left for Newark, one column going by the river road and 
the other over the hill. 

And now that Washington and his army are beyond 
Bergen County my task is ended. The story is of interest 
to us living along the line of march and looking daily 
on objects associated with it, but it has a greater interest for 
every student of the Revolution. I mean the military side of 
it. That march began on November 20th and the advanced 
guard reached the Passaic river — fifteen or sixteen miles dis- 
tant on the 22nd. Such rapid marching must have made 
those well fed Hessians and Britishers pant and sweat. It is 
true that armies often march twenty miles and more in a day, 
but that was not done in invading New Jersey. What shall 
we make of this? Were General Howe and General Corn- 
wallis such very inefficient leaders ? Very far from it. This 
slow marching was part of the policy of the war. Neither 
general wanted to capture the American army. Keep it 
on the march ; drive it into the back country ; make it a 
guerilla band. A German officer has written in his diary 
(he intended his remarks to be sarcastic) that General Corn- 
wallis had orders to chase the Americans, come up 
to them but not disturb them. Von Hiking in his work says 
that in this very march on Fort Lee, one Captain Ewald was 
leading the advance when he discovered the American troops 
in their flight. He halted and sent word to Cornwallis and 
was ordered to fall back until the whole army could be brought 
up, and that took such an astonishingly long time that the 
Americans got away. Both generals were members of Parlia- 
ment and had steadily voted against the war, and the ap- 
pointment of General Howe had called forth from the ministerial 
party a storm of criticism. Everywhere did the Howes hold 
out the olive branch, and no man surpassed Cornwallis in the 
good opinion of the Americans. They knew what we admit 
today, that 90 per cent, of the American people were loyal to 
old England, but were incensed at the measures which an in- 



RETREAT OF T6 27 



efficient parliament, driven by the party whips in the hands of 
grafters and army contractors, was enacting. They knew, too, 
that there were strong men in that Parliament who saw in these 
measures grave dangers to English trade, English freedom, in- 
deed to the English realm itself. All these men could do was 
to protest, and to keep Americans quiet as possible. Let the 
army there do just as little as possible. As soon as Parlia- 
ment could change, modify the objectionable laws and make 
peace on a permanent basis. The time did come but it was 
too late for the glory of old England. So all these men stand 
out in that winter of 1776-77, as men loyal to their country, 
not as partizans, but as statesmen and freemen. 



Note — Since the above was put in type a gentleman from Englewood has 
told me that he knows of several patches of remains of an old road along the cliffs, 
and Colonel Sweeting Miles, of Alpine, has written me "Traces of a road can still be 
plainly seen, which, it is said by tradition, was the work of a detachment of men 
from Lord Howe's force when they brought up some artillery, and it is still called 
Lord Howe's path. The public road was changed 40 years ago or more, but part 
of the old road can still be traced." 



BERGEN COUNTY DUTCH. 



Read at the Annual Dinner, Feb. 22, 1905. 



BY REV. JOHN VOORHIS. 



In Holland there is so much difference in the language as 
spoken in the different provinces, that in some cases the in- 
habitants of one province can only v/ith difficulty understand 
the inhabitants of another, as for instance those of Zealand 
and those of Groningen. 

The early settlers of Bergen County, who came largely 
from the different provinces of Holland, by their intermarriage 
and social intercourse, gradually moulded the language known 
as "Bergen County Dutch" into its present shape. This was 
a mixture of Holland dialects with poor English and the for- 
mative process must certainly have been a confusing one. 
There was no text book as a standard as far as I know, but the 
language was handed down orally with added corruption from 
parents to children. This is as near as we can get to the 
origin and history of the Bergen County Dutch language. Its 
origin is so beclouded that it may be compared to the Melchiz- 
ideck priesthood, without father, without mother, and without 
descent. Now, it is this fatherless and motherless Bergen 
County Dutch baby that I am asked to stand sponsor for. 

With this language I have a slight acquaintance, and on 
my late European tour I found it very helpful, especially at 
Nippel, in the province of Drenthe, where we found typical 
Hollanders, and also at Scheveningen, which is the seaside 
summer resort of the Netherlands. At the latter place I 
found myself one morning with a company of Holland fisher- 
men who were standing at the seashore. Finding that they 
could not understand English I sprung upon them some of my 
Bergen County Dutch, to which they answered with a look of 
amusement "Where hab yei dot gelaret ?" "Dot is Jersey 
Dutch von Yankeelandt," was my reply. 

I will now give you a bit of our Revolutionary history in 



30 BERGEN COUNTY DUTCH 



connection with the people who spoke this Bergen County 
Dutch, a page that to my knowledge has never been written. 

These early Holland immigrants came here with an ar- 
dent love of liberty and there were few of them who did not 
side with the colonies against the King. They learned their 
lesson at their mother's knee and the most interesting fireside 
stories told them were those relating to the valor of their an- 
cestors under the Prince of Orange who secured for Holland 
the priceless blessings of civil and religious liberty. 

My great grandfather, Albert P. Voorhis, whose ancestors 
came here from Holland in 1660 and settled at the place now 
known as Areola (formerly Red Mills) in this county, was a 
soldier in the Revolutionary army — a private in the Bergen 
County State Militia. During the war he was shot at by the 
Hessian troops, who were then prowling through the county 
and who often made raids upon the homes of those who were 
known by them as rebels. These Hessians were aided by Tory 
spies who piloted them in their raids. Grandfather, when not 
on duty, would stealthily visit his home, and on one . of these 
visits in company with a neighbor militiaman whose name was 
Hopper, the Hessians, apprized of it, made a sudden raid on 
his home, and he and his companion fled for their lives to the 
woodland nearby, known as the Spront Woods. In their flight 
they were shot at by the Hessians and his companion was 
killed. During the war he could not sleep at home, but was 
obliged to secrete himself in the woods, hay barracks or some 
other secluded place. At the time when the Hessians raided 
his home, as 1 have mentioned, after they had shot his com- 
panion, they returned to the house and endeavored to intimi- 
date grandmother (whose maiden name was Mary Doremus) 
and compel her to show them where her silver and valuables 
were kept, and when she refused to do this they thrust her in 
one of those old blanket chests, some of which are still to be 
found in these parts, and then prodded her with bayonets. 

In one of these raids the Hessians took prisoner one of 
grandfather's neighbors, an intensely enthusiastic patriot, who was 
called by his Dutch acquaintances Koning Yawp, or King 
Jacob. This man was extremely outspoken in manner, and 



BERGEN COUNTY DUTCH 31 

often expressed himself in terms highly uncomplimentary to 
his Majesty, King George the Third, and his army. While 
King Jacob was confined in the famous Old Sugar House 
Prison, near Christopher street, New York City, he was often 
taunted by the British Guard as a rebel cooped up, and soon 
to be taken out and hanged. 

Upon the birthday of King George, which was a holiday 
for the British troops, he was asked to drink a toast with them 
to the King's health. The British guard first drank to the 
toast, and then King Jacob, raising high his glass, in a loud 
voice cried, "Here goes to the health of General Washington 
and the success of the Continental Army, and death and 
damnation to all our enemies, and may King George and his 
Tory friends be hung as high as Haman." This so enraged 
the British that the officers of the Guard immediately put him 
in irons, on a diet of bread and water. 

As you follow Passaic street, Hackensack, the road lead- 
ing to Areola, near the house of Isaac I. Voorhis, you will see 
to your right a little clump of evergreens pointing heavenward, 
that stand as silent sentinels over the mortal remains of some 
of our patriot ancestry. May our Bergen County Historical 
Society ever keep green their memory, and engross upon the 
pages of our history their valorous deeds as an inspiration to 
future generations. 



HISTORIC HOUSES IN BERGEN COUNTY. 



BY BURTON H. ALLBEE. 



It has been well said that the character of people could 
be told by a study of their architecture. And this statement 
has received many confirmations through history. In a less 
degree the character of a community can be understood by the 
dwellings its inhabitants erect. Men of weight in a community 
will nearly always be found living in substantial homes. If a 
man loves ornament and show his home will be elaborately 
decorated, and his grounds will be more or less elaborate, as 
fancy may dictate or as other influences may determine. The 
cities and towns of this country are given character by the 
dwellings and business houses of their substantial men. 

Accepting this reasoning as true, the character of the 
houses built by the early Dutch settlers of Bergen County bears 
testimony to the solidity of character, and the substantial 
nature of their builders. They undoubtedly built their homes 
to suit themselves, and in so doing, they erected monuments 
which have lasted through the decades and stand now, some of 
them more than two centuries old, as striking examples of 
strength in home building. The homes were typical of the 
characters, and the early settlers of the country were only fol- 
lowing the dictates of their own inclinations when they con- 
structed dwellings which have outlasted the generations of their 
builders. 

Scattered all over the county are stone houses in an ex- 
cellent state of preservation, and which, after two centuries of 
constant use, are now as sound as when erected, and promise 
to outlast the generations of another two hundred years. Un- 
fortunately many have been torn down to make way for some 
modernly designed monstrosity which has no claims to archi- 
tectural beauty and certainly lacks the substantial comforts 
which were and are an important feature of the early style. 
There are left probably one hundred houses which have seen 
a century. Some are one hundred and fifty years old, and 



34 HISTORIC HOUSES IN BERGEN COUNTY 



some are two hundred and more. Some of tho oldest have 
been most carefully preserved, and are now in a good state of 
repair. Others are being permitted to fall to decay. Crumbl- 
ing walls, broken doors and windows, and other evidences of 
the ravages of time are the lot of a few. It is a thousand 
pities that the descendants of the families who built them, and 
who have passed many years under their roofs, cannot care 
for the old buildings, and see that they are spared the hand of 
the vandal and the ravages of fire and time. Such historic 
monuments are too rare to permit them to fall to ruin. The 
new architecture has nothing that compares with them. 

A trip through the county will show these buildings every- 
where. Around them cluster numerous historic facts and 
legends of the Colonial time. Then they saw the Revolution- 
ary struggle and finally their owners had a part in making this 
county what it was after that struggle was over and peace once 
more settled upon the land. Then, as now, Bergen was no 
mean county. Then, as now, her inhabitants bore an import- 
ant part in state and national affairs. Then, as now, Bergen 
was a power. History and legend should be separated, yet 
both are important and deserve to be preserved. If legend 
creeps into the story of these houses it will not detract from 
the interest. It may add some light to the facts which have 
come down to us as representing the life of early times. 

The county was settled by Dutch and English, the Dutch 
in the middle and northern sections, the English in the 
south. Possibly the lines cannot be closely drawn, but this 
will differentiate the two and will serve as a reasonably accur- 
ate basis for considering the houses and their treatment in 
separated portions of the county. Further, in considering the 
houses built by the early settlers, account should also be taken 
of those which are still standing in Hudson County, once a part 
of Bergen. Substantially the same influences governed the 
settlement there which were operative here and the character 
of the homes was the same. The Dutch house was built of 
stone, in most instances rough rocks picked out of their fields. 
Many of them were made from models with which the people 
had been familiar in their home country. Holland i5 a l^nd 



HISTORIC HOUSES IN BERGEN COUNTY 35 

of winds and the houses were built low, largely to escape the 
effects of severe winds which sweep across the plains and low 
lands. The same influences prevailed here and a series of 
lew houses, constructed upon the Dutch models which had 
been followed for centuries, were built. They were low, but 
spacious ; plain, but comfortable ; severe, but attractive. They 
were made to stand and they have justified their builders' ef- 
forts by withstanding the storms and stresses of centuries. 

In some instances a small building was evidently first 
erected which might have contained two rooms, one on the 
ground floor and one above. This was ten to twelve feet 
square. It was usually built of rough, undressed stones with 
mud for mortar. Straw, which grew on the neighboring fields, 
was used to bind the improvised mortar together. These 
buildings, or parts of buildings, may be considered as forming 
the type of the first period. A few large houses were built in 
this way and they are the earliest structures which are left 
standing. Some are crumbling, neglect of proper repairs hav- 
ing afforded the weather opportunity to disintegrate the mortar, 
and the walls are falling. 

Probably as years progressed and the families increased in 
size more room was required. In several instances the main 
house followed immediately afterward, of undressed or only 
partially dressed stone. The second period had begun. There 
had been prosperity on the farm. New York was a growing 
town. Its increasing population had to be fed and the fertile 
fields of Bergen County contributed liberally, as they do yet 
and as they have since the earliest settlement. With increas- 
ing prosperity came larger and better houses and the fronts of 
the larger buildings were made of dressed stone. The main 
parts of the houses built then were relatively small and were 
evidently made to house moderate families. 

The houses of the third period were of dressed stone. 
Some of them had two ells, the second one of dressed stone 
like the main part of the house. In this period prosperity had 
increased to such an extent that the entire house was of dressed 
stone, laid up in mortar that is today as hard as the original 
rock. Some houses which have been torn down were so solid 



36 HISTORIC HOUSES IN BERGEN COUNTY 

that they had literally to be cut to pieces. There would have 
never been any disintegration. The structures were virtually 
imperishable. It is known that in some instances the second 
ell was built as a kitchen for the family or a son or daughter 
who had married, and that what may be termed the parlors and 
sitting rooms of the houses were used in common. That was 
sometimes done in England, even as late as fifty years ago and 
seems to have been a more or less common practice every- 
where in the early days. In other instances the old house 
was used as a smoke house, and again for storage. 

The low roof, with the curbing and projecting eaves, under 
which were hung the corn and herbs to cure, was common 
enough all through this section of New Jersey and in New 
York state. This was the prevalent Dutch type. Later it 
was modified by the introduction of English features, but the 
early structures all bear these distinguishing characteristics. 
They cannot be mistaken and they remain as memorials of 
the industry and prosperity of their builders. 

A custom which has been of assistance in compiling 
more or less authentic histories of these houses was that of 
setting a date stone in the wall of one side of the house 
with the date of the erection of the building, together with the 
initials of the builder and in some instances those of his entire 
family. That occurred in several instances. Again there are 
stones set in the walls that are covered with hieroglyphics 
which no one has yet been able to decipher. It is barely pos- 
sible that these stones were marked by the children of the 
family. At any rate this seems a reasonable explanation of 
some of the difficulties which have been encountered in trying 
to read these stones. They have been ascribed to the rude 
markings made by Indians, but unless the stone was found in 
that condition, this seems unlikely. The play of children 
seems much more plausible. The initials of the builder were 
frequently accompanied by some object which represented his 
trade. One house has a mill wheel cut on the date stone. 
Another has the tools of a mason. A third has the tools of a 
builder. They were the owners' trade mark and were in a 
sense the advertisement of his business or occupation. Now 



HISTORIC HOUSES IN BERGEN COUNTY 37 

they are monuments, but that was not their design. It was 
merely to show that the owner followed this or that business, 
and instead of a sign the emblem was cut in the enduring stone 
of which the home was constructed. 

These are the main features of the early Dutch homes. 
There are many others. For example the arrangement of the 
rooms, the furnishings and the construction of the partitions. 
But it would scarcely be wise to enter into a more elaborate 
description at this time. 

It will, perhaps, suffice to mention a few of the more 
important of these houses, leaving for the future a more elab- 
orate discussion of the interesting architectural features of the 
buildings. 

One of the oldest houses in the county was the Kipp or CisJL^ 
DeKype house on the PolHfJj_joad_^near Hackensack. It was . -, \ 

built about 1690, was of stone, laid in mortar mixed from the 
mud of the fields with straw to give it strength. The stones A' *^ 
were rough, excepting in one end, which apparently represented 
changes which were made later. There was a huge fire place 
which would take a log at least ten feet long and all the other 
characteristics of the Dutch house were present. The builder 
of it came from Holland and constructed his home after he 
had been in this country about ten years. It was burned less 
than a year ago and nothing is left but the walls. Deprived 
of their protecting covering they are rapidly falling to ruin. 

On Essex street, in Hackensack, stands the Brinkerhoff 
house built in 1704. It is now occupied by Mr. J. S. Mabon 
and it retains most of the original characteristics. It has 
fifteen rooms and is said to be truly representative of the 
"old fashioned country seat" which the poet described. This 
house saw the retreat of Washington's army from Fort Lee 
and there are traditions of the visits of the soldiers of both 
armies which may or may not have been true. The initials of 
the builder, his wife and his son are cut in one wall and one 
or two other stones are covered with a mass of hierogly- 
phics which no one has been able to decipher and which some 
have thought were made by Indians. It is, however, quite as 
plausible that they were cut by children. Such an origin is 



58 HISTORIC HOUS ES IN BERGEN COUNTY 

not impossible and if one stops to think how often children do 
as their elders do they will readily understand how this might 
be true. 

There are a number of historic houses in and near Hack- 
ensack. On Main street stands the Peter Wilson house. It 
is of stone, but came later and all the stones are dressed. 
Over the windows are cut the names ot Peter Wilson and his 
wife. This house really deserves more attention than it has ever 
received, for the reason that Peter Wilson, as a force in early 
New Jersey history, has never been accorded the position which 
is rightfully his. The house might well be visited by those 
who are in any way interested in the development with which 
Peter Wilson was so closely identified. The educational 
prominence of the state was largely due to him in those days 
and the early codification of the laws of the state was his 
work. 

On the Teaneck road stands a stone house which was 
probably built about 1685 to 1690. It is likely that the first 
date is early, but the erection of this building at about that 
time seems well established. It is said to stand just as it was 
originally built and it is certainly a picturesque dwelling. It 
was erected by Hendrik Brinckerhoff, who came from Holland 
around 1670 and was granted a considerable tract of land 
along the Teaneck ridge. Upon this tract he erected a dwell- 
ing, which stands today just as it stood then. It is a .splendid 
specimen of Dutch architecture and it is as typical of the 
Dutch style of building houses as any in the county. 

On the Paramus road are a number of Dutch dwellings, 
all going back as early as 1750 and one or two that are even 
earlier than that. At the same time it must be remembered 
that there was a period of house building about one hundred 
years ago which retained all the characteristics of the older 
buildings, but at the same time modified them with English 
designs or with designs which were prepared by architects and 
builders in this immediate vicinity. They are interesting and 
have clustered about them many traditions of the early times. 
But they are not as old as those which have been mentioned. 

On Union avenue in Rutherford stands the Captain Berry 



HISTORIC HOUSES IN BERGEN COUNTY 59 

house. It is of stone, but they are all dressed. While it is 
known that the house was built early, some think prior to 
1690, there is evidence that there have been some remodel- 
lings which have changed the character somewhat. It isn't 
Dutch like most of the houses farther north, but that was be- 
cause Captain Berry was not a Dutchman. He came from 
Barbadoes and brought many of his English ideas and tradi- 
tions with him. This would naturally show in his house build- 
ing and would make it plain why the structure is different from 
those which were built by the Dutch. 

Only a few typical houses have been mentioned. About 
them clusters much of the early history of the county. Near 
these buildings the earliest settlements were made, with possi- 
bly one exception, and the families which originally occupied 
them were important factors in the county's beginnings. 
Therefore they deserve prominence. They represent a type 
which is disappearing and they should be preserved as land- 
marks of the work of the fathers. 



OLD FAMILY PAPERS. 



A Few Suggestions Read at the Annual Dinner, February 
22, 1904. 



BY CORNELIUS CHRISTIE. 



It has been my pleasure lately to examine some old family 
papers that show interesting facts and suggest questions of va- 
rious kinds. They also suggest that many other families may 
have in their possession similar papers of equal or greater in- 
terest and importance. 

Nov/ this occasion may be a good opportunity to enforce 
upon those present (who in turn may enforce upon others) 
the importance of the safe keeping of all old family papers 
throwing light upon family history and so upon the history of 
the county. For what is the history of the county but the his- 
tory of its families ? 

V/e are at a disadvantage, however, in starting so late. 
How much has already been lost, — probably beyond recovery ; 
who can tell ? 

An example, possibly only one of many, is the case of the 
Brinkerhoff family, which 1 happen to know about, as it was 
my mother's family. Hendrick Jorisen Brinkerhoff was the 
first member of this family who settled in this County. In 
June, 1685, he purchased a tract of land on the east side of the 
Hackensack river at a place now known as Ridgefield Park, 
but in its early days known as Old Hackensack. Now Hen- 
drick Jorisen Brinkerhoff was a man of importance in his day 
and generation. Before he came to this County he had been 
a member of the Hempstead Assembly of 1665, from Flush- 
ing, Long Island, in the State of New York, and a magistrate 
there in 1662. 1663 and 1673. His name was also on the 
Indian deed of that town. He had also been one of the pur- 
chasers from the Indians of the site of Passaic City. After 
he came here, he and Albert Zabrouski, the ancestor of the 



42 OLD FAMILY PAPERS 

Zabriskie family, were commissioned as the first two Justices 
of the Peace of this County, and he and his wife are the first 
two recorded members of the Old Church on the Green in this 
village, of which the Rev. Herman Vanderwart, a member of 
this society, is now pastor. At least as much as this of his 
public life is known. Now it is also known that he and his 
descendants kept his papers of importance in two small chests 
or boxes, which were in the possession of the family down to 
the time of Jacob A. Brinkerhoff, his great great grandson 
and my mother's brother, by whom they were highly prized 
and jealously guarded. But after Jacob's death the boxes 
with their contents disappeared and so far the most diligent 
search has failed to find them. 

All this is told simply to show how family papers are 
sometimes lost and to warn others against a like loss in the 
future. 

These lost papers might have shown to us historians 
many an interesting fact and might have solved some myster- 
ies. 

And so of other families. There is the family of Hen- 
drick Epke Banta of whom Hendrick Jorisen Brinkerhoff 
bought this tract in 1685. There is the family of Albert Za- 
brouski, the ancestor of the Zabriskies above referred to. Have 
their papers been lost or preserved ? 

The Bogert, the Berry, the Blauvelt, the Demarest, the 
Doremus, the Westervelt. the Voorhis, the Hopper, the Har- 
ing, the Terhune, the Van Home and all the other leading 
families of the old times, where are all their papers ? What 
stories they might tell us. 

Among the old papers that I have seen are some of the 
Voorhis family that were found among the papers of the late 
Judge Henry H. Voorhis, of which family the Rev. John C. 
Voorhis of this Society is a member. These papers are not 
numerous. There must be or must have been many others 
in the possession of this family. But among them are some 
of interest. Among others I find a military commission is- 
sued to Henry N. Voorhis, as Sergeant, on May 21, 1811, 
signed "Joseph Bloonifield, Governor, Captain-General and 



OLD FAMILY PAPERS 43 

Commander In Chief of all the Militia and other military 
forces in the state of New Jersey." I also find a deed by 
Cornelius Haring, Esq.. agent for forfeited estates in this 
county, to Henry T. Brinkerhoff of nine acres of land at Tea- 
neck, being the lands of Albert Zabriskie forfeited for joining 
the army of the King of Great Britain. I also find a bill of 
sale April 16, 1805, by Paulus Powelson to Henry Brinkerhoff 
of a negro wench for $1C0, duly warranted, of course, as was 
usual. 

In one of the old deeds of the Edsall title at English 
Neighborhood, which I have seen, the southerly line of the 
premises described is given as a certain distance south of 
Indian Castle. Nov/, on the Brinkerhoff farm at Palisades 
Park there is a high hill commanding a wide and a very, fine 
view in all directions which has always been known by the 
owners of the farm as Castle Hill, and is so called today. 
From the location of this hill there can be little doubt that 
here was the site of Indian Castle ; or was it the hill itself 
that was called a castle ? If a castle what was its character ? 
Or was there some legend ? Perhaps the very able Indian 
committee will find out for us. 

In speaking of the Edsall title we are reminded that 
Samuel Edsall, the first of the Bergen county Edsalls, was a 
man of more than ordinary importance. Besides being a large 
patentee or owner of lands here he v/as officially distinguished. 
He was at one time a member of the State Legislature and 
was also one of the earliest Justices of the Peace of the 
County. His lineal descendants are still living at Palisades 
Park and still holding office, one being an ex-mayor of the 
borough, one the present Mayor, one a Councilman, and one 
Borough Collector, and all of them, like their distinguished 
ancestor, important land owners. 

From the papers of the Van Horn family I find that the 
old Van Horn tract atCloster was bought from a New York 
merchant in 1696, and was bought by him in 1686. So we 
learn that places so far apart in the County as Old Hacken- 
sack and Closter were apparently settled by these old Dutch 
families at about the same time, the purchase and settlement 



44 OLD FAMILY PAPERS 

of the Brinkerhoffs at Old Hackensack, as we have before 
stated, being in 1685. In the original Van Horn deed we find 
that the old road running through the property is referred to as 
the King's Highway, while a road running through Old Hack- 
ensack has been known from the earliest Brinkerhoff days and 
is still known as the Queen Anne Road. 

In all of these various old papers one of the most interest- 
ing things is the names of places, of streams, of necks of land, 
&c. Take for instance, the name of Old Hackensack where 
Ridgefield Park now is. The only name it was ever known 
by from the time of Hendrick Jorisen Brinkerhoff down to 
about 1870, was Old Hackensack. Why was it thus named? 
Was it because when this village, where we are now met, was 
first called by the name of Hackensack, the other side of the 
Hackensack River, having been previously known as Hacken- 
sack, was after that thus distinguished as "Old" ? This seems 
not unreasonable. But I find in the public records a deed given 
by Hendrick Epke, Hendrick Jorisen and others to Ralph Van- 
dalinda, Albert Zabriskie and others, in 1696, that may throw a 
little more light on this question. In this deed the grantors, 
who were apparently residents of Old Hackensack at that time, 
are all described as residents of Hackensack, not of the pre- 
cinct of Hackensack, but simply of Hackensack, and this 
would seem to strengthen our first suggestion. But there is 
another reference in the deed that gives a new idea. At the 
end of the description of the tract conveyed, I find this clause : 
'•According to an agreement made between Old and New 
Hackensack and staked out in the presence of Elias Mickol- 
son." From this it would almost appear that the tract con- 
veyed was called "New Hackensack," in distinction from the 
tract owned by the grantors, which was thereupon called Old 
Hackensack. Perhaps an examination of the subsequent 
deeds of these grantees might make this clear. 

In this deed the neck of land on which Old Hackensack 
is situated, and which is generally known as the Teaneck 
Ridge is called Hackensack Neck. Our curiosity is also ex- 
cited by reference to a great rock lying by the meadow's side 



OLD FAMILY PAPERS 45 

along the Overpeck Creek. Where is this monument ? It is 
probably there still. 

The meaning of one name suggests questions as to other 
names we have mentioned. What does the name "Overpeck" 
mean, as applied to the creek on the easterly boundary of Old 
Hackensack and Teaneck? Probably it was of Holland origin 
and may have meant the creek over the hill, as it would have 
been to the Dutchmen of Old Hackensack. By the English 
settlers, from v/hom English Neighborhood was named, it was 
called English Creek, and the reason and meaning are plain 
enough. But it may have been named for a man of that 
name, as it is well known that there are Hollanders living today 
not far from here by the name of Overbeck — almost the 
same spelling and pronounciation. 

There is the name of Teaneck, to which reference has 
been made. Teaneck is from the Dutch, meaning "willow 
neck," a neck of land where willows grow, as Tenafly is the 
Dutch name for the willow marsh or meadow where the In- 
dians or the early settlers planted willows for basket making. 

As to Tenafly, the overwise modern residents of that place 
have imposed upon it the new pronounciation of Tenafly, from 
a notion, as I understand, that it is more aristocratic or eu- 
phonic than the old way of Te (or Tea)-nafly, thus destroying 
the original significance of the name. All such changes seem 
to me the foolish perversions of the v/eak-minded or ignorant. 
Something like the conduct of the silly girl, so the humorists 
put it, who insists that the binding of a book shall match her 
complexion of her dress. 

As to the name of Closter, which has been mentioned; al- 
though believed by some persons to be of Indian origin it is 
probably named after a Dutchman, name of Kloster. Some 
of the moderns have also tried the same experiment for im- 
proving its pronunciation by calling it Clos (Clars)ter, though I 
am glad to believe with not as much success. It may be 
amusing to repeat the remark of a speaker at the 
time of the celebration of the opening of the Northern Rail- 
road of New Jersey in the fifties. He said that the only rea- 



46 OLD FAMILY PAPERS 

son he ever heard for calling the place Closter was that it was 
closer to New York than Nyackwas. 

The names of the persons we have mentioned interest us. 
We find that the Dutchmen in these early papers often dropped 
their surnames. So in the deed we have mentioned from 
Hendrick Epke, Hendrick Jorisen and others. Hendrick 
Epke means Hendrick Epke Banta, and Hendrick Jorisen 
means Hendrick Jorisen Brinkerhoff. And we are led to be- 
lieve that in some cases where the surname was thus dropped, 
it was never afterwards resumed, thus dividing the same 
family into two or more different surnames. This is said to 
be true of the Westervelt family for one example. 

There are other things we might mention and more de- 
tails we might go into, but I have said enough to accomplish 
all 1 have endeavored to do by this paper, to show how many 
things of interest we find or are likely to find in these docu- 
ments, that even yet are somewhere in possession of the old 
families of the County, and therefore how important it is that 
they should be carefully preserved, and there is no way that 
this end can be better served than by calling in the aid of this 
society through its committees or its members. 



HISTORICAL LOAN EXHIBITIONS BY THE JOHN- 
SON LIBRARY ASSOCIATION AND THE BER- 
GEN COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



These exhibitions were all in charge of Mrs. W. H. Wester- 
velt of Hackensack. N. J., and were highly interesting and well 
attended. 



Johnson Library Association Exhibitin the Library Building at 
Hackensack, N. J., April 2-16, 1902. 



This exhibition v/as given at the suggestion of Hon. W- 
M. Johnson with the idea of establishing a Bergen County 
Historical Museum in connection with the Library Building. 
Through the courtesy of Mrs. Cornelius Blauvelt, President of 
the Association and Chairman of the Committee, the following 
list of Exhibits is given : 

H. L. Bruns— Old China Plate, 100 years. 

Miss L. CuMMiNGS— Flint box, very old ; Foreign coin scales, Oct. 
1 76 1 ; Portrait of John Huss made of the earth on which he 
was burned, and a box made of tree growing on same 
spot; New York Evening Post, Sept. 14, 1810; New York 
Herald, May 20, 1815; Map of Disputed Territory; Gen- 
eral Atlas, 1821. 

Mrs. Henry Kipp— Vase, 200 years old; Gup and Saucer, 200 
years old ; Bowl, 200 years old ; Decanter, 100 years old; 
Brown Pitcher, 80 years old ; Pie Dish, 80 years old ; Cake 
Wafer Iron, 150 years old; Small Bowl, 100 years old; 
Small Bowl, 80 years old; Pie Filler for Dutch Oven, 200 
years old. 

Mrs. Ed. DeWitt— Inlaid glass frame brought from Holland over 
200 years ago; Picture, Tomb of Washington, 101 years 
old ; Tortoise shell comb, 1830; Silk wedding shawl, 1 830 ; 
Lace wedding veil, 1830 ; English hand run lace ; -Wedding 
Bonnet, ] 830 ; Early Samples of Calico made in this coun- 
try ; Very old Brass Candle Sticks ; Hand made glass— be- 
fore cut glass was known ; Bead bags. 

Mrs. Rachel Blackledge— Old Dutch Bible, 1741 ; Silver Snuff 
Box, over 300 years; Dish. 1635; Pewter Plate and Bowl 
used by Soldier of Revolution; Sugar Bowl, Milk Pitcher, 



48 LOAN EXHIBITIONS 

Salt Cellar, 1700; Vase, UJl \ Pitcher, 1777: Velvet 
beaded bag, 1 750. 

Mrs. Coleman Gray — Set of China Vases, over 300 years old — 
belonged to Col. Budd, first settler of L. I., was Surgeon to 
King of England. 

Mrs. Elsie Brinkerhoff — China Shoe from Holland, 1600; Blue 
China Pitcher, 1800. 

Rev. E. T. Sanford — Mill Elevator Belt and Buckle — Bolting 
Cloth, 1750 ; U. S. Records, Survey and Discovery, 1822. 

Mrs. a. D. Bogert — Warming Pan ; Foot Stove. 

Rev. E. T. Sanford — Sword and Spurs used in general training, 
U. S. Militia. 

Miss J. Zabriskie — Copy, Josephus, 1 792 ; Brasero (very old) ; Tea 
Caddy, very old ; SnufT Boxes, very old ; Medal, Erie Canal, 
1825. 

Mr. H. Angell— Powder Horn, used in Revolution; Certificate of 
Membership Society of Cincinnati ; signed by George Wash- 
ington ; Diaries of Col. Angell during Revolution ; Orders 
and Letters of Col. Angell during Revolution ; Insignia of 
Society of Cincinnati. 

F. A. Westervelt— Homespun linen table cloth; Old bowl ; Shell 
Comb ; Copper Kettle from Holland, 200 years; 6 Silver 
Spoons; 1 Colonial Spoon, 2 Colonial Spoons; 2 Pewter 
spoons, home made in wooden moulds : Hand knit night cap, 
75 years : Lace dress cap, 65 years ; Old dress ; Silk Tissue 
Dress, 1845; Piece of wedding dress, 102 years old. Bride 
a descendant of Gov. William Bradford of the Mayflower: 
Piece of wedding dress, 1845; Gold Breastpin, containing 
portraits, 50 years old ; Gold Locket, containing portraits, 
50 years old. 

Mrs. W. O. Labagh— Chair, 1 30 years old ; Book, 1719. 

Mrs. R. W. Farr— English Doll, 1 732. 

F. A. Westervelt— Large Copper Kettle from Brinkerhoff Home- 
stead, Essex St.; Glass Candlesticks, 50 years ; Brass Can- 
dlesticks, 75 years. 

C. Eugene Walsh— Soldier's Pla':e picked up in street in N. Y. as 
71st Regiment passed upon return from Spanish War. 

Mrs. DeP. Stagg — Bonnet ; Bowl, 200 years ; Valentine, very old ; 
Shell Comb, 1 825 ; 3 SnufT boxes ; Brass Mortar and Pestle. 

Rev. E. T. Sanford— Beads from Egypt. 

Mrs. J. A. Romeyn— Cameo Bracelet, 100 years ; Dr. Rogers, 
miniature; Silver Comb, 100 years ; 2 Silver Pitchers, 100 
years; Silver Tea Strainer. 100 years; Silver Sugar Bowl, 
100 years. 

Mrs. M. H. Angell — Lustre Tea Pot from Forty Fort, Pa., July 3, 



LOAN EXHIBITIONS 49 



1778, at time of Wyoming Massacre, exhibited at Centen- 
nial Exp., Phila., 1876. 

Mrs. J A. Romeyn— Shell Comb; Child's Dress, Joanna B. 
Romeyn's, 1795; Wedding Dress, Joanna B. Roineyn's, 
1807; Silk Shawl. Joanna B. Romeyn's; Silk Kerchief, 
Joanna B. Romeyn's ; Child's Silk Coat, over 100 years. 

Mrs. M. H. Angell— Insignia, Sonsof Revolution. 

Mrs. Chas. Hasbrougk — Cane. 

Mrs. Graham — Plate, 100 years. 

David Demarest — French Sword. 

Mrs. Graham — Holland Shoes. 

Mrs. Chas. Hasbrougk — Foot Stove. This stove was the property 
of Mrs. Jane Myer. It is at least 100 years old and in early 
days part of its duty was to keep its owner comfortable 
while she worshipped in the "Old Church on the Green." 

Mrs. Graham — Tv/o-lipped Lustre Vase. 

Mr. p. E. Moore— Mr. Peter Moore's Watch. 

Mrs Sarah Dixon — Glass Lamp, 75 years. 

Mrs. David Durie— Corded Hood, 125 years; 2 Shell Combs; Ker- 
chief, 125 years old ; Black Silk Shawl. 

Mrs Chas. French — Kerchief, 80 years. 

F. A. Westervelt— Blue Pitcher, belonged to Major Suffern, Suf- 
fern, N. Y. 

Mrs. J. C. Ward— Old English Cut Glass Decanter, 1815; Snuff- 
ers and Tray, 1 792 ; Lustre Jardiniere, 1815. 

Mrs. Zenobia Hanfield— Shell Cameo, date of cutting, 1820; 
Handpainted Inlaid Fan. Court of Queen Elizabeth, Artist, 
Bertano. 1785 ; Portrait of Mary Rooke Rayner, painted by 
Gen. Theo. Cummings 

Mrs. Randall — Pitcher, brought from Holland by Hogencamp 
family ; Plate, brought from Holland by Hogencamp family ; 
Linen, brought from Holland by Hogencamp family. 

Garret Randall — Commission Holder was Maj. V/ar 1812. 

Mrs Randall— Silver Knife, Fork and Spoon, buried in vicinity of 
Fort Lee during Revolutionary War ; Garret Ackerson's 
Spectacles, 80 years. 

Garret Randall — Sword, worn by Garret Ackerson during War 
of 1812 and after as Major General of Militia of Northern; 
N.J. 

Mrs Nelson Provost— Old Dutch Bible, containingfamily records. 

Mrs. H. M. Bogert— Snuffers and Tray, 95 years old ; SiverTable- 
spoon, 200 years; Plate, Pembroke Hall, Cambridge ; Plate 
100 years. 

Mrs. M. E. Smith— Old Roman Lamp. 

W. R. Shanks— Old Check, Charles Carroll of Carrolton; Old Check. 



50 LOAN EXHIBITIONS 

Aaron Burr; Elzevir, 1636; Dutch Bible, 1712; Biblical 
Scenes; Illustrations, Frenchmen, 1655; Des. Geo. World, 
1680. 

Aaron E. Agkerman— Army Blanket, used by A. D. E., War 1812. 

Mrs. Aaron E. Agkerman — Lace Mantilla, 100 years. 

J. J. Anderson— Sun Dial. 

T. H Richards— Silver Shoe Buckles. 

F. N. Lawton — Spanish Colors, from San Juan, Porto Rico; Sword 
Spanish Officers, captured with above flag. 

Mrs. N. B. Zabriskie— Chair, 1685. 

Mrs. J. D. Westervelt— Child's Dress. 

Mrs. De P. Stagg— Lustre Pitcher, 100 years ; Candle moulds. 

Mrs. N. D. Zabriskie— Piece of China, broken by cyclone. Cherry 
Hill. 

Mrs. Chas. Hasbrougk— 4 Deeds and Indentures; Bulls Eye Watch^ 
90 years old ; Silver Cup, 126 years, used by Washington, 
Books, Wm. Hogarth's Works, 70 years old. 

Miss Helen Schuyler Dougherty— Plate, in family for 6 gen- 
erations ; Shoe Buckles, 1 50 years, from Island Santa Crus ; 
Vase, first Crockery brought from China to U. S. 

J. A. RoMEYN— Pieces of China from Complete set, over 100 years. 

Mrs. R. W. Farr— Punch Ladle with King George shilling, 1723, in 
bottom. 

Mrs. De P. Stagg— Bead Bags, 75 years ; 1 Watch Chain, 75 
years; Pitch Fork 100 years with natural wood handle ; 
Woolen Blanket, 75 years. 

Mrs. W. F. Farr— Blue and white blanket. 

Mrs. J. D. Westervelt— Knaup, 150 years old, wooden frame to 
hold candle to sew or spin by. 

Mrs. De P. Stagg— 2 Sets of Brass Andirons, 100 years. 

Mrs. J. P. Clarendon— Link buttons worn at the neck, 140 years ; 
Silver Spoon, 100 years. 

Mr. Henry Hales— Manual of Prayers, Gladstone ; Lord's Prayer 
in 200 languages; Illuminated Manuscript, 15th Century; 
Status Scolar & Hibernia, 1627; Owen Jones, Grammar of 
Ornament ; 2 Lustre Pitchers, 100 years; Silver Candle- 
ticks ; Pewter Plates from J. Van Dien, Paramus ; Pewter 
Plates from J. Van Dien Paramus. 

Mr. Henry Quackenbush— Deed, King George III, 1 774, for tract 
of land by the Ponds Church, Franklin Township. 

Miss MacRae— Sampler, by Miss Sapira Earl, 100 years. 

Miss Annie Berdan— Blue and white spread, 1832. 

Mrs. De P. Stagg— Colonial Money. 

J. A. Romeyn— Portrait of Joanna B. Romeyn, about 1825, when 5 
years of age ; Portrait Rev. James Van Campen Romeyn, 
lived in Ontario, preached in Schralenburg and Hackensack. 



LOAN EXHIBITIONS 51 



1799 to 1833; Manuscript Sermons, Rev. Jas. A. Romeyn, 
Pastor Old Church on Green, 183 3-36; Revolutionary 
Pistol ; Gold Necklace, 1 00 years ; Old Book belonged to T. 
H. Romeyn ; Manuscript Lectures of Theology by R. J. V. C. 
Romeyn. 

Mrs. R. G. Paul.--3 Old English Prints from the Collection of the 
Marchioness of Aylesbury ; Old Carvings found in old Church 
in Kendal, Westmoreland, 300 years old. 

Mrs. J. P. Clarendon — Satin Dress worn in 1841 ; Blue and white 
blanket, 1839. 

F. A. Westervelt— Double Canton China Plate, belonged to Mayor 
Suffern of Revolutionary Army. 

Mrs. De P. Stagg — Blue Platter ; Tea Pot and stand, Moses in 
the BuUrushes ; Cup and Saucer, Moses in the Bullrushes ; 
Cake Plate, Moses in the Bullrushes ; Lustre Plate ; Small 
Blue Plate ; Silver Table Spoons, over 200 years ; Silver 
Table Spoons gotten from British during the Revolution. 

Mrs. Alva Trowbridge— Letter, Benjamin Franklin ; Letter, Gen, 
Nathanial Greene; Umbrella, over 100 years ; Scarf worn 
by Gen. Greene during Revolution ; Beautiful Emb. Waist 
Coat, worn by Gen. Greene during Revolution. 

Mrs. Chas. Hasbrouck— Sand Box, 1 12 years; Office Chair with 
writing table attached, 102 years old, used by Rob Campbell 
who was born inl 766, Attorney in 1790, died 1846. He gave 
to!Hackensack the ground son which the Court buildings now 
stand. It is said he was the orator of Bergen Co. on all 
patriotic occasions 

A. V. Moore— Chair 150 years. 

F. A. WESTERVELT--01d model of full equipped Holland vessel. 

Mrs. Cha5. Hasbrouck— 4 Cups and Saucers, 1 12 years. 

Mrs. R. M. Hart— Large Sheffield Tray, 1730 ; Sheffield Candle- 
sticks, 1825 ; Pewter Sugar Bowl and Spoon, 1800 ; Indian 
Drinking Cup, Moccasins belonged to Sitting Bull, The 
Gorget won by Aaron Hart, 1759 ; China "Davenport" ; 3 
pieces of Blue China Indian festoon. 

Mrs. M. W. Smith— Passes allowing bearer to pass through lines 
to Hackensack during Revolution, one given in Orange 
county signed by Elihu Marvin, one of the judges of Orange 
County Court, the other issued in Hackensack Nov. 14, 1778, 
to allow return. 

Mr. Willard Cass, of Englewood Collection— Powder flask, from 
Fort Lee during Revolution ; Hessian Bayonet from Fort Lee, 
Lock and key from Andre Prison at Tappan; Rifle Balls, 
found at Fort Lee ; Exploded Shell found at Fort Lee ; Eng- 
lish Sword found at Fort Lee ; Indian Axe Head found at 
Liberty Pole at Englewood ; 3 Indian Arrow Heads ; Piece of 



52 LOAN EXHIBITIONS 

Frigate Constitution; Block of Continental Money ; separ- 
ate portions are numerous, blocks are rare; Indian Corn 
Pestles, picked up at Teaneck. 

R. H. D. Demarest— Lustre Pitcher, over 100 years. 

Mrs. Coleman Gray— Large Sheffield Tray, over 200 years ; 
Buckle worn on General Abram Godwin's shoe; Silver 
Coaster, belonged to Colonel Budd, over 200 years ; Silver 
Cake Basket, over 200 years ; Miniature, Mr. Coleman's gift 
to bride ; Silver Ladle presented to Mr. Coleman by Colonel 
Budd; Portrait, Mr. Coleman, first proprietor N. Y. Evening 
Post. 

Mrs. Blagkledge— Cane, Dr. Chapman's, 500 years Molasses 
Cup from Holland, 200 years. 

Miss RiPPHER — Sampler, made 1795. 

Mrs. Blagkledge— 2 Bowls, 200 years; 1 Blue Bowl, 200 years. 

Mrs. Elsie Brimkerhoff— Silver tongs and spoons, over 100 
years; Brown Dish, over 100 years. 

Mrs. Blagkledge— Blue Bowl, 1785; Lafayette & Washington 
Plate, 100 years; Wedding Shawl, 140 years; wedding 
dress 140 years; Wedding Dress, daughter's, 120 years; 
2 Blue and white blankets, 100 years. 

Mrs. Mary Kent — Bread Bowl made from Knot of Wood by In- 
dians, given to a Mrs. Sneden of Sneden's Landing 125 
years ago by somie Quakers for rowing them across the 
Hudson River. 

R. M. Hart— Carved Ivory Fan, Chinese, 1720. 

C. E. Wilde— Collection of Copper Coins, from 1 793-1852. Was 
30 years in collecting. 

C. E. Wild— Large Collection of Minerals, shells and curios (Left 
at Library). 

Mrs. De P. Stagg — Old Compass ; Very interesting picture of the 
Battery, N. Y., in 1820. 

Mrs. Joshua Clark — Old Shoes ; Old Writing Desk. 

Florence A. St. John— Collection of 21 Dolls from manj countries, 
dressed as the natives dress, Moki, India, Switzerland, Italy, 
Algiers, etc. 

Dr. C. F. Adams — Japanese Sword Scabbard. 'made of an elephant's 
tusk, beautifully carved; Persian mace; Philippine Kris, 
native hand forged. 

Mrs. a. Lizzie Campbell — Case of Wampum and Indian ornaments, 
manufactured by Campbell Bros., Pascack, Bergen Co., 
the only known factory of the kind in the world. 

Dr. C. A. Hayden— Soldier's Outfit used in War 1812. 

E. K. Bird— Almanacs, 1785. 

F. A. Jacobson— Burlington Almanac, 1791. 

E. K. Bird— Hackensack Star and Be.'-gen Farmer, 1824. 



LOAN EXHIBITIONS 53 



Mrs. C. Linkron— Light and Dark Blue Blanket. 

Mrs a. E. Ackerman— Gun, 1812; Fire Tongs. 

John Ryan— "Great Feast at Hoboken," (advertisement) -'71 An- 
niversary of the Battle of Bunker Hill, June 17, 1846, a 
splendid Ox roasted whole, 1 00 lbs. of Turtle made in soup 
for ladies." 

Hon. W. M. Johnson -Old Deeds, 1686. 1695, 1651. 

A. W. Van Winkle— Old Letter, 1 74 1 . 

Mrs. Breakenridge— Old Bowl, 100 years. 

Mrs C. F. Adams— Proposal of Marriage. 1811. 

Mrs. a. E. Ackerman- Pewter Candlesticks. 

H. R. Berry— Copy Will of Sam. Berry, 1767. 

Henry Hales— Copy Constitution. 

Mrs. H. M. Bogert— Lantern. 

Clyde B. Hay— Flax and Linen raised on Bogert Farm ; New 
York in 1 778 ; 3 Bank Notes, 1 795 ; Arrow Heads Found in 
Bogota. 

Miss Van BusKiRK--Silk Shawl, over 100 years old. 

Rev. E. T. Sanford— Iron Toaster for Open Fireplace ; Iron Candle 
Holder made in Washington's Army. 

Mrs. a. E. Van Benschouten— Picture of Old Mill. This old mill 
stood in Green St.. Jersey City, about where the P. R. R. 
now crosses that street, which is at present one block from 
the river. It was built by Isaac Edge in the early part of 
the last century. Painted by Eliza Van Benschouten Taylor 
in 1845. 

Mrs. Louis Wygant— Picture, 104 years. 

Arthur Van Buskirk— Indian Battle Axe, found on Family Home- 
stead, New Milford. 

W. L. Williams— First copy N. Y. Sun, 1833. 

J. D. Westervelt— New York Picayune, 1850; Bergen Co. Ga- 
zette, Sept. 2, 1857, Vol. 1 , No. 1. 

Mrs. W. Archer— Pair Silver Candlesticks, used by Peter Wilson ; 
Pair China Vases, used by Peter Wilson. 

Mrs. T. Palmer— Tankard, Pewter, belonged to one of the early 
Zabriskies. 

E. Ainley — 2 Horse shoes, taken from LaFayette's horse, which 
died at Lafayette's headquarters at Tappan ; Latch taken 
from the door of the house in which Andre was imprisoned at 
Tappan; a metal figure that ornamented a transom over one 
of the doors in the old 76 House at Tappan. 

Mrs. Annie Kempton — Collection Bank Notes. 

Mrs. Cleveland — Confederate Money. 

Miss Norah Bogert— Natural History Collection. 

W. I. CoNKLiN— Picture members New Jersey Senate, 1859, Pres. 
Thomas H. Herring of Bergen Co. 



54 LOAN EXHIBITIONS 

W. J. Andrus— Collection Pottery, largest of its kind from New 
Mexico; Navajo Jewelry made bythem from Mexican Money; 
Arrow Heads, Blankets, Beads and Baskets. 

Henry Hales — Valuable collection of New Mexico Pottery. 

Mr. Van Gottschalk — Valuable Indian Collection. 

James L. Watt, M. D. — Siwash Indian Articles collected at Circle 
City, Alaska. 

VALUE 

NO. IN Alaska 

1. A Moose skin coat, tanned by squaws with sourdough $75 00 

2. Coat for a child 10 00 

3. Coat of reindeer skin trimmed with white fox and 

walrus head buttons 12 00 

4. Beaded and fur trimmed gloves, used in summer 
against mosquitoes 8 00 

5. Beaded and fur trimmed mits for winter use 15 00 

6. Moccasins for general use 4 50 

7. Walrus skin water boots trimmed with reindeer and 

hair seal. When properly oiled, will not leak 15 00 

8. Moccasins 4 50 

9. Moccasins for child 2 00 

10. Pappoose strap used to fasten the baby to its mother's 

back 4 00 

11. This rude knife, is made from an old file, and is 
used in making canoes, snowshoes, sleighs and all 

kinds of wood work 1 50 

12. Hunting knife made from a file 2 00 

13. Child's toy made of Sabletail 2 00 

14. Child's water boots 5 00 

15. Cartridge pouch 5 00 

16. Leggings and garters 17 00 

17. Game bag 15 00 

18. Gold dust bag 1 50 

19. Tobacco pouch 4 00 

20. Hank sewing thread made of moose tendons 50 

21. Canoe, paddle and doll 5 00 

22. Snow shoes 6 00 

23. Child's wooden dish 

24. Pot latch spoon. Christmas time is the great pot 
latch season lasting about a week. The merriment 
consists of eating and dancing. Open house is kept 
where the tribe gathers and the feast consists of 
boiled meat, hardtack or pan cakes. This spoon 
holds one portion of the stew which is served from 
the pot 

25. Model of a pack sled 



LOAN EXHIBITIONS 55 



26. Model of a dog- sled 

27. A case of arrows. A full set consists of twenty ar- 
rows. The blunt arrows are used for fur bearing- 
animals that the skin may not be perforated . ii^harp 
arrows can be sent through a moose at fifty yards. 
These arrows were used as late as 1 885, when guns 
became common 

Mrs. W. 0. Labagh— Manuscript reports of Army Headquarters 
during American Revolution in N. Y. City, June 27, August 
18, 1776, references to Generas Greenel, Putnam and 
other Officers and Privates of the American Army ; Grand 
Mount at Lispenard Brewery mentioned ; Court Martials, 
&c., punishment of 30 lashes, 1 for 3 days consecutively; 
Execution of Thomas Hickley, June 28, for mutiny, sedition 
and treachery. 
In the museum at Johnson Library is the very valuable collection 

of 69 pieces, containing illuminated books of great value, curios, 

etc., of Mr. Ireneaus Prime Stevenson. 



First Exhibition of the Bergen County Historical Society, Given 
at the Johnson Library Building, April 9, 16, 23, 30, 1904. 



r W. D. SNOW, 
Committee I 

(rev. e. t. sanford. 

This Exhibition included many articles exhibited by the 
Library Association, and these, with the newly loaned articles, 
made a striking collection. 



LIST OF EXHIBITS. 

Mrs. G. W. Hill— 1 Pennant from Battle Ship New York. 1 Con- 
federate $10.00 Bill, Feb. 17. 1864; 1 R. R. ticket, N. Y. 
Central, 1 835, Oct. first E. R. R. ticket sold May 1 7, No. 0, 
18 years ago. 

F. A. Westervelt— Old Lock and Key, from door of New York City 
Jail. 

Judge The. Sanford, Belleville, N. J— Picture of Geo. II. 

Abram De Baun— Dutch Bible. 

T. H. Richards— Indian Treaty, Sioux Indians and U. S. Govern- 
ment. 

Rev. E. T. Sanford— An Egyptian Mummy, called Thotasu, pur- 
chased by Rev. E. T. Sanford at Thebes, Egypt, 1903, sup- 
posed to be 3,000 years old. 



56 LOAN EXHIBITIONS 

Clarence Washburn— Leather Fire Bucket, Washington's picture 
on it, date 1800, Motto, For God and Our Country ; name E. 
Bourne. 

Mrs. John Van Bussum— Portrait of Dr. Rogers ; Picture, City 
Aberdeen, Scotland, birthplace of Prof. Peter Wilson; Pic- 
ture Aberdeen University where Prof. Peter Wilson gradu- 
ated ; Shaving Glass, Prof. Peter Wilson's. 

H. D. SoHNKER— Indian Axe Head, Corn Grinders, Pipe, Clay, 
very old ; 45 Arrow Heads, Flint, &;c. All found on Teaneck 
Ridge. 

B. H. Allbee— Photograph, Old Yates Mill, Westwood, 1680- 
1590. 

Mrs. W. Nichols — Bound copy of the Balance, published in Hud- 
son, N. Y., 1802, contains death notice of Martha Washing- 
ton. 

VooRHis Demare3t— 4 bullets picked up on Seven Pines Battlefield 
after Civil War. Belt Buckle, S. N. Y. picked up on same 
field. 

F. G. Speck — Very valuable collection of modern and ancient 
Mohegan, Indian implements and relics. Brooch used in 
ceremony of adoption by Mohegans, wampum of primitive 
make also used in adoption ceremony; Insignia of member of 
tribe, loaned by a member of the Mohegan tribe by adoption. 

F. G. Speck— Fragments of Indian pottery found by Clifford Storey 
and F. G. Speck in a spot north of Hackensack where once 
there had been an Indian village. 

Mrs. Green — Pewter Candlesticks. 

Mrs. C. D. Haring— Blue Quilt. 

F. A. Westervelt— Blue Quilt. 

A. W. Van Winkle— Deed on Vellum, 1707, property at Rutherford 
1 10 acres and meadow land. 

Mrs. E. S. Clapp— Very old Masonic Apron; very old bead work. 

Miss Norah Bogert— Brass Candlesticks; water color picture of 
Fireplace in old Brinkerhoff Homestead, Essex street. 

Mrs. W. E. Harris— Dresden cup, saucer, plate, formerly the 
property of the late Sir Julian Pauncefote. China mug, 150 
years. 

Helen A. Gouge — Revolutionary sword carried by Sergeant A. 
Cleveland. 

Matilda P. Clark— Dutch Bible, 1778. 

Mrs. C. E. LoPER—China Pitcher, 125 years. 

Mrs. Rose— Large pewter platter, 1807. 

Henry Bunger— Tin box for papers. Wooden box for money, car- 
ried by Casparius Westervelt through Revolutionary War. 
Old Hymnal, 1814. 



LOAN EXHIBITIONS 57 



Miss Allaire— Oil Painting, Fort Lee 1838; Oil Painting Baron 
Steuben House. 1752, at New Bridge. 

Clyde Hay— Spanish War Mauser cartridge; Flax grown on 
Bogert farm; Sword and scabbard, powder horn. 

Mrs. H. S. Waldron— Doll, 100 years. 

S. D. Bedell— Picture, The Destiny of America, New York Her- 
ald, April 14, 1865. 

Mr. Poe— 1 1 Photographs, Hackensack Viev/s 

F. A. Westervelt— Old Fort Stove. 

J. C. Blauvelt— 1 Railroad Pass, Hackensack, N. Y. R. R. when 
the road was only 5 miles long; 2 tickets, 1862-1864; 1 
Blue and White Chintz Quilt, 1 00 years. 

Miss J. M, Culbertson— Water color Picture, Old Vanderbeck 
Homestead, Main street. 

Miss R. McQuoid— Pitcher, choice piece of Black Basaltes ware. 

Mrs. B. Rice— Collection of paper money. 

Clyde Hay— Book, Regulations for Soldiers, 1800; Map N. Y. 
City, 1 778 ; Confederate money, $500 ; U. S. ten cent bill ; 
Lombard Bank note. 

George Bristol— Receipt for a Stove, 1818. 

Mrs. W. O. Labagh— Red and White Linen Quilt, homespun. 

Mr. Paul Brinkerhoff— Presented to the Society, 1 Mail and Ex- 
press souvenir of the Centennial Celebration of Washing- 
ton's inaugaration, April 20-50, 1889; 1 fine Arrow Head 
from Norwood, N. J. 



Exhibition at Ridgewood, Bergen County, N. J., June 26, 1905 



This Exhibition was given by the president of the Bergen 
County Historical Society, Cornelius Doremus, under the auspices 
of the Society. 



LIST OF EXHIBITS. 

Mrs. Emma Keeley — 1 lustre coffee pot; 1 silver sugar tongs; 1 
china plate; 1 china cup and saucer; 1 cake plate; 1 
Spencer waist ; 2 lace caps ; 1 shirt, linen. 

Mrs. James Keeley — 4 Samplers; 3 daguerrotypes ; 1 almanac : 
2 pieces Continental money ; 1 seal ; 1 copy of will of Mary 
Washington; 1 silver watch: 1 pair silver specks; 3 silver 
spoons ; 2 china plates ; 1 china saucer; 1 foot stove; 1 
china vase ; 1 glass plate; 1 hymnal. 

C. Z. Board— 1 pair duelling pistols; I Dutch Bible; 1 ready 



58 LOAN EXHIBITIONS ' 

reckoner ; 1 Hibernian Magazine ; 1 silver snuff box ; 1 
silver watch ; 4 swords ; 1 tavern sign, 1802— J. A. Hopper 
Hoppertnwn, now Hohokus. 

Dr. Van Emburg— 1 wooden cradle, 1743 ; 1 gravy boat and stand, 
1736; knife, fork and candle stick; 1 set artificial teeth, 
1846; 1 set artificial teeth, 1790; portrait, water color. 
1770; 1 plate, china, 1781; 1 chair, 1805; 1 pitcher; 1 
pitcher, silver lustre ; 1 pitcher, silver lustre ; 1 quilt, patch 
work ; 1 quilt, patch work. 

Mrs. a. J. Zabriskie— 1 lustre pitcher. 

Thomas C. Moore — 1 parchment deed, 1774. 

Mrs. S. a. Ryerson— 1 blue sugar bowl ; 1 decanter, glass. 

Mrs. a. J. Van Winkle— 1 pewter tea pot ; 1 pewter sugar bowl ; 
1 pewter milk pitcher. Descended to Mr. Van Winkle from 
the Dayton family, the first settlers of Ridgewood. 

Mrs. W. J. Valentine— Collection old laces; Japanned tray, 150 
years old ; petticoat. 

Miss Egbert and Mrs. Babcogk— 1 Canton china bowl, 100 years ; 
1 bound magazine, Batavia Legation, 1668; 1 old print— 
cor. Market and Main streets, Paterson, N. J., 1835, shows 
Congress Hall, Paterson and Hudson River R. R. and Old St. 
Paul's Church; 1 old book, 1641; 1 brass candlestick, 100 
years; 2 Indian Moccasins; 1 Proclamation by Andrew 
Jackson, Pres. U. S.; 2 Masonic Aprons worn by the first 
Doctor of Paterson, who has been dead 80 years; 1 cup and 
saucer, 100 years old; monogram A. M. Z. (English) ; 2 sil- 
ver and rhine stone buckles^ for shoes; 1 bead bag, 100 
years ; 1 Staffordshire blue fruit dish and stand, willow de- 
sign; 1 almanac, 1800; 2 old newspapers; 3 tiles from Old 
Mansion house, 100 years. 

Mrs. Herman Terhune— 1 china tea pot, 90 years ; 1 china 
pitcher, 80 years ; 1 silver watch, 117 years ; 1 blue and 
white spread. 

Mr. Koman— Dutch Bible, 1686. 

Mrs. C. A. Hopper— 1 spinning wheel, 150 years ; 1 chair, 200 
years ; 1 chair, 200 years. 

Mrs. T. N. Glover — 1 sugar bowl ; 1 warming pan ; 1 copper 
kettle ; 1 bead bag ; 1 pewter sugar bowl ; 1 pewter pitcher ; 
collection of laces and linens. 

Mrs. R. L. Ottis— 3 silver spoons, 100 years old : 1 lustre 
pitcher, 75 years old ; 1 china plate, 130 years old ; 1 lustre 
cup and saucer, 100 years old ; one plate, cup and saucer, 
70 years old ; 2 small candle sticks carried through Civil 
War ; 1 bowl and saucer ; 1 china tea pot ; 1 platter, 120 
years old. 

Mrs. I. E. Hutton— 1 china cradle, 150 years old ; 1 lustre 



LOAN EXHIBITIONS 59 



pitcher, 69 years ; 1 bead purse, 75 years old ; 1 bead bag, 
75 years old ; one cup and saucer, 80 years old ; 1 bowl and 
plate, 89 years old ; 1 bead chain, 75 years old. 

Mrs. Whitman Phillips— 1 foot stove, 200 years old ; 1 John 
Wesley Men:iorial Pitcher, b. Jan. 1766. d. 1791 ; 1 Rose 
Lustre Pitchar, 150 years ; 1 blue pitcher, 73 years ; 1 cop- 
per lustre pitcher, 150 years; blue pitcher, 150 years; 1 
"Old Farmer's" jug, 70 years ; 1 blue pitcher, 70 years ; 1 
old pitcher, 150 years • 1 copper lustre pitcher, 150 years ; 
1 rose lustre, 150 years; 1 copper lustre, 75 years; 1 cop- 
per lustre teapot, 150 years ; 1 silverlustre sugar bowl, 150 
years; 1 silver lustre milk pitcher, S50 years; two brass 
candle sticks, 200 years ; 1 brass snuffer ; 1 brass tray ; 1 
silver snuffer; 1 silver tray; 2 Sheffield candle 
sticks; 1 Indian knife case; 1 Indian war bon- 
net; 1 string wampum; 1 bead purse, 175 years; 
1 Indian file case; 1 Indian bead necklace; 1 Wedge- 
wood pitcher ; 150 years ; 1 Staffordshire fruit dish and 
plate; 1 old masonic jug; 1 silhouette; 1 print of Old 
Tomb's, N. Y. ; 1 Sheffield tray, 100 years ; 1 Elegy on the 
death of Jas. Lawrence, Commander U.S. Frigate Chesa- 
peake, 1843 ; 1 old Bible, 1640 ; 1 copy Josephus, 1792 ; 1 
blue and white spread, 176 years; 1 blue and white spread, 
150 years; 1 Chippendale chair, 150 years; 1 chair used by 
E. R. Roe, 100 years; 1 chair, 150 years; 1 oil painting by 
Mrs. Whitman Phillips, scene at Weehaken, 1836; 1 oil 
painting by Mrs. Whitman Phillips, scene Harlem Bridge, 
1836. As much more as above not listed. 

Mrs. Chas. E. Griffen—1 shawl, Scotch Paisley ; 1 shawl, India; 
1 shawl, Japan silk, embroidered; 1 Arabic dagger; 1 
handkerchief, hand embroidery; 1 handkerchief, hand em- 
broidery; 1 handkerchief, hand embroidery ; 1 pair Arabian 
slippers; 1 breast pin, opals and brilliants, 200 years old; 1 
pair earrings, opals and brilliants ; 2 silver dress holders ; 1 
chatelaine; 1 thimble; 1 bog wood bracelet; collection 
(large) of beautiful jewelry. 

Mrs. H. H. Devore— 1 toy bed curtains, valance, &,c., 115 years 
old ; 4 pieces of Con. money; 1 glasstumbler, 126 years old ; 
1 salad bowl, 150 years old ; 1 spinning wheel; 1 toy chair, 
125 years old ; 1 foot stove, 150 years old ; 1 foot stove, 150 
years old; 1 deed, 103 years old; 1 almanac and diary, 
1764 ; 1 pair of brass andirons; 1 tongs. 

Alfred Owen— 1 file of New Port Mercury, 1800. 

Miss Carrie Hopper and Miss Berdan— 1 blue cup and saucer 
presented to Mrs. Berdan by a grand d. of Henry Clay, 1 Co- 
lonial spoon. 



60 LOAN EXHIBITIONS 

F. J. Walton— Collection of 10 relics of Fort Washington. 

Mrs. R. A. Westervelt—1 table purchased from Gan. Washing- 
ton while he was encamped near Ramsay by Jonas Hal- 
stead ; 1 Dutch Bible, 1 722, brought from Holland by ances- 
tors of Mrs. F. A. Ryerson; 1 hand made iron pot and cover, 
75 or 80 years old ; 1 hand embroidered dress, 75 years old. 

Edward Costa— 1 Spanish coin. 1756. 

Miss H. L. West— 1 brass candle stick, 210 years old; 1 book, 
Pope's work, 110 years old; 1 pair embroidered suspenders, 
75 years old; 1 bead bag, 100 years old; 1 steel bag. 100 
years old; I silver spectacle case, 150 years old; 1 sample 
of home made linen bed curtain, 210 years old. 

Rev. M. Van Neste— 3 pieces of money, Rahway script, 1837, 
Cont., 1776, Con., 1777; 1 copy Trenton Gazette, 1782; 1 
copy Trenton Mercury, 1787. 

Mr. C.J. Gaylor — 1 silver sugar tongs, 1809; 1 silver sugar 
cremer; 1 silver tankard, 1796; 1 Family letter, 1689; 1 
commission to David Skaats, 1812, by James Madison; 1 
pitcher; 1 embroidery; 1 silhouette of Peter Burt, maternal 
G. Father of C. J. Gaylor, 5 generations back was an in- 
ventor of a deep seadredge still in use in the British Service, 
known to have reproved William IV for profanity ; 1 old dic- 
tionary, 125 years old. 

Mrs. A. Terhune — 1 silver ladle, 80 years old; 1 china sugar 
bowl. 80 years old; 1 plate, 75 years old; 1 teaspoon, 110 
jearsold; 1 small pitcher, 80 years old; 1 plate, 75 years 
old; 1 piece embroidery, 48 years old; 1 tureen, 80 years 
old, 2 hymnals, 100 years, 63 years; 1 spread blue and 
white, 65 years old. 

J. H. Van Emburg, Midland Park — 1 book, 1695; 1 platter; 2 
plates; an original piece of the Confederate flag of Gen. 
Price. When the army was disbanded the flag was torn up 
and distributed among the troops, 1861-1865; 1 circular de- 
scribing property stolen from Continental army, Albany, Nov. 
12, 1702 ; 1 commission of Epenetus Smith, appointed Lieut, 
of the 7th Reg. of N. Y., George Clinton Governor, 1803; 1 
auto letter. Gen. Mifflin and Col. Hugh Hughes, Phil., Pa., 
May 19, 1776; 3 Indian Paint pots; 1 shot pouch, 100 
years; 1 safety ink bottle, 102 years; 1 spect. frame; 1 ink 
bottle, 1768 ; 1 stone pitcher once Timothy Crane's, of Pas- 
saic; 1 old book, 1689. 
Henry Hales — 1 pewter plate ; 1 pewter dish ; 1 oil painting, 
game, very old ; 1 large coUection arrow heads; 2 Lustre 
ware, two jugs; 1 Lustre ware, one mug; 1 Lustre ware 
creamer; 1 foot stove; 1 cannon ball, Fort Washington; 1 
collection buttons worn in Revolutionary war; 1 tile from 



LOAN EXHIBITIONS 61 



Anderson house in Hackensack ; 1 tile from Rosecrantz house 
(Aaron Burr house), Hohokus ; 1 tin lantern 

W. D. RosENGRANTZ, HoHOKUS — 2 Script, tiles from fire place at the 
Hermitage house of Madame Provost (married Aaron Burr), 
about 200 years old; 1 appointment Elijah Rosegrant as 
Surgeon, 1803; 1 appointment as Clergyman D. Ref. 
Church, 1794; 1 appointment as Pnysician, 1799; 1 com- 
mission as Surgeon mate 2d Reg. Bergen County Militia, 
1803 ; 1 pair of flintlock pistols, over 100 years; 1 bell muz- 
zle flintlock pistol. 

Mrs. C. A. Hopper— 5 silver tablespoons made from Abram 
Biauvelt's pension money (silver coin) from Revolutionary 
war. 

Mr Peter 0. Terhune— 6 old books; 1 deed; 1 business card; 1 
frame; 1 canteen, French and English war: 1 platter; 1 soup 
plate; 1 bowl; 1 cov. bullion cup and saucer; 1 wooden 
spoonholder, 1766. 

Mrs. Irving Bogert — 2 plates ; 1 sugar bowl ; 4 embroidered 
caps. 

Mrs. Sheridan Keeley — 1 large Sheffield tray ; 1 sword cane; 1 
bayonet ; 1 Indian spear head, plowed up on farm of James 
Keeley at Paramus. 

Mrs. H S. Vincent— 1 bunch waist buttons made fro.m Spanish 
00115,1775; I silver tongs, 150 years ; I pair shoe buckles. 
150 years; 1 pair knee buckles, 150 years; 1 inlaid tea 
caddy, 200 years. 

Mr. R. M. Bridgeman, P. Master— 1 cer. of first appointment of 
Postmaster of Ridgewood to Ben F. Robinson, March, 30, 
1865. 

Mr. George Corsa— 1 sword. Gen. Grant's ; 1 cane and 1 silk 
sash, Gen. Grant's; 1 scabbard. Gen. Badeau; 2 epaulettes; 
2 boot hooks; 1 picture print, The Infant Academy, Sir 
Joshua Reynolds ; 1 picture print, Edward V meeting 
Duke of York, pub. 1789; 1 picture print. Prince Edward, 
pub. 1789; 9 Klondyke pictures; 2 Masterdon teeth found 
40 ft underground; 2 masterdon vertebra; 1 tile from 
Roman Bath, over 1500 years old; 1 Klondyke gold dust 
sack; 2 natural curio shells, enclosed in a shell of stone 
found on Corsa Terrace, Ridgewood Heights; 1 burnt en- 
velope found in wreck of 20th Century trunk, June, 1905; 
1 Egyptian lamp; 1 book over 200 years; 1 silver creamer 
with coin in bottom dated 1 709. 

Miss Anna Hood— 2 silhouettes, 1823; 1 fan, 1850; 1 Bible 
1767 ;2 spoons, 179S ; 1 Dutch doll, 1853 ; 1 sampler, 1839 

Miss Jane Griffen — 1 shell bracelet ; 2 Swiss dolls. 

Mr. Geo. H. Stevens— 1 bear trap, 1751, Mass; 1 mortar in use 



62 LOAN EXHIBITIONS 



when Washington was President; 1 despatch pouch was 
worn by Lieu. Wiswell at battle of Bennington, also expedi- 
tion against Ticonderoga, 1758 ; 1 skillete, 1835;! bel- 
lows, 1 broiler, 1787. 

Jas. R. Eschlman— 1 col. 100 Indian relics, arrow heads, axes, 2 
celtes, 1 pestle, spears, &c., collected in vicinity of Ridge- 
wood. 

F. A. Westervelt, Hack —8 silver spoons, very old; I gold 
breast pin, very old ; 1 gold locket, very old; 1 silk tissue 
dress, 1845 ; I home made linen shirt, 80 years old; 2 glass 
candlesticks; 2 pewter candlesticks; 1 pewter creamer; 1 
pewter sugar bowl ; 2 pewter spoons, home made ; 1 copper 
kettle, 200 years; 1 shell comb; 1 shell comb basket; 1 old 
bonnet: 1 old apron; 1 silver wedding press, 1800; 1 foot 
stove; 3 lace caps; 1 large homespun white spread; 1 
large homespun blue and white spread; 1 copy coat of arms, 
Westervelt; 1 picture, Mayflower; 8 papers of Lincoln's 
death. 

J. B. Van Geison— 1 record of sale of slave witnessed by A. 0. 

Zabriskie, 1842. 
Arthur Van B'JSKirk, Hack.— L Indian axe head found on home- 
stead at New Milford, N. J. 

Miss Maggie Vreeland— 1 lady's hand embroidery dress very 
beautiful, 80 years; 1 brass candlestick; 1 snuffer; 1 tray. 

Mrs. Mary Bogert— 1 child's dress, 60 years. 

Mrs. E. C. Blauvelt, Hack.— 1 blue and white chintz spread, 
over 100 years. 

Mrs C. E. Humphrey, Hack. — 1 blue and white spread. 

Mrs. J. D. Westervelt— 1 knaup. 

Mrs. B. A. Albee, Hack.— 1 pewter plate; 1 wooden plate; 1 
pewter mug; I muggier; 1 silhouette. 

Mr. Ely, Hack.— 1 Rev. gun; 6 pieces Colonial money; 1 old 
book. 

R. H. Wortendyke — 3 charts containing valuable legal docu- 
ments, deeds, bonds, &c., 104 to 106 years; 1 frame con- 
taining deed ; 1 frame containing "call to organize High 
School in Ridgewood and vicinity, Isaac Wortendyke, 1887." 

Mr. Cornelius Doremus — 1 large collection valuable documents. 

Miss Florence A. St. John, Hack.— 1 collection of 21 dolls of 
all nations. 

C. Eugene Walsh, Hack.— 1 soldier's plate, tin, picked up in N. 
Y. after the 71st Reg. passed when they returned from 
Spanish War. 

Mrs. C. W. Banta— 1 Indian axe; 1 china platter, willow design. 

Miss DoBBS— 1 sausage gun ; 2 samplers. 



LOAN EXHIBITIONS ^^ 



Mrs. J. Christopher— 1 large handsomely carved bellows, 80 

years. 
Mrs. Rebecca Hawes— 2 deeds and letters of Aaron Burr. 

N. A. Westervelt, 

Hackensack, in charge. 



Papers and' Proceedings 



The Bergen County HistGrical Society 



906-1907 



NUMBER THREE 



Secretary's Report, 1906-1907. . . .Byron G. Van Horn« 

Historiographer's Report, 1906. , .T, N. Glover 

Geneological Committee's Report, ! 906, 

Mrs. F. A. Westervch 

Frank G. Speck 

ClifTord M. Story 

Old-time Bergen County Doctors. . . . Byron G. Van Home 

First Lutheran Church in Bergen Coxxntf , .Eugene K. Bird 

Demolition of Private Cemeteries . . . , . Everett L. Zabriskle 

New Bridge . . ■ Francis C. Koehkr 

The Bar of Bergen Count>' .Cornelius Doremua 



Indian Life in Bergen County ..... 



ENGLEWOOD PRES,9 



Papers and Proceedings 



OF 



The Bergen County Historical Society 
1906-1907 



NUMBER THREE 



Secretary's Report, 1906-1907. . . .Byron G. Van Home 

Historiographer's Report, 1906 T. N. Glover 

Geneological Committee's Report, 1906, 

Mrs. F. A. Westervelt 

Indian Life in Bergen County J ' ^^^ 

{ Clifford M. Story 

Old-time Bergen County Doctors .... Byron G. Van Home 

First Lutheran Church in Bergen County . . Eugene K. Bird 

Demolition of Private Cemeteries Everett L. Zabriskie 

New Bridge Francis C. Koehler 

The Bar of Bergen County Cornelius Doremus 



01f& 



1^- 



OFFICERS. 
1906-1907. 



President — Burton H. Allbee, Hackensack, N. J. 

Vice-Presidents — Isaac D. Bogert, Westwood, N. 
J. ; W. M. Johnson, Hackensack, N. J. ; Edward Stagg, 
Leonia, N. J.; Henry D. Winton, Hackensack, N. J.; 
William D. Snow, Hackensack, N. J., Abram DeBaun, 
Hackensack, N. J. 

Recording Secretary — Dr. Byron G. Van Home, 

Englewood, N. J. 

Corresponding Secretary — Arthur Van Burkirk, 
Hackensack, N. J. 

Treasurer — Wilham O. Labagh, Hackensack, N. J. 

The officers and the following compose the Executive 
Committee — T. N. Glover, Rutherford, N. J. ; E. K. Bird. 
Hackensack, N. J. ; Cornelius Doremus, Ridgewood, N. J. ; 
Andrew D. Bogert, Englewood, N. J. 

Archive and Property Committee — Arthur Vap 
Buskirk, J. A. Romeyn. 



M 



BERGEN COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 
Membership List. December, 1 906. 



Abbott, J. C Fort Lee 

Adams, Dr. C. F Hackensack 

Allbee, B. H 

Allbee, B. H., Mrs 

Allison, W. O Englewood (life) 

Banta, Irving W Hackensack 

Bennett, H. N 

Bird, E. K 

Birtwhistle, Hezekiah Englewood 

Bogart, Peter, Jr Bogata 

Bogert, A. D Englewood 

Bogert, Daniel G 

Bogert, I. D Westwood 

Bogert John Hohokus 

Bogert, Matthew J Demarest 

Brenden, Charles Oakland 

Brinkerhoff , A. H Rutherford 

Brohel, Joseph A. River Edge 

Cameron, Alpin J Ridgewood (life) 

Cane, Fred W Bogota 

Christie, C Leonia (life) 

Colver, Fred'k L Tenafly 

Cooper, R. W New Milford 

Corsa, George Ridgewood 

Currie, Dr. D. A Englewood 

De Baun, Abram Hackensack 

Delemater, P. G Ridgewood 

Demarest, Milton Hackensack 

Demarest, I. I 

Demarest, A. S. D 

Doremus, Cornelius Ridgewood 

Dutton, George R Englewood 

Easton, E. D Areola 

Edsall, S. S Palisades Park 

Ely, Addison Rutherford 

Ely, William North Hackensack 

Engelke, A. L Englewood 

Engelke, Mrs. A. L 

Esray, J Maple Ave., Hackensack 

Fairley, Rev. J. A Hackensack 

Fitch, Porter Englewood 



MEMBERSHIP LIST 



Ford, F. R 24 Broad St.. New York 

Glover, T. N Rutherford 

Goetschius, Howard B Dumont 

Gray, Coleman Hackensack 

Green, Allister 1 E. 61st St., New York (life) 

Grunow, Julius S Hackensack 

Hales, Henry Ridgewood 

Harding, Harry B Hackensack 

Haring, Teunis A 

Heck, John Westwood 

Holdenby, Dr. H. S Englewood 

Holdrum, A. C Westwood 

Holley, Rev. William Wells Hackensack 

Holley, A. J 

Hunter, John M Englewood 

Johnson, Rev. Arthur Hackensack 

Johnson, William M 

Koehler, Francis C North Hackensack 

Labagh, Wm. O Hackensack 

Ladd, Rev. Henry M Rutherford 

Lamb, C. R 23 Sixth Ave., New York 

Liddle, Jos. G 128 Bowery, New York 

Lincoln, J. C Hackensack 

Linn, W. A 

Livingston, Alexander, Jr Englewood 

Lord, Lewis P Hackensack 

Lyle, George W 

Lyle, Mrs. George W 

Mabie, Clarence 

Mabon, J. S 

Marsh, Dr. L. S 

Pearsall, J. W Ridgewood 

Phillips, Miss Helen 

Phillips, Miss Imogene 

Poppen, Rev. Jacob Wortendyke 

Prosser, Miss Harriet Englewood 

Ramsey, J. R Hackensack 

Richardson, Milton T Ridgewood 

Riley, John H Hillsdale 

Rogers, Henry M Tenafly 

Romaine, C Hackensack 

Romeyn, James A 

Sage, L. H 

Schermerhorn, George T Rutherford 

Semple, Mrs. EHzabeth ' Englewood 



MEMBERSHIP LIST 



Seufert, Charles G Leonia 

Seufert, William M Englewood 

Sewall, H. D Maywood 

Smith, J. Spencer Tenafly 

Smith, William " 

Snow, W. D Hackensack 

Speck, Frank G " 

Stagg, Edw. D Leonia 

St. John, Dr. David Hackensack 

Stoney, H. P 

Talmage, Rev. D. M Westwood 

Talmage, David Leonia 

Taylor, Ira Westwood 

Taylor, Mrs. Ira 

Tillotson, Joseph H Englewood 

Tyndall, Wm. DeMott 141 Broadway New York 

Van Buskirk, Arthur Hackensack 

Vanderwart, Rev. Herman •. . " 

Van Emburgh, Dr. Walter Ridgewood 

Van Home, Dr. Byron G Englewood 

Van Neste, Rev. J. A Ridgewood 

Van Wagoner, Jacob " 

Van Winkle, A. W Rutherford 

Van Winkle, Frank O Ridgewood 

Vermilye, Miss E. B Englewood 

Voorhis, Rev. J. C Monsey 

Vreeland, Jacob H East Rutherford 

Vroom, Rev. W. H Ridgewood 

• Wakelee, E. W Demarest 

Ward, Rev. Henry Cioster 

Westervelt, Mrs. F. A Hackensack 

Wheeler, G. W 

Whitbeck, C. V. H 

Willis, W. C Tenafly 

Winton, H. D Hackensack 

Wood, Robert J. G Leonia 

Young, Dr. F. A Hackensack 

Zabriskie, Capt. A. C. . . 52 Beaver St., New York (life) 

Zabriskie, Hon. David D Ridgewoood 

Zabriskie, Everett L " 

Zabriskie, W. H Hackensack 

Honorary. 

Folsom, Capt. A. A Brookline, Mass. 

Nelson, William Paterson 

Sanford, Rev. E. T West I 1th St.. New York 



ANNUAL REPORT 

of 
Dr. Byron G. Van Home, Recording Secretary, February 

22, 1907. 



An annual report of the Secretary seems a necessity in 
order to bring before the society a resume of the work done 
by the various committees, as well as by its individual 
members. 

The regular business meeting was held Feb. 22, 1906, at 
which the several committees reported progress in their work. 
Copies of the "Papers and Proceedings," 1905-1906, were 
ordered forwarded to Adjutant General's office, Trenton; 
State Library, Trenton, and Daughters of American Revo- 
lution, Newark. 

After election of new members and officers for the ensu- 
ing year the society and their friends adjourned to the dining 
hall to partake of their Fourth Annual Dinner. 

The following toasts were responded to : 

Introductory Remarks President Cornelius Doremus 

"The Past Year" A. DeBaun, Secretary pro tern. 

"Value of Historical Societies" Hon. Henry Huston 

"The Day We Celebrate" William Nelson 

"Ingelynde Overblysselen" (Dutchisms imbedded), 

Jacob Poppen, Ph. D. 

"Early History of Medicine in Bergen County," 

Byron G. Van Home, M. D. 



iO REPORT OF SECRETARY 

"What is New Jersey Doing in Historical Work?" 

T. N. Glover 

"The Truth About Crusoe Island" F. A. Oher 

"The Passing of Family History Through the Demoli- 
tion of Family Burial Places" . . . Everett L. Zabriskie 

"Development of the Postal System in Bergen County" 

C. Van Husan Whitbeck ' 

"What's In a Name?" Eugene K. Bird 

During the past year our President has given an inter- 
esting talk before the Library Society at Tenafly on "His- 
toric Buildings," using lantern slides as an adjunct, thus 
bringing his audience into closer relation with the work that 
he has accomplished. This lecture was repeated before the 
Men's class of Calvary Baptist Church, Hackensack, and is 
booked for two other towns. 

Mr. T. N. Glover, another of our workers, gave a much 
appreciated talk to a large audience in Englewood. It has 
been arranged to hold similar meetings in different parts of 
the County, beginning with Westwood. 

The matter of placing more tablets has been before the 
society, and the President was empowered to make a list of 
suitable sites. 

At the present time a committee are at work investigating 
the matter of incorporating the society, but arrangements 
have not yet been completed. 

Bound copies of the "Papers and Proceedings of the 
Bergen County Historical Society from 1902-1906," have 
been sent to the State Library, Trenton, the State Historical 
Society, Paterson and Passaic Libraries. 

Acknowledgment of the receipt of the book has been re- 
ceived from each of the above. 

The Committee on Genealogy, Biography and Early 
Settlers are collecting and preserving all available data re- 
lating to their subject. 



REPORT OF SECRETARY 11 

Each committee has done a vast amount of work. Their 
energy, combined with the earnestness of each individual 
member, has increased our Hst from the I 1 I members re- 
ported at the meeting in 1 906 to 1 26. 

It is earnestly hoped that the report next year may show 
still more favorable results, which can be accomplished by 
individual efforts- 



REPORT OF THE HISTORIOGRAPHER, 

r. N. Glover, to the Annual Meeting, February 22, 1906. 



When this office or committee was created, it was charged 
with the duty of investigating historical matters and suggest- 
ing topics to be mvestigated, and gathering general informa- 
tion. My work during the past year has been surveying the 
field, locating historical points and finding the truth connect- 
ed with them. The more I work, the greater number of 
localities I find, and the greater number of traditions. But 
the traditions are so mingled that few of them are of much 
value. The work has led me to writing letters to many 
people and to interviewing more. And here I want to say 
that, despite the talk which I have heard that the people of 
Bergen County are not interested in their history, I have 
found them very greatly interested — far more than most 
communities — and very willing to give me all the informa- 
tion at their command. A curt, uncivil answer I have never 
received. And interest in the work of this society is grow- 
ing, and it should take more notice of this interest than it is 
taking — its meetings should be so planned that time may be 
given to impromptu talks — let some one lead and others 
speak as each feels moved. Mr. Nelson tells me that years 
ago the State society followed this plan and much valuable 
information was elicited. Our Committee meetings the first 
year were planned along these lines, but they have not been 
carried out. These little points, often mere boyhood rem- 
iniscences or family traditions, often give us clues to events 
of great consequence, and the society should have a record 
of these. 

Some of my time has been devoted to gathering informa- 
tion embodied in the paper published in your Annual. I 
have still in my notebooks twice as much material as used. 
My attention has been called to that oft repeated joke 
that "New Jersey is out of the Union," and from what I 
have gathered I can say the pith and points redound to the 
honor of Jerseymen and their free thought. Incidentally, I 
have gathered much information about the Frenchman's Gar- 
den and its remains down near New Durham and of its 
South Carolina counterpart. 

I cannot now enumerate the historic places I have on my 
list, time is lacking, so I pass on to call the attention of the 
society or its special committees or individuals to the follow- 
ing topics and our need of information upon them. It might 



14 REPORT OF THE HISTORIOGRAPHER 

be well enough for certain committees to take up their inves- 
tigations during the coming year and to work with me in 
regard to them. I will aid them in whatever way I can. 

First — In regard to the camp grounds of the Revolution. 
There were several of them in this county. I have practi- 
cally exhausted Fort Lee. But next to it was Paramus. 
Where was this camp? Near the old church, is the usual 
reply. Yes, but which way from it, and how close to it? 
Did the soldiers have huts or simply tents? Were soldiers 
there all the time? How many were there? I wrote to 
Rev. S. Vroom, of Ridgewood, and he replied, "An old 
man living here tells me that his stepfather remembered all 
about the old camp and often related all the important facts 
in his hearing. He says the camp was just south of the 
church." But the poet. Barlow, who wrote the old-fash- 
ioned poem "Hasty Pudding," was at one time a chaplain 
in the army and he writes to friends one evening that he 
had been all day making the rounds of his camp at Para- 
mus, and that it extended from Paramus four miles toward 
Hackensack. There are several camp sites in the county, 
but in no one of them can we find the exact locality. One 
was at New Bridge, others at Steenrapie (wherever that 
may have been), Closter, Ramapough and Oakland. Others 
are mentioned and future searching may find them. Suffern 
and Tappan are just beyond our borders. I am told there 
are camp relics in this town which were found years ago on 
Hackensack Heights. The camp grounds of the enemy are 
worth looking up. One of them was just east of Paradise 
Park in Bergenfields. I have seen a metallic tobacco box 
which belonged to some Hessian. It was found there years 
ago. 

Secondly — We want more information about the roads 
over which the armies marched and countermarched in this 
county. The army under Washington crossed parts of the 
county four or five times during the war and sections of it, 
under various generals, were here twice that number of times. 
How they came and how they went, we cannot tell. The 
localities of the British raids we can give pretty well. 

Thirdly — A fourth topic is very important since it deals 
directly with many of the old families of the county; it is 
the Tories of the Revolution and their reasons for adhering 
to the English cause. I understand a partial list of these 
families has been prepared. That they were numerous we 
know — probably outnumbered the patriots three to one — 
but that they deserve the opprobrium heaped upon them, I 



REPORT OF THE HISTORIOGRAPHER 15 

do not believe. Major Drummond is said to have enlisted 
two hundred of his neighbors in his New Jersey battalion. 
Certainly he could not have enlisted that number from the 
"thugs and murderers" of this region. I do not know how 
it was in Bergen County, but in New England and Penn- 
sylvania, the Tory party comprised men of wealth and 
standing in the community. In some parts of New England 
to belong to the Episcopal Church was to belong to the 
Tory party. Men of that stamp were no more murderers 
and outcasts from society and traitors than they are to-day. 
But hanging on the skirts of their respectability were a set 
of scoundrels, murderers and thieves, if you wish to call 
them, who were ready for any dirty work. They appear 
wherever and whenever a social disturbance occurs and 
they espouse the cause of the side that gives them the most 
money. Claudius Smith was a thief, a murderer, and a 
Tory. Judge Jones was a Tory, but no murderer. If 
Washington and Hamilton after the revolution could plead 
for them with the States that outlawed them, and even 
in I 788 procure the repeal of their laws in some States, at 
this day we certainly can deal justly by them and dispas- 
sionately study their motives. The great majority of them 
were law-abiding citizens. Why did they cling to the 
old time government when resistance to tyrants was obedi- 
ence to God? This work can be done by a committee, but 
would be best in the hands of some descendant of these old 
Bergen families who can have access to family papers and 
traditions. It is indeed a neglected field of history, and he 
who studies it up will render great service to America. 

I have in mind a subject on which I can get only the most 
vague information. I am told that in the late 50's, in the 
town of Lodi, in this good, old Democratic county, a sta- 
tion of the Underground Railroad existed. Who can tell 
anything about it? 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON 
GENEALOGY, &c. 



By Mrs. Frances A. Westervelt, to the Annual Meeting, 
February 22, 1906. 



Macaulay said: 

"A people, which takes no pride in the noble achieve- 
ments of its remote ancestors, will never achieve anything 
worthy to be remembered by its remote descendants." 

Genealogically. — I have assisted many in tracing their 
records. I have made a very large collection of full and 
part records of many families, which I am willing to pass 
on to those interested. Mr. B. H. Allbee has assisted me 
greatly in this work. 

Biographically. — 1 here is one person who has appeared, 
through all my years of work of research, in every way de- 
serving of a tablet, if not in the hall of fame, certainly in 
the County of Bergen, and that man is Dr. Peter Wilson. 
He v/as this County's Patriot, Soldier, Legislator and Edu- 
cator. Hackensack was his home during many years when 
history was bemg made, mcludmg the period of the Revo- 
lutionary war. When his work was finished in the City 
of New York, he returned to his home in Hackensack, 
where he died in August, 1825, in the seventy-ninth year 
of his age. A modest stone in the churchyard on the Green 
at Hackensack marks the grave of the man of whom Bergen 
County can well be proud. I have several valuable articles 
in regard to his life and history. 

Early Settlers. — Time will not permit my telling of the 
many interesting things learned of the early settlers, bui 
any one interested can find in the society's room, in the 
Johnson Library, three books, well filled with all things his- 
torical, my year's work, which I give with great pleasure 
to the society. 



I 



i 



NOTES ON INDIAN LIFE IN BERGEN 
COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



By Frank G. Speck and Clifford M. Story. 



To those who are at all familiar with the native inhabitants 
of the United States before the appearance of Europeans on 
the Continent, it is well known that tribes of men speaking 
widely different languages, and having quite different types 
of culture, existed here. Some of them were agriculturists 
and sedentary, some hunters and nomads. Some of the 
largest of these linguistic groups held territory extending 
from the Atlantic to the Mississippi Valley, between Vir- 
ginia and Newfoundland. This division is known to stu- 
dents of American languages at the Algonquin. Some of 
the tribes included in it have attained a wide historic notoriety 
in border wars and are familiar to all readers of history as 
the Shawnees, Sac and Fox, Chippewas, Kickapoo, Miami, 
Delawares and Abenaki. In general it may be said that 
all the native inhabitants of the New England and Middle 
States, except the warlike Iroquois in the Great Lake region, 
were branches of this enormous family. 

New Jersey was, for the most part, in the hands of the 
above mentioned Delawares. Several subdivisions of the 
Delawares have been made by writers, but the one with 
which we are chiefly concerned here is that known as the 
Unami. A sixfold division of the Unami has also been 
made, and the names Neversinks, Raritans, Hackensacks, 
Acquakanonks, Tappans and Haverstraws are all suggestive 
of well known districts. 

These divisions, to be more exact, were chieftaincies, that 
IS, villages and settlements bound together by ties of con- 
sanguinity and mutual interest under the nominal leadership 
of some one of recognized ability. 

In 1 643 the earhest explorers into the region of the Hack- 
ensack and Passaic valleys found scattered villages embraced 
under the name of Hackensacks. From the old accounts 
we learn that their chief settlement and gathering place was 
at Communipaw. Villages, varying in size from one to four 
or five houses, were distributed over what is now bounded 
by points located approximately near Jersey City, Staten Isl- 
and, Newark, Passaic and the upper waters of the Hacken- 
sack, Passaic and Saddle rivers. 



20 INDIAN LIFE IN BERGEN COUNTY 



Without giving special reference to the sources of our 
information regarding the following remarks on the life of 
the Hackensacks and their cogeners, we consider it only nec- 
essary for the purposes of the present paper to use the ma- 
terial at our disposal in such a way as to present, as clearly 
as possible, a mental picture of their condition at the time 
of their discovery. 

The first white men who came in contact with the New 
Jersey Indians were rather favorably impressed by the come- 
liness, in form and feature, of the Indian men and the women 
especially. Their dress was of the simplest kind; the men 
wearing leggings and moccasins, augmenting their apparel in 
colder weather by a sleeveless upper garment. Woman's 
dress consisted of two deer skins, sewed at the edges, reach- 
ing from throat to knee and bound at the waist with a girdle, 
which was a sort of carryall for the smaller implements nec- 
essary in their daily tasks. The women likewise wore moc- 
casins with leggings reaching to the knee attached. As or- 
naments and insignia, as well as the clothing, of the New 
Jersey Indians were of the same general character as those 
of the Indian tribes on the Atlantic Coast, no attempt will 
be made here to describe them in detail. 

Conditions of life in the New Jersey of pre-Colonial days 
were rather favorable to the aborigmal inhabitants when 
compared with the rigors of existence in the more barren 
parts of the country. Magnificent forests of pines and de- 
ciduous trees gave shelter to larger animals of the chase. 
Elk, deer, bears and beaver gave over their warm pelts for 
clothing, and their flesh formed their chief subsistence. The 
bison was even found as near as western New York. Wild 
berries and esculent roots were greatly sought by the women, 
who dug the latter up with sticks and dried them for winter 
use. 

Not only were wild native vegetables used as articles of 
food, but corn, potatoes and tobacco were cultivated with 
some care in little garden plots close by their houses. Labor 
in these vegetable patches was left entirely to the women, 
who, if we are to judge from cases among the Indians of 
to-day, considered any attempt of the men to share in their 
field labors as an intrusion on their particular province. 
Other branches of industry were probably the invention of 
women in America, and it is not to be wondered at that they 
retained and developed exclusively such handicrafts as pot- 
tery and basket manufacture. Inventions such as the bow 
and arrow, snowshoe, canoe, club, etc., are commonly at- 



INDIAN LIFE IN BERGEN COUNTY 21 

tributed to the ingenuity of man and in accordance with 
pride in the invention end use of such utensils we find man 
chiefly concerned in their construction and utilization. 

The sphere of their primitive household was strictly in 
the hands of the women, among our New Jersey Indians, 
while all else, not strictly connected with the home, was con- 
trolled by the men. To them fell the harder and more dan- 
gerous tasks of hunting and fishing" and seldom for the space 
even of a week could small forest communities feel secure 
from the attacks of fierce avenging enemies from across 
some river or mountain range. So it also fell to the men to 
maintain a system of scouting while off on hunting excur- 
sions when game had become scarce near their permanent 
settlements. To this end they had adopted the practice of 
cutting trees into equal lengths, sharpening the ends and 
erecting them in circles about their Httle village, forming, 
when completed, a stockade of security from any dangers 
which might threaten them without. It was the custom at 
certain times of the year for the men to depart from these 
"castles," as the colonists later called the stockaded hamlets, 
upon long expeditions of war and hunting, following up the 
course of some convenient water course until well within a 
foreign boundary. In such times the home settlement would 
be left considerably depleted and exposed, to a certain de- 
gree, to attack, the women and children being protected only 
by a few old men and half-grown boys. It was in a period 
of this kind at the Indian village, where Pavonia now is, 
that the Dutch at New Amsterdam crossed over Feb. 25, 
1 643, and annihilated the practically defenseless women 
and children while the warriors of the Hackensacks were 
busily crusading in the same way among the settlers of 
Staten Island. 

Upon their hunts the men were accompanied by dogs 
which they had succeeded in gradually reducing to a state 
of domesticity, as these animals were in all probability de- 
rived from the wolf breed. In times of famine their flesh 
afforded relief until such time as game became more plenti- 
ful, but the Indian dog could not rightly be termed a pet. 

They were socially divided into three kinship groups: the 
Wolf in Northern New Jersey, the Turtle near the Dela- 
ware River, and the Turkey in Southern New Jersey. These 
groups were in their turn subdivided into smaller divisions, 
called clans. All members of the clans considered their 
descent only through the mother and reckoned them- 
selves as brothers and sisters. Each group had a chief, 



22 INDIAN LIFE IN BERGEN COUNTY 

who, however, was not appointed by his fellow clansman, 
but by delegates of other clans. These delegates convened 
at some place and chose a man from among the eligibles of 
the chiefless clan. After the convention they proceeded with 
a ceremony in song, to the council house of the clan, and in- 
stalled their man there in public view. This chief's duty 
after his election was to represent his clan and its settle- 
ments in intertribal affairs. His chief office, however, was 
that of guardian over the sacred bundle of wampum belts, 
about which so much has been written in local history. These 
belts were a form of hieroglyphic treaty records. They 
consisted of beautifully wrought beads of conch shell woven 
in strips. Pictorial and symbolic designs were so arranged 
on the belts as to suggest or call to the mind of the holders the 
various items of treaties which they were always making with 
outsiders. In short, the belts were mnemonic devices rather 
than systems of writing in most cases. 

Lesser chiefs, called by the colonists captains, formed the 
head chief's council in each town. In the nation composed 
of the New Jersey Delaware tribes a grand chief was chosen 
from among the celebrities of the Tortoise group to stand as 
their national head. That it was not beyond the reach of 
these so-called savage chiefs to win imperishable fame in 
some way or other is shown in the case of Chief Teedyes- 
cung, otherwise known as Tammany. 

Remarkably httle has been vouchsafed to us of informa- 
tion on the religious life of the New Jersey Indians, but, by 
analogy with the related tribes of the same stock, it is possi- 
ble to assemble a few general remarks on their ceremonies 
and religious ideas. As fruits, both wild and cultivated, ani- 
mal flesh and fish played the most important role in their ma- 
terial life, so they formed the chief object of interest in their 
religious rites. 

After the harvests were garnered and before they were 
ready for general use the villagers gathered at their dance 
ground, there to offer up the first fruits to the presiding deity 
and to perform dances that seemed to embody, in a sense, the 
sentiment of thanksgiving. Other dances were intended to 
win over the good graces of the animal totems. These 
dances were imitative. The participants formed a circle 
with the drummers in the center contorting themselves in im- 
personation of some particular animal deity as they moved 
around. They also had a purification ceremony wherein 
twelve men took part. A ceremonial house was used for 
this rite. A pile of heated stones was placed upon the floor. 



INDIAN LIFE IN BERGEN COUNTY 23 

the twelve men ranged themselves about it and water was 
poured over the pile. The great amount of steam generated 
by this process caused them to perspire copiously, thus affect- 
ing before the deity a sort of purification. Contests in works 
of magic between rival witch doctors were furthermore char- 
acteristic of religious gathermgs. We find that the mam ob- 
ject in the religious life of the New Jersey aborigines was 
the avoidance of evils at the hands of the many gods they 
recognized. The evils might have been direct ones, such as 
disease, famine or disaster, or the more vague results of ill 
favor on the part of the gods. All natural manifestations 
were believed to be those of deities, but the motive power of 
all supernatural agencies was termed, as nearly as we can 
translate it, mystery, and it was the recognition of this mys- 
tery that the missionaries mistook for belief in a single god. 
As far as we can judge, there was no connection between 
right and wrong doing and religion. Good was only what 
benefited them and bad what gave them pain. 

The cure of disease among the New Jersey Indians was 
treated as a religious rite, for all bodily affliction was attri- 
buted to malignant spirits. A certain class of witch doctors 
existed, in whose hands rested the treatment of diseases. 
Their practice consisted in exorcising the cause of sickness 
from the sufferer by performing certain rites which were, ac- 
cording to tradition, taught them by the Bear. The doctors 
during their ministrations wore painted wooden masks which 
were supposed to drive out the troublesome disease spirit. 
Whether their existed a regular society of these doctors, as 
among the Iroquois and Ojibway, we do not know, but it 
is probable that there did, as a special house in the village 
was devoted to the exorcism of disease. 

Young men just entering upon manhood and its lurking 
dangers on the war path or hunting trail were accustomed 
to bring themselves into religious communication with some 
deity by a system of fasting and seclusion in the woods. 
Here, it was believed, they would be visited by one of the 
numerous deities who would remain by them during life as 
guides and spiritual advisers. When a young man had thus 
acquired a spiritual guardian, he made an image of the ani- 
mal, and ever afterward wore it upon his person as an amu- 
let. To this he incessantly prayed and made vows. 

Leaving the above very general outline of the mental life 
of the New Jersey Indians we come now to a consideration 
of the more material side of their culture. For this we pro- 
pose to rely more upon the results of our actual exploration 



24 INDIAN LIFE IN BERGEN COUNTY 



in this county than upon the information given us by early 
writers. 

It happens, fortunately for us, that most of the imple- 
ments and utensils common to people at the stage of advance- 
ment of the New Jersey Indians, were constructed of such 
weather-withstanding material as stone, shell and bone. Of 
course wood was largely used in their handicraft, but speci- 
mens of this sort have naturally crumbled to decay long ago. 
Up to the present time we have, fortunately, been able to 
trace actual evidence of Indian occupation in Bergen County 
in many places along the streams and creeks of the Bergen 
County watershed. There are undoubtedly many other 
localities which have seen Indian occupation, judging by the 
occasional reports of finds upon different farmlands through- 
out this region. The most promising region has so far been 
along the banks of Saddle River, Kill and Sprout Brooks. 
It might be well to say here that conditions for investigations 
along the Hackensack River have not been so favorable to 
the cursory examination with which we have had to be con- 
tent from lack of time and means. But there is little reason 
to doubt that, back from the marshes upon the higher 
grounds, the Hackensack River was fairly well populated. 
In describing locations of local village or camp sites we 
feel pretty sure that there are very many more than we have 
been, so far, able to discover. 

But helps in the shape of plowed fields and washouts have 
made it possible to trace evidences of primitive settlements in 
many places along Saddle River and its branches. One of 
these branches in particular. Sprout Brook, has yielded a 
considerable quantity of material at three different points on 
its banks, all within the radius of a mile. Places have been 
found definitely where groups of lodges stood and where 
primitive workmen occupied themselves in the manufacture of 
stone implements. 

Some diversity has been noticed in the material and form 
of these implements, a diversity, in fact, so wide that it is 
quite reasonable to suppose that the sites were occupied at 
different periods, the earliest dating back to times when the 
works in stone were very crude and rough ; the latest belong- 
ing to a period when the primitive arrowsmith had reached 
a high degree of skill. The nature of such conclusions, how- 
ever, is quite uncertain, as the existence of man during the 
glacial periods in America has not been satisfactorily proven. 
Indeed, it is quite possible that both the crude and the fin- 
ished implements were made by the same people at times not 



INDIAN LIFE IN BERGEN COUNTY I'o 

very far apart. We might add, however, that by crudeness 
we mean poor workmanship, poor form and a poor choice of 
material. 

As before remarked, evidences of human occupation must 
be looked for in objects of stone, so the process of determm- 
ing sites has been chiefly one of searching out spots located 
favorably for human habitation and then looking for chips 
and refuse of stone workings there. Flint and quartz were 
favorite material for the Indian craftsman. Frequently, 
after a cursory view of a hillside, near some brook or swamp, 
we have been rewarded within the space of half an hour by 
locating the place where som.e arrowsmith had been at work, 
as evinced by quantities of flint chips, flakes, cores and even 
broken, incomplete and complete implements. Upon follow- 
ing up such a clew the site of a lodge or group of lodges can 
usually be found, and an examination of the surface soil for 
some distance around may be expected to yield many Lroken 
potsherds, refuse animal bones, arrowheads, net sinkers, 
awls, spear heads, hammer stones, bone crushers, hide scrap- 
ers, stone ornaments and occasionally inexplainable objects 
that must have been of ceremonial portent. Naturally the 
neighborhood of a spring would be chosen by the Indians as 
a desirable place for the village or camp site, and such we 
have found to be the case. In several instances slight eleva- 
tions of disturbed soil, conical or ring-shaped, have led us to 
examine more carefully the surface resulting in the unearth- 
ing of artificial stone implements. Our first yield of imple- 
ments and pottery was from a small village site on the farm 
of Mr. Koch on Sprout Brook, just above where it crosses 
tha Paramus road. That this locality had been a more fre- 
q.;ented center of population than some of the other sites is 
suggested by the fact that here potsherds and utensils of a 
domestic character were more in abundance. 

The material finds in general are of two main classes, 
namely, dorfiestic implements and those used in the chase and 
warfare. Of the former class the most interesting, perhaps, 
IS the pottery which we have found in great abundance over 
the whole area, broken into variously sized fragments by 
frequent plowing and harrowing at the hands of the farmers. 
A large percentage of these potsherds bear ornamentation, 
both on the body of the vessel and on the rims. The ware 
is of two kinds: one a fine, black, ash-like grade, which is 
known to have been made by the Iroquois Indians of the 
Lireat Lakes ; the other, a coarse, breakable red-colored 
clay, which is typical of the Algonquin tribes of the Atlantic 



26 INDIAN LIFE IN BERGEN COUNTY 

Coast. It is quite possible that this may point to a very sig- 
nificant historical fact which might receive recognition here, 
namely, that the above-mentioned Iroquois, who are known 
to have extorted tribute from the Algonquins, must have ex- 
ercised the same power right here and probably used the 
great water course of the Hudson for their highway. Thus 
we may possibly account for the black Iroquoian pottery. 
The designs and decorations on this pottery, as well as the 
redder variety, are very symmetrical and in most cases pre- 
sent a systematic arrangement. The most common is the 
simple rope mark. But the designs are in many cases quite 
similar to patterns found in other sections of the country, and 
no further attempt will be made to describe them in detail, 
although they present not a little beauty in form and 
composition. 

Soapstone (steatite) bowls were in vogue on the sites in 
considerable quantity, as evinced by many broken pieces, 
some of which we have been fortunate enough to partially 
restore where the fractured edges fitted. Soapstone was 
quite valuable to the natives, as it withstands the effects of 
fire and could be placed directly over the flames, but it re- 
quired a considerable journey for the local aborigines to 
secure this useful material, as steatite quarries were very few 
and far between. 

Net sinkers, of soft stone, are fairly abundant and show 
that the fishing industry was practiced to a considerable ex- 
tent by the inhabitants of the sites. It might be mentioned 
here that several of the sites we have located have been sit- 
uated on the banks of a considerable marsh, intersected by 
a brook, and indications are that, at the time of Indian occu- 
pation what is now a marsh was a pond or lake. This 
pond might easily have been stocked with fresh water fish 
for the use of the Indians. 

Hammer-stones, round in shape, with well-marked depres- 
sions for the finger grip, have been yielded in plenty, and il- 
lustrate quite a diversity in form and function as well as 
workmanship. They are known to have been used in break- 
ing bones for the marrow, and crushing clay in mixing it for 
pottery manufacture. Hallowed stone cups with pestle-like 
pounders have been found, which were probably used in mix- 
ing paints and crushing small roots. Women's knives, with 
long, saw-like edge, and hide-scrapers of flint and jasper 
are also scattered over the entire area. There are also some 
fragments of what appear to have been clay pipes decorated 
with incisions. Elongated flint awls with eroded points show 



INDIAN LIFE IN BERGEN COUNTY 27 



how the women formerly exercised their art of sewing on 
buckskm. 

Our finds as regards personal ornaments have been rather 
limited. Several flat objects of banded slate, rectangular in 
shape were picked up in an imperfect condition. The pres- 
ence of holes near their ends suggests that they may have 
been suspended from cords in some way or another. In fact, 
some of the Dutch writers mention the use of stone or shell 
pendants by the Indian men of New Jersey, and it seems 
quite likely that the above-mentioned objects may have been 
used in the way noted by these writers. The general term, 
gorget, has been adopted for specimens of this class, and 
their distribution is remarkably wide all over the continent. 
Their manufacture represented some of the best workman- 
ship that the American Indians were capable of. Banded 
slates and shales, frequently brought to a poHsh by friction, 
were much in favor as material for gorgets. 

Some of the stone axes found here are interesting, as they 
show evidences of secondary adaptation to use. Besides the 
regular grooving, near the head as a grip for the handle, they 
show pitted depressions on both sides, and about the only 
explanation of this that offers itself is that the axe secondarily 
was used as a hammer. Like all Indian hammers, they were 
held directly in the hand, and the depressions on the sides 
were for the purpose of insuring a secure grip for the fingers. 

Axes were often the objects of the most laborious care in 
being brought to a high state of smoothness and even polish. 

Further down on Sprout Brook, back of the Board farm, 
is the site of what is presumably a large palisaded grass 
house. On top of a slight rise about three hundred feet 
from a spring all that remains of it is a low, circular ridge, 
about 30 feet in diameter, raised less than a foot above the 
natural level of the soil. All around this spot fractured and 
complete implements and quantities of refuse material are 
abundant. The most interesting product of this locality has 
been a quantity of soapstone fragments of what was once a 
large bowl. During the last two years we have been able 
to accumulate some thirty pieces, but at this slow rate it bids 
fair to be a long while before this curious old piece of fur- 
niture will be brought to a state of completion. 

One of the best preserved sites of occupation, in fact the 
most typical, lies on a high bank of Saddle River, just below 
where the trolley crosses it. The evidence here is a flat 
area of almost pure sand, about 25 feet above the river level 
and about 200 feet in extent, abundantly supplied with 



28 



INDIAN LIFE IN BERGEN COUNTY 



stone relics, of which, up to the present time, we have only 
taken out a small portion. Part of the bottom and side of 
another large soapstone bowl lay directly exposed to view on 
the surface when we first walked over the place. It is hardly 
well to say anything exceptional about this place until a more 
thorough examination has been made beneath the surface. 
On the opposite side of the river the traces of habitation con- 
tinue and probably extend as far as Rochelle Park. Going up 
the Saddle River banks on the west side above the Paterson 
Road, relics of the Indians again appear on the surface of 
plowed fields, and with a little care and scrutiny of other 
places in this neighborhood no doubt other Indian camp sites 
could be determined. 



OLD-TIME BERGEN COUNTY DOCTORS. 
Read at the Annual Dinner, February 22, 1906. 



BY BYRON G. VAN HORNE, M. D. 



In the early history of many of the colonies the practice 
of the healing art was chiefly in the care of the clergy. 
Many of them were men of profound minds and highly 
educated. The wants of the sick room carne naturally 
within the sphere of their parochial duties. Many of them 
were distinguished for their knowledge in medicm?; and wcit: 
authors of some of the earliest medical papers pnnted in 
America. In some instances the schoolmaster was also the 
physician and surgeon of the neighborhood. There were 
some, however, to whom the saying of the Apocrypha might 
well be applied, "He that sinneth before his Maker, let him 
fall into the hands of a physician." 

Quacks abounded like the locusts in Egypt, and many 
recommended themselv'^f to a full practice and profitable 
subsistence. 

In 1 735-36 diphtheria was very malignant, almost strip- 
ping the country of children. The cure at this time was — 
first, be sure that a vein be opened under the tongue; if that 
can't be done, open a vein in the arm, which must be first 
done or all other means will be ineffectual. Then take borax 
or honey to bathe or annoint the mouth and throat and lay on 
the throat a plaster. To drink a decoction of "Devil's bit" 
or "Robbin's plaintain' with some Sal Prunelle dissolved 
therein, as often as the patient will drink. 

In the early years of its history New Jersey had 
among its medical men a very limited few who had received 
their training in the schools of Europe. The profession was, 
at the first, largely composed of those who, without liberal 
education, lived a year or two in any quantity with a prac- 
titioner of any sort, read the few books on medicine which 
came within their reach, and then, assuming the title of doc- 
tor, offered themselves to the people as competent to cure 
disease. They relied m.uch upon the use of herbs and roots. 

Salmon's Herbal, published in I 696, was the text book 
of a New Jersey physician of large practice and, in his day, 
of much reputation. Being a man of property, he paid the 
expenses of a messenger to England to obtain the volume. 
It was a folio of 1 ,300 pages and cost fifty pounds. 



30 OLD-TIME BERGEN COUNTY DOCTORS 

Here is a description in part of one of the remedies on 
page 26: "Piper Aquaticum or Arsmart — the Herb. It is 
hot and dry, used chiefly in wounds. Hard Tumors and in- 
veterate Ulcers. Some use in the transplantation of Disease 
and removing of Enchantments. The green herb stewed 
in a vessel is said to kill all fleas, and a good handful put 
under a Horse's Saddle will make him go briskly, although 
half tyred before. It is a specific against gravel and has 
cured to admiration when all other things in the world have 
failed. The Essence comforts the head, nerves, stomach and 
lungs, and is admirable against all cold and moist diseases 
of the brain and nerves as falling sickness, vertigo, lethargy, 
apoplexy, palsy. Megrim, etc., and made into a syrup with 
honey is a good pectoral." 

Every neighborhood seems to have had some one v/ho 
could bleed and extract teeth. Occasionally a handy man 
could straighten a cracked bone if it was broken, and get 
great credit for doing so and was called a doctor, in nearly 
all cases the remedies were the growth of the soil, very little 
medicine being used and that of the simplest kind. 

Among the Hollanders of Bergen County there was little 
need of physicians for many years after the first settlements 
began: the climate was healthy, and they were of a hardy 
and enduring constitution. Malaria was comparatively un- 
known. All the early writers and correspondents, who de- 
scribe the condition of the country either in books or in 
letters to their friends abroad, unite m pronouncmg East 
Jersey a very healthy country. The scarcity of early physi- 
cians in the immediate locahty of Bergen County, or resident 
physicians within its limits, is accounted for by the fact that 
the more wealthy of the citizens obtained their medical as- 
sistance from places around, such as New York, Elizabeth- 
town, and Newark. 

Holland seems to have sent forth none regularly bred to 
the profession of medicine, although her university at Leyden 
was among the most renowed for chemistry and kindred 
sciences in Europe. The science of medicine was in its in- 
fancy all over the civilized world. What is now understood 
by that term has been the growth of the last 125 years. 
There was no such thing as a school of Medicine in Amer- 
ica, not even a course of lectures, until the middle of the 
eighteenth century. 

The year 1 688 is the first we hear of any doctor in what 
is now Bergen County, and it is not in connection with his 
profession. 



OLD-TIME BERGEN COUNTY DOCTORS 31 



In 1 688 the court for the trial of small causes was to be 
held monthly at the house of Lawrence Andriss, of New 
Hackensack, and also "at the house of Dr. Johannes, on the 
Hackensack River, then in the County of Essex, for the 
inhabitants of New Barbadoes and Acquackanick." This is 
all that is known about Dr. Johannes, that he lived in what 
is now Hackensack, in the then County of Essex, Bergen 
County, extending only as far west as the Hackensack River. 

But the above statement is of far more interest to the 
Van Buskirk family. Old Hackensack was practically what 
is now Ridgefield Park. 

Christian Barents came to this country from Holland in 
1653, made a considerable fortune; died five years later, 
leaving a widow and three sons. Lawrence Andriessen mar- 
ried the wealthy widow and afterwards moved to what is 
now Englewood, then called New Hackensack. The land he 
took up is on Liberty road, the site of the old homestead ol 
which is about one-fourth mile west of the Tenafly road. 
He was something of a sheriff and cattle ranger, and it was 
at his house where court was held corresponding to our court 
of common pleas. A deed bearing date of June 8th, 1 677, 
given by the Indians tf. David des Marest (the Demarest 
tract) states, that the tract was bounded on the south by 
lands of Lawrence Andriessen (Van Buskirk), and the 
dividing line was a brook, called by the Indians Kessa- 
wakey, a little stream flowing into the Hackensack at New 
Bridge. The line ran eastward to a point just below Tenafly 
station, where it was intersected by the Tenakill creek. Law- 
rence Andriessen was therefore living on his property joining 
the Demarest tract before June 8, 1677. Before he died 
he took the patronym of Van Buskirk, and is the progenitor 
of all the Van Buskirks His three stepsons took the patro- 
nym of Van Horn, the second one of whom, on August 4th, 
1 696, purchased a farm in what is now Closter and Har- 
rington Park, the original deed for which I now have in 
my possession. It is needless to say that I am proud to be 
a descendant of this Cornelius C. Van Horn. 

Dr. Van Emburg must have practiced in or about Hack- 
ensack before I 709, as a deed is filed that year to his 
widow. 

The next one of whom I find any account is Dr. Abra- 
ham Van Buskirk, who hved at Paramus and was surgeon 
in the First Militia of Bergen County, Feb. I 7, 1 776. In 
July of that year the Provincial Congress ordered that the 
treasurer pay to Dr. Van Buskirk and two others the sum of 



32 OLD-TIME BERGEN COUNTY DOCTORS 



335 pounds, 10 shillings, being the amount of 79 stands of 
arms at 4 pounds, 1 shilhngs apiece. But before the year 
was out he had gone over to the British, bag and baggage, 
family and all. He was the leader of many Tory raids in 
Bergen County, one raid through Closter in 1 779. 

Judge Fell, V ho lived at Paramus and who was well ac- 
quainted with Col. Van Buskirk, was captured in 1777 by 
the Tories and taken to Paulus Hook. He was recognized 
by the Tory colonel, when the following conversation took 
place : 

"Times have altered since last we met," said the colonel. 

"So I perceive," coolly replied the judge, lookmg at the 
colonel's uniform. 

'Well, you are a prisoner, and going over to New York, 
where you will be presented to Gen. Robertson, with whom 
I have the honor to be acquainted. I will give you a letter 
of introduction," said the colonel. 

The judge thanked him and accepted the letter, which he 
afterwards presented to Gen. Robertson. It happened that 
the judge and Gen. Robertson had been friends before the 
war. The purport of Van Buskirk's letter of introduction 
was that John Fell was a notorious rebel and rascal, and 
advised that due care should be taken of him. Gen. Rob- 
ertson handed the letter to the judge and said, "My old 
friend, John Fell, you must be a very altered man and a very 
great rascal, indeed, if you equal this Col. Van Buskirk." 

Upon no less than two occasions efforts were made by the 
British in Nzw York to assassinate or capture Gov. William 
L: /!:"; '.en of Nev/ Jersey. 

!"> February, 1 779, Ephraim Marsh, Jr., while on Staten 
Island, was approached by Brigadier-General Cortland 
Skinner and others of the Tory volunteers who offered him 
two thousand guineas ard a life pension for that "damned 
eld rascal. Gov. Livingston, delivered dead or ahve on 
Staten Island." Later Vt:i Buskirk renewed the negotia- 
tions, Marsh having refused to become a party to the plot. 
The pubhcations of these facts led to a sarcastic and spicy 
correspondence between Gov. Livingston and Sir Henry 
Clinton. 

There is one redeeming incident of his military career. 
Edward Stanton, an American soldier who was one of the 
survivors of the British massacre at the capturing of Fort 
Griswold, Ct., under General Benedict Arnold, was wound- 
ed by a musket ball passing through his body, and, while he 
was bleeding profusely, Col. Buskirk gave him a silk cap 



OLD-TIME BERGEN COUNTY DOCTORS 33 



to place in the wound to stop the bleeding, and also gave him 
a cup of water. Col. Van Buskirk said to Mr. Stanton, 
"Recollect that although I fight in battle, I am a friend when 
it has subsided." After the war he and his family settled 
in Nova Scotia, where they have become influential. 

Dr. James Van Buren, who practiced in or about Hack- 
ensack at the beginning of the war, was another Tory who 
had his property confiscated. He married Blandina Ryer- 
son, went to Nova Scotia, but evidently his wife didn't Hke 
the new country, so in 1 79 I they came back to New Jersey 
and bought a tract of land where is now the Erie station at 
Chfton. He died in I 802, leaving a number of children. 
The same year he died his widow married Lawrence Ep 
Ackerman, the marriage being recorded in the Dutch church 
m Hackensack. 

Dr. John Campbell was a practicing physician in Hack- 
ensack subsequent to the Revolution. He was a son of 
Archibald Campbell, who is noticed by the historian as fur- 
nishing the table of General Washington when he had his 
headquarters at the house of Peter Zabnskie in November, 
1776. Dr. Campbell was born Feb. 13, 1770, spent his 
life in Hackensack in the practice of his profession, and was 
esteemed a good physician and exemplary citizen. He died 
Dec. 15, 1814, aged forty-four. 

Josiah Hornblower was a practitioner of medicine in 
Bergen County. He was a brother of Qhief Justice Joseph 
C. Hornblower of the Supreme Court of New Jersey. Dr. 
Hornblower was born at Belleville May 23, I 767. He 
studied medicine with Dr. Steele at Belleville and com- 
menced practice in the town of Bergen, I 789. His field 
of practice extended all over what is now Hudson County, 
the old township of Hackensack, Fort Lee, and frequently 
crossing the Kill von Kull, to the northerly end of Staten 
Island. From 1789 to 1807 he was one of the two or 
three physicians resident in that district. Dr. John Campbell, 
of Hackensack, being one of the others. In the War of 
1812 Dr. Hornblower was appointed surgeon and was as- 
signed to duty at the old arsenal on the heights. He con- 
tinued in active practice till I 844, and died May 7, 1 848, 
aged eighty-one years. 

Benjamin Blacklidge setded as doctor in Closter in the 
latter part of the eighteenth century, and followed school 
teaching also. He was the first English school teacher in 
Bergen County. Many of his descendants are still living in 
Closter. 



34 



OLD-TIME BERGEN COUNTY DOCTORS 



Cornelius S. Blauvelt was a physician in Hackensack 
in 1819. 

Here is a specimen of medical directions given by Dr. 
John Darbe, of Elizabethtown, N. J., November 5, 1786: 

"Once in a few days let blood be taken from the arm; 
in case the pain continues in the head, this must be done as 
bis strength will allow. 

"The blister on the head must be continued, and the 
Seton till all the symptoms are removed. The Seton espe- 
cially should be continued many months." 

Here is another specimen of medical direction written 
about 1810 by Dr. Wm. Ellison, of Paterson, and who, no 
doubt, practiced in Bergen County: 

"Please take a small wineglassful of the medicine that 
is in the bottle three or four times a day in a Httle gin, about 
equal parts of the gin and medicine." 

Wm. Ellison. 

"To Captain John Anderson." 

Here is a copy of one of his medical bills , 1811: 

Gerbrant Van Houten, Esq., to Wm. Ellison, Dr. 

March 5, Visit to see your Heyman salts 2.0 

March 6,, Visit and castor oil in phial 3.6 

March 7, Visit and drops 2.6 

March 9, Visit and emetic 2.0 

Two pills I .- 



Pound 0. 1 1 .0 
What stimulated more than anything else the progress of 
medicine in New Jersey during the Eighteenth century was 
the French and Indian War, 1 756- I 763. The English 
army was accompanied by a highly respectable medical staff, 
most of whom landed in the city of New York and con- 
tinued for some years in the neighboring territory, affording 
to many young Americans opportunity of attending mihtary 
hospitals and receiving professional instruction. The physi- 
cians who were commissioned as surgeons and surgeons' 
mates, being brought into association with the British officers, 
were led to know their own inferiority, and were stimulated 
to improve their opportunities of practice and intercourse 
with their more cultivated compeers. 

During this war New Jersey spent on her mihtary estab- 
lishment 40,000 pounds per annum. 

New Jersey was the first of the colonies to have a 
colonial medical society, which was organized June 27, 
1 766. The original book of minutes is still in the possession 



OLD-TIME BERGEN COUNTY DOCTORS 35 

of the Medical Society of New Jersey, in good preserva- 
tion. Sixteen physicians responded to the call, and on the 
day appointed the Medical Society of New Jersey was or- 
ganized. The constitution that day adopted was signed by 
fourteen physicians, only one of whom, Joseph Sackett, Jr., 
was from Bergen County. At a semi-annual meeting of 
the Medical Society at the city of New Brunswick, Nov. 1 0, 
1818, application was made for the formation of a district 
society in the County of Bergen. It must be remembered 
that Bergen County at this time included part of Passaic 
and all of Hudson Counties, Passaic being made a county 
by act of the legislature Feb. 7, 1837, and Hudson in 
1 840. The following doctors were authorized to form such 
a society: David Mervin, Elijah Rosegrant, Henry Kipp, 
Cornelius I. Blauvelt, James L. Baldwin, Garret Harlen- 
beck, William W. Colfax, Issac V. Froeleigh, Garret 
Banta. 

This local organization must have lapsed, for at the sev- 
entieth annual meeting of the State society, held at New 
Brunswick, May 1 0, 1 836, application was again made for 
a commission to institute a district medical society for Ber- 
gen. The commission was addressed to the following doc- 
tors: John M. Cornelisen, C. B. Zabriskie, John t. Ellis, 
Jr., Peter H. Zabriskie, R. M. Stevenson, J. Bangs Aycrig, 
R. Smythoff. 

This society also lapsed, and it was not until Feb. 28, 
1 854, that the Society now in existence was organized with 
William N. Dayton as president, and Henry A. Hopper, 
secretary ; Charles Hasbrouck, George B. Brown and Du- 
Bois Hasbrouck were present. 

Among the older physicians might be mentioned Dr. 
Abram Hopper, who was born at Hohokus, April 26, 
1 797. He attended the College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons in New York, from which he graduated in 1818. 
Dr. Hopper soon after settled and commenced the practice 
of his profession at Hackensack, where he remained until his 
death, Dec. 14, 1872. He had a particular fondness for 
surgery, and was the only operating surgeon in the county 
for many years, and enjoyed a wide reputation as skillful 
in that branch of his profession. His son and grandson were 
also physicians and have followed him to the great majority. 

Charles Hasbrouck was another well-known physician 
who located at Schraalenburg as active partner of Dr. Kipp 
in 1839. In 1855 he moved to Hackensack, where he 
died in 1 877. 



36 OLD-TIME BERGEN COUNTY DOCTORS 

William H. Day was born at Fairview, July 16, 1810, 
where he practiced medicine for many years. In 1 867 he 
moved to Fort Lee, where he died June 23, 1876. 

Many of these old physicians covered large circuits, often 
being away from home several days at a time. As a body, 
they rendered efficient service to the public in their day and 
generation ; and while much of their system of medication 
to-day is obsolete, yet it serves as the stepping-stone of mod- 
ern practice, and it would be unjust to decry their methods. 
We must not take the picture from its frame. Most of their 
lives were spent in the days of stage coaches, spinning wheels 
and tallow dips. In no science has there been greater ad- 
vance than in medicine and surgery. 



J 



FIRST LUTHERAN CHURCH IN BERGEN 
COUNTY. 



BY EUGENE K. BIRD. 



What was doubtless the First Lutheran Church in Ber- 
gen County, if not in New Jersey, stood on the east bank 
of the Hackensack River, on the River road, immediately 
south of the home of the late John F. Bound, near New 
Bridge, the locality being sometimes called West Engle- 
wood. No person of the present period has any knowledge 
of the church building except as it was given them tradition- 
ally by their parents or grandparents whose early lives dated 
far back in the past century or two. That there was a 
building on the spot there is little doubt. Under the old 
apple trees, where briars and weeds grow thick and rank, 
only a few feet back from the highway, the outlines of a 
foundation may be readily traced. Between this founda- 
tion and the river embankment are the remains of a number 
of stones marking the graves of persons, some of whom were 
apparently buried in the seventeen hundreds, while others 
were laid to rest in the eighteen hundreds. 

The more modern stones indicate the spot as a burial 
place for a branch of the Van Buskirk family. Here are 
inscriptions, all clearly legible: 

In memory of Jacob Van Buskirk, born the 20th of 
June, 1765, and departed this life 12th January, 1812, 
aged 46 years, 6 months and 1 2 days. 

Call and see as you pass by. 
As you are now so once was I. 
As I am now you soon must be; 
Prepare foi death and follow me. 



In memory of John Van Buskirk, who was born Sept. 
10, 1742. and departed this hfe Dec. 8, 1820, aged 78 
years, 2 mos. and 28 days. 

My dearest friends they dwell above; 
And all my friends in Christ below 
Will soon come after me. 



38 FIRST LUTHERAN CHURCH 

In memory of John Van Buskirk, who departed this life 
December 3d, 1825, aged 83 years and 4 mos. 
How happy are the souls above. 
From sin and sorrow free ; ; 
With Jesus they are now at rest. 
And all his glory see. 



Elizabeth Van Buskirk, widow of John Bogert, born 
Feb. 22d, 1722, died April 27, 1802, aged 80 yrs., 2 
mos. and 5 days.. 



In memory of William Walter Weller, who died 24th of 
August, 1833, aged 12 years. 

Life how short. 
Eternity how long. 



In addition to the above there are parts of gravestones 
covered with soil where they toppled over. Most of the in- 
scriptions are wholly or in great part obliterated. One of 
these shows figures 1775 or 1825, and "7 mos. and 20 
days," with the words below: 

Hark, from the tomb, a doleful sound. 
My soul, attend the call. 

What is apparently a foostone bears the letters "H. D." 

At the southern border of this burying-ground is an old 
vault, built into the embankment and facing a small ravine 
which descends to the river. This vault is lined with stone, 
and has a heavy oak door, now worm-eaten and decaying. 
One of the traditions, told by an old resident, is that many 
years ago the last remains placed in the vault were those of 
a member of an Ackerman family, the coffin being contained 
in a marble sarcophagus; that the vault was not securely 
closed, when vandals entered the place, removed the marble 
top and exposed part of the body, which crumbled to ashes. 

The burying-ground is high above the river, which makes 
a long, sweeping turn at the point. In the course of time the 
stream has eaten deep into the sandy embankment. Many 
persons tell how they have seen the ends of coffins protrud- 
ing from the crumbling slope ; others declare that they have 
seen skulls roll into the stream; and old fishermen aver that 
on more than one occasion they hooked up from the water 
human bones. Nobody seems to have taken thought for the 
care of this old resting place of the dead. 

Walter Bound, who lives immediately south of the old 
burying-ground, says that he was told by a Mr. Lozier, 



FIRST LUTHERAN CHURCH 39 



twenty-five or thirty years ago, that there had been a wooden 
church on the place, but it had not been used for religious 
purposes during his informant's time; it had, however, been 
utilized as a sheepfold in severe weather. 

The Rev. Justus Falkner, who came from Halle, Sax- 
ony, to New York in 1 703, appears to have been the mis- 
sionary pastor of the church on the Hackensack. In "The 
German Pietists of Pennsylvania — 1694-1708," Pastor 
Falkner is quoted: "In the Jerseys there I visit three small 
Lutheran congregations living a great distance one from the 
other; all these three consist of about one hundred communi- 
cants, the most poor people and poor settlers." He also 
served four congregations in New York, numbering about 
one hundred communicants in all. To minister to these 200 
persons representing seven churches he traveled about 1 ,200 
Lnglish miles. His field extended from Albany along the 
Hudson to Long Island, Raritan, N. J., and other points. 
Pastor Falkner died in Newburgh, N. Y., in 1 723. 

In his private "Kerchen-Boeck," under date of Feb. 27, 
1 704, the first ministerial act of the Rev. Mr. Falkner re- 
corded is the baptism administered in the barn of Cornelius 
van Boschkerck at "Hackinsack," to three children: Dirck, 
son of "Mattheus Corneliussen en syner Huysuvow Trinje, 
gebooren op Hackinsack"; a son of Laurens van Boschkerck 
and his wife Henrichje; also a daughter of Rudolph Berg. 
In April of the same year Pastor Falkner baptized in the 
New York church, Antje, daughter of Piejer van Bosch- 
kerck, of Constable's Hook, born Dec. 26, 1 703. Follow- 
ing this, he wrote in his book. "O Lord! Lord! Let this 
child, together with the three above written Hackinsack 
children, be and remain engrossed upon the book of life, 
through Jesus Christ. Amen." 

Andreas van Boskerk was a warden of the New York 
church, and Laur van Boskerk was vorsteher and overseer 
(Kirch-meister). 

One may but faintly imagine the trials of Pastor Falk- 
ner in his long travels up and down the wilderness of the 
Hudson and through the Jerseys, to carry the Bread of Life 
to his "poor people and poor settlers." What should have 
been a monument to his memory on the banks of the Hack- 
ensack is only the almost obliterated site of a spot where he 
is supposed to have gathered one of his little flocks. 

While there is no definite history of the Lutheran Church 
at Hackensack, its existence is further attested by a record 
that the Rev. Dr. Henry Melchoir Muhlenberg, founder of 



40 FIRST LUTHERAN CHURCH 



the Lutheran Church in America, preached there in 1 750. 
The congregation does not appear, however, to have been 
sufficiently vigorous to maintain itself, and it presumably 
died out. 



THE PASSING OF FAMILY HISTORY. 

By the Demolition of Private Cemeteries, Read at the 
Annual Dinner, February 22, 1907. 



BY EVERETT L. ZABRISKIE. 



In passing through the northern part of New Jersey, and 
especially Bergen County, whether wheeling, drivmg or 
motoring, one passes many old homesteads, mansions of other 
days, which were constructed mostly of stone, built to last 
and of that quaint old Dutch style of composite architecture 
familiar to the early settlers in this locality. Near the house 
the garden, set in its design and filled, not with the more 
delicate species of flowers of to-day, but those shrubs and 
hardy perennials so dear to the hearts of our grandmothers. 
To the rear, the barns with their low-spreading thatched 
roofs and abundance of floor space. This scene causes one 
to pause a moment and reflect. We find here the sturdy 
farmer tilling the fields and supplying himself with most of 
the necessaries of life therefrom. His was the ideal Hfe, 
full of hard work, but independent and healthful. He was 
distant from towns and churches. His children taught by 
the traveling teacher going from house to house. Thus you 
find a community of home-loving, hard-working. God-fearing 
people, true to themselves and their country, as evidenced 
by the loyal support rendered their country in time of need. 
You can readily see, then, when the Angel of Death spread 
his wings over such a homestead they cared not to sever the 
ties and memories existing through life, but rather to com- 
plete the cycle from the cradle to the grave upon that tract 
of land they loved so well — the farm. 

How strong the contrast when one considers the roving 
life of to-day. For instance, a man born in Savannah, 
reared in Washington, casting his first ballot in Chicago, 
married in Los Angeles, living in New York, with business 
interests at Havana. 

Aside from the sentimental reasons, there are others why 
the cemetery was located upon the farm ; namely, the 
scarcity of public cemeteries, those existing being located near 
the churches, and these some distance away. The idea of 
the family vault was brought from the fatherland and ante- 
dates the private cemetery somewhat. 



42 THE PASSING OF FAMILY HISTORY. 

Allow me to introduce a sketch of these cemeteries as we 
find them to-day, selecting those near my native town for 
purposes of illustration — the Hopper Cemetery. There are 
more than one of these, but the one described is situated 
about 500 feet north of the Undercliff station, on the main 
line of the Erie R. R. ; it crowns a knoll of ground, sheltered 
under the high cliffs of the foothills of the Ramapos. A 
white fence made of wood and in the last stages of decay 
surrounds this plot, which is about 50 feet square. There 
are within twenty graves, some with marble slabs, some with 
less pretentious brown stones, and some with field stones set 
upon the edge and without inscriptions, and all at various 
angles with the ground. In the centre of the plot stands a 
whitewood tree, planted there when this plot was cared for, 
but to-day it towers some sixty or seventy feet above this 
humble aiaode of the dead, and its branches completely cover 
the square. To complete this scene, brush to the height of 
five or SIX feet grows wild. 

The Zabriskie Cemetery. 
Situated on the Paramus Road at Blauvelt's Mills and 
upon the farm of Albert Hopper. Here we find practically 
the same conditions hold good, except it is situated upon a 
knoll near the brook and not protected by natural conditions; 
also minus the fence, cr at least all semblance of the same. 

Baldwin Cemetery. 

Situated upon the Saddle River Road, a short distance 
north of the old Joe Jefferson place. Here we find the con- 
ditions are similar to the others, except where there was 
brush some years ago there are trees to-day, and the place 
has the appearance of a grove. There are, all told, about 
a dozen of these plots near by, namely: 

Hopper Cemetery at Undercliff. 

Hopper Cemetery at Glen Rock. 

Hopper Cemetery at Fairlawn. 

\ ne Zabriskie Cemetery at Paramus. 

The Baldwin Cemetery at Saddle River. 

The Doremus Cemetery at Areola. 

The Jarolmen Cementery at Lower Paramus. 

The Westervelt Cemetery at Spring Valley. 

Old Public Cemetery at Saddle River. 

Old Public Cemetery at Paramus. 

Old PubHc Cemetery at Wyckoff. 

Old Public Cemetery at Hudson St., Hackensack. 

And various other ones. 



THE PASSING OP FAMILY HISTORY. 43 

These were generally situated upon the rear of the farm 
and near some stream. I have in mind only one of these 
spots that has been preserved, namely, that on the Wessell's 
property at Lower Paramus, and this should serve as a 
model to the descendants of those who lie in these neglected 
spots. 

Are we, in this age of hustle and bustle, going to allow 
our efforts for wealth and distinction to predominate over our 
better natures, or give some thought and labor toward re- 
storing and preserving the memories of these ancestors, who 
are responsible for our existence and toward whom we owe 
reverence and respect? 

Now, right here let me explain the work of restoration 
carried on by myself at Boardville, N. J., the original home 
of the Boards. Here was the family plot, situated upon 
a hill overlooking the Wanaque River. Thii spot was cov- 
ered with brush, the surrounding fence dilapidated and the 
stones at various angles. This scene met my eyes upon 
driving through the place. I learned, upon inquiry, that 
this property was bought by Miss Hewitt, and found the old 
deeds preserving the plot from sale, but not from the ravages 
of time. That day an agreement was reached to reset the 
stones, clear the brush, paint and restore the surrounding 
fence, clear the ground of all roots and grade and seed the 
same. To-day, instead of presenting a view of a clump of 
bushes, there appears a green-swathed plot, surrounded by a 
neat fence and everything presenting a good appearance. 
Could not other places be so treated? 

How about the family history, ties, and the fund of in- 
formation to be found chiselled upon these tablets? This in- 
formation is invaluable to this Society, as much so as are the 
various church records. 

We see societies for the preservation of historic objects 
donate funds and labor towards the recovery of some rehc 
or the restoration of some old building, because some noted 
person once used this relic or occupied this building; but 
how much more interesting would the restoration of the last 
resting place of this noted person and his family be? 

Let us collect this fund of information with suitable photo- 
graphs of the local conditions and record them in a volume 
to be filed with this Society, where it would be accessible any 
time. One can only realize the value of these records when 
legal researches are made, or when genealogical work of any 
kind is undertaken. The cost of this would be nommal, and 
could be borne in part by the sale of this book to those in- 
terested. 



44 THE PASSING OF FAMILY HISTORY. 



In conclusion, let us consider a few odd epitaphs col- 
lected from these forgotten spots. 

Such a one as this is rarely seen to-day : 

Sacred to the memory of William Warmsley, who de- 
parted this mortal life August 4th, 1 803. Fifty-nine years. 

Oh, death, 'tis thine to end man's mortal life and cut 
the tender ties of husband and wife; the tender sympathy 
of married life dissolved by thee soon sickens, dies. But 
soon, O King of Terrors, thy sway shall end, for thine, 
though long, is not an eternal sleep. When the last trumpet 
call shall sound, rocks and mountains on us fall; the just 
shall rise, ascend and cease to weep. Accept this tribute, 
dear departed friend, the last sad offerings of a much loved 
wife, and, when with her the voyage of Hfe shall end. Oh, 
may she join thee in eternal life. But thou who healeth all 
human woes grant that she may not sit solitary till life's 
close, but give to her another partner of worth and a few 
more happy days upon this earth." 

Rather lengthy, but covering all sides of the case. 

Again : 

Here lies the body of Jonathan Mound, lost at sea and 
never was found. 

Very consistent. 

Another : 

Beneath this stone Hes Johnnie Brown; of good men 
Death has got one; to learn if it was loaded, he one day 
blew in a shotgun. 

Further: 

I went to the country to see my mother; death took me 
instead of another. 

Again : 

Reader, pause as you pass by; as you are now, so once 
was I; as I am now, so you must be. Prepare for death 
and follow me. 

Again: 

You had better go home and dry your tears, for I shall 
stay here a thousand years. 

A Hackensack epitaph: 

Even for the dead I will not bind my soul to grieve; 
death will not long divide, for it is not as if the rose had 
climbed my garden wall and blossomed on the other side. 

Again this expressive one: 

To follow you, I am not content until I know which way 
you went. 



THE PASSING OF FAMILY HISTORY. 45 



Or. 

Here lies the body of John Oakes, who lived and died 
like other folks. 

Again: 

Maria, wife of Timothy Brown, aged eighty years, she 
lived with her husband fifty years and died in the confident 
hope of a better Hfe. 



NEW BRIDGE. 



BY FRANCIS C. KOEHLER. 



New Bridge, prior to the War of the Revolution, com- 
prised all that territory lying on both sides of the Hack- 
ensack River between Old Bridge (now River Edge) on 
the north, Hackensack on the south, Teaneck on the east, 
and Sluckup (now Spring Valley) on the west. The bridge 
built across the river al this point, probably ten or twelve 
years before the war, gave it its name. This bridge was 
built on piles driven into the river bed, cross-sectioned and 
tne floor laid over it. About the time of the War of 1812 
the easterly piles were taken out and a draw put in. In 
the year 1 888 the present iron bridge was built, and in 
building the westerly draw the piles of the original bridge 
were pulled out. They were square hewn and in a remark- 
ably good state of preservation. 

The first white settlers came to New Bridge in the middle 
of the seventeenth century. At that time the channel did 
not run in a straight course as it does now, but swung far 
to the eastward, describing a figure S below the bridge. One 
autumn afternoon a canoe slowly turned the great bend on 
the easterly side of the river, now called the Old River, 
containing three persons, a woman and her two sons. Their 
name was Demarest. Before them, among the trees on the 
bend of the river, they could see the tepees and wigwams of 
an Indian village. Tired from their long journey from New 
Amsterdam, they sought rest and shelter among the Indians 
who lined the bank and who bore all evidences of friendli- 
ness, and here they were destined to remain. A few days 
later small-pox broke out in the village, and the good old 
French woman, who had undergone so many hardships in this 
new country, was one of the first to succumb. Tenderly 
her sons buried her among the wild-roses on a small knoll 
on the easterly bank overlooking the river, about three- 
quarters of a mile north of the present bridge. Here, in a 
strange land, and among a savage people, were interred the 
remains of the old French woman, the first of the many who 
were to follow. The little plot in which she was laid away 
was destined to become the last resting place of many of 



48 



NEW BRIDGE. 



her compatriots, and is still called the French cemetery. 
Many an afternoon, after school, have I spent among the 
tangled vegetation and wild roses trying to decipher the 
fading inscriptions on the crumbling tombstones. 

The sons decided to remain near the last resting place of 
their mother, and new arrivals soon made quite a settlement. 
1 he coming of the settlers scon forced the natives north- 
ward, and where the wigwams once stood the smoke curled 
above the hut of white men. On the easterly bank of the 
river the population was composed mostly of French fam- 
ilies, while on the westerly side lay the farms of the Dutch 
and Poles. 

At the breaking oul of the Revolutionary War New 
Bridge was a bustHng little hamlet, surrounding the tavern 
which stood on the site of the present hotel. It was a more 
important village then than it is now. The river traffic and 
the stage line which started daily from the New Bridge 
tavern made it a place of commercial activity. 

On the westerly bank of the river stood the farmhouse of 
John Zabriskie, whilst to the south stood the large grist mill, 
the great wheel turning slowly 'round, grinding the grain 
brought from near and far. To the dock hard by was 
warped a large schooner that plied between the village and 
the city of New York. The peace of husbandry rested upon 
the scene, and no wonder when the rumors of war reached 
the settlement the stolid farmer-miller Zabriskie refused to 
be disturbed, and many of his phlegmatic Dutch neighbors, 
whose broad acres were heavy-laden with the crops growing 
upon them, agreed with him that peace was far preferable 
than war. Not so, however, with their Huguenot neighbors 
across the river. Through their veins ran the hot blood of 
freedom; they had crossed the seas to escape the despotism 
of kings, and St. Bartholomew was still more than a mem- 
ory. The spirit of the Fronde was bred in them, and they 
hailed the coming conflict with delight. "Whilst the Dutch 
or Polish farmer boy was harvesting his father's crops, bar- 
reling his cider and pursuing the peaceful pursuits of hus- 
bandry, the French boy was hastening to join the army of 
Washington. 

Since the farmer-miller Zabriskie and his friends would 
not go to war, a relentless destiny ordained that war should 
come to them, and so one autumn day the scene of war 
shifted to New Bridge. Across the bridge came the ragged 
host of Washington, staggering beneath its successive defeats, 
and spreading over the acres of the farmer-miller and those 



NEW BRIDGE ' 49 



of his neighbors on the hill went into camp. Vainly did he 
and his friends endeavor to resist the invaders, but they took 
possession of his grist mill and stationed the soldiery in his 
homestead and outhouses. 

The grand old schooner was ruthlessly torn from the 
moorings and sunk in mid-stream, lest she fall into the hands 
of the British, who were reported but a few miles to the 
eastward. On Brower Hill, where the reservoir now stands, 
beneath which the Hackensack Valley spreads in beautiful 
panorama before the eye, they threw up earthworks and 
planted guns which commanded the bridge, the river and the 
country extending to where the Teaneck Ridge marks the 
eastern horizon. 

Fully a week the tired army lay encamped in the fields 
of Zabriskie, Banta and Lozier, when one morning the ad- 
vance guard of Lord Cornwallis' army arrived. From the 
Teaneck Ridge came a puff of smoke, and an eight-pounder 
whistled over the valley, soaring high over the earthworks 
and ploughnig into the hillside where stood the grist mill of 
Farmer Van Saun in Sluckup. A man working in the field 
saw it bury itself in the ground, dug it up and brought it 
to the mill, where for years it lay, disappearing a few years 
ago. Soon the English gunners got the range, and now and 
then a shot would crash through the roof of the house of 
Zabriskie or tear great rents into the sides of his outbuildings. 
The proximity of the British brought the tired army to its 
feet, and the general movement southward began, and soon 
the last soldier had disappeared down the highway on which 
the Bergen Turnpike trolley now runs. The scene of war 
had again shifted, and New Bridge was left to its patriots 
and its tories. 

Such, briefly, is the history of New Bridge, and few of 
us realize, when we are passing through the quiet little ham- 
let, that we are treading on historic ground. 

Of the many aged persons with whom I have discussed 
the history of this section, probably the best informed was 
Mr. Cornelius Banta, late of Spring Valley (referred to as 
Sluckup). This old gentleman died about two years ago 
at a very advanced age. Born on the farm where his fore- 
fathers had lived a century before the Revolution, he had 
from earliest childhood evinced a keen interest in the his- 
torical events of this community. As a boy he had listened 
eagerly to the tales of his grandfather, who was a lad of 
fourteen in 1 776, and he kept them ever green in his mem- 
ory. About this old gentleman there clung an atmosphere of 



50 NEW BRIDGE 



the long ago, and he believed in spirits and ghosts as firmly 
as did his Dutch ancestors. Driving over Howland avenue, 
Vk^hich leads from the main road in Cherry Hill westw^ard 
to the Spring Valley road, one evening he told me how sev- 
enteen soldiers of the Continental Army were overpowered 
and killed one dark night in November, 1 776, by a band of 
tories, while on guard duty at the little bridge which spans 
a small creek which crosses Howland avenue at the foot of 
the hill, and how his grandfather witnessed their burial on 
the westerly slope of Brower Hill. This spot had been 
shown to him by his grandfather, when a boy ; a rough board 
then marked the spot, but the plough has long furrowed the 
ground over the last resting place and all traces of it have 
long disappeared. The bridge has ever since been called 
"Spook Bridge," for no one would venture across it after 
nightfall, as it was said to be guarded by the spirits of these 
slain soldiers. With great solemnity the old gentleman told 
me that he had tried to cross it one night many years ago, 
but his horse became frightened and refused to cross, and 
he was compelled to go home through a lane farther to the 
north. As we drew nearer to the bridge, he poked me in the 
ribs with his elbow and gravely asked: "You're not afeared. 



are you 



y. 



Writing to me of the old fort on the brow of Brower 
Hill, he says: "Washington's fort or earthworks — the very 
spot where the reservoir now is — I have seen it, the banks 
were about three feet high seventy years ago when I went 
to schocl. Right across the road from Mrs. Lozier's house. 
We boys went up there often to romp." 

The old gentleman was rich with anecdotes of the begin- 
ning of the 19th century, and he writes me in this quaint 
way, this interesting biography which has historical value: 

"There was a man at the time of the war who did live 
right across the road from the Cherry Hill Church; his 
name was Meeker. He did join the British Army. They 
gave him a position as major. Meeker after '.he war he was 
very loyal to the country and our Independence. He did 
rejoice every fourth of July, more so than many others. 
Washington's men left one cannon in the old fort. One of 
the wheels was broken at the time that they did leave for 
Morristown or Trenton. On a fourth of July the old major 
and others went up on the old fort and put a charge of pow- 
der in it. He got a nigger to touch her off. The cannon 
did burst all to flinders and did kill the nigger. The old 
major did die about 1 832. I was at his funeral among 



NEW BRIDGE 51 



other school boys. They did bury him at the French Ceme- 
tery. He was buried by the honors of war, yet he was a 
traitor to his country. There were s\me twenty soldiers — 
they did shoot over the casket. I have seen several of the 
tories who did join the British Army." 

There is no doubt in my mind that the Continental Army 
crossed the Northern Valley in several columns, the two 
greater columns passing over the Teaneck ridge, one cross- 
ing the Hackensack River at Old Bridge (River Edge) and 
passing to the westward over the hill by way of the road 
called Continental Avenue. Where the brook which divides 
Riverside Borough from Midland Township crosses the 
road they turned southward, until they reached the broad 
acres of the Banta farm in Sluckup, where they encamped 
within a short distance of the other column, which had 
crossed the Hackensack at New Bridge as heretofore re- 
lated. 

On this subject the old gentleman wrote me as follows: 

"My grandfather was fourteen years old at the time of 
the war. He was among the soldiers every other day. His 
father had a cider mill. He took a barrel of cider every 
other day — got paid for it. All over the field where Rapp's 
house is and Lozier's field, then up as far as Westwood. My 
grandfather saw Washington three times on his horse. I 
hope you will accept this with pleasure." 

This small contribution, I trust, will supply a link in the 
chain of events of our early history and give to New Bridge 
a more conspicuous position in the chronicles of those times. 



I 



THE BAR OF BERGEN COUNTY. 
Read at the Annual Dinner, February 22, 1907, 



BY CORNELIUS DOREMUS. 



The legal profession has had much to do in all ages with 
the development and progress of the civilized world. We 
read in sacred and secular writings how in the earliest days 
men of the law were consulted by rulers and conquerors 
when rules and customs were to be made and adopted for 
the government of the people over whom they held sway. 
Among ancient peoples, the laws of the Israelites, the re- 
nowned and unchangeable laws of the Medes and Persians, 
the Justinian Code, Roman laws, and to come to later 
periods, the Code Napoleon, the great Common Law sys- 
tem, known as English Jurisprudence, the Magna Charta, 
our American Constitution and the acts of Congress, consti- 
tutions and laws of our various States, are all the work of 
lawyers and all prove the influence of and necessity for the 
legal profession in promoting civilization and growth. 

This is not intended as a panegyric on lawyers but an 
introduction to the topic and to refute the frequently uttered 
statement by disappointed litigants and others of a sarcastic 
humor that lawyers are hars and cumberers of the earth, and 
the less laws and lawyers we have in proportion would the 
people thrive and be better off. In the humble opmion of 
the writer, the legal profession has done its part right 
worthily and side by side with the clerical, medical, scholas- 
tic and other professions and walks in life to place our 
county in the front rank. It is important in considering the 
history of the Bar of the county that we glance at the his- 
tory of the courts as well, that being the scene of their 
activities. 

There never has been any need in Bergen County — 
thanks to the careful elucidation of the law and lucid presen- 
tation of facts by the judges and lawyers of this county — to 
do what Judge Grier did. He set aside the verdict of a 
jury against an unpopular man with the remark, "Enter the 
verdict, Mr. Clerk; enter also, set aside by the Court. I 
want it understood that it takes thirteen men to steal a man's 
farm in this Court." 



54 the bar of bergen county 

Earliest Courts. 

Baron Van der Cappellen established a Court at Union 
Hill and settled differences between the Indians and white 
settlers. The exact date of the establishment of this Court 
is not known. 

In 1655 we find he appointed Adrian Post as his deputy 
to "treat with the Hackensack Indians for the release of 
prisoners"; and in 1657 he made a treaty with the Indians, 
through another deputy. Van Dincklogen, which provided, 
among other things, their "submission to the Courts of Justice 
at Hospating, near Hackensack." 

For nine years, from 1652 to 1661, and possibly a year 
or two later, the Court of Burgomasters and Schepens were 
in active operation in this section. A local Court, consist- 
ing of a Schout (presiding judge) and three Schepens, or 
magistrates, was established at Bergen in September, 1661. 

The first judges were Tielman Van Vleck (presiding 
judge), and Michael Jonsen, Harman Smeerman and Cas- 
per Stainmets (associate judges). This Court had civil and 
criminal jurisdiction, and an appeal from its decisions was 
made to the Director General and Council at Manhattan. 
The judges were required to take an oath to "carefully exe- 
cute justice, prove faithful to their superiors (named in the 
oath) and maintain the Reformed reHgion and no other." 

Such were the bulwarks of our Reformed Church. It is 
not to be wondered at that this church should be strong and 
stalwart, with such a guardian in its infancy. 

The first trial of which we have authentic record is the 
case of Captain John Berry, November 11,1 673, for tak- 
ing hogs from Major Kingsland. He was fined 250 guild- 
ers. He appealed to the High Court at Fort Amsterdam, 
and it was reduced to 100 guilders. It was paid (as was 
the custom) 1-2 to the prosecutor, 1-6 to the church, 1-6 to 
the poor, and 1 -6 to the Court trying the case. 

Jury Trials. 

In I 683 the twenty-four proprietors in that famous com- 
pilation "The Fundamental Constitutions for the Province of 
East New Jersey in America" decreed that "justice nor 
right should be bought or sold" and that "all tryals should 
be by twelve men, and as near as it may be, peers and 
equals," also that "in cases of life there shall be at first 
twenty-four returned by the sheriff for a grand inquest"; it 
thus appears that our present jury system (grand and petit) 



THE BAR OF BERGEN COUNTY 55 



had a very early foothold in our jurisprudence and has prac- 
tically maintained it without change, notwithstanding the 
many changes in our mode of life. 

On May 1 4th, 1 688, an Act was passed by the General 
Assembly, held at Perth Amboy, creating a "Court for 
Trial of Small Causes" to be held monthly at the house of 
Lawrence Andriss at New Hackensack, the name by which 
the settlement on the west side of the Hackensack River was 
known. Old Hackensack was the territory on the east side 
of the river. And one at the house of Dr. Johannes, on the 
Hackensack River. 

Hackensack Made a County Seat. 

Prior to I 709 Bergen County did not include the terri- 
tory west of the Hackensack River. In that year the lines 
of the county were enlarged and the country lying west of 
the Hackensack River taken in. The village of Hackensack 
was then made the County seat and the first Court House 
built. It stood on "The Green" near Main street, and was 
destroyed by the British in 1 780. 

There were twelve classes of crimes punishable with 
death, but time and space prevent enumeration of them. 
Stocks, pillory and whipping-post were familiar scenes. Only 
four years prior to this time, in 1 704, the Supreme Court 
of this State was established by Lord Cornbury. 

The second court house and jail were built in Yough- 
pough, in Franklin Township, during the Revolution. A 
log jail was also built there. Hackensack was too near the 
British lines. Noah Callington, a Tory, was hung at the 
Youghpough jail. 

The third court house of Bergen County, and first after 
the Revolution, was built at Hackensack, near Main street, 
on property later of Richard Paul Terhune. A clerk's 
office was built about 1 8 1 2 on the west side of Main street, 
north of the Susquehanna R. R., and remained until 1853. 
In 1 8 1 9 the present Court house was built on property deed- 
ed by Robert Campbell. The present generation of Bergen 
County lawyers expect to see it replaced by a modern and 
radical structure thoroughly up to date, as planned by the 
present Baord of Freeholders and Court House Commis- 
sioners. 

Lawyers. 

It is a curious fact that in our early history justices of the 
peace were evidently regarded as superior beings, and it was 
not thought proper to inoculate them with the virus of legal 



56 THE BAR OF BERGEN COUNTY 

lore, probably upon the theory that they might cease to be 
judicious. We find that in the time of Lord Carterets by 
an "Act of the General Assembly at Woodbridge, October 
5th, 6th, 7th and 8th, I 676," it was enacted "That no jus- 
tice of the peace within this province shall serve as an attor- 
ney or advocate * * * upon penalty of paying ten 
pounds fine. " 

The same Assembly passed an Act that the salary of the 
Governor should be paid in good, merchantable pease, wheat 
and tobacco, and prescribed the method of its collection. 
As no mention is made of how lawyers should be paid, or 
whether they should be paid at all or should be obliged to 
stick to the risky and uncertain "honorarium" system, we 
are not further interested in the fifteen truly curious and 
wonderful laws passed by that Legislative Assembly, and 
pass on. In passing, however, we commend the brevity of 
the session and paucity of laws to some other Legislative 
bodies we wot of. 

The lawyers, in the early history of Bergen and other 
counties, were apparently held in much less esteem than are 
those of the present day and generation. 

Gabriel Thomas, in his history, written at the close of the 
Seventeenth century, says: "Of lawyers and physicians I 
shall say nothing because this country is very peaceable and 
healthy; long may it so continue and never have occasion 
for the tongue of the one nor the pen of the other, both 
equally destructive to men's estate and lives ; besides for- 
sooth, they, hangman like, have a license to murder and 
make mischief." 

A chronological list of the lawyers of the county would be 
too lengthy for the limits of this paper, and I shall only 
sketch, in outline and briefly, the history of the Bar of Ber- 
gen County. 

The first of whom we have knowleage is Tielman v an 
V^leck, admitted as an attorney in 166K 247 years ago. 
There undoubtedly was plenty of room for him. No crowd- 
ing at the top and no congestion in the Court house when 
he searched records or tried cases. In fact, he must have 
been rather lonesome with no brother attorneys to borrow 
nis books, steal his thunder and hand out to him the pleasant 
amenities, e. g., notices of motion, trial of cases and other 
pleasantries when he wanted to go shooting, attend a base- 
ball game, go to the theatre and otherwise take due care 
of his healtii. 



THE BAR OF BERGEiN COUNTY 57 



We next find the names of Claes Arentse Toers, Baltha- 
zar Bayard, William Pinhorne, admitted in 1661; John 
Pinhorne, admitted in 1707; David Ogden, Mr. Duane, 
Mr. Lodge, dates of admission not known, but find them 
practicmg betwen 1 720 and 1 750. 

Robert Morris, John DeHart, practismg, but date of 
admission unknown. 

Mr. Legromsie, Mr. Nicoll, Dr. Isaac Brown, same. 
(1756 to 1761.) 

Elisha Boudinot appointed sergeant at law; Cortlandt 
Skinner was appointed attorney-general July 10, 1754. 

Of the above, William Pinhorne was second judge of 
the Supreme Court in 1704; judge of Bergen County 
Courts from 1 705 to 1 709. He had previously been 
Governor. 

His son John was County Clerk of Bergen County in 
I 705 and admitted as a lawyer June 6, 1 707. He prac- 
ticed in Bergen County. It would be impossible to men- 
tion all the lawyers from this County within the limits of 
this article, and I shall briefly present an outline sketch of 
them to show how they have helped make the county history. 

Common Pleas Judges. 

Among the early judges of the Court of Common Pleas 
we find names so famihar to Bergen County as Edmund 
W. Kingsland, 1 789 ; Petrus Haring, 1 789 ; Garret Ly- 
decker, 1789; Jacob Terhune, 1797; John Cutwater, 
1 800 ; Abraham Westervelt, 1 800 ; and scattered along 
through subseo,uent years, Adam Boyd, Christian Zabris- 
kie. Garret Ackerson, Peringrine Sandford, Peter I. Acker- 
man, William P. Rathbone, George Zabriskie, Albert G. 
Doremus, Garret S. Demarest, Ashbel Green, Richard R. 
Paulison, and among those more recent, and whose names 
are almost household words, are: Charles H. Voorhis, 
William S. Banta, Nehemiah Millard, Garret G. Acker- 
son (father of "Young Garry," as we all knew him and 
as he was so affectionately called), William E. Skinner 
(now practising law in Hoboken), James M. Van Valen 
and the present incumbent, Hon David D. Zabriskie. In 
the earlier days most of the Common Pleas judges were not 
lawyers, but for many years it has been the invariable cus- 
tom to have the presiding judge selected from the ranks of 
the lawyers, and eight out of the nine last mentioned were 
lawyers, and excellent ones at that. 



58 the bar of bergen county 

Surrogates. 

Among the lawyers of the county who have become sur- 
rogates were Abraham O. Zabriskie, in 1838; Richard R. 
Paulison, 1848; Isaac Wortendyke, in 1868; John M. 
Knapp, in 1877. Other recent surrogates are Tuenis A. 
Haring and David A. Pell (the present incumbent), who 
are not lawyers, but are thoroughly equipped for the duties 
of the office. 

Prosecutors. 

The list of lawyers who have represented the State as 
Prosecutors of the Pleas of this County is not a long one, 
but shows long service and brilliant careers. We begin 
with Lewis D. Hardenberg, 1836; Abraham O. Zabriskie, 

1 842 ; Manning M. Knapp, 1 85 1 ; WiHiam S. Banta. 

1861; Garret Ackerson, Jr., 1869; Abraham D. Camp- 
bell, 1870; Peter W. Stagg, 1895, and the present in- 
cumbent, Ernest Koester, with John S. Mackay as assistant. 

County Clerks. 

There is only one lawyer who has occupied the responsi- 
ble position of County Clerk, and that is John R. Ramsey, 
who now occupies the office and has held it since 1895, to 
the evident satisfaction of the people of the county, this 
being his third term. 

Senators. 

We find quite a sprinkling of legal talent in the list of 
State Senators, beginning with Richard R. Paulison in 
1 844 and coming down to more recent times, Isaac Worten- 
dyke, in 1880; William M. Johnson, in 1895; and Hon. 
Edmund W. Wakelee, the present wearer of the senatorial 
toga. 

Assemblymen. 

Here we find in former times the lawyers were hopelessly 
in the minority, practically none until Cornelius Christie, 
M. C. Gillham and Oliver Drake Smith prior to 1879, and 
another hiatus until 1892, when we find Samuel G. H. 
Wright, and in 1894 David D. Zabriskie; in 1898, John 
M. Bell, and in I 899, Edmund W. Wakelee. Since then 
we have had George Cook, Clarence Mabie, and now have 
Guy L. Fake. 



the bar of bergen county 59 

Justices of Supreme Court. 

Bergen County has had the honor of representation on the 
Bench of the Supreme Court in the person of Manning M. 
Knapp. 

Other Honors. 

Other honors which have come to members of the Ber- 
gen County Bar: 

Abraham O. Zabriskie was appointed Chancellor after 
he had been Surrogate, Prosecutor of the Pleas, State 
Senator. 

Charles H. Voorhis and William \Valter. Phelps, mem- 
bers of Congress. 

WiUiam M. Johnson, in addition to being acting-governor 
and Senator, was appointed by President McKinley to the 
responsible position of First Assistant Postmaster General. 
Edmund W. Wakelee, as acting-governor while in his 
hrst term as Senator. 

There are at present thirty-six lawyers practising in this 
county, and the spirit of fraternity and good feeling pre- 
vailing among them is very marked and greatly adds to the 
influence for good exerted by the Bar. 

On Dec. I 6, 1 898, a Bar Association was formed and 
is composed of practically all of the lawyers in active prac- 
tice in this county. It holds frequent meetings, has many 
active committees, and is keeping in touch with all that re- 
lates to the welfare and advancement of the interests of the 
county. 

Most of the county lawyers are also members of the 
State Bar Association, and the records show that standing 
reputation and influence of the members of the Bergen 
County Bar is fully up to the standard of any Bar Associa- 
tion of the United States. 

This paper would not be complete did it not contain a 
tribute to the marked influence exerted upon not only the 
Bar, but all the people of this county by the lamented Jus- 
tice Dixon, who presided over our Circuit Court over a 
quarter of a century, and no man ever left a greater or 
more enduring monument than the earnest and sincere love 
and affection of the entire population of our County of 
Bergen. 



^ History 

Constitution 
. Articles of Incorporation 
J Papers and Proceedings 



t 



t 

i 



1907—1908 

NUMBER FOUR 



I 

Bergen County | 
Historical Society 



' 4 t M » ♦ ♦ H t » t M » * m M M 4 I > M t t t t M M M M « I t T 



Papers and Proceedings 



OF 



The Bergen County Historical Society 
1907-1908 



NUMBER FOUR 



Secretary's Report. 1907-1908. . .FRANCIS C. KoEHLER 

Slavery in Bergen County, N. J., 

William Alexander Linn 

The Liberty Pole Tavern .... Nelson K. VandeRBEEK 

Some of Closter's Old Time History .... MaRY NaUGLE 

Scraps from My Note Book T. N. GloveR 

The Edsall Papers Dr. Byron G. Van Horne 

The Old Pohfly Road BuRTON H. Allbee 

The Church at English Neighbourhood, 

Dr. B. F. Underwood 

Necrology T. N. Glover 






Gifft 



increased so that to-night it numbers one hundred and fifty- 
two, thirty-five of the names having been added during the 
past year. We urge all who are interested in their local 
history to ally themselves with the Society and co-operate 
in the work of securing all available historical data and inci- 
dentally, by the payment of the annual dues, assist in the dis- 
charge of the financial obligations. As has been stated 
previously one of our purposes is to mark with suitable tab- 
lets the specially historical sites in our county. 

Only by united efforts can the best results be obtained, 
and, as has often been demonstrated, we will find that our 
County of Bergen is a rich historical field. 

Byron G. Van Horne, 

President. 
Feb. 22. 1908. 



I 



OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1907. 



President. 
Dr. Byron G. Van Home. 

Vice-Presidents. 
Isaac D. Bogert, Arthur Van Winkle, 

Hon. William M. Johnson, William D. Snow, 

Edward Stagg, Everett L. Zabriskie. 

Recording and Corresponding Secretary. 
Francis C. Koehler. 

Treasurer. 
Burton H. Allbee. 

Historiographer. 
T. N. Glover. 

Executive Committee. 

(In addition to the officers.) 

Eugene K. Bird, Cornelius Doremus, 

Andrew D. Bogert. 

Archive and Property Committee. 

Mrs. F. A. Westervelt, Arthur Van Buskirk, 

James A. Romeyn. 



r 



ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION OF BERGEN 
COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



This is to certify that we, the undersigned, persons de- 
siring to associate ourselves into a corporation pursuant to 
an Act of the Legislature of the State of New Jersey, en- 
titled "An Act to incorporate associations not for pecuni- 
ary profit," approved April 21, 1898, do hereby certify: 

First: — That the name or title of the said corporation is 
the Bergen County Historical Society. 

Second : — That the agent in charge of the principal office 
of said corporation, and the person upon whom process may 
be served is Burton H. Allbee, at the Office of the Society. 
The corporation shall maintain an office in the State of New 
Jersey, at Hackensack, in the Johnson Public Library 
Building, corner of Main and Camden Streets, where its 
business shall be conducted. 

Third: — The purpose for which it is formed is the in- 
tellectual cultivation and development of its members ; to 
make researches into historical facts and collect data relating 
thereto; to collect and preser%-e genealogical records, family 
traditions and other matters relating to the general work of 
the Historical Society; to cultivate a spirit of patnotism, 
foster family, state and national pride. 

Fourth: — The number of trustees shall be eighteen and 
the names of the trustees elected for the first year, are: 
WiUiam M. Johnson, Col. W. D. Snow, 

Burton H. Allbee, Henry D. Winton, 

Cornehus Christie, Ezra T. Sanford, 

Theophilus N. Glover, William A. Linn, 

Cornelius Doremus, William O. Labagh, 

Abram De Baun, Isaac I. Demarest, 

Arthur Van Buskirk, Eugene K. Bird, 

Dr. Byron G. Van Home, James A. Romeyn, 

Da\-id D. Zabnskie, Arthur Johnson. 



ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION. 



In Witness Whereof, we have hereunto set our hands 
and affixed our seals this fifteenth day of February, Nine- 
teen Hundred and Seven. 

In presence of 

Thomas H. Gumming Abram De Baun (L. S.) 

as to Abram De Baun, Arthur Van Buskirk (L. S.) 

Byron G. Van Home, Byron G. Van Home (L. S.) 

David D. Zabriskie, Theophilus N. Glover (L. S.) 

Wm. D. Snow, David D. Zabriskie (L. S.) 

Cornelius Doremus, W. D. Snow (L. S.) 

Wm A. Linn, Henry D. Winton (L. S.) 

Isaac I. Demarest, Cornelius Doremus (L. S.) 

Eugene K. Bird, WilHam A. Linn (L. S.) 

Isabel A. Siddons William O. Labagh (L. S.) 

as to Theophilus N. Glover.Isaac I. Demarest (L. S.) 

Eugene K. Bird (L. S.) 

State of New Jersey, 1 
County of Bergen. j 

Be it remembered, that on this fifteenth day of February, 
the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and seven, 
before me, the subscriber, a Commissioner of Deeds in and 
for the State of New Jersey, personally appeared Cornelius 
Doremus, Abram De Baun, Arthur Van Buskirk, Dr. 
Byron G. Van Home, David D. Zabriskie, Col. W. D. 
Snow, Henry D. Winton, William A. Linn, William O. 
Labagn, Isaac I. Demarest and Eugene K. Bird, who I am 
satisfied are the persons mentioned in the within instrument, 
to whom I first made known the contents thereof and there- 
upon they severally acknowledged that they signed, sealed 
and delivered the same as their voluntary act and deed, for 
the uses and purposes therein expressed. 

Thomas H. Gumming, 
A Commissioner of Deeds in and for the State of New 
Jersey. 



ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION. 



State of New York, 
City of New York, 
County of New York. 

Be it remembered, that on this Uventy-first day of Feb- 
ruary, in the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred 
and seven, before me, the subscriber, a Commissioner of 
Deeds for the City of New York, personally appeared 
Theophilus N. Glover, who I am satisfied is one of the 
persons mentioned in the within instrument, to whom I first 
made known the contents thereof, and thereupon he ac- 
knowledged that he signed, sealed and delivered the same as 
his voluntary act and deed, for the uses and purposes therein 
expressed. Isabel A. Siddons. 

Commissioner of Deeds, City of New York. 

State of New York, 
County of New York, 

I, Peter J. Dooling, Clerk of the County of New York, 
and also Clerk of the Supreme Court for the said County, 
the same being a Court of Record, do hereby certify, that 
Isabel A. Siddons, whose name is subscribed to the certifi- 
cate of the proof or acknowledgement of the annexed instru- 
ment, and thereon written, was at the time of taking such 
proof or acknowledgement, a Commissioner of Deeds, in 
and for the City of New York, duly commissioned and 
sworn, and authorized by the laws of said State to take the 
acknowledgements and proofs of deeds of conveyances for 
land, tenements or hereditaments in said State of New York. 
And further, that I am well acquainted with the hand- 
writing of such Commissioner of Deeds, and verily believe 
that the signature to said certificate of proof or acknowl- 
edgement is genuine. 

In Testimony Whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and 
affixed the seal of the said Court and County, the 19th 
day of March, 1907. 

(Seal) Peter J. Dooling, Clerk. 

Received in the Office and Recorded March 28th, 1907, 
at II A. M. John R. Ramsey, Clerk. 



CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS. 



ARTICLE I. 

This Society shall be known as the Bergen County His- 
torical Society. 

ARTICLE II. 

Its object shall be the collection of natural history : papers 
incident to the civil, political, military and general history 
of Bergen County and adjoining counties in New Jersey 
and Rockland County, N. Y. ; genealogical, biographical, 
and topographical information, and the diffusion of a sound 
historical taste and the encouragement of a patriotic senti- 
ment. 

ARTICLE III. 

The Society shall be made up of resident and corre- 
sponding members. Resident members shall be persons 
residing in Bergen County; corresponding members those 
residing elsewhere ; and both classes shall be chosen by open 
nomination and election at any regular or special meeting 
by the Society or by the Executive Committee at any meet- 
ing thereof. If a ballot be demanded, a majority of votes 
cast shall be necessary to a choice. Any corresponding 
member may become a resident member upon filing with the 
Secretary a written request therefor. 

ARTICLE IV. 
The Society shall hold the annual meeting in February 
on the anniversary of the birth of Washington, at which a 
general election of officers by ballot shall be had wherein 
a majority of the votes cast shall constitute a choice; and 
immediately thereafter proceed to some suitable place and 
dine together. The place for holding the annual meeting 
shall be designated at the preceding meeting. Special meet- 
ings may be called at any time by the President, and at 
all meetings nine members shall be a quorum for the trans- 
action of business. 



12 CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS. 

ARTICLE V. 

Each resident member shall pay on or before the twenty- 
second day of February two dollars each year, or in satis- 
faction thereof a Hfe membership fee of twenty dollars; and 
resident members in arrears for dues two years or more, after 
notice in writing from the Treasurer, shall cease to be 
members. 

ARTICLE VI. 

The ofTicers of the Society shall be a President, at least 
four Vice-Presidents, Corresponding Secretary, Recording 
Secretary, Treasurer. These oilicers, together with four 
members, shall compose the Executive Committee. All shall 
be chosen by ballot and hold their ofnces one year and 
until successors be chosen. In case of a vacancy it may be 
filled by the Executive Committee. 

ARTICLE VII. 
The President, or in his absence a Vice-President, or 
in their absence, a chairman shall preside and have the cast- 
ing vote. He shall preserve order, decide all questions of 
order, subject to an appeal to the Society, and appoint all 
committees unless otherwise ordered. 



ARTICLE VIII. 
The Recording Secretary shall keep minutes and rec- 
ords of the Society, make and furnish certificates of mem- 
bership, and have the custody of papers and documents 
deposited with the Society, subject to the authority and 
oversight of the Executive Committee, and discharge such 
other duties as may be required of him by the Society or 
the Executive Committee, and shall make a report of the 
transactions of the Society at the annual meeting, and the 
Corresponding Secretary shall conduct such correspondence 
as may be entrusted especially to him by the Society or 
the Executive Committee. 



CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS. 13 

ARTICLE IX. 

The Treasurer shall collect, receive, keep and pay out 
such funds as may come to the Society, subject to the con- 
trol of the Executive Committee, keep an account of the 
receipts and disbursements, rendering a statement thereof 
to the annual meeting, and shall give a bond with approved 
security for the faithful performance of his duty. 

ARTICLE X. 
The Executive Committee are charged with the duty of 
soliciting and receiving donations for the Society, to rec- 
ommend plans for promoting its objects, to digest and pre- 
pare business, to authorize the disbursement of the Society's 
funds, and generally to superintend and guard the interests 
of the Society. At all meetings of the Executive Committee 
five members shall be a quorum. The Executive Committee 
shall be convened by notice from the Recording Secretary. 

ARTICLE XI. 

In case of the dissolution of the Society, its books, papers 
and collections of every sort shall belong to and be delivered 
to the Johnson Free Public Library of Hackensack for the 
use and benefit of that association, if not contrary to the stip- 
ulation of the donor. 

ARTICLE XII. 
At the regular meeting of the Society the following order 
of busmess shall be observed: 

1 . Reading minutes of previous meeting. 

2. Reports and communication from officers. 

3. Reports of Executive and other committees. 

4. Nomination and election of members. 

5. Miscellaneous business. 

6. Papers read and addresses delivered. 

ARTICLE XIII. 
Alterations or amendments may be made by the Society 
or by the Executive Committee on a two-thirds vote of the 
members present, provided that notice of the proposed alter- 
ation or amendment shall have been given at a previous 
meeting. 



ROLL OF MEMBERSHIP. 



Honorary. 

Nelson, Hon. William Paterson 

Sanford, Rev. E. T West H th St.. New York 

Life Members. 

Allison, William O Englewood 

Cameron, Alpin J Ridgewood 

Christie, Cornelius Leonia 

Green, Allister I East 61st St., New York 

Zabriskie, Capt. A. C 52 Beaver St., New York 

Annual Members. 

Abbott, J. C Fort Lee 

Ackerman, David B Closter 

Adams, Dr. C. F Hackensack 

Allbee, Burton H Hackensack 

Banta, Irving W Hackensack 

Bennett, H. N Hackensack 

Best, L. C Ridgefield 

Bird, E. K Hackensack 

Birtwhistle, Hezekiah Englewood 

Bogart, Peter, Jr Bogota 

Bogert, A. D Englewood 

Bogert, A. Z River Edge 

Bogert, Cornelius V. R Bogota 

Bogert, Daniel G Englewood 

Bogert, I. D Westwood 

Bogert, John Hohokus 

Bogert, Matthew, J Demarest 

Brenden, Charles Oakland 

BrinkerhofF, A. H Rutherford 

Brohel, Joseph A River Edge 

Cane, Fred. W Bogota 



16 ROLL OF MEMBERSHIP. 

Colver. Frederick L Tenafly 

Connelly. Charles Hughes Englewood 

Cooper, R. W New Milford 

Corsa, George Ridgewood 

Crum, FredH River Edge 

Currie, Dr. D. A Englewood 

Dalrymple. C. M., Ph. D Hackensack 

De Baun, Abram Hackensack 

Delernater, P. G Ridgewood 

Demarest, A. S. D Hackensack 

Demarest, I. I Hackensack 

Demarest, Jacob R Englewood 

Demarest, Milton Hackensack 

Derby, Warren E Englewood 

Dixon, Charles R Closter 

Doremus, Cornelius Ridgewood 

Dutton, George R Englewood 

Easton, E. D Areola 

Edsall, J. G Pahsades Park 

Edsall, S. S Palisades Park 

Ely, William North Hackensack 

Engelke. A. L Englewood 

Engelke, Mrs. A. L Englewood 

Fairley. Rev. J. A Hackensack 

Fitch, Porter Englewood 

Ford, F. R 24 Broad St., New York 

Fornachon, Maurice Ridgewood 

Glover, T. N Rutherford 

Goetschius, Howard B Dumont 

Grunow, JuHus S Hackensack 

Hales, Henry Ridgewood 

Harding, Harry B Hackensack 

Haring, Teunis A Hackensack 

Heck, John Westwood 

Holdenby, Dr. H. S Englewood 

Holdrum, A. C Westwood 

Holley, Rev. WiHiam Wells Hackensack 

Hunter, John M Englewood 



ROLL OF MEMBERSHIP. 17 

Jacobus, Martin R Ridgefield 

Jeffers, Daniel G Hackensack 

Jeffers, Mrs. Daniel G Hackensack 

Johnson, Rev. Arthur Hackensack 

Johnson, James A. C Englewood 

Johnson, William M Hackensack 

Koehler, Francis C North Hackensack 

Kuebler, Rev. C. R Hackensack 

Ladd, Rev. Henry M Rutherford 

Lamb, C. R 23 Sixth Ave., New York 

Liddle, Joseph G 128 Bowery, New York 

Lincoln, J. C Hackensack 

Linn, W. A Hackensack 

Livingston, Alexander, Jr Englewood 

Lord, Lewis P Hackensack 

Lyle, George W Hackensack 

Lyle, Mrs. George W Hackensack 

Mabie, Clarence Hackensack 

Mabon, J. S Hackensack 

Meyer, Francis E Closter 

Miller, Lansing A Englewood 

Nostrand, Foster Closter 

Perry, George H Hackensack 

Pearsall, J. W Ridgewood 

Phillips, Miss Helen Ridgewood 

Phillips, Miss Imogene Ridgewood 

Piatt, Dan Fellows Englewood 

Poppen, Rev. Jacob Wortendyke 

Prosser, Miss Harriet Englewood 

Ramsey, J. R Hackensack 

Richardson, Milton T Ridgewood 

Riley, John H Hillsdale 

Rogers, Henry M Tenafly 

Romaine, C Hackensack 

Romeyn, James A , Hackensack 

Sage, L. H Hackensack 

Selph, William E Englewood 

Schermerhorn, George T Rutherford 



18 ROLL OF MEMBERSHIP. 

Seufert, Charles G Leonia 

Seufert, William M Englewood 

Sewall, H. D Maywood 

Sheridan, E. J Englewood 

Smith, J. Spencer Tenafly 

Smith, W. Robert Tenafly 

Snow, W. D Hackensack 

Speck, Frank G Hackensack 

Stagg, Edward D Leonia 

St. John, Dr. David Hackensack 

Talmage, Rev. D. M Westwood 

Talmage, David Leonia 

Taylor, Ira Westwood 

Taylor, Mrs. Ira Westwood 

Terhune, P. Christie Hackensack 

Terhune, Mrs. P. Christie Hackensack 

Tierney, WiUiam, Jr Englewood 

Tillotson, Joseph H Englewood 

Tyndall, William De Mott. . . 141 Broadway, New York 

Underwood, Dr. B. F Ridgefield 

Van Buskirk, Arthur Hackensack 

Vanderbeek, Nelson K Englewood 

Vanderwart, Rev. Herman Hackensack 

Van Emburgh, Dr. Walter Ridgewood 

Van Home, Dr. Byron G Englewood 

Van Neste, Rev. J. A Ridgewood 

Van Wagoner, Jacob Ridgewood 

Van Winkle, A. W Rutherford 

Van Winkle, Frank O Ridgewood 

Voorhis, Rev. J. C Monsey, N. Y. 

Vreeland, Jacob H East Rutherford 

Vroom, Rev. W. H Ridgewood 

Wakelee, Edmund W Demaresl 

Wakelee, Justus I Englewood 

Walden, E. B Hackensack 

Ward, Rev. Henry Closter 

Wells, Benjamin G Hackensack 

Westervelt, Mrs. F. A Hackensack 



ROLL OF MEMBERSHIP. 19 

Wheeler, G. W Hackensack 

Whitbeck, C. V. H Hackensack 

Willis. A. C Tenafly 

Winton, H. D Hackensack 

Wood, Robert J. G Leonia 

Wright, Wendell J Demarest 

Young, Dr. F. A 190 Wadsworth Ave., New York 

Zabriskie, Hon. David D Ridgewood 

Zabriskie, Everett L Ridgewood 

Zabriskie, W. H Hackensack 

Honorary Members 2 

Life Members 5 

Annual Members 145 

Total 152 



SECRETARY'S ANNUAL REPORT. 
By Francis C. Koehler. 



February 22. 1908. 

A secretary's report is usually dry reading, and the report 
at hand contains no greater entertainment than those on file. 
It is but a summary of what the workers are doing, yet the 
summary is worth readmg, in that it shows that the Society 
IS thoroughly alive and doing splendid work. 

The annual meeting was held on February 22d, 1907, 
at the Elks' Home, in Hackensack. The report of the 
various committees were received and after the transaction 
of routine business, election of new members and officers 
for the ensuing year, the members and their guests assem- 
bled in the banquet hall, where the Fifth Annual Dinner 
was spread. 

The following papers were read: 

"Our Society," Burton H. Allbee. 

"The Past Year," Byron G. Van Home. 

"Five Minutes with the Committees." 

"A Page from My Records," T. N. Glover. 

"The Value of the Historic Spirit," James A. Fairley. 

" The Bergen County Bar," CorneHus Doremus. 

Since the last annual meeting the Society has been in- 
corporated, and the corporation can now hold title to real 
as well as personal property. 

During the year a number of well-attended meetings have 
been held throughout the county, at which addresses were 
made by President Van Home, Mr. T. N. Glover and 
Mr. Allbee. Some of these meetings, to wit: the meetings 
at Grantwood, Leonia and River Edge, were given for the 
purpose of hearing Mr. Albee lecture and exhibit his pic- 
tures, to which many new and interesting ones have been 
added. Yet the great interest shown by Mr. AUbee's 
auditors in the history of Bergen County clearly demon- 
strated that the people are in sympathy with the work of 



22 SECRETARY'S ANNUAL REPORT. 

the Society. The other meetings held at Closter and Ridge- 
field were held under the auspices of the Society, and the 
same enthusiasm and interest were manifested. 

The increased demands for the last number of our annual 
necessitated the publication of a second edition. These rec- 
ords of our Society have gone abroad in large numbers, 
and the many requests from sister societies and public in- 
stitutions for copies of same show that they are welcome 
guests in the archives of these institutions. 

Mr. Allbee's pictures of historic sites and buildings have 
also been in great demand. Complete sets of these pic- 
tures have been acquired by the New Jersey State Histor- 
ical Society for permanent exhibition in its library at New- 
ark ; by the Colonial Dames of New Jersey ; by the Holland 
Dames of New York, and by the Daughters of the Amer- 
ican Revolution for exhibition at the Jamestown Fair, 

Mr. T. N. Glover's efforts have been untiring, and as 
historiographer he has added much new and valuable ma- 
terial to his records. 

Mrs. F. A. Westervelt has continued her earnest work 
in Genealogical research, and has collected much material. 
She has made up a scrap-book which contains matters of 
great interest and value to the Society. 

Thirty-three new members have been added to the roll 
of the Society and two resignations have been accepted. 

The Society has suffered the loss of five members by 
death: Mr. E. A. Clark, Mr. P. O. Terhune, Mr. Will- 
iam Shanks, Mr. W. O. Labagh, and Capt. A. A. Folsom. 

The sudden death of Mr. Labagh was a great shock 
to his many friends. Suitable resolutions were drawn by 
the Society and presented to his bereaved widow and family. 

The short tenure in office of your Secretary has been 
long enough to deeply impress him with the fact that the 
various committees of the Society have done and are doing 
a vast deal of work with a spirit of patriotism and enthusi- 
asm that can result only in further success. 



SLAVERY IN BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 



By William Alexander Linn. 



The history of Bergen County, as set forth in the papers 
of the Bergen County Historical Society, would not be com- 
plete without some account of the institution of slavery as it 
existed within our boundaries. The subject comes pecu- 
liarly within the scope of Bergen County historical research 
because our county was the largest slave-holding county in 
the State, and because here some of the severities of the 
laws, as applied to negro slaves, found their most vivid 
illustrations. 

Slavery was a recognized institution in this State from the 
time of its first settlement by whites. "Hollanders on the Hud- 
son," Lee tells us* "and the Sweeds on the Delaware 
brought to the shores of those rivers blacks from the West 
coast of Africa, and enslaved numbers of various tribes of 
the great Algonquin nation." 

When the Duke of York transferred the territory to Sir 
George Carteret and Lord Berkeley, these Lords Proprie- 
tors, in I 664, granted to every early colonist who went over 
the sea 75 acres of land for every slave he took with him, 
and by the year I 690 it is thought that nearly all the white 
inhabitants of the northern part of the State were slave- 
owners. 

Queen Ann's instructions to Lord Cornbury recommended 
to his notice the Royal African Company, deahng in slaves, 
saying: "And whereas we are willing to recommend unto 
said company that the said province may have a constant 
and suilicient supply of merchantable negroes, at moderate 
rates, in money or commodities, so you are to take especial 
care that payment be duly made, and within competent times, 
according to agreement," and to report yearly the number of 
negroes so supplied, and at what price. 



* Lee's "New Jersey as a Colony and a State." Vol. IV., 
P. 27. 



24 



SLAVERY IN BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 



At certain times we find imported slaves subject to a duty 
(in 1714 of £10), in order that white labor might be at- 
tracted for the more rapid settling of the country. Then 
free trade was established, for one period of fifty years, 
dating from 1 72 1 . In 1 744 an act forbidding the importa- 
tion of slaves was defeated by the Provincial Council, on the 
ground that the need of laborers could be met in no other 
way. The duty was restored in I 767. 

We have no very accurate statistics of the number of 
negroes brought into the State from Africa. If Lord Corn- 
bury made reports, as requested by Queen Ann, they lie un- 
published. A custom house report in 1 726 said that there 
were no imports from 1 698 to 1717, and only 1 00 from 
1718 to 1726. But Gordon's Gazetteer says that there 
were 4,000 negroes in New Jersey in 1 737. By 1 745 the 
number was placed at 4,600, and in 1 776 it was said that 
only one family in Perth Amboy was served by free white 
domestics. 

But public feeling, perhaps incited first by the Quakers, 
was becoming aroused on the subject of the slave trade, and 
in 1 786 an act was passed by the Assembly declaring that 
"the principles of justice and humanity require that the bar- 
barous custom of bringing the unoffending Africans from 
their native country and connections into a state of slavery" 
should be discountenanced, and imposing a fine of £50 for 
bringing into New Jersey slaves imported since 1 776, and 
a fine of £20 for introducing any others who had been im- 
ported. Two years later, in response to petitions, a sup- 
plementary act was passed which made subject to forfeiture 
vessels, with their cargoes, fitted out for slavers, and pro- 
vided that no slave, resident of the State foi a year, could 
be removed without his or her parents' consent. 

The principal ports of entry for imported slaves were 
Perth Amboy and what is now Camden. In Lord Corn- 
bury's day there were barracks at Perth Amboy, in which 
blacks newly arrived from Africa were held until sold. The 
early Philadelphia newspapers supply advertisements of car- 
goes of slaves brought direct to Camden. The Penmyl- 



SLAVERY IN BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 25 



vania Journal of May 27, 1762, contains an advertisement 
of W. Coxe, S. Oldman & Co., who announce: "Just im- 
ported from the river Gambia . . . and to be sold at 
the Upper Ferry (called Benjamin Cooper's Ferry) — now 
Camden — opposite this city, a Parcel of likely Men and 
Women slaves with some boys and girls of Different Ages." 
A note added that "it is generally allowed that the Gambia 
slaves are much more robust and tractable than any other 
slaves from the coast of Guinea, and more capable of un- 
dergoing the severity of the winter seasons in the North 
American colonies." 

The same newspaper, of August 19, 1 762, announces 
to be sold at the same place, "A Parcel of choice, healthy, 
young slaves, men, women, boys and girls . . . im- 
ported from the windward coast of Africa, Being Negroes 
from the most established parts of the coast of Africa, for 
being good house or plantation slaves. 

Indians as Slaves. 

I find no definite statement of the origin of the practice 
of enslaving Indians in New Jersey. As we have seen, the 
early settlers — Hollanders and Sweeds — made slaves of the 
native savages. It is natural to assume that the persons so 
enslaved were captives taken by the whites either in defend- 
ing their settlements from the Indians, or in counter attacks. 
While the New Jersey authorities treated the Indians with 
more fairness than did the whites of other colonies, obtain- 
ing their lands by treaty and purchase, no feeling of mercy 
was extended to the savages who from the border attacked 
the settlements, and practiced the brutalities which charac- 
. terized such warfare. Indeed, the whites retaliated in kind, 
scalping the dead and sparing neither age nor sex. 

De Vries relates that Gov. Kiept joined forces with the 
Indians around Fort Orange (Albany) in an attack on the 
Indians to the south, and that in the winter of I 643 troops 
crossed over to Pavonia and killed 80 Indians, in a night 
attack, butchering the young in the presence of their parents, 
fastening sucklings to boards and then cutting them to pieces. 



26 SLAVERY IN BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

while "some were thrown into the river, and when their 
parents rushed in to save them, the soldiers prevented their 
landing, and let parents and children drown" — this although 
the orders were to "spare as much as possible their wives 
and children, and take the savages prisoners," perhaps to 
be held as slaves. 

Gov. William Franklin, in his speech to the Council and 
General Assembly in November, 1 763, urged active ag- 
gressive operations against the Indians "to surprise them in 
their hunting and fishing, destroy their corn fields, bring off 
their women and children and burn their habitations," de- 
claring that the outrages committed by the Indians "are 
such strong instances of their breech of faith, treachery and 
inhumanity that they no longer deserve to be considered in 
the scale of human beings, or, indeed, upon a level with the 
ravenous beasts of the wilderness." Entertaining such views, 
it is not difficult to imagine that holding Indian prisoners as 
slaves would be considered a mild punishment. 

How the Supreme Court of the State regarded such slaves 
is set forth in a decision rendered in 1 797, in a case in 
which an Indian woman was claimed as a slave, and it was 
proved that her mother had been sold as a slave and always 
looked upon as one. The Court remanded the woman to 
the man who claimed to be her master, laying down this doc- 
trine: "They (the Indians) have been so long recognized 
as slaves in our law that it would be as great a violation of 
the rights of property to establish a contrary doctrine at the 
present day as it would be in the case of Africans; and as 
useless to investigate the manner in which they originally lost 
their freedom." An Indian evidently had very little standing 
in that court. 

I find no reference to the ownership of an Indian slave 
in Bergen county, but in the New York Gazette of Nov. 
14, 1763, Isaac Kingsland, Sheriff of Bergen county, ad- 
vertised: "Taken up as a runaway at Cecaicos (now Se- 
caucus), in the county of Bergen, at the house of Reiner 
Vangesen, Esq., an Indian servant lad, aged about 16 or 
1 7 years," who said he belonged to a lawyer on Long 



SLAVERY IN BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 27 



Island; "whoever comes and proves his property to the afore- 
said Indian servant at the Gaol of Hackensack may have 
"him again, paying all charges to the High Sheriff of said 
County." 

The Abolition Movement. 

Not only did public opinion in New Jersey express itself 
against the African slave trade in the early days, but it also 
made itself felt against slavery as a domestic institution. The 
dullness of the pubHc conscience on this subject in the first 
years of the settlement may be measured, perhaps, by the 
fact that Quakers not only owned slaves, but engaged in the 
African slave trade, and it required the arguments of a John 
Woolman, who labored with his fellow Quakers, north and 
south, in behalf of the abolition cause, to rouse the Quakers 
as a body to a realization of the evils of slavery. But the 
early New Jersey abolitionists were not all Quakers, for we 
find that in 1 773 petitions asking for legislation against the 
evils of human slavery were presented to the Assembly from 
Burlington, Cumberland, Essex, Hunterdon, Middlesex, 
and Monmouth Counties, and petitions for the abolition of 
slavery were received from Essex and Morris Counties in 
1790. 

An abolition society was formed in the State in 1 786, 
but it was numerically weak, and by 1 804 was said to have 
not more than 150 members. The cause slowly gained 
strength, however, and in 1804 the Legislature passed a 
law making free every child of a slave born after the fourth 
of July of that year, but with the provision that such chil- 
dren should be servants of the owners of the mothers as if 
"bound out," until the age of 25 (male) and 21 (female). 
The ov/ner of the slave mother of a child born under this 
law was obliged to maintain it for one year; then he could 
abandon it to become a township pauper and be bound out. 
The pubHc maintenance of such children became so burden- 
some that that part of the law was repealed seven years later. 

The Constitution of New Jersey adopted in 1 776 con- 
tained no Bill of Rights. Such a Bill was incorporated 
in the Constitution of I 844, setting forth that "all men are 



28 SLAVERY IN BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

by nature free and independent, and have certain natural 
and inalienable rights, among which are those of enjoying 
and defending life and liberty." The Massachusetts courts 
had held that a similar declaration in the Constitution of 
that State abolished slavery ; but the Supreme Court of New 
Jersey, which always seemed to interpret for the masters, 
held, in 1845, that the declaration in question was "a gen- 
eral proposition," and not designed to apply to "man in his 
private, individual or domestic capacity . . . or to 
interfere with his domestic relations."* 

By an act approved April 1 8, 1 846, it was decreed 
"That slavery in this State be and is hereby abolished, and 
every person who is now holden in slavery by the laws there- 
of be, and is hereby made free, subject, however, to the re- 
strictions and obligations hereinafter mentioned and im- 
posed; and the children hereafter to be born to all such 
persons shall be absolutely free from their birth, and dis- 
charged of and from all manner of service whatsoever." 

The restrictions referred to were defined in the next sec- 
tion, which provided that "every such person shall, by force 
and virtue of this act, and without previous execution of any 
indenture of apprenticeship, or other deed or instrument for 
that purpose, become and be an apprentice, bound to service 
to his or her present owner, and his or her executors or ad- 
ministrators, which service shall continue until such person 
is discharged therefrom, as is hereinafter directed." 

The master of one of these apprentices who desired to be 
"discharged" could give him an instrument setting him free, 
on obtaining from the overseers of the poor and two justices 
of the peace a certificate setting forth that the apprentice 
appeared "to be sound in mind, and not under any incapacity 
of obtaining a support." Or the master might give a bond 
in a sum of not less than $500 to prevent the freed person 
from becoming a public charge. 

The children born of such apprentices must be supported 
by the master until six years old, when they might be bound 



* For a summary of all the laws regarding slavery in 
New Jersey see "A Study of Slavery in New Jersey," by Henry 
Scofield Cooley ; Johns Hopkins University Studies. 



I 



SLAVERY IN BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 29 

out. No person could sell any such apprentice except with 
the apprentice's consent, and in writing ; and no such sale 
could be made to any person not a citizen and resident of 
this State, a violation of this last provision being made a mis- 
demeanor, as was the sending to sea, or exporting or sending 
out of this State, any such apprentice. 

It will be seen, therefore, that the abolition law of I 846 
substituted lifelong apprenticeship for absolute freedom. A. 
Q. Keasby points out* that human slavery ceased in 
New Jersey only on the ratification of the Thirteenth Amend- 
ment to the Federal Constitution, in 1865, and that if, at 
that date, "a negro born of slave parents before July 1 , 
I 804, were still hving in the State and had not been manu- 
mitted, he was legally a slave, and became emancipated 
only by virtue of that amendment." 

The Institution in Bergen County. 
The largest number of slaves were held in our coast coun- 
ties, from Sandy Hook north, the influence of the Quakers 
in opposition in the southern counties growing steadily more 
pronounced. As I have said, the largest number held in one 
county was in Bergen. The following figures from the 
Census Reports show the number of slaves in the State and 
in Bergen County in the years named: 

New Jersey, Bergen County. 

1737 3.981 

1790 11,423 2,301 

1800 12.422 2,825 

1810 10.851 2,180 

1820 7,557 1,683 

1830 2,554 584 

1840 675 222 

1850 236* 41 

1860 18* 

* "Slavery in New Jersey." Proceedings <»f the New Jer- 
sey Historical Society. Vol. IV, No. 2, Page 90. 

* Apprentices. 



30 SLAVERY IN BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

In this connection it must be remembered that Bergen 
County, as originally laid out, comprised what is now Hud- 
son County and more than one-half of Passaic. Passaic 
County was set off in I 830 and Hudson County in 1 842. 

The money value of slaves in New Jersey never reached 
the figures that prevailed in the Southern States in the years 
preceding the War of the Rebellion. It was the invention 
of the cotton gin, and the resultant increased value of the 
cotton crop, that fastened human slavery on the Southern 
States, and so enhanced the value of negro slaves. From 
manuscript bills of sale I take the following prices: 

In 1 794 Necanje Voor Hesen, of Hackensack, sold to 
David Peter Demarest, of Hackensack, "one negro man 
nam.ed Tom, aged about 33 years," for £95 current lawful 
money of New York. 

In 1 80 i T. Cornelius Van Horn, of Harrington Town- 
ship, sold to David Demarest "a negro whinch Rose" for 
$I35|/2 current money. 

In 1 803 Daniel S. Demarest, of Hackensack, sold to 
Daniel P. Demarest "a negro man or male slave named 
Tom, between 1 8 and 1 9 years old, of a yellow com- 
plexion" for $262.50. 

In 1833 John J. Van Buskirk, of Hackensack, sold to 
Henry J. Brinkerhoff "a negro man named Jack, aged about 
39 years," for $200 current money. 

The following is a copy of one of these bills of sale, all 
of which followed practically the same form: 

"Know all men of these presents that I John J. Van 
Buskirk of the township of Hackensack County of Bergen 
and State of New Jersey, for and in consideration of the 
sum of two hundred Dollars Current money, to me in hand 
paid by Henry J. Brinkerhoff of the same place as above 
said, the Receipt whereof I do hereby acknowledge myself 
to be therewith fully satisfied and paid have granted sold 
and released and by these presents do fully clearly and ab- 
solutely grant Bargain sell and Release unto the said Henry 
J Brinkerhoff A Certain Negro man Named Jack, he was 
Born the Fifteenth Day of April in the year I 794 Aged 



SLAVERY IN BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 31 

about thirty nine years to have and to hold the said Negro 
man unto the said Henry J. Brinkerhoff his Executors Ad- 
ministrators and assigns for ever and I the said John J. 
Van Buskirk for myself my heirs Executors Administrators 
and assigns will warrant and forever defend the sale of the 
said Negro man by these presents in Witness whereof I have 
hereunto set my hand and seal this sixth Day of June In 
the year of our Lord one thousand Eight Hundred and 
Thirty Three. 



"John J. Van Buskirk. 



"Sealed and DeHvered 
in the presents of 



"John Van Buskirk." 
This slave was a skilled carpenter. 

As most of the slaves were direct importations from 
Africa, or recent descendants of such natives, it can easily 
be understood that they had to be kept under strict subjec- 
tion. As a check on thieving all traffic with slaves was for- 
bidden, and if a slave, without his master's permission, 
offered an article for sale, the person to whom it was offered 
was required to whip him, which service entitled the admin- 
istrator of the punishment to a reward of half a crown, to 
be paid by the owner. A slave, convicted on his own con- 
fession of stealing, was, in 1 769, whipped at the public 
whipping-post in Hackensack and before the houses of two 
citizens on each of three days, receiving thirty-nine lashes 
each day, and being led from place to place tied to a cart's 
tail. Slaves were forbidden to own or carry a gun or pistol, 
or to take a dog with them into the woods or fields. The 
seUing of liquor to a slave made the offender subject to a 
fine of £5. Slaves were required to be at home by nine (or 
later ten) o'clock at night. A misdemeanor or disorderly 
behavior — which included stubbornness, disobedience or 
rudeness — rendered the offender liable to commitment to fhe 
workhouse or to corporal punishment. 



32 slavery in bergen county, n. j. 

Runaways and Free Negroes. 

There was constant trouble because of runaway slaves, 
and the newspapers of the day almost always contained ad- 
vertisements offering rewards for the return of such fugitives. 
So many escaped to the Indians that in 1 682 a conference 
was sought with the sachems to devise means against such 
harboring. Later it was provided that a slave from another 
province travelling in New Jersey without a license might 
be whipped. 

Later still, under State laws, the most stringent restrictions 
were placed on free negroes. By a law of 1 786 no free 
negroes from other States were allowed to travel in New 
Jersey, and a person employing or harboring such a negro 
was liable to a fine of £5 a week. Within the State free 
negroes could not travel beyond their own county without a 
certificate, and as late as 1826 the Court of Errors and Ap- 
peals held that all blacks who could not prove that they 
were free should be regarded as slaves. In I 836, in a case 
involving the ownership of a negro who claimed his freedom, 
Ryerson, J., in the Supreme Court, writing the opinion, said: 
"It was once the doctrine of this court that every colored 
person was presumed a slave till the contrary was shown. 
Although, in the Oyer and Terminer, I have more than once 
expressed an opinion that this presumption ought no longer 
to be admitted, both from the notorious fact that the gener- 
ality of persons of this description in this State are not in 
truth held as slaves now, as well as from the natural conse- 
quence which must be supposed to follow our statute for the 
gradual abolition of slavery, yet it would by no means fol- 
low that a person in the actual possession of such a colored 
man would not be affected by an implied warranty." 

Anything that looked like assisting the flight of a slave 
was severely punished. When, in 1 8 1 8, a slave escaped by 
mingling with the crowd on a ferry boat running from Eliza- 
bethtown to New York his owner recovered for the loss in 
a suit against the owner of the ferry boat. On the other 
hand, special pains were taken to secure the arrest and re- 
turn of slaves escaping from other States. 



slavery in bergen county, n. j. 33 
Manumission. 

Free negroes were regarded in New Jersey in the eigh- 
teenth century as "an idle, slothful people" (quoting a stat- 
ute of 1714) and careful provision was made against the 
turning out upon the community of such persons by any 
masters who desired to set their negroes free. A law of 
1714 required that the owner of any freed negro must give a 
bond of £200 to secure to the freedman an annuity of £20. 
Efforts to modify this law were unavailing until 1 786,* 
when a new law provided that slaves between 21 and 35 
years old, sound in mind and body, might be emancipated 
without giving security, on procuring from two overseers of 
the poor and two justices of the peace a certificate setting 
forth that the requirements as to age and health were met. 

The following is a copy of a paper manumitting a slave 
named Tobe, executed in 1 832 : 
"State of New Jersey. 

Bergen County. 
"To all to whom these Presence shall come Greeting: 

"It is hereby made known that on this eleventh day of 
August in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred 
and thirty-two, I Jacob Van Wagoner of the Township of 
New Barbadoes in the said county of Bergen Farmer, lib- 
erated manumitted and set free my negro slave Called Tobe 
of the age of thirty years or thereabouts, and I do hereby 
manumit and set free, my said negro slave, and discharge 
him from all service and demand of service to be hereafter 
made, either by me or any person claiming by, from or under 
me. In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and 
seal, the day and year aforesaid. 

"Sealed and delivered ^ John Cooper 
in presence of us. ^ David I. Christie. 

Jacob Van Wagoner. (Seal.) 
(Acknowledgement follows. ) 



• The Supreme Court of the State in 1776 refused to re- 
mand to slavery the child of a manumitted slave who was 
claimed by the daughter of the master who freed the child's 
father, on the ground that the master has not given the securltj 
required by law. 



34 



SLAVERY IN BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 



"State of New Jersey. Bergen County, to wit: 
"We do hereby certify that on this eleventh day of 
August in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred 
and thirty two, Jacob Van Wagoner of the Township of 
New Barbadoes in the County of Bergen brought before 
us two of the overseers of the said Township and two of the 
Justices of the peace of the said County, his slave named 
Tobe, who on view and examination appears to us to be 
sound in mind and not under any bodily incapacity of ob- 
taining a support, and also is not under the age of twenty 
one years, nor above the age of forty years. 

"In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands, the 
day and year above written. 



John Zabriskie. 
Rowland Hill 

David I. Christie. 
John Cooper. 



Overseers of the Poor. 



Justices of the Peace." 



Tobe met a colored widow known as Ice in Hackensack 
at a training in 1837, and married her. Both of them 
worked for and lived with Henry Brinkerhoff at English 
Neighborhood for a few years. Then they moved to Fort 
Lee, where Tobe worked at different pursuits and Ice took 
in washing. Tobe became intemperate, and in 1 882 both 
he and his wife were taken to the poor house, where Tobe 
died in 1 883 and Ice in 1 886. They had expressed a wish 
to be buried near Fort Lee, and Mr. John S. Watkins had 
the bodies moved to the Edgewater cemetery, and a stone 
put up to mark the graves. Tobe and his wife are said to 
have been the last of the Bergen county slaves. 

Burning at the Stake. 
Nothing connected with slavery in Bergen County is more 
abhorrent to modern ideas than the punishment that in sev- 
eral cases was meted out to slave offenders, viz., death by 
burning at the stake. We can neither understand why the 
law gave permission to inflict such punishment, nor why any 
court would order it. We must remember, however, that 



SLAVERY IN BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 35 

capital punishment in those days covered crimes that have 
long since been removed from the capital class, and that, 
with a large body of slaves to be kept in subjection, it was 
easier to see the assumed necessity of a terrible example. The 
first General Assembly of the State made arson by any per- 
son a capital offense at "the mercy of the court." 

The law under which convicted slaves could be burned at 
the stake in New Jersey (and there were such executions in 
New York) was enacted by the General Assembly of the 
Province at Perth Amboy in 1713, and the section in ques- 
tion was as follows: 

"Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid that all 
and every Negro, Indian or other Slave who, after the Pub- 
hcation of this Act, shall murder or otherwise kill (unless by 
Misadventure or in execution of Justice) or conspire or at- 
tempt the Death of any of Her Majestie's Liege People, not 
being Slaves, or shall commit any Rape on any of the said 
Subjects, or shall wilfully burn any Dwelling House, Barn, 
Stable, Outhouse, Stack or Stacks of Corn or Hay, or shall 
wilfully Mutilate, Maim or Dismember any of said Subjects, 
not being Slaves, as aforesaid, or shall wilfully Murder any 
Negro, Indian or Mulatto Slave within this Province, and 
thereof be convicted before three or more of Her Majestie's 
Justices of the Peace, one whereof being of the Quorum, who 
are hereby required and impowered to hear and determine the 
same, in conjunction with five of the Principal Freeholders 
of the county wherein such Fact shall be committed, without 
a Grand Jury, seven of whom agreeing shall give Judgment, 
and sign Execution, according to this act, and he, she or they 
so offending shall suffer the Pains of Death in such Manner 
as the Aggravation or Enormity of their Crimes (in the Judg- 
ment of the Justices and Freeholders aforesaid) shall merit 
and require." 

Four negroes were burned alive under this law in Bergen 
County. There is in the County Clerk's office in Hackensack 
an old volume bearing on its cover the title "A Book for the 
County of Bergen. To the Use of Justices and Freehold- 
ers." This book contains the manuscript minutes of the 



36 SLAVERY IN BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

Justices and Freeholders from 1716 to 1 794, and in it 
are set forth the evidence against three of the negroes burned 
alive, the names of their judges and their sentences. 

Other sentences of slaves recorded in these minutes are as 
follows : 

In October, 1731, a negro, for an assault on a white 
woman, was sentenced to receive forty and one lashes on his 
bare back, and "to be branded upon his right shoulder with 
the letter B." 

In December of the same year a negro was hanged for 
threatening the life of his master and poisoning a negro be- 
longing to Col. Wm. Provost. 

In May, 1 744, a negro was hanged for poisoning sev- 
eral blacks. In the same month another negro was hanged 
for poisoning, or attempting to poison, several persons, white 
and black. 

The first of the burnings took place in August, 1 735. 
The accused was a negro man named Jack, belonging to 
Peter Kipp, and the charge against him was "having beaten 
said master, and threatened several times to murder him and 
his son, and also to burn down his house." The court which 
tried him consisted of: WilHam Provoost, Isaac Van Gesen, 
John Stagg, Henry Vandalinda and Paulus Van Derbeck, 
Justices, and Abraham Varick, Abraham Ackerman, Eg- 
bert Ackerman, Lawrence Ackerman and Garret Hopper, 
Freeholders. 

The witnesses heard were Peter Kipp, Henry Kipp, Isaac 
Kipp, and Jacobus Huysman. Peter Kipp, whose testimony 
was corroborated by the others, testified as follows : 

"Peter Kipp declared upon the Holy Evangelist that he 
was going to one of his fields with his negro man Jack, and 
on the road he gave the said negro a blow which the said 
negro resisted and fought with his master, striking him sev- 
eral blows, and afterward taking up an ax threatened to kill 
his said master and his son, and then destroy himself, upon 
which his said master ran away for assistance and some time 
after returned with assistance. They took him and tyed him 
and after he was tyed he said that he would in the night 
when his master slept sett his house on fire." 



SLAVERY IN BERGEN COUNTY. N. J. 37 



When the testimony was concluded the prisoner was 
taken out, and sentence was pronounced as follows: 

"The Justices and Freeholders having taken the matter 
into consideration and did give sentence of death upon him 
as follcwith: that is to say, that ye said negro Jack shall be 
brought from hence to the place from whence he came, and 
there to continue until the 1 6 day of this instant August till 
ten of the clock of the morning, and then to be burnt until 
he is dead at some convenient place on the road between 
the Court House and Quacksack." 

Mr. George G. Ackerman informs me that Quacksack was 
somewhere just west of the New York Cemetery on lower 
Hucison street. 

As the offense was committed on August 1 3 and the 
execution ordered for August 16, it is evident that New 
Jersey's reputation for speedy justice was early established. 

In May, 1741, two negroes, one belonging to Albert 
Van Voor Hezen and one to Derrick Van Horn, were tried 
before three Justices and six Freeholders, on a charge of 
setting fire to seven barns "in the precinct of Hackensack.' 
The testimony was largely of a hearsay character, several 
negroes testifying that the accused threatened to "get even" 
with their masters, and one white man testifying that he saw- 
one of the negroes coming out of his barn, which soon broke 
out into flames. The verdict was that the negroes be con- 
fined until May 5, between the hours of ten and twelve, 
o'clock in the morning, "and then be burnt until they are 
dead at a Yellow Point at ye other side of Hackensack 
River near the house of Derrick Van Horn." This was 
a point south of the present Bogota depot. 

These two executions were an outcome of the so-called 
"Great Negro Plot" in New York City. Ever since 1712, 
when some negroes met in an orchard on Maiden Lane and 
organized an attack on whites (for which nineteen were exe- 
cuted), there had been apprehensions of a negro rising. In 
I 74 1 several fires in the city caused alarm, and when a 
proclamation was issued offering a reward and pardon to 
any one who would give information about a plot to burn 



38 SLAVERY IN BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

the town, a woman of bad character, under arrest for par- 
ticipation in a robbery, told a story of such a plot by 
negroes. The result, says Wilson,* was "a panic com- 
pounded by fear, rage and suspicion, which has justly been 
likened to the witchcraft delusion at Salem Village in 
1 692." Fourteen negroes were burned, eighteen hanged, 
seventy-one transported and four whites were put to death, 
one a priest. 

The fourth execution by burning in Bergen County was 
inflicted in October, 1 767. A white laborer named Law- 
rence Towrs (or Tuers) while lodging in a house in Hack- 
ensack belonging to Hendrieck Christian Zabriskie, was 
killed, as alleged, by a negro, who knocked out his brains, 
and drove a plug of wood into one of his ears. How the 
conviction of the negro was secured is thus set forth in an 
"attestation" of the Coroner of Bergen County, which was 
pubHshed at the time by the A'^ea* York Journal or General 
Advertiser, as coming to it from "a gentleman of such credit 
as leaves not a doubt of its being genuine": 

"On the twenty second day of September, in the Year 
of our Lord, 1767; I Johannes Demarest, Coroner of the 
County of Bergen and Province of New Jersey, was pres- 
ent at a View of the Body of one Nicholas Teurs, then 
lying dead, together with the Jury, which I summoned to 
inquire of the Death of said Nicholas Teurs. At that 
Time a Negro Man, named Harry, belonging to Hendrick 
Christians Zabriskie, was suspected of having murdered 
the said Tuers, but there was no Proof of il, and the Negro 
denied it; I asked him if he was not afraid to touch Tuers? 
He said No, he had not hurt him, and immediately came 
up to the Corpse then lying in the Coffin; and then Staats 
Storms, one of the Jurors, said: T am not afraid of him' 
and stroked the dead Man's Face, with his Hand, which 
made no Alteration in the dead Person, and (as I did not 
put any Faith in any of those Trials) my Back was turned 
towards the dead Body, when the Jury ordered the Negro to 
touch the dead Man's Face with his Hand, and then I 



* "New York, Old and New," Vol. 1, p. 188. 



SLAVERY IN BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 39 



heard a Cry in the Room of the People, saying, 'He is the 

Man,' and I was desired to come to the dead Body; and 

was told that the Negro Harry, had put his Hand on 

Tuer's Face, and that the blood immediately ran out at 

the Nose of the dead Man Tuers. I saw the Blood on his 

Face and ordered the Negro to rub his Hand again on 

Tuer's Face, he did so, and immediately the Blood again 

ran out of said Tuer's Nose at each Nostril, as well as I 

could judge. Whereupon the People all charged him with 

being the Murderer, but he denied it for a few Minutes, 

and then confessed that he had murdered the said Nicholas 

Tuers, by first striking him on the Head with an Ax, and 

then driving a Wooden Pin in his Ear; tho' afterward he 

said he struck a second Time with his Ax, and then held 

him fast till he had done strugghng, when that was done, 

he awakened some of the Family and said Tuers was dying 

(he believed)."''^ 

I find no detailed description of any of these executions. 

"Yellow journalism," which would have made so much of 
such events, was far in the future, and the Journal, which 
published the Coroner's attestation, gave only this account of 
the execution under date of Oct. 29: "Last Thursday 
v/eek the Negro that murdered Teurs was burnt in Hack- 
ensack, agreeable to his sentence." Sometimes all the ne- 
groes in the neighborhood v/ere compelled to witness such 
an execution for its "moral effect." 

When a slave was executed under process of law, his 
master was paid £30, raised by a tax on the slave owners 
of the county, according to the number of their slaves. 

It must not be concluded from these lurid pictures that 
the slaves of Nev/ Jersey were cruelly treated as a rule. As 
early as the days of the Proprietors the laws required them 
to be properly clothed and fed, and for inhuman treatment 
any one might be fined. A slave born after 1 788 must be 
taught to read before reaching the age of 21 years; other- 



* Other instances of the infliction on slaves of death by 
burning in this State are noted as follows: At Perth Amboy, 
in 1730, for murder; in Somerset county, in 1739, for murder 
and arson; in the same county, in 1744, for ravishing a child; 
near Perth Amboy, in 1741. 



40 SLAVERY IN BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 



wise the owner was liable to a fine of £5. That this fine 
was more expensive than the instruction is shown by the bill 
of one Christopher Logan "to schooling Negro boy Joe. 
61 days, $1.39." Slaves were instructed in all trades, 
besides being employed as farm and house servants, and 
they were often very warmly attached to the families of 
their masters. They had their "Christmas Week" of festivi- 
ties, and they accompanied the families of their owners to 
the "general training" in the early summer, which trainings 
were as important events as the county fairs of our day. 
More than one story has come to me of the tender care given 
to aged negroes who were among the last survivors of the 
days of slavery in New Jersey, and many a tear was shed 
over the grave of these venerable "aunties" or "uncles" by 
the white people whom they had taken care of in their 
childhood years. 



THE LIBERTY POLE TAVERN. 



Prominent in the early history of Bergen County, and 
associated with many of the public and social events of the 
old "English Neighborhood," was the Liberty Pole Tav- 
ern, situated at what is now the junction of Palisade Ave- 
nue, Tenafly Road and Lafayette Avenue, Englewood. 

The original tavern was on the northeast corner of the 
present Palisade Avenue and Tenafly Road, on the site of 
the house now owned and occupied by Dr. Valentine Ruch, 
Jr., and was undoubtedly one of the earliest buildings erected 
in this vicinity, although it is impossible to establish the exact 
date of erection. An exhaustive search on my part, with 
the kind assistance of several friends who are members of 
the Bergen County Historical Society, fails to unearth any 
authentic information as to who was the owner of this prop- 
erty during the Revolution. It is probable, however, that the 
owner was Samuel Campbell, who was born April 7, I 745, 
at Schraalenburgh, and is known to have owned this prop- 
erty in 1785, from the record in the County Clerk's office 
at Hackensack of a mortgage covering this property, given 
by Samuel Campbell to John G. Benson, and dated Octo- 
ber 24, 1785. Some time between 1785 and 1807 the 
property passed into the hands of John Westervelt, but the 
deed was apparently not recorded. The next recorded trans- 
fer we find is from John Westervelt to Peter Christie, Feb- 
ruary 16, 1 807, and the next from Peter Christie to Tunis 
Cooper, Dec. 7, 1813. After the purchase by Tunis 
Cooper, a large part of the original building was torn down, 
and the frame structure forming the main portion of the 
present building erected in its place, and other alterations and 
repairs were made as time went on. The stone wall forming 
part of the present easterly wing is probably all that now re- 
mains of the original building. The property remained in 
the hands of Tunis Cooper and his heirs for many years, and 
came to be known as the Cooper homestead. 



42 THE LIBERTY POLE TAVERN. 

On January 8th, 1802, Samuel Campbell deeded to 
John S. Banta three parcels of land, comprising in all about 
sixty-three acres, for a consideration of $4,625, or about 
$73.41 per acre. Two years later, March 14th, 1804, 
John S. Banta deeded to John Vanderbeek a tract of twenty 
acres for a consideration of $1,125, or about $56 per acre. 
This latter tract lay directly opposite the site of the original 
tavern, and is described as follows: "Beginning at the 
middle of the road near the schoolhouse at a corner where 
three roads meet, thence along the middle of Tenafly Road 
to the turn of the lane N. 43 degrees E., thence along the 
turn of the lane to a stake in the line of Aaron Westervelt, 
thence westerly along the line of Westervelt 13 C. 25 L., 
then S. 26 degrees 20 minutes W. along land of late Ann 
Harris to the middle of the road that leads to Teaneck at 
the corner of the small peach orchard, from thence all along 
the middle of the said road as it now is to place of begin- 
ning." This was a portion of the property purchased by 
John S Banta of Samuel Campbell, as mentioned above, 
and had a frontage on what is now Lafayette Avenue, de- 
scribed as "the road that leads to Teaneck," and Tenafly 
Road, which is described as a lane. For the benefit of those 
familiar with this locality, would state that, at that time, 
and for many years later, a private lane ran in a north- 
westerly direction, in the same course as the present Liberty 
Road immediately west of the present Kursteiner property 
and intersected with Tenafly Road at a point much farther 
south than the present Liberty Road, and not far from the 
corner of Palisade Avenue. What is now called Palisade 
Avenue was then known as a portion of English Neighbor- 
hood Road, and stopped abruptly at the corner of Tenafly 
Road. At this point, Tenafly Road branched off to the 
north and Lafayette Avenue to the southwest, forming the 
corner where three roads meet, as described in this deed, 
and at the south side of English Neighborhood Road at the 
beginning of the present Bennett Road, stood the old school- 
house, also mentioned in the description. This schoolhouse, 
one of the oldest in Bergen County, was replaced in 1818 



THE LIBERTY POLE TAVERN. 43 



by a new school building erected by the Liberty Pole School 
Union Co., the actual work of construction being done by 
Peter Westervelt. Jr., a prominent builder of those days, 
who was the father of the late Mrs. John Van Brunt, of 
Grand Avenue, Englewood. Many of the older residents of 
this locahty, who have since become prominent, as well as 
a multitude of others who have lived and died unknown to 
fame, received their early training in this old schoolhouse of 
the Liberty Pole School Union, which, after many years in 
its original location, was torn down and rebuilt at High- 
wood, N. J., about a mile above, all the original material 
being used, and was occupied as a public school until the 
present Highwood school was erected. 

Shortly after this purchase, probably the same year, John 
Vanderbeek erected a stone house, which was used as a 
hotel and known as Liberty Pole Tavern, the original tav- 
ern on the opposite corner evidently being discontinued either 
at that time or some time previous. This building stood on 
the west side of Tenafiy Road directly at the head of Eng- 
hsh Neighborhood Road, and was built in the rambling style 
of many of the old country houses. John Vanderbeek was 
the son of Jacob Vanderbeek and Margrietie Vanderbeek 
(nee Berdan) and was born at Schraalenburgh February 
26th, I 780. He married Jane Campbell, a daughter of 
the Samuel Campbell above mentioned. Through the cour- 
tesy of Mrs. Cornelia Whiteman, a niece of this Jane Camp- 
bell, who has visited the building a number of times in her 
childhood, and who retained a wonderful memory for de- 
tails up to the time of her death, only a few weeks ago, we 
are enabled to obtain, even at this late date, a fairly good 
description of the old tavern, and to draw up floor plans and 
elevations giving a fair idea of the interior arrangement and 
the exterior appearance, a copy of which will be kept on 
file with the records of the Bergen County Historical Society. 

The bar room occupied the entire easterly front of the 
main building, on the first story, and was entered through a 
Dutch door at the level of the outside grade, and also 
through a hallway from the north end, which hallway also 



44 THE LIBERTY POLE TAVERN. 



connected with the rear portion used as a cellar and with a 
small rear room used as a bedroom by the proprietor and his 
wife. This bedroom and the bar room both connected with 
the spacious kitchen which occupied an entire wing at the 
South end of building. This kitchen and the good wife who 
presided over it were known far and wide for the quantity 
and quaHty of the good things which came out of its large 
Dutch oven and spacious lire-place to feed the hungry multi- 
tudes who gathered at the old tavern from time to time to 
celebrate some public or social event. The bar room, with 
its sanded floor, beamed ceiling and generous fire-place, had 
no terrors for the simple country folks of those days, as it 
was usually kept in a quiet and orderly condition, and was 
often used on Saturday evenings for the weekly musters, 
which were attended by the belles and beaux from all the 
surrounding country. 

On the second floor, directly over the bar room, was the 
parlor or best room of the house. This was used for spin- 
ning parties, quilting parties and other afternoon functions 
of the ladies. This room was entered on the front from a 
balcony which was elevated several feet above the ground 
level, and reached by two flights of steps, one at either side. 

At the close of an afternoon quilting party, when the quilt 
came out of the frame toward evening, it was customary for 
one of the young ladies to shake out the quilt from this bal- 
cony, ostensibly to dispose of the loose threads and other 
odds and ends, but really as a signal to the rustic beaux that 
it was time to come in and join in the refreshments and good 
time that was sure to follow. 

In the year I 835 this building was entirely destroyed by 
fire ; and the same year a new frame structure was erected on 
practically the same site. This building was of more mod- 
ern arrangement, having the first story raised several feet 
above grade and laid out with a central hall running through 
from front to rear, the bar room being at the southeast cor- 
ner of the house with a small bed room in rear, and the par- 
lor, dining-room and kitchen at the north side, the kitchen be- 
ing in a separate wing at the rear of the main building. This 



THE LIBERTY POLE TAVERN. 45 



house was a worthy successor of the old tavern and was con- 
tinued under the same name until after the Civil War. The 
property remained in the hands of John Vanderbeek and 
his heirs until July 1 st, I 870. when it was deeded to Henry 
Demarest, of New York City, by whom it was subdivided 
and subsequently sold. 

When Palisade Avenue was continued west from Tenafly 
Road it was necessary to move the old tavern building, 
which was then removed a short distance south of its orig- 
inal location and just west of Lafayette Avenue, where it 
remained and was occupied as a private dweUing until a 
few months ago. when it was purchased by Mr. Charles 
Brucker, who has since removed it to his property south of 
Jay Street. 

This building and its proprietors were closely associated 
with the early development of this section, and are still re- 
membered with pleasure by many of the older residents. For 
many years the Liberty Pole Tavern was the only voting 
place on this side of the county, and always presented a 
lively appearance on election days, when famous dinners of 
roast pig and other delicacies were served to the voters, who 
afterwards indulged in horse racing and other sports to their 
hearts' content. 

While the Northern Railroad was building, the only 
means of regular communication with New York City from 
this section was a stage Hne running from Liberty Pole Tav- 
ern to Hoboken. The stage left Liberty Pole daily except 
Sunday at seven in the morning, arriving at Hoboken three 
hours later ; and, returning, left Hoboken at four o'clock and 
arrived at Liberty Pole at seven in the evening. Prior to 
this, when the people of this section wished to travel to New 
York by stage, they were obliged to drive or walk to John 
Myers' hotel, at Leonia, and there take the stage line running 
from Hackensack to Hoboken. 

While the Northern Railroad was building, the old tav- 
ern was a favorite rendezvous for the engineers and others 
engaged in the work, and was also a popular meeting place 



46 THE LIBERTY POLE TAVERN. 



for the men who were prominent in the early development of 
Lnglewood as a town. 

The name "Liberty Pole" was applied to this portion of 
English Neighborhood, during the Revolution, with an easy 
familiarity which would seem to indicate that the locaHty 
had been widely known by that name for some time previ- 
ous; but there seems to be no means of ascertaining just how 
long the term had been in use or what was its original sig- 
nificance. 

Bergen County, at the time of the Revolution, comprised 
all the land between the Hudson and Passaic Rivers, the 
New York State line and Constable's Hook. The main 
public road led from the Hudson River at or near Wee- 
hawken north through the "Bergen Woods" and English 
Neighborhood to Liberty Pole; and then continued across 
country to New Bridge; and was the only direct communi- 
cation with Hackensack, Totowa (now Paterson) and 
points farther west. 

We are all aware of how the tide of war rolled back 
and forth over New Jersey ; and, as Bergen County was the 
natural gateway from New York City, we can readily ap- 
preciate the stirring events which must have occurred from 
time to time. Liberty Pole, being on the direct line of 
travel, and apparently a conspicuous landmark, is men- 
tioned in many of the old manuscripts and letters of those 
days ; and was frequently made a point of rendezvous by 
officers both of the American and British armies. 

In a history of Bergen and Passaic Counties, by W. 
Woodford Clayton, we read that General Greene, on the 
occasion of his evacuation of Fort Lee in November, I 776, 
after despatching a messenger by way of Little Ferry to 
Washington, who was at Hackensack, proceeded with the 
main body of his troops up through English Neighborhood to 
Liberty Pole, and thence over the road to New Bridge. 
Again, from the same source, we learn that one division of 
Cornwallis' army was stationed at Liberty Pole and marched 
from there to take part in the massacre of Col. Bayler's 
troop near Old Tappan, September 27, I 778. In the same 



THE LIBERTY POLE TAVERN. 47 

book we read that the region about English Neighborhood 
was the scene of many raids from the block-house at Bull's 
Ferry, often instigated by a tory named John Berry, who 
was a terror to the entire neighborhood, and was known by 
the nickname of "John the regular." Like the orthodox 
villain, John at last fell a victim of his own greed, and was 
mortally wounded during one of these raids in a skirmish 
near Liberty Pole. 

Another incident of note was the expedition of General 
Anthony Wayne, July 20th and 2 1 st, I 780, having for 
its object the collection of any cattle in this vicinity, partic- 
ularly on Bergen Neck, which were in danger of falhng 
into the hands of the British, and also the demolishing of 
the Blockhouse at Bull's Ferry, which had long been a 
thorn in the flesh of the American commanders. 

Wayne left his camp at Totawa about three o'clock on 
the afternoon of the 20th, and arrived with his troops at 
New Bridge about nine that evening. Here they rested a 
few hours and proceeded on their march at one o'clock in 
the morning and arrived at Liberty Pole at six o'clock the 
morning of the 2 1 st. They probably halted at Liberty 
Pole for a short rest, and then proceeded on the march 
to Bull's Ferry, where the main body arrived about ten 
o'clock. 

General Wayne made very elaborate preparations for 
this expedition, in order to guard against a surprise by the 
British, who were stationed just across the Hudson, their 
position extending from New York City north to Yonkers. 
His orders, which were very explicit, mention Liberty Pole 
in several instances with an easy familiarity, showing that 
the locality was well known both to officers and men. 

Major Andre, in his sarcastic poem called "The Cow 
Chase," describing this expedition in a humorous vein, re- 
fers to Liberty Pole in the following stanzas: 

"At six the host, with sweating buff. 
Arrived at Freedom's Pole: 
When Wayne, who thought he'd time enough, 
Thus speechified the whole: 



48 THE LIBERTY POLE TAVERN. 



*Oh, ye, whom glory doth unite. 

Who Freedom's cause espouse; 
Whether the wing that's doomed to fight. 
Or that to drive the cows — 

Ere yet you tempt your further way, 

Or into action come; 
Hear, soldiers, what I have to say. 

And take a pint of rum.' " 

From the above, it would appear that the term "Liberty 
Pole" was applied to some point on the English Neighbor- 
hood Road where a flag-pole had been erected and called 
the "Liberty Pole," undoubtedly the site of the Liberty 
Pole Tavern; and the existence of the tavern is plainly 
indicated by the jocund reference to "a pint of rum." 

While we are somewhat at sea as to the exact location 
and history of this original pole, we know that a more re- 
cent Liberty Pole, bearing a liberty cap at its top, was 
erected near the spot now marked by the flag-pole erected 
by Liberty Pole Chapter, Daughters of the Revolution. 
This second Liberty Pole was erected in 1 828 to com- 
memorate Andrew Jackson's election as President; and, in 
honor of "Old Hickory" a bushel of hickory nuts was 
thrown into the excavation around the foot of the pole. This 
pole stood so close to the original building erected by John 
Vanderbeek that it was somewhat damaged by the fire 
which destroyed the building in 1835, but was afterward 
repaired and stood for many years thereafter. It is re- 
membered by many persons now living. 

There has been considerable discussion as to whether the 
Liberty Pole Tavern was ever used as a headquarters by 
General Washington. In Baker's Itinerary of General 
Washington, on file at the Lenox Library, New York City, 
we find a foot-note at the bottom of page 1 86 stating that 
Washington had his headquarters at Liberty Pole Tavern 
August 23d, 1 780. Have been unable to find any other 
authority in support of this statement, but did find a book 



THE LIBERTY POLE TAVERN. 49 



entitled "Correspondence of the New Jersey Executive, 
1776 to 1786," now in the possession of Mr. F. W. Van 
Brunt, of Englewood, copies of two letters written by Gen- 
eral Washington August 26th and 27th, 1 780. and dated 
"Headquarters near Liberty Pole." The text of one of 
these letters is as follows: 

FROM GENERAL WASHINGTON TO 
GOVERNOR LIVINGSTON. 

Headquarters, near Liberty Pole, 
Bergen County, Aug. 26th, 1780. 
Dear Sir: 

In mine of the 20th instant I desired your Excellency 
to discharge the whole of Col. Seely's miHtia except about 
one hundred men for the purpose of a guard at Morris- 
town, and to direct the September class to hold themselves 
in readiness to come out upon the shortest notice. I would 
only wish you to continue these orders, but not to call out 
the classes except about one hundred men for the purpose 
above mentioned, until you hear from me. 

Our extreme distress for want of provision makes me de- 
sirous of lessening the consumption as much as possible. 
Some brigades of the army have been five days without 
meat. To endeavor to relieve their wants by stripping the 
lower parts of the county of its cattle, I moved two days 
ago to this place, and yesterday completely foraged Barba- 
does and Bergen Necks. Scarcely any cattle were found 
but milch cows and calves of one and two years old, and 
even these in no great plenty. When this scanty pittance 
is consumed, I know not to what quarter to look, as our 
prospects from the eastward, upon which our principal de- 
pendence is placed, are far from being favorable. 

The monthly requisition of meat from the State of Jersey 
has been complied with in a very small degree, as the com- 
manding general informs me that he has received but seveo 
cattle from Mr. Dunham, the Superintendent, since the 
month of April. I am very far from complaining of the 
general exertions of the State; on the contrary, I have every 



50 THE LIBERTY POLE TAVERN. 

reason to acknowledge them upon several pressing occasions; 
but your Excellency must be sensible that when the support 
of an army is made to depend upon certain quantities of 
provisions to be furnished regularly by the different States, 
the failure of any one must be more or less felt. 

I have the honor to be, with very great regard and esteem, 
your Excellency's most ob't. and h'ble. serv't. 

Geo. Washington. 

In closing, the writer wishes to acknowledge the courtesy 
of our President, Dr. Byron Van Home and Mr. F. W. 
Van Brunt, of Englewood, Mr. Burton H. Allbee, of 
Hackensack, and Mr. Cornelius Doremus, of Ridgewood, 
all of whom rendered material assistance. 

Nelson K. Vanderbeek. 

Englewood, N. J., January 25, 1908. 



^. 



SOME OF CLOSTER'S OLD-TIME HISTORY. 



By Mary Naugle. 



The oldest house in this part of the county, one that was 
considered old even in the Revolutionary times, is situated 
on the old County road, Closter, N. J. It was the third 
house built by that branch of the Naugle family, of whom 
Mr. David Naugle, of Closter, is a descendant. Tradi- 
tion says this house was sacked three times by the Tories, 
and was used as a hospital for the small-pox patients be- 
longing to the American army while they were camped here 
during Andre's trial. They were camped near what is now 
Harrington Park on the property at present owned by Abra- 
ham Eckerson. It has also been said that officers of the 
Continental Army stopped many times at Capt. Abram 
Haring's (who lived on the site of the present Powless 
homestead) to have refreshments while going back and forth 
on the Tappan Road. This was told me by Miss Maggie 
Powless (now deceased), a granddaughter of the above- 
mentioned Capt. Haring. 

Not far from v/here this house stands, on the County 
Road also, is a good example of a real Dutch colonial house 
built not later than 1 780. 

At the present time it is owned by Mr. Louis T. Haggin, 
of New York, who makes it his summer home. He has 
repaired it without changing any of its ancient features. 
Great, heavy beams, big, open fire-places, doors with hand- 
made iron hinges, windows, whose glass one can scarcely 
see through, all suggest a house of the old type. As was 
customary with these early ancestors of ours, they sought a 
location sure of a good spring or running water and allowed 
nature to assist them further by building their houses fac- 
ing the south, thus getting the maximum amount of sunshine. 



52 SOME OF CLOSTER'S OLD-TIME HISTORY. 

The house was built by my great-grandfather. 
Isaac Naugle. There my grandfather. Henry Nau- 
gle was born and my mother, Eliza Naugle. My 
mother married a Naugle, of the same family, but a very 
distant relation. The property on which the house was built 
is part of the original tract bought by the two Naugle 
brothers, Resolvert and Barent. This tract of 1 ,030 acres 
was bought in April, 1710, from Captain Lancaster Syms 
for £225. He, in turn, bought it from Bernardes and Gid- 
eon Vervalen in 1 708, to whom it had been granted by 

Gov. Carteret. 

:i. >(■ !(■ f- * 

Midway between Closter and Demarest, east of the 
County road, is situated one of those little family burial 
places, of which there were so many. In it is a red sand- 
stone, tombstone, erected some years after the described 
event, and which tells a pathetic tale. 

The following inscription seems to give a fairly full 
account: 

Here lie 
Douwe Talema 
who died on the I 1th day of May, 1 779 
in his Ninetieth year 
This aged man at his Residence near this place was wil- 
fully and barbarously murdered by a party of Tories Trait- 
ors to their Country who had taken refuge with the Troops 
of Bretain then in New York and come thence to murder 
burn and plunder. To pay a tribute of Respect to his 
Memory and also to commemorate the Manner of his death 
several of his Relatives have erected this stone. 

The house where he lived, long since gone, stood on the 
old Closter Road near the Alpine Road, about in the spot 
where the new house of George Vervalen now stands. 

In this part of the country the name Tory did not always 
signify an English adherent, but often times meant an un- 
known enemy. One might retire at night, thinking every- 
thing safe and find in the morning that the cows and horses 
had been stolen. By whom? Tories. Perhaps some of 



SOME OF CLOSTER'S OLD-TIME HISTORY. 53 

the neighbors who cared more for English gold than for 
the property of others. At the time this old man was killed 
these marauders were strangers and came in the daytime. 

When they saw these Tories coming the women fled to 
the woods, leaving the old gentleman and a negro servant 
around the place. After nightfall the women, cautiously 
groping their way back to the house, came across the dead 
body of the negro servant by the barn and on entering the 
house found that the old gentleman had been killed by a 
bayonet thrust. Some say the barns, too, were burned at 
this time. 

There seems to be several versions as to the cause of the 
killing. One is that the old gentleman had some informa- 
tion which he would not divulge. Another is that they 
supposed the little chest on which he was seated contained 
gold. The most probable version is that it contained 
papers of value only to him, and failing to find anything 
else, from pure maliciousness they ran a bayonet through 
him. 

The chest is said to be now in the possession of Peter 
Blacklidge, of Closter, a relative of the above Douwe 
Talema. 



SCRAPS FROM MY NOTE BOOK. 



By T. N. Glover, Historiographer. 



Every person who is enthusiastic in a line of work has a 
motto. "Aim high," "Excelsior," have been in use for 
centuries. But the one voiced by Josh Billings is far better: 
"Better not know so much than know so much that ain't 
so." It applies with peculiar force to historical work. Facts 
and their relation to one another is its object and so difficult 
are these to find usually that they are ignored and imagina- 
tive vagaries put in their place. Had Mr. Weems clung 
to facts we would never have had the Washington-and-his- 
hatchet, story, and had truth been stated, another — a Jersey- 
man — would have shared with Mr. Fulton the honor of in- 
venting the steamboat. When one reflects how little we 
actually know of the Hfe of the past; how falsehood and 
imagination are interwoven with our stories, we wonder at 
the assurance of the history fakirs. 

Governor Belcher thought that New Jersey was the least 
profitable of any of the governments in the King's gift. In 
a letter to Rev. Mr. Sargent, he said that New Jersey was 
indeed a land of milk and honey, but neither the lower nor 
the higher classes had any desire for the ways of virtue 
and true religion. "They pay little regard to the Sabbath 
— the men journey and the women divert and the children 
play in the streets without reproof." This was written in 
1748. 

*5p ^ V Tt* T" 

In his journal published by the New York Historical 
Society, Adjutant General Kemble, of the British array, 
says of the Baylor massacre: "The Second BattaHon 
Light Infantry are thought to have been too active and 



56 SCRAPS FROM MY NOTE-BOOK. 



bloodthirsty in this service, and it is acknowledged on all 
hands that they might have spared some who made no re- 
sistance; out of 120 they killed 50 men." 

***** 

In the Museum of this Society in the Johnson Library are 
some Indian reHcs found in this county. There are several 
collections of these implements in this county, most of them 
found in the immediate neighborhood. Not as many kinds 
have been found in this region as in some places further west 
nor are they as numerous. Quite a large and fine collec- 
tion has been made in the valley south and west of Singar. 

It was gathered and is now owned by Capt. 

of the navy and is at his home on Staten Island. As a 
rule, these relics are not as well made as those of the west. 
I have seen a few hatchets well made, but they were evi- 
dently importations — they were made of a kind of stone 
which is not found this side of the Susquehanna River. 
Those made in this region are not well made — evidently 
not by good workmen. Nor are they as numerous as in 
many localities, for example. Long Island or central and 
western New York. Those found here may be classified: 
arrow heads, spear heads, tomahawks and axes, skinning 
knives and fish knives. Pieces of pottery have also been 
found, though none very large nor of handsome pattern. At 
a point on the coast a large part of a crock was found some 
years ago. Pipes are also found. I have seen no corn crack- 
ers or pestles, yet the Indians must have used them, and there 
are some in the Museum of Natural History in New York. 
The implements I have seen are made of various materials; 
most of the arrow heads are of chert and could be made 
out of some of the stones which are found in our gravel 
beds; so of the knives. But while the tomahawks and 
skinning knives are made of hard graystone or even slate, 
they are very often made of a kind of sandstone. But there 
is not here the diversity of implements nor the rich patterns 
that one finds in Ohio and the West generally. Shell heaps, 
known as kitchen midden, abound along the inlets and creeks 
of the coast. The probabilities are that this county has not 



SCRAPS FROM MY NOTE-BOOK. 57 

been studied very thoroughly and that in the farmhouses and 
collections are many specimens we do not know about. It 
might be a good work to make up a Hst of what people 
have found. 

Bergen County knew well and suffered from the tread of 
marching armies in the olden days. The retreat from 
Fort Lee first startled the quiet valleys. The retreating 
armies went up Grand avenue to Liberty Pole (Engle- 
wood), thence over Teaneck hill to New Bridge and Hack- 
ensack, thence to Lodi and Aquackanonk (Passaic) ; thence 
to Trenton and Morristown. British soldiers followed the 
same route, except they came to the Bridge by way of Little 
Ferry. But the American army was not half way to Tren- 
ton when Gen. Heath came down from his station in the 
highlands of the Hudson River by way of Paramus almost 
to New Bridge, thence to Hackensack and English Neigh- 
borhood, past Closter and Tappan, raising an uproar among 
the tories and the few British soldiers there; captured 50 
tories, 50 or 60 stands of arms, a ship laden and ready to 
sail; made a raid on Col. Van Buskirk's house, taking 
therefrom 50 barrels of flour and a hogshead of rum^ — sup- 
plies for the British army. Gen Clinton went to Passaic and 
thence to Closter. All through the war small bands 
of soldiers wandered over the southern part of the county. 
They visited the Kingsland Manor House and carried its 
owner to prison and left marks of their coming on the Schuy- 
ter house. On July 14, 1 777, Washington and his army left 
Pompton Plains and marched to Van Aulens, about a mile 
east of the Old Pond's Church (Oakland) ; next day they 
went to Suffern and remained three or four days. Old peo- 
ple still point out the camp ground on the hillside east of 
the Haverstraw road and south of Tallman Avenue, and 
fifteen years ago quite a number of the old camp ovens or 
fire-places could be seen. Then they marched into the 
Clove as far as Southfields, came back and for two 
days encamped at Ramapough, a little village between Oak- 
land and Suffern, and next day went to Pompton. Some 



58 SCRAPS FROM MY NOTE-BOOK. 



soldiers must have been at Paramus nearly all the time, but 
from July 11 to 15, 1 778, Washington and his army were 
there, a division having come up by way of Hackensack; 
also on Dec. 5, 6, 7, 1 778, and July 29, 1 780. In 1 781 
part of the army was there again, marching for Yorktown. 
On August 23, 1 780, the army at Tappan broke camp and 
moved down to Teaneck Hill; it remained there till Sep- 
tember 4, then went to Steenrapie and remained there till 
the 20th, when it returned to Tappan. In the meantime, 
Burr at Ramapo, Gen. Clinton, with his Orange County 
soldiers, Gen Winds, of Rockaway, were watching the 
movements of the enemy, and when, in 1 780, a party of 
British marched up to attack a Pennsylvania regiment at 
Hoppertown, east end of present Ridgewood Street, they 
were met by one Capt. Outwater and his militia. And 
earlier in the year a troop came up from the south, burned 
some buildings in Hackensack, but went no further than 
the Red Mills. In 1 778 came the CHnton raids, of which 
the Baylor massacre formed an episode. For some time 
there must have been an encampment at New Bridge — each 
army threw up earthworks, traces of which can be seen to- 
day, and Washington was there several times, and letters 
dated there are shll in existence. The aUied armies marched 
through Bergen County on their way to Yorktown. One di- 
vision of the French marched to Paramus from the north; 
the other by way of Hackensack. This county during the 
Revolution was well settled, the farms were rich and well 
cultivated, and the people felt the presence of the soldiers 
severely. 

¥ ¥ V y ¥ 

And about Washington's headquarters: not houses where 
he stopped for a glass of water, but those which he occu- 
pied for a time as an office. This county is by no means 
without them, and his occupancy of them is well attested. 
Some of them are gone, but their sites are known, and 
descriptions of them are given. One is standing here in 
Hackensack — the present Mansion House. The addition 
of a third story and verandas have changed somewhat its 



SCRAPS FROM MY NOTE-BOOK. 59 

outward appearance, but some of the rooms remain in the 
original state; chimney tiles are in place, old cupboards, old 
doors and locks and brass knobs are in place. It was owned 
m I 776 by Peter Zabriskie, and tradition says it was built 
in 1750. Washington came here on Nov. 14, 1776, from 
Peekskill, and with the exception of a night (p>ossibly two 
nights), he remained till the 21st. Many letters were di- 
rected to him here, and many were sent out by him. 
He wrote from here to his brother, John Augustus Wash- 
ington, "It is a matter of great grief and surprise to me to 
find the different States so slow and inattentive to the essen- 
tial business of levying quotas of men. I am worried to 
death over the retrograde motion of things." And from 
this house went forth that letter from his adjutant-general. 
Reed, to Gen. Lee, complaining of an indecisive mind — the 
greatest misfortune that can befall an army — and telling 
him that if he had been present the affair at Fort Washing- 
ton would probably have resulted differently. Headquar- 
ters at Fort Lee are mentioned in one or two letters directed 
to him, but there was never any there. He stayed there 
one night, but as Gen. Greene's guest at the Taylor house. 
(Of this house not a vestige remains, but old settlers in the 
village remember it well.) The headquarters at Englewood 
— he called it Liberty Pole — stood a short distance from 
the present Liberty School on the site of the house now 
occupied by Dr. V'^alentine Ruch, Jr., on the northeast cor- 
ner of Palisade Avenue and Tenafly Road. The greater 
part of the old building was torn down after 1813, and 
the frame structure forming the main part of the present 
building was erected in its place. The stone wall forming 
part of the present east wing is undoubtedly part of the 
original structure. (Letter from Mr. Nelson K. Vander- 
beek.) The frame structure known later as the Liberty 
Pole Tavern has nothing to do with the Washington head- 
quarters and does not date back of 1 835. Washington was 
here probably from August 23rd till the 31st, 1780. He 
probably was not here in person all that time, for we have 
leUers from him, "Liberty Pole Tavern, Teaneck, N. J." 



60 SCRAPS FROM MY NOTE-BOOK. 



Near Liberty Pole Tavern," "Miles from Fort Lee," 
'Hackensack Bridge." Washington and his army were at 
Paramus so often, and so many important papers were sent 
out from there, that he must have had a headquarters there, 
but all tradition of them seems to have gone. There was an 
old Hopper tavern up on the Hohokus road at that time, 
and this may have been the building. Among the letters 
received here was one from the President of Congress sug- 
gesting co-operation with D'Estaing, while he sent to the 
same person information of the arrival of the French fleet. 
He also sent from here a present to the admiral — some live 
stock. Another of the vanished headquarters is that at 
Ramapaugh. One of the most widely known of the head- 
quarters was a short distance below Ramapaugh and is 
known as Headquarters, Bergen Co. In the Sparks Col- 
lections and the Ford Lists are given a great many important 
papers and orders sent out from this house. He occupied it 
continuously from Sept. 4 to Sept. 20, 1 780, and he left 
it to go to Hartford, Conn., for the conference with 
Rochambeau, which resulted in the capture of Lord Corn- 
wallis at Yorktown. The army was encamped at Steen- 
rapie. He was here on several other occasions, but does 
not seem to have remained long. It was the residence of 
Andrew Hopper, who was one of his most trusted spies. It 
is away from the railroad. I think Ramseys, on the main 
line of the Erie is nearest to it. In Washington's day, it 
was a long stone building — the imposing structure given in 
Mr. Lossing's Field Book is of a later date. Mr. Haver- 
meyer, the sugar refiner, owned it some years ago, and then 
I visited it. The wing was then standing. He was trying 
to restore the old building. The late Mr. J. B. Suffern, 
of Hillburn, N. Y., who was a relative of the family and a 
frequent visitor told me that Mrs. Hopper's daughter was 
about 1 6 at this time and could remember well sitting on 
the General's knee. Till after the middle of the last cen- 
tury Washington's room was kept as near as it was when 
he left it as the changes in the house permitted. There wai 
the bed on which he slept, some of the crockery he used, an 



SCRAPS FROM MY NOTE-BOOK. 61 

old Dutch Bible, etc. The house was kept in the family 
for many years afterward. Just beyond the border of our 
county were two more buildings, the one in the village of 
Suffern, N. Y. ; the other in Tappan, N. Y. The one in 
Suffern is not now standing. It was just west of the 
present Suffern residence and was torn down soon after 
the latter was built. A picture of this old house 
is given in Mr. Lossing's Field Book. It was a 
tavern kept by John Suffern, a member of the council of 
safety and a friend of Gen. Clinton. Washington was 
there two or three times, and letters connected with his stay 
are extant. It was also the headquarters of Col. Burr 
while he commanded the Ramapo fortifications. The 
building at Tappan is still standing, or a part of it at least. 
A picture of it as it appeared half a century ago is also in 
Mr. Lossing's work. It is not the '76 House, as so many 
suppose — it is a residence east of it. It is and always has 
been a residence. Originally it was a long, low Dutch cot- 
tage with an extension at each end. They were taken away 
years ago and in place of one of them is now a substantial 
upright house of wood. The original house was built of 
materials, it is said, imported from Holland. Not so many 
years ago the iron figures denoting the date of erection — 
1700 — were visible. One Dirck Straalmacher built it 
and in 1 756 sold it to one De Wint, a merchant and a 
native of the West Indies. He lived there in Washington's 
day, and his family owned it for three-quarters of a cen- 
tury afterwards; then it passed to strangers, and when 
I visited it twenty years ago, the occupants could scarcely 
speak English. This house is connected with the Andre 
episode, and although the trial of the spy was held in the 
old church yet the death-warrant was signed in the parlor 
of this house. There are a great many letters and orders 
now in existence dated from here. It is also called the 
Headquarters at Orangetown. 

About two blocks east of the point where the Belleville 
turnpike crosses the Newark & Hackensack trolley road is 



62 SCRAPS FROM MY NOTE-BOOK. 



what people now call the Arlington copper mine. It is 
somewhat interesting from a geological point of view; quite 
interesting from an historical. It is not. and never has 
been, a rich mine. When, a few years ago, the main shaft 
was pumped out and examined, one expert estimated the 
amount of ore in sight at five per cent and another at two 
and one-half. Several years ago an analysis of the rock 
was made which makes a mining engineer at this day smile, 
and that analysis has been published far and near. A piece 
of cuprite (red copper ore) was reported eighty-two per 
cent, red oxide of copper, and a specimen of chysocolla 
(copper silicate) fifty-five per cent. The ore is not in vem 
structure; simply here and there segregated masses; conse- 
quently systematic mining is impossible. It lies scattered in 
minute quantities in the sandstone overlying the trap and re- 
quires rock crushing and separating. It is best known as 
the Schuyler copper mine, and is said to be the oldest cop- 
per mine in this country. It has been discussed in colonial 
legislatures, by the Royal Board of Trade in ParHament 
and in English and Dutch machine shops. Early m the 
1 700's Arent Schuyler, a member of the famous Albany 
family, then residing at Pompton, New Jersey, acquired a 
property opposite the present Belleville, extending from 
river to river. On this property, somewhere about 1714 
copper was discovered: how, no one knows — stories enough 
are current — but without doubt the discovery was the re- 
sult of systematic search. In those days, and for a centurv 
before and after, a perfect mining craze possessed all Europe 
and America; the wild dreams of the Spaniards were trans- 
ferred to northern regions. Men hunted minerals every- 
where, sometimes with witch hazel twigs and peach tree 
sprouts, but more often Vv'ith pick and shovel. It was sys- 
tematically carried on in this State, and the iron mines of 
Ring^A^ood and Flibernia and Morris County generally were 
the outcomes. All over northern New Jersey I have found 
holes which people call Indian wells or Indian mines, but 
which in reality are old prospectors' diggings. Arent 
Schuyler himself probably did Httle mining, but his son. 



SCRAPS FROM MY NOTE-BOOK. 63 

John, known as Col. John, early assumed control and held 
it for years. We know little about his methods of work or 
his profits— whether those methods were good, how many 
men he employed, where they came from — no one can tell. 
It was counted in those days a great mine, and reports went 
abroad that from four to six ounces of silver were found in 
every ton of ore. Dr. Franklin visited it in 1 750 and 
wrote of its value. We know from certain records that in 
the fifteen years which preceded 1731, 1,386 tons of ore 
had been sent to Bristol, England, where it was highly 
esteemed and eagerly sought. ?daybe shipments were made 
elsewhere; if not, the production was not great. How much 
the Schuylers received a ton no one knows — it has been said 
£75, equal to about $365 of our money; but this is in- 
credible. Some way for a number of years it must have 
paid well enough, for they went on putting in money. It 
must at first have been easy to work. Situated on the bluff, 
a gallery on a level with the meadows would drain it, and 
a shaft, down to that level, could be easily worked with a 
'wh:n." Tradition says they had five shafts — all but one 
now filled up — but that they went down only about a hun- 
dred feet. As time went on, however, the drainage and 
hoisting questions became perplexing; but Col. John Vv^as 
equal to the emergency. The Newcommen steam engine 
had been invented only a few years, and was in use in some 
of the Cornish mines, as it is to-day in an improved form. 
Satisfying himself that it could be used, the Colonel ordered 
one; the date must have been 1748 or '50. It reached 
the mines, in parts and very quietly, four years later. It 
was the third steam engine in America and the first west of 
the Hudson River. No description of it remains, and we 
must suppose it was like the others of the period, cumber- 
some and wasteful, still an improvement on the old methods 
of hoisdng. Part of the old cylinder, made of copper, lay 
for years in a foundry at Newark and in 1876 was exhib- 
ited at the Philadelphia Centennial. The engine stood till 
1773, when it was burned and early in the 1 800's was sold 
as junk to a Philadelphia dealer. With the engine came a 



64 SCRAPS FROM MY NOTE-BOOK. 

young man named Hornblower to superintend its erection, 
and he found that his work must begin at the very beginning. 
So he set his men to quarrying stone, burning brick, sawing 
lumber and hammering out nails. He planned the works and 
superintended the erection of the buildings. He finished this 
in about a year, and the machine began its work. It stood by 
the main shaft. It was used for pumping and raised about 
eight hogsheads of water a minute. People regarded it as 
wonderful and drove long distances to see it, coming 
often times in crowds. It has been said that it was 
so quietly imported to avoid these crowds. But work 
at the mine became somewhat irregular. Mr. Horn- 
blower remained with the Schuylers some years, and in 
1 761 , after the mines had been idle some years, he and one 
John Stendhal leased them from the Schuylers at an annual 
lay of one-seventh the ore. The French and Indian War 
was raging, and an attack was feared; the Schuylers were 
actively engaged in the colonial service and Stendhal be- 
came dissatisfied. Expenses were increasing, so less atten- 
tion was gradually paid to the works. In 1 765, according 
to the books, the lessees made a profit of $1,676 of our 
money; in 1770, $4,785. and in 1773, $2,855. After 
the fire all work was stopped. In 1 793 a new company 
was organized and a new lease given. This company hired 
German miners, worked about a year and then abandoned 
the enterprise. And the financial ups and downs of the mine 
continued. This mine was discussed in the Royal councils of 
England and in New Jersey council. It caused copper to be 
placed on the enumerated list and was referred to in parlia- 
mentary discussion as an evidence of the wealth of the 
Americans and their ability to pay the taxes demanded of 
them. Work was hampered in a way, for the Schuylers 
were not allowed to use smelters, but at best the old navi- 
gation laws were not very rigidly enforced, and the family 
was too powerful to make official interference very serious. 
A cargo of 1 1 casks of ore was shipped in 1 72 1 to Hol- 
land, although nearly all the product was sent to Bristol, 
England. But that shipment excited the English, and the 



SCRAPS FROM MY NOTE-BOOK. 65 



Lords of Trade suggested that further shipments of this na- 
ture be prevented by act of Parhament. This suggestion, 
however, was never acted on, and after much discussion. 
Governor Montgomery, of New York, was requested to 
confer with Col. Schuyler, who finally promised that Eng- 
lish firms should have the privilege of making the first offet 
for the ore. Then the colonial legislature of New Jersey 
enacted that a duty of forty shillings per ton should be paid 
on all ore shipped to countries other than England. This 
law Col. Schuyler evaded by carting the ore to New York 
and then shipping it. He must have succeeded pretty well 
in this, for soon a complaint came from Bristol that this 
New Jersey law was discouraging mining. Few remains of 
the pre-Revolutionary works exist. Nature has been active 
and has filled up the old galleries and shafts, or later work- 
ers have enlarged them. Tradition has it that the main 
shaft is intact — that which the old engine worked in. If 
one takes the path toward the new buildings which starts 
opposite the house of Mr. George Bayliss on Schuyler 
Avenue and walks along a few rods he will come to a 
small, weatherbeaten building — the first he finds — and this 
covers the hole. No one can get into it so as to look down 
into the shaft, and nothing could be seen if he did look. 
The whole crest of the hill beyond has been dug over since 
— blasted out — and probably many of the Schuyler exca- 
vations are destroyed. The road that goes winding down 
the hill is part of the old Belleville turnpike which is con- 
stantly referred to in writings of Revolutionary days and 
long afterward. It was built down to the Hackensack 
River by the Schuylers. It was surveyed by Mr. Horn- 
blower in 1 765 and was cut through a cedar swamp so 
dense that during the day surveyors had to carry lanterns 
to see their readings. It became after the war the main 
road to Newark, and was in places so narrow that teams 
could not pass. "Turning out" places were built where 
one team could turn out enough to let another pass and 
when one gained one of the places he always looked ahead 
as far as possible to see if a team was coming. If he saw 



66 SCRAPS FROM MY NOTE-BOOK. 

nothing he ventured to go on, though it sometimes happened 
that a carriage appeared at a most inconvenient place and 
the horses had to be unhitched and the wagons worked past 
each other. In 1772 the legislature of the State author- 
ized a lottery to raise money for putting on a coating of 
gravel. And now I believe it is to be improved to meet mod- 
ern ideas. Remains of mining of a later date can be seen 
everywhere. "Since I can remember," said Mr. George Bay- 
liss, "two companies besides the present one have worked 
it. The Consolidated Mining Company must have been 
operating before 1 860 and made money, for it worked sev- 
eral years. Then came the New York and New Jersey 
Mining Company, which was mining, as I remember, in 
1863. It employed 150 men and had eight shafts. Silicate 
ore and stone were carted away, sometimes to Hackensack 
River and at others to Belleville. It operated several 
stamps and 'buddies' and hoisted by 'whin.' The old shaft 
now goes down about 230 feet, and a gallery runs into the 
hill 1 ,500 feet. It is a large excavation, probably 8 feet 
broad and 6 feet high and is old. It is known as the 
'Victoria shaft.' It starts from the Schuyler shaft and runs 
a little west of north to a point close by Arlington Avenue 
between First and Elm Streets. A covering marks the end 
of it. At no place is it less than 200 feet below the sur- 
face. It was near the upper end of this gallery that a gang 
of workmen one day took out $10,000 worth of ore. Mr. 
Westlake, the foreman, told me this years ago. When this 
gallery was pumped out seven or eight years ago, I walked 
through it. I saw copper enough there and some of it 
native." 

^ V ^ ^ V 

Within the past year I have received a letter asking, 
"What is this 'Force's Archives' to which you refer in some 
of your articles? I have not access to the largest public 
libraries, but those to which I have applied can give me no 
information about it." To answer this question in full and 
give the interesting history connected with the book requires 
more space than is now at my command. Suffice it 



SCRAPS FROM MY NOTE-BOOK. 67 

to say that it is a storehouse of information — a col- 
lection of documents relating to our history of the 
Revolution which are in possession of the government. 
Its title is properly "The American Archives," and 
was edited by Col. Peter Force under a contract with 
the government that he should arrange and copy and pre- 
pare for publication the official reports, letters and other 
documents in possession of the government and the govern- 
ment should print them. He divided his subject into six 
series, the fourth of which should contain the first period of 
the War of the Revolution, and on this he began. Kis friend. 
Prof. George W. Greene, a grandson of the old Major Gen- 
eral, states the plan of the work as given him by the Colonel 
(Magazine of American Histor}), April, 1878): "The 
truest history would be a literal reproduction of past doubts 
and discussions; of the acts of legislative assemblies; of the 
resolves of popular meetings; -^f rumors gradually setding 
into facts or dying away into sil nee. To obtain this he 
saw it was necessary to let the past tell its own story. Three 
elements appear in the history of the Revolution — or, to 
speak with greater precision, three classes of actors, some- 
times distinct, at others in union — public assemblies, the 
army, and the people. The public assemblies were in 
England the two houses of Parliament; in America, Con- 
gress and the provincial assemblies under their various local 
names. General Court, General Assembly, Committee of 
Safety, etc etc. The history of the army is contained in 
the official reports and correspondence of the ofRcers and in 
the private letters of officers and men; the opinions of the 
people can be gathered from the votes at election and their 
comphance with the demands made upon them and in part 
from pamphlets, letters and papers. Going back, therefore, 
and arranging these various materials, each in its proper 
order and place, day by day, we reproduce the past." As 
soon as the contract was completed he set to work. A room 
was assigned him, and his copyists and he began his search 
for papers. Files were heaped on files without order or 
method, bundles of manuscripts were found in hopeless con- 



68 SCRAPS FROM MY NOTE-BOOK. 

tusion in pigeon holes and corners where they had been vis- 
ited by mice and were covered with spider webs. But as soon 
as people began to understand the nature of his work, pri- 
vate collections were opened to him and manuscripts and 
pamphlets were sent him from every wheic. Soon he had 
correspondents in every town and copyists in every office. 
Faithfully he transcribed those letters, army returns, debates 
— everything that related to the old times, preserving the 
spelling, punctuation and capitals. Nine volumes only were 
published — six of the fourth series and three of the fifth — 
extending from March 7, 1774, to December 31, 1776. 
The tenth volume was ready for the press, but offi- 
cial incompetence and demagoguery refused to print it. 
"Your work is of no use to anybody: I never read a page 
of it and I never expect to," said Secretary Marcy when 
it was brought to him. Those who knew Mr. Marcy knew 
well that he never did read such literature, and he erred in 
supposing that he was a typical, intelligent American. Col. 
Force was born on a farm near Little Falls, Passaic Co , 
but when a small child the family moved to New York City. 
Listening to the stories of old soldiers in his boyhood, he be- 
came imbued with a love for history and he formed a 
plan of writing a book, "The Unwritten History of the 
War in New Jersey," gathered materials and wrote .tome 
chapters, but every vestige of it has disappeared. His 
"Archives" are ir'dispensable to the student, and the gov- 
ernment now, in the hands of intelligent people, is carrying 
on his work through the Library of Congress. 



THE EDSALL PAPERS. 



By Byron G. Van Horne, M. D. 



Through the courtesy of Mr. John G. Edsall, Palisades 
Park, N. J., I was permitted to make copies of the follow- 
ing papers, the originals being in his possession. These are 
verbatim copies and have been arranged, so far as possible in 
chronological order. 

On the reverse side of the first paper is this statement: 

"A true from the Exemplifications of Records in the 
Office of the Proprietors of East New Jersey at Perth Am- 
boy, August 8, 1816." 

JAMES PARKER, Regr. 

The paper itself reads as follows: 

. 1 Philip Carteret Esq. Governor &c. 

Book page 43 ^^ ^^p^ ^.^^j^^ ^^^j^^^ ^ j^^ 

zU reoruary I ooo „ i r- i n 

oamuel lidsall. 

"a certain tract of land lying and being upon the west 

side of Hudsons river joining to the North End of the 

bounds belonging to the Corporation of Bergen beginning at 

the sound End thereof at the aforesaid bounds from Espa- 

ten and Mordavis meadow from thence to run upon a N. 

N. E. and South S. West line up the said Hudsons River 

to a place called Aguapock in length 200 chaines or two 

miles and a half from thence to a cross over North West 

through a marsh or meadow to a Creek that comes out of 

Hackinsack River called Overpecks Creek that runs North 

East and S. W. in bredth two miles from thence on the 

West side to the said Hackinsack River the same length of 

two miles and a half and on the south End bounded as 

aforesaid in bredth 1 20 chaines or one mile and a half 

which said tract of land contains according to the survey 

waste land and meadow being therein comprehended to One 

thousand eight hundred and seventy two acres English 

measure." 



70 THE EDSALL PAPERS. 

The next paper unfortunately ends at a point which leaves 
us to question the date. Have not been able to find the 
missing ending, but as Gov. Carterett resigned in 1 682 it 
must have been prior to that date. In the book "East Jer- 
sey Under the Proprietors," pages 51 and 52, we find the 
following, referring to Gov. Carterett, which may throw 
a little light on the matter: 

"But, on the 7th. of April 1 668, he issued his procla- 
mation, requiring the freeholders of each town to make 
choice of two able men that were freeholders and dwellers 
within their lim't^, to be ihsir Burgesses and Representatives 
in a general assembly, to be held at Elizabethtown, on the 
25th May. He had chosen for his council Captain Nicho- 
las Verlett, Daniel Pierce, Robert Bond, Samuel Edsall, 
Robert Vanquellen and William Pardon" : 

Philip Carterett Esq. Governour of the Province of New 
Cesarea or New Jarsey, under the Right Hono'ble John 
Lord Berkley Baron of Stratton, and Sr George Carteret 
Knt. and Barronet the True and absolute Lords Proprietors 
of the said Province — 

To my Trusty and Weel beloved Friend Samuel Edsall 
Esq. 

Whereas I am assured of yo'r Knowledge, Wisedome, 
Prudence & Integrittie in ye management of the Publique 
Affaires in these partes of America, I have thought fitt and 
doe by these presents nominate and appoint yo'u the said 
Samuel Edsall, dureing pleasure to be one of my Councel- 
lors for the Affaires of the said Province and to be assistant 
to mee yo'r said Governour on my Deputy for the time being 
and doe hereby authorize & require yo'u to put in execution, 
observe and follow such orders and Directien as yo'u shall 
from time to time receive from the Lords Proprieto'rs or 
myselfe as to the office and dutie of a Councellour & As- 
sistant to mee yo'r said Governour appertaine and 

belong. Given under the Seale of the Province the Second 
day of January in ye * * * 



I 



THE EDSALL PAPERS. 71 

It will be seen also that this third paper is a copy dated 
1740, the original being dated 1676: 

To all Christian people to whome this preasent writing 
shall Come Samuel Edsill of the Corporation of Bargin in 
the province of new Jersey Marchant Sendes Greting In our 
Lord God Everlasting 

Know all men by these preasents that whereas I the Said 
Samuel Edsill have by grant or pattant from the Right 
Honer'le John Lord Barkley Barron of Stranton & George 
Carteret Kn't & Baranet of a tract of Land Lying Between 
Hucsons River and overpecks Creek or River Baring Date 
the Twentieth Day of Feb'y in the Year cf our Lord one 
thousand sixe hundred and Sixty Eight as Relation being 
thereunto had upon Record may move at Large ap'r now 
know ye that I the Said Sam'el Edsil upon good and Valu- 
able Considerations me thereunto moving but more particu- 
larly for and in Consideration of a portion or Dowry be- 
stowed upon my two Daughters Anna & Judith Have 
Given granted Infeeofed and Confirmed and Do by these 
preasents give grant Infeeofe & Confirme unto my trusty 
and well beloved two Son's in Law Benjaman Blagge now 
Husband to my daughter Judith of the Town of Plymo'h 
in England, Marrinnar and William Lawrance now Hus- 
band to my Daughter Anne of the City of New York 
yeomon, a part and parcell of the above mentioned tract of 
Land Lying and being between Hudsons River and over- 
peck Creek as aforesaid beginning at the North-East Side 
of the Said Land Joyning to Michael Smiths Line from 
thence Running South West till it Combs twenty Rod below 
the Indian Castle from thence Running South East to the 
top of the Hill by Hudsons River & from thence to Cross 
over through the Marsh or medow to Overpeck Creek or 
River which said land is to be Divided Equally & parted 
in halfs upon a Line atwarth the above said neck Between 
my Said Two Sones in Law Beniaman and William the 
one of which said Moyties Belonging to Benjamin Blagge 
is to begin at the North East end thereof Joyning to 
Michaele Smiths Line as aforesaid & to run down South 



72 THE EDSALL PAPERS. 

west till it Combs to his Just proportion from whence the 
other moitie Belonging to the said WiUiam Lawrance is to 
begin & to run upon the Said Line to the top of the Hill, by 
Hudsons River as aforesaid both which Said Divisions of 
Land are bounded on the East by Hudsons rever and 
west by Overpeck Creek or River to Have and to Hold the 
aforesaid Demised primisses together with all the Marshes, 
Meadows Creeks and all other appurtenance gains profits 
Immunities and privileges thereunto belonging and apper- 
taining the Half of the Gold and Silver Mines only Ex- 
cepted by them the Said Benjaman Blagg and WiUiam 
Lawrance their Hairs or assigns for ever yealding and pay- 
in the Quit Rent of Twent Shill's p annum to the Lords 
proprietors the Same Quietly and peccable to Jnioy without 
any Let hinderance molistation encumbarance or Ejection of 
me the Said Samuel Edsall my Heirs Ex'rs Adm'rs or As- 
signs or any other parson or parsons by from or under my 
Means absent Consent or procurment. In Witness whereof 
I have Set my Hand and Scale to Two of these preasant 
Deeds of one and the same Date the Seventh Day of July 
in the year of our Lord one thousand Six hundred and 
Seventy Six and in the twenty eight year of his Majesties 
Reign Charles the Second &c Samuel Edsall 

Signed Sealed & Delivered 

In the preasence of 

Robert Van quellin 

Andrew Gibb 

Ja: Bollen 

Coppy'd from & Compared 
with the origenall Oct I 5 I 740 
pr, Bn. Blagge. 

Mr. Samuell Edsills Deed of gift to his Two Sons In 
Law Benj'a Blagge and Will'a Lawrance of a Tract of 
Land upon Hudsons River In new Jersey the 7 July 1676 
Entred upon Record in Feb. 68 

Jam's Bollen Secrc'ty- 



THE EDSALL PAPERS. 78 

Samuel Edsell 
To 

Benj'n Blagg & 

William Lawrance 

Deed. 

The next paper is interesting from the fact of its being 
a commission from Gov. Leisler, who at a subsequent period 
was executed for treason. On the left of the paper, directly 
under the extremely large W appears a large red seal of a 
plainly marked coat of arms : 
By the Lieut. Governor — & Councill & — 

Whereas I am fully Satisfied w'th ye, Integritie & Pru- 
dence of you Samuel Edsall Esq: — By virtue of ye Au- 
thority unto mee derived from his maj'tie King William I 
do hereby Constitute & Comissionate you ye S. Samuel 
Edsall Esq: to Administer ye oaths apointed for ye Sev- 
erall Justices of ye Peace w'th in ye County of Suffolk on 
Long Island acording to Law & for So doing this Shall be 
your Sufficient Warrant — 

Given under my hand & Seale at Fort Wm In New 
/ork this 1 4th day of May in ye Second Year of their 
ma'ties Reigne 1690: 

Past this office Jacob Leisler 

Abrah'm Gouvemeur. 



There is now a lapse of seventy years or more between 
the preceding paper and the following one, which is a deed 
of sale from John Christeen, or Christie, to his daughter 
Naomi and her husband John Day. The property was 
evidently a patent granted by Lord Berkley and Sir Geo. 
Carteret to the above named John Christie: 

To all Christaen People to whome these Preasents Writh- 
ing shall Come John Christeen of the Corporation of Ber- 
gen in the provence of New jersey jintleman Stands Greet- 
ing In our Lord Everlasting. 

Know all men by these presents that whearas I the said 
John Christeen Have by Vertue of a Patten from the Rightt 
John Lord Barkly Bar't of Stranton & George Carteret K't 



74 THE EDSALL PAPERS. 



& Baranight of a Tract of Land lying on the Top of the 
Mountain by Peter Degroots S. W. Line from thence on a 
S. E. Course on Hunsons River So upon Hudsons River to 
a Chestnut oak Tree marked on two Sides Standing on 
Smith's Line by Hudsons River thence N. W. a Long 
Smiths Line to the top of the mountain and all a Long the 
Top of the Mountain to the place Whear it First Begun 
Now Know ye that I the said John Christeen upon good 
and Valuable Considerations me thereunto moveing but 
more partically for and in Consideration of a Portion or 
Dowry Bestowed upon my Daughter Naomi have given 
granted Infeafed and Confirmed and do by these presents 
give grant In fee simple &c. Conferm unto my Trusty and 
well beloved Son in Law John Day now Husband to my 
aforesaid Daughter Naomi of the County of Bergen To 
Have and to Hold Hold unto the Said John Day His Hiars 
and Assigns for ever the afore Said tract of Land as above 
mentioned and also as much Land on the top of the moun- 
tain as to make two Hundred and Tirty acres Binding 
Southerly on the Land of Hartman Brinkerhoef Northerly 
on the Lands of Michael Smith without any Lest Hender- 
hance molestation Encumberance or Ejection of me the 
Said John Christeen my Heirs Executors Administrators or 
Assigns or any other person or Persons Claiming by from 
or under my Name assant Consent or Procorment. In wit- 
ness whereof I Have Set my Hand and Seal this Tenth Day 
of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven 
Hundred and Sixty and in the Thirty Third year of the 
Reign of our soergn Lord George Second. 
Signed Sealed and Dehvered 

John Christeen. 
In the presents of Abraham Montanye 
Jacob bonta 
Cost 6 S. proc'l 

Hackensak, October the third '761 i hen appeared 
befoor me Samii?! moore one of the Judges of Court of 
Common Pleas abraham Montonya one of the Evidence to 
this Dade of Sale and being doly Sworn upon the Holy 



THE EDSALL PAPERS. 75 

aveangelist of almighty God Sayeth that the Said John 
Christie Seal Sign and Deliver this Dead of Sail as his Law- 
full act and Deed and Saw Jacob Bontow Sign as the other 
Evedence with him 

acknowledged befoor me 

Samuel Moore Com. 
Entered In the Bublic Records for the County of Ber- 
gen in Liber C fol. 335 & 336 this fifth day of October 
1761 & Examined By me. 

David Provoost Clk. 



The next paper records the sale of a negro slave. It 
seems strange to us now to think of slaves being bought and 
sold in our own county: 

Know all men by these presents that I peter J. Banta 
of teanafly Cordv/aner* for and in Consideration of the 
Sum of Seaventy Eight pounds of Good and Lawfull money 
of the State of New York to me in hand paid at and Before 
the Sealing and Dehvery of these presents by Samuel Ed- 
sell of the English Neighbourhood farmer the Receipt 
whereof I Do hereby Acknowledge and my Self to be there 
with fully Satisfied, Contented and paid have granted Bar- 
gained Sold Released and by these Presents do fully Clearly 
and absolutely grant Bargain Sell and Release unto the 
Said Samuel Edsell a Negro Man Named frank aged about 
twenty two Years to have and to hold the said Negro man 
frank unto the Said Samuel Edsell and to his Executors 
Administrators and Assigns for Ever and of the Said Peter 
J. Banta for my Self my heirs Executors and Administra- 
tors do covenant and agree to and with the above Named 
Samuel Edsell his Executors Administrators and Assigns to 
warrant Defend and Indemnifie the Sale of the above 
Named Negro man frank against all and Every person or 
persons What So Ever In Witness Whereof I have hereunto 
Set my hand and Seal this Seventh Day of April annoq, 
Dom. one thousand Seaven hundred and Ninety 



•Shoemaker. 



76 THE EDSALL PAPERS. 



Sealed and Delivered 
In the presence of 

N. B. the word, pounds. Being Interlines Before the 
Sealing and Delivery of these presents 
John S. Banta 
John Day Petro J. Banta. 



I 



Was this woman well paid for her services? — 
English Neighbourhood December the twenty first 1 797 
Received of Samuel Edsall the sum of six shillings for 
My Wifes Nitting One pair of Stockings for Jacob Edsalls 
Negro fellow Bob. In full of all Demands 

mark, 
Dannel Days X 



The Governors of New Jersey get along with much lets 
title in more recent times: 

His Excellency 

Richard Howell Esquire Governor, Captain-General and 
Commander-in-Chief in and over the State of New-Jersey 
and Territories thereunto belonging. Chancellor and Ordi- 
nary in the same. 
To John Smith & Samuel Edsall Greeting: 

Whereas Jacob Edsall did not by Deed in his Lifetime, 
nor by his Last Will & Testament, dispose of the Guardian- 
ship of his children Daniel Jane & Samuel Edsall and 
whereas the said Daniel, Jane & Samuel being under the 
Age of fourteen Years, the above-said Samuel Edsall hath, 
by his Petition, on Behalf of the said Infants filed in the 
Surrogate's Office for the County of Bergen prayed that he 
may be appointed Guardian of the Persons and Estates of 
the said Daniel Jane and Samuel Edsall until they shall at- 
tain the Age of fourteen Years. 

And it appearing by a Transcript of the Order of Ap- 
pointment of the Orphans' Court of the said County of Ber- 
gen filed in the Prerogative Office of New-Jersey, that the 
said John Smith and Samuel Edsall are appointed Guard- 
ians of the Persons and Estates of the said Infants Now 



THE EDSALL PAPERS. 



Know Ye, That I have accordingly authorized, deputed and 
appointed, and by these presents do authorize, depute and 
appoint the said John Smith and Samuel Edsall to be Keep- 
ers or Guardians of the said Daniel Jane & Samuel until 
they shall attain their Age of fourteen years with full Power 
and Authority to the said John Smith & Samuel Edsall to 
maintain any Action of Trespass against v/rongful Takers- 
away or Detainers of the said Daniel Jane & Samuel And 
I do also appoint and authorize the said John Smith & 
Samuel Edsall to take into your Charge and Care the Per- 
sons Estate and Education of the said Daniel Jane and 
Samuel until they shall attain their Age of fourteen Years; 
and to see or prosecute any such Action or Actions in Rela- 
tion to the Premises, as by Law a Guardian in Soccage 
might. 

In Testimony whereof I have caused the Great Seal of 
the said State to be hereunto affixed at Trenton in the said 
State, the twenty fourth Day of January in the Year of 
our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Ninety Eight. 

R. D. Howell, 
i o John Smith & Samuel Edsall. 

In the orphans Court of the County of Bergen of the Term 
of March. Anno Domini 1804. 
Whereas, the orphans Court for the County of Bergen 
some time past did appoint Samuel Edsal Guardian of the 
person and Estate of Daniel Edsall and Infants under the 
age of fourteen years and the said Daniel having now at- 
tamed the age of fourteen years and chose that the said 
Samuel Edsall be continued as his guardian until he shall be 
of full age and having at this time appeared before the 
County and application being made to the Courts by the 
said Minor The Court do order that the said Samuel Ed- 
sall be continued Guardian of the person and Estate of the 
said Daniel and that an entry thereof be made by the Clerk 
m the mmutes of the Court and endorsed on the Letter of 
Guardianship. 

John A. Boyd. Clerk. 



THE EDSALL PAPERS. 



May the 23th 1 798 Received of Abel Smith and Sam- 
uel the Administrators of Jacob Edsall late deceased Estate 
the Sum of twenty dollars money that was lent to him in his 
life time. 

hur 
Suasanna hur X mark Cutter, 
mark 



This next paper records a somewhat lengthy deed from 
John Edsall and Mary, his wife, to Samuel Edsall: 

This Indenture made the first Day of April in the Year 
of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and one Between 
John Edsall of patterson in the County of Essex in new Jer- 
sey And Mary his wife of the one part and Samuel Edsall 
of the Enghsh Neighbourhood in the County of Bergen of 
the other part Witnesseth that the said John Edsall and 
Mary his wife for the Consideration of three hundred and 
Seventy five Dollars paid or Secured to be paid to the Said 
John Edsall by the said Samuel Edsall do Grant bargain 
Sell and Convey unto the Said Samuel Edsall and to his 
heirs and Assigns the one Sixt part of all that Lot of Land 
Being and Leying in the English Neighbourhood Beginning 
in the middle of the Road on the Hne of John Smith thence 
Runing a South Easterly Course along the lines of John 
Smiih, Samuel Jas. Moore, John Vansile and Doctor Brad- 
hor5t to the Run of water Commonly Called the "Great Run 
then Down Stream of Said Run to the hne of Abel Smith 
then a north westerly Course along the said Abel Smiths Hne 
to the Said Road then up Said Road to the place of Be- 
gining Containing one hundred Acres together with all things 
thereto appertaining or Belonging as part or parcel of the 
Same or Reputed so to be And the Reversions and Re- 
mainders Rents Issues and profits thereof with the appur- 
tenances and also all the estate of the Said John Edsall and 
Mary his wife or either of them either in Law or Equity of 
in and to the same To have and to hold all the Sixt part of 
the Said premises unto the Said Samuel Edsall his heirs and 
assigns to the only proper use of the said Samuel Edsall his 



THS EDSALL PAPERS. 79 

heirs and Assigns for Ever, And the Said John Edsall Doth 
for himself his heirs executors and Administrators Covenant 
with the Said Samuel Edsall his heirs and Assigns that he 
now is the Lawful and Rightful owner in fee Simple of the 
premises herein Granted And is Seized thereof at the En- 
seaHng and Delivery of these presents of an Indefeasible 
Estate of Inheritance in fee Simple Without any Manner of 
Condition Limitation or other Matter to Alter or Deter- 
mine the Same And that the Said Samuel Edsall his heirs 
and Assigns Shall hold and enjoy the one sixt part of all the 
Said premises without the Lawful Let or Eviction of him the 
Said John Edsall his heirs or Assigns or any persons or per- 
sons lawfully Claiming by from or under him or them or any 
of them or of the lawful Claim of any person or persons 
What so Ever, and freed and Indemnified Against all for- 
mer or other Charges and Incumberances what so ever made 
and Committed or to be made and Committed Done ol 
Suffered by the Said John Edsall or his heirs or of any 
person or persons having or Lawfully Claiming or to Claim 
by from or under him them or any of them 

In Witness Whereof the Said John Edsall and Mary his 
Wife have to these presents Set their hands and Seals the 
Day and Year first Above Written. 

Sealed and Delivered ) 

In presence of [ John Edsall 

Naomi Edsell | Mary Edsall 

Catharine Edsall J 

Be it Remembered that on the Sixth Day of April in 
the year of our Lord one Thousand Eight Hundred & one 
personly appeared before me Jacob Terheun, one of the 
Judges of the inferior Court of Common Pleas of the County 
of Bergen John Edsall and Mary Edsall the Within Grant- 
ors and acknowledged that they Signed Sealed and De- 
livered the within ensterment of Writing to be their 
Volinteer act and Deed for the use and purposes 
therein mentioned, and the Mary Was Examined apart 
from her husband and Did acknowledge that She Signed 



80 THE EDSALL PAPERS. 

Volintierly Without any Treats or Compultion from her said 
husband acknowledged before me Jacob Terheun. 

Received in the office & Recorded the 6th Day of April 
1801 in Book N of Deeds folio 24 & 25. 

N. Wade. Clerk. 



Quite a difference between then and now. 

This was a tax bill of Naomi Edsall's: 

Rec'd Neyork Feby 1st 1816 from Mr. Rinier Worten- 
dyke eight 58/ 100 Dollars for County and State taxes ob 
House Corn'r White & Chapel S. for the year 1815. — 
County, 5.8 
State 3.50 



$8.58 

William Berrian, Coll'r. 



In all probability the following was a direct war tax au- 
thorized by Congress to help pay the expenses of the Second 
war with Great Britain. From the illegible chirography it it 
questionable whether the two-wheeled carriage was called 
a chair or chaise: 

Carriage Certificate. 
No. 40 — Yearly rate of Two dollars. 

This is to certify that Naomy Edsall of the township of 
Hackensack, in the county of Bergen in the First collection 
district of New Jersey, has paid the duty of 

Two dollars, for one year to end on the 3 1 st day of 
December next, for and upon a Two wheel carriage, called 
a Chair 

owned by the said Naomi Edsall and the harness used 
therefor 

This certificate to be of no avail any longer than the 
aforesaid carriage shall be owned by the said Naomy Ed- 
sall, unless said certificate shall be produced to a collector, 
and an entry be made thereon, specifying the name of the 
tfien owner of said carriage and the time when he became 



THE EDSALL PAPERS. 81 

possessed thereof. Given in conformity with the laws of the 
United States, this 25 th day of Oct. 1816. 

Joh Johnson D'py 
Collector of the Revenue for the first 
Collection District, New Jersey. 



Received this 27th day of Nov'm 1816, from John Ed- 
tall the Sum of Eight Dollars and 25 cents for the Direct 
Tax of 1816, upon his property in the Township of Hack- 
ensack, in the First Collection District in the State of New- 
Jersey. 

John Johnson Collector for the 1 st. 

Collection District, New- Jersey 
$8.25 Cts. 



What was paid for grandfather's clock eighty years ago. 
Guarantee was somewhat longer then than now: 

Rec'd 8th. Feb. 1822 of Mrs. Naomi Edsall the sum 
of sixty five dollars in full for a clock which I hereby war- 
rant for the term of Seven years from this date. 

Ab'm House. 



There are several more papers in this collection but 
none others of immediate interest to the Society. 



Samuel Edsall was born in Reading, Berkshire Co., Eng- 
land, in 1 630 ; learned the hatter's trade there, and came 
to America in 1655. He married Jannetje Wessels, who 
was a belle of New Amsterdam and who lived with her 
mother on Pearl Street. He was a man of prominence and 
did much for the development of New Amsterdam. His 
children were Ann, 1656; Judith, 1658; John, 1660; a 
second Ann, Julia and Richard. John setded near the 
Hudson River on his father's property, and the Edsalls at 
Morsemere are his descendants. As shown by above deed, 
Nicolas Varlet was his partner in the venture. Apparently 
Edsall setded on his property immediately, since a good 



82 THE EDSALL PAPERS. 



deal k said of his constructive work and his prominence in 
local affairs for the next 21 years. In 1689 he moved 
back to New Amsterdam, or New York as it was then 
called, and became a partisan of Gov. Leisler. Ten years 
later he moved to what is now Queens County, Long Island, 
where he died. 



IHE POLIFLY ROAD. 



By Burton H. Allbee. 



In the legends of New England the story is told that 
Washington Street, Boston's principal thoroughfare, follows 
the windings of a path over which the cattle at one time 
wended their way to drink. It is well understood how 
these paths turn and tvvist in an effort to avoid knolls and 
hillocks and how they dodge this obstruction or that. As 
generation after generation of cattle or other animals wore 
the path wide and smooth the builders of the original vil- 
lage on the present site of Boston adopted it as the street 
along which they constructed their first houses. But never 
dreaming that Boston would one day be a big city they failed 
to straighten the path as they built. Those who followed 
after forgot to do it, and now the business houses of a com- 
mercial city follow the turns and twists of those cattle who 
early went to the woods and back from one of the first homes 
Boston ever saw. 

If tradition may be trusted the Polifly Road was not a 
cattle path, but an Indian trail. Starting from somewhere 
above what is now Hackensack this trail led along the hill- 
side toward the ocean at the Kill von Kull. It passed 
through the woods, and alongside what was then undoubt- 
edly water and finally lost itself in forests which formerly 
covered the meadows below what is now Rutherford. It 
may have wound around the hillside and passed across the 
flats at what is now Kingsland. Or it may have gone even 
further and eventually found its way to or across the Pas- 
saic River. At any rate, it was here when the white man 
came, and he adopted it as one of the principal roadways 
of the early years of Bergen County. 



84 THE POLIFLY ROAD. 

Where did it get its name? There are various theories 
as to that, but it must be admitted by anyone who stops to 
think of the subject at all that it has a strangely Dutch 
sound. That last syllable, fly, is the Dutch word for willow, 
the same as it is in Tenafly and in other words with the same 
termination. It has been said by some that it was named 
from an encampment of the Polfly Indians on the ridge 
where Hasbrouck Heights is located now, but Indians v/ould 
scarcely call themselves fly. The name or its origin is more 
or less obscure and deserves more consideration than has yet 
been given it. 

Assuming, however, that it is probably of Dutch origin, 
there is ample reason for the fly betokening willow. All 
along the road are scattered willows and many bleaching 
stumps indicate that there has been more than are now grow- 
ing. At least one house is called the Polifly homestead, 
and possibly from this the road may have taken its name. 
More likely, though, the homestead was called Polifly from 
the road. It seems probable that the road was there first. 

It was one of the earliest roads in Bergen County. Ex 
tending from Hackensack, the first Dutch settlement, to 
Kingsland, an English settlement in the southern part of the 
county, taking in on the way the settlements at what is now 
Rutherford and connecting by means of cross roads with the 
English Neighbourhood on one side of the county and what 
is now Lodi, and so on to Aquakanonk, now Passaic, on 
the other, it was an important thoroughfare. The early set- 
tlers must have used it freely. The probability is that few 
roads in the county were more important. Even though 
the English Neighbourhood was one of the first good roads 
m the county, there is every reason to believe that the Polifly 
Road was laid out and in use long before the English Neigh- 
borhood had become as important as it was during the Revo- 
lution. 

Beginning at Essex Street in Hackensack and going south 
the road has a number of interesting historic buildings still 
left standing. The Brinkerhoff homestead on Essex Street 
is one of them. Though situated a bit off the line of the 



THE POLIFLY ROAD. 8g 

Polifly Road, this house deserves to be included in the group 
which was built about that time. Some were earlier, but this 
one dates back to I 704 and is now in a good state of preser- 
vation. 

In the corner where Essex Street crosses the Polifly Road, 
or Terrace Avenue, as it is known, stands a stone house 
which is known as the Demarest place. It has stood about 
the same length of time as the Brinckerhoff homestead, 
though recent remodellings have destroyed much of its an- 
cient appearance, while with the former structure an effort 
was made to emphasize those features which made it typical 
of the early day. The property upon which the Demarest 
house stands has recently been made into building lots, and 
eventual!)' the picturesque stone house will fall a prey to the 
mania for improvement which has caused the destruction of 
so many of the historic homesteads of the county. 

If there were any more stone houses for a half mile or 
more they have disappeared. Nothing appears in any of 
the records v/hich indicates that they ever existed. Accord- 
ingly it is assumed that no buildings of a historic character 
existed before the stone house known as the Polifly home- 
stead is reached. A.nd not all of that is historic. The 
mam portion of the house and one of the ells is compara- 
tively modern, though probably well toward two hundred 
years old. The other ell is older and bears evidence of be- 
mg among the old structures of the county. This house is 
interestmg because it represents in probably the best form 
in the county the custom of building an ell and living in it 
for a time, then constructing a large main part, retaining the 
ell as a kitchen, and later building another ell in case one 
of the children married and preferred to live at home. This 
house has been kept in excellent condition and is good for 
two more centuries of daily use. 

A little farther down stands an old building which prob- 
ably should be ranked among the early ones. It has all the 
characteristics of a Dutch homestead of the earhest date, 
though who built it and who occupied it at that time is un- 
certain. The ell is built of the rough stones from the field. 



86 THE POLIFLY ROAD. 



and the dirt from about the house mixed with water wa» 
used as mortar. The house is not well cared for and is fall- 
ing to ruin. 1 he ell is already crumbhng, and before many 
years only a pile of stones will mark the place where this 
excellent specimen of Dutch architecture stands. 

A short distance below is another which has been restored 
and the beautiful brovm stone has been painted a sickly 
yellow. The building is substantial and is good for many 
years to come. 

The next building was originally one of the De Kype 
houses and is in a good strte of preservation. And the site 
of the original De Kype house, now burned and every 
vestige of even the stone removed, is where stood one of the 
oldest houses in Bergen County. It dated back to 1 680, or 
thereabouts, and was a splendid specimen of Dutch archi- 
tecture. 

It is some distance before another stone house is found. 
There are two within the limits of Hasbrouck Heights, one 
on one side of the road and one on the other, indicating that 
they might have been erected by brothers or settlers who 
came to this country together. 

From there to Rutherford there are half a dozen more, 
some on one side, some on the other, some of the early type 
and some of the later, but all bearing evidence of advanced 
age. They are all Dutch and unquestionably all were built 
by the early settlers who made this road their highway. 

Along this road marched Washington's men on their re- 
treat from Fort Lee in 1776. And after them streamed 
the British and Hessians, sweeping these homesteads clean 
of everything they could carry away. And probably 
throughout the struggle the bands of marauders and the 
patriot armies marched and counter marched along this road. 
It has seen all the vicissitudes of Indian warfare and the 
flight and advance of the white man in his wars. And it 
has seen a sturdy race grow up and build substantial homes 
where once contending warriors marched and fought. It 
18 historic. And it deserves in the years to come an ade- 



THE POLIFL.Y ROAD. 8T 

quate chronicle which shall give the detailed facts of the 
early settlement and the later development as a thoroughfare 
connecting important parts of the county. 

While Washington did not retreat far along the road, 
turning over the hill to Lodi, it is stated in diaries and letters 
that there were straggling bands of both Americans and 
British who went farther south before crossing the Passaic 
River. It is even thought that some crossed at the Ennis 
ferry below what is now Rutherford and that they passed 
along this road in their flight to escape the wrath of the 
king's hirehngs. Be that as it may, it is really not impossi- 
ble and may explain some of the discrepancies in the story 
of the retreat. 

When passing over the road it is interesting to recall 
its early origin and to remember that it was a principal thor- 
oughfare probably centuries before the white man came and 
that it lost none of its importance with his advent. Even 
now it is one of the most traveled roads in the county, hav- 
ing lost none of its importance, even though steam and elec- 
tric railroads now gridiron the county with their tracks of 
•teel. Much of life is connected with roads, and the his- 
torian who can tell the story of the development of a road 
can tell pretty nearly the development of the people who 
lived alongside its sinuous length. 



THE CHURCH AT ENGLISH NEIGHBOUR- 
HOOD. 



By B. F. Underwood, M. D. 



The early settlers of New Jersey were a religious folk. 
As soon almost as two or three families were gathered to- 
gether in a new settlement their thoughts turned toward the 
erection of a place of worship, though it were nothing more 
than an unpretentious structure of rough-hewn logs built 
after the fashion of their own houses. 

Although the first settlement in New Jersey, at Bergen, 
dates back to 1616, it was for a considerable time little 
more than a trading post in the wilderness, and it was not 
until 1658, when the Notable Lord Director General of the 
Province of The New Netherlands, the Hon. Peter Stuy- 
vesant, Peter the Headstrong, and his Council purchased 
from the Indian owners the tract of land extending from 
Wiehacken to the Kill von Col and from the Hudson to 
the Hackensack, that the "Towne" took on a permanent 
character. A few years later, in 1 663, the inhabitants 
agreed to be taxed for the maintenance of a place of wor- 
ship, and in 1 664 the first church in New Jersey was con- 
stituted and the first church building erected, a rude struc- 
ture probably of logs. This was used until 1 680, when the 
first regular church edifice was erected. This was of stone, 
octagonal in form, with pews around the walls, which were 
solely occupied by the men and boys, while the remainder of 
the floor was covered with chairs for the women and girls. 
A belfry rose from the roof, and when ringing the bell the 
sexton ctood in the centre of the church. 

This church for many years supplied the religious needs 
of the "Town and the villages and plantations thereunto 
belonging." It was not until a hundred years later, in 



90 THE CHURCH AT ENGLISH NEIGHBOURHOOD. 

1 763, that, feeling the need of a more convenient church, 
the inhabitants of Teaneck and the Enghsh Neighbourhood 
united in constituting a church at the Enghsh Neighbourhood, 
and the following year the church building was erected. 
The site of this edifice it is now impossible to locate with 
accuracy, but it was on or near the hne of the old Albany 
Post Road, now Grand Avenue, near to the dividing line 
between the Boroughs of Palisades Park and Leonia. This 
was used until after the beginning of the War of the Revo- 
lution and the retreat of the American army from Fort Lee, 
when the English Neighbourhood became practically British 
territory, and the services were perforce indefinitely post- 
poned. The church building, tradition says, was used for a 
time as a barrack for the Hessian soldiers and the interior 
practically destroyed. 

At the close of the war the building had fallen into ruin, 
the congregation was scattered, and it was not until 1 792 
that the church was started anew. The records of the 
church from its constitution in I 763 to 1 776 were burned 
by the British or Hessian troops so that the existing records 
begin in 1 792, with a plan for the building of a new church 
edifice. 

"Plan for Building the Dutch Reformed Church of 
Enghsh Neighbourhood in the County of Bergen and State 
of New Jersey. 

"Whereas — The Elders and Deacons of the Reformed 
Dutch Church of the County of Bergen and State of New 
Jersey, having long seen the necessity of having a place of 
public worship, having by consent, and it also appearing to 
be their right, thought it most beneficent to the said congre- 
gation to pull down the old church, have laid a plan to build 
and erect a new one in a more proper place, and, 

"Whereas — It has pleased the omnipotent disfKJser of 
public events to bless this land with peace and plenty, and 
we also, wishing harmony in said congregation, having the 
advice of our minister and the congregation in general in the 
fear of the Lord, to proceed in building the said church ac- 
cording to the following plan: 



THE CHURCH AT ENGLISH NEIGHBOURHOOD. 91 

"I. — The place proposed to be on the Point Field west 
of an apple tree, and according to the following dimensions, 
viz: 40 feet by 22 feet long and with two gallerys. 

"II. — The stone and lumber to be brought on the ground 
free gratis, and no money to be paid or laid out unless it 
be for 'meteriels" until the carpenter and mason's work is 
begun. 

"III. — The following persons are appointed 'Mennegers 
Mess. Corn, Vreeland, Garrett Banta, John WiHiams, 
John Day, Romeo Earl and Sam'l Edsall, whose business 
it shall be to engage workmen and laborers, procure 'me- 
teriel,' superintend the work and do everything necessary to 
promote said building. 

"IV. — The congregation shall immediately take in vol- 
untary subscriptions in order to defray expenses of building. 
The money subscribed in to be in two equal payments, viz; 
the first at the time of subscribing, the second when the 
roof of the new church is raised. 

"V. — After the church is finished the pews shall be 
divided into convenient seats, except as many free seats for 
strangers as the 'Mennegers' shall think proper, and also 
Elder and Deacon's pews and a pew for the minister's 
family. The said seats shall, after due notice given at an 
appointed time and place, be disposed of at a pubhc auc- 
tion, and the several subscribers shall have credit for all 
moneys by them subscribed, provided they purchase to the 
amount of money so subscribed. 

"VI. — In seats or pews. If any person shall become 
heir to, or shall purchase from another any of the said seats, 
and shall not apply within one year and one day after such 
purchase or obtaining of such right or legacy, to have such 
seat transcribed, they shall be deemed the property of the 
congregation, and the church masters have the right to sell 
them. The price for transcribing shall be 4 shilHngs, N. Y. 
currency, per seat." 

Among the meteriels purchased by the mennegers in the 
building of the church were sundry gallons of rum for the 



92 THE CHURCH AT ENGLISH NEIGHBOURHOOD. 



workmen and laborers, rum in those days being as good as 
coin of the realm in the payment of wages. 

The highest price realized from the sale of the pews was 
£25, 2 s., the total amounting to £215, 5 s. The cost 
of building the church was £l ,292, I 5 s. 

The walls of the present church at Ridgefield, which re- 
main as originally built, were constructed from the stone in 
the walls of the first church building and which were, doubt- 
less brought to the grounds "free gratis." When the build- 
ing was completed the doors were secured with a massive 
lock, the key of which was large enough to have served St. 
Peter, being a foot in length. 

It is difficult in these days of religious tolerance to reaHze 
how closely the church was connected with the daily life 
of the people of the olden time and how important a part 
it took in the ordering of their conduct. The church or the 
consistory regulated and governed the community, and the 
so-called blue-laws of New Jersey were the direct outcome 
of the rules and regulations of the church. 

The early records of the church are replete with the ac- 
count of happenings which show how the consistory sat in 
judgment upon the members of the church for violations of 
its rules, and which read like the proceedings of a court. It 
would seem from a perusal of these ancient records that each 
member of the church took a solemn delight in discovering 
and exposing some dereliction of a brother member and in 
bringing him to book therefore. From the many instances 
recorded the following are selected as showing the spirit of 
the time and the manner in which various offences were 
dealt with. 

Among the other duties required of a church member was 
that he, with all his household, should be present at each 
service on Sunday unless he were physically unable to do so, 
failure to perform this duty being punished by a fine. Upon 
one occasion the head of a family at English Neighbourhood 
having been absent from the service upon a particular Sun- 
day, a committee was appointed to visit him and ascertain the 
why and wherefore. 



THE CHURCH AT ENGLISH NEIGHBOURHOOD. 98 



The committee having made an investigation, thereupon 
reported: That having visited the brother against whom 
the charge had been made, they found that during the 
previous week he had made a visit to the city (New York) 
and had fallen into evil company, had looked upon the wine 
when it was red, had, in fact, gone in the way of the un- 
godly, and had returned home in a general disreputable 
condition with sundry bruises and discolorations upon his 
countenance, so that he was not in a fit condition to attend 
service. Whereupon the consistory sitting as a court of jus- 
tice, fined him ten shillings and suspended him from the 
church for six months. 

Members were also fined for fast driving on Sunday, for 
laboring on the Sabbath and sundry like offences, the favor- 
ite sum being ten shillings. Attendance upon the church 
service was an onerous duty in those days, for it was an all 
day affair, the members often coming a long distance and 
after the morning service with a sermon of interminable dura- 
tion remaining for another of equal duration in the after- 
noon. They brought with them a supply of provisions for 
the noon meal as well as provender for the horses. The 
amount of food to be provided for the noonday meal was 
duly regulated by the consistory, there being so much bread, 
so much meat and other viands, as well as so much beer, 
allowed for each person. So much was necessary; excess 
of this was gluttony, and punished with the usual fine. 

The cemetery adjoining the church was laid out at about 
the time the church was built and contains the graves of 
many of the early residents of the English Neighborhood. 
The tombstones of the first of those to be buried here have 
been disintegrated by the storms and sunshine of the many 
years that have gone since they were set up, and the inscrip- 
tion can no longer be read. The oldest of those yet standing 
was erected in August, 1 799, in memory of John Johnson, 
aged 47. And near by is one set up in September, 1 799, in 
memory of William Scott, who died of Yellow Fever at the 
age of 27. 



94 THE CHURCH AT ENGLISH NEIGHBOURHOOD. 



Many of the older stones, in addition to the name of the 
deceased and the record of birth and death, have carved 
upon them the quaint epitaphs of the olden time, a few of 
which are quoted: 

From a tombstone of I 799 : 

Remember me as you pass by. 
As you are now so once was I, 
As I am now, so you will be. 
Prepare for death and follow me 

Of 1801: 

The sweet remembrance of the just 
Shall flourish when they sleep in dust. 

Of 1805: 

We read this monument and sigh. 
And while we sigh we sink. 
And are what we deplored. 

Of 1806: 

The world is vain and full of pain. 

With grief and trouble sore. 
But they are blest that are at rest 

With Christ forever more. 

Of 1821: 

This friend of Truth and peace 

Has left a world of woe; 
Gone to the LAMB above. 

He followed here below. 

Our friends depart and we are sad. 
But Truth remains to make us glad. 

Deny me not this little spot 

My wearied limbs to rest, 
I hope to rise in glad surprise, 

And be forever blest. 



NECROLOGY. 



Mr. V/illiam Osborn Labagh, treasurer of this Society, 
died at his home in Hackensack on Dec. 18, 1907. He 
was Lorn in New York City in 1 838 and grew up there, as 
had his father and grandfather. He knew the city in other 
days when 23d street vvas away uptown and East Broad- 
way the home of men renowned far and wide. He became 
a member of the old volunteer fire department, being the 
third generation of his family who had been members. In 
1 863 he enlisted in the Union army and was stationed in 
Virginia. In 1 854 he married Miss Henrietta Hill, who 
with four sons and one daughter survive him. He was in- 
terested in the salt business and for years was an importer 
In 1874 he moved to Hackensack and was appointed post- 
master by President Harrison during his first term. He was 
one of the organizers of this Society and was ever ready to 
work whenever needed. 

The following resolutions adopted by the Bergen County 
Historical Society were read at the services: 

Hackensack, December 21st, 1907. 

The Historical Society of Bergen County, recognizing its 
loss in the death of one of its most active members, William 
O. Labagh, in tender memory of his generous co-operative 
work and sincerest sympathy with his bereaved family, are 
desirous of manifesting their appreciation of his labors in 
its behalf and their admiration of his character. To this 
end, therefore, this Society 

Resolves, That in the decease of William O. Labagh, 
not alone the Society, but the community of Hackensack, 
has lost a member, whose life for more than thirty years 
has been one long struggle for the improvement and the good 
of those who were fortunate enough to enjoy his fellowship 
or come within the sphere of his influence. 



96 NECROLOGY. 



In the prime of manhood, forty-five years ago, he aban- 
doned all other considerations and sprang to the cause of 
freedom, by becoming a soldier of the Union in the Civil 
War. 

In his maturer years, a grateful government gave him 
charge of its postal matters in Hackensack, and his admin- 
istration gave such satisfaction that his commission was re- 
nevv^ed to the entire content of his fellow citizens. 

Since his retirement for more than ten years he has de- 
voted quietly but continuously his energies, to all the best 
interests of his home, his county, his country as God gave 
him to see the needs of each and all. 

A good father, a faithful husband, an intelligent citizen, 
a public servant who served, a veteran with undiminished 
zeal through life for his fellow men, he deserved the Epitaph 
of Plinius: 

"Who died full of years and honor, equally distinguished 
by those he refused and those he accepted." 

If, as Cicero said to the Ancient World: "The Hfe 
of the dead, arises from being present in the minds of the 
living," then does the society realize how serious a loss it has 
sustained and feels authorized to express its sympathy to his 
family. 

This they do, in the spirit of modern Christian regard, 
suggesting to all, the significance of the thought, which is as 
old as Terentius, who expressed it, when he said: 

"They best mourn the dead who live as they desire." 
Byron G. Van Horne, 

President. 
Francis C. Koehler, 

Secretary. 
W. D. Snow, 
Chairman of the Committee on Resolutions. 



Papers 

and 

Proceedings 



1908-1909-1910 

Numbers Five and Six 



Bergen County 
Historical Society 



Papers and Proceedings 



OF 



The Bergen County Historical Society 



908-1909-1910 



NUMBERS FIVE AND SIX 



Secretary's Report, 1 908- 1 909- 1910. 

Old Land Lines in Hackensack, 

Ancient Dutch Architecture, 

Over Our Northern Border, 

Historical Clippings, - - . 

Changes, - - - . 

Early Legislation ) 

Affecting Bergen County, f 

Historic Maps, - _ . 

Necrology. 

In Memoriam. 

Membership Roll 



Burton H. Allbee 

George J. Ackerman 

Burton H. Allbee 

Theophilus N. Glover 

Frances A. Weslervelt 

Hon. David D. Zabriskie 

Hon. Edmund W. Wakelce 



H. B. Goetschius 



A MOAfEXT WITH THE SECRETARY. 



It is two years since a book was printed. Last year's 
pnblication was omitted because the executive commit- 
tee, in the state of the finances deemed it unwise to 
incur the expense. This year's publication is, therefore, 
for two years, 1908 and icpg. 

]i\en with this the publicatit)n committee had diffi- 
cuhy in obtainiiig another and only witliin the past two 
weeks lias the book been sent to press. While it is 
recognized that in some ways such haste is undesirable 
in others there are certain features which commend 
themselves in such rapid work. It is at least fresh and 
alive. 

The usual secretary's report is a dry alTair. limited 
to such statements of bare facts as are essential for mem- 
bers of the Society to know. This one may be largely 
the same, but it is necessary to say something about the 
Society and its work. 

The annual meeting of 1908 was held in the Elks* 
Club House, with a good attendance. The members and 
their guests sat down to an excellent dinner and after- 
ward listened to the subjoined list of excellent addresses 
and papers : 

■"Welcome" President Byron G. \'an Home 

"Changes" Hon. David D. Zabriskie 

"Woman and Her Power to ]\Iake History," 

J. Spencer Smith 
"Early Legislation for Bergen County." 

Hon. Edmund W. Wakelee 

"(iood Citizenship" Dan Eellows Piatt 

"Historical Resume" Theophilus N. Glover 

The work of the year was confined to meetings in a 
few places. Mr. .Mlbee's pictures of historic buildings 
continued in demand and he gave his talk several times, 
each time to interested audiences. The various commit- 
tees performed their work with considerable enthusiasm 
and the alreadv valuable collections of the Societv were 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 



materially enhanced. There was a g-reat deal of good 
work (lone, and many persons learned of the Society's 
work who were previously unfamiliar with it. The 
membership increased as compared with the previous 
vear. 



The annual meeting of 1909 marked the close of 
another successful year. There were fewer meetings, 
hut the work was carried forward by interested members 
and the various committees, assisted whenever requests 
were made by the committees and others. 'I'hc incor- 
poration of the Societ}' and its establishment ujjon a i:)er- 
manent basis atTorded opportunity for a somewhat dif- 
ferent class of work, and that was done continuously and 
elTectively. 

( )ne of the most important features of the work of 
that vear was the beginning of a county map by H. P). 
(loetschius upon which shouUl he marked the princijial 
historic sites. .\ tentative map was prepared and a num- 
ber of sites so marked. This work has since been ex- 
tended, the map has been enlarged. Elsewhere in this 
edition of the Year I'ook ^\r. (ioetschius tells the story 
himself and makes a ]:)lea for assistance which is com- 
mended to the attention of all members. 

Some valuable contributions \o the Society's collec- 
tions were made, among them being a vohune of The 
[ournal, an old news]x\per which was ]^resented by E. K. 
r>ird. Mr. T')m-t(^n It. .\lll)ee ])resented his large collec- 
tion of ne\\s])ai)er cli]')iMngs. i)robably 10,000 or more. 
man\- of them about Tergen county, to the Society for 
its librarw 

The work in the genealogical field b}- Afrs. Erances 
A. ^Vestervelt deserves the highest commendation. She 
has a large number of names on her records and has 
been of great assistance t(^ a good many searchers for 
genealogical information. 

The reports of the sianding committees, the elect,ion 
of officers, the rece])tion of guests accupied the attention 
for a time after which the visitors repaired to the ban- 
quet hall where an excellent dinner was served, following 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 7 

which there were papers, juhh-esses. readiniis and soiii^s. 

Invocation Rev. Samuel K. Doolittle 

"Welcome" President Willian'i 1). Snow 

Address jud,t;e W". I I. Sj)eer 

"The Centenary of njot; is World Wide." 

James A. h^airley 

"Historical Accuracy" \\'illiani A. l.inn 

Readino-s Joseph C. Lincoln 

Song-s Mrs Ann I'.rohel 

Death has taken a lunnlx-r during- the \ear which has 
closed, all of whom are dul\- recorded on the memorial 
pag-e. lUit especial reference should be- made here to 
Col. William 1). Snow, a charter member, long- a mem- 
ber of the ot^cial board and president in i()o8 and 1909. 
He was a most enthusiastic member and a hard worker 
in the cause of the Society. His advice and counsel will 
be missed and his death is deeply deplored Iw the entire 
Society. 

Abram C. Iloldrum. a charier meml)ei of the Societ\-. 
and for a mnnber of years a member of the executive 
committee, passed away during- the year just closed. 

The secretary's work is now done for this year and 
he lays down his pen with a sense of satisfaction because 
of the work accomplished and assures the members that 
the prospects for the future are exceptionally promising. 

He wants to thank most heartily all who have so 
kindly assisted him in his work during the past two 
years. They have contributed materially to what the 
Society is doing. 



OLD LAND LINES IN HACKENSACK. 
By George J. Ackennaii. 



In undertaking to describe the situation as it ap- 
peared about 1695, at the time when John Berry held 
a land claim to the whole of Hackensack, it will be neces- 
sary for the reader to bear in mind that the original lines 
and boundaries of property can not now be as clearly 
defined and located as they could at that time. The 
boundaries then between adjacent property owners were 
designated by "marked trees" and "fences as they then 
stood." regardless of angles, but simply by the cardinal 
points of the compass, and distances as extending from 
one point to another. This, in all probability, answered 
every purpose and was just as satisfactory to our fore- 
fathers, as the more complex and intricate courses and 
angles as developed by the modern instruments of the 
surveyor, do for us of the present day. 

In the latter part of the Seventeenth century, John 
Berdan, or as he signed his name, "jan bar Dan" came 
to Hackensack from New Amersfort (now Gravesend) 
Long Island and purchased from John Berry (supposed 
in 1697) a tract of land in the centre of the town extend- 
ing from the Hackensack river on the east, to the Saddle 
River on the west ; its extent along Main street, as near 
as can be determined, was from the north line of the lot 
on which stands Dunn Brothers store, to Camden street 
covering a frontage of about 528 feet, or about eight 
chains, which width it is supposed to have maintained 
until it reached Saddle River, a short distance north of 
the New York, Susquehanna & Western railroad at Ro- 
chelle Park. The frontage on the Hackensack river 
was probably the same as that on Main street. Jan Ber- 
dan, during his lifetime, must have acquired considerable 
more property than the above tract which he purchased 
from John Berry. Lie was at the time he located here 
about twent3'-eight or thirty years of age ; genealogical 



10 OLD LAND LINES IN HACKENSACK 

records tell us "that he arrived in this country from Hol- 
land in the latter part of the Seventeenth century with 
his father and mother, probably about 1681 or 1682, and 
settled at Flatlands, Long- Island. His mother died some 
time after ; his father married a second time, and had two 
daughters by the second wife." 1 1 is reported that John, 
jr., and his step-mother did not agree very well, and he 
"left home with an axe and spade, and settled in Hacken- 
sack." He married twice. His first wife was Eva Van 
Sickelen, whom he married May 20, 1693, by whom he 
had at least ten children, (historical records say twelve). 
On November 6. 1733, he married a second time 
Vrouwtje \^an Dien, a widow, and it is supposed he had 
several children by the second marriage. It is stated that 
he gave each of his sons (of whom he had no less than 
seven) a farm, and started them all in Bergen county. 

Be this as it may, it is certain that the Berdan heirs 
owned at one time a large area of real estate which ex- 
tended from Salem street north on ]\Iain street to a 
point in line with Berry street if it were continued 
through to Main, which would be about the north line 
of the property of Hutchison and Andrus, extending 
from the Hackensack river on the east, to the Saddle 
river on the west. On the lot where now stands the 
house of John D. Baldwin was the original homestead of 
Henry Berdan, a grandson of Jan Berdan and Eva Van 
Sickelen — a little old stone house, as I remember it, one 
story and attic high. It was demolished about 1853. He 
owned a farm extending back over the hill to the Voll, 
which embraced the land lying between James street 
Cwith extension through to Camden street) and Berry 
street. He was an officer in the Revolutionary war, was 
born August T, 1751, and died March 25, 1849, in his 
ninety-eighth year. His remains are buried in the] 
abandoned and neglected cemetery on Hudson street. He 
married Elsie Ackerman. a daughter of Abraham Acker- 
man and Maria Bogert. 

Henry Berdan's father's name was John (a grandson 
of the original Jan). His mother's maiden name was 
Christyntie Van Giesen. They were married May 12, 
1738, and had issue: 



OLD LAND LINES IN HACKENSACK 11 

Jan, bpt. Feb. 22, 1739. m. Maricha Banta. 

Sarah, bpt. Dec. 14, 1740; m. Paulns \^anderbeek. 

Hendrick, bpt. Nov. 7, 1742; d. sg. 

Evaetje, bpt. Aug. 11, 1745; m. Jacobus Makolgh. 

Isaac, bpt. Nov. 26, 1747; m. Christina Banta. 

Marritje, bpt. Feb. 15, 1750. 

Hendrick, born Aug. i, 175 1 ; m. Elsie Ackerman. 

Cornelia, br. Jan. 14, 1755. 

Elsie Ackerman was baptized at Schraalenburg, Dec. 
25. 1759; she was a daughter of Abraham Ackerman and 
Maria Bogert ; was married to Henry Berdan about 
1777-78, and they had issue as follows: 

Jan, born Alar. 2, 1779. 

Isaac, born Nov. 3, 1781. 

Hendrick, born May i, 1787. 

Alaria, born Apr. 22, 1791. 

And supposed another daughter, who married 

Banks ; they had. one child named Francis Banks. 

Maria married Bartow ; supposed his christian 

naiue was James. They had a son Henry B. Bartow. 

One of the male issue had a daughter x\daline Dru- 
cilla Berdan, who married George W. Burrall. 

Henry Berdan left a will dated May, 1848. probated 
and allowed April 9, 1849, i" which he specifies "that 
the proceeds of his estate be appropriated to the pur- 
chase of a suitable tombstone for his grave, and the 
balance if any to be divided between his grandsons, 
Henry B. Bartow and Francis Banks, and granddaughter 
Adaline Drucilla, now the wife of George W. Burrall." 
The will Avas witnessed by Daniel I. Aurianson, Barnev 
J. Romaine and Simeon Zabriskie. The testator signed 
with his mark. 

Henry Berdan had two brothers, John and Isaac, 
and according to the terms of their father's will they 
each inherited one-third of the real estate ; hence, in the 
division of the property we can easily trace Henry's 
part from Hutchison and Andrus' lot to Camden 
street, Isaac's part from Camden street to the 
south line of the lot now owned by Dr. St. John 
opposite the Presbyterian church and John's tract from 
the latter point to Salem street. Each had a frontage on 



12 OLD LAND LINES IN HACKENSACK 

j\Iaiii street of about three hundred feet, and ran from 
the Hackensack river to the Voll, or brook, over the 
hill. Henry Berdan had a sister Sarah, who married 
Paulus Vanderbeek. They resided in the old stone house 
still standing on Moore street, known as the Vanderbeek 
homestead, at present belonging to the New York and 
New Jersey Telephone company. Of this old house 
more will be said later. Isaac Berdan, the youngest of 
the male issue of John Berdan and Christyntie Van Gie- 
son, inherited the property from Camden street south on 
Main street to "Garrison's line," which is the north line 
of the property now owned b}' Freeman, opposite the 
centre of the lot on which the Presbyterian church 
stands, from the Hackensack river to the Voll. He was 
also a soldier in the revolutionary war, a private in the 
same compan}' of which his brother Henry was lieuten- 
ant. He died Alay 7, 1828, aged eighty-one years, and 
his wife died November 18, 1845, aged eighty- four years. 
They are both buried in the churchyard on the Green. 

The Johnson Library stands on a portion of this 
property. Before Isaac's death he built a large house on 
this property. He married Christina Banta, and they had 
children as follows: John, Isaac (whom many remember 
as uncle Isaac Berdan), Samuel, and one daughter, Efifie, 
who married Ralph A^andalinda ; Samuel married Leah 
Banta. He died quite young leaving one child, John S. 
Berdan (who married Lavinia Demarest, and he died 
without male issue) together with his imcle Isaac oc- 
cupied the house spoken of above during their lifetime. 
After their deaths the property was divided among the 
heirs of each, and the old house was demolished. Hon. 
William M. Johnson purchased the north half, and the 
heirs of Christiana Berdan Conklin inherited the south 
half. 

Uncle Isaac Berdan, as he was familiarly called, was 
born February 25, 1794; and died November 19, 1884. 
He married Christina Winant; they had three children, 
but only one lived to marry — Christiana, who became 
Mrs. Albert E. Conklin. 

The name of this branch of the Berdan family here 
runs out and is changed to Conklin. 



OLD LAND LINES IN HACKENSACK 13 

John Berdan, the remaining- and eldest male heir of 
Isaac Berdan and Cln-istvntie \'an Gieson, inherited the 
propert}' with frontage on Alain street, extending from 
the centre of the Presbyterian church lot south to Salem 
street, and from the Hackensack river to the Voll. He 
married Alaricha Banta, a daughter of Cornelius and 
Rachel Banta. On May 9, 1772, he sold to Cornelius 
Cooper, "a hatter," all of the property lying between 
Salem street and the centre of the Presbyterian church 
lot, from the meadows' edge to the foot of the hill, which 
included the old stone house now standing at 226 Main 
street, for "three hundred and eighty pounds current 
money of the province of New York." It is reasonable 
to suppose that this house was the original homestead 
of the Berdan family. According to the deed dated as 
above, and recorded in the county clerk's office at Hack- 
ensack, it mentions the property as including "tene- 
ments and barn thereon." So we are assured that the 
house was there at that time (1772) and probably fifty 
}ears prior to that time, but was no doubt much smaller 
then than it is at present. The house and lot have 
passed through the hands of several successive owners 
since its purchase by Cooper in 1772. among whom 
can be mentioned Dominie Solomon Froeligh. who held 
possession from 1786 to 1792; Nehemiah Wade, and 
then John Sloat, who in 1817 sold to Isaac A. Vander- 
beek. who altered and enlarged the house, and in 1822 
opened it as a tavern, which was maintained as such 
until his death in 1852. It then fell by inheritance to his 
daughter, Rachel R. (A'anderbeek) Ackerman, and from 
the latter to her children, George J. Ackerman and Mary 
(Ackerman) Groesbeck, the present owners. 

In continuation of a further record of the children 
of Jan Berdan and Eva Van Sickelen I Avould mention 
David, the sixth son, baptized December 12, 1714: mar- 
ried May 12, 1738, Christyntjen Romeyn, daughter of 
Claes (Nicholas) Romeyn and Styntie Terhuyn. John, 
the oldest son, w^as twenty-three when he married, while 
David was twent>'-four. The latter was married one day 
and the former the da}' following. Nicholas Jansen 
Romeyn owned at one time the farm now belonging to 



14 OLD LAND LINES IN HACKENSACK 

heirs of the estate of Wilham S. Banta ; he also owned 
a large tract of land extending from the brook, or Yoll. 
to Saddle river, adjacent to that owned by Jan Berdan, 
and no doubt his daughter Christyntjcn inherited a por- 
tion of it. This, together with the portion David in- 
herited from his father, formed the Berdan tract at May- 
wood on which the original homestead of David Ber- 
dan was built. It was situated near the present house 
occupied by Taplin. built by his grandson, David, son of 
John D. Berdan. It was afterward remodeled and oc- 
cupied by James Berdan, who married Mary Worten- 
dyke, and from whom Cornelius ^^^ Berdan is a de- 
scendant. 

Returning now to the time Jan Bardan first pur- 
chased the property from John Berry in 1697, Ave -find 
that he (Jan Bardan) "on June 9, 1708, sold to Paulus 
A'anderbeek one equal half part, or moiety," of the said 
farm described as follows : "comprising a tract of land 
extending from the Hackensack river on the east, to the 
Saddle river on the west, joining on the northeast side 
to the land of the said Jan Bardan, on the southwest side 
to the land of Guiliam Bertholf and John and Nicholas 
Romeyn. The same to run from the Hackensack river 
along the line of land of the said John Bardan unto 
.Saddle river, and so along the said river until it comes 
to the bounds of John Romeyn, thence along said bounds 
till it comes over the run to the bounds of Nicholas 
Romeyn, down along the line of Isaac Van Gieson and 
Guiliam Bertholf to the Hackensack river, and so along 
said river to the place where it began ; and also one-half 
part or moiety of all the meadows adjoining said land" x 
X X This property, as near as can be traced, had a 
frontage on Main street, Hackensack, of about 150 feet, 
extending from the north line of Salem street south to 
the north line of the property formerly belonging to James 
V. C. Romeyn, now Dunn Brothers. The frontage on the 
river was probably much greater ; it expanded in width 
as it extended westward ; at State street it was 200 feet 
wide, at I'nion street 250 feet, and at Railroad avenue 
it was 310 feet, and probably retained that width to the 
Vol! : from the latter place to Saddle river it is supposed 



OLD LAND LINES IN HACKENSACK 15 

io have been four chains wide and covered with wood. 
The only tillable ground was from the meadow's edge to 
the Veil. 

On February 20, 1715, Paulus \'anderbeek purchased 
from Claes Janscn (Nicholas) Romeyn a tract of land 
containing sixty acres for ninety pounds current money 
of East N^ew Jersey adjoining on the south the portion 
he already owned (or tiie ])ortion that he bought from 
Tan Berdanj. which subsequent!}' became successively 
the property of Rev. J. V. C. Romeyn. Henry H. Banta, 
and at present is in possession of the heirs of the estate 
of William S. Banta ; it extended from the north line of 
Dunn Brothers' store to the south line of the plot as 
formerly owned b}' Henr>- S. Banta. before the lot on 
which the two stores of E. A. Pearce stand was taken 
out of it, from Main street to the \^oll. He had now a 
frontage on Main street of about 475 feet. He subse- 
quently purchased 175 feet north of Salem street on the 
west side extending through to Slate street, which gave 
him a total frontage of 650 feet on the west side, while 
that on the east side was 450 feet. The old stone 
house, still standing and previously referred to, was 
built by him some time prior to 1761. The property on 
which it is situated is at present owned by the New- 
York and New Jersey Telephone Company. The house 
was occupied until recently (up to the time of her 
death) b}- Aunt Sally Vanderbeek Haring (the name by 
which she was familiarly known). She was a daughter 
of Solomon F. A^anderbeek and Johanna A^andalinda. a 
descendant in a direct line of the seventh generation 
from Paulus A'anderbeek. the ancestor who arrived in 
this country from Holland about 1658 and located at 
Gowanus, Brooklyn. His grandson. Paulus. located at 
Hackensack in 1708. The house spoken of above has a 
tablet inserted in the chimney breast in the parlor which 
gives the date A. D. 1717. ^^.B.. with initials I. V. D. 
B. and E. A\ B., also those of his son. P. T. V. D. B., the 
title of \\hich has remained in the name of Vanderbeek's 
for two centuries. 

The meaning Avhich the tablet is likely to convey is 
rather uncertain. Paulus A'anderbeek, Isaac's trrand- 



16 OLD LAND LINES IN HACKENSACK 

father, boiig'lit the property in 1708. Isaac was not born 
till 1712; at the time of the date on the tablet, viz, 1717, 
he was only five years old, so he could not have built 
the house, and Paul I. Vanderbeek was not born until 
1737. So in my judgment the property that Paulus Van- 
derbeek purchased from Jan Berdan had no house on it, 
but that which he purchased from Nicholas Romeyn 
either had one on it at the time of purchase (1715) or 
he built one there himself, which stood Avhere Dunn 
Brothers' store now stands, and was there as homestead 
when James V. C. Romeyn bought the portion allotted to 
Isaac A^anderbeek in the division of the estate of his 
grandfather by commissioners appointed by the Orphan's 
court on January 16, 1804. The deed says the dividing 
line ran through the centre of the homestead, which was 
no doubt then demolished. 

Paulus Vanderbeek in his will (1761) stated that as 
his grandson, "Paulus, son of Isaac, is already provided 
for , he is not to participate in the division of his 
estate after his decease." So it is reasonable to suppose 
that he built the house now standing previous to 1760, 
and gave it to him together with all the property on 
the east side of Main street from the north line of the 
property formerly belonging" to Guiliam Bertholf north 
to Salem street. Hence I interpret the Vanderbeek 
family first located here, at that time or probably built 
the first house on the west side of the street, and I. V. 
D. B., E. V. B., that Isaac and his sister Elsje built this 
one, P. I. V. D. B. the one mentioned in the will as being 
already provided for, who probably was the last one to 
remodel it. Paul I. Vanderbeek married Sarah Berdan 
Sept. II, 1760, (a daughter of Henry Berdan and Elsie 
Ackerman) previously spoken of; he had seven chil- 
dren, who were all born in the old homestead; among 
them was Solomon F. Vanderbeek, being the youngest, 
who married Johanna Vandalinda. I remember him 
well. He was a shoemaker and had a little shop on Main 
street a little north of the People's National Bank. He 
made several pairs of shoes for me when I was a boy. 
He had six children, none of whom are living. Sarah, 
Ihe last one of the family died three years ago. He in- 



OLD LAND LINES IN HACKENSACK 17 

hcrited the homestead from his father; he and his wife 
both died there and they are buried in the church yard 
near the Green. The house is in a good state of preser- 
vation, and is at present occupied by some of the de- 
scendants of the ^'anderbcck family, though of a dififer- 
ent name. 

A Bergen Acker-Man. 

In compiHng a short sketch of the Berdan and Van- ' 
derbeek famiHes perhaps it might interest some to know 
something about the old stone house, now standing in 
Essex street, occupied by John S. Mabon. This house 
is among the oldest now standing and occupied in the 
state of New Jersey. 

The builder of this ancient house was Abraham Ack- 
erman, formerly written Acker-Man, whose initials, with 
those of his two sons, are cut in the stones forming a 
portion of the eastern wall of the house, together with 
the symbols of husbandry, viz. : a plough and a spinning 
wheel, with the date Anno 1704. 

Abraham Ackerman was the fourth son and young- 
est child of David Ackerman and Lysbet (surname un- 
known) ; he was born May 15, 1659, in Berlicum, prov- 
ince of North Brabant (Bois Le Due), Holland. He 
married at Flatbush, May 28. 1683, Aeltje Van Laer, 
y. d. (that is; a young daughter or unmarried), of Bed- 
ford, L. I. She was born May 12, 1663, baptized at 
Kingston, N. Y.. April 25, 1666. The former was re- 
ceived into the Dutch Reformed church, on the Green, 
October 3, 1696, and Aeltje, his wife, on January 3, 
1697. Abraham Ackerman, together with his father 
and mother, two sisters and three brothers (eight per- 
sons in all), came over to this country from Amster- 
dam in the ship Fox and arrived at New Amsterdam 
on September 2. 1662. They resided for a time in 
the Marktveldt stegge. or Marketfield street, near the 
site of the old fort, the present Battery. The above- 
named street still remains ; it runs from 72 Broad street 
westward to the rear of the Produce Exchange. It is 
a sort of blind street or alley, lying about twenty feet 



18 OLD LAND LINES IN HACKENSACK 



south of and parallel to Beaver street ; it is about thirty 
feet wide and two hundred feet long. There was found 
just below it, a few years since, in making some excava- 
tions, the hull of a small Dutch vessel — such as were 
in use in the seventeenth century and of so slight a draft 
that it could come up the old waterway, which is now 
Broad street, and upon which this Marketfield street 
opened. 

Valentine's history of Xew ^'ork. pubiis'.ied in 1853. 
says "that Jonas Barteltzeii, a storekeeper, occupied 
premises on the east side of W'hitehall street, between 
Stone and Marketfield streets, in 1665, and that Lysbeth 
Ackerman occupied a small house adjoinino- that of Mr. 
Barteltzen's. The street known as Marketfield street 
was originally called the oblique road, and afterwards, 
upon the street being named, was designated as the 
"Marketfield steegie." 

Abraham Ackerman and wife (Aeltje Van Laer) 

had fourteen children, two of whom died young. None 

of them were born in the house on Essex street, but all 

of the daughters, of whom there were no less than six, 

were undoubtedly married there. Lawrence Ackerman, 

who lived at Jersey City Heights (and who recently 

died) was the possessor of an oil painting of Abraham 

Ackerman, representing him as ploughing in the field. 

On the back of the picture is inscribed in Dutch the 

following invocation : 

Abram Ackerman Geboor don I.t May, Anno 16.in. 

O God. leest my myn daaen tellen 

Er de doot Voor Oogen Stellen. 

Hoe can een Ackerman bestaan? 

Daar geen zon en schynt sterren en de niaan, 

Hou de ouden vader wet bedogen, 

Hon God voor oogen, 

Leef vroom, en D. O. D. D. 

"Denk om de Dood." 

The following is a translation of the above: 

Abraham Ackerman, born ]May 15th, Anno Domini 1659. 

O Lord, teach me to count my days and to keep the death be- 
fore my eyes : 

How conld an Ackerman tlirive if theie was no sunlif>ht. or 
without the stars or the moon? 

The hiw of our forefathers is just as necessary; 

Keep the Lord before your eyes. 

Live piously, and think on the Angel of Death. 



AX'CIENT DUTCH ARCHITECTURE. 
By Burton H. Allbee. 



Unique among- the architecture of the United States 
the ancient Dutch houses of New Jersey stand as monu- 
ments of the sturdiness and thoroughness of their 
builders. Constructed of stone from 250 to 300 years 
ago they are representative of the Dutch character and 
are models for modern architects, if they hope to make 
their work typical and illustrative of comfort and that 
.spirit of hominess which attracts and creates favorable 
impressions. 

That portion of X'ew Jersey along the Hudson river, 
and extending- some twenty to thirty miles inlana. was 
settled by the Dutch who found their way up the Hack- 
ensack river as early as 1640. The first permanent set- 
tlement was made near the present village of Hacken- 
sack no later than 1640; possibly a year or two earlier. 
After that settlements were rapid and within the next 
hundred years that section became a popular place for 
venturesome traders and others who tired of the over- 
crowded condition of the island of Manhattan and 
\\anted more room in which to plant their homes. 

The ancient Dutchman was a thrifty individual and 
having a fertile soil to develop he made it speedily a 
region of prosperous farms. It is not known what the 
first houses were, but presumably of wood, like all the 
early houses of settlers. But the Dutchman possessed 
aristocratic ideas as regards house building and when 
prosperity smiled upon him. as it did very shortly, he 
discarded his log cabin, or hut, or whatever he was 
living in. and built a house of stone. And in doing it 
he developed a model which is today the envy of archi- 
tects and the despair of builders. Reproduction seems 
w'ell nigh impossible, yd they were but plain struc- 
tures, unadorned, without any decc^-ation excepting- a 
gambrel roof and gracefullv curved, overhanging: eaves. 



20 ANCIENT DUTCH ARCHITECTURE 

Where inartistic restorers have not ruined these build- 
ings they are marvelously beautiful and attractive and 
otter numerous suggestions for present day architects 
which they might well heed. 

Rarely more than story and a half high they con- 
taijied from ten to fifteen rooms, often with curious 
stairways and unexpected passages, developing artistic 
designing by the employment of clean, straight lines. 
No other architects have accomplished so much with 
straight lines alone, and late attempts at reproduction 
have generally been failures. A few restorations are 
successful, but most of them have proved inartistic, 
spoiling the original design and offering nothing to take 
its place. It would seem, therefore, that those old 
builders justified the characterization of originators of 
a typical style of house architecture which deserves more 
study than has yet been bestowed upon it. 

They probably developed the gambrel roof. That 
peculiar peak was almost unknown before these archi- 
tects worked. The gambrel roof has been ascribed to 
French architects of the early period, but scholars say 
that French architects did not originate it, and that it 
probably appeared first in these New Jersey structures. 
This is hardly true since houses standing in New Eng- 
land, built before 1640. have it almost as well developed 
as in New^ Jersey. The reason is not understood, though 
some builders have been inclined to the belief that the 
first one was made so because the rafters were cut too 
short and were pieced out in that way. The result was 
so artistic and made such an attractive gable that it was 
reproduced and ultimately became an individual archi- 
tectural feature. 

The curved and overhanging eaves constitute an- 
other individual feature which was utilized by substan- 
tially all the early builders, though with varying degrees 
of success. Where constructed with due regard for 
spacing the gable with the gambrel roof and the curved, 
overhanging eaVes was quite the most attractive archi- 
tectural feature of these buildings. 

The peculiarity of construction divides these build- 
ings into three periods, each distinctly marked and easily 



ANCIENT DUTCH ARCHITECTURE 21 

traced. They can be distinguished by the way the 
stones of which they were constructed were prepared. 

The first period began say about 1670 to 1700, or 
possibly a few years either way. No one can tell ex- 
actly. Tiie stones used were picked out of the surround- 
ing fields and laid up in mortar prepared by using the 
mud mixed from the soil upon which they rested, with 
straw from their own stacks. In some of the older 
buildings, now falling to ruin, this type of mortar can 
be seen. Yet it has stood for over 200 years, and if the 
buildings had been properly cared for would have been 
quite as substantial today as it ever was. 

Builders say that masons of the present day could 
not lay the odd shaped stones into a smooth wall, solid 
and enduring like the wails built then. That it was 
done, and done successfully, is amply demonstrated by 
the many structures now standing built of that type of 
stone. But modern attempts would, it is said, result in 
flat failure. 

During the next twenty-five to fifty years a change 
was made. Mortar and cement were introduced and 
the stones used in the front wall and for two or three 
feet of the ends were quarried and dressed, but the re- 
mainder of the ends and the back wall were still rough 
stones, like the original buildings. Large quarries were 
opened in diflferent regions, and though transportation 
facilities were flat boats, horses and oxen, the stones 
were frequently carried long distances from the quar- 
ries to the point where they were to be used. 

The third and last period beginning after the Revo- 
lution the stones used were all dressed, and cement was 
used for laying up the walls ; a cement hard as adamant 
and now really a portion of the stone itself. In tearing 
down some of these buildings, or in cutting through the 
walls it has been necessary to cut them with a stone 
cutter's chisel. It is impossible to separate the stones 
from the mortar. 

The bricks used in the early chimne3"s were imported 
from Holland, England, or Barbadoes. Thev were flat, 
longer and larger than the standard brick of today. 
More like the Roman brick, perhaps, only not so thin. 



22 ANCIENT DUTCH ARCHITECTURE 

The better class houses had tiling around the mantels 
of great value and some exists today, known to be over 
400 years old and originally brought from Holland. 

Many of these houses contained so-called dungeons 
where slaves were placed in solitary confinement and a 
nvmiber still have the heavy iron rings in the cellar tn 
which the slaves were fastened when they were whip- 
ped. And there are other features about these houses 
which are so individual that they put the structures in 
a class bv themselves, definitely dififerent from anything 
known elsewhere. 

Probably one of the best examples of both the gam- 
brel roof and the curved eaves standing in the county 
is one now standing on the Polifly road. So far as can 
be judged the outside has never been touched and the 
house stands as originally constructed from 1695 to 
1700. 

The eli represents the early style of building as pre- 
viously outlined, while the main part shows some of the 
stones dressed, and the rest are rough. Some, at least, 
of the ell is of the earliest period since it is laid up in 
mud instead of mortar and straw is used to strengthen it. 

Of course there are many other buildings in the 
countv possessing these same characteristics, but this' 
one is noted because it is typical and contains the fea- 
tures which mark all the buildings of that period. 

An example of the way one or mc^re of the dis-j 
tinctive features were continued later is shown in a] 
house now standing at \\"yckoft', occupied as a tavernj 
during the revolution is introduced. It will be noted] 
that the same old ell is present, which was. undoubtedly,] 
the original dwelling. The square window in the gable, 
under the eaves, has given place to the quarter circlesj 
and a half round one appears in the top. These are 
noted in some other buildings, but a])parcntly repre-' 
sented no essential change in type; merely Ihe individual 
whim of the builders, perhaps. 



ON OUR NORTHERN lU )RDRR. 
J5v TiiiiOPiin.us NiciKiLS Gi.ovek. 



Ex-P resident of this Soeiciy and Tlislorian-iieneraJ of 
the Sons of Colonial Cavaliers. 

Just above the bouudarv line of our county, even 
abutting- against it lies the village of SutTern, and over it 
tower the hills of the Raniapo — part of the old earth 
which rejoiced when "the morning stars sang together." 
just be\ond the village the I'Lrie railrcjad passes through 
a narrow gorge and wends its way up to Turners and 
the open fields of Orange County. The Ramapo river — 
the '"river of round ponds" as the Indians meant by the 
name — flows through it and helps to form one of the 
most fascinating regions to be found in this part of our 
country. In no place is the valley wide and on both 
sides the mountains are steep, but villages are there — 
Hiilburn. Rama])0, Stratsburg and beyond Tuxedo Park 
and Arden — and every hill and rock is associated wath 
legends, and every old house, and even road, with his- 
toric fact. Hiilburn is the creation of this day, but 
Ramapo is but a shadow of its former self. It seems 
hard to believe as one wanders along the dust covered 
road that here was written a chapter of the world's in- 
dustrial history. 

The village was founded in 3793 by Mr. Josiah G. 
Pierson and Jeremiah and Isaac, his brothers. They 
were manufacturers of cut nails by machinery of their 
own invention — machines, the first of their kind patented 
in this country and among the first in the world. They 
bore the date of 1795. At first the firm used Russia iron 
and rolled and cut it at Wilmington, Dei., but it was 
soon found that American iron worked equally well ; so 
works were begun here and completed in 1798. There 
was a good demand for the ])roducts from the planters 
in Cuba. In 1807. hoops for whale oil casks were made 
and in 1814 a cotton mill was begun. Mr. Pierson in- 
vented a loom which wove striped sheeting, and shirt- 



24 ON OUR NORTHERN BORDER 

iiig'S. and checks, and formed the basis of the machines 
now in use. The object of this venture was Russian 
trade and it was in every way successful. At one time 
the village contained seven hundred people and farmers 
from Bero-en. as well as Orange counties, found ready 
sale for all their produce and all their team work. In 
1810, the manufacture of steel was added and all the 
enterprises were kept up for years. 

The earl}- manufacture of screws is intimately con- 
nected with them. Several years ago I met and con- 
versed with Mr. Pierson whose memory went back to 
early days and the facts he gave me form the basis of 
the following- story : 

In 1835, the Piersons, as the tirni was known, began 
the manufacture of common iron screws for holding- 
wood. This was the first attempt to make them in this 
country. Before that time they were imported, mainly 
from France and were blunt at the end — not pointed as 
they are nowadays. For a long time the business was 
uphill work — the machines used were not satisfactory, 
but so great was the firm's faith in the ultimate success 
of the effort that for a long time an expert machinist 
was kept at work to improve them. Finally a Mr. 
Krum produced one which worked fairly well. One day 
a man appeared who claimed to represent a Rhode 
Island syndicate and wanted to buy the business. He 
looked over the works, ascertained the price and left, 
jironiising to decide the matter in a few days. In a short 
time he wrote that his principals had changed their 
minds and the arrangements could not be consummated. 

Several years passed and one day a tramp screw 
maker applied for a job. He was set at work and his 
dexterity with the machine attracted attention. When 
questioned, he answered that he had worked on such 
machines in Providence. R. I. The Piersons imme- 
diatelv brought suit in the United States court before 
fudge Storv and recovered in damages three thousand 
dollars and stopped the Providence works. In the trial 
the defendant pleaded Read's patent and then it was 
brought out that a man had broken into the Ramapo 
works and taken wax impressions of the machines from 



ON OUR NORTHERN BORDER 25 

which those of the Providence firm had been made. 
Then the Providence people offered to purchase the 
patent and its rights. Twenty tliousand dollars were 
named as the price, to wliich they demurred. Finally 
arbitrators were chosen by wiiom the $20,000 was sus- 
tained. The money was immediately counted out in $100 
bills and these machines passed out of their control. 

Still the idea of a machine to make a pointed screw 
was in their minds. Mr. Krum kept at work and some- 
time about 1845, ^^^ o"c ^'-^y 'dlowed a screw to slip and 
a gimlet point resulted, lie followed up the idea and 
perfected the machine. The Piersons gave him $10,000 
for his claim and used the machine. This gave great 
impetus to the screw business. Soon an agent of a 
Taunton, ^Nlass., factory appeared, bought the patent and 
its rights and then the screw business passed from 
Ramapo. 

There are several stories about this machine and in 
printed statements it is claimed the first pointed screw 
was produced in Newark, but the story is of far later 
date than Mr. Pierson's. In 1850 it was decided to give 
up business and then Ramapo began to dwindle. The 
founding of liillburn closed its life. 

The whole region teems with memories of Revolu- 
tionary days. The road through the pass ("the Clove" 
as it is locally known) was an Indian trail and long 
before the Revolution was defended, according to some 
maps, by a stockade fort. Before the road was built 
through the present Tuxedo, it was the way from the 
coast to the interior and always it was the road to the 
Southern colonies. Its importance was so early recog- 
nized that one of the earliest acts relating to defense 
deals with this road. 

Two and a half miles down the river is the Haver- 
meyer propert}- and where the mansion stands formerlv 
stood a large old fashioned farm house pictured in Mr. 
Lossing's "Field Book" and known as the Hopper house. 
It was the residence of Andrew Hopper, who was one 
of Washington's most trusted spies. His grave is marked 
by a simple monument and is only a little way off. In 
Washington's letters we have manv written from this 



26 ON OUR NORTHERN BORDER 

house — they are dated '"Headquarters, Bergen County." 
Washington lield these quarters while the army lay at 
Steenrapie and people were living, not many year§ ago, 
who could remember Washington's occupancy. 

In the town of SutYern was another "headquarters," 
though never very long at any one time. The old build- 
ing was torn down forty or fifty years ago. .\ picture 
of it is in Mr. Lossing's "Field Book," where it is marked 
Col. Burr's headquarters, which it may have been as well 
as Washington's. It was a low story and a half dwelling 
.of those days. I have in ni\- desk some wrought iron 
nails from its roof. The last time T passed the locality 
the old trees which shielded it were still growing and 
the old well was in use. The door is now in the Wash- 
ington headquarters at Newburg. marked as belonging 
to the old blockhouse down near Bull's Ferry (which 
never had a door). In any collection of letters and 
diaries of the days of the Revolution mention is made 
of this ])lace and in Mr. Sparks' collection of Washing- 
ton letters several written from this house are given. It 
is called in the spelling of those days Sufferns. Suffrens 
and Sovereigns and was the residence of John Sufifern, 
first judge of Rockland County. When the building 
was torn down bushels of military papers were destroyed. 
One, a muster book, fell into the hands of a pension at- 
torney who made thousands of dollars out of the infor- 
mation it contained. Tradition has it that in this house 
Washington and Wayne discussed the attack on Stony 
Point. 

One of the earliest authorized acts for defence was 
the erection of earthworks in the gorge above the present 
town — between Hillburn and Ramapo. I think they 
were erected in the summer of 1776 and I know that 
the whole .American army under A\''ashington was here 
twice at least. Some men were stationed here through- 
out the war and Col. Aaron Burr was in command for 
several months. (Tie was here when he first met Mrs. 
Prevost whom he afterward married. She was living 
near present ITohokus.) On a bench above the river, 
just as o!ie reaches the railroad bridge, are remains of 
old earthworks that once stretched from the foot of the 



ON OUR NORTHERN BORDER 27 



mountain slope on the east side straight down across the 
river. On the west side they were formerly much more 
distinct. They are so aided by nalnre that a small force 
could stop the advance of quite a laro-e detachment. At 
one place here there must have been an invalid camp. 
for the place is known to this day as the "Quarantine 
(iround" and there is also a tradition of the complete 
annihilation of a C'arc^lina re.qimcnt of vonng- men by 
camp fever. The i^raves were plainly visible twentv- 
tive years agX). All throuo-h the woods are remains of 
soldiers" ovens, standing just as they were left, and as 
good for use as ever. Relics of Revolutionarv davs are 
lound even now — such as old coins and parts of ac- 
coutrements. ( )n the hill slope east of Suflfern the 
French army encamped on its way to Yorktown. Each 
division stayed one night. 

■"Smith's-in-the-Clove" where ^^'ashington wrote manv 
letters is an old house plainly seen from the car windows 
just above the mill pond beyond Ramapo. Properlv it is 
opposite Sterlington Junction. Just beyond the gate at 
Tuxedo used to stand, (and it ma}- be there yet) close 
beside the railroad track, the gable of a small stone build- 
ing. It was the famous Augusta forge where was made 
the second chain stretched across the Hudson at West 
Point. The iron was mined and smelted a few miles 
to the west (at the Sterling mines) and here made into 
links and these loaded into an ox cart and sent to New 
Winson, where the}' were put together. Part of this 
chain is now at West Point. 

Some of the first ghost stories I ever heard are con- 
nected with points not far away from this valley. So with 
some old legends. Mrs. Elizabeth Oakes Smith found 
here material for her "Hugo, or the Salamander." 



HISTORICAL CLIPPINGS. 
Frances A. Westervelt. 

Old newspapers are frequently storehouses of in- 
valuable historical matters, scraps picked up here and 
there, all interesting and more representative of the 
times and the people than the more carefully written 
and published histories. A few clippings, bearing upon 
events and characters connected with the Revolution, as 
it developed in this vicinity, are here given. 

Old Records. 

In the records of "Damages done by the British in 
N. J., 1776 to 1872," filed in the State Library, occurs 
the following entry : 

No. 67. — An inventory of the damages which the 
County of Bergen has sustained by the British and their 
adherents, to wat : 

i S. D. 

To Burning the Court House 500 o o 

To the town clock prime cost, 57 12 o 

March 23, 1780. £557 12 o 

The persons whose names are hereunto subscribed, 
do certify the above to have done by the Enemy at the 
time above mentioned : 

Jacob Terhune. Esq., 

Isaac V. Derbeck, Esq., 

Peter Bogert, Towns. 

Joon D. Terhun, 

Samuel Demarest. 
The above is interesting, as fixing the date of the de- 
struction of the Court House, and the fact that in Hack- 
ensack the county had a Town Clock q8 years ago which 
cost £57, 12 shillings. — Guardian, 1878. 



30 HISTORICAL CLIPPINGS 



Hackp:nsack Plundered. 

A correspondent writing from Dresden a series of 
letters giving the history of the German mercenary 
troops employed by the llritish government against the 
Americans in the war of the Revolution. His facts and 
incidents are derived from the official and other records 
on file in Germany which give the history of the career 
of the Hessian troops in America, h'rom one of these 
letters we extract the following- 
After the year i"]"/"] a new spirit was brought into the 
conduct of the war. Howe and Burgoyne had hoped 
not only to conquer, biit io conciliate. The homes and 
property of non-combatants had been spared, at least to 
some extent. Clinton and Cornwallis abandoned this 
conciliatory policy. Expeditions Avere iTudertaken with 
no other purpose than robbery and destruction. In these 
also the Hessians were employed. 

On the evening of the 22nd of ]\[arch. 17S0, for in- 
stance, a body of 400 men, British and German, was set 
across the Hudson. .About three o'clock in the morning 
they reached Hackensack, ihcn a beautiful and rich vil- 
lage. No resistance was made. Xot an American sol- 
dier was in the place. There was no one to withstand 
the barbarities that were committed. The British and 
Germans broke into the houses and loaded themselves 
with spoil. They made prisoners of all the male inhabi- 
tants they could lay hands on, and having completed 
their robbery, they set fire to the Town house, and to 
some of the principal dwellings. 

At daybreak 500 or 600 Americans came to the 
rescue from Pollingtown. and it might have gone hard 
with the invaders had not another detachment of about 
400 men, under the partisan Emmerich, advanced to sup- 
port them. As it was, they were chased back to the 
Hudson. From the jotu-nal of the Hessian musketeer 
Doehla. Eelking makes the following quotation: "We 
took considerable booty, both in money, silver* watches, 
silver dishes and spoons, and in household stuff, good 
clothes, "fine English linen, silk stockings, gloves, and 



HISTORICAL CLIPPINGS 31 

handkcrcliiets, with other precious silk g'oods, satin and 
stuffs." 

"My own booty, which I brout^ht safely back, con- 
sisted of two silver watches, three sets of silver buckles, 
a pair of woman's cotton stockings, a pair of 
man's mixed summer stockings, two shirts and f(jur 
chemises of fine English linen, two fine tablecloths, one 
silver tablespoon and one teaspoon, five Spanish dollars, 
and six York shillings in money. The (jther ])art. viz.. 
eleven pieces of fine linen and more than two dozen silk 
handkerchiefs, with six silver plates and a silver drink- 
ing mug. which were tied together in a bundle. T had to 
throw awa}' on account of our hurried march, and leave 
them to the eneni}- that was piu'suing us." — Bergen 
Count y Index. 1881. 



Bergex County One Hundred Years Ago. 

One hundred years ago last Sunday the first contin- 
gent of New Jersey troops was mustered into the Con- 
tinental arm\' in the city of New York, and New^ Jersey 
was activel}' engaged in the revolutionary cause. 
The passage of the Boston Port Bill and other o])- 
pressive legislation b\- the I'ritish Parliament on the 
last da}' of March, 1774. created a profound indignation 
throughout New Jerse}' in common with the rest of the 
provinces. Committees of Correspondence were formed, 
and similar committees were formed in each of the thir- 
teen counties of the province. IJergen county held its 
meeting fourth in order, and appointed the following as 
corresponding committee : Thomas Dey. John Demar- 
•est. Peter Zabriskie, Cornelius Yan Yorst and John 
Zabriskic, jr. A Provincial Congress was subsequently 
held at Trenton. There were 87 delegates in attendance, 
those from Bergen county being John Fell. John Dem- 
arest. Hendrick Kuyper. Abraham \'an Boskerk and 
Edo Mercelis. The third Provincial Congress being the 
first regularly elected b\- the i)eople. met at Trenton, 
Oct. 3. 1775. There were 48 delegates, those of Bergen 
count^' being [ohn Demarest and Jacobus Post. This 



32 HISTORICAL CLIPPINGS 

session was one of the utmost importance, for, in addi- 
tion to perfectino: measures of defense, there no^Y de- 
veloped upon it the creation of a g-overnment for the 
future state. On October 9. 1775, the Continental Con- 
gress passed a resolution asking Xew Jersey to raise 
two battalions of eight companies each for the public 
service. Privates were to receive $5 per month instead 
of a bounty, one felt hat, a pair of yarn stockings and a 
pair of shoes. It was in compliance with this resolution 
that Xew Jersey furnished her first troops to the Con- 
tinental army, loo years ago last Sunday. — Times, Jan. 
I, 1876. 



ReVOLUTIO X ARY Le ITERS. 

The following: letters, in the possession of Rev. 
Douglass S. Putnam of Monroe. Mich., a descendant of 
Gen. Putnam, are interesting- on account of local refer- 
ence : 

Philada., Septr. T2th, 1777. 
I am directed by Cong-ress to send you the enclosed 
resolve with the utmost despatch and to entreat your 
immediate compliance with it. The situation of affairs 
calls for vour utmost exertion on this occasion, and I 
have no doubt of your sending forward the troops with 
all possible expedition. 
T have the honor to be 

Your most obedt. 
hble serv't, 

John Hancock, Presidt. 
Honble Major Gen'l Putnam. 

What this resolve of Congress was whkh he was to 
execute with such urgent haste, and into what perplexity 
it brought den. Putnam, may be inferred from his letter 
to ^^^ashington, dated four days later. 

Peems Mill. Sept'r T6th, 1777. 
Dear Gen'l : 

I am extremely Sorry to hear that you have been 
unfortunately Obliged to retire & leave Gen'l How in 
possession of the Ground. I hope providence will yet 



HISTORICAL CLIPPINGS 33 



So smile on yonr efforts, which T know will be to your 
utmost, as to i)ut ("len'l How (!!' his force in your power. 
The disadvantai^es of heiuL; attacked are very t^'reat, 
the Ei7emy choose their mode of attack. Ojipose their 
g'reatest strength to your weakest parL besides the 
Spirit of the assailants is almost uni\ersal!\' superior to 
those who act only on the defensive. 

T received an order of Congress to hold fifteen hun- 
dred Troops ready to cross the North River, which were 
to succour the Jersies, in case they should be wanted, 
as the militia from that state were called to your assist- 
ance. Al)out i.ooo of the luiemy crossed from Staten 
Lsland to F.liz'h Town last Friday and marched throut^h 
Xew York toward seson \'f\. A considerable body of 
the Enimy. by the best information, two or three thous- 
and, crossed about the same time from Minor's bridge 
to Fort Fee & marched towards Hackensack. Fast Fri- 
day morning- Gen'l McDoug-al with about fifteen hundred 
men crossed the Xorth River to oppose the Enimy's 
Colors and Succour the Jersies. .\fter this T received an- 
other resolve of Congress ordering me to send fifteen hiui- 
dred men Immediately to your assistance. Xow T can't 
suppose the I'ong'ress mean T should leave the Jersies to 
be ravaged & the Enimy to march where they please, or 
this post exposed to fall into their hands. Genl. Par- 
sons is at White plains, b\- being- there he answers a 
double pur])ose, to protect that part of the Country from 
the invasions of the Enimy. and is, in my opinion, 
e(|uallv or a g-reater Security to this Post than if he lay 
here, as he is under advantages to learn their first move- 
ments. T have sent to Covr. Trumbull, (ienl. Woolcus 
& Jelliman [ ?■] and Govr. Clinton for the assistance of 
the militia to be forwarded with the utmost dispatch, 
lender these Circumstances T wish to be directed whether 
the fifteen hundred men shall be forwarded at all ad- 
ventures to your assistance, and am with g^reat Esteem 
and respect your Ivxcellei-icy's obedt. humble Servant. 

FsRAF.L Putnam. 
His Excellencv. G. A\^ashing-ton. 



34 HISTORICAL CLIPPINGS 

Revolutionary Fortifications at Fort Lee. 

The fortifications and earthworks stood to the south- 
east of the beginning- of Hudson street, and the anti- 
quarian can discern in the grassy burrows opposite 
Parker Phice the site of the breastworks. The Hne of 
intrenchments inchided the site of the pretty stone 
church l)uilt on Parker Place by the late Mr. Hoadley. 
of Englewood. Old residents of Fort Lee remember 
when the fortifications stood, and say that the stones 
used in them were removed by the people in the neigh- 
borhood, who used them in the cellars of their houses. 

In the Autumn of 1776, when \\'ashington was in Fort 
Lee. an incident happened to the father of this country 
which is worth reciting here. Resides showing the 
sword that hung by a single hair over the chief and the 
destinies of this country, it illustrates the services rend- 
ered by the vivandieres. a charming feature of the 
French army. At this time Fort Washington, on the 
Lleights, on the east side of the river, garrisoned by 
1,000 patriots, was besieged by an overwhelming army of 
British, German and Tory troops, who made a demand 
for the surrender of the fort. 

On being informed of this, Washington crossed the 
river with Generals Putnam, Greene and Mercer, and 
they made their way cautiously to the Morris house, (the 
late Madam Jumel's mansion, still standing on Harlem 
Heights). From this point, a mile south of Fort Wash- 
ington, the chief had made a rapid survey of the field of 
operations, when a vivandiere, who was very pretty, and 
the wife of a Pennsylvania soldier, reverently touched 
his arm and whispered in his ear. 

Washington's intrepid coolness, which amounted 
almost to a contempt of danger, saved him and his three 
generals from capture by a British regiment which were 
stealing on them frim behind the Jumel house. The 
chief saw his companions into their saddles, and being 
the best rider in the whole patriot army, he galloped 
after them to their boats, which the illustrious band just 
reached in time. The vivandiere had seen the Britishers 
slowiv marching up the rocky hillside and she was 



HISTORICAL CLIPPINGS 35 



Washing-ton's g-uardian angel, as ten minules later wonld 
have exposed him and his aids to death or capture. 

Fort Lee was evacuated by Washington in Novem- 
ber, 1776, four days after the fall of Fort Washington. 
In his masterly retreat through New Jersey, even when 
the llritishers tried to hem in the Continental army be- 
tween the 1 fackensack and the I'assaic rivers, the great 
chief flid not run such risk as he did in his bold recon- 
noissancc in the enenn's lines crossing from Fort Lee. 
—1881. 



COXSTERNATION Ax A DaXCE At ChERRY HiLL, N. J. 

There is nt)thing the Jersey boys have alwavs en- 
joyed so much as a good old-fashioned dance. At one 
time during the Revolution a number of American sold- 
iers lay garrisoned in the fort, known as the Fort of the 
Patriots, built on an eminence just back of Mr. John C. 
Zabriskie's residence, at Cherry Hill. Almost everv Sat- 
urday night the soldier boys would come down to the 
old stone tavern, where 'Mv. Barney Cole's store now 
stands, and have a dance with the girls. One dark, 
rainy night — so dark that objects were almost indis- 
cernible — they went as usual to have a dance. The old 
ball room presented a gay appearance, with young girls in 
their white dresses and crimson sashes, and the soldier 
boys and their blue coats and brass buttons. All thoughts 
of the enemy were forgotten as they tripped lightlv up 
and down to the music. 

But the English, who lay encamped at ITackensack 
and on the ea.st side of the river, had heard of their 
weekly visits, and had their plans all laid to surprise 
them. A company of the English vv^ent up the old road, 
on the east side of the river, while a party of Hessians 
passed up through Flackensack. By this means thev 
hoped to cut off all means of escape. But the Jersey 
Blues had their scouts out, to give warning at the first 
approach of the enemy. In the midst of a "A^irginia 
reel" the alarm was given — -"The English arc comine'!" 



36 



HISTORICAL CLIPPINGS 



With a hasty kiss lo sisters and sweethearts, each 
man ran (|uickly np over the hill to the fort, and it is 
doubtful if such quick traveling- has been witnessed 
there since. In the meantime the English saw a com- 
pany coming toward them, and thought it was the 
Americans making their escape. While the Hessians 
mistook the English for the Jersey hoys cc^ming down, 
and instantly commenced the attack. In the rain and 
darkness the regimentals were indistinguishable, and 
both sides fought desperately for a short time, until a 
Idessian suddenly cried for quarter. Then they realized 
that the}" had attacked their own men. Many were 
wounded, and several killed. Their wounded they car- 
ried to camp, and their dead they l)uried (m the hill near 
the present residence of Mr. John Post. It has been 
said, highly to their credit, that although they had met 
with such a terrible misfortune in killing their own men, 
thev left' without making the least attempt to molest any 
of the inhabitants, or the frightened yoimg girls that sat 
in a terrified group in the old ball room. At early dawn 
the young ladies esc(irted each other home, truly thank- 
ful that brothers and lovers had been allowed to escape. 



C APT A 1 X OF T 1 1 F. M 1 .\ U TE A I !•: X . 



In conversation with a IJergen county man on May 
2d a Xc7i's reporter learned that Mr. R. ( )utwater's 
grandfather was the chief patriot of this section during , 
the Revolution. He commanded the minute men and 
twice saved Hackensack from being sacked and burned 
b\- the llriti.sh and Tories. 

Ca])tain ( )ut\\ater and his men knew the country soj 
well that they could cope successfully with five tiniei| 
their numbers of strangers. He was severely wounde( 
in a skirmish at Elizabeth. 

The commander of the British garrison in Ne\ 
York is said to have published a reward of £25 sterling 
to whoever woidd bring him or his head to New York. 



HISTORICAL CLIPPINGS 37 



After the war, and when Bergen county was organ- 
ized as part «>f the State of Xew Jersey, Captain Out- 
water was rewarded hy heing made judge of the County 
court three successive terms. The Nacs' informant 
mentioned man\- names of arch Tories who resided in 
this section of Xew Jersey then and whose descendants 
are now good citizens of the Republic. — Passaic .\'c:cs. 
i88g. 



]\L\JOR AXDRE. 



No section of the country is more replete with Revo- 
lutionary memories than liergen county. Nowhere are 
there more anecdotes treasured or more sacred relics 
preserved. The sad storv of Andre is well known, and 
ids imprisonment and execution at Tappan are events 
almost within the memory of present residents. The 
story of his capture and death, and the subsequent ex- 
humatic^n of his remains by the British authorities, have 
already been told in The CHirjcii. There is a story of a 
period of his life, however, that has never been told here. 

It was before his appointment as Acting Adjutant- 
(}eneral on the stafif of Sir Henry Clinton, and while he 
bore the rank of captain on the stafif of Gen. Howe. It 
was on the i8th of A Fay, 1778. a somewhat remarkable 
fete took place in the city of Philadelphia. It was called 
"Mischianza" (Italian for medley). The British army 
under Howe had occupied the city for winter quarters 
for some months, while Washington lay with his shoe- 
less armv. in a hutted camp a few miles distant. The 
British arm\- had found the occupati(^n of the city bar- 
ren of results, although friends were found in a portion 
of the population. Howe, disappointed and chagrined, 
out-generaled and tlankcd, resolved on retiring to Eng- 
land, and the army itself contem])lated withdrawal, 
which was sometime afterward accomplished. Never- 
theless, it was decided to put a bold face upon the mat- 
ter and make the occasion of the General's retirement 
an event of importance socially and to give a fete in his 
honor. The atTair. entirel}- from the genius of Capt 



38 



HISTORICAL CLIPPINGS 



Andre, took the character of romance and elegant gaiety, 
and was long remembered in the good city of Brotherly 
Love. 

After a regatta on the river Delaware, the fete proper 
was commenced on land. There a tournament took 
place between six Knights of the Blended Rose on one 
side and as many of the Burning ^Mountain on the other, 
all in fantastic silk dresses, with ribbons, devices and 
mottoes, lances, shields and pistols, each attended by his 
squire and professing to serve some particular lady of 
his love. One of the Knights of the Blended Rose was 
Capt. Andre, who stood forth and did battle right 
royally for Miss P. Chew, with the device of two game 
cocks and the motto ''No rival." The entertainment was 
closed by a magnificent display of fireworks, the like of 
which had never been seen on this side of the Atlantic. 

Gen. Howe withdrew to England, and three or four 
weeks later the English troops vacated Philadelphia. 
The tragic fate which three years later befell the 
sprightly and ingenious Andre, the moving spirit of this 
affair gives it a sad interest. /. F. C. Index, 1875. 



CHANGES. 
P.Y David D. Zabriskie. 



Uerg-en comih", as originally constituted. March 7, 
i08j, was described as .lying- between the Hackensack 
and Hudson rivers. The portion west of the Hacken- 
sack river to the Passaic river was a part of Essex 
county, until January 21. 1709, when the boundaries of 
Bergen comity were enlarg-ed, and this territory in Es- 
sex county was added to and became a part of Bergen 
county. 

The county was then described as "Beginning- at 
Constable's Hook, so run up along the bav to the Hud- 
son's river to the partition point between New Jersey 
and the province of New York, and so run along the 
partition line between the provinces and the division line 
of the Eastern and Western division of the prcivinces to 
the Pequaneck river, and so to run down the Pequaneck 
and Pessaick rivers to the Sound, and so follow the 
Sound to Constable's Hook where it began." The 
county at that time was divided into three townships, 
Hackensack, New Barbadoes and Bergen. From 1709 
until 1837 the boundaries remained the same. 

On February 7, 1837. Passaic county was formed 
from Essex and Bergen, the portion taken from Essex 
was a part of Caldwell township, and the whole of Ac- 
quackanonk township : the portion taken from Bergen 
county was a part of Franklin township formed in Man- 
chester township, and a part of Saddle River township 
and Franklin formed in Pompton township. The boun- 
daries of the county were not disturbed again until 1840, 
when Hudson county was formed by the combination 
of Bergen township and part of Lodi township formed 
into Harrison township. This continued until February 
19, 1852, when part of Harrison township was set off 
to Bergen county and formed into Union township. 
Since that period the boundary of the county has re- 
mained the same, but its internal divisions have been 



40 



CHANGES 



Hackensack, 


1693. 


Xew Rarbadoes, 


1693, 


Saddle River, 


^m- 


Franklin, 


1767, 


Harrinofon. 


1775. 



changed to such an extent that it stands supreme in the 1 
state as to the number of its municipal divisions. 

The townships of the county, and the date of forma- 
tion, from the beyinnino- to the present time, are: 

T(n\NSini's Bkkgkx Coi'N'iy. 

Orig-inal. 

( )riginal. 

h^rom Xew iJarbadoes. 

From Xew Barbadoes. 

Hackensack and Xew Bar- 
badoes. 
1797, Saddle River and Frank- 
lin. 
1825, Xew Barbadoes. 
1840. TTarrini;ton. 
1849. h'ranklin. 

1852, Harrison, liudson county. 
1 87 1, Xew Barbadoes. 
1 87 1, Hackensack. 
1871, Hackensack. 
187 1, Hackensack. 
1876, Franklin. 

1906, Hillsdale and Washington. 
1889. I'nion. 
1885. Hohokus and \\\ashinc-ton. 

1893, Fodi. 
1895, Fnolewood and Ridgefield. 

1897. Ridi.jetield. 

1898, \\'ashin<i;ton. 

Okg A \ I z i':i ) Tow X .sff i p.s. 

1903. Harrino-tou. 

1894, ( )rvil. Hohokus an<l 
Franklin. 

1894. Palisade and Fnglewood. 

1894, r^idjG^efield. 

1903, FTarring-ton. 

1894, I>ergen. 

1895, Ridg^efield. 



Pompton, 

Lodi, 

Washin,Qt(Mi. 

FTohokus, 

I'nion, 

Midland. 

T^alisade. 

Fmglewood, 

Ridgefield, 

Ridge wood, 

Rivervale, 

Boiling Springs, 

Orvil," 

Bergen, 

Teaneck, 

( ^verpeck. 

Hillsdale, 

BoRorcni 

Alpine, 
Allendale. 

Bergenfields, 
Bogota, 
Closter, 
Carlstadt, 
Cliffside Park. 



CHANGES 



]5oK()L'(;it ()r(;.\nizkI) Townships. 

Cresskill, 1H94, Palisade, 

l^emaresl. 1903, I^'ilisacle and 1 larriii,o(<iii. 

Delford. 1894, Palisade and Midland. 



Dumont (or Schraalen- 



burg), 1894, 

ICtna (Emerson). 1003, 

l^do'e water, , 

l^ast Rutherford, 1894, 

Tuiq-lewood Cliffs. 1895, 

Fairview, 1894, 

Fort Lee, 1904, 

Garfield, 1898, 

CAvn Rock. 1894, 

ilarrinyton I'ark, 1004, 

Hasbrouck Heights. 1894, 

TTaworth, 1904, 



Leonia, 

Little Ferrv. 

Lodi, 

IMavwood, 

^ridland Park. 

^lontvale. 

Xorth Arlino-ton, 

Xorwood, 

Oakland, 

< )ld Ta])])an. 

Orvil (Hohokns). 

Palisades Park. 

Park Ridge. 

Ramse\'. 

Ridgefield. 

Riverside. 

Rutherford. 

i^addle River, 

Tenafiv, 



Palisade. 
\\ ashington. 

Poiling Springs. 

I'jiglewood and Palisade. 

Ridgefield. 

Ridgefield. 

Saddle River and W'all- 
ington liorough. 

Ridgewood and Saddle 
River. 

PTarrington. Washington, 
Closter P)orough. 

Lodi. 

Harrington, Dumont Por- 
ough. 
1894, Ridgefield. 
1894, Lodi and New Barbadoes. 

, Lodi and Saddle River. 

1894, APdland. 

1894, Ridgewood and Franklin. 

1894, Washington and Orvil. 

1896. Union. 

1905, Harrington. 

1902, I'^ranklin. 

1894, Harrington. 

1905, ( )rvil Township. 

1900, Ridgefield. 

1894, Washington. 

1008, Hohokus. 

T892, Ridgefield 

1894, Midland. 

1881. I'nion. 

T894, Orvil. 

1894, Palisade. 



42 



CHANGES 



Borough Organized 

Tppcr Saddle River, 1894, 

Wallington, 1894, 

VVestwood, t8o4. 

Woodcliff, 1894, 

Woodridge, 1894, 



Townships. 
( )rvil and Hohokus. 
wSaddle River. 
Washington. 
Washington and Orvil. 
Herefen. 







V ILL AGES. 




•iidgewood. 




1894. Ridgefield Park, 






Poi"Ur,AIION. 




In 


1790 


the popuhition was 


12,601 


'■ 


1800 


"' "■ " 


15-156 


'' 


1810 


li a a 


16,603 


a 


1820 


a it it 


18,178 


" 


1830 


it it 


22,414 


" 


1840 


a .< it 


13.190 


Hudson 


set off (hiring the same year. 


In 


1840 


the population was 


945 T 


''* 


1850 


' ' " " 


14,708 


" 


i860 




21,618 


" 


1870 




31.033 


•' 


1880 




36,786 


" 


1890 




47,226 


it 


1900 




78441 


<( 


1905 




100,003 



1892. 



The census of i8io shows that in entire county there 
were 2.180 slaves, 511 of whom were in New Barbadoes 
Township, and 74 in Pompton. Sussex County, 1790, 
19,500. 1890. 22.250. 1905. 23.325. 

ClirRCHES. 

The ancient church buildings located in different por- 
tions of the coiuity should command the respect and 
admiration of every one. For a century or more some ot 
them have been the center of religious teachings and 
activity ; man}' of them, as far as the exterior is con- 
cerned, remain as they were when built, the interior re- 
modelled and made to accommodate the modern de- 
mands of their adherents. Thev stand todav as silent 



CHANGES 43 



monuments of the intense zeal and sacrifice of our an- 
cestors. Erected when the country was sparsely set- 
tled, by communities ^vlu) were not wealth}', as wealth 
is measured and understood in this day, in such a man- 
ner that they have withstood the onslaughts of time, and 
are still engaged in the work and worship for which 
they were originally intended. Xone of these churches 
were built for the purpose of a builder's profit ; their 
adherents were willing, and did contribute their time, 
money and material. 'Jlie following plans were adopted 
for rebuilding the cluu'ch at 1 lackensack in 1790: 

Whereas — The Dutch Reformed congregation of 
I lackensack, in the county of Bergen and State of New 
Jersey, have long seen .the necessity of rebuilding their 
church, but have been prevented by the troubles of the 
late war, and particularly by a divided state of the con- 
gregation, and 

WiiERE.\s- — It has pleased the omniscient Dis- 
poser of human events to bless the land with peace, and 
the congregation Avith a happy reunion, friendship and 
harmony, said congregation have determined by the ad- 
vice of their ministers, elders and deacons in the fear of 
the Lord to proceed to the rebuilding of said church, 
according to the following plan : 

First — The old church shall be broke down, and all 
right and title thereto by former proprietors shall be 
deemed totally void ; and upon the same ground the new 
one shall be erected, and of the following dimensions, 
viz. : forty-eight by sixty feet, with two galleries. 

Second — The following persons shall be appointed 
managers, \vhose business it shall be to engage laborers, 
procure materials, superintend the work, and do every- 
thing necessary to promote it. Then the persons are 
named who are to manage the work. 

Third — The corporation shall immediately take in 
voluntary subscriptions in order to defray the expense 
of building ; the money to be subscribed to be paid in 
three equal payments, viz. : the first moiety at the time 
of subscribing ; the second immediately after roof of the 
new church is laid ; the third at the finishing of the build- 
ing. 



44 CHANGES 



Fourth — The inside of the church shall be furnished 
vvitii pews, without making any distinction between the 
men's and women's pews. 

Fifth — After the church is completed Uie pews shall 
be divided into convenient seats, except as many free 
seats for strangers as the managers shall think prc^per. 
an elder's and a deacon's pew, — a pew for ministers' 
families, (also a magistrate's pew, the latter shall be 
particularly constructed, and have a canopy over it) 
said seats shall, after due notice given, at an. appointed 
time and place, be disposed of at public auction to the 
highest bidder, and the subscribers shall have credit on 
the purchase of the seats, for such sum or sums of 
money as they shall have subscribed. 

Sixth — If an\- person shall become heir to, or shall 
purchase I'mm another an}- of said seats, and shall not 
apply with in one year and one day after such pur- 
chase, or the (jbtaining of such right of legacy, to have 
such seats transcribed, they shall be deemed the property 
of the congregation and tlie church masters have a 
right to sell them. The ]irice for transcribing shall be 
four shillings. Xew York currency. 

\\E, .the subscribers, approving of the abovt plan 
for rebuilding the church at Hackensack, do. for the 
promotion thereof, promise to pay, or cause to be paid, 
to the minister, elders and deacons of the Dutch Re- 
formed congregation, of Hackensack, in the county of 
Hergen, in the state of New Jersey, on their order in 
gold or silver, or the value thereof in paper currency, 
at the rate of eight shillings to one Spanish milled dol- 
lar, the sums annexed to our respective names, and ac- 
cording to the division of payment specified in the plan. 

As witness our hands this day of 

1700. being ai liberty to p^y one-third in necessar}- ma- 
terials at such price as the managers choose to agree 
for, except the first payment, which shall be in cash only. 
I'nder this plan the cluu-ch was erected, and was no 
doubt a source of j)ride to the congregation. 

The fourth section relative to the pews seems to 
have been a source of some trouble to the congregation, 
for in 1871 we finrl the legislatiu-e was appealed to for 



CHANGES 45 



relict to enable them to raise money for the support of 
the church by assessing- the pews. The act provides that 
the minister, elders and deacons of the Reformed con- 
gTes;ation. of IJackensack, in the ct)nnty of Bergen and 
state of Xew jersey, be and they are hereby authorized 
to make assessments on the pews in said church under 
tlieir control from time to time, for the purpose of rais- 
ing money for the salary of the minister, repairs and 
current and necessary expenses of the church and sup- 
port of the gospel, with power to collect the same, and 
such assessment shall be a lien upon such pews so as- 
sessed from the time they shall be made, and in case 
such as.sessment upon such pews shall be unpaid by the 
owner of the same for the space of one year said pews 
at and after the expiration of said one year shall be f(ir- 
feited to and become the absolute property of said cor- 
porate authority. 

The church service of our ancestors would have 
been, to a modern congregation, exceedingly dry. often 
without instrumental music, services long and doctrinal. 
In winter without heat, except such as might be derived 
from a foot-stove. I>ad weather was no excuse for 
absence from service. Absence from church service was 
often a subject discussed by the consistory, and delin- 
quents were often visited by a committee to inquire the 
reasons for absence, and admonitions were frequently 
given to the delincjuents to do better in the future. No 
minister of these congregations would have considered 
it necessary to deliver a sermon on a subject like this : 
"^^^^y men do not attend church." X^ewspapers would 
not even have dared to publish an article in one of our 
leading papers a few days ago entitled "Decline of 
Dogma." crediting a well known minister as saving 
"The church is climbing to the tablelands of sanctified 
intelligence." ^^\" have put new wine in the old bot- 
tles, and they are not bursting. The spirit of democracv 
has invaded the church. The laity has been graduated 
from its short clothes. The modern layman thinks for 
himself, and knows that doubting is a duty. 

There has been a modification of theologv. The doc- 
trines of our childhciod are no longer preached. TTell 



46 CHANGES 

has cooled off considerably in the last fifty years. We 
trace our ancestr}' to the zoological garden rather than 
to the Garden of Eden. Sectarian fences are rotting 
out and falling down, and we do not replace them. We 
write over the doors of our churches not "Credo" but 
"Amo." The church no longer confines its ministrations 
to the spiritual nature of man. It ministers to the man's 
entire body, as well as soul. It does not believe that all 
amusements belong to the devil, and we have holy 
smokers in the Presbyterian church, minstrel shows, 
burnt cork and all in the Reformed church, and pro- 
gressive euchre in the Episcopal church. The modern 
church doesn't lay so much stress on individual salva- 
tion. It has gone into the wholesale business. It has 
ceased to be a Noah's Ark, or a patent fire-escape for the 
salvation of the elect. It is becoming the grandest 
mutual aid society the world has ever seen. 

Educatiox. 

Our ancestors, if they were alive today and could 
l<jok upon the many beautiful school buildings erected in 
different parts of the county, and examine the modern 
classroom, and study the curriculum of our grammar 
and high schools, would not recognize the county. Thev 
would be astonished, and say. Is this Bergen county? 

The schools we remember were plain district schools, 
located on land that could not be used for any other 
purpose, with one room, governed by a teacher known 
as the "School-master," heated in winter bv a stove 
filled with green cord-wood, furnished by the trustees, 
(the only duty performed by the trustees.) cut into 
lengths by the l)ig boys with the proverbial school axe, 
swept by large girls once a week, the boys seated on one 
side and the girls on the other. Commencements were 
unknown. Xobody graduated. Scholars simply left 
when they, or their parents thought they knew enough ; 
the .same books were used for generations. A thorough 
education for girls was not considered necessary, and 
they were simply allowed to attend for a few terms, after 
which they were kept at home to familiarize themselves 
with liousehold duties, considered to be of more import- 



CHANGES 47 



ance to their future liappincss. The big- boys were al- 
lowed to attend in winter to enable tliem to add a few 
new ideas, while in summer they were required on the 
farm, the development of muscle beino- of o;reater im- 
portance than the development of the brain. 

A college course was seldom indulged in by the boys, 
and for the girls it was considered a waste of time. 
Remarks made a few days ago as to the motives actuat- 
ing young women to take a course in a university would 
have been, in part, at least, foreign to the situation. The 
speaker said : 

"Whatever may be the motives that actuate the 
young- women in coming to the university, they soon 
divide into two w cll defined groups, the members of one 
group work hard. They usually maintain a high class 
standing, and injure their health. The members of the 
other group devote their chief attention to the young 
men. This results in cardiac enlargement rather than 
cerebral development. And as to the \'oung men, why, 
of course, it would be unreasonable to expect any young 
man with red blood in his veins to devote his evenings 
to physics, to the higher mathematics or to Roman law. 
when there is a sweet young lady waiting to entertain 
him." 

The early houses of Rergen county were devoid of 
what we call comfort ; modern improvements were un- 
known. The occupants were by no means unhappy, for 
the reason that they had never experienced these advan- 
tages. Americans, as a rule, and I hardly think citizens 
of Bergen county are exceptions, are willing at all times 
to surround themselves with all the comfort they can 
afiford or have. An American visiting England lately, 
in an article written and published by him, showing the 
tenacity with which some of the Englishmen adhere to 
the customs of their forefathers, says : 

"The Americans were years and years in getting the 
Rritish innkeepers, for example, to admit that, perhaps — 
it might be — it was hardly possible — that though some 
(notice that sonic) B.ritons for a few centuries had taken 
baths in tin pans and thought they were keeping them- 
selves clean, porcelain bath-tubs might -nevertheless have 



48 CHANGES 



advantages of their own jieciiliar kind. T'^inally. the\' 
did admit it, to a degree, and now some of the very best 
hotels really have bath-tubs in them, and are quite proud 
of it, although I am afraid they do not give the Ameri- 
cans proper credit for the reform. 

"Take that nnich discussed question of warmth. 
Everything that shouldn't l)e warm in England is warm, 
and everything that should be warm is cold. The houses 
are catacombs, always excepting those few hotels in 
Lx)ndon where they have steam heat, which is, of course, 
due to the advance of American civilization. English- 
men say they do not feel the cold. Everybody else feels 
it, for it is the meanest cold in the world. Extended ob- 
servation leads to the conclusion that the reason the 
English do not feel the cold is that they are desensitized, 
sort of refrigerator-beefed, so to speak. 

"This is not the main ])oint. The reason the English 
.shiver around in cold, damp rooms, trying to make them- 
selves believe a few hunks of cannel coal in a grate fur- 
nish all the heat required b.\' the most delicate, is that 
somebody, in ancient days, who couldn't get anything to 
warm himself by, did the next best thing, and declared 
that he didn't feel the cold, and didn't need a fire any- 
how-. Other Englishmen heard of it. and this idea has 
been a fetish ever since." 

I do not hesitate to say that tenacity of this kind 
could not exist in Bergen county today, notwithstanding 
the customs or habits of our forefathers. 

Old Name.';. 

I wish, however, that we were possessed of some of 
the tenacit\- of our English brethren in maintaining and 
perpetuating some of the old neighborhood names be- 
queathed to us by our forefathers. 

The location of many of them are unknown to the 
liresent generation. Slotterdam, Hoppertown, PolHfly, 
(lodwinville, ^Masonicus. Yop-po, Roiling Springs, 
Wearinuis, Pascack, Kinderkamack. Old Bridge. New 
I'.ridge. Small Lots. Eairfield. Sluk-u]) and Schraalen- 
Inu-g. TTackensack. Paramus , Plohokus, Sicomac, still 



CHANGES 49 



survive, but they too will disappear if luodern methods 
are applied. 

I have, in the brief time alloted, tried to show what 
changes have taken place in our beloved county in a few 
particulars ; to cover the entire field would be impossible. 

The inhabitants in olden times loved r.ergen county, 
and we who are permitted to live here now love it. 
Both old inhabitants and new could truthfully say: 

"Here let me dwell, the old because the}' could in 
the quietness of the country home say. I looked across 
the valley from my home. 

When winter's frosty hand held in its grip the wide 
and barren landscape. 

'Bove every roof the smoke curled, hesitant and re- 
luctant thus to leave the sheltering warmth of wide and 
generous chimneys. 

Signs of life were here and there visible, and forms 
dark against the universal white, moved. 

Now. from house to barn, from barn to well. 
Tracing the curious labyrinth of paths." 

The new because he separates the bus\- world from 
his home, and can truly say : 

"Let those who dwell midst the noisy din, the harsh 
clamor of the world's contention, ceaseless debates of 
questions without end, and strife for earthly dignity and 
rank. 

The heedless scramble after tinseled toys. 
The heated chase for riches' gilded prize; 

Give me a book before the fireside where the soft 
nestle of the murmuring flame stirs tender tho'ts and 
soothes the tangled brain. 

Where from the circle of the suburban life, some 
friend, congenial and with like taste, shall come tho' all 
unbidden, yet to find his chair set forth, and welcome 
waiting him. Til be content and thank a gracious God 
who lets the lines of life fall happily." 



EARLY LECISLATIOX AFM<:CT1X(; I5ERGEX 
• COUNTY. 

By EnMUM) W. Wakelee. 



It is a mighty fine thing for a people to hold sacred 
the old landmarks and keep ever fresh in mind the be- 
ginning" of things, (iood citizenship without patriotism 
is impossible, and true patriotism is not only love for 
the state and nation of the present, but also includes an 
aflfection for the old conditions and a belief in the tore- 
fathers whose work at the beginning made possible what 
we are pleased to call our present greatness. Nothing 
can go right unless it is started right, and no land can 
be a land of liberty unless at the beginning it is founded 
on the eternal principles of justice. e([uity and fair plav 
which make liberty possible. 

I am no historian and have made no original research 
and can add nothing to the known facts regarding the 
early legislation affecting llergen County. For me, in 
the presence of this learned society and the ladies and 
gentlemen here assembled, filled as you are with everv 
detail of our early history, to attempt any lengthy his- 
torical review of our early legislation would be the height 
of folly. 

It is said that legislative law is merel\' a memoranda, 
and if you connect that fact with another fact in which 
I thoroughly believe, namely, that our people do have the 
laws they want, it naturally follows that as the laws of 
today are drafted to meet our present conditions, so our 
early legislation was enacted to meet early conditions. 
A review of the legislation of any given period will 
pretty accurately disclose the nature and kind of people 
legislated for. as well as their conditions and advance- 
ment. The early legislation affecting this countv deals 
with the questions then of importance to the settlers in 
a new country inhabited by htistiie tribes of Indians. 
We find in those laws an accurate picture of the con- 
test for territory carried on by the different European 



52 EARLY LEGISLATION 

nations, each attempting by settlement and otherwise to 
increase its sphere of influence in the new world. New 
Jersey finally passed vmder the control of the English 
and we then trace the home disputes and troubles of the 
mother country as reflected in the laws and government 
of New Jersey. 

In 1676 the partition between Carteret and Berkeley 
was made, East Jersey being allotted to Carteret, and 
in 1682 East Jersey was divided into four counties, Ber- 
gen, Essex, Middlesex and Monmouth, which was the 
beginning of our existence as a county. 

Then followed internal troubles in both East and 
West Jersey, until in 1702 the proprietors surrendered 
t(^ the crown their right of government, retaining only 
their interests in the soil, and the two provinces became 
the Royal colony of New Jersey. From that time until 
the Revolution the people of this county were employed 
principally in farming, and this fact is shown by the 
laws of that time in that they deal with roads, strays, 
enclosures of land, bridges, taxation and the numerous 
questions of importance to a community of farmers. 

Then comes the Revolutionary period, and the char- 
acter of legislation quickly changes and military matters, 
the raising of troops and money occupied the attention 
of the legislature. Notwithstanding the fact that there 
was some tory sentiment in New Jersey and in Bergen 
County, we can all be proud of the part New Jersey, 
one of the original thirteen states, and Bergen County, 
one of the priginal counties, took in that great struggle. 
The names Trenton, Princeton, Monmouth, Red Bank 
and in our county. Fort Lee, Hackensack and the places 
along the entire route of Washington's retreat arc writ- 
ten large in our country's history to stand for all time 
as memorials to the bravery, faithfulness, and patriotism 
of our Jersey people. 

After the Revolution the state bounded forward in 
material prosperity. Internal improvements were de- 
manded and this conr^tion is again reflected in the laws. 
Canals were provided for and projected; better roads 
were built : the society for establishing useful manufac- 
tories at Paterson was incorporated, it is said, Alexan- 



AFFECTING BERGEN COUNTY 53 



der Hamilton drawing the charter. Great wagon roads 
were provided for by the legislature and were laid out 
across the state, many of these afterwards becoming 
the routes of the present railroads. 

As the state continued to grow and increased in 
wealth and population the laws changed year by year 
to keep pace with the changes in the conditions of the 
county and state. The public school system was estab- 
lished and extended. Reforms in the caring for the 
criminal insane and the dependent were instituted. Rail- 
roads were chartered and built. 

In 1844 the present constitution which now so sadly 
needs amending was adopted. New Jersey took a noble 
part in the Civil war. She furnished nearly 90,000 men 
and paid out about three million dollars for the support of 
the troops and on the field of battle sustained the reputa- 
tion for bravery made in the days of Washington's re- 
treat through Bergen, and at Trenton and Monmouth. 
New Jersey has now become the centre of marvelous 
activity in nearly every line of human progress. Her 
mills clothe multitudes. Within her boundaries are 
found the terminals of nearly every great railroad of 
the United States. Her gardens and farms feed millions. 
Her seashore resorts have made the sands to blossom 
and become the pleasure ground of all the people of the 
East, and during all this time of material progress the 
laws have kept pace with the progress of the state. 

Pessimists point to the politics and the legislation of 
the present day as evidence of the decline from the 
purit\ and lofty patriotism of the fathers, and they sigh 
over the decadence of modern statesmanship and lament 
the corruption and dishonesty of everything that is. The 
student of history finds, however, that human nature has 
not changed. It is about the same in all ages. We read 
the records of early legislation with wonder. The con- 
test and turmoil would not be tolerated at the present 
time. ]\Iinorities were counted to be majorities. Mem- 
hers elected were unseated ; charges of bribery and cor- 
ruption were constant, but out of it all came the legis- 
lation which the people needed and wanted, and which 
was proper and beneficial to t'.ieir interests. 



54 EARLY LEGISLATION 

It is interesting to note that many of the innovations 
of the present time and tlieories and ideas which are 
now hailed as new are as old as the state. We have 
had recently an agitation in regard to the granting of 
limited franchise to cor])orations and it is suggested that 
Ihat is something new. ( )n the contrary, all of the canal 
and railroad charters granted years ago were for a 
limited period of time and with the right in the state to 
take over the properties at certain times and under cer- 
tain conditions. One of the present questions before the 
state and county is the regulation of the liquor busi- 
ness. It is interesting to note that as early as 1682 a 
law was passed in this state as follows : "Concerning 
that beastlv vice drunkenness it is hereby enacted that 
if anv person is found to be drunk he .shall pay one shill- 
ing fine for the first time, two shillings for the second, 
and for the third time and for every time after two 
shillings six pence, and such as have nothing to pay shall 
suffer corporal punishment," and "disturbers of the peace 
shall be put into the stocks until they are sober." 

We have recently heard a g6od deal said in our 
count V about the delay incident to the opening of draw 
bridges across our rivers. As early as 1796 a law was 
])assed that if any boatman keeps a bridge open above 
fifteen minutes when not necessary for the passage of 
boats, or if he shall not fasten the bridge securely he 
.shall forfeit five pounds t(-> the county of Rergen. 

And so T might go on giving numerous illustrations 
which link the past with the present and show that all 
that is good is not behind us. but that on the contrar}- 
there has been a steady improvement in our civilization 
and in our laws. All the ]:)atriots and all the statesmen 
are not dead. Today the\- are with us more than ever. 
Let us have faith in the republic and in our present in- 
stitutions, approving that which is right, condemning 
that which is wrong. 

"New times demand new measures and new men; 
The world advances, and in time outgrows 
The laws that in our fathers' day were best ; 
And doubtless after us some purer scheme 
Will be shaped out by wiser men than we, 
Made wiser by the steady growth of truth." 



MAPS AND THFJR ^rAKrNG. 
\\y II. r>. ( i(_)i".rscii ii's. 



"Remove not the ancient landmark, which thy 
fathers have set." is an ohl and respectable proverb; 
])iit tlie old and respectable die and are forg-otten and 
especially is this the case in a hnrrying' civilization such 
as ours, dominated both for i^ond and evil by the spirit 
of commercialism. Xor is it well that the American 
whose father set these landmarks and in whose blood 
runs that strain which dedicated this continent to lib- 
ert\', should regard the old and venerable as a teHch. 
when it has lost its material usefulness and carries 
nothing- of spiritual inspiraticju as its reason for being". 
JUit while the old must often disa])pear to make way 
for progress, the memory of the stepping stone which 
has helped us thus far in our national journey should 
not be lost, and how best to preserve those memories is 
the business of patriotic societies and historical reposi- 
tories such as ours. 

Papers embodying- much research, descriptions and 
pictures of the thing-s that are gone or going- are invalu- 
able ; nothing- can take their ])lace : but in time such a 
mass of material is g-athered that the arrangement of 
a bibliography covering them, becomes a labor few 
would care, or be able, to undertake. Memorial tablets 
are well, but they will often disappear, as the old land- 
marks have done, before the vandalism of a future gen- 
eration. The natural features of the land, however, are 
more permanent. A place from which everv vestige of 
building has disa])peared. if it has been accurately plot- 
ted upon a correct map. is mathematically identified for- 
ever. The glossary of such a chart becomes ^ conven- 
ient and almost automatic bibliographv. if references 
to records and papers are merely noted after the names 
in such a list. And therefore, those who value the re- 
minders of a noble and useful past, whose more primitive 
life laid the firm foundation ior the complex structure 



56 MAPS AND THEIR MAKING 

of present society, will, we feel sure, be active in assist- 
ing the Committee on Historical Geography in the pre- 
servation of these remains of an older and past con- 
dition. 

Churches and public buildings, schools and places of 
business are the centres of community life. And those 
were the places around which the simple colonial life 
fir.st began its growth. Some of them still exist, many 
have disappeared, some utterly, apparently ; but mem- 
bers of the organization can in their own neighborhood 
often ferret out sites of buildings and records of events 
with much more readiness and certainty than the 
stranger within their gates, unfamiliar with both place 
and people. The writer has covered a great many weary 
miles to the impairment of his dignitv and the depletion 
of his purse in the effort to fix some of these places so 
interesting and so elusive. He has been chased by the 
unsocial dogs of the suburbanite and has faced the wild 
cows of remote New Jersey farms in his researches, 
until he feels fully qualified to hunt larger game in 
Darkest Africa or elsewhere. With a watchful eye upon 
his hen coop, the agriculturist has kept him under 
espionage as a possible undesirable citizen. He has 
discovered that most of our farmers use German and 
not a few the language of Dante, while here and there 
they revile the explorer in .\merican. But the old 
farmer of his youth, who used the patois called Jersey 
Dutch has vanished. Gathered to his fathers, he and 
his customs ; and the places that knew him before shall 
know him no more. 

In my own quests but little has been established. Had 
I been able to take the time and apply the knowledge 
that a resident possesses many points of interest might 
have been cleared up. Especially is it necessary to es- 
tablish the locations of roads. These were the arteries 
binding the old cotumunities together and then passing 
out from our own county to other centers. What were 
they and which are the old roads? Old maps must still 
be about; a search through that old burial place for the 
forgotten and neglected ; the deserted and cob-webbed 
attic might result in a resurrection as unexpected as use- 



MAPS AND THEIR MAKING 57 



fill. Siicli a map was discovered a few years ago, con- 
nected with Revolutionary movements, but some private 
collector has gathered it in and hidden it way from s^-en- 
eral use and its data is unaxailable. Perhaps something 
may be found that will give us the route which Wasn- 
ing-ton's army took when he marched on that memorable 
tri]^ to the siege of Yorktown, leaving Clinton deceived 
as to his intentions until his rear-guard was at Phila- 
delphia. An old Xew Jersex' resident since dead told me 
that the main body, according to his father, who had 
the knowledge, directly crossed the TTackcnsack at what 
is now RiAcrcdge. The road there is a verv old one. 
Xot far from the east bank is a very old house and a half 
mile or so clown the road stood the old iavern which 
made way for a modern church. Init it seems an un- 
strategic crossing point, and T have been unable to verify 
the statement. Can any of my readers help us? 

Neither could I situate with certainty the site of a 
Revolutionary massacre which took ])lace near Rivervale 
<m the Hackensack's west bank. TTerc the houses and 
grounds of a countr}- place are enclosed within a fence 
that includes the supjMXsed site, but no trace of the old 
spot remains. A similar experience met me at Areola. 
ATy last memory of it was of the old Red oMills, which 
gave it its original name. T foiuid a neighborhood laid 
out in the style of a park, very pretty ; but the old mills 
were gone, the old dam repaired and the old name nearly 
forgotten. I used to be told when T was a bov that 
there \\as a woolen mill on this site, which furnished 
blankets to the soldiers of the Revolution, and it is cer- 
tain that there was a water power in operation there at 
a very early date. Researches in the accounts of the 
commissary department of the patriot army might bring 
verification. Through all that district there was a great 
deal of marching and countermarching; for about here 
the road ran nor+h to Peramus fas T find it spelled on 
the old map on which the road was marked) and east- 
erly toward Hackensack and Powles' Hook. While Avest- 
wardly it took a northern course after two or three miles 
and skirted the great bend of the Passaic to reach 
Totowa and the Great Falls. Thus at first the present 



58 MAPS AND THEIR MAKING 

site of the main part of Paterson was not crossed in 
reaching- Totowa, Preakness and Pompton. At Waga- 
raw a road ran north from this main road, but its name 
of Cherry Lane would seem to indicate that it was not 
a connectino- route. Yet it was the scene of at least 
one encounter. Probably the main branch I'oad de- 
parted a little further west, passing through the Goffle 
and so in a general northwesterly direction to the 
Ponds, where it connected with the road leading north 
along the Ramapaugh to Newburgh and south to Pomp- 
ton and on to ^Morristown. Here in the fork of the 
roads to the east of the Ramapaugh road and to the 
north of the road from the Goffle it is believed was the 
site of the Ponds church, but no trace so far as I know 
is left. Diligent search might, however, reveal some- 
thing. I have been informed latelx'. that the records 
were destroyed by fire. More extended research leads 
me to believe that the Weasel bridge, shown in my first 
map. was not in existence in Revolutionary times, but 
this too is in need of verification. 

These instances have been given as examples of a 
few of the questions that have come up in the course of 
a year not too vigorously devoted to the subject of his- 
torical geography in our County of Bergen. But before 
closing a paper already becoming too voluminous, I de- 
sire to incorporate the following, due to the courtesy 
of Prof. H. B. Kummel. the New Jersey State geologist. 

^'The New York boundary line which was surveyed 
in 1774, while intended to be a straight line, was not. 
The line of the monuments is south of the straight line 
throughout its entire length. At the two ends it de- 
parted slightly, but increased in distance every mile, and 
through all the middle part of the line, where for sev- 
eral miles it ran across the mountainous region of the 
State, it was quite crooked. The greatest distance of the 
old line south of the straight line wJis at the twenty- 
sixth mile stone \\here it was 2,415 feet ofif from the 
straight line. The old line was run with a surveyor's 
compass from both ends. It was what surveyors call a 
"rhumb" line, but it was made still worse by the varia- 
tion of the needle beincz' diflferent at the two ends, and 



MAPS AND THEIR MAKING 59 

being- less at one intermediate point than at either end. 
The joint commission of the two states which acted in 
1881 determined tliat the old bcxmdary. although not 
perfectly straight as ordered in the description made bv 
the Commissioners of 1769, is the line which was run 
by those Commissioners and their surveyors in 1774, 
and since most of the monuments set by them were still 
in their places, the old line so long established and recog- 
nized must still be accepted as the true one. The pres- 
ent boundary line is, therefore, the old line of 1774 so 
far as the old monuments could be located, and where 
old monuments could not be found a straight line was 
run l)etween the two nearest monuments. The present 
line, therefore, is a curved line, though not quite as 
irregular as that of 1774." 

In addition to this by by Prof. I\ummcl, I would like 
t(5 state that there seems to have been a still earlier 
boundary, situated further south and probably a cause 
of disputes which the survey of 1774 was intended to 
settle. This boundary may be lost, but there were sur- 
veys made in the Jerseys at least as early as 1709. and 
undoubtedly a line of demarcation between the provinces 
would be demanded at an early date, both because of 
provincial jealousies and to limit the respective govern- 
ments. Confirmatory of this theory was a map, which 
I was allowed to inspect, upon which a line was drawn 
across the province of New^ Jersey, from a point opposite 
Philippse manor in Yonkers to the south end of Alim- 
sinck Island in the Delaware river. The line, therefore, 
passes across the State at about the place where tradi- 
tion and old records tell us New York and New Jersey 
once met and is most probably the boundary sought; 
but here again the help that lies in numbers is greatly 
to be desired. 

Finally I desire to extend the thanks of the Com- 
mittee to Mrs. F. A. Westervelt, who has put us in 
touch with much valuable data, and to all who have fur- 
nished us with information. 

This has been written, not to set forth any valuable 
information the writer has obtained, but to show the 
paucity of results, where the harvest is great and the 



60 MAPS AND THEIR MAKING 

laborers so few. For the individual the task is a stag- 
gering one; for the members working as a unit and 
competently generaied b\' their chosen officers, that 
becomes an agreeable occupation which would otherwise 
be avoided as interminable. In the end the map pro- 
duced would not only be valuable historically, but a 
monument to the usefulness and vitality of this organiza- 
tion. A future generation would find in the chart not 
alone the data that they needed, but the evidence that in 
this age, amidst the bustle and strain of an unexampled 
national advance, there were those who. while identified 
with that progress, had }'et the reverence for the past 
and for the traditions that cast a halo about our heroic 
age, to step aside for a while to pay that homage that is 
always due from those who have benefited to those who 
builded and passed away before the results of their 
labors had rewarded their sight. 



IX ^IEA[()RTA.\r. 



E. O. Clark. 
Peter O. Teriiune. 
William Shanks. 
Capt. a. a. Folsom. 
Cornelius Christie. 
Peter ItECART, Jr. 
Christie Romaine. 
George R. Button. 
a. c. holdrum. 
\A"illia]\i D. Snow. 



RESOLUTIOXS OF Rb:SPECT. 



The following" three sets of resolutions were passed 
by the Executive Conimittee upon the death of the dis- 
linguished and esteemed members whose names are men- 
tioned. The\' constitute the last tributes which the 
Societ}' can bestow upon its departed members. 

Rcsoliilioiis of the Bcri:;cii Coiinly Historical So- 
ciety upon the deatli of Conteliiis Cliristie. 

W^HEREAS — It has pleased God to take from us our es- 
teemed friend and fellow worker, Cornelius 
Christie ; and 
Whereas — Among many other activities in a long and 
useful career Cornelius Christie was one of 
' the charter members of and always an inde- 

fatigable worker in the Bergen County His- 
torical Society, including the presidency, and 
in these various capacities contributing 
largely to its success : and 
Whereas — This society has been honored by leaving as 
a member one wdio occupied so many posi- 
tions of dignity and honor during his life, 
positions of trust and res]X)nsibilit}' confer- 
red upon him by his fellow citizens, and 
which he filled with honor to himself and 
usefulness to them for many years ; and 
W^iiEREAS — This Society has deemed it proper and fitting 
to record in permanent form the appreciation 
of its members for the life and services of 
our deceased member ; therefore, 
Be It Resolved — That the Bergen County Historical 
Society deplores the death of Cornelius Christie, and by 
this resolution records its deep sense of loss in the re- 
moval from our membership of one who was faithful, 
loyal and true to the Society and its work, and be it 

FuR'iHER Resolxed — That these resolutions be placed 
in full upon the minutes of the Society as a fitting trib- 
ute to the memorv and services of Cornelius Christie 



64 RESOLUTIONS OF RESPECT 

and a testimonial of the affection for him of our entire 
memhership. and be pubhshed in full in the Year T'ook 
c^f the Society and the County Press. 

^^'lI.l.lA^[ D. Snow. \ ' 

RvRox Ci. \'.\x ThjRN'i:. - Cojniuiitcc. 

DuR'iox 11. Ali.bke. j 

Rcsoliifioiis of the Beri^cn County Historical Society 
upon the death of Peter Bogert, Jr. 

W'liicRiLAS — Tt has pleased God to take from us our es- 
teemed friend Peter P>og-ert, Jr., and 
WiiEREA.s — Amonor other activities, in a loui^- and useful 
career, Ji^ifl.s:^ P)Oiiert was one of the earliest 
members of and an ardent worker in the 
Pero-en County TTistorical .Society, and in 
that cai)acily contributed lar,<;-ely to its suc- 
cess ; and 
\\'iii:ri-:a.s — This Society has been honored by having 
upon its membership roll one who has occu- 
pied, with dignity and honor to himself, his 
county and state, positions of trust and re- 
sponsibility, on the P)ench, and as a member 
of the local governing bcjdy of the Borough 
of Bogota, where he passed his whole life and 
died honored and respected at the ripe age of 
eight\-eight years : and 
\\'iii:ri:a.s — This Society has deemed it proper and tit- 
ting to record in a permanent form the ap- 
l)reciation of its members for the life and 
services of our deceased member ; 
r.F. Tt Resolved — That the Pergen Countv Historical 
Society deplores the death of Judge Peter Bogert. Jr.. 
1)\- this resolution records its deep sense of loss in the 
removal from our membership of one who has been 
faithful, loval and true to the Society and its work, and 
T^i-RTiiER Resoia'eo — That these resolutions be placed 
in full upon the minutes of the Society as a fitting tribute 
to the memory and services of Judge Bogert and a tes- 
timonial lo hiiu of the esteem and atTection of our entire 



RESOLUTIONS OF RESPECT 65 

membersliip, and be published in full in the Year r»ook 
of the Socict}' and in the Coiuity Press. 

Cornelius DoREisrus. i 

David D. Zabriskie. - Coiitiiiiffec. 

Clarence Mahte. ' 

Rcsolniions of the Beri^cii Cotiiily Historical Socicly 
}i[>on the death of Christie Roiiiaiite. 

Whereas — In the wisdom of God. Christie Romaine, 
our fellow-wx^rker and member of the Ber- 
gen County Historical Society, has departed 
this life ; and 
Whereas — He was, for many years, identified with com- 
mercial life in the City of Xew York, and 
with the Hackensack ^lutual Building and 
Loan Association, and has lived, consistently, 
as a Christian gentleman, in our County all 
his life ; therefore. 
Be It Resolved — That this Society, by this resolution, 
expresses its deep regret upon the loss of so worthy a 
man, and deplores the loss to this Society of one who 
was its steadfast supporter and hel])er ; and 

Be Lr Fin^TiiER Resolned — That these resolutions be 
entered in the Year Book of this Society and published 
in the County Press. 
January 30, 1909. 

Cornelius Doremus. ] 

David D. Zabriskie. - Committee. 

Clarence Marie. j 



ROLT. OF iMEMBERSHIP. 



Honorary. 



Xelson, Hon. William Paterson 

Sanford, Rev. E. T West nth st., New York 

Life Members. 

Allison, William ( ) Englewood 

Cameron, Alpin j Ridgevvood 

Green, Allister i East 6ist St., New York 

Zabriskie. Capt. A. C ^2 Heaver St., New York 

Annual Members. 

Abbott, John C Fort Lee 

Ackerman. David I '. Closter 

Adams. Dr. C V I lackensack 

Adams. R. A 1 lohokus 

Allbee, Hurton 11 1 lackensack 

Banta, Irving- W 

Bennett, H. N 

Best, L. C Ridgetieid 

Bird, E. K 1 lackensack 

Bogert, A. D hjiglewood 

Bogert, A. Z River Edge 

Bogert, Cornelius W R Bogota 

Bogert. Daniel G Englewood 

Bogert, I. D Westwood 

Bogert, John W I lohokus 

Bogert, Mathew J Demarest 

Brendon, Charles Oakland 

BrinkerhoiT, A. H Rutherford 

Brohel, Joseph A River Edge 

Cane, Fred W Bogota 

Cathcart. Dr. W. R 1 lackensack 

Colver, Frederick L Tenafly 

Connolly, Charles TT iMiglewood 

Cook, Rev. H. D Ridgewood 

Cooper. R. W W-w Milford 



68 ROLL OF MEMBERSHIP 

Crum, Fred H River Edge 

Crum, ]\Irs. Fred H River Edge 

Currie, Dr. D. A Fuiglewood 

Dairymple, C. ]M.. Ph. H I lackensack 

De Baun, Abrani 1 lackensack 

Delamater, P. G Ridgewood 

Demarest, A. S. D Hackensack 

Demarest, I. I " 

Demarest, Jacob R Englewood 

Demarest, Hon. Milton 1 lackensack 

Derby, Warren E F.nglewood 

Diaz, Jose M 1 lackensack 

Donaldson, George Cliffside 

Doremus, Cornelius Ridgewood 

Easton, E. D Areola 

Edsall, J. G 1 'alisade Park 

Edsall, S. S 

Ely, William Xorth Hackensack 

Engelke, A. L Englewood 

Engelke, Mrs. A. L 

Eairley. J. A I lackensack 

Ford/F.R 24 I'.n.ad St., New York 

Foster, W. Edward Hackensack 

Fornachon, Maurice Ridgewood 

Glover, T. N Brooklyn 

Goetschius, Howard 15 Little Ferry 

Grunow, Julius S Hackensack 

Haggertv, M. L 2iO() Sherman Ave, Evanston. 111. 

Hales, Henry Ridgewood 

Harding, Harry B Hackensack 

Haring, Tunis A ■' 

Heck, John ^Vestwood 

Holdendy, Dr. H. S Englewood 

Jacobus, Martin R Ridgefield 

JetTers, Daniel G 1 lackensack 

Jeffers, "Sirs. Daniel G 

Johnson, Rev. Arthur " 

Johnson, James Le Baron 

Johnson, William M " . 

Koehler", Francis C XiM-th Hackensack 

Lamb, C. R 23 Sixth Ave., New York 



ROLL OF MEMBERSHIP 69 

Lane, Jesse ; Xew Milford 

Lane, Mrs. Jesse Xew Milford 

Liddle, Joseph ( i i 2H I low cry, Xew York 

Lincoln. |. C Hackensack 

Linn, \\\ A 

Mabie, Clarence 

Mabon, J. S 

Meyer, Francis E Closter 

Miller, Livingston A Enj;lewood 

Morrison, W. J.. Jr Ridgefield Park 

]\Iorrow, Dwight ^^' Englewood 

Perry, George H Hackensack 

Pearsall, J. \V Ridgewood 

Phillips, Miss Helen 

Phillips, Miss Imogene " 

Piatt, Dan Fellows Englewood 

Poppen, Rev. Jacob W^ortendyke 

Prosser, ]\Iiss Harriet Englewood 

Ramsey, J. R Hackensack 

Richardson, Milton T Ridgewood 

Riley, John H LTillsdale 

Rogers, Henry M Tenafly 

Romeyn, James A Hackensack 

Sage,'L. H 

Schermerhorn. Gecirgc T Rutherford 

Seufert, Charles (t Leonia 

Seufert, William ]\r Englewood 

Sheridan, E. J " 

Smith, J. Spencer Tenaflv 

Smith, W. Robert " 

Stagg, Edward Leonia 

St. John, Dr. David Hackensack 

Tailman, William Englewood 

Talmadge. Rev. D Westwood 

Taylor, Ira " 

Taylor, Mrs. Ira " 

Terhune, P. Christie Hackensack 

Terhune, Mrs. P. Christie " 

Tierney, William. Jr Englewood 

Tillotson, Joseph H " 

Townshend, Dr. ]\L E \\^estwood 



70 ROLL OF MEMBERSHIP 

Van Buskirk, Arthur Hackensack 

\'anderbeek, Nelson K Englewood 

Van Home, Dr. Byron G " 

Van Nest, Rev. J- A Ridgewood 

Van Wagoner, Jacob " 

Van Winkle, Arthur W Rutherford 

Voorhis, Rev. J. C Bogota 

Vroora, Rev. W. H Ridgewood 

^^^akelee. Edmund W Demarest 

Wakelee, Justus I Englewood 

Walden, E. B Hackensack 

Ward, Rev. Henry Closter 

Wells, Benjamin G Hackensack 

Westervelt, Mrs. F. A 

Wheeler, George W " 

Whitbeck, C. V. H 

Willis, A. C Tenafly 

Winton, Henry D Hackensack 

^ood, Robert J. G Leonia 

AVright, Wendel J Hackensack 

Young, Dr. F. A 190 Wadsworth Ave., New York 

Zabriskie, David D Ridgewood 

Zabriskie, Everett L " 

Honorary Members 2 

Life Members 4 

Annual Members 141 

Total Membership 147 



,^ 






Papers 

and 

Proceedings 



1910- 1911 

Number Seven 



Bergen County 
Historical Society 



Papers and Proceedings 



OF 



The Bergen County Historical Society 
1910-1911 



NUMBER SEVEN 



Officers for 1910 

Secretary's Report, 1910, - - Burton H. Allbee 

Bergen County Courts, - - William M. Johnson 

Appendix, . _ _ William M, Johnson 

Historic Closter, - - David D. Ackerman 

Outlines of the Natural History of Bergen County, Henry Hales 

Presentation Speech, - - - Judge Doremui 

Articles of Incorporation of Bergen County Historical Society. 

Constitution and By-Laws. 

The Collections. 

Loaned. 

A Sketch of the Reformed Church of Paramus, 

Henry D. Cook, Pastor 

Membership Roll. 

In Memoriam. 



OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1910 



President, 
Everett L. Zabriskie. 

Vice Presidents, 

Isaac I. Demarest, Dr. Byron G. Van Horne, 

Cornelius Doremus, Arthur W. Van Winkle, 

Matt J. Bogert, Albert Z. Bogert, 

Edward Stagg, Charles Brendon, 

Robert T. Wilson, Howard B. Goetschius, 

Secretary and Treasurer, 
Burton H, Allbee. 

Executive Committee, 
(In addition to the officers.) 
William M. Johnson, David D. Zabriskie, 

Eugene K. Bird, Abram DeBaun. 

Archives and Property Committee. 

Mrs. F. a. Westervelt, 
William M. Johnson, Burton H. Allbee, 
Mrs. p. C. Terhune, P. C. Terhune, 

Publication Committee, 

Burton H. Allbee, Dr. Byron G. Van Horne. 

David D. Zabriskie, Albert Z. Bogert. 



THE SECRETARY TALKS. 



The past year has been one of activity. The president, 
Mr. Everett L. Zabriskie, early inaugurated a plan for 
holding meetings in different parts of the county, one 
each month, excepting the summer months, and until 
the latter part of the year when sickness intervened, this 
policy was carried out. Meetings have been held in 
Ridgewood, Saddle River, Closter, Rutherford, besides 
the executive meetings held in Hackensack, making sub- 
stantially a meeting each month. At the open meetings 
in the various towns there were addresses and papers 
which were of a character to interest the people of those 
portions of the county visited and a substantial increase 
in membership resulted. The society through its presi- 
dent and secretary took part in a testimonial meeting to 
Garret A. B. Kaiser of Hohokus and was represented 
at other functions during the year. 

In October it took part in the celebration of the 250th 
anniversary of the founding of Old Bergen, was re- 
presented in the exhibit arranged at the Public Library at 
Jersey City and two of its officers were guests at the 
banquet given under the auspices of the Historical So- 
ciety of Hudson County during that week. 

The collections have increased. Mr. Clyde E. Hay has 
purchased the Cass Collections, consisting principally of 
Fort Lee Relics and has placed them in a case in conjunc- 
tion with the Society's exhibits at the Johnson Library. 
This collection will always remain in the care of the 
Society. 

The collection of Genealogical and historical data 
has gone on about as it usually does. The genealogist 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 



has many hundreds of names and is frequently called 
upon for information regarding the ancestors of families 
now widely scattered. This department is one of the 
most valuable in the Society's work. 

The annual meeting was held on February 22 in Or- 
itani Hall and the officers elected are shown in their 
proper place. The officers and committees made favor- 
able reports and the outlook for the year was considered 
unusually promising. 

After the annvial meeting the guests adjourned to the 
dining room where a dinner was served which seemed 
to satisfy those who partook of it. Following the dinner 
this program added to the information and enjoyment of 
the gathering: 

Invocation. 

Welcome President David D. Zabriskie 

Address Judge Robert Carey 

Dramatic Reading, "Mandy's Organ" 

Miss Agnes Wilson Donaldson 

Address Judge Francis Scott 

Song, "Dutchland Beloved" Miss Anne B. Brohel 

The membership has increased during the year, even 
though a number of names have been taken from the 
list. The total number is now 136, which represents a 
company of all active members. 

The work of the Society has been brought to the at- 
tention of others in various ways. Mr. Burton H. AUbee 
has delivered a series of illustrated lectures in the course 
arranged by the Board of Education of Jeresy City 
during the winter upon historical matters pertaining to 
Bergen county. This course was requested by the man- 
agement of the lecture bureau in Jersey City as supple- 
mentary to the celebration there during October. 

The work for the year is done. The progress made 
has been entirely satisfactory, representing the slow, but 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 



none the less sure, work of collecting and arranging or 
classifying the facts with reference to the county history 
or the history of the families whose founders were 
amonsf the founders of the Great Commonwealth. 



BERGEN COUNTY COURTS 

AN ADDRESS 

DELIVERED BY 

WILLIAM M. JOHNSON, 

at the laying of the Corner Stone of the New Court 

House July 6, 19 lo. 



On this very interesting occasion, when we are about 
to lay the corner stone of the imposing and spacious 
Court House which is to be erected on this spot, it 
seems appropriate to consider the historical associations 
of the locality where it is to stand. This is indeed his- 
toric ground. More than than 250 years ago a hardy 
group of Dutch pioneers pushed their way into the wild- 
erness and shared with the Indians a home in this pleas- 
ant valley. On the southerly bank of the creek, near 
Hudson street and within sight of the spot whereon we 
are standing tradition assigns the first dwelling house in 
Hackensack. In 1688 an act of the Governor and Coun- 
cil provide that a court for the trial of small causes be 
held at the house of Dr. Johannes (Van Imburgh) on 
the Hackensack River for the Inhabitants of New Bar- 
badoes and Acquackanonk, then part of the County of 
Essex. The Old Church on the Green was founded in 
1686, so that at that time there must have been a con- 
siderable settlement at Hackensack. 

In the year 1709 New Barbadoes township was de- 
tached from Essex County and set over to and became a 
part of the County of Bergen and became the county 
seat. The first court house was erected in 1715, on land 
purchased from Barent Coal, located South of the Creek, 
consisting of ten acres of land extending to the Hacken- 
sack River. Its requirements for public purposes must 
have been very limited for we find that in May, 1720 
the freeholders leased to one John Evertson the Court 



10 BERGEN COUNTY COURTS 

House and land to the first day of May, 1723, for the sum 
of '3 pounds per year "as he had before," and in August, 
1723, it was agreed that said John Evertson should have 
the Court House and land eight years to commence May 
I, 1723, on condition that he repair the building and lay 
up a new wall &c. 

In 1730 the court house and land were sold to Hend- 
rick Brass for 150 pounds and another court house was 
erected on the Green near Main street. The building 
then erected, whose dimensions were 48x30 feet, was 
used by the courts until the Revolutionary War, when 
the proximity of the enemy and frequent raids to which 
Hackensack was exposed, made it unsafe to hold courts 
in this place. Accordingly in 1778 the legislature au- 
thorized the erection of a temporary Gaol at Yough- 
pough near the Ponds Church, which church has re- 
cently celebrated its two hundredth anniversary. The 
courts were held at private houses at Pompton and else- 
where and also in the new gaol. In 1780 the Court 
House at Hackensack was burned by the Hessians to- 
gether with two other buildings in the vicinity. After 
the restoration of peace in 1783, court was held at the 
inn of Archibald Campbell opposite the gr.een, where the 
Union League -building now stands, at the corner of 
Morris street. In July, 1784, a new and third court 
house was authorized and was built on a lot conveyed 
by Peter Zabriskie situated on Main street near the cor- 
ner of Bridge street. It is described as being 30 feet 
wide, and 60 feet long between the walls, two stories 
high, with a partition wall between the Court Rooms and 
Gaol. The appropriation therefor was 800 pounds 
equivalent at that time to about $2,000. 

In 1805 the County bought from Nehemiah Wade and 
John Anderson land on the West side of Main street 
where the Susquehanna R. R. is now located, on which 
was erected a small building used as the Clerk's and Sur- 
rogate's office until the year 1853. 

The Court House of 1784, in due time became insuf- 
ficient for its purposes and a new one became necessary. 
Much controversy arose as to its site, some wanted it 
located further up town, but the present location seems 



BERGEN COUNTY COURTS 11 

to have been settled by the gift by Robert Campbell, a 
distinguished lawyer of the county, of the land adjoin- 
ing the Hackensack Creek, facing the green, where the 
present Court House stands. This building, the fourth 
in number, was erected in 1819, was several times en- 
larged, and was reconstructed in 1892 as can be seen by 
the conspicuous tablet on the front. 

While the old court house answered its purpose well 
for many years, it has at last become quite inadequate 
for the uses required of it. The recent remarkable 
growth of Bergen County in population and in business 
activities has vastly increased the demands for more 
room and better facilities for the disposing of the public 
business. 

A few statistics will show how inadequate the old 
court house has become. When it was built in 1819 the 
total population of the county, including that which was 
later set ofif as Hudson County and a large territory 
forming part of Passaic County, was but 18,000. Fifty 
years ago the population of the county was 21,600. In 
1870 it was only 30,000. In 1880 36,700, in 1890 65,000, 
in 1900 78,000, in 1905 100,003, ^^'^^ the recent census, the 
population in 1910 is 138,000. The opening up of new 
lines of travel, and the advantageous location of the 
county by reason of its proximity to the great city of 
New York make it reasonably certain that this influx of 
new people will continue so that we can look forward to 
still greater demands upon the capacity of the public 
buildings. Already the public is suffering for want of 
sufficient accommodations. The jail is overcrowded at 
times to an extent that makes it both unsanitary and in- 
sufficient. Additional court rooms are required. The 
facilities for the judges, the Prosecutor, the Sheriff, the 
County Clerk, the Surrogate, the Collector, the Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, the Board of Freeholders 
and its officers and attendants are so inadequate that the 
public business is delayed and greatly embarrassed. 

The facts which I have stated are sufficient to show 
that the new court house is not an unnecessary luxury, 
but that it is an absolute, pressing and immediate neces- 
sity for the proper transaction of the public business of 



12 BERGEN COUNTY COURTS 

this great growing county. In planning for its con- 
struction, proper consideration no doubt has been made 
for future growth as well as for present requirements. 

The controversy as to the site of the new building was 
finally settled in favor of the present location, whether 
wisely or not, admits of difference of opinion, but the 
site having been secured and the foundations laid, we 
should all cheerfully hope that the new edifice will prove 
both adequate and architecturally satisfactory to justify 
the enormous cost of construction. 

I want to congratulate the Commissioners, the architect 
and the builders, as well as the people of Bergen County 
upon the progress of the work which after so many 
weary months of litigation, is now permitted to go for- 
ward, holding out the promise that within a definite and 
reasonable time, our courts and officers will be able to 
dispose of the public business efficiently and promptly 
in apartments adequate and convenient for all concerned. 

The administration of justice, through the courts of 
law, is the most solemn and important exercise of the 
powers of government. The government which we have 
adopted in this country by the free choice of the people, 
is based upon the absolute independence of the judicial 
department. The courts stand for the protection of 
rights, for the redressing of wrongs, for the punishment 
of crime. They are the great safeguards of the freedom 
of the people, hence we clothe them with dignity and 
hedge them in by impressive formalities that they may 
receive the respect and obedience which their exalted 
prerogatives and powers demand. Hence we build these 
court houses as temples of justices, substantial, ornate 
and commodious as the appropriate forum for the great 
duties which are here to be exercised. The system of 
Common Law which is administered here comes down 
to us from Colonial times, and has its origin in the Com- 
mon Law of England. Changes in forms and in prac- 
tice are made from time to time to meet the requirements 
of modern conditions, but the fundamental principles of 
the law founded as they are on inherent rights continue 
from generation to generation substantially unchanged. 
But this does not mean that the law is stagnant and irres- 



BERGEN COUNTY COURTS 13 

ponsive to the forward march of events in this busy 
world of ours. The tendency of the day is towards sim- 
pHfication of pleadings and practice. Our county court 
which in former years might be held by a dozen judges 
is now presided over by a single judge with marked ef- 
ficiency. The technicalities of ancient forms of plead- 
ings and practice have given way to more simple and 
liberal rules, but still we have much complaint (and 
justly) of the laws' delays, and of the uncertainties of 
judicial procedure. But far greater progress is possible 
in correcting these evils if the people so will. It is prob- 
able, however, that no important steps towards this end 
can be made without a change in our organic law. An 
opportunity to make such a change was offered last Sep- 
tember when certain amendments to the constitution, 
changing our judiciary system were submitted to a vote 
of the people, and although these amendments had the 
support of the great majority of the members of the 
legal profession, and of our chancellors and judges, and 
were by elaborate and convincing arguments both printed 
and oral, shown to be the means of making the adminis- 
tration of justice more certain and prompt and especial- 
ly helpful to the man of limited means who might un- 
fortunately be involved in litigation, yet the amendments 
were defeated by a great majority of the votes cast. No 
attempt was made to show that they would not result in 
simplification of the practice and correction of the laws' 
delays, but the opposition was either prejudiced or 
ignorant, and based on no intelligent grounds. It was 
said that because the lawyers favored it, they must have 
some selfish motive which led them to advocate the 
change. It is a singular fact that while these very voters 
would trust their property, their liberty and even their 
life itself, to the efforts of their lawyers, confident that 
they would receive honest and efficient service, yet when 
these same lawyers and judges of the highest character 
advise them that these amendments would be helpful and 
should be adopted, they regard their opinions with dis- 
trust and bury the amendments under an adverse vote. 
I am proud of say that Bergen was one of the few coun- 



14 BERGEN COUNTY COURTS 

ties that gave a majority for the amendments and that it 
was the largest given by any county in the State. 

You may think I am far afield when on an occasion 
like this I refer to these matters, but I want the people 
to know that when they complain of the laws' delays, of 
the vexatious and expensive litigation possible under the 
present system, in carrying a cause through our appel- 
late courts, that they are themselves to blame, and that 
they may expect no relief until they are willing to adopt 
such a change in our judicial system as will tend to make 
the course of justice simple, prompt and certain. 

The passing of the old court house practically marks 
the end of an era, wherein Bergen was known as a rural 
county, and in which the farming interests were pre- 
dominant. The times have changed and we are changing 
with them. The characteristics of this end of the state 
are rapidly becoming urban and suburban. Hamlets and 
villages are growing into towns and cities. Commuters 
by the thousands have here found agreeable homes for 
themselves and their families and have brought a great 
population of intelligent progressive citizens, whose 
energy and enterprise have done much to advance the 
interests of the communities of which they have become 
a part. Within three miles of the railroad station at 
Rutherford there is a resident population of approxi- 
mately 40,000. So in other parts of the county, con- 
gested areas are becoming more frequent. The gaps 
between nearby towns are steadily closing and the time 
is not far distant when consolidations of adjacent muni- 
cipalities will make more than one city of importance. 
Whether or not this crowding population will add to the 
charm of suburban life is a matter of taste and sentiment, 
but we must recognize existing facts, and rejoice that 
the new population is in the main intelligent, enterprising 
and eminently desirable. 

The old court house has in its ninety years of existence 
witnessed many changes in the customs, manners and 
interests of the people whom it was built to serve. Here 
have been notable legal battles over property rights or 
private wrongs, and countless trials with their verdicts 
of guilt or acquittal. Here have sat judges, honored. 



BERGEN COUNTY COURTS 15 

admired and beloved, against no one of whom the voice 
of scandal or suspicion has ever been raised. The great 
and honored names of Bedle and Dixon within the 
memory of most of us, are associated with the adminis- 
tration of justice in this place. But all this is passing 
away, their names and the names of counsel whose voices 
were often heard in these chambers of justice, will soon 
be but a faint memory, a mere matter of history. For 
this building whose corner stone is laid today is for the 
present and for the future. It will have its own activi- 
ties, its own histories and tragedies. At the end of an- 
other hundred years may it still stand as an imposing 
monument to the security of life and liberty, the redress 
of wrongs, the enforcement of rights, a temple of justice 
having the respect and veneration of generations yet to 
come constituting the vast population which in the course 
of that long period will have filled our hills and valleys 
with a free, intelligent and prosperous people. 



APPENDIX. 

by 

W. M. JOHNSON 



The deed for the land on which the first court house was 
erected is recorded in the Clerk's office of Bergen County. It 
contains some interesting recitals, and is substantially as fol- 
lows : 



Barent Coax of the City of New York, 
gentleman, and Mabgakita his wife, 
of the one part, 

and I Deed dated Aug. P, 

Thomas Van Bosskerk of Hackensack, 1715 Rec B of 

county of Bergen and Eastern Divi-j'' Deed's p. 193 &c 
sion of the Province of Nova Ceasa-i 
rea, Esquire John Bertan Esqb of^ 
New Barbadoes and Pahlus Van Deu 
Beek of New Barbadoes Yoeman, of 
the second part. 



Whereas the said Barent Coal by virtue of a conveyance under 
the hands and seals oif John Varick of New Barbadoes aforesaid, 
merchant, and Sarah his wife, dated the twenty-third day of 
November, 1706, stands legally instituted to a certain house and 
lot of land situate, laying and being at New Barbadoes, in the 
town, county and division and Province aforesaid. 

Begins with the west north\\'est line from the Hackensack 
Eiver running up into the road laid out and being used former- 
ly, from thence in a northerly course along the said road into 
the land of Dr. Johannes Van Imburgh, thence in an east south- 
east course down to the said river, and thence southerly to the 
place where it began. Containing in breadth 25 paces along the 
road into a black oak tree, being the third tree of the land of 
David Provoost. Bounded easterly to said river, southerly to 
David Provoost, westerly to said road and northerly to land of 
said Johannes Van Imburgh. Containing two acres more or less. 

And also by \'irtue of a certain conveyance under the hands 
and seals of David Provoost of the city of New York merchaint, 
and Catharine, his wife, dated the tenth day of June, 1709, of a 
certain messuage, tenement, house and lot of land, situate as 
aforesaid, bounded southerly to land now in occupation of John 
Wright, westerly to the Polls Valloy (commonly so called), 
northerly to said Barent Coal and John Van Imburgh, and 



18 APPENDIX 



easterly to the river aforesaid. Containing eigtt acres, or 
thereabouts, being in breadth in front and rear about 100 yards, 
running with the west northwest line on both sides to the Polls 
Valloy aforesaid, which two said lots the said Barent Coal since 
reduced into one lot and is bounded by said reduction easterly 
by said Hackensack River, southerly by John Wright afore- 
said westerly to said Polls Valloy and northerly to Johannes 
Van Imburgh and the road aforesaid, and containing in breadth 
and qiuantity as above specified and set fonth. 

The de'ed then recites an act of the General Assembly of the 
Province of Nova Cesarea passed in the twelfth and thirteenth 
years of the reign of her late Majesty entitled An act for rais- 
ing of money for building and repairing of gaols and court 
bouses within ■each respective county of this Province, and to 
repeal the act passed for that purpose in the year 1709, which 
enacts that two freeholders of each town and precinct in each 
county shall annually 'be chosen, Avho or a major part of them 
in conjunction with the justices of the peace of each county, or 
any three of them, one whereof being of the quorum, shall meet 
togetlier and agree upon such sums as shall be needful for 
repairing such gaols and court houses as are already built, and 
for building such as are wanting, and to appoint managers to 
do and see done siich things and works as they shall agree upon 
to be done and performed. 

Also recites that pursuant to such act of justices of the peace 
and freeholders of the county of Bergen at a Court of General 
Quarter Sessions held at the town of New Barbadoes on the 
second and third days of this instant month of August, did re- 
solve, order and direct to purchase, build and repair a county 
house and prison in said town of New Barbadoes near to the 
Dutch Church by the Hackens'ack River, and accordingly ap- 
pointed managers for that purpose. 

The said Barent Coal and wife in consideration of 140 pounds 
current money of the Province of New York, paid by Thomas 
Van Bosskerk, John Bertan and Paulus Van Der Beek, man- 
agers, by the 'authority aforesaid appointed for that purpose, 
did convey to them all those aforementioned two several lots 
of land reduced into one lot. 

In trust, nevertheless, that pursuant to the a-bove-mentioned 
axat, they shall only keep, enjoy and possess and hold said lots 
of ground for the common and general use of tne county of 
Bergen aforesaid. ;ir.d to the use of liis ^Majesties courts (and 
for gaols) from time to time and at all times hereafter to be 
held there, and for sn.c'h other public uses as are Toy law estab- 
lished, and otherwise visual, and customary at. in and by court 
houses and jails within this province and for no other use or 
xii&es Av'hatsoever. 

The said grantees covenant that they will stand and be 
seized of the reduced lot of ground and premises, for the sole 
and proper uses aiforesaid and no other use whatsoever. 

Acknowledged Nov. 3, 1715 before David Provoost. 



APPENDIX 



19 



The Court House lot was suibsequently conveyed by deed prob- 
ably written on the back <oi the foregoing deed, as folio wis: 



WiLiJAM Provoost Paulus Van Der 
Beek and Richard Edsall being im- 
powered and appointed by the Jus- 
tices and Freeholders of said County,! 
as may more at large appear by the 
records of the Justices and Freehold- 
ers. 

to 

Henbick Brass 



Deed dated Nov. 22, 
1731. Cons. 150 
pounds. Ack. Nov. 
22, 1731. Rec. Book 
B of Deeds p. 203 
&c. 



CONVEYS 

"All that right, title, interest of and in the recited 
county court house and tract of land and premises within con- 
tained and is more particularly abutted and bounded." 



Henrick Brass 

to 

Jacobus Van Vooehees 



J 



Deed dated Nov. 25, 
1735. Cons. 120 
pounds. Ack. Apl. 
30, 1736. Rec. Book 
B of Deeds p. 360 
&e. 



CONVEYS 

"All that my right, title, interest of and in ye recited convey- 
ance and tract of land and premises within contained, and is 
more particular abutted and abounded." 



The deed for the land on which the Court House of 1819 was 
ereot'ed was subject to certain conditions and is as follows: 



Robert Campbell 
to 
The Board of Chosen Frreeholdebs 
OF the County of Bergen 



Deed dated May 20, 
1818. Cons. $5. &c. 
Rec. Book P-2 of 
Deeds p. 119 &c. 



"But upon the express condition that it be used 'by the Board 
of Chosen Freeholders of the County of Bergen and their suc- 
cessors at all times hereafter for thB purpose of erecting and 
maintaining a court house and jail, and such otiier public build- 
ings as the said board may deem necessary and proper thereon 
for public convenience and in default thereof that it is to revert 
to the said Robert Campbell Ms 'heirs and assigns." 



20 APPENDIX 



The minutes of the "Justices and Freeholders" ol the County 
of Bergen deposited in the Clerk's office of the County, contain 
miany items of interest concerning the old court houses. 

The following is a reference to the gaol at the Ponds. IVIay 
15, i780. Board met at Pompton at house of Martin Ryerson. 
The Board agreed with Andrew Coal for the use of a piece of 
land whiieh he lately bought of Henry Van Allen on the east 
side of the road which leads from Pond Church up Ramapogh 
River, and between the said road and the mill pond, and a 
sufficiency besides to make up an acre in the whole, on which 
they agreed to build their gaol. The Board further agreed 
with Andrew Coal that after the county had done with the 
said building as a goal and court house, he should have same 
for the use of the acre of land while in possession of the county, 
excepting the jail locks, bars, gates and other jail irons which 
belong to the county and to be removed when the building is 
given up to Coal. Appointed Stephen Bartholf, Jacobus S. Bogert 
managers aforesaid building. 

The board ordered ©aid jail to be built with square timber 
and 30 feet long 20 feet wide from outside to outside, 7 feet 
high from the lower floor to the upper floor, 4 feet high from 
the upper floor to the eaves. One half to be partitioned off into 
two gaols, the other half to be finished for gaol keeper. Upper 
fttory to be finished in proper manner to hold the court. The 
board gave managers liberty to use bars, grates and old irons 
belonging to the old gaol at New Barbadoes and ordered the 
county collector to pay to the order of the managers any sum 
not exceeding 200 p. for erecting said building. 



"HISTORIC CLOSTER." 
By David D. Ackerman. 



Introduction. — I have been invited to write about "His- 
toric Closter." I have accepted the invitation with pleas- 
ure and regret. I am glad to render any service however 
slight to the "Bergen County Historical Society" ; but I 
regret that I am to give this address, because there are 
life long residents in Closter who could give from per- 
sonal knowledge a much more interesting speech on this 
topic than I. The village is not very old and it had its 
beginning in times within the memory of some now 
living here. 

It is not my intention to give a history of the land 
grants of this community, as our late neighbor Harvey, 
the best historian of Bergen County, says : "I am forced to 
the conclusion that he who would make a successful plot- 
ting of the early grants of land in Northern New Jer- 
sey, would need to spend at least five years in a house 
to house hunt for the necessary data in trunks and chests 
of the old pioneers, now hidden away and forgotten in 
the garrets of their descendents." I will simply mention 
briefly a few features of "Historic Closter." 

The Indians. — The original inhabitants of this section 
were a tribe of Hackensackey Indians, to whom all the 
land in Bergen County originally belonged. The tribe 
was important and quite notorious. In 1665 it numbered 
1,000 fighting men. This once numerous and powerful 
tribe is almost extinct. The only descendants are a few 
half breeds that inhabit the Ramapo Mountains in the 
western part of the country. 

"Closter." — I have been unable to trace the name 
"Closter" to its origin. No one seems to know positively 
where the name came from. It is said that in our old 
church records the name is spelled Clocester, which is 
some evidence that the territory was probably named 
after some place in old England. It is certain however 
that the name was in use long before the Revolutionary 



22 HISTORIC CLOSTER 

War, and was applied to that section of the country- 
lying above "English Neighborhood" as far north as the 
State line. This whole section contained only a few 
pioneer settlers. It was not until the building of the 
Northern Railroad in 1859 and the establishment of a 
station at this point that the village was built. 

Early Settlers. — During the seventeenth century land 
patents to all the property in Northern New Jersey and 
Southern New York were granted at various times by 
both England and Holland. Immigration from these 
countries resulted in gradual settlements. This section 
of New Jersey was settled chiefly by the Dutch, as is 
indicated by such names as "Tiena Kill," "Bergen," and 
"Scraalenburgh." The tract of land where Closter vil- 
lage stands was granted in 1669 to De Hart, whose heirs 
sold it to Bernardus Ver Valen, who in turn conveyed 
portions of it to Matthew M. Bogert, Peter M. Bogert, 
Martin Powlews, Walter Parsells, and others who settled 
it. A complete list of these names is given in Harvey's 
History and it would be tiresome to repeat them here. 
Until 1772 the colony of New York claimed this tract as 
being within its boundaries and so treated it. 

An Ancient Deed. — A short time ago I was permitted 
to inspect an ancient deed now given to the Historical 
Society which has never been recorded and which has 
been kept in the Bogert family about 170 years. This 
deed runs in part as follows : 

This indenture made the sixteenth day of January, 
in the fourteenth year of the reign of his sovereign Lord 
George the Second by the grace of God of Great Britian, 
France and Ireland, King (Defender of the Faith), and 
in the year of our Lord Christ one thousand seven hun- 
dred and forty, between (Barnardis Vervelle) of Tap- 
pan, in the County of Orange, in the Province of New 
York, Yeomen of the (part) and (Mat)tyes Bogert of 
the same place Yeomen of the other part (witne)sseth 

that the said (Bernardis Verv)elle have granted 

bargained (sold enfeoffed conveyed released and con- 
firmed and by these presents do grant bargain sell en- 
foffee convey release and (confirm unto the said M(att) 
y(es) bogert his heirs and assigns forever all that tract 



HISTORIC CLOSTER 25 



of land lying- and being in Tappan) county and province 
aforesaid beginning at the East (Sy)de of a certain 

brook known by the name of Shi ne flys Cill by a 

maypell Sapplin marked on the South Syde mb and on 
the North Syde Jm and o(n) (the—) Syde wb from 
thence on south East Coors by a lyne of marked trees 

to Hudson's river then 

Said River ten chains then Northwest alonge a lyne of 
marked trees to brook aforesaid then nor(th)erly 
(along) (s)aid brook on Cill ten chains to the first sta- 
tion containing two hundred and fifty acres being butted 
and bounded on the north by a lyne of trees on the East 
by Hudson's river on the south by a lyne of marked trees 
on the we(st) by the brook or Cill aforesaid being the 
same tract of land that the said mattyes bogert base now 
in his poss(ession). 

This ancient deed is evidence of three things, (i) It 
proves Harvey's statement that Bernardus Ver Valen 
sold a large tract of what is now Closter property to 
Matthias Bogert. (2) That this section in 1740 was 
part of Tappan in the Province of New York and (3) 
That many of our ancient title deeds are hidden away in 
trunks unrecorded just as Harvey said they were. 

A part of the tract on the north containing 1,300 acres 
was conveyed in 1710 to two brothers Barent and Re- 
solvent Naugle. Gradually the northern district was 
settled by such men as John W. Ferdon, Abram Haring, 
John J. Naugle, John Sneden and others. These early 
settlers lived miles apart and held little communication 
with the outside world. 

Incidents of the Revolutionary War. — Much of the 
surrounding country on account of its proximity to New 
York is rich with reminiscences of the Revolution. 
Many towns have Washington Headquarters; Paramus 
has the Romance of the Widow Provost; and even this 
sparsely settled section played a part in the war. The 
following abstract is from a letter dated Closter May 
10, 1779. 

"This day about one hundred of the enemy came by 
way of New Dock, attacked this place carried ofif 
Cornelius Tallman, Samuel Demarest, Jacob Cole, and 



24 HISTORIC CLOSTER 

George Buskirk ; killed Cornelius Demarest ; wounded 
Henry Demarest, Jermiah Vestervelt, Dow Tallman, etc. 
They burned the dwelling houses of Peter Demarest, 
Matthias Bogert and Cornelius Hugler, Samuel Dema- 
rest's house and barn, John Banta's house and barn, and 
Cornelius Bogert's and John Vestervelt's barns. They 
attempted to burn every barn they entered but the fire 
was in some places extinguished. They destroyed all 
the furniture, etc., in many houses and abused many of 
the women. In their retreat they were so closely pur- 
sued by the militia and a few continential troops that 
they took off no cattle. They were of Buskirk's troops, 
some of our Closter and Old Tappan neighbors, joined 
by a party of negroes. I should have mentioned the 
negroes first in order to grace the British Arms." 

March of Cornzvallis. — It was in our vicinity that 
Cornwallis with his army landed at the "Old Closter 
Dock," came up the Palisades and marched across the 
State in pursuit of Washington's Army. 

The story is handed down through several generations 
that on the occasion of this march a young negro girl 
working in the kitchen of the great great grandfather of 
Matthew J. Bogert looked out of the window. What she 
saw caused her to run into the living room where the 
family were seated and with wide-open eyes and in her 
native dialect exclaimed — "Bogert's fields are full of 
Red Coats." 

Slavery. — It will doubtless be a surprise to most of 
you to learn that slavery existed at one time in the 
Northern States. Yet such was the case. A will made 
by Matthew Bogert, dated Aug. ii, 1784 and probated 
in the prerogative court in the same year reads : 

"I further give to her (his wife) the care and use of 
all of my personal estate (except the two female slaves 
the one named Lay and the other Shantown). I fur- 
ther order and direct my executor hereafter named in a 
reasonable time after my decease to dispose of the afs'd 
two female slaves either at publick vendue or private 
sale as they in their descretion shall think best and 
most advantageous." 

Ancient Customs. — Previous to 1858 the residents of 



HISTORIC CLOSTER 2S 

this valley seldom visited the City of New York, except 
strictly for business or to convey their farm products to 
market as the latter was their principal source of in- 
come. The "Liberty Pole Hotel," an old inn whose 
history antedates the Revolution, stood near the present 
site of the Westside Presbyterian Church in Englewood. 
An old stage of ancient design ran from this hostelry to 
Hoboken. It carried no mail as the nearest post-office 
was at Hackensack. It is hard to realize that many who 
were born so near the City lived to a good old age and 
passed away without ever having walked its busy streets. 
The inhabitants were an honest, industrious people, car- 
ing little for the busy world beyond them. Their friends 
outside of their immediate neighborhood were few. The 
entire population of a township comprised but a small 
number of names as they married and intermarried, and 
were nearly all first, second, or third cousins. 

Fortunes were slowly accumulated, and rarely lost 
as the people seldom speculated. Good health and old 
age were the rewards for their contented and temperate 
lives. 

The Railroad. — In 1858 the Northern Railroad was 
built. The road ran but one train a day for some time. 
One baggage and passenger car accommodated the 
traveling public. The trains ran through the open cut 
into the Pennsylvania Depot for some years. The Com- 
pany's removal to Chambers Street met with strong op- 
position by many of its ptarons. Thomas W. Demarest 
was the road's first president. The first train must have 
been an awakening to the minds of the people of this 
vicinity and filled them with astonishment as it went 
roaring up the valley like an uncaged lion. It was to 
be the last of their isolation from the world. 

J. Wyman Jones, I. Smith Homans, Jr., and Sheppard 
Homans were the first New Yorkers to come into this 
valley for a permanent residence after the Northern 
Railroad was completed. Their zeal and enthusiasm in- 
spired many others to join them in the new enterprise. 

With the building of the Railroad the History of our 
village as a community may be said to commence. At 
the time the Railroad was constructed in 1858, there 



26 HISTORIC CLOSTER 

were only two houses in the vicinity. One was the 
house where Mr. D. W. Lozier resides ; and the other 
was an old stone house that stood where Mr. Wadham's 
house is now standing. This stone house was owned by 
Mr. Matthew Bogert and has long since been destroyed. 

It is difficult to think that if a person wanted to go 
to New York in those days he would have to drive or else 
go to the "Liberty Pole Hotel" and take the stage. A 
round trip would take about two days. Many of the 
people never saw New York. Their shopping was fre- 
quently done in the City by the farmers who would drive 
their products to the market. Mr. Ben Blackledge of 
Closter tells me that in '58 he was a young lad living at 
what was then called lower Closter, now Cresskill. He 
took great delight in going down with the other young 
people who had never seen an engine to look at the 
engine and ride on the dirt cars when they were building 
the road. 

When the road was completed a station was made at 
Closter where our Main Street crosses the track. 
Houses sprang up on all sides. The enthusiasm of the 
movement is well known in the name "Closter City," 
It resembled the establishment of some Western mining 
towns during the gold fever. 

The building of the Railroad made our community 
possible. Take the railroad away and you cut the great 
artery which connects us with the outer world. The 
doom of the village would be sounded. The thought 
throws emphasis on one of the land marks of "Historic 
Closter," which still furnishes and in all probability will 
furnish one of the great blessings we enjoy and should 
silence much of the unjust criticism that we hear about 
the Railroad. 

John Henry Stephens. — In the early progress of 
Closter the name of John Henry Stephens stands pre- 
eminent. Mr. Stephens came to Closter in 1858 and fol- 
lowed his trade of carpentry until the opening of the 
Railroad in the following year, when he began to specu- 
late in real estate. 

As soon as the railroad was constructed Mr. Stephens 
took an active part in planning out and developing the 



HISTORIC CLOSTER 27 

village. He laid out the plan of the roads, all converging 
to the square in Main Street. He built the store where 
Mr. Ferdon now has his grocery. He was ticket agent 
for twenty-five years for the Northern Railroad ; and, as, 
the Company had no depot, he sold tickets in the store. 
Mr. Stephens was also postmaster for thirty years and at 
the same time he carried on his general store. He may 
justly be called, says Harvey, "The Father of Closter." 

"Chster City Hotel."— With the building of the Rail- 
road and the opening of Stephens' store came the hotel 
— still standing — which bore the sonorous name, "Closter 
City Hotel." The ballroom now used for smokers' con- 
ventions and business meetings was used for social 
gatherings and (on Sundays) religious gatherings. 
These meetings conducted by the Rev. E. S. Hammond 
were the beginning of the Reformed Church of "Closter 
City," which has continued to the present. 

Schools. — The oldest school in the neighborhood was 
held in the little old school house at Demarest. The 
building is still standing. Hammond Hall has the unique 
distinction of being Closter's first school house where, 
in 1863, under the direction and with the assistance of 
Rev. E. S. Hammond, the founder of the Reformed 
Church of this village, "Closter Institute" opened its 
doors under the able management of Miss Isabella Ham- 
mond. It was for years the only private school on this 
part of the Northern Railroad, its pupils not only com- 
ing from the towns on the direct line of the Railroad 
from Piermont to Englewood, but from many places in 
Bergen and Rockland Counties. There was no public 
school in the village of Closter until the fall of 1870, 
when school was opened in a barn standing back of the 
property now occupied by Miss Valentine, called the 
"Van Nostrand barn." This barn has since been moved 
by our fellow citizen, Mr. Francis E. Meyer, to the Main 
Street where it has been renovated, repaired, added to, 
and made into a combined store and apartment house. 

In 187 1 a permanent site for a public school was pur- 
chased on the corner of Demarest and Durie Avenues, 
where a handsome brick building was erected, containing 
four large airy classrooms. This building remained in 



28 HISTORIC CLOSTER 

active use for school purposes until the spring of 1907, 
when it was decided to use the new school building ex- 
clusively and the old property was sold to the Closter 
Realty Company. The purchaser has remodeled the 
building into apartments. Thus both of these old school 
buildings have been used for other purposes and they 
are likely to be preserved for years to come. 

I have given some incidents connected with the early 
history of Closter and brought my narrative down to the 
year 1870 at which time the village was established and 
the foundation laid for our subsequent prosperity and 
growth. This section has not played a conspicuous part 
in history but its traditions are dear to us and we may 
feel justly proud of the plain country people who have 
handed down this village to us. If they were too few 
in number to attract attention, they at least made the 
most of their lives. They are the worthy founders of a 
worthy succession. Those who came after them, whose 
doings I am not privileged to chronicle at this time, 
have also done very worthy things. 

The difference between "Historic Closter" of 1870 
and our modern municipality is shown in the new 
houses, city water, electric lights, telephone service, 
handsome school building, national bank, stores, 
churches, and sidewalks. All of these improvements are 
to be entered to the credit of the later and present 
generation. 

Closter has passed through the earliest hours of its 
day. It has not yet emerged into the full sunlight of 
the morning. That time will approach when we shall 
enjoy the advantages of a larger and wealthier popula- 
tion ; when a trolley service will connect us not only 
north and south but also east and west ; when the North- 
ern Railroad will be electrified ; when an adequate sewer- 
age system will be installed ; when a public library 
supplying educational advantages for all shall be opened 
to the public ; when our municipal authorities will have 
a Borough Hall as a permanent home giving comfort 
worthy of the services rendered and a dignity propor- 
tionate to their importance; when a fully equipped high 
school shall be established embracing within its curricu- 



HISTORIC CLOSTER 29 

lum thorough instruction in both the arts and sciences ; 
when the moral and spiritual tone of the entire commun- 
ity shall be uplifted by a more earnestly consecrated 
church membership and the churches themselves shall 
work together with a stronger feeling of fraternity and 
loyalty — then, and not till then, will the high-noon of 
Closter's day be at hand. 

As we move forward we must be on the lookout 
against those forms of disease which sooner or later in- 
evitably attack every large community — the coming of 
poverty and sloth ; the appearance of vice in all its forms ; 
the development of the criminal class ; and the corrup- 
tion of our politics. 

Closter has been free from these things. The life of 
"Historic Closter" was simple and pure. The work of 
foundation and development has been well done and the 
richest legacy which the early settlers have handed down 
to us is the inspiration which we may receive from a 
study of their lives and works, to go forward with high 
aims and ideals for the peace, comfort, welfare, and ad- 
vancement of the people and to keep them so far as we 
can free from civic disease of every form. 

Bibliography from which this was drawn: 

(i) Genealogical History of Hudson and Bergen 
Counties by Cornelius Harvey, page 4. 

(2) Atlas of Bergen County, by A. H. Walker, page 
32. 

(3) Atlas of Bergen County, by A. H. Walker, page 
25, 26. 

(4) Genealogical History of Hudson and Bergen 
Counties by Cornelius Harvey, page 27 and 28. 

(5) Genealogical History of Hudson and Bergen 
Counties. 

(6) Atlas of Bergen County, by A. H. Walker, page 
27. 

(7) Englewood, by Humphrey, page 22. 



OUTLINES OF THE NATURAL HISTORY OF 

BERGEN COUNTY. 

By Henry Hales, 



The natural history of Bergen County is remarkably 
varied. This county occupies a position about central 
on the eastern border of the continent, the flora and 
fauna over-laps as it were, giving it a position of great 
importance to botanists and ornithologists ; its surface 
composed of hills, valleys and the remarkable Palisades, 
one of the world's wonders, and meadows, all drained by 
beautiful streams, gives it a reputation with the Ameri- 
can Geographical Society as being one of the healthiest 
spots in the United States. I was told this by one of its 
presidents. Little streams near Ridgewood bred mus- 
sels some of which had pearls in them. When they were 
found some years ago a rush was made to the streams 
and they were soon all cleaned out; some of the pearls 
were of great value; there is one (or a fac-simile) in the 
Museum of Natural History, New York, described in 
the booklet on the case as valued at $2,000 said to have 
been found near Paterson. John Andrew Marinus, of 
Glen Rock, was one of the collectors and received $200 
from Tiffany, New York, for one pearl. 

The fish of the county are interesting. The county 
line bordering on the Hudson river. Shad were once so 
numerous that farmers of the county salted them for 
winter use. They would cut them in thin slices and eat 
them with their bread and butter. Besides other fish of 
the Hudson you perhaps know that our smaller streams 
were well stocked with smaller fish, one of the most 
interesting being the Lamprey, resembling an eel, which 
instead of having gills, breathed through holes in the 
sides near the head ; they are not as numerous as former- 
ly, when they used to be peddled about the county in 
carts. I have procured them in the spring near New 
Milford from the Hackensack river. 

This neighborhood was once the home of deer, bears 



32 OUTLINES OF THE NATURAL HISTORY 

and other beasts of prey. I will just mention that Mrs. 
Van Dien, mother of the late Herman Van Dien, of 
Paramus, told me she remembered when the last bear 
was killed near the Sprout brook. The otter is now 
probably extinct, though one was killed a few years ago 
in the Lower Saddle river. 

The wild flowers of the county are a delight to lovers 
of nature, many of the Northern meet the Virginian 
flora and overlap. We have some of the beautiful 
orchids, lady's slippers, trailing arbutus, hepatica 
lupines, the rare yellow and purple fringed orchids, 
cardinal flowers, the lovely blue fringed gentian, pitcher 
plants, sensitive plants, the painted cup and over a hun- 
dred others, I cannot give proper names in this paper. 
All who are interested can find them in their wild flower 
books. While speaking of the wild flowers I must not 
forget to mention those that have escaped from gardens. 
This to me is a pathetic subject, the poor hard worked 
early settlers did not have the choice variety of flowers 
to pick from. Some they cultivated were in after years 
neglected or cast off. But they would not be extermin- 
ated. The Canterbury bells are still seen and the Bounc- 
ing Bet, if bounced from the garden refuses to disappear. 
This hardy flower remains along the road sides wherever 
there is or has been a residence, where they were once 
cultivated. I know of only one place in Paramus where 
they are grown in the garden. 

In this county we have over forty kinds of ferns and 
over a hundred of the mosses, well worth studying. 

The little piping lizards and frogs that announce the 
first mild evening in spring make a welcome sound. The 
tree toads and bull frogs have their concerts. Later, the 
garden toad does much good and if petted can be easily 
tamed. We have a number of snakes, all harmless ex- 
cept the rattle snake, which is not common. 

Trees of many species make our woods beautiful ; the 
chestnut, once so very plentiful has died recently in great 
numbers. The hickory thrives, and in Ridgewood town- 
ship has the finest nut found in the United States and 
is so recorded in Washington, in the Department of 
Agriculture. 



OF BERGEN COUNTY 55 

Insect life is abundant (some of you may think too 
much so). Many of them are both beautiful and useful 
and butterflies and moths offer great inducements to col- 
lectors. 

Of the smaller rodents we are fully supplied. I will 
call attention to the change taken place in regard to the 
skunk and opossum. When I first came to the county, 
I could very often smell the skunk on a winter evening, 
now he seems to have left and his place is taken by the 
opossum. This is also recorded of Long Island. Both 
animals are enemies to poultry. The opossum is the 
worst and more strictly nocturnal in its habits. Squirrels 
are so well known I will not describe the red or gray. 
The flying squirrel and chipmunk are worth our study. 

Another branch of our natural history is the fungi, or 
the mushroom family. This is an immense field of which 
so little is known. The barrier against its study is in- 
fluenced by prejudice and ignorance. A few well defined 
rules are sufficient to warn us against any danger of 
poison or any other ill effects from using them as food. 
They have varying properties, but is that not also true 
of the ordinary vegetable kingdom? I shall only remark 
that some of the greatest delicacies of the table are con- 
tained in the mushroom family. This county abounds 
in an immense number of kinds and one of the rarest 
species of the family was collected in Ridgewood town- 
ship. 

We now come to a more interesting study, the birds. 
Of all the works of nature the birds appeal to us as the 
most beautiful, in their habits, migrations, plumage, 
songs and loving confidence in a way no other forms of 
animal life approach to a like degree. This county is 
greatly favored with its vast number of species of birds 
in summer and the many residents, and northern ones 
that visit us in winter. I commence in January, blue jays, 
crows, chickadees, tree sparrows, wood peckers, nut 
hatches, occasionally a belated robin or flicker may be 
seen as well as a winter wren, cow bird, kinglet, white 
throated sparrows, and a few others. Our northern visi- 
tors are erratic in their movements. Some winters 
they will be here in considerable numbers, at other 



S4 THE OUTLINES OF THE NATURAL HISTORY 

times absent, these include the pine grossbeak, red cross 
bill, red poll, white winged cross bill, snow bunting, and 
less often the shore lark. All these are birds of the Old 
and New World, or what I term circumpolar birds. Not 
that these birds are migrant now from the Old World, 
but are the only small birds, except the bank swallow, 
that are counterparts of Old World species. The bank 
swallow, although breeding far to the north migrates 
south like our own birds and it also breeds further south 
than the winter visitors above mentioned. A few species 
migrate from Europe to Greenland and breed there, rare- 
ly straying down our Eastern coast to Long Island, and 
possibly this county, but not recorded. I do not include 
our own game, large and water birds, or the birds of 
prey ; a few of these are cosmopolitan. 

As the winter wears away one of the first notes to 
cheer us is the warbling of the blue bird or the sweet 
ditty of the song sparrow. As spring opens the birds ar- 
rive from the South with bright hopes of love and home 
which so many express in their delicious music. To 
enumerate all would take too long, so I must for the 
present reluctantly drop the subject. 

I have been asked by our president to say something 
of the wild or passenger pigeon. I have no doubt most 
of you are familiar with the oft repeated accounts of 
their marvelous numbers which less than a century ago 
darkened the sky like an eclipse. In the middle, or what 
were then called, Western states, filling the air with a 
noise that resembled distant thunder. They settled down 
on the trees for their nightly roosts, often in such weight 
that the branches broke down, killing many of them. 
Their numbers were often greatly thinned by a crowd 
of men with poles and guns. As the lands were cleared 
by settlers in these localities their haunts were curtailed. 
This destruction told heavily on them even though they 
had a wide distribution from 62 north latitude, south to 
Kentucky or northern Kansas, eastern base of Rocky 
Mountains to Atlantic their range in the Eastern states 
was more limited. 

The peculiar habits contributed to their destruction, 
they very determinedly flocked together even in the 



OF BERGEN COUNTY 35 

breeding seasons, in some sections, their travels were 
erratic, mostly migratory in the north, going from place 
to place where food was most abundant, beech nuts, small 
acorns, etc. What also contributed to their destruction 
was the habit of following flock after flock in the same 
direct line, for that day I remember in 1859, seeing 
gunners stand still at the same point, after seeing one 
flock go over waiting for the next to follow the same 
direction. This has always been a mystery to me, as it 
did not seem possible that one flock could see the flock 
before it after a lapse of many minutes. Such was really 
the case and I saw this at Fort Washington Point, New 
York, where I believe most of them crossed the Hudson 
into Bergen county where our farmers, as had been their 
habit for many long years, were waiting for them. Nat- 
urally the pigeons were not very shy, so were trapped 
easily. When I first came to this county I visited many 
outbuildings and saw the crates left on most farms where 
the birds were put in after capture which was effected 
by clap nets, two nets oblong in shape placed a distance 
apart the end stretches on poles so that when the birds 
were enticed by food laid between the nets a string was 
pulled that drew the nets together, covering the pigeons 
when the birds were taken out and put in the pigeon 
crates ; the number was so great at times that they could 
not be consumed while fresh, so they were plucked and 
salted for winter's use. Some idea can be judged of the 
number and value of this harvest when it is considered 
the making of the nets and accessories was a work of 
much time and expense. The last I saw of the passenger 
pigeon was on the next farm to mine in the seventies. 
Can it be impossible that these birds are entirely extinct? 
It seems so. Some members of the American Ornitholo- 
gists Union have offered liberally and Professor Hodge 
has offered one hundred dollars for the identified nest 
of one pair of these birds. Some newspaper reports that 
they have been found, but it is not yet officially recog- 
nized. Many people mistake the Carolina dove for the 
wild pigeon. The last bird recorded was shot in Michi- 
gan in 1903. As late as 1872 they were breeding in Ber- 
gen county. 



PRESENTATION SPEECH 

OF JUDGE DOREMUS 

at the Garret J. Busch Keiser reception. 

Held at Hohokus, November 16th, 1910. 



Ladies and Gentlemen : — I think that when it comes 
to modesty the Mayor of this borough is par-excellence, 
for if there ever was an orator I think he was one to- 
night. As I understand the term, what an orator means 
is a man who speaks from the heart, and who captures 
his audience and impresses them with his sincerity and 
I think he did that. If there is any dissenting vote I 
would like to hear it. 

I feel with my friend the Mayor, that I wish I had 
the power to express the feeling that has come over me 
since coming here tonight. We are making history here 
tonight. This is one of the great events for this borough 
and it will be marked as a red letter night. In the past 
it was very seldom that people mingled together to do 
honor where honor was due, but it is, I am glad to say, 
becoming more general now, too often in our public life 
it is the man who "knocks" who gets most things. I am 
glad to be here tonight and to address this meeting and 
never have I felt such an interest as I do tonight in 
addressing this audience, but when I heard the Mayor 
say my turn had come, I was reminded of a story told by 
Joseph Chamberlain, he was at a meeting and they had 
a band, and some singing too, when it came time for his 
address the chairman leaned over to him and said, "Do 
you think we had better let the people enjoy themselves 
a little longer or is it time to begin?" (Laughter.) 

That is my feeling but having a whole lot of things 
to do before I get through and lest I should weary you 
with much well doing I must hurry along. There is to- 
day a great awakening of Public Spirit and Public 
Sentiment, which I have previously indicated and it is 
time for us to do as our Greek friends did. You remem- 



58 PRESENTATION SPEECH OF JUDGE DOREMUS 

ber that when a man did anything great whether he was 
a great general or won one of the Olympic races they 
were crowned and were given testimonials and the peo- 
pel gathered around them. They did not do so much 
of that in our country until recently, now we have our 
Hall of Fame and you will note that even Edgar Allen 
Poe has now been elected to our Hall of Fame, after 
great trials and tribulations. We also have our Noble 
prize, and the people are awakening to give praise to 
those to whom honor is due. And although our friend 
whom we have met here tonight has not been a great 
public speaker, or, a great general or a great statesman, 
he has done that something which is worth a great deal, 
it is the silent daily influence exerted by a man of his 
character. It makes us all better, we see him, it is an 
object lesson to us, he is a builder of homes, and he is 
all that goes to make American citizenship and make 
America the nation that it is today, and it is that spirit 
that is making America a great nation. 

There is another thing and I want to digress for a 
moment. I am a lawyer and like all lawyers, I do as I 
am told to do, and although I am not paid in money to- 
night, I am paid in something better, satisfaction. I see 
in the audience Mr. Zabriskie, the President of the His- 
torical Society and by the way Mr. Keiser is also a mem- 
ber of that society, and he is here. We are making 
history tonight and Mr. Zabriskie has noted all that has 
been done and it will all come out in the year book and 
you will find that you will all be lauded for this great 
gathering, and he has asked me to say a word or two 
about the Society and I am going to say something in 
connection with the work of the Society that I know will 
be of interest to some. The Society is marking time, 
that is they are building local history and they have done 
a great deal during this past year and among other 
things, they have been making investigations as to local 
history and conditions and everything that goes to make 
up local affairs. I would like to call attention to one or 
two things of this character in regard to this beautiful 
place Hohokus, and I suppose you already know some 
of these things although some of you doubtless have not 



PRESENTATION SPEECH OF JUDGE DOREMES 59 

gone back far enough. We are all very much interested, 
of course, in knowing what the name Hohokus means 
and maybe you have never heard it. It is an Indian 
name and means "cleft in the rock" and of course it is 
very apparent, when you go over and look at the gorge, 
why the name was given. That is going quite a little 
ways back, is it not, to the Indian Times. 

One of the first industries in this country was the 
cotton mill that was established here in Hohokus, by 
John Rosencrans, who came here in 1770, we are getting 
way back now, but I see one of the Rosencrans family 
and he knows everything about this and more than what 
I do, and if I say anything that is not so he might get 
up here and correct me. John Rosencrans, Jr., became 
sole owner of this business in 1858, since then it has 
become the Brookdale Bleachery. Then there was the 
old white paper mill built in 1837 and burned in 1850, 
this property was afterward bought in by the Pegamoid 
people, I presume there are many here who will remem- 
ber all about the incidents. 

There are four old houses in this town, one is known 
as the old stone house, and the other as the old stone 
house South of the Brook, and in the wall of that old 
stone house is a cannon ball which was placed there by 
some one during the Revolutionary period and it was 
well planted. I suppose some one here tonight will go 
down and look at it and see if they cannot pick it out. 
(Laughter.) That old house was sold by John A. Hop- 
per to Bell in 1853. Then we have the old Mansion 
House, which was a famous tavern in Revolutionary 
times, (and it is yet) (Laughter). Of course you all 
know about the Little Hermitage, known otherwise as 
the Rosencrans Mansion, and you have all heard the 
story of how Aaron Burr came over here from New 
York, tying his horse in the bottom of the boat, and 
courted the widow, and how he kept that up until his 
diligence was rewarded. I understand that in one of 
the various stones in that building are cut some Masonic 
Emblems, of course you all know what Masonic Em- 
blems are and I will not go further into that. I also 
understand that there was a room which had no door. 



40 PRESENTATION SPEECH OF JUDGE DOREMUS 

All these things are interesting and are the things that 
should be looked into by us. The house was rebuilt in 
1812 and whether it has the room still or not, I do not 
know. 

Another interesting thing is the fact that there was 
an old church here known as the New Propsect Church 
and I was very much impressed that the documents show 
it was started in 1797, and I understand it is one of the 
oldest Methodist Churches in this country, think of it a 
Methodist Church at that time, 1797. The circuit of 
the pastor was from Haverstraw, New York, to Belmar, 
New Jersey, imagine the ministers of today travelling 
over that circuit without an automobile. The first school 
was a log hut, but where it was built has been lost trace 
of. The next one was built by subscription in 1856 and 
from that time until 1870 was supported by tuition fees of 
$1.25 a month. These are historical facts, and the peo- 
ple of the United States will want to know these things 
sometime. 

Of course you all remember when the old Holiokus 
Station burned how the Erie when they were going to 
build the new one wanted to take it away from Hohokus, 
and how the people rose up in their righteous indigna- 
tion and they said to the Erie Railroad that all powerful 
monopoly, "Don't you do it." But do you all know that 
the very first station that was built on this portion of the 
Erie Railroad, at that time known as the Paterson and 
Suffern Railroad, was built here at Hohokus, and the 
second station was built at Ridgewood, so you see that 
sometime Ridgewood plays second fiddle to Hohokus. 
I see that the Mayor looks very significantly, and I 
know he is thinking about when Hohokus is going to 
annex Ridgewood. (Well they might do worse). 
(Laughter.) 

Have you ever stopped to think what kind of people 
we are, to have made these things possible? Hohokus is 
entitled to be proud of the people who have made it. 
Sometimes people laugh when you say Hohokus and ask 
if you do not mean Hloboken. But I say we have reason 
to be proud of what we have achieved. This borough is 
made up of people of English and Dutch ancestry, and 



PRESENTATION SPEECH OF JUDGE DOREMUS 41 



as the Mayor has very properly said what Dutch ancestry 
means, it can readily be understood when we see what 
has been accomplished. I am very proud to say that 
I am of the Dutch ancestry, Mr. Keiser too is of Dutch 
ancestors, a citizen of the land which fought back the 
water of the ocean and made a home, a land which was 
the apostle of liberty throughout all generations, these 
are things to be proud of. Coming right down to our 
good friend here, when we speak of people, we get right 
to the subject of this meeting here tonight. Mr. Keiser, 
I understand is eighty-two years old and is still young 
and he has been in active service for fifty-three years. 
When he came to America he was a poor man, in Hol- 
land his ancestors were titled, he is of noble lineage. I 
have here what I never saw before and what I never 
expected to see, a book giving the complete history of 
the Keiser family back to 1587, and right here in the 
middle of page seventeen we find something written in 
Dutch which has been translated and which I will read 
to you, "Garrett J. Busch Keiser, born at Westerwhich, 
2nd of May, 1807, he was a manufacturer at Gunders 
and he at present lives at Hohokus, New Jersey, and is 
at present post-director." I somehow like that term 
post-director better than postmaster. He lost his for- 
tune over there, like a great many other people he had 
a dishonest partner, and the partner got away with all 
the money and Mr. Keiser was left with all the experi- 
ence. He was offered a post in the Dutch East India 
Service, but he thought that as Holland had not done 
very much for him decided to come to America. When 
he came here he had two hundred dollars, all he had and 
he put it into a bank and that bank went wrong and he 
lost all he had. That by the way was not a Ridgewood 
bank. Then he had to get right down and simply put 
his manhood to work and he picked stones for a living, 
think of it a titled man like him. Then he carried the 
mail from Godwinville to Wortendyke in his coat pocket. 
He would get it at the box car station at what is now 
Ridgewood, and take half of it to the old general store, 
Ridgewood only had then nine houses. Then he ob- 
tained the position of acting postmaster at Hohokus un- 



42 PRESENTATION SPEECH OF JUDGE DOREMUS 



der John Jacob Zabriskie, then Mr. Zabriskie had the 
bad fortune to die, a good one for our friend, and left 
Mr. Keiser all alone. The salary was hardly worth 
while, I will not mention it however. But he kept on 
and the two great characteristics of his integrity and 
faithfulness, these two cardinal principals he put into 
practice and look what he has done for himself, and the 
community, the state and the nation. 

Now we come down to a curious thing about Mr. 
Keiser, he never took a vacation, did you ever hear of 
such a thing as that. I am surprised that he has not 
broken down under the strain, because we all feel that 
we have to take a vacation and we honor the man who 
does not need one. He is also the oldest postmaster in 
this state in years and in service and I suppose he has 
had the experience of a postmaster in New York I heard 
of. A young lady from Ireland wanted to send some 
money to her people and the clerk said to her that if 
she paid ten cents she could get a ten dollar money 
order, and she remarked to her friend what a fine gov- 
ernment it was you could get ten dollars' worth for ten 
cents. When he came over here from Holland Mr. 
Keiser could speak four languages and read them well, 
Holland, German, French and English, think of a man 
with an education starting to pick stones, it seems to me 
simply wonderful, and it is one of the things we ought 
to consider what Mr. Keiser has been to us in the way 
of an example. 

I have a testimonial here and I want to show it to 
you first before I read it, it is signed by two hundred 
and eighty people and took my breath away when I saw 
it, for a citizen who is not even a Mayor of the borough 
to get a testimonial of this kind, it shows an evidence of 
true worth given by true friends who honor themselves 
in honoring him as an example. "To Garret J. Busch 
Keiser (Mr. Keiser, if you don't mind standing up I 
would like to have the people see you). Greeting from 
the people of Hohokus, Bergen county. New Jersey. 

'Tn retiring from the office of Postmaster of Hohokus, 
Bergen county. New Jersey, which you do on this 15th day 
of October, 19 10, the people of the borough of Hohokus 



PRESENTATION SPEECH OF JUDGE DOREMUS 43 



desire hereby to express to you their hearty congratula- 
tions upon the splendid record which you have achieved 
while occupying that office, and permanently to record 
herein their sincere and united thanks for the able and 
efficient manner in which you have served them for so 
many years. 

"After serving as Acting Postmaster at Wortendyke, 
New Jersey, from the year 1857 to the year 1864, you 
in the latter year came to the Hohokus Post Office as 
Acting Postmaster, and continued as such until the year 
1876, from which date until the present time you have 
occupied the position of Postmaster of Hohokus. 

"This is indeed a long period of service to the govern- 
ment and to the people, and your duties at all times have 
been discharged in a manner most exemplary, and you 
have ever been the good and faithful servant. 

"May the years that remain to you be many, and may 
they bring to you the abundant happiness and the full 
freedom from care that you so well have earned." I 
also have the pleasure of reading to you a testimonial 
which shows the appreciation of the government as well 
as the people where you are so well known. "Office of 
the Postmaster General, Washington, D. C. 

"Mr. Garret J. B. Keiser, Postmaster, Hohokus, Ber- 
gen County, New Jersey. 

"My Dear Mr. Postmaster: — Information comes to 
me that you are planning to retire on the 15th instant 
from the position of postmaster of Hohokus after having 
served faithfully and efficiently in that capacity for so 
many years. Permit me to congratulate you on the excep- 
tional record you have made as an officer of the Postal 
Service, to thank you for the highly satisfactory manner 
in which you have discharged your duties and to wish 
you for the remaining years of your life the fuUest de- 
gree of happiness." (Clapping of hands. ^ 

I feel like Santa Claus tonight. Given on behalf of 
the people and your friends and neighbors who so highly 
esteem you, and it gives me great pleasure to present to 
you that cane. I will read the inscription upon it. 
"Presented to Garret J. Busch Keiser, Postmaster, by 
the people of Hohokus as a token of high esteem and 



44 PRESENTATION SPEECH OF JUDGE DOREMUS 

efficient service from April, 1857, to October, 1910." 
(Applause.) 

Ladies and Gentlemen, it is very evident to you all 
that our good friend is so overcome with emotion to 
think how you have honored him that all he can do is 
to look you in the eye and say that he thanks you sincere- 
ly from the bottom of his heart. 



ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION OF BERGEN 
COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



This is to certify that we, the undersigned, persons de- 
siring to associate ourselves into a corporation pursuant 
to an Act of the Legislature of the State of New Jersey, 
entitled ''An Act to incorporate associations not for 
pecuniary profit," approved April 21, 1898, do hereby 
certify : 

First: — That the name or title of the said corporation 
is the Bergen County Historical Society. 

Second : — That the agent in charge of the principal 
office of said corporation, and the person upon whom 
process may be served is Burton H. Allbee, at the Office 
of the Society. The corporation shall maintain an office 
in the State of New Jersey, at Hackensack, in the John- 
son Public Library Building, corner of Main and Cam- 
den Streets, where its business shall be conducted. 

Third : — The purpose for which it is formed is the in- 
tellectual cultivation and development of its members; 
to make researches into historical facts and collect data 
relating thereto ; to collect and preserve genealogical re- 
cords, family traditions and other matters relating to 
the general work of the Historical Society ; to cultivate 
a spirit of patriotism, foster family, state and national 
pride. 

Fourth : — The number of trustees shall be eighteen and 
the names of the trustees elected for the first year, are : 
William M. Johnson, Coi. W. D. Snow, 

Burton H. Allbee, Henry D. Winton, 

Cornelius Christie, Ezra T. Sanford, 

Theophilus N. Glover, William A. Linn, 

Cornelius Doremus, William O. Labagh, 

Abram De Baun, Isaac I. Demarest, 

Arthur Van Buskirk, Eugene K. Bird, 

Dr. Byron G. Van Home, James A. Romeyn, 
David D. Zabriskie, Arthur Johnson. 



46 



ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION 



In Witness Whereof, we have hereunto set our hands 
and affixed our seals this fifteenth day of February, nine- 
teen hundred and seven. 



In presence of 
Thomas H. Gumming 
as to Abram De Baun, 
Byron G. Van Home, 
David D. Zabriskie, 
Wm. D. Snow, 
Gornelius Doremus, 
Wm. A. Linn, 
Isaac I. Demarest, 
Eugene K. Bird. 
Isabel A. Siddons 



Abram De Baun 
Arthur Van Buskirk 
Byron G. Van Home 
Theophilus N. Glover 
David D. Zabriskie 
W. D. Snow 
Henry D. Winton 
Gornelius Doremus 
William A. Linn 
William O. Labagh 



as to Theophilus N. Glover.Isaac I. Demarest 

Eugene K. Bird 
Duly acknowledged. 



(L.S. 
(L. S. 
(L.S. 
(L.S. 
(L.S. 
(L.S. 
(L.S. 
(L.S. 
(L.S. 
(L.S. 
(L.S. 
(L.S. 



CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS. 



ARTICLE I. 

This Society shall be known as the Bergen County His- 
torical Society. 

ARTICLE II. 
Its object shall be the collection of natural history; 
papers incident to the civil, political, military and general 
history of Bergen County and adjoining counties in New- 
Jersey and Rockland County, N. Y. ; genealogical, bio- 
graphical, and topographical information, and the diffu- 
sion of a sound historical taste and the encouragement of 
a patriotic sentiment. 

ARTICLE III. 
The Society shall be made up of resident and corre- 
sponding members. Resident members shall be persons 
residing in Bergen County; corresponding members 
those residing elsewhere ; and both classes shall be chosen 
by open nomination and election at any regular or special 
meeting by the Society or by the Executive Committee 
at any meeting thereof. If a ballot be demanded, a ma- 
jority of votes cast shall be necessary to a choice. Any 
corresponding member may become a resident member 
upon filing with the Secretary a written request therefor, 

ARTICLE IV. 
The Society shall hold the annual meeting in February 
on the anniversary of the birth of Washington, at which 
a general election of officers by ballot shall be had 
wherein a majority of the votes cast shall constitute a 
choice ; and immediately thereafter proceed to some suit- 
able place and dine together. The place for holding the 
annual meeting shall be designated at the preceding meet- 
ing. Special meetings may be called at any time by the 
President, and at all meetings nine members shall be a 
quorum for the transaction of business. 

ARTICLE V. 
Each resident member shall pay on or before the 



48 CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS 

twenty-second day of February two dollars each year, or 
in satisfaction thereof a life membership fee of twenty 
dollars ; and resident members in arrears for dues two 
years or more, after notice in writing from the Treasurer, 
shall cease to be members. 

ARTICLE VI. 
The officers of the Society shall be a President, ten 
Vice Presidents, Corresponding Secretary, Recording 
Secretary, Treasurer. These officers, together with four 
members, shall compose the Executive Committee. All 
shall be chosen by ballot and hold their offices one year 
and until successors be chosen. In case of a vacancy it 
may be filled by the Executive Committee. 

ARTICLE VII. 
The President, or in his absence a Vice President, or 
in their absence, a chairman shall preside and have the 
casting vote. He shall preserve order, decide all ques- 
tions of order, subject to an appeal to the Society, and 
appoint all committees unless otherwise ordered. 

ARTICLE VIII. 
The Recording Secretary shall keep minutes and rec- 
ords of the Society, make and furnish certificates of mem- 
bership, and have the custody of papers and documents 
deposited with the Society, subject to the authority and 
oversight of the Executive Committee, and discharge 
such other duties as may be required of him by the So- 
ciety or the Executive Committee, and shall make a re- 
port of the transactions of the Society at the annual 
meeting, and the Corresponding Secretary shall conduct 
such correspondence as may be entrusted especially to 
him by the Society or the Executive Committee. 

ARTICLE IX. 
The Treasurer shall collect, receive, keep and pay out 
such funds as may come to the Society, subject to the 
control of the Executive Committee, keep an account of 
the receipts and disbursements, rendering a statement 
thereof to the annual meeting, and shall give a bond with 
approved security for the faithful performance of his 
duty. 



CONSTITUTION AND BY LAWS 49 



ARTICLE X. 

The Executive Committee are charged with the duty 
of soHciting and receiving donations for the Society, to 
recommend plans for promoting its objects, to digest and 
prepare business, to authorize the disbursement of the 
Society's funds, and generally to superintend and guard 
the interests of the Society. At all meetings of the Exe- 
cutive Committee five members shall be a quorum. The 
Executive Committee shall be convened by notice from 
the Recording Secretary. 

ARTICLE XL 

In case of the dissolution of the Society, its books, 
papers and collections of every sort shall belong to and be 
delivered to the Johnson Free Public Library of Hacken- 
sack for the use and benefit of that association, if not 
contrary to the stipulation of the donor. 

ARTICLE XIL 
At the regular meeting of the Society the following 
order of business shall be observed : 

1. Reading minutes of previous meeting. 

2. Reports and communications from officers. 

3. Reports of Executive and other committees. 

4. Nomination and election of members. 

5. Miscellaneous business. 

6. Papers read and addresses delivered. 

ARTICLE XIII. 
Alterations or amendments may be made by the So- 
cietv or by the Executive Committee on a two-thirds vote 
of the members present, provided that notice of the pro- 
posed alteration or amendment shall have been given at 
a previous meeting. 



THE COLLECTIONS. 



The Society is steadily adding to its collections, both 
of articles purchased or given to it, or loaned by inter- 
ested persons. The collections now include the follow- 
ing articles. The first are owned by the Society : 

Book Cabinet. 

I Large Gilt Frame Mirror. 

Show Cases. 

I old French Clock. 

Framed Picture N. J. Senate, 1859. 

Bound Copies of Bergen County Journal, 1858- 1860. 

Copy Framed Painting of Old Bergen Coat of Arms. 

Account Book, 1 781 -1805. 

Tax List, 1784. 

1 Muggier, Liberty Pole Tavern. 

Small Old Chest, With Old Deeds and Documents, was 
Squire Jacobus Demarest's, of New Bridge. 
Old Lock and Key from Home at Teneoch. 
Yellow Acher Arrow Head. 
Collection Holland Society Dinner Souv. 
Lath and Plasters from Old Ackerman Hms., Main St. 
8 Brick from Old Kip House, Pollifly. 
Old Deeds. 
Old Newspapers. 

Books : — 
Ulster Co, History. 
3 Volumes of New Jersey Coast — Gen. Hist. 

2 Volumes of Essex and Hudson County Histories. 
I Volume of Hackensack R. D. C. Records. 

I Volume of Schralenburg R. D. C. Records. 

Collections of Society Year Books. 

Mr. Allbee's Historical Clippings. 

Mrs. Westervelt's 3 Historical Scrap Books. 

Large Col. Magazines of American History. 

22 Volumes Con. Con. 

Four Volumes Council of Appointments. 

3 Volumes Papers of George G. Clinton. 



52 THE COLLECTIONS 

Publications of Other Historical Societies. 

I Volume In Camp With Company L. 

I Volume The Campaign of Trenton. 

I Old Volume Phellip's Travelers Guide of United 
States. 

I Volume History of New Jersey. 

I Volume Accounts of General Washington with the 
United States. 

I Volume American and English Generals in the Lib- 
rary of Congress. 

I Framed Copy, The Star, Earl Hask. Paper. 



LOANED. 

Large Knob Bowl Made By Indians Mrs. M. Kent 

Col. Old Newspapers. 

C. E. Wilds' Col. Minerals Curio, etc. 

National History Col Miss Worate Bogert 

Large Pewter Platter Mrs. G. Rose 

Four Old Deeds, 1686- 1695 W. M. Johnson 

2 Samples of Paper Money W. A. Linn 

Autograph Note and Manuscript of Will. Cul. Bryant. . . 

W. A. Linn 

An Old Letter A. W. Van Winkle 

Old Scales Miss Cummings 

Old Atlas 8 Miss Cummings 

Old Map of Disputed Territory Miss Cummings 

Soldiers' Plate, Spanish War, 21 Regiment New York 

C. Eugene Walsh 

Pierce of Iron Pot, Ft. Ticonderoga Rev. Sanford 

Two Silver Candle Sticks and Two Vases, by Peter Wil- 
sons Mrs. Archer 

Cannon Ball, Ticonderoga 

Indian Ceremonial Stone, Frank Hach 

Mrs. Henry Mildrew 

Indian Work Shop Chips 

Spur used Revolutionary War Rev. Sanford 

Miller's Boltting Clocte Pocket and Belt Buckle 

Rev. Sanford 

2 Newspapers Jack Terhune 

Piece of Cane and 2 Sample of Minerals E. Eypper 

Old Farm Fork and Shovel Mrs. Stagg 

Old Brazier 
Candle Molds 
Fire Place Toaster 
Old Almanac Box 

Tin Box Carried by Casp Westervelt Through Revolu- 
tionary War. 

Egyptian Mining and Ancient Coll. of Curios 

Rev. Sanford 

I Copy Josephus Miss Jennie Zabriskie 



54 LOANED 

Clyde B. Hay's Collection of Bergen County, Indian 
Relics, etc. 

Collection of 70 Pieces of Old China and Lustre, Pewter, 
Dutch Chairs, Foot Stove, Indian Relics Bergen 
County, Laces and Emb, Samples of Bergen Coun- 
ty Domestic Linens, Old Lock and Key from the 
Bridewell Jail, New York City, Hall Porch Built in 
1776 Used As Rev. Prison, Demol. 1838. 

Early Copy Tribune F. A. Westervelt 

Mr. I. P. Stevenson's Valuable Coll. is in the room, but 

not in our custody. 



A SKETCH 

Of the Reformed Church of Paramus 

by 

HENRY D. COOK, Pastor. 



It is impossible to state just when the Paramus people 
started the movement which resulted in the organization 
of the Reformed church of Paramus. But there is an 
original document in the possession of the consistory of 
the church which shows that the project was well 
thought out and accepted by the community at Paramus 
before the year 1726 A. D. This article is dated Decem- 
ber 26, 1730 and signed by P. Fairconier. 

Yet the enterprise dragged along without definite ac- 
tion till in 1735 when on April 21st the first stone was laid. 
The original record reads, "Den 21 Dagh Van April, 
1735 is de Eerste Steen van de Kirk Gelegt" ; that is say, 
"On the 2 1st day of April, 1735 was the first stone of 
the church laid." This record is found on the fly leaf 
of the "Old Doop Book." In fancy one may revert to 
the simple life of those days, nearly two centuries ago, 
and see the culmination of the ardent hopes which the 
people had cherished for a long time. The people them- 
selves labored on the structure as their time and ability 
permitted. If we today are often interested in the erec- 
tion of some public building when the task is performed 
by strangers and aliens from the lust of money, how 
much more so must these devout people have been in- 
terested in their labor of love and what conversations by 
the hearth must have followed when a father and his 
sturdy sons returned home after a day's labor on this 
temple of Zion ! 

This structure stood the test of stirring times. It felt 
the hardships of the early colonial wars and even the 
rigors and devastations of the Revolution, for both the 
British and the American armies camped near it. But 
at the end of that struggle the original building which 



56 A SKETCH 

had been repaired several times was so dilapidated that 
it was found expedient to build a new church which was 
erected to the south of the old one. In 1800, the erection 
of the present edifice began. The building has been re- 
paired several times, but the beautiful simplicity of the 
ancient style of architecture has been preserved wherever 
it was possible. 

The first minister to Paramus was Reinhardt Erickzon 
who was examined and ordained by the classis of Am- 
sterdam on Sept. 3, 1725 for the purpose of accepting 
the call "authorized by the consistory of the Reformed 
church of New Barbadoes, Schraalenburgh and Peere- 
mus situated in New Jersey." 

The next minister was the Rev. W. Mancius who was 
the pastor during 173 1 and 1732. 

During the next sixteen years there was no settled pas- 
tor ; but the church was cared for by Antonius Curtenius, 
who was pastor first at Hackensack and then at 
Schraalenburgh, and by Johannes Van Driessen of Ac- 
quackanonk. 

The first minister who settled among the congregation 
was Van Der Linde, who was called by the churches of 
the Ponds and Paramus in 1748. After 40 years' ser- 
vice, "in 1789 he was called to a better world. He had 
seen the congregation increase and send out two 
branches, and a third was about to start, and yet retain 
undiminished vigor at home. Though we have not his 
records, this fact speaks loudly in his praise. His labors 
must have been immense." "His congregation extended 
at least twenty miles east and west and fifteen miles north 
and south. He must literally have worn out in the mas- 
ter's service. His bones were disinterred in the year 
1800, and placed beneath the pulpit of our present church 
edifice." 

After the pastorate of Van Der Linde the following 
have been ministers of the Paramus church : 

Isaac Blauvelt, 1790-1791. 

William P. Knypers, 1793-1796. 

Wilhelmus Eltinge, 1799- 1850. 

Aaron B. Winfield, 1851-1856. 

E. Tanjore Corwin, 1857-1863. 



OF THE REFORMED CHURCH 57 

Isaac S. DeMund, 1864- 1870. 

Goyn Talmage, 1871-1879. 

John C. V^an Deventer, 1879- 1886. 

William H. Vroome, 1887-1906. 

Henry D. Cook, 1907. 

The church edifice stands on land which was probably 
donated by Peter Fanconier. The farm and cemetery 
connected with the church, except a little more than ten 
acres, was promised to the church by Peter Fanconier 
and deeded to the church in 1750 by Mrs. Valleau, a 
descendant of Peter Fanconier. The original deed is in 
the possession of the consistory at present. 

As this is one of the oldest churches in the state it is 
interesting to note some of the customs which take their 
origin in the colonial times. The graveyard connected 
with the church seems to have been public property in 
the early days and any member of the congregation was 
permitted to bury in it. It is said that many British sol- 
diers were buried in the church grounds during the Re- 
volution. In 1850 to i860 it was not a strange thing to 
dig a grave in the old grave yard, and learn when the 
bottom was reached that the grave already had a tenant. 
The present chapel and sheds stand in the old grave yard. 

It appears to have been the custom in those early days 
to erect the school house for the community on the land 
belonging to the church. There are three sites where 
schools houses have stood in times past. The first school 
was located in front of the house now occupied by the 
sexton. The second site is situated between the chapel 
and the sheds. The third site is that now occupied by 
the young men's club. The present chapel is a building 
with a history since it was built for a political hall at 
the time of the civil war, and was used for the social and 
civic purposes of the community till it was secured by 
the consistory and moved to its present site from the 
land of the late Cornelius Bogert. It has lately been re- 
modeled without seriously altering its original style of 
architecture. 

The preaching w^as in Dutch from 1725 till about 1814. 
After 18 10 the Paramus community under the leadership 
of Domine Eltinge agitated the matter of dropping the 



58 OF PARAMUS 



Dutch language in order to promote the future welfare 
of the church. But the upper section of the congrega- 
tion, now known as the Saddle River chvirch, strenuously 
objected to this. The feeling which resulted ultimately 
led to the separation of the two churches in as friendly 
a spirit as the times would permit in the year 1813, ac- 
cording to the date of the deed of the church property. 
Since those dayi. the "Old Paramus Church" has done 
good work for the master in its service at Paramus. It 
has always been known as a church which is loyal to its 
denomination and its past history shows that it has been 
a progressive church. It has contributed faithfully to the 
master's work in the Reformed church at large and has 
generously aided Rutgers college in the days when the 
college stood in great need of funds. While the spirit 
of true piety which animated our forefathers has always 
pervaded the church and at intervals has burst into such 
a flame q^ fervor that the ensuing revival has seemed like 
a new Pentecost. Truly one may say of this venerable 
institution, "Thy youth is renewed like the eagle's." 



ROLL OF MEMBERSHIP 



HONORARY 

Bogert, Isaac D., Westwood 
Nelson, Hon. William, Paterson 
Sanford, Rev. E. T., 

West nth St., N .Y. 
Vroom, Rev. W. A., Paterson 

LIFE MEMBERS 

Allison, William O., Englewood 
Cameron, Alpin J., Ridgewood 
Green, Allister, 

1 East 61st Street N. Y. 
Preston, Veryle, 71 B'way, N. Y. 
Zabriskie, Capt. A. C, 

52 Beaver St. N. Y. 

ANNUAL MEMBERS 

Abbott, John C, Fort Lee 
Ackerman, David B., Closter 
Ackerman, Jacob O., 

Saddle River 
Adams, Dr. C. F., Hackensack 
Adams, R. A., Hohokus 
Allbee, Burton H., Hackensack 
Asmus, Grover E., 

4011 Hudson Boulevard W. H. 
Bennett, G. L., Hackensack 
Bennett, H. N., Hackensack 
Bird, E. K., Hackensack 
iBogert, A. D., Englewood 
Bogert, A. Z., River Edge 
Bogert, C. V. R., Bogota 
Bogert, Daniel G., Englewood 
Bogert, Matthew J., Demarest 
Brendon, Charles, Oakland 
Brinkerhoff, A. H., Rutherford 
Brinkerhoff, C. V., Hackensack 
Brohel, J os. A., River Edge 
Cane, Fred W., Bogota 
Cathcart, Dr. W. R., Hackensack 
Wortendyke 
Colver, Frederick L., Tenafly 
Connolly, Chas. H., Englewood 
Cook, Rev. H. D., Ridgewood 
Cooper, R. W., New Milford 
Criss, Hugo P., Hohokus 



Coggshall, H. IngersoU, 
Crum, Fred H., River Edge 
Crum, Mrs. F. H., River Edge 
Dalrymple, C. M., Hackensack 
DeBaun, Abram, Hackensack 
"DeBaun, Mrs. Abram, 

Hackensack 
Delamater, P. D., Ridgewood 
Demarest, A. S. D., Hackensack 
Demarest, I. I., Hackensack 
pemarest, J. E., Westwood 
Demarest, Jacob R., Englewood 
Demarest, Hon. Milton, 

Hackensack 
Derby, Warren E., Englewood 
Diaz, Jose M., Hackensack 
Donaldson, George, Cliffside 
Doremus, Cornelius, Ridgewood 
Easton, E. D., Areola 
Eckert, George M., Saddle River 
"Edsall, J. G., Palisades Park 
Edsall, S. S., Palisades Park 
Essler, J. G., Saddle River 
Ford, F. R., 24 Broad St., N. Y. 
Foster, W. Edward, Hackensack 
Fornachon, Maurice, Ridgewood 
Glover, T. N., 

Henry & Amity Sts., B'klyn 
Goetschius, D. M., Little Ferry 
Goetschius, H. B., Little Ferry 
Grunow, J. S., Hackensack 
Haggerty, M. L., Hackensack 
Hales, Henry, Ridgewood 
Harding, W. J., Ridgewood 
Haring, Tunis A., Hackensack 
*Heck, John, Westwood 
THester, E. L. D., 

Hasbrouck Heights 
Jacobus, M. R., Ridgewood 
Jeflfers, Daniel G., Hackensack 
Jeffers, Mrs. Daniel G., 

Hackensack 
Johnson, Rev. Arthur, D. D., 

Hackensack 
Johnson, James L., Hackensack 
Johnson, Hon. Wm. M., 

Hackensack 
Koehler, Francis C, 

North Hackensack 



62 



ROLL OF MEMBERSHIP 



Lamb, C. R., 

23 Sixth Avenue, N. Y. 
Lane, Jesse, New Milford 
Lane, Mrs. Jesse, New Milford 
Lawton, I. P., Ridgewood 
Liddle, J. G., 123 Bowery, N. Y. 
Lincoln, J. C., Hackensack 
Linn, W. A., Hackensack 
Mabie, Clarence, Hackensack 
Mabon, J. S., Hackensack 
Marinus, J. A., Box 44, R. F. D., 
No. 1, Ridgewood 
Meyer, Francis E., Closter 
Morrison, W. J., Jr., 

Ridgefield Park 
Morrow, Dwight W., 

Englewood 
Perry, George H., Hackensack 
Pearsall, J. W., Ridgewood 
Phillips, Miss Helen, Ridgewood 
Phillips, Miss Imogene, 

Ridgewood 
Piatt, Dan Fellows, Englewood 
Porter, George M., Allendale 
Ramsey, J. R., Hackensack 
Richardson, M. T., Ridgewood 
Rogers, H. M., Tenafly 
Sage, L. H., Hackensack 
Schermerhorn, G. F., Rutherford 
Sheridan, E. J., Englewood 
Sleight, Charles E., Ramsey 
Smith, J. Spencer, Tenafly 
Snyder, G. J., Ridgewood 
Sowter, E. T., Ridgewood 
Stagg, Edward, Leonia 

Zabriskie, E. L. 



St. John, Dr. David, 

Hackensack 
Tallman, William, Englewood 
Terhune, P. Christie, 

Hackensack 
Terhune, P. Christie, 

Hackensack 
Tillotson, J. H., Englewood 
Townsend, Dr. M. E., Westwood 
Van Buskirk, Arthur, 

Hackensack 
Van Home, Dr. Byron G., 

Englewood 
Van Neste, Rev. J., Ridgewood 
Van Wagoner, Jacob, 

Ridgewood 
Van Winkle, A. W., 

Rutherford 
Voorhis, Rev. J. C, Bogota 
Wakelee, Hon. E. W,, 

Demarest 
Walden, E. B., Hackensack 
Ward, Rev. Henry, Closter 
Wells, B. G., Hackensack 
Westervelt, Mrs. F. A., 

Hackensack 
Wheeler, G. W., Hackensack 
Wilson, R. T., Saddle River 
Wood, R. J. G., Leonia 
Wright, Hon. W. J., 

Hackensack 
Young, Dr. F. A., 

Union Ave. & 149th St.,N.Y. 
Zabriskie, Hon. David D., 

Ridgewood 
, Ridgewood 



Papers 

and 

Proceedings 



1910 



Bergen County 
Historical Society 




OFFICERS FOR 1910 



President, 
Everett L. Zabriskie, Rigewood. 

Vice Presidents, 

Isaac I. Demarest, Hackensack. 

Dr. Byron G. Van Horne, Englewood. 

Hon. Cornelius Doremus, Ridgevvood. 

Arthur W. Van Winkle, Rutherford. 

Matt. J. Bogert, Deniarest. 

Albert Z. Bogert, River Edge. 

Edward Stagg, Leonia. 

Charles Brendon, Oakland. 

Robert T. Wilson, Saddle River. 

Howard B. Goetschius, Little Ferry. 

Secretary, Treasurer and Editor, 

Burton H. Allbee, Hackensack. 

Executive Committee, 

Hon. William M. Johnson, Hackensack. 

Hon. David D. Zabriskie, Ridgewood. 

Eugene K. Bird, Hackensack. 

Abram DeBaun, Hackensack, 



Giti 

The Socloty 



INTRODUCTORY. 



President's address at the meeting of the IJergcn 
County Historical Society in Ridgewood, April 28. 
Gentlemen of the Executive Committee : — 

This meeting the first of the year and the beginning 
of active work for the society has special significance 
as at this meeting all plans and arrangements for the 
year's work are formed and given impetus. We will not 
try to prophesy concerning the work ahead of us, but 
rather when we have completed the year look back and 
see where we could improve and then go forward to the 
work at hand. 

I sincerely hope that each member of the executive 
committee will be alert and active and always on the 
lookout for that which will be to the interest of the 
society and give of their time freely for it is this rather 
than financial assistance w^e need. 

Members and Friends : — We have met here this ev- 
ening at the first regular meeting of the executive com- 
mittee of the Bergen County Historical Society. Others 
will follow in various parts of the county at later dates. 
By this arrangement every member will have an oppor- 
tunity to attend at least one of these meetings during the 
3ear ; then when we assemble for our annual dinner it 
will be a meeting of friends working together in a unit- 
ed effort for the Society's welfare. 

This Society now has nearly 150 members scattered 
over the county, and we hope that any who are interest- 
ed and are not members will enroll their names with the 
chairman of the membership committee, A. W. Van 
■\Vinkle, of- Rutherford. The dues are nominal, but what 
we want especially are people who are interested in the 
events of the past and their effect upon the present gen- 
eration. 

The speakers this evening need no introduction as 
they are friends and fellow workers in this cause of ed- 
ucation and development, 



HISTORICAL RESEARCH, ITS PROBLEMS AND 
LESSONS. 



An address given by Dr. W. T. Whitney, at tlic meet- 
ing of the Historical Society, held at Ridgewood, April 
28, 1910. 

Air. President, Ladies and Gentlemen : — I want to 
make an apology first, and this is my apology. I do not 
like to speak from a mannscript, to be perfectly frank 
with you it bothers me. It confuses me when I have 
to follow that manuscript and to keep track of those 
words, I like to choose my words as I go along, but I 
promised a certain gentleman that I would let him have 
my speech to put in the paper here, and I was thinking 
coming along here, that unless you stick to that manu- 
sciipt what you sa}' tonight will be as different from 
what will appear in print as light is from darkness 
Therefore I am going to stick to the manuscript and 
trust you will bear patiently with me, because it does 
bother me to speak from a manuscript. 

Historical research, its problems and its lessons. As 
I view this subject and think it over, I think of it from 
a large, broad view point as a problem and have endeav- 
ored to find in history, so far as history is reseached, 
the things sought, and this paper does not deal with Ber- 
gen County, or with New Jersey, or with the United 
States, but with all history. With every problem pre- 
sented for solution there are two factors, one the trans- 
forming agent which is the mind, and the material to 
be acted upon which is history. These two factors are 
always present in historical research and the relation be- 
tween these two factors is an organic one, they do not 
work separately, but the one acts upon the other. The 
mind in order to produce historical knowledge takes 
the facts of history and arranges them in order. The 
l)roblems of historical research are to find the motives 
and interpret them. It should not be merely to give an 
order of facts and present them in order, the facts of 



— 6 — 

history are only the guide posts by which history is 
determined and supported. The problem of historical 
research is the interpretation of phases of life and the 
motives of people. This you will see more clearly from 
the following illustrations : 

The Pilgrims landed in 1620, so far as We can see our 
institutions would not have been affected materially six 
months earlier or six months later; their landing was 
made upon Plymouth Rock ; it would not have made 
any difference if they had landed somewhere else ; they 
came over in the Mayflower; it would not have made 
any difference had they come over in another vessel. 
They numbered one hundred and twenty-two souls, sup- 
pose there had only been one hundred and twenty. They 
signed the "Compact" in the cabin of the Mayflower, 
they could just as well have signed it upon a rock; but, 
if they had been animated by a different set of political, 
social and religious ideas, the whole character of our 
country would have been altered. 

The Declaration of Independence was signed in Inde- 
dependence Hall in 1776 by Jefferson and Adams, it 
could just as well have been signed in Carpenter's Hall 
at some other date and by two other patriots, the import 
ant fact is the spirit that actuated the Contniental Con- 
gress. 

These are the real facts of history, but they are mere 
matters of interest, they have their value, but they do 
not contain the life, the other, the spirit, the motive, con- 
tains the life, for without this spirit back of it, the event 
would never have occurred. The battle of Gettysburg 
could have been fought by different generals and 
on different fields, but the outcome could never have 
been the same unless there had been the same two peoples 
and actuated by the same two sets of principles and same 
two enemies. One of the most common things of history 
is, to deal with it as a matter of record. It deals with 
facts and it is very common for us to look at them mere- 
ly as records, but history is no more a mere matter of 
record than any other subject; practically it has very lit- 
tle to do with the recording of events. History is not 
concerned with events only, but only as they deal with 



-7- 

the result. This idea that history is only concerned with 
recording- facts is the begiimer's idea, superficial and 
harmful, because it leads to the belief that the text 
stated or the record read is the real subject, when, as 
a matter of fact, it has nothing to do with it. The real 
interpretation of history may be briefly stated as fol- 
lows: 

The forces and emotions can be interpreted and 
those forces which lead to action can again be started, 
but this can only be done when the student reads be- 
tween the dates for himself and when he imaginatively 
and sympathetically enters into the spirit of that time 
which gives to the institutions which then prevailed 
much of the characteristics which they bear. In partic- 
lar, historical research is the giving of the lives and 
forces applying to their action — the days and events are 
merely a sign of the beliefs then felt and the thoughts 
and feelings of that epoch he, the student, thinks and 
feels, hence it is possible to read the ancient thoughts in 
the act, but we must be sure that we interpret the 
tlioughts and not merely read the events. 

There is a great dift'erence between the form and con- 
tent in historical research. It is possible to read the 
form and misunderstand the content, this is too true of 
the ordinary reader. The content is made up of the 
thoughts, the feelings, the emotions of the people. An 
event which carries it out happens but once, but the feel- 
ing or impulse which found^its expression in that event 
endures ; this same feeling, or motive force may record 
itself again and again in different epochs or periods of 
history. To the student of history this constitutes a 
very interesting and instructive matter. He reads the 
doings and emotions of people, he finds in human life, 
not in recorded facts, the interpretation of that about 
which he is concerned and in which lies the vital ele- 
ment. He looks upon the form as a secondary fact. To 
be a successful and thorough student of history one 
must have imagination, he must feel the feelings of the 
people of that time, he must learn to appreciate motives 
and forces, the human life, and learn what gave the direc- 
tion and the impulse to those dates and acts whose re- 



— 8 — 

cords he reads and studies. This is the problem of 
historical research, not to know what happened, but ti» 
know why it happened, what aspirations moved the 
people, and he who cannot read between the lines of 
history is unable to read the lines. 

History deals with the life of a people in the process 
of growth and development. The content of history is 
not a date and facts of something dead, it is alive, dy- 
namic and not static. The thought and feeling, the im- 
pulse of the people obey two laws, one the law of 
Continuity and the other the law of Variance. By the 
law of Continuity we mean that there is no great break 
in the lives of people ; those guide posts of history that 
indicate the progress of different periods might seem 
to indicate that progress is not a gradual development 
but is accomplished by leaps and bounds more or less 
long, and far apart; it may possibly seem even to stop 
for a time, apparently, but in reality it is always 'moving 
on. Progress must proceed out of the constituted or- 
der of things and progress always continues, there is no 
break or stop but a gradual growth. 

By the law of Differentiation or Variance, we mean 
that the thoughts and the feelings of the people take on 
new forms of expression, the people in their growth and 
development moving onward, then by the law of Con- 
tinuity retain the old and also by the law of Variance 
take on new forms and this new form retains, there- 
fore, some of the old and takes on something new, for 
example : The God of Abraham was the God of a chos- 
en few, who had no relations with any other peoples, 
the God of Israel was the God of a single race, and a lit- 
tle later this God became the God of a chosen people. 
Then He became the God of the Christian and gradu- 
ally we are beginning to think that this same God is 
the God of all this universe ; you see the idea is different 
and yet somewhat the same. The ideas of our ancestors 
show in our thoughts of today and there is some of the 
thought of the past, and yet they are changed. 

Socialism is not a new idea, we are just trying to 
adapt its principles to the twentieth century. Our fore- 
fathers believed in religious liberty, provided you 



1 



— 9 — 

thought as they did ; we beHeve in freedom for every 
man, if he thinks as I do. History shows that the Hfe of 
the people was a simple and undivided whole. A man 
did not separate in his thought his political and social 
duty ; when he did think of his duty, state and church 
being related, there was only a single phase of life, the 
church and the school, and these were un- 
divided. Ikit, between then and now the prin- 
ciple of variance has done is work so per- 
fectly that we have entirely separated these two 
phases of life. Government and church are two separate 
and distinct fields. One part of our thought we give 
to government, another to church, another part to sci- 
ence and commerce, and another part to education. 
Thus thoughts and feeling become permanent and they 
become settled as they become the thoughts of the peo- 
ple. 

In America the final arbiter is public opinion, if you 
agree wath it you are crushed and if you disagree with 
it you are crushed. In most of the countries of Europe, 
the people have had little to do with the establisment of 
their rights and liberties ; in America, it is supposed to 
come from the people. In Europe they have liberty, 
in America we think we have, and in the thinking is the 
fulfillment of it. We can divide the facts of history as 
expressing thought of the people into five divisions, the 
social, the political, the religious, the educational and 
the industrial, but these five expressions of human life 
and endeavor are not all of ec^ual value and in this 
fact consists one of the great values of historical re- 
search, to ascertain which of these elements was predom- 
inant in different periods and why. This shows us the 
aspirations and hopes of the people, how they looked 
upon life, what life meant to them. One of the serious 
blunders made today is that the people are not familiar 
with the past; they have not read the lessons of their 
fore fathers; they are not familiar with those ideas that 
constituted the problems of the people of that time, nor 
with the relation to those problems which have been 
tried in the past and found wanting. They make the 
same blunders over and over again, and thus waste the 



force which might have been spent in other ways in the 
solution of those problems. It is an interesting, and 
might be ahnost an amusing thing, if it were not so 
sad, to watch the mass of people struggling with their 
problems. We are moderns in time only, in thought and 
conceptions, we are ancients. 

History is the experience of a people to strive to reach 
a higher plane of living, the dangers encountered, the 
problems left unsolved, the hopes and ambitions enter- 
tained. Thus he who would know the history of the 
past must know the heart history of its people and against 
his knowing is the great stumbling block, feeling. Emo- 
tion is the rock invincible. You may change ideas ; feel- 
ing is not easily changed; it is that fundamental force 
in human life and it is that that constitutes in every 
event its dynamic element, it is a matter of growth and 
development. 

The nation of the people will advance only as rapid- 
ly as the emotional, or feeling, life of the people changes. 
Ideas are things grafted upon the margin of our lives. 
We believe many things in words which our actions be- 
lie. We believe in a God omniscient and ever present, 
but act as though the judgment day were never com- 
ing. We believe in the brotherhood of man, but every 
stranger we meet we treat with caution. We believe in 
a democratic government, and take but little part in it. 

It is that elusive element in human life, feeling, which 
constitutes the vital element in human history. It is 
this that history shows has changed governments and 
social institutions. It is this that constitutes the contin- 
uity of history and also gives to history its change. It 
is for this reason that the life of a people is an organic 
whole, like one mighty stream with its several currents 
moving on towards one mighty goal. There is not one 
destiny for church, another for government, another for 
education and industry ; all these constitute one life with 
one destiny. Ideas may change, ideas of government 
of social aspirations, of human activity, but that which 
constitutes the vital and powerful force of life, is that 
element, feeling, and this is the element we are to 
search for in history. 



— II — 



Ideas may change the emotional and evolutional forces 
only in so far as the ideas are feasible. This it is that 
unlocks the treasure house of the past and he who would 
properly interpret history is aware that the changing- 
life of the people is due to the changing of the thoughts. 
He understands that their ideals have changed and that 
these changing conceptions are the problems of his- 
tory; he who would interpret the history of the future 
must read and know the feeling of the present ; he who 
would interpret the history of the past must know the 
feeling of the past. The history of tomorrow is the as- 
piration of today. The hopes and ideas of the past are 
the recorded deeds of modern history. 



RIDGEWOOD OF YESTERYEAR. 



Speech of Honorable Cornelius Doremus, at the meet- 
ing of the Historical Society held Thursday evening, 
April 28, 1910. 

The topic is "Ridgewood of Yesteryear." Now I take 
it that Yesteryear means anything back of today, and 
assuming that that is the proper definition, I have com- 
menced with the history of Ridgewood from the time of 
the Indians, and I think that is as far back ^s we ought 
to go tonight. I don't think our president properly in- 
troduced the Bergen County Historical Society, it is 
a great institution and its work is being recognized for 
accuracy and zeal and it has become more than state 
wide in its influence and a model in pattern for all sim- 
ilar institutions. 

It is fitting that Ridgewood should be chosen as one 
of the spots dedicated to historical research as many of 
the stirring scenes of the Revolution and Pre-Revolu- 
tionary times occurred within what might be called its 
limits. A gentleman in the early part of the evening, 
before we came in here, asked me how many members 
we had in Ridgewood; I told him and I do not know 
what his opinion of me is now, because I do not find 
as many here as there are members. 

Like Dr. Whitney I have confined this little talk to 
a manuscript, so that I would not go rambling all over 
die whole field of this big subject. We will take up 
first the Indian history, and, although we have not much 
in the way of actual knowledge of the Indian inhabit- 
ants of this section (you will notice that there are no 
flights of eloquence in this story), we find along the 
Sprout Brook, just east of Ridgewood, the signs of 
three well defined sites of Indian camps; the sites are 
very plain, there being cooking utensils and other things 
of interest. You may think that Ridgewood is not very 
rich in Indian lore, but I have found relics myself along 



— 13 — 

the banks oi the Passaic and Saddle Rivers near this 
vicinity. 

We will now take np the people that fonnded Ridge- 
wood. In 1682 the first Zaborowski, the founder of the 
great family of Zabriskie, purchased from the Indians 
what was known as the "New Paramus Patent." consisting 
of about two thousand acres. He named it the Param- 
us Highland and the earliest settlement upon that first 
tract of land was located at what is now known as the 
Paramus Church. What is now Wortendyke was or- 
iginally known as Newton, and Midland Park and the 
section east of what is now Ridgewood was known as 
Lydecker's Mills. The name was later changed to 
Godwinville, in honor of General Godwin a Revolu- 
tionary hero who at one time lived at Paterson. At this 
time Godwinville took in a section of four miles, with 
the Methodist Church at Midland Park as the centre, in 
1866 the name was changed to Ridgewood, but not un- 
til after six years of struggle with the officials of the 
Erie Railroad, waged incessantly and actively. Airs. 
Cornelia Dayton had the honor of naming it. Thus you 
see the name Ridgewood is about forty-two years old. 
Right here I would like to say that the second jail and 
courthouse in the county was built just above here. 
This was when the British were occupying Hacken- 
sack. A few of the curious things about it were the 
crimes for which people were punished in that day ; 
one was witchcraft, another was stealing a human be- 
ing, and another was children over sixteen years old 
who would cross or smite their parents. 

The political history of Ridgewood is interesting, it 
originally formed part of Franklin Township and Frank- 
lin Township was formed about a century ago, and or- 
iginally included a very large territory, comprising with- 
in its boundaries Ridgewood, Glen Rock, Midland Park 
and other municipalities. In 1853 Samuel Dayton pur- 
chased part of the Van Emburgh estate (I think the 
present Dayton would like to own it now). Samuel Day- 
ton plotted considerable of the land and developed it 
and sold considerable of it. All the land on the north 
side of Ridgewood avenue, between the Hohokus brook 



— 14— • 

and Monroe street, west of the Erie Railroad, formed a 
part of the Van Emburgh estate, the original owner of 
which was Henry Van Emburgh, and he owned al- 
most all of what is now known as Ridgewood. Ridge- 
wood Township was formed in 1876 under authority of 
an Act of the Legislature of the State. It then o^mprised 
three square miles and the population was twelve hun- 
dred, it has now grown to more than five times that num- 
ber. The first Township Commitee consisted of Cor- 
nelius J. Bogert, N. R. Bunce, Peter G. Hopper, Al- 
bert P. Hopper and Thomas Terhune. 

Since the formation of the township, Ridgewood has 
lost the flourishing municipalities of Midland Park and 
Glen Rock. The village was incorporated in 1894 and 
since that time there has been a dual government, 
namely Village and Township. The Village Trustees 
acting as Township Committee. The first trustees of 
the village were Milton T. Richardson. H. E. Hopper, 
Joseph W. Edwards, Dr. George M. Ockford and Wil- 
liam J. Fullerton. To recount the names of the various 
Boards of Trustees since would simply be to make a 
directory which would be similar to "King's notable New 
Yorkers" — everybody knows them. The present board 
consists of J. M. Martin, J. J. Lannuier, George Brack- 
ett, J. V. Morey and Frederick Bogert. 

Early Civilization — The first church was the Par- 
amus church, erected in 1735 and it is a curious incident 
that this church was started thirty years after the old 
church in Hackensack which it appears was dedicated 
in 1696. The land on which the Paramus church is 
erected was donated by Peter Faulconier, and he was 
given in perpetuity two seats, one for himself and one 
for his wife. The congregation of Paramus began wor- 
shipping in 1725, although they did not meet in the 
church until ten years later. You see this church is 
about two hundred years old and it is a singular fact 
that it is still a flourishing church ; and you can imagine 
that if it is of such a power and influence today what 
an influence it must have been in that early day, and as 
Dr. Whitney said the church and school practically typ- 
ify civilization. 



- 15 — 

In connection with the I'aramus church is V'alleau 
Cemetery, which has a curious and interestino- history. 
The land was donated by Magdelene Valleau in 1750 
and some of the epitaphs on the tomb stones are well 
worth the perusal of the historian. 

Another curious thing- is that slavery was a recog- 
nized institution in this State and an act was passed 
by the Legislature in 1713 regulating slaves- and holding 
that human life was a mere chattel. 

We are descended from the Dutch or French Huguenot 
stock, and they were a sturdy and hardy people of rug- 
ged constitution and well able to grapple with the pro- 
blems of life as they found them in that early day. 

Their domestic life I thought would be interesting 
and this is the schedule of the day's work. Five a. m., 
feeding stock and preparing for work of the day; six 
a. m., breakfast ; seven a. m., at work with axe or plow ; 
this was continued for twelve hours and the family, 
wives and daughters were equally hard working. 

Revolutionary Sketches — A noted incident of the 
early times of this section is one that occurred near the 
familiar old Rosencrans house that is still standing on 
the east Saddle River Road. It is related that at one 
time Aaron Burr was encamped at Ramapo and the Brit- 
ish were at Hackensack. One Paul Vanderbeck, rode 
into camp and said that the British were on the way 
to Paramus and were destroying everything along the 
route, it seems that they had destroyed some of his cat- 
tle and driven them away. Mrs. Vanderbeck had some 
bread in the oven which was just about baked, the 
soldiers took this hot bread, putting it in their knap- 
sacks and she was very much pleased to see that the 
hot bread melted some butter they had taken and spoiled 
the red coats of the soldiers. 

It seems that Burr met the British and captured the 
Hessian troops and then fell back to Ramapo. It was 
during this raid that he met the famous widow Provost, 
who then lived in the Rosencrans house. It is related of 
General Burr that during his courtship, he was encamp- 
ed in New York and in order to visit the widow he 
would tie his horse flat in the bottom of a boat s6 that 



— i6 — 

the horse could not move, then row across the Hudson 
and ride twenty miles through the enemy's country. 

Churches. ^ — The Episcopal church was erected in 
1865, east of the Hohokus brook. Edward A. Walton 
was the first superintendent of the Sunday school and 
Rev. J. M. Waite the first rector. In 1873, the church 
building was moved across the brook to its present lo- 
cation. The Presbyterian church was originally known 
as a Seceder. It was then changed to the Christian Re- 
formed church under the pastorate of the Rev. Harvey 
Iserman affiliated with the Presbyterian denomination. 

Another land-mark is the First Reformed Church of 
Ridgewood, and this was organized in 1875. The 
church when first organized occupied Shuart's Hall. 
It then moved to the Ryerson Building, to the present 
site, in 1877 and since then the building has been re- 
built and enlarged several times. Rev. John A. Van 
Neste has been the pastor since the organization of the 
church and it has flourished and grown under his pas- 
torate of thirty-five years. 

The Baptist church was organized in 1885 and has a 
large and flourishing congregation. They are about 
to build a new church. The Unitarian church is not 
very old, but is here to stay. The Catholic church was 
organized in 1890 and has done much for the building 
up of this progressive community. 

The Methodist church was organized in 1895 ^"<^^ ^^^^ 
met in the old Union street school house. The pres- 
ent structure was built in 1903. Besides these there 
are the first Church of Christ Scientist, they own their 
own property and will probably shortly erect a building 
of their own. The German "Lutheran church, the Af- 
rican A. M. Zion, which is about eighteen years old, 
and a new one has been started called the Colored Bap- 
tist church. Thus you see we have twelve flourishing 
churches and this is one other link to bind Ridgewood 
and Brooklyn together. 

The first school building erected in this vicinity was 
a short distance south of the house of Garret I. Hopper, 
in 1770. It was built of stone and destroyed by wind 



— 17 — 

in 1824. In the same year aiiotlier was built on the land 
of Paul Xanderbeok and used until 1864. 

A sehool was established at Paranms church in 1770 and 
1 building- for its accommodation erected in 1785. A 
new buildino- was erected to take the place of the old 
3ne in 1810; another was built in 1820 and another in 
1845. The school house on Union street was erected in 
April, 1872, and was known as Ridgewood School district 
No. 61. A school-house was also erected in Ridgewood 
Grove in 1864 and known as School district No. 44. It 
was the old brick school house so familiar to the early 
residents of Ridgewood. It is now turned into a dwell- 
ing house. The present High School building on the 
corner of P)eech street and Franklin avenue was erected 
in 1893 ^"fl there are few in the state can equal it. 
Other schools built in Ridgewood a few years ago are 
Kenilworth Place, Monroe street, and Harrison avenue. 
So you see the early settlers believed in education. 

Early Settlers — The land upon which Ridgewood 
is built was originally owned by five families, all of Hol- 
land descent ; namely, Van Emburg, who owned most 
of it. Hopper, Westervelt, Zabriskie, and Van Dien. 
The oldest house for many years was one erected by 
George Van Dien, on Maple avenue. It was a stone 
house and stood until about fifteen years ago, when it 
was demolished. The homestead house now occupied 
by John B. Van Dien on East Ridgewood avenue, he 
told me, was occupied by his ancestors one hundred and 
forty years ago. 

The first land laid out in the town and mapped was 
owned by Cornelius Shuart. It is true that Samuel 
Dayton was the first to plot the land, but Shuart laid 
his out in lots and filed a map. Where the Opera House 
now stands there was a large pond. 

The first hotel was built by John W. Halstead, now 
known as the Ridgewood House, and owmed by Mine 
Host Zellweger. 

Our friend from Englewood will be interested in 
the following : We had a noted physician and surgeon 
who came from this part of the county. He was born 
in 1797 and graduated from the College of Physicians 



-i8 — 

and Surgeons in New York in 1819. He was well 
known as a physician and surgeon. 

Roads. — The earliest road through RiJgewood was 
the Godwinville road ; next was the Paramus road. 
The Godwinville road ran from Pompton to Hoboken. 
Then there were the trunk lines such as the Paterson 
road now known as Maple avenue. 

Railroads. — I think the people who hear me sa}) 
railroads may think this is misleading, but besides the 
Erie, we have running through this section, the New 
York, Susquehanna and Western. The chief interest 
centers in the original railroad which was the Paterson 
and Hudson. The Erie was built in 1850. The Pater- 
son and Hudson ran from Paterson to Suffern. The 
Erie proper ran from Suffern west. The first station 
building was erected in Hohokus, and the second one 
in Godwinville, in 1859. ^ ^^^^ known writer had this 
to say of Ridgewood : "The approach to Ridgewood is 
not particularly attractive, but let him take a station 
upon the heights in Ridgewood Park and he will then 
appreciate the beauty of the place." One of the first 
conductors of the Erie has just died and one of the 
others is still in active service. Conductor Cooper. 
The first rails were constructed of narrow iron strips 
fastened on a wood base, and it wouM be hard to recog- 
nize from a picture of that day the present Erie Rail- 
road. 

Industrial Enterprises. — The first mill in the vicin- 
ity of Ridgewood was a grist mill standing where the 
Pegamoid mill now stands at Hohokus. It was used for 
fifty years and burned in 1853. The same year a cotton 
mill was built on the same site and used for sixteen 
years. In 1853, the firni of G. Morrow & Sons built 
the mill in Midland Park. Hopper was the first store- 
keeper and Van Dien was the next. 

A Post Office was established in 1865 through the 
efforts of E. F. Walton and W. B. Richardson. The 
first postmaster received a salary of ten dollars a year. 
The present postmaster has occupied the office since 
November, 1897. 



— 19 — 

The oldest lodge is the Masonic lodge ; we also have 
the Odd Fellows, the Junior Order of United American 
Mechanics and several others. 

The Ridgewood Golf Club is one of the oldest or- 
ganizations in Ridgewood. We have also the Y. M. C. 
A. and the White Star Athletic Association. 

The Ridgewood Building and Loan Association was 
established in 1883. We have a Board of Trade and 
other organizations of a kindred nature. The first Na- 
ational Bank was opened in 1899 and the Trust Com- 
pany in 1906. 

We have had various newspapers which have had a pre- 
carious existence. I think Mr. Richardson could give 
us the early struggles of some of these papers. We 
have tw^o now that are on an excellent footing, The 
Ridgewood News and the Ridgewood Herald. 

We have no record of Ridgewood land having been 
sold by the Indians for a barrel ot rum or a string of 
beads, but we have a record of one of the early trans- 
actions where property was sold for ten dollars an acre. 

The First Reformed church bought one acre of land at 
the time it moved to Dayton street for five hundred 
dollars. This was a little less than Peter Ackerman paid 
for six acres of the Kidder property. 

Land values did not increase with any rapidity, how- 
ever, until within the last seven or eight years. Twenty 
years ago the property upon which are now erected the 
Trust Company and the Quackenbush and Stevens 
building, the whole plot bounded by Ridgewood avenue, 
Prospect street, Dayton street and Oak street sold for 
thirty-five hundred dollars. Today without any build- 
ings it would be worth fifty thousand or more. Ordin- 
ary plots that ten years ago sold for from three hundrec' 
to four hundred dollars are now worth two thousand 
dollars. In the period of 1875 there were two or 
three houses built in a year. From 1885 to 1895 the 
number increased to between eight and ten and from 
1895 to 1905 the number increased to between ten and 
twenty. Now it is impossible to keep count of them, as 
they go up in such large numbers. 



One of the great features of Ridgewood's develop- 
ment has been the Bergen County Historical Society, 
which has been extremely active in delving into the past 
and has brought to light much of value. It has helped 
to make better citizens and instilled the love of country 
and home as effectively as any other institvition I can 
think of. In 1895 ^^^ exhibition was given under the 
auspices of this society in the Opera House. There 
were coins, ancient documents, weapons, clothing, im- 
plements of industry, family trifles and records, and 
an inspection or the articles displayed was a liberal ed- 
ucation in the history of the past. People throughout 
this section responded with enthusiasm and they were 
astounded to know that there was here so much of in- 
terest relating to our past history and it brought out 
familv ties and connections such as could never have 
been done in any other manner. It brought about a 
spirit such as that which animated Dr. Bethune who 
stood upon one of the streets of Boston when a proces- 
sion passed by. It was remarked by a bystander, "Fine 
men from New Hampshire, where are you from?" The 
doctor said, "from a city to which everybody goes and 
from which no one returns." 

I expected to have some people here tonight who would 
be interested to know what they presented at that ex- 
hibit was remembered. There was one picture I remem- 
ber, a little picture of Peter Burk ; he was the only one 
we have a record of who reproved William IV for pro- 
fanity. 

Now. in closing, I want to quote from the words of 
Macauley : "A people that takes no pride in the noble 
achievements of their remote ancestors will do nothing 
to be remembered bv its remote descendants" 



PARAMUS CEMETERY. 



This old and historic cemetery is situated directly in 
(he rear of the old Paramns church renowned for its asso- 
ciations of the past two centuries and located in the festal 
place of the foot hills of the Ramapos. The cemetery is 
well kept and presents a neat and tidy appearance. The 
I ecords of this plot will be given serially in these pamph- 
lets. 

Inscriptions in the Old Cemetery at the Paramus 
Reformed Church, Paramus, N. J., delineated by E. L. 
Zabriskie : 

In 

Memory of ' 

JAMES BANNER, 

WHO DIED 

April 6th, 1852. 
Aged 75 yrs., 9 mo., 3 days. 

Betsy wife of 
JAMES BANNER, 

WHO DIED 

April 14, 1852. 
Aged 62 yrs., i mo., 13 days. 

PETER J. TERHUNE, 

died Jan. ii, 1855. 

Aged 83 yrs., ii mo., i day. 

He closed his life at years four score, 
He joins in worship here no more. 
But if he reigns with Christ above. 
His work is wonder, praise and love. 



— 22 — 



HELENA ZABRISK'IE, 
WIFE OF Peter I. Terhune. 

DIED, March 13, 1852. 
Aged 78 yrs., i mo., 22 days. 

Oh happy dead in thee that sleeps ; 
The, o'er this mouldering dust we weep, 
Oh, faithful Saviour who shall come 
That dust to ransome from the tomb. 



THOMAS COOPER, 

WHO DIED 

Oct. 2 1 ST A. D., 1849. 
Aged 81 yrs., 21 days. 

Laid in the dust he must abide, 
Thus sleeping by his consort's side 



HANNAH, 

WIFE OF Thomas Cooper. 

DIED Sept. 16 a. d._, 1849.. 

Aged 69 yrs., 5 mo., 20 days. 

My Lord hath called and I obeyed 
To meet and with him dwell. 



MARGARET ANN, 

Infant child of Jacob L H. and 

Sarah J Zabriskie, 

who died 

June 2nd, 1847, 

Aged 7 mo., 23 days. 



'^^ 



YEAR BOOK 





Bergen County 
Hi^orical 
Society ^ 



Numbers 
Eight and Nine 

1913-1914 



Published by the Society 
Hackensack, New Jersey 




PARAMUS CHURCH 
BUILT I735—REM0T>ELED 1872 



I 



YEAR BOOK 



OF THE 



BERGEN COUNTY 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



Numbers Eight and Nine 
1913-1914 



PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 
HACKENSACK, NEW JERSEY 



GUARDIAN PRINT 
PATERSON. NEW JERSEY 



Officers For 1913-1914 



"President, ROBERT T. WILSON 



'Oice-'Presidents 

ARTHUR VAN BUSKIRK ABRAM DE BAUN 

MILTON DEMAREST CORNELIUS DOREMUS 

M. T. RICHARDSON WILLIAM M. JOHNSON 

WILLIAM A. LINN BYRON G. VAN HORNE 



Secretary and Treasurer 
BURTON H. ALLBEE 



Executive Committee 

EVERETT L. ZABRISKIE HOWARD B. GOETSCHIUS 
MATT. J. BOGERT ALBERT Z. BOGERT 



Archives and Property Committee 

MRS. F. A. WESTERVELT BURTON H. ALLBEE 
WILLIAM M. JOHNSON MRS. P. C. TERHUNE 



Official 'Photographer 
CHARLES CAFFERTY 



BERGEN COUNTY 



THE WJSHINGTON INSTITUTE 



By William M. Johnson. 



On the lot at the corner of Main and Warren streets, Hackensack, 
there is standing an old fashioned two story brick building known 
as the Washington Institute. A marble tablet in the front wall of the 
building, the gift of Col. James C. Zabriskie, contains the words "Wash- 
ington Institute, Erected 1779, Rebuilt 1877." 

The history of this lot carries us back to the early days of Hack- 
ensack, which at that time was a small but enterprising village, whose 
inhabitants were largely of Dutch extraction. The lot in question was 
formerly part of the farm of Isaac Van Giesen, who was a man of 
substance and a prominent citizen. Whether it was sold to the school 
district, which subsequently held it, or whether it was a gift for school 
purposes, is now quite unknown. There is no record of any deed for 
the property, nor is such a deed extant so far as is now shown. The 
suggestion that the property would revert to Van Giesen's heirs in 
case it should be abandoned for school purposes, is without justi- 
fication in the absence of a deed with a clause of reverter. The pos- 
session of the Washington Institute and of its predecessors has been 
of such character and of so long duration that in law it has ripened 
into a perfect and indefensible title, with no reversionary rights at- 
tached thereto. 

As we shall see later on, a stone building was erected on this lot, 
for the purpose of an academy, about the year 1768. The inscrip- 
tion on the old bell which wias placed in the belfry of the present 
building, but afterwards removed to the Union street school, reads 
as follows: 

"The gift of Wm. Bayard, Esq., 

To the Academy at Hackensack, 

New Jersey, 

1770." 

Col. William Bayard was a man of great wealth, owning a great 
part of what is now the City of Hoboken. He became a tory in the 
Revolutionary War and his lands were confiscated. He died in Eng- 
land in 1804. 

It is well known that at an early date in its history and prior 
to the Revolutionary War, Hackensack was an educational center of 
considerable importance. The first meeting of the Trustees of Queens 
(now Rutgers) College was held at the Court House in May, 1767, 
at which time it was proposed to establish the college in Hackensack, 
but after a long and animated discussion. New Brunswick was chosen 
by a close vote. At that time there were two academies here, one 
described as being in Hackensack at the New Bridge, as well as one at 



fflSTORICAL SOCIETY 5 

Hackensack proper, where the languages were taught and youths 
prepared for college. There seems to have been considerable rivalry 
between these two institutions as indicated by advertisements in the 
New York papers of those days. 

The one at New Bridge was under the care of Rev. Stephanus 
Voorhees, a graduate of Princeton, class of 1765, who advertised in 
the New York Gazette his intention to open a grammar school on 
April 20, 1766, at Hackensack under the inspection and direction of 
Rev. Mr. Goetschius. In his advertisement he states that all gentle- 
men who are disposed to have their sons instructed in the learned 
languages, may depend upon a constant attendance and strict and 
accurate instruction by their humble servant Stephanus Voorhees, 
A. M. "The terms of admission will be as moderate as in any Latin 
School perhaps to be found, viz: 20 shillings entrance and 20 shillings 
per quarter. It is supposed that board and tuition will not exceed 
20 pounds per annum" (about $50). 

Again in 1767 Mr. Voorhees advertises that a grammar school has 
been kept at Hackensack this year past in which the learned languages 
are taught with care and accuracy and youth qualified to enter any of 
the Amerian Colleges. 

In the same year there appears an announcement in the New 
York Journal or General Advertiser of a public school to be erected 
at Hackensack on May 1st, where the languages will be taught with 
accuracy and care and youths qualified for admission into any of our 
American Colleges. The trustees state that for the management of 
the school they have chosen Mr. Peter Wilson, who has for some time 
past taught in the Exchange in New York, to instruct the children 
in Latin, etc., and until such time as some persons will undertake to 
teach reading, writing, cyphering and merchants accounts, Mr. Wilson 
will officiate for hoth. It may be here noted that Mr. Wilson was at 
that time a young man, not yet 21 years of age. 

Thereupon Stephanus Voorhees on April 30, 1767, acquaints the 
public through the press, that he has supplied himself with an able 
assistant, that the school will be kept where it was first erected in 
Hackensack at the New Bridge, that an English teacher is also 
provided to oblige the public, who is a complete penman and will 
teach the Latin scholars writing and arithmetic, two hours a day for 
a small addition per quarter. 

In January, 1768, Stephanus Voorhees and Francis Barber, the latter 
also a Princeton graduate, published an elaborate notice of their 
school. They state that a number of persons in New York have 
sons under tuition. A third person is to teach English, writing and 
arithmetic, and also instructs the Latin scholars in those branches 
of education. This Francis Barber afterwards taught in the Academy 
of Elizabethtown, when he entered the army and fought in the Re- 
volutionary War with great distinction, attaining the rank of colonel. 

On February 22, 1769, Peter Wilson informs the public that the 
Grammar School near the town of Hackensack is still continued and 
that a large commodious and elegant edifice is erected. He fur- 
ther states that Peter Zabriskie, Esq., and other residents have vol- 
untarily engaged to assist the teachers in the preservation of the 
morals of the youth and in checking the first symptoms of vice. 



6 BERGEN COUNTY 

Apparently the rivalry of the two schools had become very keen, 
and some unkind things had been said, which moved Mr. Peter Wil- 
son "the public's humble servant" to add "notwithstanding the malev- 
volent insinuations that have been industriously propagated with re- 
gard to the method of instruction practiced by the subscriber, sev- 
eral gentlemen both of abilities and figure have expressed their 
highest approbation both of the method of tuition and progress of the 
young under his care. * * * But as he has not the talent of push- 
ing himself into fame, he must leave the proof of his assiduity and 
diligence to the best test — experience." 

The subjects also taught w^ere navigation, the Italian method of 
bookkeeping, surveying and other branches of mathematics at rea- 
sonable rates. 

In 1771, Mr. Wilson again advertises his school where the lan- 
guages, bookkeeping and mathematics are taught with care and fi- 
delity. In the same year the public's most obedient and very humble 
servant, John Wright, states that Mr. Barber has declined his school, 
and that he, the subscriber, being unanimously chosen to succeed him 
in the care of the youth, boys will be fitted for college in the most 
accurate and expeditious manner,. He also advertises that scholars 
may be boarded for £14 per annum (about $35) which is from £4 
to £6 cheaper than in any of the neighboring schools. 

We thus see that at that period there were two classical schools 
at Hackensack, each having several teachers where youths from New 
York and elsewhere were prepared for college. Communication "with 
New York might be had 'by stage, for on SeptemTaer 17, 1768, Andrew 
Van Euskirk gives notice that a stage wagon will be erected in 
Hackensack at the New Bridge to set out for Powless Hook (Jersey 
City) to go twice a week, Tuesdays and Saturdays, 6 oc. from New 
Bridge and seven from the town of Hackensack, returning the same 
da,y at precisely 2 oc. from Powless Hook. Price for each passage 
2 s. 6 d. 

From the foregoing advertisements it is quite possible to fix "with 
accuracy the date of construction of the first school house on the 
lot in question. In 1767 announcement is made that such a building 
is proposed and in February, 1769, the e'rection of a large commodious 
and elegant edifice is advertised. It must therefore have been built 
at least as early as 1768, which is two years earlier than the date 
inscribed on the tablet. 

It was a stone building 35x75 feet, two stories high, with belfry 
in the center, and remained standing for nearly 80 years, till in 1848 
it made way for the present building. It is knowb that this school 
achieved a fine reputation and attracted many youths from a distance 
to be educated here. What happened during the trying days of the 
Revolutionary War is unknown. In 1780 the British plundered Hack- 
ensack, burned the court house and several dwellings and doubtless 
the sessions of the school were much interrupted, neverthless the 
academy was maintained and continued an important educational 
influence. 

During Mr. Wilson's term of service in the Legislature, the acad- 
emy at Hackensack had become so prosperous that the incorporation 
of the institution into a college was deemed desirable. It was pro- 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY 7 

posed that Dr. Dirck Roraeyu, afterwards president of Union College, 
Schenectady, should become the president and Mr. Wilson the pro- 
fessor of languages. Mr. Wilson from motives of delicacy while a 
member of the Legislature could not be induced to support the meas- 
ure. It is quite likely also that while the enthusiasm of the friends 
of the academy led them to wish to see a college here, the cooler 
judgment of Mr. Wilson and others caused them to see the difficulty 
of sustaining an institution of that character, in a state already sup- 
plied with two colleges, viz.: The College of New Jersey at Prince- 
ton, the Queen College at New Brunswick with King (afterwards 
Columibia) College nearby in the city of New York. 

The school afterwards became known as the Washington Academy 
of Hackensack. Peter Wilson, who seems to have been the first 
principal, was a native of Scotland, where he was born November 23, 
1746, He v/as not only a successful teacher, but was a man of affairs 
an ardent patriot during the war for independence, and a member of 
the Legislature for several terms. He compiled a volume of laws of 
New Jersey under appointment of the Legislature, which was pub- 
lished in 1784. He afterwards taught at Flatbush, L. I., and later 
became a professor of Latin and Greek in Columbia College, which 
conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Laws. He passed the 
later years of his life in Hackensack where he died August 1, 1825, 
aged 79 years. He is buried in the cemetery surrounding the Old 
Church on the Green. His residence was in the stone house next 
to the academy now owned by Mr. Gilbert. There may be seen 
carved in the stones over the "window the words "Peter Wilson," 
"Cath Wilson," "Anno, 1787." His first wife was a daughter of Isaac 
Van Gieson and his second wife Catharine Duryea. 

At a meeting of the inha:bitants of the Township of New Barbadces, 
held at the Academy, August 4, 1798, five trustees, viz.: Rev. Solomon 
Froeleigh, John Van Buren. Isaac Vanderbeck, Jr., Robert Campbell 
and Nehemiah Wade, were chosen, who thereupon filed a i-ertificate of 
incorporation under the name of the "The Trustees of the Washing- 
ton Academy of Hackensack, in the County of Bergen." Mr. Froe- 
leigh was pastor of the Church on the Green from 178fi to 1823, and 
was the leader of the secession which afterwards resulted in the 
organization of the True Reformed Dutch Church. Robert Campbell 
and Nehemiah Wade were prominent lawyers of the county, the lat- 
ter being County Clerk from 1789 to 1801. 

Other principals of the Acamedy succeeding Dr. Wilson were 
Henry Traphagen, Jobn Traphagen. Bayard Bayard, Thomas Geagan, 
Christian Zabriskie, John Hayman. Henry Blackburn, William Hunt 
(physician), John Bogert, Henry Howell and John Vanderboek. 

About the middle of the last century the Academy building had 
become unsuitable for school purposes, and the requirements of the 
school district in which it was located made a new building advis- 
able. The district was then knowin as School District, No. 1, and 
the building was called the Washington Academy. 

At the public meeting held June 7, 1847, for the election of school 
trustees, the advantage and propriety of erecting a new Academy on 
the site of the old one, were discussed, and it was agreed that th'j 
meeting adjourn to meet on June 22, 1847, for further consideration 



8 BERGEN COUNTY 

of the project and consideration of plans. Prominent in this move- 
ment were A. O. Zabriskie, Esqi., an able lawyer and at that time sur- 
rogate afterwards chancellor of New Jersey, Dr. Abraham Hopper, 
a leading physician, father of the late Henry A. Hopper, M. D., the 
Rev. Alex H. Warner, pastor of the "Old Church on the Green," and 
David Terhune, then a young m.an, whose active interest in this build- 
ing continued till his death in 1892. 

At the adjourned meeting the whole subject was fully discussed, 
and it was decided to erect a building for the double purpose of a 
school house, and also a meeting room, for public lectures, etc., and 
that a stock company be formed with shares of the value of five dol- 
lars each. A committee was appointed to solicit subscriptions to 
stock, composed of William DeWolf, David Terhune, Tunis Banta, 
Christian De Baun, Henry B. Zabriskie, and Doctor Ab-aham Hopper, 
also a committee to prepare a plan of the building, viz: Doctor Abra- 
ham Hopper, John Huyler and Abraham O. Zabriskie. The meetmg 
adjourned to July 6, when a meeting of the inhabitants of Hack- 
ensack and vicinity was held. Reports were made of the shares 
subscribed, and a plan of the new building was submitted. At thi:3 
meeting the following resolution was adopted: 

"Resolved, That in the proposed project of taking down the old 
Washington Academy, and erecting a new building on the site there^ 
of by a joint stock association; it is expressly declared and under- 
stood and has been so declared and understood from the beginning 
of the enterprise that the lower or ground flooT of said proposed 
building, is to be for the gratuitous, the perpetual, and the uncon- 
trolled uses of the trustees of the common school district in which 
said building is located, provided that the district trustees shall 
be obligated to keep the said room in complete repair by such means 
and ways as they may judge most expedient." 

A committee to draft a constitution for the joint stock association 
was appointed, consisting of Dr. Abraham Hopper, A. O. Zabriskie and 
Christian De Baun, and the meeting adjourned to July 13 for the pur- 
pose of organization, at v/hich meeting articles of association were 
read and after debate adopted. A committee was also appointed to 
secure a suitable place for the school during the interval between 
the tearing down of the old Academy and rebuilding the same; and 
also to sell the stone of the old building, reserving as much as might 
be necessary for use in the new structure. 

The following are the articles of association of the Washington 
Institute in the village of Hackensack, in the county of Bergen: 

Whereas, The inhabitants of the first school district of the Town- 
ship of New Barbadoes at a public meeting held in the Washington 
Academy on the seventh day of June, A. D., 1.S47, unanimously re- 
solved that the trustees of said district be authorized and instructed 
to devise some plan of raising sufficient funds to rebuild said 
Academy, and 

Whereas, At an adjourned public meeting of the inhabitants of said 
district the inhabitants of the village of Hackensack generally and 
of the adjacent country, on the twenty-second day of said month of 
June, it was on motion of said trustees unanimously resolved that the 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY 9 

citizens of Hackensack and its neighborhood be invited to form a 
joint stock company for the purpose of rebuilding the aforesaid Acad- 
emy; therefore to effect such purpose. 

Be it knowto that we, the said inhabitants, do adopt the following 
as the articles and constitution of our associacion, which shall be 
designated and known as the "Washington Institute of Hackensack.' 

ARTICLE I. 

We, the subscribers, inhabitants of Hackensack and its vicinity 
do hereby agree to form ourselves into an association for the pro- 
motion of learning and especially for the purpose of erecting and 
maintaining on the lot in said village, known as the Washington 
Academy lot, a building to be devoted to the purpose of a liberal 
common school education and of meetings for intellectual, moral and 
religious instruction. 

ARTICLE II. 

We do agree and consent to carry into effect the objects of our 
association to create a capital stock of two thousand dollars to be 
divided into shares of five dollars each, which stock may at any 
time be increased in the number of its shares, either by the trustees 
or by the stockholders, at their annual or other meetings, each share 
to be transferable in such manner as the trustees may from time to 
time direct, and to be personal estate; no person to be a member of 
this association unless he shall subscribe to these articles with the 
number of shares which he intends to hold nor to be entitled to vote 
at any election after the first election for trustees unless he shall 
have actually paid in money or its equivalent the sum of five dollars, 
the amount of one share; or shall hold a share by regular transfer, 
each member to have as provided by law one vote for each share 
subscribed and paid for by him; and the admiscion of future mem- 
bers to be on such term.s as the bylaws of this association may 
provide. 

ARTICLE III. 

The lower room or story of the building to be erected by this asso- 
iciation shall be devoted to the purpose of common school education 
and for that object shall be at the entire and free disposal of the 
Trustees or such other officers as may be provided by law of the com- 
mon school district wherein the same is, or may be situate, free from 
any rent or charge, except that said Trustees or officers shall be 
bound to keep the said lower room in repair and to contribute from 
time to time one-half part of the expense of all necessary repairs 
to the v^hole building and its appurtenances not including the upper 
room and in case of their failure so to do, rent sufficient for such pur- 
poses may be charged not to exceed thirty dollars in any one year. 

ARTICLE IV. 

The upper room of the building is to be finished as a lecture room, 
and to be kept as a public lecture room, subject at all times to the 
control of the Trustees of this association and not to be let or hired 
to any society, individual, or association except for a single lecture 
or meeting or a proper course of lectures or meetings within the ob- 
jects of this article, but the use of the same shall be at all times 



10 BERGEN COUNTY 

granted and afforded by the trustees in their discretion to proper per- 
sons and societies on proper application for lectures and meetings for 
intellectual, moral, social and religious instruction, especially of the 
young, and for improvement and refinement in taste and fine arts; 
subject only to such charges as may be necessary to keep the same 
and the building in repair or to improve the same. 

ARTICLE V. 

This association to be incorporated under the act entitled "An act 
to incorporate Societies for the promotion of learning" approved April 
16th, A. D., 1846, for which purpose five trustees shall be elected at 
some meeting to be called for that purpose according to law, which 
trustees shall have full power to conduct the affairs of this associa- 
tion according to the true intent of these articles; and to make and 
enact bylaws, rules and regulations not contrary thereto; provided 
that the stockholders at any annual or other regularly convened meet- 
ing may revoke, alter or modify such rules, bylaws and regulations, 
and no bjlaws revoked, altered or modified by the stockholders shall 
be re-euaoted, or changed back when altered or modified without the 
consent of the stockholders; each stockholder having one vote for 
each share held by him at all meetings of the stockholders. 

ARTICLE VI. 

It shall also be the duty of the trustees to keep the said upper room 
and the passage leading thereto in complete order and repair. For 
defraying the expense of which they shall collect a small rent or com- 
pensation for the use of the same, provided, however, that it shall 
not be lawful for said trustees to impose any rents for the purpose 
of making the same a source of profit to the stockholders. 

ARTICLE VII. 

The trustees may in their discretion become incorporated by a 
s.pecial act of the Legislature embodying the provisions of these ar- 
ticles and thereupon surrender this incorporation and the property 
of this association become vested in the body incorporated by such 
special act. 

ARTICLE VIII. 

These articles not to be changed or altered except by the consent 
of a majority of the stockholders, both in number and in the number 
of shares held by them, such consent either to be given at a general 
meeting regularly called or by writing under their hands, or in fact 
in either way. 

And we do hereby, each one for himself, agree to pay to said asso- 
ciation, or to their trustees w(hen elected and incorporated, five dol- 
lars for each share so subscribed for, at such times, and in such man- 
ner as said association or trustees may direct or prescribe. 

Adopted and dated at the Washington Academy in Hackensack on 
the thirteenth day of July, in the year of our Lord eighteen hundred 
and forty seven. 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY 11 

A. O. Zabriskie 'Ten 

Abm. Hopper Twenty 

Christian De Baum Three 

James P. Demarest Fourteen 

William Winant I^our 

John H. Banta Three 

Jacob Larmour Three 

John J. Stephens One 

Harding Vanderpool Two 

A. C. Fatin Two 

James Gould One 

Jacob Vanderbilt One 

H. H. & T. Banta Pix 

Edwd. Alcock One 

John Brower One 

Abraham Vansciven One 

George Doremus Two 

Richd. A. Doremus Two 

H. A. Hopper Two 

Christian W. Campbell One 

Lewis Irish One 

David Terhune Seven 

E. B. Force Two 

R. Romaine Two 

Stephen T. Vanderbeck . One 

John McChesney One 

Warren F. Randolph One 

John J. Bogert One 

Peter Bogart, Jr Two 

Michael M. Wygant One 

R. R. Hawkey One 

Henry Westervelt . . One 

Ralph I. Westervelt Two 

Daniel M. Winant = . - Three 

Manning M. Knapp One 

H. B. Zabriskie One 

R. R. Paulison Two 

John E. Post One 

Peter J. Bogert One 

John V. H. Van Saun One 

Richard Paulison Two 

John D. Romeyn One 

Lawrence A. Ackerman One 

George In. Zabriskie One 

Robert Conklin One 



12 BERGEN COUNTY 

Nickles Vreeland . One 

John Larmour One 

Albt. G. Doremus Five 

Christopher X. Thornhill One 

Robert Camphell One 

James Vanderpool Two 

John Hill One 

P. V. B. Demarest Three 

Edwin F. Randolph One 

John Van Saun, Jr One 

John Huyler Four 

William De Wolf Five 

Daniel Romaine Three 

Albert R. Terhune One 

Richard Van Winkle Two 

Peter S. Demarest Two 

Wm. M. Pell Ten 

Paul R. Faulison Twio 

John H. Ackerman Two 

Edward Van Buren One 

Richard T. Amos One 

John R. Paulison One 

John I. Zabriskie .Three 

John L. Earle Eleven 

Jacob C. Terhune One 

John N. Ackerman One 

William Terhune One 

Abm. Westervelt Three 

Garret G. Ackerson One 

John B. Cleveland Two 

Maria D. Quick Two 

Robt. Rennie Fifty-five 

William Grieg One 

Alexander H. Warner One 

George Maycock One 

Jonathan Thurston One 

George B. Brawn One 

David A. Bogert Two 

Wilhelmus Berry One 

John J. Ward Two 

John R. Van Giesen Two 

John J. Voorhis Two 

Archibald Shearn • • One 

John H. T. Banta Four 

W. S. Banta Four 

David A. Zabriskie One 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY 13 

Stock suljscriptions to the amount of 283 shares were obtaino-i 
and the stockholders proceeded to organize. 

The first hoard of trustees elected July 27, 1847, was composed 
of Abraham O. Zabriskie. John H. Banta, Dr. Abraham Hopper, David 
Terhune and Tunis Banta. They organized by choosing Tunis Ban- 
ta president, iDr. Abraham' Hopper, secretary and David Terhune, 
treasurer. 

A certificate of organization was duly filed in the County Clerk's 
office thereby forming a corporation by the name of "The Washing- 
ton Institute." 

The trustees promptly entered into contract for the erection of 
the new building with J? cob Larmour for the carpenter work and 
John McChesney for the mason work. The building was enclosed 
in October, 1847, and completed during the succeeding winter. The 
funds 'being insufficient to pay for the building, the sum of $600 was 
borrowed on (bond and mortgage from Jacob Garrison. The total 
■cost was about $2,700 of which about $1,500 was received for stock 
issued, $600 mortgage, $448 from proceeds of a fair and the balance 
from sale of old material and sundry other sources. 

It will ibe seen that even in that early day in Hackensack's his- 
tory, a successful way of raising money was by means of a fair. The 
fair held in the Institute in August, 1848, netted the handsome amount 
of i$448. 

In 1848 the legislature of New Jersey passed the following act: 

"An act to vest in the Washington Institute of Hackensack the 
title of the Washington Academy Lot." 

"Be it enacted l>y the Senate and General Assembly of the State 
of New Jersey, That the title of that lot in the village of Hackensack 
known as the Washington Academy Lot, which was formerly vested 
in the Trustees of the Washington Academy of Hackensack, in the 
County of Bergen, be, and the same is hereby vested in "the Wash- 
ington Institute of Hackensack" to be held by them for the purposes 
and trusts and subject to the conditions of the articles of the associa- 
tion." 

Approved, March 2, 1848. 

By virtue of this enactment the title became fully vested in The 
Washington Institute. 

After completion of the building the lower part was used as a 
pufblLc school, while the room in the second story was used for lec- 
tures, religious services and other meetings the usual charge being 
for use of room $1.00, fuel 25 cents, light 25 cents; total, $1.50 per 
night. 

Entries in the treasurer's books show how extensively this room 
was used during the early years of its history. 

Many entertainments and lectures were given bere, such as sing- 
ing school, Indian concert, band concert, glee club concert, bell ring- 
ers, lectures on ventriloquism, on electricity, on astronomy. Courses of 



14 



EERGEN COUNTY 



lectures were given 'by many prominent lecturers. Meetings were 
held toy the Temperance Society, Baseball club, Medical Society, De- 
bating Society and Legion of Honor. 

Religious 'services by the True Reformed Dutch, the Baptist, Uni- 
versalists, German church, Episcopal church, the latter from 1862 to 
1867, Union prayer meeting, Christian Science church, meetings by the 
Library Assaciation, Debating Club, Lyceum, political meetings by 
the Whigs; in 1856 by Fremont and Dayton Republican Cluib, Fillmore 
and Donelson Club, Buchanan and Breckenridge Democratic Cluib, In 
1880 iby the Garfield and Arthur Club, and in 1885 by the Blaine and 
Logan Club. 

Thus the value of the lecture room was demonstrated, but lectures 
have grown out of fashion. Other halls have been built to accommo- 
date the increased population and the usefulness of the room has 
largely ceased. 

In iDecemher. 1870, the articles of association were modified by 
the consent of the majority of the stockholders, both in number and 
number of shares held by them, so as to permit the trustees to make 
such use of the lecture room in the second story as they might deem 
erpedient. 

In pursance of that authority they leased' the same to "The 
Hackensack Library and Reading? Room'' for the period of five years. 
"The Library and Reading Room'' was succeeded by a committee of 
young ladies who maintained a library in that room until the erection 
of the Johnson Free Public Library, at which time their library was 
closed and the hooks turned over to the public library. 

The following is a full list of the Trustees of the Washington In- 
stitute : 



1847 — Abram O. Zaibriskie. 

John H. Banta. 
Abraham Hopper. 

David Terhune. 

Tunis Banta. 
1849— Christian DeBaun. 

John H. T. Banta. 
1851— Peter V. B. Demarest. 
1852 — John N. Ackerman. 
1853 — James P. Demarest. 



1857 — ^^Henry A. Hopper. 
1864— Peter V. B. Demarest. 
1887— William S. Banta. 
1887— John Banta. 
1887— William -M. Johnson. 
1892— George W. Wheeler. 
1901— George W. Conklin. 

Rev. John C. Voorhis, 
1910 — Arthur Van Buskirk. 
1913— ^Charles W. Terhune. 



The present Board of Trustees consists of: 

■George W. Wheeler, president, John Banta. 

William M. Johnson, treasurer. Charles W. Terhune. 
Arthur Van Buskirk, secretary. 

David Terhune was a Trustee and also treasurer of the association 
from its origin in 1847 till his death, which occurred in 1892, a period 
of 45 years, it is needless to say to those who remember Mr. Terhune 
as a public spirited citizen and one of our ablest business men, that 
he gave to the institute most faithful and attentive service. For the 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY 15 

greater part of that long period he had charge of the building, man- 
aged its finances and attended to repairs and maintenance. During 
the period of 67 years since the organization of the Institute it has 
had but two treasurers, Mr. Terliune serving for 45 years, and W. 
M, Johnson, the present treasurer, succeeding him in 1893. 

With the recent death of the late Peter Bogart, Jr., of Bogota, and 
Richard Van Winkle, of Lodi, the last of the original subscribers to 
the stock of the Washington Institute passed away. Most of the others 
died many years ago. The present living stockholders, who hold 
their shares by transfer, are only ten in number, most of them hold- 
ing a single share each. The largest single stockholder is the John- 
son Free Puhliic Library, which holds 84 shares. Of these shares 55 
were transferred by the old Hackensack Library and Reading Room, 
an organization which is 1870 established a library in the lecture room 
of the Washington Institute, 'but which is now practically defunct. 
Twenty-nine shares were donated by the estate of David Terhune, 
deceased. 

The management of the Institute has heen preserved by the few 
surviving stockholders, hut it will not be many years before death 
will remove them also. Fortunately, it was found 'possible to acquire 
the 55 shares from the Lihrary and Reading Room Association for 
the Johnson Public Library, and as the Library has perpetual suc- 
cession, it will 'be practicable to keep the organization alive hy virtue 
of the ownership of the stoick held hy the Library. Some of the liv- 
ing stockholders and representatives of estates of deceased stock- 
holders have agreed to donate their shares to the Library. The estate 
of iDavid Terhune has already done so. It is expressly stipulated in 
the articles of association that stockholders shall receive no pecuniary 
■benefit from this property, which must be held for educational and 
literary purposes, anc even in case of sale of the property, the pro- 
ceeds must ibe held in trust for the same uses. Hence these shares 
have no commercial value, and it will be advantageous if as many as 
possible of the shares should be turned over to the Library by the 
representatives of former stockholders. 

One of the heirs of Dr. Peter Wilson has claimed that the Doctor 
gave this property to the town for educational purposes, with a clause 
of reverter to his heirs, in case it should cease to he used lor such 
purposes, and that they art now entitled to its possession. It may 
he 'Confidently asserted that there is no 'basis for this claim. There 
is no evidence that Peter Wilson ever owned this property. It un- 
doubtedly came out of the Van Giesen farm. At the time the original 
academy was fbuilt in 1768, Peter Wilson was a young man not 22 
years of age, who had emigrated from Scotland a few years -before. 
It is highly improbable that a youth even as highly gifted as Dr. Wil- 
son proved to he should accumulate enough money at that age, from 
teaching school, to (be ahle to give away a desirable lot on Main street. 
In 1787 when he was 41 years of age he bought the adjoining lot from 
Isaac Van Giesen and then erected the stone house which is still 
standing. 

Questions are frequently asked as to the ownership of the Wash- 
ington Institute 'building and of the lot on which it stands, and also ss 
to the rights of the Board of Education in the property. From the fore- 
going historical sketch, the present status of the property may be 
indicated: 



16 BERGEN COUNTY 

1. The legal title and the right to manage the property, are vested 
in the Trustees of the Washington Institute, who are elected by the 
stockholders of the Institute. 

2. The lower room of the building is subject to the entire and 
free disposal of the Board of Education of Hackensack to be used 
for the purpose of common school education. The Board of Education 
is bound to keep the lower room in repair, and to contribute from 
time to time one half part of the expense of all necessary repairs to 
the whole ibuilding and its appurtenances, not including the upper 
room. 

3. The upper room is subject to the sole control of the Trustees 
of the Washington Institute, who must keep the same in repair and 
contribute one half of the expense of necessary repairs to the whole 
building not including the lower floor. 

4. The lower floor has not been ocoupied as a school since the 
comipletion of the Union Street building in 1878. Since that date it 
has been rented by the Trustees of the Washington Institute, and 
the income after deducting expenses of the whole building (not in- 
cluding the second floor) has been paid over from time to time to 
the Trustees of the school district now the Board of Education. To 
this extent therefore the lower floor has been used for the purposes 
of common school education. 

5. The Board of Education is at liberty again to make actual 
use of the lower floor. 

6. By the consent of the Trustees of the Washington Institute, 
which no doubt would be readily given, the Board of Education may 
erect a new building on the lot for an industrial school, or other 
educational purposes, in which case the rights of the Washington 
Institute in the second floor would have to be adjusted in some way 
by mutual agreement. 

7. The primary purpose of the second floor, viz: for meeting 
for intellectual, moral and religious instruction, having become im- 
practicable, it has ibeen proposed that the Johnson Free Pu<blic 
Library shall be the beneficiary of whatever net income may be de- 
rived from it. The library may be deemed in a certain sense th'j 
successor to carry out the original 'purposes of the institute. At 
least if it is not strictly speaking the successor, yet by reason of 
its public character and purposes, it comes nearer to the original 
scheme than any other institution in town. 

It is evident, however, that the building has outlived its useful- 
ness, and before many years will require more extensive repairs 
than can be provided for out of the income of either floor. What 
should be done with the property is a problem deserving serious 
consideration. It can hardly be considered a desirable location for 
a school of any kind, and its utility for literary purposes ceased 
long ago. If a sale of the property could be effected so as to pass 
a good title, of which there is some doubt, an equitable proportion 
of the proceeds might be turned over to the Board of Education 
and the residue used by the trustees of the institute for such pur- 
poses as might approximate the objects of the original incorporation. 

WILLIAM M. JOiHNSON. 
Hackensack, May 25, 1914. 



R. A. AT>AMS HOUSE 
SADDLE RIVER 




Built by the father of David Hopper, about 1720, was 
left to his son. David, who married Caroline Bluuvelt. 
After their lifetime the property came into the hands 
of their daughter, Maria Jemima Hopper, who married 
Garret A. N. Ackerman, and sold the old homestead, 
building for themselves the property now occupied by 
Maloney. 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY 17 

BERGEN COUNTY DESCENDANTS 
IN NOVA SCOTIJ 



By Dr. Byron G. Van Home. 



Some years ago while way down East in Nova Scotia I met a 
number of people whose ancestors had come from Bergen and Rock- 
land counties and when I heard the names of Van Buskirk, Blanvelt, 
Van Horn, Herring, Ferdon and visited some of the old farm houses 
•with their low spreading gaJbles and Dutch doors it required no great 
flight of fancy to imagine ones self hack in Old Bergen County. 

How came these people to be there? It is a very interesting part 
of history iclosely connected with our Revolutionary War; in fact, 
is a part of it. Probably most of us in our study of American 
history at school were taught very little about the Tory or oppo- 
sition party in the War of Independence. While most of us knew 
that there was such a party, and that they made themselves olbnox- 
lous to their fellow countrymen, yet it never occurred to us that 
they were prominent or influential. They were willing that the 
colonies should remain subject to Great Britain, without any guar- 
antee of chartered or otherwise established rights and usages. They 
constituted the opposition to the Whigs, or Patriots during the un- 
armed struggle of 1765-1775, in the controversy with the mother 
country. After the war began they gave aid and comfort to the enemy 
hy enlistments (to the numher perhaps of 25,000 from the first to 
last). There were many more, who for various causes were nou- 
combatants, but no less virulent in their denunciation of the "rebels" 
on that account. After the Declaration of Independence their posi- 
tions hecame more critical, as by that Instrument they were mado 
disloyal to the new government and to their respective states, 
all of which assumed sovereignty and could not he indifferent to these 
internal enemies. With the sanction of Congress, penalties of confisca- 
tion, imprisonment, baniphment and minor restrictions were Imposed 
by the several legislatures. But, as a rule, after the voluntary expatria- 
tion of the more violent and obnoxious of them, the patriots were "con- 
tent with keeping a close watch on their movements, to prevent as far 
as possible their heing of service to the public enemy. In some states, 
during the war, the Whigs predominated. In others, Tories were in the 
majority. States there were, too, in which opinions were fairly well 
divided. When war was declared, the administrative affairs fell 
naturally into the hands of the Whigs, and were maintained by 
them throughout. The following extract from a speech, delivered by 
Anson Burlingame in the House of Representatives in 1856, gives 
an idea of the condition of affairs as they existed at that time. This 
same Mr. Burlingame was the one, who in later years, was sent by 
President Lincoln on a diplomatic mission to China, where he 
gained such an ascendancy over the native mind that he was mado 
Chinese amhassador to the world's greatest powers and negotiate! 
treaties for her with them. 



18 BERGEN COUNTY 

"Did not the South, equally with the North, bare her forehead 
to the god of battles?" I answer plainly, no sir, she did not; 
she did not. 

"Sir, Massachusetts furnished more men in the Revolution than 
the whole South put together, and more by ten fold than South 
Carolina. I am not including of course the militia— the conjectured 
militia furnished by that state. There is no proof that they were 
ever engaged in any battle. I mean the regulars; and I say that 
Massachusetts furnished more than ten times as many men as South 
Carolina. I say on the authority of a standard historian, once a 
member of this House, (Mr. Sabine, in his history of the Loyalists), 
that more New England men now lie buried in the soil of 'South 
Carolina, than there were of South Carolinians who left their state 
to fight the battles of the country. 

"I say when General Lincoln was defending Charleston he was 
comipelled to give up his defense because the people of that city would 
not fight. When General Green, that Rhode Island blacksmith, took 
command of the Southern army, South Carolina had not a federal 
soldier in the field, and the people of that state would not furnish 
supplies to his army; while the British army in the state were 
furnished with supplies almost exclusively from the people of 
South Carolina. While the American army could not be recruited, 
the ranks of the British army were rapidly filled from that state. 

"The British post of Ninety-six was garrisoned almost exclusively 
from South Carolina. Randon's reserve corps was made up almost 
entirely by South Carolinians. Of the 800 prisoners who were 
taken at the battle of King's Mountain— of which we have heard 
so much— 700 of them were Southern Tories. The Maryland men 
gained the laurels of the Cowpens, Kentuckians, Virginians and 
North Carolinians gained the "battle of King's Mountain. Few Soatii 
Carolinians fought in the battles of Eutaw, Guilford, etc. They were 
chiefly fought 'by men out of South Carolina; and tliey would have 
won greater fame and brighter laurels if they had not been opposed 
chiefly by the citizens of the soil. Well might the British 'com- 
mander boast that he had reduced South Carolina into allegiance. 
But sir, I will not proceed further with this history, out of regard 
(for the fame of our common country; out of regard for the patriots 
—the Sumters, the Marions, the Rutledges, the Pinkney's, the 
Haynes — truer patriots, if possible, than those of any other state. 

Out of regard for these men I will not quote from a letter of the 
patriot. Governor Matthews to General Greene, in which he com- 
plains of selfishness and utter imbecility of a great portion of the 
people of South Carolina. 

The New York Assembly was tainted with Toryism. In 1775 they 
declined to appoint delegates to Congress. They were appointed by 
a convention and the assembly was replaced by a provincial Con- 
gress May 22, which was succeeded by the State Legislature 3 years 
later. Governor P'ranklin of New Jersey, son of Benjamin Franklin, 
was a pronounced Tory, as was also Cortlandt Skinner, attorney-gen- 
eral of the state. These tv/o wielded no little power and made strenu- 
ous efforts to keep New Jersey loyal. 

The people of Bergen County at this time were devoted almost 
entirely to agriculture. Hackensack, the only village in its bound- 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY 19 

aries, had a population of only a few hundred, but we find that early 
In these stirring times patriotic meetings were held in the county. 
A regiment of between tliree and four hundred men was raised in 
Bergen County under command of Colonel Tunis Dey. The Tory 
party was more or less quiescent until the arrival of Lord Howe at 
Staten Island with 25,000 British troops on July 7, 1776. To him many 
of these now came and boldly announced their allegiance to the King 
and were enrolled in his service. General Skinner was authorized to 
raise a brigade of five battalions of 500 men each. In the beginning 
of the year 1777 there were 517 men enrolled. November, 1777, 859; 
May, 177S, 1,101, and during the year, 550 more. These were mostly 
from New Jersey, and many of them were afterwards sent to South 
Carolina, where they rendered valiant service. Many of them were 
killed; many wounded. In Colonel Dey's regiment we find the name 
of Abraham Van Buslcirk as surgeon. The same party seems to have 
been commissioned Colonel of one of the five battalions of New Jer- 
sey loyalists. He and one or more of his sons were in a number of 
engagements during the war. It was one of them that led the raid 
In Closter when an aged citizen w^as killed and considerable property 
stolen. The headquarters for the loyalists was Staten Island. 

It was some descendants of these same Van Buskirks that I had 
the pleasure of meeting while in Nova Scotia. One of them, a cashier 
in one of the banks at Yanuouth, showed me a muster roll of the meu 
raised in Bergen County unaei' the command of Abraham Van Bus- 
kirk, the name and residence of each man being given. There were 
a number from English Neighborhood, Hackensack and Paramus — a 
total number of names of about 300. It appears that Abraham. Vai 
Buskirk was a physician in Hackensack; that he owned a large farm 
in Paramus. I was shown a letter written to him by his wife in Which 
she stated that part of Washington's army had been encamped on 
their farm; some of their property was destroyed and some live stock 
taken, but that on application to General "Washington (of whom she 
speaks in the highest terms), a corporal and guard of soldiers had 
been stationed on the place fo' their protection, from which time they 
had not been molested. Later on she was advised to join her hus- 
band in New "i'ork, which she did, stopping at Hackensack over night 
at the parsonage of the Church on the Green. Abraham Van Buskirk 
had a son who was Captain of one of the companies in the regiment. 
The elder Van Buskirk was a member in good standing of the Masonic 
Lodge. His certificate of membership was shown me which was given 
under the seal of the Grand Lodge of Ireland. That he was a con- 
noisseur of good wine was evinced by the old cork-screw which had 
come down as a heir-loom. His worthy descendant informed me that 
he had no reason to doubt but that it had drawn the cork from many 
a bottle of good wine. 

I met a Captain Blauvelt, captain of one of the steamers plying on 
the Bay of Fundy. His ancestor owned a farm near Orange, Rock- 
land County. He espoused the British, his sons the American cause. 
So that while the old gentleman lost the farm it was retained by other 
members of the family. When the war was over he went to Nova 
Scotia with his second wife, of whom this Captain Blauvelt was a 
descendant. After the capture of Lord Comwallis it Vv'as almost cer- 
tain that America had won her independence and most of the active 
Loyalists began to look for new homes. From that time to the final 
evacuation of New York, 1783, no less than 100,000 were expatriated. 



20 BERGEN COUNTY 

As their property had been confiscated by the various states the Eng- 
glish government gave them in the aggregate £15,000,000. The great 
majority of the people went to Nova Scotia. Many of them went to 
Fort Frontenac, Ontario, now Kingston. On many a tombstone may 
be read the sad history of these exiles. Our Bergen County Van Bus- 
kirk went to Shelbourne, on the southwest coast of Nova Scotia, a 
place that in the course of a lew months developed from almost noth- 
ing to a city of 15.000. He was its first mayor. On account of the 
country back of Shelbourne being rocky and unproductive the city's 
population in a few years dwindled to only 1,000. Most of these people 
migrated to the A\-est coast where one may find their descendants to- 
day. Western Nova Scotia is not a paradise by any means. The 
country is rocky and mountainous. Part of the occupation of every 
generation who have occupied the land has been to gather stone off it 
which have been used for making stone walls. Many of the Van Bus- 
kirk descendants have married into the best families in Boston. In 
conclusion It may be interesting to state that there were in the War 
of the Revolution 130,711 regular troops and 164,080 militia and volun- 
teers, making a total of 309,781. Of the regular troops New Jersey 
raised 10,726, at a cost of $5,000,000. The number of militia is not 
known. 

BYRON G. VAN HORNE. 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY 21 



OUR COUNTY T>ISGRACE 



By Burton H. Allbee. 



Bergen county has so many good things to commend it that one 
almost hesitates to mention one neglect which is so flagrant that it 
cannot be overlooked. Whoever goes about the county at all must 
see it and persons having no interest in the county have expressed 
themselves as not understanding why this one glaring fault has 
not l)een remedied. 

Reference is here made to the old cemeteries. Who has not seen 
them, and having seen them, who has not wondered why they have 
not been properly cared for, if not by the public, at least by the 
descendants of those who are buried within the enclosures? Some 
states have laws which force the municipalities in which old ceme- 
teries are located to care for them. New Jersey has a great many 
statutes of far less real utility than that. Why not one of the same 
character here? 

Officials of municipalities when asked why they do not care for 
these yards reply that it is costly and they have none too much 
money to spend any way. It is to be feared, however, that they 
sometimes spend vastly more money for things of less actual value, 
or upon political favorites, without thinking anything about it. A. 
little ancestor worship in New Jersey would do no harm. Apparently 
those who are now here not only want to forget their ancestors, 
but they have no objection if the- cemeteries in which they are 'buried 
go to ruin and grow up to become tangles of weeds and briers. 

If it were only one here and there the neglect would not 'be so 
noticeable. But with a few exceptions the same observation applies 
to the whole county. All alike are neglectful of the dead, or, that 
portion of the dead who lie in the small yards and whose resting 
place is marked only by humble tombstones. 

Near Kingsland Manor were buried the early Kingslands. The 
cemetery was small, merely for the family; ibut it was picturesquely 
located and the members of this prominent family slept peacefully 
near the home which they made famous. 

A great railroad needed a site for its shops. The great trees 
which shaded the graves of the departed were ruthlessly slaughtered; 
the knoll where the bodies were buried was leveled, and the bones, 
as the laborers came to them, were tossed in a pile. A portion were 
afterward thrown into one hole. One skull is now used as a curio, 
and others were crushed and thrown into the general debris heaped 
up in excavating. Descendants of the family were living not far 
away when this colossal vandalism was committed; but not only did 
the descendants neglect to care for the remains, they never protested 
against that method of throwing the bones away. This was a par- 



22 BERGEN COUNTY 

ticularly flagrant instance, yet, though it may be exaggerated, it is 
typical of all the neglect which for one cause or another has hecome 
the rule rather than the exception. 

On the East bank of the Hackensack river, not far from River 
Eidge, is the Ijutheran cemetery. It was situated close to the bank 
at the beginning, and the river, which makes a sharp bend just 
there has gradually eaten away the bank until a considerable propor- 
tion of the original cemetery has fallen into the stream. Stories have 
been told of caskets floating down the river at high water. Whether 
that is true or not cannot be said, but it is true that bodies have 
been exposed 'by the washing away of the bank and even now it is 
possible to pick up bits of bone scattered all the way from the 
level upon which the cemetery is situated, to the river below. A 
Lutheran clergyman who heard a description of conditions was 
to try to interest the Lutheran church in doing a little needed work 
there, but so far as known he has done nothing of the kind so far. 
The broken stones in this cemetery carry the names of some of the 
most prominent of the early families of the county. Vet during the 
years that these grewsome occurrences have been in progress not 
a descendant has raised a hand to stay the slow eating away of the 
cemetery 'by the river, or to have the bodies safely removed from 
harm's way. 

Years ago some of the early settlers buried their dead on what 
is now Hudson street, in Hackensack. That street was once the main 
road from Hackensack to what is now Hoboken, where a ferry con- 
veyed the passengers across to New York. For years the cem.etery 
was kept in good repair, but in recent times vandals prosecuted their 
nefarious work unmolested. First, workmen went through it to 
their work because it afforded a shorter cut. The fence gradually 
disappeared until not a vestige of it remains. Next nearby house- 
holders broke off the stones, or pulled them from their settings, to 
use for step stones, or for flagging their walks. 

An agitation was begun concerning this cemetery and most of the 
bodies have been removed; but others are still left and the protec- 
tion afforded the graves is very meager indeed. 

The catalogue of such neglected cemeteries would be too long 
to print here. They are everywhere about the county; and for that 
matter in neighborhoring counties as well. The cemetery around the 
building formerly occupied by the First Reformed church at Passaic 
is in the same condition; and as a correction of the trouble there 
the suggestion has been made that the bodies be removed and the 
cemetery transformed into a public park. A precedent has been es- 
tablished at Paterson where bodies have been removed from two 
cemeteries and the grounds have become units in the park system. 
Not all the cemeteries in Bergen county could be made into parks. 
Indeed, it would be better if none of them were, excepting possibly 
the one in Hackensack; but it would be well if some one would care 
for the little grave yards scattered about here and there. 

Much family history has been lost through the destruction of the 
stones. Often the only records of births and deaths to be found are 
those engraved upon the tombstones. And when these stones are 
destroyed it is frequently impossible to obtain the information they 
bore. How serious this loss may be it is quite impossible to esti- 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY 23 

mate. Upon so small a thing as a tombstone record m.ay depend tho 
legality of the inheritance of estates. And with the tombstones de- 
stroyed how can this source of information be replaced? 

It is not necessary that these pathetic little yards be planted with 
trees and flowers, though one might wish they could be. But they 
should be fenced so as to protect them from roving animals, and it 
ought to be made a misdemeanor, at least, to carry away one of the 
tombstones. This would lead to the arrest of any person found with 
one in his possession, and would probably prevent further carrying 
away and the use of them for step stones or flagging. If not the law 
icould easily be made more stringent. Protection is what is wanted, 
and apparently unless the state takes it up protection will be the 
one thing unobtainable. 

Some may raise the question whether or not the care of such 
cemeteries is a public duty. And maybe ground for argument ex- 
ists. It should be the duty of the descendants of those who are 
buried in these yards to see that the graves are saved from the 
viclence of those who have no sentiment, or even respect for the 
dead. But in instances where the rlescendanfs too, are scattered, who 
is to do the work if the public does not attend to it? And why 
should not the public do it? The public erects and maintains ex- 
pensive monuments commemorating the deeds of those who have 
been valiant in war or who displayed extraordinary ability in 
other directions. Are they more worthy of public respect than those 
who performed their daily tasks, humbly, it may be, yet none the less 
faithfully? Shall not their memory be honored to the extent, at 
least, that their graves are kept free from desecration? The humble 
man who performed his allotted task as faithfully and as conscien- 
tiously as we know most of these did is entitled to have his grave 
respected, even though the public sees no particular gain in spending 
money upon it. 

Is it an altogether pleasant reflection that after the lapse of time 
the graves of those now here shall be neglected and mayhap the 
last resting place of those now on earth become a playground? As- 
suredly it is not. Nor can one escape the inevitable conclusion of 
this reasoning by declaring as carelessly as one may that when one 
is in his grave he won't care. All the more reason why some one 
else should care. Beyond all human ability to do for one's self as 
for others, one may be as insensible as the clod, yet the contempla- 
tion of the possibility is not attractive. Such reflections as this 
should cause those who may be indifferent or thoughtless to con- 
sider what is to be done. 

Copies of the inscriptions are being made in all the cemeteries 
of the county, and these copies are placed on file in uniform binding 
so they can be consulted, but even though the inscriptions have 
been made through the generosity and hard work of one or more 
people the descendants are not absolved. Responsibility still rests 
with them, and they should endeavor, so far as possible, to care 
for these yards. Next to that an aroused public sentiment is most 
needed. But public sentiment is hard to rouse upon a subject which 
seems to be so remote as this. Only by constantly presenting the 
facts to that portion of the public directly interested will it bt 
possible to accomplish anything. Members of historical societies 
can help, and perhaps to them one should look for the bulk of the 



24 BERGEN COUNTY 

agitation required to bring about action. Possibly similar condi- 
tions exist elsewhere in the state and members of societies in other 
localities feel much the same way. If so, united action might result 
in securing a law which would make the care of these cemeteries 
mandatory upon the communities in which they are located. At any 
rate, the matter deserves more consideration by those who should 
be, and presumably are, interested, than it has yet received. 

It is something which will never remedy itself. Indeed, the en- 
croachments of business and other activities each year make it 
clearer that unless something decisive is done all cemeteries in 
which sleep the foundrs of the eomnionwealth will be obliterated 
eventually, even as some of them have been already. Is land so 
scarce in New Jersey that this destruction is necessary? Has it 
come to this that we cannot permit the dead to lie in peace where 
loving hands once laid them? Shall the sanctity of the hallowed 
God's Acre, wihere rest those whose work is done be thus ruthlessly 
disturbed? Perhaps thoughtlessness in matters affecting the liv- 
ing may be condoned, but surely the dead should be left unmolested. 

Here, then, is a subject which deserves the attention of those 
who respect the dead. If anything is to be done to save some of 
the little yards, action must be quick. Many are gone entirely. In 
some the stones have fallen and have become misplaced so they 
could never be put at the right graves. But others are still In- 
tact, excepting that they are overgrown with brush, and weeds and 
briers, while broken fences permit the cattle to make pasture of 
the graves. If this is not desecration it would he difficult to con- 
cleve of a more graphic illustration of the word. It is for members 
of this society and others organised for the same purposes to ex- 
ert all the influence they possess in an effort to preserve what is 
left of these last resting places of the early builders of the state. 



JOHN R. JCHENBACH'S HOUSE 
SADDLE RIVER 




THE ACKERMAN HOMESTEAD 

DATE OF ERECTION 

UNCERTAIN 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY 25 



REFORMED CHURCH AT PARAMUS 



By Everett L. Zabriskie. 



The church was organized prior to 1725, and had a regular pastor 
at that time. Paramus was originally called Peremese. and was set- 
tled by the children of Albert Zabriskie in 1713. Hohokus was set- 
tled by the Hopper and Ackerman families in 1720. The first settler 
in this section was Aaron Ackerman, who originally occupied the Mrs. 
A. A. Blauvelt property. What is now Rid.^ewood was settled by 
the Van Emburgh family early in 1725 and these neighborhoods con- 
stituted the im.mediate congregation of the Paramus church. Prior 
to 1700 there were three churches; one at Hackensack, one at 
Acquackanonk and one at Tappan. 

Pastor Guilliam Bertholf sei-ved the three churches and toward 
the close of his ministry, just after 1700, exact date unknown, two 
new churches were formed, one at Paramus and the other at Schraa- 
lenburgh. In 1725, Reinhardt Erickson gave three years of his time 
to the congregation of the two new churches, following George W. 
Manchius, who afterward went to Kingston, N. Y., and there built 
up one of the strongest and the best of our Reformed churches 
which fetands today as a monument to his faithfulness and persever- 
ance. 

In 1726, Peter Fauconier made a proposition to the congregation, 
offering them a tract of forty-five acres of land for church purposes, 
but it was not accepted. In 1730, be again made the proposition and 
again it was refused. 

In 1734, the consistory appointed Johannes Wynkoop and Claus 
Vanderbeck to prepare plans and erect a church edifice. They pro- 
ceeded with their work upon a strip of ground representing about 
three acres on which the present buildings stand and which was don- 
ated by Peter Fauconier, who in return received free seating for 
himself and family. Mr. Vanderlinde, a relative of the original Za- 
briskie's wife, born at Pollily, and educated for the ministry, took 
charge, and in 1750, Mrs. Valleau, the daughter of Peter Fauconier, 
gave to the church authorities, the forty-five acres originally offered. 

During the Revolution the church was used for officers' quarters, 
hospital service, prison, barracks, and stables. After the war, 1785, 
a levy of eight shillings on each seat was made and with this money 
the church was remodeled and used for fifteen years. 



26 BERGEN COUNTY 

In 1785, the Ramapo churchi was set off. In 1787, the Pascack con- 
gregation applied for the privilege of organizing a church at Pas- 
cack, but withdrew the application and it was not until twenty-five 
years later that the Pascack church was actually established. 

In 1784 owing to the fact that the congregation was large, the 
Consistory decided to erect a church at Saddle River; each church to 
have its own consistory, but the two to work in unison, and no 
separation occurred until late in 1811. 

On August 12, 1799, Eltinge decided it was time to rebuild having 
used the building since the war. They decided to build a new 
church 65 by 50 feet, to place it upon the site of the old, and in 
May 1800, the old church was torn down and services were held 
for the time being in a barn on the Bogert property across the river. 
The Classis of Paramus was organized during the rebuilding, or rather 
at the opening of the newl cburch in September, 1800. The bell which 
now hangs in the church, bears the inscription of Thomas Hears, 
London, 1801. In 1811, separation from the Saddle River church 
was consummated. In 1814, Pascack left the Paramus church, and 
in 1823, the original Seceder church left Paramus, and only seven 
families were left there. In 1859, Rev. E. T. Corwin originated the 
idea of Valleau Cemetery, laid it out and opened it for the sale of 
lots. 

Since then the church has had an enviable history and is now 
a flourishing exponent of the Reformed faith. 



CATALOGUE 



BERGEN COUNTY 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

1914 




COMPILED BY 

FRANCES A. WESTERVELT 

LIBRARIAN 

CHAIRMAN of ARCHIVES and PROPERTY 

COMMITTEE 



28 BERGEN COUNTY 



CATALOGUE 



Articles of Special interest found in the Society's Year Books. (In 
the Envelope Collections.) 

Report on Colonial and Revolutionary History and Historical Places. 
— Colonel W. D. Snow. — No. one. 

Baron Steuhen's Estate.— W. A. Linn. — No. one. 

The Poor Monument Celebration. — E. K. Bird. — No. one 

Oration Upon the Unveiling of the Statue of General Enoch Poor,— 
Hon. Henry M. Baker. — No. one. 

Retreat of '76.— T. N. Glover. — No. two. 

Bergen County Dutch — Rev. John C. Voorhis. — No. two. 

Historic Houses in Bergen County. — B. H. Allbee. — No. two. 

Old Family Papers. — Cornelius Christie. — No. two. 

Historical Loan Exhibitions. — No. two. 

Historiographers' Report. — T. N. Glover. — No. three. 

Genealogical Report. — F. A. Westervelt. — No. three. 

Indian Life in Bergen County.— Frank G. Speck, Clifford M, Story. 
• — No. three. 

Old Time Bergen County Doctors. — Dr. Byron G. Van Home. — No. 
three. 

First Lutheran Church in Bergen County. — E. K. Bird. — No. three. 

Demolition of Private Cemeteries. — Everett L. Zabriskie. — No. 
three. 

New Bridge. — Francis Koehler. — No. three. 

The Bar of Bergen County. — Cornelius Doremus. — No. threee. 

Slavery in Bergen County. — W. A. Linn. — No. four. 

Liberty Pole Tavern. — Nelson K. Vanderbeek. — No. four. 

Some of Closters Oid Time History. — Mary Naugle — No. four. 

Scraps from My Note Book.— T. N. Glover.— No. four. 

The Edsall Papers. — Dr. Byron G. Van Home. — No. four. 

The Old Pollifly Road.— Burton H. Allbee. — No. four. 

The Church at English Neighborhood. — Dr. B, F. Underwood.— No. 
four. 

Necrology. — T, N. Glover.— No. four. 

Old Land Lines in Hackensack. — George J. Ackerman.— Nos. five 
and six. 

Ancient Dutch Arclntecture.— B. H. Allbee.— Nos. five and six. 

Over Our Northern Border. — T. N. Glover. — Nos. live and six. 

Historical Clippings.— F. A. Westervelt. — Nos. five and six 

Changes.— Hon. D. D Zabriskie.- Nos. five and six. 

Early Legislation Affecting Bergen County.— Hon. E. W. Wakelee. 
— Nos. five and six, 

Historic Maps.— H. B. Goetschius.— Nos. five and six. 

Bergen County Courts.— Hon. W. M. Johnson. 

Appendix, (Court House Property Deeds).— Hon. Wm. M. Johnson. 
— No. seven. 

Historic Closter.— David D. Ackerman. — No. seven. 
Outlines of the Natural History of Bergen County.— Henry Hales. 
— No. seven. 

Presentation Speech.— Judge Cornelius Doremus.— No. seven. 



I 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY 29 

A Sketch of the Reformed Church of Pararaus. — Henry D, Cook, 
Pastor. — jNo. seven. 

A Description of Old New Jersey — 1698, 

Extracts from Scree Old Pajiers. 

William Nelson Address, "The American Newspapers of the 
Eighteenth Century as Sources of History." 

Ancient Sketch of Tenafly. 

"A Sturdy Dutchman Who Tramped the Mohawk Valley, 1634." 

Interesting Story of Hackensack Printed in 1890. Gives account 
of Historical Places on Main Street and Mansion House. 

MRS. M. ALLAIRE'S COLLECTION, (Loaned.) 

Frying pan used in Peter Burdett's home at Fort Lee to prepare 
food for General Wasluiigton. 

Suhpoena issued in 1820 from the Court of Chancery in New York, 
in a case in which Peter Allaire is complainant and Robert Compbell, 
Frederick De I'eyster and Peter Jay and Robert Troupe, were defend- 
ants. Signed by Aaron Burr, Solicitor. — Loaned by Mrs. M. Allaire. 

Pieces of Home-spun blanket with a Crown and G. K. — King George 
— from Burdette Home at Fort Lee. — Loaned by Mrs. M. Allaire. 

New Jersey Almanac, 1828. Knickerbocker Almanac, 1865. — 
Loaned by Mrs, M. Allaire. 

BERGEN COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY'S PROPERTY. 

One half standard glass case. 

One standard glass case. 

Two long glass cases. 

Two short glass cases. 

Seven tables for holding glass cases. 

Fourteen camp chairs. 

One large bookcase and filing cabinet (combined). 

Two wooden horses. (Under Mummie.) 

One case, 6 ft. by 2 and 3 ft. high. Glass shelves. 

One case, 18x17, Both gift of William O. Allison. 

BOUND BOOKS. 

A Journal of a Country Woman. — Presented by the Author, Emma 
Winner Rogers. 

Pictorial History of the Revolution. 

Bergen County Historical Society Secretary's Book, No. 1, 

Bureau of Statistics of New Jersey, 1912. 

One Volume Journal of the Continental Congress, Vol. XIX— 
17S1-1912. 

One Volume Industrial Directory of New Jersey, 19C9. 

Eight Volumes, Somerset County, Historical Quarterly. 

Library of Congress. One Volume, Descriptive List of Maps of 
Spanish Possessions in the United States, 1502-1820.— Lowery. 

Library of Congress, One Volume, Report of the Librarian of 
Congress, 1912. 

One Volume, Library of Congress Check List of American Eigh- 
teenth Century Newspapers.— Ingram, 1912. 

30 Numbers, The Journal of American History, 1907-14. 

6 Volumes American Educator Library of Universal History. 10 
Volumes Harper's Eucyclopedia of United States History, One 
Volume, War with Spain, — 'Presented by A, S. D. Demarest. 



30 BERGEN COUNTY 

Crittenden Papers. Library of Congress. 

One Volume Hackensack Dutch Reformed Church Records. 

One Volume Schraalenbnrgh Dutch Reformed Church Records. 

Last two presented by The Holland Society of New York City. 

One Volume History First Reformed Church of Hackensack, N. J., 
1686-186'J.— Presented by F. A. Westervelt. 

One Volume Library of Congress, American and English Genealo- 
gies, 1910. 

Two Volumes Library of Congress Van Buren Papers. 

Two Volumes Ecclesiastical Records of the State of New York. 

One Volume New Jersey's Ninth Regiment, 1861-1905. 

One Volume History of New Jersey. — Lippincott's. 

One Volume Memoirs and Reminiscences, Sussex County, N. J., 
by Rev. Casper Schaeffer, M. D.— V^illiam M. Johnson. 

One Volume Family of Joris Dircksen, by Cornelius Christie. 

One Volume Report of Adjutant General of New Jersey, 1904-05. 

One Volume Report of Adjutant General of New Jersey, 1903-04. 

One Volume Campaign of Trenton, 1776-77. 

One Volume In Camp with Company L. 

Four Volumes, Council of Appointment. 

One Volume, Library of Congress, Kohl Collection of Maps, 1901. 

One Volume Library of Congress, Calendar of John Paul Jones, 
1903. 

One Volume Library of Congress, Books, Philippine Islands, Maps, 
1903. 

One Volume Constitution and By-Laws, New York State Historical 
Association. 

Volumes 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, New York State Historical Association. 
Years, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1906, 1908, 1909. 

20 Volumes Journals of the Continental Congress. 

One Volume, Ulster County, Commemorative Records, Biographies 
and Portraits. 

3 Volumes, The New Jersey Coast. Genealogical. 

2 Volumes, History of Hudson & Essex County, N. J. 

3 Volumes, Reports, Library of Congress. 

2 Volumes, The Monmouth County Historical Association. 

1 Volume, Annual Report of the State Librarian of New Jersey, 
1906. 

1 Volume "Josephois," loaned by Miss Jennie Zabriskie. 

General Atlas, 1821. Loaned by Miss L. Cummings. 

Phelps' Travelers' Guide, 1847, "Through the United States, by 
Railroad, Canal, Stage and Steamboat Routes" (with map). — Pre- 
sented by Dr. D. St. John. 

Old Hymnal— 1814, loaned by Henry Bunger. 

Old Book, 1814, "Quotations from the British Poets," loaned by 
Miss Cummings. 

3 Volumes Bergen County Historical Clippings, collected, arranged 
and presented by Frances A. Westervelt. 

"The Young Carpenter's Assistant," by Owen Biddle, 1805. — Loaned 
by John W. Curtis. 

Records of the Virginia Company, Vol. 1, 1619-1622. Vol. 2, 1622- 
1624. Library of Congress. 

Books of Tombstone Inscriptions (Typewritten). 
Edgewater, 178. 
First Reformed, Hackensack, 500. Collected by F. A. Westervelt. 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY 31 

First Lutheran, Hackensack, 7. 

Harrington Park (])rivate), 5. 

Old Hook (Westwood). 11. 

True Reformed (abandoned), on Hudson Street. 

Hackensack, 20, Collected by F. A. Westervelt. 

Leonia True Reformed, 15. Collected by F. A. Westervelt. 

Auryanseu, Closter, 5G. Collected by F. A. Westervelt. 

The Ponds, Oakland, 219. 

French, at New Bridge, 157. 

Dumont (North Church of Schraalenburg), 214. Collected by 
F. A. Westervelt. 

Saddle River, Reformed Church. 

Saddle River Lutheran church, 277. 
Near Harrington Park Station, 103 inscriptions. 

Saucher's Tave's Begraven Ground (Sarah Matthew's Burying 
Ground), near Demurest Station. 90 inscriptions, presented by W. 
O. Allison. Expense of typewriting inscriptions paid by W. O. 
Allison. 

CHARLES CURTIS, 28 ESSEX STREET, COLLECTION (Loaned). 

The original mail bag used in conveying the mail between New 
York and Philadelphia before the existence of the mail service on 
the railroads. 

Doll's Cradle, made with the wooden hood like large ones. Was 
the property of Eliza Haring, born Jan. 6, 1815. Supposed to have 
been given her at the age of seven. Given to her great-grand- 
daughter, Lois Ann Curtis, Aug. 29, 1912. 

One Old Gun, Revolutionary War, Paul Revere type. 

Two pewter spoons. 

One pewter mug. 

One pewter plate. 

One pewter bowl. 

COLONIAL LOCKS, KEYS, NAILS, PLASTER, Etc. 

Keys belonging to the Old Zabriskie house, which stood on the 
site of the "Johnson Library." About 150 years old. 

Home-made lock and key of an old Teaneck house. Presented by 
Charles Adams. 

Hand-made wooden lock from old Kip house at Athenia, New Jer- 
sey, near Passaic. Loaned by Mr. R. B. Wood. 

Hinge from the Van Houten-Vreeland house on Vreeland avenue, 
Paterson, N. J. Built 1734, Remodeled 1773. Presented by Mr. Rob- 
ert Brown. 

Hand-made ring latch from divided Dutch Door, Van Derbeck 
house, 1717, on Moore Street, above Main Street Station. Presented 
by New York Telephone Company. 

Lath and plaster from the Ackerman house. Main Street, Hacken- 
sack, N. J. The piaster is common dirt and the lath 2 feet long, 2 
inches thick, of very light wood, with pointed ends. 

Locks, hinges, mortar, plaster, hand-made nails and brick from old 
Kip house on Pollifly Read. Built 1690. Burned 1905. 

One red brick lV2x3x7 inches. Brought from Holland in hold ot 
ship as ballast. From ruins of old red stone house, "Kips," on Pollifly 
Road, one mile below Essex Street. Destroyed by fire 1905, after two 
centuries. 



32 BERGEN COUNTY 

One Holland brick l^^xSxT inches, from Zabriskie tide mill near 
New Bridge, N. J. Taken from river in 1912. 

One yellow brick I%x3%x7 inches, from ruins of Kip house. 

Hand-made latch from old stone "Ferry House," Little Ferry," the 
scene of many stirring events during the Revolutionary War. 

Hand-split lath and lath nail from above house. Burned Jan. 14, 
1913. Five loaned by Charles Cafferty. 

Large hand-made hinge from Sipp house, Athenia. Built 1772. 

Hand-made hinge from, ruins of Peter Kip house on Pollifly Road. 

Brass cupboard fittings from old stone house. 

Window blind fastener from burned house at Nordoff. 

Oak pin from roof framing old red stone house. Typical of all old 
buildings. 

Hand-m.ade nail. This design is often found in cellar beams for 
hangers. 

(6 Presented by Charles Cafferty.) 

HISTORICAL SOUVENIRS. 

Door with peep hole from old jail torn dovai in 1912. Built in 1919. 

Cannon ball taken from the ruins of Fort Ticonderoga and used at 
the battle between the French and English in 1758. 

Tin box used by Casparus Westervelt during the Revolutionary 
War to carry papers. Loaned by Percy Devoe. 

Soldiers' plate picked up in New York City after the 71st Regiment 
passed on their return from the Spanish-American War. Loaned by 
C. Eugene Walsh. 

Old 1819 Court House Bell. Supposed to have been used in 1792 
Court House. Presented by Board of Fl-eeholders, Sept., 1912. Newly 
mounted by Howard B. Goetschius. 

1 gun, used in the Revolutionary War. Mark on lock, '^Cassaguard 
A. Nante." Presented by Mrs. E. Gardner Board. 

2 old guns. FTesented by Mrs. E. Gardner Board. 

Spanish War outfit of Newton Cyphers, Co. H, 3d New Jersey In- 
fantry. Cartridge belt, canteen, plate, hat, cross arms, fork and tin 
cup. Presented by Mrs. Newton Cyphers. 

HOUSEHOLD ARTICLES. 

Colonial Mirror, bequeathed by Miss Ellen Hopper, 1909. 

French Clock, presented by Miss Anna Berdan, 1909. 

One pair Silver Candle Sticks, owned by Peter Wilson, used in 
Columbia College. 

One pair Vases, all loaned by Mrs. William C. Archer. 

One Foot Stove. Presented by F. A. Westervelt. 

Tea Caddy. Said to have once belonged to Queen Elizabeth. Pre- 
sented by Miss Dorothy Hanchett. , 

One Pewter Platter, belonged to Mrs. Peter Haring, 1807, Loaned 
by Mrs. Elizabeth Rose, Hackensack. 

One Pie Plate (earthen), with head of Washington. Presented by 
Mrs. Louise Haggin. 

Doll's Mahogany Four Poster Bed. Period of 1800. Also bedding. 

Colonial Waffle Iron. 

Early Colonial Wool Carders. 

Early Colonial Brush for polishing mahogany. 

(Last four from Old Brinkerhoff House on Essex Street, and be- 
queathed by Miss H. B. Brinkerhoff.) 



JOHN OSBORN'S HOUSE 
SADDLE "RIVER 




FORMERLY VAN BUSKIRK HOMESTEAD 
BUILT 1740 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY 33 

One large Spinning Wheel (wool), from Quackenbush homestead, 
Wyckoff. Loaned by Mr?. N. White. 

One Farm Fork, over TOO years old. 

Wooden Feed Shovel, over 100 years old. 

One Candle Mold. 

One Brazier, Colonial. 

One Old Fire Place Toasting Iron. 

Fire Place Almanac Box, H. B., 1772, owned by Henry Banta. 
Loaned by Miss Anna Stagg. 

Corn Husker, lor hand. 

Fish Net Needle from Wortendyke Inn, near south end of Wood- 
cliff Lake. 

Peg from Home-made Clothes Rack in use in many of the old 
stone houses. 

Wool Carder from old stone house across creek from Upper Saddle 
River Church. 

(Last four presented by Charles Cafferty.) 

CLYDE B. HAY COLLECTION (Loaned). 

Powder Flask, found after retreat of American Army from Fort 
Lee 

Two Cannon Balls, found in Hook's Pond in Fort Lee, 

Two remnants of Exploded Shell. 

Piece of Wood from U. S. Frigate Constitution. 

Lock and Key from Major John Andre's prison at Tappan. 

Stone Tomahawk with handle. 

Paper Map 7x12 inches of New York City in 1778. 

Fragments of Indian Pottery. 

INDIAN RELICS. 

•Large Indian Canoe, found in the mud by the Creek, near Court 
House. Presented by G. G. Ackerson and G. Randall, 1903. 

Indian Pestle, found on farm of Thomas V. B. Zabriskie at Paramus, 
near Saddle River. Presented by Mrs. T. V. B. Zabriskie, 1912. 

Stone Chippings from remains of a "Kitchen Midden," at Teaneck, 
N. J. (B. C. H. S.) 

Indian Ceremonial Stone, found on the farm of Captain Henry 
Lozier by Mrs. Henry Mildner, at North Hackensack, July 27, 1907. 

Yellow Ocher Arrow Head, found at Norwood, N. J., and presented 
by Paul Brinkerhoff. 

Piece of Carved Wood, by Indians. Loaned by Charles Eypper. 

MRS. CHARLES H. LOZIER'S COLLECTION (Loaned). 

One Blue and White Coverlet. Rachel Westervelt, 1834. Name 
woven in. 

Two Dresses for Children. 

One Hand-made Lace Wedding Veil. 

One Embroidered Collar. 

One Embroidered Colla.". 

One piece of Crochet Work. 

One Cut Glass Tumbler, over 100 years old. 

One Old China Bowl. 

One child's Chair, over jOO years old. 

One Homespun Linen Table Cloth. 

One Picture of Early Edsall House, located in English Neighbor- 
hood, near what is now Morsemere. 



31 BERGEN COUNTY , 

MANUSCRIPTS. 

General Green's original manuscript order book. New York head- 
quarters, June, July and August, 1776. Given by William O. Allison. 

Old Letter in Dutch, 1741. Loaned by A. W. Van Winkle. 

Manuscript Editorial by William Cullen Bryant. Loaned by \V. 
A. Linn. 

Note from Martin F. Tupper to Mr. Bryant, making a correction 
In a poem sent to the Evening Post The direction beginning "Mr. 
Dithmar," in Mr. Bryant's writing, signed wiith his initials. Loaned 
by W. A. Linn. 

Article of Agreement, IS 57, between George J. Hopper and Jacoh 
Vanderbeek. 

Origin of the name of Hohokus. Pearls in Bergen County. Writ- 
ten and read at 1913 dinner by John Marinus. 

Reminiscence by Mrs. P. E. Moore, of Dumont, N. J., in regard to 
Old Schraalenburgh early days. 

MAPS. 

New York City, 1804. Presented by Lewis Labagh. 

Rockland and Orange County, N. Y., 1856. 

Hackensack and vicinity. 

Map of Disputed Territory. Time when longitude was reckoned 
from Washington. Loaned by Miss L. Cummings. 

Tentative Historical Map of Bergen County, N. J. Compiled by 
H. B. Goetschias F., 1909, lor the Bergen County Historical Society. 

Photograph of Map of New York City, 1728. Presented by F. A. 
Westervelt. 

Geological Survey, Hackensack, sheet No. 1, 1899. 

Bergen, Hudson and Essex, 1896. 

Relief Map of New Jersey, 1896. 

Plan of Liberty Pole Tavern, built in 1801, by John Van Der Beek. 
Destroyed by fire, 1835. 

Village of Hackensack, surveyed Jan. 1860. Contains business 
directory. T. and J. Slator. 

From Palisades to Paterson, 1867. Business directory. Small in- 
sert of Hackensack. M. and J. Hughes. 

Hackensack, 1874. W. Williams. Gift of William O. Allison. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Porto Rican Paper Money. Loaned by W. A. Linn. 

Date of the American Occupation. Loaned by W. A. Linn. 

Foreign Coin Scale. Gives a table of coin values and weight, 
October, 1761. Loaned by Miss L. Gumming. 

A Mugler. Used at Liberty Pole Tavern, Englewood. (To stir 
drinks.) Presented by Mr. Jasper Demarest. 

Stereoscope. Presented to B. C. H. S, in 1902 by H. E. Richmond, 
inventor, of Westwood. 

Copper Ore from Schuyler Copper Minee, one mile south of Ruther- 
ford, on edge of meadow. Presented by C. Cafferty. 

Gavel, made from the wood that supported the old Court House 
bell, 1819-1912. 

Small Model of old Court House Bell, for dinner favor, 1913. Made 
from wood that supported the old Court House Bell, 1819-1912. 

Bergen County Historical Society Dinner Souvenirs. 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY 35 

Broken China, picked up after the Tornado at Cherry Hili (North 
Hackensack), July 13, 18[)5. 

Egyptian Mummy, in case, purchased at Thebes, Egyp.t by Rev. 
E. T. Sanford and presented to the society. 

"New Jersey General," ready envelope system of Historical Clip- 
pings. Classified under Counties by Mr. and Mrs. Charles Cafferty. 
Collected and presented by B. H. AUbee. 

Essex County. Ocean County. 

Passaic County. Gloucester County. 

Hudson County. Atlantic County. 

Mercer County. Warren County. 

Burlington County. Hunterdon County. 

Sussex County. Morris County. 

Middlesex County. Someset County. 

Cumberland County. Union County. 

Camden County. Miscellaneous Items. 

OLD DEEDS, ETC. 

Deed, 1792, Walter Clendenne. 

Deed, 1740, Conrad Ver Valen. 

Deed, 1792, Garret Vanderhoof. 

Deed, 1775, Sebe Hen Banta and Wife Layer (English Neighbor- 
hood), (Above in Historical Collection of deeds and papers of Squire 
Jacobus Deraarest). All contained in small cherry wood chest said 
to be 200 ye&rs old. 

(Above four presented by Mrs. C. L. Withington, 1909.) 

Certificate of George Clinton, Governor of New York, dated Dec. 
1, 1794, with great seal of the state attached. 

Ancient Deed, dated May 14, 1695. 

Ancient Deed, dated Jan. 4, 1651. 

Ancient Deed, dated Dec. 9, 1686. 

(Above three loaned by Wm. M. Johnson.) 

Tax List, Precinct of Hackensack, 1784. Presented by William 
Collins. 

Old Account Books of Hackensack, 1791-1S08-1S05. Presented by 
J. Demarest. 

OLD NEWSPAPERS. 

One issue The New Jersey Citizen, Hackensack, Saturday, May 

5. 1877. 

One Hackensack Star & Bergen Farmer, 1824. Framed and pre- 
sented by E. K. Bird, 1909. 

One issue N. Y. Herald, Septemher 20, 1881. 

One issue N. Y. Tribune, May 31, 1865. 

One issue Bergen Index, 1880. 

One issue N. Y. Herald, 1865. 

One issue Jersey Times, Jersey City Heights, 1877. 

One issue N. Y. Times. 1881. 

One issue Bergen Index, 1875. 

One issue N. J. Citizen, 1876. 

One issue Jersey Times, Jersey City, 1876. 1 • 

One issue N. Y. Tribune, 1881. 

One issue N. Y. Commercial Advertiser, 1881. 

One issue N. Y. Tribune, 1881. 



36 BERGEN COUNTY 

One issue Bergen Index, 1875. 

One issue N. Y. World, 1881. 

One issue New Rochelle Pioneer, 1885. 

One issue Anniversary number, Paterson Press, 1912 (Tenth an- 
niversary of great fire and floods). 

"The Voice of Passaic," April 22, 1823, Paterson, N. J. 

"Bergen Farmer," iHackensack, Jan. 5, 1825. 

"The Jersey Blue," Hoboken, Aug. 2, 1837. 

"Passaic Guardian," Paterson, Mar. 18, 1845. 

"The Bergen County Gazette," Hackensack, Dec 30, 1857. Last 
five presented iby E. J. Sheridan, Englewood, N. J. 

Siamese Newspapers, loaned by Taylor Holburton. 

Peruvian Newspapers, loaned by Jack Terhune. 

The Bergen County Journal, 1858. One year's issue ibound and 
presented by E. K. Bird. 

N. Y. Evening Post, Sept. 14, 1810. 

N. Y. Herald, May 20, 1815. Loaned by Miss L. Cummings. 

Framed coipy No. 1, Vol. I, of N. Y. Sun, 1835. Presented by 
Mrs. Louise S. Jersey. 

Thirty-one copies of Current Events, 1913. Presented by John 
W. Curtis. 

PICTURES AND PORTRAITS. 

Engraving of General George Washington, bequeathed by Miss 
Ellen F. Hopper. 

Engraving of Hon. Wm. M. Johnson, Society's First President. 

Engraving of members of New Jersey Senate 1859. Framed and 
presented by W. I. Conklin, 

Water color picture of Coat of Arms of Bergen, Holland. Presented 
by Holland-American Board of Trade. 

Six steriopticon viewis. (Historical). 

Dinner Souvenir Pictures of different Court Houses, Bergen 
County. 

Picture of 1819 Court House Bell hanging in the belfry. 

Photo of Yates Mill, Westwood, Built by John Demarest, 1680-1690. 
Presented by B. H. Allbee. 

I. Portfolio of Vermonts pictures of Prominent Men. Presented by 
B. H. Allbee. 

I Picture New Court House and Jail, 1913. 

Framed Bills of Sale for Slaves. 

Bill of Sale between Necauje Voor Hesen and David Peter 
Demarest of Hackensack, Bergen County, N. J., 1794. 

Bill of Sal« between Daniel S. Demarest and David L Demarest, 
1803, Hackensack, Bergen County, N. J. 

Bill of Sale between Cornelius Van Horn and David Demarest of 
Schraalenburgh, Bergen County, N. J. Presented by the heirs of Mrs. 
Jacob Van Buskirk, through W. A. Linn. 

1 Framed group of 24 Bergen County Historic Houses. Photo- 
graphed and presented by B. H. Allbee, 1913. 

Three large Steel Engravings: — 
Lady Washington's Reception. 
Marriage of Pocahontus. 

Franklin at the Court of St. James, London, 1774. Presented 
by Mrs. Gardner Board. 

1 Steel Engraving of Rev. Theodore B, Romeyn, D. D. 



HISTORICAL SOCIETl 37 

A photograph of Everett L. Zabriskie, former president of the 
Society 

Two Half Tone Plates of the Coat of Arms of Bergen, in the 
Netherlands. 

List of Half Tone Cuts of 17 or 18 Dutch Houses. Presented by 
Burton H. Allbee. 

Schuyler's Mansion, opposite Belleville, N. J. 

Ennis House, near West end of Rutherford Avenue Bridge, Ruther- 
ford. 

Van Buskirk, Main and Ward Streets, Hackensack, N. J. 

Board Homestead, Paramus Pike. 

Ackerman-Brinkerhoff Homestead on Pollifly Road by old Lodi 
Railroad track, Hackensack, N. J. 

Kipp Homestead, Union Avenue, Rutherford, N. J. 

BrinkerhofC-Christie Homestead, Ridgefield Park, N. J., East of 
Railroad. 

Winters Homestead, Campgaw, N. J. Finest type of its kind \n 
New Jersey. 

A collection of unfraraed photos of Dutch Houses. Presented by 
B. H. Allbee. 

Pliotograph of Monument, erected at Old Bergen, N. J., of Petrus 
Stuyvesant, Governor of New Netherlands, 1660. 

History and Photographs of the Celebration in honor of the 
American Indians, at Tottenville, S. I., Feb. 22, 1913. Presented by 
John Warren Curtis. 

Half Tone Cut of Johnson Public Library. 

Two hundred negatives of Bergen County "Old Dutch Houses," 
"Mills," "Historic Sites," etc. Loaned by Burton H. Allbee. 

PAMPHLETS. 

Seven issues Annual Report of The Philadelphia Museums. 

One issue of Tax Assessments, 1911, New Barbadoes Township. 

One issue Perm Magazine of History and Biography. 

Sixty issues Magazine of History. 

One copy. An address delivered before the New York Historical 
Society, on its 92nd. Anniversary, Nov. 18, 1896, by Justin Winsor, 
L, L. D. 

Seventy-one copies. Magazine of American History. 

One copy. Some Historical Places in Northern New Jersey. 

One copy, Isaac Edge's Windmill. 

Twenty-second and Twenty-fourth annual report of Free Public 
Library. 

One Souvenir, The Holland Society of New York. 

One copy. Old New York, (History and Antiquities). 

One copy, John Foulsham. 

One copy, Fr. Sebastian Rasle. 

Three copies, Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society. 

TTiree copies. Transactions of the Oneida Historical society, at 
Utica, N. Y. 

One copy, A Record of Fifty Years. 

Five Copies, Vineland Historical and Antiquarian Society. 

One copy. Constitution and By Laws of the Gloucester County, 
N. J., Historical Society. 

One copy, hlarly Salem County. 

One copy, Senate-Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

One copy, Descendants of the Pioneers. 



38 BERGEN COUNTY 

Two copies, Dedication of Monument of Soldiers of Araerican 
Revolution. 

One copy, Proceedings Bostonian Society. 

One copy, Hackensack, Bergen County, N. J. 

One copy, Huguenot Society of America. 

One copy. Political Parties and Their Places of Meeting, New York 
City. 

One copy, An Address, New York Historical Society. 

One copy. Old New York. 

One copy, Proceedings, New England Historic and Genealogical 
Society. 

One copy. Col. Marinus Willett, The Hero of Mohawik Vallev. 

One copy. Genuine Letters, Mary Queen of Scots to James, Earl 
of Bothwell. 

One copy, Mary Stuait, Bothwell and the Casket Letters. 

One copy, Historical Society of Hudson County. 

One copy. The Founders own story of founding of Vinoland, N. J. 

One copy, Contributions to the Herpetology of New Granada and 
Argentina, by Cope. 

One copy, The Hunterdon County Historical Society. 

One copy. National Magazine. 

One copy, Editorial and Historical Notes. 

One copy. Proceedings of Sixth Annual Conference of Historical 
Societies. 

One copy, Schenectady County Historical Society. 

One copy. Catalogue of an Historical Exhibition held by the Free 
Public Library of Jersey City, 1909. 

One copy, Witherspoon Memorial. 

One copy. Magazine of Western History, illustrated. 

One copy, William Smith, the Historian. 

One copy. Souvenir History, Fiftieth Anniversary of the Incorpora- 
tion of the Town of West Hoboken, N. J. 

One copy. Souvenir of the Dedication and Unveiling of the Town 
Clock, Dumont, Bergen County, N, J. 

Forty-flve copies. Papers and Proceedings. 

Menu Cards. 

One copy, Views of Hackensack, Sept. 1900. 

One copy, "Washington and Lincom," 1912. Anniversary number. 
Prepared for the Public Schools of Colorado. 

Transactions of Oneida Historical Society, 1887-1889. 

The Huguenots on the Hackensack. Presented by W. M. Johnson. 

Twenty-two volumes. Magazine of American History. 

One volume. Souvenir, History of the Oranges, N. J. 

One volume. Historic Walkill and Hudson River Valley. 

One volume, American Historical Register. 

An examination of old Maps of Northern New Jersey with refer- 
ence to the Identification of the Area and Washington's Route 
across it. Presented by B. H. AUbee. 

One volume. Proceedings of Vermont Historical Society, 1909-1910. 

One volume, 250th Anniversary of Christ's First Presbyterian 
church of Hempstead, L. I., 1644-1894, 

Hudson-Fulton Celebration. 

Tunnel Day. 

Bergon and Jersey City Souvenir of 250th Anniversary of the 
Founding of Bergen. 

The Jersey City Post Office. Past and Present. 

The Free Public Library. 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY 39 

A Brief outline of the Government of Jersey City. 

Catalogue of an Historical Exhibition held by the Free Public 
Library of Jersey City. 

Above seven books donated by Free Public Library of Jersey City. 

One volume. Proceediugs of the Seventh Annual Conference of 
Historical Societies, 1910. 

Five volumes, Almanac and Year Book, (Historical), Woodstown 
N. J., First National Bank, 1910-1914. 

One volume. Story of the Slave, (in New Jersey), by Alfred M. Hes 
ton. 

One volume. Library of Congress, Publications of the Library is 
sued since 1S97. Jan 1913. 

Three volumes. The Historical Society of Hudson County. 

One volume. The Public Service Rate Problem. By Thomas N 
McCarter, 1911. 

One catalogue, Historical exhibition, Jersey City Library, 1909 
Hudson-Fulton Celebration. 

Lamentations over the Rev. Solomon Froeligh, S. S. T. D. & P. 
who died at Schraalenburgh, N. J., Oct. 8, 1827, at 2 p. m. Delivered 
in True Reformed Protestant Dutch church in King street, City of 
New York, on Lord's Day Morning, Oct. 28, 1827, by Cornelius T 
Demarest, A. M. V. D. M. Minister of King Street New York Church 

Acts and proceedings of General Synod of True Reformed Dutch 
church in United States America, at Ovid, June 1833. Also copy of 
1835 at New York, a development of facts and circumstances justify 
ing a Union with the True Reformed Dutch Church, by Cardistian Z 
Paulison, A. M., Minister of the United True Reformed Churches of 
Hackensack, English Neighborhood, N. J., 1831. 

Plain Truths about Saddle River Church Money Matters, 1837-8. 

Bergen County Historical Society's Scope and "Work. 29 books. 

Fifty-eight books, "Year Books," 1902-5. 

Year Books, 1906-7. (108 books). 

Sixty-five Year Books, 1907-8. 

Eighty^seven Year Books. 1908-9-10-11. 100 of 1912. 200 of 1914. 

Classification Class, B. F. Library of Congress. 

"God's Marvelous Thunder," a sermon. Preached in the Church 
at Hackensack by Rev. Solomon Froeligh, S. S. T. D. & P. On oc- 
casion of the lightning and thunder striking and rending the steeple 
of said Church on Friday, July 10, 1795. (Translated from the Dutch). 
Printed 1830. Presented by F. A. Westervelt. 

Pamphlets, address delivered at the unveiling of the Washington 
Statue at Newark, Nov. 2, 1912, by Francis J. Swayze. 

Pamphlets. Annual Report Public Schools, 1913. The early grist- 
mill of Wyominy Valley, Pa. 

Proceedings of Wyominy Historical and Geological Society, 1905. 

Address before Wyominy Members, Penn., Society, Sons of the 
Revolution, 1895. 

The Palatine or German Immigration. Rev. Sanford H. Cobb. 

History, Charter and By-Laws of the Wyominy Historical and 
Geological Society, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

Address at Erection of Monument to Captain Joseph David and 
Lieutenant William Jones, slain by Indians, at Luzerne Run, Luzerne 
County, Pa. 

The Jersey Dutch Dialect. By Dr. J. Dyneley Prince. 

Ready reference envelope arrangement of clippings of History of 
Bergen County. Court Houses, Churches, Schools, Revolutionary 



40 BERGEN COUNTY 

Houses, Mills, Industries, Post Offices, Old Houses, People, etc., as 
follows: 

1. Historical Addresses and Papers. 

2. Town Cele'brations. 

3. Bergen County Historic Pictures. 

4. Haickensack Historic Pictures. 

5. Legal iDocuments. 

6. History of Washington Institute. 

7. Hir/.orical Prizes. 

8. History of School No. 31. 

9. Society Dinner Menus, Invitations, etc. 

10. Genealogical References. 

11. History and Pictures, etc., of the New Court House. 

12. "Fighting Thirteenth" Reunion, held at Park Ridge, Sept. 18, 
1912. 

13. "Wayne's Attack on Block House, Bulls Ferry. 

14. "Forfeited Dwelling Revolutionary Days Still Stand." History 
and Photos of the Zabriskie-Steuben House, New Bridge, N. J. B. 
H. AUbee. 

15. "Mad Anthony Wayne, Failed on Fierce Attack Upon the Brit- 
ish Block House at Bulls Ferry." (With photos of Block House and 
other iplaces of interest). B. H. Allbee. 

16. Post Offices of Bergen County. 

17. "Passing of the Fair Mansion." 

18. Ancient Kingsland Manor. (History and photographs). B. 
H. Allbee. 

19. Early Dutcli Architecture in Northern New Jersey. Illustrated. 
B. H. Allbee. 

20. Second Reformed Church History, Hackensack. First Re- 
formed Church History, Hackensack. 

21. "Inventor Sure of His Device." (Mechanical drying of brick 
at Carlstadt.) B. H. Allbee. 

22. One List of Diners at Historical Dinner. 

23. Ridgewood, N. J., Historical Celebration, 1912. 

24. Bergen County, Its Past; Its Present; Its Future. By Burton 
H, Allbee. 

25. "Rev. Ezra T. Sanford Dead," one of the Found'ers of the His- 
torical Society of Bergen County. 

26. 'iDungeon Found Neath Jersey House." (The Baron Steuben 
House.) 

27. Sketch of Rutherford, N. J. 

28. History of West Point and Centennial Celebration, April 29-30, 
1889. 

29. The Fair Mansion, Essex Street, Hackensack, N. J. 

30. Article on the Jackson Whites. ; 

31. B. H. Allbee's Historical Talks, etc. 

32. Historical Extracts. 

33. Areola Methodist Church. 

34. "The Wind Jammers," of Hackensack. E. K. Bird. 

35. Bergen County's First Lutheran Church. 

36. The Old Canoe of Hackensack. 

37. Old Land Lines in Hackensack. 

38. "Old Hackensack," seen through the eyes of an Octogenarian. 

39. An Historic Old Farm at Pompton. 

40. Some Historic Places in Northern New Jersey. By T. N. 
Glover. 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY 41 

41. The Arlington Copper Mines. T. N. Glover. 

42. The Fifth Ward's New School. 

43. History of School District No. 31, 1825, and Account of Fire, 
etc., 1910. 

44. Huguenots. Only Colony in New Jersey. 

45. Sketch of Peter Wilson. 

46. History of Anneka-Jans Borgardus. 

47. The Liberty Pole Tavern, Englewood. 

48. History of Hohokus. 

49. Story of the Slave. A. M. Hesten. 

50. Bergen County Historic Houses and Mills with pictures and 
history. By Burton H. Allbee. 

51. Five Men of New Jersey Signed the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. 

■52. Recollections of Hackensack, 50 to 70 Years Ago. By G. J. 
Ackerman, 1902. 

53. "Washington's Back Track from Newburgh to the Ferries." 

54. Old Time Education Throughout New Jersey. 

55. Historic Preakness. 

56. Trenton Man Unearths Valuable Records of the New Jersey 
Loyalists in the Revolution. 

57. Historic Tappan. 

58. History of Calvary Baptist Church. Tenth Anniversary. 

59. Governors' Portraits of New Jersey. (17.) 

60. Landmarks of Polifly Road, Hackensack, with history and 
photographs of old Houses. By Burton H. Allbee. 

61. Brigadier General Poor. Unveiling of Monument at Hacken- 
sack. 

62. Memories of Passaic River, 50 Years Ago. Articles About 
Passaic. 

63. Old Bridge, now River Edge, When Washington Crossed the 
Hackensack River. 

64. New Jersey in Song and Story. 

65. Washington Retreating to Jersey Found Stronghold in Ramapo 
eills. 

66. First Presbyterian Church, Hackensack, Seventy-fifth Anni- 
versary. 

67. '"Building a Reservoir in the Valley of Hillsdale Manor," Ber- 
gen County. 

68. Historic Fort Lee. Unveiling of Monument. 

69. America's Oldest Copper Mine. 1719. Schuyler's, at Arling- 
ton, N. J. 

70. Historic Paramus and Church. 

71. Bergen County Nomenclature. E. K. Bird. 

72. "Aunt Sally Herring, nee Van Derbeck, and her House in 
Hackensack." 1907 Celebrates her 96th birthday. 

73. "A Journalist, Wm. A. Linn, Turns Author." 

74. The Story of Baron Steuben, hy W. A. Linn. 

75. Ancient Kingsland Manor. 

REV. E. T. SANFORD'S COLLECTION (Loaned). 

U. S. Records of Survey and Discovery in the Great West, 1822. 

Scotch Geography, 1832. 

Lava from Vesuvius. 

Stone from Quarries of Solomon, Jerusalem. 



42 BERGEN COUNTY 

iLeaf from an Account Book, Dec. 22, 1797. 
Stone from the Wall of Jerusalem. 
Jordan Lily. 

Stone from the Pyramid Cephrue. 
Piece of the Frigate Constitution. 
Egyptian Lamp. 

Key of Wheeler Homestead, Warwick, N. Y., 1760. 
Fishing Net from Italy. 
Cone of Cedar of Lebanon. 
Roman Coin. 
Seven Old Books. 

Belt Buckle, Elevator Bucket and Bolting Cloth, from Sanford 
Mills, Warwick, N. Y., where grain was ground during the Revolution, 
One Spur used in General Training at Vernon, N. J. 

MRS. FRANCES A. WESTERVELT'S COLLECTION (Loaned). 

One Small Bowl. Old Blue. 

Three Tureens. (One Millennium design). Old Blue. 
One Ladle. 

One Large Platter. Light Blue. 
Three Small Platters. Old Blue. 

Sixteen Plates, Old Blue. (One the Landing of Lafayette at 
Castle Garden.) 

One Lustre (Silver) Sugar Bowl. 
Cream Pitchers. (Copper Lustre.) Two. 
One Sugar Bowl. (Copper Lustre.) 
One Cup and Saucer. (Lustre.) 
One Cup. (Lustre.) 
One Teapot. (Castleford.) 

iFive Sugar Bowls. One having picture of Washington at Mount 
Vernon. 

One Punch Bowl. Old Blue. 

One Large Bowl. Old Blue. 
Five Pitchers. Old Blue. 

One Cup Plate. Light Blue. 

One Small Plate. Light Blue. \ 

One Pickle Dish. Old Blue. 

Three Cups. Old Blue. 

One Cup and Saucer. Pink. 

One Saucer. Old Blue. 

One Gravy Bowl, Tray and ladle. Old Blue. 

Two Home-Made Pewter Spoons. 

One Cocoa Pot. 

One Large Cider Jug. Old Blue. 

One Ink Well and Sand Box. 

One Wash Bowl and Pitcher. Light Blue. 

One Wash Bowl and Pitcher. Light Blue. 

One Large Pitcher. 

One Band Box. Old Style with Pictures. 

One Quaker Bonnet. 

One Quaker Cape. 

One Chintz Steel Plate Bed Valance. 

One Hoop Skirt. 

One Dutch Chair. (Rush Bottom.) 

Four Lace Caps. All hand-made. 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY 43 

Two Pairs Under-Sleeves. Beautiful embroidery. 

Two Collars. 

One Pair Curtain Holders. (Gilt.) 

One Plageolette. 

One High Back Shell Com!). 

One Silk Tissue Dress. 1845. 

One Pair Doll Shoes, 1855. 

One Pair Corset Boards, 1840. (Stomacher). 

One Cut Glass Salt Dish and Bone Spoon. 

One Silk Apron, 1840. 

Three Pieces Ruby Glass Ware. 

One Pewter Sugar and Cream. 

One Pair Pewter Candle Sticks. 

One '^Cracker," Handle Parasol. 

One Wedding Bonnet, 1840. 

Home-Made Linen, Table, Bed and Ticking. 

iNine Samples Home-Spun Woolen Goods. 

One Bunch Black Wool (natural), for Weaving. 

One Foot Stove. 

One Holland Shoe. 

One Lot of Almanacs from 1840. 

One Shutter Fastener. (Old Red Stone House, Pollifly Road.) 

Old Fashioned Hanging Candle Holder. 

One Tea Caddy. 

One Piece of the Atlantic Cable. 

One Pair Woolen Carders. 

List of Pew Owners of True Reformed Church, 1867. 

One German Silver Soup Ladle. 

One Pewter Coffee Pot. 

Two Tobies. 

One Old Horn Powder Flask. 

One Stone of Peculiar Formation. 

One Double Plate (Hot Water), Rev. Officer. Old Blue. 

One Cup, Saucer and Plate. (Cottage China.) 

One Hand-Made Pancake Turner. 

One Shaving Water Iron Pot from a Fire-Place Crane. 

Four Candle Molds. 

One Large Ball of Candle Wick. 

Home-Spun Bag to Hold Wick. 

One Turnkey Used Formerly to Extract Teeth. 

One Old Lock and Key from Brideswell Jail, from City Hall Park, 
New York. Was Revolutionary Prison. 

One Bergen County Collection of Indian Arrow Heads, and Frag- 
ments of Pottery. 

One Collection of Indian Arrow Heads from Long Island. Mount 
Sinia. 



44 BERGEN COUNTY 

One Collection of Indian Paint Pots and Pestle from Long Island 
Indian Reservation. Mount Sinia. 

One Curious Stick. 

One Primer. 1800. 

Old Newspapers. 

One Earthen Pie Dish. 

A Quaker Bonnet in an Interesting Home-Made Band Box. 

Farmer's Almanacs from 1842. 

Laces, China, Glassware, Pamphlets, etc. 

Three (3) Antique Copper Kettles from Van Saun, BrinkerhofE and 
Hopper Families. 

One Large Copper Jug. 

One Large Copper Basin. 

One Old Earthen Pie Dish. 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY 45 



MEMBERSHIP LIST 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 

Abbott, John C Port Leo 

Ackerman, Daniel D Closter 

Adams, Dr. Charles F Hackensack 

Adams, Robert A Hohokus 

Asmus, Grover E West Hobokon 

Bennett, Henry N Hackensack 

Bierbrier, Edward Saddle River 

Bird, Eugene K Hackensack 

Bogert, Andrew Englewood 

Bogert, Matt J Demarest 

Bogert, Daniel G Englewood 

Bogert, Albert Z River Edge 

Bogert, Cornelius V. R Bogota 

Brinkerhoff, Charles V Hackensack 

Cafferty, Charles Hackensack 

Cane, Fred W Bogota 

Coggeshall, H. Ingerrfoll Wortendyke 

Cooper, Richard W New Milford 

Cosse. Edwin F Paterson 

Criss, Hugo P Hohokus 

Crum, Fred H River Edge 

Crum, Mrs. Fred H. . , River Edge 

Cubberly, Nelson A Glen Rock 

Curtis, Grover D 51 E. 58th St., New York 

Dalrymple, C. M Hackensack 

DeBaun, Abram . . Hackensack 

DeBaun, Mrs. Abram Hackensack 

Delemater, P. G Ridgewood 

Demarest, A. S. D Hackensack 

Demarest, Jacob R Englewood 

Demarest, James E Westwood 

Diaz, Jose M Hackensack 

Doremus, Cornelius Ridgewood 

Easton, Edward D Areola 

Eckert, George M Saddle River 

Englehart, Charles Ridgefield 

Essler, Jobn G Saddle River 

Goetschius, Howard B Little Ferry 

Goetschius, D. M Little Ferr>- 



46 BERGEN COUNTY 

Grunow, Julius S Hackensack 

Haggerty, M. L Hackensack 

Haring, Tunis A Hackensack 

Hay, Clyde B Hackensack 

Hester, Earl L. D Hasbrouck Heights 

Jacobus, M. R Ridgefield 

Jeffers, Daniel G Hackensack 

Johnson, William M Hackensack 

Johnson, James LeBarcn Hackensack 

Kipp, James Tenafly 

Keiser, Isaac B., Hohokus 

Lang, Dr. E. A Palisade 

Liddle, Joseph G New York 

Linn, William A Hackensack 

Mabie, Clarence Ridgewood 

Mabon, John S Hackensack 

Marinus, John A Ridgewood 

Meyer, Francis E Closter 

Morrison,, William J., Jr Ridgefield Park 

Morrow, Dwight W Ehglewood 

Packer, J. E Hohokur. 

Parigot, George W .Allendale 

Pearsall, J. W Ridgewood 

Piatt, Daniel F Englewood 

Potter, George M Allendale 

Ramsey, John A Hackensack 

Richardson, Myron T Ridgewood 

Riker, Theo Paterson 

Rogers, Henry M Tenafly 

Sage, L. H Hackensack 

Sheridan, E. J Englewood 

Sowter, E. T , Ridgewood 

Spear, William M Leonia 

Snyder, George J Ridgewood 

Stagg, Edward Leonia 

St. John, Dr. David Hackensack 

Tallman, William Englewood 

Terhune, P. Christie Hackensack 

Terhune, Mrs. P. Christie Hackensack 

Thompson, Robert W., Jr Ridgefield 

Van Buskirk, Arthur Hackensack 

Van Home, Dr. Byron J Englewood 

Van Nest, Rev. J. A Ridgewood 

Van Winkle, Arthur W Rutherford 

Van Wagner, Jacob Ridgewood 

Voorhis, Rev. John C Bogota 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY 47 

Wakelee, Edmund W New York 

Watt, Salina Hackensack 

Wells, Benjamin J Hackensack 

Westervelt, Mrs. F. A Hackensack 

Wilson, Richard T Ridgewood 

Wilson, Robert T Saddle River 

Wood, Robert J. G Leonia 

Woodman, Charles Ridgewood 

Wright, Wendell J Hackensack 

Zabriskie, David D Ridgewood 

Zabriskie, Everett L Ridgewood 

LIFE MEMBERS. 

Allbee, Burton H 724 E. 22d. St., Paterson. 

Allison, William O Englewood 

Cameron. Alpin J Ridgewood 

Foster, W. Edward Hackensack 

Green, Allister New York 

Haggin, Mrs. L. T Closter 

Preston, Veryl New York 

Voorhis, Charles C, New York 

Zabriskie, A. C New York 

HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Bogert, Isiaac D Westwood 

Vroom, Rev. William Ridgewood 

Demarest, Milton Hackensack 



4S 



BERGEN COUNTY 



Jn iH^monam 



%^ ^ 



Bogart, Peter B. Jr Bogota 

Brinkerhoff, A. H Rutherford 

Christie, Cornelius Leonia 

Clark, Edwin Ridgewood 

Currie, Dr. David A Englewood 

Demarest, Isaac I Hackensack 

Dutton, George R Englewood 

Edsall, Samuel S Palisade 

Hales, Henry Ridgewood 

Holdrum, A. C Westwood 

Labagh, William O Hackensack 

Lane, Jesse New Milford 

Lane, Mrs. Jesse New Milford 

Lawton, I. Parker Ridgewood 

Romaine, Christie Hackensack 

Sanford, Rev. Ezra T New York 

Shanks, William Hackensack 

Snow, William D Hackensack 

Terhune, Peter O Ridgewood 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY 49 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Frontispiece, Paramus Church. 
Photo by Burton H. AUbee, 



Page 



List of Officers 2 

The Washington Institute, William M. Johnson 4 

Bergen County Descendants in Nova Scotia, Dr. Byron G. Van 

Home 17 

Our County Disgrace, Burton H. AUbee 21 

Reformed Church at Paramus, Everett L. Zabriskie 21 

Catalogue 27 

Articles in Year Books 28 

Mrs. M. AUaires Collection 29 

Society's Property 29 

List of Bound Books 29 

Charles Curtis Collection 31 

Locks, Keys, Nails, Plaster, etc 31 

Historical Souvenirs 32 

Household Articles 32 

Indian Relics 33 

Mrs. Charles H. Lozier's Collection 33 

Manuscripts 34 

Maps 34 

Miscellaneous 34 

Old Deeds 35 

Old Newspapers 35 

Pictures and Portraits 36 

Pamphlets 37 

Rev. E, T. Sanf ord's Collection 41 

Mrs. F. A. Westervelt's Collection 42 

Membership List 45 

In Memoriam ^ 



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