(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Annual report of the Federal Security Agency"

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at |http : //books . google . com/ 






tSpfvnSiSE 



PRINCETON 

UNIVERSITY 

V LIBRARY / 




Digitized by VjOOQIC 



\ 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



REPORT 



OF THE 



COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION 



FOR 



THE YE^R 1881. 



WASHINGTON: 

OOVBBNICKNT PBINTINO OFPIOS. 

^'*^'*- Digitized by Google 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



CONTENTS. 



2IP0IT OF THK COMXXBSlOmB OF EDUCATION T-OOlxXVli 

Gtoend statMnent of the work of the office, with a list of ita pablioations during the 
jMr, T-ix ; the oensns in ita relations to edacation, with tables and diagrams, ix- 
xliii; tnmmMTj of school age, population, enrolment, attendiuice, Sui., xliii,xliv; 
■UDiDary of the tcAchers employed in the public schools and their average monthly 
niaries, xlv, xlvi ; sammary of annnal income and expenditure for public schools, 
slTii, xlTiii ; summary of per capita expenditure, xlix, 1 ; statistical generalization by 
yean and topics, with remarks, 1-liv ; the district system, Ut. Iv ; qualifications and 
sppoiotment of teachers, Ui-lTiii; school supervision, Iviii-lx ; courses of study, Ix- 
Ixiii; tables of fliiteracy among minors from the census of 1880, Ixiii-lxix ; summoty 
of the educational condition of the States and Territories, Ixix-lxxxi ; oomparatiYe 
rtafhrtics uf education in the South, with figures respecting the education of the 
eolared race and remarks, Ixxxi-lxxxix; Peabody fund, xo, xci; summary of school sta- 
tisties'of citlea, xcii-cvii ; school accommodation and attendance in cities, cvlii-ox; 
illiteracy in citiea, cxi-cxiii ; city primnry schools, cxiv ; city schools of higher grade, 
<xiT, cxT; eTening and si>ecial schools in cities, cxv, cxvi; city school finances, 
■oral and physical training, cxvi ; summary of normal school statistics, cxrii- 
cxxii; appropriations for normal schools, with remarks, cxxiii-cxxvii; comparative 
requirementa for admission to normal and to professional schools, cxxvii, cxxviii ; 
eoarses of study in normal schools at home and abroad, cxxviii-cxxxi ; teach- 
ets' institatea, cxxxi. cxxxii ; normal training in the colleges, cxxxii, cxxxiii ; sum- 
laary of statistics of commercial and business coIlegOH, cxxxiii, cxxxiv; summary 
■of statistics of Kindergirten, cxxxv; public schools and Kindergfirten, cxxxvi, 
xxxvii; normal Kindergarten instruction, cxxxvii, cxxxviii; essential needs of a 
Kindergarten, cxxxviii; summary of statistics of pupits receiving secondary in- 
■tmctioo, with remarks. cxxxviil-<-xlv ; summary of statistics of preparatory 
4cbools«cxlvi,cxl\-ii; summary of sttitistics of institutions for the superior educa- 
tion of wooneii, with remarks, cxlvii-clii; summary of statistics of universities 
and colleges, ^rith a summary of college entrance examinntions, preparatoi y depart- 
Benf s, and remarks, clil-clx : hygiene in college, growth of Yale College, clxi ; 
elective systema, clxi-clxiii ; variations in college attendance, clxiii-clxv ; schools 
of ptditical science, clxv. clxvi; summary of statistics of schools of science, 
with remarks, clxvi-dxx; physics and chemistry, clxx-clxxii; instruction in 
mechanical engineering, clxxii-olxxviii ; manual training schools, clxxviii, clxxix; 
iadostrial school for miners and raechanicH, clxxix, clxxx ; Iloyal Agricultural High 
School of Berlin, clxxx-clxxxii; summary of statisrics of schools of theology, 
elxxxii-clxxxiv ; summary of statisticii of schools of law, with remarks, clxxxiv- 
dxxxviii; sammary of statistics of schools of medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy, 
dxxxviii-^xci; ooursea preparatory to the study of medicine, cxci, oxcii; entrance 
examinations to medical schools, cxcii, cxciii ; character and progress of medical 
RMenu^j**©. ii«iiji-r.irv, ii(]niiiiA.rv at' (nauHiTiL'H nt tit?j;m>«i ■foufi'rr'iHl, cxi^v-cc; 
«f atattBUdi uf imbll^ librarii^a, I'cif library niu»aj;:t<<itKaiL, wil t'cifl^ 
md Bcho«»U, iN^Ui, eelv; iMttalDgui-s and Indeim, e^iiv; sutnmury of 
of fralniaf arhoois for nitt^vA, with rtinturkfl. crv, vcvi; HtaEi^lJiH af 
elssw^ in the United >il4iti*s, Gcvl-ccriih muRimarj of stAtbTloa 
4f InrtltttUess for tht^ dfiaf ami ilumU, i^rLx, cex -, day hi^IkkjIb ftir dt^afiauteft, 
cnlticsil: lltstury aadlijdu«triAli]i«ifiict1iPU furdi^^f-miitc^ccKll-rcxly ^ No.tional 
0aaf*Mol«Co||A|;iL ocmiT^ v«i],v i nntnmAry 4:»f Mt«tlattcH ^f schtHili^ for tlic blin^, i.'€xvr 
akslak of the h4atof> of RcbociU f<«r th«* blind, ets^vx. ccxvii ; pHutldf; f»>r tli^ btlnd, 
,ei?*vi£Jr iusLrut'lliin «( tlii* 1jU»4, ^^-rstvlil, I'cxix ; i*LiJjiitiary of tttfittiitli^ of 
for thm U^Mt* mludcil. rcitlx ;, clH4sLficjirk>i] and iDi^itrtU'lioD vi tbe f^M^bkv 
LpOexxIt <afl4i« of liliiicy, tH^xxlj Kiiniitisity t.if j«tiiikUcH of ttirtirai 
witM naMirka, eirxxlL-ecxiilv ; u«foittiAiury nyit^'iii of Ml' hi car, t' ok xlv, 
tb* fiuiiily aynUME In rtrfurRi ncbwiU, **xxvf Ni*w rferiK-y Sf4*t*? K*ifi;n-m 
rcxiv, CL'iLSvl: iDStltitthwnii for ttie r«'tt*T»uatioQ of ^irlni, ci'xxTl^eci.iix; 
r iif i^lMirii nf nrphan butnca and aeylaiiia, ccxxtx-ccxxxl^ aiimmnry of 
i Nctfifbi&tluiis. n^Jitb n^murloi, ^exixl-ccxixlli; summftry of tMSiicational 
, «l.xxxilJ s ftiimtiiApy of piiUsDiM for ituprovements in sthotvl fbrDlturo, 
dW, eua^v ; adncaliun In foit^lgit counlrica, ccxxxv«cclxxv! ; tooommcndatloua. 





(RECAP) y^d^ DigitizedUlGoOgle 



IV CONTKNTS. 

Page. 

Abstracts < 1-318 

AbstracU of the official reporU of the school odioers of StAtea, TenitorieA, and 

citiea, with other additional iofonnation 4-307 

Sducational aaaociations and conveDtiona 306-318 

Statutics of bducatiok for the year 1881 319-831 

Table I. Statistica of the achool syatemB of the SUtea and Territoriea 320-327 

II. School Btatlstlca of citiea contoining 7,500 inhabitanta and over 328-378 

III. Stall 8tics of normal aohoola 870-396 

IV. Statistics of commercial and biuineaa coUegea 887-411 

V. StaUsticsofKindergiirten 412-440 

VI. Statiatics of institations for secondary instmotion 450-i43 

VII. Statistioa of preparatory schoola 544-554 

Vm. Statistics of iDBtitutioiia for the superior instmction of women 555-571 

IX. Statistics of universities and colleges 572-607 

X. Statistics of schools of science 008-613 

XL StatisticH of schools of theology 620-631 

XII. Statistics of schools of law 632-635 

XIII. Statistics of Hchools of medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy 63C-G48 

XIV. Snmmary of examinations for admission to the United Statea Military 

and Naval Academies 640 

XT. Degrees conferred in 1880 by universities, colleges, scientiflo and other 
profesaional schools, and by schools for the superior instmotion of 

women 050-667 

XVL Statistics of additional public libraiios numbering 800 volumes or up- 
wards .. .' 668-671 

XVII. Statistics of training schools for nurses 672,073 

XVm. Statistics of institutions for the deaf and dumb 674-G79 

XTX. Statistics of institutions for the blind 680-683 

XX. Statistics of schools and aaykuns for feeble-minded ohildren 684, 085 

XXL Statiatica of reform schoola 686-690 

XXII. Statistics of orphan asyluma, aoldiera' orphans' homes, infHit aaylnma, 

and industrial schools 700-755 

XXm. statiatica of educational bene&ctiona 766-791 

XXIV. PuhUcationa, educational, hlatorical, Ac 7M-828 

XXV. Impiovementa in sohool ftunituie, appTatni, &o., patanted im IMl 810-831 



IXDBX . 



Digitized by 



Google 



x> T? -o rkX> rr 



ERRATA ET ADDENDA. 



Page ccvii. Inf<tcad of 59,701, total uninber of the defective classes in the United 
^riiemread i:i9,701. 

Pafre4. The number of children of school age in Alabama, according to figures of 
•S» Initwl Statos Census of 18«0 not available when the first portion of this report 
'a<]»ut to pretis, was 4*22,739. 

Ptg* 41. Number of children of school age in Georgia, according to Census of 18d0, 
4 1.016. 

Paf[*' 86. The number of children of school age in Louisiana, as given in the Census 
•f 1-^, was -271,414. 

I'ajre 97. Thi' number of children of school age in Maryland, as given in the Census 
of 1880, was 319,201. 

Pigp 156. The total school expenditure in Nevada for 1880 was ft 44, 244, Storey 
ConntT not reporting, and in 1881 $140,418. The increase noted in income and the 
'Wtmwp in expenditure should be dropped. 

Pige 365, column 92, line numbered 33. For 1.34 read 13.4. 

Page 367, column 92, line numbered 148. For 15 read 1.5. 



Edacation and crime. 

One hundred and thirty-one thousand documents have been sent out, or nearly doable 
tile onmber of the previous year. For the purpose of obtaining statistics for the annual 
npc^ 8,093 blank lists of questions have been mailed. A large number of similar forms 
kiTe been sent ont to secure data required in special pablications issued during the year. 

There is a strong desire that this report should appear earlier, and nowhere is it 
stranger than among those engaged in its preparation. It would be more convenient 
to the Office to doee the report the 30th of June, and complete it for publication at 
the time of the assembling of Congress, and tlius bring so much of the work of this 
Office into conformity with other offices of the General Government ; but this Office 
perfonns a part only in the great voluntary system of statistics, embradng the entire 
coontiy and all systems, institutions, and phases of edacation, and has felt obliged, 
tt whstever inconvenience, to accommodate itself to the wishes of the more than 8,000 
«Oibofatiws wbo fbnxish voluntarily and without pay the data on which its reports 
ife ImsmI. Tlie fiJ^t report rtf thi.* present Comniis^ioiitr wiis ni:wl< and presented to 
Covpn^a^ ttK opening substantially m :ihovi' uot4>d^ but the wi.sh^'^^' ;Lnd necessities of 
Wmsf^t ihe oontiibutora fteemed to enfort^ the surrender of that mt Thod and the adop- 
ivnf Uh* prtatent plan. On a moment ^s reflection it will l>e f>h^r?igd that this report, 
Htt|B!^ndii]g sneh a vast variety of tacts from &o many States, cilie^ and institutions, 
tSiUftf bi* ttiBide with th(^ promptness of a report embracing only a single point of obser- 
v*lte» It (a&aot be made like a newspaper reports It is of coame obvioos that the 
itBie €of««d by file report of ^uy inestitTition must have ebip^ed and t he record be complete 
^ttft tMfi kcal ff!port can lie eonrluded and forwarded. Any oni\ who knows by expe- 
^^9e» the dllScuIties in the wny of making a State report w Ul understand how much time 
a li^jolRii to okllect t^ material IVom all the towns, counties, and iBstitutions and sat- 
Utf vL AJlei' this, time mnst be allowed tor its pubVimtion before this 

Digitized by V^OOQflC 



IV CONTENTS. 

Pago. 

Abbtracts < ... 1-318 

Abttracta of tho official reports uf tlie school oflioers of States, Territories, nnd 

cities, with other additional information 4-307 

Sducational associations and conventions 308-318 

STATUnCB OF BDUCATIOK FOR THK TBAR 1881 31(M31 

Table I. Statistios of the school systems of the SUtes and Territories 320-3*27 

.408.318 



XXiV. PubUoations, educational, historical, ^ko 7W-828 

XXY . ImpioTementt in school ftunituie, i^pantiit, Ac, patsnted Im IMl 8M-831 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



REPORT. 



Depabtment of the Intebiob, Bubeau of Education, 

WaakingUm, D, C, Nwemher^ 1881. 

8iB: I have the honor to submit my twelfth amiual report, covering the year 1881. 
Duiag the year the annnal report and the follo¥ring cireulars of information, in addi- 
tion to x^flsoeB of former pnblicaiionB, have been distribnted : 

Na 1. Constraction of library buildings. 26 pp. 

Xo. 2. Relation of education to industry and technical training in American schools. 
22 i^. 

Ka 3. Proceedings of the Department of Superintendence of the National Educa- 
tkmal Association in 1881. 80 pp. 

No. 4. Education in France. 144 pp. 

Xo. 5. Causes of deafness among sdiool children and the instruction of children with 
isipaired hearing. 48 ^. 

No. 6. Effects of student life on the eyesight. 30 pp. 

The following bulletins have also been prepared and distributed : 

Cdmparative statistics of elementary education in fifty principal countries. 

Fifty years of freedom in Belgium, education in Malta, &c. 

Library aids. 

Recognized medical colleges in the United States. 

The discipline of the school. 

Education and crime. 

One hundred and thirty-one thousand documents have been sent out, or nearly double 
tbe nnmber of the previous year. For the purpose of obtaining statistics for the annual 
report 8. 093 blank lists of questions have been mailed. A large number of similar forms 
bave been sent out to secure data required in special publications issued during the year. 

There is a strong desire that this report should appear earlier, and nowhere is it 
strooger than among those engaged in its preparation. It would be more convenient 
to the Office to close the report the 30th of June, and complete it for publication at 
the time of the assembling of Congress, and thus bring so much of the work of this 
Office into conformity with other offices of the General Grovemment ; but this Office 
performs a part only in the great voluntary system of statistics, embracing the entire 
coontry and all systems, institutions, and phases of education, and has felt obliged, 
tx. whatever inconvenience, to accommodate itself to the wishes of the more than 8,000 
c«dlabovatoTs who ftinush voluntarily and without pay the data on which its reports 
«» >t«isMl. The first report of the present CommifunAner was made and presented to 
^vm^tsm at its opening substantially as above noted^ but the wishes and necessities of 
vany of the oontribnlfjr^ i^eenied to enforce the surrender of that method and the adop- 
tei of the pre^nt plan. On a moment^ a reflection it will be observed that this report, 
tinnpceh^iuling nnch a vast v^irietj o(' ikrts Irom lio many States, cities, and institutions, 
&ziiK»t be tnade with the promptae^ of ^ report embmcing only a single point of obser- 
It cttiiJ]£>t ht^ mad^ like a newspHptsr report. It is of course obvious that the 
lco^v«ried by tbc r«rport. of any institution must have elapsed and the record be complete 
> this IqgU report, can be condnded and forwarded. Any one who knows by expe- 
Y ibm diffienlties in the w^y of making a State report will understand how much time 
iii mulred to collect the nmtmal from &il the to^ns. i'()untie8, and institutions and sat- 
Mtfttfity oani|iile it^ After thk, time most be allowed for its publication before this 

Digitized by VjOOQly 



VI 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



central clearing house at Washington can b^in, much less complete, its work. It should 
be stated that, late as this report has ever appeared, there have come data for insertion 
after its publication from those who have been most earnestly laboring to get their mate- 
rial into shape and send it forward ; it should be added, to the cretlit of those who sup- 
ply the Office with its data, that their unpaid work is done with alacrity and that there 
is a growing desire among them to ftirnish their statistics, accurate and complete, in time 
for this annual statement. It should be remembered also, in this connection, that this 
Office has never been furnished with the clerical force sufficient to do its work, according 
tothe judgment of those administering it or of those acquainted with the demands upon 
it. The preparation of the annual report is only one item of the vast amount of work 
performed in it. 



AMEBICAN OFFICIAL C0BBE8P0NDENTS OF THE OFFICE WHO FUBNI8H STATISTICS. 

The following summary gives the number of correspondents of the Office at the head 
of systems and institutions of education in our country who furnish the information 
contained in these reports : 

Statement of educaiiondl systems and instibUwns in correspondence with the Bureau of Edu- 
cation in the years named. 



44 



Sll 



Stetosand Territories 

Citlee 

Normal schools 

Business coUqpes , 

Kindergfirten 

Aoademies 

Preparatory schools „.., 

College for women 

Colleges and universities 

Schools of soienoe 

Schools of theology.. 

Schools of law 

Schools of medicine ~ 

Public libraries 

Museums of natural history 

Museums of art i 

Art schools 

Training schools for nurses ' 

Institutions for the deaf and dumb i 37 

Institutions for the blind 27 

Schools for the feeble-minded. 

Orphan asylums, Ac 77 

Reform schools 20 



1872. 1878. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877.. 1878. 1879. 1880. 1881 



Total.. 



2,619 



48 
683 
114 
112 

42 
944 

86 
206 
823 

70 
140 

37 

94 
877 

48 

22 



4& 
127 
124 
126 

66 
1,081 

91 
209 
343 

72 
113 



676 
44 

27 
26 



48 
241 
140 
144 

96 
1,467 
105 
249 
386 

76 
128 

42 
104 
2.200 

63 

27 



40 


40 


28 


28 


7 


9 


180 


260 


84 


56 



-I- 



42 
29 
9 
406 
67 



3,449 |8,661 6,066 



48 



160 

149 

1,560 

114 

252 

881 

76 

126 

42 

102 

2,276 

64 

31 

80 



48 
241 
166 
167 
177 
1,660 
123 
261 
886 

77 
127 

45 

106 

2,440 

65 



48 
29 
11 
688 
63 



48 
268 
179 
168 
217 
1,66ft 
125 
2T7 
889 

80 
129 

60 

112 

2,578 

65 



I 



46 

80 

11 

640 

68 



78 



48 

333 

242 

191 

822 

1,848 

188 

294 

402 

86 

146 

68 

126 

2,678 

57 

37 

87 

11 

67 

81 

18 

641 

79 



48 I 
351 



6,449 16,760 



.1 Z- 11 

|7,186 |7,869 



197 



146 

297 

402 

88 

166 

53 

126 

2,874 

57 

37 

38 

16 

62 

31 

13 

651 

83 



48 
351 
273 



I 2,113 

I «« 

I 290 

! 396 
91 

I 158 

I 187 

j 3,08/ 

57 

! 37 



17 
68 

I 31 

i ^ 

604 

I 79 



18,281 I 8,774 



The letters written number 4, 190. Many of these ftimished statistics and facts to edu- 
cational writers and school officials, the results of extensive research and patient labor. 
About 4,000 letters and 2,549 documents have been received; 1,000 volumes and 1,200 
pamphlets have been added to the library. The card catalogue of the contents of the 
llbrarv', which has been in preparation, is making Mr progress, and is already of incal- 
culable service in the work of the Office and aid of those who come here to study educa- 
tional subjects. 

Digitized by V^OOQLC 



EDUCATIONAL STATISTICS. 



VII 



^msUhOions, insbrudorSf and studeniSf as eoUeded by the United States 
Bwreau of Edwsatun^ fnm 1872 to 1881. 




boalxieaa ooU^geft „ 



feri«f»mdArx fnatrtiGiloD ., 



isra. 



m 






I 



773 

I 



21S,897 
8,451 



1S73. 






(6) \ 37,72S I 1,5(^1,063 
114 fiS7 lG,a2tl 

112 314 :j2,3Q7 



ill 




for ttie flnipeiio t i udlruoi toa of womeiL. 
•nil eoUog^tf.. 



i^^detitistiy, Andofphanimisijr. 



ifbrlbebtltid..,.. _._...„„_. ^, 

I Hw libeblfr-ixilnded dilldreii 



175 
29S 
70 
IM 

97 



4,S01 



m,w& 



1,G17 
3,040 
7^ 
43& 
lAl 
73e 



U,S8a 
4£,€I7 

3,351 
1.976 
5,9CiS 



SOT 
513 



mi 



1,397 
1«3&6 



10. a 



4,230 



044 



70 
110 

37 I 



2,120 

a^lOQ I 

747 

573 

l,14ti , 



II^ATU 

13, -WT 

B,950 

1.112 
n.ttSl 



40 

17a 
%i I 



f 

fm I 

1,4^ 
57^ i 



4,S34 

U016 

7!»S 

22, HC 




bof tBioilMBo,af duniiiti^yaaA of pliAnEmoy^, 
r lIuF ileaf and dtuub... 



Icililldfvii 
I tti^ltiMM^ itidiistrtftt Mlioolfl, and xnbcel- 



•CT« 



ibQlwded III \ST%i their total populatiati 0,ccciiirdliig to tlie f^tijUiM of l^U w:'^ 



... . ^ ASMi villiicM w«2« Included In 1@73^ fvlikh tiud n {Hjpul^lon aria/>12.e93. 
iMsolaM olusliOGt* WM IticIudcMl In ibe t&ble of Infjiitiition^ for tfocondary ifiAlruL'Ktoii 

l41^,iXI(> tnluLbi^nts or CQorc* tverc Included In 1^4 ^ tbeir ji^^regiite ttopttUi* 

voiiiAlutlig 7,500 InliableaatA orcnofe, reported In 18m?'l^^#li)g;^Q&^l£litii'ir 



vni 



REPORT OF THE COBiMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



Statistical awmmary ofimtiMionaf uutntelon, tmd studeiUs, <&c. — Continaed. 



CitysohoolB ^ « 

NonnAl sohoola 

CommerdAlftnd busineM colleges 

Kindergftrten 

Institutions for seoondaiy instruction 

Preparatory schools 

iDStitutionsforthesnperior instruction of women. 

Univeriities and colleges 

Schools of science 

Schools of theology ^ 

Schools of law 

Schools of medicine,of dentistry, and of pharmacy. 

Training sdiools for nurses. 

Institutions for the deaf and dumb. 

Institutions for the blind 

Schools for feeble-minded children.. 

Orphan asylums, industrial schools, and miscel- 
laneous charities. 
Reform sdiools. ^ , 




City schools 

Normal schools 

Commercial and business colleges 

Kindergftrten 

Institutions for secondary instruction 

Preparatory schools 

Institutions for the superior instruction of women. 

Universities and colleges. 

Schools of science ~ 

8ohoo)s of theology „ 

Schools of law 

Schools of medicine,of dentistry ,and of pharmacy. 

Training schools for nurses 

Institutions for the deaf and dumb 

Institutions for the blind 

Schools for feeble-minded children 

Orphan asylums, industrial schools, and misoel- 

laneous churities. 
Reform schools 



a 192 cities, of 7,500 Inhabitants or more, reported in IflTS; their aggregate population w»9fiaS,V». 
b 195 cities, of 7.500 inhabitants or more, reported in 1877; their aggregate population was 9,009,095. 
c 218 cities, of 7,500 inhahitAuts or more, reported in 1878 ; their aggregate population was 10,234,270. 
<l 240 c ities, of 7,500 inhMhitants or more, reported in 1879 ; (heir aggregate population was 10,801,814. 



Digitized by ^OOQIC 



EDUCATIONAL STATISTICS. 



IX 



atMMMirjf of inMUutionSy instructors^ and gtudents, <tc. — Continued. 



GlyKfaools „ 

5mttlseliool&.„ _ 

CbnMvebl aad boatnefle colleges 

EB^ogirteii. «. - 

bititatioQS for secondary inetmctlon 

ftrpanioryBAiodlB - 

IiiCiUitioiisforUiesoperior instruction of women. 

UiivenitkB and colleges 

Sekools of science 

^rkoohoftheoloey 

Sdwohofljtw 

:^cfcoo]sofmedieine,of dentistry ^nd of pharmacy. 

Tatniiig schools for nurses _ , 

h4itations for the deaf and dumb , 

iBrtitations for the blind , 

idiooh for feeble-minded children 

(trpiuui ssylnms, industrial schools, and misoel- 
uitfons charities. 



(a) 
220 
102 
232 
,264 
125 
227 
364 



142, 

48 I 
120 , 

15 

56 

3D 

13 ' 

430 : 



1.VJ0. 

E 

I 



18M1. 



29,264 
1,466 

610 

084 
6,009 

860 
2,340 
4,160 

653 



i 


« 


e 




1,710,461 


(6) 


80,155 


1,788,108 


48,077 


225 


1,578 


48,706 


27,146 


202 


794 


84,414 


8,871 


278 


676 


14,107 


110,277 


1,336 


6,489 


122,617 


18,239 


130 


871 


18,275 


25,780 


226 


2,211 


26,041 


50,594 


362 


4,861 


62,435 


11,584 


85 


1,019 


12,709 



229 



1,« 



' I 



5,242 
3,134 
14,006 I 



418 6,657 

532 2,082 

486 , 2,472 

4,217 59,161 



144 : 

126 I 

57 I 

30 

14 ! 

439 ' 



229 
1.746 : 



431 



490 
4,211 I 



I 



I 



6S • 1,(04 



11,921 I 



n 



4,798 
3,227 

14,536 
414 
6,740 
2,148 
2,490 

62,317 

15,ffJ6 



M mm,id7 jSm ifihabttantA or tnOPe» reported in 16S0 ; 
ru eiiie^ o#74Q0 hthabittLtitfior more, rvpnrted in iSM ; 






iwpnlatlon w&s mjQO.fm. 



'^ »iy lie hardlj nects^sary to tsili special rtttt'Titlon to thir totula here tind elsewhert^ 

v^aring in this report, savf^ to eonfomi to the purpose that ptTvades the report in all 

;*artii, t© leave no re^k^aonable opportunity Ibr TDisunderstimflin^: it.H taits, Wli*»n**ver 

it will W tteen that the totals only include iht* tiijonet* in&erted and 

ftad crom references are ao made .o the soun^^ of information and the 

*Jill fiem wbii^ gemtHklizattonB a.rc drawn lliat there ran he no ju!<iti!iablt.' ^jund tor 

"'msm tomclittioiti^ Th« re i;*^ jterhapft, no other repctrt made in the conutry that em- 

taMltiktwork of so large a number of inteJHgent and entiL^il wmtrilmtors or tliat so uoi- 

■■f^itticliefilo Its Ptatements^ the name of a pcr??on or a |>lat'<\ which iiubjects whatever 

'^-Attviiiifterteti or statements nywitJto ilireet pt^xsonal and hto\l otn^ervation and criticit^in. 

hot b au fjrror or just groutid for twmplaint thi^ OfTwv is ?^ure to learn of it^ and fmm 

- to irtmr it i^ a just ground «*f satiJ^rfartioi! to those engfiged in the prepamtion of the 

fTfi tJiat m few ertors have oceurred. 

t ^t ^f^Kmmnee of the Compendium of the Census hefnte the oompletloiL of thi^ 
:»m «ftd hy tho courtefiv of Cteneral Walker and Colonel Seaton, Superintendents of the 
3w kn fonuitliiiijg additional data, thi^ (Office hm l^eeti put in po^fses^ion of valuable 
-'*«al wuh a Ti^w to the ^tudj of the population of the countrj' as reg^rda (1) its 
^jCTiVintkiQ hy iiatiTirv, sex, and nvce ; (2) the minor population, and the populatiou of 
a|5c, itn %cx. mfv, and age; and (3) the tlliteraicy of the minor population^ for the 
«tC fllMmtnif the exfeat to which all in^Htnimentalities, public and private, come 
^mtf toultiipitloo fo fcarb all the youth of the eountry the art of reeling uad writing. 
tlii «tii4^ hsi 1m«0 majSte nndsex my dirwtion bj Dr. Charles Warren, and m much of 

^*i1niulill hme m addi vvhie nM i;^mpleteneaa to the statistics of tsducation annually 
pmMKil \gf llil» C'lEc^. The mare Aitl aud complete statement^ it is hoped^ will be 
•mi il All «ftrlT iIaj a^ a «4*(iArate publicatioii. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



IsIp^ 









1. €f} 



5« 






< 
> 



O CO 



>1 



o 



o 

X 






tt 

* 



i 






I 

O 



o 



< « 



5® 



< 



i 



< 



< t. 



Z 



2 

< 

ac 



a: 

Q 

2 



X 

I- 



»: 
« 

*" 






o 
o 



IS 












^ 



Digitized by 



Google 






5S 



[ei 



. "^^ — -1 


r J ij 


m 


v^S f 


-i ^ ^/^v. 


m CO 


\J 2-» 


i-^ >4 


S 


kV j'^ J^'v y 


^ 


"^ 




^ /I 


'^ "^ 


\ dei 


£« 




< 


i ^"^^-^ 


< 


2 00 


< 




/ i- 


1- 







t^ 




-^ r « 


j"^ 






/ 


2 




XT 


. 






^^^-/-■^ 1 


t: 


> 


' r 


1- 


) 




'/ 




'^ 




I 











>.c*j 



r 00 



5*. 



jrff 



18 




Digitized by 



Google 



XIV KLPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

TABLE 1 FBOM THE CENSUS OF 1880. 

The area of the Union, exclnding Alaska and the Indian Territory, is estimated by 
the Census authorities to be 2,900,170 square miles, the area of Alaska is about 531,409 
square miles and that of the Indian Territory is 69,830 square miles, or an aggregate for 
the whole country of 3, 501, 409 square miles. In size and in population we are the fourth 
nation of the world. Probably more than half the English-speaking people of the earth 
live in the United States, 

The native population of the country in 1880, excluding the two unorganized Terri- 
tories already mentioned, was 43,475,840; the foreign-bom population numbered 
6,679,943. The native males exceeded the native females by more than 300,000; the 
foreign-bom males exceeded the foreign-bom females nearly 600, OOp; the exact minority 
of all males over all females was 881,857. The white population numbered 43,402,979 ; 
the colored population, 6,580,793 ; the Chinese and Japanese, 105,613 ; and the Indians 
paying taxes, 66,407.^ Of the colored population, 14,107 were bom in other countries; 
of the Chinese and Japanese, 1,186 were natives; and 1,820 of the civilized Indians were 
foreign-bom. 

An examination of the table will show that the females exceeded the males in the fol- 
lowing States: 

Per cent. 

Maine 0.25 

New Hampshire - — 3.48 

Massachusetts - - - _ 7.71 

Rhode Island - 7.87 

Connecticut.. , 3.64 

New York 2.88 

Pennsylvania 0.45 

New Jersey > 2.01 

Maryland - 2.29 

District of Columbia 12.52 

Virginia 2.87 

North Carolina 3.48 

Tennessee J 0.49 

South Carolina 3.01 

Georgia 2.13 

Alabama _ , _ ♦-_ 2.77 

Louisiana 0.52 

Thus it may be said in general terms that the country east of the river Ohio and the 
lower Mississippi has a slight excess of females and that the rest of the country shoves 
an excess of males. The colored pop^^^on is mostly south of the Missouri, the Ohio, 
and the Potomac, and the foreign-bom population almost entirely north of those rivers. 
Indeed, there has been an actual decrease since 1870 of foreign-bom inhabitants in Ver- 
mont, Missouri, Maryland, Kentucky, Tennessee, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, 
Mississippi^ and Louisiana. 

>The whole Indian population is about 289,000, aooording to recent aathoritiee. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE CENSUS IN ITS RELATIONS TO EDUCATION. 



XV 



Table 1, derived from iht Cetuiu of 1880, showirig Uve area and popuMUm of the States 
and Territorioi and (he general nativity and sex of the population. 



SUtasMMiTerri. 







;5» 



a <v 






sS 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




i 
I 

OQ 



a 



o 

5 

a 



a 

I 

8 
S 

I 

«D 
I 



o 



i^ 



< 







r^ 






/ 




^l*^ 




c 


> 




^/^"^ 




u 


< 








h 


7 




a 


i 


d 

z 


/ 


X 

u 

1- 


hi 
Z 








J 







o 
o 






d 

s 








■ 






z 






ii=eo 



Digitized by 



Google 



XX 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Table 2, frwa the Oenms of 1880, showing the race and sex of the population in the States 

and Territories. 



Kace. 



White. 



States and Terri- 
toriefl. 



AJabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut ' 

Delaware i 

Florida I 

Georgia. 

niinola 

Indiana 

Iowa 



Kentucky , 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

>Iissi8sippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire ... 

New Jersey.. , 

New York 

North Carolina .... 

Ohio 

Or^:on 

Pennsylvania „ 

Rhode Island , 

South Carolina. , 

Tennessee , 

Texas ~ , , 

Vermont 

Virginia. 

West Virginia. 

Wisconsin 

Total V 



Arixona 

Dakota 

District Columbia.. 

Idaho 

Montana 

New Mexico .... 

Utah 

Washington 

Wyoming 

Total , 



327,617 
308,706 
435,066 
127,041 
299,080 
60,777 
73,264 
408,744 

1,561,726 
989,953 
842,604 
614,084 
698,757 
228,974 j 
822,973 
359,670 ! 
848,977 
850,796 
417,075 
248, 22^ 

1,064,879 
247,815 
35,059 
170,187 
540,870 

2,473,121 
424,944 

1,572,789 
92,935 

2,095,213 
130.014 
192,544 
5n,603 
640,439 
166,312 
436,611 
800,092 
676,949 



334,668 
282,825 
332,126 
64,085 
310,789 
60,883 
69,341 
413, 162 

1,469,425 
948,845 
771,906 
438,071 
678,422 
225,980 
823,879 
365,028 
914,806 
768,765 
869,809 
236,172 
967,947 
201,949 
18,497 
176,002 
651,147 

2,642,901 
442,298 

1,645,131 
70,140 

2,101,803 
189,925 
198,661 
567,228 
566,798 
164,906 
444,227 
291,545 



21,738,2^ 1 20,976,264 



24,556 
81,176 
57.320 
18,440 
25,622 
58,655 
73,477 
40,513 
13,^«6 



10,604 
51,971 
60,686 
10,573 

9,863 
50,066 
68,946 
26,686 

6,411 i 



Colored. 



296,001 
107,331 
3,467 
1,433 
6,550 
13,327 



859,157 

24,607 

20,267 

6,191 

22,152 

133,798 

238,879 

765 

102,606 

9,049 

7,886 

906 

822,969 

72,153 

1,296 

806 

841 

18,846 

80,862 



40,962 

270 

41,193 

2,962 

297,787 

197,467 

196,746 

666 

806,985 

13,482 

1,521 



3,225,187 



104 
226 
26,238 
39 
191 
638 
124 
209 
160 



I 



Chinese and 
JapanetM). 



a 
& 



305,102 

103,335 

2,551 

1,002 

5,997 

13,115 

63,622 

365,976 

21,861 

18,961 

4,325 

20,965 

137,653 

244,776 

686 

107,725 

9,648 

7,264 

659 

327,832 

73,197 

1,080 

180 

844 

20,007 

84,252 

268,914 

88,988 

217 

44,342 

3,536 

806,545 

206,684 

196,638 

491 

822,681 

12,404 

1,181 



4 I 

131 I 

71,325 I 

593 I 

124 j 

l' 

16 I 

17 I 
208 

29 
83 
18 
. 9 
460 



2 

3,893 

19 

5 



8,293,185 



61 

176 

83,368 

14 
155 
877 
106 
116 
188 



6 




229 


8 


28 




25 




61 




91 




18 





6,106 


813 


14 




168 


4 


914 


12 


1 




112 




9,848 


164 


148 


8 


27 




9 




24 


1 


134 


2 


6 




6 





Indians. 



S 



107 ! 
in; 

8,328 

64 

128 

3 

96 



' I 



89,453 



112 

218 

413 

26 

441 

312 

7 

186 

3,606 

1,144 

941 

64 

112 

1,646 

84 

88 

436 

600 

73 

828 

101 

37 

68 

188 

621 

9 

87 

16 

1,585 



4,470 



22,764 



106 



1,601 

220 

15 

3,256 

1,685 

64 

480 

3,161 

896 



31 
18 

2 
123 
80 

3 
21 
26 
19 



1,941 I 1,553 

675 716 

I 
5 -. 



779 
6,149 ; 

428 I 
2,000 
71 



892,685 



295,806 



27,928 I 



34,493 I 11.367 



Grand total «... 22,130,900 | 21,272,070 ; 8,253,115 1 3,327,678 1 100, 820 | 4,793 ] 83,985 | 



THE CENSUS IN ITS RELATIONS TO EDUCATION. XXI 

TABLE 2 FROM THE CENSUS OP 1880. 

The second table presented shows the sex and race of the inhabitants in the several 
?Litep and Territories. The Chinese were found chiefly in California, Oregon, Nevada, 
Idaho TeTTitory, and Washington Territory. Chinese males exceed Chinese females in 
Damber ninety-six thousand, thus proving that their stay in the country is only pro- 
risiofial and temporary and that they can give no ** hostages to fortune." The condi- 
tions of th^r stay in the country and of the further admission of Chinese men in such 
dis^oportkm is a proper subject for national legislation. My report for 1870 contained 
an article on the Chinese migration to this country, in which the chief i>eculiarity of 
that race was said to be their family life. This is doubtless true of the Chinese in 
diina; it certainly is not true of them in this country up to the present time. Indus- 
tnaoR, frugal, law abiding families are the best foundations of a state; but the present 
eoodition of Chinese immigration is demoralizing to those who come here, destructive of 
pwions economic relations, and profitable only to the few great ^'comx>anies," who con- 
trol and employ labor purely for their own benefit, regardless of the misery they entail 
oi others. 

The white males exceeded the white females 858,830; much of this excess is occupied 
in sabduing the dangers and difficulties of the Territories and the newer States. In such 
communities the expenditure of life is as inevitable as in the vicissitudes of war, and the 
bnik of it mujst be borne by the more adventurous and stronger sex. Several decades of 
jears must jtaas before numerical equality of sex is established. If the relation between 
the two sexes in the colored population be assumed as the natural one for this continent, 
we find that about one million three hundred and forty thousand white males are availa- 
ble, or growing up to become available, for this special conquest of natural difficulties in 
fvrmore recent communities. Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, California, Colo- 
Tido, Anzon2Lj Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Minnesota, Michigan, and Texas show where 
the pioneers now muster thickest. Diagrams Noe. 5-8 display the excess of white and 
GQlored males and females in the different parts of the Union in an efiective way. 

TABLE 3 FROM THE CENSUS OF 1880. 

The third table derived from the Census shows some interesting particulars respecting 

the native population of the country: Sixty-seven per cent, of these natives, forming 

«Tenty-sicven per cent, of the whole population, lived in the States in which they were 

Nxn ; these 33,882,734 doubtless included most of the children and more than half the 

vmmn] ftf thi<» pnnntry. The other element of the native population comprised 9,593, 106 

^ . Liu%'ecl frofu tlie 8tAte'< uf tlitir Insth !<» others. Surely this is a *'wan- 

of tbe BftHoii^'^ as woMtrful im any lui^u^mm Imis related. It tends to make the 

of ijo^ |«iTt femiltar with other iwirtitnis nl' xhv country, promotes friendships, 

tieaof ba^uicss, p<iliticnl luirmcmy tmd I'quity, and in a thousand silent 

wtfi hitlps t<f bind the memories^, hoi>es, uirei-tii^ns. nml interests of the people together. 

Hm ccklamna showing the ^'iiH giun'' ami ''net los.^'' of the several States and Ter- 

^firiii fwrr© a» indications of th^ r. liiiivi- attrui tifnis and opportunities afforded by 

flb^ ge^cDljeen 6tiite^ arid om' Territ^irj ^^liow a mt loss of native stock: their na- 

Sv« ittopigralitm hiul not equalM! their nuthrj emigration. New York, though the 

WK^ paiptiUmB^ of the Stntc^^ txiutribnt^ Q»tiT« cTiii<rnmt8 to other States to such a 

4i^p^ tfaailMsr metkni of nftttTes wns greater thixti tlu' whole population of any one of 

^^MMiSlaiMt Tit|ritifft wa0 the next largix^t uei Ui^t of her native stock to the popu- 

i<iV of oibor 8tat4at, Ijtit Ohio and Penns>lvuiii:i c^>iitributed absolutely more than 

HlmSft to tbft native urttlct^ of other Cc»ini^jonwL-alths. Kentucky, Tennessee, and 

rth QmillDA ^n aoniribiiUHl bt^vily (<i th^ popu hit ions of other States. Among the 

^i«9 EilglflDd Statoi, Hhod^ 1 Aland h:id guinea slightly, Massachusetts had lost a few 

tin* olhen« bad h^t nianj thousaiid^^^ Yet, by comparing the column of 

iwi4ciitii in Tubk 1 with the tx>kmui of net native loss in this table, we 

aAajr €um» Uto lorn *>r nativcvf vtm more thrm made up by the incoming of 

Tbi», NVw Tc*rk had 1,211,(J0U fordgneT^; Pennsylvania, 587,000; Massa- 

Ua^llUO} auil C^nnix^icut, 130,(»CK). 




U\ 



\tn 



00 

^6 



.t^ 






S 



z CO 




^ «- 
K t: 



us 



!S3 



o ^ 



I- 



K^CO 






«c;s; 



^03 



l« P3 




«3 



if^ 



jigitlzed by 



Google 



XXIV 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Table 3, derioedfrmn the Coma of 1880,' showing the movement of the native popiUa^on of 
the States and Territories and the net gain or loss resulting to each thertby. 



Slates and Territories. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa , 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Looisiana ^ , 

Maine 

Maryland ^., 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi , 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire . 

New Jersey 

NcwYork. 

North Carolina.... 
Ohio 



Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia „ 

West Virginia. 

Wisconsin 

Arizona 

Dakota 

District of Columbia.. 

Idaho 

Montana 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 

Wyoming , 

Unclassified 



Number of natives — 






1,014,633 

436,677 

82^000 

26,363 

898,211 

110,643 

173,481 

1,395,214 

1,709,520 

1,354,565 

737,306 



1,402,112 
728,322 
568,015 
762,641 

1,068,565 
803,306 
302,371 
863,185 

1,268,641 

95,790 

13,782 

242,757 

725,614 

3,556,394 

1,344,553 

2,361,437 
67,942 

8,385,693 
152,487 



1,318,552 

870,706 

251,780 

1,435,124 

897,267 

698,177 

8,166 

17,796 

80.702 

5,992 

7,225 

101, OIG 

81,716 

19,350 

2,406 



nil 



238,138 

355,498 

245,820 

128,174 

94,497 

26,497 

86,103 

136,402 

784,775 

479,568 

625,659 

652,944 

187,061 

157,478 

27,088 

89,496 

251,029 

445,123 

210,726 

259,203 

688,161 

259,198 

22,881 

57,9*0 

183,802 

815,098 

51,455 

441,682 

76,828 

309,369 

50,061 

86,496 

212,105 

006,428 

89,547 

62,745 

202,925 

216,896 

16,225 

65,586 

79,800 

16,644 i 

20,413 I 

10,468 

18,253 

39,964 

12,443 






304,556 

84,063 

29,157 

5,464 

140,621 

44,874 

21,037 
323,854 
553,889 
448,925 
217,389 

46,085 
454,198 

89,170 
182,257 
196,500 
267,730 
117,355 

39,379 
193,806 
298,643 

17,688 
4,524 
128,506 
180,391 
1,197,153 
293.506 
941,219 

13,666 
798,487 

49,235 
230,916 
473,952 

44,315 
178,261 



42,946 

200,768 

923 

2,844 

21,726 
1.7C1 
1,462 

12,742 

10,414 
8,066 
1,596 
4,752 



1 
I 



2n,4S5 
216,663 
122,710 



66,066 



230,886 
35,683 
408,270 
606,850 



68,306 



327,788 
171,347 

65,396 
889,618 
241,510 

18,857 



8,411 



62,657 
816 



562,113 



159,979 
16,127 
15,302 
62,742 
58,074 
14,888 
18,951 





2,274 


7,839 
36,888 
10,848 








4.732 



33,882,734 |* 9,593,106 | 9,593,106 | 4,270,355 j 4,270,3« 



»A11 the fign es except those in the first column having been computed in the Bureau of Education. 



THE CENSUS IN ITS BKLATIONS TO EDUCATION. XXY 

TABLE 4 FBOM THE CENSUS OF 1880. 

The distribation of Uie Chinese has been sufficiently shown in Table 2. A slight 
aaminadon of the fourth table derived firom the last census shows that immigrants- 
frmn the German Empire exceeded other classes of foreigners in sixteen States : Illinois, 
Ohio, Wiaeonain, Missouri, Iowa, Indiana, Maryland, Nebraska, Kentucky, Kansas, 
Lonisiazia, Virginia, West Virginia, Arkansas, Alabama, and South Carolina. Immi- 
KEaatB firam Ireland were more numerous than foreigners firom any other country in ten 
SuOei — New York, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Ck)nnecticut, Rhod& 
L«iaod, Tennessee, Delaware, Georgia, and Mississippi — as well as in the District of Co- 
hunbia. Great Britain sent the most foreign inmiigrants to North Carolina, Utah, Col- 
orado, and Wyoming. The British American possessions sent the greatest number of 
foreign residents in Michigan, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Montana. Scan- 
diflaTiaos were the chief foreign element in the population of Minnesota and Dakota. 
Mezioo contributed xnoet to the foreigners living in Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico ; 
md Fknida received more foreigners firom Cuba and other West Indian islands than from 
3IIT other source. Attention is invited to diagram No. 12, in connection with this table. 

The number of foreign-bom residents from the Grerman Empire increased in ten years 
from 1,690,533 to 1,966,742 ; those from Great Britain, firom 766,292 to 917,598 ; British- 
American immigrants, fiom 493,464 to 717,157; and Scandinavian immigrants, firom 
341,685 to 440,262. The immigrants firom Ireland numbered 1,855,827 in 1870 and 
L^oTl in 1880, a decrease of 1,256. The preponderance of Celtic methods and ideas 
in mr immigrant population is therefore at an end, at least for the present ; the Ger- 
nttD. Scandinavian, suad British elements will exert an ever-increasing Teutonic influ- 
«oee, and wiQ form a strong, sensible, and steady influence to counterbalance the vola- 
tile and brilliant qnalities of the Irish blood. The approaching railroad connections 
vith Mexico will doubtless encourage an exchange of population with that country along 
oar soQth western border. Whether this will be advantageous or not cannot be foretold 
It the present time. Certainly, the sluggishness of the native population in New Mexico 
in beoTToing American in feeling or action is not encouraging for the fiiture of the lands 
that tVy and their congeners across the border have occupied. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



XXVIII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Table 4, derived from Ike Cenms of 1880, showing the number of inhabitants in the States 
and Territories born in specified foreign countries. 

[ColuranB marked with an • have been computed by the Bureau of Education.] 



Number of inhabitants bom in — 



States and Territories. 



German 
Empire. 



"" 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut , 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

lUinois 

Indiana. 

Iowa , 

Kansas 

Kentucky » 

Louisiana... 

Maine ,, 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota. , 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey «. 

NewYork 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Arizona 

Dakota 

District of Columbia. 

Idaho 

Montana , 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 

Wyoming 



Ireland. 



3,238 

3,620 

42,532 

7,012 

15,627 

1,179 

978 

2,966 

235,786 

80,756 I 

88,268 

28,084 

80,418 

17,475 

688 

45.481 

16,872 

89,085 

66,592 

2,556 

106,800 

81,125 

2,213 

789 

64,935 

856,913 

960 

192,697 

6,084 

168,426 

1,966 

2,846 

3,988 

35,847 

396 

3,759 

7,029 

184,828 

1,110 

6,925 

6,055 

750 

1,705 

729 

885 

2,198 

801 



2,966 

2,432 

62,962 

8,263 

70,638 

5,791 

662 

4,148 

117,843 

25,741 

44,061 

14,993 

18,266 

18,807 

13,421 

21,865 

226,700 

48,413 

25,942 

2,753 

48,898 

10,183 

5,191 

18,062 

98,079 

499,446 

6U 

78,927 

3,659 

236,506 

85,281 

2,626 

6,975 

8,108 

11,667 

4,835 

6,459 

41,907 

1,296 

4,104 

7,840 

981 

2,406 

796 

1,821 

2,243 

1,093 



Great Bri- 
tain. 



1,441 

1,506 

33,097 

11,684 

20,045 

1,770 

1,118 

1,612 

75,859 

14,767 

82,626 

20,059 

5,481 

3,820 

6,401 

8,813 

60,782 

64,827 

12,609 

1,867 

21,249 

11,080 

6,147 

4,631 

89,803 

151,914 

1,168 

64,840 

4,254 

180,860 

15,709 

1,038 

2,792 

8,434 

3,777 

8,815 

8,044 

86,150 

1.016 

3,456 

2,200 

2,497 

1,821 

4T7 

25,268 

2,478 

1,667 



I 



1,966,742 I 1,854,571 



n 917,598^ ^;U7*157 

uigltized by VjOOQK^ 



, Sweden, 
British I Norway, 
America. and Den- 
mark. 



271 ; 
787 
18,889 
6,785 

1«.444| 

246 ; 

446 ! 
348 
84,04a 
5,669 
21,097 I 
12,686' 
1,070 I 
726 i 
87,114 j 

968 

119,802 

148,866 

29,681 

809 

8,686 

8,622 

8,147 

27,142 

8,586 

84,182 

425 

16,146 

8,019 

12,876 

18,806 

141 

545 

2,472 

24,620 

685 

296 

28,965 

671 

10,678 

452 

684 

2,481 

280 

1,086 

2,857 

542 



THE CENSUS IN ITS RELATIONS TO EDUCATION. 



XKIX 



TABLES 5 AND 6 FBOM THE CENSUS OF 1880. 

The fifth table from the Census shows the age, by single years, of the minor popula- 
tuo in each State and Territory and in the whole Union. General Walker and Colonel 
Beaton have wisely reported in this way, for the first time in oar statistical history, the 
j^ of the population under eighty years. Educators will see at a glance how impor- 
uixt this is for their calculations and how useful in their labors. 

The sixth table £rom the Census of 1880 divides the minor population of the States 
ad Territories in two ways, first, distinguishing those of legal school age, according to 
the bw in each State, from these above and below that age; and, secondly, the number 
h-ersreen six and fifteen years old (both ages inclusive) from the number younger than 
^^ aad the number sixteen or older. The minors of legal school age in the Union were 
lg.265,089, those under legal school age numbered 7,780, 150, and those over legal school 
age were 1489,107. The number between six and fifteen, inclusive, was 11,771,437, or 
1493,652 leas Hmn the number of legal school age.^ 

Table 5. fnm the Cenw of 1880, ahawing the minor population of the United States in 1 880. 





id eolumn of liia «iULli tAMe, 1 (.-fiuld nut follovi'^ tUe ceuisua autborllteM lu cxju^ 

bgturpi e o Qtc; an^l eighteen yearn ^f Ofi^c om the ^tc^tt «cboo] age, becaiiM; I do 

.« Dur do Uie^ kawi at Iho Stalect fcenenLlly liilfipt those llmjt« for their iicbcKif 

tbe sfxtli unci the ajiit'eciith ycj^rai (nix io fifu^u^ both itiicludcrd, or «iv; 

ca;]iPOHcii]][ b the litui^ Xhax il Rufljorliy of ftuiiaol aiithoHUcti bc<lil^vc<, on the 

fbrpublUi N^rhncjl trnrlc^ niid I haw »iiX3omlti|fly oomputod thtiiiiimbti:ra between 

111 Lhc ttflh cohimn of the tabic. 



Digitized by 



Google 



XXX REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

Table 5, from the Census of 1880, showing the minor populatiarij d'C. — Continued. 



Years of age. 



Under 1 ', 87,859 

1 75,595 

2 86,0U 

3 82,806 

4 1 84,043 

5 81,450 

6 82,576 

7 76,671 

8 78,093 

9 1 73,452 

10 ' 79,e20 



11.. 



12 ! 77,473 



69,022 



13.. 
11.. 
15.. 
16.. 
17.. 



68,679 

' 68,557 ' 

I 00,481 I 

! 64,228 I 

63,751 ! 

18 73,967 ' 

19 06,710 

20 ' 70,955 



55,353 

48,075 

52,008 

49,5&1 

52,633 

50,889 

53,480 

49, 6M 

51,363 

47,237 

51,811 I 

45,931 

52,488 

47,032 

45,275 

40,166 

42,610 

42,716 

48,857 

44,746 

44,866 



48,025 i 

42,674 I 

46,227 

40,036 

46,548 

44,372 

43,206 

42,466 

42,767 

40,053 

42,906 

37,746 

41,204 

37,683 

36,810 

32,520 

34,101 

34,326 

38,686 

35,276 

36,528 



i 

a 

OS 

32,547 
27,52> 
30,427 
30,676 
30,529 
29,680 
29,382 
27,731 
27,496 
25,806 
26,980 
23,545 
25,535 
22,944 
21,400 
17,853 
18,913 
18,704 
21,189 
19,651 
19,682 



M 



52,982 
44,228 
52,158 
48,874 
50,105 
48,525 
51,955 
46,434 
47,352 
42,589 
46,841 
37,472 
45,490 
38,975 
38,602 
83,180 
35,967 
88,088 
89,541 
34,822 
86,238 



I 
2 



Total 1,571,599 1,016,704; 850,710 1 628,255 904,903 



30,946 
25,315 
32,888 
30,749 
31,185 
28,739 
29,982 
28,188 
29,043 
28,891 
27,955 
18,820 
25,794 
20,081 
19,886 
16,896 
16,817 
14,661 
19,635 
16,368 
21,368 



12,812 
11,991 
13,205 
13,114 
13,265 
13,094 
13,144 
12,730 
18,279 
12,638 
13,386 
12,214 
13,687 
13,034 
12,801 
12,207 
12,861 
12,447 
13,787 
12,956 
13,331 



608,607 2n.316 



Years of age. 



! 1 

Under 1 i 37,587 | 

1 ' 83,051 I 

2 i 36,424 



S 



3.. 

4.. 

5.. 

6.. 

7.. 

8.. 

9.. 
10.. 
11.. 
12.. 
13.. 
14.. 
15.. 
16.. 
17.. 
18. 
19.. 
20.. 



35,989 
36,256 
36,554 
35,380 
34,624 
82,&18 
82,069 
33,873 
30,83tt 
33,593 
81,043 
32,578 
30,817 
81,825 
81,864 
86,626 
86,463 
89,453 



42,585 
38,788 
42,216 
41,774 
42,487 
40,888 
40,283 
37,842 
37,487 
35,906 
38,830 
84,410 
37,280 
84,097 
83,732 
29,628 
82,412 
81,688 
85,139 
84,242 
35,817 



Total 719,375 776,930 406,237 I 654,781 1,161,391 



s 



24,824 
22,150 
23,352 
28,722 
23,161 
22,315 
21,098 
20,529 
20,522 
18,623 
19,710 
16,884 
18,161 
16,866 
10,162 
14,708 
16,801 
15,697 
17,571 
16,412 
17,470 



1 



40,764 
33,646 
41,265 
40,041 
40,170 
39,898 
89,607 
86,061 
36,786 
29,681 
86,074 
28,860 
32,849 
26,872 
25,388 
21,140 
22,846 
18,680 
26,640 
19,840 
26,233 



1 

I 



65,120 
64,999 
65,253 
63,237 
62,314 
62,846 
63,729 
68,848 
69,266 
66,687 
60,066 
60,668 
67,706 
50,772 
49,696 
42,642 
46,860 
43,964 
62, Wl 
46,977 
49,410 



--1- 



15,665 
13,539 
14,299 
14,504 
14,149 
13,537 
12,9^ 
12,361 
11,991 
11,154 
11,772 
9,098 
10,527 
9,117 
8,862 
7,358 
7,982 
7,872 
9,087 
8,786 
8,867 



234,054 



1,311 

1,180 

1,818 

1,278 

1,260 

1,215 

1,172 

961 

1,049 

886 

968 

828 

796 

759 

704 



614 
906 

916 
1,199 



20,661 



THE CENSUS IN ITS RELATIONS TO EDUCATION. 



XXXI 



Table 5, /rom the Census of 1880, shomng the minor population^ dc. — Continued. 




I 



tUKMT 

It], Ma 

MtXSB 

1411,740 

tee, 019 



f 









47, ma 

4B,5QXt 
40,S51 
4IV12*» 

3I»,44I 
»l,yt4 

3SM05 

3A,fi70 

27.tt71 



o 





i 




1 


1 


>. 


1 


£ 



^ 82,738 

83,729 
m,2VX 
82,(520 
77.*>30 

n,706 
70,tt28 

64,ilS 
H«7aa 
73, 7M 

mAvo 



4.7T7 


m,xo4 


iJU4 


i€a, ii?J 


4,eao 


ll3,51i> 


4;771* 


im,if7ii 


4,i7fl 


utKm 


4,4fl2 


iaH,23r, 


4,4^2 


lll,S7J 


*.173 


106, lai 


4,22V> 


HABli^ 


3,»y 


9d,5.55 


4.m 


io4.«tiy 


a. §44 


yo,505 


3>tf75 


101,2:?5 


3,553 


y2,6.Vl 


3>17 


»l,y!» 


3.11XJ 


«a;4ipj 


3.5t5 


^,1^1 


a,o^i;i 


N4,02l 


a.aii'i 


v^rm 


a.fjff'. 


!C/J-I« 


3jJft7 


iK\,fm 



779, Ul« l,5S8,ei5 



M,^i St,l«2,77a 



0, l^ I 
5,402 
^Mi ; 

\im I 
r\5SG ; 

5,211 

i.xa 

fi,488 
5,1C I 
5,088 ' 

4,801} 
4,V^ir, 
5,71U 

5,^S I 



113, 73S 



34, i^ 
31, mn 

21, !j03 

2?<,flm 

21,289 

iH,wi?* 

lVi,3«S 
25,025 



563^9^ 



1 



I 

I 



3 



«i_ 






4^111 
4l».5i7 

4i.KB 
40l«» 

mm 

13,480 
WkttS 

u,7m 



m,9m 

4i,Mfr 

M.S70 

QS«143 

4«»,T?S 

41, (n4 

M,4M 

as,m 

40Li» 



fl,7flO 
G,S79 

7,001 
fl,017 

T.oai 
ft, us? 

6,i57 
«,4S1| 

^«m I 

fi,4«S j 

%*m 
«,m 

0>7W 

«,4oa 



oniiKtr 



901,1107 



140,1113 



4«,«U 

43,14d 
4S,4VK^ 
I7,a8t[ 
46,d<il 

4«,a(kt 

46,2SI 

42, HT^ 
4ka^ 
38.4fS8 
44,302 

33, §00 
3i,7Q5 

30,130 
20,8SIO 

3S,49S 
39,341 

^7^ 



31J31 j 
1»,S51 ' 
20,422 1 
HT,51fi 
t SI, 411 j 
18,408 
I^>,47a 

ID, 14a 

1(S,0QQ 

H.yoi 
n,iiB 

14.72« 

ii,trr7 

12,154 

13,7540 
13,8^1 
12,55S 



«11>,T29 



*14,ST7 



a7,!U4 
37,434 

ae,24S 
3a,7ao 

Z»,&45 

ai,72i 

2B,3S3 

28,721 

St,29t 
ff7,W0 
£i,M4 



733 

sse 

S40 
BOH 
727 
7Si 
754 
7»i 
S9T 
TTtS 



sri 

511 



m^melf by4^©(j3g 



4,200 

3.7.^ 
4,052 
3,J!i02 
3,771 

3,H5S 
3,(300 

2.^m 

2,7IW 
2,3619 
2,445 
2,1^ 
2,fa3 
1,7^ 
1,S^ 
l,Of» 

%mi 

T^4^ 



:XXXII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

Table 5, fnifm the Census of 1880, sh wing the minor population^ dtc. — Continued. 



Years of age. 


t: » 


1 


1 


8 
8 

1 


1 


1 




§ 


lUnderl 

1 


4,624 
3,370 
4,153 
4,210 
4,269 
4,190 
4,150 
4,121 
8,9i0 
3,681 
8,962 
3,427 
3,996 
3,541 
8,490 
3,214 
8,122 
2,904 
8,387 
8,481 
8,986 


896 
773 
866 
862 
790 
763 
739 
682 
676 
661 
647 
628 
586 
482 
633 
430 
434 
484 
496 
528 
600 


844 
717 
808 
777 
764 
742 
706 
668 
6S6 
660 
620 
504 
498 
430 
881 
831 
889 
888 
534 
533 
794 


8,597 
2.854 
8,440 
8,520 
3,238 
8,266 
3.175 
8,093 
3,266 
2,651 
8,832 
2,222 
8,268 
2,846 
2,468 
2,666 
2,416 
1,628 
2,816 
1.904 
3,175 


5.651 
6.009 
6,290 
4.837 
4.904 
4,549 
4,688 
4,067 
4.242 
8,812 
4,091 
8,874 
8.696 
8.197 
8.501 
3.112 
8.048 
2.872 
2.887 
2.864 
2,969 


2.143 
1,999 
2,107 
2.061 
2.010 
1.972 
1.851 
1.797 
1,856 
1,610 
1.757 
1.440 
1,648 
1.872 
1,400 
1.237 
1.821 
1.160 
1.888 
1,387 
1.498 


533 
452 
493 
501 
455 
436 
402 
381 
337 
820 
807 
245 
248 
212 
233 
176 
239 

m 

329 
354 
613 


1,447,988 
1,296,956 


2 


1,427.066 


3 


1,881,274 


4 


1,401,217 


5 


1,357,706 


6 


1,374,878 




1,281,3a 
1,296,094 


8 


9 „.. 

10 


1,170,590 
1,282,258 
1,066,657 
1,232,949 
1,072,883 
1,070,444 
984,297 


11 


12 


18 


14 


16 


16 


987,996 

049,036 

1,131,132 

1.000,362 

1,113,569 


17 


18 


19 


•20 




Total 


79,166 


13,290 


12,407 


50.739 


82.824 


34,949 


7.884 


25.284,346 





Table 6, derived from the Census of 1880, showing the number of minors of legal school age, 
the number between six and sixteen years old^ the numbers older and younger ^ and the 
difference between the scJiool population and the population between six and sixteen; computed 
by the Bureau of Education, 



States. 



II 



i 

I 



► 

o 



I 



1 

to 

G 

I 



o 



lili 
Ills 

CD 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California .... 

Colorado 

ConnecticQt . 

Delaware 

Florida 

Qeor^a 

niinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky .... 
^Louisiana .... 



296,750 
170,622 
03,426 
22,956 
49,896 
22,029 
34,387 
812,124 
497,764 
308,522 
280,110 
151,704 
296,872 
179,822 



422,780 



201,283 
44,096 
146,000 
48,880 
115,406 
461,016 
1,073.835 
708.182 
620.600 
376.551 
548,522 
271,414 



70,160 
60,877 



104,636 



60,509 
67,371 



256.501 

170.622 

111.987 

22.966 

75.807 

22,029 

62,659 

812,124 

497,764 

308,522 

274,482 

181.384 

296,872 

179,822 



3S2.290 

211.106 

167.166 

28.873 

120.006 

82.866 

69.969 

404.708 

784.224 

484,387 

897.311 

248.732 

428.880 

239,936 



132,008 

77,747 

86,767 

15,725 

60,877 

16,023 

27.266 

160,858 

830,611 

223,796 

178,917 

08,130 

170,151 



00.449 

77.747 

84.118 

15.725 

25.011 

16.023 

46.537 

66,223 

330,611 

223,796 

223,280 

127,819 

110,642 

81,478 



THE CENSUS IN ITS RELATIONS TO EDUCATION. XXXIII 
Tabu 6, imvedfrmn the Census of 1880, showing the number ofmitwrSj d'c. — Continued. 



lestndTerri- 
torica. 



iBTlMld 

XnachiBeits . 



s 
1 






P 



JDwrippi.. 



X«wk. 

5ev Htrnpshire .. 

WJeniey 

SnrTork _.. 

Xst&Guolina..... 
•*ia. _.. 






Tom ^ 

VcoMnt 



Total.. 



♦'■riwoa......^ ^... 

Uko^k. 

I>«tri0tof Columbia. 



^Mexko. 



Onnd total. 



51,122 
122,954 
179,307 
207,890 
U7,209 
196,876 
373,289 

72,156 
7,512 

30,573 
134,716 
559,000 
276,512 
485,639 

18,440 
660,399 

28,585 
206,871 
296,854 
482,830 

34,091 
234,687 
117,716 
144,222 



7,657,294 



4,660 
19,721 
24,825 

4,184 

8,146 
22,589 
80,140 
10,310 

8,272 



122,856 



,780,150 



I 



I 



220,191 
319,201 
333,020 



458,855 
738,712 
161,898 

10,129 

60,899 

316,421 

1,655,644 

502,507 

1,082,976 

61,894 
1,422,377 

58,332 
262,279 
571,253 
261,536 

99,463 
585,042 
227,161 
502,213 



16,062,283 



9,5n 
30,742 
43,537 

9,115 

9,321 
29,255 
43,514 
24,639 

4,112 



212,806 



16,265,089 



I 

O 03 



o 



20,983 
207,048 
85,317 



49,410 



3,020 
39.385 
70,322 



3,957 



26,871 
99,780 



217,531 
6,598 



28,984 



1,161,738 



10,804 



7,895 
8,670 



27,889 



1,180,107 



2 
o 

C 



a 



77,481 
146,ft'>G 
215,861 
248,733 
139,524 
235,769 
873,269 

85,693 
7,512 

36,724 
162,065 
672,781 
276,512 
485,639 

27,378 
660,899 

34,489 
206,871 
296,854 
833,910 

41,019 
281,560 
117,716 
217,018 



8,145,094 



4,669 
23,829 
24,825 

4,947 

4,652 
19,414 
30,140 
12,282 

2,870 



127,128 



8,272,222 



S 

a 



128,964 
217,705 
327,283 
359,404 
183,762 
305,318 
518,841 
105,767 
8,822 

60.728 

245,203 

1,030,009 

356,982 

741,888 

39,008 
982,416 

52,428 
262,279 
407,587 
410,487 

66,873 



163,540 
812,882 



11,60^513 



•6,188 

25,421 

87,511 

5,863 

5,177 



87,599 
15,968 
2,861 



164,924 



11,771,487 



64,871 

98,477 
176,231 
168,793 

82,9^ 
113,644 
239,281 

42,594 
4,327 

83,385 
114,201 
511,874 
145,525 
341,068 

17,905 
489,961 

26,871 

99,780 
163,666 
157,500 

32,260 
149,911 

68,621 
145,569 



5,119,708 



8,433 
10,713 
16,830 
2,489 
2,688 
11,939 
14,585 
6,699 
1,658 



70,979 



5,190,687 



-a o u £ 
a o V 

^ OS! >. 



« 



i'?^:^ 



Co 



la 



91,230 

101,495 

5,787 

174,859 

105,266 

163,537 

189,871 

56,131 

1,307 

171 

71,218 

625,635 

145,525 

341,068 

22,886 

439,961 

5,904 



163,666 
al58,961 

82,590 
196,774 

63,621 
189,381 



4,445,770 



14,321 
6,026 
8,252 
4,144 
869 
5,915 
8,671 
1,251 



47,882 



4,493,662 



a In Texas tbe school population was less than the number between 6 and 16. 

B— in 



. Digitized by VjOOQIC 



00 ^ 

a> ^ ^ 
5 io 



< « 



5^* 



O lO 



>.« 



• '* 



5"* 



e- 






2*- 



5« 



-J to 



Z(0 



2 e 



O lO 



*»- 



Z lo 



< CO 



<r. 



oa r* 



Sr. 






'v 



s« 






s 

2 
2 

% 

o 
o 
2 
I 

I 

o 
o 



£ 
o 



o ^ 



*•* 



. CO 






.CO 



i?v 






u 

a 

52; 

I 

CO 

d 
Jz; 

o 






Digitized by 



Google 



^ CO oi 



^•^S 
•x.^ 



0. eo 



> CO 






.J CO 



;co 




< o 






J CO 



^ ^ 
P ^ 



2^ 






■oi 



o *** 



XXXVi REtORT O^ TttE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



Tabic showing the ratio of minors and ffUnors of school age to aduU populaUon throughout 

Vie Union. 



In 100 iiihabitanto of— 



There were— 



1. 

5 



'O'O 

|i 

i 



el 



In 100 inhabitants of- 



There were— 



1. 

Si 
I' 



•O'O 



075 



Montana Territory 

Kerada ^... 

Colorado „ 

Arizona Territory 

Wyoming Territory ... 

New Hampshire 

Idaho Territory 

Conneotiout 

Rhode Island 

Maine 

Vermont 

Galifomia 

New York 

Dakota Territory 

Maaaaohuaettfl 

District of Columbia... 

Pennsylvania 

Washington Territory. 

New Jersey 

Michigan , 

Oregon , 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Ohio „ 



51 
^1 



New Mexico Territory. 

Minnesota 

The Union 

Wisconsin ., 

Nebraska 

Indiana 

minois 

Iowa « 

Kansas 

Missouri 

Virginia 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Florida 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

Tennessee 

Georgia 

Texas 

Mississippi 

Alabama 

Arkansas 

Utah Territory 

SouUi Carolina 



51 
60 
50 
49 
49 
49 
49 
48 
47 
47 
46 
46 
46 
45 
45 
45 
44 
44 
44 
43 
48 
43 
48 
48 



49 
50 
50 
51 
51 
51 
51 
52 
58 
58 
54 
54 
54 
55 
55 
56 
56 
56 
56 
67 
87 
67 
87 
67 



24 
37 
32 
38 
36 
36 
85 



34 
39 
88 
30 
48 
37 
86 
37 
80 
16 
40 



80 
26 



The statistics in the ab<Tve table and in Tables 5 and 6 supply material for reflection 
and Aimishan aignment that has not heretofore been advanced for the aid of the nation 
to education in the South. 

Take, for the sake of contrast, the cases of Massachusetts and Mississippi. In 100 
inhabi^ts Massachusetts had 57 adults and 43 minors and Mississippi had 43 adults 
and 57 minors. Even if the wealth of the two States per adult capita were the same, the 
adults of Mississippi would be more heavily taxed than those of Massachusetts in fhi^ 
nishing equal opportunities for education to aU the population of school age. Farther 
comment on this subject is deferred until a fUll presentation of the subject can be made 
in another form. 

TABLES 7, 8, AISTD 9 FROM THE CENSUS OP 1880. 

The seventh table which I present shows, by States and Territories, the number, na- 
tivity, and race of the males of legal school age, the total being 8,167,645, of whom 
6,690,860 were native whites, 358,631 foreign-bom whites, and 1,118,154 of other races. 

The eighth table £com the Census shows the same facts for the females of legal school 
age, the whole number being 8,097,444, of whom 6,611,147 were native whites, 361,298 
foreign-bom whites, and 1,124,999 of other races. 

The ninth table £com the Census is a combination of the last two, and shows that^ of 
the 16,265,089 minors of legal school age in the countiy, 14,021,936 were white and 
2,243,163 were of other races. Digitized by V^OOglC 



THE CENSUS IN ITS RELATIONS TO EDUCATION. XXXVII 



Table 7, derived from the United States Census of 1880« showing nwnber, neiivity^ and race 
tf ike Mtnor males in the school population of the several Stales and Territories. 



fliitf and Territories. 



Obkndo... 



Florida... 
Geoira^ 
iniaoii.... 



Iowa.. 



Kentneky... 
I/Ndiiaiia_. 



KarTlaod. 



mmkmippi. 




I Native white 
I males. 



107,019 

107,490 

92,488 

21,282 

68,019 

19,061 

29,190 

116,449 

492,984 

848,236 

292,996 

174,434 

239,968 

63,771 

104,029 

119,877 

152,190 

238,446 

119,786 

98,966 

340,337 

72,248 

4,210 

28,062 

145,445 

749,229 

161,471 

506,760 

29,479 

664,849 

24,963 

48,110 

209,794 

90,272 

47,298 

163.477 

109,751 



Totel. 



of (kklvmlila.. 




T«tet. 



6,606,328 



2,916 
14,478 

4.385 
4,133 
IS, 373 
19,6S9 

10,711 
L866 



Foreign 
white males. 



8&,532 



6,000,890 



631 

4,668 

2,112 

4,374 

856 

682 

196 

87,227 

6,092 

19,574 

10,682 

1,344 

704 

6.448 

2,714 

13,220 



25,719 

339 

7,808 

10,960 

357 

2,567 

7,761 

56,986 

258 

18,772 

925 

81,414 

8,565 

114 

678 

3,915 

3,088 

758 

683 

26,192 



846,786 



1,461 
6,856 
276 
886 
813 
875 
2,812 



11,845 



Total white 
males. 



Colored 
males. 



107,406 

106,121 

97,066 

23,804 

72,398 

20,017 

29,872 

116,644 

530,161 

349,828 

812,572 

185,116 

241,332 

64,475 

110,477 

122,591 

165,410 

267,128 

145,505 

94,295 

848,145 

83,203 

4,667 

80,649 

153,206 

805,215 

151,729 

527,532 

80,400 

606,268 

28,518 

48,224 

210,472 

94,187 

50,331 

164,280 

110,434 

251,516 



Total 
males. 



6,962,114 



4,877 
20,834 
14,482 

4,621 

4,451 
18,647 
21,971 
11,844 

2,150 



97,877 



358,631 



7,049,491 



103,639 

38,040 

4,810 

4a 

1,227 

4,718 

27,560 

116,951 

7,572 

6,572 

1,8U 

8,666 

35,894 

71,045 

838 

86,578 

1,682 

3,718 

684 

135,082 

24,914 

411 

607 

71 

4,967 

8,741 

101,605 

13,252 

1,716 

11,546 

612 

84,779 

76,835 

34,500 

189 

128,464 

4,861 

1,150 



1,106,267 



1,010 
330 

6,606 
229 
571 

1,306 
148 

1,649 
186 



11,887 



1,118,154 



211,045 

146,161 

101,866 

23,835 

73,620 

24,735 

67.432 

233,595 

587,733 

855,900 

314,413 

193,782 

277,226 

135,920 

110,815 

159,169 

167,042 

270,846 

146,189 

229,327 

373,059 

83,614 

5,074 

80,720 

158.173 

813,966 

253,424 

540,784 

32,116 

707,809 

29,130 

133,008 

287,807 

128,777 

90.520 

292.694 

115,295 

292,675 



8,068,381 



5,387 
20,664 
20,988 

4,850 

6,022 
14,999 
22,119 
12,993 

2,286 



109,261 



8,167,649 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



XXXVIII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

Table 8, derived from Uie UwUed Sfal4^ Census of 1880, showing the number , naUvil^j a$id 
race of the minor females in tlie school population of the several Slates and Territories. 



Statc!8 and Territories. 



Native white 
foiualoB. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georsria 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kan tw w 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland , 

MassachuHctts^ 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada. 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Bhodo Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Total 

Arizona ^ 

Dakota 

District of Columbia. 

Idaho 

Montana 

New Mexico 

Utah. 

Washington 

Wyoming 

Total 

Grand total 



106,474 
108,401 
91,821 
18,428 
66,680 
10, 181 



113,043 
401,042 
389,380 
286,576 
164,433 
234,421 

63,051 
101,860 
119,485 
150,689 
227,136 
U8,06l 

01,538 
332,844 

67,834 
4,357 

27,449 
144,031 
766,334 
146,735 
600,151 

28,465 
668,462 

24,028 

46,102 
204,757 

84,729 

45,713 
161,124 
106,517 



6,529,821 



2,380 
13,219 
14,804 

3,929 

3,614 
12,754 
18,937 
10,163 

1,526 



81,326 



6,611,147 



Foreign 

white 

females. 



272 

496 

4,532 

1,482 

4,380 

423 

734 

185 

37,356 

6,015 

17,843 

9,596 

1,462 

798 

7,188 

2,933 

13,612 

81,970 

24,071 

278 

7,415 

10,000 

366 

2,661 

8,161 

65,447 

223 

19,309 



3,635 

124 

665 

3,611 

3,042 

700 

753 

25,089 



350,352 



1,161 
6,539 
306 
296 
189 
351 
2,324 
529 
249 



10,946 



Total white 
females. 



106,746 
108,897 
96,853 
19,910 
71,060 
19,604 
29,129 
113,228 



345,396 
304,419 
174,029 
235,883 

64,749 
109,048 
122,418 
164,301 
259,106 
142,152 

91,806 
340,250 

77,834 
4,723 

30,110 
153,092 
831,781 
146,068 
528,460 

29,328 
701,124 

28,563 

46,226 
306,422 

88,340 

48,755 
161,824 
107,270 
248,478 



6,880,173 



3,541 
18,758 
15,110 

4,227 

3,803 
13,105 
21,261 
10,602 

1,775 



92,273 



361,298 6,972,445 1,124,999 



Colored 
females. 



104.948 

88,794 

3,064 

853 

1,329 

4,560 

28,985 

114,193 

7,704 

6,887 

1,768 

8,740 

85,413 

71,145 

331 

37,614 

1,677 

3,811 

687 

137,722 

25,394 

450 



5,156 

9,907 

102,125 

13,732 

450 

13,444 

689 

83,060 

78,524 

34,419 

188 

130,524 

4,506 

1,065 



1,113,729 



643 
320 
7,439 
38 
496 
1,196 
134 
064 
51 



11,270 



Digitized by ^OOQIC 



THE CENSUS IN ITS RELATIONS TO EDUCATION. 



XX^IX 



TutLK 9, deritcdfnfm the Census of 1880, shmping the number , iiaiivitif^ and race of the legal 
school population in the several States and TerrilorieM. 




Digitized by ^OOglC 



^00 



Id 







<^ 



MOO 



o^ 



^i- 



S'o 



s ^ 



q: ^ 



^»« 



t: ev 



,5o> 



Digitized by 



Google 



J\ 


•* 










^^ ' i. 


^ cor^ •. 










[ ^r> 


^*v S^yZ^ 










^ 




CO 


\- 












\ 


^ 




I 




/ ^.8 


Ps. 


/^ 




V"^^ 


\ 1 ^ ^"Sx^ I 


( « ^ 


/ — ^*^~ 


^^^ 




\ 


V— — ^*^^'^ S \ 






> , 








\ /^ 










\ -«*^^^^1 


\Y 


%% 


u. y 




^^ 


i 0^ 1 1 


V 




\ K 




/ o 


1 2« < 1 


£§1 


< 2 


[/ 


^ 


\ / • 


-^^ 5 «- ^ \ 




<^ 


^ 




n^ 




V > ^ 




N^ 






l\ 




^Jr\^^^ ^/^ 


^ 


"^'T^*'^ 


y 


f 


'^l^^^/' 


• 
< 


2» 




< 


3J 


/ 




1" 




^ 




^ 


c 


/ 


4b ^M 

i 


^ 


x^ 


K 
III 


} 




- 


( 










Is 


= / 








• 


Z 




/ 


















/ 


h 


T~ 


J-l ^ f 




J 


< 


/ 


1 


1 «* 1 


X 




^^ 


/ ^ 


- ^ 


/ / 




1. 


r 


/ » 


j 


/ 1 




1 




/ 


7- 


7~^l / 





--H 




/ 


^---^0* 


/ i« / 


•1 


1 




cr^ 


< 


r^^—-L 




/ 


^ 


k7 


•--^-.^ 


iT y> 


>-v^ 


/ r'" 


^ 


/ X«5 / 


f 


w ,- ^^ 




^•^-^^-— 


— — ''^ ^x'"'^ 


' 1 


1 


« ^^ 






J^ 


'^ J 


/ 


^^ 


/ 


.- — ^ 




-^/^ 




^"■^^^ 


/ 






* 


^ 




/ 


Digitized by 


Google 



XLII REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

The analyses of population in the foregoing tables and diagrams afford important sug- 
gestions with reference to popular ^ucation in oar ooontiy. 

Our free schools are maintained under independent State systems. Each State makes 
its own school laws, cares for its own school fund, and develops its schools aooording to 
the intelligence, zeal, liberality, and forethought of its own citizens. The free schools 
have a national character in the sense that they have the sanction of law in every State 
and Territory of the Union, and that, ])y reason of the migration of the native popula- 
tion, the effort expended upon the children of one generation is likely to find its issues 
in some section remote from that which nurtured them. The similarity of the inde- 
pendent State systems is chiefly attributed to this shitting of the population, the stand- 
ards and methods, good or bad, that are adopted in any one section being rapidly intro- 
duced into the others. 

Viewing the country as a whole, one cannot fiiil to be impressed with the great 
diversity of races and nationalities of which it is composed. Four races are enumer 
ated. Three of these maintain in our midst the relations of &mily life. Their childrei 
are to be formed by our institutions, and in turn the future of the institutions will \> 
shaped by them. The fourth race, represented by the Chinese, live, as already pointer 
out, in an abnormal condition among us, but our school record shows that they are no 
entirely outside the operation of our educational provision. As the only agency by mean 
of which these diven peoples ean be moulded into a homogeneous population, having tha 
unity of ideals, purposes, aspirations, and patriotic sentiment which make up nationa 
life, the schools are emphatically a national institution. 

Those liuuiliar with the history of free schools in America are aware that they hav 
developed as circumstances allowed or compelled ; some of their characteristics are acd 
dental, some represent expedients whieh long ago served their purpose but remai 
through the natural persistence of precedents. On the whole the development has bee 
upwards. This is true of the personnel of the service to such a degree that it may be sai 
without exaggeration that the systems themselves furnish the men competent to mak 
the adjustments required by our present society, which is lai^ger, more complex, moi 
comprehensive than that to which the schools originally ministered. 

The excess of female over male teachers has become almost a national characteristic 
The excess would naturally be expected in States in which the women outnumber tl 
men: a comparison of diagrams 1-8, inclusive, with Table I, Part 1, Summary B, Bhov 
that it is not so limited. The causes are suggested in the diagrams. The uative-bol 
women exceed the native-bom men in 12 of the 13 original States, together with Tenne 
see, Louisiana, and Alabama. In the northern section of this group of States the excess 
women constitutes a portion of the white population industrious and intelligent by virii 
of inherited tendencies and personal advantages. From this excess the body of publ 
school teachers is constantly recruited. In the southern section, as is shown by diagra 
8,%he excess of native female population is largely derived from the colored race, and 
not yet available to any great extent for the school service. Louisiana, it will be seen \ 
reference to Table I, is the only one of the Southern States in which more female teacbc 
are employed than male. The vast territory west of the Alleghanies and north of ij 
Ohio and Red Rivers has an excess of male population ; nevertheless, with the excepti 
of Arkansas and Missouri (States having a laige proportion of colored people), each 
the 15 States included in the region and nearly all the Territories report a m^ority 
women teachers. This is explained by the conditions of pioneer life previously not 
and by the tact that the moment a new State becomes fairly populous the stream of en 
gration sets from it westward, and the excess of male population is gradually cLrai 
off. In short, the economic and industrial conditions of the developing countiy accou 
for the excess of women teachers. 

The influence of the foreign-bom population of the United States upon its school e^ 
terns is an interesting subject which can only be touched upon in this place. The Stcti 



SCHOOL STATISTICS OF STATES AND TERRITORIES. XLUI 

i wiiich the Irish element abounds have had greatest disturbance from sectarian eflforts 
\offi oontrol of some portion of the school funds, the influence of the Germans has 
hoB exerdaed in behalf of better methods of primary instruction, thorough training, and 
iqgfa stiodards in the intermediate and higher grade, the introduction of the Oerman 
lagoage into the schools, and science training, especially as related to the development 
vtaoT inteniai reBOorces. 

The stordj industry and stalwart vigor of the Swedes, Danes, and Norwegians is felt 
wHh immense effect along the northern border States and Territories. The race that 
prodoeed the Viking the Normans, the Varangians, Rurik, Gustaf Adolf, Charles XII, 
Tjcbo Biahe, and Thorwaldsen has a great ftiture before it in this new continent. Not 
tbe least of the advantages which attract these desirable settlers into our country are the 
acbools. AocDstomed by the policy of their own country to the responsibilities and 
pmHeges of popular education they give hearty snpi>ort to the free schools of their 
viopted land. The record of local school history shows that the influence favorable or 
mi&Toiable of the other nationalities represented in our immigrant population has been 
^j proportioned to their numbers. Through the action of all these various elements 
It has beeD made manifest that if proper watchfulness and activity are maintained by our 
jfofk no foreign inflnenoe is likely to overcome ih&t inherent quality of our school sys- 
tEi&fl which is not easily characterized, but which marks them as essentially American. 

Table L— Past 1. — Summary (A) of school age, poptUaUon, enrdmenty aUendancey 4&c. 




If 

n 

I- 

h 






1 

-^9 






off 



^wkt^ 



TO* 

oca jr. 



143. 74S 

1,002,223 

34flvl7^ 
(1271,414 

312,680 
&1S,394 

410,903 
/T23,48J 



affile 

cU»,745 



176,280 
iS,744 

103,850 
26,000 

lia,3fil 



lis, 316 



10&,541 


115 


14,610 


bm 


1176, 038 


180 




ciSS 



^&D,m^ 



149 

i«i 

117 

IDO 

115 



39,310 
244,107 
701,627 

4S1,513 

#23S,44C» 
e2,370 
150,0^ 
I5S,§O0 

371,743 
177,278 

237,388 
/l7fi,3XC 

ffFoT colored |iQpul^1oii this school age \a frcrm 

6 t^i 16. 
h EatiEnated by tbe Bunttii an iho ImdM of entl- 

mat*'* fnrnislii^d iu preTioiifiye»r» by Uifi Btote 

e»u{ji:rli4t:i]flent. 

* Digitized by 



27,046 

140, ma 

42D,ma 

254,083 
139,776 

/45,e30 

7P,7^ 

a^,iOi^ 

h219,32S 

70,001 

16^,064 

fh3l% 132 

e5,504, 



178 

ISI 
100 

^100 

no 



Google 



XLIV REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 
Table I. — Part 1. — Summary (A) of school age^ populationj cnrolmenij <£-c. — Cont'd. 



States and Territoriea. 



I 



§1 



■81 

1 

n 



1 

es 

•8g 



I 





it 



Nevada 

Now Hampshire. 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina .. .. 

Ohio 

Or^on 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina . ... 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Vinfinia 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 



6-18 
&-16 
&-18 
5-21 
6-21 
6-21 
4-20 
6-21 

C6-15 
6-16 
6-21 

<*-14 
5-30 
5-21 
6-21 
4-20 



10,533 

060,899 

835,631 

1,662,122 

468,072 

1,063,337 

61,641 

ol, 422, 377 

53,077 

0262,270 

545,875 

6230,527 

099,463 

556,665 

213,191 

491,358 



811,253 



a262,279 



8,320 

63,235 

208,542 

1,021,282 

240,716 

744,758 

34,498 

931,749 

d44,920 

133,458 



5,406 
43,943 
110,062 
559,899 
142,820 
468,141 
25,196 
599,057 



180,509 



384,600 
164,374 



cl86,786 
74,646 
239,046 
145,208 
300,122 



49.700 
134,487 

91,266 
190,878 



Total fur States.. 



15,661,213 



9,737,176 



5,596,329 



140J 

97. 

190 

178 

b48 

155 

86 

146. 

186 

73, 

70 

124 
117j 
99 
175 



Arizona 

Dakota 

District of Columbia .. 

Idaho 

Montana 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 

Wyoming 

Indian: 

Cherokees 

Chickasaws 

Choctaws 

Creeks. 

Seminoles 



6-21 
5-21 
C6-17 
5-21 
4-21 
7-18 
6-18 
4-21 
7-21 



a9,571 

38,815 

043,568 

7,520 

9,896 

o29,255 

42,353 

23,899 

04,112 

8,715 

900 

2,600 

1,700 

400 



040,654 



3,844 
25,451 
27,299 
6,080 
5,112 
04,755 
26,772 
14,754 
02,907 

8,048 
660 

1,460 
799 



«2,847 



20,730 
4,127 
2,800 

03,150 

18,682 
1711,275 

al,9a0 

1,792 

270 

1,260 



el09 



19Q 
ISQ 



yioi 



174 



181 
Id 



Total for Territories... 
Grand total 



218,293 



123,157 



69,027 



15,879,606 



9,860,333 



5,664,366 ^ 



o United States Census of 1880. 
6 Six months only of 1881 reported, 
c Inclusive, 
ct Includes evening school reports. 



e In 1880. 

/ In the oountlee. 

9 In 1879. 



Digitized by 



Google 



SCHOOL STATISTICS OP STATES AND TERRITORIES. 



XLV 



Tiai L— Pabt 1. — Summary (B) of the number of teachers employed in the public schools 
nd tie average monihbf salary of teachers in the respective Stales and Territories. 



States. 



A.'tiaaM 



>^w»re «... 



^>£Hn. 



t-eaefcy. 



hrjkmd 

IfiirhnHtiti 

t«MpBl 



ferrfa .... 

kv Hampaliire . 

'^ifwej .^^ 

IwrTwk 



t=x— 



Number of teach- 
ers. 



Male. Female. 



3,042 
1,688 
1,196 
246 
c680 
d222 
JVd5 



8,438 



1,656 

481 

2,589 

566 

c2,432 

C2306 

f43D 



(6,128) 



13,006 



(18.418) 



6,646 



4,196 

773 

2,257 

1,319 

1,134 

4,024 

1,8U 

3,672 

/6,068 

1,813 

44 

669 

926 

7,660 

3,627 

11,453 

601 

9,359 

2263 

1,904 

6,398 



16,280 
4,676 
2,716 
811 
4,688 
1,861 
7,727 

10,448 
3,760 
2,486 

/4,379 

2,746 

132 

3,026 

2,560 

23,157 
1,376 

12,517 
748 

11,993 
a, 034 
1,345 
1,487 



Average monthly 
salary. 



Male. 


Female. 


(a«22 


98) 


(I*) 


(ft) 


•79 50 


964 74 


78 60 


55 15 


60 69 


85 37 


dc3149 


de27 66 



(940 



00) 



/60 00 
44 17 
38 40 
82 56 
30 21 
(A23 87) 
(3150) 
36 99 I 

(/•41 06) 

85 64 

36 98 

36 52 

(30 07) 

<;'35 00 

36 50 
99 60 

32 63 
6107 

(42 24) 
(Jk22 25) 

37 00 
42 26 

33 66 
76 00 
25 46 

(26 59) 



/30 00 
35 31 
33 20 
27 25 
23 77 



22 28 

38 49 
25 78 
28 62 

<^00 
32 50 
74 76 
2177 
32 68 



28 00 
31 72 

29 08 
41 89 
24 48 




^ Car colored tc^chera the Average salary is reported as $23.16. 

ffOidlierst ut the Urat er^fl^-' i^ tl7.42 ; of female teachers, $40.90 ; in the sec- 
SSa^and 134.76, rospecdlTely ; in the third grade, 931.64 and 929.15, respeo- 




; 111 ftc<lioolfl for colored children there were 66 teachers undassified as to sex. 



^iitMita In Ihe countiea ; the ni^eivgc Tor teachers in graded schools for whites in the 
la ipi&bUci !ii£h •cboolm i3&,W. 

jftfat^ois llie Kter04fet naiaii^ of men, in lf?79, was987; of women. 940. 
i ls»e1w«« ; for col4»r«d teacben the average salary is $19.82. 
I «vcslai£ Afcbooi reportc 



Digitized by 



Google 



XLVI REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

Table I. — Pabt 1. — Summary (B) of the number of teachers employed, <j&c. — Continued. 



States and Territories. 


Number of teach- 
ers. 


sahiry. 




Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


IVXaS ....T, T T r , r,,T.r— 


o3,083 

678 

3,208 

3,079 

2,721 


al,278 
8,741 
2,184 
1,206 

7 IQft 


(6) 

129 76 
29 18 
27 96 

C95 39 


(b) 


Vermont 


$16 84 


Vir^uia 


24 92 


West Virginia 


28 70 


Wisconsin 


c25 21 








Total number of teachers in States 


(285,970) 












Arizona 


(10'i\ 


84 06 
33 00 
91 13 
65 00 
79 88 
{dXi 
e35 00 

1/52 56 

(<160 


08 19 


Dakota 


346 
35 
(17 
50 
<2128 
270 

{ H«<« 
dSl 


687 
425 

J) 

118 

d36 

296 

9) 

205 

d39 


26 00 


District of Columbia 


61 27 


Idaho V 


60 00 


Montana - 

New Mexico m* 


57 47 

67) 


Utah .. 


«22 OO 


MTashinfTton 


yar so 

23) 


Wyoming - — 

Indian : 

Cherokees 


Chickasaws 










Choctaws 






ysooo 


yso 00 


Creeks 






Seminoles 






/50 00 


yso 00 










Total number of teachers in Territories 


(3,180) 








'" 


Grand total 


(289. ISO) 










' 







a In 1880. 

b In the counties the average salary of white male teachers, in 1880, was 134 ; of white females, $28 ; 
in the cities, in 1880, the salaries were, respectiyely, $17 and $37; for colored nudes in the oounUeo, 
$29; for colored females, $26; in the cities, respectively, $33 and $32. 

c In the counties; in the cities the average salary of males is $98.85; of females, $36.25. 

d United States Census of 1880. 

e In 1878. 

/In 1879. 



Digitized by 



Google 



SCHOOL. STATISTICS OF STATES AND TERBJTORIES. XLVII 
Table I. — Pabt 2. — Summary (A) of annual incmne and expenditwre^ &c. 



SlalML 



r«k!nilo 

C-uvaeciicat 

BwBwmre. 

PViridiL^ 






Kfmtoekjr 

[L» 'inana 

'pkom.^ 

Itf?knd _. 

liowrhaaette... 
fc*iil«Bii_ 



^«-h»l»L 

boon. 

IffeTMtaL 

fci^a*. 

Itv Hunpohire. 



fcw York. 



KMsyhrmnte. 



tl 



s 
s 



$397,479 

710,462 

3,680,161 

708,516 

1,482,025 

147,360 

el39,710 

496,533 

7,922,100 

4,480,306 

5,006,024 

1,740,593 

1,194,258 

486,790 

1,069,414 

1,008,274 

H, 851,567 

8,645,328 

1,679,297 

716,342 

04,000,860 

1,320,449 

138,640 

586,139 

1.914,447 

10,896,766 

606,772 

8,120,326 

823,201 

8,796,724 

682,966 

452.965 

706,152 

e^],235 

454. S33 

§55,466 
S,178.'^9 



S(I,46«.H9 



Annual expenditure. 



, w on 

fi£2 

Ail 
111 



129,506 
299,976 



121,382 



837,256 
616,450 
870,334 
364,159 



ml2,7G0 
95,347 

pl74,684 
808,441 
730,611 



68,327 

el37,894 

221,965 

|Mll,510 



172,942 

1,677,673 

27,225 

843,696 

45,192 

ml, 207, Oil 

50,834 

17,351 

*27.5«i 
j)32,(;i3 
1^,230 

274,746 



ln,3f©.9<ll 



•c 



fll,8S4 



648,339 



30,000 
c2,300 
c8,021 



fi72,977 



25,209 



19,667 

28,370 

940,138 

159,314 



16,600 
12,607 



29,443 



14,373 

38,557 

U4,600 

6,304 

154,805 

8,575 

0112,000 

10,376 

lJii,445 

13, WO 

dl2,G4S 



j/ll,725 



I,li36j45 



$384,769 
2,346,066 



1,025,323 

cI38,819 

c97,115 



M, 722, 349 

t3, 067, lib 

«, 040, 716 

1,167,620 



374,127 
0065,697 

1,162,429 

04,130,714 

e, 114, 567 

993,997 

644,352 

£2,218,637 

627,717 

059,194 

408,554 

1,510,830 

7,775,606 
342,212 

5,151,448 
234,818 

4,677,017 
408,993 
809,855 
529,618 
£674,809 
886,448 
823,310 
539,618 

1,618,283 



M 
S 



a|U,037 
401,573 



299,966 

c64,472 

e3,6B7 



2,225,832 
855,194 

1,218,769 
419,409 



34,930 



227,329 

425,713 

573,055 

217,375 

82,472 

0678,820 

285,978 

«12,169 

154,096 

192, U8 

1,856,624 

33,826 

1,963,673 

29,746 

1,996.677 

79,734 



86,463 
088,264 
42,117 
94,763 
107,019 
824,999 



& 



1410,690 

388,412 
3,047,005 

557,161 
1,476,601 
cd207.281 
</114,895 

498,583 
f7, 858, 414 
4,628,754 
5,129,819 
1,976,397 
1,248,524 

441,484 
1,089,414 
1,604,580 
/5, 776,542 
8,418,233 
1,466,492 

757.758 

03,152,178 

1,165,103 

140,419 

677,022 
1,914,447 
10,923,402 

409,659 
8,133,622 

318,331 
7,994,705 

549,987 

845,634 

638,009 

<^753,346 

/447,252 

1,100,239 

761,250 
2,279,108 



vr7 




"328. 



1285,976 

283,125 

6,996,825 

977,213 



o450,000 
0132,729 



il6,966,310 
12,024,180 
9,533,493 
4,884,386 
2,395,752 
n700,000 
3,026,395 



10,500,000 
3,715,769 



<^, 353, 401 

2,064,049 

260,193 

2,113,851 

6,275,067 

31,091,630 

220,442 

22,103,982 

667,469 

26,605,321 

1,964,444 

435,289 

868,713 



1,199,833 
1,753,144 
5,522,657 



183,333,188 



for KKirtoftl Hfhool^ 

PtIOI «3cpei3ided for txoloiipcl siqIiooIji 

it* Hiiofiy onl 7^ 
«tt|fhi|]|p cvptMte^l. 



Hdif •pprDprliiUciiiii Ibr tiortuikl 



J Exclusive of normal school property. 
« Total amount expended from tuition revenue. 
I Includes salaries of superintendents, 
fn For rents, buildings, iui. 
n In 1878. 

o Includes miscellaneous expenditure, 
p Includes expenditure for repairs. 
q Supervision and office expenses, 
r Exclusive of receipts for school buildinjKS, 
permanent improvements, and ordinary repairs. 
4 Storey Ck>unty not reporting these if 



itenw[£ 



XLVIII EEPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

Table I. — Pabt 2. — Sumnutry (A) of annual income and expenditure^ &c. — Continued. 





i 

8 

a 

1 

-< 


Annual expenditure. 


0?. 

i 

III 


TerritorieH. 


is 

% 


1 


1 . 

1 
1 


1 
1 


i 


Arizona.... 


158,768 

0363,000 

555,644 

54,609 
94,551 
d32,171 
198,876 
127,009 
(236,161 

52,300 
38,550 
31,700 
26,900 
7,500 










$44,628 
814,484 
627,812 

44,840 
55,781 
(228,973 
199,264 
€114,379 
d28,504 

52,300 
38,560 
81,700 
26,900 
7,600 


$121,3W 
c532,261 


Dakota 




6$8,616 
10,860 




District of Colum- 
bia. 
Idaho 


$120,533 
2,151 


$295,668 

38,174 
52,781 
d28,002 
118,768 
«94,019 
d25,894 


$100,251 
4,515 


1,886,881 


Montana 


8,000 


140, 25< 


New Mexico 




d971 
30,637 
€2,885 
d2,610 


(218,601 


Utah 


54,859 
el4,5?2 




415,181 


Washing^n 


e2,883 


c220,40l 




d40,50 


Indian : 

Cherokees 








Ghickasaws 












Choctaws. 












Creeks 












Seminoles 














* 








* 


Total for Ter 
tories. 


1,673,339 


192,135 


25,359 


648,806 


141,869 


1,510,115 


2,810,311 


Grand total.. 


88,142,088 


10,502,036 


1,151,804 


55,291,022 


14,608,669 


85,111,442 


186, 148, 4« 



a Items not fblly reported. 

b Salaries of (bounty superintendents only. 

e Value of school-houses only. 



d United Stotes Census of 1880. 
e In 1879. 



Digitized by 



Google 



SCHOOL STATISTICS OF STATES AND TERRITORIES. XLIX 
Tablb I. — Pabt 2.— Summary (B) of per capita expenditure. 



States and Tenritoriee. 



Colotr^do..., 

QUiCorBia.. 



CKev Hampshire ....^,. 
.I>toiciofColimibia.. 



^Coimeeticfii.. 

|KeiitMka 

jp'lowm ,^„..- 

^TTBi MM 

,^Obio 

Vfomfaif . 

•^IWawaie 



^Oekifai 



^Kew Jersey. 




P 
If 

w5 




a 

III 
ft! 


t ; 


Bzpenditurein the year per ca]> 
ita of population between 6 and 
16, including: interest on the 
yalue of all school property, a 


6SI6O6 


6«15 44 

21 43 

16 96 

615 57 

11 13 

15 16 
11 86 

16 50 

10 58 

11 56 
d9 99 
10 08 

985 

&09 81 

10 60 

^8 12 

^96 

67 04 

67 85 

860 

898 

08 64 

67 86 

08 15 

767 

667 

665 

606 84 

67 01 

65 55 

608 89 

459 


612154 
38 03 
26 32 
623 97 
16 03 
19 97 
18 04 






18 65 


$17 63 
el3 15 




18 15 
612 30 


eSl6 82 


10 40 






950 
9 16 


10 18 


1196 


8 91 






8 78 


17 41 
17 78 

dl6 97 
16 61 
15 68 

6014 85 
19 62 


10 55 




7 62 




<f7 26 
7 06 


(11182 


dl2 82 


696 
606 98 


915 


10 80 


6 57 






iir6 89 
05 80 






d2 72 
610 88 
612 45 
15 91 
12 29 
el6 87 
61145 
01192 






66 60 






66 27 






522 
6 02 


715 


868 


05 00 






64 82 






JM72 
4 68 










4 68 


1169 

10 06 

60I879 

615 55 

67 96 






467 
6e4 18 
64 18 





- 


68 51 
608 16 







8 06 


781 






M 26 


• 




108 
174 
61 56 


888 
406 
66 89 
63 65 
602 92 


475 

722 
69 41 


258 


269 


61 82 






60I8O 


6e4 25 







: tbetw Hems only the Intereat 

l«XpCiiil«id for perman^nl objects (I. 

, bulldliiipi^ furQlture^ llbrurfes, and 

)aliaiiJd t» added to Ibe current es- 

f Jbr Ui« year. 

: hy Ihe Boreaon 6 per cent^ beln^ 
I In oiklciilstliig tEkteMst on pennA' 

B— rr 



e Per capita of population between 6 and 17. 
d Estimated by State superintendent. 
In 1880. 

/Does not include expenditure for books. 
In 1879. 

h An estimate including; per capita of total per- 
manent expenditure for the year. 



Digitized by 



Google 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 
Table I. — Pabt 2. — Summary (B) of per capita expernditure — Continaed. 







■& 
11 


^8 




iture in the year per cap- 
population between 6 and 
clndingr interest on the 
of all school property, o 


Statoe and Territories. 










c'S 


'•si 


c«i 




I's-ss 




fl 




^.3t 


1.51 


|5s? 




s 


H 


K 


ti] 


» 


f Tenneflsee 


«117 
1 15 


$2 2S 
2 04 


13 58 
8 82 






^--Georgia 






1 Alabama 


106 

88 


288 
fto6 09 
171 
600 
246 


856 

6e9 20 

281 

899 






New Mexico 






'^T^ortii Carolina 






^OVermont 






'^ Bonth Carolina 


















a In estimating these items only the Interest on amounts expended for permanent objects (I. e., 
for sites, buildings, furniture, libraries, and apparatus) should be added to the current expenditure 
for the year. 

6 Estimated by the Bureau, 6 per cent, being the rate used in calculating interest on permanent 
expenditure. 

e In 1880. 

GENEEALIZATION BY YEABS AND BY TOPICS WITHOUT BEFEBENCE TO STATES. 

Statistical tummary showing the school popuUUian, enrolment^ attendance^ income, expenditure^ 
<&c,, for ten years, from 1872 to 1881, indusivey as collected by the United States Bureau of 
EdueaJtUm. 





Year. 


Number re- 
porting. 


Instates. 


In Territo- 


t 






ries. 






States. 


Terri- 
tories. 








1872 


37 


7 


12,740,751 


88,097 




1878 


37 


11 


18,324,797 


134,128 




1874 


37 


11 


13,785,672 


139,378 




1875 


86 


. 8 


13,889,837 


117,685 


School DODulation • 


1876 
1877 


87 
88 


8 
9 


14,121,526 
14.093,778 


101,465 




133,970 




1878 


88 


9 


14,418,923 


157,260 




1870 


38 


9 


14,782,765 


179.571 




1880 


88 


8 


15,851,875 


184.405 




1881 


88 


10 


15,661,213 


218,293 




1872 


34 


7 


7,327,415 


52,241 




1878 


85 


10 


7,865,628 


09,968 




1874 


84 


11 


8,090,772 


69,20S 




1875 


37 


11 


8,678,737 


77,923 


NntnHer enrolled in Dublic sohoolfl • 


1876 
1877 


86 
88 


10 
10 


8,298,563 
8,881,848 


70,173 




72,63C 




1878 


88 


10 


9,294,816 


78.87? 




1876 


88 


10 


9,328,008 


96, OSS 




1880 


38 


10 


9,680,408 


101, n« 




, 18?1 


L ^ 


10 

I - 


9,737,176 


123,151 



Digitized by * 



SCHOOL STATISTICS OP STATES AND TERRITORIES. M 

SatittiaU nanmaiy showing the school pcpuIaHon, enrotmeniy dtc, — Continued. 







Number re- 






, 




porting. 








Year. 






Instates. 


Tn Terriin- 








J.U K.V'TTUAjr 

riea. 






States. 


Terri- 
tories. 


• 






vm 


28 




4,081,569 


28,966 




1873 


81 




4,166,062 


83,677 




1874 


80 




4.488,075 


33,489 




1875 


29 




4,215,380 


86,428 




1876 
1877 


27 
81 




4,032,632 
4.886,289 


34,216 
33,119 


^ ^n-^ 


1878 


81 




5,093,298 


88,115 


^ 1^ , :i 


1879 


82 




5,223,100 


59,237 


' 1^^'; 


1880 


84 




6,744,188 


61.154 


•J^. ■■■^>^ 


1881 


84 




5,606,829 


69,027 


b - 


1872 


18 




856,691 


7,592 


K 


1873 


22 




472,483 


7,859 




1874 


13 




352,460 


10,128 




1875 


18 




186,385 


13,237 


ymnfaaT of DanQfl in DrivAto fldioolfl . .. 


1876 
1877 


14 
12 




228,867 
203,062 


9,137 


* ^AaiA4^K« ^#* ^lA^FaAi^ •■■ y* » ▼ — 1^# ^^i—^#^rB^ *•••••*••••■>>•>•• 


6,088 




1878 


12 




280.492 


6,183 


^-2'?'?'^'^ 


1879 


19 




358.685 


7,459 


1880 


21 




501,209 


6,921 


11)^ '^^.'' 


1881 


20 




564,290 


5,305 




1872 


83 




216.062 


1,177 


1873 


35 




215,210 


1.511 




1874 


85 




239,153 


1,427 




1875 


86 




247,423 


1,839 


Tuul number of t«achen ....^ ~ 


1876 
1877 


37 
87 




247,557 
257,454 


1,726 
1,842 




1878 


38 




269,162 


2,012 


« 


1879 


88 




270.163 


2,523 




1880 


88 


10 


280,034 


2,610 




1881 


38 




285,970 


3,180 




1872 


80 




81,135 


874 




1873 


28 




75,321 


529 




1874 


28 




87,395 


499 


• 


1875 


31 




97,796 


656 




1876 


32 




96,483 


678 


Xcfeberof male ieachen « 


1877 


83 




97,638 


706 




1878 


34 




100,878 


789 


1 1 


1879 


84 




104,842 


965 


1880 


35 




115,064 


948 




1881 


36 




107,780 


1,018 




1872 


30 




123,547 


633 




1878 


28 




108,734 


7H6 




1874 


28 




129,049 


731 




1875 


81 




132,185 


963 




1876 


83 




185,644 


808 


Ifc^^^rfl^nala t*ft£ll«tfl< > .^»»».H« 


1877 


33 




188,228 






986 


1878 


84 




141,780 


1,027 




1879 


34 




141,161 


1,343 


1 


1880 


85 




156.351 


1,306 


\ 


1881 


86 




158,688 


1.805 



Digitized by V^OOQIC 



LII 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 
SUUistical summary of the school popuhUion, enrolment^ <&c, — Contmiied. 



' 


Year. 


Number re- 
porting. 


Instates. 


In Territo- 








ries. 


• 




States. 


Terri- 
tories. 








1872 


85 


6 


871,988,718 


$611,551 




1878 


85 


10 


80,061,588 


844,666 


' 


1874 


87 


10 


81,277,686 


881,219 




1875 


87 


8 


87,627,278 


1,121.672 


Public Boliool income 


1876 
1877 


88 
87 


9 
9 


86,682,067 
85,959,864 


717.416 


ab «AH^*«'%# t^\^mm^0\^M ■••^^■^^•••^i»»» •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ••••• 


906.296 




1878 


88 


10 


86,035,264 


942,837 




187» 


88 


10 


82,767,815 


1.020.259 




1880 


88 


10 


82,684,489 


1.255.750 




1881 


88 


10 


86,468,749 


1,673,339 




1872 


81 


6 


70,035,925 


856,066 




1878 


86 


10 


77,780,016 


996.422 




1874 


85 


9 


74,169,217 


805,121 




1875 


84 


9 


80,950,333 


982,621 


Public schoorexpenditure « 


1876 


86 
87 


10 
8 


83,078,596 
79,251,114 


926,737 
982,344 




1878 


88 


10 


79,652,553 


877.406 




1879 


38 


10 


77,176,854 


1,015,168 




1880 


88 


10 


78,886,899 


1.196,439 




1881 


88 


10 


83,601,827 


1.510,115 




1872 


81 


1 


65,850,572 


64,585 




1878 


28 


1 


.77,870,887 


137,507 




1874 


28 




75,251,006 
81,486,158 






1875 


28 


8 


823,236 


Amount of school funds 


1876 
1877 


80 
26 


2 
2 


97,227,909 
100,127,865 


1,626,961 
2.106.961 






1878 


82 


1 


106,138,848 


1,506,961 




1879 


80 


2 • 


UO, 264, 434 


2,776,593 




1880 


88 


2 


119,184,029 


3.694,810 




1881 


84 


2 


128,068,786 


1,069,015 



In the compilation of Table I, the letnms for the year 1880 were nsed for Florida, 
Missonri, and Texas. In the first two this was necessitated by the practice of IssoiDg 
biennial reports corresponding to the time of the meeting of the I^;islatares, and the re- 
ports for 1879 and 1880 having been made in the winter of 1881 those for 1882 and 1883 
will not be dne till the winter of 1883. In Texas the records for 1881 were destroyed by 
fire, and though in many cases duplicate retoms were made by the coonties the totals 
thns obtained fall far short of showing the actual condition of the schools. 

Two Territories, "^ew Mexico and Wyoming, foiled to rei>ort for 1881, and the statis- 
tics of the United States Census for 1880 were used in each case. 

Under the head of school population, the figures for 8 States and 4 Territories are from 
the United States Census of 1880, and for the remaining 30 States and 6 Territories 
from returns made by local school officers. As the school moneys are distributed upon 
the basis of these estimates, it is for the interest of every community that they should 
be correct. The general conclusions to which they lead afford additional motives for 
accuracy. A comparison of the returns made to the several State offices with the cor- 
responding figures of the recent census, or an examination of the same in the light of 
well known principles of relation, reveals errors that ought not to escape notice and cor- 
rection by the local officers. Digitized by ^OOglC 



SCHOOL STATISTICS OF STATES AND TERRITORIES. LIII 

Enrolment in pablic schools is reported for all the States and Territories. The difficnl- 

Ties in the way of absolute exactness in the treatment of this particular are well under- 
stood by those experienced in the compilation of statistics. They were the subject of 
^btte in the international conference upon statistics held at the Trocad^ro Palace, Paris, 
ivmg the International Exposition of 1878, when yarious methods of procedure were 
ex]ilaizied and many sources of error pointed out. Some of the difficulties brought up 
ix discussion are peculiar to European countries, others are equally prevalent in the 
United States ; the most general and constant sources of error with us are duplicate 
arohnents, caused by the removal of scholars finom one school to another without formal 
sotice, and the omission of entire districts in the enumeration. 

Uader ordinary oonditions school enrolment increases with school population. Both 
Umbo totals show increase in 1881 over the same for 1880, but the returns from several 
Stilo represent population and enrolment as changing inversely. Where this anomaly 
Ttilly occurs the causes should be sought for and set forth, if possible. 

The average daily attendance for 34 States is 5,596,329 ; the four States foiling to 
nrport mider this head are Arkansas, Delaware, South Carolina, and Texas. Supposing 
*Jie sTciage daily attendance in each of these States to be the same percentage of the 
eaiohnent in each that the total average attendance in 34 Stai|;es is of the enrolment in 
H, we obtain an estimated average attendance for the four States of 268,866. So with 
tte Territories: Dakota and the Creek Nation in the Indian Territory fail to report this 
item. Estimating the average daily attendance for the non-reporting Territories by the 
Tik given above we have an estimated total for the Territories specified of 18,637. 

The statistics of average daily attendance are then : States reported (34), 5,595,329 ; 
otzmated, as explained above (4), 268,866. Territories reported (8 and 4 tribes ot 
ladian Territory), 69,027; estimated as explained (Dakota and Creeks in Indian Terri- 

itny-otie ^tate^ aod 4 Temtone;^ report un expenditure for sites, &c., of $10,502,036; 

'■sUmmad 4 Temtoriets report |1/15LB01 c^ctw^uded for salaries of superintendents. 

^^ £ut^ do not mpamte thla item of t'jcpeuditii rt from the amount expended for sala- 

f ieacbec^ Thirl j~four States and 7 Tt'rritories report an amount expended for 

~Le«Qft«»ctiei5 of 155,291,022; 32 Stjit«^ and 6 Territories report a miscellaneous 

Mittap^ (L €,, for fuel, light, rent, repairs, &c) of $14,603,659. Thirty-eight 

't* mil 10 Tenitori^ n^port the item of total exx>enditure for public schools, 

r-i i i t l og ta 1^5,111,442. 

D»f^-aoe Btate^ mad S Territories report the vfilue of school property; Connecticut, 

C««fia, Mtirii^iiffid, M;is^M:ihii»«tts, Mississippi, Texas, and Vermont are the States and 

l^bti ud the Indi&n Territory the Territories ^ling to report this very important 

Hfrsmenuit of fichool tand in the States, $123^083,786, includes the estimated fond 
^uoy ooilttMl in 1880, which in 1876 was $3,742,760 and is now believed to amount 

'^ Vtdtmd SlAt«8 deposit fimd in New York, amounting to $4,014,521, which has 
• iaehbdod In the statement of th*) permanent ^ubool fund for several years, is omit- 
^19^* The ^perin ten dent writes that bj legislative enactment the income of 
fkod Is devoted to educational purposes, though the capital is not a school fund 
^ ai|7 ptOTision of the coustitutioii. 

^ flimmani In the permanent school fand in the Territories is apparent only, the 

>f9 flw 90teitjd previous je»r» from the Indian Territory having included the national 

^iior ^sDfiEi&I tnlxil fand)», part interest of which could be devoted to school pur- 

[ imi. Oeic mlUioa clgh ty^nine thonsiuid and tifken dollars, therefore, represent a small 

^^«r ihe JDiatrtrt of Colnmbia and the school funds only of the Cherokee, Choctaw, 

. Twwltmfi irilteii. 

IlivSliiei md TiRrritoriea report in some form the item of income, that for Massa- 
$m beta^ esdnBive of njci^ipta for permanent purposes, that for Dakota being a 



LIV REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

report of 25 only out of 49 counties. It is estimated that a ftill report wonld make 
the total revenue for Dakota over $500,000. The school income for the five civilized 
tribes is the amount given as total expenditures, which, however, it is stated was derived 
from tribal funds. A study of Table I of the appendix will also show that in some 
States the total current income includes a balance on hand from the last school year. 
The amount thus included is $2,104,301, which subtracted from the total reported income 
for 38 States leaves a total current income for the States of $84,364,448, and subtracted 
frx>m the grand total leaves $86,037,787 as the total current income for public schools of 
the country. 

The difference between cities and rural districts with respect to the conditions affect- 
ing education calls for a corresponding distinction in education reports. This classificatioD 
is observed to some extent in State reports, but not so generally nor so completely as the 
interests of the rural schools require. 

Graded and ungraded schools are expressions nearly synonymous with city and rural 
schools. Rhode Island is the only State reporting the two classes separately in which 
the graded are in excess of the ungraded schools, the numbers being, respectively, 536 
aud 294. The numbers reported from Michigan, viz, 6,115 ungraded and 411 graded, 
represent, it is believed, more nearly the proportions that obtain throughout the country. 

Thus it will be seen that, while the city schools attract more attention, the rural 
schools affect a larger proportion of our youth, which fact alone gives a reason for the 
separate representation of their enrolment, attendance, resources, and general conduct 
Information as to the frmds available for their use is especially desirable. It can hardly 
be doubted that an annual statement under this head would have the effect of stimulat- 
ing local effort and of promoting a more uniform distribution of school moneys. The 
increase of the means of education among our rural population and the improvement of 
the existing schools are matters of such great importance that it is incumbent upon school 
officers to present all information bearing upon the subject in the clearest possible light 
As expressed in the report of the Massachusetts board of education — 

This material of clear fact is needed as the basis of the most judicious legislation. It 
is required as the means of testing finally the value of particular theories, methods, or 
appliances. And, altogether, it may be doubted whether any very great further advance 
can be made in our educational system until this record of things actually accomplished 
is in some better degree made up and set before us. 

THB DISTBICT SYSTEM. 

The year has been characterfised by active measures against the '* district school sys- 
tem.'' The system exists under various names, but has everywhere the same general 
character and the same unfortunate effects. Under its operations a State becomes an 
assemblage of small independent districts, which may be subdivisions of existing civil 
units or formed irrespective of such units, according to the pleasure of the citizens with 
whom the motion for a school district originates. Each district has its separate body ol 
officers intrusted to a greater or less degree with the management of its school afl&irs. 
These officers, termed directors, trustees, &c., are sometimes appointed by the county 
boards or superintendents of education, but are more generally elected by the voters of 
their respective districts, and their constituencies are so small that they must be said to 
represent individual dispositions, opinions, and prejudices, rather than public sentiment 
or i)olicy. They hold office from one to four years, too often have no qualification for their 
duties, and are always comparatively irresponsible. The system had its advantages in thti 
early period of public school effort, especially while public funds were largely sapple* 
mented by tuition fees, but in the present stage of popular educatfon it has no advantaged 
that ofiEset its evils, and none that may not be preserved under a system which makes th^ 
school district coincident with the smallest civil district, as in Pennsylvania and Indiana 
In Alabama the township was made the unit of the school system by the act approved by 
the general assembly February 7, 1879. The excellent effects of the legislation are freel^ 
admitted in the current reports. A bill for the abolition of the district system Jis no^^ 



THE DISTRICT SCHOOL SYSTEM. LV 

hdon the Massachusetts I^islature and will nndoubtedly pass daring the present ses- 
BOD. The following extracts from reports of the year indicate the prevailing opinion of 
Stite saperintendents nxx>n the subject: 

One-thiid of the schools of the State do not nnmber more than twelve and nearly 
aoe-ninth do not namber more than six scholars. This is a troublesome £stct when we 
ledect that such schools, as a rule, must be very short and inferior. The want of money 
in such districts necessitates the employment of low priced and hence poor or inexperi- 
€ficed teachers. If for any reason a good teacher consents to instruct, tiie lack of num- 
bers fails to impart the inspiration necessary to the best work. Besides, the intercourse 
and competitions of a large school, which are i>otent &ctors in education, are lost to 
children so dzcamstanced. An opportunity for an equable distribution of intelligence 
and a &ir development of Acuities among £dl the members of society is a chief purpose 
of public instruction. Our district system at present seems to defeat this object. We 
lefose to unite or abolish districts, but find it hard to defend, on considerations of public 
wel&re, a scheme which gives forty weeks of schooling to one child and only four to 
iDOfther.— (Report of Hon. J. W. Patterson, superintendent of public instruction, New 
Hampshire.) 

The present system in the rural districts of Qhio seems to tend to evils which only 
Tery positive uid persistent effort will even measurably remedy, so long as this system 
Hihsists. A very few of these evils may be more directly referred to, so that, if the 
sTstem continues, special effort may, if possible, be made to avoid them. 

Owing to changes in the population of some localities, many of the subdistricts now 
eonmecate but five, seven, ten, or fifteen children, and schools are actually kept up with 
ofilj two or three pupils in average attendance, leaving them whole days and weeks , 
without any pupils. This exhausts the money of the townships and tends to deprive 
the boards of the means of supplying such advantages as are needed for advanced pupils. 
The diminutive schools occasion very little interest or profit. 

Each school being entirely isolated in its work of instruction, old methods of disci- 
pline and teaching are likely to be perpetuated indefinitely ; this, too, in their most ob- 
jectiobable forms, the spirit having di^ out of these methods; the form alone remaining. 
Local interests being given ftdl sway under this very local management, this evil is per- 
petuated by the common and growing practice of employing as teachers only those who 
iBTe secured all the education they Imve in these schools themselves. * * * 

These difficulties are also aiding to promote another serious evil : the growing desire 
far carving special districts out of the more i>opulous and wealthy piurts of the townships, 
thus leaving the subdistricts disconnected, often poor, and for M time incapable of any 
(ommoa interest. In some cases townships are cut across, or even diagonally, in this 
^T. Gases have even occurred where all but a single poor subdistrict were absorbed 
in special districts. The law now renders this disintegration easy, and the evil is becom- 
ing so serious as to demand careful consideration. — (Report of Hon. D. F. DeWolf, State 
coQuaissioner of common schools, Ohio.) 

Districts shoald all be governed by a board holding office for a number of years and 
AoMn by all the electors in the district. The civil township should be the unit, but it 
ihosld not be sahdivided in subdistricts, to be in part governed by a subdirector. The 
^y exception to the township district should be the town or city districts, as we have 

Tim g|)JecUoTid to the division into riiriL] independent districts are a needless multi- 
^ ^ n of oSioeri, for whi€h often suilable persons cannot be found; the unnecessary 
i of paying aa many settrehirit^ and treasurerers; and the inability of many of 
i 4istrict<f to provide proper school ilu [i1 ties, owing to the lack of means. — (Report of 
■1 C. W. vtm Coelltt, et)perintt*nd(?nt of public instruction, Iowa.) 

~iL«3e orpimocis, wbJcb might be multiplied indefinitely, are summed up in the state- 
'^mt th^t the district system is in the way of every measure of progress suggested by 
offtisicK. It prevents economy La the d^"; of funds, efficient supervision, the advanta- 
^■ttkiaiiiofi of school building!:!, and eqtirtlity of school provision for the children of 
.pOftiotia of the aame civil difrtnct. 

fitem of paii^ or local boards in Great Britain has giyen rise to similar com- 

aad n proportion for county liooj-ds has already been started in influential 

ll i» not proposed to do away ^sith the existing boards, but to confine their 

to tJboQo tiiterests which are pnrely local. 

tia ifYUoB cif popular education like our own, originating with the people and sus- 

Md by \iEils11ta17 taxation, the pr^ervation of local interest is of the first importance; 

ibiivi that It need not be sacrill<:ed by the abolishment of the district system. 




LVI REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

QUALIFICATIONS AKB APPOINTMEKT OF TEACH1CB& 

The means of improving the teaching force in the rural schools has been a prominent 
subject of discossion daring the year. The following conditions have engaged atten- 
tion : standards of qualifications, modes of appointment, tenure of office, inspection. 

The standard of qualification for teachers appeals to be lower in the United States^ 
taken as a whole, than in other countries in which provision has been made for the edu- 
cation of the masses. In England a school cannot receive the parliamentary grant unless 
the principal teacher is certificated or, if the attendance does not exceed 60 scholars, pro- 
visionally certificated. Both daases of certificates are awarded upon examination; for a 
tall certificate the candidate must also serve as a teacher and secure two &vorable reports 
firom an inspector. In France the law requiring primaiy teachers to pass the examination 
for a * * certificate of aptitude' ' is not as yet strictly enforced. In Prussia and Switzerland 
admission to the work of teaching is as careftilly regulated as admission into any of the 
learned professions. 

The teachers of the United States bear fibvorable comparison with those of England 
and France, in which countries it must be remembered popular education is of recent 
development; the advantage does not seem to be with us if the comparison be extended 
to Prussia and Switzerland. There are exceptional districts in which the teachers ore 
careftilly chosen, well paid, and retained from year to year, but in general our nUal 
schools are suffering the natural consequences of a low estimate of the requirements of 
the service as expressed in careless appointment, meagre wages, uncertain tenure, and 
absence of systematic, efficient supervision. 

Where the methods of examination and appointment have improved, the complaint ot 
incompetent teachers has not ceased; on the contrary, the examining boards are embar- 
rassed in carrying out their instructions by the limited attainments of candidates. The 
current reports offer much information bearing upon this subject. 

The Rhode Island board of education made a special effort during the year to obtain 
firom each town information touching the qualifications of teachers. As a result of the 
inquiry it appears that about 4 per cent, of the teachers employed in the State have had 
a collegiate education; 62 per cent, have had either a high school or an academic educa- 
tion; 21 per cent, normal school training; while 13 per cent, have had only a common or 
district school preparation. Of the whole number 7 per cent, were reported as having 
had no experience. The system of examination and appointment in Rhode Island is 
unsatis&ctoiy, but its tendencies are largely counteracted by other conditions, among 
which the rate of salaries must not be counted least. The average salaries in 1881 were 
for men $76 a month, for women $41.89, the average duration of the schools being 9 
months and 6 days. The lowest average salaiy paid in any town was for men $25.94 a 
month for a session of 7. 9 months, and for women $17. 88 a month for session of 7. 4 months. 
In three of the five counties of the State, the average salaries for men were above $80 a 
month and for women above $30 a month. 

George A. Walton, special agent of the Massachusetts board of education, comment- 
ing upon the results of the examination of the schools of Bristol County, uses the fol- 
lowing language : ''Let all the towns apply 25 per cent, more to the wages of teachers 
and expend the mon^ in securing and retaining the best the market affinds, and the 
schools could be made one-fourth better/* 

The revised school law of Michigan, which became operative July 1, 1881, -introduces 
an important improvement in providing for the examination of teachers by county 
boards, but unfortunately the decline in salaries, which has worked such mischief in 
the schools heretofore, continues. The average salaries in ungraded school districts 
were, for men, $26.30 a month, a decrease of $1.22 below the same in 1880 ; for women, 
$18.49, a decrease of 26 cents since 1880 ; the average duration of the schools was 7.4 
months. 

Digitized by CjOOQLC 



APPOINTMENT OF TEACHERS. LVII 

TIk school law of Pennsylvania makes excellent provision for the examination and 
ippoiotment of teachers, bat experience proves that the system can effect little against 
)nBikoiOL In his report for 1880, Hon. J. P. Wickeisham, the State superintendent, 
mji: '^The character of the teaching done in the schools has greatly improved, but it 
bas Bol yei reached even a xnedimn standard of excellence. ' ' He speaks from intimate 
kaowiedge of the &ctB and bis statement is supported by the minority of the coonty 
■pcfintendeDts whose reports accompany his own. The latter almost invariably ascribe 
difinltj in secoring or retaining competent teachers to the low salaries. For 1881, the 
avengB salaries in the State, excluding Philadelphia, were, for men, $32.64 a month; 
ftr wDBMo, $26.04, the average length of the school term being 6.28 months. The 
.iportB from Southern States show still lower salaries, with consequences proi>ortionately 



In Alahema the average pay of teachers in white schools is $22.98 a month ; in col- 
end sdiools, $23.15 ; the average total paid to each teacher yearly, $85.30. The funds 
ilkured the white schools to be maintained on an average 84 days in 1881 ; the colored 
sdoofe, 76 days. The impossibility of securing satisfiMitory results under such circum- 
<iBC0 was 80 evident that in many districts the funds for the white schools were sup- 
ptfmaited by voluntary oontributions or tuition fees ; in some instances the same was 
dflw fiir the colored schools. 

Hke sfoage salary in Mississippi, estimated for the entire State, was $30.05. 

The svcragB salaries in all the States aro set forth in Table I, Part 1, Summary B, p. xlv, 
^ndishonld be studied in connection with column 6, Table I, Part 1, Summary A, p. xliii. 

To secure a general advance above these rates two measures seem necessary : first, a 
Szed winimnw^ Salary in each State ; second, increased ftmds for the payment of teach- 
es. The fonner measnre has been repeatedly urged upon State legislatures by gov- 
ons, aehool officials, and public spirited citizens, but their recommendations have not 
pnerailed against the opposition of wealthy districts to schemes of taxation or distribu- 
h« Ui^ (»kdige them to ah&jfd ih« burden of poorer districts. The latter measure 
tah«i tosi^ «oQfidderations ; that which chiefiy engages attention at the present time 
^in praj^uataon dbr Ds^tioual ^id to elementary education. 

iB Ihfe MDs intrcidueed into Cougress ogre^ i ii providing that a laige part of the pro- 
1^ fiofed sbsil he applied to t^kchers^ salari^ a consideration that adds weight to 
%iii»T lo^mexite in support of the meAfjare. Whero the salaries justify the expecta- 
^i ^eompetsut teachen^^ the mm^ns of decifling upon the merits of applicants should 
tiOMWly oonsldered. Norm^ school diplomiis ought to be sufficient guarantees for 
flfWtlee, imd m most States are so re^^rdt'd. In the case of candidates who are not 
^aal p«dnat«^ examination hi requit&l. The improvement in this respect is one of 
tki aoii eaenmra^ing^ LQdicatiou9 of progreaa in public school affidrs. It is noticeable in 
tk QMBiitntion of examicisng boards, ixi tht^ Babject matter of examination, and in the 
«f Q^rti^imies. While no unilbrm rale can be given for the organization of 
board, experience showa tlnit 11 shotdd represent a district laige enough to 
ondoe cjffect of local InJiuences; that it should have a professional rather 
ehaiiuiter, and should poesagi^ some element of continuity, in order that 
(^ m>tlu and standaTdB of examination may not be altered fi«quently or suddenly. 
^m i^nge &QII1 township ix> eoun^ examiniiig boards, the appointment of teachers 
9fm t^ f^uunliiing boards, and the division ^f the member into classes whose terms of 
io^ilin expire at difTepeut dates are Id occord^D^e with these requirements. 

Ifia Atunb^ of Stales the evidence of a^njiBfiion to the highest giade among teachers 

' t Uli i!iitftili€at«, ^htch is recogntsed throughout the State and relieves the holder from 

Mr rmmmMtkiii. It is p»ttfying to obst^rve an increasing desire on the part of 

m (Main these perlijicatesj as it mdkates a disposition to make teaching a per- 

giTes odditioaiil ground for the recognition of teaching as a profe&- 

11 is teachefs of this class who may be relied upon to encourage the best efiforts in 

ft^p|rl«t>eDto of instruction* 

ll^^ Digitized by ^OOgie 





LVIII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

The conditions npon which i)ie life certificates shall be awarded are determined by a 
council or committee composed in part of teachers of approTed scholaiship and estab- 
lished reputation. By this arrangement teachers may exercise something of the same 
control over their calling that lawyers and doctors exercise over their respective profes- 
sions. It will be seen from my annual reports that the professions of medicine and law 
arc becoming more vigilant in admitting persons to practice and more exacting respecting 
standards of qualification. The bar unites witii the courts in providing methods of ex- 
amination for those applying for admission to practice ; and members of the various med- 
ical associations and faculties of medical colleges are seeking tiie cooperation of legitimate 
State action to protect their profession against incompetent physicians. Engineers are 
taking somewhat similar action, and teachers may profitably follow their example. 

The want of cooperation between the appointing and examining powers is a conspic- 
uous defect in school administration and one which ought to be immediately remedied. 
In this connebtion the statement of Hon. M. A. Newell, secretary of tiie State board of 
education, Maryland, with respect to the harmonious action of the school authorities of 
that State, is suggestive: 

In the first place the local trustees nominate the teacher, but cannot appoint him nor 
fix his salary. They can recommend the making of repairs on school-housee, but can- 
not order them to be made. It requires the action of the county school boaid to gr^e 
efi*ect to the wishes of the local trustees in all important matters. If there is a disa- 
greement among teachers, patrons, and local trustees, it may be referred to the county 
school board for settlement. If it is not setUed there, there is an appeal to the State 
board. The number of appeals to the State board has been remarkably few ; but the 
fact that such an appeal can be made, and that in no ordinary case is any resort to the 
courts of law necessary, has largely tended to promote peace and harmony. The powers 
of the State board are ample. The right to construe and explain the school law and 
settle disputes secures to a great extent uniformity in its execution and prevents petty 
disputations. The authority to enact a code of by-laws for the guidance of teachers 
and county school boards gives elasticity to the management, and makes a biennial re- 
construction by the legislature entirely unnecessary. The minority of the State board 
are necessarily experts in school management ; they know practically the diseases and 
the appropriate remedies. The power which they possess, to suspend or dismias ao in- 
competent teacher or examiner, has never been exercised as yet, because the board has 
not been fully satisfied that there was any necessity to do so. The examiner or secre- 
tary is appointed by the county school board, but cannot be dismissed by them before 
the expiration of the term for which he was appointed. The power of dismissal iSi 
lodged with the State board. Thus the powers of local trustees, the county schodj 
boards, and the State board of education mutually check, supplement, and support one 
another. 

A well ordered system of appointment and the union of the various bodies charged witb 
the business interests, the supervision, and inspection of school affoirs into an organie 
whole, having vital connection between all its parts, would do much to place the teachett* 
tenure of office upon a satisfiictory basis. These conditions, supplemented by fiur sat 
aries and enlightened public sentiment, would make the teacher's position as secure 
the circumstances of a rapidly developing country allow. 

SCHOOL SUPEBVISION. 

Theoretically, a supervising agency is included in the school systems of the seven! 
States ; practic&lly, the service is wanting in the rural districts, with few exceptions. JM 
importance need no longer be axgued, as it is admitted by all competent to judge of tin 
purposes and processes of popular education : its neglect arises firom the want of funds (M 
the apathy that can only be overcome by the compulsion of law and the pressure of publil 
opinion. The most significant record of the year under this head is in the r^wrt of tli 
Massachusetts board of education, which body has been earnestly endeavoring to devil 
a plan for the efficient supervision of the schools of the State. It should be premisd 
that the Massachusetts board is more restricted in its authority than many State boardi| 
nevertheless it illustrates substantiaUy the relation between State and local authoritii 
with reference to education in the several States. The province of the Maasachuseti 
board is described as follows in the report of 1880-'81: 



1 



SCHOOL SUPERVISION. LTX 

It will thus be seen that, as to the common schools, the duty of the board is fixed by 
liw. and lies almost wholly in the line of gathering and spreading information respect- 
ing tiiem. ♦ ♦ * This is a distinctive feature of the oversight which the State has 
prmided for its schools. It does no more, by its own officials, than to cause an insx)ec- 
tifln and report, more or less complete, to be made concerning them. The State ap- 
points by law that the schools of a certain grade and rang^ of study shall be opened, and 
iior a designated length of time, and requires that the children within prescribed limits 
shall attend upon them ; bat it does not itself undertake directly to manage the schools ; 
Bid, if they &il to reach sach a degree of efficiency as might be desired, the State does 
D0t attempt, or has not thus far attempted, td do more than to call attention to the 
^ore azid the means for improvement. The care of the schools, their direct manage- 
ment and tiie whole practiod control of them rest with the school authorities and 
with the people themselves in each city and town. Thus, in the matter of common 
Kfaool admimstiation, the State itself, through its own officials, does little more than to 
f'baerve what is done, and cause it to be known as widely as it may, and to make sug- 
gestioDs of improvement. * * * 

It is evidoit that this policy may have its elements both of weakness and of strength. 
It may allow to be left for a long time untouched many errors and defects in the man- 
agemeot of the schools which might be at once removed if the State were to lay its 
hand directly npofn them ; and it may seem thus to fail, and may perhaps really faU, in 
bringing the schools with sufficient promptness to the best attainable results. But, on 
ibc othCT side, in its reliance upon the intelligence and carefulness of the people them- 
selTcs, in their several localities, and through the necessity of working only through 
nidi agencies, it may secure, in a more permanent manner, the gains that are made. 

Afier a brief revie'w of what the State has accomplished for the improvement of the 
schools, the report continues : 

We are thus brought to the consideration of a topic which has been presented with 
erjoiey in former reports ; that is, the desirableness of providing for a more efficient 
Kxpervision of the schools throughout the whole State than now exists. It is not need- 
nil ta repeat the arguments that have been set forth at length on other occasions to ex- 
hibit the necessity of such a provision. The oversight referred to would be of a kind 
to offer DO interference whatever with the full control of the schools by the local boards 
a»i to involve thus no new departure ^m that line of State policy which has just been 
fketched. The board does not ask for officials to be intrusted with direct management 
•if administration, but officials to carry on further and more fully the work, now in part 
mdertaken, of diffusing knowledge concerning the best modes of management and of 
collecting information respecting the actual condition of the schools. 

It is difficult to see how the number of officers required could be secured excepting by 
a system of coonty or township superintendence. Certain facts to which Hon. J. W. 
IHddnaon, secretary of the Massachusetts board, calls attention, indicate that this is 
ubtiv to be the issue of the experiment in that State : 

There is a demand for more agents. Until the towns are organized so as to supply 
tkouehres with special school directors the State should supply them, that the best 
iod laigest results which our system of schools is capable of producing may be secured. 

- -' '' ] ■■ •! '" "thapter 44 of Hit 1 1 ulplii- laws give authority to any two or more 
Ui Muk a (li-^Lrict tor the ]jur[)ijM.^ of hi in ploying a superintendent of public 
tbf'fBto, -who shall jieribnn in eiit-h tuHii the duties prescribed bylaw. Two 
h^vm be^n organized niidor thej^e IM'ovi^ions of the statutes, Waltham and 
VriB>tJ9wii fomi^g one and Cud ton liod MiHoo the other. The first named district 
»^ff tbr stipeiinteijderjcj of Mr. Jotni V\ I*riiice; the second, of Mr. G. I. Aldrich. 
iiai unlod fin peri ntendejitd are doiiig a gniDil wutk for their districts, and are solving 
relating to district. sujjer\i.^ion. I f all the smaller towns of tiie Common- 
I CPU Id h^ nnited into convenient distrifti*, und in this way supplied with adequate 
L fiip^rliiteDdi-nce, Bxptiienee is proving thnt the conditions of good schools would 



Tiio «acii oilEcmlSi, termed og^^nts of the bcKircl, Iiave been employed for several years. 
n» ptaai uf iiwpection adopted by them iiidicvitt'.^ the character of the oversight which 
'^il to be extended to all the fi<:hoola of the coiititry. The following is the outline as 
i*^U^ in the ivport for 189<>--81 : 

' ^ctiool bmldings, Indndlng site and grounds; size of rooms; lighting, heating, 
i«3itilatiaii; l^itniture &nd outbuitding^p including location, construction, drainage, 

- - txlitH, ifK^Iuding t-oiirse of studies (branehes); means of teaching, as apparatus, 
■ad reim!n tie books. 



LX REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

(3) Results, inclnding reading, silent and oral; alphabet, with elementary sounds; 
spelling, oral and written; language; geography, numbers, and arithmetic, &c. 

(4) Teachers and teaching; methods of teadiing ; physical training ; moral instruc- 
tion. 

The schools which were visited before this plan was adopted embraced a part of those 
in eight of the cities and towns. Visits to these were made not only for the purpose of 
inspection, but also for the purpose of teaching in the schools and addressing the teach- 
ers and people. 

Efficient inspection of the nature here indicated is the great desideratum of our rural 
schools. It would be a supi>ort to the ablest teachers and a means of securing from in- 
ferior teachers a fidr average of results. Such a conception of the duties of county super- 
intendents or equivalent officers as is represented in the plan quoted above impUes 
corresponding qualifications in those officials. This opens up a matter concerning which 
very crude notions are entertained and very unsatisfactory practices tolerated. The 
various pedagogical associations, which do so much by their discussions and publications 
to promote educational reforms, are giving serious thought to this interest, and already 
measures have been taken to improve the county superintendency in the States in which 
it exists. A bill with this end in view was introduced into the Illinois legislature dur- 
ing the winter. The bill provides that — 

No person shall be eligible to the said office of county superintendent of schools who 
is not twenty-five years of age and who has not had three years* experience in actual 
school work, either as a teacher or a superintendent of schools, nor unless he shall be 
the holder of (1) a State certificate of qualification granted in accordance with the pro- 
visions of section 50 of the school law; or (2) the diploma of a chartered college granted 
to such as have completed the r^ular course of academic or scientific study; or (3) the 
diploma of some State normal school granted to such as have completed the regular 
course of academic and professional study; or (4) of a certificate to be obtained by a 
specified examination. 

C0UESE8 OP STUDY. 

Within a few years much attention has been given to the order and conduct of 
studies in rural schools, and in a number of States definite courses of study have been 
adopted and measures taken for enforcing their use. Ab regards the subjects which 
are universally included in elementary instruction, viz, reading, writing, and arith- 
metic, these courses differ little from one another or from those employed in foreign 
schools. History, geography, grammar, elementary science, physiology, and civil gov- 
ernment, as embodied in the Constitution of the United States and of individual States, 
make up the list of additional subjects. In Nevada drawing is included in the course 
for ungraded schools, but, as a rule, that branch and three others which appear in nearly 
all foreign programmes, viz, music, gymnastics, and needlework (for girls' schools), 
have no place in our prognunmes. Opinions are various with reference to the relative 
importance and proper sequence of these several branches. The objection has been 
urged against the programmes generally that they include too much for the meagre term 
of school life. The case is well stated by Hon. N. A. Luce^ State superintendent of 
common schools of Maine, in his report for the year 1881. After citing the list of studies 
required by law, viz, "reading, writing, spelling, English grammar, geography, arith- 
metic, histiDry, physiology, book-keeping, civil government (in the form of the consti- 
tution of Maine and of the United States), and such other branches as school committees 
may desire to introduce into the schools under their charge,'' he continues: 

Can this specifically prescribed course of study be completed with any &ir degree of 
thoroughness in the average school life of the average pupil? Evidently not. That 
life, five years of thirty-eight weeks each, would, in the veiy hature of things, appear 
to be too short for such and so much work. The statistics, indeed, show this to be the 
case. In only about half the ungraded schools is history a study; book-keeping in 
about a third, and physiology in about a fourth. Consideived in relation to present av- 
erage length of schools alone, then, the course of study prescribed for them is too exten- 
sive. Considered in relation to the character of the work done in^^|m|too (the teach- 



COURSES OF STUDY. LXI 

32;, tiie same is tme. !Not "broad, enough, considered in its relations to the work which 
^Qzht to be demanded and. ^wbich the purposes they ought to subserve do demand of 
ik school; and too 'broad, considered in its relations to the actual work which the schools 
on leeomplish in their pfresent condition, the practical question is, shall the prescribed 
(oQoe of study be mo^^fied to suit the actual conditions of the schools or shall the 
<f ixnls be so increased in length and improved in quality as to enable them to do the 
T«k set for them in tliat course ? There can be but one right answer: the schools 
cut be increased in average length, and, for stUl stronger reasons, their great diversity 
is length heretofore noticed must cease to exist and their quality must be improved. 

Few will dissent from liis conclusions. In determining the outline courses, two points 
BDStbekeptin Tie^w: first, the branch ui>on which classification shall be based; second, 
the daily programme. In a graded school the studies are uniform for all the members 
m the same dasB. In an ungraded school this uniformity is impossible, and some study 
SBst be selected ae th^ basis for the division into classes. The choice is between arith- 
■etk and reading. Tbe latter is generally to be preferred, as children differ much less 
Tith respect to their capacity for reading than for computation. In arranging the daily 
programme it should be remembered that some studies require more time than others 
iad that some are a greater tax upon the mind than others. These severer studies should 
be asigned to the hoars when the children are freshest and brightest, viz, the forenoon 
iod the hour immediately following recess. The chief difficulty in classifying ungraded 
schools arises in connection with scholars who grade in more than one class. Some 
ufhorities object to this provision altogether, but those who have the true interests of 
viiolazs at heart will recognize its necessity; the proper ideal of a school is the greatest 
pod to the individual consistent with the interests of the majority, and under this con- 
'fpfkm flexible classification must be allowed within reasonable limits. 
Where definite courses of study for ungraded schools have been adopted it is desirable 

that Bopezintendents should embody the same in their reports, with such comment as 

obserration and experience may suggest. This has been done in several instances in the 

shorts for 1881. 
Hon. W. H. Rufiher, sux>erintendent of public instruction for Virginia, presents the 

^iilowiiig outline for a course of nine five months' terms : 

GRADED OOURSK FOB PROIABY SCHOOUB OF OKJB TBACHEB. 

(Completed in nine five months* terma.) 

. — (i) Alphabetr by woid liud phonic method, followed by reading and 
half of Fir^ Reader. 
'nttog: maUiEg lettei^ and wonU on blsickV^oard and slate. 
Irasiber?: eountiiij^ objects; naming ^ind making figures. 
ijl^ thwl lasOrQctioii : daily, not only on the regu )ar branches, but on various topics, 
I Mib mm cKprtect speech^ objected hygietie, muJEiic, morals and manners; and this done on 
^""n^^ ^^^edally. 

^^ism4 U^rm. — (1) Reading and spelling: to tbe end of the First Reader. If Leigh's 

tboil b«* fl«ed more rapid ppogress may Ik? uiside. 

? Writing: in tracing book and in (copying sUnrfc fientences from Reader. 

Anthmetic: numeration begnn, and addition; constructing and mastering the 

— *-Me; making some use of elementiify text book, dhiefly for objects and simple 

Wli«r« Gmbe'S method m employed the^a directions will not suit. 

TWitf irrm, — (1) Readitig: Second Reader begun; spelling and vocal drill continued ; 

"UMlliil. nf words determined, chiefly by their use in sentences constructed for the pur- 

Jftm br teaitiier and pnpile. 

*i« Wwitits^: fli^it c«iiy hook And copying from Reader. Blackboard and chart used 
s UUiMnAliiig Ibrma and principles of letters. 

|3> Arillunetic: nnmemtion continued; Bubtractlon and multiplication; mental and 
^TVsca cxcrdaes altenmtlng thrpnghont the course; elementary text book in regular 

I Pk mMk Icwm.^ {1 ) RefidiDR: f^^nd Reader iinl»hed, Third Reader begun; spelling and 

A ^ ^ TMT wtfrrdt in icssonft. 

H (Og: copy h<mk aad dictation from Reader to be copied by pupil. 




linietie: diviaion; Actions and dectmali^ explained in connection with numer- 



Digitized by VjOO' 



ith 1 



LXII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

ation, bat not studied in detail; a few simple denominate tables learned; elementary 
book finished. 

Fifth term. — (1) Reading: Third Reader finished; phonic analysis and defining never 
given up. 

(2) Spelling: spelling book began. 

(3) Writing: copy b^k and £ctation; principles made familiar; particular letteis 
taught. 

(4) Arithmetic: the .complete arithmetic commenced. Mental and written con- 
stantly intermingled. Walton's tables used. 

(5) Geography begun: oral; globe; points of the compass, practice in direction, loca- 
tion, and distance; l<>cal maps constructed; outline wall maps explained; geographic terms 
written, explained, and illustrated by objects or pictures. 

Sixth term, — (1) Reading: Fourth Reader begun; constant attention to enunciation 
and expression; use of dictionary as a book of reference taught. 

r2) SpelUng: in spelling book and by all other means except dictionary. 
f3) Writing: copy book and the substance of reading lessons. 

(4) Arithmetic: omitting puzzles, repetends, duodecimals, and (as they may be here- 
after reached) the more complex and less used rules, such as alligation and the progres- 
sions. 

(5) Oeography: intermediate text book begun; map drawing practised throughout 
the course; good map studied carefully, though not in extreme detail; indififerent or 
inaccurate maps not allowed. 

(6) Grammar: the correction of errors in language used by pupils attended to always; 
systematic oral instruction begun. 

Seventh term. — (1) Reading: Fourth Reader finished and Fifth begun; exercise varied 
by skipping and introduction of parallel reading. 
^2) Writing: copy book and letter writing. 

(3) Arithmetic: quickness and accuracy in performing the most practically useful 
operations to be sought rather than following curious details or subtle principles, or 
aiming at going over the whole book. 

(4) Geography : text book expurgated of such details as may in after life be readily 
supplied as wanted, and geographic principles, forms, and outlines chiefly insisted 
upon. 

(5) Grammar : elementary text book begun. 

Eighth term.— (1) Reading: Fifth Reader; small United States History (200 pages). 

(2) Writing : practice ; study of particular letters continued ; and careful attention 
to details of posture, pen holding, and careful formation of letters throughout the 
oouise. 

(3) Arithmetic : the mental effect attended to. 

(4) Geography : intermediate gec^graphy finished; and geographical questions con- 
sidered in connection with reading history. 

(5) Grammar : parsing, analysis (diagrams used). 

Ninth term. — (1 j Rea£ng : Fifth Re^er and Histoiy of Viiginia; spelling practised 
to the last. 

i2) Writing: foithfully studied and practised to the end. 
3^ Arithmetic: completed. 
4 ) Geography : geography of Virginia. 
6) Grammar : elementary completed. 

Mr. Ruf&ier believes this course to be well suited to the ordinary term of rural school 
education. 

It is impossible to examine the various courses without being struck with the general 
neglect of elementary science. The rural schools would seem to be favorably situated 
for the study of nature in some one of her varied aspects. The well known effect of such 
study upon the mind, its value as a resource to the individual, and its relation to the 
tendency of modem thought are so many reasons for its introduction into these courses. 
Here is a practical matter for the consideration of superintendents, teachers' associa- 
tions, and the faculties of normal schools, and one whose consideration can no longer be 
deferred if our people are to share in the progress of the age. 

The instruction contemplated would not interfere with what must be regarded as the 
great end of elementary schools, viz, the training of t^e youth of a community so that 
they may be able to read intelligently, write legibly and correctly, and compute accu- 
rately. Where ^bis end is attained under conditions well adapted to the physical, intel- 
lectual, and moral needs of the young the schools are a success ; so fi»r as the schools fall 



Digitized by V^OOQIC 



ILLITERACY AMONG MINORS. 



LXIII 



Ami of this end or accomplish it at the cost or the neglect of the moral nature of the 
jmag peofde committed to their care, they are £ulares. 

I%e attainments specified are so imi>ortant that we may well question whether all 
fmninations of elementary schools shoold not he directed simply to testing their effi- 
aeaej within this limit; hnt *if snch were the accepted criterion there would still be 
luge choioe of sabjects and methods and large opportunity for the study of adaptation. 

If the problem which is before the schools be reduced to the simplest possible condi- 
lioos the neoeasity for definite schemes of study remains. 

The experience of the world with reference to this means of regulating and directing 
tbe wock of schools is illustrated in the following extract from the circular of Mr. Van 
Hnmb^eck, Belgian minister of education, dated 20th July, 1880 : ** Contrary to what 
ks been fiir a long time the practice in all the countries which have at heart the devel- 
<fmeot of popular education, the Belgian govemment, according to the law of 1842, 
did not deem it necessaiy to decree a plan of studies for the public primary schools. 
Sooie laige cities, some provincial inspectors, had of their ovm initiative formulated 
pngranunes of study ; but in the majority of the communes the teachers were left to be 
the sole judges of the manner of interpreting the intentions of the law on that subject. 
Ezpedenoe has condemned this system ; wherever the schools have followed definite 
pnigcunmes, progress has been marked, while for the most port in the schools left to 
themaelTea loatine has taken firm hold.'' The circular was accompanied by a pro- 
( of stadies to be used in the communal schools. 



ILLITEBACT AMONG MIKOBS. 



In reviewing the educational reports of the several States and Territories the question 
ines in thoughtful minds, how far has the elaborate provision accomplished its purpose 
is the instruction of the young? The statistics of minor illiteracy finom the Census 
go ^ to answer the inquiry. 



TABLBB 10 ASD 11 PBOX THE CEBBUS OF 1880. 

Tables 10 and 11 show the number of minor whites of each sex between ten and four- 
teen and between fifteen and twenty, the number of the same unable to write, and the 
per eeot. of the illiterate^ It will be observed that the percentage of female illiteracy 
B km than that of male illiteracy. Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico are the only 
fTceptaons in either age. 



PeruentaBt of 



11.8 



12.4 
2t.1£ 
64.5 



12.1 
33.7 
62.3 



Pen'cntago of 
iLLitvr&iealStoaO. 



2^.5 
62.1 



10. S 
22,9 
72.5 



UlitemLcfllOta^O, 



^ - 
^ ^ 



7,5 
22,7 
63. fl 



23.8 



11.3 
68.7 



9.A 
33.1 
62.4 



Digitized by 



Google 



LXIV 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Table 10, from the Census of 1880, showing ike iUUeracp of wkUe persons, male and female^ 
ten to fourteen years old, loth ages induded. 



fitAt«8 and Territo- 
ries. 



White persons from 10 to 
14 years of age, both in- 
elusive. 



Enumer- 
ated. 



Number. 



Returned as un- 
able to write. 



Number. 



Per 
cent. 



White males from 10 to 
14 years of age, both 
inclusive. 



Enumer- 
ated. 



Returned as un- 
able to write. 



Number. 



Number. 



Per 
cent. 



White females trouk 10 
to 14 years of age, both 
inclusive. 



Enumer- 



Retumed as on- 
able to writ©. 



Number. 



Number. 



sent. 



Maine 

New Hampshire.. 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Ohio 

Michigan 

Indiana 

Wisconsin 

Illinois 

Minnesota 

.Iowa 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Total 

Delaware 

Maryland - 

District of Columbia. 

VirginU 

WestViivinia 

Kentucky „ 

North Carolina..... 

Tennessee 

South Carolina........ 

Georgia 

Alabama 

Florida 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Arkansas 

Louisiana 

Texas , 

Total 

California.. 

Oregon „.. 

Nevada 

Colorado 

Arizona „ 

Washington 

Idaho 

Utah «... 

Montana 



64,781 

80,605 

38,449 

150,921 

25,687 

58,456 

506,144 

116,609 

472,606 

868,200 

175.904 

288,068 

152,837 

857,748 

87,886 

196,178 

49,719 

114,839 



2,182 
1,233 
1,210 
1,949 
2,122 
1,273 

12,152 
8,484 

19,868 

12,466 
5,124 

18,241 
4,151 

19,418 
8,817 
6,061 
2,145 
6,441 



8.4 
4.0 
8.6 
1.2 
8.3 
2.2 
2.4 
8.0 
4.1 
8.5 
2.9 
5.6 
2.7 
6.4 
8.8 
2.6 
4.8 
4.7 



88,158 
15,477 
17,150 
80,270 
12,879 
29,548 

254,441 
58,614 

289,804 

181,491 
89,780 

121,245 
77,419 

180,959 
44,228 
99,409 
25,906 
59,881 



1,294 

635 

728 

996 

1,156 

715 

6,691 

1,957 

11,876 

7,280 

8,028 

7,618 

2,260 

U,180 

1,842 

8,047 

1,265 

8,819 



8.9 
4.1 
4.2 
1.2 
9.0 
2.4 
2.6 
8.8 
4.8 
4.0 
8.4 
6.2 
2.9 
6.2 
4.2 
8.1 
4.8 
6.5 



81,628 
15,128 
16,299 
79,651 
12,708 
28,918 

260,708 
67,966 

233,802 

176,778 
86,124 

116,823 
75,418 

176,780 
48,168 
96,760 
23,818 
55,008 



596 

482 

968 

966 

668 

6,461 

1,527 

7,992 

5,286 

2,006 

5,728 

1,901 

8,288 

1,476 

2,004 

890 

2,128 



2.8 
4.0 
8.0 
1.3 
7.6 
1.9 
2.2 
2.6 
8.4 
8.0 
2.4 
4.9 
2.6 
4,7 
8.4 
2.1 
8.7 
8.9 



8,197,066 



115,822 

1,017 
5,548 



27,094 
19,911 
55,568 

45,824 
61,816 
15,828 
85,972 
81,788 
5,581 
16,860 
40,880 
81,668 
14,863 
89,707 



8.6 



1,621,099 



66,217 



4.0 



1,575,967 



49,106 



7.7 
6.8 
1.8 
26.1 
26.1 
82.1 
45.4 
48.1 
83.9 
87.4 
40.9 
82.8 
29.2 
16.8 
48.9 
26.6 
28.6 



6,760 
41,489 

6,848 
63,157 
89,162 
88,886 
61,757 
78,004 
22,964 
49,475 
40,156 

8,708 
29,694 
127,940 
87,249 
26,996 
71,635 



587 
8,128 
129 
15,196 
10,850 
80,624 
24,592 
83,686 
8,242 
20,018 
17,442 
8,047 
9,624 



17,229 
7,565 
22,762 



8.7 
7.6 
3.0 
28.6 
37.7 
84.5 
47.5 
45.9 
85.9 
40.5 
48.4 
85.0 
82.4 
18.2 
46.8 
28.0 
81.8 



6,418 
40,691 

6,822 
60,791 
87)062 
84,926 
48,040 
69,268 
22,316 
46,662 
87,626 

8,820 
28, lU 
122,849 
84,884 
27,077 
67,084 



480 
2,420 
102 
11,896 
9,061 
26,084 
20,782 
37,780 
7,086 
15,964 
14,846 
2,684 
7,286 
17.628 
14,489 
6,796 
16,945 



8.1 

6.7 
5.9 
1.6 
28.4 
24,1^ 
29. W 
48. 2| 
40.1 
81.1 
84.1 
88.1 
80.1 
25. < 
14.1 
41. 
25.1 
25.1 



1,513,181 



448,146 



29.6 



774,849 



247,723 



77,984 

18,617 
3,728 

18,026 
2,821 
6,965 
2,730 

17,785 
2,060 



1,517 

1,112 

87 

1,575 

551 

830 

192 

1,904 

56 



1.9 

6.0 

1.0 

12.1 

23.7 

4.7 

7.0 

10.7 

2.7 



89,077 
9,460 
1,863 
6,643 
1,297 
8,651 
1,897 
9,000 
1,068 



821 
687 

17 
785 
884 
207 
106 
1.072 

28 



81.9 

2T 

7.8 

0.9 

11.8 

25.8- 

5.7 

7.7 

11.9 

2.6 



788,882 

88.867 
9,157 
1,866 
6,888 
1,024 
8,804 
1,833 
8,786 
1,002 



200,428 

606 
425 

20 
790 
217 
138 

84 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



27. 

1.1 

4.< 

1, 

IX 

21.] 
8.1 
6J 
9.1 
2.' 



ILLITERACY AMONG MINORS. LXV 

Table 10, fram the Census of 1880, showing the illUeracyy &c, — (Continued. • 





While persons from lOto 
14 years of age, both in- 
clusive. 


White males fVom 10 to 
14 years of age, both 
inclusive. 


White females from 10 
to 14 years of age , both 
inclusive. 


Territories. 


Enumer- 
ated. 

Number. 


Returned as un- 
able to write. 


Enumer- 
ated. 

Number. 

6,040 

654 

6,4*1 


Returned as un- 
able to write. 


Enumer- 
ated. 


Returned as un- 
able to write. 




Number. 


Per 
cent. 

5.4 
4.8 
62.3 


Number. 

355 

38 

3,910 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Dskote 

^jfltning 


11,481 
1,218 
12,479 


621 
58 

7,774 


5.9 
5.8 
60.8 


5,441 
564 

5,995 


266 

20 

3,864 


4.9 

3.5 


5rv Mexico 


64.5 


Total ... > 




170,284 


15,728 


9.2 


86,624 


8,362 


9.6 


83,660 


7,364 


8.8 


Grmnd total .... 


4,880,531 


579, IM 


11.8 


2,482,572 


322,892 


12.9 


2,397,969 


256,892 


ia7 



Table 11, from the Omvus of 1880, showing the illiteracy of white persons fifteen to twenty 

years old, both ages inclusive. 



Whitt^ j/vriKSfimtTtyTn. 15 to ' WhKe mftLcji from IS Ui 
'^.i yenrs of ngp^ holh a(> yc*rt.rn of age, Ixith 
tncitwive* inc1ii»ive. 



Kniitnef- 
attd. 



Returned up tin- RmtiTtif^r- 
able to write. ii.tcd. 



f Ham y>H i I II ^ 



BfvT«tk.« 



T,«. 



fWftat. 






%^%Ca 



Nnmb^Tk 



nm 



m,w& 



10. MA 

flai,0uo 
ifl«.m 

Si, 134 

4ft, aw 

llti,TIW 



101,41$ 
4l,ttM 



Namber. 



3^848 

%wi 
i,»» 

7,Q3S 
2,SU 

13,973 
3,117 

16,3ST 

m,40» 
e,5l7 

10,081 
4.JSi 

HOST 

2,514 

3,471 

POO 



m,ou 



Per 
een^t. 



4.3 

&.H 
4.2 

3.1 
9.1 
8.0 
3.3 
2.5 
3.2 

a.7 

X5 
3,5 
3.6 

1,7 

3.1 



3.9 



8S7 

i,«i3 

tm 

16,S94 

S»,tt8d 

310,2X1 
86, in 
10,114 



5.1 

16,4 
13.8 

m4 

3»J 
23.G 



Number. 



37,806 
19, 127 
ID, 131 
07, 3ft© 
ll.TrtS 

2&1,10G 

249,344 

128,220 

SI, roe 

10(5/115 
49,317 
106, ST^ 

57,230 



Ket 11 rticdaff un- 
able to writii}. 



Nuuibrr, 



1,788 

1,127 

3,:ll» 
1,4(X} 
1,051 
6,9IH 
1,7*1 
8,901 
5, 1130 
3,i^ 
5,650 
3,343 
7,019 
1,402 
'l^OUl 
536 
t,430 



Per 
cent. 



1,7?>4.2M 



43,3&1 
6,001 
40,505 
3S,e08 
K7,312 

4ia,703 



57,629 



3,503 

loo 

11,152 
17,054 
15,053 

m4e.5 

5,212 



4.7 
6.9 

4.9 
3.4 
0.5 
3.) 
2.5 
2.S 
3.G 
3.1 
3.5 
4.4 
2.6 
3,0 
^.8 
2.0 
2,1 
5,S 



Willi 



;,|.- ir..rri 15 
1-1 i.j] UK'", *K>th 



iiKjhiaive. 



Enu mer-' Hot urned as im- 
ntod^ nble tn write. 



Number. 



ai, 156 
19,069 
107, UOQ 

3d,2t>9 
SH, i'M 

6T,«74 
253,365 
20CJ,673 

06,37^ 
130,898 

ge,579 
199,670 

47, mt 
103,835 

n,^8 

53,531! 



Nlitiiber, 



I,S53 
1,154 

55« 
3,719 
1,411 
1,100 
7.019 
1.432 
7,420 
1.479 
2,058 
4,431 

1, 142 

424 

922 



3.2 
L7 

mi 

14,3 
20,0 
2&,3 
20.5 
23.9 



l,S27,IBa I 45,3^1 



7,M? 
46,894 
7,520 

36.338 
89,213 
52,619 
71,351 

.23, im 



410 

2,110 

7,650 
4,^i 
16,262 
15,219 
17,709 



Per 

cientr 

4.0 

ai 

3.4 
8.6 
3,0 
%3 
%l 
2,8 
2.3 
XI 
3,1 
2,4 
S.0 
%A 
l.S 
1.4 
1.7 



2,6 

ItT 

IS, 3 

mi 

28.9 
24. S 

2U 



R— V 



Digitized by 



Google 



COMMISSIOSEB OF EDUCATION. 






TABi.«"./>^ 



I WLIto penK,„. from 15 «o / WblW mjle. from 18 to 



S{Hto9*nd Tcrrlto- g^u^or- iKeturnedaflun-[Enumer- 



Gooiv'a. 



Klori*** 

Miwou'* 

Arkiuiflfui.... 
Ix>uiaiiuu».... 

Tcxa» 

Tot4U .. 



CVilifornia 

Oregon 

Nevada 

Colorado 

Arizona 

Washington .. 

Idaho 

Vtah 

Montana 

Dakota 

Wyoming^.... 
New Mexico.. 



Total. 



ated. 



Number. 



able to write. 



96,856 
Aliiboma I 7!).^» 



16,396 
56,360 

261,781 
67,311 
63,673 

135, 42» 



l,51!7,156 



86,665 

19,039 
3,915 

17,299 
3,188 
6,700 
2,728 

17.460 
2,615 

12,238 
1,090 

13,108 



186,645 



Number. 



21,269 
19,806 
3.297 
8,799 
21,706 



9,775 
19,088 



263,404 



Per 
cent. 

22.0 
24.8 
20.1 
15.6 
8,3 
24.7 
1&2 
14.1 



17.2 



l,iM8 

327 

71 

1,306 

723 

88 

82 

848 

51 

330 

81 

8,200 



14,005 7.5 



2.2 
1.7 
1.8 
7.5 

22.7 
1.3 
3.0 
4.9 
2.0 
2.7 
1.8 

62.6 



ated. 



Number. 



Returned as un- 
able to write. 



Number. 



46,712 
88,601 
7,961 
27,002 
129,153 
83,586 
26,100 
68,066 



749, 149 



43,299 
9,820 
2,081 

10,285 
1,795 
3,471 
1,508 
8,590 
1,687 
6,506 
998 
6,879 



96,311 



10,827 

10,117 
1,755 
4,828 

11,991 
8,524 
4,969 

10,731 



137,565 



1,221 
218 

61 
673 
403 

59 

58 
498 

35 
175 

26 
3,824 



6,650 



GrandtotaL 5,295,667 1 383,423 7.2 2,699,673 



I 



201,844 



Per 
cent. 



23.2 
26.8 
22.1 
17.5 
9.3 
25.4 
19.8 
15.8 



18.3 



2.8 
2.2 
2.9 
5.6 

22.5 
1.7 
3.8 
5.8 
2.2 
2.7 
2.6 

62.1 



6.9 



White females from 15 
to 20 years of age.boih 
inclusive. 



Enumer^ 
ated. 



Number. 



60,144 
41,496 
8,446 
28,707 
132,028 
83,726 
28,578 
07,343 



778,007 



Betumedasun-i 
able to write. I 



Number. 



Per I 
oenW 



10,442 
9,688 
1,642 
8,971 
9,715 
8,116 
4,816 
8,357 



125,839 



43,366 
9,219 
1,834 
7,014 
1.393 
3,229 
1,220 
8,870 
1,028 
6,786 
7Q2 
0,724 



90,834 



7.7 2,606,994 



727 
109 

10 
733 
320 

29 

24 
350 

10 

165 

6 

4,870 



7,366 



181,979 



20.8 
23. S 
18.« 
18.91 
7.* 
24.1 
\^% 
12.* 



16,1 



1.7| 
1.3 

as 

10.5 
22.9 
0.9 
2.0 
8.9 
1.6 
2.7 
0.9 
72.5 



8.1 



TABLES 12 AKD 13 FROM THS CENSUS OP 1880. 

Tables 12 and 13, from the Census, show the whole number of the colored minois, ixial< 
itnd female, ]>etween ten and fourteen years and between fifteen and twenty years (bot.1 
ages inclusive), and the illiterates of corresponding sex and age, with t^e percentage c 
such illitcracY : 



Table 12, from ihc Census of 1880, aliovDing the iUUeracy of colored persons ten to fourtcf^ 

years oldy both ages inclusive. 



• 


Colored persons from 10 
to 14 years of ago, both 
inckisivc. 


Colored males fkt>m 10 
to 14 years of age, both 
inclusive. 


Colored females fkx>n« : 
to 14 years of age, t>ot 
inclusive. 


states. 


Enumer- 
ated. 


Returned as un- 
able to write. 


Enumer- 
ated. 


Returned as un- 
able to write. 


Enumer> 
ated. 


Returned ifcSY^ 
abletowK-&%^ 




Number. 


Number. 


Per 

cent. 


Number. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Number. 




Maine 


190 
61 

1,501 


27 
4 

12 
31 


14.2 
0.3 
9.0 
2.1 
9.2 
6.4 


96 
28 
71 
765 
258 
481 


11 
8 

18 
26 
81 


11.6 
10.7 
8.6 
2.4 
9.7 
0.4 


94 

80 

03 

789 

378 

626 


10 
1 
6 
18 
24 
88 


X"7 

S 

4 


New Hampshire 

Vermont 


Massachusetts. 


Rhode Island 


531 j 49 
1,006 1 64 


Connecticut.. 



I 



XLLITEKACY AMONG MINORS. LXVII 

riai i^frtm the Census of 1880, «*mriii^ the iUiteracy of colored personsy <frc.— Continued. 



Colored females from 10 
to 14 years of age, boih 
inclusive. 




igitizedby^OOgie 



LXVUI REPORT OF THE COMBflSSIONBR OF EDUCATION. 

Tabi^e 13, from the Census of 1880, showing (he iOUeraey of colored persons fifteen to twenijf 
years old, h<ih ages inclusive. 



SUieB and Terri- 
torieB. 



Maine 

New Hampehire.. 

Vermont 

Mfiwnnohuaette 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Ohio 

Miohin^an 

Indiana 

Wisconsin 

Illinois 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Nebraska 

Kansas » 



Total. 



Colored persons from 15 
to 20 years of age, both 
inclusive. 



Bnumer- 



Retumed as un- 
able to write. 



Number. 



230 
82 

132 
1,886 

551 
1,278 
7,013 
4,430 
9,691 
9,735 
2,909 
4,837 

712 
5,307 

458 
1,229 

233 
5,236 



55,994 



Number. 



Delaware 

Maryland 

Districtof Columbia.. 

Virginia 

West Virgrinia 

Kentucky 

North Carolina .... 

Tennessee 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Alabama 

Florida 

Mississippi..... 

Missouri 

Arkansas 

Louisiana 

Texas , 



Total .... 

California 

Oregon 

Nevada 

Colorado 

Arizona 

Washington.. 

Idaho 

CTtah 

Montana 



3,512 
26,568 

6,523 
77,629 

3,352 
35,806 
67,003 
51,730 
73,640 
91,920 
75,947 
15,660 
78,415 
20,042 
23,466 
52,072 
48,141 



751,485 

13,763 

2,065 

1,096 

441 

756 

1,236 

191 

237 

354 



SO 

9 

15 

70 

61 

100 

763 

670 

1,327 

1,279 

594 

858 

192 

1,185 

144 

191 

66 

1,452 



9,026 



1,680 
12,729 

1,490 
47,477 

1,276 
21,787 
45,902 
32,187 
52,986 
70,284 
56,897 

9,991 
52,825 

8,064 
16,371 
38,721 



508,826 

4,041 
551 
368 



37 
113 
161 



Per 
cent. 



21.7 
11.0 
11.4 

8.7 
U.1 

7.8 
10.9 
15.1 
13.7 
13.1 
20.4 
17.7 
27.0 
22.3 
31.8 
15.5 
28.8 
27.7 



16.1 



47.8 
47.9 
22.8 
61.2 
38.1 
60.8 
68.5 
62.1 
71.9 
76.4 
74.9 
63.8 
67.4 
40.2 
60.8 
74.4 
69.2 



67.0 

29.4 
26.7 
83.6 
18.8 
31.2 
26.6 
19.4 
47.7 
45.5 



Colored males from 15 
to 20 years of age, both 
inclusive. 



Enumer- 
ated. 



Returned as un- 
able to write. 



Number. 



117 

87 

00 

847 

246 

641 

3,063 

2,075 

4,162 

4,639 

1,370 

2,274 

359 

2,559 

222 

651 

124 

2,490 



25,956 



854,790 

11,764 
1,803 
825 
271 
539 
928 
182 
157 



Number. 



18 

6 

lOr 

87 

32 

45 

867 

292 

525 

601 

298 

411 

106 

598 

76 

112 

27 

728 



4,879 

863 

6,165 

519 



606 

U,092 
22,174 
15,808 
24,100 
83,185 
26,078 
4,802 
24,167 
4,077 
7,596 
17,476 
15,685 



288,212 

2,860 
481 
286 



186 

191 

30 

60 

88 



Per 
cent. 



15.4 
16.2 
16.7 

4.4 
18.0 

7.0 
11.9 
14.1 
12.6 
14.9 
21.8 
18.1 
29.5 
23.4 
84.2 
17.2 
21.8 
29.2 



Colored females from Ifi 
to 20 years of age, both 
inclusive. 



Enumer- 
ated. 



Number. 



113 

45^ 

72 

1,089 

305 

637 

3,930 

2.355 

5,629 

5,096 

1,539 

2,563 

353 

2,748 

281 

578 

159 

2,746 



16.5 I 80,088 



47.4 
49.5 
20.8 
63.8 
88.5 
64.3 
67.9 
63.4 
09.9 
75.9 
74.2 
62.5 
66.2 
42.6 
68.2 
74.3 
69.3 



69.6 

24.8 
26.4 
28.6 
21.4 
26.2 
20.6 
16.6 
38.2 
86.9 



1,608 
14,145 

4,083 
40,605 

1,624 
18,556 
34,326 
26,800 
39,175 
48, 2U 
40,019 

8,687 
41,918 
10,481 
12,828 
28,586 
25,569 



896,646 

1,999 
172 
271 
170 
217 
806 
9 



Returned as un- 
able to write. 



Number. 



82 

8 

6 

83 

29 

55 

896 

378 

802 

588 

296 

447 

86 

587 

68 

79 

89 

724 



4,647 



817 
6,574 

vn 

23,848 
610 
10,695 
28,728 
16,829 
28,881 
87,049 
80,224 
6,099 
28,668 
8,987 
8,775 
21,245 
17,674 



265,614 

"msT 

70 
132 

26 

100 

188 

7 

68 

78 



Per 

centw 



28.3 
0.7 
6.9 
3.2 
9.6 
8.6 

lai 

16.1 
14.5 
11.5 
19.2 
17.4 
24.4 
21.4 
29.4 
13.7 
24.6 
26.4 



15.4 



48.3 
46.5 
24.1 
68.7 
87.6 
57.6 
09.1 
00.9 
78.6 
76.8 
75.5 
64.8 
68.4 
38.0 
71.2 
74.4 
09.1 



66.9 

"soTi 

40.7 
48.7 
14.7 
46.1 
44.8 
77.8 
66.2 
00.5 



ILLITERACY AMONG MINORS. LXIX 

Table 13, from the Centw of 1880, showing the UHteracy of colored penom, <fec.— Contmued. 





Colored persons from 16 
to 20 years of age, both 
inclusive. 


Colored males ftrom 15 
to 20 years of age, both 
inclusive. 


Colored females IVom 15 
to 20 years of age, both 
inclusive. 




Bnumei^ 
ated. 


Returned as un- 
able to write. 


Enumer. 
ated. 


Returned as un- 
able to write. 


Enumer- 
ated. 


Returned as un- 
able to write. 




Number. 


Number. 


Per 

cent 


Number. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


DiJcoia 

Wjomingf - 


213 

134 

1,402 


108 

28 

1,805 


48.4 
20.9 
98.1 


108 
106 
786 


S2 
23 
667 


50.5 
21.8 
90.6 


110 
26 
666 


51 

5 

638 


46.4 
19.2 


New Mudco 


95.8 


To4aI „ 


21,888 


7,855 


88.5 


17,781 


4,877 


27.5 


4,157 


2,478 


59.6 


Grand loteL ^ 


829,817 


520,207 


62.7 


898,477 


247,468 


62.1 


480,840 


272,739 


63:3 



A oomparisan of these tables with the tenth and eleventh, preyionsly given, will enable 
the reader to see bow great is the need for special effort toward the cultivation and im- 
provement of the colored youth in onr nation. The snrplns of percentage of colored 
r over white minor illiteracy for the Union as a whole is 55. 



JtffMor UHteracy compared by age, race, sex, and location. 





Race. 


Northern group. 


Southern group. 


Pacific group. 


The Union. 


Age, 


1 


£ 


1 


1 


h 


69.0 
29.6 


1 


9 


I 

& 

48.8 
9.2 


67.3 
12.9 


1 

65.1 
10.7 


I 

1 


»-14 


1 Colored.. 

< White. -.. 


16.9 
4.0 


15.2 
3.1 


16.1 
3.6 


70.7 
31.9 


68.5 
27.1 


40.4 
9.6 


52.0 

8.8 


66.2 
11.8 






1 Surplus of colored. 

irOoloied^ 

"-* IWbite. ^. 


12.9 

16.5 
3.2 


12.1 

15.4 
2.6 


12.5 

16.1 
2.9 


38.8 

60.6 
18.3 


41.4 

66.9 
16.2 


40.0 

67.0 
17.2 


36.8 

27.5 
6.9 


48.2 

59.6 
8.1 


39.6 

33.6 
7.5 


54.4 

62.1 

7.7 


54.4 

68.8 
6.7 


54.4 

62.7 
7.2 




^'vKilMisf of colonpd. 


las 


11. a 


... 


61. a 


S0,7 


60.8, 


mn 


SI. 5 


26.1 


54.4 


56.6 


55.5 



tUUXV StnCMAJEY OV TUB EDDGATIOKAI^ (?iiKniTlf>ef OF THE UIHON. 

JU mMM. wan hare an eiidenl iniprovemeiit \q tii'lum^l-lunLHi-i^^ 180 more being reported in 
SmI cai^Hkili. The v:iluutiou of sehm^l prup^rt), occ'onUngly, was $22,934 higher. 
tip«a<Sitafeiasd rtcseipts fur public sichoola wereaLKiitit:re:i8©dby over $41,000; teachers 
"I ted bBtlKT jiajt ^^ ^*^ more of fcbetu >ven? gmlmik^ of normal schools, while 4,713 
^ Iia4 ■ami? ecperient*?. Henct^ out of a school {topukition less by 729, there were 
& liiouj^i ijito thtt p ti bl ie seliool s. From mnte vi\um •■ , however, probably from the 
. imd^rliOperuisat. of aW thv Icachui^ yv^m thmfm^hly fitted for school work, the 
«ia^ sticfodnct did nnfc mrrespond with the m(;rt;is<!a r urolment, but fell ofif 3,615; 
t» mf oai^ «d»ol t4?nn wm iil»o ^i days shorter. For the il rst time we learn that, of 483 
fevto fcpoftcd, 4!^ wcftp wlU applied witli iejct booki^^ that 384 had uniformity in 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 



LXX REI>OET OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

these, and that 37 schools had globes, 1,476 had wall maps, 21 also having chartfl. The 
superintendent thinks that on the whole there was a gain in the quality of schools, but 
that any great improvement is impossible till a township system supersedes the district 
system generally. 



There was here a decrease of 1,106 in public school enrolment and of 5, 023 in average 
daily attendance, 730 more youth of school age being out of school, although private 
schools enrolled 486 more; the average public school term was shortened by more than 
8 days; there was a decrease in the estimated value of public school property, in the 
average pay of teachers, and in the number of these fh>m normal schools. More public 
schools were taught, however; more of them were graded and high, and more were sup- 
plied with maps and globes; 125 more teachers were employed, and 105 more taught for 
successive terms. 

VBRMONT. 

Enrolment in public schools was 502 less and in private schools 383 more than in 1880, 
but the average daily attendance on public schools was 1,094 more, an increase of nearly 
2 per cent, on the number enrolled. Fewer public schools were taught, the term was a 
day shorter, and the whole expenditure ^,033 less. Fewer men and more women were 
employed, but the average monthly pay of men was $1.92 greater and that of women 
60 cents less. The ungraded district schools, which enroll six-sevenths of the pupils, 
suffer from a tendency of the population to collect in business centres, thus leaving the 
rural districts thinly populated and schools generally poorly sustained. Graded schools, 
however, were more numerous and improved in quality. 

MA88AOHT7BET*EB. 

The statistics show about 5,000 more children of school age, 18,000 more of all ages in 
public schools, 19 fewer in average daily attendance, 784 more in average membership, 
and 378 fewer attending private and academic schools than during 1 879-' 80. More 
pupils attended public high schools and more were in average attendance on evening 
schools, although the enrolment in the latter was slightly less. The number of pub- 
lic schools increased by 431 and the average term by 1 day. The average montWy 
pay of teachers was increased by $18 for men and $7.90 for women, and the whole ex- 
penditure for public schpol purposes by $619,811. Among other evidences of popular 
interest in the schools the report notes the amount of money raised for their support, 
which allowed $18.47 for every child of legal school age; the large attendance on public 
schools; the efforts teachers were making to prepare themselves for their work by attend- 
ance on normal schools and institutes, and the increase of institutes and similar educa- 
tional meetings. 

RHODE ISLAND. 

This State reports an increase of 804 in youth 5 to 15 years of age and of 386 in the 
enrolment, witli a decrease of 120 in the average number belonging and of 279 in aver- 
age daily attendance; fewer public school buildings by 2, but an increase of $60,322 in the 
value of school property; 6 more scliooLs taught, the average term being 2 days longer; 
170 more teachers employed in day and evening public schools and 78 more who had 
been trained in normal schools; an increase of $5.76 in the average monthly pay of men, 
a decrease of $1.10 in that of women, and $5,737 more expended for public school pur- 
poses. The increase of ab.sence from the schools is deplored by the State board, which 
reports 12,730 youth of school age as not attending, while 2,551 attended for less time 
than the 12 weeks required by 1 aw. To the evils inseparable from the district system 
the lioard chiefly ascribes these poor results, and recommends that municipalities desir- 
ing to do so be allowed to abolish the system; also, that there be a more effective compul- 
lory attendance law and better local .supervision. 

Digitized by VjOOQLC 



PRESENT EDUCATIONAL CONDITION. LXXI 

COtlNBCTICUT. 

There was hexe an increase of 3,510 in youth 4 to 16 years of age, bnt the enrolment 
Ji pQbiic acboolg and in schools of all kinds decreased, and more children of school 
i^e by 3,960 did not attend any school. Still, more public schools were taught, the 
expeaditare for them was $68,316 greater, and the average term was a little longer. Six 
man schools were graded; and, although 4 fewer houses were built, 10 more were re^ 
parted in good or £ur condition. The decrease in attendance shown will not, it is claimed, 
jiatify the inference that education was considered less important than heretofore. It 
B thought that the attoidance on private schools was greater than the number given, 
tkeae schools not being required by law to report to the school authorities. The decrease 
ID poUic school enrolment is explained by the facts (1) that increased business prosper- 
ity caused more yonth of school age to be withdrawn for work and (3) that a larger 
Bomber than nsoal of children under 5 were excluded. Almost all the youth 8 to 14 
vcre, it is belieTed, in attendance on some school for a portion of the year. 

KIDDLB ATLAlfnC 8TATSB — NEW TOBK. 

With an increafle of nearly 21,000 in the number of youth 5 to 21 years of age, there 
wM a decrease of over 10,000 in public school enrolment and of over 13,000 in average 
diily attendance, private school attendance having also decreased slightly. This de- 
chiie in school attendance is ascribed by the superintendent to the business activity of 
the year, which led many of the youth over 14 to leave school for work. He thinks the 
schools increased in efficiency in greater proportion than the attendance fell off, and that 
\ht resoits attained justified the expenditure, which was $511,026 greater than the pre- 
riooB year. There were 205 more pupils in academies, 191 more in normal schools, 2,610 
iBoie in ooUeges, 490 more in medical schools, and 50 fewer in law schools, the total loss 
IB attendance on all classes being 7,123. The figures show a smaller number of public 
shod-honses, hut a greater estimated value of school property ; 28,498 fewer volumes 
a dotiict school libraries*; an average school term 1 day shorter ; fewer men and more 
vomen teadiing, but a slight increase in their average pay ; 27 more teachers licensed 
tfaiDo^ nonnal schools, 188 more by local officers, and 119 fewer by the State superin- 
•cBdent. 

ITKW JER8BT. 

For the first time in many years there ^pear evidences of decline in school work. 
Whh an increase of 4,946 in the number of youth 5 to 18 years of age, there was a de- 
T,^^ (» i,i*L>*i4 vUv ii«i.*iH.^ -*iHija,ii;4 iki^jU^ schools (with 126 more in private or 
sclhOol»)f the avetqge tidily fitterirhiiiri' on public schools being 5,142 less and the 
mi 111 tmj school fj.W't j^alt-r. 1 ht' average public school term was 2 days 
Md the average jiay of tc^u'liers rJeHtrra*^^, as did also the number of men teach- 
thrir places heiag fiUwl by wtim* it. 'iln're were, however, more certificates of a 
KT and fewer of a lower )^¥lo mn^l t^ ttxu hers, and more evening schools were 
tlieir lermik b«^iiig a 1 title longer atiil LUe attendance greater. 

Wiih abtml a millioTj and n Imlf of yrmth of school age, there were 931,749 enrolled 
hi yatfelir and 20,7 HI ii* priviitt' w*hoolsi, i\ Ui^crt^se for the year of 5,561 in public and of 
IQ ia pritat« »t'.b*K»lH, Tbf juiiiv!ier n( pnbhe graded schools increased, as did the 
it« Ait pobUf fltfliook and the value nl' school property. Throughout the State, 
ixc of Philmk'Iphiii, whiuh i\o^ not n^purt on these pomts, drawing was taught in 
poliLic Adint*L» and the higbor brani-ht-.s in 82 more. There were more first class 
|<hotiii3!i aoil more with jrni table itiriuture ; fewer were reported badly ven- 
^tk^ Ifitt more a« " uotlt for us$cJ* Improvirnient in the quality of teaching is indi- 
^ hy an iiM'rwinl number of teacliom mill long experience (649 more having been 




Jawtmt ntcr ftveyeaTm continuously), as well aa by the fact tl^V 1 ^ ™<^^^^?Jf^d®d 
j*^ aumiil whimUand V.iS more were gnuluat^s of such schools. 



'^^gt^" 



LXXII REPORT OP THE COMBflSSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

DKLAWABB. 

Here the statistics show an increase during the year of 1,826 in school population and 
of 1, 299 pupils enrolled in free schools. The average pay of teachers in schools for whites 
was slightly increased, as also was the number of schools taught, although the average 
term was 5 days shorter. Attendance on colored schools diminished by 226, while the 
number of that race within the school age was 198 greater. In 1881, for the first time, 
the State recognized its obligation to aid in the education of the colored people by making 
an ajj^priation of |2,400 from the treasury for their schools. 



This State reports a decrease of 3,522 in the whole public school enrolment and of 
6,039 in average daily attendance; of 3,293 in the enrolment of colored pupils and 
of 1,167 in their average attendance; of 5 schools taught, but |60,214 more exjiended 
on them. A severe winter and unusual sickness are said to account in part for this fiUl- 
ing o£f ; but the main difficulty in the way of improvement is the inadequacy of scbool 
revenues. The Census of 1880 reveals the presence in the State of 134,468 illiterates 
over 10 years of age, 90,172 of them being colored. In order to drive this army of 
illiterates iVom the field more money is necessary, and, as the superintendent says, *' The 
people of Maryland, however willing, do not feel able to increase their taxes.'' 

vxaoiHiA. 

With only 858 more youth of school age reported, there was an increase of 18,310 in 
public school enrolment and of 6,083 in average daily attendance, a very fair proportion 
of this advance being in attendance of colored pupils. More pupils studied the higher 
branches, more were supplied with free text books, more schools were taught, more 
were graded, the average school term was 4 J days longer, and $154,130 more were 
expended on schools. There were 69 more school-houses b^ ilt than in 1880, and 288 
more were owned by districts, the value of school property having increased by $21,788. 
Great benefit to the schools had resulted from the improvement of teachers in methods 
of instruction, due to their attendance on normal institutes, held by means of aid received 
frt>m the Peabody frind. 

SOUTH ATLANTIC 8TAT1B — NOBTH CABOLINA. 

An increase appears of 2,010 in the number of white youth 6 to 21, and of 6,738 in 
that of colored youth, with 3,830 more white and 11,280 more colored enrolled in pub* 
lie schools, the whole increased enrolment of both races being 15,110, against an increase 
of only 8,748 in youth of school age. There were $56,777 more expended during the 
year for public schools, but the State school fund decreased by $100,000. A want of 
uniformity in statistics for the two years in respect to average attendance and some other 
points renders of little value any comparison which might be instituted. The figttres 
show a decrease in average attendance of 4,982 for both races, but a full report was not 
made for either of the two years. Much was done to improve the teaching force by a 
number of normal schools, more or less permanent in character, established by religions 
associations in other States. 

SOUTH CAROLIHA. 

The statistics show an increase of 120 white and a decrease of 734 colored pupils en- 
rolled in public schools, the average attendance of neither race being reported; 84 more 
public schools taught, at an added cost of $21,006, the average term for the State being 
3i days longer; 190 more school-houses and 91 more owned by districts, school property 
being valued at $84,272 more than the preceding year; a slight increase in the average 
monthly payment of teachers; and a decrease of 22 in the number of white teachers, witU 
an increase of 100 in that of colored employed. The decrease in attendance of colored 



PRESENT EDUCATIONAL CONDITION. LXXIII 

fmpb was doe in some cases to the nnusually severe winter weather and in others to 
tbe use of school fonds for the improvement and erection of school-honses, leaving Utile 
for tviticni. The saperintendent says there are evidences of progress which cannot be 
c ipr ea atd in figoies. Among them are mentioned the holding of two State normal 
iastttntesy one for white and one for colored teachers, which, besides their other good 
roohs, aroused a deeper popular interest in the schools. Educational questions, he says, 
are DOW more often discussed in the newspai>ers, in public meetings, and in general con- 
Tenstun; there was increased efficiency in educational officers; the school fund wus bet- 
ter administered; and popular prejudice against free public schools was diminishii^. 



With 461,016 youth 6 to 18 years of age in 1880, there were 244,197 pupils enrolled 
in public schools in 1881. There was an increase of 3,022 in white pupils and of 4,642 
in oc»l<»ed, the whole increased enrolment being 7,664, with 4,718 more in average daily 
attcodanoe. There were, however, 1,662 fewer pupils reported in elementary private 
lehools, 1,211 fewer in academic and 2,245 fewer in collegiate institutions. The number 
of public schools increased by 139, and the money raised for their support by $27,504. 



In the absence of statistics for 1880-'81, no comparison of the educational condition of 
thai year with the preceding one can be made. Even the secretary and agent of the 
Peabody liind trustees, on whom the State has to depend for special aid towards the im- 
pfovement of its schools, has not been able to obtain statistics later than for 1879-^80. 
Tfaece was at that time a public school enrolment of 39,315 pupils out of 74,213 youth 
4 to 21 years of age — nearly 53 per cent. — with an average daily attendance of 27,046. 

GULP aTATBB— AI^BAMA. 

The poblic schools received in 1880-'81 $9,466 more for their support than in the pre- 
▼kras year and had $35,225 more spent on them ; they also had a larger force of teachers 
ai hJl^ier average pay ; yet the figures which indicate results are almost wholly on the 
ksng side, enrolment having diminished by 3,201 (though the United States Census 
shows a much larger number of school age to draw from) and average daily attendance 
« school exercises declining by 2,662. In elementary studies, such as spelling, reading, 
and writing, there were fix>m 1,782 to 13,476 fewer pupils, and only in the more popular 
CBS of geography and arithmetic Im increase ; in the former, of 42 ; in the latter, of 
:/^Ki. .Si* t'\[iiamuioD i^* j.i. ,ii I III' ^^t;ite rips Ml of these temporarily disappoint- 

^Mautlii in what certainly ^^ ^'^* ^ ^ muub improved school system. 



fa tkiA Siate tli« r«s3U.lt^ prt*seDteil are greatly mmc eut-ouraging. With $22,683 less 
mmA te publSe schools and |7'i,!34T Ic^^ sprtit on tlu'tu and with a smaller school pop- 
iitfdn If 6i|799to draw from for iillliiiu; thiTii, iIumi- were yet 634 more pupils on the 
ali^9i»9@d none in av^eiage buloogirig, mid 3,;tfKJ twnv m average daily attendance* 
I low eskato and poor eonditiou oi'thv gniU lK)dy of the colored people, the 
f t/f their cliildmi |mi into the ^tooln and got tig to make up this large increase 
' is vefy refmsrkable. 

I^OITISIASA, 

Wkk 1 0, 1 01 mope* y orit h * j t ?igf* to r pablii ■ s^hriol i n ^1 rxw I i on . with 1 95 more public schools 
TWft^ tbrse!', tmd with an Ltii-rGOf^' of $'^j,62ii In t'xpLuditure for support of the State 
, ii^f in$; :iu avafa^ y^f of $4 mom » wicinth fVn- ti^achers, there were yet 6,070 
r paifilU brao^t undwr Instmctioo in the Stat*? system. Lack of ^n^^t^^cjl^rs as 



LXXIV REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

longer terms of school and consequently better annual pay would bring into the service ; 
lack of good school-houses, with the needful appliances for comfort; and lack of efficient 
local supervision, which can only be obtained through more remunerative salaries than 
are now given to the few existing parish superintendents, are among the reasons indi- 
cated in the State report for this disappointing educational condition. 



The original returns for 1880-'81 having been consumed by a fire in the State office 
and duplicates of these having been in many cases unattainable, the statistics of only 
109 counties against 132 in the preceding year appear in the State report. Any foir 
comparison of year with year cannot, of course, be made in such circumstances. The 
figures, as presented, appear to indicate retrogression at every point ; but the secretary 
of the State board of education, whose opportunities for knowledge of all the facts -were 
of the best, declares that there was large increase in the number of the public schools main- 
tained, and also of the pupils in them. He admits, however, that the system is defec- 
tive, and that there can be no approach to perfection in the working of it till there is 
more effective supervision, with better teachers, longer school terms, and permissioii to 
lay general local taxes to supplement State school funds. 

SOUTHKRK CKHTRAL STATES —ARKANSAS. 

Here we find an increase for the year of 27,772 pupils enrolled in the public schools, 
while only 25,294 more youth 6 to 21 were reported in the State; a corresponding increase 
in teachers and school-houses, school property valued at $84,517 more ; and $150,356 
more applied to public school purposes. 



The statistics from this State show progress at almost all points. With an increased 
enumeration of 7,532 youth 5 to 21, there were 17,600 more pupils enrolled in public 
schools and 2,109 more in daily average attendance. More school districts reported and 
more had uniform text books; public school-houses increased in number and school prop- 
erty in value; the average term was 10 days longer and the public school expenditure 
was $158,010 more. The average monthly pay of teachers, however, decreased by $2.26 
for men and $2.21 for women. 



Missouri reports 741,632 youth 6 to 20 years of age and 488,091, or nearly 66 per cent^, 
enrolled in public schools, an increase for the year of 11,715 in the number enrolled. 
There were 172 more schools for whites taught and 9 more for colored; 17,807 more 
sittings were provided, the value of school property increasing by $168,294 and the whole 
amount expended for school purposes by $316,561. 



KKNTDCKV. 



With 483,404 white youth 6 to 20 years of age in the State there were 238,440, or not 
quite 50 per cent, enrolled in public schools, and only 149,226 in average daily attend* 
ance, a decrease of 6,918 enrolled and 8,992 in average attendance, with an increase of 
4,807 in youth of school age. The colored school population (6 to 16) numbered 70,234^ 
but the enrolment of these is not reported. Fifty-three more districts sustained schools 
for white and 21 more schools for colored children ; 29 more school-houses for whites were 
reported, the value of their school property increasing by $166,697 and the whole expend! > 
ture for public schools by $381,124. 

TKNNiaaSBB. 

The statistics here show 545, 875 youth 6 to 21, 283,468 enrolled in public schools, and 
180,509 in average daily attendance, an increase for the year of 1,013 in school popula- 



PRESENT EDUCATIONAL CONDITION. LXXV 

boB. with a decrease of 6,673 in public school enrolment and of 10,962 in average daily 
tftodsnoe. The number of pupils attending private schools also decreased, leaving 
11687 fewer pnpils in both claases of schools. An increase of 6,915 appears in the 
'.3Bber at colored yonth enrolled in public schools, but even with this there was not 
^(e 49 per cent, of the school population in attendance. The decrease of 13,588 white 
^c^ enrolled left about 53 per cent, in the schools. More public schools were taught, 
iLsa more private and more consolidated schools (the last being a union of the first two) ; 
the avenge public school term was 2 days longer, but the whole expenditure was 
k^SSZ less, although 926 more teachers were employed and their average pay was only 
T ceate a month leas. The number of school-houses was 2 more than the previous year, 
*utthe estimated value of school projwrty was $198,282 less, although considerable 
izipnovonent is reported in school-houses, more than 500 old structures giving place to 
yv ones and many being supplied with better furniture. Such inconsistent statistics 
'^ doabtleas the result of imperfect reports, 3 counties having fiuled to report at all 
•-:i IddQ, and 6 in 1881. Possibly, too, some of the serious retrogression above noted 
^j be dne to the same cause, since encouraging reports are given of the condition of 
ihe schools by the State superintendent and the popular sentiment regarding them is 
aid to be improving. 

WK8T VIKOIKIA. 

The r^ort finom this State shows encouraging educational progress: improvement in 
r.r;cfaods of instmction; a demand for better teachers; an increased interest of parents in 
'he Afaools; improved school buildings, with better furniture and apparatus ; an increased 
naber of county educational meetings held ; and provision made by the legislature for 
^ free education of 18 colored normal students at Storer College, Harper's Ferry. 
Tlicfe was an increase of 2,353 pupils enrolled in public schools against 3,078 more 
jwsh 6 to 21 . The increased enrolment of white pupils was nearly equal to the increase 
^ white school population; but the enrolment of colored pnpils fell off, while the num- 
>r df school age increased. Indeed, not quite 48 per cent, of the colored youth of 
«^»ol age attended public schools for any part of the year; and the per cent, of whites 
•igymtnig was only 69. The decrease in average daily attendance was not large, smd 
V3ft aboot the same for bcfth races, though proportionately much greater for the colored. 
Use pfoblic schools were taught and $44,386 more were expended lor school purposes, but 
^ sverage pay of teachers decreased and the average term of schools was 9 days shorter. 
Hflie aehool buildings were reported and the valuation of school property was $82,609 

KOBTHKRN CKNTRAL STATES — OHIO. 

Ohio r^HHts 1,063,337 yonth 6 to 21 years of age, 744,758 enrolled in public schools, 
^ ^Gf^-ll m livtTjge duilj atteuibinc, wiilj 30,362 in private schools, or nearly 73 
pv«9t oi the school poijuiutioii uriiltr instruction during some portion of the year. 
TW^ifailSts show an iBcreiLSo durmg (Im ,yi-:vr of 17,112 in school population, with a 
Mnaeof S,3§l> eoroUad in puhlii^ sm^UooIh aud an increase of 1,712 in private schools, 
lltai^^aiSuaJI iteaease in the imnjbtir f if jtiipils under instruction in both classes of 
■"^■^ij wtth a lately mfTi*imt^ number to be i^ducated. There was also a decrease of 
It lbs STemge daily attendi^nea on pabJlc schools. But it must be remembered, 
^ ^«SMg mth the stivtl^tics^ <if Um Kt;vt4:% th;it for some time past each alternate year 
^ai kmm *mf of deprts^on. Tht^. |inblie seliool enrolment increased laigely during 
^f^i^lt^ l§W-*78, and J^9"'8D, fiilHng *jfi' in every intervening year. Comparing the 
of 1879 sjid li81f we &nd^ indeed!, :itH)at 20,000 more youth to be educated in 
enly lOfC^ more enrolled hi piil>lic tjchools and 8,000 more in average daily 
htil the per cent of attendance on enrolment, counting public and private 
ni0 aboat the aame. It appears, too, that, notwithstanding the decrease 
te ISSl in public sahool euTolmt^ni and average attendance. th^^(w< 




LXXVI REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

Bchool-hoases, having 134 more rooms occupied, school property IncreasiBg $252,264 in 
value; 286 more teachers were employed, though at reduced pay; $429,173 more were 
expended for school purposes, and the average term was 5 days longer. 



Although the annual enumeration showed 10,785 more youth to he instructed in 
1880-'81 and although 217 more districts reported schools for such instruction as having 
heen taught in that year, the fine record of the previous year was not maintained. 
Enrolment in the public schools fell off by 7,428 and average daily attendance on them 
by 15,358. Even with this foiling off the enrolment was about 70.5 per cent, of the 
youth of school age and the average attendance about 60.7 per cent, of the number en- 
rolled, which would be thought in most States very fair. The private schools in public 
buildings, which are here allowed by the school law in the intervals of public sessions, 
were 101 more and enrolled 1,702 more pupils, bringing up a little higher the peroratage 
of all under instruction; while graded schools, with their superior training, though leas 
numerous by 22 in districts, were more so by 125 in townships, giving an absolute in- 
crease of 103, making the general average of the public teaching better. The new 
school-houses, with their greater comforts and advantages, were also 56 more than in the 
previous year, school property thus rating $206,225 higher. Receipts and expenditures 
for public schools showed an increase of $77,456 in the former and of $36,904 in the 
latter. 

TLUSOJB. 

In this State, as in Indiana, the year's record was a fiur one, but inferior to that oi 
the preceding year. Instead of a public school enrolment that included more than the 
whole increase in youth of school age and an additional average attendance more than 
double this large increase of enrolment, there was a decline of 2,414 in one and of 5,780 
in the other, attendance on private and church schools also diminishing. Still, here also 
the enrolment, thus diminished, took in 70 per cent, of the school youth of the Stat€ 
(75.9 per cent., if private and church schools are included), and the average attendance 
was about 60.7 per cent, of the enrolment. The public schools, too, gained on the pri- 
vate, the latter reported being 34 less, the graded schools •In the public system 3(] 
more, with 42 more houses for public schools and an increase of $1,080,744 in school 
property as valued. Then receipts for public schools were greater, expenditures for then 
$326,472 more, and the average pay of teachers of both sexes considerably better thai 
for two preceding years. 

MICHIGAir. 

Michigan, with more than 518,000 youth of school age (5 to 20), had 371,743 attending 
public audi 9,788 attending private schools, or over 71 percent, of the school populatioi 
enrolled in public schools and over 75 per cent, in both classes, an increase for the yeai 
of 12,073 in school population and of 9,187 in public school enrolment, with 934 moit 
in privfite schools. There were 175 more public school-houses, with 8,595 more sittings, 
school property being valued at $406,857 more, and 17,891 more volumes were reported 
in public school libraries. There was an increase in the number of teachers employed 
and in the number attending State institutes. The permanent school fund was $159,24 ] 
more and $307,683 more were expended on public schools, although the average pay oi 
teachers decreased slightly; the average term of schools was 4 days longer. 

WISCONSIN. 

Wisconsin reports over 300,000 pupils in public and 26,252 in private schools oat oj 
491,358 youth 4 to 20 years of i^e. Counting 4,724 who attended State normal scbooh 
and academies gives us over 67 per c^nt. of the si^hool population attending. Ther^ 
were also 2,971 students in collegiate and theological schools (an increase for the year oi 



PRESENT EDITCATIONAL CONDITION. LXXVH 

£4), besides 1,938 under instmction in benevolent institntions. Ck)mpaiing these st»- 
tJBticB with those of the previous year we find 8,129 more youth of school age, but only 
965 more enrolled in public schools, while the average daily attendance decreased by 
«i,632. There were more pupils in private schools, however, by 314. There were fewer 
pabik schools taught by 141, but more of these were graded and high, and the average 
toB was over 13 days longer; the expenditure for public schools was $48,331 more; the 
MMMmt of public school fund increased by $42,370, and the normal school fund by $27,793, 
vkOe tb^e were smaller advances in the university and agricultural college funds. The 
■pointoMleDt finds in the above, and in other facts, evidence of a steady and healthful ad- 
TBeement. Ue reports greater hxumony and zeal in the management and teaching of the 
xhoob; more apparent willingness to remedy defects in the system ; a slight growth of 
. &vorable to the employment of better teachers for longer terms; a wider dis- 
of information in respect to hygienic laws in their application to school- 
groands, and the care of children while in school; and a marked progress in 
utliods of instroction in the country schools, through the adoption of a graded course 
tT^tndy. 

MINNESOTA. 

Owing to the deat^ of State Superintendent Burt before completing his report for 
!9?l>-*31, fiill statistics for that year cannot be obtained. The return sent by his sue- 
rff)sut shows a decrease of 2,970 in public school pupils enrolled and of $239,622 ex- 
ploded far them, but an increase of 6 days in the average school term, of 356 in the num- 
^ofteacbeis (who received a slight advance in x>ay), of $559,559 in the estimated value 
J pqhUe school property, and of $385,748 in the State school fund. 



With 594,730 youth 5 to 21 years of age, there were 431,513, or over 72 per cent., en- 
Riiied in public schools and more than 15,000 attending private schools, which raised 
t2» percentage of pupils under instruction to 75. There was an increase for the year 
c-f !?47-^ n^ youth of school age, which was nearly met by an increased enrolment of 5,456 
ia public and of 2,374 in private schools, but the average attendance on public schools 
deaeaeed by 5,748. More school-houses were reported, at an increased valuation of 
1390,^0; more teachers were employed, their average monthly pay was slightly ad- 
maeed, and the permanent school fund was increased by $62,713. 



HfciCliii pobUe ichools enrolled Wiijlt} out of 152,824 youth 6 to 21, or about 66 

^^^W., iMit i3tilj ti<5,5tM were in averti^e daily uit^ndance. The number of pupils in 

^^■t 4f <;liafeh t^chools waa not n^portvCtU A t^>iiiparison of these figures with those 

^^ prrrkrts yeftt Rbowa an riflvaoce in neiirl^v iill respects. There were 10,476 more 

'it af iKtlidc^i ogie, 8/227 more enrolled in publk' schools, and 5,348 more in average 

-^ i£t€idAD<!s& ^Ith an increadt- of 269 in i^ 1u p4>l districts there were 517 more having 

tkmil ^ fnffntlw asd over^ while fewer rttMiru^il in* ischools and the average term for the 

^tti va* A day Iftnger, More teachen$ wero I'lnj^loyed, at a slight advance in average 

':rr iSTjriB mdr? were espende^l fur ptiblit! hicbcMjl purposes and the permanent State 

{ ftmd mavamd by |1,@D3,348. 



[ iatiii € 



cauyjLjkXiQ. 



States otit of 40,^4 yoDth 6 to 21 years of age, 26,000, or 63 per cent, were 

Is [MMie nchoola, 14,*i41> being in aveiuge daily attendance. The number attend- 

aad church sdionla wae not n^port*^. An advance for the year appears of 

fea pa^ih esmtUsd aod of 2,031 in nverag^ daily attendance^ w^|h|^^^m||^ of 



LXXVUI REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

school age, which was met bj an addition of 5,977 sitting for pnpils in 22 school boild- 
ingB, 112 more teachers, and $161,624 more expended on the schools. There were 1,385 
more volomes in the school libraries, the Talnation of school property was $294,803 more, 
and the average monthly pay of teachers In ungraded schools advanced considerably, 
men receiving $10.84 and women $6.56 more, while men teaching graded schools were 
paid $1.58 more, bat women $1.52 less. 

8TATB8 ON THB PACIITIC SLOPS— NSVADA. 

The decay of mining interests still shows its effect on the population and the schools, 
22 fewer districts making report of schools and the number reported being 29 below tiiat 
reported in 1879-'80, the reported value of school property going down also $15,081; 
teachers 21 fewer, with smaller salaries ; youth of school age reported, 59 less ; the ayer- 
age length of term was 2.4 days less ; enrolment in public schools 716 less, with a corre- 
sponding dimiuution in the private schools. Yet, with all this foiling off, the average 
attendance in public schools increased a little ; 20 more schools were sustained without 
rate bills ; receipts for public schools were $4,079 greater, and the growth of the State 
school fund was $149,000. 

CALIPOKNIA. 

In this state there are cleiir nifrns of educational advance in the State school system, 
as is learned firom the report of the 8uperinien<lent, received sinc^ the abstract (page 13) 
was prepared. Although the census takers reported 4,741 fewer youth of age for free 
instruction, 985 more ol* that a^c were brought into the public schools, while, including 
those under and over the school age, 5,090 more pupils were enrolled. In average daily 
attendance, too, 4,575 more were reported. Per contra, youth in private schools fell off 
1,055. To meet the considerable additional number of public school pupils there were 
149 more public schools, 46 more of the districts reporting good school accommodations 
and 30 more good furniture. Of the 142 more teachers, also, 95 were graduates of normal 
schools. Enrolment, average belonging, average attendance, all were largely in excess 
of like items in any former year, while the per cent, of non-attendance was less than for 
seven preceding years. 

OBBOOir. 

School districts were more numerous by 30 and 28 more reported their statistioB. 
These showed the existence of 87 more school-houses, adding $89,606 to the value ol 
school property; showed a school population of 2,026 more to be instructed; showed ftmdf 
for such instruction $20,139 greater; showed that 12 more first grade certificates ha^ 
been issued to teachers and 80 more second grade ; but yet showed also that 3,03£ 
fewer pupils were enrolled in the public schools and that 2,239 fewer had been in aver 
age daily attendance ; this, too, though private schools, which increased by 44, bac 
gathered in 612 additional pupils. The only gain exhibited in attendance on the publi< 
system was in the districts with graded schools, and as these are almost wholly in th< 
towns and cities the considerable decrease indicated must have been in the compani^Tel^ 
poor and unattractive country schools. 

THS TERBITOiim— ALASKA. 

Tho accounts show increase of educational fiiciliticSf of school attendance, and of im 
provement from these in this yet unorganized vast territory. New buildings for school 
and teachers were erected among the Chilkats, Hoonyahs, and Hydahs at large expena 
and with great labor, owing to the immense distances of these tribes from each other ani 
from the sources of supply. Attendance appears to have increased from about 250 t 
nearly 500, with an average of at least half this, while in one instance a school of mnc 
promise was formed substantially by a set of Indian boys, who voluntarily with^ire^ 
from the degradation of bad native homes to secure themselves an education, even a 



PRESENT EDUCATIONAL CONDITION. LXXIX 

tbe expense of daily labor for their own support while getting it. All this is from a 
Rpart of the active Presbyterian agent in the field ; the Methodists, who are said to be 
catering it, not having yet sent any report of work, and none having come from the 
AhsHok Company's sohools on the Seal Islands. 



Althpngb the report of the territorial superintendent indicates that the school returns 
here are incomplete, falling &i short of showing the actual educational condition, it is 
evident &om even these returns that public schools had increased in number, 148 being 
repofted against 101 "rooms for study" reported in 1879-'80, while school property 
we rated $8,244 higher. Receipts and expenditures for schools, however, were lees by 
KTenJ thousand dollars, as presented, and the enrolment reported was 368 less than that 
of the preceding year, perhaps because there were 9 private or church schools, not pre- 
▼iDosIy reported, working as rivals of the public schools. 



Kqnrts from this great Territory are defective, from the fact that important towns and 
rities bave charters which release them from obligation to make returns of school af&uis 
and from the further fact that county officers too often do not make them. Still, from 
tbe United States Census of 1880 and from I'eports of the territorial authorities for the 
btler part of 1881, it may be seen that there was in the latter year an increase of prob- 
ity at least 11,000 youth of school age, an enrolment in the public schools of so many 
idditaooal papUs as to more than cover this large increase, a provision of over 500 
vatre schools for those enrolled, with a corresponding addition to the teaching force, while 
Uie leoeipts'for schools, by the reported figures, exceeded by $108,000 the highest estimate 
"( those of 1880, and, in the opinion of the superintendent of instruction, exceeded 
*jM3n by about a quarter of a million. 

DXSTBICr OF OOLUaiBIA.l 

Of the sdiool population shown here by the United States Census of 1880 there were 
^7 per cent, enrolled in public schools in 1880-'81, and, of those enrolled, 75.9 per 
ctxil weie in average daily attendance, the colored pupils especially distinguishing 
tbeaselTes in respect to this attendance. Keceipts for all school purposes were $78,687 
;3cste*- than in the previous year and expenditures $88,745 greater ; school property, 
thraogh the addition of new buildings and repair of old ones, rose in value $120,533. 
Ttee was an increase of 27 teachers, and every new teacher appointed in the primary 



The- Riiost importnul county here not. reporting its educsitional statistics and those from 
tmm oihm t-oanliei^ being too uncertain to tbrm a basis for definite conclusions, it is diffi- 



i* ft HAlaral doMne In th« DistrliTt of CulumbiA and abroad in the country that education 
<f >fc» ^wMlilw »l tlK*^ caipitaJ of the nation should i>o in all respects a model for the study of the rest 
•# tkr eMtf Liry nnrj for tl^ct otwcrv^iion of furt igmers. Great advances have been made in the last 
tt^Bi 7t»r«, but much rtMiiain!« lo bo tioram pi Sighed. The system should be complete; certainly a 
M^Mol iStir ihii tttfarm of Rlrl» iind special M^h^Kjlfi to give instruction in various industries and 
t embodying tJie bttsi rc^tultfiof pcdu^j^ofirical study and sufficient to accommodate all the 
•fa^ioM Iw ercKiiMi. No one ^nn ijbwn*' Ibo large number of wayward or neglected chil- 
%m flfi^fls witbniit fickTiowliMljtUi^ thv- rnrr-isity of providing for their care and instruction, 
(amplf ntilliurity nin>^ \m^ found ih uii old act passed by the city government providing 
il of |tnnr i»rpti»n « bildri^n And x\\r children of drunkards, vagrants, and paupers, 
^1 0«to4ierSL i^3n. The child or t^bililne'n of drunkards, vagrants, or paupers who appear to 
■ ilgii^ ii|» tbeir L'tilldftiii in Jj^nomii™ nmJ! vit-e, sloth, and idleness, or who suffer them to be 
-^mm- iMldlnf hori«*^ for hirtv at public? l>lal1'^, may bo taken in charge by the trustee or justice 
^ ptemse, Ajrid^ tf « mikle ch\U\, ttiny 1>c Ixmnil out until he shall have arrived at the age of 21 
■*. mmA^ If ft fcttiifcl©, lUI wIjo isimU liavc urrived at the age of 16 years, .^g^^^^^ by V^OOQ IC 



LXXX REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

cult to det«miine whether there was in 1880-'81 an educatioDal advance or not. The 
territorial superintendent, however, thinks there has heen ** substantial pTogrees," 

INDIAN TERRITORV. 

Under this head all education of the Indians, except in Alaska, has been included. 
Among the 5 great tribes in the Indian Territory proper, the reports respecting youth oJ 
school age were defective ; among other tribes throughout the United States, there waa 
an increase of 4,382 in such youth. Still, in the former there were 85 more presented ae 
under instruction against 869 more among the letter ; while average attendance on the 
schools taught appears from the figures to have been wonderfully good for children and 
youth in such un&vorable circumstances. The training of selected Indian youth, witt 
the consent of their parents, away from the hindering influences of savage life and amidsl 
the surroundings of civilization, continued through the year with such encouraging sue 
cess as to draw forth from high authorities strong words of commendation and to lead U 
a resolution to extend the system. 



With about 10,000 youth of school age here, there were 5,112 pupils reported in th 
territorial public schools and 2,800 in avertbge attendance. For a Territory of immens 
extent and with a population greatly scattered this is a fair showing, quite up to that o 
several States long and well settled and beyond that of some States. Within th© tw 
years presented there was considerable advance in youth to be educated, in attendanc 
upon schools, in teachers employed, and in their qualifications. 

NEW mcxioo. 

In the absence of territorial reports on education the United States Census of 186 
affords the latest information. This shows that with 29,255 youth of school age (7-1^ 
there were 4,755 under instruction in the nominally public schools and 3,150 in avera^ 
daily attendance. If these figures look discouraging, they yet indicate a far better stai 
of things than in 1870, when, with an approximate number of children of school agi 
only 1,798 were reported as in school. In a population separated fh)m the prosperot 
States and scattered thinly over a vast area, where the older residents are averse to \inse 
tarian public schools and Spanish and Indian languages largely prevail, the schools hai 
not prospered; but, as important railroads are pushing through the Territory and brinj 
ing in a better people eager for all advantages, another census must show figures vei 
difierent firom those above. 



With 42,353 youth 6 to 18, the Territory of Utah reports 26,772 attendiog publ 
schools. Public school enrolment increased 2,446 during the year and average daily a 
tendance 1,504, the increase in school population being only 1,681. More schools we 
taught and more teachers employed; the average public school term was 12 days long< 
and $67,070 more were expended on public schools. Improvement in the qualificatioi 
of teachers and in the style and quality of school-houses is also reported. 

WASHINGTON TEBBITORY. 

This Territory reports 23,899 youth 4 to 21 years of age; 14,754, or a little over 60 p 
cent., enrolled in public schools; and 11,275 in average daily attendance. There ^wc 
729 more pupils in average attendance than the year before, with a slight decrea 
in the number enrolled and 2,750 fewer of school age. Fewer public school-houses wq 
reported and fewer teachers, but there was an increase in the average pay of teachc 
and in the amount of public school income. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EDUCATION OK THE COLOR KD RACE. 



LXXXI 



It appears fiom the report of the governor to the legislature that public schools (xm- 
tkocd to pneper and new ones were opened, liberal sums were expended in building 
iDd repairing school-honses, and efforts were made to secure better teachers. The 
ftaSkEtics show an enrolment of 2,544 pupils in public schools, a decrease for the year 
of 363. The number of school age is not given for 1880-'81, but for 1879-'80 it was 
ill2. 

OOMPASATIVE STATISTICS OF EDUCATION IN THE SOUTH. 



TmkU akotnng eomparative population and enrolment of the white and colored races in the 
tekooUofike recent slave States, iffith total annual expenditure for the same in 1881. 



Wiiil«. 



Cator^il. 




• IslJiidAinftnf.lii luliitlioii %<» tb« ■vbool tix aallAOted Avm colored oltixeos, wbitiU biu ]iercU»far3 
%■■ ## iiiijjliwi^ ■ipriFiiiiriirioQ fur tti r ninipiiiii ofCHilored tebooliti, the lpf;:i«it|iiiurf.': n<^\v npprupriatifjii 
tb#0li^(« IrcAATiry for crduccLtlnje the colored aZillilren ot lli^ Sua^ ; hi ICuiituck j, 
Ikx^nu colored citisenn was the only money comttjjf tmm xhe &ta,iQ 
i^ A^wnyatt of ilitlr lobo^lii^Uter? wa«^ tiowover, in thi!» fear a growth in the movement to 
vv«te«oiiirwt tiilSli^ft/H4ft m^ool o/ee equftl <kdv£mlpjc«« with tb« whitti childf^a In th^coDijnon 
• ■aj tlssmd ttf lli#Ptttli9; in ICurytaatl there Lh a bleanlikl n|i|>rot^rlAtlof) ; In the Dbtrlcrt of Columbia 
of tibe BeliflQO} f^cSs It t^i niHi^rt for colored public scbools ; in South Curoliuo. tb« nchool 
dbAHI^I«tl tu pftipuBtoii U> the ni^Tnse Attenilance without rcig^ird to race ; and In th« 
Bi»atloe«il Aibov« ih« Kobool moneya are divided iu pro|HjtiioEi to the i«hool ptipulatlou 

mmutHtm lUlvd lo mrnkm nwe iJistiii<^lon«. 



M9» ia ^30 ; for colored . 0-14. 

diiplifi«a4« : the fteltuL} «4^<»ol ]K>ptll»(lQu \a 330|a37*^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 





LXXXII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



8UUi8lic9 of institutions far the instruction of the colored race for 1881. 



Name. 



NORMAL SCHOOLS. 

Rust Nonnallnstituto 

State Normal School for Colored Teachers.^ 

Linooln Normal University 

Emerson Institute 

Alabama Baptist Normal and Theological SohooL. 

Normal department of Talladega College 

Toskegee Normal School 

Southland College and Normal Institute 

State Normal School for Colored Students 

Normal department of Atlanta University 

Haven Normal School » 

Normal department of Berea College. 

Normal department of Straight University^ , 

Peabody Normal School. 

Baltimore Normal School for Colored Teachers... 

Centenary Biblical Institute , 

Natchez Seminary 

Tougaloo University 

Lincoln Institute 

State Normal School for Colored Studento 

Whitin Normal School 

New Berne State Normal School 

St. AugU8tine*s Normal School 

Shaw University.. 

Normal School 

Institute for Colored Youth , 

Avery Normal Institute 

Normal depsftment of Brainerd Institute 

Normal School of Claflin University 

Fairfield Normal Institute 

The Warner Institute „ 

Knoxville CoU^;e 

Preed»eB*s Nermal Institute. 

Le Moyae Normal Institute „ 

Morriskown Seminary 

Central Tennessee College, normal department.. 

Nashville Normal and Theological Institute 

Normal department o( Fisk University 

TUIotaon Collegiate and Normal Institute 

State Normal School of Texas for Colored Stu- 
dents. 

Hampton Normal and AgriculturaTInstitutee 

Si. Stepben^s Normal Sdiool 

Biohmond Normal SohooL 

Storer College 

Miner Normal School 

Normal department of Howard University 

Normal department cft Wayland Seminary^ 



Total.. 



Location. 



oSg 



T 



Huntsville, Ala 

Huntsville, Ala 

Marion, Ala 

MobUe, Ala. 

Selma, Ala 

Talladega, Ala 

Tnskegee, Ala 

Helena, Ark 

Pine Bluff. Ark*. 

Atlanta, Oa 

Waynesboro*, Go... 

Berea, Ky 

New Orleans, La 

New Orleans, La 

Baltimore, Md 

Baltimore, Md 

Natches,Miss 

Tougaloo, Bfiss... 

Jefferson, Mo 

Fayetteville, N.C 

Lnmberton, N.C 

New Berne, N.C 

Baleigh,N.C 

Baleigh,N.C 

Wilmington, N.C «... 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Charleston, S. C 

Chester. S. C 

Orangeburg, S.C 

Winnsboro*, S. C , 

Jonert>oro\ Tenn 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Maryrflle, Tenn. , 

Memphis, Tenn.. 

Motristown, Tenn ..... 

Nashville, Tenn. , 

Nashville, Tenn. 

Nashville, Tenn , 

Austin, Tex 

Prairie View, Tex 



Hampton, Va „ 

PeteisburSfVa 

Richmond, Va» 

Harper's Perry ,W.Va.. 

Washington, D. Cm 

Washington, D. C... 

Waahingtoo, D. C 



Meth.. 



Cong.. 
Bapt » 
Cong.. 



Cong.. 
Moth.. 
Cong„ 
Cong.. 



M.E... 
Bapt.. 
Cong„ 



P.E 

Bapt 

Cong.. 

Friends.. 

Cong.. 

Presb 

M.E 

Presb 

Friends .. 

Pieeb 

Friends.., 
Cong- 



M.B... 
Bapt. 
Cong.. 
Cong.. 



Cong.... 
P.B 



Non-eeot. 
Bapt 



a In 1880. 

b For all departmente. 

o In addition to the aid given by the American Missionary Association, this institute Is aided tt^ 
the inoome of Virginians agricultural college land fund, 
d 89 of these are also in the theological department. Digitized by V^ OOQ IC 



EDUCATION OP THE COLOKED RACE. 



LXXXIII 



SUktkaofiTiaiituiionsfor the initrueCian offfie oolcred race far 1881 — Continiied. 



Name. 



Location. 



U 






I 



JURlfI105l FOB ABOOirDABT nreTKUGTION. 

fttoy Konaal School 



I'veiy's Indiatelal Aeademy. 



[oitiUiteu. 



Rg>d> TfiiUtutc, 



ittetk BMiat Seminary. 

ioaSehool. 

amid Konnal Infltitnte. 




Athena, A]*... 
Huntsville^i 

Taa]ade8a,Ala. 

LitUe Rock, Ark 

Jacksonville, Fla. 

Live Oak, Fla 

AtUnta, Qa... 
AtUnta,Ga.^ 
Cuthbert, Qtk^ 



Non-eect.. 



L& G range, Ga»~» 

Macen, Ofk ............ 

Savann&hf Qa» 

La T**Jie, La. 

Now Orleans, La. 

BaHlraorQ. Md .«. 

Meridian, Miss. 

Obnoord, N, C. 

QreenalKfro', N. «.. 

Kalelgrh, N. O. 

Albany^ Ohio 

B1ii£it<}n, B. O. . 

Charlcflton, 8. C 

Cbe«t«r, 3» O-.. 

Cokimhiii, S. 

Greenwood, 8. C. 

St. nelena, S. O 

Maaon, Tenn..... .. 



Oong 

M. E.... 

M. E 

Bapt.... 
Bapt.... 
Oonff.... 
Gong.... 
M. E.... 
Gong.... 
Cons:.... 
M.E.... 



R.a 

M.E 

Piesb 

M. E , 

Cong 

Non-seot.. 



Austin, Tex.. 

Mftrtliair, Tex.« 

BlanthHiK Tex. 

Ahbyvil]<3. Va.. 

CTiafte Clly, Va ., 

Rlchmoiidp Va...... 

Tfthlequfik, Lid. Ter.. 



Preeb... 
Presb... 

Bapt 

Cong.... 
Non-sect... 
M. E-... 
M. E.... 
Bapt.... 

M. E 

U. Presb. 
U. Presb... 

Bapt 

Bapt 



216 



142 

aeo 

ie2 
Ul 
110 



70 
170 
265 
216 



00 

100 

al81 

148 



61 



648 



a76 
260 
75 
alOl 
206 
a216 
247 
210 
04 



Atlanta, Ga. 

AU&tita, 0&. 

B«Tt<(i, Ky««- ~ 

Kciw Origans, La 

New Orleans, La........ 

New QrLcMiis, La 

Hotly Springs, Miss... 
Rodney, Miss 



^4 Moehanlml Oalleffe. 
ff In ino. 

60p«tu!ii] January, IRSt, and eloned in Jane of the same year. 
^JUffludiTC nnruiat etude oil. 
4 Fuf aU dri»p»rtJ»entJi. 



Cong.... 
M.E.-.. 
Cong.... 
Bapt.... 
M. E... 
Cong..., 
M. B.... 
Nott'sect.. 



126 



adl2 

d9 

dlS 

cuts 

5 



6 

8 



6.284 



<il25 



a<a48 
161 



US 
185 



Digitized by 



Google 



ULXXIY BEPORT 0? THE COBiMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

SMiaties of insUtuUons for the in$trttcUon of the colored race for 1881 — Ck>ntinaed. 



Name. 



Unitsb8ITI£b and COLLBQXS—Continued. 

BIddle Univerrity 

Shftw Uniyexsity 

Wilberforoe Univenity „..-«»„ « 

Unooln Unirenity.... ~ 

Cbhflin Unlvenity and Ck>llege of Acrioalture.. 

Central Tenneaaee Oollege 

Fiak Univenity 

Hampton Normal and Afirricultural Institute... 
Howard Unlyexslty d. 

Total , 



BCHOOL0 OF THEOLOGY. 

Alabama Baptist Normal and Theological School.. 

Theological department of Talladega Ck>llege.. 

Institute for the Education of Colored Ministers.. 

Theological department of Clark Un i verslty 

^keologioal department of Leland University , 

Theological department of New Orleans Univer- 
sity. 

Theological department of Straight University... 

Centenary Biblical Institute 

Natches Seminary 

Theological department of Biddle University 

Bennett Seminary 

Theological department of Shaw University.. 

Theological Seminary of WiJberforoe University.. 

Theological department of Lincoln University 

Benedict Institute 

Baker Theological Institute (Claflin University)... 

Nashville Normal and Theological Institute 

Theological course in Fisk University 

Theological department of Central Tennessee 
College. 

Richmond Institute 

Theological department of Howard University... 

Wayland Seminary 



Location. 



CharloUe. N. C «... 

Raleigh, N.C 

Wilberforoo, Ohio 

Lincoln University, Pa. 

Orangeburg, S. C....f 

Nashville, Tenn 

Nashville, Tenn 

Hampton, Va 

Washington, D. C 



Selma.Ala 

Talladega, Ala 

Tuscaloosa, Ala .... 

Atlanta, Ga 

New Orleans, La.. 
New Orleans, La... 



ToUl.. 



SCHOOLS OP LAW. 



Law department of Straight University 

Law department of Central Tennessee College.. 
Law department of Howard University 



New Orleans, La 

Baltimore, Md 

Natchez, Miss 

Charlotte, N. C 

Greensboro' N. C 

Raleigh, N.C 

Wilberforce, Ohio 

Lincoln University, Pa... 

Columbia, S. C 

Orangeburg, S. C 

Nashville, Tenn 

Nashville, Tenn 

Nashville, Tenn 



Richmond, Va j Bapt 

Washington, D.C Non-sect. 

W^ashington, D.C Bapt 



New Orleans, La.... 

Nashville, Tenn 

Washington, D. C. 



12 1 



Total 

a In 1880. 

6 Reported with normal schools. 

e There are in this university 8 students in a preliminary medical course. 

dThis institution is open to both races and the figures are known to include some whites. 

e Included in university report. 

/For all departments. 

ylnl879. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EDUCATION OP THE COLORED RACE. \LXXXV j 

e for 1881 — Contmn^ ^ 



ef imtJitutimu for the instmeUoH of the colored raoej 



Name. 


Location. 


4| 


1 


i 


•CSOOU OF MKDICZVE. 

Xetenr Hedical Department of Central Ten- 
oaeeCoUege. 
KMifai^ At^i-twft^mt of Howard UniversitT 


Nashville, Tenn 




10 


86 


Washinflrton. D. C 




81 










Total 


18 


116 




Baltimore, Md 






KBOOLB rO« THE DXAF AHD DUMB AITO THB BLIXD. 

iMtiMinn tnr ColorrMl Blind and Df^f-MvU^ 


4 
a515 


ao 


5<*rr1i OkTolina Tnirtft^ion f^r t^^ TV^fif Anri 


Baleigh,N. C 




MO 










Total 


19 


120 









a For all departments. 6 For the. years 1877-*78 and 1878-'79. 

S^mmiuy of tiatisUcs of instUuUons for the instrtiction of the colored race for 1881. 





Putjlic s 


cHdoLb. 


NoiTiial Mchoolii. 


InjittluHdns for 
^et-^ndnry in- 
Inatniction. 


9tat^ aad T«^t«^ee. 


i. 
1 


1 


1 
1 


O 

s 

t4 


i 


1 


l! 

1 


a 




eft, 206 

13,009 

231,144 
70, £» 

7l;lB!8 

41,4d» 
I74,2?2 


e§,9si 

^,444 
01,041 

a4,Q2S 

22.158 
X0I>,4C» 


7 
2 


31 


I lOS 


1 


9 
2 


33S 




12 


iai 


60 


^«-f» 




•t*iat _ „.^.-.......„ 


2 
1 
jj 

2 
3 
1 
$ 

1 
4 

S 
2 
8 
1 
3 


2 1 

7 

4 

10 
12 

4 
23 


434 

1411 
01 ' 
241 
'Mi 

291 
301 

7<n 

170 


2 

G 22 


STS 


-"'^ , . i,.jr— l.TitT--f— -r^— — *""■■' '" "- 


Wt'i 


■"*T . .,.,i...tf-- ..—...- .. 


' 




2\ 
1 ......... 


215 




ea 


^■^*rt 


1 


2 


100 


*^ ^ 






3 
I 


11 


329 


«:^*.__„ _^.,^««»««..„...„„ 


fit 


i<ta-*^-.at^, . 






1^7,620 
14a, SOS 

»»104 
13,»46 


72,119 
(^,786 
47*874 

S,SS4 
9,1^ 


21 
4& 

7 
fiS 

e 

13 


e 
1 

3 
3 


3S 

2 
U 

1 ^^ 


1.056 


f^r^^r 


75 


*-■* 


635 


J*;^^^-- — 


591 


'^'ttaiiir fUo^iite' 




^^Ttemnrr 


1 


a 


m 






«lM 


l,B2d,l»7 


802, t72 


47 


258 


V,fl21 


34 


126 


5,534 
















Digitized by 



Google 



LXXXVI REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

'^Summary of BtatMcs of truHiutions for the instruction of the colored race for 1881 — Cont'd 





UnlTenitiefl and 
ooUegea. 


Schools of the- 
ology. 


Schools of Inu. 


StatM. 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 jB 


AlabtUDA 








8 
1 


4 


68 






Georg^ia. 


2 


21 
13 
19 


178 
280 
609 






Kentucky ~ 










LoulBiana « 

Maryland. ^ 


3 
2 


4 
4 
2 
7 
7 
6 
2 
15 
4 
6 


66 
30 
20 
55 
16 
14 
71 
126 
70 
78 


1 


' 4, 2 


MiflsiaaiDDi 




14 
8 
8 
13 
10 
16 


496 
189 
35 
161 
160 
103 




i 


North Carolina 







Ohio 


1 


Pennsylvania 


** 1 


South Carolina 


1 


Tennessee 


1 


5 


Virginia 




District of Columbia..... 


5 


85 


1 


3 






Total 


17 


126 


2,203 


22 


69 


604 


8 


12 









Schools of medicine. 


Schools for the deaf and dumi 
and the blind. 


States. 


1 

1 


i 


I 


1 


1 


1 
^ 


M^ryVn'i 








1 
1 


4 
15 




North Carolina 










Tennessee 


1 
1 


8 
10 


35 
81 




IMMtrlcftnf Colombia 










* 


... .. 




Total 


2 


18 


116 


2 


19 


] 







Table showing the number of schodUfor the colored race and enrolmeni in them hy instituHot 

without reference to States. 



Class of institution. 



Schools. 



Enrofaneil 



Public schools 

Normal schools 

Institutions for secondary instruction 

Uniyersities and colleges 

Schools of theology 

Schools of law 

Schools of medicine.. 

Schools for the deaf and dumb and the blind. 

Total 



017.248 


802,1 


47 


7. 


84 


5, 


17 


o j 


22 


1 


8 




2 




3 





17.375 



818, 



aTo these should be added 441 schools, having an enrolment of 21,678, in reporting ttee Stal 
making total number of colored public schools 17,689, and total enrolment in them 823;945 ; i 
makes the total number of schools, as far as reported, 17,816, and total number of tlie oolorod t\ 
under instruction in them 839,988. The colored public schools of those States in which no aepa^ 
reports are made, however, are not included. 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 



CONDITION OF EDUCATION AT THE SOUTH. LXXXVII 

Tbe school population of the sixteeii States and the District of Colombia comprised in 
tk table on page Ixxici shows an increase over that reported in 1880 of 180,569, distributed 
is Idlows : White, 54,639, or an increase of 1.4 per cent. ; colored, 125,930, or an in- 
oease of 6.9 per cent. The enrolment as compared with that of 1880 shows a total in- 
aeav of 36,866, tIz : White, 19,203, or a little above eight-tenths of 1 per cent. ; colored, 
17,663, or 2+ per cent. While this gain in colored enrolment indicates a growing interest 
a the education of the colored people throughout the South and a more vigorous conduct 
cf their school affairs, inrther examination of the &cts reveals a somewhat discouraging 
Tiew of theij school status. 

la the States under consideration, with the exception of Delaware, Kentucky, and 
Miryland, the school funds are distributed without distinction of race; nevertheless the 
fovDtage of enrolment is much higher for the white than for the colored population in 
^ bot three of the States. 

In aeooonting for this disproportion the prejudices that formerly hindered the col- 
ond race in the nse of their school privil^es must be considered and the excess of the 
▼faite above the colored population in the majority of southern cities, enrolment being 
ahrays higher in the cities than in the rural districts. The chief causes, however, of 
tb^w percentage of enrolment for the colored race are the meagreness of the school 
mads and the extreme poverty of the colored people. The first condition afifects the 
vfaole population, but the white people are able to avert its worst consequences. 
Tbej aiipjdement their portion of the school fund in various ways, and they are in pos- 
seaooD of much school property that was accumulated before the war. The colored 
people, on the contrary, can contribute very little for school purposes; they have few 
iduol-faooses and no funds for building. In many sections it is difficult to secure teach- 
es ibr the colored schools, and in sparsely settled districts almost impossible to collect 
ooQgh children at one centre to form a school. More school-houses and provision for 
'iie eoDTeyance of pupils where population is most scattering are urgently required. In 
^iew of the low inteUectnal and moral status of the colored people, their relation to our 
pn^erity and to our eivil institutions, and the responsibility which we must admit 
viih reference to them, it is important that the means available for their improvement 
sboald be fully comprehended. In considering the school funds it is not possible to dis- 
^Jagoiflh between the two races, nor need this be done; it is only necessary to bear in 
aifld that wherever the resources are meagre the colored people are the worst sufferers. 

The expenditure for schools in the section represented in the table was $13,359,784, 
about one-sixth of the total expenditure for all the States and Territories; while the 
Kbod population of the specified section is very nearly one-fourth of the total school popu- 
lation. It has been asserted that the Southern States do not make such provision for the 
<^«iliis they mighty aod miJaYomble c<»iupar[soD is drawn between them and northern 
«i^miti«a in this respect. It moi^t, however, be remembered that whatever be the 
?imiial resources of the Sodtbcm States they linvo much less available wealth than 
•^Wfl«d]Of» of the coantryj a fiict which me**ts us at every examination of school 



df reTex^Dce to Table I, Part 2, app&ndis^ p. 'S26, the amount of school income derived 

m tixjhtloa in the several States will ba seen^ and, by reference to the abstracts of 

ii) th^ appendix, the rates of taxation may be ascertained. For a fVdl 

of the oondilioES it would be nec^^naiy to compare these data with the 

tBsU>1e property in G&jch State. Without going into all the details, it may be 

■tf b pDSroli &om the showing of the ct^nfius of IBSO, that the valuation of real estate 

mMptmjoal property in the recent slave Btatea and the District of Olumbia is less than 

=»4fili the totml ml nation for aB the States and Territories, while the population in 

^m h oaofv than oufvihipd of the total population. A few specific statements may 

I- Mai. Ibr esphaeis. The Talnation of peraonnl property and real estate in the section 
•i» tmMxf mikm is |3,500,38Ci,17*j for a popul^ition of 18,684,048 ; the valuation of 
property a«d real estate in tie three States of New York, i^^^^sey, and 



LXXXVIII REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

Pennsylvania in $4,907,017,383 for a population of 10,496,878. Connecticut, with ; 
State school tax not exceeding $1.50 per capita of sdiool population and a local tai 
whose limit is 10 cents on $100, laisee $1,276,667 for school purposes. The State achoo 
tax of Alabama consists of all the polls levied at $1.50 each and a local tax whose limi 
is 10 cents on $100 ; the amount realized from both is $250,000. From a State scboc 
tax of 10 cents on $100 and a local tax whose limit is 25 cents on $100, Nebrask 
realizes $786,963. South Carolina, from the polls levied at $1 each and a local tax no 
to exceed 20 cents on $100, realizes $441,110. Figures taken from a few States cannc 
be conclusive, but they serve to indicate the sort of examination which should preced 
positive statements of the comparative abUitj of the States to support their schoc 
systems. 

Without doubt popular education has to contend against greater apathy and ignorant 
in the Southern than in the Northern States ; the tax levied is not so readily collectc 
in the South; a Jocal school tax is not always allowed, and where it is allowed isseldoi 
kept up to the limit ; but, on the other hand, the common school cause finds in tl 
Southern States some of its most intelligent and earnest advocates. These men hai 
alrea<ly done much to increase local taxation and to secure the prompt collection an 
honest use of the tax levied, and they have been as &ithful in rousing their own^ 
pie to exertion as they have been earnest in pressing the educational wants of their se 
tion upon the attention of Congress. The spirit and method which they bring to tl 
work are illustrated in the measures taken by Hon. G. J. Orr, State school commission 
of Georgia, to induce legislation in the interests of the school system of his State. M 
Orr urges an annual tax of one-tenth of 1 per cent, on the taxable property of the Sta 
for the support of common schools, together with the remaining half rental of tl 
Western and Atlantic Railroad, the former amounting to upwards of $250,000, the b 
ter to $150,000. For the purpose of adequately bringing the facts bearing upon i\ 
propositions to the attention of the legislature, Mr. Orr made an exhaustive calculation 1 
counties of the sources and amounts of school revenue under the present conditions ai 
as they would be affected by the proposed legislation. As the estimates were made i 
the year 1881, the totals may properly be introduced here : 

Amount of the State school commissioner's order on tax collection $272, 574 

Amount of poll tax paid county school commissioners 172,450 

Sum total of foregoing, constituting entire present school ftind 445, 025 

Present fond inciiaBed by tax of one-tenth of 1 percent 700, 119 

Present fund increased by remaining half rental of Western and Atlantic 

Railroad 595,025 

Present ftmd increased by both the foregoing amounts — 850, 119 

The amount per capita of average attendance realized from the present fund ranf 
from $1.68 to $4.94. With the proposed additions the per capita would range fn 
$2.50 to $14.66. The present frinds are sufficient to maintain the schools upon an f 
eiage 2. 7 + months. With the increase the schools could be maintained upon an avers 
4.7+ months. According to the census of 1880 Georgia ranks sixth among the reci 
slave States in real estate and personal property. The legislation uiged by Mr. ( 
would secure, it seems, the largest revenue for school purposes compatible with 1 
finnnciol condition of t^e State. The relative position which it would give Geor] 
among the States may be seen by comparing Mr. Orr*s estimates with the data present 
in Table I, Part 1, Summary A, and Table I, Part 2, Summaries A and B. 

From a carefril examination of the leipoTta and statements of officers and teach* 
engaged in school work in the Southern States, as well as from personal observation of i 
same for several successive years, I am aware that marked progress has been made in i 
education of the masses in these States. The tree school system is better undeistc 
and appreciated by the people and the schools as a rule are more efficient than at o 
previous time. There are exceptions to this general condition. In tome dties thi 
is even open or secret opposition to ihe schools, and in some .rural districts depressi 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CONDITION OF EDUCATION AT THE SOUTH. LXXXIK 

^otthr; the best aTgoment that can be brought to bear upon these adverse inflnences 
if the i»actical one of good schools maintained in the face of hostility or indifference. 
This is the position assumed by those who so earnestly advocate national aid for common 
schools, to be distributed upon the basis of illitenu^. Illiteracy is more extensive in the 
Sooth than in other sections of the country , and developspeculiarly alarming tendencies 
uMBg ibe colored people. It would be impossible to repeat here all the fkcts and 
sguBients called forth by the recent discussion of this subject; they do not jnesent a 
■use serious Tiew of the situation than was embodied by the late Dr. Bamas Sears in his 
bet report as agent of the Peabody fund. Dr. Sears, it must be remembered, had twelve 
resEB* personal knowledge of the southern field, and was not inclined, either by temper- 
ukoit or experience or years, to sensational representations. 

"'With two millions of children,'' he said, ''in these States still without the means of 
as^uction, it becomes good citizens not to slumber over the danger of their situation. 
The mere neglect of a great opportunity may entail disaster upon them and their pos- 
T g f itj , by suffering a horde of young barbarians to grow up to prey upon the peace of 
ndety . The peril, if once overlooked in the critical moment, cannot afterwards be reme- 
died by legal enactments and penal measures. If men fidl to take the necessary precaution 
W trarning the young to be useitil citizens, they must expect to reap a corresponding har- 
dest and see around them a community distinguished for * dwarfish virtues and gigantic 
Tiees. ^ ' ' The opinion expressed by Dr. Sears is confirmed by the memorial of the trnstees 
of the Peabody fui>d to Congress, by his successor, Dr. Curry, and by the agents of the 
^reial religious denominations that have contributed so freely to the cause of southern 
«daeatkiii. 

Bimliiring the inadequacy of the means at command to overcome the ignorance and 
defcsdation of the masses of the freedmen as rapidly as the interests of society and 
sood gonremment require, the representatives of these various philanthropic agencies 
vxrte in the appeal for national aid to education. It is worthy of note that the Senate 
of the United States has recorded itself in favor of the measure. 

On the 17th of December, 1880, that body passed the bill entitled ** An act to establish 
m educational fund, and apply a portion of the proceeds of the public lands to public 
fdaeatioin, and to provide for the more complete endowment and support of colleges for 
i»e advancement of scientific and industrial education." It was not proposed to con- 
bat the benefits of the act to the Southern States, but the provision that it embodied for 
distziboting the income of the fund during the first ten years on the basis of illiteracy 
voold have secured to them temporarily the special assistance which they need. It wil) 
be Rmembered that in 1872 the House of Representatives passed a similar bill; itseen>8 
bsdly possible that a measure which is supported by the most enlightened and patriotic 
dtens and which has been approved by the separate action of both houses of Congress 
enlo^g &il of success. 

The total number of institutions represented in the table on page Ixxxvi is 17,375, 
liiUi^ «j. . , ,, .iiu. nt of e!8,3a^. Tt ^^"ill be seen that 31 of the 47 normal schools, 31 of 
Chi 34 iBKtltstioxifi for s^t-ondary mstrnctioti, the universities and colleges (17), and the 
«C tbeolog^^ (22) derive tbeir t^tipport ftom religious denominations. The schools 
(3) and of medicine (2) are support ^*d chiefly by tuition fees. 

• \ 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



xc 



EEPOBT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



PEABODY FCSD. 

Table showing the amount and dUpoeition of the sums disbursed from the Peabodyfund from 

1868 to 1881, inclusive. 



1868. 



Vlririnia.. 

North Carolina . 
Soatb Carolina.. 

G«orgia 

Florida 

Alabama 

MiMi00ippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Tennessee 

WestVirjfinla.... 



Total.. 



$4,760 
2,700 
3,660 
8,562 



1,000 
1,888 
8,700 



4,800 



35,400 



1869. 



112,700 
6,850 
7.800 
9,000 
1,860 
5,700 
9,000 
10,600 



4,800 
11,900 
10,900 



90,000 



1870. 



110,800 
7,660 
3,060 
6,000 
6,960 
6,960 
6,600 
5,000 
1,000 
11,060 
16,050 
13,000 



90,600 



1871. 



$15,960 
8,750 
2,600 
3,800 
6,660 
6,800 
3,250 
12,400 



9,200 
22,650 
9,150 



100,000 



1872. 



1873. 



1874. 



$29,700 
8,250 
600 
6,000 
6,200 
9,900 
4,660 
11,600 



12,250 
23,250 
17,900 



130,000 



$36,700 
9,750 
1,500 
13,750 
7,700 
6,000 
6,800 



11,400 
27,800 
15,750 



137,150 



$31,75 
14,30 
20 
6,50 
9,9C 
9,7C 
6,7C 
2,71 
1,0( 
3,6i 
33, 1< 
15, H 



134,6 





1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


1881. 


Total. 


Virginia 


$23,350 

16,900 

100 

9,760 

1,800 

2,200 

5,400 

1,000 

1,350 

1,500 

27,150 

10,500 


$17,800 
8,060 
4,160 
3,700 
1,000 
6,600 
9,960 
2,000 
4,450 
1,000 
10,100 
8,600 


$18,250 
4,900 
4,300 
4,000 
6,500 
3,700 
6,990 
2,000 

10,800 
6,300 

15,860 
0,810 


$15,350 
4,600 
3,600 
6,000 
3,900 
1,100 
600 
8,000 
8,550 
6,000 
14,600 
5,050 


$9,850 
6,700 
4,250 
6,600 
3,000 
3,600 
4,000 
7,650 
7,700 
5,600 

12,000 
4,000 


$6,800 
3,050 
2,700 
5,800 
2,600 
1,200 
4,200 
4,200 

27,500 
7,200 

10,900 
2,000 


$5,150 
4,125 
4,060 
5,300 
2,000 
1,800 
3,960 
1,700 

10,800 
4,000 
5,500 
2,000 


$233,4 


North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 


105, S 
42,2 
94,e 


Florida 


59, £ 


Alabama 


63,] 


Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texan 


71,1 

77,4 
73,] 


Arkansas 


83,^ 


Tennessee 

West Virginia 


2ai, 
130, 


Total 


101,000 


76,300 


89,400 


77,250 


74,850 78.150 


50,375 


1,285, 

















In accordance with the policy adopted in 1879, the disbursements jQrom the Peabo 
Aind, amounting to $50,375 for 1881, have been applied chiefly to normal schools, nom 
institutes, and other agencies for the training of teachers. The details of the yea 
work are given under the head of Aid from the Peabody Fund, under the respective Stat 
in the abstracts of the appendix. 

Peculiar interest attaches to the final action with reference to the normal college 
Nashville. It will be remembered that, from the want of cooperation on the port of t 
State of Tennessee, the trustees of the Peabody fund were obliged to consider the pn 
osition for the removal of the college to Atlanta, Ga. The matter seemed to ihe age] 
the late Dr. Bamas Sears, one of supreme importance, and its setSement engaged 1 
efforts almost to the moment of his death. He had the satis&ction of behevizig that ] 
endeavors had been successfril and that the chief burden of the support of the ooUc 
would not hereafter taXL on the Peabody frmd. The negotiation has been oontinTi 
from the point to which Dr. Sears carried it by his successor. Dr. J. L. M. Carry, wi 
the result of an annual appropriation of |6,000 from the State of Tennessee for the c 
l^ge. Dr. Curry is confident that the State will henceforth deal liberally with the oolle] 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 



PEABODYaFUND. xci 

like Ids predeoesBor, Dr. Cany devotes himself to personal examination of the section 
ia which the Peabody fund is disbursed, studying the wants and promise of the work, 
lOQsiDg pablic interest by his addresses, and securing the cooperation of prominent men 
bj oooc^pcmdence and conference. His efforts with the State l^islatures in behalf of 
education have been specially fruitful in results. 

A great work has been done during the year in the direction of normal institutes, which, 
pending the establishment of normal schools, are the chief agency for training the teach- 
ers of the common schools in the Southern States. In this connection Dr. Curry says: 

These institutes have been valuable in stimulating and sustaining popular interest in 
education, in awakening teachers to a higher appreciation of the teacher's work, and in 
eocrecting some stereotyped pr^udices in reference to the art of teaching. This year 
institntes, aided or sustained by the fund, have been held in all but three of the States, 
md with aignal success. Eveiy year makes an improvement in organization, manage- 
neat, and inatraction. The aid given by the trustees has produced immediate resists 
od didted warmest expressions of gratitude. 

Normal schools, as having continuous life and influence and coming more literally 
vithin the purview of the instruction of the trustees, have had much thought and labor. 
Permanent arraDgements are needed to train the multitude of teachers which our school 
systems demand. The short lived institutes are not attended by all or by the most incom- 
petent, and cannot give thorough professional discipline and training. Not a few summer 
Qonths, but toilsome years, are indi^)ensable to teacher training. The establishment 
of narmal schools for white and colored teachers has been earnestly advised, and aid has 
been piomised to States which may establish them, so as to insure permanency and effi- 
deney. In nearly all the States where normal schools do not exist, the superintend- 
aitB are urging the subject upon their respective legislatures with zeal and ability. I am 
peKoaded that in my next report I shall be able to make a most satisfactory statement 
w the trustees in this behalf 

It will be remembered that the Peabody trustees have authorized a system of scholar- 
dups which enables a certain number of normal students from each of the Southern States 
to ei^y the advantages of the normal college at Nashville. From February 1 to Octo- 
ber 1, 1881, the disbursements from the Peabody fund for normal schools and teachers' 
ioitiiateB were as follows: 

Teadiers' institutes.* .- $14,625 

HsmpUm Normal Institute _ _- 500 

Pupils from South Carolina at Hampton > _ 450 

Sam Houston Normal College, Texas _ 4, 500 

Peabody Normal Schools, Louisiana- _ 1,500 

Kocmal college at Nashville _ 3,000 

'^s^Tilleaeholan'hips — ----. . _ 19,050 

Total ....,.._ _. 43,625 

JhsA leaTc^ a balance of |6, T5i), of which $500 went to Claflin University, $500 to 
UfklTersltyf imd the rcmalndor was divided between eleme^taTy schools and 
! journals. 

Mm datiog the last year, ^ judlciom use was mode of the Peabody medals in stimulat- 
^ Ok |io|iUs of pablic schools* 



Digitized by 



Google 



xcn 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Table U.—Sumfnary of 9(^iool sUxUiticB oj 



1 

2 

8 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
28 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 

ao 

81 
82 
88 
84 
85 
86 
87 



Cities. 



8elma,Ala* 

Littie Bock, Ark 

Lo0 Angeles, Oal , 

Oakland, C^l 

San Pranoisoo, Cal .... 

Stockton, Cal 

Denver, Colo., | of dty.. 

LeadviUe,Colo 

Bridgeport, Conn* .... 

Danbary, Conn* „ 

Derby, Conn.. 

Greenwich, Conn* .... 

Hartford, Conn* 

Meriden, Conn.. 

Mlddl«!town, Conn ..... 
New Britain, Conn.... 

New Haven, Conn 

New London, Conn.., 

Norwalk, Conn 

Norwich, Conn . ... 

Stamford, Conn* 

Waterbury, Conn* 

Wilmington, Del 

Key West, Fla c 

Atlante,Ga* 

Augusta, Oa 

Columbus, Ga.............. 

Macon, Ga...........^ 



I 



Savannah, Ga 

Belleville, HL 

Chicago, 111 

Danville, HI* 

Elgin, ni 

Freeport, 111 

Galesburg, III 

JacksonviUe, 111 

JoUet, ni 



7,529 
13,138 
11,183 
84,555 
233,960 
10,282 
85,629 
14,820 
29,148 
11,666 
11,650 
7,892 
42,651 
18,840 
11,782 
18,979 
62,882 
10,687 
13,966 
21,143 
11,297 
20,270 
42,478 
10,940 
87,400 
21,801 
10,128 
12,749 
80,709 
13,404 
506,186 
7,783 
8,787 
8,516 
11,487 
10,927 
16,149 
7,800 
7.834 



7-21 
6-21 
5-17 
5-17 
6-17 
5-17 
6-21 
6-21 
4-16 
4-16 
4-lG 
4-16 
4-16 
4-16 
4-16 
4-16 
4-16 
4-16 
4-16 
4-16 
4-16 
4-16 
6-21 
6-21 
6-18 
6-18 
6-18 
6-18 
6-18 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
5-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 



s 
o 

I 



1,757 
5,288 
8,617 
8,242 

55,115 
2,204 

*5,700 
2,084 
6,641 
2,688 



1,887 
9,662 
4,898 
2,661 



14,648 
2,090 
8,136 
5,078 
2,549 
4,888 



8,416 
10,500 

6,628 
^,868 
08,839 

6,248 
ir4,682 
187,085 

8,080 

2,642 



Moline,ni.- 

Ottawa, ni 

* From Report of the Commissioner 
EducaUon for 1880. 

a Amount paid for tea<^ing only. 



*4,254 
8,693 
4,641 
2,016 
3.254 

of 



1 I 



e: 



B 



9 

dl9 

dl7 

13 



dl2 



1,964 
3,000 
1,400 
4,318 



6,864 



8,650 



1,182 
1,500 
8,200 
2,000 
60,808 



1,120 
2,000 
1,900 
1,688 
1,980 
1,208 
1,850 



41 
42 
08 
82 
68 
116 
18 
68 
89 
26 
88 
66 
40 



Pupils. 









14 882 

1,750 34 173 2,335 

1,680 84 192 2,096 

6,462 135 206 7,262 

719 206 40,187 
84 210 2,136 

67 186 4,687 

26 140 1,633 

91 199 5,229 

44 2,271 

41 200 2,702 

29 1, 

140 7,612 

2,644 49 198 3,548 

47^'. 2,058 

86 187 1,873 
9,850 238 200 12,434 

1,891 

d3,200 42 2,875 

4,216 
1,666 
8,600 
198 7,065 

100 796 

176 4,100 
178 2,487 

1T7 1,408 

176 1,881 
160 8,U0 
200 1,991 
197 66,486 
192 1,800 
186 1,400 
196 1,700 

177 2,006 

87 188 1,866 
48 196 2,088 
28 176 1,605 
40 196 1,697 

6 Assessed valuation. 
e For the winter term. 
Digitized #^Ll®Og IC 



CITY SCHOOLS. 
cXacMtttinmg 7,500 inhabitanis and over. 



XCUI 



Fqiik 



i 
I 

^6 



S. 

a 



H 1 



l5 



i- 



as 

1,080 
131 

•w 

IflO 
SB 

m 

» 

14 

a7 






^1 
h 

ii 

I 






&.» 



1'-^ 


13 


14 


t 


«IO,250 

78,900 

64,500 

364,825 

3.125,000 

173,557 

450,000 

113.650 

163,960 


5 

2.8 
1.7 
1.8 
8 

3.25 


t|^3IO,000 

7,574,926 

43,037,415 

M53,545,476 

•66,000,000 

46,000,000 

611,720,503 
66,186,300 
12,000,000 
63,590.067 
645,558,490 
8,988.214 
' 66,033.687 


100,000 


3 






173,759 





! 64,660,354 

1 646,523.907 

66,450,028 




3.16 
3.5 


601,900 


£5, 306, 506 






613,349,296 






66,648,145 






67,610,731 






23,000.000 

61,250,196 

20.000.000 

22,884,620 

4,250,000 

66,980.006 

615,242,329 

5.868,180 

6U9,152,788 

5,000,000 

5,573,142 

4.888,568 

3,000,000 

i %t<a.a6B 


268,000 
12,500 

175,000 
26,150 
35,200 
43,000 

130,300 
72,000 
2,763,396 
69,700 
28,230 
80.500 

136,300 

IGOpTOO 
G*,50tQ 
4&,30Q 
6),35() 


2.5 

1.7 
2.97 
2 

9.47 
13.5 
1.34 

14 
4.5 
10 

a. 2 

18 



i 



& 



15 

91,818 
37,444 
51,160 

182,885 

902,486 
76,067 

149,242 
45,238 
66,066 
35,469 
30,316 
12,580 

184,474 
33,000 
27,806 
22,605 

218,444 
21,327 
37,811 
67,297 
29,040 
53,178 
81,668 
5,457 
50,988 

/43,780 
17,412 

>25,496 
46,253 
48,000 
1,345,765 
85,155 
31,452 
33,747 
00,652 
3a, 091 
2^,862 
30,665 
22,668 



Expenditures. 



Arerage expen- 
ses per capita 
of dally aver- 
age attend- 
ance in pub- 
lic sohoola. 




97,355 
2,735 
4,822 

85,802 
8,871 

58,982 



454 

1,810 
2,436 



1,431 



533 
230 

20,652 
200 
160 

23,003 
7,992 

10,430 

15,790 



A 288 
1,912 



468 

303,147 

2,m 

9,330 



50 

2,287 

7,696 

190 

25 



17 

81,510 
16,681 
23,900 

126,372 

533,755 
28,865 
42,938 
18,000 
42,566 
18,208 
21,315 
10,810 

107,577 
26,370 
20,165 
15,373 

138,501 
16,030 
21,120 
43,420 
16,733 
23,106 
49,599 
4,802 



;15,761 
10,435 

/»,953 
41,535 
17,250 

581,962 
13,738 
9,192 



15,021 
20,000 
17,100 
8,827 
13,935 



r TDGluding Monroe County. 
/ Fgt dty and county. 
gC\if f^ensua of 1878. 



t 



i 



18 



aSl,5l0 
81,872 
87,403 

160,454 

827,324 
45,594 

131,157 
26,000 
61,337 
27,604 
31,601 
12,580 

155,982 
31,220 
28,826 
22,696 

193,660 
22,795 
26,772 
84,817 
29,041 
46,761 
73,580 
5,457 
51,073 

^32,480 
16,971 

y25,257 
43,985 
37,363 
1,216,506 
21,972 
21,696 
23,170 
20,395 
33,887 
81,060 
19,909 
20,809 



c 



19 



$10 82 
19 87 
24 58 
21 37 



10 82 



12 68 



90 



93 T7 
7 19 
5 13 
4 11 



4 81 



4 57 



15 15 



2 32 



12 60 
16 37 



11 66 



5 46 ' 
3 69 ! 



5 09 I 



(810 49) 



10 61 
950 

14 89 
990 
14 49 
1183 

11 10 



11 75 



10 04 
10 58 
13 17 



245 
1 00 
88 
1 45 
3 91 

1 76 

2 36 



263 



2 57 



4 94 



1 
2 

3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
II 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
87 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XCIV REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

Table II. — Summary of school 



Cities. 



Quincy, III 

Rockford,Ill 

Rook Iflland, ni 

Spring^fleld, Ill„ 

EvangTille,Ind 

Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Indianapolis, Ind 

I>a FayeUe, Ind 

Logansport, Ind 

Madison, Ind 

Richmond, Ind* 

South Bend. Ind „. 

Terre Haute, Ind 

Vincennes, Ind „, 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa 

Clinton, Iowa* ^. 

Council Bluflb, Iowa„. . 

Davenport, Iowa 

Dee Moines, west side, 
Iowa.* 

Dubuque, Iowa „. 

Keokuk, Iowa/ , 

Muscatine, Iowa , 

Ottumwa, Iowa 

Lawrence, Kans* 

Leavenworth, Kans. 

Topeka, Kans 

Covinsrton, Ky* 

Lexington, Ky 

Louisville, Ky 

Newport, Ky* -.. 

Paducah, Ky 

New Orleans, La 

Auburn, Me* 

Augusta, Me 



1 



Peoria, 111 a30,25I 

27,268 
18,129 
11,669 
19,743 



75,056 
14,860 
11,198 

8,945 
12,742 
13,280 
26,042 

7,680 
10,104 

9,062 
18,063 
21,881 
e22,406 

22,254 

12, U7 

8,296 

9,004 

8,510 

16,546 

15,452 

29,720 

16,656 

128,758 

20,438 

8,086 

216,090 

9,556 

8,666 



&-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
(^-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 

5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
&-21 
5-21 
6-20 
6-20 
6-20 
6-20 
6-20 
6-18 
4-21 
4-21 



a 
1 



I 

3 



6 



Pupib. 



I I 



8 . 



1- 

0,516 I 



•9,541 
4,132 
3,590 



18,897 
23,969 
6,474 
8,858 
5,288 
4,845 
4,706 
8,846 
8,807 
8,866 
8,200 
5,501 
0,809 
8,576 

10,074 
4,585 
2,800 
2,700 
8,095 
6,796 
6,270 

10,094 
4,961 

48,837 
6,780 
1,980 

61,456 
8,078 
2,842 



15 


4,306 


^ 84 


196 


9 


8,121 


57 


196 


10 


2,290 


58 


194 


7 


1,958 


39 


177 ' 


6 


2,300 


47 


198 ' 


13 


6,000 


127 


198 


9 


3,788 


96 


192 1 


27 


11,840 


233 


189 




1,000 


49 


190 




1,666 


83 


196 




1,800 


41 


200 




2,003 


51 






2,060 


86 


178 


11 


8,754 


81 


197 




990 


18 


197 




1.869 


88 


179 


8 


1,875 


28 


188 


3 


1,535 


41 


195 


13 


4,142 


89 


188 


5 




41 
71 


184 
198 





•8,469 


9 


2,200 


52 


190 


7 


1,550 


34 


210 


3 


1,490 


27 


188^ 


dlO 


1,525 


25 


178 


8 


2,400 


39 


180 


15 


2,894 


50 




5 




60 


238 


ff9 




?!R 




825 
44 


5 


2,510 


8 


960 


15 


300 


<fm 




402 
40 


193 
174 


85 


8,400 


26 


2,000 


48 


175 



I, 



oc 

g 

> 
< 



10 



4,915 I 



3,597 
2,644 
2,248 
2,792 
4,968 
3,472 
12,833 
2,966 
1,887 
1,501 
2,219 
1,924 
4,310 
1,102 
2,146 
1,819 
2,007 
4,929 
2,822 

8,720 
2,400 
1,500 
1,730 
1,829 
8,158 
8,111 
8,286 
2,182 

19,189 

2,692 

840 

24.401 
2,742 
1,230 



•From Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1880. 

a Population of the township; township and city are united in one school dliWci. 

6 Includes cost of supervision. 

c Assessed valuation. 

d In 1879. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



3,674 
2,288 
1,996 
1,564 
2,078 
4.476 
2,762 
9,065 
1,610 
1,271 
1,284 
1,627 
1,259 
8,147 
812 
1,797 



1,376 
3,285 
1,562 

2,566 
1,892 
1,400 
1,185 
1,222 
2,290 



2,485 



13,270 

2,082 

600 

14,006 

1,876 

975 



CITY SCHOOLS. 



XCV 



MdkiofeUia, Ac. — Continiied. 



?8pik.. 



Ec I 

ill 
11; 



i 
s 

-A 

It 



I- , S 



1 



n 



n 



I 



I 



Expenditures. 



Average expen- 
ses per capita 
of daily aver- 
age attend- 
ance in public 
schools. 



I 

11 



I 



11 



J- 



19 



13 



14 



15 



16 



17 



18 



19 



!,»! $18,915,333 

l,7n| 17,000,000 

m 01,142,167 

m\ 9,188,787 

20,000,000 



8201,200 
210,700 
120,000 
102,000 
107,600 



7 
6.4 



J 



3.O0O; 11,517,806 

im\ cSl,45S,M5 

mi 10^000,000 

7», *fl8,723,83D 

30 1 01,000,000 

ca dio^eoo,ooo 

»! 1S,000.000 
«' di,000,000 

aa, (2,000,000 

so ^,000,000 

so ._ 

«! 13,000,000 
-~ lfi,000,000 
•I'l 6.900,000 

1» •12,885,310 
M ' d6,000.000 
«i; 3,302,496 
a I «,4B,00O 
». cl,566,663 
fil 16^000,000 
301 1 0,480,151 
^«i 13,600,600 
M, c6,661,60B 
63,116,903 
12»030,606 
4,000,600 
4UB|dl)3.t3S,682 
3,130.600 
4,70B»8SS 



H 



229,150 

919,137 

168,000 

140,890 

80,600 

80,800 

181,390 

227,021 

47,000 

06,000 

83,500 

141,300 

301,200 

166.300 

166,000 
190,000 

80,800 

62,200 
tflOO,000 
177,706 
900,000 
201,000 

41,000 
806,300 
183,000 

86,300 
687,500 
143,000 

60,000 



8.8 



2 
8.9 



693,837 
64,990 
82,615 
88,667 
37,242 
99,587 
147,207 
219,700 
90,909 
41,463 
87,483 



6962 

7,983 

28 

4,992 

880 

16,500 

5,929 

84,040 

9,000 

2,502 



li838,169 
27,029 



17,829 
25,714 
59,660 
89,870 
134,867 
26,958 
18,800 
18,129 



194,683 
49,099 
82,615 
85,702 
86,181 
97,705 
63,516 

231,457 
46,818 
29,058 
28,754 



$10 39 
12 49 



13 18 
11 43 



17 63 
16 05 

18 60 
12 58 
14 11 



8.2 



13 



8 
8.75 



5 
8 
2.5 



44,668 
81,911 
28,000 
89,430 
22,062 
79,190 
91,678 
65,618 

63,179 
80,429 
28,916 
82,920 
20,423 
26,048 



468 



7,809 



26,297 

660 

6,805 

10,890 

260 

1,090 



42,608 
59,890 
16,402 
12,642 
20,644 
68,943 
24,916 

39,770 



199 
207 



14,889 

11,902 

11,788 

M9,408 



29,087 
95,726 
11,189 
78,134 
21,876 
61,628 
66,199 
99,271 

60,409 
^060 
21,197 
21,909 
18,032 
21,892 



999 
14 83 



894 



16 58 
16 80 
16 65 

13 94 



1196 
915 



09,604 



4,000 



82.987 



96,817 



2.9 
2.9 
2 



2.29 



228,408 
80,144 
7,894 

200,968 
16,880 
14,922 



982 I 

646 1 

1,300 i 



100,018 
19,684 
6,880 
239,996 
13,207 
9,000 



218,694 
27,898 
8,826 

274,844 
17,164 
19,796 



18 43 
10 40 

989 
16 87 

960 



^^(V«B MatMlta atv from a tt^ra fdr 138% 

i fay of Janitors and ialartcs or secretaries and 



20 



83 66 
898 



864 



894 
469 
488 
4 01 
827 



189 
287 



561 



620 
868 
668 

636 



699 
088 



309 
187 
2 11 
250 
206 



40 
41 
42 
48 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
94 
55 
56 
57 
56 



60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
66 
66 
67 
66 
69 
70 
71 
72 
78 
74 



other officers, and cost of supervision. 



Digitized by ^OOQIC 



XCVI REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

Table IL— Summary of school 



90 

91 

92 

93 

94 

96 

96 

97 

98 

99 

100 

101 

102 

108 

104 

105 

106 

107 

106 

109 

110 

111 

112 

118 





i 


Cities. 


>2- 




1 




1 








i, 




3 




I 


I 


9 



Bangor, Me 

Bath, Me 

Biddeford, Me . 
Lewiston, Me... 
Portland, Me*.. 
Rookland, Me... 
Baltimore, Md . 



16,8S0 
7,874 
12,6S1 
19,063 
33,810 
7,899 
832,813 

Boston. Maas t 862,889 

Brockton, Mass j 13,608 

Brookline, Mass ! 8,067 

Cambridge, Mass* ! 52,669 

Chelsea, Mass t 21,782 

Chicopee, Mass 11,280 



Clinton, Mass 

Fall River, Mass.... 
Pitchbiuv, Mass .... 
Gloucester, Mass*.. 
Haverhill. Mass* ... 

Holyoke, Mass. 

Lawrence, Mass 

Lowell, Massi 



I 



Springfield, Mass 

Taunton, Mass 

Waltham, Mass* 

Wobum, Mass 

Worcester, Mass 

Adrian, Mich* 

* Prom Report of the Commiasioner 

tion for 1880. 
a Assessed valuation. 
MnlB79. 
e Prom semiannual returns to June, 



8,029 
48,961 
12,429 
19,829 
18,472 
21,915 
89,151 
59.475 

Lynn, Mass I 38,274 

Maiden, Mass* I 12,017 

Marlborough, Mass 10, 127 

Medford, Ifass 7,573 

New Bedford, Mass 26,845 

Newburyport, Mass 18,588 

Newton, Maas 16,996 

Northampton, Mass*. ... 12, 172 

Peabody,Maas 9,028 

Pittafleld, Mass 13,864 

Qulncy, Mass | 10,570 

SomerviUe, Mass. ' 24,983 

38,840 
21,213 
11,712 
10,931 
58,291 
7,849 



5-21 
4-21 
4-21 
4-21 
4-21 
4-21 
6-21 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 

5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-16 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-20 



o 

1 

3 
I 
1 



5,479 
2,896 
3,911 
6,274 

10,660 

2,186 

*86,96l 

61,060 

*2,278 
1,263 
9,890 
3,884 
2,081 
1,671 

/i9,763 
2,478 
4,006 
3,600 
4,640 
7,143 
9,121 
6,897 
2,082 
2,121 

U,S04 

M,063 
2,552 
3,252 
2,089 

W,780 
2,611 

M,948 
4,204 
6,285 
3,610 
2,146 
2,871 

11,363 



Pupils. 



Z I « 



a 
I 





S 1 


1 




^ 


•s 


u 


u ' 


J! 


^ ! 




g 




p 


z 


y^ 



99 




15 




5,981 


11 


1,700 


62 




cl58 


c66, 177 


21 


2,560 


11 




29 


9,124 



3,500 
8,800 
1,885 



79 


1- 

1 


38 


190 1 


42 


184 1 


00 


183 1 


128 


hoo : 


30 


162 , 


824 


paoo 1 


1,276 


203*1 


43 


197 1 


83 


238i 


182 


197 



1»270 [ 
1,470 I 
7,754 I 
3,128 I 
4,032 
3,045 
2,508 
5,000 
7,729 
&5,575 
2,504 
2,100 
1,500 



70 
29 191 i 
29 'l95 i 
193 ' 
54 
89 



2.236 
*8,000 
2,800 



2,813 



5,060 
5,781 
8,801 
2,238 
2,482 
10,283 
1,613 



84 
108 
100 
121 
54 
42 
27 
112 
47 
81 
54 
43 
64 
66 
96 



l9Sh 
200 
198 
196 
197 
193 



124 200 



29 



190 
160i 



200 



188 



11 

9 

C 



3,120 
1,836 
1,891 
2,919 
6,797 
1,448 

47,048 
[254,323 
2,444 
1,503 
8,537 
4,443 
1,463 
1,550 
9,363 , 
2,504 
4,120 
3,346 
4,068 
5,791 
9,689 
5,91G I 
2,924 
2,867 
1,840 
4,609 
2,206 
3,687 
2,176 
1,669 
2,783 
2.097 f 
5.271 I 
6,452 , 
4,064 
2,806 ; 
2,369 j 

11,801 I 
1,3081 






10 



of Educa- d Average niimber belonging. 

€ Based on average number belonging. 
/Includes cost of supervision and salaries g 

1881. **^tt5ft^e^y^^2im°««*»- 



CITT SCHOOLS. 



xcvn 



qfoftet, die. — Ocmtinned. 



a . 

I 



II 
1 




B3q>enditure0. 



Average expen- 
ses per oapiU 
of daily aver- 
age attend- 
anoe in public 
schools. 



1, 



a 



11 



IS 



IS 



14 



Iff 



16 



IT 



18 



19 



SMI 



MOOOi.OOO 



'i 



190 

a I 

A,000i,000 

o! S,MB,MO 

fcHOnj M7, 000.000 

itt j •O0B,954,S9f7 

' 06,100,000 

I ^^ 

«dS, 728,800 

018,089.000 

alft,781,6a7 

7,707,840 

4,444,000 

088,090,781 

08,088,564 

12,151,725 I 

0,861,965 I 

15,980,878 I 

80,000,000 i 

80.000,000 I 

024,982.084 

14,000,000 ! 

08.902,863 i 

7.588,276 , 

027,115^822 ! 

I ^7,585,456 

28,300.000 

7,181,900 

08.813.800 

7.414.406 

07.900,391 

022.909. 100 

.770 

,797 

oa. 827,190 

«t**lT l.rj 



I.T48 



40 , 
831 

20 

m 

m 

im 

1.40O, 

L2H> 

120 

04 



•75,000 

69,800 

95,000 

1598,060 

860,000 

80,000 

1,780,000 

•7,466,660 

97,580 

121,800 

590,000 

808,000 

121.450 

100,000 



2.46 



2.83 
2.6 
2.6 
2 



180,509 
18,068 
19,446 
83,288 
94,144 
10,867 

028,000 



t«06 



L6 
3.2 
8.6 
4.5 
4.6 



29,227 
86,008 
168,048 



18,482 



66,996 

216,960 
2,816 



128,208 

12,618 

17,886 

23,516 

59,416 

9,U0 

476,462 

1,112,932 

19,136 



180,663 
17.112 
22,674 
88,232 
94,144 
10,866 

681,921 
1,775,037 



10 66 



13 67 
12 18 
18 72 
806 
16 86 



8 41 
893 
488 
165 
4 57 



(«27 15) 



7,986 



179,868 
U6,160 
260,276 
167,802 
285,787 
028,972 
6498,000 
904,100 
48,100 
106,900 



3.9 

4.26 

4.66 



2.8 
3.1 



3.5 
4.19 

4 



429,5(N> 
96,000 




8.8 


78,300 
MIO.OOO 






344,432 


8.5 


662,900 


2.6 


220,000 


8 


196,800 


3.8 


202,900 




■^H,. 2"j2 




lif.^ 5iJ0 





24,886 
21,806 

;^ooo 

36,937 
69,882 
46,827 
58,881 
72,088 

144,887 
98,077 
88,513 
21,288 
29,887 
88,266 
25,066 
84,688 
23,616 
23,728 
85,164 
88,241 
81,783 
96,964 
45,683 
34,228 
34,464 

168,496 
82,168 



4,850 
2,244 
10,229 



21,800 
2,700 
18,406 
15,000 
25,700 
8,102 
500 



128,816 

/42,729 

15,282 

014,858 

074,811 

26,067 

31,148 

87,764 

80,819 

56,685 



36,008 
168,848 
49,607 



300 



66,824 
26,966 
14,887 
21,675 
57,990 



875 



82,482 
400 
800 

22,600 



48,984 



64,470 
17,796 
18,644 
23,165 
28,119 
62,136 
68,708 
35,044 
24,686 
23,926 
119,188 
12,196 



21,806 

116,015 
36,937 
67,912 
52,728 
58,881 
80,901 

168,970 
98,677 
39, W4 
20,808 
29,719 
78,107 
26,849 
84.600 
23,476 

MS, 644 
82,266 
33,401 
82,861 
96,082 
48,296 
54,849 
34,413 

900,486 
31,800 



19 88 
15 11 

20 48 
18 22 



14 98 
10 82 

15 96 
15 63 
13 08 
17 60 



15 80 
9 47 
19 60 



856 
407 
963 
375 



487 
363 
5 19 
406 
3 61 



584 
327 
564 



11 85 


282 


16 86 


485 


15 77 


503 


14 01 


899 


14 00 


488 


14 76 


868 






i In high school. 196. 

* Amount paid for tnltlon onlj. 



a pvtuni far ttf^K 
R— Til 



Digitized by 



google 



XCVIII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Table 11.— Summary of eekool 



OMm, 









Pii|»lla. 



II 



Ann Arbor, Mioh 

Bay City, Mich 

Detroit, Mioh« 

East Sagrinnw, Mich.... 

Flint, Mich 

Grand Kapids, Mioh ... 

Muskegon, Mioh* 

PortHnron, Mioh 

Saginaw, Mioh 

Minneapolis, Minn 

St. Paul, Minn 

Stillwater, Minn* 

Winona, Minn 

Vicksburg. Miss 

Hannibal, Mo 

Kansas City, Mo„ 

St. Joseph, Mo 

St. Louis, Mo 

Sedalia, Mo 

Lincoln, Nebr 

Omaha, Nebr 

Virginia City, Nev*d.... 

Dover, N.H 

Manchester, N. H* 

Nashua, N.H 

Portsmouth, N. H 

Camden, N. J* 

Elizabeth, N.J 

Jersey City, N.J* , 

Newark, N. J 

New Brunswick, N. J ... 

Orange, N. J 

Paterson, N. J* 

Plainfleld, N. J 

Trenton, N. J* 

Albany, N.Y 

Auburn, N.Y 

Binghamton, N. Y , 

Brooklyn, N.Y „ 



8,081 

20,098 

110,840 

19,010 

8,409 

82,010 

11,202 

8,888 

10,925 

40,887 

41,473 

9,0» 

10,206 

11,814 

11,074 

65,785 

32,431 

850,518 

9,501 

18,003 

80,518 

10,917 

11,087 

82,030 

18,897 

9,090 

41,059 



120,722 
180,606 
17,100 
18,207 
51,081 
8,125 
29,910 
90,758 
21,924 
17,317 
600,003 



6-20 

6-20 

ft-20 

6-20 

fr-20 

ft-20 

6-20 

6-20 

6-20 

0-21 

0-21 

ft-21 

ft-21 

5-21 

8-20 

0-20 

0-20 

0-20 

0-20 

5-21 

5-21 

0-18 

5-15 

5-15 

ft-15 

6- 

6-18 

ft-18 

6-18 

ft-18 

ft-18 

5-18 

5-18 

ft-18 

ft-18 

ft-21 

5-21 

6-21 

5-21 



2,070 
6,908 

87,926 
0,429 
2,878 

10,086 
8,807 
8,008 

*8,245 

10,000 



2,800 

8,071 

3,790 

10,961 

9,852 

100,872 

8,106 

2,906 

0,400 

2,559 

2,329 

«4,774 



2,272 
el2,087 

8,026 
41,220 
41,861 

0,806 
*8,792 
18,072 

2,184 

7,281 
85,411 

8,855 

4,778 
•0181,083 





7 

28 

11 

7 

10 

7 

6 



16 

14 

4 

4 

2 

8 

11 

20 

92 

5 

12 

11 

6 

18 

24 

17 

18 

10 

5 

20 

82 



4 

11 

3 

12 

28 

11 

8 

67 



1,480 
2,000 
18,110 
8,076 
1,770 
4,884 
1,400 



87 
48 

268 
82 
87 

112 



198 
194 
198 
194 
196* 
194 
197 
26 197 



1,060 
6,600 
8,728 
1,100 
1,918 
1,200 
1,690 
5,500 
8,456 

44,994 
1,019 
1,750 

•8,700 
1,645 
2,042 
8,754 

•2,140 



10,000 

2,605 
14,824 
15,000 

2,175 

1,371 

5,687 

1,000 

2,700 
11,857 

8,884 
/2,797 
01,908 1, 



84 
183 
102 
20 
84 
21 
29 

► 87 
07 

,017 
20 
80 
09 
82 
45 
88 
62 
84 
140 
60 



196 
185 
196 
178 
198 
190 
190 
198 
196 
197 
179 
178 
198 
202 
187 
188 



48 
81 

142 
24 
87 

282 

88 

84 

.298 



200 
200 
206 
204 
206 
201 
197 
200 
200 
206 
197 
194 
207 
201 



1,900 
2,991 
18,827 
8,814 
2,188 
8,188 
1,788 
1,888 
1,806 
8,720 



1,100 
1,782 
1,180 
2,096 
8,028 
4,072 
58,986 
2,018 
1,7T2 
4,042 
2,200 
2,029 
4,890 
2,008 
1,922 
7,936 
8,758 
22,778 
18,828 
2.458 
1,706 
7,901 
1,290 



18,978 
8,184 
8,000 

98,077 



•Fxt>m Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1880. 

a Assessed valuation. 

6 In 1879. 

e Includes cost of supervision. 



jigitlzed by V^OOQLC 



CITY SCHOOLS. 



XCIX 



cfcUki^ dtc-^Conimned. 



Piq«at 



li 



n 



70 ja^ 

1 1 'I 



11 
1^ 



11 



I 



19 



at, Ka6.uo 

M; o(7,73a,SlD 

in , 7.000, 6B5 

% I 4,200,550 

t« »,»(l,000 

» 061,214, 7» 

» 4,000,000 

W 4,000,000 

IW 4C7BS,000 

im 037,000.000 

O 4,000,000 

» «,900,000 

m 8,000,000 

Mj 02.780,000 
-- «^ oM,100,000 
« 12.000,000 
a.l» 29S,nO,783 
a2,Sn,M8 
«, 000, 000 
Bl| lfi,OOQ,000 
tf7| 2,000,000 

»; u,aB8,o?o 

tM» 23,000.000 
» ol,ieo,414 

ai 10,000^000 

tJB 22,000.000 

tfll 11.762,000 

ti» 90^000.000 

I^SK oM2.140,700 

*l 7,000,000 

** ill 100, 000 

tm jav,offl).aDO | 

»i» IXflOaTM 



IS 



14 



4.7 



8. 08 



7.5 



6. 00 
8.G8 
2.5 
2.0 



$140,000 
140,000 
821,480 
200,000 
144,000 
888.000 

81,309 

80,000 
100,000 
418,104 
954,000 
100,600 
180,200 
' 12,600 

88,700 

800,000 

188,280 

2,868,313 

74,200 

00,000 
806,000 

71,600 
140,800 
380,900 
280,801 

82,000 
500,000 

79,600 
656,180 
910.000 

100,000 I 

as7,ioo L 

fl3,ooo I r».>^ 

143.205 I In 

7«5,3fl7 

151.3t)0 I a.rj-i 



i 



I 



10 



881,888 
42,073 

289,848 
68,705 
30,060 

107,018 
28.076 
20,515 
39,728 

206, &» 

113,306 
27,991 
41,075 
16,841 
21,258 

171,154 
50,949 

879,348 
32,847 
40.488 



9 
5 
8 
8.07 



4.5 

3 

2 



■iM 



97,600 
24,648 
66,100 
34,066 
23,906 
96,914 
38,286 
186,349 
208.040 
48,907 
82,787 
83,983 
25,430 
51,882 
281,228 
44,068 
48,570 



Bxp«ndi(ures. 



10 



82, U6 

832 

80,884 

10,812 

951 

17,519 

1,102 

665 

489 

35,266 

32,500 

908 



06 
30,705 
11,473 
16,258 
11,132 
11,210 
10,886 

1,000 
418 

6,888 



11,143.553 . 1,129,220 



300 
7,445 

120 
4,926 
9,604 
42 
8,109 
2,100 



17 



$16,422 
16,205 

160,220 
25,748 
13,974 
48,414 
11, 7W 
9,400 
13,068 
73,857 
57,736 
9,234 



9,161 

13,919 

40,864 

85,841 

0686,457 

9,705 
18,124 
37,878 
83,096 
17,178 
37,683 



19,038 

1,654 

9,744 

58,860 

d ^vhiMive of Gold Hill, a separate district. 
P Effllmaled. 
/ Ntinibeir actually occupied 



16,621 
58,192 
28,967 

102,600 

c]58,657 

19,269 

16,629 

c64,166 
12,688 
29,800 

143,776 
27,730 
28,253 



18 



$27,718 
85,079 

207,292 
64,518 
29,858 
90,962 
26,319 
12,348 
81,748 

150,456 

118,413 
24,120 
28,968 
21,446 
17,828 

186,496 
64,446 

702,174 
26,880 
86,919 
88,206 
44,437 
24,616 
67,882 
33,992 
23,884 



87,794 
187,409 
217,424 
48,480 
32,737 
76,022 
26,275 
41,744 
195,111 
42,019 
47,482 



008,618 1,088,600 



Average expen< 
see per capita 
of daily aver- 
ageattend- 
anoe in public 
schools. 



J» 



$12 66 

968 

12 94 

11 94 
10 80 
18 82 

12 06 
10 20 
10 86 
17 18 
20 11 
12 79 



I 

a 



5M 



$4 28 
806 
890 
498 
378 
840 
862 



871 
600 
920 



(16 77) 
10 22 



13 26 
16 69 
824 
18 00 

12 06 
25 88 

13 16 
13 93 



13 32 



18 06 

13 61 
20 78 

11 40 

15 68 

14 81 

16 27 

12 80 
14 66 
14 68 



260 



491 
2 16 
1 30 



3 60 
898 
884 
482 



433 



406 

2 21 
6 49 
808 
304 
866 
832 
460 

3 10 
462 



U4 
U6 
U6 
117 
118 
U9 
120 
121 
122 
128 
124 
126 
126 
127 
128 
129 
180 
131 
182 
138 
184 
186 
186 
137 
188 
139 
140 
141 
142 
143 
144 
145 
146 
147 
148 
149 
150 
161 
152 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EEPOBT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Table 11.— Summary of $ekwill 



15S 
154 
15S 
156 
157 
158 
169 

leo 

161 
162 
168 
164 
165 
166 
167 
168 
169 
170 
171 
172 
178 
174 
176 
176 
177 
ITS 
179 
180 
181 
182 
188 
184 
186 
186 
187 
188 
189 
190 



Cities. 



I 



I 



Buflklo, N. Y» 156, 184 

0ohoe8,N.Y» 19,416 

EImlra,N. Y 20,641 

HornellavlUe, N. Y» 8, 196 

Hudson, N. Y* 8, 670 

Ithaca, N.Y 9,106 

Kingston, N. Y*c dl8,844 

Loolcport,N.Y* 18,522 

Long Island City, N. Y.. 17, 129 

Newbuigh,N.Y 18,049 

New York,N. Y 1,206,299 

Ogdensburg, N. Y* 10, 341 

08wego,N.Y ' 21,116 

Plattebuigh,N.Y 8,283 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y I 20,207 

Rocheeter,N.Y j 89,386 

Home,N.Y I 12,194 

Saratoga Springs, N. Y.J 8, 421 

Schenectady, N. Y* ! 13, 666 

Syracuse,N.Y | 61,792 

Troy,N.Y* I 66,747 

Utica,N.Y ! 88,914 



! 



Watertown. N.Y 10,697 

Ealeigh,N.C 9,265 

Akron, Ohio 16,612 

Canton, Ohio 12,268 

ChiUioothe,Ohio 10.988 (Wl 

Cincinnati, Ohio 255,189 6-21 

aeyeland,Ohio 160,146 ^21 

Columbus, Ohio 61,647 6-ffl 

Dayton, Ohio 88,678 6-21 

Fremont, Ohio 8,446 6-ffl 

HamUton,Ohio 12,122 6-21 

Ironton,Ohio* „... 8,867 6-21 

Newark, Ohio 9,600 

Portsmouth, Ohio 11,821 fr-2I 

Sandusky, Ohio 16,888 ^21 

SpHngfield,Obio t 20,730 6-21 

* From Report of the Commissioner of Educa- 
tion for 1880. 

a Estimated. 

b Exclusive of 300sittings in a building formerly 
used for evening schools. 



6-21 
fr-21 
6-21 
5-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
5-21 
5-21 
6-21 
5-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
5-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 



056,000 

7,991 

6,082 

2,489 

2,975 

2,708 

2,704 

4,185 

6,717 

•6,897 

398,000 

4,044 

7,968 

2,160 

06,002 

37,000 

3,129 

2,639 

4,500 

18,596 

18,464 

12,048 

8,128 

i4,868 

4,719 

4,807 

8,887 

87.997 

52,412 

15,899 

11,226 

2,861 

4,896 

2,720 

8,880 

•8,784 

6,290 

6,802 



1 



£ 



B 



42 
8 
8 
3 
3 
6 
6 
7 
7 
6 
130 
9 

14 



Pupils. 



«2 



2,U0 
63,826 
1,296 i 

1,730 I 

1,671 

2,664 



2,600 
150,484 |3,448 
2,500 
8,760 



2,770 
13,090 i 
2,050 
1,726 



8,888 
6,500 
4,090 



196i 
2,987 06 194 
2,604 58 189 
1,826 44 186 
36,881 071 200 
22,496 446 196 
7,682 163 196 
6,340 133 196 
1,100 19 186 
2,100 86 196 
1,600 29 186 
2,024 40 188 
2,200 48 190 
2,770 49 196 
8,186 61 198 
e These statistics are for the 

district only, 
d For the entire city. 

sin 1879. i^r^r^r^ 

Jigitlzed by VjOOQ 



62 
270 
81 
82 
42 
186 
142 
107 



18.006 
2,674 
4,198 
1,483 
1,156 
1,918 
1,889 
2,624 
8,837 
8,825 
274,040 
2,070 
3,966 

i,3n 

2,760 
18,381 
1,700 
1,666 
2,288 
0,379 
9,351 
6,318 
2,164 
il,778 
3,196 
2,888 
* 1,925 
85,592 
24,886 
8,(^4 
6,502 
1,010 
2,006 
1,807 



2,215 

2,519 

3,184 

Kingston 



le 



CITY SCHOOLS. 



CI 



ktia^dtieBy <fec. — Contiiiiied. 



PipibL 



III 

ili 

it I 

8& 



I 

•si 

o 



ll 



3a, 

1^1 



19 



701 

im 

m 
m 

« 

8f 



$80,287,320 
ia,W2,664 
10,083,000 
6,000,000 

«, 000, 000 

5,435,440 

6,290,000 

</4, 681,847 

I 17,000,000 

1,644,685,197 



13 



A712,lll 

S. 000,000 

/ll, 982, 115 

85,000,000 
7,900,000 

19, 201, 040 



L« 


28,104,382 


LIO 


46,492,876 


iw 


21,940,721 


100 


_ 


en 


ao, 000, 000 


no 


10,000,000 


480 


A379,824 


m 


7,873,645 


H.W 


/16S,900,000 


«,§» 


nao,941,562 


S.W 


48.800,000 


las 


27,000,000 



u«ro 

M 

ao 



8,600,000 I 

7,800,000 

8,585,420 






8180,100 

100,000 

316,000 

85,696 

25,000 

60,200 

148,900 

105,000 

65,000 

192,000 

U, 775, 000 

45,000 

168,880 

57,000 

128,006 

901,089 

75,260 

69,300 

72,000 

779,900 

243,800 

694,582 

96,000 

«,000 

206,200 

*152,200 

170,400 

2,000,000 

jl, 663, 085 

718,384 

860,000 

64,000 

125,000 

89,200 

96,850 

«180,000 

170,000 

118,819 



14 



7.2 

4.75 

5.2 

7,&3 
■i.'M, 
r-i 2 

t.2 



i 



13 



8351,096 
42,290 
71,812 
14,668 
21,158 
29,600 
25,823 
37,822 
46,006 
47,787 
1^ 99*3, 690, 288 
.15,117 
47,806 
18,246 

2 41 

4 

3 2 



12 

6 

5.75 



4,& 
6.6 

T 

6 

2. Si 
4.5 



7 
5.5 



214,609 
15,999 
35,027 
23,092 
128,840 
106,399 
110,919 
39,378 
<10,782 



«5, 000, 000 

11,800,000 
«1S,000,000 
/Aa0Hed TBlnaHon. 

^Censua a( 1877, 

A Indiicl^ cont of aup«rv1ifon. 



49,172 

43,062 

742,941 

899,080 

207,966 

176,383 

17,610 

46,419 

80,748 

45,606 

•49,108 

65,796 

84,648 



Expenditures. 



Average expen- 
ses per capital 
of daily ave^ 
ag^e attend- 
ance in pub- 
lic schools. 



> 



16 



$3,785 

441 

10,841 

9,062 

8,141 

196 

2,074 

2,026 

6,196 

343,610 

3,000 

2,752 

259 

6,518 

15,499 



2,489 

1,860 

20,826 



12,323 
4,766 



7,495 

9,485 

5,004 

49,137 

76,126 

21,960 

16,842 

00 

2,000 

2,151 



5,608 
19,8fB 






ir 



8282,927 
22,027 
40,729 
9,475 
8,705 
14,338 
15,149 
22,267 
26,385 
29,206 
2,662,006 
10,800 
28,168 
9,742 
25,645 
129,783 
11,392 
18,691 
18,774 
;i84,332 
80,896 
50,845 
17,991 



27,826 

22,806 

21,130 

462,430 

276,316 

102,290 

89,207 

9,384 

19,544 

13,666 

16,881 

•18,990 

20,710 

35,022 

< For city 

i In 1878. 



3 



18 



9347,204 
34,381 
70,939 
21,873 
15,647 
29,660 
22,472 
32,419 
39,607 
44,757 
3,600,283 
21,263 
45,462 
21,143 
40,668 
214,179 
15,243 
22,222 



128,839 
106,399 
79,299 
29,378 



45,817 

34,577 

687,168 

420,219 

183,777 

142,814 

14,960 

38,548 

21,162 

22,865 

•81,897 

48,660 

68,789 



19 



119 75 
14 25 

14 21 

13 47 

11 82 

15 11 

14 68 

14 42 
20 24 



1106 



13 97 

14 76 
8 47 

14 99 



1175 

14 69 

15 63 



12 00 
(12 

15 65 
20 14 

16 83 

17 61 
10 64 
15 09 
14 88 
10 65 



M 

3 

c 

I 



90 

83 63 
694 

3 16 
239 

2 57 
1 86 

4 47 

8 60 
489 



525 



885 
765 

178 
437 



330 
425 
405 



680 



87) 



•12 40 
12 16 
15 68 



860 
2 14 
888 
615 
4 17 
482 
858 
244 



•2 60 
856 
4 10 



Mud county. 



153 
154 
155 
150 
157 
158 
159 
160 
161 
162 
163 
164 
165 
166 

168 
169 
170 
171 
172 
178 
174 
175 
176 

m 

178 
179 
180 
181 
182 
183 
184 
1*5 
186 
187 
188 
188 
190 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



CII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

Table 11.— Summary of scJiool 



Cities. 



I 



1 



Pupils. 



■2« 



Steubenville, Ohio .. . 

Tiffin, Ohio 

Toledo, Ohio 

Zanesville, Ohio 

Portland, Oreg 

Allegheny, Pa* 

AUentown, Pa* 

Altoontf, Pa 

Bradford, Pa 

Carbondale, Pa. 

Chester, Pa. 

Danville, Pa* 

Easton, Pa 

Erie, Pa* 

HarrisbuTg, Pa 

Lebanon, Pa 

Meadvllle, Pa* 

New Castle, Pa 

Norristown, Pa« 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Beading, Pa 

Scranton, Pa* 

Shamoldn, Pa* 

Shenandoah, Pa 

TitusviUe, Pa 

Williamsport, Pa 

York, Pa 

Lincoln, B. I* 

Newi>ort, B.I 

Pawtucket,B.I* 

Providence, B.I 

Warwick, B. I 

Woonsocket, B. I 

Charleston, S.C* 

Chattanooga, Tenn. . 

KnozvilIe,Tenn 

Memphis, Tenn 

Nashville, Tenn.. 



12,093 

7,879 

50,187 

18,113 

20,511 

78,682 

18,063 

19,710 

9,197 

7,7M 

14,997 

8,346 

11,924 

27,737 

90,762 

8,778 

8,860 

8,418 

13,063 

847,170 

166,389 

43,278 

45,850 

8,184 

10,147 

9,046 

18,934 

13,040 

13,765 

15,693 

19,090 

104,857 

12,164 

16,060 

49,984 

12,892 

9,693 

33,592 

43,350 



6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
4-20 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-18 
6-21 
6- 



5,1173 
a, 379 
17.579 
5,000 
5,914 



4,500 



d8,000 



8,819 



2,800 



3,748 



6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
5-15 
5-16 
5-15 
5-16 
5-15 
5-15 
6-16 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 



13,697 

19,800 

8,800 

d3,400 



d4,850 
2,669 
2,963 
8,419 
8,298 

19,819 
2,463 
2,059 

12,727 
8,224 
8,044 
9,745 

14,512 



6 
5 
23 

IT 

4 

21 

8 

11 

4 

7 



7 

9 

18 

28 

8 

4 

4 

6 

282 

55 

26 

80 

5 

4 

4 

25 

9 

12 

11 

18 

49 

19 

14 

6 

7 

5 

10 

18 



2,100 
1.456 

7.000 ; 



2.3fiO 
10,500 
3,200 
8,010 



1,470 
2,100 
1,794 



8,700 
5,641 



1,906 

1,700 

2,260 

102,185 



7,551 
8,000 



2,010 
1,632 
8,486 
2,466 



2,241 
2,710 



2,145 



1,541 
8,780 
5,950 



43 

EO 

130 

Tl 

56 

S02 

53 

51 

22 

24 

48 

28 

52 

100 

109 

30 

86 

81 

44 

2,118 

505 

153 

160 

24 

28 

34 

65 

50 

41 

56 

47 

301 

80 

87 

91 

83 

29 

62 

97 



2,390 
1,281 
7,677 
S,061 
2,972 

11,^0 
3,429 
8,054 
1,200 
1,821 
2,512 
1,638 
2,291 
4,244 
6,667 
1,500 
1,800 
1,660 
2,218 
102,186 

26,816 
6,911 

10,174 
1,653 
2,103 
1,479 
3,432 
2,419 
2,200 
2,437 
3,699 

14,194 
2,129 
2,832 
7,284 
2,334 
1,964 
4,867 
5,845 



* From Beport of the Commissioner of Education for 1880. 

a Assessed valuation. 

&Lil870. 

e Includes cost of supervision. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



CITY SCHOOLS. 



cm 



ikriistiG cf cities, <^c. — Continued. 



PipikL 



H 



!ji |i 

6& ■ a 



^1 

1 



r^ 



11 



19 



<4B,409,44O 

03,129,000 

97,000,000 

0^,418,810 

15,000,000 

a4a,000,000 

9,500,000 

6,000,000 

02.100,000 

2,600,000 

06,884,409 

2,090,888 

a&9,201,624 

25,000,000 

15,085,153 

4,200,000 

8,425,975 

08,000,000 

06,633,880 

0518,660,129 

H12,00ol 096,721,883 

m 25,000,000 

1,SI0 80,000,000 

aoj 5,000,000 

^' — 8,000,000 



2,000 j 

soo 

il,»o| 

soo 

"I 

S50 

aoj 

i 

IBOOl 



400 




13 



<127,000 
40,000 
590,000 
200,000 
170,600 
927,855 
415,000 
101,620 
27,200 
27,200 
110,000 
75,000 
219,200 
293,200 



15 
17 
11 
4.5 
10 



inO 12,500,000 
M 8,000,000 
tn 08,685,083 I 
M. 80,000,000 
UOI 017,830,212 
\9m |«al68,5<7,7a5 

010,104,900 

«a8,827,565 

oS0i,422»OOO 

04,200,000 

4,992,735 

J 012,060,080 

» i 18,790,000 



76,260 

136,000 

45,000 

164,700 

6,003,064 

1,900,000 

281,600 

300,000 

40,000 

61,000 

64,279 

142,290 

125.000 

69,000 

225,338 

176,000 

U,450,000 

29,100 

«124,650 

125,000 

80,750 

88,700 

189,060 

194,500 



14 



i 



I 



Iff 



8.5 

5.5 

6 

5 

5 

4.25 



4 
13 
10 
11 

4.5 

7 



12 

15 
5.5 
8.5 
1.4 
1.2 



1.5 

8 

6 

2.5 

2 

5 



945,807 
28,502 

236,108 
67,409 
81,615 

200,837 
02,637 
97,388 
40,113 
10,204 
81,482 
8,968 
57,509 
66,799 
94,974 
20,866 
26,816 
30,085 
41,509 



590,754 
77,287 

101,075 
13,229 
20,558 
55,965 
42,418 
24,960 
27,158 
43,460 
51,000 

222,285 
11,471 
36,971 
65,142 
17,186 
15,701 
38,548 
96,610 



Expenditures. 



16 



1621 
8,500 



7,226 

2,304 

58,602 



19,686 



8,029 
2,524 



11,600 

28,483 

89 

1,651 

11,746 
2,726 

71,818 
8,976 
9,454 
4,610 
3,220 
2,008 
2,155 
500 
253 
8,000 
1,075 



27,878 



2,798 
180 



830 



17 



819,548 
12,224 
65,585 
83,878 
39,564 
106,375 
el7,828 
17,378 



7,304 

«22,679 

6,826 



85,853 
51,014 

9,408 
15,161 

9,044 

20,667 

,063,638 

272,170 

60,768 

58,111 

7,236 

8,581 
14,666 
22,706 
17,353 
15,110 
82,105 
24,066 
171,718 
11,175 



a 

I 
I 



18 



827,430 
20,097 

152,344 
52,840 
81,871 



A50,902 
13,758 
12,716 
30,783 
56,775 



53,549 
50,444 
31,318 
11,811 
29,702 
9,444 
40,443 
68,425 
98,825 
18,881 
24,440 
26,446 
89,875 
1,503,052 
468,524 
100,453 
83,624 
13,204 
19,393 
54,926 
42,346 
28,176 
24,912 
43,445 
85,598 
268,464 
11,458 
36,971 
62,840 
20,796 
15,699 
41,559 
95,609 



Average expen- 
ses per capita 
of daily aver- 
age attend- 
ance in pub- 
lic schools. 



c d 

«B O 



u 



19 



811 86 



11 61 
15 92 
19 07 

12 85 
733 



I 

3 
I 

s 



627 



12 80 

13 33 
825 

11 90 



97 



383 
243 
1 64 
184 



18 36 
11 24 
(20 86) 

959 

960 

846 

8 11 



4 00 
4 32 



10^ 
10 27 



2165 



10 58 



10 88 
r72 
12 60 
18 89 



8 07 



8 09 



802 
2 83 



526 



1 95 



8 61 
1 76 



90 



13 16 



3 70 I 
331 

877 
1 58 



7 25 2 69 



191 
192 
198 
194 
196 
196 
197 
198 
199 
200 
201 
202 
203 
2(>4 
205 
206 
207 
208 
209 
210 
211 
212 
213 
214 
215 
216 
217 
218 
219 
220 
221 



224 
225 

226 
227 
228 
229 



po>y of J&atkirs, cost of enpervision, and salaries of secretaries and other oflQoers. 
■alaries of i«er«tarlcs and other officers. Digitized by ^ OOQ IC 



CIV 



EEPOET OF THE COBiMISSIONEB OF EDUCATION. 



Table U.—Summary of school 



280 
281 



234 



236 
237 



240 
241 
242 
243 
244 
245 
246 
247 
248 
249 
360 
2K1 



CitiM. 



I I 



Houston, Tex* 

San Antonio, Tex* „. 

Burlington, yt ^ 


16,513 
20,650 
11,865 


Rutland Vt*.^ 


12,140 


Alexandria, Va^ 


18,669 


Danville, Va* 


7,626 


Lynchburg, Va^ 


15,969 


Norfolk, Va* „ 


21,966^ 


Petersburg, Va^ 


21,656 


Portsmouth, Va 


11,890 


Richmond, Va* 


68,600 
8,005 


Appleton.Wis* 



Fond du Lao, Wis*. | 18,094 

Janeeville, Wis. 

La Crosse, Wis 

Madison, Wis 

Milwaukee, Wis.. .. 
OshkoshfWis. 



9,018 
14,605 
10,324 
115,587 
15,748 
Racine, Wis i 16,081 



Watertown, Wis 

Georgetown, D. C. d... . 
Washington, D. C. d... . 

Total 



7,888 
} 106, 688 



10,757,645 



8-14 
-14 
5-20 
5-20 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
4-20 
4-20 
4-20 
4-20 
4-20 
4-20 
4-20 
4-20 
4-20 

^17 



2,746 
8,022 



64,582 
2,126 
4,907 
6,695 
7,206 
8,210 

21,586 
2,897 
5,483 
8,884 
4,581 
8,517 

40,096 
6,180 
6,396 
8,468 

27,143 



3,749,370 



al4 
5 



8,916 



I 

s 

& 

c 

1 

I 



al,147 
1,100 



Pupils. 



•8« 

dg 

« 

o 



1,150 

600 

1,850 { 

1,320 j 

al,808 I 



5,840 
1.800 
2,800 
1,815 
2,200 
8,480 
16,206 
6,500 
8,000 
1,100 

14,896 



1,188,86780,155 



22 
83 
64 
19 
15 
81 
26 
28 
14 

129 
28 
46 
86 
44 
86 

818 
54 
46 
22 

378 



al57| 
200 i 



180 I 
160 i 

i«l 

191 I 

186 

202 

188 

178 

200 

176 

197 

180 

200 

196 

300 

196 

190 



al,756 
1,684 
1,425 
2,895 
1,204 
1,069 
1,872 
1,613 
2,063 
997 
5,821 
1,638 
2,821 
1,483 
3,628 
1,936 

15,249 
2,148 



1,064 
16,407 



1,788,106 



11 



10 



al,172 
964 I 



9U 
724 
1,171 
1,117 
1.518 
575 
4,778 
1,490 
1,515 



1,708 
1,782 
12,896 
1,970 
1,665 
878 

12,688 



1,184,625 



* From Report of the Oommissioiier of Eduoation for 1680i 
a In 1879. 

I of 1880. 
iTaloation. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CITY SCHOOLS. 



CV 



«i*aofciHe», dfcc. Cotittnued. 



Average expen- 
ses per capita 
of diaily aver- 
age attend-, 
anoeiu public 
schools. I 




fMl.561 K221.39D, 140 91,418,729 | {28,117,41$ 2, 736, 249 



d Theae ntmtintirtmrr for white schools only; for those in which colored schools are included, see 
Tahielofappeodiz. 
« f^y^mA^ proportion paid to colored schools. 



\ 



Digitized by 



Google 



CVI 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Table II. — Average expenses per capita of daily average attendance in cUypvbUc scJiooIs, 



CiUes. 






Vindnia aty, Nev 

Oakland, Cal 

Newport, B. I 

San FranolBoo, Cal 

Oranire, N. J 

Chioopee, Maas 

New York, N. Y 

CinoinnaU, Ohio 

St. Paul, Minn. 

Cambridge, Biaas 

Los Angeles, Cal 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Dayton, Ohio 

Medford, Mass, 

Portland, Oreg 

La Fayette, Ind 

Fort Wayne, Ind 

Columbus, Ohio 

Lowell, Mass 

Minneapolis, Minn 

Somerville, Mass , 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Denver, Colo 

Dee Moines (west side), Iowa.. ... 

St. Louis; Mo 

Council Bluiri, Iowa 

New Haven, Conn 

New Orleans, La 

Baltimore, Md 

Davenport, Iowa 

Albany, N. Y 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Haverhill, Mass 

Zanesvllle, Ohio j 

Springfield, Moss 

Springfield, Ohio 

Chilllcothe, Ohio 

Holyoke, Moss ' 

Utica, N. Y ' 

Plainfield, N. J 

Maiden, Mass 

La Crosse, Wis 

Meriden, Conn 

Chelsea, Mass. 

Kingston, N. Y 

Fremont, Ohio 

Raoine, Wis 

Saratoga Springs, N. Y 

Fitchburg, Mam 

Savannah, Ga 



$25 88 
24 58 
21 66 
2187 
20 78 
20 48 
20 24 
20 14 
20 11 
10 88 
19 87 
19 75 
19 64 
19 60 
19 07 
18 60 
17 63 
17 61 
17 50 
17 13 
16 85 
16 83 
16 82 
16 65 
16 69 
10 58 
16 87 
16 87 
16 36 
16 80 
16 27 
16 06 
15 98 
15 92 
15 77 
15 68 
15 65 
15 63 
15 63 
15 58 
15 30 
15 24 
15 15 
15 11 
15 11 
15 09 
15 00 
14 99 
14 93 
14 89 



IS 



18 98 
513 
526 
411 

6 49 
963 

• 4 89 

2 14 
500 
356 

7 19 
363 

4 17 
564 
877 
488 

3 94 

5 15 



371 
485 
338 
481 
653 
2 16 
620 
869 
250 

4 57 
368 
832 
469 

5 19 
881 
503 

4 10 
850 
406 
405 
304 
584 

5 52 
232 
407 
1 85 
482 



487 

487 

88 



Cities. 



Trenton, N.J 

Rochester, N. Y 

Worcester, Mass.... 

Troy,N.Y 

Georgetown, D. C 
Washington, D. C... 



It 

B 3 



1^ 



£ 



$14 81 
14 76 
14 75 
14 69 



I" 



68 



Lockport, N. Y 14 68 i 

Brooklyn, N. Y *. I 14 63 j 

Binghamton, N. Y I 14 56 \ 

Wobum, Mass ' 14 50 j 

Chicago, ni ! 14 49 I 

Milwaukee, Wis I 14 42 ] 

14 42 ; 
14 38 j 
14 33 < 
14 25 I 
14 21 
14 11 i 
14 01 I 
13 97 
13 94 I 
13 93 I 
13 89 
13 82 
13 72 



Newburgh, N. Y 

Hamilton, Ohio 

Terre Haute, Ind 

Cohoes, N. Y 

Elmira, N. Y 

Madison, Ind 

Taunton, Mass. 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y 

Dubuque, Iowa 

Manchester, N. H 

Nashville, Tenn 

Grand Rapids, Mich 

Portland, Me 

Biddeford, Me | 13 57 

New Brunswick, N, J | 13 51 

Homellsville, N. Y ' 18 47 

Louisville, Ky ; 13 43 

Norristown, Pa 18 36 

Harrisburg, Pa ' 13 33 

Elizabeth, N. J i 18 32 

Lynchbuig, Va : 13 80 

St. Joseph, Mo 18 26 

Clinton, Mass .". 13 22 

Rock Island, lU ..} 13 18 

Ottawa, 111 laun 

Dover, N. H IS 16 

Lincoln, Nebr. i 13 09 

Lawrence, Mass 18 08 

Newark, N. J i 13 06 

Portsmouth, Va 13 00 

Detroit, Mich | 12 94 

Allegheny, Pa J 12 85 



Auburn, N. Y„ 

Erie, Pa. 

Stillwater, Minn 

Bridgeport, Conn 

New Britain, Conn.. 
Logansport, Ind 



jigitized by 



Google 



12 80 
12 80 
12 79 
12 68 
12 60 
12 58 



CITY SCHOOLS. 



CVII 



TiBLK n. — Average expenses per capita ofdaUy average attendance^ Ac, — Continned. 




•d 


, 


a 


o 


n 


3d 


St 


•5S 


1^ 


|& 


-• • 


u 







CE| 


b 


$12 55 


$4 28 


12 50 


3 61 


12 49 


398 


12 40 


260 


12 87 


127 


12 16 


356 


12 13 


893 


12 06 


360 


12 06 


362 


12 00 


680 


1196 


699 


11 94 


493 


11 90 


1 84 


U85 


3 16 


1182 


257 


11 75 


330! 


1175 


263 


11 66 


509 


11 61 


3 70 


1143 




1140 


308 


11 86 


277 


1186 


282 


1188 


176 


11 24 


482 


11 10 


286 


1106 


525 


10 96 


221 


10 88 


1 96 


10 86 




10 82 


877 


10 82 


368 


10 80 


878 


10 66 


802 


10 65 


244 


10 64 


245 


10 68 




10 68 









Citiea. 



Newport, Ky , 

Peoria, lU „... 

York, Pa 

Hannibal, Mo 

Port Huron, Mich..., 

Joliet, 111 

HouthBend, Ind 

BeUevllle. HI 

Paducab, Ky 

Bangor, Me 

Scranton, Pa 

Auburn, Me 

Beadin^r, Pa 

Bay City, Mich 

Alexandria, Va 

Macon, Ga , 

Marlborough, Mass . 
Leavenworth, Kans 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Petersburg, Va , 

Rome. N. Y 

Shamokin, Pa 

Watertown, Wis 

Lebanon, Pa 

Sedalia, Mo 

Shenandoah, Pa 

Rockland, Me 

Allentown, Pa 

Altoona, Pa 

Danville, Va 

Carbondale, Pa 

Boston, Mass 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Vicksburg, Miss 

Canton, Ohio 

Key West, Fla 



1. 

gg 

p 


6 

1 • 

flS. 

1 


$10 40 


$187 


10 89 


366 


10 27 


288 


10 22 


260 


10 20 




10 04 


267 


999 


1 89 


990 


1 46 


989 


211 


965 


268 


960 


307 


960 


296 


959 




958 


306 


958 


2 10 


950 


1 00 


947 


327 


9 16 


88 


894 


661 


872 




868 


2 76 


8 47 


1 78 


8 46 




840 


160 


826 


1 64 


824 


1 80 


8 11 


809 


806 


1 66 


7 83 




726 


269 


7 14 


114 


627 


97 


(a$27 


16) 


(20 


86) 


a5 


77) 


(12 


87) 


ao 


49) 



a Based on average number belonging. 



'ibie n {ffesents the statistics of 251 cities, as against 244 in 1880. Their school pop- 
is above 17 per cent, of the whole school population of the coontry, enrolment 
^mm 17 per cent, of the total enrolment, and average daily attendance, exclusive of pri- 
^mwdaoel^ 26 per cent, of that reported for the entire countiy. The relative Impor- 
^■fli of the school interests of these cities is more pLoinlj Indicated by the financial 
Their annual school income is about 33 per cent, of that reported for the 
, the expenditure 32 per cent, of the total expenditure, and the value of 
40 per cent of the total valuation. , „ _ ^^ , ^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




CVIII 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



The school system is well organized in the majority of the cities and upon essentially 
the same plan. The general management is in charge of a board of education; the prac- 
tical administration is intmsted to a superintendent, who is a salaried officer. Since tlie 
creation of this office and its general adoption the schools of the different cities have 
been brought into remarkable agreement as respects gradation, courses of study, and 
standards and methods of examination; instruction has greatly improved ; and school 
funds have been used with more economy and better returns for the outlay. The fol- 
lowing are the chief matters now demanding attention : (1 ) The increase of school accom- 
* modation; (2) the control of truants and absentees; (3) adaptation of studies and 
methods; (4) the conditions affecting the health of pupils, viz, the oonstructioh and 
.sanitary arrangement of school buildings, physical training, and amount and continuity ol 
intellectual effort. 

SCHOOL ACCOMMODATION. 

A carefhl study of Table II, appendix, will show that in a large proportion of the cities, 
especially in the Northern States, school accommodation is kept well up to the demauid. 
Deficiency in this respect in southern cities arises iirom lack of lundH and from the 
fact that the establishment of public schools is so recent. Where such deficiency exist.« 
in the northern cities it is due to the n^id increase of population and is complicated 
with the problems of immigration, pauperism, and the labor of children. 

Hon. Stephen A. Walker, president of the board of education of New York City, reports 
9,189 children turned away during the year from lack of accommodation. No definite 
statements of this kind have been received from other cities, but New York is not alone 
in the experience. Chicago has established ^'double divisions'' to meet the preesure. 
and reports 6,668 half time pupils for the current year. Other cities have adopted the 
same expedient. The following statistics show the status of four of the largest cities ol 
the United States with reference to elementary school provision: 



OHi60. 



I S I 



New York. 
Brooklsm.. 

Chioago 

Boston 



I 

I 



I 



1 

9o 



fr-21 


1,206,209 


5-21 


566,668 


6-21 


508,185 


5-15 


882,889 



898.000 I 160,484 

181,068 I '61,906 

187,085 I 60,808 

61,056j 56,177 




4O,O0( 

5O,O0( 

25, 0« 

6,02: 



It will be seen that Boston is the only one of the four in which the number of sitting 
is very nearly equal to the school population. The ectkooii age in this city includes only 
the ordinary period of school attendance, viz, 5-15 years; 2,294 pupils above 15 years ol 
age are reported in attendance and 42 below 5 years of age, or a total of 2,336, wlucl] 
would make veiy little difference in the estimates. The ratio of school population in 
Boston to total population is 168 to 1,000. Estimated by this ratio the school populatioti 
of the other cities %nder consideration would be as follows: New York, 202,643; Brook- 
lyn, 95,199; and Chicago, 84,535. By comparing these figures with the respective numbei 
of sittings it appears that for the accommodation of the estimated number of children Ne^ 
York wouldrequiie52,159 additional sittings; Brooklyn,33,291;Chicago,34,232; whereas 
the sittings in Boston are only 4,879 less than the school population. Again, Boston le 
theonly oneof thefour cities in which the enrolment is less than the accommodation, while 



Digitized by ^OOQIC 



CITY SCHOOLS. CIX 

at the tame time the attendance upon private schools is> very small. In other words, the 
pnUem of acfaool aooommodatiQn appears to have been solved by the public schools of that 
dty. Theadiool eommittee report 40 per cent, of school childen in the primary schools, a 
Btmber aboat equal to the total of children from 5 to ^ years of age inclusive, which is the 
oriinsyperiod of primary school attendance. They report 54 per cent ingrammar and 
h^ sehoolH. It mnat be remembered that these gratifying results have been accom- 
plislwd in a city affected by emigration and the conditions which lead to the early em- 
ploynent of children, but they have not been accomplished without the liberal use of 
fimds. From the report of the committee previously mentioned it appears that the aver- 
mt expend! tore upon a primary scholar in Boston is $18.45; upon a grammar scholar, 
I2R.20; and upon a pupil of the high and normal schools, $87.42. 

The matter of school accommodation will not be satis&ctorily adjusted until, in addi- 
tioo to overcoming the existing deficiency, measures are devised for anticipating the 
powth of population. 

Upon this pcnnt the record of the school board for London is ftQl of suggestion. In 
the otganization of the London board the work under consideration is assigned to the sta- 
tirtieal committee, which is directed to ascertain the number of children of school age in 
A given area, the nmnber of school places already provided, and — after making the neces- 
ary deductions for illness and other causes — to recommend to the board the new schools 
that it may be necessary to provide £3r the balance. In reviewins the work of this 
committee for the year the chairman of the board, Mr. Edward North Buxton said : 

IfffA^Mng at the extraordinarily rapid growth in some of these parishes, which is as 
ixrtain to continue as the sun is to rise in the morning, the question arises whether we 
se always justified in waiting till the children are on the ground before providing for 
them, and whether we should not look a littie more forward than we have been in the 
hafatt of doing in the purchase of sites and building of schools. Not only will it be an 
fcooomical measure to anticipate by a year or two the arrival of the population, because 
xht sites may be so much more cheaply purchased, but when we remember that an in- 
aerral of two years elapses from the first reoommendation of a school by the statistical 
eoaunittee to its opening, and that the numbers are in the meanwhile in many districts 
^a umaln g annually with rapid strides, it is dear that large numbers of children will be 
ieft for a time without schooling, unless we have regard, not to the present population, 
bat to that which we may predict with certainty tnil be the population two years hence. 
Probably it may be well to tabulate the annual rate of increase in each registration dis- 
liefc, aobd hare them before us in considering the accommodation needed. I commend 
this mattw to the statistical committee. 

SCHOOL ATTEKDAKCE. 

The legal school age in cities is determined by State laws ; the great diversity in this 
renpeet, there being no leas than 16 difierent ages, makes it difficult to estimate the com- 
pamtive status of the cities as indicated by the reported enrolment in the schools. The 
limit of the school ages is 4 years, the highest 21, and the average duration of the 
12.7 years. In the majority of civilized countries the period extends from 6 to 
13 «r 14 years, 16 years of age being the extreme limit outside of the United States. 
A. Isige enrolment above and below these limits is not to be expected, and all estimates 
«f B0n-attendance founded upon the difference between the population of legal school 
i§e as established in the several States and enrolment or average attendance must 
ly be mkleading. By agreement with the superintendents the inquiries sent 
this Office have been shaped with the purpose of ascertaining if possible the 
f at school attendance for the ages from 6 to 16. Only 47 cities are able to supply 
data. The number is too small to justify generalizations, but the general 
of the infinrmation is significant. It is sufficiently indicated by the following 
comprising the returns (h>m eight cities: 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ex 



BEPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



OiOeft. 



is Mi 



ill* 

III 



Portland, Me 

Lewiston, Me 

Woroester, M«m 

Albany, N.T ., 

Waaliington, D. O.. 

Biohmond, Va. 

Chicago, lU. 

. Ann Arbor, Mloh... 



68 
46 
100 
89 
60 
«7 
46 
71 



129 
90 

145 
93 
86 
M 
97 

120 



Hon. John B. P«aaleo, saperintendent of public schools of Cincinnati, presents the fol- 
lowing estimates for that city: 
Estimated number of school youth between the ages of 6 and 14 51, 583 

Actual number between those ages attending public schools 31, 014 

Estimated number between those ages attending ohurch and private schools 13, 496 

Estimated number between those ages attending charitable and reformatory 

institutions - 500 

Total school attendance between the ages of 6 and 14 years...! 45i 010 

This leaves 6,573 as the number of non^ttendants between those ages. 

In Binghamton, N. Y., an examination has been made which shows the ratio of 
absentees to enrolment to be as follows: From 8 to 13 years (that is, the years to wliich 
the compulsory law api>lies), 9 per cent, of the enrolments between those years; from 14 
to 16 years, 26 per cent ; from 17 to 18 years, 25 per cent ; fiom 19 to 20 years, 26 per 
cent Similar results would doubtless be obtained in other cities. 

In order to arrive at a faix estimate of the number of non-attendants and irre^i^alar 
attendants upon schools who are likely to sink into illitenK^, we should have (1), as a 
common baifis of calculation, the period to which compulsory school laws are applied, 
where such are enacted; (2) the school census for each of those years; and (3) the num- 
ber of non-attendants and habitual absentees for each of those years. 

In foreign countries school statistics are frequently carried into these details, and it is 
«vident that in large dties where illiteracy threatens to become a startling evil such exam- 
ination is necessary ts a means of determining what the schools are doing and wliat 
remains for them to do. 

In accordance with its usual practice, the Office stands prepared to issue the necessary 
blank inquiries and work up the returns whenever a sufficient number of cities give 
assurance of cooperation in the work. 

The following table, drawn from statistics for 1880, frimished by the Census Office, is 
important in this connection. The counties selected, it will be observed, comprise the 
chief cities of their respective States, and their population is almost entirely city popula- 
tion: 



Digitized by VjOO-QIC 



ILLITERACY IN CITIES. 

Selected slatutics ofittUeraetf^ 1880. 



CXI 



(UifDnik... 

Colorado 

Oonectkot. 



Ooanty. 



TbiMim 

Xarrknd.. 

iMMfaw 



XewJtwey- 

Xe»Yorit 

Do._. 

OWo. .._ 

Kkode Island... 
S««h Ckrolina.. 

TcsMMee, 



SanFranciaoo 

Ai»paboe 

New Haven.... 

NewOMtle 

FnltCMi 

Cook 

Mukm... : 

Jefferson 

OrieMM. I 

BaltlmoTe City.. 

Snflblk 

Wayne I 

Hennepin j 

SkLonisOity.... 



Kins*-- 

New York 

Hamilton 

Philadelphia.. 
Proridence „.. 

Charleston 

Davidson 

Henrioo 

MUwaokee...... 



7,240 
447 

4.440 

7,131 

9,978 
13,008 

4,068 
14,307 
28,160 
22,900 
16,106 

6,163 

1,216 
13,836 

5,425 
16,490 
50,203 

8,202 
25,812 
18,288 
34,485 
14,013 
16,155 

8,170 



Cannot write. 



8,640 
508 

6,407 

8,220 
11,817 
16,888 

»,« 
16,506 
30,426 
28,488 
20,187 

7.648 

1,620 
16,954 

7,308 
22,012 
63,062 

9,831 
86,575 
19,142 
»7,014 
17,772 
17,888 

8,060 



White. 



I 



5.«4 
885 

.5,880 
8,071* 
2,048 

16,004 
8,006 
5,484 
6,805 
8,006 

10,251 
7,158 
1,538 
9,264 
6,360 

20,610 

59,581 
7,091 

30,502 

18,290 
1,588 
8,38P7 
1,864 
3,022 



687 
1,415 
1»«81 
1,140 
1,742 
2,670 
2,200 
4,185 

706 
1,480 

280 
2,250 
1,117 
8,100 
5,098 
1,786 
8,602 
2,790 
1,812 
8,000 
1,286 

240 



5,106 

240 

5,948 

1,606 

67 

14,040 

1,886 

2,805 

4,606 

4,718 

18,545 

5,678 

1,240 

7,005 

5,252 

17,420 

58,588 

5,305 

22,090 

15,460 

226 

897 

120 

3,678 



10 to 14. 



40 


00 


00 


12 


15 


27 


U8 


80 


106 


186 


178 


864 


200 


171 


880 


821 


275 


506 


67 


82 


110 


298 


101 


448 


417 


887 


764 


208 


108 


461 


61 


00 


151 


216 


184 


400 


88 


30 


68 


802 


244 


546 


172 


147 


810 


066 


090 


1,158 


.801 


1,187 


2,488 


107 


75 


182 


726 


541 


1,267 


820 


604 


1,523 


166 


181 


200 


821 


262 


578 


122 


78 


200 


88 


47 


86 



State. 



Cannot write. 



County. 



<:U*rBia 


San Pranoisoo... 


C*ttdD 


Arapahoe 


^•••i«ttnrt...„.. 


New Haven 


lMw»e 


New CasUe. 


<-«»k..„. 


Pnlton 


Ctaoii _.„. 


Cook 


b^aas. „.... 


Marion 


*«^ 


JefTeiBon 


I-*i«a 


Orleans 


fc-ykad _ 


Baltimore City.. 


^'"■KhaKtts.... 


Soflblk ^ 


***» 


Wayne „ 







White. 






Colored. 




15 to 20. 




2 


1 and over. 


|i| 




6 




o 






1 


£ 


1 


1 


1 


1 


|ll 


57 


71 


126 


1,062 


8,265 


5.227 


3,186 


6 


10 


16 


142 


150 


202 


227 


126 


110 


286 


2,180 


8,812 


6,451 


577 


119 


110 


238 


1,072 


1,807 


2,460 


5,158 


137 


155 


202 


471 


005 


1,876 


0,760 


484 


522 


066 


6,048 


8,404 


14,542 


789 


100 


85 


104 


1,210 


1,575 


2,785 


2,164 


290 


228 


487 


1,787 


2,717 


4,004 


11,074 


228 


274 


502 


2,220 


8,870 


5,500 


S8,9n 


828 


820 


657 


8,064 


4,781 


7,705 


10,580 


{ 143 


836 


470 


5,806 


12,728 


18,621 


066 


280 


281 


541 


2,781 


8,486 


..by^iJ 


O^iiiw 



CXII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

Selected statistics ofUliteiacyy 1880 — Continued. 



State. 



Cannot write. 



Ck>unty. 



White. 



Colored. 



16 to 20. 



21 and over. 



; •ill 



Minnesota. 

Missouri. 

New Jersey ' 

New York I 

Do I 

Ohio i 

Pennsylvania.....' 
Rhode Islands... I 
South Carolina.... 

Tennessee ' 

Vir^nio. 

Wisconsin 



Hennepin 82 | 

St.Ix>ul8Clty.... 293 

Essex ' 188 

Kings I 868 

New York I 1,490 

Hamilton ' 175 

Philadelphia 944 

Providence 1,017 

Charleston i 181 

Davidflon I 242 

Henrico ' 78 

Milwaukee | 106 



E 


1 


1 


St. 




in 


69 


147 


619 


704 


1,328 


82 


411 


704 


8,288. 


4,776 


8,014 


7, GOO 


170 


858 


1,998 


8,699 


5.6»7 


1«9 


699 


1,062 


6,084 


12,806 


18,390 


1,402 


2,248 


3,678 


19,404 


84, OU 


53,415 


3,501 


284 


409 


2,821 


4,179 


6,900 


2,740 


1,128 


2,072 


9,216 ' 


18,087 


27,253 


5,983 


1,080 


2,077 


6,474 


9,185 


14,669 


883 


89 


220 


481 


588 


1,019 


36,376 


144 


386 


1,148 


1,260 


2,398 


14,415 


52 


128 


495, 


541 


1,096 


16,524 


187 


243 


1.525 ! 


2,069 


3,594 


38 



Cannot write. 



Colored. 



State. 



County. 



10 to 14. 



California j 

Colorado ..' 

Connecticut ' 

Delaware.. 

Oeorgria I 

lUinois I 

Indiana I 

Kentucky i 

Louisiana 

Maryland 

Massachusetta. ... 

Bfichigan 

Minnesota 

Missouri 

New Jersey- , 

New York , 

Do. ! 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania.. . . . i 
Rhode Island..... 
South Carolina... 

Tennessee. 

Vii^inia. 

Wisconsin- 



, a 

San Francisco...! 51 

Arapahoe | 4 

New Haven......' 9 

NewCasUe I 801 

Fulton 1 540 

Cook ' 5 

Marion ..< 48 

Jefferson .- 384 

Orleans - 603 

Baltimore City..! 

Suffolk ' 

Wayne 

Hennepin 

St. Louis City ...| 

Essex 

Kings 

New York \ 27 

Hamilton- 20 

Philadelphia...-! 109 

Providence . ...- 17 

Charleston -'2,318 

Davidson 861 

Henrico 708 

Milwaukee 



101; 



848 
1 
5 
3 
165 
20 
26 



286 

495 

6 

56 

828 

756 

515 

1 

5 

167 
23 
27 ; 
88 
84 

110 

15 

2,266 

748 

609 







15 to 20. 




21 and over. 


, 


i 




1 


ii 


1 ■ 


1 


152 


419 


237 


666 


1,310 < 


1,068 


2,378 


* 5 


27 


12 


89 


114 


69 , 


183 


9 


11 


12 


23 


293 


292 ' 


54S 


587 


815 


310 ^ 


625 


1,990 • 


2,016 i 


3,946 


1,085 


512 


694 


1,206 


3,081 


4,497 


7,528 


11 


34 


27 


61 


340 


377 , 


717 


99 


54 


72 1 


126 


911 ; 


1,028 


1,989 


707 


694 


646 ; 


1,240 


3,854 ! 


5,278 i 


9,127 


1,448 


738 


1,288 


2,026 


8.105 1 


11,992 


20,097 


858 


571 


1,461 - 


2,032 


^238 { 10,402 . 


16,640 


2 


13 


9 


22 


372 t 


540 ! 


912 


10 


13 


15 


28 


204 


248! 


452 


8 


1 


6 


7 


M 


38 > 


72 


332 


243 


324 


567 


3,139 


3,692 , 


6,791 


43 


15 


42 


57 


320 


619 , 


839 


53 


49 


55 


104 


460 


776 


1,245 


65 


103 


98 


201 


1,259 


1,976 


3,235 


54 


77 


116 


103 


1,142 


1,851 


2,493 


219 


109 


287 , 


896 


1,968 


3,400 


S,368 


32 


18 


20 


38 


342 ; 


4n 


813 


K584 


1,962 


2,610 


4,578 


12,294, 


14,920 , 


27,214 


1,600 


888 


896 


1,783 


4.963 


6,000 


11,023 


1,317 


787 


069 


1,796 


5,518 


7,983 t 


13,451 










.oogfc "" 


38 






Oigitized by Vj 



ILLITERACY IN CITIES. CXIH 

From these figures it appears — 

< A ' With referenoe to the race and nativity of illiterates : 

< I > That the colored illiterates exceed the total white illiterates in all the counties 
sleeted from the former slave States, save St. Lonis City, Mo., and in no others. 

> 2 That the colored (inclnding Chinese and Indian) illiterates exceed the native bom 
whit« illiterates in six counties, viz: 

BUai€. CowiSy, City, 

California. San Francisco. San Francisco. 

Colorado. Arapahoe. Denver. 

Indiana. Marion. Indianapolis. 

Massachusetts. Su£folk. Boston. 

MisBonrL St. Louis City. St. Louis. 

Ohio. Hamilton. Cincinnati. 

(31 That the native bom white illiterates exceed the foreign in five counties only, viz: 
Sole. CourUy. City. 

Georgia. Fulton. Atlanta. 

Indiana. Marion. Indianapolis. 

South Carolina. Charleston. Charleston. 

Tennessee. Davidson. Nashville. 

YiTginia. Henrico. Richmond. 

(4) That the foreign bom illiterates are only slightly in excess of the native white 
iHitetates in the following, viz: 

auUe. County. City. 

Delaware. New CasUe. Wilmington. 

Kentucky. Jefierson. Louisville. 

Maryland. Baltimore City. Baltimore. 

(5 i That in the remaining sixteen counties the foreign bom illiterates exceed the native 
white illiterates in various ratios, the lowest being 2 to 1, and the highest 26 to 1. 

(B) With reference to sex : 

At 21 years and over the female illiterates are greatly in excess of the males; from 10 
to 14 there is a slight excess of male illiterates; frt>m 15 to 20 an excess of female illit- 
oates. 

(C) With reference to age : 

The number of illiterates between 15 and 20 is slightly in excess of the number be- 
tween 10 and 14, but the number of illiterates under 20 years of age forms a very small 
prt^ortion of the total number of illiterates reported. 

Femu tiiii ajialysis it is evident that the mn^a^ of illiterates with which the cities have 
l»d«>lcfid are chJefiy Ibreign bom or colorcii, mid of adult years. It would also be in- 
fafd tlttl tbe existing school prorisioD m Dot eqnal to the requirements — 

(1) Eecaose of th@ presenci; of ilHt«rat«s from 10 to 14 years of age. (2) Because of a 
4^|l ineteaee in the number of illit<;mt^ betwoen 15 and 20 years of age over the same 
kma 10 to 14. A study of the statistics of jyopuUtion may possibly show that this last 
«a4ti»iifi in due to itnoiigmtlon. 

Wmmm tlbe elatigitics of illiteracy alone it would appear that boys who are neglected in 
te WlMfT yems of the school period are mor<^ likely than girls to make up the deficiency. 
E of these tigiirea with those of population may show that this is also an un- 
! ooTidusion, as the relative proportittn of the sexes in the large cities is con- 
ttflMUgr dianged by cmigtatton westward. 

Tlv ftvcfsgD dtuly atiendauce, a^ report-ed in Table II, &l]a far below the enrolment. 
^m^m^mn cAunot pmperl j be made between iheae columns, as they are not estimated 
^fu& ibf fame basis. The eiirohneni rcpn^sents not the daily average membership, 
te aU tliA at^holara nhom oauit^ appear upon the registers for a certain period, which 
mf ht fealf a t^j^ a ifrtjck^ a moEth^ iSsc, The fact that the average daily attendance 

E—T^^ni Digitized by ^OOglC 



CXIV REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

is mach less than the number of sittings provided is of more conseqaenoe. It is dif- 
ficult to decide whether it is more important that school provision should be made for 
all children or that all the provision made should be utilized. With due allowance for 
unavoidable absence, it is evident that truancy and irregular attendance are sufficient to 
call for repressive measures. Compulsory school laws suggest themselves as the natural 
remedy, but so far these have proved a dead letter among us, excepting in those places 
in which truant officers have been employed and means taken to create and maintain an 
intelligent public sentiment upon the subject In the larger cities the necessity of com- 
pulsory laws can hardly be questioned, but they will prove useless in the absence of 
officers specially intrusted with their execution. Meanwhile, it should be remembered 
that everything which renders the schools attractive and brings them into intimate rela- 
tion with the requirements of ordinary life tends to overcome the evils of irregular at- 
tendance. 

PEIMAEY SCHOOLS. 

The improvement of the primary grades, which has been in progress for several years, 
continues. Little can be done until they are relieved of overcrowding, and a number of 
cities have not x>a88ed beyond this stage of the upward movement The highest daily 
average attendance to a teacher reported is 60; the lowest, 32. No dty has reached the 
limit of 30 pupils, which is the number generally assumed as the largest compatible with 
the individual attention required by the ideal of primary training. 

Among the improved methods of instruction generally adopted are the word method 
and the phonic system in reading and the Grube system or some modification of the 
aame in computation. 

Oral lessons are becoming a prominent feature of primary programmes. These are so 
arranged as to present, in admirable sequence and by means of appropriate illustrations, 
ideas of form, proportion, color, and the most familiar objects in nature, and when rightly 
used excite the young mind to natural and pleasing activity. While admitting the prog- 
ress that has been made, it must still be allowed that theory enters too largely into the 
method of primary teachers. It is a matter of common observation that untrained teach- 
ers sometimes achieve remarkable success in instructing children. It will generally be 
found that such persons nave quick perceptions, ready command of resources, and unusual 
ingenuity. These qualities characterize so large a proportion of American girls that any 
very general failure on the part of our primary teachers would seem to indicate a false 
system of training or a vain endeavor to meet unreasonable demands. We are far behind 
German-speaking nations in specializing normal training according to the requirements 
of difierent grades, but the idea is gaining recognition among us, and already several city 
normals have made a specialty of training primary teachers, with excellent results. 

If salary were the sole index of the value attaching to service, primary instruction 
would seem to be held in less esteem among us than that of higher grades. It need 
hardly be said that compensation is not determined solely by the importance of a work, 
and it is certainly no disparagement of primary instruction to acknowledge that nature 
has made more liberal provision for its requirements than for those of higher grades, with 
the inevitable consequence of lessening its cost. A comparison of the present rates with 
those which obtained several years ago will show a gradual increase in primary salaries. 

HIGHER GRADES. 

The schools intermediate between the primary and high derive peculiar importance 
from the fact that they complete the school training of a large m^ority of the scholars 
who enter them. Experience has shown that an extended curriculum caimot be mas- 
tered in the years covered by this grade, and it becomes necessary to make careful 
choice of the studies most valuable for elementary discipline and most necessary in the 
ordinary intercourse of society. With respect to these studies there is substantial agree- 
ment throughout the cities. The schools of intermediate grade have sufiered much in 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 



CITY SCHOOLS. CXV 

ftepst from defective methods, memorizing and rote recitation having here been ear- 
ned to the extreme. A reform has commenced in this respect, with results which prom- 
m vdl for fntare progress. Under this better management the theory of grammar has 
beea aodgzied to a later period of the student's career and its plxice supplied by exercises 
ii omposition, spoken language, and the writings of standard atithors. The experiment 
hiBcontiDaed long enough to show that the correct use of the mother tongue is more 
mdOj acquired by these exercises than by drill in etymology and syntax. Less time 
a given to arithmetic than formerly, and it is believed that further reduction may be 
Bide without the sacrifice of any important processes. Simple book-keeping and the 
artioary fonns of business correspondence are recommended for the advanced classes of 
tbe gnde Penmanship is better taught than formerly, special teachers being frequently 
eopk^ed for the branch. Drawing has been introduced to some extent, and with excel- 
kfit results where competent teachers have been employed. The endeavor to make 
ckooitary science a feature of these grades has revealed the same difficulty in this 
eBoiitiT that eminent Elnglish scientists have pointed out in their own, namely, the 
not of teachers prepared to give the instruction. The lifeless routine of memorized 
adtitioDs is worse than useless in science. It paralyzes the faculties by which the &cts 
of adeoee are apprehended, and renders true progress impossible. This is a matter 
d^mding attention in normal schools. In a few cities special means have been pro- 
▼^fed for meeting the emergency. With reference to such an endeavor in Boston the 
Bnnl report of the supervisors contains the following statement: 

The admirable courses of lectures by the professors of the Institute of Technology upon 
di&rent branches of natural science designed to meet the special wants of teachers have 
Fndaeed their effect upon the schools. 

City high schools are treated in connection with Table YI, as they are properly classed 
vith seooodary schools. The statistics of expenditure, enrolment, &c., for this grade 
tt, however, tabulated in Table II. 

From the statistics of daily average attendance it appears that the limits are ns fol- 
kms: 



Namber of scholars to 1 teacher in — 


Lowest 
limit. 


HigheKt 
limit. 


Vl^WTwtiQt*!!! „ 


36 
24 
17 


GO 


^^Mr kImioK^., ,,. ,.. .„„-.*....*,«„..„, 

mw^m^^.. .._... 


55 
59 



EVENING AKIS SPECIAL SCHOOLS. 

I ^*9iQg achoobd are reported in 3ri cities, and, where they are maintained, appear to 

I b^QBi a firmer basis and more efficicDtly managed than a few years ago. Evening 

tjfcefeoli are relatively more sacie^^fnl than those of low grade. This would nat- 

^y bt expe^ad. They meet the wauti? of a class of pupils who understand their own 

■^■Itiei and to ^bom^ m a rtsnlt of previous training, mental effort is easier and 

I VI dd^htfxil than to the impils of lowt^r grade. Evening drawing schools are greatly 

I ^|WB«id wherever they exist. Bostou and New York maintain a number of special 

^ ^ooti ttlxpted to pQ^cular €l hisses of children and in other cities similar provision 

<^^«Qiied. The school committee of B^ingor, Me., urges the establishment of anun- 

^idiobt lor the benefit of working fcioys who are employed io shops and mills part of 

f «f And we eonsequemtly mmhl e to keep up with specified grades. The school board 

|J^teUjiif Jf, Y,, has been flskcd to establish industrial schools for the benefit of poor 

t m prubtic schoola. In a number of cities arrangements are made by which 

^ dikdlHi Im orpbsui aeyluma Mtend public schools and the schools of reformatory 

r ehUdfen are brought into the system of public schools. Ev^;^^^ a 



CXVI REPORT OF THE CO^IMISSIONEB OF EDUCATION. 

disposition is manifest to adjnst the public schools to the wants of all classes and condi- 
tions of youth ; the single exception to this tendency is the neglect of children under 
five years of age. Here we are met with one of the gravest and most interesting prob- 
lems of modem life and one in reference to which we have much to learn from European 
nations. 

SCHOOL FINANCES. 

By reference to Table II, appendix, it will be seen that the report of school finances 
from most of the cities is so full that the entire cost of the free schools and the expendi- 
ture for each particular branch of the 8er\ice may be estimated. The expense per capita 
of average attendance does not vary so much as might be expected firom the diversity of 
conditions represented in the cities. The charge of extravagant expenditure is hardly 
borne out by the record, from which it appears that the expense per capita is not above 
$25 in more than 13 cities. 

The annual salaries of principals of primary schools range from $365 to $1,215; sal- 
aries of grammar school principals range for men from $720 to $2,250, for women from 
$612 to $1,420, and the salaries of assistants in grammar schools from $350 to $2,280 
for men, and for women from $200 to $695. 

MOEAL AND PHYSICAL TRAINING. 

The relation of the public schools to moral and physical education is justly regarded 
as a matter of vital importance. That their influence in respect to the former is greater 
and more excellent than their enemies pretend, no candid and competent judge can 
doubt Sectarianism is not and probably never will be allowed any place in their pro- 
grammes ; neither is it the purpose of the American people to commit the religious 
instruction of their children to this agency. The home and the church are the proper 
instrumentalities for this work, and if they are not equal to the requirements it is evi- 
dence that they need reform or that influences are tolerated amongst us which are &tal 
to their proper action. It is enough that the schools are not irreligious in their tendency 
and that by the precepts which they inculcate, the principles which they maintain, and 
the habits which they develop they are continually promotive of good morals. 

With respect to the physical training of youth it must be admitted that Americans 
make no provision for it by means of their schools, homes, or any other institution. In 
this matter school officers are not more negligent than the public generally; indeed, their 
efforts to improve the sanitary condition of school buildings and to intersperse the in- 
tellectual exercises of school with suitable physical exerdses are often thwarted by 
public apathy or the parsimony of those who control the public ftinds. 

So far as it can be shown that the schools are ii^urious to health or an obstacle to the 
best physical development of the young, so far they should be immediately reformed* 
It does not follow — nor is there yet any conclusive evidence — that the schools offer the 
best medium for physical training; on this subject we are just beginning to engage the 
efforts of specialists. School officers have not been indifferent to the progress of sanitary 
knowledge, as is shown by the fact that x>eriodical inspection of school-houses, with reports 
of their condition and suggestions for their improvement, is required in a number of 
cities. For further details with reference to city schools, the reader is referred to the 
heading City School Systems in the abstracts of the respective States. 



Digitized by 



Google 



NORMAL SCHOOLS. 



CXVII 



TABLE III.— NORMAL SCHOOIA 

Tbe IbUowing is a comparative sammaiy of normal schools, instmctors, and pupils 
xeported to the Bureau for the years 1872 to 1881, inclusive: 



! 1872. Ig73. 


1874. 1 1S75. ! 1876. 

1 1 


Xamber of inBtitutions 

KvBfacTof inftf;rtir>iom 


96 

773 

U,778 


U3 

88f7 

16,620 


124 ! 137 151 
960 1,031 1,065 


XvBiltrr oT fltniii^ntfi 


24,405 29,105 '33,921 

1 1 





1877. ; 1878. 



1879. 1880. 



152 156 207 



220 



1,227 1,422 1,466 



1881. 



225 
1,573 
48,706 



Digitized by 



Google 



CXVIII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

Table III.— Part 1.— Summary of 



States and Territories. 



Alabama , 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado , 

Connecticut 

Florida , 

Ctoorgia „, 

nilnois 

Indiana 

Iowa , 

Kansas 

Maine , 

Maryland 

Maasaohusetts. 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska. 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

Tennessee , 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia. 

Wisconsin , 

Dakota 

District of Columbia. 

Utah 

Washington , 

Total 



e 

1 

1 


1 

1 

1 

1 




Number of students. 




Graduates in 
the last year. 


1 


Number of nor- 
mal students. 


Number of 
other students. 


a 

3 
S 

e 
o 


it 

H 

s & 


1 


9 

1 




i 

a 
& 

21 


4 


20 


647 


Z72 


264 


90 


16 


15 


2 
2 


5 
19 


206 
644 


122 
60 


83 
627 






n^ 


2 


21 


86 


1 

1 




9 
150 


8 
15 


6 
135 










9 








45 


42 


1 


7 


153 


7 


6 


79 


61 


8 





1 
8 


7 
85 


78 
1,910 


67 
296 


11 
536 










506 


673 


74 


64 


S 
4 


16 
10 


617 
882 


258 
133 


850 
248 






61 
49 


50 
40 


1 




2 


10 


404 


76 


111 


109 


108 


21 


17 


6 


81 


671 


163 


298 


109 


101 


113 


95 


2 


20 


409 


26 


219 


61 


113 


37 


25 


9 


77 


1,210 


152 


1,048 


2 


8 


242 


135 


2 


13 


563 


{46(318 25 


} (174) 


90 


80 


3 


82 


908 


{"f 


79 

233 


(C 
90 


221 


}sx 


1 
51 


2 


11 


380 


132 


65 


96 


98 


1 


I 


6 


55 


1,424 
274 


( 725(82) 617 


I 




178 


39 


1 


9 


I 
117 


157 


J 




40 


40 


1 


4 


35 


2 


33 






2 


2 


2 


11 


263 


41 


222 








78 


76 


10 


175 


6,622 


{ J' 


75) 
2,698 


(7< 
303 


J6) 
1,650 


}«4 


827 


7 
3 
11 


67 
17 
156 


978 

122 

5,112 


891 


462 

122 

2,287 


68 


57 






90 
471 


62 
350 


1,945 


480 


400 


1 
1 


11 
8 


136 
161 


10 
56 


126 
106 






18 
61 


16 
59 








2 


10 


249 


/ (49) 

1 60 90 


} - 


30 


70 


70 


3 


17 


444 


119 292 


23 


10 


76 


41 


2 


51 


451 


216 155 


69 


21 


60 


46 


5 


10 


217 


92 94 


18 


13 


22 


7 


5 

1 
2 

1 
1 


58 


1,753 


382 662 


836 


873 


78 


70 


6 
2 


38 
45 
21 




38 
lA 






as 

18 
3 


17 


29 






(21) 


' 






1 




113 


979 


^»^ U,740 j 12,339 


(i,aj8) 1 

2,460 1 3,794/ 


2,867 


1,830 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



NORMAL SCHOOLS. 



CXIX 



istittia of public normal schools. 



Volomca in li- 
bnriM. 


1 

1 

1 

2 


Number having collections 
of models, casts, &c., for 
f^e band drawing. 


1 

11 

i 




a 


H 
ll 

It 


1 

al 


fi 
ll 




Number in which students 
receive dipiomaa or cer- 
Ufloates on oompletion of 


,1 


3,isi eoo 


2 
2 




4 
2 


8 
2 


2 

1 


2 


1 
1 



2 






in», 135 


1 




iinl 


2 


2 


2 


<> 


2 




2 









l,5flO, 25 


1 


1 


1 









1 









o' 








1 


1 
















1» 20 


1 





1 









1 


1 






l,56B 1,266 


3 


3 


8 









8 


1 






2,2» 50 


3 


2 


8 









1 









1,700 


2 


1 


1 


1 














1.900 : inn 


1 
6 
2 




2 
5 
2 


1 






1 
1 
1 








2.175 


859 
208 


8 

1 


1 
1 




2,835 


1 




15,181 j 962 


O 


7 


8 









5 


1 






i X7»\ 1,300 
1 

M 871 


1 
8 


1 
8 


1 
8 








1 
2 













1 




ion; 40O 








2 


2 






9 









iSas' 368 



1 


2 



5 

1 


4 
1 






8 

1 








laol SCO 







»)' 100 


1 





1 









1 







* 


W, 87 


2 
9 


2 
9 


2 
9 


1 
4 


10 


10 


1 
9 




2 
10 




!«.!» 1 555 


4 


10 


390l 125 



3 
U 


1 
1 
6 


5 
3 
11 


1 


2 


11 


1 
1 





4 

3 
11 




2sl. 






liSW' 1,074 


10 


9 


6 




LOOO 1 100 


1 


1 


1 





1 




1 










L^.flOO 




1 
2 




1 


1 

2 

1 
1 




1 

2 

1 


1 
1 

3 

1 




1 




1 
1 




1 




1000 


500 




9«0 





1 




UW)| 876 


2 




1.7» 
1S6 




i 


8 


2 
5 


1 
1 


2 
4 






1 
2 


2 
5 




466 


4 




1 _ I 


1 
2 




2 











2 





1 
1 






1 
2 





1 100 ...... 


2 

















IKa 9.W7 


98 


53 


93 


88 


71 


81 


6S 


22 


76 


108 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



cxx 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Table III.— Paet 2.^ Summary oj 



States. 



Alabama.... 
Arkansas... 
Galifomia . 
Colorado... 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 



Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

MMWirhufletta.... 

MIobisan 

Mlflsifleippi 

Mlnonri 

Nebraska. 

New York 

North Carolina.. 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

South Carolina... 



Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont. 

Virginia - 

West Virginia. 

Wisconsin , 

District of Columbia ., 



I 

o 



Total . 



112 



I 



Number of students. 



Graduates in I 
the last year. 1 



Number of nor- ' Number of 
i mal students. > other students. 






277 
14 



I 



a548 

al.OOS 
6,199 
aM4 

1,144 

a576 

151 
52 

246 
28 

156 

168 



100 
14 



s 



OS 



9 c 

it 



1 'Z. 



86 I 

20 ; 

14 i 



196 
121 



253 

122 I 



2 

!.. 
12 



r224) 
30 



821 

2,642 

356 



{ 



.} 



(29) 
160 

107 
82 
19 
82 



20 

82 

4 I 
89 

21 I 
67 



148 

14 

0530 

3,920 

61 
al,351 

975 



817 

1,552 

326 

129 

166 
99 



63 I 

570 ! 

45 



75 

30 
435 
62 



(104) ) 

426| 296 ; 

2 1 2 J 
20 



(103) 
18 I 

95 



163 j 
28 ... 

73 .... 



43 i 



18 
241, 
42 

13 j.. 

i 

28 ; 

10 I 
4 ,.. 
6 

17 

21 



34 



62 ; 



143 I 98 I 

f (110) ') 

|2,429 947, 1 



{ 



j«l,652 ;{ ^l 



29 

864 

(200) 
94 

(167) 



16 1 


853 


1 


6 
a337 


:oj 


8 i 


170 


14 


101 


10 


216 



26 

280 ] 



154 I 



82 
213 

52 

337 
71 
3 

83 !.. 



I 



152 I 210 I 

(299) ) 

155 I 175 1/ 

(30) I) 

317 811 ; 

(221) ; 



75 



150 I 



39 I 



61 



9| 
80 ; 



116 

3 

78 

34 



694 a21 



020 I <^) <^> ll 778 

'"^ \7,676l 4,976' 2,700 1 2,416 / "" 



a Classification no 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



NORMAL SCHOOLS. 



CXXI 



j^i^vffrnaie namuU acho&la. 



Voiomes in U- 

bnrka. 



Oh 

it 



^ 1 * 









loo . 

100 I 



an .. 

4,12 
U7W' 

7» 



§^2 
851 



7^ 



2 : 



a 9 

©a 

II 



1^ 
I? 

IS 

ll 

a| 
9 a 



1 

a 

1| 



3 



^ 



aa 
III 



I 

soo I 

800 

to; 

lao I 

281 

I 

30 I 



I 



96| 

«,a7 1 



5Q0j 
1.100 



"1 

244 ' 
56 



106 

850 
100 

aoo 



12| 



5 ' 

10 ! 




2 .. 

ll 



8 

2 1 

Oi 1 

1 

1 

2 

1 



2 

1 I 



^m\ 2.322 



67 



18 



86 



57 



30 



42 



la an 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CXXII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

Table III. — General summary of statistics of public and private normal schools. 





Number of normal schools supported by — 




State. 


County. 




City. 




Allotheragendes. 


States and Territories. 


4 

2 

61 

2 
1 
2 

2 


n 
ll 

20 
5 
16 


II 




if 


IS 


1* 


si 
i| 

55 = 




it 

55 


Si 

II 

II 


it 

ii 




596 

205 

432 

9 

150 

13 

78 

608 

588 

843 

187 


1 1 









; 

2 

1 


„ 


186 




■ r 1 ■■ 








8 84 


California 


1 


1 


8 


155 


7 ! 14 


Colorado 

CTotinecfiiout 


i 


1 


9 
7 
7 
26 
12 
8 
10 


1 ! 




1 






Florida 


1 








Georgia ~ 

Illinois 


' 








8 
10 
7 
2 
5 
2 
C2 
2 
2 
8 


47 

76 

39 

11 

88 

9 

4 

4 

8 

19 


274 


1 


9 


223 


! 




638 




2 
2 


4 

2 


29 
88 


4,m 


Iowa 








. 681 


KanMWi r .,,.-, 


( 




318 


Kentucky 






:::::::c::::; 




377 




1 






1 




131 


Maine 


4 

2 
6 
2 
3 
2 
5 
1 
1 
1 
8 
7 


21 
20 
63 
13 
.12 
11 
48 
9 
4 

10 
125 
67 


444 

245 
1.099 
389 
639 
187 






2 


10 


17 


52 


Maryland 

MaMaohusetts 






196 


' 




3 


14 


101 


28 


Michigan 

Minnesota 


* 






156 


r 












Mississippi 

Mtwonri 


! 










2 

1 
1 


9 


168 


1.290 
274 


1 




1 


7 


134 




Nebraska » 


1 




U 


84 


Kf^xr ffftiTiDflbire . . . 


z 














.. 


New Jersey ~... 

New York 


236 

2,688 
853 








1 
2 


1 
60 


27 
1,286 














2 
5 

8 

1 
9 


20 
82 

4 
89 


14 


North Carolina. 








241 


Ohio 








3 


17 


122 


8,486 


Oregon 


! 


1 






61 


Pennsylvania 


10 

1 


128 
U 


3,267 
136 








1 


28 


965 


567 












South Carolina 














4 

12 
8 
1 
2 

1 
2 


21 
57 

16 


846 


Tennessee. 


1 

2 

8 

bl 

5 

4 
dl 


8 
10 
17 
48 
10 
56 


161 
199 
411 
305 
186 
1,029 














885 


Texas 














18S 


Vermont 














€ 


Virginia 








1 


8 


66 


10 

8 

14 


29 


West Virginia. 








17C 


Wisconsin 








1 


2 


15 


54 


Dakota 










District of Columbia 












2 





88 


3 


10 


122 


Utah 


dl 
dl 


2 


45 
21 










Washinirton 































* * 











ToUl 


90 


823 


17,188 


1 


9 


223 


22 


H7 


2,992 


112 


5M 13.58S 









a This summary contains the strictly normal students only, as £Bkr as reported ; for total number o 
students, see the preceding summaries. 

6 Partially supported Arom the proceeds of the national grant of land to agricultural colleges, thi 
normal school being part of an institution so endowed. 

c Receive an allowance from the State. 

d Territorial appropriation. r^ r^^^}^ 

Digitized by VjOO^ IC 



NORMAL SCHOOLS. 



cxxni 



Apprapriatton8 for normal schoois. 



Name of school and location. 



g 

< 


State appropriation 
per capita of pu- 
pils in the last 
year.a 


r,5oo 

2,000 
4,000 






820 00 


3,000 


17 00 


(6) 


(ft) 


eMO 


1 14 


3,000 
dS.OOO 
88,800 






77 08 


(6) 


(ft) 


687,000 


80 00 


(/) 


(/) 


(ft) 


(ft) 


iff) 


(ff) 


A20,190 


50 SO 


22,494 


49 44 


05,000 


J27 60 


(*) 


(*) 


\(k) 


ik) 


02,000 
17,000 




28 91 


(*) 


(fc) 


8,750 


21 00 


(k) 


(fc) 


W 


(ft) 








(6) 


(ft) 


140 


175 


(m) 


(m) 


n2,900 


n28 50 


6,000 


80 00 


«,883 


88 88 



SuteXonnal School. Florence, Ala 

Kcnttl School for Colored Teachers, Huntsyille, Ala 

LiMotn Normal Uniyersity, Marion, Ala 

Tuikcgee Normal School, Tuskegee, Ala 

SocuU department of Arkansas Industrial Uniyersity, Fayotteyille, Ark., 

Soithlsod College and Normal Institute, Helena, Ark 

BoMfa Normal College of Arkansas Indus*Tial Uniyersity, Pine Bluff, Ark... 

IConul department of Qirls* High School, San Francisco, Cal 

CUiibroia Slate Normal School, San Jos6,Cal....: 



^onnsl department of the Uniyersity of Colorado, Boulder, Colo 

Comectkot State Normal School, New Britain, Conn...„ 

Em Florida Seminary, GainesvUle,Pla 

^Coraal department of Atlanto University, Atlanta, Ga 

J^armal department of North Georgia Agricultural College, Dahlonega, Ga., 

SMilternlllfaiois Normal University, Oarfoondale, 111 

nSaus Slate Normal University, Normal, lU 

Cook Oraoty Normal and Training School, Normalville, 111 

Tiiiiiag school department of public schools. Fort Wayne, Ind 

b&ospoUs Normal School, Indianapolis, Ind 

&Ndkem Indiana Normal College, Mitchell, Ind 

iBditta Stite Normal School, T«rre Haute, Ind 

^rttncton City Training School, Burlington, Iowa 

I««i8lste Normal School, Cedar Falls, Iowa 

l^vnu] depaitment of the High School, Davenport, Iowa 

Ctnrof Didactics, SUte University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 

K««uSlate Normal School, Emporia, Kans 

^omsl department of University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kans 

K<«ocky Female Orphan School, Midway, Ky 

Ptabodf Normal School for Colored Students, New Orleans, La 

Pttbedy Normal Seminary, New Orleans, La 

tMen Slate Normal School, Castine, Me 

Sh(e Normal and Training School, Farmington, Me 



I Ezdurive of appropriations for permanent objects. 

^Appropriation in common with other departments of the university ; see Table IX. 

rta>fh>m the State and 8160 from the county. 

^CHy appropriation. 

rOf thu, ITS.OOO is a special appropriation for new building ; there was also an appropriation of 
tSjMlfrom the city for the same purpose. 

/^cIm>oI 18 sopporicrd from interest of flinds derived from sale of lands donated by the United States. 

yl^utially supported from the proceeds of the national grant of land to agricultural colleges, this 
■xiisl aehool being part of an institution so endowed. 

^ or this 9am IS.SOT were from the fund donated by Congress for seminary and 11,200 for perma- 
■^ taprovements. 

iCvmntf appropriation. 

;Goanty appropriation per capita. 

i^^pfiropriation In conunon with other public schools of the city. 

'Qty approp ria tion for buildings. 

«N«ained by the Peabody frind. 

^ftoia local contributions and Peabody ftind, the amount per capita being the amount of these 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



CXXIV REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 
Appropriations for normal schools — Continued. 



I 



Name of school and loctttSon. 



a 
I 



t 



State Normal and Training School, Gorham, Me 96,838 

Normal Practice School, Lewiston, Me (6) 

Normal department of Maine Central Institute, Pittsfield, Me 600 

Normal Training and Practice Class, Portland, Me cl,550 

Madawaska Training School, Van Buren and Fort Keni, Me 1,000 

Normal department of Oak Grove Seminary, Vassalboro*. Me 600 

Baltimore Normal School for Colored Teachers, Baltimore, Md 2,000 

Maryland State Normal School, Baltimore, Md 10,000 

Boston Normal School, Boston, Mass (b) 

Massachusetts Normal Art School, Boston, Mass 17,000 

State Normal School, Bridgewater, Mass 13,800 

Training School for Teachers, Cambridge, Mass c3,380 

State Normal School, Framingham, Mass 11,200 

Gloucester Training School for Teachers, Gloucester, Mass c8,000 

State Normal School, Salem, Mass 20,876 

Westfleld State Normal School, Westfleld, Mass j 10,350 

Massachusetts State Normal School at Worcester, Worcester, Maas. 10.925 

Course in the Science and the Art of Teaching (University of Michigan), ■ (d) 

Ann Arbor, Mich., | 

Michigan SUte Normal School, Ypsilanti, Mich f44,500 

State Normal School at Mankato, Mankato, Minn 12,000 

State Normal School at St. Cloud, St. Cloud, Minn 12,000 

State Normal School at Winona, Winona, Minn 12,000 

Mississippi State Normal School, Holly Springs, Mins 3,000 

Tougaloo University, Tougaloo, Miss. 2,000 

Missouri Stata Normal School, third district, Cape Girardeau, Mo 8,750 

Normal College of the University of the State of Missouri, Columbia, Mo.... (d) 

Lincoln Institute, Jefferson City, Mo /16,000 

Missouri State Normal School, first district, Kirksville, Mo 10,000 

St. Louis Normal School, St. Louis, Mo c9,228 

State Normal School, second district, Warrensburg, Mo 10,000 

Nebraska State Normal School, Peru, Nebr 11,750 

New Hampshire State Normal School, Plymouth, N. H A8,500 

Newark Normal School, Newark, N. J cl,490 

New Jersey State Normal School, Trenton, N. J 20,000 

State Normal School, Albany, N. Y : 18,000 

State Normal and Training School, Brockport, N. Y „ i 18,000 

State Normal School, Buffalo, X. Y 17,699 

State Normal and Training School, Cortland, N. Y 18,000 

State Normal and Training School, Fredonia, N. Y 18,000 

State Normal and Training School, Geneseo, N. Y 18,000 

Normal College. New York, N. Y c95,000 

State Normal and Training School, Oswego, N. Y 20,000 

a Exclusive of appropriations for permanent objects. 

b Appropriation in common with other public schools of the city. 

eCity appropriation. 

d Appropriation in common with other departments of the university ; see Table IX. 

«f25,000 for building. 

/For two years. ^^ I 

yCity appropriation per capita. Digitized by VjOOQ iC 

h Also $1,350 from city. ^ 



NORMAL SCHOOLS. 



CXXV 



Appropriations for normal schools — Continued. 








881. 


CJB 




'^ 


«|S 




i 


•C^f-? 


Name of school and location. 


1 


i ill 






! 'h 










•5 o - 




P. 


=J a.= 




< 


35 




^1,!W0 .. 
10,000 i 
2,J500 
5,000 
11,270 L 
2,500 ; 
5,000 .. 
5.000 .. 
10,000 .. 
525,000 |.. 
9,749 
4,^1 i 
9,000 \ 
i850 .. 
il50 \. 
J 438 .. 
I 
20,000 ' 
7,600 L 
2,000 
Ie1,800 I 
12,146 .. 



S5 91 

8 81 
18 35 



2 50 



10 50 



697 



CO 



Stile Xonnal and Training School, Potsdam, N. Y I $18,000 i 

SyneoaeTTaiDing School, Syracuse, N. Y (6) (fc) 

UaiTeraity Normal School, Chapel Hill, N. C i 2,000 j 

Elizabeth City State Normal School, Elizabeth City, N. C | 500 i 

dtite Colored Normal School, Fayctteville, N. C c2.500 

Fruklm Normal School, Franklin, N. C ! d900 

Sew Berne Slate Normal School, New Berne, N. C €?X) 

Nevton State Normal, Newton, N. C ' 500 ' 

VOaon Stale Normal School, Wilson, N. C f>m 

Ciadnnati Normal School, Cincinnati, Ohio cr7,73l 

CtevdaDd Cit J Normal School, Cleveland, Ohio ! 

Diyttm Normal and Training School, Dayton, Ohio 

(^caeTaNormal School, Gkjneva, Ohio 

PoBflylrania State Normal School, Bloomsburg, Pa 

Svodiwesteni State Normal School, California, Pa 

Stele Normal School, Edinboro', Pa 

Stele Nonnal School at Indiana, Indiana, Pa 

Kerstone Stale Normal School, Kutztown, Pa I 2,500 ; {h) 

Oestzal Stale Normal School, Lock Haven. Pa. 

PeaasylTania State Normal School, Mansfield, Pa 

taasjrlTania Slate Normal School, Millersville, Pa 

Rakdeli>hia Normal School for Oirls, Philadelphia, Pa 

CtiDberland VaUey State Normal School, Shippensburg, Pa 

West Chester State Normal School, West Chester, Pa 

Sbode Island State Normal School. Providence, R. I 

t» ■..-..:.■_, Wiiiiusboru, ^. ' . , 

•^1 ^% Jone«boFo\ Tenn,....,.*^ ..,.......,...»„* I 

^F^ _ , ; iftiMfcl InslUnte, MjirT-vHle^ Tenn,. ...,., ' 

^H Normal CotHfCi^ lTtiH*ets4iy of Naalivjllo, NaahvillE, Tenn I 

iiBH4MH(on Normal LuftJitute, Umilsi'iHo, Tpk ,^„ , 

^HfK^rqiaJ SehcKj) of Te:i:fi« fnr C^oWrcd Students, Prairie View, Tex.... 

%itNoR^ School, CaHtleton, Vt... 

hiimm ibiie Kovmal School, Johnson, Yt...,.»^^......„,,^, 

l^3(4tSsalBah«>ol, RAndolpU, VU. 

Xornnal School, Bridge water, Vu,, — 

3&sifmal and AjpicuJlural Institute, Hampton, Va {n] 

JCoraaaJ SehcKil, Rk-bmond, Ta ,.„.,„ ol,170 

of afifrapHiLtioua for pprtnatieni objects. 

Q la fiom.mon wtili other public sohoola of the city. 
from Peabody fund. 

froffi oontity and f300 ^tmi ¥va\iOi\y fiat id. 
ttmtFom Peabody ftind, 
9100 Amm county and ^nO fVotii Pc!«body fund. 

f<% iypf <i|Hl«i foti. 

ilVly ai^ a week for norma.] pqplU. 

^h^ fteilr. eounty. and city. 

ifm^ e»isfiiy. 

^ i^ lUD Ihxtk <>oKtitr . 

' lA^lbSfhni c«inniy. 

• Pnwi Haaa anil wjnmy . 

^tlii hwallalp f«evlir«M annimny ikimnl tlQ.CltlP f^tu the State, being its share of the income from 

'•^ ipiMt Xial «nint of bwiJ* to attrJeultnrwl coni^gta. Digitized by GOOQIC 

' GkruHtmnrtatlon ; jiUaat370fttimBl»lu. ^ 



50 00 




120 00 



14 40 



26 83 



CXXVI REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Appropriaiiona for normal schools — Cont inued. 



Name of school and looation. 



I 

a 



g-2 

■sis 

III 

1^ 



Ck>iioord State Normal School, Concord Church, W. Va 

Ftdrmont State Normal School, Fairmont, W. Va | 

QlenviUe State Normal School, GlenvUle, W. Va > 

Storer College, Harper's Ferry, W. Va 

lilarshall CoUege State Normal School, Huntington, W. Va 

Shepherd College, Shepherdstown, W. Va 

West Liberty State Normal School, West Liberty, W. Va J 

Milwaukee Normal School, Milwaukee, Wis I 

State Normal School, Oshkosh, Wis ; 

Wisconsin State Normal School, Platteville, Wis v j 

SUte Normal School, River Falls, Wis i 

State Normal School, Whitewater, Wis j 

Dakota Normal School, Springfield, Dak ! 

Miner Normal School, Washington, D. C ' 

Normal department of Howard University, Washington, D. C ! 

Washington Normal School, Washington, D. C ^ „ 

Normal department of University of Deseret. Salt Lake City, Utah | 

Normal department, University of Washington Territory, Seattle, Wash. Ter„' 



$1,333 

504 

1,333 $15 15 

1,000 

773 I 22 OD 
M,089 ; 



18,000 


26 10 


22,703 


a0 66 


18,621 


G9 42 


25,188 





(c) i (c) 



d2,600 



de2 60 



a Exclusive of appropriations for permanent objects. 

b City appropriation. 

c (Congressional appropriation of $10,000 for all departu>ents of the university. 

d Territorial appropriation. 

e Appropriation in common with other departments of the university; see Table IX. 

The comparative summary of normal schools shows a net increase of 5 schools, 107 
instructors, and 5,628 students over the figures for 1880. The total increase in the num- 
ber of normals reporting is IH, the total decrease 13, the increase being chiefly in public 
normal schools or departments for colored teachers in the South and the decrease chiefly 
in private normals. The number of city normal schools is 147, representing cities in 13 
States ; the number of State normals, 90, representing all but five of the States. Only 
one county normal was reporte<l upon returns to the statistical division, viz. Normal and 
Training School, Cook County, Illinois; a few others are mentioned in the abstraetR. 
Of the whole number of normaLs, 113 are public, as against 106 in 1880. 

The public normals differ widely in respect to income, appliances, &c. ; a few, as may 
be inferred from the duration of the course, have the characteristics of normal institutes 
rather than of normal schools. 

Considered by geographical position the public normals are distributed as follows : 

New EngUmd States (6) :.._ 21 

Middle Atlantic States (6) _ 27 

Southern Atlantic States (4).. ___ _ _.. 9 

Gulf States (4) __ 8 

Southern Central States (6)... _ 16 

Northern Central States (9) 25 

Statesof the Pacificslope (3) 2 

Territories (11) _ 5 

These schools are supported by public iVmds, subject to inspection by State, county, 
or city authorities, and for the most part confer a diploma upon their graduates which 
is accepted in lieu of an examination for the position of teacher in the common school. In 



NORMAL SCHOOLS. CXXVIl 

1 iiT States there is a permanent endowment fond for normal schools, but as a rale they 
se «»»<*^n»*i bj ^"""^fci appropriations. The estimates are veiy closely scmtinizeil, and 
tfe ddates to which they give rise often become the scene of yiolent opposition to the 
idkoois themselTes. It is gratifying to note that the investigations prompted by these 
periodical attacks have invariably resulted in the vindication of the particular school 
isTolTed and the consequent strengthening of the system of normal training. 

Tbc experience of the Connecticut State Normal School is significant In 1867, it will 
be Rmembered. the opponents of the school had so far prevailed that all appropriation 
Tis withheld and the school suspended for two years. Opposition was renewed after 
±t sebool reopened, but the final issue has been a grand rally for its support ; by the 
3SUIII0II8 action of both houses of the Connecticut legislature $75,000 were appropri- 
Bed in 18B1 fiyr a new building upon the condition, already fulfilled, that New Britain 
ihoaki add $25,000. This result reflects great credit upon the judicious management of 
tboK who have had the conduct of the school through its struggles. 

APPBOPRIATIONS FOR NORMAL SCHOOLS. 

Appropriatioiis for normal schools average a little higher than in 1880. The six 
icgest appropriations were as follows : Philadelphia Normal School for Girls, Philadel- 
ahiL Pa.. $25,000; State Normal School, Whitewater, Wis., $25,188; California State 
-Vamal School, San Josd, Cal. , $33,300; Michigan State Normal School, Ypsilanti, Mich. , ^ 
HL500; Connecticut State Normal School, New Britain, Conn., $87,000; Normal Col- 
:«». New York City, $95,000. 

The latgest public appropriations to normal schools in the 12 States aided by the Pea. 
bodjfhnd were $20,000 to the Sam Houston Normal Institute, Huntsville, Tex., and 
T^.fHOO to the Normal School of Texas for Colored Students, Prairie View. 

KEQriREMZNTS FOR ADMISSION TO NORMAL AND TO PROFESSION AI^ SCHOOLS. 

The tendency is noticeable in the public normals to increase the length of the course 
:ad to give it more and more a^ professional character. In view of these efforts it is 
•nportant that the relative standing of normal schools and schools of law, medicine, 
^-.. aboold be understood. The following statements indicate the admission require- 
mmi' ' < . ^ i.ij^es of institations : 

I B<>§i&ti Ni^rtml ScJiool. 

Midatca Ibr admiHaioii must be at least eighteen years of age, unless an exception 
^ .^•ii knr m vpedal vote of the cfimmitt^'e in charge, and must be recommended for 
■"■ Miftii hy the maecter or tortmiittiH^ at' the last school they attended. 

i '**«***^** tliat a candidate hi^ ooiivplet^ the fourth year of the high school course 
i ica^iid m fhioof of qualificaiioD for ad m isston. The course of study in the Boston high 
>tA(Mli«Bbfmew the roUowlDg eu^ject^ : Composition; rhetoric; English literature; an- 
<a^ — liij^Tjifci and modem history; civil government; bolany; zoology; anatomy and 
; ^»<aiii;<ttrv; physics; astronomy; arithmetic, including the metric system; 

ich, or German; vocal music, and 



itr: plane trigonometry; I^itin, or Frenc 
OaodidAt'm wlia have not eompleUKl the fourth year of the Boston High School 
K^ wUl bet examioed oti this or iu G^niyideiit, 

Slaiif' Norma! i<e!tmlt ^Vorcestetf Mass. 

Cadidatjoi taost «how upon examtnatiQn good capacity and general intelligence, and 
^ IMr attatnments in tbe Mlowin^ lini aches, viz : reading, spelling, penmanship, 
pyipbgr, nithtnetic, English gmmmar, history of the United States. 

gfwwi vanung is given againsr. tTjiog to enter in the hope of '' making up " defi- 
^^ bl maj of these depart tueDt4i. 

Nermai C&Bfgt, New Twrk, 
teAdilc* nnai mat no axatmoatian In algebra, arithmetic, grammar, geography, 

Digitized by VjOOQ It 



CXXVIII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

Michigan State Normal School 

Candidates most sustain a thorough examination in arithmetic, elements of English 
grammar, geography, reading, spelling, and penmanship. 

Harvard Law School, 

(1) Latin. — Candidates will be required to translate (without the aid of grammar or 
dictionary) passages selected from one or more of the following books: Caesar's Commen- 
taries on the Gfdlic War, the iEhieid of Virgil, and the following orations of Cicero : Four 
orations against Catiline: for Archias; for the Manilian Law; for Marcellus; for Liga- 
rius. 

(2) Blackstone's Commentaries (exclusive of editor *^8 notes). 

Proficiency in French, representing an amount of preparatory work equivalent to that 
demanded of those who ofier Latin, will be accepted as a substitute for the requisition 
in the latter langm^e. 

Harvard Medical SchooL 



(1) English. — ^Every candidate shall be required to write legibly and correctly an 
English composition of not less than two hundred words, and also to write English prose 
from dictation. 

("2) Latin. — ^The translation of easy Latin prose. 

(3) Pkytics. — A competent knowledge of physics (such as may be obtained from Bal 
four Stewart's Elements of Physics). 

(4) Elective subject. — Each candidate shall pass an approved examination in such om 
of the following branches as he may elect: f^nch, Gennan, the elements of algebra o 
of plane geometry, botany. 

Dartmouth Medical College, 

Applicants for admission must be eighteen years of age, and, xmleas already znatricn 
lates of this institution or graduates of some reputable ooU^e, academy, or high school 
will be examined as to their fitness for entering uponand appreciating the technical stad^ 
of medicine. 

They will be expected to be familiar with the elementary principles of physios (light 
heat, electricity, &c.) on entrance. 

Boston University School of Medicine. 

Candidates who have taken their first degree in arts, philosophy, or scieiice ar 
admitted without examination. 

All others, before matriculation, are examined in the following branches: (1) L 
orthography, English composition, and penmanship; (2) in arithmetic, geography, sxk 
English grammar; (3) in elementary physics, by an examination in Stewart's Prime 
of Physics; (4) in Latin, by requiring a translation from Harkness's Latin Reader i 
sight. 

• Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

Regular courses : To be admitted as a regular student of the first year's daes, tl 
jipplicant must have attained the age of sixteen years and must pass a satisfactoiy exan 
ination in arithmetic (including the metric system of weights and measures) ; algebn 
through equations of the second degree; plane geometry; French, grammar throxig 
irregular verbs and the first two books of Voltaire's Charles XII or an equivalent; En^ 
lish grammar and composition; geography. 

COUBSES OP STUDY AT HOME AND ABROAD. 

By a comparison of Table III with Tables XII and XIII, appendix, it will be see 
that the average duration of the course in normal schools is about the same as thAt < 
«chools of law or medicine. 

The feunilties of normal schools and educators generally seem to be rapidly approAcl 
ing agreement as to the essentials of a pedagogic course. Whether there be or be not 
science of education is still matter of dispute, but both parties in the discussion alio 
that the body of facts and principles derived from psychology, physiology, and the lii 
tory of methods of training should be included in the normal studies. It is also adniitt< 



NORMAL SCHOOLS. CXXIX 

tkl tbe student must have the opportunity of observing for himself and of practising 
tbe ut ID which he desires to become proficient. The extent to which provision is made 
k tbe latter requirement is indicated by the table. Seventy-two public and 42 private 
Donnab, it will be seen, report ^' model'' departments, while a number not so sup- 
pfied make anangements for their undergraduates to teach in other schools. This sub- 
rtitate plan is Cfpea to objection, and, excepting under the most judicious management, 
i of doubtful utility, the direction and criticism of an experienced principal who has 
■Deperaonal interest in the result being quite as important in the practical as in the 
theoretical part of the training of normal students. 

Hie proportion of normal schools reporting gymnasiums is greater than in previous 
jon, bat less than should be the case, considering the importance of physical training in 
I aebeme of pc^pnlar educaticm. Of all agencies the normal schools can do most to pro- 
Qote the syatematic training of the body; their graduates are sought for the very schools 
iBwbidi the need of the exercise is most apparent, while, moreover, it is matter of 
i^oienoe that the notions of school training adopted in the normal schools affect to 
Koe extent all classes of elementary schools. Not only should a gymnasium be an 
MjvBct of every normal school, but physiology, hygiene, and sanitation should be 
ioduded in the curriculum as affording invaluable knowledge to teachers. 

Hie assembling of many persons in the same room is well known to be a condition 
pi^ndidal to health; in the case of children in a school the teacher is the only person 
vhocaabe relied upon to maintain the counteracting influences. It is to teachers, 
aureoyer, that we most look in some measure for the diff^on of knowledge vnth refer- 
QM to the laws of health. ' * I have long ceased to doubt, ' ' says Dr. Schrodt, ' ^ that, apart 
fsam the effects of wounds, the chances of health or disease are in our own hands; and, if 
ftofk knew only half the &ct8 pointing that way, they would feel ashamed to be sick 
« to hare sick children. ' ' This may seem an extreme statement, but the progress made 
is Boitaiy knowledge leaves no reasonable doubt that human misery may be greatly 
fiminished by a general regard of the laws of health. The subject should be pressed 
ipco the attention of every normal student and be made as familiar to the minds of 
t^uldren as the rudiments of language and numbers. 

A larger number of schools report laboratories, museums, &c, than in previous years. 
With the increasing demand for science teaching, it is hard to understand the opposition 
>Hiferted in some quarters to appropriations for appliances. The Illinois legislature 
mthe aoene of a special manifestation of this false economy during the present year, 
*te the appropriations for the Southern Illinois Normal School were under discussion. 
Tbooteome was the reduction of the item of $1,360 for the library to $300 and the 
3tter rgection of the proposition for $500 per annum for the laboratory and $700 for the 
KKom, a result effected by men of the very class who declaim against crammyig and 
^■■iiiiiig and demand practical training in the schools. 

Ihe action of the Illinois legislature offers an unfavorable contrast to the efforts made 
^•te sections of the United States to promote the study of science among teachers. 
Ihe eoorse of lectures before the Teachers' School of Science, Boston, consisted for 
^TBV 18dO-'81 of eight lessons on physics, by Profl Charles R. Cross ; eight on zool- 
V^ bj PtoC Alpheus Hyatt ; four on botany, by Prof. George L. Goodale, and four on 
Nogy, by Mr. "W. O. Crosby. These lessons were illustrated by experiments and 
in the hands of each student, and were exceedingly interesting as well as 
The couxse was in charge of the Natural History Society^ but the entire 
V|Me far lectoies, specimens, &c, yraa borne by Mrs. Augustus Hemmenway and 
^Q«Ib^ A. Shaw. Four hundred teachers of Boston and vicinity constituted the 



» of the Lawrence Scientific School, Harvard University, announces that : 
L also offers facilities to teachers and to persons preparing to be teachers 
■«- — *■• ^ qualiiy themselves in the modem methods of teaching science by observa- 
■iMiapeifaiieiit A year's oouise of study, adapted to this purpose, maybe selected 

J yy digitized by vIjOOQLC 



CXXX REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

firom the elements of natural histoiy, cbemistiy, and physics, inclnding any of the fol- 
lowing snbject^: physicid geography ahd elementary geology; general chemistry and 
qualitative analysis; mineralogy; physics; botany; oomparative anatomy and physiology; 
zoology. 

This coarse is flexible and comprehensive; the instmction i^ mainly given in the lab- 
oratories and mnsenms of the university, and is of the most practical diaracter, every 
student being taught to make experiments and study specimens. 

There are also scholarships in the scientific school, not exceeding eight at any one 
time, of the annual value of $150 each, for the benefit of graduates of me State normal 
schools. The manner in which these scholarships are divided among the normal schools 
is determined by the State board of education. 

Simile measures have been inaugurated for the benefit of teachers in other States, 
but no r^>ort of them has been received at the Office. 

In this connection it is proi>er to recall the views set forth in the London Times and 
in Nature with reference to the debate in the British Parliament in 1878 upon Sir John 
Lubbock's motion for the addition of elementary science to the 8ul]ject8 for which grants 
should be given under the education code. The Times says : 

To be taught something about gravitation, about atmospheric pressure, about the 
effects of temperature, and other simple matters of like kind, which would admit of 
experimental illustration and which would call upon the learner to make statements in 
his own words instead of in those of somebody else, would be so many steps toward real 
mental development. At the end of a vacation, even if the facts of any particular oc- 
currence had become somewhat mixed, the pupils would nevertheless preserve an in- 
creased capacity for acquiring new &ctB, and would probably retain these for a longer 
period; and such are precisely the changes which it should be the province of education 
to bring about. We would even go further than Sir John Lubbock, and in elementary 
schools would give an important place to the art of drawine, which teaches accurate ob- 
servation of the forms of things. The efifbrts of a wise teacher should always be guided 
with reference to the^position and surroundings of a child at home, and should seek to 
supplement the deficiencies of home training and example. Among the wealthier classes 
the floating information of the family circle often, though by no means always, both ex- 
cites and gratifies a curiosity about natural pheiiomena; but among the poor this stim- 
ulus to mental growth is almost, if not entirely, wanting. 

A writer in Nature, referring to the article in the Times, from which the above extract 
is taken, observed: 

In itself the article may present nothing remarkable to the readers of Nature, but, as 
the deliberate utterance of the leading organ of opinion in this country, it marks a dis- 
tinct stage of progress toward a more enlightened conception of what constitutes ednca- 
tion. 

The same writer, in concluding his article, said: 

Every day we hear of the ignorance of the working classes; every other month ''con- 
gresses'' are held to devise means to remedy the consequences of this ignorance: igno- 
rance of the laws of health, ignorance of household economy, ignorance of tiie imolemente 
and oll(jects of labor, ignorance of the laws of labor and production, ignorance of the nat- 
ure of the commonest objects with which they come into contact every day, ignorance 
of almost everything wMch it would be useful and nationally beneficial for them tc 
know — an ignorance, alas! more or less shared by the '* curled darlings" of the nation, 
Tet, while every day's paper shows how keen is the industrial competition with othei 
nations and how in one department after another we are being outstripped by the re- 
Biilts of better — i. e., more scientific — knowledge, the poor ^ttanoe of '^elementary 
kHowledge" asked for in Sir John Lubbock's bill is reused. 

Those who have watched the progress of elementary schools in England are aware thai 
the movement in f^vor of science has led to the very result which we are endeaTorin| 
to accomplish in our normal schools, viz, the preparation of teachers to give the instm^o 
tion required. 

Normal school training should embody, and in the best schools does embody, the re 
suits of the most careful and the most intelligent consideration of the sulijects, method^ 
and aims of popular education. This relation to the whole work of elementary educa 
ition gives special importance to every new iK)int in the progressive history of thia daa 
of schools. The annual reports of the principals of the most .effidei^ .normals afford 



NORMAL SCHOOLS. CXXXI 

antter which might advantageously be brought to the attention of all teachers and of 
iD peiaooswho, either in the capacity of parents, voters, legislators, or ciitics, are inter- 
ested in tiie edacation of children. It is impossible to read these records and follow 
(ka iir ogreas of the work to which they give formal expression without being impressed 
vith oertBin characteristics of onr i^tem of tiaining teachers. It is in essence rational, 
flexible, and progressive. 

It would be easy to indicate particulars in which foreign systems excel onr own. In 
Eo^and the scholastic standard is perhaps higher. Upon the Continent there is a better 
dasBification of normals and a more methodical arrangement of details. We may study 
these examples with profit, but we have nothing to gain by their servile imitation. 
The attention of onr educators has been frequently directed to the German and French 
tainii^ schools; we have had less occasion for considering the status of the same work 
in Qitml Britain. The following statements from the report of the committee of council 
OB edacation in England and Wales, and the same in Scotland, afford, it is believed, 
nme ralnable points of suggestion and comparison : 

With the Tiew of encouraging the study of scientific subjects in training colleges, it 
itm of late jeexa been arranged that success in the examinations in science, held by the 
BOBDOo and art department, shall be taken into account in deteimining the students' 
places in the class list of candidates for certificates as teachers of public schools. The 
leeoid of examinations under this provision in 1881-'82 is as follows: 





Males. 


Females. 


b^UKdaodWalM: 


1,849 
1,718 

806 
896 


1,298 
475 





Ttatal number of pawca. 

8«oUaad: 

Total Btxmber examined. .«... 

Tii4a] mambffr of panaeo ...,...........^.1^..^.... a...... ...... ............ 







B will he observed that a number of students passed in more than one subject 
Lsngoages now enter into the course of study in all the training colleges for masters 
aod in several of tho^e for mistresses. French is the language most generally taken; 
Ifttin comes next. 

In Scotland the system introduced by the code of 1873, of combining attendance at 

B ui f eiai ty classes with the efficient course of practical professional training provided by 

ihm hiqieflted training colleges, is producing satisfactory results. In 1880, 146 students 

siaQed themselves of this arrangement; the number at the latest report was 117 attend- 

f riivj^p.^: Ui^ti^j Gtr^k, mathematioB, English literature, natural phi- 

^> roper i^ o\w^rv^ th^t in Grmt Britain and in European countries generally 
. v;:ic tndnlDg leads to move partuanent employment and a more definite career than 
stihe United BUtm, 

TEACHEBS' INSnTUnS. 

Ome of the moet important sabjects engaging the attention of school authorities in the 
[States IS the adaptation of normal tiaining to the improvement of the great body 
who supply the rojal schools. It is needless to suggest that a large propor- 
iv sC these teachers are persons of very ordinary attainments, with little or no special 
laniinn for their work« Summer normals, normal or teachers' institutes, and the 
o/al iff abofter couis£s o0ered by some of the regular normals have grown out of the 
. mitf ef dohig aomething to save the country schools from the dubious efforts of un- 
-aat Dfftiew. These agendes have proved so efficient that they have been made an 

^ ^ Digitized by ^OOgie 



CXXXII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

integral part of tlie school system, and their organization and condnct are among the 
most prominent topics of discussion in the yarious pedagogical associations of the States. 
Detailed statements of the institutes held daring the year will he found in the ah- 
stracts of the appendix under the head of Training of Teachers. 

FORMAL TBAINnra IN THE COLLEQXS. 

The science and arf of education attract more and more attention in univerBities and 
colleges. Chairs of pedagogics are reported as having existed last year in the Uni- 
versities of Michigan, Missouri, and Iowa. The course of lectures delivered during the 
year by G. Stanley Hall, ph. d., for the benefit of Boston teachers, indicates the interest 
of Harvard University in this matter. 

In his annual report for 1880-'81, President Eliot makes the following statement with 
reference to Mr. Hall's lectures: 

In the first four months of 1881, G. Stanley Hall, ph. d., university lecturer on 
pedagogy for the year 1880-^81, gave a oourse of twelve lectures on Saturday mornings 
at Wesleyan Hall, Boston, to an audience composed chiefly of teachers. The action of 
the university in directing attention to the philosophy of teaching and in causing Dr. 
Hall's lectures to be delivered at a time and place convenient for the teachers of Boston 
and the vicinity, was received with &vor by many persons interested in the subject, and 
the corporation received, at the close of the course, the public thanks of the teachers 
who had attended it. 

The following statement from a recent paper by W. H. Payne, professor of the science 
and the art of teaching in the University of Michigan, sets forth the work as conducted 
in that university and answers several inquiries which have arisen: 

The chair of the science and the art of teaching was established by a unanimous vote 
of the board of regenta, June 29, 1879. This subject had long before received the care- 
ful consideration of President Angell and had been conmiended to the attention of the 
regents in his annual reports. Before asking the regents to take formal action in the 
matter, the president submitted the plan to the &culty in the department of literature, 
science, and the arts, and by a unanimous vote it was commended to the board of re- 
gents. 

This action of the president, Acuity, and regents was based on a state of facts of long 
standing. The University of Michigan, as the highest educational institution in the 
£U»te and as the head of our educational system, had for years been supplying the higher 
positions in the public school service with teachers. As a rule these teachers assumed 
the responsibilities of important positions with no conscious preparation; and it was con- 
ceived a duty owing to the State to fhmish prospective teachers with an opportunity to 
learn at least the theory of teaching and of school management. This state of &ctB be- 
comes more significant when it is recoUected (1) that the principal high schools of the 
^Ate are preparatory schools to the university, (2) that these schools naturally look to 
the univerHty for their principals and assistant teachers, and (3) that these secondary 
schools educate large numbers of teachers for the common schools. It seemed, then, 
that the teadiing service of the State might be useftilly affected by making the science 
and the art of teaching a regular branch of instruction in the university. 

It should be stated, at the outset, that there is no *' normal department '' in the Uni- 
versitv of Michigan. There are merely courses of instruction in the science and the art of 
teadung, just as there are in science and in mathematics, save that, while the former axe 
wholly elective, some of the latter are required; l^ut, in both cases, the oouisea ooont 
toward a degree. What is called a ^* teachers' diploma '' is given under the following 
requirements : (1) The pupil must have taken at least the bachelor's degree; (2) mnst 
have taken a teachers' course in Latin, Greek, or in some other sutject; and (3) mnst 
have taken at least one of the longer courses in the science and the art of teaching. Bnt 
this diploma has no legal value whatever. It merely certifies to the accomplishment of 
certain work. It exempts from no examination. There has never been a thought of 
interfering, in the least degree, with the work of the State Normal School. From the 
very nature of things, the normal school and the university cannot be competitors in a 
way that will noticeably affect either institution. In the first place, it is not at all 
probable that any pupil will apply for admission to the university for the sole purpose 
of studying pedagogics. At best^ this would occupy only one-half his time. If he 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 



BUSINESS COLLEGES. 



cxxxln 



catexB at all, be will almost inevitably pfoisne counses that are not offered by the normal 
idioo], whicli, in its academic work, is merely a school of secondary instruction. As a 
Batter of &ct, there has not been the slightest effect ii\jnrions to the normal school 
Ikvoajph the intoodnction of conrses in pedagogics into the university. The present 
year of the normal school is one of the most prosperous in its ei\tire history. 

At their best, these two schools can do but a fraction of the service the State requires 
in the education of teachers. A part of this work would not be done at all if not done 
by the nmversity, not even if there were three normal schools, as there should be if the 
tmrhtng force of the State is to be even moderately recruited. It might be reasonably 
emcted that if the professional education of teachers should receive a laiger share of 
poMic attention through the introduction of this subject into the university the general 
eflbci most be £fivorable to the normal school. * * * 

For the year 1879-'80 two courses of instruction were offered, as follovro: (1) practi- 
flU, devoted to the organization and management of public schools and to the more 
importaiit details of school room work; (2) theoreticfd, devoted to the teaching of a 
body ^ public school doctrine. Eadi course occupied two hours per week for a half 
♦ ♦ « 



For the year 1880-'81 both the above courses were raised to four-hour courses, that is, 
the time g;iven to each was doubled. Scarcely any clumge was made in the management 
of cooiBe 1 and the result was quite as satis&ctory as in the preceding year. In course 
2, iTMtfail of teaching wholly by lecture, as 1 had done at first, I made Bain's Education 
as a Sdienoe the basis of my instruction. This gave me several advantages that at this 
flige of my work were essential: (1) There was a body of doctrine formulated and 
pdnted and recommended by a distinguished name; (2) my teaching, based on a printed 
text, ooold he made definite. The subject proved to be difficult, but the very difficul- 
ties iaspired my pupili with a respect for the study. Better than this, the doctrines were 
fDond to be very nuitfol in their practical apphcations, and so there emerged a new 
^irit: a taste for philosophizing on educational questions. I would do myself ii^justice 
(a thing no one has a moral right to do) if I were to allow the inference that none of this 
spirit was awakened in the first year of the course; but it fell far short of what I desired 
aod expected. On the whole, the gain was considerable, and I began to feel some degree 
of wrtwfhrtion with what I thought to be my real work in the university: that of teach- 
ing a body of educational doctrine as the basis of a rational art of teachmg. 

From the sommary liere presented it is evident that pedagogic training in the United 
States has developed a natural gradation. 

f^nnin^a' nonnals and normal institutes, normal schools having one or two years' course, 
nocmal edtools having four years' course, and chairs of pedagogy in the universities cor- 
napood to different demands in the same general department. They are practical expe- 
iieats created for the most part as the want was felt and afterwards found justifiable upon 
pkilosophie principles. There is needed j ust now a mind at once philosophic and practical 
to diffe re n tiate and systematize these several agencies, to adjust cash to its province and 
Mjiaiiiumta^ all together in the interest of the various requirements of the school service 
i#08r oomttiy. 



TABLE lY. — COHMEBCIAL AND BUSIKE BS CX)LLBQKS. 

The following is a comparative exhibit of colleges for business training, 1872-1881: 





1S72. 


1878. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


188L 


ata^bcrorinstiUitfoiuu 


68 


U2 


126 


131 


187 


184 


129 


144 


162 


202 


■■■ter €»rinstracCon.. 


268 


514 


577 


594 


699 


568 


527 


535 


619 


794 


Ihsitar of stodents .... 


8,451 


22. 8W 


25,892 


36,109 


25,234 


23,496 


21,048 


22,021 


27,146 


84,414 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



CXXXIV REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 
Table IY. — Summary ofstatuUcs of commercial and Imainen colleges. 



BlatM and Territorj. 



Number of students. 



I 



I 

I 

.s 



o2 



I 
I 

3 



Alfthtttna ^^ 

Oaifornia ». 

Conneoticut ......... 

Georgia 

niinois 

Indiana ««... 



Iowa ...... 



Kentucky., 
Louisiana., 



Maine 

Bfaryland .......... 

MnsBschusettfc... 
Michigan 



Minnesota.. 



Mississippi. 

Missouri , 

Nebraska.... 



New Hampshire .. 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina..... 

Ohio 

Oregon ...m......*mm.i 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island ....... 

Tennessee...M.M..... 

Texas 

Vermont .............. 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin............. 

Washington ....»..« 



r* 



1 

8 

1 

2 
22 

8 
10 

8 

8 

2 

4 

2 

71 

9 

4 

8 
10 

1 

4 

7 
22 

1 
21 

1 
19 

2 

6 

7 

1 

1 

1 

8 

1 



180 

al,072 

149 

2»806 

04,885 

d2,000 

el,864 

432 

480 

866 

896 

1,188 

/1, 227 

1,337 

0S54 

150 

M,845 

120 

140 

1,275 

5,641 



180 

906 

100 

267 

2,806 

1,262 

1,582 

882 

864 

275 

721 

675 

806 

1,065 

172 

150 

1,867 

90 

106 

716 

4,206 



1,200 
8,860 




200 



1,804 



80 
126 

91 
217 
463 

74 
807 

82 



297 



1,547 



75 

18,446 

966 

844 



75 
854 
65 
64 



50 


25 


1,710 


15 


1,850 


90 


400 









425 
1,200 
3,845 



25 
25 
100 



1,660 
8,460 



165 
95 



i2,680 

170 

i2,660 

474 

440 

lb494 

125 

44 

90 

1,806 

19 



1,276 

100 

1,121 

886 

894 

418 

125 

28 

60 

1,068 

19 



70 
601 

79 
106 

94 



8,696 
200 
566 

160 
50 



120 
20 
8 
9 




21 

80 

808 



642 
481 



6 
60 



Total... 



202 



794 



284,414 m23,806 



m8,256 



44,006 



1,581 



a Not reported of 8 whether they are in day or evening sohooL 
6 Not reported of 41 whether they are in day or evening schooL 

• Not reported of 966 whether they are in day or evening scAiooL 
dNot reported of 106 whether they are in day or evening school. 

• Not reported of 45 whether they are in day or evening schooL 
/ Not reported of 350 whether they are in day or evening schooL 
g Not reported of 800 whether they are in day or evening schooL 
k Not reported of 181 whether they are in day or evening schooL 
i Not reported of 845 whether they are in day or evening schooL 
J Not reported of 988 whether they are in day or evening schooL 
k Not reported of 52 whether they are In day or evening school. 

I Not reported of 8,827 whether they are in day^or evening aohooL 
m974 attended both day and evening school.^ igitized by LjOOg IC 



KINDEBGABTEN INSTRUCTION. 

TABLE y. — KINDEBOiLBTEN. 



cxxxv 



The fioDowing is a oomparatiye sommaiy of Kindeigarten, instmctorB, and papils 
R^oited to the Bmean fiom 1873 to 1881, inclusive: 





iwa. 


VSJA. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


1881. 


Xomber of institationfl. , 

Xntnh^Tr>f instructora 


42 

78 
1,252 


65 

125 
1,636 


06 

216 

2,800 


190 

964 

4,000 


129 

336 

8.031 


169 

876 

4,797 


195 

462 

7,554 


232 

624 

8,871 


278 
676 


Sumbes* of papUa .. ... 


14,107 


Table v.— 


Summary of aUUistics of Kindergwrteiu 



GkUldniitt. 



Debwaxe. 



Indiaiia.. 



lowm 




liM7lan«L. 



mdupm. 



§0. 



646 
81 
80 

611 
08 

168 
76 
68 

104 
60 

647 

150 

178 



MlMOuri 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey.. 

New York 

North Carolina. 

Ohio 

Pennsylyania 

Rhode Island 

Virginia 

Wisconsin , 

Arizona Territory 

District of Columbia, 

Total 






273 



214 
2 
1 

28 

07 

6 

84 

68 

6 

8 

24 

1 

20 



676 



II 



a7,002 
60 
15 

601 

1,680 

25 

448 

674 
68 
48 

457 
16 

803 



14,107 



aInciludeflAoma pupils receiving primary instruction. 

It 19 oiuieoenaEy to call attention to the rapid advance of Eindeigarten in number 

■d poptilantj. Tbe increaae of pupLU over those reported last year has been 60 per 

siL Thia piosperitj ia indicated strongly in that their claims upon the public for 

uid enoonragement ai^ being attended to more frequently, their methods are 

tfaeir spirit is oommendedf their principles acknowledged to be correct, and 

' ^encficeoee uriged by edacaiors and philanthropists. In these matters and in 

f <i41iem Mm Kindeiipirten o<:ciipieii a position of promise, and its advocates and 

\ we^ aa»uad of an ever increasing fteld of labor and usefulness. 

H^ Son Fnkndsco PtibUc Eindex^tt^^nSociety has recently published a report of prog- 

itBf Coring Its fitst three years of exist'ence. It w|is organized in the summer of 1878 

^ jmbllis minded citizens urged forward by the arguments and Influence of Prof. Felix 

4.dJer, of New York^ then \i8iting San Francisco. The object of the society is ''to 

trm. Kindergarten, with a view of conferring the benefit of Kindergarten 

\ tipon the children of the poor, of rescuing them from the vicious examples 

«f 1km «te«etvaavliig them IVom the cmel consequences of neglect, and so to develop in 

tbera ibe dt-menbs of skill that tUey may become usefhl and honorable members of 

flodcty in Iai«r years. '^ Tho first Kindei-garten was established in September, 1878, in 

Uatitnte section of the city. It met much opposition, but was enabled to carry on its 

jA^ b^ the rapport of steadihsi friendi and the approval of the intelligent citizens who 

■ *ti» wsildiixig its progress. At length it won popular &vor. Now it is "talked ovet 

9 «mr dAK of sode^, in every comer of the ci1y,"and ''is discussed charitably, 



CXXXVI REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

financially, indastrially, reUgionBlj, artisticaUy, moially, intellectaally, and educa- 
tionally.'' Six schools have sprang np to extend the work commenced by the earliest 
Attendance is measnred by the capacity of the rooms. Thought is given to the instruc- 
tion, to the care and comfort of the pupils, and to their homes and parents, so that the 
good results of these schools are far reaching. The charity work of Kindei^garten has 
ever been a prominent featuie in their operations. Not in San Francisco alone do the 
schools send comfort, courage,, and germs of intelligence into dark and desolate homes 
through the childi^n gathered in them, but in other cities women of culture and wealth 
have bestowed time, labor, and money on similar enterprises. As Mrs. Cooper and her 
Bible class have aided the extension of the Kindergarten in San Francisco, so churches, 
societies, and individuals have labored for them and through them in eastern citaes. 
Boston is dotted with schools established by Mrs. Q. A. Shaw, in which children receive 
care, education, and clothing, if necessary. The number of schools and nurseries owing 
their existence to her is said to be forty, and other ladies in the same dty have imitated 
her to a less extent. In Chicago Mrs. £. W. Blatchford has established a school at her 
own expense. A full sketch of the charitable Kindergarten work in this country would 
be replete with incidents illustrative of the value of these efforts for the children, of the 
poor and a most interesting chapter in the histoiy of home missionaiy work. 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND KINDEBQIBTEX. 

The experience of St. Louis with Kindergarten in connection with the public schools 
has been extensive and instructive. During the school year 1880-'81, 8,635 children 
received Kindergarten instruction either alone or in connection witb primary teach- 
ing. Even in that city the ingrafting process by which the public school S3rstem is joined 
to the Kindergarten is not complete or satisfactory. The steps and methods of transition 
fh>m/its schools and instruction to the methods adopted in the ordinary public school 
are not determined beyond question. A favorable solution of the difficulties is, how- 
ever, anticipated, though the differences to be harmonized are serious. Superintendent 
Hon. Edward H. Long speaks of thera as follows: 

The former [Kindergarten] recognizes education as the unfolding of spirit, a process of 
developing or bringing to consciousness that which exists potentially within. The 
knowledge of the external is the means, not the end, and the methods are definite for 
theaccomplishmentof its end. The old method of primary instruction recognizes, or 
at least proceeds as if it recognized, the external as the end, and, if the notion is enter- 
tained that somehow intellectual or moral culture is involved, it is vague, and only in- 
definite means are adopted to accomplish such end. 

Miss M. J. Lyschinska, writing fh)m an English standpoint on difficulties in in&nt 
schools, touches the questions of the relations of Kindergarten to the primary grade of 
public schools. Her idea seems to be that it is not always practicable to bring children 
to a prescribed point in intellectual acquirement at a given age, but that different chil- 
dren require different periods for the acquisition of the knowledge required for profitable 
entrance into the public schools. The time allowed should be long enough for the child's 
mind and nature to be unfolded in. a Kindergarten up to where it has (in a symmetric 
growth) acquired the knowledge specifically needed for entrance upon the usual school ron- 
tine, in connection witii the graces and powers brought into service by judicious Kinder- 
garten training. She attempts no solution of the question how children accustomed to 
instruction according to Kindergarten principles are to acquiesce readily in the tiresome 
methods of common teaching. Perhaps it needs none. The president of the New York 
Normal College, Thomas Hunter, ph. d., reports on the effects of Kindergarten in sach 
a way as to banish doubts on this point. . He says: 

The question naturally arises, what is the effect of the Kindergarten instruction on the 
children when they reach the higher grades of the school? 'Hie effect has been tested 
by comparing them with children whp have not had the benefits of the Kind e ig a rte n ; 
and we have mvariably found that the children trained in the BLindergarten are bnghter. 



KINDERGARTEN INSTRUCTION. CXXXVII 

qaAer, and inor^ intelligent; and that especially in all school work, snch as writing 
Md dxawing, reqniiing mnacnlar XK>wer and flexibility in the wrist and fingers they 
pfceminently exceL 

It would be hard to find teachers of lower grade public schools who would report with 
gatxal nnanimity such results from their system o^ instruction as the Kindergartners 
daim for theiis, which are shown in Table Y jof the appendix to this report, pp. 413-447. 
Tliese effects are summed up by an English lecturer as follows: 

What the Kindergarten has to show are happy, healthy, good natured children; no 
pcoficiaicy in learning of any kind, no precocity ; but just duldren in their normal state. 
Tbe Kindergarten r^ects reading, writing, ciphering, spelling. In it children under six 
build, plait, fold, model, sing, act; in short they learn in play to work, to construct, to 
isTent, to relate and speak correctly, and — ^what is best of all — to love each other, to be 
kind to each other, to help each other. One thing more I must mention which children 
do learn in the Kindergarten and which comprises all their infantine accomplishments : 
they- learn to play together, an acoomplishment of the greatest moral importance to 
children of all agee. 

Altiioogh there is a variance between the E^indergarten and the common methods of 
iBStmction, the confident exx)ectation of many observers is that the hindrance to their 
miiflo will be overcome. The public conhot afibrd to lose the benefit of Kindergarten prin- 
ciples and inflnenoes. A widely circulated magazine, whose words are of weight with 
1 nameions claas of dtizens, is reported as saying that * ' probably the day will come when 
Kbool boards will realize that the Elindergarten, which brings under proper influences 
the loogh little wanderers on the city streets, is a school which carmot be too carefhlly 
teaded and heartily encouraged." * 

NOBMAL KINDEBOABTEN INSTRUCTION. 

The efforts to train Kindergarten teachers are to be highly commended. This system 
of instmetion is not so transparent that the untutored can comprehend its principles and 
afiply them profitably. Its simplicity is not that of a flrst thought, but that of a per- 
faeled idea, a finished structure. The nature and peculiarities of instructing children 
■e not readOy perceived by the inexperienced mind. Those who would educate them 
m aeeordance with their individual characteristics must know upon what material they 
are patting an impress and how they may make it the most efiective of good. The mere 
ymwisitJ on of a person to open a school for Kindergarten instruction does not make it cer- 
lu& that the person is qualified for the undertaking and will lead the children that attend 
XBfto the paths of highest gain. Practical work under an experienced teacher is needed 
km iLe uaining qC i» KindtM^gti-rtuer. I'bLs position might be supported by quotations 
&mi nooif roui» ai^thod tie» m Kmdei^rt^u education. Miss K&te D. Smith, of the Silver 
GtaeeA Kindergarten, San Fnuioisco, say a : 

Tbe fitBEt eotnpamon of ehildren ghoald be an adept in the sdenceand art of education. 
llH impcssUtle ut get any pnutk^d id en of Frobel's philosophy without earnest study 
iraiii a capable inatructor; it i:^ iinpcx^ible to execute the work in the difierent Frobel 
mstfmMiatm and bring It to its legitinjati.^ ^nd without guidance and direction; and it is 
iwlj aod eottpdy impoaedble to catch the necessary inspiration unless the student passes 
li» period of her tnuning in tbe Rinclorg^irten itself 

JM* Httnler consideiB '^an able ind thoroughly trained Kindergartner'' the first con- 
fute of siicceB in Eindergarten work. Miss E. Shirreff, president of the London Frobel 
Sidtty, writes: 

If the teiiclier be really wise and careful, then is the class soon, in very truth, the 
pfficn wbf^re children gn>v«- and exprmd as nature directs, all hindnmce cleared away 
mA all htlp gt^cn to make the growth liealthy and equal in all its parts. If she lacks 
Omv qniUJU^ then the syst'em falL^ in her hands; but, instead of undervaluing the 
^mgm^ we ■honld only deplore that her^ ako — as, alas ! too often elsewhere — the holy 
mmk of Mincatioci is trusted to tbe half ^ucated. 

Ibiltm have been it«ned by the Ausiriaii minister of instruction in respect to normal 
i todning. Fuptls in the normal schools are to visit a Kindergarten once 



CXXXVIII REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

a week in their third year and spend a oonsideiaUe portion of fheir practice time dazing 
the next year under the direction of the Eindergartner. Those wishing to heoome Ein- 
deigarten instractors must also pnisue special stadies. The minimnni age for entering 
the courses is sixteen years. A certificate of fitness is issned to pupils of the training 
school fi>r female teachers who have reoeiyed the instruction in music and gynmastics, 
passed the final examinations, taken the course in the occupations, and given evidence 
of theoretical and practical knowledge of the Eindeigarten. The right to conduct an 
independent Eindeigarten may be granted to those who can show at least two years' 
successftQ practice in such woric 

BSSBNTIAX NKBD8 OF A KIKDEBOABTKN. 

A translation pf a €^man statement of the essential needs of a Eindeigarten recently 
appeared in the New Education. It is worthy of a caiefhl reading by all interested or 
engaged in this method of instruction, and is as follows: 

(1) Booms, — ^According to the nfimber of pupils, two or three spacious rooms an 
needed, also an anteroom for their wrappings. The lai^gest room is used for the move- 
ment games, the others for the ooeupatioDs and games at the tables. In the latter there 
are needed, besides tables and chairs, two gluss cases; in one of these the occupation 
material is kept, u^ the other the work of the children, curiosities, specimens, &c., are 
preserved. The walls are fhraished with the necessary cards, pictures, &c. 

(2) The garden, which should not be wanting in a normal Eindeigarten, must offer the 
neceesaiy room for a playground (for the warm season sufficiently shaded by trees), for a 
sufficient number of garden beds, and for the cultivation of common plants, herbs, and 
shrubs ibr purposes of instruction. 

(3) The guidance of the Eindeigarten is to be intrusted only to well prepared Einder- 
gartners. They must have passed at least a year in a good training school, uid must 
have had some experience in practice under reliable direction. In addition, the Einder- 
gartner should be of a gentle disposition and should love children. Musically, she 
should be able to sing the Eindeigarten songs in a pleasing though not voluminous 
voice and to teach them correctly. 

(4) The number of pupils for one Eindergartner should not be many more than twenty; 
at least this number should not be exceeded in private or fiunily Eindergarten, since it 
l9 impossible for one person to superintend more children and to attend to individual 
wants and to proceed methodically. In public Eindergarten financial considerations may 
render it difficult to adhere to this limit; yet, if there is to be a shadow of methodical 
training, a second Eindergartner must be employed as soon as the number of children 
exceeds forty, so that two separate divisions may be formed. 

(5) The time table must be so arranged that the spontaneous wishes of the children may 
be respected; all pedantry in following it should be avoided; and it should be readily 
modified by the inclinations of the children, the season, the weather, Ac' The Kinder- 
garten must never be made into a school and must ever be a place for spontaneous play 
and work on the part of the children. JUl undue physical and mental exertion is to be 
avoided, and the various ages are to be taken into account. 

(6) The 8upervUion is to be placed in the hands of ladies, more particularly of mothers, 
who understand best the wants of early childhood. This does not exclude aid on the 
part of gentlemen who have the necessary pedagogic culture. All who are intrusted 
with the supervision should be theoretically and practically familiar with Frobel's 
methods of education. 

8EC0NDABY INSTBUCTION. 

Secondaiy instruction is an expression employed to indicate a grade between element 
ary and superior instruction, but varying in different countries according to the greater 
or less extent to which provision is made for liberal culture and for special training. The 
statistical summary on page cxl of pupils receiving secondary instruction shows that the 



8ECONDABY INSTRUCTION. CXXXIX 

^ aecondairy instraGtUm " has a wide application in the United States. The 
totilof tkieae pfopils is 224,815, or about 1 in every 223 of the population. A number 
tftheacbodlsiiL Tables VI and VII have preparatory departments to which children 
an Admitted as young as 6 years of age; under &vorable circumstances the course which 
iiibietly pr^paratoiy to ooUege is commenced at 10 or 11 years of age. Secondary in- 
fraction propesT ij^pns at about 13 years of age and is from 2 to 6 years in duration. 

ffi^ and normal achools are regulated by the school laws of their respective States or 
dte; prepwratoiy schcwli sustain the most intimate relation to the colleges and univer- 
■Sies; seeondary achools are variously constituted and controlled. These several classes 
fif instttatioDs have so many points both of agreement and contrast that neither sepa- 
Ble nor collective characterization affords an exact estimate of their operations. 

H|g|i sch ool s are apparently strengthened by the opposition which they fiom time to 
ttne eneoonter. The history of free schools in the North and West, their more recent 
development in the South, and the experience of foreign nations in the same direction 
convincing evidence that no system of public education can maintain on efficient 
without hig^ schools, or the grade of instruction given in them. It is neither 
pjMililii nor desLrable that they should absorb all the frmctions of secondary education, 
bsl it is nndoabtedly true that they offer the only adequate means for the accomplish- 
of aiMne of its chief purposes. The tiansfbrmations which are constantiy de^ 
by tiie development of society are most readily brought to pass in institutions 
eaconunon interest to a)l classes and which have resources practically unlimited. 
Tbb pceaent is a transition period in our country, and those familiar with the inside his- 
fatj of OQT achools are aware that the high schools are taking the initiative in the a^just- 
BCBt of edncational processes. This &ct was strikingly illustrated in the dedication of 
l^anoble stmctare in Boston for the accommodation of the Latin and English high schools. 
IBat were represented all subjects of study and all profitable exercises; here provision 
M been made alike for the classics and for science, for physical and for mental train- 
■g; here, indeed, was exemplified on a grand scale what ought to be and what is 
apidly beoonung a feature of our public schools of secondary grade, namely, the adapta- 
tioB of material appliances to ideal results, of educational theory to living issues. 

'filth few exceptions the schools included in Tables YI and VII represent what the 
fill^irii aptly call ''voluntary schools," L e., those originating with people acting in 
tWr private or individual capacity and not as a body politic Above 50 per cent, of all 
Iks scholars of secondary grade in the United States are enrolled in the schools reported 
m laUe YL As a rule these schools are less progressive than the public high schools, 
mA sBkiii of them as depend solely upon tuition fees are apt to decline as public schools 
Of the total number 42 per cent are reported under the auspices of religious 
while a number tabulated as non-sectarian have some church affiliation, 
sectarianism has had very little survival in these schools, and it is evident that 
As^ crwnmand patronage mainly on other than denominational grounds. They are gen- 
■tf^eaiitroDed by a board of trustees appointed with some reference to their fitness for 
rfsiiiUiinnT aflOuTB and their ability to afford a trustworthy guarantee of the character 
flf the achool. They will always be an important Sactor in the progress of Christian com- 
■HttieB, and it is gratifying to observe that the several denominations in the United 
ihtas are moving fiar the larger endowment and more efficient conduct of the secondary 
iiMi^ Mtwi^w their patronage. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



CXL 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



General sUdigticdl summary of pupils receiving secondary instrucUon, 



BtateB and Territories. 



Alabama , 

Arkansas 

California 

Ck>lorado ~ 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia , 

Illinois , 

Indiana , 

Iowa , 

Kansas „ , 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Blaine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan » , 

Minnesota 

BCississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York „™. 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Or^fon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island. 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont ^ 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin......... 

Dakota 

District of Columbia.. 

Indian „ 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington .„ 

Wyoming 



Total. 



I. 

t 

(3 



1,484 
132 
680 
110 



418 
1,824 
1,272 

500 



878 

267 

1,142 

2,088 

6,801 



186 



1,282 
100 



488 
1,185 
8,908 



4,706 
901 

2,514 
548 



460 



400 
371 
284 



36,694 



S 

'a 



560 
243 
57 



140 

150 

1,162 

1,005 

108 

1,013 

88 

20 

210 

215 

10 

174 

860 

108 

109 



2,649 
178 
434 



1,242 



668 
271 

83 
805 

81 
756 



04 



13,136 



1,007 

620 
4,185 

299 
1,761 

723 
1,064 
9,808 
6,800 
2,524 
4,040 

262 
8,640 

745 
1,026 
2,560 
2,666 
1,276 
2,061 
8,266 
8,786 

526 



1,082 
4,041 
10,045 
8,065 
8,478 
1,655 
6,824 

870 
2,227 
5,920 
8,482 
2,765 
1,040 

746 
2,170 



1,177 

206 

1,220 

2,558 

218 

78 



122,617 



443 

60 

1,074 



662 
66 



580 

802 

2,480 

UO 



870 



702 

877 

2,127 



299 

1,162 
438 
150 
420 



167 
264 



492 



18,275 



In preparatory depart- 
ments of — 






266 
135 



510 
260 

19 
268 
105 
785 

02 



20 
806 

467 



182 

80 

1,042 

200 

107 
85 

260 



271 
616 
287 

60 
201 

66 
224 



7,016 



is 

If 







20 
664 

1,178 
113 



70 

2.0T7 

1,800 

1,760 

889 

604 

1,213 

45 

860 

103 

1,861 

421 

657 

1,101 

860 

40 



2,044 
616 

3,726 
785 

1,008 



1,122 
1,153 



78 
184 
850 



202 
118 



0,076 



i 

'Bs 

Jt.O 



47 



877 
77 

141 
15 



1 



40 
6 



437 
274 



08 



62 



108 



1,890 

1,496 

7.616 

604 

3,435 

870 

1,204 

12,286 

18,770 

6,TTO 

7,754 

2,299 

5,980 

2,377 

3.908 

6,60 

12,250 

5,248 

8,057 

4,761 

7,238 

1,096 

40 

8,804 

6,642 

81,715 

4,029 

13,023 

2,676 

13,909 

1,861 

8,686 

0,1M 

5,196 

8,0U 

8,89 

066 

4,8:3 



1,864 

201 

1,28S 

2,756 

831 
71 



2,201 



224, 8U 



a In 184 cities. 5 Strictly normal students not included. 



8EC0NDAEY INSTRUCTION. CXLI 

Pr^aatoiy schools, Table VII, are located chiefly in the Middle and New England 

Site, in which section secondaiy education, as distinct firom elementary and collegiate, 

is BOit completely organized. The prepaiatories include a number of endowed academies 
vUck justly rank among the most noted institutions of the country. They have ample 
Rsomces and are admirably fUmished as regards teachers and material appliances, and 
^ have preserved to us from our earliest histoiy a conception of secondary instruction 
vtidi is among Uie most precious of our inheritances from the post. 

The act of incorporation of Phillips Academy at Andover, dated October 4, 1780, sets 
ktk the poiposes of the instittftion as follows: ''For promoting true piety and virtue, 
od for the education of youth in the English, Latin, and Greek languages, together 
vitb writing, arithmetic, music, and the art of speaking; also, practical geometry, logic, 
nd geography, and such other of the liberal arts and sciences or languages as opportunity 
■17 hereafter permit and as the trustees hereinafter provided slmll direct.^' The con- 
iitiition of the academy includes among the subjects in which the students are to be in- 
itraeked *'the great end and real business of living.'' 

Hk founder of Phillips Exeter in defining the duties of the instructors says: '/Above 
iB. it is expected that the attention of instructors to the disposition of the minds and 
aorals of the youth under their charge will exceed every other care, well considering 
tk^ though goodness without knowledge is weak and feeble, yet knowledge without 
podocsB is dangerous, and that both united form the noblest character and laythe surest 
fanodation of usefulness to mankind.'' In another place he says again: ''And in order 
uprcTCDt a perveision of the true intent of this foundation, it is again declared that 
tb fnt and principal design of this institution is the promoting of virtue and true piety, 
GKfiil knowledge being subordinate thereto. ' ' 

In this spirit oar secondary schools must be maintained, especially those which are 
Soelr to draw patronage fix)m the most prosperous fiunilies, if we would not have our 
"wealth outstrip our civilization." 

The ooQsideration of particular institutions and localities gives a more &vorable im- 
jRBBOQ of our secondary education than the survey of the whole country. In this 
kouier view it seems that the interests of education in our midst could not be better 
Krred than by an investigation of this class of schools, conducted under the united 
whority of aU the agents concerned in their maintenance. The particulars to which 
oqaiiT should be directed are the cost of the service, qualification of the teachers, 
posoime] of the scholars, curricula, and results. 

TW tables afford much information on these points, but it is incomplete, and in the 
CKof the high schools involved with the statistics of other public schools. The total 
nnber of institdtions in Tables VI and VII is 1, 466, having 7, 360 instructors and 135, 892 
Khidus. The total amount of productive f^ds in the possession of these institutions 
s ^1,454,915, yielding an income of $1,042,073. The receipts from tuition fees during 
tefcirwere $2,216,681. The price of tuition varies greatly in the different schools 
tti aflbids no certain criterion of efficiency. Where there are no endowments low 
^Npes may be regarded as the indication of feebleness, but the reverse cannot be affirmed. 
He total receipts, averaged upon the total attendance, give a i>er capita expense of $16; 
Vfte income from productive fhnds be included, the per capita is $24. It is unnecessary 
^ neeBt that the sum does not represent a fair equivalent for the result proposed. 
% inference is plain: a prosperous people like our own ought to make larger invest- 
*nto in this department. It is inevitable that a larger number of students should enter 
^^ and complete a course of secondary training than a higher collegiate course; for 
W the number of students in the schools of Tables YI and YII is four times the num- 
tetf ttodents reported in the institutions comprised in Table IX. The total number 
McBts under secondary instruction is above three times the number in all classes 
tf tatetioos Ibr superior instruction, not including students in preparatory depart- 
k; Bsvertbeleai it will be observed that the resources of the superior institutions 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



CXLn REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATIOK. 

greatly exceed those of the secondary schools. Thus the Talne of groxmds, bnHding^ 
and apparatus for secondary and preparatory schools, Tables YI and YII, is $24,813,687; 
for nniversitiee and colleges, Table IX, $40,255,976; the amount of prodnctiye ftinds 
for the former is $11,454,915, yielding an annual income of $1,042,073; for the latter, 
$43,786,877, yielding an annual income of $2,618,008. 

Considering the diffusion of secondary training and its absolute importance, this is a 
matter to which the patrons and bene&ctors of learning may well turn their attention. 

It is important that the qualification of teachers and the curricula of secondary schools 
should correspond to some rational system of training. Here we have much to learn 
from European nations, in which secondary education is better orgfuiixed and a^i^^sted 
more skilfully to the requirements of highly civilized and populous communities than 
in our own country. The courses of study must be as various as the purposes for which 
they ore intended, and these in turn must be regulated by the dasses into which the 
scholars may be grouped. I use the expression advisedly, for wherever the subject has 
been examined a classification of scholars has been recognized which seems to result 
from the natural order of lif^ in modem society. The claasiflcation is not determined 
by **hard and fast lines" and is not the same in all countries. For the United States 
it is substantially as follows: 

First Scholars who may pursue the secondary course for about two years. 

Second. Those who may complete a course of four or six years, but who desire at about 
16 years of age to pursue studies related to their prospective vocations. 

Third. Those fbr whom secondary training i^ a preparation fi>r the college or mdver- 
nty. The adjustment of courses of study to these distinct classes has long engaged the 
thoughtful consideration of the educators and enlightened statesmen of fbreign countries; 
superior primaries, Gymnasien, Realschulen, polytechnic schools, professional or trade 
schools, &c , indicate the drift of their deliberations. The keenness of international com- 
petition (in which we are becoming constantly more involved), the growth of our businesi 
interests, the development of superior instructionr-i. e., that which occupies students 
up to 24 or 25 years of age — urge us to fi>llow the example of European nations in the 
adaptation of secondary training. 

We are met at the outset of every such endeavor by the necessity for a ftiller and 
more reliable presentation of the &cts which must determine our acyustments. What 
is the proportion of scholars in each of the specified daases? What is the course whidi 
each pursues and with what results? 

The tables, as they stand, indicate how &r we are from adequate information upon 
these points, while only those familiar with the work of the Office can appreciate tin 
difficulties in the way of a more complete record. 

From an examination of the statistical summary of classical and scientific preparatory 
courses two &cts are made evident : (1) The majority of students in the schools pre 
sented in Tables VI and YII are not preparing for superior institutions, only 7 per cent 
of the scholars of the former being so reported and 34 per cent, of those of the latter. 
(2) A large proportion of this preparatory work is fuxsomplished in the preparatory 
departments of colleges, universities, and schools of science. In other words, for th< 
majority of their scholars the training of the secondary and preparatory schools is final 

The importance of a reliable estimate of the number of students preparing fi>r collegi 
and the number who annually present themselves for the college entrance examinatiom 
will be readily recognized. With a view to securing this information I have from yeai 
to year sent out inquiries, the returns to which are embodied in the summaries of col- 
lege entrance examinations and of students in classical and scientific preparatory courses, 
Table IX. Theeeretums,it will be seen, are as yet too fragmentary for any genendin* 
ference. They are given merely to illustrate what is required as a means of estimating 
the results of that department of secondary training which is professedly prepaiatorj 

Digitized by ^OOQ IC 



SECONDABY INSTRUCTION. 



CXLIII 



fcr eoDege. The demand for such information ia increasing. Each institution seeks to 
kaow what others of the same grade are accomplishing, and those who meet for the gen- 
oal daseoaBion of edncatioii realize the fetoity of counsels not based upon a knowledge of 
frctB. In Tiew of these numifesl^btions I can but hope that the time is not distant when 
the tncbexB and officers of secondary schools will agree upon such a representation of 
the conditions of their work as the public interests demand. 

TABXtB VI.— IlUITlXUTlOXrS FOB SBOOHDABY nVSTBUCTIOir. 

The following is a ooxnpanitiYe summary of the number of institutions for [secondary 
iostniction (exclusive of high schools, preparatory schools, and dei>artments of normal 
idioQb and of institatioiie for superior instruction) making returns from 1872 to 1881, 
iDdiisiTe: 





M72. 


1878. 


1874. 


187S. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


188(K 


1881. 


5o.orfaHtnio(on. 
Xo.orglnilenta 


8U 
4,6CHL 


M4 
5,068 

U8,(no 


1,081 
6,466 
98,179 


1,148 

6,081 

108,285 


1,229 

6,999 

106,647 


1,226 
6,968 
98,871 


1,227 

5,747 

100,874 


1,286 

6,961 

108,784 


1,264 

6,009 

110,277 


1,836 

6,489 

122,617 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CXLIV REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

Tablb VL — Summarjf of aoHsUa qf 



States and Territories. 



\ Alabama 

I Arkansas^ 

California 

Colorado 

(^Connecticut ,. 

»<d[>elaware 

-Florida 

—Georgia 

^Illinois 

X. Indiana 

Xlowa 

XKanaas 

\ Kentucky 

I Louisiana. 

^daine 

«>4tlaryland 

(^Massachusetts 

^ MicUigan 

'^^innesota 

\ Mississippi 

Sc^Iissouri 

^Nebraska 

CSfovr Hapapshire 

CNew Jersey 

<}?ew York 

— ^orth Carolina 

Xohio 

Oregon 

^Pennsylvania. 

QRhode Island 

*— 43outh Carolina 

I Tennessee 
Texas 

CTermont 

^^irginia 

-West Virginia.. 

)^Wisoonsin » 

XDakota. 

.i«>-Di8friot of Colombia... 

Indian „ 

New Mezioo 

Utah 

Washington 

Wyoming 



Total.. 



I 

I 



13 
8 

80 
3 

13 

9 

135 

43 

17 

40 

2 

49 

16 

24 

83 

43 

9 

18 

84 

83 

84 
49 
188 
50 
42 
17 
86 
6 
14 

m 

29 
27 
81 
8 
22 
1 

19 
8 
8 
17 
4 
1 



Instructors. 



Male. 



Female 



al4 

92 

5 

46 

36 

11 

al79 

95 

20 

83 

2 

80 

28 

32 

94 

79 

a26 

40 

a51 

79 

10 

62 

127 

489 

83 

a90 

26 

227 

13 

a80 

121 

a74 

050 

64 

6 

o97 

1 

40 
8 
24 
24 
8 



1,836 



2,762 



27 
6 

168 
11 

108 
13 
30 

155 

215 
37 
78 
9 

149 
83 
89 
66 

187 
46 
42 
76 

130 
22 
42 

119 

607 
81 

125 
60 

844 
84 
82 

127 
69 
70 
65 
80 
65 

80 
8 
16 
75 
11 
4 



Number of studentn. 



Total. 



al,007 

aG20 

4,185 

290 

1,761 

723 

1,064 

a9,'803 

06,809 

02,524 

a4,949 

262 

8,649 

745 

1,926 

2,560 

2,666 

al,275 

2,061 

03,266 

03,785 

620 

1,962 

4,041 

al9,045 

03,985 

a3,478 

1,655 

06,824 

370 

02,227 

oS, 929 

a3,482 

a2,765 

al,949 

0745 

02,170 



ol,177 

296 

1,229 

2,553 

0218 

a78 



8,727 0122,617 



Male. 



489 

265 

1,696 

69 

692 

439 

349 

6,111 

2,817 

857 

2,224 

100 

1,446 

878 

1.078 

1,362 

1,056 

242 

1,118 

1,335 

1,798 

180 

1,047 

2,289 

8,119 

2,178 

1,380 

647 

8,498 

184 

891 

2,840 

1.815 

1,210 

905 

115 

989 



872 
88 

606 

1,184 

60 



Female 



876 

295 

2,487 

240 

1,060 

284'^ 

716 

4,642 

3,913 

1,444 

2,078 

162 

2,203 

867 

848 

1,198 

1,610 

786 

943 

1,750 

1,754 

346 

985 

1,752 

8.713 

1,634 

1,887 

1.008 

8,271 

236 

848 

2,770 

1,536 

1,868 

834 

485 

944 



710 

208 

688 

L,860 

98 



8 

I 

'5 



470 

477 
8.358 

246 

825 

401 

1,000 

6,^34 

63.196 

898 
2,525 

200 
2,272 

606 
1,068 
1,417 
1,640 

526 
1,555 
2,352 
2,534 

296 

964 
2,960 
10.458 
2,988 
61,117 
1.168 
64,522 

823 
1,214 
4,829 
1.880 
1,660 
1,453 

402 
1,864 



662 
146 
020 
1.687 
76 



66,680 60,448 674,480 



173 

60 
435 

20 
427 
111 
119 
1,589 
196 

84 
826 

40 
702 

51 



100 
183 
429 



532 
2, £00 
779 
504 
179 
925 
115 
126 
712 
246 
648 
341 
53 



145 
81 
18 

101 
2 



16,029 



aSex not reported in all < 



iJigitized by LjOOQLC 



8EC0KDABT INSTRUCTION. 



CXLV 



9 far mtamdary tnjCnutfMA. 



XniwofflCiidaitfl. 1 


1 

H 
II 

1-2 

11 

3 ^ 


^« i 

«- : LihvmrieflL 


Property, income, ^^ 






3 


II 
1 














Jlii ^! ill 

iflj^liilll 


*0 

> 

i 




1^ 
P 

11! 


11 




II 


-- =• s a S5 


z 


Z, }^ 


' 5 


> 


^• 


"^ 




sr 5 18 2 5 


8 


9 7.650 


«n 


<141,700 


<15,000 




4,550 


I« 16 1 


1 


4 





17,700 


3,600 


1900 


-7^1 83 55 16 . 24 


20 


25 16,295 


1,227 


540,500 







74,246^ 


-^ - 3 


3 


2! 600 


80 


50,000 






24,800 
39,209 


^^ JZ 16 . 4 24 


21 


25 ; 13,416 


758 


428,400 


271,106 


3,968 


-ar- -»- 8 -.. 8 


8 


8 1 2.400 


275 


96,600 


7,000 




9,500 
1,756 


fe- 4 2 5 


7 


( 
4 


1,500 


60 


83,000 


40,000 


2,800 


«A^ 1« . IS • 46 


36 


56 


68 


9,400 


1,140 


379,750 


106,000 


7,000 


83,732 


jBti m' v» 


32 


27 


33 


31 


14,392 


455 


881,250 


43,600 


7,962 


107,608 


. A 9»i 36 


31 


9 


10 


4 


6,812 


78 


134,600 


60,000 


4,500 


6,220 


• 19 190 1 153 


26 


22 


23 


19 


6,964 


700 


815,000 


57,285 


2, on 


62,213 


«i MO • 


83 


1 
22 


1 
35 


1 
85 


650 
10,918 


100 
293 


17,600 
410,550 


690 
17,600 




10,000 
54,857 


3»i 228 1 124 


3,270 


S4 53 1 61 


2 


5 


9 


9 


3,867 


746 


12,500 






8,121 
13,481 


:« 37 36 


18 


18 


10 


16 


7,675 


245 


179,600 


64,900 


3,142 


i» ^ ♦ 107 


40 


21 


23 


21 


20,625 


682 


415,800 


704,000 


39,240 


32,630 


:€Bi 29 i 18 


6 


80 


29 


21 


19,845 


876 


914,500 


748,467 


45,067 


46,230 


IB 16 ' 40 





7 


7 


5 


6,400 


855 


169,000 


26,000 


263 


29,754 


••i5l 106 ' 77 


U 


10 


13 


14 


4,683 


272 


260,700 


26,400 


2,490 


57,601 


|2» las 43 


25 


10 


23 


23 


12,285 


674 


162,000 


70,400 


6,300 


30,466. 


^ 8& 99 


22 


19 


23 


.28 


17,042 


2,604 


225,800 


33,000 


2,200 


74,798 


p" 25 ' 

,*!» 28 16 





5 


6 


6 


2,900 


720 


42,000 


15,000 


1,900 


1,700 


5 


8 


10 


12 


11,647 


191 


147,250 


288,627 


16,982 


10,14T 


.3a 96 . 98 


24 


82 


83 


82 


27,253 


488 


745,289 


37,500 


3,615 


106,6441 


•cir a6 1 263 
in. 3.J 113 


lOi 


189 


122 


m 


U0,224 


•2,842 


3,433,136 


626,867 


43,747 


382,518 


9 


17 


23 


26 


19,439 


775 


319,400 


1,000 


600 


71,3101 


,•^25. 84 67 


83 


23 


31 


82 


a, 758 


864 


530,706 


110,560 


6,880 


82,90] 


r M 98 17 


7 


11 


13 


11 


3,290 


260 


186,500 


19,875 


870 


24,548 


26/ 44 82 

W....; 4 

}» 216 161 


14 


66 


55 


67 


60,877 


2,371 


4,906,900 


6,098,461 


700,792 


186,688 


— 


8 


3 


4 


6,974 


1,898 


575,000 


150,000 


9,000 


1,540 


80 


8 


6 


5 


2,206 


242 


111,400 


20,000 




7,277 
•62,885 


21 


19 


39 


44 


11,435 


900 


347,850 


36,000 


4,550 


^ 67 84 


2 


13 


15 


17 


5,200 


600 


167,500 






18,207 


nr M « 


5 


15 


16 


22 


8,485 


3U 


312,775 


67,400 


5,297 


22,460 


^^'--Sr: 44 


8 


18 


14 


14 


12,615 


280 


224,000 


27,000 


3,240 


' 27,097 





4 


5 


5 


4^300 




61,500 


10,000 


600 


900 


i la 24 { 146 


3 


14 

a 


15 



13 




31,884 


7-5 


480,800 
5,000 
20,900 


26,000 


480 


84,575 


E 


9 


t 


12 


13 


11 


2,706 









6,797 


iW — 


fi U..^ 


1 

4 


1 


2 

6 


iCO 


^i 


40,000 
93,000 





12,000 
1,700 
5,040 


238 
18,600 
26,165 


- mr 


1 s 


10 


10 


U 


%m 


i3r> 


134,830 


97,927 


M^ 


M._i 


3 


3 
1 


2 

I 


m 


£» 


26,200 
8,000 


1,000 





2,860 


l^s^Biio sn 


T20 


ao3 


827 522,696 


25,218 


18,842,780 


9,922,965 


948,246 


1,758,787 



liOBMlUcaitton not reported in all osms. '-digitized by VjOOgic 



CXLVI REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION 

TABLE VII.— PBEPABATOBY SCHOOU. 

Detailed statistics of preparatory schools will be found in Table VII of the appendix 
The following is a comparative statement of the statistics of these schools as reportc 
to the Bureau from 1873 to 1881, inclusive: 





1878. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


1»77. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


1881 


Number of institutions 

Number of instructors 


86 

680 

12,487 


01 

697 

11,414 


102 

746 

12,964 


106 

736 

12,860 


114 

796 

12,510 


114 

818 

12,538 


123 

818 

18,561 


125 

800 

13,239 


1 

( 


Number of students 


13, S 


# 





Table VII. — Summary of statistics of preparatory schools. 



States. 



Number of students— 



1 



■§1 

« d 



I 

•8 

I 



2s 

SB 



u 

III 



California 

Colorado 

Conneoticut 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa , 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Missouri 

New Hampshire . 

New Jersey „. 

New York 

Ohio 



Pennsylvania . . . . 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina.. 

Tennessee 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Wisconsin 



Total 130 I 871 



8 
1 
6 
2 
8 
2 
1 
5 
4 
22 
• 1 
1 
6 
5 
24 
5 
14 
4 
1 
2 
2 
6 
5 



20 

5 

51 

14 

58 

8 

4 

28 

20 

141 

6 

20 

40 

89 

185 

86 

84 

83 

4 

11 

9 

21 

89 



U 



245 
112 
160 



16 
201 
118 



a425 
060 

0818 
145 



12 



. 2 

147 
45 

670 
10 
42 

459 
56 

596 
-04 

859 

131 
20 
85 
20 
75 

125 




9 
16 

144 
16 
85 
21 
44 

257 
51 
96 
13 



3,412 



1,196 



53 

424 

831 

ol,675 

84 
802^ 

277 

al,272 

154 

095 

a289 
130 
848 
185 

al59 
285 



1 

48 

10 

148 



6 
80 
181 
132 
16 
55 
26 

1 
86 

8 
88 
10 



08,667 



787 



a Include^ students preparing for classical or scientific course, the number included not M 
specified. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION OF WOMEN. CXLVIl 

Table VIL — Summary of staUsUca of preparaiory nchooU — Ck>ntinued. 



Slatos. 



C&afbmia. 



Dsok 



Libraries. 



I 



2,150 



14,000 

801 

4,700 



50 



730 
801 
110 



Property, income, &c. 



\\ 

l| 

if 
I- 



I 



% 






tl22,000 



285,000 
66,000 
100,000 



«ig8,ooo 

50,000 



•8,060 
4,000 
7,287 



n 






$4,300 



15,317 
1,100 
16,819 



!»»».-.. 



ItfThukd. 




Total. 



2,400 

1,175 

8,075 

23,550 

500 



106 
200 
718 
50 



9,530 

8,150 

16,431 

10,500 

16,825 

1,000 

50 

620 

1,000 

9,600 

4,675 



610 
825 
180 
280 
50 



400 
126 



80,000 
85,000 
75,000 
1,664,787 
50,000 
65,000 
990,000 
216,000 
1,824,960 
210,000 
844,000 
180,000 
6,000 
17,000 
80,000 
68,000 
209,200 



10,000 

51,500 

800 

683,062 



750 
3,090 



86,200 



855,688 

20,000 
174,000 



18,910 
1,200 
9,840 



75,000 



4,600 



19,000 



124,752 



5,064 5,970,007 



1,581,960 



98,827 



1,400 

6,718 

128,200 

96,974 



10,904 
9,836 

92,606 
2,100 

48,740 

22,961 
260 



1,600 
1,900 
6,260 



457,894 



TABLE Vin. — 8UPEBI0E INSTEUCTION OF WOMEN. 

SiBtisticB in detail of schools for the superior instructioti of women will be found in 
Tibfe Vni of the appendix. The following is a comparative summary of institutions, 
iKCmctoiSy and pupils from 1871 to 1881, inclusive : 





187L 


1872. 


1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


1881. 


&.«riaititiitloQa 

la«r introcton, 


136 
1.163 

11,641 


175 
1,«17 
11,388 


206 
2,120 
24,^3 


200 
2,285 
28,446 


222 
2,406 
28,796 


226 
2,404 
28,866 


220 
2,306 
23,082 


226 
2,478 
28,689 


227 
2.328 
24,606 


227 

2,840 

26,780 


226 

2,211 

26,041 



Digitized by 



Google 



CXLVIII HEPOBT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

Table VIII. — Summary of gtatisHcs of inslit 



States. 



Ck>rp8 of instruction. 



& 



P. 



It 



Alabama 

California 

Connecticut 

Delaware ,... 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

loTra , 

Kansas 

Kentucky , 

Louisiana , 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan , 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri , 

Nevada 

New Hampshire.. 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina ... 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas , 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 



Total.. 



226 



&113 

115 
26 
38 
16 

149 
24 

&23 
52 

176 
13 
21 
64 

164 

6 

81 

36 

207 
46 

146 
14 

172 
46 

109 
59 
11 

116 
22 

647 



a2,211 



545 



64 

40 

6 

6 

68 

84 

25 

33 

13 

103 

17 

9 

41 

137 



18 
51 

138 

4 

21 

22 

166 
32 

107 
12 

HI 
84 
87 
42 
6 
84 
18 
87 



18 
5 
1 
2 

19 

11 
1 
8 
3 

28 
1 



4 
5 
23 



3 
12 
49 

7 
21 



85 
9 

12 
8 
8 
8- 
4 
4 



805 



a Classification not reported in all oases. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION OF WOMEN. 



CXLIX 



t9»^f9r the nperiar instruction of women. 



Smdeats. 



Kciberin oollegUite 
depaxtment. 



I i 



I 



s 

41 ^ 

0' 
»,. 
le 
ri 

w 

?j 
Si . 

s: 
so 






i 


UA 
291 
29 
41 
24 

5 
I 



88 
21 
OO 

21 
215 



13 
24 



t 



Is 



I 



14 
ll 
II 

I! 

Sifl SI 



Libraries. 



B 






al,016 
a402 
alOO 

74 

al,506 

a2I6 

dSSi 

170 

02,080 

a223 

all4 

a349 

al.997 

103 

al9Q 

a978 

al,990 

66 



8 

H 

1 
2 
U 
1 



adG9 
08,119 

a631 
01,098 

190 

Jil,l« 

188 

410 



' 



9,900 
7,875 
600 
1,500 
7,784 

28,801 

3,600 

2,021 

872 

13,090 
1,100 
8,000 
8,128 

49,425 

1,200 

900 

4,518 

11,289 

290 

2,700 

5,090 

27,741 
5,900 

15,646 

li»,10O 
2,100 

14,7S> 
3,900 

a, 900 



lOO 




179 
96 
28 
71 
60 
858 
10 



8 
1,769 
200 
20 
150 
964 




8S0 

2,422 

80 

465 



8TS 
iOQ 
152 
180 



Property, Income, &c. 



80 



6,540 , 



02 . 



c 
•5 

Is 






^ 



$440,000 
275,000 

40,000 

24,060 
490,000 
792,000 

25,000 

50,000 
150,000 
570,000 

78,000 

100,000 

106,000 

1,081,800 

60,000 

42,000 
170,000 
662,000 

80,000 
125,000 
152,000 
1,684,259 
104,000 
847,280 

80,000 
673,000 

^,000 
412,000 

70.000 
102,000 
409,600 

15,000 
390.2SO 



812,600 




25,000 
21,000 



20,000 
47,000 



895,000 



80,000 



100,000 



62,900 
44,400 



11,000 

tooo 

80,000 



8,000 



I 



80 
1,600 
1,600 



1,600 
3,000 



84,600 



1,200 



6,020 



2,243 



2,884 



70 

1,^10 



AUG 



ID. :U6 1 



I 

II 



a 



815,000 

24,000 

4.500 

3,000 

45,700 

35,161 

2,800 

8,000 

87,000 

58,^40 

6,800 

4,500 

3,300 

63,124 



2,000 
37,997 
49,600 



12,140 

9,800 

177,410 



72,077 



5,300 
37,830 
ln,83D 



30,800 
3.500 
30, ."WO 



ri xm\ 



kOtl 



115 201, S40 9,i"51 10,O4Tjr^9 857,^)0 &-±\m ffl*J,QOO 



frSez not reported In aU CAsea. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



CL 



EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONEB OF EDUCATION. 



Degrees conferred by instUiUions for the superior instruction of women. 



States. 



California .. 

Georgria 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Kentucky .. 
Louisiana... 

Maine 

BCaryland... 



Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

New Hampshire.. 



J^ I States. 

I' 

55 New Jersey 

1 ; New York 

99 North Carolina... 

22 Ohio 

2 PennH>-lvania .... 
86 I South Carolina... 

11 ' Tennessee 

18 Texas , 

4 Vermont 

60 Virginia 

9 West Virgnnift. • 

26 Wisconsin 

^ Total 

4 I 






G71 



In all the leading nations of Europe, Grermany excepted, collegiate or, as it is termed 
higher education for women is a subject of special attention and effort. In a fei 
European countries the movement has reference to some specific end to be accomplish^ 
and signifies nothing outside of that limit. In others it arises from a deep oonvictioi 
that the best interests of society suffer from the difierenbe which exists between fh 
education of men and women. All that the advocates of higher education for wome 
claim upon the ground of her capacity for development has been conceded in th 
United States, as appears from the establishment and endowment of colleges for womei 
in which the same course of studies is pursued as in colleges for men, the experiment c 
the Harvard annex, and the practice of coeducation on the part of some of the leading ir 
stitutions of the country. 

In Europe as in the United States the chief point (i. e., woman's capacity) has bee 
conceded. Two important questions growing out of this concession are at present wide! 
discussed, namely: Should higher education for woman conform in all respects to ths 
which is deemed best for man ? Is coeducation practicable or desirable? 

In the discussion of these questions the experience of the United States is constant] 
referred to as being of longer duration and more complete than that of any other natioi 
The attention thus directed to our country gives a reason for frill and accurate reporl 
from all institutions engaged in the work. A stronger reason is found in the importanc 
of the record in forming a just estimate of our social progress. Universal elementar 
education is essential in a republic; liberal education is an evidence and an index of thoe 
ideal conditions which are the ultimate end of good government and of public virtn 
and intelligence. 

The schools reported in Table VIII are, it will be observed, exclusively for womei 
they numbered 226 in 1881, with 2,211 instructor and 26,041 pupils. To these shoul 
be added five colleges for women in the State of New York,* which, on account of thei 
relations to the University of the State, are reported in Table IX, making a total of 23 
superior schools for women tabulated in my report, enrolling about 27,000 students. 

A glance at Table VIII, appendix, will serve to indicate the varied character of th 
institutions here presented. With few exceptions they are conducted under the auspice 
of religious denominations and are an evidence of that zeal for education which ha 

1 Wells College, Aurora; Elxnira Female College, Elxnira; Ingham Unirerstty, Le Boj: Rotger 
•male College, New York ; and Vassar College, Poaghkeepsi«itized by V^jOOQIC 



SUPEHIOR INSTRUCTION OF WOMEN. CLI 

been chaiacteristic of the church no less in Protestant than in Catholic countries. The 
rebdcm of the schools to the religions denominations has placed them among the great 
mtKal inflaences of the country, and prohably in the past they have contributed more 
to the maintenance of morals and the development of character than to intellectual 
ictiTity or the mastery of the severer branches of knowledge. 

A few of the schools report themselves as wholly engaged in preparatory work and a 
)argi nnpiber as chiefly so engaged. The number of students in the preparatory depart- 
Bkoits is 7,016, about 26 per cent, of the whole number. All of the schools include a col- 
legiate department in their prospectus, in which the course of study is determined by that 
which custom approves for the degree of B. A. It is variously modified in the different 
Kboola, bat probably not more so than in the colleges for young men reported in Table 
IX Out of a total of 26,041 scholars in Table YIII, it vrill be observed that 10,945 are 
Kpoited in the regular college course. iSiition fees, as will be se^ by reference to the 
eorresponding table, appendix, range from $10 to $200 per annum, averaging a little less 
thin those reported in Table IX. The schools generally have a boarding department, 
a^ it is the price of living and the charge for extras, viz, music, drawing, language, &c., 
that make up the heavy expense of which complaint is firequently made. 

A lioge proportion of the institutions possess grounds and buildings, the total valua- 
tan under this head being $10,047,159. Few have any income from productive funds, 
in^whiGh respect and in the very general absence of appliances, such as libraries, labora- 
tones, mnseams, Sec, they do their work under much greater disadvantage than the 
xzstitutions in Table IX. It will be seen that the total of productive fands reported in 
TMe Tin is less than the funds of several single institutions in Table IX. The receipts 
bam tuition fees for the year were $858,119 as against $2,080,450 received in the insti- 
tatioiis reported in Table IX. 

The record here presented affords some important general conclusions with reference 
to the education of women. It indicates a preference for separate collegiate education 
on the part of a large and influential class of our people. It indicates also a different 
Gooeeption of education as applied to women from that which obtains in the case of men. 
Thb difference, however, does not seem to conform to any recognized difference in ca- 
pacity or probable vocation; it is rather the lingering evidence of a disposition to treat 
vgaan's education as a matter of little moment. It is an incongruity, not an adjust- 

BMOL 

A few of the schools under consideration, as Yassar, Smith, and Wellesley, owe their 

ftaWishment to that movement for the superior education of women which has char- 

actenaed the last twenty years. They have endowments, require examination for 

idmisBicni, and mAintAin high standards of scholarship. If, in the nature of things, 

'~ ■ - -iTication for wonjen should differ in kind or in processes from that which is 

If men^ it might h^ Hnppomd that the &ct would be made evident in these 

— _,^.. ,_ , LtatTammelliMl m they ari^ by traditions, pledges, prejudices, or acquired 

It \b a little dlEBcult to get at all the facts that bear upon the general con- 

bftt it may be a-Hsame*! that when these are collated and compared vnth the like 

tnm coedncatioB i*o]legea we shall have great enlightenment with reference to the 

and inteTesting qtiestion of lilH^ral education for woman. 

OMdcacaHoti i^ the policy pursued m a tiumber of the institutions represented in Table 

tXmA in the minority of thoee founded upon the land grant of 1862, represented in 

laMt 3L The Dumber of women repMjrted in the former is as follows : preparatory de- 

fHiment, 7, 000 ; collegiate depiirtment, classical course, 1,827, and scientific course, 1,295. 

n^ latler make no distinrtion of ^ex ia reporting the cellmate departments; in the 

fiyii itiMj department they report 200. Information received in this Office frx>m 16 of 

I 9m iMtittilioiis gi^es 1ii0m a total of 1 , 278 women students. 

I Tin «zpemot^ of these institutions ehows that coeducation is entirely practicable 
I vte t&eir managemeot^ and it is recommended by their officers upon considerations of 
ly, its agre€tment with the conditionB of family life, and its practical resiUts. • 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 




CLII 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



In the United States, as in Great Britain and France, the moTement for the higher 
education of woman has been greatly stimulated by the demand for her services as teacher. 
This influence has been particularly felt in the direction of science. The number of 
women enrolled in science classes increases slightly from year to year as does the provision 
for their instruction in this department. At the request of the Women's Education As- 
sociation of Boston and with their generous codperation, special laboratories have been 
provided for the instruction of women in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. As 
set forth in the report, *Hhe design is to afford them &cilities for the study of chemical 
analysis, industrial chemistry, mineralogy, and biology. The instruction is arranged 
for such students as may be able to devote their whole time to the work, as well as for 
those who, by reason of other engagements, can spend only a few hours a week in these 
exercises." 

No progress has been made since my last report with reference to the admission of 
women to Harvard or to Columbia College. The effort to affect the policy of these insti- 
tutions is not prompted, as sometimes represented, by the desire to secure for women 
the best possible collegiate training. This is already accomplished by the admission of 
women to a number of colleges whose equality with those mentioned, in respect to train- 
ing for the B. A. degree, is not a matter of question. The constant pressure brought to 
bear upon our oldest and richest institutions with reference to the education of women 
is due to two causes : First, the conviction entertained by many of the most thought- 
ful men and women that separate education has no reason in the nature of things and 
is opposed to the best interests of society; second, to the fact that the institutions speci- 
fied, by reason of their large endowments and accumulated resources, promise more rapid 
development upon the university side than is possible to other institutions, and their 
exclusiveness debars women from the provision for the extended and specialized train- 
ing which is only possible under university conditions. 

It will be remembered that for several successive yeara, in his annual reports, Dr. F. 
A. P. Barnard, president of Columbia College, has urged the admission of vromen to 
that institution. In his current report he says : 

The time seems, therefore, to have fully come when Columbia College should feel 
herself urged by every motive of expediency or duty to do her part in carrying forward 
this noble and beneficent work. 

He concludes his argument as follows : 

In conclusion on this subject, the undersigned can only repeat the conviction expressed 
in his former report, that the question here considered is in this institution only a ques- 
tion of time; and that, whatever may happen this year or the next, Columbia College 
will yet open her doors widely enough to receive all earnest and honest seekers after 
knowled^, without any distinction of class or sex. 

Numberless enterprises for the progress or amelioration of socie^ are due to the habit 
of action and the community of feeling resulting from the associated effort which is a 
condition of collegiate education. In the case of women this result is not wanting and 
promises the most valuable return for the investment made in the provision for their 
higher education. One of its most interesting illustrations is the action of the associa- 
tion of college alunms with reference to physical education, asset forth in the prospectus 
of the Association of Collegiate Alunmas. 

TABLE IX.—UNIVEESITIES AND COLLEGES. 
The following is a statement of the aggregate number of this daas of institutions, 
with instructors and students, as reported to this Bureau each year from 1872 to 1^1, 
inclusive: 



1872. 1873. 1871. 1875. 1876. 1S|7. 1878. 1879. 1880. 188L 



Kumber of institutions 
Number of instructors. 
Num'>er of students.... 



298 
8,040 
45,617 



8,106 
52,053 



843 
8,783 
56,692 



855 

8,999 
58,894 



856 

8.920 

56,481 



851 

8,998 

57,334 



858 

8,885 
57,987 



864 

1,241 



862 
4,861 



864 
1,160 
60,011 159,594 162,435 

Og li 



SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. 



CLIII 



Table IX. — Summary of statistics of universities and colleges. 





i 

1 


1 


"5 


i 


i 

1 


1 

h 

c « 

i| 

£ o 

n 


i 
1 

1 

e 
1 


1 


Tears in course. 






f. 


•JD 


i 


t 


ftates and Terrl- 

m 




1 


1 

el 

1 


It 

11 

£5 


1 

1 




h 


l| 


k 
II 


5g 




u 


»* 




t. 


h 




u 


»« 


t 


u 




hvs 


irs 




s 


ii 


J8 


£ 


^ 


\g 


il 


iJ 


i 


a 


JJ 


M 


J^ 




a 


a 


fl 




a 


g 


a 


a 


a 




1 




a 




9 









s 




a 


9 


• 




5 




55 


^ 


^ 


^ 


» 


Sz: 


fc 


» 


z 


z 


Sz; 


^ 


z 


Ak^nm* 


8 

4 


8 

4 








c 


2 

4 


1. 
















2 
8 






1 

1 





▲rksoflM 





Gklifacnla 


U 


10 


1 


2 


7 


2 








2 


7 





2 





CUomdo 


8 


8 








2 





1 





1 


2 











C^nntftiro^. ., 


8 

1 
6 


8 
1 
5 





1 







8 

1 
4 




2 















1 


8 

1 
6 




• 











Dcta«mi« .^ 





G«orsi* 





Ui'Juna 


28 


28 





1 


26 


1 





2 


1 


25 





2 





T-wtmna ~ 


15 


14 


1 


1 


18 


1 








1 


12 





2 





!..-«_ 


18 

14 


16 
8 
14 


2 









16 
8 
10 


2 

8 





1 


4 
1 
8 


1 


8 


16 

7 
5 





1 


1 

1 

4 










KmlnfkT 


1 


LooMBAim 




9 





2 


6 


1 





2 


2 


5 





2 





Ifaiywy , 




8 








8 














8 








JO 


SfatfTlADd 


11 


10 


1 





10 


1 





1 


1 


8 





1 


1 


MMMfhnffte. 




7 








7 








2 





7 











Virkig^n 




9 








9 











1 


7 





1 





V»tM«nftA 

JUjnxmjKM^ 


3 


4 
8 


1 








4 
8 







1 




1 



1 




4 
2 













3B-fai*PPt 


• 1 


rmonrL. 


16 


15 


1 


1 


10 


5 





1 


1 


18 


1 


1 





^ebnakft ..^ ~. 




6 





1 


2 





2 


2 


« 


2 





1 





X*T«d« 







1 


1 











1 


1 














5fv Hampshire — 




1 








1 














1 











^fvJewey 




3 


1 





2 


2 





1 





8 


1 








X*w York. 


27 


25 


2 





26 


1 





1 


1 


22 





4 





S"fth Garoliiia 


9 


8 


1 





8 


1 





1 





7 





1 


1 


fMm _ 


86 

8 


86 
8 






2 

1 


88 

7 






1 




2 



1 




84 
6 






1 
2 





Orefoa 





iVsa07lv»ni* 


27 


26 


1 


1 


26 








8 





22 





6 





Skxle bland 




1 
8 








1 


1 
5 




1 




1 




1 


: 


1 
6 








1 





twtfhCarolixM. 





T»1»ff < 


19 


18 


1 





18 


1 





1 





15 





2 


2 


T—^ 




9 





1 


6 


2 





1 





8 





1 





^cnMwt ». 


g 


2 
8 










2 
6 



1 




1 










2 
8 




1 









^»rnm r 


4 


▼••Virginia. 




4 








4 














4 















a 








8 














8 











Columbia 




B 





1 


8 


1 











4 





1 





•-*• *.. *-*« 


* 


1 





1 














1 














'tTz:: 




> 


1 





2 














2 











» 


SM 


16 


17 


806 


29 


8 


81 


23 


287 


' 


88 1 10 



Digitized by 



Google 



CLIV 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



Table IX.— Summary of siatiatics of 



States and Ter- 
ritories. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California.... 
Colorado ..... 
Connecticut 
Delaware .... 

Georgia 

niinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky.... 
Louisiana...., 

Maine 

Maryland.... 

Massachusetts 

Michigan ... 
Minnesota . 
Mississippi 
Missouri.... 
Nebraska.. 

Nevada 

New Hampshire. 
New Jersey...., 
New York..^... 
North Carolina... 

Ohio „ , 

Oregon , 

Pennsylvania.... 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina... 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Di8t.ofColumbia 

Utah 

Washington 

Total 



U (96 
3 
3 
I 
6 

28 |68 

58 

46 

21 

18 

22 

8 

18 

7 

22 

1 

7 

87 

II 

1 



Preparatory department. 



Students. 



I 



20 

6664 

1,178 

113 



70 



1,793 

l,e97 
889 
094 

1,022 
«S 
325 
192 

1,361 
279 
657 

1.101 
360 
40 



20 

128 

1,044 

70 



68 

1,894 

1,223 

1,074 

650 

476 

829 

39 

313 

192 

77^ 

188 

460 

864 

818 



115 
134 
43 



2 
776 
570 



118 

193 

6 

12 






a 9 

r 



22 
126 
37 



91 

97 

237 

42 



2,662 2,296 

616 533 

63,726 ,2,667 



.785 
1,877 



358 
1,122 
1,075 



73 
134 
786 
359 
202 



439 
1,521 



804 
956 



73 
112 
558 
859 
128 



367 
83 
945 
346 
356 



12 
c630 



75 
el96 
107 

44 
ito 
100 
289 
155 
249 
368 
e47 



54 
166 



e919 
839 
1,134 
234 
606 



47 

297 
243 



22 



74 



628,96921,160^7,009 



18 

40 

171 



80 



690 
102 
1,035 
245 
803 



191 



142 



282 



81 



78 



64 



Collegiate department. 



18 
28 
131 
23 
62 
8 
54 
224 
128 
168 
75 
97 
68 
82 
160 
151 
114 
44 
21 
196 
16 



80 



e8, 053 6, 1751, 017 



15 
78 

426 
69 

284 



18 
42 
148 
58 
18 



43 

8 

IL 



314 

271 

602 

45 

909 

54 

554 

1,887 

1,829 

1,614 

481 

1,178 

174 

422 

1,885 

1,860 

1,166 

408 

820 

1,695 

216 



247 

677 
3,496 

590 
2,612 

458 
2,867 

251 

804 
1,876 

040 



201 



3,541 



Students 

in classical 

course. 



al43 

87 

ac844 

adSn 

a845 

8 

226 

a666 

afUR 

a447 

160 

180 

all8 

888 

a874 

1,620 

186 

187 

96 

al99 

4 



247 

460 

al,970 

806 

al,191 

al68 

al,478 

a251 

al40 

a396 

850 

84 

al65 

92 

0269 

78 



Students 

in scientific 

course. 



also 

oTS 

0201 

44 

16 



25 

34 

88 

06 

21 

2 

008 

4 



266 ! 



0218 

al25 

84 



90 



82,459 0614,442 



27 
116 

7 



41 



al,827 



8,106|l,290 



o A small number of scientific students included here. 

6 Sex not reported in all cases. 

o Includes 97 sex not given. Digitized by ^OOQ IC 

d Includes 36 sex not given. 



SUPERIOH INSTRUCTION. 



CLV 



MmKrmtie9 and (Mcffes — Continaed. 



CbOcsiate 
■wnt. 


Yolumca in libraries. 


Proper ty, income, Ac. 


i J 

1 

! 

X Z. 


1 

8 

S 

1 


li 


a 

1 


2 

li 

I 


1 

t 

. 1 

1 

1 

-< 


> 

li 


8 

u 

ii 

3 


h 
il 

4 


il 
fJ 

1 

I 

< 


12 


8,200 

2,288 

47,750 

11,000 


150 
100 
960 
540 


1,500 

800 

7,250 


114,000 

' 1,380,200 

230,000 

472,884 

75,000 

652,800 

2,511,550 

1,298,000 

789,000 

523,000 

673,000 

837,000 

863,500 

892,500 

i;250,000 

1,344,942 

421,196 

446,000 

1,127,220 

206,000 


1812,000 

12,000 

1,739,204 

17,934 

1,888,979 

83,000 

588,170 

1,418,184 

1,068,000 

817,382 

58,000 

619,000 

828,813 

576,884 

8,-027,600 

5,985,207 

1,102,684 

T77.327 

544,061 

1,025,450 

84,180 


•24,600 

1,000 

106,116 

1,282 

120,776 

4,980 

48,493 

96,229 

50,029 

51,382 

5,500 

38,443 

15,100 

39,000 

181,734 

276,181 

89,290 

50,900 

82,643 

63,006 

2,359 


18,000 

8,300 

91,014 

366 

114,128 

500 

10,650 

116,844 

29,646 

42,568 

5,400 

87,060 

21,060 

22,000 

45,706 

166,861 

76,851 

8,840 

8,275 

136,294 

682 






WT 1. 


16,000 
86,697 
17,000 




tf 4 








» a 


148,155 7,006 
6,000 25 


22,500 

8,500 

14,600 

20,800 

15,700 

2,864 

2,617 

14,649 

7,200 

1,800 

5,575 

39,545 

7,100 

2,287 

4,700 

8,700 


$187,843 


1 1 



8,000 




ao 20 


30,100 

130,680 

76,591 

51,023 

24,178 

45,076 

57,986 

50,871 

49,922 

292,626 

59,690 

21,600 

8.400 

108,315 

8,000 


615 
1,905 
1,708 
1,437 
3,020 
1,488 

425 

725 
2,641 
6,063 
3,272 
1,717 

306 
6,490 

600 


20,300 
104,876 


i»' 11 
» 1 


20,000 
20,000 
80,000 


24,755. 
10,209 


;^- 3 


57,000- 




20,000 

600 

30,065 




8'38 
8D M 


109,180 

12,412 

612,074 


M 12 

lU 3 
« , 3 


64,250 
23,000 


15,000 
12,050 


S 38 


27,000 
28,000 


134,200 
300 













54,000 

00,600 

2»«,437 

81,250 

286,411 

9,420 

163,718 

58,000 

17, «0 

51,706 

10,411 

38,000 

103,000 

5,800 

48,765 

47, 4U 

2,735 

8,200 


1,600 

3,300 

13,069 

720 

12,847 

275 

12.525 

575 

650 

1,854 
663 
400 
254 
310 

1,859 




125,000 
1,150,000 
7,480,640 

549,000 
p8, 156, 744 

257,000 
4,744,850 


500,000 

1, 386,314 

8,958,612 

278,000 

2,159,228 

244,000 

4,200,204 

645,979 

462,000 

1,245,264 

20,750 

256.000 

870,800 

139,000 

803,187 

120,000 


25,000 

86,615 

472,413 

10,000 

^180,661 

20,600 

239,499 

36,099 

22,869 

80,475 

775 

• 16,328 

22,200 

8,469 

101,556 

1,957 


16,000 

20,770 
462,069 

37,096 
10r,776 

15,960 
250,106 

80,809 
5,194 

39,720 

66,150 
6,082 

20,640 
5,592 

56,702 
1,165 
8,147 
4,500 


1,000 


100,000 
116, 616> 


U 41 


21,800 

28,375 

85,500 

84,786 

1.200 

69,848 



10,600 

8,740 

1,350 


m as 
e 


140,696 


285,465 
21,120 


418 

16 
US 


15 

1 
28 

22 
1 

5 


20,000 
2,500 


181,000 
45,620 
190,398 






86,468 
30,000 
16,410 


14 

43 


840,000 
1,498,250 
335,000 
440,000 
• 1,558,000 
295,000 
890,800 
900,000 
30,000 
100,000 


5,000 


2 


180 
8,180 


1,500 
36,700 
5,500 


S 


26,000 

350 

1,960 

900 


2»! 2 


11,500 
43,881 
10,000 
2,500 
1,250 




nsi 1 


21,500 
18,810 




85 
1,400 


«L... 




5,000 


500 










1338 J46D 


'2,522,228 


92,904 '419,066 


^,255,976 


43,786,877 


^2,618,008 


2,080,450 


575,649 


2,457,30» 



e ClMsillcation not reported in all cases, 

/locJu' pfl ifii .^f:x notfi^iven. 



ffTh* protiuetire Aindsin several instances are included in this numbeQOg 
& A amiLtl iriL>ome from tuition fees is included here. 



le 



CLVI 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Summary of college entrance examinations 


in 1881. 














Location. 


1 

1 

fi 


Number admitted. 


Number rejected for 
deficiency in— 




1 


Conditioned in — 


1 




1 


!■« 


Nfune. 


c 





i 


1 

i 


1 s 

li 


Cniverslty of Alabama..^ 
Arkansas Industrial 

University.* 
CoHege of St. Augustine. 
Pierce Christian College. 


Tuscaloosa, Ala 

Fayetteville.Ark 

Benloia.Cal 


158 
475 

49 


1 1 
156 j 2 

440 15 














5 


5 


10 


u| 

i 

8 ' 2 

1 


15 
6 


5 


8 


College City.Cal 


90 
45 


*■ 1 *" ."""'I ! 




St. Mary's College 


San Francisco, Cal.... 

Santa Clara. Cal 

Hartford, Conn 

Bloomington, 111 

Carlinville, 111 

Eureka, 111 


45 


I ; 1 ! ■ ! 






Santa Clara College.. 


70 [ 70 

ao' 8 

645 ; 23 




1 1 










Trinity College 


12 


13 16 ! al4 





2 


1 






Illinois Weslevan Uni- 








versity. 
Blackburn University .... 


60 

250 

55 

80 
12 
3 

175 
80 
24 
17 

114 

18 


58 


















Eureka Collie 










• 1 








Northwestern Univer- 


Evanston, 111 


84 

18 
12 
8 


4 
5 


1 


6 



4 




1.. .1 




4 


sity. 
Knox CoU^^e* 


Oalesburg.IU 

Gftlcsburg, 111 


2 2 





2 


Lombard University 




Irvington College. 


Irvinsrton. Ill 








1 


0|-o|o 








McKendree College.. 


Lebanon, 111. 




Monmouth College* 


Monmouth, 111 

Rock Island, ni 

Upper Alton, IlL 

Urbana,Ill 


50 


1 


::::i:::::::j::::L::i:: 


1 


Augustana Collie 


22 

4 
75 


1 




1 


...I....L. 




1 


Shurtleff College 






12 
17 




1 


1 






Illinois Industrial Uni- 


2 





1 














9 


versity. 
Wheaton College 


Wheaton, 111 




The Indiana University.. 


Bloomington, Ind ... 
Fort Wayne, Ind ..... 

Pranlclin. Ind 


74 
45 

28 


« 


28^' 

1 


25 


4 


■ ! 






Concordia College*^ 


1 1 1 




Franklin College 


9» 


1 




1 




5 ... 




Hartoville University*....' Hartsville. Ind 


16 1A 


I 








i 


Union Christian College. 


Merom, Ind 10 

Richmond, Ind „ 13 


10 
7 
5 
80 
10 
19 












.. 1 • 




Earlham College* 


4 


4 


1 


8 











Oriswold College 


Davenport, Iowa 9 


2 
12 






? 




Parsons College* 


Fairfield, Iowa ' 42 


10 


6 


4 






1 




Upper Iowa University.. 
Simpson Centenary Col- 


Fayette, Iowa 


05 

30 

1.1 


1 




•"W 


Indianola, Iowa 

Mt. Pleasant, Iowa .. 


7i Tl 2 


1 1 1 1 




lege. 
Oerman Coll^^ 








j 






Penn College 

Central University of 


Oskaloosa, Iowa ' » 

Pella, Iowa - ' 36 


24 
2ft 


1 


1 





' 
6 ' 8 

1 
0< 


b 





Iowa.* 

Tabor College* 

Lane University 


Tabor, Iowa 


! 

85 35 


o|o 








I 
0! 





LeconiDt4kn. K&ns 


5 




'!■'•!' 




Bates College \ Lewiston, Me ' 42 

Boston College Boston. Mass 1 e2 


87 


oio 


4 


1 1 1 


• 


Tufts College 


College Hill, Mass...! 24 


4 


7 


« 


4 


4 


















* From Rei>ort of the Commissioner of Education for 1880. 

a Number admitted conditioned in history and geography or in English! iC 

l> YITK^I^ n..m«Vw..«. «^»«t*«..>^ '^ 



b Whole number admitted. 



SUPEBIOR INSTRUCTION. 



CLVIi 



Sumumary vf ttiOit^ emtramee ejoam i nations in 1881 — Oontinaed. 



Xj 



Location. 






3 



Xun>ber.dnntted. , ^^"aefl^'^^i^' 



I I 
I i 






Conditioned in — i 



' 8 ' *. 

o s la 






Wflltams CoUe«e _ \^iUiamston, Mass... 102 

Hope GoDcse* Holland, Mich I 18 

Kalamaroo College, Kalamasoo, Mich^...! 13 

Hamline University ' Hamline, Minn 5 

Carietoo CeUege Xorthfield, Minn^.J 33 

PritcheU School InsU- ^ Glasgow, Mo ' 155 

tote. , 

Lincoln College* ! Greenwood, Mo 26 

Washington rnircreity* St. Louis, Mo ~ 

Drury College* | Springfield, Mo 20 

Stewansrille College. ' Stewartsville, Mo 15 

RotgeiB College > New Brmnswick, 82 

j N.J. 

CoOege of New Jersey* . Princeton, N. J 

9l Stephen's College I Annandale, N. Y 



! a76 

I 17 

I 9 

I 11 



9l John's College. 
Cknisios College.. 
9l Lawrence UniTcrsity 

Hobart College 

Madison UniTersity* 

Coraell University 

Yalmr CoUege 

Union College* 

Syracoae University 

North Carolina College. 
Wake Forest College*..^ 

WeaverviDe College 

Bocfaiel College 

Baldwin University* 

German Wallace College 
SI. Joseph's College.. 

Eenyon College. 

O^nison University*. 

Marietta OoUege 

Oberlin College.. 

Bio Grande College* 

8do College* 

Heidelberg CoUeg«* . 
Crtaana University... 
WoosCer University., 
Christian CoUege* ..., 
Philomolh College.... 
WTHajiietie University*,. 



Brooklyn, N.Y 

BufflUo, N. Y ~ 

Canton, N. Y 

Geneva, N.Y 

Hamilton, N. Y 

Ithaca, N.Y 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y.. 
Schenectady, N. Y... 

Syracuse^ N. Y 

Mi. Pleasant, N. C... 
Wake Forest, N. C... 
Weaverville,N. C. 

Akron, Ohio 

Berea, Ohio 

Berea, Ohio 

Cincinnati, Ohio... 

Gambier, Ohio 

Granville, Ohio .f 

Marietta. Ohio 

Oberlin, Ohio 

Rio Grande, Ohio. 

Sdo, Ohio 

TifBn, Ohio 

Urbana, Ohio.. 

Wooster, Ohio 

Monmouth, Oreg.. 
Philomath, Oreg.. 
Sal^m, Dreg 



161 
7 
30 

178 
32 
14 
81 

152 

36 

67 

52 

8 

171 

107 
26 
40 
60 
96 
81 
27 
28 
77 
7 

120 
30 
7 
43 
80 
40 
8 



16 I 



12 



(02) 
4 
2 
8 
45 



10 



* Frocn Bepcirt of the Commissioner o^ Education for 1880. 

n Thu n timber admitted on certificate of other colleges or from preparatory schools. 

b Fonr of thU number did not complete their examinations. 



f N timber ddraiti^l conditioned in English. 



Digitized by 



^oogle 



CLVm REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Summary of college entrance examinaUons 


in 


1881— Continued. 










Location. 


1 


Number admitted. 


Number r^ected for 
denCieney in— 




? 


Conditioned in— 


3 


1 


1 


1 

?. 

*• 

1 

S 
R 


|- 


Name. 

• 


c 


1 


j 


"0^ 


1 


Pennsylvania Ck>Uege.... 
Haverford College* 

MonongahelaCk>Ue8:e*... 

St. Francis College 

Allegheny CoUege 

Westminister College..... 


Gettysburg, Pa 

Haverford College, 

Pa. 
Jefferson, Pa 


42 
27 

88 
65 
42 
24 

75 

48 

78 
77 
16 
25 
22 

62 

6 


27 
16 

88 
65 


4 
4 


10 
2 


9 
8 


6 
2 










8 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


Loretto, Pa 
















2 




2 













MeadviUe, Pa 





New WUmington, 

Pa. 
Pittsbuigh, Pa 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Providence, B.L 

Due West. S, C 

Newberry, S.C 

Athens, Tenn 


20 

62 

21 

29 
27 
8 
12 
15 










2 


Pittsburgh Catholic Col- 
lege. 

Western University of 
Pennsylvania.* 

Swarthmore CoDege*»... 

Brown University 


20 

8 

10 
81 


4 


8 
2 

18 
8 
5 
2 












8 

9 
81 
7 
8 
1 


8 
8 
8 




5 

1 

6 




1 
8 
6 


1 

21 
8 

4 
5 


1 

17 



9 

26 
7 


Erskine College.. 


4 


Newberry College 


5 


leyan University. 
Southwestern Baptist 


Jackson, Tenn 

MaryvlUe, Tenn^ 

Moeheim,Tenn 














University. 

Maryville College 

Mosheim Institute 


6 

85 



6 
186 
10 

147 
21 

U 
























• 










• 




Central Tennessee Col- 
lege. 
Fisk University^ 


NashvUlcTenn. 

• 

NashvUle, Tenn 

Sewanee'Tenn 

Georgetown, Tex ..... 

Independence, Tex... 

BurUngton.Vt 

Middlebury, Vt 

Ariiland,Va 

Salem, Va 


8 

8 
186 
82 

12 
281 
25 

• 

17 
127 

50 
86 
25 
140 

8 
5 
12 


8 



8 

1 




1 




1 






















University of the South.. 




Southwestern Univer- 


7 


12 
8 

2 


8 


2 
8 

2 


11 


20 
2 


■ 4 
















slty. 

Baylor University 

Marvin CoUege* 



2 
2 




1 
2 

4 



5 

1 











University of Vermont 
and State Agrioultural 
CoUege. 

Middlebury CoUege.. 


8 
4 


Randolph Maoon Col- 














lege.* 
Boanoke College*.. 






















Lawrence University — 
Beloit CoUege 


Appleton, Wis 

Beloit, Wis 


6 
12 


18 
5 


2 
8 


6 

4 


4 
4 














..... 


University of Wiscon- 


Madison, Wis.. 

Racine, Wis 

Washington, D. C ..-.. 
Washington, D. C 




sin.* 
Racine College . ^ 


5 
6 

4 






2 


7 






» 






1 


Howard University 

NationalDeaf-Mute Col- 
lege.* 

Total 



4 






























6,096 


2,886 


648 


840 


m 

486 1 9>n 


96 


75 


120 


45 


i7i 








1 





* From Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1880. 



SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. CLIX 

Statictioal summary of students in classical and sdentiflc preparatory courses. 





Number preparing for 
claflsical course in 
ooUege. 


Number preparing for sdentiflc 
course in college. 




States and Territories. 




Is 

e 


"2^ 

1 
ll 


1 
1 

a 

•-* 


o 

5 


|| 
If 

e 




i 


Ala^ma 


87 

108 

93 

5 

68 

28 

18 

589 

100 

45 

199 

40 

836 

51 

185 

119 

160 

30 

85 

226 

67 

27 

110 

233 

1,137 

871 

228 

84 

265 

16 

59 

849 

164 

177 

115 

10 

74 

17 

40 

63 

5 






5 
16 
83 






47 


139 


ArkaiuvM ... . ,, 




22 
126 
87 






141 


California 

Colondo 


7 


11 


222 
36 


34 


576 

78 




245 


13 
20 


16 




342 


Delaware « 








48 


Florida 












18 


Ceor^ia 


112 
160 


12 
630 
885 
662 

75 
196 
107 

44 
169 
100 
239 
155 
249 
368 

47 


198 
69 
59 
190 
100 
228 
53 
37 
94 
29 
16 
106 
189 
89 
25 
28 
96 
286 
72 
84 
98 
44 


201 
113 




877 
77 

141 
15 


1,089 


Illinois.^ 

Tn^iana 


772 
345 
562 

84 
116 

82 


1,921 
975 


Iowa 

KaiuMs , ,,,..,. 


2 





1,630 
299 


Kenta^7 








876 








40 


286 


Maine 


147 
45 

670 
10 


9 

16 

144 

16 


422 


y^iyland 


30 

30 

• 542 

124 

181 

211 


6 


479 




1,133 


Vieb^i^ 




853 


Sfinneiinia 




470 


IfiflBMimri 






487 
274 


1,232 

1,086 

99 


iTwmiri 


42 


35 


K^«r«#ka 




459 
56 
596 


21 

44 

257 






618 


New Jersey „ 








429 


Sew York 


919 
339 
1,134 
S34 
606 


690 
102 
1,065 
245 
803 




8,787 
884 


ICoKthOtfoUna « 




Ohio 


94 


51 


98 


2,719 
656 


Oregon ^ „ 


PmnvlvaniA. ,. . 


359 
131 
20 
35 


96 
13 


52 


1,727 




160 


^(onth Carolina 


47 
297 
243 


42 
216 

67 

51 

24 
2 

24 
8 

60 
107 

13 


19 
237 
240 




187 


Ttpnftffef 


37 




1,171 


T^^M 




714 


TemMMit „ 


20 
75 


12 
20 




260 


TtrxhiiA , 


18 

40 

171 

802 


10 

87 

110 

10 


108 


370 


WeetViTginia 


89 


Vif-fMwin 


125 


82 




586 


Diitriet of Columbia 




337 


XewMerwo 








100 


l7tBh 




80 








160 


WMhington ,. 










96 














Total 


6.171 


8,412 


8,063 


2,986 


1,196 


6,175 


2,801 


80,144 



Digitized by ^OOQIC 



CLX 



BEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



Statistical summary of students in instUuiions far superior instruction (not indudinj ittudenls 

in preparatory departments). 



States and Territories. 



a 

3 
§ 

1^ 



si 

|8 
li 






i1 nil' III 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut.. 

Delaware 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 



Maryland.. 

Massachusetts. . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada 



New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South C^urolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

District of Columbia.. 
Washington 



Total. 



814 

271 

602 

45 

059 

54 

554 

1,887 

1,329 

1,614 

481 

1,178 

174 

422 

1,886 

1,865 

1,166 

408 

820 

1,606 

216 



135 
14 
160 
140 
186 



751 



267 



182 
808 

140 
211 
267 
182 
29 
110 
810 
741 
284 



102 
862 



80 
87 

1,802 

1,247 
107 
263 
65 

1,205 
281 
114 
274 

1,506 
103 
175 
670 

1,463 



247 
677 

8,406 
500 

2,612 
458 

2,867 
251 
804 

1,876 
540 
06 
880 
201 
658 
222 
90 



94 

210 

8,078 

24 

124 

00 

2,812 



56 

196 
880 

2,077 
481 
806 
140 

1,212 



68 


487 




1,208 
588 


127 


48 


146 


448 


911 




80 


124 


216 







82,450 



10,606 



10,025 



The statistics of colleges and uniTersities show slight losses at a few points and mod- 
erate gains at others. Colleges and students are fewer this year than last The income 
from prodnctive f\md8 has diminished, but the resources of colleges have increased. They 
have more property at their disposal and a larger force of teachers. Here and there an 
institution has enlarged its courses or gi^en to them greater flexibility or closer adapta* 

Digitized by ^OOQl€ 



SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. CLXI 

tioD to public needs. Some addiUoBal institutions have adopted the practice of admit- 
ttng withoat examinatioB the gradoates of approved high schools. Other institutions 
have held examinations for admission in distant cities where they have not been held be- 
fere. Several State oniveisities have received public appropriations sufficient to insure 
tfaera against immediate necessity and, in some cases, to provide for future needs. In- 
ccstives to study have been increased by additional prizes and fellowships. More strin- 
gEBt mles relative to conferring d^rees have occasionally been adopted. The conduct 
of students has reeeived many fiivorable notices and internal dissensions have not pre- 
vailed to any great degree. 

COLLEGE HYGIENE. 

PraC Edward Hitchcock, M. d., of Amherst College, Mass., has issued a report on his 
twenty years' experience in the department of physical education and hygiene in that 
institution. Heavy gymnastics are not commended by him to the mass of students. 
Dumb bells weighing about a pound each are approved, and exercise vnth them is taken 
for 20 or 30 minutes each afternoon, toward the evening. This has been found the most 
practkafcble time. Reliance is not placed on exercise alone for maintaining health. At- 
tmtkm is paid to cleanliness, care of the digestive organs, relaxation from mental effort, 
Ac AlMetic sports are encouraged, but not unduly stimulated. The average develop- 
BMBt and health of students during their course have been satis&ctory. The increase 
of hei^t from freshman to senior year has been from 67.33 to 67.94 inches; of weight, 
ficm 133 to 142 pounds; of chest girth, from 34.76 to 35.97 inches; and of lung capacity, 
fnan 233 to 251 cubic inches. The diseases incident to students are principally colds, 
and throat difficulties. About 40 per cent, of sickness arises from these 
9 per cent. fit>m physical ii^uries, 5 per cent, from febrile complaints, and 
tmdj as much from weak and sore eyes. The aven^ time lost by students on ac- 
apont of sickness has been 2.65 days yearly. Instruction in anatomy, physiology, and 
fajpene is giTen in freshman and sophomore years. 

GBOWTH OP YALE COLLEGE. 

The presideiit of Yale College has this year issued the fbrst of a proposed series of reports 
m the progress of that institution and the changes within it Once in five years a simi- 
hr zcpOTt will be presented to the alumni and distributed to the public This one covers 
15 yeanw Dniing this i>eriod the officers of government and instruction in all the deport- 
■KBBti have increased from 49 to 108; the students, from 682 to 1,037. The academic 
Mr has increased from 12 professors and 8 tutors to 22 professors and 9 tutors. The 
jpadoale department has increased from a single professor and 4 or 5 students to 6 pro- 
kmaa and 29 students. The college library has 102,000 volumes against 46,000 in 
18^-'66. The Peabody museum has been provided and is made of great service in the 
itedy of natural history and kindred sciences. Eight buildings have been erected and 
170, 000 have been expended in i)ermanent improvements. The aggregate addition to the 
wialth of the college is moro than $2,500,000. Of instruction in the academical depart- 
tatat Preeideiit Porter says : 

The tbree lower classes are taught in smaller divisions and the divisions themselves 
Ke graded according to scholarBhip. In the junior and senior classes arrangements for 
■y^THw] studies in the afternoon have been matured and a liberal variety of such studies 
ii ottend, and as much time has been allotted to the optional system as, in our opinion, 
s practicable or desirable. The optional studies are assigned to the afternoon, four in 
odi we^ and are so arranged as to provide for continuous study for from one to several 
Vaam in all the principal departments of science and letters. 

ELECTTVE SYSTEMS. 

QeelivQ systems of instruction in collies have been increasing in &vor and have been 
or extended by several institutionH within a few years. Sufficient time has 
I to wsrrant inquiry as to results. Theories have been tested practically, and the 

.^^ Digitized by ^OOQIC 



CLXII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

advantages and disadvantages of allowing students u choice of studies have been weighed 
against each other in college halls under the eyes of vigilant observers, whose tes- 
timony may be accepted as strong evidence of the appropriateness and value of the 
elective system. One of the most prominent objections was that students would elect 
studies requiring the least eflbrt. This has not been found a common practice. In 
Columbia College, New York City — 

The great body of young men in college are really interested in study. They appre- 
ciate the value of their opportunities and are earnestly desirous to improve them to the 
best advantage. They select their studies, when free to do so, with an intuitive recog- 
nition of those which tlicy are most capable of masteriag, and from which therefore they 
are conscious that they will derive the greatest profit. 

Dr. A. P. Peabody, some time ago, said of the manner in which the power of choice 
was exercised at Harvard College : 

I think that at first there was in the choice of studies a good deal of caprice, wanton- 
ness, and haphazard; but with every year the choice has become more and more a seri- 
ous matter, a subject of careful forethought and forecast, insomuch that there are some 
of our late freshman class who have, with suitable advice, drawn up written schemes, 
and very judicious ones, of a course of study extending through the remaining three 
years. 

The choice of subjects made by students freely exercising their taste and Judgment 
bears out the opinions presented and shows a sufficient adherence proportionately to 
the studies usually constituting college curricula. The number of courses ofiBstruction 
in the principal departments of collegiate study in Michigan University and the number 
of students in them present at examination were reported last year. In history there 
were 11 courses, 582 students; in Latin, 13 courses, 527 students; Greek, 13 courses, 413 
students; German, 7 courses, 381 students; PVench, 8 courses, 315 students; English, 
10 courses, 409 students; philosophy, 4 courses, 195 students; mathematics, 11 courses, 
339 students; chemistry, 13 courses, 1()2 students; physics, 6 courses, 113 students; 
zoology, 6 courses, 117 students; geolog\', 9 courses, 73 students. Many other depart- 
ments were represented by fewer courses and students. Those mentioned show the 
prominence of English and linguistic studies. At Johns Hopkins University, 1880-'81, 
the number of students in attendance on courses in mathematics was 31; physics, 35; 
chemistry, 40; biology, 25; ({reek, 31; Latin, 40; German, 55; French, Italian, &c., 
33; English, 29; history, 40. *'In Harvard College," says Prof. Charles F. Dunbar, 
*' it does not appear that the tendency of the elective system has been to develop abnor- 
mally any particular class of studies." Classical literature has received slightly less 
attention. ^lodem languages have maintained their ground. History has gained 
heavily. Mathematics remains singularly constant. Physics, chemistry, and natural 
history attract a slightly increasing number of students. In Columbia Collie, the 
inferences drawn from a tabular statement of elective work during junior tmd senior 
years by President F. A. P. Barnard are as follows : 

It appears from the foregoing that tlic ancient languages are chosen by a larger propor- 
tion of the class during the junior than during the senior year; that this proportion for 
Greek is more than two-thirds in tlu' .junior and al)out one-half during the senior year; 
for Latin it is five-sixths during the Junior and a little less than one-half during the 
senior; also, that niatheniatics is choMii by more than three-fourths of the juniors and by 
only about one-fifth of the seniors. The small Jiumber in this latter class is accounted 
for by the fact that the mathematics of the senior year is the dtfterential and integral 
calculus, which Is only selected by those who have a special aptitude for this class of 
studies. Physics is a lavorite study in both years and was cnosen in the year under 
consideration by nearly the entire iuiml)er in each class. Of the modem languages. 
French and German aie selectctl by about a third of the juniors and by about one in 
eight or ten of the seniors; Italian comes next, and Spanish is the choice of the smallest 
nunilxjr. IJofcvny, which was not offered at the beginning of the year, was chosen only 
by nine juniors. 

Of the studios \\hich are elective in the senior year only, geology was, during the year 
ending Juno, 1>^?^1. olwlinl by every member of the class and jLstr<momy by uU but one: 
about throe-filths soIooltHl choniistrv, two-fifths philosophy, and one-fifth politiwU 
ojonomy. Logic, history, and English liteiyture do pot appeal* (^O^I*Cabovc lists, as 
these studies are obligatory on all students. 



SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. CLXIII 

The efiect of the elective system ou scholarship has been excellent. The studies 
ttkcted are in harmony with the tastes and proclivities of the students and are pursued 
with interest and satisfaction. A transition from prescribed to elected studies is accom- 
panied by an improvement in marks. But as some students are not conscious of their 
uifiiDeas for certain studies and their fitness for others it is suggested that instructo)^i 
who have become familiar with the mental qualities and inclinations of pupils, both in 
preparatory schools and during the period of fixed studies, should be consulted in the 
pccpaiation of a scheme of elective studies. 

The general results of the elective system at Harvard College are summed up by 
President Eliot in a review of the annual report of the dean of the faculty, as follows : 

It is to he inferred from his account of the actual experience of the college during a 
period of ten years that the system does not tend to bring about the extinction of the 
&>ditioDal studies called liberal; because these studies, though pursued by a smaller 
pcoportion of students than formerly, are pursued by those who choose them with greater 
vigor and to better purpose than they were ever pursued as parts of a prescribed curric- 
clmn. The tables of ^e dean's report also indicate that the scientific turn of mind is 
fooparatively rare among the young men who enter the college, a lai^ge majority of the 
Modents preferring languages, metaphysics, history, and political science to mathemat- 
ics, physio, zoology, and ^tany. Whether this preference is the result of genuine nat- 
nnl predisposition or an effect of the training supplied by the secondary schools it would 
h*» hard to determine. Finally, whoever reads the history of the development of the 
elective system as it is recorded in the successive annual reports of the dean of the col- 
lege faculty since 1870 will arrive at the well grounded conviction that every extension 
ci the sjrsiem has been a gain to the individual student, to the college, and to every in- 
terest of education and learning, and will also see reason to believe that the time is not 
tir distant when the few subjects still prescribed for all students will in their turn become 
dective. 

VABIATIONS IN <X>LLEGE ATTENDANCE. 

The statistics of the coll^;es and universities of the country show the number of stu- 
dcstB in iheir collegiate departments to be 32,459. The ratio between the number of 
students and the entire population, whether in the whole country or in the indi\ddual 
:3iBiea or in groups of States, has much significance and interest. Schools of science 
tea a distinct class of schools, and therefore may be omitted in the consideration of 
tkm question, though they have courses of study as advanced n^ those commonly pnr- 
med in colleges and often nearly identical with the scientific courses of (Hassical insti- 
totions. The influence of students and graduates of scientific and classical schools is 
lot greatly different, socially or politicaUy. The mental discipline and the acquisitions 
«f the two dasses fit them for responsibilities equally burdensome and important. If 
Ikt frequency with which young people are availing themselves of opportunities for 
fwning higher education would be ascertained definitely, schools of science and insti- 
tntioDs for the higher instruction of women should be taken into account. But many 
iodieations may be obtained from approximate figures relating to the relative attendance 
a( yonth in distinctly collegiate institutions in different sections of the country. 

There ia in the United States 1 college student to 1,545 inhabitants. The number of 
iafaabitants of a State for each student attending college within it varies greatly. Con- 
wctient has 655 inhabitants for each student in its collies; Tennessee and Maryland, 
thtat SOO; Massachusetts, a little less than a thousand; California, a little more. At 
the «tfaer end of the list are Vermont and several of the States in the Southwest, which 
^m more than three thousand inhabitants to a student in their own coU^ces. These 
%nBB do not represent the number of students from any particular State pursuing col- 
^Hfcrtr studies. They are approximately correct for the larger States South and West; 
tfay are fitttirely misleading when applied to New England. Comparatively few per- 
tms arc Ibund in southern colleges who reside out of the State, except in the cases of 
irtad nniversities and of colleges located near the State l)oundary. The same Is, to a 
Mill I extent, true in the West. 

fai New Rnglan<l there are 1,034 inhabitants for each student in the colleges of its six 
flMn sad 1,526 inhabitants tor each resident of New England in its colleges. Maine 
lli 1 latent in coUege in New Englaud for each 1,310 inhabitants; New Hampshire, 



CLXIV REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

1 for 1,983; Vermont, 1 for 1,477; Massachusetts, 1 for 1,393; Rhode Island, 1 for 
2,049 ; and Connecticut, 1 for 1,946. Thus Vermont, which has only 1 student in its 
colleges for every 3,000 inhabitants, has more students according to its population than 
Connecticut, though the latter State has one student in its colleges for every 655 inhab- 
itants. Reasons for this are apparent. One of them may be discussed here, since it 
largely determines whether there will be more students frtym a State or in a State. It 
is the presence of well known and richly endowed colleges. The colleges of Vermont 
are small and limited in means. Just beyond the boundary of the State are Dartmouth 
and Williams. The former has 47 Vermont students; the latter, 14. Amherst College 
is but little more distant and has 12. Harvard and Yale are near enough to attract 
several. More than one-half of Vermont's students are in colleges outside of the State. 
The condition of af&irs is quite different in Connecticut. Her students are largely in 
her own institutions. Other States send thither their sons : Maine, 30 ; New Hampshire, 
13; Vermont, 10; Massachusetts, 65; New York, 200; New Jersey, 30; Pennsylvaniii, 
90; and the States of the West are well represented. 

It does not appear that the proportion of college students is so much smaller in the 
older Southern States east of the Mississippi than in New England as many would snp- 
I>ose. One student for 1,700 inhabitants is not far from a just average. A much smallei 
proportion is reported as in their colleges. But the same ine<^uality exists here as in the 
States above mentioned. For instance, South Carolina has reported only one student te 
3,270 inhabitants. Had every one of its collies reported, it would have shown a larp^ei 
proportion of students. A ftirther increase must be made, not only because the State 
does not educate all its students, but also because almost no students from outside atte^nd 
its colleges. There are as many students from South Carolina in Yale and Harvard, xw 
there are collegiate students in South Carolina from other States, so far as can be ascer- 
tained by the cataloirnes of the colleges of that State for the present year possessed by 
the Office, and nearly all are in its files. The case of Tennessee is different It hac 
a large student population from other States. Vanderbilt University alone has nearly 
400 such students. In 1880 it registered 31 from Texas, 38 fhnn Kentucky, 35 frono 
Alabama, 14 from Georgia, 7 from Louisiana, 4 from South Carolina, 19 from ArkanwaB, 
23 frx>m Mississippi, and a small number from nearly every one of the Southern and Cen- 
tral States. 

It would seem that there has been an increase not only in the absolute number, but 
also in the relative proportion of college students during the last fifty years ; but it ij 
essential to bear in mind that the facilities for gathering such statistics available half i 
century ago were far inferior to those existing at present. Then 44 institutions r^K>rtec 
4,021 students. At least 13 other colleges existed. If their attendance was on the aver 
age the same as that of the 44 reporting, the entire number of students may be esti 
mated at 5,200, about one-sixth of the present number. The population th^i was i 
little more than one-fourth as large as in 1880. The establishing of colleges north of th< 
Ohio had only commenced. Five of the 3(5 colleges in Ohio, 1 of the 15 in Indiana, aux 
1 of the 28 in Illinois had been founded and in them wero gathering small knots of stu 
dents around the few energetic men that were the soul of these ventures. South of tin 
Ohio River and Pennsylvania and east of the Mississippi 25 colleges, with 1,229 stadenta 
were reported in the spring of 1831* to the American Quarterly Register, where norw 
there are 92 colleges, with 7,757 students. Then there was 1 student to about 4,000 in 
habitants. North Carolina, Georgia, and Tennessee fell below this average. Now NortI 
Carolina and Tennessee have more students relatively than the average of Soutben 
States. Virginia and South Carolina have proportionately fewer now than fifty yean 
ago. 

In New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania there was 1 student for 3,430 inhal^ 
tants in IBIiO; now there is 1 Tor 1,577 inhabitants. Then New York had comparative^ 
the fewest stndentH in college; Jiow it has the most. Its 4 colleges have multiplietl to 2T 



Union College, then far aliead in point of numbers, has been outstripped by two of tl 
colle^^ of New Y^ork City. In ^ew Jersey students have increased slightly more ra] 



; 



SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. CLXV 

idly than tfie population; and Princ*eton College has passed by Rutgers. Pennsylvania's 
student population has increased from 1 in 3,100 to 1 in 1,745. Some of the colleges 
then flourishing have no longer an individual existence. Others have been founded, 
90 that there are 20 more now than in 1830. 

The college popjolation of New England has increased from linl,281tolin 1,034. 
Hart of Vermont is absolutely smaller than fifty years ago; and that of Rhode Island is 
lelatiTely so. In Maine i1^ has increased from 1 in 2,194 to 1 in 1,500; in New Hamp- 
shire, finom 1 in 1,760 to 1 in 1,400; in Massachusetts, firom 1 in 1,108 to 1 in 940; and 
in CcHiDecticnt, from 1 in 727 to 1 in 656. In none of the States is there so large a part 
of the entire number of persons in college from the State attending within the State as 
is 1830. This is emphatically true of New Hampshire and Vermont. Fifty years ago 
most of the young men of Maine, Rhode Island, and Connecticut were educated in their 
Gvn States, as they are at present. 

Preaddcait Porter, of Yale College, says: * ' The liberal education which the colleges have 
imiibfmly proposed to give is none other than what Milton calls the * complete and gen- 
cfOQS education ' that 'fits a man to perform justly, skilftilly, and magnanimously all 
ibe offices, both private and public, of peace and war. ' ' ' This being done, the increased 
allege attendance is a pleasing feature of educational progress. That the tendency of 
^iidents to pass beyond State limits in seeking higher education is praiseworthy is the 
t^nnion of President Eliot, of Harvard. In a recent report he said: 

The segregataon, within State limits or any other narrow botmds, of the young men 
xweiTiDg university instruction would be a grave calamity for the United States; for the 
«Bodati<m and education in common of young men taken from all parts of the country 
i» one of tlie strongest of national bonds. It is much to be wished that universities may 
prow up in the Western and Southern States, as well as in the Eastern, strong enough to 
attract students from all parts of the country, and that the German practice of migrat- 
ing from one university to another may take root here. 

SCHOOLS OF POLITICAL SCIENCE. 

Pt^tical science should he taught in colleges because it directs the attention of the 
rtadent to important truths and instructs him in principles of government viewed from 
the standpoint not of the politician, but of the scholar. Most colleges recognize its 
daims^ and give one or two terms of senior year to constitutional and international law 
aod political economy. The introduction of elective and graduate courses has given 
fttndents larger opportunities to pursue the study advantageously. A few leading uni- 
nsaties have established courses in which the distinctive studies are history, social science, 
poiitical economy, and law. Columbia College, New York City, and the University of 
Midngsn, Ann Arbor, have recently added schools of political science to those already 
m openi&on. The objects of these new departments are best stated by quotations from 
the publications of the two institutions. The Columbia College Handbook of Informa- 
tioDsays: 

Hie purpose of the school is to give a complete general view of all the subjects both 
of iaternal and external public polity, from the threefold standpoint of history, law, and 
^dkeophy . Its prime aim is therefore the development of all the branches of tho polit- 
'lal sdences. Its secondary aim is the preparation of young men for all the political 
faEBDdKS of the public service. 

Acting President Henry S. Frieze, of the University of Michigan, uses the following 
vords in reporting the oxganization of a school of political science: 

It aims to give its students a large and thorough preparation for the duties that will 
tWolve apon them as citizens and members of society. It opens to them a wide range 
«f history, wherein they may learn to estimate aright the conditions either of social 
jQDod or social evil, the conditions of national prosperity or of national ruin. The 
cMuses offered to them in jurisprudence, in constitutional law and history, in legislative 
and parliamentary forms, and in administrative methods and usages are designed to fit 
thoa for those public duties to which every citizen is liable to be called. There are 
ih» studies in political economy and international law and studies in sanitary science, 
aO eombtning with the rest to make up a course of advanced and practical education 
^ieli can hardly fidl to make of those who pursue it to the end intelligent^md^ .ij^ful 
mwtm and membcni of society. Qi i^^'^ byVjOO^LL 



CLXVI KEPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

The requirement for admission to the School of Political Science, Columbia College, 
is the successful completion of the regular course of undergraduate study in that college 
QT in some other maintaining an equivalent curriculum of study to the end of the junior 
year. One year less of preparatory study is required at Michigan University, and those 
that have gone forward to graduation in a reputable collie are credited with so much 
of the work of the school as they may have completed during their course. 

The studies of the Columbia College School are arranged in a single course three years 
in length. Those of the ftist year are chiefly historical. The development of natural 
sciences, philosophy, national i>olitics, and constitutions is considered with studies in 
geography and ethnography. Land tenure, taxation, and finance are the branches of 
political economy under discussion. The studies of the second year are in Roman and 
constitutional law; those of the third include diplomacy, international and administra- 
tive law, and social science. The studies of the Michigan University school are embraced 
under the four heads of history, political economy, sanitary science, and rights. Eng- 
lish history has a prominent place in the historical department. Courses of instructioQ 
are also given in the general history of continental Europe, the political history of the 
American colonies, and the constitutional history of the United States. There are ele- 
mentary' and advanced courses in political economy. The former is theoretical; the 
latter concerned with practical questions, such as commercial crises, transportation, migra- 
tion, free trade and protection, and social reforms. Sanitary science includes chemical 
biology, foods, water and air supply, heating and light, ferments and germs, health 
laws, &c. 

The completion of one year of the course in the school at Colnmbia College entities 
the student to the degree of bachelor of philosophy; of the entire course, to that of 
doctor of philosophy. The securing of a degree in the Michigan University depends on 
the satisfactory completion of a prescribed amount of study. An examination for 
bachelor's or master's degree may be undeigone at the close of two years' special work. 
Those that obtain a master's degree with distinction may present themselves for a 
doctor's degree at the expiration of another year; others may do so any time after two 
years. The degrees are in philosophy, in science, or in letters. 

The Wharton School of Finance and Economy in the University of Pennsylvania 
may be mentioned in this connection, although its aim is to prepare for business 
rather than public life. Its special studies commence with junior year and continue 
three years, as do the scientific courses of the university. Students who have passed 
through the freshman and sophomore classes of either the classical or scientific depart- 
ment of the university are admitted without examination ; all others are examined in 
subjects similar to those pursued in one or the other of these departments during the 
first two years. The prominent studies of the school are French, Grerman, natural 
sciences, social science, political economy, and general law. The principal work of 
junior year is on questions of money, taxation, commerce, transportation, and labor. 
The d^ree conferred at the end of the course is bachelor of science. 

TABLE X.— SCHOOLS OF SCIENCE. 



Tlie following statement shows the number of institutions^ and departments of this 
class, with instructors and students, as reported to this Office each year from 1870 to 
1881, inclusive. The numbers under 1873, 1874, 1875, 1876, 1877, 1878, 1879, 1880, and 
1881 include the National Military and Naval Academies : 



Number of institutions. 
Number of instructors.. 



1870. 



17 
144 



Number of students |l,413 



1871. 



41 

m 

3,303 



1872. ! 1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


70 


70 


72 


74 


75 


724 


749 


609 ' 758 


793 


5,305 8,950 '7,244 l7,157 


7,614 








' 'M 



1877. 



74 

781 
8,559 



1878. 



76 
809 



^fclfcl 



1879. 



81 
884 



1880. 



953 
11,584 



1881. 



1,019 
12,700 



SCIENTIFIC INSTRUCTION. 
Table X. — Pabt 1. — Summary of statistics of schools of science. 



CLXVll 



Preparatory depart- 
ment. 



Students. 



Gififoniia 

CoionMlo ^.... 
Ooanedicat.. 

Ddavare 

Plonda _ 

GeoKj^ia 



ftO 



Iowa .- 

KcBtaeky . 



lUryiaiid.... 

MiMchosetla .. 
Ififhigan ^,. 



Setada.. 

Sew Hampshire . 

Xew Jexsey 

XewYork 

Sotih Carolina.... 

OUo. 

OiCKuii. 

PaawylTania 

KhodeLdand 

Soath Carolina 



*cnBotxt 

V«it Virginia... 



Total ...„„,«„„.. 

r. a unitary Atndemr.. 
r. a Naval Acad«tiiy«.„. 

Grand totaU....^,,^, 



Scientific department. 



Students. 



1 i 



(a) 



47 I 
(a) 




(a) 



I 



16 



c711 
3 I 73 
2 I 90 
2 10 



166 
4 
51 
5 



40 



I 

(«) (a) 

437 , 

25 



(«) I («) ; (a) 



I 

71 
(a) i 





74 

(a) 
85 







19 

(o) 

10 



(a) 
(a) 


1 
(«> 
Q 



(a) 

(a) 


SI 



(a) 



37 





11 I 
2 

26 ] 
5 I 

25 I 
(a) 



135 
6 

70 
57 

162 

(a) 



S 



19 

24 

9 

20 

13 

13 

9 

8 

7 

45 

12 

(a) 

9 

15 



10 

14 

52 

7 

13 

3 

12 

(a) 

4 

(a) 

18 

9 

(a) 
18 



176 
291 

90 

206 

259 

dl82 

29 
108 

49 
257 
209 

(a) 
102 
72 



43 
40 
259 
16 
60 



(a) 

58 
(a) 
127 

21 



239 
12 



137 



1 

10 

(a) 

8 



35 



elt ftaP i 2^ I 4G5\ 3.&HI 



SI 1,<S20 , 2!d 



6S| 



261 



rm I 4,(1^1 



6^ 



m 



^ 



18 




4 

(o) 



S 



721 





184 





300 





12 
40 
128 
98 



275 



2C0 
60 




68 



2.331 



3.331 I 



137 



a Inclnded In summary of statistics of universities and colleges (Table IX). 

b Oollese not yet established. 

e8ez<rfS19noi|riven. jgitlzedby^OOQie 

d IndodM aome students in the prei>aratory dejiartmeut. O 



CLXVra REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

Table X. — Part 1. — Summary ofslaiistics of schools of science — Continued. 






Alabama 

Arkansas 

Galifoniia 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

lUinois^ 

Indiana^ 

Iowa .^.. 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 



Michigan 

Minnesota.. 

Mississippi 

Missouri .. . 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire . 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina.... 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania. 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina.... 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont , 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin ..., 



Total. 



U. S. Military Academy 
U. 8. Naval Academy.. 

Grand total..... 



Libraries. 



2,000 
200 

(«) 
150 

6,000 

(a) 



8,500 
12, M2 
2,085 
0,000 
8,060 



17,000 
4,106 



5,300 
6,250 



1,700 

(a) 



1,200 
(a) 
(a) 
2,000 
1,600 
(a) 
8,000 
(a) 

26,500 
(a) 
1,000 
(a) 
2,200 
(a) 
(a) 



109,732 



28,206 
22,620 



160,509 



(a) 



(a) 



500 
425 



800 
150 



131 

200 
328 
(a) 

72 



(a) 
(a) 



(a) 
(a) 
(a) 



470 

(a) 
(a) 



2,868 



458 
869 



4,190 



a| 
■si 



1.000 
20 
(a) 



I 



(«) 




800 




1,500 



800 

(a) 



200 

(a) 
(a) 



(a) 



(a) 



50 

(a) 



8,870 



8,870 



175,000 
170,000 

(«) 

66,000 
200,000 

(a) 



164,000 
545,000 
250,000 
500,000 

99,625 

85,000 
400,000 
145,000 
100,000 
520,727 
274,880 

(a) 
800,000 

46,660 

25,000 

(a) 
100,000 

(a) 
5258,509 

(a) 
500,000 

10,000 
682,000 



25,000 

(a) 
212,000 

(a) 
521,060 

(«) 
200,000 



6,806,881 



c2, 500, 000 
1,202,890 



10,101,271 



Property, income, Ac 






$268,500 
180,000 

(a) 



272,164 

(a) 

121,400 
242,202 
819,000 
840,000 
600,000 
829,988 
165,000 
318,818 
181,800 
112,500 
542,000 
827,284 

(a) 
226,675 

65,000 



(a) 

80,000 

(a) 

(a) 

180,000 
559,628 

60,000 
500,000 

50,000 
191,800 
425,000 
174,000 

(a) 
485,000 

(a) 
267,000 



7,358,654 



7,858,654 







|1 

I 



t20,280 
10,400 
(a) 



29,212 

(a) 

10,004 
17,914 
21,806 
17,000 
45,000 
81,225 

9,900 
14,000 

7,000 

6,975 
80,672 
20,517 

(a) 
11,670 

7,680 



4,800 

(a) 

(a) 

7,600 
88,923 

5,000 
80,000 



11,506 
25,410 
14,280 
8,180 
28,500 

(«) 
15,322 



491,229 



401,229 






•2,000 
(a) 



17,798 
(a) 

1,800 

10,610 

2,089 



436 

1,500 





825 

63,107 



(a) 



1,800 



(a) 
(a) 
(a) 
8,706 



(a) 
4,191 
(a) 

100 
(a) 
18 



99,511 



99,511 



u 

n 



30 



(a) 

(•) 

625,000 

(a) 

275 
18,812 
4,900 
24,000 
20,729 
17,000 
10,000 
8,000 
6,000 



12,040 
(a) 
87,000 

7,600 

(a) 

(a) 



6,960 

(«) 

20,573 





(a) 

10,900 
(a) 




268,919 



266,919 



a Included in summary of statistics of universities and colleges fTaUe IZ). 
6 Value of equipment only. Digitized by V^ OOQ IC 

c Value of grounds and buildings. 



SCIENTIFIC INSTRUCTION. 



CLXIX 



Table X. — Pabt 2. — Summary of stattsHof of schools of science. 




ao,ooo 



a Not yet organized. 

h Itv^mAeai a utinaber ipf ^m%\e studente. 

r TuLJudei] in vummacy of statistics of universities and colleges (Table IX). 

it V*iiir of ivppuratiw. Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



• tkvi^liKlv* ra^ciptii fmiM <^tUcr sources. 



CLXX REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

The schools of science have not undergone great changes during the last year. The 
numher of institutions endowed with the national land grant remains the same and 
their fiiculties and students have neither diminished nor increased greatly. Gills have 
heen made to some of them, and thus they have been afforded better conveniences and 
an opportunity to widen the field of instruction and increase the teaching force. The 
newly established colleges of agriculture in Mississippi and South Carolina have been 
well attended and are meeting with eminent success. The list of schools of science not 
endowed with the national land grant has had a few additions. The Case School of 
Applied Science has been organized at Cleveland, Ohio. The design of its instruction 
is to give a thorough technical and professional training in the principles of natural and 
physical science, with their application to the arts. The course of study will be four 
years in length. One-half of the time will be spent in a careful study of mathematics, 
chemistry, physics, modem languages, and the methods of scientiiic research; the other 
half, in professional studies in some department of applied science. It is yet to be 
announced in what departments instruction will be afforded. The Ohio Mechanics' 
Institute, Cincinnati, has taken a forward step durijig the year by organizing a department 
of science and arts. Its duties include publishing a quarterly journal of science, provid- 
ing annually a course of not less than six public lectures on topics of general interest 
within the scope of the department, holding monthly meetings for the transaction of 
business and the discussion of scientific questions, and inquiring into and reporting on 
new and presumably meritorious inventions. The department is divided into special 
sections for scientific work, each of which has an organization of its own. Sections of 
chemistry, meclianics, and engineering have been formed, and those of electricity and 
architecture are contemplated. The journal of the department contains ''such of its 
proceedings, including reports on inventions, papers, and discussions of scientific interest, 
as may be deemed valuable to the public." The consideration of new inventions is in- 
trusted to a committee of not less than five persons. Evidence of original invention, 
novelty, and usefulness is required. If the device or discovery seems worthy, the com- 
mittee may reconnftend the award of the medal of the Ohio Mechanics' Institute. The 
society is enjoying a vigorous life and promises to greatly enlarge its field of usefulness. 

A series of elaborate agricultural experiments has been undertaken at private expense 
at Houghton Farm, Orange County, N. Y. This estate was purchased five years ago by 
Mr. Lawson Valentine, of New York City. It was soon brought to a satisfisictory con- 
dition as a residence, and then plans for experimental work were made. Dr. Maiily 
Miles was employed as director, and laid out fields suitable for his purpose, supervised 
their systematic drainage, and visited the best known experimental stations of Europe. 
Actual work was commenced in the year 1880. Recently the enterprise has been divided 
into three distinct departments: the ferm, the experiment work, and the residence. The 
intentions of the proprietor with reference to these departments are stated by him, as 
follows: 

(1) That the farming operations be carried on in €iccordance with the best kno^vn 
methods and under the best possible organization and management, with a view of edu- 
cating and enlightening others by furnishing valuable examples and results in practical 
agriculture. 

(2) That there be a scientific department devoted to agricultural investigation and 
experiment, and that such department be of the highest order, so as to command the 
respect, interest, and cooperation of the leading scientific minds of this and other 
countries. 

(3) That Houghton Farm be a comfortable, healthful, and attractive home for the 
fiunily of its proprietor and afford large hospitality for Mends and guests. 

PHYSICS AND CHEMISTBY. 

During the year a circular on chemistry and physics, edited by Prof F. W. Clarke, 
B. s., has been widely distributed. It contains a comprehensive view of instruction 
in these subjects, given in varioas dashes of schools, and was in^^iu^^ iby general re- 



SCIENTIFIC INSTRUCTION. . CLXXI 

mark? on the iucrea^e of science teaching, the methods of insstruction, laboratories, 
tH^mal re^^earch, &e. The report was well received and promises to aid in promoting 
tbe stody of these sciences, which contribute so much to the solution of industrial 
problems and to the right understanding of familiar operations and phenomena. 

Examples of the practical uses to which the principles of each department of physics 
a» applied readily suggest themselves. 

The author of a handbook of the Kn|isas State Agricultural College, issued during 
the time when Hon. J. A. Anderson, now a member of Congress, was president of the 
iastitntioD, says: 

In most of the arts and trades, a knowledge of some branch of physics or chemistry 
ants next in asefalness to that of practical English and practical mathematics, and 
shoold be taught accordingly. Familiarity with the laws of light and skill in the 
mnipalation of shades and colors have special worth to the painter, frescoer, engraver, 
and photographer. The mason, builder, and machinist should understand heat, as it 
jet8 npon air in the draught of flues and ventilation of houses or in the shrinking and 
warpmg of wood, or as it acts upon water, upheaving foundations, disint^ratiug rock, or 
Atmishing the great motor, steam. Water itself, either as a driving power or as a solv- 
iBf^aod deanaing agent, has an interest to the artisan equal to the use which he makes of it. 
Eiertricity has its special value to the operator, metallurgy to the worker in metals, 
TOooomic geology and botany to the engineer. As numberless as the vats, laboratories, 
and ftunaces of the industrial world are the combinations of physics and chemistry. 

Mr. C. B. Stetson, a writer on technical education, speaking of the industrial value of 
a knowledge of chemistry, says: 

All those persons whose business it is to produce new combinations of matter — such as 
tfefimner, miner, dyer, bleacher, founder, maker of machinery, and numerous others — 
•^wttld have a knowledge of chemistry. Without such knowledge, which is an essential 
♦iment of skilled labor in these departments of industry, neither rude nor deicterous 
labor can produce satisfactoiy results. 

Such ideas of the importance of chemistry are of recent origin. A hundred years 
Jp) the students of medicine first undertook to apply the elements of this science which 
>w is called upon by them with the utmost frequency. Within the present century 
^ly have professorships in colleges been generally ^tablished. The rapid spread of the 
'tody commenced after the period of brilliant chemical discoveries, which extended over 
a laige part of the first half of this century. When, in 1862, Congress gave land for the 
promotion of the education of the people in the pursuits and professions of life, chemis- 
^ had become recognized as a science touching human industry at many points and 
i^Md a foothold in aU the institutions aided by the national grant. Nearly one-fourth 
of them have couises designed particularly for the i)erfecting of students in chemical 
bwwiedge. Cornell University lias a four years' course in chemistry and ph3rsics; Rut- 
ins Scientific School, a short course exclusively for chemistry and a long course in 
Aaaistry and agriculture; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, three courses, 
^ years in length. Other scientific colleges give similar prominence to this science, so 
*k3t it may be said with truth that endowing schools for practical education by the Gov- 
♦TWitfnthas been a powerful stimulus to the study of chemistry. Professor Clarke, in the 
'^milar whose publication has elicited these thoughts, speaks of the study of chemistry 
**i physics in the schools of science as follows: 

The scientific schools differ from each other almost as widely as do the colleges. One, 
^^ example, is exclusively a school of engineering, in which chemistry and physics are 
P^y incidental studies. Others devote especial attention to giving mechanical train- 
iat to mining, or to chemical technology. In nearly all of them applied science, so 
==^Ued, is mainly cultivated, with inoiganic and analytical chemistry and general physics 
5» ptoininent objects of study. 

The mental discipline incident to the study of chemistry is of the highest kind, and 
^"titles tbe sdenoe to a prominent place among the branches which make up advanced 
■■aw of study. This truth has been recognized by many collegiate institutions, both 
^giring tbe science increased attention infixed courses and by placing j|)^#|^ equality 



CLXXII REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

with classical and mathematical studies in many instances in which the elective system 
has been adopted. Original work in the laboratory merits the wannest commendation, 
as it employs the finest quali ties of the intel lect. Prof. Henry £. Roscoe has made a forcible 
presantation of the claims of original research at Owens College, Manchester, England, 
in which occar the following passages: 

In this ordinary coarse of laboratory work the hand is gradually trained to perform 
the varioas mechanical operations; th^ eye is %t the same time taught to observe with 
care and the mind to draw the logical inferences from the phenomena observed. Habits 
of independent thought and ideas of free inquiry are thus at once inculcated; no author- 
ity besides that of the senses is appealed to, and no. preconceived notions have to be 
obeyed; the student creates for himself his own material for observation, and draws his 
own conclusion therefix)m. If he is inaccurate, either in his manipulation, his observa- 
tions, or in his conclusion, nature soon finds him out. 

IN8TBUCTI0N IN MECHANICAL ENOINEEBINQ. 

The multiplication of courses in mechanical engineering, the improvement of methods 
of instruction in this department, and the increase of appliances for practical work have 
been noticeable in schools of science during the present year, as well as in those imme- 
diately preceding. The term mechanical engineering is not easily defined. It may be 
described as the art of designing, constructing, and operating machinery, mill work, 
steam engines, and other machines. The ample remuneration for such work which man- 
ufacturers are willing to give and the popular conviction that our youth may be trained 
to fill places of usefulness and honorable profit in mills and flEMstories to the advantage of 
themselves and the nation have originated and nourished the systematic study of all 
branches bearing upon mechanic arts. In the courses established, modem languages and 
literature have served to make students acquainted with engineering literature and able 
to express themselves with correctness and fiuency . The sciences have unfolded the laws 
of natural forces underlying processes and existing in materials. Mathematics has given 
the rules of calculation; drawing, a skill of eye and hand; and shop practice, familiarity 
with actual labor accurately performed. How these and other subjects are Embodied in 
the training of the mechanical engineer will appear incidentally in taking a brief view 
of instruction in this department. 

The friends of industrial science and practical education living in Eastern Massachu- 
setts were turning their thoughts as early as 1860 to the establishment of an institute 
of technology, in which the sciences allied to the occupations of the producing classes 
should be taught with special reference to their economic value. A school of mechani- 
cal engineering was not among those named in the original plan, but the course of study 
placed at the head of all in the first catalogue of the institute was in this subject. Its 
studies occupied the last two years of a four years' course, and were embraced under 
the heads of analytic mechanics, applied mechanics, construction of machines, descrip- 
tive geometry, and general studies. 

While the Institute of Technology was being organized in Boston, gentlemen of wealth 
in the central part of the State became convinced of the need of a system of training 
boys for the duties of an active life ** broader and brighter than the popular method of 
learning a trade and more simple and direct than the so-called liberal education." 
Through their beneficence the Worcester County Free Institute was founded and enabled 
to olTer an education based on mathematics, living languages, physical sciences, and 
drawing, and a training for some mechanical pursuit. At the organization of the insti- 
tute (1868), algebra, geometry, trigonometry, calculus, and mechanics were included in 
the mathematical studies. French is the modem foreign language most studied. 
Chemistry was taken more or less throughout the course, while physics and geology re- 
ceived attention. Free hand drawing occupied ten hours a week junior year and two 
hours a week middle year; mechanical drawing, six hours a veeek during middle and 
senior years. A department of design received into it at the middle of junior year stu- 
dents who had exhibited aptness for drawing, and gave them instruction preparatory to 



INSTRUCTION IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. CLXXIII 

fiteaco and ornamental pamting and the designing of prints. The distinguishing ftatore 
of the institate was the method and amoont of practice in a machine shop. The shop 
was a genuine £>ctory, taming off marketable products and employing skilled mechanics 
lor the direction of the students. In it each scholar was obliged to work a fixed num- 
ber of hours weekly. His advantages over a common apprentice consisted in the rapid 
advancement fronydrudgeiy to skilled labor, the carefhl distribution of time, constant 
tuition, and the discipline and culture of drawing and intellectual studies. The origi- 
nal plan has been adhered to substantially to the present time, the amount of drawing 
sod shop practice having been slightly increased. Each student must commence work 
at 7 in the morning, daily. The training, it is claimed, omits no element necessary to 
m education in mechanics, and introduces chipping, filing, planing, sawing, milling, 
&r., in their relations to an actual machine or structure and under the stimulus of the 
bosineBB consequences of inferior workmanship. The course of practical work may be 
» modified as to give special fitness for either mechanical engineering, civil engineering, 
dmwing, ph^^cs, or chemistry, students of mechanical engineering being required to 
I an apprenticeship of six months previous to entering the regular three years' 



In 1868, Edwin A. Stevens, esq., a wealthy citizen of Hoboken, N. J., bequeathed land 
and a laige sam of money for the founding of an ^ ' institution of learning. ' ' The trustees 
Id wliom the disposition of the ihnds was given determined to establish a school 
of mechanical engineering and name it the Stevens Institute of Technology in honor 
of its founder. A single course of instruction was arranged. Mathematics, physics, 
Bcdnoical drawing, chemistry and metallurgy, French and German, and literature 
woe given places beside mechanical engineering. A faculty of young men was selected 
lA aid in executing the plans of the trustees, and the new field was entered upon with 
cRthnaasm. The institute has grown steadily. In 1875 a mechanical laboratory was 
established. In it engines, lubricants, building materials, and other structures and 
sobstanoes have been tested. The department of mechanical engineering instructs thor- 
ooghly in the various branches of the subject and gives practice to familiarize the stu- 
doit with iq>pliances, processes, and methods necessary to the construction of mechanical 
deagn. The workshop course consists of carpenter work and wood turning, mill- 
wiigfating and steam fitting, machinist work, blacksmithing, moulding and founding, and 
pattern making. The carpenter work includes the preparation of tools and exercises in 
planing, sawing, and framing. The instruction in wood turning is upon the care and 
■aoagement of the lathe, the production of definite forms, and the action of woods 
while being turned. The practice in millwrighting and steam fitting is thorough and 
complete, as it is in the other departments of actual work. The school has long had a 
■»***»«*^ and carpenter shop^ an iron and brass foundry, and a blacksmith shop. During 
the past year (1881) a new machine shop has been fitted up and presented to the insti- 
tute. It is 50 by 80 feet in area and has galleries running along the four sides. An 
s near the centie drives two lines of shafting connecting with machine tools. They 
St of fourteen lathes of difierent sizes, two planers, two drill presses, and one mill- 
iag machine. At the presentation exercises, President Henry Morton spoke of shop 
pnctioe, as might the heads of other schools or departments of mechanical engineering, 
IB the following words: 

We have no idea of allowing our workshop course in any way to displace the valuable 
ioBtniction of the other departments ; but, on the contrary, we intend that it shall render 
them only more efficient, by making closer their relations to what every student sees to 
to the object of his course here, namely, the acquirement of the various and extensive 
knowled;^ — scientific, mathematical, and practical — which will enable him to grapple 
iully with the vast and difficult problems daily present^Ml to the mechanical en- 



Ahomt the year 1869 the Iowa Agricultural College established a course in mechanical 
o^lneering. Previously there had been a sliop oonnecte<l -.villi the collej^r; bat it was 
wmiB of aervioe in purely utilitarian work for the college, wliiolizwias ^hleity^^^i&cemed 



CLXXIV REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

with agriculture. While repairs were being made and other work done, the students 
had opjwrtunities to earn wages and learn the use of tools. On the reorganization of the 
college, instruction in branches contributing to mechanical knowledge was arranged in a 
course by itself, which followed closely the agricultural course for a year and a half and 
then was characterized by special studies in the mechanic arts. The plan has been 
changed little since. The work in the shop, consisting of a series of Exercises such as are 
involved in the construction of models and simple pieces of apparatus, has become more 
regular and systematic. It is required for two or three hours a week during freshman, 
junior, and senior years. Much work is done in the mechanical laboratory during junior 
year and the study of steam occupies considerable time in senior year. 

Although there had been a design to locate a branch of the IHinols Industrial Univer- 
sity at Chicago, in which there should be instruction in the mechanic arts, yet a shop 
was provided at the opening •f the university at Champaign in which students learned 
something of mechanical processes. No regular course of practice was taken and no pro- 
fessor of mechanical engineering appointed until 1870. Training was obtained by con- 
structing parts of machines and by performing work needed by the university. In 1870 
Professor Robinson entered upon his d u tics as professor of mechanical engineering, arranged 
a course of study and practice, and commenced the equipment of shops. By his advice 
an engine, a lathe, machine tools, a forge and its acc<>s8ories, raw material, and other 
necessaiies were provided, and the shop w^as enlarged. In 1871 a building 128 by 
88 feet was erected, in which were a boiler and forge room ; a machine shop, furnished 
with steam engine, lathes, and other machinery; pattern and finishing shop, and shops 
for carpentry, cabinet work, wood working machinery, paint rooms, printing room, 
draughting rooms, &c. Over seven thousand dollars* worth of new machines and tools 
was added to the outfit of the several shops, and the attendance upon this course of in- 
struction rapidly increased, and practice became more systematic. In 1878 a course in 
mechanical engineering was announced, which has been adhered to closely to the present 
time. It gives the student practice in five shops which are devoted to (1) pattern making, 
(2) blacksmithing, (3) moulding and founding, (4) bench work for iron, and (5) machine 
tool work for iron, respectively. In the first the practice consists of planing, turning, 
chiselling, and the preparation of patterns for casting. The shop has a complete set of 
tools, benches, and vises. The common operations of blacksmithing are undertaken in 
the second shop and those of casting in the third. In the fourth shop there is a course 
of free hand bench work, and afterward the fitting of parts is undertaken. In the fifth 
shop all the fundamental operations on iron by machinery are practised. The actual 
work done is carefully outlined beforehand by drawings; and the designing of machines 
and their elements is required. 

Instruction in mechanical engineering in Cornell University received its chief impulse 
in 1870, when provision was made by Hon. Hiram Sibley for the erection of a building 
for the department of mechanic arts. A course four years in length and another three 
years in length had been arranged at the organization of the university or soon after. 
Upon the completion of the building and the equipment of its rooms the department was 
in a condition to supply practical as well as theoretical instruction. A professorship was 
endowed by the generous benefactor who erected the building and the amount of shop 
practice gradually increased. The University Register of 1876 speaks of the department 
of mechanic arts as follows: 

There are now closely connected with the lecture room, in which the theoretical side of 
the mechanic arte is presented, other rooms for the designing and modelling of machinery 
and workshops fitted with power and machinery for working in wood and metals, in 
which the practical side will be conducted. 

The machine shop is to be conducted wholly as a uiciuis of instruction, and each stu- 
dent in the department will be required to devote at lea^rt two hours a day to work m 
the shop, so that he will not only get theory and practice combined, but he will also 
have opportunities to construct and use tools of the greatest precisji^Q^^^ candidate 



INSTRUCTION IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. CLXXV 

far the degree of bachelor of mechanical engineering will be given an opportunity to 
design and eoustruct some machine or piece of apparatus or conduct a series of experi- 
ment^ approved by the department, such sm promise to be of public utility. 

At present the professional studies are pursued chiefly in the fourth year of the course; 
bat experimental mechanics, machine construction, and mill work are studied in the 
^ecxmd or third year; drawing and shop practice continue through the course. The 
studies of the fourth year are mechanism, machine drawing, and mechanics in the ^rst 
term; designing machinery, steam engine, and practice in the physical laboratory in the 
«cood term; and in the third term building materials and construction, field practice, 
aod the use of instruments, the preparation of working drawings, and special study. 
The shop practice embraces work requiring the use of all hand tools and of the machines 
ordiDarily employed in machine shops. 

In 1871 a distinct course in mechanical engineering was announced by the officers 
of the O* Fallon Polytechnic Institute of Washington University, St. Louis. It extended 
over two years and was preceded by two years of general scientific study. Its studies in- 
chided mathematics, descriptive geometry, drawing (through the course), mechanics, 
physics, chemistry, mineralogy, geology, astronomy, and Enghsh studies. A workshop 
was commenced soon afterward. At the outset its equipment consisted of a lathe, ma- 
inline tools, carpenters* tools, and benches. It has been suppUed from time to time with 
u(lk*r tools, until now the admirable and extensive shops of the Manual Training School 
are at the service of engineering students. Before the opening of this school students had 
pnctke in three shops: the carpenters', the blacksmiths', and the machine shop. The 
mrpenters' shop contained work benches, drawers, and tools for twenty students. The 
Uatkamith shop had two forges and the essential tools for forge work. The machine 
•diop contained 10 lathes of various patterns, a scroll saw, a planer, and a gear cutter. 
Two afternoons a week were assigned for shop practice, and the work thus done did not 
drmfniah the intellectual tasks required. 

In 1872 the l^islature of Minnesota created a college of mechanic arts in the State 
University. In the next college year a course in mechanical engineering was constituted 
br giving increased attention in the last year of the civil engineering course to physics, 
applied mechanics, and machines. In 1 875 a beginning in fitting up a shop for the accom- 
modation of students in mechanical engineering was reported. The nucleus of an equip- 
ment Uien exifrted in the shape of a lathe and accompanying tools. The study of machinery 
and other branches of mechanical engineering was commenced with j unior year. During 
Ihe present year (1881) shops have been eqrupped for practice. They are (1) a wood 
-liop, with benches, lathe, and wood working tools; (2) a vise shop, with benches, vises, 
fleSf aod other ^* fitting'' tools; and (3) a forge shop, with a steam engine of eight horse 
pover, eight forges, anvils, and the necessary forging tools. The prospect of satisfactory 
iwolts is most gratifying. It is intended to devote the first term to vise work, the sec- 
oad to forge work, and the third to wood work. 

A oourse in mechanical engineering was started at the commencement of the college 
xxrmr in 1^2 at the Maine State College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts. It was 
ttttesipied by it to lay a solid foundation in the knowledge of the principles of machinery, 
M3d at the same time to make the instruction of practical value by means of problems in 
eiusU u ction and design, particular attention being given to drawing. The college has 
arrer had shops for instruction, but a room has been fitted up for vise work. In this 
vsf students acquire a degree of manual dexterity. 

In 1872 the University of Pennsylvania organized a department of science, having 
aoozse^ in ( 1) analytical and applied chemistry- and mineralogy, (2) geology and mining, 
■ \ I aril engineering, and (4) mec:hani(5il engineering. The courses were identical for two 
;eaB and distinct for two years. The special studies of the course in miH-liauical engi- 
wcre api/lieil mechanics, niachiner}', drawing, and descriptive geomeir>'. Visits 
Hhops and fiu;tories and the examination of models ol' l)ridg«i, K9Vfi^ ""'^ 
structures formed part of the plan of instruction. Recently thV V!^/^ ha*. 



CLXXVI REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

been made five years in length. Special attention is given to drawing, fiist from designs 
and models and afterwards from calculations, to casting and working in iron, and to 
making and using machine tools. The cabinet of models now contains representations of 
yarions kinds of steam engines, American and foreign machinery, pulleys, shafting and 
coupling, various products of iron manufacture, and working drawings of constructed 
machinery. Opportunity for graduate study is afforded. 

The school of mechanical engineering of Lehigh University requires two and a hali 
years of professional study of candidates for the degree of mechanical engineer. The 
degree is also conferred upon graduates of the school of civil engineering who devote a 
year to the study of stereotomy, thermodynamics, kinematics, metallurgy, machine draw- 
ing and construction. The instruction is largely theoretical. Workshop lectures and 
visits of inspection have been included. The shop instruction does not necessarily involve 
manual labor and the manipulation of tools, but rather aims to familiarize students witli 
those points in pattern making, moulding, forging, fitting, and fnrnishing which design 
era of machinery need to know. 

In 1873 the organic law of the Kansas State Agricultural College was revised and nn 
merous industrial departments were created. A carpenter shop was provided and sta 
dents were fhmished with bench room and tools. They were taught the uaes and name: 
of tools, required to put them in order and keep them so, and given regular practice ii 
sawing, planing, tenoning, mitring, and house framing, building, and finishing. Useful 
articles were also made for the college or the student himself. The carpenter shop i^ 
now better equipped than in 1873. having separate benches and tools for twenty studenti 
in a class, besides machines and tools for finer work. There is also a shop for iron work 
The similarity of the instruction in carpentry given at present with that oommenoed ii 
1873 is shown by the following recent statement: 

On entering the shops all are enrolled as carpenters and take the same first lessons ic 
sawing, planing, and dressing lumber, making mortises, tenons, and joints, and in gen 
end use and care of tools. Later, one who chooses a trade is provid^ with work in th( 
line chosen, while the farmers^ course provides for general training in a great variety oi 
operations, rather for ingenuity than for skill. In the full course of a carpenter special 
instructions are given in the whole range of work, from framing to stair-building. Stu- 
dents are allowed, after attaining sufildent skill, to work upon their own materials, 
under the advice of the superintendent. All are required to ^ke at least one term oi 
practice in the shop during the first year at college. In iron work instruction is given 
in ordinary forging, filing, tempering, &c. 

No studies directly pertaining to mechanical engineering are taken in the course o\ 
study prescribed for all the students of the collie. Drawing, mechanics, and civil en 
gineering are the most nearly related. 

The professional studies in mechanical engineering in the Massachusetts Institute o 
Technology had been given in .1873 three yeara (instead of two as at first) and only on< 
year of the course was devoted exclusively to general study. The direct engineering instrue 
tion was then given in three courses: the mathematical, the practical, and the graphical. 
They were carried on together with the same class. In the practical course the entiw 
attention was given to the application of theory as involved in practice. In the -graph 
ical course it was intended to supplement each exercise in theory or practice by a draw 
ing exercise covering the same ground. The instruction was aided by large coUectioui 
of yodels of carpentry, masonry and stone cutting, bridges, machines, and mechanisms 
The International Exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876 gave a new phase to instruction ir 
mechanical engineering, allying it firmly to shop practice. The lessons then taught h} 
the exhibit of foreign nations, especially Russia, were utilized immediately by thos< 
holding a controlling influence in the Institute of Technology. Shops for wood work, 
foi^ging, founding, and machine tool work were provided. Courses of practice were laid 
out to be pursued by not only the pupils in the school of mechanic aria, but also by th< 
students of mechanical engineering. Tins plan was modified somewhat by the intit> 
duction of the 'shop practice mentioned above, and a course adopted varying fVom thi 



INSTRUCTION IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. CLXXVII 

f DOW pnrsaed chiefly in being less restricted to technical branches. The present 
! shows the stadies adjudged by good authorities to be essential to the education of 
J mrrhiHiiral engineer. It is as follows: i 

First year: Algebra, geometry, plane and spherical trigonometry, chemistry, qualita- 
tire analysis, laboratory work, rhetoric, English composition, English history and litera- 
mie, FrenchL, drawing, militaiy drill. 

Seoond year: Setti]^ of machines, transmission and production of power, kinematics 
o^" machines, machine drawing, analytic and descriptive geometry, differential calculus, 
physics, descriptive astronomy, physicai geography, English history and literature, Ger- 
man, pattern and foundry work (shop work), carpentry. 

Third year: Combustion of fuel, steam generators and steam engines, machine draw- 
ing, machine design, elements of thermodynamics, steam engineering laboratory, inte- 
pai calcnlns, general statics, strength of materials, blacksmithing (shop work), physics, 
kctores and laboratory work, constitutional history, political economy, German, kine- 
matics and dynamics, chipping and filing (shop work). 

Poorth year: Machine design, measurement and regulation of power., machine draw- 
ing, tbermodynamics of steam and othet heat engines, pumping engines, hydraulic 
moUxs, machines and regulators, abstracts from memoirs, steam engineering laboratory, 
streogtb of materials, hydraulics, metallurgy, theory of elasticity, dynamics, building 
materials, blacksmithing (shop work), engine lathe work (shop work), thesis work. 

A coarse in physics and mechanical engineering was arranged at the opening of Pur- 
due University, La Fayette, Ind., in 1874. In 1878 President White recommended the 
adopition of the Russian system, the employment of a competent instructor, and the fur- 
nishing of the necessary shops. In October, 1879, the school ior practical training in 
Bccfaanics was opened. The shop was placed in the charge of Prof. W. F. M. Goss, a 
gnduate of the department of mechanics of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 
It was fitted to accommodate five students, giving them practice, not in special trades, but 
in the use of typical hand and machine tools for working in wood and iron and in the 
eioneiitaiy principles which underlie mechanical trades. The course is two years in 
length and includes ten weeks of bench work in wood, twelve weeks of pattern mak- 
ing, ten weeks of bench work in iron, twenty weeks of forging, and ei^teen weeks of 
iwork. 



The machinery is drivm by steam power from the engine house. The shop contains 
five benches for wood working, with sets of carpenter tools, a large power turning lathe, 
Kfoll saw, and other tools for a large variety of work. The machines, tools, and fixtures 
&r iron work include (1) benches fitted with Parker vlaes, sets of files, chisels, ham- 
■exa, hardened steel squares, gauges, calipers, and other tools needed for all kinds of 
bendi work in iron; (2) forges of improved pattern, with air blast fhmished by a Stur- 
terant blower driven by steam power, and all the common smithing tools, such as 
nrilfl, hammers, tongs, chisels, &c, ; (3) an engine or machine lathe, a machine planer 
of the best pattern, a vertical drill press, an emery grinder and grindstone, with a sup- 
ply of small tools : chucks, drills, taps, and dies, and lathe and planer tools, &c. 

The Agricidtural and Mechanical College of Texas was organized in 1876 and reorgan- 
iaed in 1880. Two courses of study were then laid out, one in agriculture and the other 
ia mechanics. Each was three years in length and included no foreign languages. The 
Bedianical course required drawing and shop work throughout. The shop work of the 
fart year indndes elementary constructions in wood with hand tools and practice with 
wood working machinery ; second year, elementary metal working, machine tool work, 
pmctical steam enginery, and mill work; third year, work on original designs and ex- 
fedmesttB and a graduation construction. There are shops for (1) carpenter work, (2) 
I work, (3) vise work, (4) madiine wood work, (5) machine metal work, and (6) 
L enginery. The equipment of the shops cost about $5,000. All work is executed 
htm drawintpi and must come up to the standard of good workmanship. The progress 
if tbe student through the shop practice is described by the professor of mechanical en- 
|)lM»ring as follows: 

I Pf ^inni p g with wood working by hand vools, he will be promoted from that to the 
■ir aid CBie of wood working machinery, su^'^h as circular and fret saws and the tum- 

B— xn 



CLXXVIII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

in^ lathe. Then he will be made stock derk and time keeper; after that take a ooniMi 
of instraction in working of metals with hand tools, soch as filing, chipping, and other 
Tise work, erecting of machinery; then be pnt in charge of the boiler, and from thall 
dnly promoted to engineer, to take charge of the engine and power; and fh>m that goeaj 
to drilling, boring, turning, screw cutting, and other machine tool work, when he is to 
begin work on his graduating piece, which is to be made entirely by himself and be a 
whole or part of the subject treated of in his graduating thesis. 

In 1877 the University of Wiseonsin established a department of mechanical engineer^ 
ing and equipped a machine shop for practical wt>rk. The course of study oommenoes 
with sophomore year, and is devoted to mathematical, scientific, and practical work, to 
the general exclusion of literary and linguistic branches. Ten houm a week of aboj^ 
work are required. The instruction is oondueted upon a system combining training in. 
elementary and Aindamental processes with the construction of machines and the per- 
fermance of profitable labor. The shop is a well lighted room, 38 by 40 feet in area aad l 
14 feet in height, and contains the most approved tools and machinery. The motive J 
power is furnished by a 30 horse power steam engine. i 

In 1878 a gentleman was called to the chair of physics and mechanics in the Ohio 
State University who was especially interested in mechanical engineering. Up to ihat 
time physics had received attention to the exclusion of mechanics. Then a coniae in 
the latter subject was instituted, in which were included mechanism, machine drawing 
and designing, thermodynamics, prime movers, machinery, mill work, strength of ma- 
terials, and laboratory practice. The mechanical laboratory was not in shape for use 
until 1880 and seems to be equipped simply as a workshop. It is said to ** ooBtain all 
the machinery now necessary to the practical training of young men fitting themselves 
for the work of the mechanical engineer." It occupies a building admirably arranged 
fbr the proper location vrithin it of work benches, vises, and machinery. The practice 
in the mechanical laboratory is had during sophomore year and consists mostly of ex- 
ercises in the use of common tools. Fourteen students have taken the course during 
the past fiill term. 

In 1881 the Uniyersity of Michigan availed itoelf of the provision of Congress allowing 
engineers in the Navy to be detailed as professors in coU^^ It thus secured the ser- 
vices of a gentleman qualified to oyersee the establishment of a department of mechanical 
engineering as well as to instruct in the branches specially contemplated in the statute 
under which the professor v^as assigned. The act of Congress provided — 

That, for the purpose of promoting a knowledge, of steam engineering and iron ship- 
building among the young men of the United States, the President may, upon the &PP&- 
cation of an establishedsdentific school or college vrithin the United States, detail an officer 
from the Engineer Corps of the Navy as professor in such school or college: Provided ^ 
That the number of officers so detailed shall not at any time exceed twenty-fiye, and such 
details shall be governed by rules to be prescribed from time to time by the President: 
And provided further^ That such details may be withheld or withdrawn whenever, in the 
judgmlsnt of the President, the interests of the public service shall so require. 

The State has appropriated $2,500 for a mechanical laboratory in coimection vrith the 
department of engineering, and it has been decided to expend the sum in erecting and 
equipping a shop for practice in the mechanic arts. The department of engineering is 
now tally organized by the provision of courses in civil, mining, and mechanical engi- 
neering. 

MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS. 

A school of mechanic arts was founded at Boston, Mass., in August, 1676, by a wte 
of the corporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In a recent article on 
the manual element in education, Prof. J. D. Hunkle, ll. d., says: 

This school, in which special prominence is r,iven to manual education, has been estab- 
lished for those who wish to enter upon indti atrial pursuits rather than to become scien- 
tific engineers. It is designed to afibrd 8x\'Ji students as have completed the ordinary 
grammar sohoel oourse an opportunity to omtinue the elementary, scientific, and literary 



INDUSTRIAL TRAINING. CLXXIX 

together with mechanical and free hand drawing, while receiving theoretical and 
prartical instmctaon in these Tarions arts, including the nature and economic value of 
the "»**^"^^« with which they deal. Nine hours per week — three lessons of three hours 
eadi— -of the students' l!ime are devoted to shop work, and the balance to drawing and 
«ther studies, only one shop course, except in tiie case of special shop students, being 
curied on at a time. 

The plan of shop work is similar to that of the imperial- technical school at Moscow, 
Baasia. The studies, outside of the shops, are, fbr the first year, algebra to equations 
of flie aeocHid degree, plane geometry, mechanical drawing, and English composition; for 
the second year, algebra, physics, mechanical drawing, and English composition. The 
nedttnic art courses are as follows: In wood: (1) carpentry and joinery; (2) wood turn- 
ing: (3) pattern making. In iron: (1) vise work; (2) forging; (3) foundry work; (4) 
Bechanicsd tool work. 

llae wood working shop is 50 by 20 feet in area. At one end of the room 16 lathes 
are ananged on two long benches, so that there are four lathes on each side of each bench. 
Beneath the lathes are drawers for tools. At the other end of the room carpentry and 
joiDeiy benches are placed. In the middle are saws for cutting lumber to desired dimen- 
aioDS. The machine tool shop contains 16 engine lathes, 4 speed lathes, and a mill- 
ing machine. The vise shop contains 4 heavy benches, with 32 vises attached. This 
ffves a e^kadty for teaching 128 students the course every 10 weeks, or 640 students in 
1 year of 50 weeks. The forge shop has eight forges. The foundry has 16 moulding 
hfarhea, an oven for core baking, and a blast fhmace of one-half ton capacity. 

Mr. Thomas Foly, who is in charge of the forging, vise work, and machine tool work, 

The plan here is to give to the student the Aindamental principles in such lessons as 
win teach them most clearly and give practice enough in the shortest time to acquire 
a knowledge of the different kinds of tools and various ways of using them. For in- 
stmoe, if a man can make a small article in iron, steel, or any other material perfectly 
liy soch methods, he can make it of larger proportions with the additional time and 
lielp let^mred for such an xmdertaking. The same in degrees of heat required for fusing 
or welding metals : if he can do it well in a leaser degree, he can certainly do so in a 
greater, with the additional ^Eudlities. 

After nearly five years' experience in the workshops in my charee, with the valuable 
sQggestioBS of the professors so much interested in the success of &e school, we find the 
best reBuhs in the time allowed accomplished by the method now in use in thp institute 
wo^sbops, viz, three lessons per week of three hours each. The time is just sufficient 
to create a vigorous interest without tiring; it also leaves a more lasting impression than 
by taxing the physical powers for a longer period. We have tried four hours a day, and 
fod that a larger amount of work and of better quality can be produced in the three 
boor leasons. 

He Manna] Training School of Washington University, St. Louis, which was de- 
ivribed in my last annual report and a short account of which may be found in the 
affwudiT, has had a year of gratUying prosperity. 

INDUSTRIAI. SCHOOL FOB MINEBS AND MSOHANICS. 

A sdMol of a grade hardly as high as that of manual training schools was opened 
m May, 1670, at Driiton, Pa., for the instruction of yoxmg miners in subjects imme- 
diately rdating to their work. The instruction is given in the evening, except when 
oiBing operations are suspended. Then pupils are expected, but net cempelled, to 
ittead fiom to 12 o'clock a. m. and ftom 2 to 5 o'clock p. M. The usual length of 
evening seosions is two hours. Preparatory, junior, and serdor classes are organized, and 
m adTBDoed expert daas is planned. The pupils of the preparatory class pursue the 
I English branches, algebra to evolution, free hand and mechanical drawing, and 
f, with particular reference to its relations to drawing. Object lessons are given 
f, as they are fbund serviceable in awakening dormant ihculties. The junior 
eontinne in the same line. The elements of book-keeping are taught with a 
L Tiev te the pupil's improvement in penmanship and arithmetic. Algebra and 




CLXXX REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

geometry are sapplemented by trigonometry, raensnratioD, and analytical geometry. 
A coarse in geometrical projection aims to give the pnpil facility in drawing any figure 
in plan elevation or section, both with instruments and by free hand. Natural philoso- 
phy and elementary mechanics are attempted. Chemistiy is taught, that the pupils 
may become acquainted with the names, properties, and combining proportions of the 
most important elements, particularly with those which enter into the composition of 
the common minerals. Simple chemical tests for minerals are undertaken. The instruc- 
tion in mineralogy and lithology is confined to the more generally occurring minerals 
and rocks, and those of most immediate interest. The aim of the junior studies is to 
lay a thorough foundation in mathematics and drawing for subsequent instruction. 
The studies of the senior year are chiefly in drawing, mining, and preparation of prod- 
ucts. The work in drawing includes the elements of construction in wood, stcme, and 
metal, the making of working drawings, and the design of simple structures and ma- 
chines. Mining includes (1) the usefhl minerals and metals, their occurrence and the 
methods of exploration; (2) the various means employed for the extraction of ores; (3) 
opening and laying out mines; (4) methods of exploitation; (5) maintenance of mines 
in good order; (6) transportation; (7) drainage; (8) ventilation; (9) mine surveying and 
mapping; (10) accidents and their prevention; (11) accounts, contracts, and estimates; 
and (12) hygiene of mines and remedies in case of injuries. The instruction is entirely 
free, and the effects of the school are seen in the improved manners and morals of the 
pupils. They are earnest in study and aspire to become competent foremen. Effort is 
made to have them perform intelligent labor while pursuing their studies, that their 
senses may not be blunted and that their surroundings may fhmish objects illustrating 
subjects of study and stimulating thought and inquiry about ihem. 

BOYAL AORICULTUBAL HIGH SCHOOL AT BERLIN. 

The following is an abstract of two publications' received by the Bureau of Education 
' IVom Berlin containing accounts of the recently established agricnltuial high school : 

BSrrAllLISHMENT OF THB SCHOOL. 

While the establishment of an agricultural institution at Berlin was suggested as early 
as the year 1847, the idea of founding an agricultural museum was not conceived until 
the year 1860, and decisive steps were not taken until 1867, the year of the Paris Inter- 
national Exposition. This exhibition, at which German agriculture was prominently 
represented, induced the Prussian government to grant the necessary means for the 
establishment of a museum. Numerous and valuable donations were received fix>m Tor- 
eign and German exhibitors at Paris, and a fiur beginning was made towards the estab- 
lishment of a great institution. On the 19th December, 1867, the Prussian Diet author- 
ized the government) to purchase a suitable site for the erection of a building. Sevexal 
years passed before a suitable site was agreed upon, and it was not until 1876 that the 
building was commenced under the superintendence of the royal architect, Tiede. The 
magnificent structure was completed in 1881 and cost 2,527,000 marks (^1,426). Until 
the completion of the building the museum and the agricultural high school were under 
separate control, the school being considered an annex to the university. On the 14th 
Februaiy, 1881, the two institutions were united by royal decree, and both are at pres- 
ent known under the name of "agricultural high school '' (landwirthschaftliche Hoch- 
schule). 

By ministerial decree of May 27, 1881, the school is placed under the jurisdiction of 
the minister of agriculture and forestry. The minister appoints a board of curators, 
who represent him in the management of the school. The staff of professors consists of 
a rector, elected every year by the professors and approved by the ministers, and a num- 

^Die kdnigliohe landwirthscbaftlicbe Hoohsohule zu Berlin and Anssog fum deni provisoriscbeti 
Statut der kdniffliohen landwirth»chaftl!chcn Hochschule In Berlin. ""^ V3 v/og i^ 



INSTRUCTION IN AGRICULTURE. COOLXI 

ber of pro£eaBQi8 afvpointed by the minister of agricolture. The present number of prp- 
fewMS 18 31 and the number of assistant professors 6. The rector for the school year 
1881-'82 is the privy councillor, Prof. Dr. Landolt. 

oouBSB OF urvrBUcnoir. 
The following is the course of instruction for the school year 1881-'62 : 

(1) AgricuUure, forestry, horHeuUure, and agricuUural machinea. 

Introduction \a agricultural studies; history and literature of agriculture; notions of 
wfientiflc agriculture; agricultural valuation; general notions of agriculture; cultivation 
(if plants; knowledge of the soil; practical exercises in the agronomic laboratory; ma- 
nures; borticolture; feeding; general notions of breeding; cattle breeding; horse breed- 
ing^ sheep breeding and idaowledge of wool; hog breeding; dairying; practice in l^e 
agneoHitral seminary; agricultural excursions; forest culture; exploration of forests; 
kwwledge of fofest soil; protection of forests; administration of forests; agricultural 
aeeoonte; mechanics and general theory of machine construction; descriptive madiine 
euuBUucUon; knowledge of agricultural machinea; technical drawing. 

(2)N(Uwrdl sciences. 



%d tke physiology of plants. — Anatomy, morphology, and the history of the de- 
vekjfHneni of plants in connection with microscopic demonstrations ; microscopic course 
fix more advanced students, with special reference to the diseases of plants; experi- 
ments in the botanical institute; systematic botany, with special reference to agricult- 
Bzal, focest, and medicinal plants; agricultural and forest botany, coimected with excur- 
sttoe; fimitB and seeds, widi speoal reference to adulteration of the same; adulteration 
of food and feed; microscopic exercises in technical botany; experimental physiology of 
plante; review o^the physiol(>gy of plants; diseases of plants; practical exercises in the 
^tjsMofpcal laboratcny; history of the development of the mushroom; history of the 
development of algs. 

Ckemmhy and technology. — Inorganic experimental chemistry; organic experimental 
chcnustry; chemical analysis; chemistry and technology of iiie manufiicture of beet 
flqgar; progieoa in the manufacture of beet sugar; practice in the laboratory of the asso- 
narinn for beet sugar industiy in Germany; chemistry as relating to brewing, distilling, 
Sa^ ; pwi gre sB in ^e manufacture of alcohol and yeast; practical exerdses in the labora- 
tarr and experimental distillery of the association of alcohol manufacture in Germany. 

iBmferalogy^ geology j and geognosy. — Mineralogy; geognosy and geology; the knowledge 
cf the soil; demonstration in the mineralogical museum; geoguMtic excursions. 

I%ysk»<ind meteorology. — Exjierimental physics; meteorology; practice in the use of 
aeleoiological and other physical instruments; physical geography. 

Zoology and pH^fsioiogy of animals. — Zoology and comparative anatomy of vertebrates; 
demoDBtrations in the zoologiod collection; vertebrates which are usei\il in agriculture 
■ad those which are not; zoological excursions; review of physiology of animals; practice 
IB the physiological laboratory; agricultural entomology; entomological excursions. 

(3) Administrative and legal science. 

National economy; German imperial and Prussian law, with special reference to agri- 
nittfal legislation. 

(4) Veterinary surgery. 

Anatomy of domestic animals, with demonstration; statistics of diseases of domestic 
■■nalB mid their cure; diseases, especially internal, of domestic animals; horseshoeing, 
wHh demonstrations and practical exercises. 

(5) Erection and improvement of buildings, roads, <Ste. 

Agriealtaral roads and hydraulic constructions; excursions for the purpose of examin- 
og roads and other agricultural constructions; practical exercises in surveying, irriga- 
larn^ and drainage. 

8TUI>ENT8. 

Tbe atodents .are divided into three classes: regular or matriculated students, non- 

■HimhUIi i1 students, and visitors (Hospitanten). To be admitted as regular student 

. te aodidate must prove that he has completed the course of the six lowest classes of a 

fcttan secondary school. Non-matriculated students and visitors can only be admitted 

%iKiilan of the ocmferenoe of professors. Only the regular students are admitted to 



CLXXXII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION?. 

the gradoatlon ezammation. The atadents may select their own course. The tuition 
fees amount to 200 marks (ahout $50) a year. The fees in the various laboratories range 
from $4 to $10 a year for regular students and from $10 to $30 for visitors. 

The following are the auxiliaries of the school: (1) The botanical institute, (2) the 
physiological institute, (3) the collection of vegetable plants, (4) the zoological collec- 
tion, (5) the zootechnical institute, (6) the laboratory of animal physiology, (7) the min- 
eralogical institute, (8) the agronomic institute, (9) the chemical laboratoiy, (10) the 
laboratory for beet sugar industry, (11) the experimental station of the association for 
alcohol manufacture, (12) the physical cabinet, (13) the collection of machines and imple- 
ments, (14) the libraiy. 

TABLE XI. — SCHOOLS OP THEOLOGY. 

The following is a comparative statement of the number of schools of theology (in- 
cluding theological departments) reporting to this Bureau each year from 1871 to 1881, 
inclusive, with the number of professors and number of students : 





1871. 


1W2. 


1878. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1«79. 


1880. 


1881. 


No. of institations 

No. of instruoton 

No. of studonta 


94 

800 

8,204 


104 

4S5 

8,861 


110 

S78 

8.888 


113 

679 

4,866 


128 

616 

6.284 


124 

680 

4,268 


124 

664 

8,966 


. 126 

677 

4,820 


188 

600 

4,788 


142 

688 

6,242 


144 

624 

4,798 







StatisUeal awnmofy of schools of theology. 



Denomination. 



Boman Oatholio.. 
Baptist 



Protestant Episcopal . 

Presbyterian , 

Lutheran 



Methodist Episcopal . 

Confirregational 

Christian 



Reformed, , 

United Presbyterian 

Universalist 

Unseotarian 

Free-Will Baptist 

Methodist Episcopal South 

German Methodist Episcopal.. 

Cumberland Presbjrterian 

Unitarian 



Reformed (Dutch) 

United Brethren , 

New Church 

Methodist Protestant 

Brethren «.. ^ 

AfHcan Methodist Episcopal.. 
Total 



t -i zod by 



UOOQI4. 



§ 



144 



180 

70 

09 

84 

60 

62 

60 

12 

14 

8 

12 

10 

8 

7 

7 

h 

7 
6 
4 
4 

3 
2 



THEOLOGICAL SCHOOLS. 



CLXXXIII 



Table XI. — Summary of statistics of schools of theology. 



Students. 






If 

I 



LibrarieB. 



1 



11' 



Property, income, &/c. 



> 

I 

I. 

I 



1- 



SarthCkroUnft 

OWo 

l>auwylTsnia 
Soolk Cbrolina 



Total. 



U 



18 



15 
1 

lff7 
9 

481 
TO 
51 
2 

100 
68 
45 

834 

2S8 
49 
89 
23 

153 
3 

808 

874 
68 

274 

475 
69 

269 
26 

171 

284 
78 



23 



2,000 
11,340 



400 
2,200 



817,000 
104,000 



180,000 



141 



24 



34,290 



2,342 



516,000 



307,756 



m 

14 
1 



16 



14 

15 

160 

7 



42,000 

100 

200 

3,500 

29,100 



1,141 

100 

50 



800 



481,000 



14,049 
25,000 
96,000 



38,611 



532,545 



18,700 
74,144 
80; 252 
2,000 
1,000 
1,800 
10,200 



300 

2,045 

102 

200 



100,000 
96,000 
656,835 



193,000 



1,537,736 
55,000 



200 



25,000 
25,000 
60,000 



220 
179 
8 
90 
177 



76 
107 
2 
66 
89 



21 




21 
15 



92,296 
124,324 

2,800 
38,990 
94,700 
21,595 

2,864 

500 

25,000 

14,167 

1.900 



1,462 
4,762 
75 
145 
330 
100 



949,000 
1,280,000 
13,000 
713,887 
678,870 
65,000 
60.000 



40,000 
6,000 
1,490,903 
2,892,912 



346,776 
1,345,628 



2,500 



300 

300 
192 



80,000 
203,200 
40,000 



223,000 
74,000 
25,000 



144 024 158 4,879 



114 



1,209 



722 [729,802 



17,146 6,170,8a 9,417,880 



82,778 



27.669 



88,421 



8,275 



85,407 



15,080 



92,004 
3,700 



600 

77,820 
145,491 



40,126 
79,758 



1,600 



14,000 
200 



572,706 



A Hebrew sommer school was organized in the snmmer of 1881 by William R. 
finrper, professor of Hebrew in the Baptist Union Theolc^cal Seminary. It held its 
at Morgan Park, HI., daring the months of July and Aognst and enrolled 22 




( school was organized to meet the wants of the following classes of persons : 

(1) Ministers, or persons about to enter the ministry, who cannot avail themselves of 

fta Qppotrtnnities afforded by a theological seminary, and yet desire to gain a knowledge 

«C Ihe Hebrew language. (2) Ministers who have some knowledge of the Hebrew, yet 

M Ite laogoage of little advantage to them because of its ' ^ strangeness. ' * (3) Minis- 

! to tmA Btadents, more advanced in the language, who wish to pursue their studies 

[ Digitized by V^OOQLC 



CLXXXIV REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

further and to gain a greater fiuniliarity than is poesible in the Ume which is devoted 
to it in the regular theological coarse. 
The following points were made prominent in the work of the summer school: 
(1) The almost exclusive use of the inductive method in imparting grammatical in- 
struction. (2) The particular attention paid to translating at sight. (3) The importance 
attached to the memorizing of those words which are of most frequent occurrence. 



TABLB XII.— SCHOOLS OF LAW. 

The following is a statement of the number of schools of law reporting to this Burean 
each year from 1870 to 1881, inclusive, with the number of instructors and number of 
students: 





1870. 


1871. 


1872. 


1878. 


1874. 


187S. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 1880. 


1881. 


Number of institutions..... 
Number of fftudmts 


28 

w 

1,608 


■ 
8087878848424800 
129 101 108 181 224 21S 176 196 
1.722 1.976 2,174 2.080 2,677 2,664 2,8U 8,012 


49 

224 
3,019 


46 

229 

8.184 


47 

22a 

8,227 






Tablb XLl.— Summary ofgUxtidics of achools of law. 



BiadMits. 



5^ 

m 4, 






Libraries. 



a 



Property, income, Ac 



1 

I 

k 

s 



I 

1 

^1 



II 



Alabama 

California. 

C^nneeUcut. 

Creoiyia « 

Illinois 

Indiana.. 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentooky 

I^uisiana 

Maryland 

Massaohosetts. 

Michigan 

Mississippi 

Missouri. 

New Yorlc 

North Oarolina 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania 

Tennessee.. 

Virginia 

West Virginia. 

Wisconsin 

District of Oolumbia....^ 

Total 



20 
187 

68 

6 

106 

72 
163 

15 

40 

68 

60 
807 
890 

18 
119 
600 

27 
127 
141 
108 
101 

11 

02 
272 I 



18 



8,000 



9100,000 
10,000 



•7.000 



$1,500 
6,785 



2,807 



192 



30 
101 
60 



32 
279 



20 

9 

33 

00 

140 
16 
37 

144 

64 
49 
60 
44 



47 



229 



3,227 1 



849 



982 



26,000 



«10,000 
20,000 



7,180 

7,0M 

326 

2.000 

8,000 



19.000 
6,000 
1,000 
8,843 
14,100 
1,200 
2,004 
800 
800 



1,000 



56,183 



4,980 



80,000 
20,000 



10,060 



22.268 

16,500 

690 

6,080 

07.000 



250 



6,000 



6.237 

9,000 

8,310 

600 



214 



14 



20,000 



86,229 



1.734 



100,000 176,138 



initiTUm-n/CTloogae 



18,494 



4,127 



158.614 



LEGAL INSTRUCTION. CLXXXV 

The mdiools of law 8eem to have decreased in number and increased slightly in attend- 
anee. Their work is of mnch interest to the public. The legislative affiurs of the 
Rtatcsand nation are greatly influenced, if not controlled, by lawyers; the judicial func- 
tiflos of the Crovemment are performed by them. They advise not only in the concerns 
of state, bat also in matters of business and fiunily life. Their relation with the rights 
aod duties of all is so intimate that the interests of every citizen are affected by the 
mami^ in which they are prepared for their profession. As was said by Hon. IX>nnan 
B. Eaton aome years ago: *^ Every dtizen, however exalted or however humble, however 
Ti^ or however poor, has a deep interest in extending the knowledge of the laws and in 
nioqg the cbaraeter and enlarging the attainments of those who practise or preside in 
the tzibonals of justice. ' ' 

Tie otgectB of the true school of law are to give its pupils ftmiliarity with existing 
bw, aa imdcsstanding of the xuindples on which it rests, a knowledge of the events and 
cjBBtt which have moulded it into its present shape, and a comprehension of its relations 
to puUic aflkiis and private life. It has been questioned whether the educational senti- 
nKDt of our colleges is such as to uphold the extension and elevati<m of courses of pro- 
fanknal stady. Prof. C. C. Langdell, of the Harvard Law School, argues that ideas 
DAfiiTorable to thorough professional training have been received from English universi- 
ties and adopted by American colleges. Among them, he enumerates the following: 

That professional learning or professional knowledge (as it would rather be called) is a 
tking to be "picked up '' by degrees and acquired ^ experience and practice, like the 
tawwlcd^ of ai^ ordinary business or pursuit; that one's professional eminence will 
d^end (ceteris paribus) upon his academic education and upon his opportunities for piac- 
tiaiw his pirofession rather than upon the amount of time and labor that he devotes to 
reg^r aiySi systematic professional study; that professional learning is pursued solely 
ibr the profits and emoluments which it brings, and that these will cause it to be pursued 
with sidScient eagerness; that the public mis no interest in increasing the number of 
doctors and lawyers, and, though it has an interest in improving their quality, yet that 
fllQect, 80 fiu" as it depends upon professional study, will be best secured by the xuindple 
«f eompetition. 

DonbtleaB the eagerness of young men to enter upon active lifo and the opinion of many 
of the members of the bar are more influential in limiting the instruction of the law 
adMwl than ideas inculcated by our colleges. Tet against all the feelings and ciicum- 
staooes that oppose them many schools of law strive to make their requirements for 
tdmJWBon as high as practicable and their course of study as long and comjirehensive as 
the aentimeiits of the community in which they exist will sanction. The University of 
Mjfhigan does not advocate the requirement of the completion of a college course 
bf those who a^ly for admission to its department of law, but its acting president 
i^in his last report: *'The professional schools cannot be excused for admitting stu. 
dcBts without respectable preparation. ' ' Persons intending to study law in Bosfon Uni- 
rmitj *' are earnestly reqpmmended to complete a course of liberal studies in some col- 
k^ befove entering." The admission of applicants who are candidates for a degree in 
GehDnhia College (New York) Law School is regulated by the following rules: 

AH graduates of literary colleges are admitted without examination. Other candidates 
ant be at least eighteen years of age and have received a good academic education, in- 
dading such a knowledge of the Latin language as is require for admission to i^e fresii- 
am class of the School of Arts. 

Soon alter the adoption of these rules President F. A. P. Barnard said: 
though the institution of the entrance examination has had the effect to reduce the 
ilftadanoe, it has undoubtedlv improved its character and has thus been beneficial to 
tkeodMol. The requisitions for admission are placed so low that the candidate who is 
nrtaded hy them can hardly possess a degree of mental culture sufficient to justify his 
ittturtlini^ the study of a learned profession; nor is he likely to do credit to the school, 
oAsr as a student or as a graduate. 

tho methods of instruction employed in law schools include recitations, lectures, and 
MttuwulUw The tendency is now to give redtation an increasingly important place. 
Ushsilimtinii of the Columbia College I^w School is imparted by a systen^ of ques- 



CLXXXVI REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

tdozus, expoffltdons, and dictatioiis, excluding, in the main, lectures in the ordinary sense. 
A daily recitation and examination are held in the leading branches of the conise at the 
School of Law of Boston University. The lecture system is still maintained, and a large 
part of the instruction given in that way. Hon. William G. Hammond, LL.D., dean of 
the Bt. Louis Law School, thinks that the full benefit of lectures is attainable only by 
exceptional trained intellects, and that the receptive state of mind in which a class must 
be during their delivery is un&vorable to mental discipline and activity of thought. He 
would, however, unite lectures with recitations. The authorities of the Union College 
of Law, at Chicago, say: 

Experience has taught us that the recitation system, in which each student is exam- 
ined daily or oftener in the presence of his class, with the advantage of mutual criticasoi 
and free inquiry by his associates and corrections by the professor, with the stimolns of 
a generous emulation and desire to excel, is a more effectual method of imparting a 
tiiOTOugh and accurate knowledge of legal principles than any system of mere oral 
instnuSion by lectures. 

Moot courts form a part of the approved routine of law schools. They were abolished 
a few years since as a stated exercise in Harvard Law School, but when the professors 
expre^ed a readiness to hold them four courts were organized. The object in view is to 
give students an opportunity to become familiar with the practical side of the lawyer's 
work in conducting cases in court. Pleadings, arguments, and motions are made and 
the forms of judicial procedure are observed. Perhaps the most valuable service of the 
moot court is to induce the student to investigate with great thoroughness a particxdar 
point in law, as he will be obliged to do in actual practice, to discover the relation which 
it has to others, the analogies between his case and similar cases in the reports, and 
to anticipate objections and prepare answers for them. As it is valuable for attorneys 
to add to a general knowledge of law a complete mastery of special branches, so it is 
well for a student to have learned thoroughly the principles that govern the law in its 
application to some individual cases. The exercises of moot courts are esteemed so 
highly by the fSwjulty of the School of Law of Boston University that ** it is purposed to 
require hereafter, as a condition for promotion t-o the degree of bachelor of laws, a par- 
ticipation by each candidate in at least two moot courts during the last year." 

In an address delivered upon his resignation of the chancellorship of the law depart- 
ment of the State University of Iowa, Hon. 'William G. Hammond, ll.d., summed np 
his hopes for the future of American law schools in the following points: 

First, that more attention may be given to the method of teaching law, so as to bring 
our schools, in this respect, more nearly on a level with those in which the other parts of 
a liberal education are taught. * * * 

Second, that the relation of theory to practice will be better understood, so that teach- 
ers and students alike will neither make the mistake of relegating practice to the offices 
as something unfit for school study, nor of neglecting theory as something unlikely to be 
of practical use. * * * 

Third, this can only be done by the use of such helps as have been found most efficient 
in other schools, and especially by the use of text books exactly adapted to their par- 
jpoee and brought ftdly up to the latest standard both of theory and practice. * * * 

Fourth, in such text books we may reasonably exi>ect to be free from the vapid gen- 
eralities which in so many of our present books pass for the philosophy of law, and the 
wearisome repetition of stale and abandoned theories, such as have made the very name 
of theory unwelcome to many a student. In their place we shall have a theory of law 
which answers to the actual fects and satisfies the mind of the present age. * ♦ * 

Fifth and lastly, I base my hopes for the future very largely upon that remarkable 
change in human thought which, under the somewhat vague title of the historical 
method, has done so much within a generation or two for the whole circle of moral 
sciences. * * * We may expect to see the attorney's manuals weeded of the con- 
stant references to a past condition of things which are now necessary to explain the 
facts and even the language of to-day. In their place, we may hope, will come a dear 
and satis&ctory study, once for all in the course of every school, of the history of the 
common law, tracing the growth and development of its institutions and principles from 
the forests of Oermany, through the events of fifteen hundred years, down to the form 
which they take in our own day and country, and thus laying the most firm and rational 
basis for the settlement of its disputed questions, the clearing up of its dark plaoM, the 
entire study and practiee of the law of our own land. jigitized by V^OOQlt 



LEGAL INSTRUCTION. CLXXXVII 

4 

Strict reqairements of candidates for degrees and for admission to the bar tend to pro- 
B»te thoioaghneas in preparation. The natnrcof man is snch that he will exert himself 
most intensely <mly nnder a present necessity. It is necessary that a lawyer should pre- 
pare himself thoronghly for his profession; yet the stimnlns of distant rewards and the 
il^lieation of mind due to interest in the study of law may be increased by the imme- 
diate neceasity of passing an exhaustive examination. Whether it be conducted by the 
^icolty of a school of law or by officers of a court and whether it be for a university 
degree or for a license to practise, its eflfects are similar. In any pase the candidate is 
certified to the public by recognized judges as fit t« render service to clients in legal 
^oestaooB and controversies. An English writer has said : 

Fonnerly barnstexs were very much like hullion, which the public had to assay for 
tbemselveB; but when they are to be sent out in the form of coin there must beaodoubt 
as to the quality of the gold. Any other result would be derogatory to the dignity of 
the profeasion and must be guarded against in every possible way by the most stringent 
pforisiaiiay the most inflexible rules, the most unqualified restrictions, and the most 
peremptory requirements and prohibitions. 

Hon. Dorman B. Eaton, ll. D., in an address on the public relations of the legal 
pcofewrion, nid: 

If tfaeze are any merchants, manufhcturera, fiumers, or honest people of any sort who 
Tirii that examinations for the bar shall become mere &rce6, who desire to increase the 
nomber of cunning and conscienceless promoters of quiurrels, who want no guarantee of 
booesty or c^tadty, when, beyond the sphere of personal acquaintance, they are com- 
pelled to trust their property and their characters to strange attorneys, then let all such 
peDom St once join hands with those unworthy persons at the bar and beyond the bar 
The desire every barrier and every responsibility removed. * * * If, on the other 
h^ad, the people are interested in having only such a sdected number of practising 
iawyexB as are really needed for honest purposes; if the exercise of a lucrative public 
ftm^ion, by special privilege and the certainty that those admitted to the bar are to fill 
the seats of justice, cause lawyers above all others to bo justly amenable to stem testa 
of cinracter and attainments, * * * then why ^ould not all worthy i>eople unite 
and make and sternly enforce adequate laws for securing what the public welfare 



AdmisBion to the bar is ^e subject of a carefhlly prepared article published recently 
ia the AmcTKan Law Review by Hon. Francis L. Wellman. I take irom it the follow 
c% quoCatkHis: 

Hie system of legal study is governed almost exclusively by the system of examina- 
Qon that admits to the bar. * * ' * It may be argued that of themselves examina- 
tioDs are a direct evil, since they encourage a system of cramming and bad habits of 
smdy ; as Wolfe said, ' * Perverse studet qui eKanUnilms studeL ' ' Such arguments in some cases 
■37 have weight, but in the law they should be directed, not against the examinations 
tfaoBselTes, but against ih% practice that prevails in most States of making the examina- 
CH30S the only test. It is to remove the temptation to cram that we have so strongly 
ni^ the adoption of a definite term of pupilage and the other precautionary measures 
ibeady dwelt upon. 

Of low school privileges he says: 

ne advantages afforded by law schools for acquiring a comprehensive knowledge of 
the law are now very generally appreciated by the profession and the public. There is 

00 better preparation for the bar, in our opinion, than that afforded by a two or three 
yfaa' course at a good law school, supplemented by a third or fourth year in an office of 

1 ptactising lawyer; and it is a matter of surprise that, while there has been a strong 
■Ofvcment in many of the States for raising the standard of qualification for admission 
to tke profession, it has never appeared to be in any degree the aim of the movement 
«Aer to support and strengthen the schools or even to make use of them in the ilcirther- 
met of the objects in view. Certainly the time well spent in any respectable law school, 
■fVQved by passing its examinations, should count towards admission to the bar in any 
SMe like time spent in an office. 

Of the requirements for admission to the bar in the several States, he says: 

I out of thirty-eight require a definite term of pupilage, but differ widely as to 
length of this term. In fifteen States the diploma of certain law schools is 
and accepted in lieu of the public bar examinations; these HJ'^'^A^SSf?'^* "* 



CLXXXVIII REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

most cases, confined to the schools situated within the iBtate or county limits, a siniuge 
inconsistency. In but six of the number is any value given to the degree of bachelor 
of arts. Seven of the list prescribe a definite course of study, on which the examina- 
tions are based ; this requirement is usually intended to take the place of a definite term of 
pupilage; not so in Pennsylvania and Or^n, however. New Hampshire alone esteems 
the examiners' labor worthy of compensation. Pennsylvania and Delaware are conspicu- 
ous as requiring a preliminary examination in Latin and on all the branches of a com- 
mon high school education. New York and New Jersey distinguish' between attorneys 
and oouneellois in their requirements fi>r admission to practice; and in ten States women 
have been admitted on equal standing with the men. Nearly all the States have adopted 
the superficial oral method of examination, only five of the number requiring written 
answers to stated questions, and even in these States, excepting New Hampshire, written 
examinatians are customary only in certain counties or departmenta 

Mr. Wellman proposes a set of rules to regulate admission to the bar. Th^r require 
that persons desiring to become students of law either be college graduates or pass an 
examination in languages (Latin and one modem), mathematics (through plane geome- 
tiy), American and English history, modem geography, political economy, aixd elements 
of book-keeping. They shall file a certificate of this tact, and of intention to study law, 
with the derk of the court, and also the certificate of an attomey, stating when study 
began. The final examination for admission must be both oral and written, before a 
State board, at one of its quarterly examinations at the State capital. No student can 
attend .the examination until he has studied three full years in a school or ofSce. A de- 
gree in a law school shall obviate the necessity of examination in two branches pursued 
in the schooL Prizes shall be given for excellence in jurisprudence and Roman civil 
law. The expenses of examination and prizes are met by a fee of $10 for examination. 
No person shall be admitted to the bar, upon motion, on the ground that he is a member 
of the bar of another State, unless he has practised two years befi)re the highest courts 
of that State. 

TABLE Xin.— SCHOOLS OF MEDICINE. 

The following is a comparative statement of the number of schools of medicine, den- 
tistiy, and pharmapy reported to the Office each year from 1871 to 1881, inclusive, with 
the number of instructors and students: 





1871. 


1872. 


1878. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


1881. 


Number of inaUtutions 

Number of instruotors 


S2 g7 

750 736 

7,045 15. MB 


M 
1,148 
8,681 


99 

i,m 
9,ogQ 


106 
1,172 
9,971 


102 
1,201 
10,148 


106 
1,278 
11,225 


106 
1,337 
11,880 


114 
1.495 
18,821 


120 
1,600 
14,006 


126 
1,746 
14,586 









Digitized by 



Google 



MEDICAL INSTRUCTION. 



CLXXXIX 



Table XI I L — Smmmarif ofsiatigftbs of$chooi8 of medicine^ of deniidry, and of pharmacy. 




Digitized by LjOOQIC 



CXC REPORT OF THE COMltiSSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

Table XIII. — Summary ofstoHitica of achooli of medicme, <Cc. — Continued. 



states. 



3. nom<Bopathic. 

lUlnoia 

Iowa i 

MasaachuseUa 

Michigan 

Miflsouri 

NewYorlc 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania. 



Total 12 



II. DSVTAL. 

California 

Indiana 

Maryland 

Maseaohusotto ... 

Michigan 

MioBouri 

New York 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania..... 
Tennessee 



Total., 



ni. Phabmaceu 
noAL. 

Oalifomia 1 

Illinois 1 

Kentucky 1 

Maryland 1 

Massachusetts 1 

Michigan 1 

Missouri 1 

New York ! 2 

Ohio 1 

2 
1 
1 



16 



Pennsylvania.... 

Tennessee 

Diet, of Columbia.. 



Total. 



14 



178 



215 



eS 



Students. 



347 
00 
109 
71 
82 
258 
209 
199 



1,285 



64 
86 
22 

112 
81 

155 
62 



47 

116 
40 
68/ 

101 
88 
87 

856 
96 

370 
20 
28 



1,416 



^1 
OS 

II 



84 



10 



121 
17 
29 
28 
16 
65 



442 



104 
81 



16 
21 
8 
20 
15 
24 
27 
66 
28 
145 
8 
6 



877 



Libraries. 



820 

1,800 



75 



2,000 



4,196 



1,000 



125 



100 



6,150 



6,875 



1,000 
200 



2,000 



1%5 

450 

8,000 



7,606 



Property, income, &c. 



I' 



5.m... 



7 
800 



166,000 



U0,000 
14,000 



25,000 
80.000 



244,000 



25,000 
1,600 
6,000 
15,000 
12,000 



I* 

^1 



20,000 
70,000 
8,000 



151,500 



3,000 
3,000 
5,000 
8,000 
5,000 



800 



3,600 

45,600 

1,000 

5,200 



79,200 



91,500 



1,500 




8,000 



8,000 



i 

s 



II 



m 



117.600 
1,000 



1,900 
5,016 



13,806 



$1,568 



1,568 




160 



100 





290 



89,224 



8,000 
10,000 
6,000 
8,000 
1,924 
12,720 
6.500 
23, CM 
17,500 



84,838 



1,480 
5,600 



4,600 



3,500 
12,050 
2,600 
1,100 



80,830 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



MEDICAL INSTRUCTION. CXCI 

Table XIII. — Swnmary of atatisHcM of schools of medicine, d-c* — Contiiined. 



Stadenta. 



11 



1 



21 



Libraries. 



8 
1 

I 



Property, income, Ac. 



1 



5 



i 



TOTAIiS. 

Medial and suTsi- 



HooMBopatbic. 



1,218 

80 

178 

215 

66 



10,290 
882 

1,285 
706 

1,416 



8,299 
288 
442 
286 

877 



40,757 
2,21<r 
4,196 
6,375 
7,666 



12, 206, 470«66, 193 120, 606 



230,500 
244,000 
151,500 
79,200 



1,811 



1876,496 
89,760 
89,224 



1,500 
8,000 



1,568 
250 



30,880 



Gnod total.. 



126 



1,746 



14,936 



1,155 



4,691 



61,238 



1,585 



2,913,670 



870,603 



23,825 



509,645 



When the student of medical education in this coontiy compares its extent with that 
of medical edacation abroad he cannot help thinking either that we are not particular 
sKmgh or that other countries demand too much. When the inquirer further considers 
tfe e&onnoos amount of knowledge that has been accumulated respecting the proper 
trHtment of disease, its preyention and its nature, the impression becomes irresistible 
tbaft we baTe been influenced by our national impatience and furious haste in this matter 
» in many others, and that we have allowed the students to dictate the length of time 
they are to study instead of obliging them to prepare suitably for this important course 
tf instruction and to spend enough time to receiye it properly and retain it securely. 
HsppDy, of late years the good sense of the profession and of the medical colleges has 
^Itirrkfil this abuse and is correctiBg it with due diligence and circumspection. An 
iflBportant part of the new programme is the requirement of some suitable preliminary 
tnarfiy^ and the production of evidence to that effect by an entrance examination. 

OOUBSES PBSPASATOBY TO THE STUDY OF MBDIOINB. 

A few institutions for higher education have courses of study preparatory to the study 
if nedicine. Among them are Cornell Uniyersity, the University of Pennsylvania, and 
Jthos Hopkins UniveTsity. The course at Cornell is two years in length. The studies 
«f tbe first year are French, drawing, physics, chemistry, physiology, hygiene, and bot- 
fly; ci the second year, German, organic and medical chemistry, vegetable physiology, 
katoAogy^ anatomy, Tctennuiiy medicine and surgery, sanitary science, and psychology. 
Tie iumltj of the university are aware that medical students need a generous education, 
mA sdvise them to take a Ml four years' scientific or literary course, vnth special work 
vlalicratonas and on important subjects as resident graduates. 
Urn Towne Scientific School of the University of Pexmsylvania has a course pre- 
' fatfory to the study of medicine extending through five years. The studies of the 
^m two years are tho&e puisued by all the students of the school. Many of the stud- 
^ of the remaining three years are common to the six courses existing in the insti- 
«6qil Bttd are chiefly scientific. The special studies of the third year preparatory td 
« #«^T of medicuae are differential calculus, practical work in the chemical labora- 



CXCII REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

toiy, mineralogy, systematic botany (with excursions), and yertebrate and invertebrate 
zodlogy ; of the fourth year, organic chemistry, qualitative analysis, and reading of Latin 
authors; and of the fifth year, quantitative analysis, physiological and toxicological chem- 
istiy, structural botany, use of the microscope, comparatiye anatomy, animal mechanics, 
elementary physiology, application of physics, and lectures in geology. Excepting the - 
differential calculus these studies form an admirable course of instruction introductory 
to the branches which should receive the principal attention of the medical student 

The course in Johns Hopkins University for those intending to study medicine is out- 
lined as follows in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal: 

This course extends throughout three years, and as a mental discipline is equivalent 
to the other courses leading to the A. B. degree, which is therefore conferred on matric- 
ulated students who complete it. The main object held in view is to utilize for intend- 
ing medical students the opportunities for practical study in physics, chemistry, and 
biolo^ found in an endowed institution with well equipped laboratories and so often 
wantmg in medical schools; it is also considered an object to lessen the work to be sub- 
sequenfiy crowded into the period of study at a medical school by giving the student a 
good knowledge of the sciences which lie at the basis of the medical art before he begins 
his professiomd study. Physics, chemistry, and biology are therefore the main subjects 
included in the course; some knowledge of French and German is also demanded; and 
there are, also, several subjects f inserted with a view to gi\ing some breadth of culture) 
between which an option is allowed. These are Latin, Greek, mathematics, English 
Uteiatnre, history, logic, and psychology. Each student must take up at least two of 
theae optional subjects, the amount of knowledge required in each being such as would 
be obtained by a year's honest work. 

ENTRANCE EXAMINATIONS. 

An inspection of the announcements and catalogues of about eighty medical schools 
has shown that ten have examinations for admission covering several subjects and fourteen 
employ some slight tests of an applicant's fitness to study medicine. The subjects of exam- 
ination are elementary physics in 8 schools, arithmetic in 7, elementary Latin in 5, gram- 
mar in 4, geography in 4, algebra in 4, geometry in 3. and history in 2. Gramiliar and 
composition are determined usually from the papers submitted. The amount ef phys- 
ics required is generally a knowledge of Balfour Stewart's Primer of Physics or its equiv- 
alent. The Latin requirements are varied, and are intended to show the &miliarity of 
the i^plicant with declensions, conjugations, common words, and simple constructions. 
Algebra to quadratic equations and two books of geometry are usual reqtdrements iu 
these branches. The Michigan College of Medicine allows a substitution of either Greek , 
French, German, botany, or zoelogy in place of other studies mentioned acove (except 
Latin). French, German, algebra, geometry, and botany are alternative subjects at 
Harvard Medical School, on one of which the candidate must be examined. Botany 
and chemistry, as found in the Science Primers, are required by the Woman's 
Medical College of the New York Infirmary. College diplomas, degrees Jfrom scientific 
schools, graduation from acceptable high schools and academies, and licenses to teach 
public schools are among the proofs of a candidate's fitness accepted in lieu of examina- 
tion. In the Medical School of Missouri University all students before entering the 
senior class must pass a satisfiu.'tory examination on English grammar, rhetoric, history 
of the United States, and arithmetic through common fractions. The recently oi^gauized 
Medico-Chirurgical College of Philadelphia has a preparatory feature best described by 
a quotation from its announcement: 

The necessity of elevating the standard of medical education is universally admitted. 
The times demand that physicians shall be scholarly as well as proficient in medicine. 
Many talented, ambitious voung men, capable of becoming excellent physicians, have 
not eiy oyed academic or collegiate advantages. Wi th a view of aiding these, the author! - 
ties of the college have made a progressive departure from the usual curriculum of medi- 
cal colleges by adding a preparatory spring term, the studies of which willembrnce the 
elements of English literature, natural sdence, and elements of I^tin and Greek, vrith- 
out additional expense to the student. This feature must especially commend itself to 



MEDICAL INSTRUCTION. CXCIII 

the seeds and conTenience of many stadents whoae drciunstaDces have been such as to 
pRTcnt tbem £rom thoron^j ei\joying the benefits of these necessary studies. The 
tenn is designated the anxiliaiy literaiy term, and students who attend it, after passing 
a ntisfiMAoTy examination, will receive a certificate. Students will be exempt fh>m at- 
tcodiB^ ihia tens who present jiroper certificates of having graduated at a high school 
or attended a respectable classical seminary or college for one year, or of having passed a 
preliminary examination of a duly oiganized county mediad society. * * * All 
students who do not exhibit the necessary qualifications will be required to attend 
this torn and obtain the certificate of the same before their final examination for the 
degiee of doctor of medicine. 

UNDEBQBADUATB CX)UB81S. 

Tlie average medical college requires candidates for a degree to study medicine under 
^jme competent physician three years, attending meanwhile two courses of lectures in 
dininct years and taking the second course in the institution firom which the degree 
is aon^t. Barely are the requirements in excess of this. Boston University and Har- 
Tvd University would have the students of their medical schools continue their studies 
1 year kmgex than is customary. The medicsJ student in the University of California 
aod in Boston University is required to attend three regular courses of lectures in 
time several years before he can present himself for graduation; and from this year for- 
wd a three years' graded course is to be an absolute requisite for graduation in the 
Albany (N. T.) Medical College. Other schools might be mentioned which either urge 
or require a longer period of study than is commonly taken. 

As the time and nominal amount of study are nearly alike for the mi^o^ty of medical 
idiodls, ihe attainments of their students must be indicated by the scope and quality of 
tfae instruction and by the entrance examinations. The subjects in which candidates for 
positkiiis as surgeons in the United States Army are examined may be taken to show what 
hootches are included in *a complete medical course. They are anatomy, physiology, 
pnetioe of surgery, practice of medicine, general pathology, obstetrics, diseases of 
vQBcsi and children, medical jurisprudence, materia medica, therapeutics, pharmacy, 
toaeologj, and hygiene. Few schools give ftdl place to all these subjects, and many 
oier special courses, covering only part of the topics included under these heads. Chem- 
istiy is a prominent study. Histology is included among the studies of many medical 
odkiges. I^Kcial instruction is often given on the structure and diseases of the eye, the 
ev, and tbe throat. In the medical department of Boston University a professorship of 
tfe "history and methodology of the medical sciences'* has been established recently. 
"Hi work is to define and classify the different sciences which relate to this department, 
to Aow their history and right relation to each other, to point out the dififerent methods 
tf rtodying and teaching them, and to survey in a critical and practical manner the 
I)iUiogn4>fay of each. ' ' Of the subjects of medical study mentioned pharmacy and hygiene 
ut rarely included in the curriculum of a medicsJ college. Medical jurisprudence is 
iSreqnently omitted. The scheme of tuition adopted by the American Medical College 
Aaodatkm covers the general topics of anatomy, with dissection, physiology, chemistry, 
SBteria medica and therapeutics, obstetrics, snidery, pathology and practice of medicine. 

aefoal medical schools have graded courses of instruction. Thirteen such are known 
ti fins Office. They are the medical departments of the Universities of California, 
MJfhigMi, Pennsylvania, and Denver, Colo.; of Harvard and Syracuse Universities 
■def Yale College; the Chicago, Detroit, and St Louis Medical Colleges; the MedicsJ 
fWrgn of the Fteific; the Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania; and the Medioo- 
Cfcinn)gifa1 GoUege of Philadelphia. The studies of the first year are usually anatomy, 
r, histology, chemistiy, and, less frequently, materia medica. Those of the 
I year are pathology, theory, and practice of medicine, therapeutics, and obstetrics. 
%Hiildeiiartments of anatomy and chemistry and of clinical medicine and surgery occupy 
iviiadflnt in a number of schools. The studies of the third year are theory and prac- 
>t.fciniMiiin(n and obstetrics .continued, diseases of women and children, surgeiy, 

B— xm 



OXCIV REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

ophthalmology, otology, mental and nervons diseases, and oocasionally dermatolc^, 
laryngology, and medical jurispradence. Definite information on the nature, extent, and 
efifect of the examinations accompanying these graded oonrses is not easily obtained. 
Most of the schools have an examination the first two years for promotion and the third 
year for a degree. In several the examinations at the end of the first year in histology 
and in special departments of anatomy, physiology, and chemistry are final. The second 
year exxuninations in these three subjects are usually final, and those in materia medica 
and therapeutics are so occasionally. The chief burdens of examination for a d^ree arc 
postponed until the dose of the third year. The adoption of systematic courses of 
instruction has resulted beneficially. The efiects of recent changes in the medical depart^ 
ment of the University of Pennsylvania, among which is the introduction of a graded 
course, are stated as follows: 

The effect of the change on the composition of the classes and on their proficiency has 
been most gratifying. A much larger proportion of students than under the former sys- 
tem has given evidence of a good previous education, either in colleges or in reputable 
academies. The attention of the classes to study has been marked by increased serious- 
ness and zeal; the annual examinations have steadily improved; the examinations for 
graduation have shown a higher average degpee of merit than ever before; and a much 
larger proportion of inaugural theses than formerly has given evidence of scientific 
knowledge as well as liteiury culture. 

CHABACTEB OF MEDICAL INSTBUCnON. 

The quality of medical instruction cannot be directly estimated. Each school may 
have advantages not i>osse6sed by others. Smaller ones enable pupils to associate more 
intimately with instructors; larger ones are better supplied with means of illustration 
and opportunities for practical work. There is a general movement towards improved 
methods and systems of -teaching. The prominence given to clinical instruction and the 
increased number of graded courses are among the indications of progress. A medical 
Avriter six years ago described clinical teaching as follows: '* Once or twice a week, from 
one to five hundred men being congregated in an amphitheatre, the professor lectures 
upon a case brought into the arena, perhaps operates, and when the hour has expired the 
class is dismissed. '' Compare with thia the opportunities now offered by representative 
schools in leading cities. The Cincinnati College of Medicine and Surgery announces 
thirteen clinics a week, *'as much as any student can observe with profit. '' The Uni- 
versity of Maryland School of Medicine has eight clinics a week continued during both 
the sessions and the interval between them. There is also each day a bedside clinic in 
the hospital, with one hour in the dispensary. In the Harvard Medical School daily 
instruction in clinical medicine is given by hospital visits and other exerdses. Clinical 
instruction in surgery, during the earlier half of the school year, is divided equally 
between clinical lectures on cases, surgical visits in the hospital wards, and public opera- 
tions, two hours a week being given to each; during the latter half year, clinical lectures 
on cases occupy but one hour a week, while the surgical visits and public operations 
occupy three hours a week. In the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania 
eight hours a week are given to general clinics in the second and third years of the course 
and five hours to special clinics in the third year. The student also has esfch week dur- 
ing this year two hours' practice in operative surgery, minor surgery, and bandaging, one 
hour of bedside teaching in both gynsecology and practical medicine and in practical 
surgery, and four hours* instruction in specialties. The schools of New York City may 
be said to average two clinical lectures a day throughout the term. A sufficient num- 
ber of schools has been mentioned to show the prominence given to this branch of 
medical instruction by colleges of acknowledged excellence. 

PBOOBE8S IK MEDICAL SDUCATIOK. 

Progress in medical education arises from united action on the part of the public, the 
profession, and the schools. The public must demand thorough acquaintance with the 



MEDICAL INSTRUCTION. CXCV 

sTinptonis and treatment of diseases finom the physicians to whom the care of health and 
life is intrusted. The profession mnst disoonrage unqnalified men in their plans for 
hasty entrance into active practice and ref\ise to instruct them until they are able to 
nnderstand the subjects they must study. The schools must improve their methods, 
extend their courses, and increase their requirements for admission and graduation. The 
morements in this direction have begnn during recent years and are going on. The 
schools have advanced, through the sympathy of the people and the encouragement of 
the profession, until a writer &miliar with the movement forward ventures the asser- 
tioa that *' a course of instruction which ten years ago was considered amply sufficient 
io enable the brains of Young America to digest the art and a handsome allowance of 
the science of a great profession, a course which rei^ved the indorsement of the leading 
men in the country, would now be disclaimed, if not openly despised, by any fiiculty 
baring pretensions to standing. ' ' This is perhaps too enthusiastic. A calm and unprej u- 
diced estiniiate of the relative present condition of education in medical colleges -was 
reoeaitly given by William W. Green, M. D., president of the Maine Medical Association. 
He said: 

The medical colleges throughout the country have generally lengthened their lecture 
terms and enlarged the curriculum of study and in most cases are doing more thorough 
work. In many the standard for graduation has been raised, and a few require a cer- 
tain amount of preliminary education as a prerequisite for matriculation. Most of the 
ooUegBB have established supplemental courses of instruction under various names, 
vhich fill out the year, so that the student can, if he chooses, pursue his studies for the 
Hitire three years in the same institution. * * * It is cause for congratulation and 
honest pride that, as compared with ten or fifteen years ago, better classes of men are 
annually graduated from the schools, and that the general tone and character of the pro- 
fenon has much improved and is still improving. 

Hie report for 1881 of ihe regents of the University of the State of New York says: 

The most noticeable changes which have been brought about during the past year in 
rei^ftrd to education have been observed in medical education. It is well known that, in 
eommon with medical colleges throughout the coimtry, the terms of admission and of 
grad nation in most of the medical colleges of this State have been lax and unsatisfactory. 
The regents note with great satisfaction a movement on the part of several of the more 
prominent of these colleges to insist on better preparation for entrance, more strict require- 
ineotB as to attendance upon the medical instruction, and especially a more rigorous sys> 
tpm of examination for graduation. It is gratifying to observe that in those institutions 
vhieh have adapted the more rigorous system there is no indication of a fiilling off in 
the attendance, but on the contrary a healthy increase. This is an evidence that public 
sentiment is ready to demand a decided advance in the qualifications of those who are 
tD be licensed as physicians and an evidence that those seeking to enter this profession 
have no desire to have the road made easy for them, but appreciate every well meant 
effort to give them a better training and a more advantageous start in their careers. 

TABLB XIV.— UNITED STATES MILITABY AND NAVAL ACADEMIES. 

\ 

In Table XIY of the appendix will be found the statistics of the examinations of can- 
fidates for admission to the United States Naval and Military Academies for the year 
1981. 

TABLE XV.— DBQBEES. 

Table XV of the appendix shows the number and kind of degrees conferred in course 
aad honoris causa by the universities, colleges, and professional schools in 1881. The 
Sdlowing sommary exhibits the number of degrees of each kind and the grand total 
moSemd by institutions in the several States, the District of Columbia, and Washing- 
ta Territory : 

The namber of d^rees of all dasses conferred in course was 12,093; honorary, 535. 
These were distributed as follows : In letters, 4,035 in course, 185 honorary; in science, 
l,1f7 in course, 14 honorary; in philosophy, 376 in course, 49 honorary; in art, 29 in 
CHBM^ 2 Inmorary; in theology, 312 degrees and diplomas in course, 171 honorary; in 
, 4,896 in course, 22 honorary; in law, 1,002 in course, 92 honorary. ^^^ 



CXCVI BEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 
Table XV. — Statistical gummary of aU degrees conferred. 





I 


1 

1 


i 


£ 


i 

< 


1 


1 


;3 




8 


n 


a 


1 


8 

s 


n 


a 


b 

t 

& 

49 


1 

8 

c 

29 


X 
2 


a 


i 


i 
i 

a 


n 


f 

a 


i 

& 




al2,008 


535 


4.085 


186 


1.167 


14 


876 


6812 


171 


4.896 


1.002 


m 








1 


Total in clasBical and soi- 
entiflc ooUeges. 

Total In colleges for wo- 
men. 

Total in profeaaional 
schools. 


<^,8S1 
d678 
8.664 


5U 
24 


8.464 
671 


185 


1.151 
16 


14 


376 


49 


18 
11 


2 


163 
6149 


165 
6 


1,626 
8. 270 


4 
18 


867 
145 


92. 
























_ 


1 


Al.4»A»« A. ....,.-„„.,.,., 


0145 


9 


85 


5 


13 




1 




8 







2 


24 


... 


is' 2 






OlftiHilnal and imlMfitiflnooI- 


66 

«66 
24 


9 


89 
46 


5 


18 




1 










2 






18 9 


leges. 
CollMTOfl for wonmi 




3 







24 








Profetifflonal schools 

































__!_ 


= 


= 






1 — 


Abkafhas r.,. 


15 


1 


5 














^i' 






























dajifi1<Ml and soiftntiflc ool- 


15 
/148 


1 


6 
88 




















10 
51 


1 






leges. 


= 


82 


= 


21 


... 


= 

... 


= 


2 


= 





_ 


Cauforhta.. 








COassioal and sdentlflo col- 


pl20 

M 
22 




88 




82 


— 


21 




"- 


- 






' 81 


— 






leges. 
Colleges for women.. 










Professional schools 




















2 




20 


.... 


COLOKADO.. 


A6 


i 








3^^-B 


— 


'^^ 




— 


— 





~1 



































Olassical and scientific ool- 


M 


1 




















1 










leges. 






























815 


21 


204 


12 


1 


... 


47 




... 




16 


4 


10 




«7 


5 


Classical and scientiflc col- 
leges. 


815 


21 


204 


12 


1 


... 


47 








16 


4 


10 




87 


5 


Dri«awabk 


8 


4 








4 




































Cnamioal and scientiflc ool- 


8 


4 








4 






... 

















leges. 














Oboboia 


077 


15 


145 


8 


5 


1 


4 




2 






1 


107 


5 












94 

U 


10 
5 


62 
83 


8 


6 


1 


4 










1 


28 

84 


5 






leges. 
Colleges for women , 




2 








Professional schools 
















== 




= 


s^ 






= 


sz 





= 




L^ 


BS 



a Includes 276 degrees not spedfled. 

b Includes 68 ordained as priests during the 
year; there were also 851 graduates In schools 
of theology, upon whom, in most cases, 
diplomas were conferred. 

c Includes 196 degrees not specified. 



d Includes 80 degrees not spedfled. 
e. Indudes 6 degrees not spedfled. 
/ Includes 4 d^rees not spedfled. 
Includes 8 degrees not spedfled. 
h Degrees not spedfled. 
i Indudes 14 degrees not spedfled. 



COLLEGIATE Ain> PROFESSIONAL DEGREES. CXCVU 

Tabls XV. — SlaMiedl summarjf ofaU degrees conferred — Continued. 





1 

i 


i 


i 

! 


2 


1 


s 


i 

g 


i 

2 




i 

a 


1 


J5 


s 


i 

8 

5 


i 


1 


i 


i 

c 


? 


8 
5 


1 


a 


1 


i 

8 

C 


1 


TTU"AW ......,TT-rTi 


abSfl9 


28 


223 


8 


97 


- 


26 


da 


28 


u 


6436 


1 76 


5 








" 1 1 


C6Uc«e9 for women — .. — 
PmA^flikniA] fwhooln. 


c4S0 

d22 
6417 


26 

? 


210 
13 


8 


97 


26 


3 


3 


3 


9 


44 


1 


76 5 






i . 






25 


2 ft392 
















IVMAVA « ^ 


388 


34 


106 14 


65 


1 16;.,. 






26; 9; 172 


5 


^ 9 


C^Mwiml and adentiflcool- 

OoUeges for women^ «. 

Pmfr^rfnnMl nrhnnln 


288 

2 


29 
5 


108 
2 


14 


65 


1 


16 






... 


14 


9 


86 




4 


5 
















«12 




86 


5 










1 


Z~19"2 













88, I 


lowji ^ ....„^ „ 


465{ 23 121 


6; 60 


1 




4 12| 172 


2 


flMMiml and adentiAoool- 
leccs. 


846 
U9 


21 

? 


121 


6 


60 




19 


2 


1 




4 


12 


53 
119 


2 


88 


1 












== 


^^^ 


= 


= 


= 













48 


1 


20 




28 




1 












- 


... 




•""•* 








Cki^riral mx*^ M>Un«i Aa aaI. 


48 


1 


20 




28 












1 










lc««fl. 


























/W8 


11 


121 


5 


22;... 


1 





- 


""~~~ 


4 Qftl 


... 


24 2 








... 










riaMiril and niftntifkfiHfl- 


UO 
272 


11 


54 
67 


6 


22 - 


1 










4 


33- 




? 


leccs. 
















.^ 






















248 


24I 




BB 


"^ 


mi- 











= 


1 




59... 


9 


Jjocaax'SA 


^ 






1 
















f^Mk^al and mimitiflr fml 


79 

an 

214 


"n 


10 

5 
148 










( 




1 




59 




9 


lesea. 
CoDegca for wommL. „. 














~~2 


31 


1 1 2l~ 


1 








Mim. 




5 


3 


80 


— 




3 




*i 


; 








namiral «nd mfi*m*ilu»ntxL. 


196 
18 


u 


lao 

18 


2 


81 


1 




? 




5 


8 


80 


— 




8 


lesea. 
OoOcgea tor women .^., 






















.!_ 










^AWTLAWD 


409 


4 


60 


1 






9 


1 






4 


1 


299'.- 


28 I 






— 








Tl—Ual and Mlentf flc ool- 


78 

4 


4 


66 
4 


1 




9 


1 


»~ 




4 


1 








1 


CMlege* for women. 

PmfraBlona] m^ionla. 






299 


: 


28 




827 




! 















, . 




:= 












— =1= 



[ 



« Inclndea 17 degrees not spedfled and 18 ** flill 
eertiOcatea" stven lo apecial atudenta. 

h laelndei honoruy degreea in medicine oon- 
iened by Rosh Medical College, Chicago, 
HL; nmnber not ipecifled. 



e Includes 8 degrees not spedfled and 18 ** fiill 

certificates" given to special students, 
d Includes 9 degrees not specified. 
e Number of priests ordained during the year. 
/ Includes 19 degrees not specified. 
g Includes 6 degrees not specified. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



CXCVm REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Table XV.^StatisHcal 

• 


8utnm€try 


of aU degrees conferred — 


Continned. 








I 


I 


i 

i 


>** 

£ 


1 


s 


5 


s 


^ 

2 




i 
I 

a 


1 


1 

e 


» 


s 


1 


! 


JO ' Honorary. 

M ' In course. 

1 Honorary. 


i 

8- 


i 


fl 


i 


8 

fl 


i 
1 


Massachusetts 


0806 


9ft an 


^^> 


85 




e 

6 


66 


8 


126 


1 

50 5 










i 






Classical and scientific col- 
leges. 
Colleges for women 


amo 28 
60 


321 
50 


u 


85 




3 


3 




33 


8 


03 




50 


5 


Professional schools 


66 












[■" 


33 


Xi 








t 




1 4r», 2 . 




1 


1 


Michigan 


6191 17f "1 *^ "^ 


r: .1 im 


145' 3 












... 


1 




... ^ 




] 




Classical and soientifio col- 
leges. . 
Professional schools 


664 

55 


17 


111 


8 


76 




40 


2 






3 


8 


190 
55 


1 


145 3 




i 




= 




= = 


= = 




= 




Minnesota 


64 


45 




19 


, 






















Classical and soientifio ook 


551 


40 
5 




15 

4 




















t 


leges. 
College for women^.... 


9 




• 







































= 




MlfftlSSTFPI 


676, 1| 43 




5 


... 


11 


...|...|... 




• 


16 1 








......| 




Classical and scientific col- 


50 1 
626... 


18 





6 




11 
















16i 1 


leges. 
Colleges for women 




























—Lll 




^ 


^ 














* 




c525 7 ifti 




75 


11 


.... 


5 


9 S«9 


1 53 4 






' 




■ 






Classical and scientific col- 
leges. 
Colleges for women... 


d222 

e46 
257 


6 

1 


76 
28 




63 
12 




11 




1 

1 




5 


2 


5 
267 


1 


53 


4 





















' 1 










_ 




■ - — 


Nrbraska 


3 


1 




2 


. 1 1 




































Classical and scientific col- 


3 




1 




2 


i 




















leges. 


'I 




= 


= 


= 


2 


29 


= 






New Haxpshibb 


131 


21 


72 


10 


SO 


1: 1 5 




3 






^ 1 ^ 










Classical and scientific col- 


127 
4 


21 


68 

A 


10 


80 


1' 


5 








2 


29 






3 


leges. 
Collegfes for women 


































... 


= 


~~i 


2 




=1 


= 


___ 


New Jebset 


226 44 190 


27 


33 


g 




4 
4 




8 




1 













Classical and scientific col- 


213 44 180 


27 


33 


8 










2' 







8 


leges. 
Colleges for women 


10 
8 




10 














Professional schools 
















a 


~20 


884 


"5 













* 


* 




•"1 










Vew York 


fl 8I7' tel 440 


^ 90. 


154 


If t^ 


A in 


2 96 


166; n 










i 






leges. 
Cnll^^eii for women 


yl,284 

A25 

506 


60 
5 


426 
14 


22 


154 


1 


60 


4 


10 


2 


14 


20 


896 




166. 


U 


Professional schools 


486 5 






1 1 ' 


==\ 




= 


1= 


=r 


= 


= 







a Includes 99 d^xees not specified. 
6 Includes 1 degree not specified, 
e Includes 18 degrees not specified, 
d Includes 8 degrees not specified, 
e Includes 5 degrees not speoifled. 



/ Includes 67 degrees not specified. 
Includes 56 degrees not specified. 
h Includes 11 degrees not specified. 
4 Number of priesto ordained during the yesr. 






COLLEGIATE AND PROFESSIONAL DEGREES. CXCIX 

Table XV. — Statistkai summary of all degrees conferred— Conihmed. 





1 

8 


1 


B 


>* 

td 
m 


i 






1 




8 


1 


8 

a 


i 
1 


a 


i 



c 


i 

d 
10 


1 

1 
1 


i 

3 

8 

C 




i 

8 

S 


1 


i 

a 


1 


8 

a 


1 


KOKTH CAROLI?* A. 


a06 


19 


46 


A 


5 




6 








6 






1 


— 


— 












nAflrir^l Anil fwHAtilifln e^U 


61 


19 


46^ 6 


5... 


10 




6 








6 


leges. 
































... 


54 


3 
3 


















Omo „.. 


1,191 


40 


807 


10 


100 


.... 




48 


22 


618 




64 


6 


ClamSf&] and Acientifinnnl- 


468 

as 

697 


86 
4 


282 
25 


10 


100 




54 






33 


18 


1 




5 


. le«cs. 

CoU^res for women^ 






















15 


4 


618 ... 


64 










^ 














29 




7| 


9 


(... 










13 




1 




— 


....... 














1 


Clamiral and floiontiftcnol- 


29 




7 




9 


.... 


.... 


.... 




•— ••" 


13 








l€8«. 




"l 










cl,2S7 


61 


384! 16 


102 


19 


14 


5 


.... 


9 


24 


684 


.... 


61 


6 


daasical and scientific ool- 

legeflL 
OoQeses for women.. 


<^15 
26 


61 


363 
21 


16 


102 


1 


19 


14 


5 




9 


24 


168 


«.. 


51 


6 


Prof pnBix>n al mrbools 


516 









MA 










■"■ 









Rm>l>V iHTrAFT* 


69 


3 


63 


1 





.... 


6 


... 




.... 





1 








1 




......... 








Clanaica] and fldenti Ac col- 


69 


3 


63 


1 


" 


- 


6 


.... 


.... 


.... 


•-• 


1 









1 


leges. 










98 


2 


67 




1 














2 


An 




































35 

S3 
80 


2 


34 


1 


.... 


...~.. 




: 


.... 


2 










leges. 


83 











30 


.... 










50 








1 






3 


2 










1 




TfBcxwwKie 


591 


23 


230 


4 


81 


.... 


... 


.... 


13 


11 


2M 


5 


OaBBical and sdentiflc ool- 

kge.. 
Collegeafor women.. 


511 
80 


23 


150 
80 


4 


81 


.... 


3 


2 


= 


= 


13 


11 


264 


1 


60 


5 






'** * 


TlXAJi .. ...... 


44 


3 


381 1 


6.-'ZZ 





1 








1 










.. . 


— 






damical and udentifio col- 


32 
12 


3 


26 
12 


1 


6 


... 




.... 


.... 


.... 




1 






1 


leger 





















= 


= 










TnxonvT 


85 


11 


29 


3 


5 


1 






3I 50 






5 










- 














dasedcal and adentiflo col- 


82 
8 


11 


26 
8 


3 


5 


— 


1 


.». 


'*•• 


= 


8 


60 






5 


leges. 
Colleges fov women.. 















s= 




s 


•••""••••• 


= 



a Includes 5 degrees not specified, 
6 Degrees not specified, 
clndudes 3 degrees not specified. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CC REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

Table XV. — StatisHeal summary of aU degrees conferred — Continued. 





1 

*• 


i 


1 




i 


> 

1 


1 


i 

< 




8 


& 


a 


& 


i 

1 

d 


i 


i 

8 

a 

3 
3 


i 



1 

1 
1 


i 
I 

.... 



3 
X 


i 




8 

d 


i 

i 


i 

1 


i 




Virginia 


176 


15 


84 




32 





8 


13 


1 

44i 6 


Classical and soientiflo col- 
leges. 
Ck>lleg^ for'womeii„ 


161 

15 

18 


15 


60 
15 




82 




— 


8 


18 


.... 
... 


44 


6 












Wdbt Virginia 


15 




3 


~ 


1 




1 


1 
























Classical and scientific ool- 


15 
3 




12 
3 




3 


















1 


leges. 
Colleges for women 






















1 






2 


1 


= 










Wisconsin .. . 


al80< oi 69 


2 35 




37 


5 






34, 2 
























135 

a8 
37 


d 


64 
5 


2 


35 




2 










5 






34! 2 


leges. 
Colleges for women 




















Professional schools 
















637 

























= 












"" 


District of Colttmbia 


107 


7I 19| 2' 3 


2|2 






6i 2 


27 


1 Kn 1 








Classical and scientific col- 
leges. 
Professional schools 


75 
32 


7 


19 


2 


3 




2 


2 






6 2 


24... 
3 - 


29 








1 


z. 






\^^ 


Washington Terrttort.. 


5 


1 2 


3 













1 


















Classical and scientific col- 


5 




1 




8 
























leges. 

























a Includes 3 degrees not specified. 

h Includes 84 ordained as priests during the year. 

As a means of maintaining the full significance of scholastic honors one of two condi- 
tions should be made a requisite for degrees : (1) a special examination, or (2) extended 
research or other worthy achieyement in the department of knowledge represented by 
the degree. Our leading institutions insist more and more upon these requirements and 
the relative proportion of honorary degrees decreases from year to year. 



Digitized by 



Google 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 



CCI 



Table Xyi.—Suwmary of statistics of additional pMic libraries for 1881. 





1 

1 
a 

1 


i 

3 


> 

1 

■ i 


1 

1 

3 

1 


1 

]| 

1 


i 
^ 
g 

s 

•*• 


1 

8 

a 

1 
1 


Yearly expendi- 
ture. 


States. 


J5 


1 

1^ 


AMnma 


U 


500 

44,910 

400 

566 

87,972 

2,856 

1,000 

511 

1,001 

750 

20,045 

4.871 

1,830 

825 

580 

8,684 

29,786 

2,700 

1,5U 

1,560 

6,708 

4,084 

500 

2,610 

1,260 

500 


218 

al,968 

. 110 

45 

e6,242 

1,156 

700 

20 

206 

60 

«8,505 

4,308 

b20 

25 

80 

2,897 

/1, 108 

6100 






$37 






CUiibrnia. 






687,176 




Cblondo .. .. 








sao 


FhMi^ 








90 

<fl,894 

6470 

400 

20 

6200 

100 

08,471 

6611 




THibow 


6U,937 
61,000 




02,118 
6649 


al,7S3 


ImAi^T^ 

lowm ^ 


61161 


676 




84 





22 





Eftitnrlrj 




Looinuia 

WiirtiTiftrg 


80 
d96,006 
616,177 



61,000 


200 

(16,618 

6638 


100 

(14,233 

621 


w^^infTTl 






m^tt^mrj 












iu»<H 


800 
«82,226 
e29,906 
61,216 
68,240 
6660 
14,814 
aS,864 



o6,000 
65,000 
68,000 




el, 383 

d823 

6240 







Hew Hampshire 

2«ewYork ., 

5otlh Ckrolina 


^6 
dl58 
6240 


d497 

al5 




Qfcift ,.. , 






834 

1,897 

922 

100 

750 

a459 

60 








6150 






1,108 

680 



6600 

a226 




623 

680 

60 

6640 

0206 


di72 


South Carolina. „.. 






TWiw^ifff B ,..„...,.,.,..,... 





40 


T*«lt . 






TcnBAftft . ..,.....,,., , 


a2,296 




619 


Diarist of Oolumbia 
















TWal 


71 


178,106 


025,215 


/i212,296 
\ 


il4,161 


il3,937 


*17,116 


f7,4G6 



a 2 reporting. 
5 1 reporting, 
c 4 reporting, 
d 3 reporting. 



€ 6 reporting. 
/ 8 reporting. 
59 reporting. 
h 80 reporting. 



i 6 reporting. 
J 28 reporting. 
k 32 reporting. 
I 20 reporting. 



Aditing the totals of the preceding summary to those of the summaries of 1880, 1879, 
19SB, 1877, 1876, and of the Special Report on Pnblic Libraries published by this Bureau 
in 1876 (see also the Reportof the CommiBsioner of Education for 1875, p. cvii), we have 
the following aggregates for the libraries now reported : 

Tmal nnmber of public libraries reported, each having 300 volumes or up- 

wnds... 3,986 

Tsui number <^ volumes 12,889,598 

Tsiil yearly additions (1,749 libraries reporting) 507,832 

Tslil yearly use of books (883 libraries reporting) 9,912,760 

Ttal amomit of permanent ftmd (1,765 libraries reporting) $6, 832, 657 

TMl amcnuit of yearly income (1,000 libraries reporting) 1, 474, 585 

**'^1 T^i'ly expenditure for books, periodioeds, and binding (923 libraries 

wtKitt)-.----^^ 636,594 

L ycflxly expciiditures for salaries and incidental expenses (773 libraries 

I)-,.,,....,....,. A...... 781,869 

Digitized by CjOOQLC 



CCn REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

It should be noted, however, that the figures for these items are but approximately 
true for the libraries of the country, inasmuch as they do not include the very consider- 
able increase of the 3,647 libraries embraced in the Special Report on Public Libraries 
or the increase of the 270 libraries embraced in the Reports of the Commissioner of 
Education for 1876, 1877, 1878, 1879, and 1880, from the dates thereof to the present 
time. 

The idea that a library is not a luxury but a necessity has become recognized among 
the most intelligent people. It has powerful influences which penetrate deeply and 
widely through nearly all classes to refine their tastes an4 elevate their principles as 
certainly as the organized systems of school instruction, though perhaps less rapidly. 
The general tendency of persons who continue the practice of drawing books from a 
library has been stated by good authority to be a gradually increasing interest in a more 
instructive and improving class of books than that for which they had at first shown a 
preference. A librarian has an opportunity to stimulat^and direct this upward tendency, 
and where it is most apparent there is the greatest probability that this opportunity has 
been improved. "A collection of good books, with a soul to it in the shape of a gpod 
librarian," says Mr. Justin Winsor, *' becomes a vitalized power among the impulses by 
which the world goes on to improvement. '' Manifestations of the appreciation of public 
libraries have appeared frequently in statutes providing for their support and protection. 
Not less tlian twenty States have legislated in their favor during the last decade. Few 
years go by in which some State, previously neglectful of its reading population, does 
not enact a law in the interest of free libraries. The statistics of additional public libra- 
ries previously given show their number and size to be greater tliis year than in any year 
subsequent to the publication of the special report on libraries in 1876. In 1880 the 
number of libraries reported was larger, but they contained fewer volumes. The func- 
tions of public libraries have been summarized by Hon. Mellen Chamberlain, of Boston, 
under the following heads: 

First, in due proportion of funds to answer the requisition of scholars; second, to 
supply suflicient reading for all, and without inquiring too nicely whether that reading 
is merely for amusement or with some vague notion of acquiring useM knowledge; and 
lastly, that of instruction for the class who are generally pupUs in the public schools. 

LIBBABT MANAGEMENT. 

The true aim of public libraiy administration is to make the books in it accessible and 
useful to the greatest number of readers. The time has passed when the preservation 
of a library was the chief end in its economy. Methods of arranging, classifying, num- 
bering, and charging books affect materially the usefulness of any collection, but a dis- 
cussion of them would involve many questions and details that have odly a secondary 
bearing on their educational value. These matters have been brought to a high degree 
of perfection, so that those skilled in them are familiar with excellent plans for conduct- 
ing libraries of any size whatever. Librarians generally hold themselves in readiness to 
render assistance to libraries needing the help of experts. 

The great need of a library, after it is supplied with books, is a qualified librarian. 
It would be difficult to say what are the most essential qualifications. A prime test of 
a librarian's quality, says Mr. Winsor, " is his power to induce an improvement in the 
kind of reading. " Mr. S. S. Green, of the Worcester (Mass.) Free Public Library, men- 
tions courteous disposition, sympathy, cheerfulness, patience, and enthusiasm as quali- 
ties peculiarly desirable in library ofiicers. The following suggestive sentences are from 
the pen of Melvil Dewey, esq., of Boston : 

The best librarians are no longer men of merely negative virtues. They are positlYe, 
aggressive characters, standing in the front rank of the educators of their communities, 
side by side with the preachers and the teachers, * * * It is not now enough that the 
books are cared for properly, are well arranged, are never lost. It is not enough if the 
librarian can readily produce any book asked for. It is not enough that he can, :vben 

Digitized by V^OOQLC 



PUBUC LIBRARIES. CCIII 

a^:ed, gire adTioe as to the best books in his collection on any given snbject. All these 
thiis|cs are indispensable, bat all these are not enough for our ideal. He must see that 
Im libraiy contains, as far as possible, the best books on the best subjects, regarding 
carefully the wants of his speoal community. Then, having the best books, he must 
create among his people, his pupils, a desire to read those books. He must put every 
facility in the way of readers, so that they shall be led on from good to better. He 
must teach them how, after studying their own wants, they may themselves select their 
reading wisely. Such a librarian will find enough who are ready to put themselves 
under his influence and direction, and if competent and enthusiastic he may soon largely 
shape the reading and, through it, the thought of his whole community. 

LIBRARIES AND SCHOOLS. 

Hndi attenti<m is given to the use of libraries in connection with the public schools. 
Once it was the complaint that, though the school and the library stood side by side, no 
bridge stretched from the one to the other. Now librarians and the trustees of libraries 
generally are tiying to cooperate with teachers and parents in directing into profitable 
I'haiiTi^ig the reading of children and youth. The younger children are helped to select 
interesting and instinctiye stories and books of history and travel; older ones are guided 
to the Bouroee of history, the authorities in science, and the finest examples in litera- 
ture. The choice of the books is aided by the acquaintance of the teacher with the 
( and capodtdeB of his pupils, the discernment on the part of the librarian of their 
and his knowledge of the books that will supply them, and by the increasing 
ahilrtiea of readers to choose for themselves. Many circumstances and influences must 
nnite in order to produce the highest degree of mutual helpfrilness between the school 
and the library. * Some of these essentials are mentioned by Mr. W. E. Foster, of Provi- 
dence, as follows: 

On the part of the pupil, then, are requisite a continuous mental development and suf- 
ficient scope of individuality ; on the part of the teacher and librarian are requisite a 
genuine interest in the work and mutual cooperation. The choice of methods must aim 
to bring the strongest light of interest to bear on the presentation of each subject, and 
must be essentially direct and personal, and must follow up the first steps of continuous 
eAbrts. Instead of a policy which contemplates brilliant but superficial operations 
should be chosen one which, with patience and persistency, enters upon measures which 
require time for their development, but whose results are substantia and permanent. 

A few years ago the trustees of the Quincy (Mass.) Public Library adopted a rule by 
whidi each of the schools might become practically a branch library, the master 
fldecting a number of volumes from the main library and circulating them among his 
ajiolars. In the Wells School, Boston, a plan has been devised for promoting the study 
of good literature. It involves the loan from the Public Library to the public school of 
copies of some one book sufficient in number to enable the pupils of the school to read 
the same book at the same time. Once a week they are examined in a free conversa- 
tiooal way as to the structure of the work, the relation of its parts, the spirit in which 
it was written, the excellence of its style and diction, and similar qualities. It is said 
that after a few months' study of * * Leslie Goldthwaite's Journal* ' the pupils * * came to have 
ft perc^tion more or less dear, according to the intellectual endowments of individual 
girla, of all those elements by which the professional critic is enabled to give judgment 
upon the value of any novel as a work of art." The use of libraries has been greatly 
i nc rease d in (Sncinnati by interesting public school scholars in authors of unquestioned 
BMrit. The school district libraries of Califomia are meeting with marked success. It 
B sot too mnch to say that seven-eighths of them are doing good service in the education 
•f the peqpl& Mr. Foster has given some excellent rtdes for the guidance of pupils in 
tteir use of the public library. They are as follows: 

(1) Be^n by basing your reading on your school text books. (2) Learn the proper 
iw of reference books. (3) Use books, that you may obtain and express ideas of your 
(4) Acquire wholesome habits of reading. (5) Use imaginative literature, but 

Digitized by ^OOQLC 



CCIV REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

not immoderately. (6) Do not try to cover too much ground. (7) Do not hesitate to 
ask for aasistonce and suggestions at the library. (8) See that yon make your reading 
a definite gain to yon.* 

CATALOGUES AND IKDBXB8. 

The practical value of libraries has been enhanced by the skill and industry employed 
in the preparation of catalogues and indexes. This technical and laborious work can be 
accomplished satisfibctorily only by persons of talent and experience. General rules are 
adopted by library associations, and they furnish guidance and tend to secure uniformity 
of entries and arrangement. They have the same purpose and consequently are essen- 
tially alike in matters of substance. The details may depend on the fulness of entries, 
the kind of catalogue, the purposes of the library, and the characteristics of librarians. 
The mental qualities and the facilities possessed by the employ^ of any libraiy will de- 
termine to a considerable extent the character of the catalogue issued by it Such a work 
as the subject catalogue of the United States Surgeon General's Office could not come 
^m a library which had inferior officers and ordinary facilities. It may be that some 
system of cooperation will be inaugurated by which catalogues for general use will be 
prepared by the combined efifort of the men best abld to do such work. 

The movements in the line of indexing are attracting much attention. It is now con- 
sidered feasible to index, not individual books only, but those of a daas or subject 
A series of publications entitled the Q. P. Indexes has been received with &vor.^ The 
earliest of them contain references to the articles which appeared in some single maga- 
zine during a selected period. Later numbers give references to contributions to several 
periodicals during a particular year. An index of articles relating to history, biography, 
literature, and travel contained in essays will be attempted in the near future. In the 
forefix)nt of projects of this kind is the preparation of a greatly extended edition of 
Poole's Index to Periodical Literature. The work is being done through the cooperation 
of leading libraries under the direction of Mr. William F. Poole, of Chicago. He pre- 
scribed rules for indexing and assigned {^articular magazines to libraries possessing full 
files. The number of serials indexed up to February was 188, comprising 4, 318 volumes. 
Mr. Poole said at that time : 

The work of more than fifty of the cooperating libraries has been sent in, ^th the 
references to the current serials brought down to January, 1880. The matter has been 
revised by the editors, distributed under the first letter of the heading and about six 
hundredpagesof copy have been arranged for the printers. * * ♦ The arrange- 
ment and revising of the copy we estimate will be completed during the present year, 
and the printing will b^in early in 1882 and will be carried on as rapidly as the nature 
of the work will permit It will make a royal octavo volume of about 1,200 pages. 

iThift work has been undertaken by Mr. W. H. Griswold, a graduate of Harvard Coll^re, who 
studied two years in Europe and is now assistant to BIr. Spofford, librarian of Congress. His in- 
dexes show honest and well considered work and have received recognition abroad creditable 
to him as well as to the progress of indexing in the United States. The Deutsche Rundschau, in 
an extended notice, observes : 

** The readers of the Deutsche Rundschau will be pleased to learn that an index of its authors and 
subjects has been published. This publication comes fkx>m America: Germans are not index makers. 
The work is excellently done and will be of great value to the readers of the Rundschau. Mr. 
Griswold has made similar indexes to several American periodicals. His work shows great in- 
dustry and accuracy. Open it where one may, there is no possibility of mistake. These indexes 
will be exceedingly uaefal to libraries having the periodicals covered by them.** 



Digitized by 



Google 



NURSE TRAINING SCHOOLS. 



CCV 



Table XVn. — Summary ofataUsHca of training schools for nurses. 



Name. 



OcHii»ecticot Trainlnfl: School for Nunee (State Hos- 
pital). 

nUiiois Training School for Norses > 

QosUm City Hoq>ital Training School for Nurses 

Beaton Tndning School for Nurses (Biassaohusetta 
General Hospital). 

Training School for Nurses (New England Hospital)... 

Miaaoori School of Midwifery 

Brooklyn Training School for Nurses. 

New York State School for Training Nurses 

BoAUo General Hospital Training School for Nurses.. 

Charity Hospital Training School 

Mount Sinai Trailing School for Nurses 

Training School for Nurses (Bellevue Hospital) 

Training School of New York Hospital 

Training S<^ool for Nurses (House and Hospital of 
the Good Shepherd). 

Nnrae Training School pf the Woman's Hospital.. 

Philadelphia Lying-in Charity and Nurse SohooL. 

Waahfaagton Training School for Nurses 



Total. 



I" 



84 



24 



414 



S-- 



'St 

a-s.2 



183 



116 

10 
199 
247 

120 

180 
12 
54 
33 

ISO 
28 

148 
70 



117 
40 



1,464 



1 



43 


21 
73 

46 

178 



54 

6 

90 



148 

52 



46 



8 
"754 



Tlie list of nurse training schools has been increased daring the year by the opening 
of t;wo schools, one in Chicago and one in New York City. The latter school was in 
QQBlemplation as early as 1879. The death of the lady who was most deeply interested 
IB its establishment postponed active operations; other ladies, however, soon took up the 
iraric and made plans for the organization of a school. These plans were approved by 
the Sfount Sinai Hospital and a society was incorporated to carry them into effect. Sub- 
aefiptionB were solicited and $6,410 raised. A honsewas rented and ftimished, that the 
Banes and pnpils might have a pleasant home wheii off duty. The mles of the home 
ue few and simple, requiring the inmates to rise and retire at seasonable hours and to 
) the usages of refined homes. TheMonnt Sinai Hospital has cooperated with the 
\ of the none training school and has opened its wards for the education of 
tbe pupils. 

Mis. Thomas Burrows, the recording secretary of the Society of the Illinois Training 
Sdiool lor Nurses, Chicago, at its first annual meeting, October 1, 1881, gave the follow- 
iag i n lereating sketch of the origin of the school : 

One year ago to-day sixteen ladies met at the Palmer House for the purpose of organ- 
izing a training school for nurses. These ladies were thoroughly in earnest, believing 
that Boch a school was sadly needed, not only for the benefit of the sick, but to furnish 
to those women who desire to become skilled nurses such fiacilities as would open to 
them a self supporting and honorable profession. Twenty-five ladies were duly elected 
as a board of managers. From this number were elected Mrs. C. B. Lawrence president, 
two vice presidents, a recording and corresponding secretary, and treasurer. A charter 
VIS obtetned, and a constitution and by-laws adopted. The standing committees were 
dahr elected, as foUows: hospital, household, publication, finance, auditing, executive, 
Mi aominaling, with an advisory board of fifty gentlemen. After it had been fully de- 
ed hj the oommissioners of Cook County Hospital to give the training school board 
I fiOBtiol of two wards, suhrject to the existing rules and regulations of the hospital. 



CCVI REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

the first effort was made to interest the general public in the enterprise. For this pnr- 
pose a meeting was called on the evening of the 15th of Janmuy in the appellate court 
rooms at the Grand Pacific Hotel. The response was noble and generous, and from that 
time forward the earnest and heartfelt interest of the people of Chicago was made mani- 
fest in the gift to our training school, by individual donation, of $15,085. Miss M. E, 
Brown, assistant superintendent of the Bellevue Hospital Training School, was so highly 
recommended to us for superintendent that she was engaged, and witji great satisfaction 
are we able to say that our expectations in regard to this lady have been more than ful- 
filled. Then came the renting and furnishing the Home, now located at 69 Floumoy 
street, and on May 1 Miss Brown, with her two head nurses and eight pupil nurses, 
assumed their duties in wards A and C of Cook County Hospital. 

The Washington Training School for Nurses held its first regular commencement in 
May last. The society in charge of the school then conferred its certificates upon three 
graduates. Earlier in the year a loan exhibition was held, for the purpose of obtafhing 
a fund for the establishment of a Home. The pecuniiuy result was not equal to anticipa- 
tions, but the exhibition called attention to the merits of the' school and enlisted the 
sympathy and cooperation of many citizens. 

• Louis L. Seaman, M. D., chief of staff of Charity Hospital, New York City, in his re- 
port for 1881, gives a retrospective view of events bearing on the history of nurse training 
schools. The first public hospital , says Dr. Seaman, was founded in Rome in the fourth cen- 
tury by Fabriola. About the same time another Roman lady, Paula, took up her residence 
in Bethlehem of Judea and assembled around her a community of women who are the pro- 
totypes of modem nurses. The oldest hospital in existence is the Hotel Dieu, in Paris. It 
was founded in the seventh century and has enrolled on its records the successive orders of 
Sisters that have ministered to the sick within its walls. The Sisters of Charity were or- 
ganized in the seventeenth century, and have contributed much to the relief of suffering. 
The nurse training of this century commenced at Kaiserwerth, a little village on the Rhine, 
near Diisseldorf, in 1836. The establishment there has become known, not so much through 
Pastor Fliedner, its founder, as on account of the attendance of Florence Nightingale, 
who went there in 1851 to perfect her training as a nurse. The term of instruction and 
service at Kaiserwerth was three years, and there was no lack of applicants, though a 
fee was charged for the training. Special recognition of the need of trained nurses was 
made by the sanitary commission during the late civil war, when distinguished physi- 
cians and surgeons proposed to educate and drill in a thorough and laborious manner 
one hundred women suited to become efficient nurses in army hospitals. 

An account of the work of missionary nurses, fhmished by the superintendent of the 
Woman's Branch of the New York City Missions, shows the field for philanthropic labor 
open to the nurse. The fallowing extracts are taken from it: 

It is now about five years since a graduate of the Bellevue Training School for Nurses 
gave up her prospect of pecuniary advantage as a private nurse and devoted herself to 
caring for the sick poor in connection with our missionaries, and became the pioneer of 
missionary nurses. Since then that branoh of the work has steadily advanced. It has 
Increased in favor with rich and poor, increased in power and efficiency, and we wonder 
how we ever did good work without it. A part of the last year we employed eight nurses, 
each and all constantly occupied, often fiir beyond ordinary power of endurance. 

Too much cannot be said of the constant and untiring devotion of these self sacrificing 
workers, who forget &tigue, extreme cold, heat, or storm, when the interests of a patient 
demand their attention. The pressure on them is so great that we are obliged to limit 
their service to day-time and within certain hours. T^e nurses have made daring the 
year over nine thousand visits, canying relief and comfort to 1,738 patients. - . * * * 
The nurses have expended for mediciAes and nourishment (1,172.94, have given 1,251 
garments, and lent for the comfort of the sick 536 artides. 

DEFECnVB CLASSES. 

A table on the foUovring page, derived frt>m the United States Census of 1880, shows 
the number of deaf-mute, blind, feeble-minded, and insane persons enumerated in each 
State and Territoiy. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



DEFECTIVE CLASSES IN THE UNITED STATES. CCVII 

Defective ekuses of ihepopukUum of the United StateSy from the Census of 1880. 



StAtoB nnd Territories. 



Defective claases containing teachable 
children. 



Deaf- 
mutee. 



»'■«»• mtadJSf. ■'^- 



Insane. 



Arkanaas „. . . . 
California...^ 

Colonwlo 

CoDZMwUoai . 

IMaware 

Florida _ 

Georgia 



Iowa «.... 



Ke o t o ck y.. 



Xwylaad. 



Ifiehigaa. 
XinxweoCa 



Mnteippi 

Hiaoari. ^.... 

5«bca»ka 

Xcrada. u.... 

5«v Hampohire... 

X«w Jeraey 

5ewYork-. 

5oftbCkrolina.».., 

0Wo.-.„ 

Oie^oo ...... ........... 

PeaoBTlvania , 

ttode Island 

Sovlh Carolina.. 



Tgnmmi .......... 

Tfa^pate .. 

West Virginia... 
Wboonsin 



Ditfnei of Colombia... 



VevMexloo.., 

nnh 

Weabingtoo... 
^Totaiag ...... 



85 

665 

84 

118 

819 

2,a02 

1,764 

1,062 

651 

1,275 

624 

465 

671 

078 

1,166 

600 

606 

1,596 

287 

10 

221 

637 

8,762 

1,082 

2,301 

102 

8,079 

150 

664 

1,106 

T71 

212 

996 

620 

1,079 

7 

68 

169 

7 

9 

70 

118 

24 

U 



Total IffiO ...... 

Ibtal 1870. 



83,878 
16,205 



1,899 

972 

644 

104 

618 

127 

216 

1,684 

2,615 

2,238 

1,810 

748 

2,116 

845 

797 

946 

1,788 

1,289 

448 

1,071 

2,258 

220 

24 

412 

829 

5,013 

1,873 

2,960 

87 

8,884 

800 

1,100 

2,026 

1,875 

486 

1,710 

625 

1,075 

27 

63 

164 

6 

12 

»8 

126 

47 

4 



2,228 
1.874 

607 
77 

817 

260 

869 
2,488 
4,170 
4,725 
2,814 
1,083 
8,513 
1,068 
1,825 
1,819 
2,081 
2,181 

729 
1,679 
8,372 

856 
18 

703 
1,056 
6,084 
3,142 
6,400 

181 
6,497 

234 
1,588 
8,538 
2,276 

808 

2,794 

1,867 

1,785 

U 

80 

107 
28 
16 

122 

148 
47 
2 



4,315 
2,835 
1,533 

266 
1,996 

480 

702 
4,886 
8,987 
8,727 
4,676 
2,482 
6,904 
2,422 
2,577 
2,986 
4,742 
4,636 
1,677 
8,266 
7,228 

853 
62 
1,336 
2,412 
14,859 
6,047 
11,721 

870 
18,460 

684 
8,252 
6,667 
4,422 
l,60l 
5,602 
2,512 



45 
22S 
440 

86 

86 
650 
892 
118 

17 



1,621 

789 

2,603 

99 

1,723 

198 

253 

1,697 

6,134 

8,530 

2,544 

1,000 

2,784 

1,002 

1,642 

1,857 

6,127 

2,796 

1,145 

1,147 

8,810 

450 

31 

1,066 

2,405 

14,111 

2,028 

7,286 

378 

8,804 

684 

1,112 

2,404 

1,564 

1,015 

2,411 

962 

2,526 

21 

72 

988 

16 

69 

153 

151 

135 

4 



48,928 
20,820 



76,896 
24,527 



69,701 
61,052 



91,997 
87,382 



6,836 

3,G24 

4,036 

365 

3,718 

678 

955 

6,683 

14,121 

12,257 

7,220 

8,482 

9,688 

8,424 

4,119 

4,793 

9,869 

7,432 

2,822 

4,403 

10,538. 

1,303 

83 

2,382 

4.817 

28,970 

8,075 

19,007 

748 

21,764 

1,368 

4,364 

9,071 

5,966 

2,516 

7,913 

8,494 

6,465 

66 

296 

1,378 

52 

96 

703 

543 

253 

21 



251,968 



98,434 



We sre not yet firee ftom the tendency to give the name aflylmn to institutions de- 
Iptd te the benefit of childien and yonth soffering from sadi defects as inability to 



CCVin REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

speak, or hear, or see, or from mental deficiency. When these institntions were first 
established they were looked npon as great charities, and the pnblic generaUy regarded 
them with more interest as means of relief than as schools for the training of yonng per- 
sons having deficiencies in mind or body. Since that period there has been great progress 
on the part of all communities among as in acknowledging that education for any youth 
who can be benefited by it is not a charity but a right, and that the state in providing 
institutions of this class is not bestowing a charity but discharging a duty, if such a dis- 
tinction may be made. On the other hand, the development of dependence in its various 
forms firom disease or feebleness of mind or body has necessitated better provision for 
those sufiering in this way; and it has been found alike humane and economical to bring 
such persons together in centres or retreats. These institutions, all will agree, may 
with propriety be called asylums, and those in them designated the asylum class, as it 
is termed in social science. But none need be told how widely all these establishments 
difTer from those intended for the instruction and training of the youth of any condition. 
A proper use of terms, then, would suggest the dropping of ^'asylum '' in connection 
with all schools for these several classes. Another reason for the disuse of this term is 
found in the fact that it suggests to many legislators the idea of making provision only 
for the shelter, food, and clothing of these youth, whereas they can accomplish their 
purpose only by just and proper provisions for carrying on the work of education. A 
carefVil survey of these institutions will disclose the fact that suffering for lack of pn^^wx 
text books, books of reference, maps, or other means of illustrations, or laboratories and 
workshops for industrial training, or persons of a sufficiently high order of qualification 
as teachers, arises in part at least because estimates of expense are made simply for the 
keeping of so many children. It should never betforgotten that education is the prime 
object in the establishment of these institutions. It may be that in some instances leg- 
islation to alter their designation will be advisable. 

TABLE Xym.— INSTITUTIONS FOB THB DEAF AND DUMB. 

Following is a summary of statisticB of institatlons for the deaf and dumb for the 
year 1881. 



Digitized by 



Google 



SCHOOLS FOR THE DEAF AND DUMB. CCIX 

Table XYIII. — Summary of stoHsHca of instUuHona for the deaf and dumb. 



and Tenitorias. 



Instructors. 



Number under instruo- 
tion during the year. 



I 

a 

I 



CkliCarnla. 
Coioado^ 



Xsrylukd 




Diniat o# Columbia .. 



8 
1 



6 

4 

612 

8 

17 

4 

8S 

18 

12 

7 

8 

8 

4 

616 

21 

18 

8 

4 

14 

7 

82 

9 

28 

2 

SO 

4 

5 

6 

6 

7 

6 

16 

12 

1 



o8 




60 

77 
116 



70 
688 

406 

198 

142 

189 

43 

26 

141 

180 

298 

184 

66 

291 

97 

1,845 

109 

660 

15 

664 

19 

88 

100 

89 

96 

78 

248 

114 

6 



145 
86 

a72 

224 

117 
74 
78 
28 
14 
81 
88 

162 
88 
28 

174 
60 

756 
58 

802 
8 

826 
U 
15 
60 
68 
54 
46 

141 

106 
4 



91 
34 

261 

181 
81 
68 
61 
20 
12 
60 
02 

181 
51 
28 

117 
87 

580 
51 



40 
86 
42 
82 
108 
11 
1 



190' 
160 
239 

5a 

2,842 

soo 

1,480 

1,895 

600 

240 

788 



29 
278 
400 
982 
258 
128 
829 
144 

4,147 
849 

1,962 
48 

2,177 
19 

6164 



168 
664 



Total 



57 481 



068 



M,740 



8,841 



2,861 21,601 



UnrimUngthe department foar the blind. 

cOae of theae r ep ree e nte the Ohicaiio Sjrvtem 
«C deaPmute sohools, to which belong, be- 
ildee the Deaf-Mjiite High School, four prl^ 



d Three are deaf-mntea. 

« A mute. 

/This includes the National Deaf-Mute College. 

yStx are deaf-mutes and l.mutew 

h Sex of 88 not reported. 



E— XIV 



Digitized by 



Google 



ccx 



EEPOET OP THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Tablb XVin. — Summary of statistics of instUutioHS for thedectfand dwnb — Continaed. 



Stetos ftnd TeirftoriM. 



1 

o 



libraries. 



Property, inoome, Ao. 



I 

5 



I 

k 

92 



Alabam* ^ 

Arkansas 

CAlifomla 

Colorado 

Ck>nnecticut „. 

Georeria 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana .~. 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts. 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri^ 

Nebraska 

New York 

North Carolina.^ 

Ohio„ 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania , 

Bhode Island , 

South Carolina , 

Tennessee , 

Texas... , 

Virginia. 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

District of Columbia . 
Dakota 



aSOO 
75 



olOO 



70 

2,200 

1,000 

5,801 

8,006 

482 

600 

800 

850 



50 
804 




100 



160,000 

80,000 
0825,000 

20,000 
266,000 

40,000 
800,000 
458,110 
200,000 

54,000 
200,000 

60,000 



a«15,000 
64,000 
040,000 
cl6,985 
88,949 
15,000 
100,000 
65,000 
67,280 
19,600 
28,008 



10 


8,006 










d4,489 



4,150 
1,156 
2,466 

860 

600 
1,000 

762 
5,511 

600 



220 



160 
187 




5,100 



80 



800 
108 
600 
591 
1,000 



81 



Total 246 



1,765 



880,000 
97,000 
407,600 
200,000 
100,000 
162,789 
61,000 
918,914 
075,000 
750,000 



4,000 
80,450 
11,888 
40,000 
24,000 

9,500 

45,000 

89,960 

391, 8U 



6001 
8,691 

600 







600,000 



84,454 
A 000 
164,800 



1,462 




085,000 

200,000 

90,000 

025^000 

o8(J,000 

124,000 

660,000 

4,000 



o7,800 
22,000 



7,018,818 



083,480 

o25,000 

80,000 

063,600 

2,000 







1,803 



1,809,795 



e Includes some appropriiUlons from oountie 

/For two years. 

g Congressional appropriation. 



a Including the department for the blind. 
6 For salaries, $125 per capita for support, 
e Total receipts from all sources. 
d From labor and interest on permanent fund. 

A few events of pnblic interest have occurred dming the past year among the schooL 
for the deaf and dumb. The legislature of Michigan has passed an act reorganmng iti 
State institution. The Pennsylvania institution has been named as the recipient of i 
generous legacy, in consequence of which it resolved to establish two additional schooLs 
one to be tatight by the oral and the other by the manual method. The oral school hsa 
been organized. A school for deaf-mutes, opened last year at Sioux Falls, Dak., has re 



INSTRUCTION OP DEAF-MUTES. CCXI 

cdrcd aid fiiom the city and fh)m the territorial legislatnie, such as to give it pTomise 
<if a permanent growth. The legislature of Georgia has appropriated $:d,500 for fitting 
up a department in the State institution for colored pnpils, and as much more for the 
expense of giving them instruction. It has also permitted the attendance of day 
acbolars. The Iowa institution has been given a printing office and has commenced the 
pabheatkm of a monthly paper. A gymnasium, 62 by 48 feet in area, has been com- 
pleied and equipped for the Columbia Institution at Washington, D. C. It contains a 
ivimming pool and bowling alley on the first floor and approved apparatus on the second 
floor. The Kentucky institution is erecting a chapel and a building for boys at an 
expense of over |40,000, a large part of which has been appropriated by the legislature. 

DAY SCHOOLS FOB DEAF-MUTES. 

There are in several cities schools for deaf-mutes under the control of the munidpal 
school autJioritiee. Among them are the Chicago day schools, the Portland (Me.) day 
•du)ol, the Hoxaoe Mann School at Boston, the St. Louis day school, and the Scranton 
(Tk.) deaf-mate school. The Chicago day schools are five in number and were main- 
tained during the year post at an expense of about |3,800, which was paid from a State 
Hipnipriation of $15,000 made for the purpose in 1879. The pupils nimibered 55. The 
•^qage attendance was nearly 81 per cent, of the enrolment, although many of thechil- 
^en lived At considerable distances from the schools. Instruction was given only in the 
aost elementary branches. The Portlxmd school is supported by the State, but appro- 
pciatiMtt to it have been too meagre to allow it to do the work it might. The Hor- 
ace Mann School for the Deaf was established in 1869 for the purpose of affording free 
iortmction to the deaf-mute children of Boston and yicinity in such a way that the 
apense to the State would be small and the opportunity be offered children of resid- 
ing at home daring the time of instruction. The school occupies a building containing 
d^ rlam rooms, a recei»taon room, and play room. ' *And in this cheerfril place, '' says 
3fiai M. O. Morrison, ''in an atmosphere of encouragement and affection, the children 
gladly 8tei7 doling five hours of the day, while the teachers, who are enthusiasts in their 
wk, pfttieaitly try to fit them to take their places more equally in the struggle of life." 
la tiie half year ending July 1, 1881, there were 74 beneficiaries. The sum expended 
&r them l^ the State was $3,524.10. Children not beneficiaries are received and pay a 
sun tqval to the average cost of tuition. It is designed that the school shall give an 
deovntaix Knglish education, first imparting to pupils the meaning and use of ordinary 
i^gaage. It ums to teach its pupils to apeak and to read the speech of others from 
ikttr lipa. One teacher is allowed for every ten scholars. The St. Louis school for deof- 
■otes w«s opened nearly three years ago. It has two teachers and between forty and 
ifky papils. The pupils are divided into four classes and pursue studies ranging from 
the meet elementary lessons to physical geography, written arithmetic, and Uaited States 
bistoiy. The principal of the school, Mr. D. A. Simpson, presents many ax^guments to 
pRPTe that it is best for deaf children to remain at iiome during theif school days, and 
■ Mw er s the objections to day schools as follows: 

The only strong point which opponents of day schools can advance is the difficulty of 
edMifteatkm of pupils and the U^ percentage of daily absence from school. To this it 
^mf be replied that some of the very important advantages which a day school has over 
> iNste institution more than compensate for this difficulty of classification, and, as to 
■Twi un from school, it is not at all true, as &r as the St Louis day school is concerned, 
tkat the percentage of daily absence is large. Here, with forty-one pupils enrolled, the 
noige daily absences do not often exceed four, less than one from ^ch class. 

similar to those in Chicago have been established in London, and placed by 
hotad under the supervision of Rev. William Stainer. In order to extend their 
have been opened near them for the accommodation of children living at 
An account of these homes says: 

, aided by benevolent friends, has opened at two or throe points near the 
' Christian homes," where tne children are brought toother and provided 

Wlo^noK frtxvn Mnn^laxr until FriHftv rp.t.timinff tO their homCS for Satur- 




CCXII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

ceived as young as four years of age. Their parents pay the cost of their food. Besides 
the weekly boarders, there are some children who, having no homes of their own, are 
placed in these establishments as permanent boarders by boards of guardians, the Royal 
Association in Aid of the Deaf and Dumb, and benevolent individuals. The advantage 
of the homes is not only that children living at a distance are brought near to the scliools, 
but also that out of school hours they are surrounded with educational and moral influ- 
ences, while still maintaining their flEunily relations and home ties by weekly visits. 

EAELY INSTRUCTION. 

The education of the deaf-mute child should be commenced in thie home at the earli- 
est practicable moment. He should be encouraged in all active exercises, since they 
occupy his mind and strengthen his body. He should be shown novel and interesting 
objects, that his powers of observation may be quickened and his mind furnished with 
material for thought The finger al phabet, simple writing and drawing, and the meaning 
of figures may be taught by parents or by older brothers or sisters. Above all, the moral 
education of the child should not be neglected, ashis fUture acquirements depend largely 
upon it. Much is said about the age at which children should be placed in institutions. 
The rules of the Michigan school fix nine years as the lowest age at which a child may 
ordinarily be admitted. Children six years old are found in the Clarke Institution at 
Northampton, Massachusetts. The pupils of the Horace Mann School must be over five 
years of age. As the deaf child has more than ordinary difficulties to overcome in ob- 
taining an education, there should be no obstacle placed in the way of his entrance upon 
school life at as early an age as may be deemed advisable, which will vary with the nat- 
ure of the school and the methods of instruction adopted. 

The order in which elementary instruction proceeds in the New York Institution has 
been given recraitly by its principal, Isaac L. Peet, ll. d., and it may be taken as anil- 
lustration of the studies by which pupils become prepared for higher work. The first 
step is to enable the pupil to associate an object directly with its name. Objects whose 
names contain many different letters of the alphabet are presented to the eye afi soon aa 
possible. The second st^ is to analyze the words and to teach the pupil to make the 
letter of the manual alphabet which corresponds to each letter in the word. The third 
step is for the pupil to learn to write the words. After this comes the introduction oi 
sentences which signiQr that one thing is asserted of another. The different tenses ol 
the verb, personal and demonstrative pronouns, and other modifications of words arc 
gradually introduced. The intermediary used is the manual alphabet, but semi-mutes 
are allowed none, vocalization being required of them. Gestures and natural signs arc 
introduced later, and by their use lectures on morals, government, science, history, &c., 
are given. 

Kindergarten principles have been recognized in the instrucUcm of the deaf. It wai 
thought by some that the usefulness of the system would be seriously Impaired by th< 
omission of the musical part of the exercises; but the success attendant upon its adop 
tion has been encouraging. 

Mr. Z. F. Westervelt, principal of the Western New York institution, says: 

In our Kindergfkrten we receive all children under twelve, those who enter at six hav 
ing six years' instruction in this department. They are constantly under supervision, 
and the manner of instruction is designed to be such as to make sdl the incidents and 
affiuLrs of daily life educative and to lead the child to learn by observing. This chiSi 
contains forty pupils, who, in two divisions, are under the care of two teachers during 
the school hours and attended by two nurses while out of school. The little ones sponc 
as much time as possible in out-door games and walks, and when in the house are occu 
pied with games arranged by their teachers for their amusement and instruction. Wc 
had found it difficult among the games and occupations of the German Kindergarten *J 
find those which could be adoptS in the instruction of our children; but in trying t< 
discover the principles underlying the natural development of the child's mind — th< 
principles upon which Frobel's system is based — we have been interested and encour 
aged in working out a plan of our own. 

Kitchen garden lessons have been given to the pupils of the Horace Mann School, a1 
Boston. The report for 1881 says; igi i^ed by ^OOgl^ 

In the early part of the school year, the committee in charge received and accepted t 



INSTRUCTION OF DEAF-MDTES. CCXIII 

f tt^josal for a course of kitchen garden lessons, including the loan of necessary appora- 
tos. and the Tesnlts are highly satisfactory. This instruction was provided hy a benevo- 
IcDt lady (Mis. Augustus Hemmenway), who had established similar dafises in different 
pvtB of the city. Once a week a class of twenty-four girls was taught by an experienced 
socfaer. The opportunity to have the apparatus at the school was of great value to the 
duMien, who were thus made &miliar with the names of household implements and 
with the langoage associated with their use. As little girls often learn thoroughly the 
TirietiM of common sewing by dressing their dolls, so they can learn household avoca- 
vsma by handling miniature utensils and articles under skiliU direction, and can thus 
acquire early neat and careful ways of doing housework. These twenty-four girls will 
aerer forget the instruction received to lay tables in the proper way^ to sweg[> and dust 
rooms, to make beds, and to wash clothes. Their progress in learmng the language of 
home life was Tery marked and was one of the most important results of this course of 
otjcet lesBona. 

SPECIAL INSTBUCnON. 

Oookery has been considered by the officers of several schools a suitable subject of 
study for deaf-mute girls, as preparing them for home life or training them for an 
boDocable ^nployment. A course of lessons has been given recently at the North Caro- 
liitt Institution by Mrs. Helen Campbell to a class of ten girls. Some of these had 
oome fiom homes where cooking utensils were few and the variety of table dishes ez- 
tieoidy limited. To them the articles to be cooked and the appointments of the room 
la which the lessons were given were mysteries. The instruction covered only a small 
Sdd and was of the simplest kind. Breadmaklng in all its forms and the best cooking 
of mealB and ordinary vegotables made up the greater -paxt of the work. At the end 
of a tinee montibs' course the class prepared an excellent supper for the trustees, which 
nmed to convince the most skeptical of the value of the instruction given. 

The intxodnction of instruction in manual occupations into schools for deaf-mutes is 
adTocated by those interested in their education. Four reasons for doing this are given 
hf Hoo. Samnel Ayres, president of the board of commissioners in charge of the Een- 
tuky Institntion for the Deaf and Bumb, as follovre : 

(1) The scho<d term of those who attend closes usually at an age when they are meig- 
iag into manhood and womanhood and should b^gin to be self dependent. (2) There 
Be two or three hours a day, after arranging for study and recreation, that would be 
ipent in idleness, and hence unprofitably and hurtftdly, xmless labor of some kind were 
prended. (3) The regular and systematic exercise so provided, while inculcating indus- 
tzsona habits, is promotive of health. (4) Mutes find it well nigh impossible to get 
pbees for learning trades when equally intelligent speaking youths are their competi- 
tms; and even if they could secure such places they would scarcely get the care neces- 
urj for their prroper instruction from those who found it difficult to communicate with 
^tok and point out defects in their work. 

An idea of the shops which some schools have and of the uses to which they ore put 
aay be obtained by the following statement about those connected with the West Vir- 
poia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind. Mr. Covell, the principal, says: 
TUs department embraces six shops, in which are taught the following branches of 
hiDdirralt, viz, carpentry and cabinet work, shoemaking, tailoring, broom and mattress 
aakmg, chair caning, and printing. To these we may add the girls' sewing room, in 
vtidk all of the articles of their clothing are made besides the underwear of the boys. 
Then shops are now on a substantial footing and are in the hands of skilf\il, industri- 
om^ and intelligent foremen. The shop hours are from 2 to 5 p. M. for the boys and 
tai 2 to 4 P. H. for the girls. The carpenter and cabinet shop answers all the de- 
ands upon it for necessary repairs to the buildings, fences, school and other fhmiture, 
Wdes supplying new tables, desks, &c, for the study rooms, school rooms, and shops, 
thidioe shop furnishes the pupils with good and substantial shoes and fills orders from 
fte town and county for every style of work. The tailor shop supplies all the boys with 
4it m two uniform suits each session, of a good article of cadet gray, and, so far as time 
^aOoWy fills orders from parties outside of the institution. The mattress, broom, and 
' ofis are reserved for the special benefit of the blind boys. ***** In the 
j office five or six of our brightest deaf-mute boys find full employment as print- 
compositors in general job work or on the columns of their weekly paper, the 
The returns from the finished work sold by the shops rather more than cover 
^«nSiir ftv material purchased for them, but not to such an extent as to, nay, more 
n per cent of the wages of the foreman. '9' '^"^ byTl^iOi^giC 



CCXIV REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

The Nebraska Institute reports its workshop completed, its printing office in operation, 
and a carpenter shop doing work enough to be self supporting. Baking and confec- 
tionery have been added to the trades taught in the Illinois institution. The business 
has been followed successftdly by several pupils, and commends itself as being not only a 
good one on general principles, but also an enterprise whose products may be daily used 
in the establishment with which it is connected. Printing is one of the best trades, and 
almost the only one available in schools attended by quite young children. This trade, 
shoemaking, and carpenter and cabinet work are those most commonly taught. The 
report of the New York Institution gives the value of the production of its shops as fol- 
lows: Carpenter shop, |3,479; shoe shop, (3,110; tailor shop, $2,684; printing office, 
$2,312; &rm and garden, $4,374. The contract system has been adopted in Indiana and 
is approved by the superintendent of the school. Usually the shops are in charge of 
hired mechanics, who combme teaching and labor. The pupils go out fix>m them quali- 
fied to fill places in shops and factories. Six former pupils of the American Asylum at 
Hartford, Conn., who are employed by a dock company, are reported '*ftilly up to the 
average of our employ^'' and *^ generally very quick to apprehend any sign in reference 
to form or finish of work.'' Four employed by a fiirm manufacturing tables and desks 
'* are industrious, quick to learn, and capable workmen.'' Two young men, weavers, 
and a girl are in a woolen &ctory. The young men do work which falls short, not in 
quality but in quantity slightly; the girl is up to the average in every respect. 

NATIONAL DEAF-MUTE OOLLEGB. 

The education of deaf-mutes is carried to its highest point in this country by the 
National Deaf-Mute Collie, at Washington, D. C, which was organized as an advanced 
department of the Columbia Institution for the instruction of the deaf and dumb 
children of persons living in the District of Columbia or belonging to the Army or Navy. 
The college has received generous attention from Congress and has been so provided for 
and conducted that youth fh)m all sections of the country can pursue collegiate studies 
under the instruction of able professors at a small expense. The number of graduates 
exceeds fifty, and several times as many have attended upon a part of the course. Ex- 
cellent work in many varied dex>artments of labor is being done by many of the former 
students. The college course now includes one preparatory and four undergraduate 
years. The studies of the preparatory year are algebra, grammar, English history, and 
Latin; of freshman year, algebra, geometry, Latin (Sallust and Cicero), Greek (optional), 
and general history; of sophomore year, trigonometry, surveying, analytical geometry, 
zoology, botany, chemistry, Latin (Virgil), Greek (Iliad, optional), literature; of junior 
year, calculus, mechanics, physics, astronomy, chemistry (qualitative analysis), physiol- 
ogy and hygiene, French, Greek (Demosthenes, optional), history of civilization, com- 
position, logic; and of senior year, literature, German, geology and mineralogy, mental 
and moral science, sesthetics, political economy, and international law. 

The late President G^arfield, a short time before his assassination, paid an eloquent 
tribute to the work of educating deaf-mutes. It was graduation day at the National 
Deaf-Mute College, and, as is the custom, the young men who had completed their course 
had been presented to him by the president of the college. To the address of presenta- 
tion President Garfield replied: 

I understand, sir, that you are "presenting" these young men to the country. Not 
long ago they were hardly a force or a power to their country. What your institution 
has done for them has made each of them a great power; and that increased power you 
to-day give to the country. Therein is the secret and beneficence of education. 

It was supposed to be a wise saying that one who could make two blades of grass grow 
where only one was growing before was a bene&ctor. The man or institution that can 
multiply the power of a boy by three, four, five, ten, or, as you are doing, perhaps a 
hundred, is doing a vastly higher thing than the increase of blades of grass; and this in- 
stitution, which takes a dassof the community that the common law, before it had been 
warmed by the sweet charities of modem life, did not regard as citizens — for I believe 
that by the common law a deaf-mute was not considered a responsible person — I say this 
kind of educational work may almost be said to take these unfortunate people and create 
them into the full image of high, broad, and responsible citizenship. Therefore you do. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



SCHOOLS FOR THE BLIND. 



CCXV 



Ml President, present these yonng gentlemen to the country in a mnch wider sense than 
eoOeses nsoall j present their graduating class. 

I would like to say another thing: That daring these many years of public service I 
haTe loved to look upon this as a neutral ground, where, from all our political bickerings 
and dLSerenoes, we oome under the white flag of truce that should be raised over every 
idMKd-hoiise and college in the land. I am glad to say that, in spite of all the differ- 
enees of party opinion, we have worked together in trying to make this institution worthy 
of oar cs^ittal and our people. I am glad to believe that this progress will be unimpeded 
bj any cfaangea that may happen at the capital and unchanged by any vicissitudes that 
may happen to the country. 

Tabu XIX,—aimmary of staHsties of schools for the blind. 



PjtjpcHj't income, 




wiOl 



fer Hm ile«f and 






on}y« 




ffVnlue of fUmituire* 

f TetDpoKtrlly dosed, 

/ Incl urle« personal prdpeity, fiind^, stid f n^ 

viesitmetitit. 
i Includes oni^ quATter omitted in nlbrm*? 

reports 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



CCXVI REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

Several institutions for the blind have recently lost by death warm Mends and sap- 
porters. The Tennessee school has been deprived of a favorite tmstee, Samuel Wattdns, 
esq., and the Greorgia academy of Dr. James Mercer Green, the president of its board of 
tmstees since its organization in 1852. Among the items of brighter interest to the 
Mends of education for the blind may be mentioned a suooessful series of concerts given 
by members of the Maryland Institution for the Instruction of the Blind, the raising of 
some $37,000 toward providing a generous library for the blind in connection with the 
Perkins Institution at Boston, the appropriation of $10,000 by the legislature of Georgia 
for the establishment of a department for colored persons in its Academy for the Blind, 
and the authorization by the New York legislature of the appointment of a committee 
to select a site and report plans for the organization of a *' State Home for the Blind." 

BSTABLISHMSNT OF SCHOOLS FOS THE BLIND. 

The annual report for 1881 of the Perkins Institution and Massachusetts School for 
the Blind gives an interesting account of the early history of schools for the blind, Mr. 
M. Anagnos, the director, says that the first attempts to educate the blind in America 
were made at Boston under the influence of Dr. John D. Fisher. At a meeting of 
those interested in the subject, held in February, 1829, this gentleman gave a detailed 
account of the processes employed in European schools to communicate knowledge to 
the blind, described the mannfiicturing processes by which they obtained a livelihood 
and exhibited specimens of books for their use. A committee was then ajypointed, and 
through its efforts ''The New England Asylum for the Blind'' was soon after incorpo- 
rated. Two years later Dr. Samuel G. Howe was engaged as superintendent and sent to 
Europe to study institutions, to procure teachers, and to obtain the necessary ai>parata8 
for the instruction of the blind. Dr. Howe returned the next year and opened a school 
in his Other's house, which soon gained a firm hold upon the public Col. Thomas H. 
Perkins gave his mansion house, valued at $25,000, to the enterprise on condition that 
$50,000 be raised otherwise. This was done within a month. Neighboring States, as 
well as Massachusetts, made appropriations for the education of their blind in the school, 
and it was installed in a new home under the most propitious drcumstanoes in Septem- 
ber, 1833. In 1839 it was removed to better quarters in a more healthful location at 
South Boston. 

Literary, musical, and industrial instruction was provided for in the plan of theschooL 
In 1840 a department for the employment of pupils who had learned to work but had 
failed to find opportunitiee was opened. The making, cleansing, and renovating of beds, 
the man ufacture of mats and brooms, and cane seating chairs were the occupations chosen. 
In 1850, a new workshop having been erected, the adult blind were removed M>m the 
main building, which had become crowded, and scattered about the neighborhood, board- 
ing in different fiunilies and going to the shop daily like ordinary workmen. They vrere 
paid monthly wages, usually sufficient for their support Some years later it was at- 
tempted to give aid to blind women similar to that which had been extended to blind 
men. A laundry was opened, but it was abandonedafter a trial of five years as imprac- 
ticable. 

The establishment of a school in Boston and the influence of its Mends hastened the 
formation of similar establishments in many places in various parts of the country. The 
New York institution for the blind was incorx>orated in 1831. It was opened the next 
luring. Until 1845 its prosperity was not marked, but became so in that year through 
the appointment of a peculiarly able superintendent, Mr. James F. Chamberlain. Phila- 
delphia was not Cbh behind New York in opening a school for the blind. It was organized 
with great core by Mr. Julius B. Friedlander, who, in his German home, conceived the 
idea of founding such a school in Philadelphia, since he had heard high tribute paid to its 
dtazens. After the opening of his school he gave exhibitions of the attainments of his 
pupils before the legislatures of Pennsylvania, New Jersey^i^fjid ^^i^^im^d obtained 



INSTRUCTION OF THE BLIND. CCXVII 

fitom them appTOpriatioiis for the support of benefidarieB. The exhibition of pnpils 
aoema to have had a convincing effect upon legLsIatares and to have been the snccessM 
netbod of inducing them to establish schools. Dr. Howe took pupils before the Ohio 
legx^atnre in 1836, and an institution was incorporated the next spring. He made a 
BBflar exhibition in Richmond, Ya., in January, 1838, and an institution for the in- 
stmetioo of deaf-mutes and blind was incorporated in March. The organization of 
sehools in Kentucky and South Carolina was effected after like efforts on the part of Dr. 
Hove. At the time of his death in 1876, 27 States had org^mized schools fbr the blind 
aad others were sending their blind children to existing institutions, thus furnishing 
fdnrational privileges to this class of unfortunates. 

PRINTING FOB THE BLIND. 

The moat important recent event in the history of these establishments is the gift of 
Ooogmms by reason of which they receive an annual allowance of books and apparatus. 
Hie value of the grants for 1881 to the various schools varied from $66.82 to those in 
Alahnma and Oregon to $1,033.41 to the New York Institution, or about $4.45 to each 
pupil attending on the first Monday of January, 1880. The books recommended for 
publication in 1882 are Irving's Sketch Book; Hawthorne's True Stories; About Old 
Stocy Tellers, by Donald G. Mitchell; Goldsmith's Deserted Village and She Stoops to 
Conquer; Thackeray's English Humorists; chapters from a World of Wonders; Short 
Skeldies firom English History; Swiss Family Bobinson; Principles of Harmony, by Sir 
Wm. Gore Ooaeley; Our World, a primary geography, by Mias Hall; Perry's Introduc- 
Ufic to Political Economy; and Hay den's Mental Philosophy. The work of the Ameri- 
ca Printing House at LouisvUle, which received the congressional endowment, has in- 
CEcased so that it requires a building for its separate use. The Kentucky institution, 
vith winch it has been connected for more than twenty years, wishes to retain it on the 
grounds of the institution. The intention to conform to this desire is expressed in the 
annnal report for 1881 of the PrintiDg House, as follows: 

'' To emphasize the &ct that an establishment for printing books for the blind under the 
eoatiol of all those engaged in the work of teaching the blind throughout the United 
States was first founded and maintained for many years by the beneficent action of the 
State of Kentucky, and that it was finally endowed by the General Government in order 
tiiat the great benefits coming fix>m it to the blind of Kentucky might be extended to 
the htind of all the States in the Union, it has seemed to the trustees of the American 
Printing House for the Blind desirable to erect a building adequate in every way to their 
porposee, and to cost not lees than $10,000, in the vicinity of the State School for the 
BhiML" 

I have received recently a letter from Dr. William Moon, of Brighton, England, who 
has become known in this country through his connection with printing for the home use 
if the blind, announcing his mtention of visiting this country. In it he gives an ao- 
coont of the reasons why he undertook the work of preparing an alphabet for the blind, 
the principles on which it is founded, and the service it has already rendered. The fol- 
lowing is an extract from his letter: 

" Forty-two years of my life have been devoted to the advancement of education among 
the blind. The cause of my attention to this object was my own loss of sight. As soon 
■ I became blind, I learned to read by the various systems of embossed type then in use. 
UpQD inqniiy I found that few of the adult blind, accustomed to work, could avail them- 
iriva of the benefits that several philanthropic and benevolent minds had provided for 
IWr nae. The Roman letters were too complicated, many of them, in consequence of 
fte mmeitms lines rendering the characters too intricate for the touch of the adult 

•*11ie stcoographic systems were equally difficult, owing to the numerous contractions, 
■li fteqnently the same contractions stood for several words; so that the reader often 
lilancli difiicnlty in ascertaining which of the words or syllables should be used. 



CCXVIII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

'^ After mnch prayer and thonght upon the subject, I was led to adopt an alphabet, 
which, as far as possible, was the Roman letters simplified; bnt where this conld not be 
done I removed the letter altogether and substituted a more simple character in its stead. 
When the letters of the alphabet were daasified, I found that they consisted of 9 char- 
acters only. Books were then printed, and the success of the system was truly marvel- 
lous. I have since adapted the alphabet to 195 languages and dialects. The alphabet is 
doubtless of universal application, since it has answered equally well for all the varions 
languages and dialects to which it has been applied. 

' ^ Sixty societies have been formed in Great Britain for sending teachers to the homes of 
the blind and for establishing free lending libraries for their use. Societies and libra- 
ries of this description have been formed in Australia and other countries, and not less 
than 200,000 volumes of our books are thus annually circulated among the blind poor 
free of cost, one of the greatest boons possibly the blind poor ever enjoyed. It is to set 
A scheme of this description on foot in the United States and Canada that I hope to visit 
America in the spring of next year.'' 

INSTEUCnON OP THE BUND. 

Though the schools for the blind usually afiford instruction in studies commonly fonnd 
in the primary and grammar grades of public schools, the College for the BHnd, at Vin- 
ton, Iowa, has a ' * senior department, ' ' in which there is a three years' couise of advanced 
studies. The branches pursued during the first year are algebra, rhetoric, physiology, 
and zoology; during the second year, algebra, chemistry, moral philosophy, civil gov- 
ernment, and American literature; and during the third year, geology, geometry, logic, 
mental philosophy, and English literature. The last report of the college gave the ntun- 
ber of students in the senior department as 16. The labors of such men as Huber, the 
Swiss naturalist; Thierry, the French historian; and our own Preseott, performed during 
the period of their blindness, prove the possibilities of achieving much in science and lit- 
erature vrithout sight. But it requires teachers of peculiar power and skill to direct 
those who have always been blind, or who have become so while very young, in gaining 
a higher education. A recent report says: 

' * The qualifications of a true instructor of the blind are not as often possessed as many 
unacquainted with the work assume. Such an instructor must be one who can clearly 
discern and rightly estimate capacity and tone, who can enter the inner self of the 
learner, can feel his struggles, and help him to grapple with lus difficulties. He mnst 
hold a profound reverence for humanity, an unswerving fiuth in the elevation of the 
lowUest, must see in blind boys and girls the divine image, though obscured by igno- 
rance, helplessness, and awkwardness, and must be inspired by the firm conviction that 
they too can be raised to usefrilness and can make good their heirship to the grand pos- 
sibilities of the everlasting. ' ' 

The quality of the instruction afforded by our institutions for the blind has been fre- 
quently commended. The methods of teaching and government which have endured the 
tests of the ordinary public school have been adopted and modified to suit the peculiar 
necessities of the blind. Occupations which promise means of support to their pupils 
have been tried and carefhl instruction given in those that have met the demand for a 
suitable and remunerative employment Departments of music ^old a prominent place 
in leading schools, and pupils who have that talent for music with which the sightless are 
often endowed are made skilful teachers and tuners. 

The peculiarity and success of our schools as a body are stated with deamess and can- 
dor by Mr. M. Anagnos, as follows: 

"The most valuable distinctive feature of the American institutions is that they con- 
stitute an integral part of the educational system of the country. Their existence is 
planted in the letter and nourished by the liberal spirit of its fundamental laws. They 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



SCHOOLS FOB THE FEEBLE-MINDED. 



CCXIX 

•4 



•ze the ereatioDs of jiistice and equity, atiid not the of&pring of charity and &Yor. Thns 
Ae light of the blind to participate in all the educational benefits provided for every 
dM in the Commonwealth is acknowledged by the State in its sovereign capacity; and 
BDce they cannot be taught in the common schools an express provision is made for their 
instnction. This policy has acted very &vorably apon the blind. It has strengthened 
their good impulses and fostered in them an upward tendency and noble determination 
to become useftil and independent. It has inspired them with self respect and made 
tiMm mm at a higher place in the social scale than they would otherwise have sought. " 



Table XX. — Summary ofstaHsHcs of achooU for feeble-minded you^. 



Name. 



n 



Number of iunates. 



t 



OoimeeUeat School for ImbeoQee^. 
nUnoifl Asylmn for Feeble-Minded 

Children. 
Indlaiia Asylum for Feeble-Mhided 

Chfldren. 
lowft Slate Asylum for Feeble- 

lOnded Children. 
Eeataoky InstitntioQ for the Edu- 

estion and Trainlnfir of Feeble- 
Minded Cliildren. 
Ptirale Institution for the Educa- 
tion of Feeble-Minded Touth, 

Barre.lfan. . 
HlUride School for Backward and 

Feeble Children, FayviUe, Bfaas. 
Ms— chnortte School for Idiotic 

end Feeble-Minded Youth. 
Minnesota School for Idiots and 

Imbeciles. 
Kew York State Idiot Asylum 

(custodial branch). 

Uiol Asylum, BandalVs Island. 

New York Asylum for Idiots 

Ohio Institution for the Education 

of ImbeoUe Youth. 
Pennsyhrania Traininfif School fbr 

Feeble-Minded Children. 



9 
28 

8 

14 

2 
54 
114 

78 



47 
218 

SO 

• 96 

71 

4« 

6 
79 



81 
IM 

27 

82 

fil 



2 

SI 
18 
128 



848 
219 



218 
186 



78 
874 

77 

160 

182 

74 

8 

180 

38 

128 

81 
289 
S66 

8S5 



404 



10 
S8 

140 

15 



960,000 

alO,000 

24,000 



960,000 
12,817 
24,000 
82,729 

36^000 



26,885 
7,600 
15,000 



25,395 



13,240 



750 
201 



458 



55,696 
92,945 

88,500 



53,306 
92,945 

88,862 



Total. 



490 



1,207 



918 



62,490 



2,082 



412,296 



438,783 



a For two years. 



b Sex of 370 not reported. 



The number of feeble-minded persons is such as to invite general attention to their 
nnto. The insane are hardly more numerous — in some countries less numerous — and 
tktr number is more easily ascertained. Insanity is an afiliction that falls upon 
Twihaiid adults. Idiocy is found more often in children, whose infirmity may remain 
QdiKovered for several years or end in an early death caused by the invariably attend- 
■tfhyBical weakness. The difficulties of correctly ascertaining the number of feeble- 
Digitized by ^OOQIC 



CCXX BEPOET OP THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

minded are increased by the reluctance of Mends and relatives to admit the troth with 
regard to those actoollj deficient and the impossibilify of determining whether certsdn 
children are or are not feeble-minded. Notwithstanding these obstacles, the census 
enumerators of 1880 reported 76,895 idiots and 91,997 insane in this countiy. Of the 
insane, 40,942 were in hospitals and asylums; of the idiotic, 2,490 only were in institutions 
for their education and 1, 141 in hospitals and asylums for the insane. The expenditures 
of nearly all the schools are reported, and they amount to about one-half only of the 
expenditures of the lunatic asylums of New York. Massachusetts expends over twenty 
dollars for the insane to one for the feeble-minded. Nearly 40,000 idiots are in States 
which provide no schools for them. This is to be deplored, when it is remembered that a 
small sum paid for the education of the feeble-minded will enable a huige pioportion of 
them to rise from entire dependence to useftilness, if not to self support 

CLASSIFICATION AND INSTEUCHON OP THE FEEBLE-MINDED. 

The object of the nu^ority of the schools for the feeble-minded is to educate such of 
the idiotic class as are capable of improvement. There are many degrees in mental 
deficiency. The commission of medical examiners of the hospitals for the insane of Min- 
nesota says: 

'* It is customaiy to divide these children, defective in brain power, into three grades : 
idiots, imbeciles, and feeble-minded. Happily the proportion of the profound type of 
idiocy is small ; it is comparatively rare to find a human being absolutely without a ^ark 
of intelligence. More frequently they are .found to possess the undevelf^ed germs of 
intellect and are capable of some improvement. In a large number known as imbecUes 
the mental fiumlties have been developed to a limited extent, and somewhat higher in 
the scale of intellectual endowment we find the most numerous class, known as weak- 
minded. '^ 

The lowest class of idiots are beyond the reach of educational influences. If they are 
allowed to attend the schools for the feeble-minded they impede the strengthening and 
training of those that are improvable and bring the schools an unenviable reputation 
among those who know of them only as a refrige for idiots. The admission of a single 
individual of that class has been followed by applications from the lowest unfortunates 
of the surrounding community and an entire absence of applications from the better 
class. It is necessary for the State to care for even the most hopeless. Pennsylvania 
has acted upon this principle by appropriating $60,000 for the erection of two buildings 
for the shelter and care of two hundred children whose special infirmities, mental and 
physical, are such as to deprive them of the discipline and training of the school 
department of its training school. The directors of the Minnesota £xi>erimental School 
express a desire that it may be merged in a permanent institution ^* comprising both an 
educational department for imbedles and a custodial department for idiots. ' ' The trust- 
ees of the Indiana Asylum and the superintendent of the niinois Asylum express simi- 
lar ideas. The latter, Dr. C. T. Wilbur, says : 

^*For such as these (the absolutely dependent) a place of custody in which there is a 
system in management and the proper appliances and conveniences for easily caring for 
them afibrds a relief from positive misery and suffering, a degree of comfort, and, at the 
same time, some improvement in the habits which is not alone of service to the indi- 
vidual and a great relief to the average family of the community, or even those in chai^ 
of the county asylum, but is a positive gain to the productive power of the State." 

The feeble-minded that are recognized as proper inmates of training schools are divided 
into classes for educational purposes. In Illinois there are ten divisions. In all, except 
the highest three, individual instruction only is given. The studies of the advanced 
classes include reading, writing, spelling, and the elements of arithmetic and geography. 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 



SCHOOLS FOB THE FEEBLE-MINDED. CCXXI 

Tbe membeis of the lower daases are tanglit to obey plain commands and are given 
simple object lessons. The exercises which combine intellectnal effort and physical 
ictivitj are being introduced wherever practicable. . Larger grounds are desired, that 
tbe diildren may not only be removed from carious observers and given greater liberties, 
but also be given labor to perform, to the advantage of themselves and the institution, 
lostzncdon in fium work is now considered a part of the training which should be given. 
It engages the powers of the infirm children in open-air work which involves small haz- 
ards if mistakes are nuule. Their industrial and productive capacity is of decided value 
when applied to agricultural operations. It has been thought that boys trained to &rm 
wot^ have made the greatest improvement during school life and have been the most 
serrioeable in succeeding yeara. The pursuit of this industry is comparatively fiee from 
Ustaf^atioDs and degrading influences and affords a pleasing variety of exercise and sur- 
nwmdingH Other kinds of employment are given feeble-minded children. The report 
for 1880 of the Pennsylvania board of public charities gives the following account of the 
industrial side of the training school : 

Tbe industrial, or manual, department embraces 86 of the inmates. These are vari- 
ously distributed. There are a farm and garden class of ten boys, a laundry class often 
gills and six boys, fifteen are engaged in domestic services in the kitchens and dormi- 
tories, one in the carpenter shop, tluee in the shoe shop, eight or ten in the mattress or 
bcoom shop. By the utilization of the labor of the many who are able to do light work, 
the expense of their maintenance is much reduced, while the value of manual occupation, 
in the development of intelligence, is conceded to be paramount to all other influences. 

Hie improvement of pupils in these schools is often rapid. The hindrance to their 
p rogreas is sometimes such that a skilftQ person can detect and remove it, leaving an 
■Dobetmcted path before them. The president of the board of commissioners having 
diarge of tbe Kentucky Institution for Feeble-Minded Children says that the conduct of 
the institution has been such as to demonstrate ** conclusively that foeble-minded chil- 
dren, by proper training, can not only be improved mentsdly, but that the boys can be 
taof^tiisefQl and profltable trades and the girls can be made good seamstresses, washer- 
and cooks, thereby making them usefhl members of society and raising them 
poattaons of degradation, care, and mortiflcation to their friends to be reepectable 

0AU8S8 OF IDIOOy. 

Tlie investigations of Dr. I. N. Eerlin into the causes of idUx^, referred to in my last 
report, are being continued. Dr. George G. Tarbell, of the Hassachusetts school, is mak- 
ing stmalar inquiries. The results of his investigations respecting 120 children are stated 
■B&dlows: 

It appears that about one-half of the parents are Americans and the other half foreign; 
that in 40 per cent, of the flunilies the parents were of feeble oonstitution and short 
lived; that the parents of at least 14 per cent, of the children might themselves be 
pnqwrly classed among the feeble-minded; that one or both parents of 33 per cent, of 
the children are addicted to drink, and yet that in no case is intemperance admitted by 
the parents to be a cause of the defective condition of the child; and that, while in no 
case 19 their admission that a living parent is defective, in 20 per cent, or the families 
there is a history of insanity or i^o<7 or some serious defect in a near relative. In 36 
per cent, of the children belonging to the school, fright, grief, or anxiety of the mothers 
while poignant is assigned as a cause for the lamentable condition of the child. 

The special agent of the census. Rev. Fred. H. Wines, who had charge of the statis- 
taa of the defective classes, says: ' ' We cannot begin too soon nor prosecute too vigorously 
the inquiry into the causes of the prevalence of these evils ; " and the superintendent of 
the Pennsylvania Training School for Feeble-Minded Children thinks that *' it would be 
t ^ate economy to attach to all appropriations for charitable purposes an enabling 
i that institutions disbursing this charity should contribute to the Commonwealth, 
jmm precise form as possible, statistics of the origin of the evils they afi*ect to relieve." 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 



CCXXn BEPOBT OF THE COMMISSIONEB OF EDUCATION. 

Table XXl.-^Stmmary of statistics of reform schools. 



States. 



Number of 

teachers, 

officers, and 

assistants. 



k 
I' 



Present ininateA. 



Sex. 






5 



California 

Colorado 

ConnectiouC. 
Illinois „ 

Indiana 

Iowa 



Kentucky 

Louisiana ».. 

Maine 

Maryland 

Maasaohusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Missouri 

New Hampshire.. 

New Jersey 

New York 

Ohio 



Pennsylvania 

Bhode Island 

Vermont „.... 

Wisconsin 

District of Columbia.. 



Total.. 



(12) 



9 
85 

ao 

88 
2 

14 
6 

21 
109 



190 
46 
209 
141 

209 

00 
49 



166 
97 
224 

80 

1 
68 



8 

47 

82 

22 

4 

7 

7 

29 

167 



(82) 
89 
41 

6 

7 
89 



{" 



84 

846 

680 

1,068 

48 

167 

80 

196 

2,762 

^ 687 

496 

168 

20 

169 



41 

266 

600 

1,010 

40 

184 

86 

227 

2,687 



665 
145 



194 



119 
45 
807 
848 

856 

206 
49 
226 
102 
118 
448 
948 

1,197 
109 
187 
100 
442 

8,968 

1,245 



168 



456 

188 



65 

1 
174 
801 

176 
66 



olA 



a4 



41 



258 
104 
87 
10 
72 
16 
45 
1,616 

861 

178 
21 
19 

106 



6154 
6220 

6441 

240 

81 

178 

48 

110 

496 

560B 

010 

6106 

207 

115 

6289 

64,864 

6888 



175 
101 
558 



620 
619 

668 

80 

18 

89 

69 

8 

203 

615 

824 

68 

52 



644 

6185 

608 



14 

1 



(44) 
689 581 



h7,W7 



7,062 



11,961 



8,666 



611,445 



61,420 



a Of those oommitted during the year. 



6 This distinotlon not reported In all 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



BEFOBM SCHOOLS. CCXXm 

Table XXL — Smnmarif ofstatisHca of reform achoofs — Ck>ntiiiaed. 



Praeent inmates. 



Nativity. 



I 



3^ S 



Libraries. 



if 






s§ 



a 



i 

a 
a 
< 



V 



Cklifomm. 
Colonulo.. 



al61 



a29 



minols^ 
IadiaB«. 



6ie7 

6490 
180 



w 

682 
614 
90 



8,121 
40 
8,600 
2,795 
2, MO 
MS 



400 



$44,900 



2,900 

1,078 

600 

660 



120 
840 
115 
40 



47,018 
062,072 
09,491 
82,000 



$3,600 

d21,861 

8,455 



Kcotvekr.. 



264 
101 



1,412 



600 



100 



29,068 



6,271 



Maine. 



Kaiyland.. 



6491 
6752 
6100 



614 

6112 

6331 

69 



Xcw Hampsblre.. 

5«w Jersey 

5«w Toric .....-«... 



688 

620 

61,896 

6147 

6761 

148 

102 

606 



675 

66 

6480 

628 

681 

46 



58 



Datrict of Oolnmbia... 



1,687 

5,068 

11,680 

5,363 

460 

4,478 

1,087 

1,475 

72,805 

10,567 

17,201 

3,125 

681 

2,195 

718 



1,600 

1,400 

6,014 

8,275 

900 

500 

880 

1,060 

8,449 

4,874 

80,828 

1,800 

400 

975 



50 
638 
225 

80 

100 



14,600 
94,856 
148,796 
104,216 
87,679 



5,400 
80,754 
16,662 
28,498 



415 
415 

80 
146 

60 
100 



17,000 
45,110 
844,108 
182,607 
U0,722 
82,948 
18,888 
49,786 
37,922 



7,476 

5,000 

14,068 

dl61,268 

7,000 

19,457 

11,868 

4,804 

700 

954 



Tbtal.. 



66,568 



61, 



^ 



153,163 



69,178 



2,964 



2,012,100 



853,441 



a Of those oommitted during the year. 

6 TldB dSstinotion not reported in all oases. 

€ In ooe institutio n the expenditures for two years and some expenditures for bnildinfl: are in- 



d Inci o des total income of one institution. 

The severe criticism of refonii schools, the tours of inspection made by committees in 
hdnlf of refonnatoiy education, and the opening of several new schools are prominent 
events of the current year. The criticism has done mnch to disarrange and impede the 
Kbodls against which it has been directed; and whatever may be its fhtnre results its 
iaanedlate effects have been ii\jurious. It should be remembered that the treatment of 
jmrenile delinquents is attended with a multitude of difficulties and imposes a task 
much tamer to criticise than to perform. In no case is the critic, any more than the sur- 
geon, warranted in endangering life to remove merely troublesome excrescences. 

Among the committees to inspect reform schools and report results was that appointed 
bx tlie tmstees of the Reform School of the District of Columbia, consisting of Hon. 
fi&diard Joseph and Hon. T. P. Morgan. They visited six establishments, and found 
masaj eommendable features embodied in their organization. Among those particularly 
Botioed were efforts to give opportunities for special education in branches for which 
IspOt showed great aptitude; instruction in music and the organization of brass bands; 
1 pcactioe of "«n"g single beds and separating younger from older inmates; and 



CCXXIV REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

the economy of haying hoys and girls in ihesame estahlishment, so that the lahor of the 
girls can he utilized for the general good of the school. 

' Reform schools have heen organized daring the year in Colorado, Kansas, and Micbi- 
gan. The school in Colorado receives youth hetween the ages of seven and sixteen 
from the criminal, inoorrigihle, vagrant, and truant dasses, and such as may he indentured 
.hy their parents and guardians. The children are separated into fEunilies and a ^tem 
of badges and grades is adopted hy which good conduct hastens the time of discharge. 
The Kansas State Reform School is placed under the control of the hoard of trustees of 
State charitable institutions. This body has based the organization and administration 
of the school upon the principles involved in certain propositioDS, substantially the fol- 
lowing: (1) The distinctive feature of a reform school should be character building; 
(2) it should receive, educate, and discipline n^ected, incorrigible, and offending 
youth; (3) its discipline should be that of a well ordered £unily; (4) the &nuly sys- 
tem is economical and greatly expedites reformatory instruction; (5) restraints should 
be as few as possible; (6) separate institutions should be provided for the sexes; (7) an 
indenture system should be provided; (8) the age of admission should be from eight to 
sixteen years; and (9) commitments should be allowed without formal trial and for an 
indefinite time in case of good behavior. 

BSFOBMATOBY 8T8TSU OF UlCBIQAK. 

The opening of a Reform School for Girls at Adrian, Mich., has completed the admi- 
rable system of reformatory institutions existing in that State. The general plan for pre- 
venting crime by educating and providing homes for children liable to peculiarly severe 
temptations, and ^r correcting juvenile offenders, contains many points of interest A 
board of commissionerB has supervision of charitable, penal, pauper, and reformatory 
institutloiis. This board has an agent in each county. His duties are to investigate 
charges against youth under sixteen years of age and advise with courts and magistrates 
as to the disposition of the accused, to visit all children indentured in his oounty and 
remove those that have been ill treated £rom the fiunilies in which they have been placed, 
to assist in finding homes for children in State institutions, and to aid and encourage 
persons diiacharged from reformatory institutiona. The institutiona to which the agent 
may advise that offenders be committed are the reform schools for boys and girls and the 
State House of Correction and Reformatory. 

The Public School for Dependent Childrei^^Coldwater, is under the control of a special 
board. It has become Justly fiunous for its beneficent purpose, methods, and results. 
Children of fioom three to fourteen years of age and in destitute circumstances are re- 
ceived into it, to remain until they can be given suitable homes in private fiuniliee. Bar- 
ing their stay they are kept in fiunilies of twenty-five or thirty,, each occupying a separ 
rate cottage, over which a cultivated woman presides. They are taught, fod, and em- 
ployed in a large central building. The institutional life of the child is, however, made 
as short as possible. The board of control is required to use special diligence to find 
suitable homes for these dependent children, where they will be treated as members of 
the fiunily, allowed the privileges of the public schools, and taught some useful occupa- 
tion. 

The Reform School for Girls has no history as yet. It promises to do the same ex- 
cellent work that other institutions of ita kind have been accomplishing, and which is 
presented at some length in subsequent pages. Mrs. S. L. Fuller, president of its board 
of control, makes the following promises for it: 

The girls in our school will sleep in separate bedrooms, which they wiU be allowed to 
adorn with their own handiwork^ hav^good beds, good wholesome food served regularly 
and appetizingly, good teaching m school and in kitchen; they will have good and well 
fitting clothing, which the^ wiU be taught to make themselvee; they willbe taoght in- 
dustrious and cleanly habits, all of which is elevatine. The school will be a Aome, a 
family^ where work and games and healthful out-door ^v and^erdae^iU induce good 



REFORM SCfHOOLS. CCXXV 

temper and good i^irits. The women who will train them will not be thinking of some- 
thing else. To care for these girls will be their business: they will keep their places 
^j as tbej show themselves i^pted to the work. The nealth of the girls will be es* 
pedallj cared for. Many of them will nndoabtedly be diseased. Uer^ity, bad cook- 
ing, poor living, iniquitous practices, will have brought them all the ills that flesh is 
bar to. Bat efforts to cure them will be possible, because all the conditions will tend 
towsrds eradicating disease. Regular meals, exercise, cleanliness, ventilation, all would 
help to sach a result; sound health alone will be xeformation. 

Hie Reform School for Boys is conducted upon the &mily system principally, and 
receives the osoal classes of vicious and offending boys. They are oommitted for a spec- 
ified term, bat may be dischaiged sooner if such a course seems for the best interest of 
ftH parties ooncemed. During their stay they are taught common school branches, but 
■0 txades. It is hoped that this defect will be remedied. The State House of Correc- 
tion is for mAle offenders between sixteen and twenty-five years of age and also all per- 
nas duly convicted of a misdemeanor where the imprisonment shall not be less than 
nmety days. No person guilty of crimes involving a life penalty is admitted. The 
I are employed in the manufacture of boots and shoes. A day school is main- 
Tbe institutioii is more penal than reformatoiy in its character and falls be- 
hiad the New York Reformatory, which has the same class of inmates, in its attempts to 
impnitve condition and character; for the plan of this latter institution includes inde- 
tenainate sentmces, a system of practical education, and a reward for good behavior in 
aneady discharge. 

These Michigan schools are watched closely by a board of corrections and charities, 
cnmpofled of the governor of the State, ex officio, and four members, whose term of service 
is eight years. At least once a year a nugority of the board visit the charitable and 
refacmatory institutions of the State and investigate thoroughly the condition of the 
iamates and the administration of the establishments. A biennial report is made, which 
inrfndcB the acts and investigations of the board and reeommendations as to legislation 
afieeting the institutions and persous over whom they exercise supervision. 

THK FAMILY SYSTEM. 

Testimony fiivorable to the &mily system of conducting reform schools is as abundant 
ai in earlier years. This indicates that the plan is founded on correct and practicable 
ideao. Two quotations will suffice to illustrate the high value placed upon the system 
by tbooe who have had opportunity to witness its effects side by side with those of the 
eoogregate system. The trustees of the State Primary and Reform Schools of Massachu- 
Ktta mi^e the following statement in their report for the past year : 

ITie trustees have become convinced that the congregate system, so called, under 
wbicfa large numbers aro brought together in one building, and this building a prison, is 
a &ihire. We would call attention to the fact that, while all the troubles and disturb- 
aaccs and nearly all the escapes have been from the main buildings, the boys living in 
the &mily houses, leading in many respects family life and under family discipline, have, 
with bat few exceptions, been commendable in their behavior, have manifested a good 
sfixit, and have not abused the comparative liberty granted them. 

Tlie soperintendent of the Connecticut State Reform School says : 

The improvement made that we regard as of the greatest importance, and the one in 
wUch we take a personal pride, is the establishment of a family of boys on the open or 
rattufpe plan. Our long experience in a school entirely upon that plan, with a success 
pftfcipa unknown to any otiier reformatory in the land, has caused us to be deeply wed- 
ded to that system, knowing, as we do, that it possesses agencies for success &r superior 
Is t^ congregate or big house plan. 

KEW JEBSEY STATE BEFOBM SCHOOL. 

t1» New Jersey State Reform School has been organized for about fourteen years. It 
ll l»mtgd on a huge fimn, so that its pupils have opportunities f6r out-d<wr lab<» and 

digitized by VjOOvLv: 

B — ^XV ^ 



CCXXVI REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATIOlf. 

recreation. The family system was adopted at the opening of the school and has been 
a distinguishing feature of its history. Each family consists of a father, a mother or 
teacher, and about fifty boys. The &ther works with his boys throughout the hours of 
labor, exerdsQS proper surveillance over them during hours for play, corrects and disci- 
plines them, as oecasjon requires, and makes a daily report concerning alL The mother 
has charge of a few boys doing the housework, teaches school three hours a day, is sup- 
plied with the common remedies foraise in temporary sickness, and also makes a daily 
report. The families occupy buildings i^Murt fix>m one another and have their own play 
grounds, play rooms, flower gardens, school rooms, and dormitories. Three fiimilies 
dine in a large hall; the others, in dining rooms of their own. The members of different 
fJBunilies mingle somewhat in the different industrial deportments, and are gathered in 
chapel for general entertainments and on Sunday for moral and religious instruction. 
The principal industries of the school are forming, brick making, and the manufacture 
of shirts. The income from the &rm the past year was $4,629. The number of acres 
devoted to the different crops was: wheat, 65; oats, 25; rye, 30; com, 75; potatoes, 25; 
roots, 3; and garden, 6. The ploughing, planting, cultivation of crops, the care of stock, 
the teaming, and the miscellaneous work are done by the boys, with only alight aid 
from instructors. The profits of brick making have been considerable. Six and three- 
fourths hours of labor are required daily. Where extra work is done the boys are paid for 
it; they have earned $847.98 in this way the past year. Amusements have an important 
place in the school. Almost all games whose innocence is unquestioned are allowed. 
Out-door games, like ball and quoits, and in-door games, like dominoes and authors, are 
alike favored. Each boy is given a plat of ground for vegetables, if he wishes it, imd is 
encouraged in flower gardening. A brass band ftimishes music, and much singing is 
done. Annnal excursions have been taken during several years. Escapes are rare and 
the home life of the institution receives high commendations from many visitors. 

INSTITUTIONS FOB THB BEFOBMATIOK OP OIBIJ9. 

The reformation of boys has attracted attention and received aid more generally than 
similar efforts in behalf of girls. Whatever may have been the reason for this, there no 
longer remains valid ground for argument against the ben^cence of institutions for the 
reformation of girls or any reason for refusing to extend support and encouragement to 
them. There are now about a dozen establishments of this kind. Most of them are sup- 
ported by State appropriation and nnder State controL Some of the earlier schools were 
maintained by private charity. 

The age at which girls are committed varies from 7 to 18 years. The Wisconsin In- 
dustrial School for Girls has a children's home into which even the youngest infants 
are received. A large proportion of the girls committed are 14 years of age. This 
was true of 30 per cent, of those admitted in 1881 to the Wisconsin school, of 26 per cent 
of those admitted to the Connecticut school, and of 25, 20, and 19 per cent., respectively, 
of those committed to the Indiana, Maryland, and Iowa schools; 32 per cent, of the girls 
committed to the Indiana Reformatory, however, were 13 years of age, and 34 per cent, of 
those committed to the Maryland school were 16 years old. The age at which greatest 
care should be given girls, as &r as moral influences are concerned, is shown by these 
figures. 

The grounds of commitment to the various institutions are similar. Those recognized 
by the Wisconsin Industrial School include, perhaps, the most important. Omitting the 
previsions relating to admissions to the Children's Home, they are as follows: 

(1) Viciously inclined girls under 16. * * (2) The stubborn and unruly, who re- 
flise to obey those who properly have care of them. (3) Truants, vagrants, and beg- 
gars. (4) Those found in circumstances of manifest danger of falling into habits of vice 
and immorality. (6) Those who have committed any offense punishable by fine or im- 
prisonment, or both, other than imprisonment for life. 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 



REFORM SCHOOLS. CCXXVII 

The condition of the girls committed is of the lowest kind, and the difficnlties in the 
vsj of edncating and elevating them are snch as to discourage any but enthusiastic be- 
Herera in the possibilities of their redemption. Two quotations, the former from Mrs. 
D. H- Johnson, secretary of the Wisconsin school, the latter from Mrs. H. F. Perry, of 
the New Jersey school, will indicate the deficiencies of newly received girls and the ob- 
aiMdes in the way of supplying them. Mrs. Johnson says: 

Neariy all the older children sent us come from the lowest dregs of society. Their moral 
sense is blunted by continual contact with vice. They are often untruthful, filthy, and 
Tolgar in their habits, having no definite idea of the rights of propriety and oftentimes 
with inherited diseases. It takes years of constant training to reform and elevate them. 

Mx& Peny says : 

Few can comprehend the mental condition of neglected and demoralized yoxmg girls. 
Xone but those who have made it a long and carefril study can know how hard it is to 
bring them into orderly and respectable habits and place them on the level of ordinary 
girls — how hard it is to take into account the inherited defects, the ignorance, the tor- 
por of conscience, the unrest, the weakness and fickleness of virill, that characterize so 
maoy. 

The inmates of reform and industrial schools for girls are detained usually until the 
expiration of a definite sentence, extending generally through the minority of those com- 
mitted or else '*long enough only to bring them to the sense of their wrong doing and 
to admit of that preliminary training in cleanliness and the order and system of respecta- 
ble &milies which alone can insure their retention in such families. '' The actual time 
nquiied to be spent within the school varies from fifteen months to nearly as many 
yeuB. The average time of detention is three years in Connecticut and about the same 
in several other schools. An exact system of merits and demerits is not necessarily 
adopted in determining the rate and amount of improvement. Fitness to enter a family 
or letum home dejiends on many traits and qualities that can be judged of only by those 
kng £uniliarwith their operation and efiects; and even the most mature and experienced 
ful at times to correctly estimate the temptations a reformed girl may meet and her 
stitength to overcome them. The treatment of girls received into these schools is emi- 
nently humane in nearly every instance. Rumors of ** suffering for the common neces- 
saries of life" and a crowding of sleeping apartments until ''much sickness has pre- 
vailed" have come from one State only which has undertaken the education and 
reformation of erring girls. This is a sole exception to the kindness and generosity 
meted out to them. They are generally given a temporary home in a family comjwsed 
of 30 or 40 of their associates and watched over by an educated and cai)able woman. 
Sometimes they are congregated in a single large building; sometimes they have dormi- 
tories oatside. The true family system is agreed to be the best suited to elevate and 
stisigthen them. In it, says Mrs. S. L. Fuller, of Michigan, **each cottage is a separate 
hcRuehold, in which the inmates are kept as distinct from those of the other cottages 
as those of one cottage in a tovm are from another." Whether the family system is 
adopted or not, an effort is made to make the girls comfortable by pleasant surroundings, 
^reeable recreations, and the varying of monotony by the celebration of legal and special 
hoUdays. The aim of the officers of the New Jersey Industrial School is to make it 
"foch a home that any parent having a wayward daughter may, with confidence, have 
her committed for reformation with the assurance that her surroundings will be of an 
devsting character. ' ' The girls' department of the Western House of Reftige, Rochester, 
5. Y. , is provided with spacious grounds, rendering pleasant out-door recreation possi- 
ble in suitable weather, and has large play rooms and interesting games for in-door 
amsement. The trustees of the Massachusetts reform schools have uttered a caution 
in tiwir last report against an excess of tenderness and pecuniary outlay for those detained 
ia WBth establishments. They say : 

Tbere Is no judicious kindness in accustoming these boys and girls to appliances they 
vffl complain of misaing in the homes to which they are sent, or of making their labor 
iayieiiMtitntionsso easy, by what are called '* modem convenienoegk|^j^t|gi^ will 



CCXXVm REPORT OF THE COAfMISSIONEE OF EDUCATION. 

look with discontent npon Burronndinga not supplied with them. The day is past, it is 
hoped, when Massachusetts shall spend upon expensive stmctures for her charitable in- 
stitutions the money which should be saved for the training of her unfortunate children 
in the ways of morality, cleanly living, and honorable labor. 

The educational attainments of those committed are meagre. Their disposition to 
acquire is more often slight than otherwise, but there are many notable exceptions to this 
rule. The common school studies alone are attempted, and the highest of these only 
in rare instances. The school of the Indiana Reformatory has four classes: the lowest 
studies reading, writing, and arithmetic; the next class adds elementary geography; the 
third class continues the studies of the second ; and the fourth class has for studies history, 
geography, arithmetic, grammar and physiology. The school sessions occupy ordina- 
rily three or four hours a day, taken more generally from the afternoon. This plan does 
not hinder intellectual progress and enables the institution to avail itself of the labor of 
the girls in the kitchen and laundry, in the care of the building, and in other productive 
occupations. There is not a great variety of employments in which they can be made 
serviceable and by which they may earn a livelihood after discharge. An eflfort is made 
to instruct them thoroughly in household duties. They are likely to become assistants 
in families and to have homes of their own; consequently this training is of the utmost 
importance. Other industries are attempted. In the girls* department of the Iowa 
Reform School, in addition to household duties, *'' the girls make all their own clothing, 
knit their own stockings (both cotton and woollen), and during spare moments learn to 
do needlework, fancy crocheting, and the like.'' The inmates of the Female House of 
Refuge, Maryland, make and mend their wearing apparel. The girls in the Massachu- 
setts Industrial School do light out-door work and some are employed in a hosiery shop. 
These have the opportunity of earning money for themselves if ambitious to do a moder- 
ate stint. The superintendent says: 

We question the possibility of success in managing and reforming girls without work; 
and by this I mean work of some kind to employ mind as well as body — the same to 
be continuous and hard enough to make rest and quiet very welcome. 

The rule of the Michigan Reform School for Girls is that *Hhere must be thorough 
systematic teaching of all domestic industries, which industries shall take precedence 
of trades and be a thorough education in every branch of household work." The work 
of the inmates of the Connecticut Industrial School is divided among the Jiomea to which 
they are assigned. The one containing the smallest girls is aided by girls firom out- 
side. In the others the housework and plain sewing are done wholly by the inmates. 
Each home, except the one doing the laundry work, sends a number of helpers into the 
custom sewing department and the box shop. The net earnings of this shop during the 
year ending December 1, 1880, were $1,606.52. Mrs. Mary E. Rockwell has expressed 
forcible and timely thoughts about the kind and amount of industrial training that may 
properly be undertaken by such an establishment as the Wisconsin Industrial School for 
Girls, of which she is superintendent. The following is a quotation from her latest report: 

Our chief duty is in things of general application and utility. We must assume that 
every girl that comes to us for training is to become a woman, and probably a house- 
keeper, whether she becomes a dressmaker or book-keeper or not. Her first and highest 
need is to have the elements of true womanhood quickened, develoi)ed, and energized. 
She must have character and general intelligence first; afterwards technical preparation 
for a particular trade or pursuit, if opportunity remain. The elements of all technical 
knowledge may be taught and very early acquip&d. Mechanical drawing, practical appli- 
cation of geometry, the principles underlying all mental and physical sciences, the use of 
common tools in all simple mechanical processes, will be of use whatever the position in 
life. Technical training, as strictly defined, may never be to any extent possible for us, 
but we can lay broad and deep foundation stones in principles, habits of observation, 
industry, and manual dexterity. 

The object of the reformatory course is attained when a girl is prepared to enter a pri- 
vate family, do the duties there incumbent on her, and resist the temptations to which 
she may be exposed by her surroundings. The selection of suitable homes requires the 

.^igi ize y ^ 



ORPHAN HOMES AND ASYLUMS. 



CCXXIX 



exerdse of a aound jndgment, enlightened by inqniry and experience. In few cases, if 
aajf is it considered safe to yield the absolute control of a girl to persons outside the 
institution until she has become of age or otherwise completely severed her connection 
vith the schooL The law of Michigan creating the Beform School for Girls provides 
for the difiposition of those whose behavior indicates a fitness for discliarge before the 
expiration of their sentence, as follo?^: 

It shall be lawful for the board of control, whenever in their discretion they may deem 
my of the inmates of said institution to have been so fisir reformed as to justify her dis- 
dnige, to liberate such inmate, or to bind her by articles of indenture to any suitable 
penon who will engage to educate said girl and to instruct her in household work or in 
some proper art or tr^e, or said board may return any such girl to her parents or other 
iniardians when they shall have become bound to said board with sufficient sureties for 
ber good behavior and care, or said board may place any such girl in the care of any 
resident of this State who is the head of a fiemuly and of good moral character, but on 
such terms as the board may prescribe. 

In Massachusetts the State board of health, lunacy, and charity has paid agents who, 
together with the principal of the State Primary School and unpaid volunteer visitors, 
m charged with the duty of specially investigating homes and £unilies with regard to 
their fitness for the custody of children; and when applications are not sufficiently numer- 
OQS they seek out fiunilies who will receive and provide for these children in accordance 
with their respective wants. There were in the early part of the year 305 girls to be 
T^ted. 

Tabls XXn. — Sumwtary of slaiisiics of homes and asylums for orphan and dependent 
children, infant asylums^ and industrial schools. 




27 
82 
44 

6 

as 
im 

81 
29 

4 
34 
40 
14 
37 
17» 
V7 

8 
18 

no 

6 
13 

41 



^1 

h 

r 



1,296 

«,827 

2«860 

634 

1,232 

7,lfi2 

7,250 

1,755 

1,900 

2,718 

«,704 

1,980 

4,815 

58,973 

10,662 

400 

748 

4,577 

297 

367 

I 3,692 



Present inmates. 



I 



124 

al,020 

892 

60 
885 

1,108 

al,016 

190 

82 

600 

0498 

477 

642 

01,469 

o910 

34 

128 

867 

48 

75 

0496 



226 

86 

179 

098 

608 

95 

50 

281 

152 

202 

806 

777 

601 

23 

50 

471 

29 



79 
674 
166 

24 
166 
510 
424 
104 

82 
819 
340 
275 
836 
697 
269 

11 

78 
896 

19 

43 
200 



Libraries. 



i I 



i 



775 

884 

1,600 

850 

2,014 

1,682 

720 

260 

250 

1,581 

680 

200 

2,454 

2,782 

1,850 

30 

800 

830 

760 

710 

2,075 



fl 



77 
100 

50 
110 

25 
161 



290 
89 

100 
10 

300 
87 
30 
20 

296 



f7,187 

133,566 

40,646 

4,772 

121,217 

112,896 

45,829 

42,213 

4.200 

78,898 

29,806 

8,130 

88,601 

158,966 

62,644 

2,400 

8,316 

18,460 



a Sex not repcrted in all cases. 



Jigitized by 



7,229 



I 



86,917 
130,995 
41,490 

4,756 
114,533 
108,167 
59,841 
41,909 

4,100 
63,961 
42,128 

7,268 

89,206 

153,886 

62,001 

2,400 

8,462 
28,429 
17, COO 

6,886 



g 



le 



ffi,218 



CCXXX REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Table XXII. — Summary ofgtatisHcs of homes and asylumSf d&o.— Continued. 



States and Territo- 
ries. 



Present inmates. 



i 



Libraries. 



a 
8 



New York. 

North Carolina , 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania.. , 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee , 

Texas 

Vermont. 

Virginia „ 

Wisconsin 

District of Columbia... 

Indian Territory 

New Mexico , 



947 
14 

4S1 
2 

651 
26 
16 
12 
18 
20 
20 
S6 
37 
10 
18 



159,804 

630 

38,217 

820 

81,206 

8,013 

2,169 

1,800 



all, 963 
233 

03,906 
23 

06,087 
851 
161 
207 



6,092 
112 
2,806 
14 
8,597 
181 
139 
76 



6,046 

121 

1,648 

9 

2,126 

170 

22 

131 



21,954 

560 

9,806 

92 

27,342 

840 

826 

200 



2,868 11 .268,188 
15.900 
851,868 
4,076 
1,915 1,435,061 



722 



70 
U6 
40 



1,980 
1,U2 
2,957 
4,715 



172 
174 
0454 
885 
180 
a55 



102 
60 
94 

198 
68 



70 
U4 
315 
187 

67 



400 



520 
889 
60 



26,763 
27,800 
11,088 



$1,221,792 

15.550 

845,668 

2,085 

890,926 

29,258 



12,000 
9,600 
29,168 
22,333 
22,000 



Total. 



854 i8,lG0 



368,892 a84,814 



Part 2.— Infant aay- 



Califomia 

Connecticut 

Illinois 

Kentucky 

Louisiana. 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

New York 

Pennsylvania 

Wisconsin 

District of Columbia .. 



Total. 



8,000 
780 



8,000 

1,644 

2,251 

43,062 

946 



1,697 



31 647 



56,380 



Pabt S.— Industrial 
aehoola. 

Connecticut 

Illinoia « 

Indiana „ 

Kentucky ^ 

Louisiana m. 

Maine 

Abuyland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 



8,600 

660 

3,220 



1,630 
2,092 



17,766 



16,033 I 86,118 7,688 [4,198,044 i 8,606.873 



27 

oil 

66 

200 

0200 

95 

al48 

41 

02,860 

098 

a89 

110 



12 



27 : 

200 j 



40 

15 

26 

1,234 



55 I 

17 I 

970 I 
6 I 



60 



60 1 



a8, 885 



1,437 1,362' 665, 



7,352 
9,500 



10,000 
27,662 
3,800 
496,106 
4,277 
2,966 
6,000 



108 
451 
165 
79 
25 



777 

a76 

8 



411 
410 



103 
884 
140 
79 

235 
152 
867 



800 



1,000 
1,632 



600 



18,004 
1,115 



175 
212 



7,255 

85,496 

, 23,675 

6,000 



a Sex not reported in all cas^giti^ed by ^OOglC 



ORPHAN HOMES AND ASYLUMS. CCXXXI 

Table XXII. — Smnmary ofstaHsUca ofJumea and ofjlums — Ck>ntiiiaed. 



and Territo- 
ries. 



SOntarippI ...... 

Witfiqri.^ 

3««wYork 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Fteiii7lv»iiiA .. 



^HiSiiua 

Wteonsin. 

Diitrict of Columbia.. 



i 
If 



1 

87 
246 
14 



Total ..... 

Total, Parti 

Total, Fart 2.. 
Total, Parts.. 

Grand total. 



I 1 



82,511 90 

125,815 al9,763 



Present inmates. 



I 



1,850 



496 



124 
242 



54 504 171.964 a23,618 



221 
76 
501 



825 
85 
81 



354 

31 
54 



'8,160 
I 547 
I 504 



[368,802 'a34,814 
56,880 a3,885 
171,964 028,618 



..439 

I 



4,2U 597,236 a62,317 



8,742 
60 

48 



190 



51 



5,271 



17,766 
1,487 
5,271 



24,474 



I 



90 

5,444 

152 

28 
271 



135 
85 
80 



7,695 11, 



Libraries. 



o 

I 



7,489 
100 



800 



16,088 86^118 
1,862 
7,605 



11,821 



25,090 97,439 



230 
25 



150 



792 



792 



8,480 



«8,779 

444,366 

13,003 



2,352 



70,800 
6,986 
5,682 



641,512 



4,196,044 
565,662 
641,512 



$4,674 

450,140 

10,320 



2,596 



71,410 
6,936 
4,402 



656,807 



8,606,875 
544,845 
656,807 



5,405,218 4,807,523 



a Sex not reported in all oases. 
TABLE XXm.— EDUCATIONAL BENEFACTIONS. 

The following summaiy, drawn from Table XXIII of the appendix, exhibits the total 
of donations and legacies by individuals in aid of education, eo &r as reported to this 
Oifice, the daases of institutions benefited by the same, and the uses to which the funds 
were to be applied. The total amount reported is $7,440,224, an increase of $2, 190,414 
over the same for 1880, and the largest total reported to the Office since 1872. More than 
one-half the whole amount ($4,601,069) was bestowed upon the universities and ool- 
kgn of liberal arts. Schools of theology come next in the order of beneficiaries, receiv- 
ing $962,535; the schools represented in Table YI received $672,240 and those repre- 
seoted in Table YII $258,439, or a total for the two classes of secondary schools of $930,679. 
The claims of science do not seem to be sufficiently regarded by the benefik^rs of learn- 
ing. It should, however, be observed that the entire amount devoted to this branch of 
knowledge is not comprised in the $177,058 reported for schools of science. The total 
fot oniveEBities and colleges includes bene&ctions to departments of scienoe which can- 
not be aepaiated from the general statement. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CCXXXII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 
Table XXni.—SUUistkal summary of benefactions far 1881, by States. 



1 




•0 

s 

1 


'S 


1 

'S 

1 


1 


1 


1 • 


j 


1 
li 


h 

If 

li 


Training schools for nurses. 

"TnstrtutioniTfer fooblo- 
minded children. 


Alabama... 


$22,300 

35,839 

411,825 
2,500 

248,654 

20^907 
87,060 

108,986 
21,000 

968,962 

1,800 

48,626 

47,280 

1,154,560 

86,022 

66,961 

1,400 

408, OU 
17,683 
8.600 

205,799 

233,502 

1,442,935 

83,160 

441,728 
15,492 

770,581 
86,600 
69,388 

178,460 
16,000 

162,250 

4M,218 
10,000 
82,260 
2.000 
25,000 
13,700 
17,900 






•1,200 
2,400 










•21,100 
15,450 
3,419 
8,800 
2,500 
5,855 
550 








California. 


•89,798 
82,420 
402,870 








•3,000 










Ck>lorado... 
















C3onn 




8,000 










•2,000 


•155 




Florida 














Georgia..... 


176,779 
94,774 
36,500 

108.450 
11,000 

10«,048 






•1.900 

5,000 

50 


64,000 


•20 








niinois 




93,883 


$175 




15,085 


Indiana..... 




1,600 








Iowa 










485 


















10,000 










Kentucky. 




145,000 








14,904 

900 

8,030 

88,450 
















400 
8,000 

194,888 










"Mt^inf., , , 


88,612 
24,990 
614,477 
86,022 
49,609 


tl20 


8.864 
22,890 
10,000 














Maryland. 





600 


205,000 


44,865 






Mass 


46,880 




Michigan.. 
Minnesota 


















16,282 
1,400 

13,463 
4,000 








Mississippi 
Missouri... 




















889,248 
18.632 








800 












Nebraska.. 


















Nevada 










8.500 
«1,600 










N. Hamp... 
N. Jersey.. 
NewYork. 












149 


184,060 
19.502 
40,680 
21,100 
12,998 

800 
24,550 
80,000 
28,100 

612 
13,000 
100,000 

160 
10,000 
10,000 














214,000 
868,776 






7,879 


18,778 




942,822 

12,060 

878,280 

15,192 

881,100 

6,500 

9,200 

167,448 

8,000 

87,000 

285,000 

68.288 

25,000 


22,500 





2,000 




45,000 




N. Quol'a. 






Ohio 




29,800 


250 




25,400 










Oregon 

Pa 






, 










23,208 










2,500 


838,870 


263 


•500 


R.Tirla*?'^ ,. 






8 Carolina 




2>..<» 

























400 


5,000 








Texan 








TTAvmont 


2,500 
105,068 








2,000 


750 








Virginia... 
W.Va.. 


14,000 
8,886 












...... 








20 








Wisoonsin 


125 
2.000 






Dakota.^... 











DistCol.... 






N.Mezioo.. 














13,700 
17,900 








XTtah 
























.............. 








" 







i ' ' '" 


Total... 


7,440,224 


4,601,060 


177,068 


962,535 


425 


9,780 


384,688 


258.489 


672,240| 394,23029,281 


500 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EDUCATIONAL BENEFACTIONS. CCXXXIII 

Table XXIIL — StoHeUeai mmmary of benefactions for 1881, by inMUutions. 



InstttatJona. 




1 


1 

h 


1 


1 
1 


i 
S 
t 

1 


1 
a 

"S 

1 

3 


1 


Caivvnities and ool- 
Schools of sttienoe...... 


HeoLOW 

177,068 

062,585 

425 

«,750 

331,088 

258,480 
672,240 

304,239 

20,281 
600 


12.400,671 

84,070 
418,866 


1782,784 

68,084 
100,390 


$851,510 


$142,107 

10.110 

30,517 

425 

200 

14.060 

5,040 
100 


$65,008 

5,705 
40,188 


$21,613 

100 
00,383 


$270,380 
12,380 


Sehools of theok>gy ^ 
Sebools of law 


181.388 


49,814 


Schools of medicine 


0.850 
07.017 

48,250 
420,837 

382,485 
28,020 


2,400 
174,075 

5,000 
142,065 

2,000 








300 


Inslitations for supe- 
rior inslraciion of 

lastitxitioiis for seo- 

oadary instruction. 

TiMtjtnthvnn fhr th^ 


140 




37,900 

149 
3,505 


10,000 
200,000 




10,000 


37.773 


48,910 
0,804 


ttsbUnd. 
Tteiainc schools for 

ffMlitntions f^r fmrhln- 










065 








600 






ndaded children. 














TotaL-... ^ 


7,440,224 


3,057,620 


1,333.088 


1,013,044 


214.540 


150,164 


123,710 


608.249 



Table XXIV. — Summary of the mmiber of educational publications. 



Number of firms in — 
(Mfomift - — 1 



OoBDecticat. 



minok. 



Kmtockj 

Msme 

Xuylaod 

IfaMchiiaetts 

Ifichi^ui 

Wmaaxi 



Number of worics on — 
Anhasology, fine arts, and mnsic . 

BQtiography and literature 

Dictionaries and ency dopsedias _ . 

Education 

GoMnl science — 

Geqpaphy 

ffirtocy 

^■yiig e 

im 



1 
1 

18 
2 
1 
2 
2 

26 
1 
3 



66 
100 
27 
109 
40 
15 
89 
83 
30 



Number of firms in — 

New York 73 

Ohio 8 

Pennsylvania 25 

Rhode Island 1 

Vermont—- 1 

Virginia 3 

Wisconsin 2 

District of Columbia 2 



Total- 



173 



Number of works on — 

Mathematics. 45 

Mechanics and physics 35 

Medicine and surgery 115 

Natural history 39 

Philosophy and logic — 18 

Political and social science 20 

Theology 93 

uigitized by ^OOQIC 

Total ^— 924 



CCXXXIV REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



Table XXV. — Summary of paienta for iny^rovemeniB in school fumUure. 

The following sommary shows the patents granted by the Goyemment for inventions 
of school fUmiture and appliances during the year: 
From California 6 

Colorado 2 

Connecticut 8 

Illinois.-, 13 

TnHmnn. 5 

Kansas— 2 

Maine 3 

Maryland 5 

Massachusetts 13 

Missouri 6 

Nebraska 1 

New Jersey 13 



From New York 41 

Ohio 8 

Pennsylvania 8 

Rhode Island 6 

Vermont 1 

Virginia 2 

Wisconsin .- _.. 4 

District of Columbia 9 

Idaho 1 

Foreign — . 7 



Total 



164 



Improvements in — 

Adding machine.- 4 

Air cooling apparatus.- 4 

Air purifying apparatus 2 

Air in buildings, method of and appa- 
ratus for cooling .1 

Alphabet blocks, nested... 1 

Arithmetical frame— 1 

Arm rest and book leveller, combined . 1 

Blotter 1 

Blotting case... — 1 

Blotting pad 1 

Book, copy — 1 

Book, copying — 1 

Book-cover shield .- 1 

Book, detachably covered 1 

Book holder _ 3 

Book holder and portfolio, combined. - 1 

Book protector 1 

Bottle, siphon _. 2 

Calculator, mechanical 1 

Calendar, revolving _ 1 

Calipers - 3 

Calipers and rule, combined 1 

Calipers, spring 1 

Calisthenic implement - 1 

Copies of writings, apparatus for pro- 
ducing — — - 1 

Cyclometer 1 

Desk and seat, school 1 

Desk, school 5 

Dividers 1 

Dividing angles, instrument for 1 

Ellipsograph 1 

Furniture, school — 1 

Gymnastic apparatus 1 

Gynmastic apparatus, portable 1 



Improvements in — 
Heating, cooling, and ventilating ap- 

I>aratu8 2 

Hinge for school desks, stop 1 

Hinge for school furniture 1 

Ink and fluid, writing .-. 1 

Inkwell 2 

Inkstand 3 

Inkstand, calendar 1 

Lead and crayon holder 15 

Map and atlas, segmental 1 

Map and chart case 1 

Map case 1 

Map holder 1 

Meteorology, apparatus for 1 

Mucilage bottle _ 1 

Mucilage holder.-. 1 



Multiplication block. __ ^- 

Musicbook holder _. 

Music chart 

Music holder 

Music leaf turner 

Music rack _ 

Music stand 

Pantograph 2 

Pantograph engraving machine 2 

Pen 1 

Pen and pencil case 2 

Pen and pencil holder 1 

Pen, fountain 5 

Pen, fountain attachment 1 

Pen holder — ._, 7 

Pen holder, fountain 1 

Pen rack and letter holder, combined. 1 

Pen, stylographic 5 

Pen, stylographic fountain 6 

Pen, writing — .-. 1 

Digitiied by LjOOQIC 



EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



CCXXXV 



Table XXTV. — Summary of patents for improvemenia in school furniture — Continued. 



ImpioTementa in — 

Pencil 1 

Peodl case, automatic — 1 

Pencil case, shaipener, and eraser, com- 
bined 1 

PtocO holder, lead 1 

Pttidl, lead 3 

Pencil sharpener 1 

Pencil sharpener, slate 1 

Pencils and pen holders, finger rest for 1 

Penman, rest and guide for 1 

Phonetic notation, art of and mechan- 
ism for 1 

Role and balance, combined desk 1 

Rftler and rotary blotter, combined. . . 1 

Rsler, proportional parallel 1 

Sdwlar's companion 1 



Improvements in — 

School seat and back 1 

Slate, double reversible 2 

Slate listener - 1 

Slate, pencil holding.. 1 

Slate, school 1 

Sponge cup _ 2 

Sponge holder for slate pencils 2 

Teaching chemistry, apparatus for ... 1 

Teaching frame, object - 1 

Tellurian 3 

Thermo-electric battery-- 2 

Ventilating and cooling buildings 1 

Wrist and hand support for key-board 

instruments 1 

Total 164 



EDUCATION IN FOREIGN C0UNTEIE8. 



I.— Etbope. 

AcvnoA-HuHOABT.— a. AxTVTRiA, constitutional monarchy: Area, 115,903 square miles ; population 
GDecember 81, 1880), 22444,244. Minister of public instruction, Conrad von EybesfolcL 

Educational institutions in Austria are divided into elementary (popular or common) 
«liools, secondary institutions (Gymnasienand Realschulen), superior institutions (uni- 
Tcnities, higher technical institutions, &c.), and institutions for special education. 

Elementary or common schools, divided into general common schools and burgher or 
cttj sdMwls, are open to all citizens, without regard to religious belief. The general rule 
is that at least one burgher or city school must exist in every school district. A common 
■diool, however, must be established wherever in the extent of a league there are 40 
children of school age who have to go more than two and a half miles to reach school. 
Moat elementary schools, including many burgher or city schools, receive children of 
faodi sexes, and are therefore called mixed schools. The teachers and assistant teachers 
of these common schools must obtain certificates of qualification at the teachers' semi- 
aahes. An idea of the scope of instruction in these schools may be gained from the gen- 
eol plan of study prescribed for a burgher school for boys. This plan embraces: (1 ) Re- 
ligion. (2) German: accurate reading and oomprehensionof the subject of study; correct 
we of the language and practice in composition; such modem literature as is suited to 
the age of the pupils. (3) Ge(>gp:aphy and history: important features of physical geog- 
raphy, geography in general and of Austria and Hungary in particular. (4) Natural 
\Marj: leading features of the three kingdoms of nature and practical applications ; the 
kaman body and its care. (5) Natural philosophy: elements of physics and chemistry 
with reference to their practical applications. (6) Arithmetic (7) Geometry and draw 
iog. (8) Free-hand drawing, plane and perspective, with applications to ornamentation 
and modelling. (9) Writing. (10) Singing. (11) Gymnastics. In girls' schools female 
brndiwork and domestic economy are taught. 

As r e gaids secondary education, the institutions of this branch are divided into Gym- 
BHses, Bealgymnasien, and Bealschulen. The object of the Gymnasium is to afibrd a 
Uglwr general education (using the ancient dassical languages and literature for that pur- 
jfmt) and at the same time prepare students for the university. The complete Gymnasium 
Willis of the upper and lower Gymnasium, of four classes (or annual courses) each, but 
ktmm an undivided whole under one management. A lower Gymnasium may be regarded 
institution, because it not only prepares for the upper classes but also 



CCXXXVI REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

arranges to a certain extent its conrse of study so as to fit its pupils for active life. A 
Eealgynmasium is a lower Gymnasium, in all the classes of which drawing is obligatory, 
as is also a modem language for those students of the two upper classes who are not to 
enter the upper Gymnasium and are consequently exempted from the study of Greek. A 
Realgymnasium may also be regarded as a complete institution or it may be combined 
with an upper Gymnasium, an upper Realschule, or with both. 

Realschulen, like Gymnasien, consist of upper and lower schools. The latter fit pupils 
for immediate entrance into practical life or for admission to special schools, and may be 
regarded, like the corresponding grade of Gymnasien, as separate institutions. An upper 
Realschule cannot be so regarded. An idea of the difference in the objects and subject 
matter of instruction in these two classes of schools will be gained from a comparison of 
their plans of studies. The obligatory studies in a Gymnasium are: (1) Religion. (2) 
Latin language. In the lower Gymnasium oral and written exercises in Latin gram- 
mar, exercises in translation (Cornelius Nepos, Csosar, Bell. Gall.). In the upper Gym- 
nasium Roman literature (Livy, Sallust, Caesar, Bell. Civ., Cicero's orations, Tadtus, 
Ovid, Virgil, Horace) and Roman history, study of Latin style and elegances of the lan- 
guage. (3) Greek. In the lower Gymnasium, grammar of the Attic dialect; syntax. In 
the upper Gymnasium, thorough reading of the most important Greok authors (Homer, 
Xenophon, Herodotus, Sophocles, Plato, Demosthenes), as fiir as time allows. (4) Thor- 
ough study of the language of instruction (i. e., German), including acquisition of style, 
history of the language, and study of its literature. (5) Study of some other national 
language. (6) A modem language (in the Realgymnasium), grammar and syntax, and 
translation into and from the language. (7) History and geography. In the lower 
Gymnasium, the earth's sur£M)6 and its natural and political divisions, with special atten- 
tion to Austna-Hungaiy ; the most impoi-tant events and persons in history; chronology. 
In the upper Gymnasium, principal historical events in their practical relations and in 
their dependence upon natural conditions, with special reference to the history of civili- 
zation; historical development of the Greeks and Romans and of Austria-Hungary ; prin- 
cipal events of contemporary history. (8) Mathematics. In the lower Gymnasium, arith- 
metic; geometric forms, their principles and relations; instruction given not by strict 
demonstration so much as by methodically conducted inspection. In the upper Gymna- 
sium, elements of algebra and geometry as sciences of strict demonstration. (9) Natural 
history. In the lower Gymnasium, determining by inspection the most characteristic 
types of the three kingdoms of nature. In the upper Gymnasium, systematic survey of 
the three kingdoms of nature. (10) Physics. In the lower Gymnasium, the more easily 
comprehended phenomena and their laws as far as they can be shown by experiment 
without special application of mathematics and the more easily understood practical 
applications. In the upper Gymnasium, scientific demonstration of natural laws, as fiu* 
as elementary mathematics permit, and application to the interpretation of natural phe- 
nomena. (11) Philosophical propedeutics; supplementing the empirical knowledge of 
the external world by empirical conceptions of the mental world. (12) Free hand draw- 
ing in the Realgymnasium. 

The plan of study for a Realschule is as follows: (1) Religion. (2) Language used in 
instraction (German). In the lower Realschule correct speaking and reading and gram- 
matical writing; syntax. In the upper Realschule practice in writing correctly said 
with attention to style; essays upon subjects &miliaf to the students; study of German 
literature and biographies of German classical writers. (3) French. In the lower Real- 
schule, grammatical forms and syntax, translation from and into French. In the tipper 
Realschule, grammatical forms and Gfyntax, practice in translating from and into French, 
exercises in French composition; practice in speaking French; study of leading French 
authors from the beginning of the seventeenth dentury. (4) English; In the upper 
Realschule, correct pronunciation, grammatical forms, and syntax, practice in translating 
prose into German, and conversely easy Grerman prose into English. (5) Geography and 
history, substantially the same as in the Gymnasium. (6) Mathematics; principles and 



EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES CCXXXVn 

practice of elementary mathematics. (7) Natural history. In the lower Realschnle, ac- 
qoisition of £miiliarity with the leading forms of the organic and inorganic worlds, do- 
med fimn oheervation. In the upper Realschule, systematic survey of the animal and 
vegetable kingdoms, based upon their anatomical, physiological, and morphological char- 
acteristics; forms and characteristics of the more important minerals, and principles of 
geology. (8) Physics. In the lower Realschule, experimental demonstration of the simpler 
Bititral phenomena and their laws, with some reference to their practical application. In 
tiie upper Realschule, the prindiMil natural phenomena, demonstrated by experiment and 
obseryation, with calculations (elementary mathematics). (9) Chemistry: demcmstra- 
Hoo of chemical changes by experiment, the conditions of their occurrence, and the 
bws which gOTem them; the chemical elements and their combinations, with special 
referenee to their occurrence in nature and their industrial importance. (10) Geometry 
and geometrical drawing. In the lower Realschule, the principles of geometry in their 
applieation to geometrical construction; practice in linear drawing. (11) EHements of 
descriptive geometry in the upper Realschule; principles of projection and problems; 
shadows; and drawings of things used in the arts. (12) Free-hand drawing: acquisition 
of dexterity in comprehending and representing technical objects according to the laws of 
pecspectiTe ; application to the drawing of ornaments, with attention to style ; drawing 
the human form and &ce; training of the sense of beauty. (13) Calligraphy. (14) Gym- 



Elememiary inatruction. — The following statisticB are taken from official sources: There 
were in the school year 1880-'81 15,165 public general common schools and 314 burgher 
«r city schools, making a total of 15,479. There were also 911 private schools, making 
the wbcde number of elementaiy schools 16,390. German was used in 6,797 of the pub- 
he mSmwIs, Bohemian in 3,929, Polish in 1,166, Ruthenian in 1,053, and Italian in 822; 
in a comparatively small number of schools, various other languages were used, and in 
«me cases two or more languages were spoken. In the previous year, with a total num- 
ber of schools amounting to 16,492, there were 33,827 rooms. Special means for ventila- 
tioD were provided for 13,671 of the rooms. In 1880, 5,225 schools had open air g3rmna- 
Bmns, 1,007 had gymnasium halls, while instruction in gymnastics was given in 12,260 
kIkk^s; 6,936 had school gardens and nurseries and female handiwork was taught in 6,940 
tAoolB, The school libraries numbered 13,136, with 1,656,563 volumes. In the school 
Tear 1880-'81 instruction in gymnastics was given in 11,234 schools; there were 6,690 
aeiiool gardens and 12,596 school libraries. Female handiwork was taught in 6,647 

The number of regularly appointed male teachers in 1880 was 27,597, of whom 26,654 
were lay, 778 secular, and 165 belonged to the regular clergy. Classified in respect to 
see. the teaching corps contained 1,219 male persons under 20 years of age, 5,424 between 
^ and 25, 4,548 from 26 to 30, 8,200 from 31 to 40, 3,754 from 41 to 50, 2,766 between 51 
tad 60, and 1,686 over 60. In respect to their religious Mths, 24,723 of these teachers 
were Roman Catholics, 1,397 were "Greek-United," 665 Evangelical, 2 Armenian-Orien- 
tal, 246 Greek-Oriental, 560 Jews, and 4 belonged to no religious confession. To the 
37,507 male teachers above mentioned should be added 13,325 assistants and teachers of 
t rfSgiftw not ai^inted by the school authorities, making a total of 40,922 male teachers 
if all grades from directors to assistant teachers. The total for 1880-'81 was 38,694. 
Xt tiie same time the number of regularly appointed female teachers was 6,288, of whom 
4J81 were lay and 1,357 were nuns. As to age, 538 were 20 years old and under, 2,005 from 
3 to^ 1,350 from 26 to 30, 1,452 from 31 to 40, 632 between 41 and 50, 245 from 51 to 
M^ C3 over 60, and 3 not reported. As to religious belief, 6,017 were Roman Catholics, 78 
**Qndc-United," 59 Evangelicals, 14 Greek-Orientals, 119 Jewesses, and 1 did not belong 
t» flBj coofeoBion. Add to the regularly appointed female teachers 4, 993 female assistants 
■itwilKiii of manual and other labor, and the total female teaching corps amounts to 
IMn individuals, which feU to 9,747 in 188a-'81. The number of children of school 
« WM 1,388,856 boys and 1,355,324 girls, making a total df 2,744,180. Of this number 



CCXXXVIII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. , 

2,377,624 attended school at the dose of the school year, the boys nambering 1,209,040 
and the girls 1,168,584. Arranged with reference to the langnages spoken by the chil- 
dren, German takes the lead, with 1,045,358 children, Bohemian, Polish, and Bnthenian 
following in order. The totals for th^ year 1880-'81 are 2,863,815 children of school Age 
and 2, 487, 496 attending school. Roman Catholic children numbered 1 , 146, 109 boys and 
1,099,817 girls, 2,245,926 in alL Then follow the Evangelical Angsbnig Confession, with 
a total of 35,394; the Helvetian, with 15,196; Greek-Oriental, 8,839; other Christian 
faiths, 785; Jews, 71,414; and 70 unassigned. The total number of school weeks was 
727,791, or 44 weeks to a school; in 1,729 instruction was given in general agriculture; in 
2,276 fruit tree culture was taught; silk culture was taught in 449 schools and bee cult- 
ure in 993. There were 3,953 review schools, with a total attendance of 104,310 pupils 
and 141,631 weeks' schooling during the year. 

In 1880-'81 there were 42 seminaries for male teachers to supply the teaching force of 
the elementary schools, with 7,627 students and 590 instructors, and 23 for females, with 
3,405 students and 349 instructors. 

Secondary instruction. — ^The number of complete Gymnasien in 1880 was 101; of lower 
Gymnasien, 20; of Realgymnasien, 39; of complete Realschnlen, 61; and of lower Real- 
schulen, 21. There were 42 institutions for training male teachers of secondary schools, 
and 26 for females. The total number of teachers for these institutions of secondaiy 
instruction was 5,361, classified as follows: For complete Gymnasien, 2,177; for lower 
Gymnasien, 178; for Realgymnasieii, 661; for complete Realschnlen, 1,218; for lower 
ReaLschtden, 204; for male teachers' seminaries, 593; and for female teachers' seminaries, 
330. There were at the same time 36,122 students in the complete Gymnasien, 2,256 in 
the lower Gymnasien, 9,590 in the Realgymnasien, 15,787 in the complete Realschnlen, 
2,180 in the lower Realschnlen, and 8,397 in the male and 3,600 in the female teachers' 
seminaries, making a total of 77,932 students. 

Superior instruction, — ^The total number of institutions for superior education waf 68, 
consisting of 7 univeisities, 6 institutions for superior technical education, 1 agricultural 
academy, 2 mining academies, 6 mercantile academies, 2 art academies, and 44 theological 
seminaries. These institutions had 1,653 instructors, of whom 870 were university pro- 
fessors and assistants, 330 were instructors in the technical institutions, 35 in the agricult- 
ural academy, 27 in the mining academies, 96 in the mercantile academy, 36 in the art 
academy, and 259 in the theological seminaries. The students amounted to 15,527, of 
which total the universities had 9,010, the technical institutions 2,992, the agricultural 
academy 472, the mining academies 169, the mercantile academies 1,226, the art acade- 
mies 396, and the theological seminaries 1,262. 

Special instruction. — Of public and private institutions for special instruction there were 
1,200, of which 52 were merchantUe schools, 295 were technical industrial schools, 160 
singing and music schools, 64 schools of agricolture and forestry and their branches, 6 
were mining schools, 4 veterinary schools, 14 schools of midwifery, 5 naval schools, 261 
schools for instruction in female work, and 339 unspecified. In these institutions for 
special instruction there were 5, 342 teachers and 75, 851 students. The number of superior, 
secondary, and special institutions was therefore 1,578, which, added to the 16,492 ele- 
mentary schools, makes 18,070 as the total number of educational institutions in Austria. 
The number of teachers in the superior, secondary, and special schools was 12,356, and 
there were 52,203 in the elementary schools, making a total teaching force of 64,559 in- 
dividuals. The number of students in the superior, special, and secondary institutions 
was 169,310. 

h. HUNOART, oonBtitutional monarchy: Area, 125,039 square miles; population, 13,728,622. Minister 
of public instruction, Dr. A. von Trefort. 

The system of public instruction id Hungary is divided into common schools, com- 
prising elementary, higher common, and burgher schools, and teachers' seminaries; second- 
aiy schools, comprising Gymnasien, Realschulen, higher girls' schools, and middle school 



EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. CCXXXIX 

i/tathaa' aeminaries; superior institatioiiB, inclnding theological Beminaries, oniTersities, 
]jnr academies, and polytechnic schools; and institutions for special instruction, viz, the 
ceotzal model or normal drawing schools, the national music academy, lower and higher 
indastiial and commercial schools, the national dramatic school, and school of midwifery. 
To this class belong also institutions for the deaf and dumb and blind, and institutes 
of art and culture, such as the national museum, picture gallery, museum of industrial 
art, schools of painting, and the new technological museum. The ministry of education 
sod religion has general supervision over all these institutions, but the kind and degree 
of this supervision vaiy considerably. According to the letter of the law the whole sys- 
tem of public education in Hungary is centralized under the control of the ministry, but 
M a matter of fact the power of the minister of public instruction is limited in many 

Wl^fB. 

All the educational institutions of the country are divided, as £su: as their management 
is omoemed, into those which are purely governmental, into communal. Catholic, schools 
of self governing religious denominations, and private institutions. The governmental, 
Catholic, communal, and private institutes are more or less immediately under the 
supervision and administration of the government or minister of public instruction, 
whose assistants for such purposes are the superior directors of studies (for secondary 
instroction), the common school inspectors, and the directors and principal teachers. 
Bat the government divides this supervision and management in the case of district 
s cho ol a to a great extent with the corresponding school supporting political communes, 
and in private institutions it exercises the right of immediate control and inspection 
ooly . In institutions of self governing religious denominations the right of government 
sapernaaon is limited in many ways. It is more extended with the common schools of 
these denominations than with their higher institutions. Indeed, the latter are neither 
subject to inspection by government officers nor is the government represented in their 
examinationa, and yet they substantially ei^oy equal rights with institutions of the same 
rtiaracter which aie directed and supported by the government. Accordingly, besides the 
y ite i m nent and communal school management, there are also denominational school 
administiations in Hungary, the two Greek-Oriental and the three Protestant churches 
o^gqying an entirely independent school management. Among Catholics, especially in the 
Gjmnasien and the law academies, the ministry has full influence as the representative 
of the apostolic king and protector of the Catholic Church. The government and the 
independent denomiilations also have independent charge of the training, appointment 
md removal, and pay of the teachers (except in the matter of pensions), and of the 
selection of text books and other material used in teaching. Since the year 1879 the 
Hangarian language is recognized by law as th^ national language, and instruction in 
that tongae is obligatory in all public common schools without exception, and after 
July 30, 1882, no person can be accepted as a teacher who is not suffidenUy acquainted 
with spoken and written Hungarian to be able to teach in that language. Those who 
ahoMlj bold positions as teachers are required to learn sufficient Hungarian in the time 
specified to use it in their instruction. 

Ekmtemiarjf aekools. — ^Biinisterial decrees of special interest in 1880 are one insisting 
■poo sanitary precautions in keeping the school buildings, rooms, and outhouses dean 
and in regulating the conduct of the pupils to the same efifect, amd another with reference 
to gnrinf^ the pupils of the common schools, in districts where the mulberry tree flour- 
whw, practiGal instruction in silk culture. The appropriation for common schools in the 
bodget of 1880 was 1,666,316 florins, or $676,623. The number of independent political 
diatnctB in 1880 was 12,814^ of which 274, or 2. 14 per cent., were without schools. The 
»«it*w of common schools at the same time was 16,824, divided as follows: 

Qwerzmient common sdliools 266 

Phil lit common schools 1,669 

Mfsfeeoommon schools (Privat-Volksschulen) 167 

Digitized by LjOOglt^ j^ 



CCXL REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

Denominataonal or confessional common schools : 

Roman Catholic 5, 411 

Greek Catholic 2, 220 

Greek-Oriental 1,809 

Geneva Evangelical * 2,322 

Angsbnrg Evangelical — .— 1,443 

Unitarian „ _ 68 

Israelite _ 449 

13,722 



15,824 
Regarded vrith reference to the grades of instniction, the Hnngarian common school 
system comprised in 1880 — 

Elementary schools - _. 15,652 

Higher common schools 71 

Burgher or city schools 101 



15,824 
Owing to the polyglot natnre of the population, instruction was given in different lan- 
guages; thus Hungarian was used in 7,342 schools; German, In 867; Romanian, in 
2,756; Slovakian, in 1,716; Servian, in 245; Croatian, hi 68; Ruthenian, in 393; two 
languages in 2,335; and three languages in 102. 

In the school year 1879-'80 the total number of schools, divided as to sex, consisted 
of 823 boys* schools, 975 girls* schools, and 14,026 mixed schools. 

The total population of Hungary in 1880 was 13,728,622, and the number of children 
of school age (6-15 years) 2,097,490, or 15.28 per cent of the population; 1,619,692 of 
these children, or 77.22 per cent, attended school; 1,433,167 scholars of the 1,619,692 
weare provided with school books and 186,525 were without them. There were 21,664 
teachers of common schools, or 1.36 teachers to a school. Of the children attending 
school, 1,251,957 attended elementary (including private) schools and 367,735 attended 
the higher common and burgher schools, the review, and middle schools. The school 
year is divided into a winter and summer course, the first extending from September or 
October to Easter and the latter from Easter to the end of June. The number of school 
buildings was 15,824 (including 1,474 rented buildings), containing 21,838 rooms where 
instruction was given, or 1.38 rooms to a building. This shows that the majority of the 
buildings have only one room, in whic^ both sexes are taught. The average number of 
scholars in a room was 74.16. The support of the common schools is derived (1) from 
the school tax, which is 5 per cent, of the direct government tax; (2) from the income of 
the school property and school funds; (3) frt>m the school money and the government 
appropriation; and (4) from r^ular subscriptions from the political and denominational 
districts and foundations and other indeterminate sources of revenue. From these sources 

the total income was as follows: 

Florins. 

From the government 689, 370 

From the districts _ 3,583,114 

From the church-— 2,543,696 

From special contributions 714,064 

From school property 1,134,676 

From tuition — j 1, 392, 327 

Total - 10, 057, 149 

The amount paid by parents in 1880 for each child sent to the schools was 87 kreutzers 
(35 cents); the average yearly outlay for the education of each child t^en from the 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES CCXLI 

school income was 6 florins 40 kreutzers, or $2.59. The average pay of regular teachers 

lis 389.14 florins ($157.99), and of assistants, 229.65 florins ($93.24). The regular 

teachers are also provided by law with a house and garden, and the assistants with 
lodginijs. 

The higher common schools are designed to finish the education begun in the elementr 
aj ecbools by an additional four years' course of study intended to fit the pupils ibr 
poetical life as farmers, tradesmen, artisans, &c There were 71 such schools in Hun- 
gay in the school year 1879-'80, with a total of 322 teachers and assistants and 3,541 
^■cbolars. The average pay of a teacher of these schools was 508 florins ($206.25) and the 
Avenge cost per scholar 64 florins 36 kreutzers ($26). These schools are not in such a 
deoiishing condition as the elementary schools, owing to a want of proper appreciation 
« their objects and efibrts on the part of the public. The same is true to some extent 
of the other kind of higher common schools — the burgher or city schools — the object 
of which is much the same as that of the higher common schools. Graduates from these 
rhools who desire to pursue scientific or special studies can attend the suitable institu- 
tittB. Graduates of these schools are also admitted to the lower grades of the public 
seniee, such as the railroad, postal and telegraph, customs service, &c. There were in 1880 
101 Bach schools, with 622 teachers and 8, 450 pupils. The average salary of the teachers 
VM 805 florins 44 kreutzers ($327) and the average cost per scholar was 65 florins 82 
^notaeis ($27), or about the same as the cost in the higher common schools. 

In 1880 there were 53 teachers' seminaries for males and 18 for females, with 617 
(acbera and 4,333 pupils, of whom 3,050 were males and 1,283 females. There were 
^ invitations for the care and education of young children (Kindergarten, &c.), in 
the echool year 1879-'80, which were attended by 29,782 children in charge of 419 teach- 
fa or guardians. The average expense of these institutions was 764 florins 95 kreutzers 
.1310} each. 

lie Dsdooal i>ension institution for teachers of common schools was established in 
1375, and after six years of its existence was in a very satisfactory condition. At the 
ttd of 1880 there was a membership of 11,175 male and female teachers. 

Stetniary instruction, — Gynmasien: The complete Hungarian Gymnasium — the upper 
OTBDaaiam — has a oouise of eigiht years, and the incomplete Gymnasium has a three, 
fcor, five, or six years' course. In 1881 there were 83 Gynmasien of the first and 68 of the 
"^aod class, making 151 in all. They are classified as follows, according to the sources 
•^ their support: 

'vOTenuDent 7 

%»1 Catholic - 14 

ComiDunal 9 

Fwmdation _ _ _ 1 

S«&in Catholic ..- 49 

♦inekCatholic 3 

Annenian Catholic *. _ .- 2 

Evangelical (Angsbnrg) 25 

EYiogelical (Helvetian) _ 30 

raited Protestant 1 

rmtarian .-- _ _ 3 

^'fwk-Oriental .-- -.- 3 

laterKmfessional 1 

hivite -- _._ 3 

151 

ITie ministry of public instruction has the direction of 89 of these Gynmasien, the 

►WMiihig 62 being under the control of independent denominations. In the school year 

^*^-'81 there were 1,023 classes, with 1,910 professors and 35,233 students, or 34 stu- 

g ^jyj Digitized by ^OOgie 



CCXLII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

dents to a class and 18 to each professor. With reference to the denominations, the stu- 
dents of the Gymnasien in 1880-'81 were ds follows: 

Roman Catholic _ Io,2b0 

Grt^k -... -..- 1,774 

Greek Oriental ._ 1,681 

Evangelical (Augsburg) -.. 3, 699 

Evangelical (Helvetian) - -. 5, 604 

Unitarian -. - U89 

Israelites - 6,545 

35,072 
Besides the regular studies of the gymnasial programmes, 50.9 per cent, of all the 
Gymnasium students took an extra study. Of the graduates from Gymnasien in 1880-'81 
27.8 per cent, selected theology as a profession, 26.7 selected law, 14.4 mediiine, 7.8 
philosophy, 2.2 were to devote themselves to technological pursuits, and 21.1 others 
were to become agriculturists, mining officials, diplomats, array officers, &c. 

Bealachulen. — In the school year 18S0-'81 there were in Hungary 26 Realschulen, clas- 
sified as follows : 

Supported by the government * - 17 

Aided by the government.. 3 

Communal Realschulen _ _ 4 

Confessional Realschulen 1 

Private Realschulen-- - _ 1 

These schools were attended by 5,427 students, divided into 204 classes, with 463 pro- 
fessors, making 26 students to a class and 12 to each professor. The students were 
divided according to their religious beliefe into — 

Roman Catholics 2,279 

Greek Catholics ._ - 32 

Greek-Oriental 172 

Evangelical (Augsburg) 487 

Evangelical (Helvetian) _.. 262 

Unitarian _ - 18 

Israelites 1,934 

TotalL- 5,184 

The large proportion of Jewish pupils in the Realschulen and Gymnasien is worthy of 
note. While the Jews form only 4.55 per cent, of the population of Hungary, their 
children form 20.9 per cent.' of the attendance at the institutions of secondary instruc- 
tion of the country. Extra studies, such as Latin, English, a language of the countiy 
other than Hungarian, chemical analysis, exercises in natural history, modelling, music^ 
stenography, and caUigraphy were taken by 63.2 per cent, of the Realschule pupils. Of 
the graduates of these schools, some continued their studies at the university (in phar- 
macy), at the polytechnicum (in engineering, machinery, and architecture) ; some devoted 
themselves to forestry and mining, agriculture, government service (postal and railroad' 
service); others entered the army; and the rest went into business or entered upon 
some industrial career. 

There are four public high schools for girls in Hungary. The age of the pupils is firom 
12 to 16 or 18 years, according to the number of courses in the schooL The number of 
classes in 1880-'81 was 16, of professors 48, and of pupils 506. The largest of these 
schools was opened at Buda-Pesth in 1875, and in 1880-'81 numbered 341 pupils and 17 

1 This total dlfr«n from the former beoause some directors reported the number of pnpUs at the 

end ofthe year instead of the befdnninff. i r\r\i^\r> 

Digitized by VjiJOyiV^ 



EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. CCXLIII 

ieacbeis. uf the total 341 pnpils, 95 were Roman Catholics, 2 Greek-Oriental, 29 Evan- 
gelical (Augsburg), 12 Evangelical (Helvetian), 2 Unitarians, and 201 Jewesses. 

Thete are two seminaries for the preparation of teachers of institutions of secondary 
ijBtmction, in which the students, besides receiving a general pedagogical training, are 
tao^t dassieal philology, modem philology, geography and history, mathematics and 
physics, and natural history. 

Superior ingtruction. — There are 43 theological seminaries in Hungary, divided as fol- 
lows: Roman Catholic, 20; Greek Catholic, 4; Greek-Oriental, 4; Evangelical (Augsburg 
Omfiession ) , 8 ; Evangelical ( Helvetian) , 5 ; Unitarian, 1 ; and Jewish, 1 . These seminaries 
in 18P0-'81 had 154 classes, 261 professors, and 1,794 students. The number of students 
has been on the increase for the last few years. 

There are also 13 law academies with a four years' course, which had in 1880-'81 137 pro- 
fessors and 855 students. The attendance at these academies has diminished recently. 

Hungary possesses two universities, one at Buda-Pesth and one at Klausenburg. The 
establishment of a third was proposed by the minister of public instruction in 1880, but 
the proposition reached no further than a general discussion. 

The nniversdty at Buda-Pesth was reorganized in 1780 by the Empress Maria Theresa. 
This university numbered in 1880-'81 64 regular, 6 extraordinary, 10 honorary, and 
9 supplementary (supplirende) professors, 76 Privatdocenten, and 12 teachers and assist- 
ants. There were during this year 2,879 students, of whom 2,503 were regularly 
mstrieulated, 195 were extraordinary, and 181 were pharmacists. As to their religious 
bebefe 46.1 per cent were Roman Catholics, 2.7 per cent, were Greek Catholics, 2.9 per 
«nl Greek-Oriental, 10.5 per cent. Evangelical (Augsburg Confession), 11.7 per cent. 
Ewigelica] (Helvetian Confession), 0.3 i>er cent. Unitarians, and 25.2 per cent, were 
Jeire. The percentage of persons of these faiths in the total population of the country, 
aceording to the census of 1880 was: Roman Catholic, 47.2; Greek-Catholic, 10.8; Greek- 
Oriental, 14.1; Evangelical (Augsburg Confession), 8.2; Evangelical (Helvetian Confes- 
ow). 14-7; Unitarians, 0.4; and Jews, 4.6. 

Besides the two universities the Joseph Polytechnicum, with a teaching corps of 57 
peisoos, gave instruction to 491 students in the scholastic year 1880-*81. The institu- 
tioii has three sections, a general antl chemical section, the section of engineering and 
archttectore, and the section of mechanical engineering. 

Imdagtrial and special schools. — There are 152 schools in Hungary where some branch 
of in-door work is taught. In girls' schools instruction of this nature is given in female 
haadiwoilL in general, and particularly in making clothes, machine sewing, straw work, 
^od hat TtiAlHng Boys are taught straw and reed work, hat and basket making, buhl 
mm work, and bast work. 

A school for secondary industrial iostruction was established in Buda-Pesth in the 
autumn of 1879. The object of this school is to educate builders and machinist6 and 
their aasiaFtfmtB, and heads of small factories and workshops. The principal part of the 
iaetniction is devoted to giving a theoretical knowledge of the various industrial pur- 
cBjtB which form the subjects of study ; that is, to studying the nature of the raw material 
lied in a given industry, then the methods of working it, and the construction and use 
M die niM^hines and tools used in its fabrication, and finally the character, composition, 
aid use of the finished article. Practical instruction is limited to exercises in acquiring 
■— fml dexterity. The course is three years, and the pupils must be 14 to 15 years old 
«i entering. The firat yearns programme includes Hungarian, arithmetic, algebra and 
fBonetry, physicB, chemistry and mineralogy, firee hand drawing and modelling, geo- 
ftrifal drawing and geognosy. German and English are extra studies. In spare hours, 
i fcfiiu J aad chemical experiments are made, and pupils familiarize themselves with the 
Mi in the workshop of the institute. In the second and third years, besides the above 
^iiHr«, the coarse includes such special studies as architecture (architectural drawing, 
IHipectiTe), machinery (technical mechanics, drawing of details of construction of 
■i^iaeB), iron working (exercises in the work shop), industrial (inorganic and organic 



CCXLIV REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION 

chemistry with lahoratory exercises), wood working, Hungarian metallurgy (with special 
reference to steel manufacture, production of cast iron and steel articles), textile indus- 
try (raw materials and their preparation ) , chemical technology. This school had 52 pupils 
in the year 1880-'81. There is in Kaschau a school for instruction in machine industry, 
with a three years' course somewhat similar to that of the Buda-Pesth school, having an 
attendance of 45 pupils. Hungary possesses 45 mercantile schools and one mercantile 
academy, with a teaching force of 215 persons (in 1880-'81) and 3,053 pupils. Drawing, 
painting, and sculpture are taught in the national model drawing school, and the indus- 
trial art school, which was opened at Buda-Pesth in November, 1880, gives instruction in 
elementary and descriptive geometry, ornamental and technical drawing, modelling, 
architectural and industrial art styles, and perspective. There are also a national music 
academy and a theatre school, which had an attendance of 103 and 62 pupils, respec- 
tively, in the school year 1880-'81, and 5 schools of midwifery, which granted 213 diplo- 
mas in 1880-'81. 

Charitable instruction. — The Royal National Institute for the Deaf and Dumb, at Wait- 
zen, had 61 male and 37 female pupils^in the school year 1880-'81. Special stress is laid 
upon teaching the female pupils manual labor pertaining to the household. The stronger 
girls learn machine sewing and knitting, and practise straw and reed plaiting, and the 
most dexterous are also taught ornamental work. The National Jewish Deaf and Dumb 
Institute was established in Buda-Pesth four years ago, and was intended to have a six 
years* course and receive 200 pupils. There were 54 pupils in 1880-'81. The General 
Deaf and Dumb Institute in Vienna also receives pupils from Hungary supported fiom 
the Hungarian Jewish school fund. 'The National Institution for the Blind in Buda-Pesth 
had 83 pupils in 1880-^81. In this institution special attention is paid to instruction in 
masic as affording a means for fUture support to the pupils. The girls are also taught 
female handiwork, &c. 

Hungary possesses a national museum, consisting of the Sz^henyi national library col- 
lections of antiquities, coins, casts, and archaeological specimens, a zoological section, a 
mineralogical and palseontological section, an ethnographical section, a picture gallery, 
and a botanical section- 

Belgium, constitutional monarchy: Area, 11,373 square miles; population (December 31, 1880>, 
5,519,844. Minister of public instruction, P. van Humb^eck. 

In 1880 there were in Belgium 6 normal schools for male teachers of primary schools, 
with 771 students; 6 normal departments connected with secondary schools, with 610 
students; and 1 adopted normal school, with 76 students. For female teachers of primary 
schools there were 6 normal schools, with 795 students, and 4 adopted norraal schools, 
with 563 pupils. The total number of teachers of primary schools, lay and clerical, in 
1878 was 11,808, divided as follows: In communal schools, 8,202; in private schools sub- 
mitted to inspection, 1,215; private teachers, entirely independent, 2,391. The number 
of primary schools at the same time was 5,729, or 2.22 to each commime and 1.04 to 
1,000 inhabitants. The scholars numbered 687,749, or 12.5 per cent of the popula- 
tion. There were also 1, 129 salles d'asile in that year, attended by 1 24,031 infants. The 
number of adult schools was 2,747, with an attendance of 228,563 persons, or 41.4 per 
thousand of population. The ordinary expenses of the primary schools amounted to 
14,981,349.28 francs in 1878. In 1880 out of 49,054 persons who were drawn for service 
in the militia 6,478 could neither read nor write, 2,022 could read, 22,029 could read and 
write, and the remainder of whom record was made possessed a higher d^^ree of ednca- 
tion. In 1878 there were also 100 primary schools under the jurisdiction of the depart- 
ment of justice (hospital and prison schools, &c), with 7,151 scholars. 

In the school year 1880-^81 there were 47 students in the normal schools for second- 
ary instruction of the lower grade at Nivelles and Bruges, and 38 at the schools of higher 
grade at Li4ge and Ghent. At the close of 1880 there were 234 secondary schools of all 
kinds in the kingdom, with a total of 18,619 students. 

Digitized by V^OOQLC 



EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. CCXLV 

At the universities supported by the state, viz, Ghent and Li6ge, there were in the 
year 18SO-'81 656 and 1,161 students, respectively, and at the universities of Brussels and 
Louvain, 1,239 and 1,512 students, respectively. 

There were four veterinary, agricultural, and horticultural schools supported by the 
slate in 1S81, with an attendance of 222 students; in 1880 169 diplomas and certificates 
of efficiency were granted from these schools. 

During the school year 1879-'80 there were 32 technical industrial schools, with 9,208 
student^- To these should be added the School of Industry and Mining at Mons, with 85 
sindentH, and the Superior Commercial Institute at Antwerp, with 137 students, making 
a total of 9,430 students. The total expenses of these schools amounted to 618,545.24 
fnuMs. There were in 1880 58 apprentice workshops, with 1,457 pupils, of whom only 
92 were entirely illiterate. 

DEinL&CK, constitutional monarchy: Area, 14,533square miles; population (February, 1880), 1,969,039; 
capital, Copenhagen ; population, 234,850. Minister of public instruction. A. C. P. Linde. 

The aeoondxury schools of Denmark have a six years' course. The Gymnasien have one 
department for languages and history and one for mathematics and natural sciences. 
lostmetion in the four lower classes is the same, except that students of the Realschule 
deportment do not study Greek and the Gymnasium students do not learn geometrical 
drawing and natural science. The school attendance lasts from the twelfth to the eight- 
eenth year. Besides the Gymnasien there are Realschulen, with a four years' course, and 
these schools are oiten combined with the four lower classes of the Gymnasium. In the 
Gymnasien French is obligatory and lasts through the six years. German is obligatory 
through the first four years only, after which it is interchangeable with English. In the 
Eealachul«i three modem languages are obligatory. 

The appropriation for worship and education for the year 1880-'81 was 978,372 crowns 

No statistics have been reoeived from Denmark later than those published in the Re- 
port for 1879. 

Pt9LA3n>, a dependency of Russia: Area, 144,222 square miles; population, 2,028,021; capital, 

Helsin^ors; population, 43,142. 

For latest educational statistics, see the Report of the Commissioner of Education for 
1380. 

TMASCKy republic: Area, 204,177 square miles; population (December 18, 1881), 37,672,048; capital 
Paris ; population, 2,260,0123. Minister of public iustruction, Jules Ferry. 

Primary instrudion. — On June 16, 1881, a law was passed making instruction abso- 
Iniely free in the public primary schools. The law declares that tuition fees shall be 
ab»lished in the public primary schools and that the fees for board in the normal schools 
shall also be abolished. Provision was made for meeting the additional expense conse- 
quent upon gratuitous primary instruction by making certain special taxes in the com- 
munes and departments obligatory. The law includes among public primary schools the 
wwnmnpffci schools for girls which have been or shall be established in communes of more 
than four hundred persons, salles d^asile (or maternal schools), and the classes interme- 
diate between the salles d'asile and primary schools, called infant classes, comprising 
ehildien of both sexes in charge of female teachers who have certificates of qualification 
fcr the direction of salles d'asile. The law also provides that no person may occupy the 
^tion of teacher in primary schools without possessing a certificate of qualification 
fcr primary instruction. In 1880-*81 there were 74,441 primary schools of all kinds, 
loWic and private, of which 2(5,304 were for boys, 30,409 for girls, and 17,728 for both 
lescs together. The public schools numbered 61,527, of which 49,621 were lay and 
11,906 were in charge of teachers belonging to a religious order (congreganistes). There 
w« 122,760 teachers for primary schools, divided as follows: In the public schools, 
41,165 male and 18,635 female secular teachers and 4,923 male ^J^ei by^® female teach- 



CCXLVI REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

ers belonging to religions bodies. In the private schools there were 2,303 male secolar 
teachers and 5,019 belonging to religions bodies and 8,276 female secnlar teachers and 
21,711 belonging to religious bodies. The number of children attending the primary 
schools was 5,049,363, of whom 4,079,968 attended the public and 969,395 the private 
schools. The number attending the public schools is made up of 2,314,751 boys and 
1,765, 217 girls, while253,588 boysand 715,807 girls attended the private schools. Classi- 
fying the pupils of the primary schools as to the secular or religious profession of the 
teachers it appears that 2,026,681 boys and 1,007,271 girls attended the public schools with 
secular teachers, 288,070 boys and 757,946 girls attended the public schools with teach- 
ers belonging to religious bodies, while 71,248 boysand 171,782 girls attended the private 
secular schools and 182,340 boys and 544,025 girls attended the schools of the other 
cliaracter. As illustrating the condition of aifairs the new law had to deal with, the 
statistics show that in the public schools 1,388,534 children were paying pupils, while 
2,691,434 received their education free. At the same time there were 68,321 teachers 
with certificates and 17,130 without Of the latter, 15,387, or nearly 90 per cent., were 
teachers belonging to some religious order and 12,882 of them were females. In the pri- 
vate schools the proportion was more nearly even, 18,879 having certificates and 18,430 
being without. The number of salles d'asile was 4,870, with 7,451 teachers and 621,177 
children. 

Five hundred and five thousand four hundred and thirty-four men and 108,043 women 
attended the courses for adult<4. These courses cost 2,298,233 francs, 699,432 francs tf 
which were paid by the state. Of the men attending these courses, 33,845 could not 
read or write on entering and 31,559 could read and not write. Of the women, 8,768 
could neithef read nor write and 10,029 could read but not write. 

There were 25,913 school libraries, with 4,206,173 volumes of all kinds, and 2,348 
pedagogical libraries, with 500,855 volumes. The number of school savings banks had 
increased to 16,494, the numl»er of bank books to 349,219, and the money deposited to 
7,982,811 francs. There were 32,438 members of teachers' mutual aid societies, and 
the assets of the societies amounted to 3,000,908 francs 90 centimes.. 

Secondary instruction. — The law of December 21, 1880, provided for the establishment 
of institutions for the secondary education of girls to be founded by the state, with the 
concurrence of the departments and communes. These institutions, it was provided, 
should be day schools, although boarding schools could be annexed to them at the request 
of the municipal councils, with the consent of the government. They were to be subject 
to the same regulations as the communal colleges. The course of instruction was to 
comprise morals, the French language, reading aloud, and at least one modern language, 
ancient and modem literature, geography and cosmography, French history, and a reriew 
of general history, arithmetic, the elements of geometry, of chemistry and physics, and 
of natural history, hygiene, domestic economy, needlework, elements of law, drawing, 
music, gymnastics. Religioas instruction was to be given, at the request of parents, by 
ministers of different denominations, in the school buildings out of school hours. These 
teachers were not allowed to reside in the school buildings. They were to be appointed 
by the minister of public instniction. Each school was to be in charge of a directress. 
Entrance and graduation examinations, with diplomat, were to be instituted for the 
pnpils of these schools. 

The author of this law was M. Camille See. A ministerial decree of July 28, 1881, 
made provision for the erection of schools in accordance with the spirit of this law and 
prepared for the subsequent detailed organization of their government, programmes, &c 
A law promulgated July 26, 1881, provided for the establishment of a normal school to 
furnish female professors for the secondary schools. 
Germany, constitutionfll empire : Area, 208,000square miles; popalation (December 1, 1880), 45,234,061, 

*-nded among (he foUowinif 26 states constituting the German Empire: Prussia, kingdom, 
9,111; Bavaria, kingdom, 0,2^^,778; Wiirttemberg, kingdom, 1,971.118; Saxony, kingdom, 
905; Baden, grand duchy, lj570,»l ; Mecklenburg-Sch^e^^^ gpi^nj^^^^C"^'^'®' ^*^*^ 



EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. CCXL7II 

Darmstadt, 936 .^40; Oldenburgr/grand duchy, 337,478; Brunswick, duchy, 849,367; Saxe-Weiraar, 
grand duchy, 3(^,577; Mecklenburg-Strelitz, srrand duchy, 100,269; Saxe-Meiningen, duchy 
axT.OTo; AnhaJt, duchy, 232,592; Saxe-Coburg, duchy, 194,716; Saxe-Altenburg, duchy, 155,036 
Waldeck. principality, 56,522 ; Lippe, principality, 120,246; Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, principality, 
80,29«; Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, principality, 71,107; Reuas-Schleiz, principality, 101,330 
Sdb*amburK-Lippe, principality, 35,374; Reuss-Greiz, principality, 50,782; Hamburg, free city, 
tfSyJttD; Lubeck, free city, 63,571; Bremen, free city, 156,723 ; Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland), an< 
nexed from France in 1871, 1,566,670. Capital of the empire, Berlin ; population, 1,122,360. 

lUiteraty of German recruits, — It appears from the Monatshefte zur Statistik des 
dectschen Reiches that the percentage of illiterates in the recruits of the German army 
and navy is steadily declining. Prussia had 2.33 per cent, in 1880-'81 ; Bavaria, 0.29 per 
cent. ; Saxony, 0. 17 per cent. ; Wiirttemberg, 0. 02 per cent. ; the rest of the empire, 0. 49 per 
cent. Comparing these figures with those of previous years the decrease is noticeable. 
Thus, in ieT5-'76, Prussia's per cent, of illiterates was 3.19; Bavaria had 1.79 per cent. ; 
Saxony, 0.23 per cent. ; Wiirttemberg, 0.02 per cent. ; and the rest of the empire, 0.82 per 
cent. For the whole empire the figures are 2.37 per cent, in 1875-^76, against 1.59 per 
coit. in 1880-'81. 

The city of Berlin had 191 public schools of all kinds at the dose of the year 1881. 
These institutions had 1,391 classes for males, 1,076 for females, and 37 mixed, and 
were attended by 69,430 male and 57,920 female students. There were at the same time 
2 H^rew schools and 90 private schools, attended by 7,434 male and 14,307 female 
scbcdars. 

The following account of the public schools in Germany was prepared by Mr. Wolfgang 
Sdioenle, United States consul at Barmen, Germany, and transmitted to this Bureau by 
the kindness of the Secretary of State. It is published with some slight alterations 
made in consequence of later information: 

PUBLIC BCHOOLS IN GEKMAKY. 

The educational system of Germany, being diversified and highly developed, presents 
so many interesting and characteristic features that a few summary sketches of her pub- 
lic schools, and esj>ecially of her elementary schools, which correspond to our common 
schools to a certain degree, may prove to be instructive to those devoted to educational 
sad literary pursuits in the United States. 

The following observations refer principally to the public schools in Prussia; but, as 
the system of instruction is substantially the same throughout the other Grerman states, 
may hold good for the whole of Germany. 

The public schools in Germany have the double character of municipal and state 
institutions, inasmuch as the establishment of new schools must be sanctioned and 
approved by the respective ministers of ecclesiastical aflJairs and of public instruction. 
The whole educational system in the several states of Germany is placed under the 
chief supervision of these functionaries, and they are to decide, in the last resort, whether 
ektnentary schools shall be established and conducted as Protestant, or Catholic, or 
Jewish, or so-called simultaneous schools. In the last named schools pupils of different 
deiuHninations receive a common instruction in the ordinary school branches from the same 
teacher, but religious instruction is given in separate rooms, by the ministers of the de- 
luminations to which the parents of the pupils belong. 

Several cases have occurred in Prussia in the last few years where the minister has 
entered his veto. against simultaneous schools proposed by communities and insisted 
upon the establishment of sectarian schools. This is especially the case in communities 
*here nearly all the population is either Protestant or Catholic. 

The teachers stand in the same relation to the communities and the state as do the 
public schools. In most cases the nomination of a teacher for a vacancy is left to the 
k<al school boards, but their nominations have to be ratified by the departmental school 
boaid to whose jurisdiction the local board belongs. In a few places the appointment 
of the candidate or the transfer of a teacher from one school to another is effected by 
direct decree of the departmental board. The city and town councils are generally in- 
vested with the privil^e of nominating candidates for appointment as teachers of the 
latter elementary and burgher schools; the number of individual patrons invested with 
the privil^e of nomination is comparatively small. Their appointment is subject to 
the eonfirmation of the minister of public instruction and of ecclesiastical affairs, and on 
^titfring upon their official duties they have to swear the oath of allegiance to both offi- 
ca% to that they are municipal and government officials at the same time, and as such 



CCXLVIII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

they are subject to both municipal and state supenision. The local authorities, how- 
ever, have no right to suspend or dismiss a regularly appointed teacher without the 
approval of the state authorities. They receive their salaries Irom the municipal treas- 
uries, and, in case the school budget of the community' should prove to be insufficient, 
the government has to make up the balance of their salaries. 

The teachers of all grades of schools are entitled to a government pension in case of 
physical or mental disability, and pensions to the -widows and orphans of all teachers are 
paid from the funds of various savings institutions established by them for that pui-pose. 
Sometimes the municipalities make additional provisions for small pensions. 

All teachers are bound to join the teachers' pension association. The amount of the 
annual pension depends on the number of years in service and the former salarj^ of the 
emeritus. All pensions are paid quarterly in advance. 

HIGHER EDUCATIONAL IBrSTITUTIONfl. 

The higher schools in Germany are well adapted to the training of the pupils for their 
ftiture professions and callings, and show a very high standard of mental discipline. 
They comprise the Gymnasien, the Progymnasien, the Realgymnasien, the Realprogym- 
nasien, the Oberrealschulen, and the Hohere Biirgerschulen (higher burgher schools). 
The Gymnasien, Realgymnasien, and Oberrealschulen have a nine years' course, while 
the Progymnasien, Realprogymnasien, and higher burgher schools have only a five or 
six years' course. 

Of these higher educational institutions I shall attempt to give the mere outlines, while 
I shall enter into a more detailed account of the elementary schools, which are a much 
more imjwrtant educational factor, as they are the sources for the education of the great 
masses of the people. 

The Gymnasien are the preparatory schools for the admission into the universities, and 
are attended by pupils who on entering the universities will devote themselves to the 
study of jurisprudence, medicine, theology, philology, and philosophy; in short-, who 
aspire to a professional or governmental career. Much attention is paid to the ancient 
languages, while the modem languages, PYench and English, are treated rather superfi- 
cially. 

The Realgymnasien have a nine years' course, including Latin, but no Greek. Great 
stress is laid on mathematics, natural sciences, and modern languages. The graduates 
of the Realgymnasien are admitted to one university faculty only, that of philosophy, 
with its numerous dej>artments of natural sciences and modem languages. As a rule the 
graduates pass from the Realgymnasien to the higher technical schools. 

The higher Realschulen aim at a more practical education, and are generally patron- 
ized by pupils who intend to follow technical, industrial, or mercantile pursuits, or who 
are seeking a training for entrance into subordinate governmental offices. No ancient 
languages are taught, while French and English form prominent educational branches. 

•nie instruction in the Gymnasium and the Realgymnasium in Prussia, according to 
the latest decree of the minister of public instruction, is uniform up to the grade ot 
**tertia" (fourth year), when in the Gymnasium the study of Greek is commenced and 
in the Realgymnasium English enters into the schedule of studies. 

The Gewerbeschulen, higher Realschulen, and higher burgher schools have for their 
chief object the training of the pupils for practical business men, artisans, and mechan- 
ics. The classics are entirely excluded from the Gewerbeschulen. French and English 
are much cultivated, and much stress is laid on drawing and instruction in the various 
commercial branches. The graduates of these schools may be admitted into the higher 
technical and industrial schools. 

ELEHENTABT SCHOOLS. 

The elementary schools in larger cities and towns, as a rule, consist of eight classes, and 
children have to attend them from their sixth to their fourteenth year. The regular 
course of study in these schools comprises the following subjects: religion, reading, writ- 
ing, common rules of arithmetic, and the rudiments of algebra, the elements of geom- 
etry, history (chiefly Prussian and German), drawing, geography (chiefly extending over 
Prussian and German territory), the elements of physics, and natural history, German 
composition and grammar, and compulsory gymnastics (Turnen). In addition, the girls 
are taught sewing and knitting. 

The school attendance in Germany being compulsory, it would be reasonable to sup- 
pose that the instraction in the elementary schools would be free. Such, however, is 
not the case in every community. To be sure the tuition fees in these schools are very 
moderate and occasionally but nominal, and in some cities no tuition fee whatever is 
charged, as, for instance, in Cologne, Dusseldorf, Elberfeld, and in about 150 other cities 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. CCXLIX 

and towns in the kingdom. In most of the communities, however, tuition fees ai e col- 
lected. The rate of these tuition fees in Barmen may serve as an average for large cities. 
In this city 6 marks (equal to $1.43) for the whole year is charged for every pupil. Lib- 
ersl allowances and even entire exemption from the payment of the fees are granted to 
the poor. 

The tuition fees are only a small contribution to the school expenses, which must 
he met principally by municipal taxation. Illustrative of this fact will be the state- 
ment that in the year 18-Sl the collection of the school money from 38 elementiirv schools 
in Barmen, attended by 16,286 children, realized but the comparatively small sum of 
52.000 marks, while the total expenses for these schools amounted to 427,650 marks dur- 
ing that period, exclusive of new school buildings and repairs. 

The rate of school money is fixed pretty high in the Gymnasien, Realgymnasien, higher 
Irargber schools, and the higher female schools, and on that account the children of the 
poor classes are practically excluded from them. 

The following table shows the rate of tuition fees in the different classes in the Gym- 
I and Realschulen of the first and second orders: 

Gymnasien and Realschulen of first and second orders. 





Cla8!»C9. 


Mark*. 


U.S 


. coin. 


flexta. .- 




96 
108 
120 
132 
144 
144 




$22 85 


QnhttH. 




26 71 


Qoarttt ., . 


28 56 


Upper and lower tertia 


31 42 


Upper aod lower aecunda 


34 28 


Upper and lower prima 


34 28 







The annual charge of the tuition fees for the three primary classes, preparatory to the 
admiaoon into Gymnasien and Realschulen, amounts to 84 marks, equal to $20, perpupO. 
The school money for the different classes in the Gewerbeschulen is fixed in the average 
at 20 per cent, less than in the Gymnasien and Realschulen. To the children of clergy- 
mm, teachers, and city officials of the lower grades the tuition fees in the foregoing 
schools are partly or entirely remitted in some localities. 

The salaries of the teachers in the elementary schools are not very high, but the aca- 
demic teachers in the higher schools are comparatively well paid. The salaries of the 
fims teacheis in the elementary schools, as an average, range from 1,250 to 2,1504narks, 
with small extra allowances for rent. At the head of every such school is placed a prin- 
eipol, whose salary ranges in Barmen from 2,100 to 2,700 marks, with free quarters in the 
evdiool bailding. These salaries may be considered an average prevailing throughout 
Oennany 

OEBKAN AND ABCERICAN COMMON SCHOOLS. 

In spite of the strenuous efforts of the more advance German pedagogues, such as the 
hU' distinguLshed Diesterweg, and in spite of the unremitting agitation of the liberal 
aod progressive parties to inaugurate a real '* people's school, "Germany still lacks that 
brood and common education which has proved so fruitful of the most beneficial results 
in the United States. In fact, there are no common schools in Germany, in the sense 
<»f our American common schools, where the high and the low, the rich and the poor, 
the native and the foreign-bom, the Protestant, the Catholic, the Jew, the skeptic, and 
the infidel, all alike receive their common instruction. While our children pass from the 
lower grades in the primary schools through the intermediate to the high schools and 
eventually to colleges and universities, the German children of the wealthier classes, as 
a role, do not attend the "people's'' elementary schools. For their special aceommo- 
datioQ the so called ** Vorscliule " (school preparatory to the Gymnasium, Realschule, and 
the higher female school) has been organized, where, entirely separated from the children 
of the lower classes, they receive their primary education preparatory to their admis- 
M& into the above mentioned higher educational institutions. Thus at the vers' thresh- 
old of the public schools the German children are separated, the division between the 
Wgh and the low, the rich and the poor, is defined at the entnince into the school room, 
the fooDdation for the social grades and ranks ruling in Germany is laid, and theestrnnge- 
neni between the children of the rich and the governing classes and those of the so called 
*^veo|ile*' is brought about. Thepupibj in the "people's" elementary schools look 
™h apparent envy and a mixed fi?eling of submission and vindictiveness at the pupils 
tftihe fai^^ier schools. There is no social intercourse, no common interest, no mutual 
i^ijiiiinl, no reciprocal feeling between these young people; they are separated fVom 
tHk&lhBt ttooi their youth, and remain separated socially for their whole lifetime. 



CCL REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

STATISTICS. 

As the increase of the population in Germany is a rapid and permanent one, the increase 
of the public schools is also a continual one, although the latter does not entirely keep 
pace with the increase of the population. Thus in the seven largest cities of the Prufi- 
sian monarchy — Berlin, Breslau, Cologne, Konigsberg, Frankfort-on-t he-Main, Hanover, 
Dantzig — the population has increased from 1871 to 1880 by 506,000 inhabitants, that 
is, by nearly 33 per cent. , and a similar list of 23 middle-sized cities shows an advance 
of almost 43 per cent. , so that in thoee 30 cities 1,600 new school classes had to be estab- 
lished within the period of 10 years. 

In the German metropolis, Berlin, with a population of nearly 1,250,000 inhabitants, 
the number of children attending the elementary schools during the year 1880 amounted 
to 98,900, and the appropriations for the pay of the several teachers reached the sum of 
3,466,015 marks. The average number of pupils in the lowest class of the elementary 
schools in Berlin was 40. It advanced in the second and the following classes respec- 
tively to 47, 53, 56, 58, and reached 61 in the sixth class. Jn several other cities the 
average number is still higher. In the government district of Merseburg, for instance, 
the average number of pupils in 589 classes amounted to 80, and in 161 classes it reacb^ 
even 120 pupils. The following table shows the number of children in Prussia who 
entered the schools either without understanding German or who besides German un- 
derstood a foreign language. This statement has special reference to the northern and 
eastern provinces of the Prussian monarchy. Of these the pupils understood — 

Only Polish 360,528 I Polish and German 70,659 

Only Danish 21,245 Danish and German 4,405 

Only Lithuanian 10, 075 | Lithuanian and German > 8, 161 



Only Moravian 8,239 

Only Vendalic 6,690 

Only Walloon 1,430 

Only Bohemian 1,131 



Moravian and German 602 

Vendalic and German 6, 098 

Walloon and German 147 

Bohemian and German 531 



Only Friesland 1,035 Friesland and German 2,789 

Only Dutch -.. 7 | Dutch and German 488 



Total - 410,380 I Total 93,780 

Consequently, for more than 400,000 children teachers had to be employed who were 
aj)le to instruct in some one of the above mentioned foreign languages. 

The erection of new school buildings is a continual drain upon the municipal treasuries. 
To show the pressing demand for new school buildings, the proviqpe of Schleswig- 
Holstein may serve as a striking illustration. In this province 227 new school build- 
ings had been erected with'«n the last 6 years. The total expenses for the elementary 
schools in this pro\'ince amounted to 6.2 marks per capita in the year 1879, so that the 
disbursements for every pupil were 40.62 marks in the cities and 32.31 marks in the 
country. The largest school district in Prussia is that of Dusseldorf, the schools of 
which number 1,103. In this tlistrict the number of fixed positions of teachers has been 
increased by 1,010 within the lat^t 8 years. 

In the whole Prns-ian monarchy the number of teachers' positions has been increased 
by 2,324 from 1879 to 1881. There are at present 86,827 teachers in the elementary 
schools in Prussia. The employment of female teachers has considerably increased during 
the last few years. The per cent, of female teachers in the year 1861 was but 5, in 1863, 
6:| , and in 1879, 9}. Of the above mentioned 86, 827 teachers in Prussia 30,042 are females. 
There are at present in Prussia, principally in the eastern pro\'inces of the kingdom, 379 
Jewish teachers. 

The total number of children subject to attendance in the Prnssian elementary schools 
in 1880 amounted to 5,503,970, or, alter deducting those who were attending the primary 
schools, the Gymnasien, the RciiLschulen, and the higher female schools or private schools, 
4,815,974; that is, 17.2 per cent, of the total population, which is 27,279,111. There i» 
in Prussia, on the average, one teacher for every 446 inhabitants and for every 78 chil- 
dren liable to school attendance. For the instruction of male and female teachers Prussia 
provides 109 seminaries (normal schools), which were attended by 9,892 persons in the year 
1880. In some towa^ and cities so called ' ' Mittelschulen, ' ' resembling our intermediate 
schools, have been added to the elementary schools. In these Mittelschulen the course 
of study prescribed for the elementary schools is supplemented by either PYench or Eng- 
li.sh and the elementary education is brought up to a certain degree of proficiency. 

The deficiency of male teachers, which was very acutely felt for a few years in Prussia, 
is now almost overcome, and, with a few exceptions, all the fixed teachers' positions are 
filled. The tax levy for school purposes is in many districts very considerable, and 
amounts to 35 to 45 per cent, of the general tax levy; but, notwithstanding that fact, the 



EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. CCLI 

oontinual increase of the German popnlation is to be followed by the continnal increase 
o( addidoDol school classes and the erection of new school buildings. 

The qaestion how the burden of the ever increasing school expenses may be taken off 
the shoulders of the communities is now seriously engaging the fertile mind of the im- 
perial chancellor, and he is working out a plan by which a sufficient share of the import 
duties, levied by the imperial government, may be turned over to the communities, so as 
toezable them to diminish the local tax levies for the support of the public schools. 

Geeat Bkitaj:! astd Ibelastd, constitutional monarchy : Area, 121,305 square miles : population, 
35.262,762. a. Elf GLAND AND Wales. Capital, London; population, 4,7&I,312. 

The following information regarding elementary education is compiled from the report 
of the committee of council on education, signed by Lord Spencer and Mr. Mundella, 
for the" year ending August 31, 1881: 

Day M^hoois, — ^Number of schools inspected, 18,062; number of certificated teachers, 
33,562, with a large number of assistants and pupil teachers ; accommodation for 
4, 38!>. 633 scholars; enrolled, 4,045,362; average daily attendance, 2,863,535; present on 
divof inspector's visit, 3,372,990; qualified by attendance for examination, 2,775,150; 
presented for examination, 2,615,911, viz, 620,213 infants (i. e., under 7 years of age) 
i<T collective and 1,995,698 (7 and above) for individual examination ; of these last, 
t2&l,121 passed the prescribed test without failure in any one of the three subjects ; 
?*vemment grant to elementary day schools, 2,247,507Z. as against 2,130,009Z. in 1880. 

AT^W ftchools. — Number examined, 1,222; average attendance, 39,222. 

Training colleges. — Number, 41; attendance, 3,116. 

Expenditure, — Total from government grant, 2,614,883/. 13s. Qd. Cost of maintenance 
of day and night schools, 5,336,979/. 

^hool accwnmcdadon. — From an analysis of data presented in the report it appears that 
•lifts, 0S9 may be taken as the number of children between 3 and 13 years of a^e for 
vfaom dementory education should be provided aijd 3,687,662 the number who should 
b»^ mider daily instruction. Whence it Ibllows that more than a million of names have 
^m to be added to the number already borne on the registers of inspected schools. 

Standards of examination, — The table setting forth the results of the examinations shows 
that out of 1,995.698 scholars examined 1,011,208 were over 10 years of age and ought 
tb«?re&re to have been presented in standards 4 to 6; only 527,436 were so presented, 
vluJe4^G,772 (or 47.84 per cent.) were presented in standards suited for children of 
T, 8, and 9 years of age. 

There has l>een, however, a gradual improvement in this respect, which is attributed 
portly to the more regular attendance and increased proficiency of the children between 
'* ud 10 years of age and partly to the greater attention paid by teachers to the progress^ 
"f individaal scholars, in consequence of a provision of the code which makes the pay- 
aeot of certain grants depend upon the proportion of scholars examined in the three 
^pftcr standaztL^. That proportion has risen from 19.98 in 1875 to 26.83 per cent, in the 
port year- 
la domestic economy, drill, cookery, &c., 55,993 girls were examined during the year, 
aod military drill is systematically taught to the boys of 1,172 day schools. Cookery is- 
tnght in 299 schools, or in 23 more schools than in 1880. Savings banks have been 
'^Ubiisbe'l in 1,187 and school libraries in 2,382 schools. In 26,290 departments of 
in which singing is taught the instruction is given by ear in 22,151, or 84.26 per 



Ttmhued teacherB. — The extent to which the training colleges have contributed to the 
fxaiiBg sapply of efficient teachers in England and Wales is shown by the fact that, of 
14,157 masters employed in schools reported on in 1880-'81, 8,632, or 60.8 per cent., had 
kvstmmed for two years; 1,083. or 7.63 per cent., for one year; and 259, or 1.82 per 
vaX^ia less than one year; while 4,223, or 29.75 per cent., were untrained. In like 
«MMr, of 19,365 schoolmistresses, 8,563, or 44.22 per cent., had been trained for two 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 



CCLII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

years; 1,035, or 5.34 per cent., for one year; 216, or 1.12 percent, for less than one 
year; and 9,551, or 49.32 per cent., were untrained. Of the teachers, however, who, 
from whatever cause, have not attended a training college, a considerable proportion 
cannot, except in a technical sense of the word, be classed as untrained, having, under 
the superintendence of some of the best teachers, passed through the pupil teachers' 
course and served as assistants in large schools before passing the examination for a cer- 
tidcate and undertaking independent charges. 

A considerable number of teachers who have not passed through the training colleger 
will always be required for service in the small schools throughout the country. Mr. 
Sharpe, the inspector of the colleges for masters, stated in his report for 1880: 

The training colleges for masters do not supply the demand of the poorer elate of 
schools ; they practically supply the demand only of those schools which can aflbrd to 
pay about 1001. — about $500 — a year for head or assistant teachers. 

Salaries, — The average salary of a certificated master, which in 1870 was 95/. 128. 9rf., 
is now 120L 16s. Id. ; that of a school mistress was 57/. 16s. 5d. in 1870, and is now 
72/. 109. 4<l. In addition to their other emoluments, 6,183 out of 13,694 masters and 
5,636 out of 18,670 mistresses are provided with residences free of rent. These avei^ 
ages are calculated ui)on the whole of the teachers, whether principal or assistant. 

Increasing proportion of female teachers. — Attention is drawn to the great and increas- 
ing proi)ortion of female teachers now employed in elementary schools. 

The number of female pupil teachers in 1869 was 7,273; they now number 20,476, an 
increase of nearly 182 per cent. The male pupil teachers, who numbered 5,569 in 1869, 
have increased to 9,846, or about 77 per cent. 

Pensions. — The education department has received during the school year 96 applica- 
tions on behalf of three teachers in England and Wales, and has awarded 4 pensions of 
25/. and 3 of 20/. , together with 11 gratuities to the amount of 330/. Since the practice of 
granting pensions was resumed in 1875, the department has dealt with 533 English ap- 
plications. There are at present 270 teachers to whom pensions have been granted in 
England and Scotland, of whom 20 have 30/., 100 have 25/., and 150 have 20/. a year. 
The full number of pensions allowed to be borne on the estimates has therefore been 
filled up. 

Progress from 1870 to 1881, inclusive. — The dates of the first and third educational acts, 
1870 and 1876, form convenient jwints of departure for the study of the school statistics 
from 1870 to 1881. The increase of the population in England and Wales from 1876 to 
1881, inclusive, according to estimates in the report of the education department, was 
1,811,396, or 7.4 per cent. 

For the same period the school statistics show increases as follows : 

Increase in number of inspected schools in general 3,821 

Increase in number of day departments 6,594 

Increase in accommodation in day schools 963,315 

Increase in number of day scholars present at inspectors' examination 960,779 

Increase in average attendance _ _. 878, 962 

Increase in numlSr of certificated teachers 10,509 

Increase in number of a.ssistants _ 5,386 

Increase in number of pupil teachers.- _ 1,408 

Increase in number studying in training colleges 109 

For the same period there was decrease in the number of night departments and in 
their average attendance. Whereas in 1869, or before the passage of the education act 
of 1870, there was school accommodation lor 8.34 per cent, of the population, in 1881 
there was accommodation in aided schools for 16.85 per cent, of the population. The 
more nearly the accommodation approaches that required by the school population, the 
less the annual increase; progress is somewhat retarded by the nature of the effort re- 
quired as the system advances. The act of 1876, it will be remembered, was especially 
directed to securing the fulfilment of the obligation resting upon parents and guardians 
with reference to provision made by the acts of 1870 and 1873 for the education of chil- 



EDUCA*riON IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. CCLIII 

dicn and to extending the provision to neglected or vagrant children. It is in the latter 
eid<avor that the most serious difficulties in respect to the location of buildings, regu- 
larity of attendance, and results upon which depend the grants in aid are encountered. 

All the schools reported in 1870 were voluntary. From 1870 to 1876, inclusive, the 
Dumber of these increased by 4,396, and during the same time 1,596 board schools were 
established. 

In the second period, 1876 to 1881, the number of voluntary schools increased by 
1,1)93; the namber of board schools, by 2,096. Since the passage of the act of 1870, 
Additional accommodation has been provided in aided schools to the extent of 2,623,689 
scats, viz, in voluntary schools, 1,429,421; in board schools, 1,194,268. So far as the 
peports afford data for comparison it appears that the expenditure and the grant earned 
per scholar in average attendance are higher in board than in voluntary schools. 

As day schools multiply, the number of night schools diminishes, while the propor- 
tm of their pnpils in the higher standards increases. 

Edneaiion in London. — The following information is derived from the annual address 
<)f Mr. Edward North Buxton, chairman of the school board for London, and from reporte 
d the oomniittees: 

In estimating the number of children for whom school accommodation is required, 
tbe committee adopt as a basis the national census taken in the spring of 1881. They 
conclude that the total number of children between 3 and 13 to be provided for is 685,240, 
to which most be added nearly 70,000 between 13 and 14, who now fall under the opera- 
a» of the by-laws. The existing provision in all efficient schools is 502,095, leaving a 
gnat deficiency still to be met. 

London maintains supremacy over the rest of the country in the proportionate number 
of diUdren who pass in the three R's. The percentage of passes for the year is as follows: 



Reading. Writing. 



Arithmetic. 



Ii»n sdioolsin England and Wales..„ ..' 88.25 

la LtMKkm board schools 89.3 



80.44 
87.3 



74.© 
83.3 



In 1878 lesB than one in five of the children attained to the fourth and higher stand- 
irfa. This proportion has risen nearly to one in three. 

The average gross annual cost per child on the average attendance in London board 
«d»ob for 1881 was 21. 17^. Irf., less by 2*. 2c?. than in 1880. The gross annual expendi- 
tare for the year ending March 25, 1881, was 1,235,360?. 9«. 3d. The average sahuy of 
adnh teachers was, for men, 144/. ; for women. 108Z. 

There are 49 scholarships at the disposal of the board, 29 for boys and 20 for girls, which 
«oable the holders to enter some one of the great public schools of the country. 

The average attendance at board schools is 203,334, and at voluntary schools 178,518. 
Tbe percentage of average attendance upon enrolment in board schools is 80.4. 

Singing by note is taught in all the schools, a special instructor being employed to 
ropcrrise the work. 

Tbe drill instructor reported favorably upon the system of physical exercises employed, 
specially as oonducte<l in the boys' schools. 

Tbe total number of girls receiving instruction in cookery in the board schools for the 
^year ending September, 1881, was 4,250. Needlework is obligatory in the girls' 
de|ivtment, and a grant is allowed where the same instruction is given to boys. 

Tbe report of the superintendent of the instruction of the deaf and dumb gives 146 as 
thenmnber of children iostructed at the various centres, with an average attendance of 
U0; progress has been made in the use of the oral system. 

Qmbcs for the blind were maintaiued in 30 schools; number of blind pupils, 87. 

Ab aoperintendent of method in infiints' schools mxuntains classes for the instruction 

Digitized by ^OOQLC 



CCLIV REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

of teachers in the Kindergarten system, and visits schools in which it has been intro- 
dnced. The demand for increased provision for this work, and in general for the better 
<x)nduct of the infant department, is emphasized in the report. 

In accordance with the act extending the power conferred by the industrial schools 
act of 1866 to school boards, the London board have established three indastrial schools 
and have 840 places reserved for their use in schools under voluntary management. In 
these schools, which are designed for vagrant, destitute, or unruly children under 14 
years of age, industrial training is combined with elementary education. The London 
board have provided for 3,078 children in industrial schools. 

The result of a wide application of the industrial schools act in London is shown in 
the steady reduction of juvenile crime since 1870; the number of commitments in that 
year were, for boys, 8,619, and for girls, 1,379; for the current year the numbers were 
4,786 and 793, respectively. 

b. Scotland: Population. 3,73:5,573. Oapital, Edinburgh ; population, 236,002. 

The following sumniary is compiled from the report of the committee of council on 
education in Scotland for 1881, being the ninth annual report of proceedings under the 
education act of 1872: 

Day schools, — Number of schools inspected, 3,074 ; number of certificated teachers, 5, 544, 
with a large number of assistants and pupil teachers; accommodation for 612,483 scholars; 
enrolled, 544,982; average daily attendance, 409,966; present on day of inspector's visit, 
475,021; qualified by attendance for examination, 400,409; presented for examination, 
362,642; viz, 51,414 (under 7 years of age) for collective and 311,228 (7 and above) for 
individual examination; of these last, 233,062 passed the prescribed test without failure 
in any one of the three subjects. Government grant to elementary day schools, 359,903/. 
as against 347,2327. in 1880. 

Night schools. — Number examined, 249; average attendance, 13,082. 

Training colleges. — Number, 7; attendance, 857; total government grant, 454,997/. 
88. dd.; cost of maintenance of day and mght schools, 862,774/. 

School attendance. — The enforcement of school attendance is intrusted to the school 
boards. Some dissatisfaction is expressed with the manner in which this obligation is 
discharged, the reports for the year showing that the increase in average attendance has 
not done more than keep pace with that of the population generally. 

The education of the poorer classes is largely promoted by the aid given by the paro- 
chial authorities to pauper and poor parents to enable them to pay the whole or part of 
the school fees. The expenditure from the poor funds on account of education, exclu- 
sive of the amounts paid in industrial schools, deaf and dumb institutions, &c., was for 
the year, 23,496/. 7s. Oid. The extension of school provision to the poor has been greatly 
promoted by the act of 1878 making it the duty of school boards to pay the fees for those 
chUdren for whom no other provision exists. 

Standards of examinations. — From the table showing the results of examinations it 
appears that, whereas, out of 311,228 scholars examined, as many as 159,895, being over 
10 years of age, ought to have been presented in standards 4 to 6, only 109,395 (or 68.42 
per cent. ) were so presented, while the remaining 50, 500 were presented in standards suited 
for children of 7, 8, and 9 years of age. 

The report states that there has been a gradual improvement in this respect, which is 
believed to be mainly due to the provision of the code which makes the payment of 
certain grants depend upon the proportion of scholars examined in the three upper stand- 
ards. That proportion has risen from 18.77 in 1875 to 36.13 per cent, in the past year. 

Domestic economy. — Of the 24,204 girls examined in domestic economy, 13,281 passed 
in both branches, 3,962 in the first branch only, and 1,236 in the second. 

Trained teachers. — The extent to which the training colleges have contributed to the 
existing supply of certificated teachers in Scotland is shown by the fact that, of 3,175 
«o«s*er8 employed in schools reported on last year, 1,868 (or 58.84 per cent.) bad been 



EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. CCLV 

trained for two years, 321 (or 10.11 per cent. ) for one year, and 101 (or 3.18 per cent.) for 
Ie9t» than one year, while 885 (or 27.87 per cent. ) were untrained. In like manner, of 2, 369 
^cboolmi!stre:^es, 1,650 (or 69.65 per cent.) bad been trained for two years, 131 (or 5.53 
per eeni.) for one year, and 568 (or 23.98 per cent.) were untrained. Of the teacbers, 
however, who, from whatever cause, have not attended a training college, a considerable 
proportion cannot, except in a technical sense of the word, be classed as untrained, hav- 
ing, under the superintendence of some of our best teachers, satistactorily completed the 
popil teachers' course and served as assistants in large schools before passing the exam- 
ination for a certificate and undertaking independent charges. 

Salaries. — The average salary of a certilicated master, which in 1870 was 110/. 16.^. 7</., 
is now 137Z. 5s. 7d.] that of a schoolmistress was 55/. 14s. 2d. in 1870, and is now 69if. 
ii. 3d. These averages are calculated upon the whole body of certificated teachers, whether 
principal or assistant. In addition to their other emoluments, 1,798 out of 3,149 mas- 
ters and 472 oat of 2,329 mistresses are provided with residences free of rent. 

PitmsUms, — During the year the department has received 26 applications on behalf of 
tfafhers in Scotland; since the practice of granting pensions was. resumed in 1875, 106 
Scoteh applications have been dealt with, and the department has granted 5 pensions of 
20., 19 ot 25/., and 25 of 20/., and 15 gratuities, to the amount of 560/. 

Protyrem from 1872 to 1831 ^ inclusive. — The increase of the population in Scotland from 
19T2 to 1881, inclusive, according to estimates in the report of the education department, 
w« 248,936, or an increase of 7.1 per cent. For the same period the sibool statistics 
' increase as follows: 



Increase in number of inspected schools in general 1, 098 

Increase in number of day departments 1, 262 

Increase in accommodation in day schools 330,795 

Increase in number of day scholars present at inspectors* examination 249, 721 

Increase in average attendance 196,417 

IncTeaae in number of certificated teachers 2,978 

Increase in nomber of pupil teachers 709 

Increase in number studying in training colleges _ 128 

From 1872 to 1880 there was increase in the number of night departments and in the 
irerage attendance upon the same. In 1881 the number fell from 1,361 to 455, and the 
arerage attendance from 14,297 to 13, 082. 

The 1,902 schools inspected in 1872 were denominational; the number in 1881 belong- 
ing in this category is 369; the number of public schools, 2,467; of undenominational and 
other sdiools, 238. The accommodation in inspected schools has risen from 281,688 
places in 1872 to 612,483 in 1881, an increase in nine years of 117.45 per cent. 

The cost of maintenancd per child in average attendance is higher in public than in 
Tdnntaxy schools, and higher in both classes of schools in Scotland than in England. 

e.lBKLAXD: Population, 9,174,836. Capital, Dublin; population. 249,602. 

From the report of the commissioners of national education in Ireland it appears that 
the number of primary schools on the operation list on the 31st of December, 1881, was 
7,648. Daring the year, 76 schools were dropped or ceased to exist as independent 
^dioob and 134 were brought into operation, giving a net increase of 58 schools as 
eoapared with 1880. The entire number of pupils on the rolls of these schools was 
tO06y259 and the average daily attendance was 453,567, a decrease of 14,990 below the 
irenge attendance in 1880. The attendance in 1880, it shoidd be observed, was abnor- 
aallj increased by the influx of children to receive rations of food distributed by relief 
i^iiMlllnm The attendance of 1881 shows an increase of 18,513 over that of the year 

Tke total number of mixed schools under Roman Catholic teachers exclusively was 
tfn, sMended by 368,887 Roman Catholic pupils and 22,838 Protestant pupils; the 
■ of mixed schools imder Protestant teachers exclusively was 1,304^ ^t^nded 



CCLVI REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

by 25,370 Roman Catholic pupils and 127,065 Protestant pnpils; the number of mixed 
schools under Roman Catholic and Protestant teachers conjointly was 85, attended by 
10,539 Roman Catholic pupils and 10,444 Protestant pupils. Of 3,385 schools showing 
an unmixed attendance, 2,821 were in charge of Roman Catholic teachers and 564 in 
charge of Protestante. 

Model scliooh, — The number of model schools reported is 29, containing 89 separate 
departments. 

Workhouse schools. — The number of workhouse schools in connection with the board on 
the 31st of December, 1881, was 158, having an enrolment of 15,420 and average daily 
attendance of 8,333. 

Examinations. — The total number of district schools examined for results during 1881 
was 7,601, including 69 evening schools. The number of pupils present at the examina- 
tions was 472,256, of whom 107,439 were infants. The number passed was 355,643. 

The percentages of i)asses gained at reading, writing, and arithmetic in Ireland, as 
comi>ared with England and Wales and with Scotland, are set forth in the following 
table: 



Reading, j Writing. 



1 ■ 

Ireland j 92.4 | 94.5 

England and Wales 89 1 80.8 

Scotland ! 91.9 | 88.8 



Arithm^c 



7«.2 
75.7 
84.8 



T^ctchers. — The number of classed (i. e., certificated) teachers in the service of the 
oommiasioners December 31, 1881, was 10,621, viz, 7,437 principal teachers, 3,184 assist- 
ants. The number of pupU teachers or monitors was 6,450. The total number of 
teachers and students trained in 1881 at the training institution was 161. 

Pensions. — The number of teachers connected with the pension fund in the year 
ending December 31, 1881, was 9,343, and the amount paid in pensions was 6,779/. IBs. 
dd. and in gratuities 5,540/. 

Finances. — The statement of expenditure embodied in the report is for the year end- 
ing March 31, 1882. The total sum disbursed by the commissioners was 821,286/. 13«. 
7d. The parliamentary grant for 1881-'82 was 729,868/. 

The RoyaX Vniversity of Ireland. — The Royal University of Ireland was chartered in 
1880, and by the same act of Parliament it was provided that the Queen's University 
should be dissolved and its work transferred to the Royal University within two years of 
the date of the charter. The new university must be regarded as marking an era in the 
history of education in Ireland. It is empowered to confer all such degrees Ss can be 
conferred by any other university in the United Kingdom, degrees or other distinctions 
in theology excepted. No residence in any college nor attendance at lectures in the 
university is obligatory except for degrees in medicine and surgery. By these provisions 
the education of the Roman Catholic youth of Ireland is relieved of invidious distinc- 
tions. 

The first matriculation examination was held December 6, 1881; the number of can- 
didates who presented themselves for examination was 614, of whom 508 passed; 28 
women were included in the number. It should be obsen'ed that the privil^es of the 
university are off*ered without distinction of sex. 

Special instruction in the United Kingdom generally — science and art. — The following in- 
formation is derived from the report of the science and art department, whose oj^eratioDS 
extend over the United Kingdom: 

During 18^1 the number of persons attending science schools and classes in oonnection 

with the department was 61,177 as against 60,871 in 1880. The number ^^©oeiving in- 
Digitized by * 



^L"5% 



EDUCATION IN FOBEIGN COUNTRIES. CCI.VII 

stnictioa in art was 917,101, an increase upon the previous year of 75,793. The number 
reported in art training includes 850,563 children who. received instruction in draw'ing 
in dementary day schools. 

At the Normal School of Science and Royal School of Mines there were 40 regular and 
139 occasional students. At the Royal College of Science for Ireland there were 16 
regular and 20 occasional students. The total number of persons who, during the year, 
attended the different institutions and exhibitions in connection with the department 
was 4,811,258, an increase upon the previous year of 876,103. 

The expenditure of the department for the financial year 1881-'82, exclusive of the 
Tote for the geological survey, which was 20,571Z. 4s. 3d.j amounted to 319,454Z. 108. 5(2. 

Aicanctd mnentific instruciion. — One of the most important events in the history of the 
department for 1881 was the opening of the Normal School of Science and lioyal School 
of Mines, which was formed by the union of two independent organizations maintained 
hj government in the interests of science instruction. The Royal School of Mines dates 
ts fiu back as 1851 ; the Normal School of Science arose out of the system of instruction 
and examination in elementary science established by the department in 1859. By the 
onion of the two, general science instruction is fully organized and placed upon a sound 
hasia, the special features of the school of mines are further developetl, and the provision 
for training science teachers is made more systematic and complete. Prof. T. II. Huxley, 
\ht deim of the new school, presents the following scheme of operations in his first report: 

Occasional students may enter for any course of instruction, or for any number of 
cooises, in such order as they please; but students who desire to l>ecome associates of 
the Normal School of Science or of the Royal School of Mines must follow a prescribed 
order of study, which octaipies from 3 to 3 J years. 

In the first two years the students must all go through the same instruction in me- 
efaanics and mathematics, physics, chemistry, elementary geology, astronomy, and min- 
«alogy, with drawing; alterwards thoy must elect to pass out in one or other of the eight 
divUions to the subjects of which the third and fourth years' studies are entirely de- 
voted, namely, (1) mechanics, (2) physics, (3) chemistry, (4) biologj% (5) geology, (G) agri- 
eolture, (7) metallurgy, and (8) mining. 

A student who passes in all the subjects of the first two years and in the final sub- 
j«ts of division 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 becomes an associate of the Normal School of Science, 
while, if he takes the final subjects of division 7 or 8, he becomes an associate of the 
Koyal School of Mines. 

The work of the school is arranged in such a manner as to permit the student to con- 
ttntrate his attention upon one subject at a time, and he is never occupied with the 
•<^ibfects of more than two divisions in the same term. By far the greater part of liis 
liine is deroted to practical work in the laboratories, under the demonstrators and assist- 

XQt». 

The examinations in the subjects of each year are held within that year, so that the 
final examinations are confined to the special subjects of the division in which the can- 
didate seeks for the assodateship. 

aty and GnUds of London Institute.— The City and GuUds of London Institute for the 
Ad\Tftncement of Technical Education reports 1,563 candidates examined, 895 passed, 
«id 3,300 candidates under instruction. The foundation stone of the society's college, 
Rnsbury, was laid May 10, and that of the central institution on the 18th of July. 
The expenses of the institute for the past year were estimated not to exceed 12,800/., 
tad actually fell a little below that sum. 

Training of teachers. — In addition to the training colleges under government inspec- 
tion, various schools and associations in Great Britain make provision for the education 
^tcschers. 

Civendish College, Cambridge, founded by the County College Association, was opened 
in 1876. 

It is intended to enable students somewhat younger than ordinary undergraduates to 
PMB through a university course and obtain a degree, and to train students who intend to 
! schoolmasters for that profession. digitized by ^OOglC 

K-«VII 



CCLVIII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

The University of Cambridge has established courses of lectures in Cambridge on the 
history, practice, and theory of education, and maintains also an annual examinationin 
these subjects independent of the lectures. 

University College, London, makes pro\*ision for training teachers of mathematics and 
chemistry; the course of training includes both theory and practice. The University of 
London has in contemplation a yearly examination in the art, theory, and historj' of edu- 
cation. 

The College of Preceptors is an incorporated society whose object is the improvement 
of secondary education, especially with reference to the middle classes. The president 
is Rev. T. W. Jex Blake, D. D., head master of Rugby. The society maintains two 
classes of examinations, viz, for pupils of schools and for teachers who are candidates for 
the college diplomas. A training class for teachers is conducted under the auspices of 
men of established reputation, and plans are maturing for the extension of this branch 
of the society's operations. The number of teachers who entered themselves for the 
examinations of the current year was 176. 

The Universities of Edinburgh and of St. Andrews have established chairs of the theory, 
practice, and history of education. 

Oreecb, constitutional monarchy: Area, 19,941 square miles; population, 1,679,775. Capital, 

Athena ; population, 63,374. 

Communal schools were established by law in 1834 on the German system. The law 
requires the attendance at school of all children between the ages of 5 and 12 years. 
Each parish is to possess at least one school, supported by the district or parish, although 
many receive aid from ecclesiastical institutions. A local commission in each district 
exercises general supervision of the schools. The prefects and subprefects visit the 
schools of their districts and rejwrt to the minister. The teachers of the principal town 
of the prefecture and subprefecture inspect the schools of their district and report to the 
directors of the normal school. These directors are charged with the general superin- 
tendence of all the schools of thp country. Four classes of schools are reported in Greece: 
the communal, the ancient Greek, the gymnasium, and the university. In 1821,95 
per cent, of the male population could neither read nor write; of women, 99 i)er cent 
At present the percentage is males 55 per cent., females 75 per cent. In 1830 there were 
91 elementary schools, with 6,721 pupils, in Greece; at present, 1,215 boys' schools, with 
74,880 pupils, and 75 schools for girls, with 16,932 pupils; also, two normal schools. The 
annual expenditure for primary education is 2,300,000 francs ($443,900); average salary 
of teachers, 512 francs ($100). The Government bears one-third of the expenses. 

Italy, constitutional monarchy : Area, 114,296 square miles ; population, 28,452,639. Capital, Rome; 
population (at the end of 1880), 300,467. 

On the 12th of November, 1881, the minister of public instruction, G. Baccelli, intat)- 
duced a bill in the Chambers making school attendance obligatory for all boys and girls 
between the ages of 14 and 16 not attending a secondary institution of learning. The 
instruction is to be given in the evening, so that it does not interfere with the daily work 
of the pupils. 

It is doubtful whether this law could be enforced in Italy as long as the primary schools 
proper are in a backward state. Obligatory laws have been passed before, but they were 
never enforced for want of schools and teachers. 

NKTHXBLAHDfi, Constitutional monarchy : Area, 12,648 square miles ; population (December 31, 1881), 
4,114,077. Capital, The Hagrue ; population (December 31, 1881), 123,499. Minister of the interior, 
Dr. WiUem Six. 

Elementary schools, — At the end of 1881 the number of elementary schools was 3,927, 
of which 2,791 were public, 86 private receiving subsidies, and 1,050 non-subsidized pri- 
vate schools. This shows an increase of 47 over the preceding year. The non-subsidized 



EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. CCLIX 

pdTftte sehools were divided as follows as to religion: 564 Protestant, 443 Roman Cath- 
otie, 13 Jewish, and 30 unassigned. During the year 1881, 83 new public and 28 pri- 
Tite schools were built, 92 public and 10 private were in course of construction, 93 public 
and 18 private were enlarged or repaired, 1,060 public and 141 private were reported 
m in need of repairs; plans were submitted for repairing or entirely rebuilding 359 pub- 
lic and 18 private schools, and 4 buildings were condemned. The school population, 
January 1, 1882, amounted to 289,623 boys (2,285 more than in 1881) and 262,309 girls 
an inoeaae of 5,032) ; 226,766 boys and 182,574 girls attended the public schools, or,469 
ttd 1,0&4, respectively, more than in 1880. The private schools receiving subsidies were 
■ttended by 1,638 boys and 2,399 girls, showing a decrease over the former year of 366 
and 586, respectively. The non-subsidized private schools were attended by 61,219 boys 
skd 77,336 girls, an increase over 1880 of 2,182 and 4,554, respectively; 234,858 boys 
and 222,311 girls of 6 to 12 years of age received instruction at school or at home; and, as 
the number of children of that age was 265,583 boys and 263,244 girls, 30,725 boys and 
40,933 girls were without instruction. Gratuitous instruction was given in public schools 
to 126,099 boys and 103,815 girls, in private schools receiving subsidies to 110 boys and 
4t6 giiis, and in private schools not receiving subsidies to 16,558 boys and 23,542 girls, 
zoakinga total of 142,767 boys (119 less than in the previous year) and 127,813 girls (1,810 
more than in the previous year) who received gratuitous instruction. 

Evening schools were attended by 22,212 boys and 12,029 girls who also attended the 
public day schools and by 8,610 boys and 2.256 girls who attended no other schools ; 
3,739 boys and 1 , 862 girls attended the review schools. The total tuition for primary pub- 
he schools was 1,119,648 florins ($450,098). In the 3,927 schools there were 3,422 male 
i&d 461 female principal teachers, 5,035 male and 2,139 female teachers, and 2,919 male 
jad 1,147 female assistants (pupil teachers), making a total of 15,123 teaching force. 
ianoe the school population was 551,932 there were on an average 36 pupils to a teacher, 
or, deducting the pupil teachers, about 50 scholars to a teacher. The expenditure for 
primary instruction was 11,555,506 florins ($4,695,313), and afl«r deducting a revenue 
of 1,356,563 florins the balance of total outlay was 10,198,943 florins ($4,099,975). 

The expenditure for all kinds of education, except military, prison, and infant schools, 
iras 14,168,735 florins, against 12,365,683 florins in 1880. The number of public infant 
schools was 111, with 8 male and 162 female teachers and 432 assistants, and with an 
attendaDoe of 10,466 male and 10,076 female children, making a total of 20,542. The 
aomber of private schools of this class was 691, with 10 male and 951 female teachers 
and 1, 144 assistants. There were 31 , 531 male and 35, 655 female children in these schools ; 
«7,186 in aU. 

Ifikwyd schools. — In the seven state normal schools, viz, at Bois-le-Duc ('s Hertogen- 
b«Bdi), Nymwegen, Haarlem, Middleburg, Deventer, Groningen, and Maestricht there 
were 606 pupils in the school year 1880-^81. The expenditure for these schools in 1880 
was 493,872 florins and 473,943.25 florins in 1881. Besides these normal schools the nor- 
■ai oonzses in the provinces, which were attended by 2,360 male and 733 female students 
m 1680, had an attendance of 2,333 males and 955 females in 1881. On the 13th of May 
of that year the organization of these courses, which had up to that time been temporary 
tad experimental, was effected by a decree of the minister of the interior. The regulations 
pmeribe a four years' course and a preparatory course for pupils 12 to 14 years old. 
The age of admission to the normal course proper is 14 years. The programme includes 
the Dutch language, reading and writing, history, geography, arithmetic, geometry, 
aataial history, singing, pedagogy, drawing, mathematics, gymnastics, French, and fe- 
■ye handiwork. Besides these normal courses there were seminaries for a similar pur- 
pme at Leyden and Amsterdam, organized in accordance with a ministerial decree of 
October 25, 1881, which were attended by 116 male and 140 female students, and 23 
adbols where teachers are prepared for private schools. These schools had 698 male and 
W imale stndents. The outlay for this kind of instruction in 1881 vras 1,077,080 flor- 
t% im^tuimg that for the State normal schools above given, digitized by ^OOglC 



CCLX REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP ia)UCATION. 

Secondary instruction, — The number of Gymnasien and Progymnasieu remained un- 
changed. There were 24 of the former and 5 of the latter. There were 316 teachers at 
the beginning of 1881 and 1,730 students. At the close of the year these numbers had 
increased to 334 and 1,911. The outlay by the communes, or districts, for Gymnasien 
and Progymnasieu in 1881 was 664,628.75 florins ($257,181). 

The four burgher day schools had 178 students. The burgher evening schools num- 
bered 31 and were attended by 2,553 scholars. Four other schools of the same grade 
where special attention is paid to industrial studies had an attendance of 1,140. As to 
parentage, the parents of 70 of the 178 scholars of the four burgher day schools were me- 
chanics and handicraftsmen, 40 were shopkeepers, 12 architects, and 44 officials, teach- 
ers, and military officers. Of the 2,553 pupils of the burgher evening schools and the 
1,140 students of the four similar schools mentioned above, 2,855 already had a trade or 
occupation at which they were busy during the day. There were 369 teachers in these 
various schools. 

The number of drawing or industrial schools was 46, with 252 teachers and 4,842 
pupils. There were 59 higher burgher schools, with a total of 687 teachers and 4,653 
pupils. Of these schools 20 were government institutions, 11 of which had five years* and 
9 three years' courses; 35 were communal schools, 23 of which had five years', 2 four years' , 
and 10 three years' courses; 1 comlnunal industrial school with a three years' course; 1 
private school receiving a subsidy, with a six years' course, and 2 private schools not re- 
ceiving subsidies, 1 of five and the other of three years' course; 28 of the 35 communal 
schools received subsidies from the Government; 21 of these received female pupils, and 
the total number of the latter was 150. Of the 687 teachers 19 were employed in more 
than one school. 

Secondary schools for girls received an increase of two in 1881, making a total of 14^ 
with 1,089 pupils. There were 107 female and 60 male teachers. 

Superior education, — In the year 1880-'81, there were 514 students enrolled at the 
University of Leyden, 385 at Utrecht, and 251 at Groningen, 1,150 in all. These figures 
show the number of students enrolled or registered with the rector, not the number 
inscribed in the almanac or album studiosorum. There were at the same time 315 
civilian students, 194 hearers, and 128 military students at the commercial university at 
Amsterdam. In 1881 the Government expended for the three universities 1,258,248 
florins ($505,815), and for other institutions of higher education 263,580.56 florins (includ- 
ing 183,948 florins for gymnasial inspection and subsidies), making a total of 1,521,828 
florins ($611,775). 

Special instruction. — The government agricultural school at Wageningen had 63 schol- 
ars in the higher burgher school department and 66 in the agricultural departments, 
making 129 in all. At the experiment station connected with this school 802 researches 
were made during the year. There were 24 students at the horticultural school at Wa- 
tergraafsmeer. 

The polytechnic school at Delfl had 343 pupils; 49 students obtained opportunities 
during the vacations to practise various kinds of engineering on public and other works, 
bridge building, levelling, 8ur\'eying, &c. 

The number of naval schools, teachers, and pupils remained the same as in the previous 
year. 

The Deaf and Dumb Institute at Groningen had 201 students, that at Rotterdam 144, 
that at Gestel 148 (81 males and 67 females), and the Institution for the Blind at Ajuster- 
dam had 68 students, of whom 38 were males and 30 females. 

The East India institution. at Delft had 129 students for the year 1881. This es- 
tablishment is designed to give instruction in the languages, ethnography, and econom- 
ics of the Dutch East Indies. There were 71 .candidates at the examination for East 
India officers, 50 of whom passed the examination. The similar institution at Leyden 
had 12 students for the year 1881. There were 4 candidates for examination, 3 of whom 
passed. The total outlay for seoondaiy instruction, including industrial schools and in- 



EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. CCLXI 

sdtates for the deaf and dumb, by the government and commnnes in 1881 was 1,965,118 
florins ($789,978). 

The twenty-first course of the state school of midwifery opened October 1, 1881, with 
*4) students. The government expended 11,683 florins for the support of this school in 

There were 63 students at the state veterinary school in 1881, of whom 3 were educated 
far the home military veterinary service, 5 for the civil, and 1 for the military veterinary 
serrioe in the East Indies. The state expended 74,598 florins in 1881 for this institution. 
There were 39 officials and 315 students at the Royal Military Academy at the begin- 
oing of the school year 1881 -'8*2. Eighteen of the officials were civilians. The gradu- 
ates of this school are assigned to the various branches of the military service at home 
or in the Dutch East Indies. The programme includes surveying, natural sciences, 
bmgnages, ethnography, &c., of the Dutch East Indies, military science, mathematics 
calculus), and mechanics. In the second division of the military school the course 
opened October 1, 1881, with 22 officers, 15 of whom were from the Dutch Ea8t Indian 
iiiiny. There were during the year 454 volunteers in the instruction battalion and in 
the artillery instruction company 180 volunteers. The school programme included read- 
ing, writing, arithmetic (whole numbers and fractions), the metric system, the Dutch 
Lmgnage, geography of Europe, history of the Netherlands, military accounts and re- 
ports. There were 135 appointees at the Royal Marine Institute at Wyiemsoord at the 
beginning of the school year 1881-^82, 486 boys on the two school ships at Amsterdam 
.and Rotterdam in 1881, 17 pilot apprentices on the guard ship at Amsterdam the same 
Tear, 95 boatswain apprentices on the practice ship, and 239 students at the normal 
navigation school. For the military medical service at home and abroad 157 students 
entered the course September 1, 1881, besides 17 students of pharmacy. 

NovwAY, consUtutional monarohx : Area, 122,860 square miles ; population in 1879, 1,916,000. 

The latest statistics from Norway were received in 1875, when the school population 
waa 302,000; number of schools, 4,736; pupils, 261,622; teachers, 4,030. Education has 
been obligatory in Norway for a series of years, parents being required to send their 
children from the age of 7 in town and 8 in the country up to 14 to some public 
!>vbooL Each parish has its schoolmaster or masters, who live either in fixed residences 
ur move from place to place, teaching so-called ambulatory schools and being paid by a 
tax levied in the parish in addition to state grants. The schools are graded as primary 
and secondary. In the lower grades reading, vmting, aiithmetic, religion, and singing 
se ttto^t. Almost every town supi)orts a superior school; a college is found in 17 of 
tlie principal towns. These colleges are maintained in part by subsidies frt>m the gov- 
enuneot. The university at Christiania, founded in 1811 by the Danish government, is 
axtmadcd by about 900 students annually. Norway has also 4 schools for deaf-mutes, 1 
ior the bHnd, and 2 for idiots. 

FoKTroAi^ oonfltitutional monarchy: Aeea, 36,510 square miles; population, 4,745,124. Capital 

Lisbon ; population, 238,389. 

A compulsory education law was enacted, in 1844, but its provisions are so rarely en- 
fiseed that only a small fraction of the children of the middle and lower classes attend 
«iiooL Although some progress in primary education is reported within the last few 
;«B9 DO statistics later than those of 1876 have been received. At that date 4,510 
sebools and 196, 131 pupils were reported. Secondary instruction is given in the lyoeums ; 
fte dcfgy obtain gratuitous instruction in 6 seminaries and 8 training schools; and the 
M aitfuiiy at Coimbra gives instruction in law, theology, medicine, mathematics, and 
yUnophj. The number of students at the university in 1881 was 564. Since 1845-'46 
te JBgolar fltodents have numbered 29,906. Subdivided as to departments there were 
la t i a u lo gy 2,527; law, 14,812; political science, 381; medicine, 2,056; mathematics, 
^ pbikioaphj, 5,739; design, 1,506. The Polytechnic Academy at Oporto, which 



CCLXII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

was in its fifth year in 1881, reported 153 students in the special coureea of civil and 
mining engineering, architecture and design, the business and agricultural courses, and 
in the preparatory courses for medicine and pharmacy and for the naval school. 

Russia, absolute moimrchy: Area, 8,444,766 square miles; population, 85,6S5,M5. Capital, St. 
PetersbuTfc ; population, 667,926. 

The mass of the population of Russia is as yet without education; in fact, elementary 
education is almost impossible according to the present system of instruction. The 
greatest dearth of schools is in those provinces which have a purely Russian population, 
while the Tartar provinces and those occupied by Grerman colonists are better off. The 
Pskow district has 151 schools, while the number of children of school age calls for 
2,600. Charkow has 423 schools and should have 5,000. In Kostroma the proportion 
is 263 existing schools to 3,000 required; in Novgorod the ratio is 180 to 2,600; in Samara, 
492 to 1,680; and in Wjatka, 535 to 3,900. In a male population of 40,000,000 there 
is 1 pupil to 45 persons, while the ratio among the women is 1 to 222. The p^hsant 
children can only obtain elementary instruction in schools which have been established 
in strict oonlbrmity to all the legal requirements, which are supported from certain 
specified funds, and whose teachers have received their appointments in accordance with 
certain specified forms. There are few such schools. The higher institutions are under 
fewer restrictions. Statistics of 2 Russian universities — those of Moscow and Kief — are 
at hand for 1881 . The faculty at Moscow consisted of 1 03 members : 1 professor of theology 
(Greek orthodox), 40 ordinary and 12 ** extraordinary" professors, 22I>ocenten, 4 lect- 
urers, 1 astronomer, 2 prosectors and 3 assistant prosectors, 8 professors not attached to 
any special branch, and 11 Privatdocenten. Three chairs are vacant. The pupils num- 
bered 2,413 in January, 1881, and 2,430 a year later. In the medical course were 1,397 
"hearers;" in law, 451 students; in mathematics and physical sciences, 392; and in his- 
tory and philology, 190. At the close of 1881 there were 337 graduates, and 329 students 
left without finishing the course. The University St. Wladimir, at Kief, had 36 ordinary 
professors, 8 *' extraordinary," 13 Docenten, 3 lecturers, 1 astronomer, and 11 Privatdo- 
centen. Thirteen chairs were vacant. In 1881 there were 1,041 students. 

Spain, constitutional monarchy : Area, 182,578 square miles; population, 16,625,860. Capital, Madrid ; 

population, 397,690. 

The latest official statements about primary instruction in Spain bear upon the decade 
1871-1880. The number of public primary schools on October 30, 1880, was 23,132; 
private primary grades, 6,796; in all, 29,928. The pupils in these schools numbered 
1,443,222 (849,312 boys and 593,910 girls) for the public ones and 326,380 (boys, 150,257; 
girls, 176,123) for the pri^-ateschools. The totals are as follows: 1,769,602, of whom 999,569 
were boys and 770,033 girls. The school-houses constructed between 1871 and 1880 
were 429 in number; those bought, 272; repaired, 1,470; total, 2,171. In the normal 
schools, 24,888 boys and 12,447 girls — total, 37,336 — received instruction during that 
period. The budget for primary instruction in the municipalities in 1879-^80 wae 
20,810,760 francs ($4,016,477) ; in the provinces, 1,776,911 francs ($342,944) for 1880. Id 
1850 there were 600,000 children of both sexes attending the primary schools. In 186S 
more than 1,300,000 were reported. The increase during the 15 years was about 117 pei 
cent. Between 1865 and 1880 there was still an increase, but not in the former propor 
tion. As stated above, there were 1,769,602 pupils in 1880, which, compared with 1865, 
gives an increase for the last 15 years of about 36 per cent. An official report for 1879-'8C 
has the following concerning superior instruction: The University of Madrid (the sc 
called Central University, as it is the only one authorized to confer doctor degrees) has 
^ye Acuities, viz: philosophy and letters, with 275 students; law, with 2,363 stadents; 
xiatoral and physical sciences, with 376 students; medicine, with 2,468; and pharmacy, 
with 1,366; total, 6,848 students. Madrid has also a school of civil engineering, witli 
190 students; a school of science, with 343 students; a school of fine arts, with 773 stti' 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 



EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. CCLXIII 

dents; a school of arts and trades, with 4,T70; a high school of commerce, 46 students; 
I high school of agriculture, 151; school of veterinary surgery, 796; a national school of 
mosiCjWith 1,877 students, and a school of political sciences, with 222 students. The 
jther Spanish universities are Barcelona, with 2,459 students; Granada, with 1,225; 
'^^iedo, with 21C; Salamanca, with 372; Santiago, 779; Seville, 1,382; Valencia, with 
2.1 18 students; Valladolid, 880; and Saragossa, with 771 students. 

SviDEX, coosliiutional monarchy : Area, 170,979 squOiTO miles ; population, 4,578,901. Capital, 
Stockholm ; population, 173,433. 

Aooording to the law of June 18, 1842, each parish of Sweden is to have at least one 
Tell established school with an instructor who is a graduate of a primary normal. Still, 
two communes, or parishes, where the schools are few and far between, may unite and 
(wry on one school only. Ambulatory schools are also found in sections of the country 
where there are comparatively few people, and where the schools are necessarily ^videly 
apwated. The foundation of infimt schools dates from 1853; the superior primary 
Miiools were organized in 1858. Each school district has a school board, which regulates 
the methods of teaching, discipline, school age, &c. Ordinarily the child enters school 
at 7 jeazs of age and finishes the course at 14. Children receiving instruction at home 
are subject to a weekly examination before the school board. In certain provinces there 
are special schools for young people who are over 14. The aim of these schools is to de- 
Tdop the knowledge obtained in the lower grades. The course of study in the primary 
schools covers reading, writing, mental arithmetic, memorizing, singing, &c. The public 
sehoda have two divisions, one for children from 8 to 10 years of age, answering to the 
iower grades of the elementary schools, and another for those older. Statistics for the 
whole of Sweden are not at hand, but for the middle schools, or *'hogre liiroverk," the 
Adtowing figures for the autumn of 1881 are given: In 34 schools — 4 of them at Stock- 
Wm— 11,431 pupils were reported. These were divided into 5,076 in the Gymnasien, 
1979 in the Realschulen, and 4,476 in the common grades, or burgher schools, as the 4 
bwer dasBes are called. The hogre liiroverk are seven-class schools and the two upper 
daawsbave Greek and "no-Greek" divisions — 1,408 pupils in the former, 1,652 in the 
Matter. There are also 24 five-class schools, with 2,893 pupils, the two upper classes con- 
taining 395 Latin pupils (preparing for the Gymnasium) and 575 Realschule pupils ; 19 
tliree-dasB schools, with 801 pupils; 9 two-class, with 227 pupils; and 9 one-class, "peda- 
?ogier," with 159 pupils; in all, 95 schools, with 15,511 pupils. The two universities 
at Cpsala and Lund are well endowed and take a high rank. They are attended by 
about 1,500 (Upsala) and 650 (Lund) students annually. Sweden has 17 schools for 
<J«af-mutc6, 4 for the blind, and 4 for idiots. 

^^TrnaajtSD, federal republic? Area, 15,902 square miles; population, 2,816,102. CapiUd, Berne; 

population, 36,000. 

Hie school statistics for the year 1881, just published by the Swiss government, have 
wt been received to date, so that only stray items can be given. Each of the cantons 
and demi-cantons has its local government, and in all the cantons, but especially those 
<tf Northeastern Switzerland, education is widely diffused. In the Protestant cantons 
^ proportion of school attending children is to the whole population as 1 to 5; in the 
^Protestant and half Roman Catholic cantons it is as 1 to 7; in the Roman Catholic, 
1 to 9. Instruction is obligatory between the ages of 6 and 12. Primary and secondary 
KiiM^ are found in every district; in the former, the elements of education, with geog- 
i>)4t and history, are taught; in the latter (for children firom 12 to 15 years of age), 
Bodem languages, geometry, natural history, the fine arts, and music There are normal 
vbools in all t^e cantons and there are 4 universities. 

h the Cbnton of Zurich the school fund amounted to 57,000 francs in 1832; in 1877 it 
«riied 1,740,000 francs; in 1881 the districts alone raised 2,056,378 francs for the ele- 

Oigitized by VjOOQ IC 



CCLXIV REPORT OF THK COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATIOX. 

mentary and 340,096 francs for the secondary schools. The cantonal fund for these two 
grades was 1,000,000 francs, so that the schools receive about three and a half millions 
annually. In 1880-^81 Zurich (canton) had 93 ** review '» schools (Fortbildungsschulen) 
receiving state aid. The teachers numbered 206; pupils, 177 under 15 years of age and 
1, 937 over that age. There were also 54 schools taught the whole year. C^e werbeschulen 
were reported at Riesbach and Zurich. In the former were 88 pupils over 15 years old 
and 9 teachers; in the latter, 467 pupils of like age and 22 teachera. Other schools of 
this canton were the industrial art school of Zurich, 2 schools for modelling, an evening 
school for girls, a girls* work school, and a cantonal technical school. The university 
at Ziirich (or German-Swiss high school, as it is called) had 351 students in the winter 
semester of 1881-'82. They were subdivided into 18 theological students, 34 for law, 180 
studying medicine, and 119 philosophy. 

In the Canton of Berne there are primary, secondary, review, handiwork, watchmaking, 
and other industrial schools. The handiwork and technical industrial schools embrace 
instruction in drawing, modelling, practical reckoning, elements of geometry (especially 
surface and body measurements), book-keeping in German and French, physics and 
chemistry, and technological branches. Eleven such schools reported in 1880, with 450 
pupils. The handiwork school of Berne had 181 pupils in 1878-'79. The drawing school 
of Brienz, at the end of 1880-^81, had 38 pupils; that of St. Immer, 43 pupils. The art 
school of Berne has 4 teachers and from 15 to 20 pupils who are studying oil painting, 
drawing (academic and ornamental), modelling, painting in water colors, perspective and 
technics drawing, and methods of instruction in drawing. The city of Berne has 2 
secondary schools for boys, with 5 classes each; the boys enter these schools after passing 
through 4 primary school classes. The girls* schools have two divisions: a secondary 
school for pupils from 10 to 15 years of age and an upper division for those from 15 to 19 
years. Here, too, in the one school for girls, is a five years' course, as in the boys' schools. 
The studies included in the schools for girls are religion, pedagogy, German, French, 
English, mathematics, history, geography, natural history, singing, drawing, writing, 
fancy or handiwork, gymnastics, letter writing, a business course with book-keeping, 
knowledge of different kind of wares, and domestic economy. Berne University en- 
rolled 385 students, viz: in the theolo^cal courses, 35; in the legal, 139; in the med- 
ical, 150; and in the philosophical, 61. 

Lausanne, Canton of Vaud, gives information for 1880-'81 of 98 schools for boys, 99 for 
girls, and 624 mixed schools; pupils, 33,876, from 7 to 16 years of age; teachers, 509 
men and 312 women. The normal school had 154 students in 4 classes; the industrial 
school, 414 pupils in 8 classes; the cantonal college, 229 pupils in December, 1881; the 
Gymnasium, 91 ; and the academy, 264. The 17 communal colleges had 353 pupils in the 
classical divisions and 982 in the scientific divisions. Twelve villages report superior 
schools (higher schools for girls), with 705 pupils. At these district schools were 170 
teachers. Many private institutions are also reported, with from 150 to 200 pupils. The 
deaf and dumb institute at Moudon had 29 in its courses; an agricultural course (at Lau- 
sanne), 24 students. 

Aargau reports 34 review schools, 4 of them for industries. The most important is at 
Lenzburg; its courses are continued the whole year. 

St, GoIVb school districts brought 2,385,898 francs to the public schools in 1879-'80; in 
1880-'81 the sum was increased to 2,527,445. The cantonal fund for education was a 
million francs. 

Lucerne reported 24 district schools in 1879-'80, with 551 pupils in the winter course. 
The summer course of 1880 was held in 23 district schools; pupils, 417. In 1880-'81 
there were 24 secondary schools, with a total 'of 502 pupils. An additional 226 pupils 
were noted in Lucerne City, Miinster, Sursee, and WiUisau. Pupils of the canton tak- 
ing the winter and full year's course were 1,029 in 1879-'80 and 728 in 1880-'81, 

Gravhiinden (Grisons) had 358 pupils in the cantonal schools in 1880-'81 to 361 in the 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 



EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. CCLXV 

preceding year. At the Gymnasium were 67 pupils; in the Realschule, 168; teachers' 
mmmary, 123; total, 358. These figures are for the beginning of the year. 

Bmale reported 44 ** review " schools in 1879 and 34 in the winter of 1880-'81. The 
papik numbered 647 at the beginning of the course and 472 at the termination. Read, 
ing, eomposition, arithmetic, and a knowledge of the history of Switzerland were among 
the branchss taught. The drawing and modelling school of the city of Basle, which 
was founded in 1796, was to undergo certain changes in the plan of organization. In 
1^79-' 80 800 students were reported ; the average was 740. The school for woman's work 
had 139 pupils in the latter part of 1880. Branches taught were sewing by hand and 
Buchine, dressmaking (pressing, cutting, trimming), arithmetic, and book-keeping. 
Bade University had 267 students in 1881-'82 (winter semester): in the theological 
coarse, 56; legal, 41; medical, 100; philosophical, 70. 

G€mfra*ti review (Fortbildung) school numbered 104 students in 1879-'80; the commer- 
dal and industrial school, 146 regular students and 206 extems; the school for watch- 
makers, 90 pupils in 1880-^81, at the end of the year 58, 28 having finished their appren- 
tioe^p, and 4 leaving before the close of the course. Both theoretical instruction and 
pnctical instruction are given in this school. The studies cover French, arithmetic, 
mathematics, linear drawing, physics, and book-keeping. The drawing and art schools 
of Geneva City were divided as follows in 1880-'81 : 2 preparatory schools, with 63 pupils; 
1 school for young ladies, with 164 pupils: 1 middle school for modelling and ceramics 
• with 29 pupils) and for drawing from the figure (34 pupils) ; 1 school for ornamentation 
and architecture, 54 pupils; 1 school for art industry, 72; 1 school for designing from 
nature (lasting from November to April), with 27 pupils; 1 school of fine arts, with 18 
pupils. The canton has also a fiiculty of medicine, a school of chemistry, a school of 
phanuaey, and now a school of dentistry. With 100,000 inhabitants, the expenditure 
Ibr educational purposes is quite remarkable. In 1865 it amounted to 343,909 francs, 
that is, 11 per cent, of the total expenditures for cantonal afiiairs. In 1880 the amount 
was 1,135,535 francs, or 23 per cent, of the expenditure from the treasury, viz, 4,907,924 
fomcs. 

From Sohthurn the statistics are: 2,034 Fortbildung (or review) pupils, under charge of 
212 teachers in 1880-'81. 

Thmrgwna had in the winter of 1880-^81, in similar schools, 2,464 pupils and 240 
teachers. 

GlaruM reported an additional number of such review schools. The number in 1880-^81 
was 22, with 550 pupils. Of these, 320 were over 16 years of age. 

SckitfZj in 1881, reported a drawing school, with 40 pupils; a "review" school, with 
24pnpi]fs at Ibach; another at Einsiedeln, pupils not given, but with instruction in ele- 
Bw&tary branches, book-keeping, drawing, and French. 

Vri had 1,330 male and 1,354 female pupils in the primary and secondary grades. 
The teachers were : men, 25; women, 25. Two districts kept all-day schools throughout 
tbe entire year; 2 districts, half-day schools for the whole year. Three districts had all- 
daj schools for half of the year and 16 had half-day schools for the half year. 

TCBKEY (in Europe) : Area, 62,028 square miles; population, 4,275,000. 

!So reports are at hand from this section of the world, but firom a statement made by 
tke mapector of the burgher schools at Onstantinople it is learned that 450 burgher 
Kboois are found in Constantinople and the provinces at present. More than 5,000 
popils attend these schools. About 160 graduates were noted, to 60 in the preceding 

Ariforia. — In ld78-'79 there were 1,088 primary schools in Bulgaria, and in 1881 the 
' had increased to 1,365. The primary schools are supported by the communes 
lalflo by the churches, the latter contrib'iting two-thirds of the products of the sale of 
I far the purpose (the manufactureof candles for religious purposes bp|pf^i^onop- 



CCLXVI REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

oly of the clergy). The communes contribute a portion of their domain for school pur- 
poses. Before the Russian occupation the school-houses were wretched structures. More 
than four hundred have been built since then. It was found easier to build these unpre- 
tending edifices than to find teachers. Under the Turkish rule intelligent Bulgarians 
who wished to remain in their country were obliged to become teachers, priests, or physi- 
cians. Since the advent of Russian rule the same class of people have found employment 
in a<lministrative afiiEurs, and those who have remained with the schools have had the task 
of hastily preparing young persons who were willing to serve as teachers. After six 
weeks or two months of pedagogical training these young teachers enter upon their profes- 
sion. Two-thirds of the Bulgarian schoolmasters are from seventeen to twenty-four 
years of age. In 1881 two normal schools were established. 

Besides the purely Bulgarian schools, the government has had to preserve the Mus- 
sulman and the Israelite schools. There are about 300,000 Turks remaining in the 
principality, and the instruction in their schools is entirely religious. The Jews are the 
descendants of those who were expelled from Spain by Philip II and speak Spanish to 
this day. Their schools are of a primitive character, but have, been much improved 
recently through the efforts of the Hebrew alliance. Twelve cities have secondary 
schools, and at Sophia there is one where the ancient languages are taught. As yet (1881 ) 
there is no superior education. An agricultural school will soon be opened. Students 
of special branches (law, medicine, industrial arts) pursue their studies abroad, the ma- 
jority of them at government expense. 

Boumelia. — In Eastern Roumelia, with a population of over a million, there were, in the 
school year 1880-'81, 1,412 primary schools, with 80,591 pupils, of whom 23,789 were 
girls. The Bulgarians, who form the greater part of the population, had 841 schools, with 
48,000 scholars; the Turks, 471 schools, with 15,189 scholars; and the rest were scattered 
among Greeks, Armenians, and Jews, who made up the rest of the population. Educa- 
tion is obligatory in Roumelia from the seventh to the thirteenth year, and the statute 
further declares that after fifteen years from the date of its publication only those indi- 
viduals shall have the right to vote who shall be able to read and write Bulgarian, 
Greek, or Turkish. According to the most probable calculations, two-thirds of the chil- 
dren of the province were subject to the compulsory law. The msgority of the teach- 
ers were Bulgarians. Amop^ the Turks the imans and muezzins perform the ftinctions 
of teachers. There are no normal schools, but young teachers study pedagogics during the 
vacations. Inspection is i)erformed not by special officers but by physicians, ecclesiastics, 
and other prominent individuals. There are four secondary schools, which have been 
established since the Russian occupation, two for boys and two for girls. There is no 
superior education. Some young students are educated abroad at the expense of the 
government, as in Bulgaria. 

II.— Asia. 

BamsH India: Area, 1,425,723 square miles; population, 254,899.516. 

In 1870 the government of India made over to the local governments several depart- 
ments of the administration, including education, with a fixed imperial assignment for 
their support. 

In respect to education, it was especially stipulated that the existing code, the grant 
in aid rules, and other matters of general principle should not be afiected by the transfer. 

The systems of education maintained in the several provinces undef this arrangement 
bear a general resemblance to that of Great Britain. The expenditures are met by 
grants in aid, local taxes, tuition fees, subscriptions, endowments, &c. With respect to 
grade, the institutions are classified into universities, colleges, secondary schools (includ- 
ing high and middle schools), primary schools, and schools for special or technical train- 
ing. With respect to their relation to government, the institutions shown in the official 
reports are classified into government schools, aided private schools, and unaided private 
schools under government inspection. This simple outline conmnpfi^^^stem of com- 



EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



CCLXVII 



plicated detail, of which the most prominent features are separate schools for boys and 
girls, the division of the schools into English, vernacular, and English and vernacular, and 
the classification of scholars by race or creed. 

Umvenities. — Superior education is provided in the universities of Calcutta, Madras, 
tad Bombay. A fourth university wUl doubtless soon be added, a bUl for conferring 
upon the Ptuyab University College the powers of a university having been transmitted 
to the secretary of state, who had previously intimated his approval of the measure. 
London University has furnished the model for those of India. Their function is to 
wmfer degrees upon matriculates who study in the affiliated colleges and schools and 
upon such other candidates as may be presented under the rules of the senates. 

D^rees in science have recently been instituted in the Bombay University and the 
name of the first arts examination changed to the previous examination, to indicate 
the place it now holds as introductory to both degrees in the faculty of arts, viz, b. a. 
aodB. sc. 

Daring the present year the Bethune School for Girls has been added to the number of 
goremment colleges affiliated to the Calcutta University. Its courses lead to the first 
examination in arte. 

The record of university examinations and passes for the year gives some idea of the 
extent to which the people avail themselves of the provision for superior education. 



I Bombay Uni- - 
I versity. | 



Calcutta Uni- 
versity. 



Madras Uni- 
versity. 



Examinations. 



a 
a 



Hatricolation or entrance examination 1, 260 



AKTS COIXEOES. 

Fliat arts examination 

L ac. examination ..„ 

L A. examination 

3L A. examination^ ~ 



OOIXBQES FOB PBOFBSSIONAL TBAINIXG. 

EDtpxMering „ 

L.CE. exaunination^w , 

B.C.E. examination ^ 

Hedk^ne: 

Pffrliminary scicntiflc 

L.M. a. fixst examination^ 

i» M. g. aeoond exam i nation^ 

TirA M.B. examination ...^ 

ILB. examination - 

> in medicine 



B. I*, examination 

JkCL. examination . 



406 
62 
100 

7 



c36 i 
d23 



a429 

179 

2 

84 

4 



25 



17 



2,081 
840 



295 

48 



47 



1,184 



320 



8,519 



478 



126 
30 



17 



1,871 



167 



195 
9 



113 
6 



algirL 



6FirBtB.8C. 



c First L. c. E. 



dL.C.B. 



Hie year was sgnalized hy the success for the first time in India of two young native 
Uses at the fint arts examination at Calcutta University and two at Madras Univer- 
itty. The latter bestows the degrees in arts upon candidates who have not qutdified in 
a rttwU 111 language. From the classification of the examinees with respect to race and 
need, it appears that the Brahmins take the lead in higher edu^ca^on. |^qqq[^ 



CCLXVIII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

The expenditure upon the three nnivereities for the year under report was 143,555 
rupees (a rupee =39 cents). 

The following summaries are derived from the official reports on public instraction in 
nine proyinces (Bombay, Bengal, Madras, Punjab, northwestern provinces and Oudh, 
Assam, central provinces, Coorg, and British Burmah) and two native states (Hyderabad 
and Mysore): Population, 201,064,016; number of scholars in arts colleges March 31. 
5,620; number in colleges for professional training, 1,497; number in schools for special 
or technical training, 19,847; number in secondary schools (high and middle), boy^, 
260,854; girls, 14,486. 

Secondary instruction. — Secondary education is most widely difllised in Bombay and 
Bengal. In the former it is estimated that the ratio of boys in high schools to the whole 
X>opulation is 1 to 5,000, in middle schools 1 to 1,666; in the latter the estimates are: 
for high schools, 1 to 1,400; for middle schools 1 to 1,000. 

Elementary instruction, — The reports of primary instruction include all the aided schools 
and xmaided schools under government inspection. These had, March 31, a total enrol- 
ment of 1,888,345, viz, 1,784,988 boys and 103,357 girls. 

The total annual expenditure lor primary education was 6,685,070 rupees, of which 
6,178,713 were for boys' schools and 506,357 for girls' schools. The total government 
expenditure for primary education was 2,238,797 rupees, of which 2,016,771 were for 
boys' schools and 222,026 for girls' schools. The expenditure for primary education is 
not a very high percentage of the total expenditure for education. In Bombay, where it 
is highest, the expenditure for primary schools for boys was 38.28 per cent, of the total 
expenditure and for girls 4.02 per cent. 

The proportion of government expenditure to the total expenditure varies greatly in 
the several provinces. This is partly due to the operation of the payment upon results 
system and partly to the constant endeavor to reduce the government appropriations 
and to secure adequate support for the schools from district and municipal funds. 

In the three provinces reporting the largest expenditure, the ratios of government 
expenditure to the total for primary education are as follows : Bombay, for boys' schools 
21 per cent.; for girls', 17 per cent; Bengal, for boys' schools, 19 per cent; for girls', 40 
per cent. ; Madras, for boys' schools, 9 per cent. ; for girls', 24 per cent. 

The policy of the government is to reduce appropriations; at the same time a strong 
opposing party maintain that the increase of local taxation is impossible. The director 
of public instruction for Bombay, in his report for 1880-'81, observes that the local re- 
sources are now almost entirely appropriated and that a further extension of primary 
education depends mainly on the ability of government to make a larger grant in aid of 
local fund schools. Similar statements are made by other directors. The question of 
school revenue promises to become the most important of any affecting the progress of 
education in India. 

The current reports call attention to the growing interest in education in the rural 
districts and among the Mahometan population, to the tendency to multiply schools for 
girls, and to the steady increase in the number of indigenous schools brought under 
government inspection. With all that has been accomplished, however, it is estimated 
that upwards of 25,000,000 children needing primaiy education are uncared for, and 
such is the urgent necessity of extending the means of elementary education among the 
masses of India that an educational commission is to be organized to devise practical 
measures for meeting the demand. 

The total number of scholars reported in inspected schools of all classes in the nine 
provinces and two native states under consideration was 2,190,197, of whom 206,832, or 
a little above 9 per cent., were studying English. 

Japan, absolute monarchy: Area, 156,604 square miles; population, 34,838,479. Capital, Tokio; 

population, 811,510. 

The latest educational statistics for Japan are to be found in the Report of the Com' 
missioner of Education for 1879. The Japanese code of education, revised to Decern- 



EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. CCLXIX 

ber 28, 1880, iras faHj stated in the report for 1880. A late item of information is 
tbat the JaiMmese minister of education has gone to Berlin for the purpose of studying 
German methods of education. Certain changes, as a result of this visit, are to he in- 
troduced in the home system. According to a statement made by him, there were 
53wOOO govemment schools in Japan in 1872, arranged according to European models; 
this gives one primary school to every 640 inhabitants. In 1875 the number of pupils 
was about half a million, and in 1877 there were 1,500,000 male and 500,000 female 
poinla. Some 57,000 men and 1,275 women were teaching at that date. As the num- 
ber of -persons of school age is, however, over five millions, many new schools are 
neeeaBary. Private persons have contributed over thirty million dollars for school pur- 
poses, besides large giils of lands, and the number of pupils in 1881 exceeded three 

iniliions. 

III.— Africa. 

EGTrr, a dependency of Turkey : Area, 1,406,250 sqoare miles ; population, 16,952,000. Capital, 

Cairo; population, 349,883. 

For the latest educational statistics, see the Report of the Commissioner of Education 
for 1879. 

rv.— NoBTH America. 

Doxmosr op Canada : Area, 8,470,392 square miles ; population, 4,324,810. Capital, Ottawa ; popu- 
lation, 27,412. 

Each of the seven provinces forming the Dominion of Canada has power to regulate 
its own local affiurs, including education, so far as may be done without interfering with 
the policy and action of the central administration under the governor general. 

Public instruction in most of the provinces is under the control of a council of educa- 
tion and of one or more superintendents, according as the religious element is or is not 
recognized. Full information upon this point is embodied in my annual report for 1876. 

«. BRrnsH CoLXTXBi A: Area, 341,306 square miles; population, 49,450. Capital, Viotoria. Superin- 
tendent of education, C. C. McKenzie. 

The report of the superintendent for 1881, being the eleventh annual report, includes 
a brief survey of the decade. 

Total enrolment in common schools for the current year, 2,579; average daily attend- 
ance. 1,313.61; enrolment in high school, 74; average daily attendance, 45.07; total 
«siTohnent for all public schools, 2,653; total number of teachers, 68; permanent staff, 62; 
total annual expenditure for education, $58,515, of which sum $9,254 were for buildings 
and insurance. From the review of the decade it appears that during the period the 
warn of $480,395 has been expended for education and that more than 6,000 children 
ittve been instructed. 

I. Xkw Bkunswi ck: Area, 27,174 square miles; population, 321,233. Capital, Fredericton. Chief 
superintendent of education, Theodore H. Rand. 

The mode of support of schools in New Brunswick is threefold : (1) District assess- 
CMSxt, (2) county assessment, and (3) government grants. The government grants for 
the year, as shown by the tables, amounted to $155,020; the county assessment, to 
$83,927; the district assessment is not given in the report, but is estimated by the 
qperintendent at $250,000.^ To these sums should be added annual government grant 
to university, $8,844, and government grant for education of the blind and of deaf-mutes, 
$1,220, making a total of $499,012. 

The following statement of average rate of salaries is also furnished by the superintend- 

ip^r this and other interestiniT information pertaining to the school system of New Brunswick, I 
m fasdefatod to a private letter ftx>m Hon. Theodore H. Rand. Of this item he says : ** Probably I 
hMcpkMcdthe district assessment too low in my estimate." Digitized by ^OOQIC 



CCLXX REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

ent: first class males^ average for whole province, exclnding principals of grammar or 
high schools, $508; secoitd class, $315; third class, $236; first class females, $339; second 
class, $230; third class, $186. 

The school year consists of a summer term of 108 teaching days and a winter t«rm of 
117 teaching days. Number of schools reported for the term, 1,368, having 1,410 teacb- 
ers and 52,739 pupils. The enumeration includes 14 grammar schools, having 14 prin- 
cipals, 38 other teachers, and 618 pupils. Number of schools reported for the winter 
term, 1,297, having 1,356 teachers and 49,550 pupils; 14 grammar schools are included, 
having 14 principals, 36 other teachers, and SS9 pupils. Total number of difierent pupils 
in attendance upon the schools during the year, 62,623; proportion of the population 
enrolled during the summer term, 1 in 5.42; during winter term, 1 in 5.77. 

The attendance upon the normal school for the annual session closing July 1, 1881, was 
130 students, of whom 32 belonged to the PYench preparatory department. The model 
department enrolled 188, viz, 78 boys and 110 girls. 

c. Newfoundland: Area, 40,200 square miles; population, 181,753. Capital, St. John^s. 

Following is from the report of Hon. William Pilot, superintendent of Church of Eng- 
land .schools, for the year ending December 31, 1881: 

Total number of pupils reported in schools under Church of England boards, 9,326; 
number of teachers employed, 129; total expenditure, $26,523.06. 

d. Ontario: Area, 101 ,733 square milen; population, 1,923,228. Capital, Toronto; population^ 86,415. 
Minister of education, Adam Crooks, ll. d., q. c. 

School population and attendance. — Total school population (5 to 16), 489,924; nam- 
ber of pupils 5 to 16 attending public schools, 464,395; number attending high schools, 
9,633; number attending universities, colleges, private schools, &c., 5,750; number under 
5 or over 16 attending the several classes of schools, 27,611. Elstimate of number 5 to 
16 not attending any school, 10,146, or 2 per cent, of the total school population. Aver- 
age daily attendance at the public schools, 220,068. 

Receipts and expenditures. — Total receipts for all public school purposes, $3,254,829; 
total expenditure, $2,822,052, of which $2,113,180 were for teachers' salaries. Average 
cost per pupil, based on total expenditure, was $o.66 for rural districts, $6.90 for citieB, 
$6.07 for towns, being for the whole province $5.w5. 

The system of public instruction in Ontario is so highly approved that a detailed ac- 
count of its organization will doubtless be of interest to those who may be intrusted 
with the development of a system elsewhere. For the following statement I am in- 
debted to Philip Carroll, esq.. United States commercial agent at Port Stanley and St. 
Thomas, Canada: 

Outline of the system of public instruction in OnlaHo. — The law provides for a depart- 
ment of education which shall be presided over by the minister of education. The 
powers and duties of the department of education are: (1) To prepare from time to 
time, subject to the approval of the lieutenant governor, text books, programme of 
studies, general rules and regulations for the organization and government of aU the 
schools and collegiate institutes, together with all other rules which may seem proper 
and appear to enhance the interests of education. (2) To distribute, within certain 
restrictions, the annual appropriation for the purpose of education, to appoint in.<q)ectors, 
and to require applicants for teacherships in all the schools to furnish evidence of their 
qualifications, and to prescribe the conditions upon which pupils shall be admitted to the 
high schools and collegiate institutes, &c. 

The law provides for public schools, high schools, collegiate institutes, separate Cath- 
olic and separate colored schools, &c. For the support of these schools the provincial 
parliament makes an annual Appropriation, which is divided equally upon the basis of 
attendance at each school. 

The province is divided into school districts, the residents of which are annually taxed 
a certain amount, equal at least to the legislative grant, toward the support of the school 
to which they send their children ; but no one is taxed for the support of a school to 
which he or she does not send children. Should the amount realized from the residents 



EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. CCLXXI 

of a adiool district nnder this provision not equal the amount apportioned from the legis- 
lative grant, the latter is withheld until an equal sum shall have been raised. All chil- 
dren from seven to twelve years of age have the right to attend some school or to be 
otherwise educated four months in each year. A parent or guardian who fails to pro- 
\ide for the education of his or her children between the ages adverted to is liable to a 
fine of $5 for the first offence and double that sum for each subsequent offence. 

A petition signed by five Roman Catholics in any school district is the only requisite 
to the establishment of a separate school of that fiuth and to a share of the annual legis- 
lative grant. 

In the case of colored people twelve names are necessary to a petition in order that 
they may have the privilege of establishing a separate school and the right to a share of 
the grant in question. 

In the public and other schools or institutes the religious feeling of each pupil or student 
» acmpnlously respected. In all these it is optional with the pupil or student as to 
whether he or she shall attend any particular religious service not his or her own. 

The teachers in the various sdiools and institutes have to undergo very stringent 
tiaminations before the central committee, provided for in the act, which awards them 
mst, second, or third class certificates, according to their qualification or grade, when 
thej shall be deemed qualified to teach. No one who is not a subject of Her M^esty 
bdigible to teach, no matter what his qualifications. This is law; but I am informed 
by Mr. N. W. Ford, a teacher in the Collegiate Institute at St. Thomas, to whose courtesy 
and kindness I am indebted for the books from which I select the data for this report, 
thai any p^son who can pass the examination is permitted to teach in the province. 

Xo foreign books are permitted to be used in any model or public school without the 
opreas penmssion of the department of education. 

The pnblic school year consists of two terms, commencing on the 3d of January and 
coding on the 7th of July, and again on the 18th of August and ending on the 23d of 
December. 

In the rural school sections, which are limited to five miles in length and breadth, 
nspectivdy, there are three trustees to each, elected for three years, or until their suc- 
«<s»rs shall have been elected by the ratepayers thereof 

In all towns not divided into wards and in all incorporated villages there are six school 
tnotces to each town or village. Each town or city divided into wards has two trustees 
to each ward. A trustee cannot be reelected against his own consent until four years 
>hall have elapsed firom the date of the expiration of his term. 

The law also provides for a certain number of county, town, and city inspectors, who 
shall be appointed by the county council or city or town school board, as the case may be. 
The ooan^ inspectors receive as compensation not less than $5 each per school annually 
fBm the county, and an additional $5 each per school per annum from the ^ ' consolidated 
rtveDne fund." T*hey are also allowed travelling expenses, to be determined by the 
f^»nty council. The compensation of the city and town inspectors is determined by the 
^^'^^ appointing them. 

1^ schools are variously designated as public schools, high schools, normal or model 
*hool8, sqkarate Catholic and colored schools, and coll^iate institutes. There is a 
^aehoolor collegiate institute in every county or union of cotinties, but the county 
o^fUKi] can, under certain restrictions, establish more. 

A eoUeg;iate institute must have a daily average attendance of sixty male students 
sudving Latin and Greek and four masters teaching the same, to entitle it to be classed 
« a ''coU^;iate institute. ' ' 

1^ county council has the power, with the approval of the lieutenant governor, at its 
^oal June session, upon the recommendation of the minister of education, to discon- 
^^ any high school within its jurisdiction. 

, ^'o person can be appointed head master in a high school or collegiate institute unless 
tie shall be a graduate of arts of some university within Her Majesty's dominions and 
famishes satisfactory evidence of his knowledge of the science and art of teaching. 

An teachers who, while engaged in the profession, contribute to the "superannuated 
^'^hew' fond " are entitled to be retired upon reaching the age of sixty and to receive 
1^ per annum for each year of service, and all teachers tinder sixty who have contributed 
^ like m.'uiner and are or may become disabled are entitled to a similar sum, and in cer- 
^•«in eases t^ose of both ages are entitled to $1 extra per aimum for each year as above. 

The high schools, collegiate institutes, and public schools in the same district open 
■WMlly on the 7th day of January and close on the Thursday before Easter, reopen on 
^^ fint Tuesday therwifber and close again on the 13th day of July, reopen on the 1st 
^ oT September and again close on the 22d of December, thus making three vacations 
**^»«e respective schools annually. 

The admission of pupils to the high schools and collegiate institutes is determined by 
>Watd of examiners consisting of the county, city, or town insp^t^r^ol ^l^^j^^ls, 



CCLXXII REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

the chairman of the public and high school or coUesiate institute boards, and the head 
master of the high school or collegiate institute. The questions to be propounded are 
prepared by the "central committee'* and transmitted by the minister of edocation to 
the inspector of the city, town, or county, as the case may be, who shall be the chair- 
man of the board adverted to and who shall prepare a return of the answers of each 
candidate and transmit it to the minister of education for approval or disapproval. 

Besides the schools hereinbefore enumerated, there are industrial schools, in which 
children are lodged, clothed, fed, and taught. Any child under the age of fourteen 
years who is destitute, vagrant, unruly, or under the control of vicious parents or guar- 
dians may be brought before a magistrate and sent to an industrial school, but in no case 
for a longer period than until the cliild shall have attained the age of sixteen years. 

«. Quebec: Area, 188,688 square miles ; population, 1,359,027. Capital, Quebec; population, 62,446. 
Superintendent of public instruction. Gideon Ouimet. 

Total number of schools of all classes, 4,800, having 6,906 teachers and 238,126 pupils; 
totalnumberofpupils in schools under supervision, 235,574; average attendance, 180,370; 
total amount levied for public instruction in the province in 1880-'81, $1,997,135. 

Among the measures for the consideration of the l^islature the superintendent urges 
the appointment of an inspector general as a means of bringing the superintendent and 
the inspectors into closer relations; the legal requirement that school commissioners and 
trustees shall know how to read; and the engagement of teachers for a period of not less 
than five years. 

The three normal schools were attended during the year by 314 students, of whom 189 
passed the examinations at the end of the year entitling them to diplomas, as follows: 
as teachers for academies, 18; for model schools, 72; for primary schools, 99. 

The polytechnic school of Montreal was founded in 1873 for the purpose of training: 
(1) Civil engineers, capable of conducting, directing, and executing all works of art and 
of construction upon the surfiice of the soil ; (2) mining engineers, capable of conducting, 
directing, and executing all works of discovering, extracting, and working ores and min- 
erals, and their transfonnation into useful metals; (3) mechanical engineers, capable of 
designing, putting together, and constructing all engines and machines used in manu- 
factures; and (4) industiial engineers, capable of applying the physical and chemical 
sciences to products and manufactures. The course of study extends over five years and 
is calculated to meet all the scientific and industrial requirements of the country. The 
curriculum of the first two years of study is precisely the same for all the pupils, who 
must have a sufiBciently extensive knowledge of mathematics, the natural sciences, and 
drawing before commencing the special study of any one of the four branches of civil en- 
gineering. At the end of the second year the pupil selects the branch which he prefers 
and studies it in a special manner during the last year at the school. From the opening 
of the polytechnic school until now 33 pupils have matriculated; of these, 11 left for 
various reasons before completing their course, 12 are still at school, and 10 obtained 
the diploma of civil engineer. From the establishment of the school in 1873 to the close 
of the financial year 1 879-' 80 the total cost of its maintenance >vas $38,565, of which 
sum the Grovemment contributed $21,000, pupils' fees amounted to $1,536, and the bal- 
ance was paid by the Catholic commissioners of Montreal, which, with the value of 
grounds, building, and furniture, made a total from the last source of $36,436. 

v.— South America. 

AsoEirriNE Confedebation, federal republic: Area, 515,700 square miles; population, 2,400,000. 
Capital, Buenos Ayres; population, 200,000. 

The following account of education is taken from the annual message to congress (re- 
ceived as this report is going through the press) of Julio A. Roca, president and chief 
executive officer of the republic: 

Receiving aid from the government are 1,505 schools, with 112,400 pupils. This 
does not include normal and model schools and schools annexed to the national college. 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. CCLXXIII 

At ^e capital there are 170 pnblio and 118 private schools, frequented by 33,190 pnpils. 
The figures are not given for the provinces, bat previous T^>orts indicate a large namber 
of aAoola, although there is" a manifest decrease in proportion to the population. A 
laek of competent professors is reported, uid financial embarrassments prevent the estab- 
lishment of as many educational institutions as are needed. Only 13 normal schools 
are meatioiied, and, although 4 more are to be started, this will not suffice to prepare as 
aanj teachers as are required. The attendance at the national colleges in certain prov- 
inees la oot what it should be, and many students who desire to enter are not sufficiently 
fvepared. For this reason the annexes have been founded in connection with some of 
the ooIlegBS. Much improvement is noticeable as a result of these schools. An educa- 
tiooal commission has been working for some time to place primary instruction on a 
more solid basia. So &t this commission has succeeded in arranging for a better admin- 
istiatioQ of the school ftmds, lor an inspection of the schools in the provinces where 
there have been difficulties between the authorities, for the erection of spacious and 
hygienically constructed buildings. Other changes for the better are being made in 
various educational institutions supported by the state: some are to be enlarged; others 
fimiished with new apparatus; normal schools and universities are having large addi- 
tions mado to their various coUections; and in some nothing more is required. Satis- 
ftctorj reports are received as r^ards the instruction in the universities. 

BaAZQ. : oonfltituUoniU empire : AreA, 8,287,961 square miles; population, 9,443,233. Capital, Rio de 
Janeiro; population, 274,972. 

Public education is divided into three distinct forms or classes: primary, secondary 
or preparatory, and sdenHfic or superior. According to the constitution, primary in- 
stractioD is gratuitous and will some time become compulsory. Education is still in a 
baidcwaid state and no statistics can be given, but the following statement indicates a 
tendency towards progress: Since the termination of the war with Paraguay a general 
awakening on the part of the state authorities, private institutions, &c, as to the needs 
of Bnaxil in respect to education has been perceptible. No effort has been spared within 
the last few years to develop public instruction and large expenditures have been 
Bade towards that end. An examination of the annual budget shows an increase of 
ftmda voted from year to year by the government for the piuposes of superior instruc- 
tion thiooghout the various provinces. Large sums have also been voted for primary 
and seoondazy education at Rio de Janeiro. According to the constitution, superior in- 
ifrnetion in the provinces and both primary and secondary at the capital depend on 
the amoonts voted by the general government. The various ministers since the war 
with Paraguay have done much towards modifying the methods of instruction in Rio de 
Janeiro. Hany school-houses have been erected, the latest fhmishings and apparatus 
added; new schools established; collections for object teaching organized; translations 
l^o Pntognese made of the best text books used in the schools of France, Germany, 
and the United States; tile position of primary teachers improved, &c. The result is 
thai teadiera do better work, the attendance of pupils has been looked after, and the 
» generally rank higher. Pupils have also been aided to get school books and the 
r apparatus so as to advance in their studies. 

Cmxj, republic : Area, about 300,000 aquaro miles ; population (January 1, 1880), 2,183,434. 

PobUc education in Chili is divided into primary, secondary, and superior. The ftee 
poUie schools in 1880-'81 numbered 638, divided into 114 city schools for boys and 141 
fcr giriSy and 101 countiy schools for boys and 264 fbr girls; 18 schools were added during 
file year, making the total as above. The number of children enrolled in the public 
aeboolswas 24,961 boys and 23,833 girls— total, 48,704; average attendance, 34,089. 
lb this most be added the private and society schools, numbering 405, with 15,106 
9,218 boys and 5,888 girls. The total number of public and private schools 

ft— •Xym Digitized by V^OOQIC 



CCLXXIV REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

was therefore 1,043. , There are 4 normal schools to snpply teachers for these schools. 
In 1881 congress appropriated $1,119,620 for school poiposes. The higher and inter- 
mediate or secondary schools are free and have their own buildings, apparatos, (Stc The 
principal one, founded at Santiiiigo in 1813, is called the National Institute. In the prov- 
inces these schools take the name of liceos or high schools. The universitj preparatory 
course in the National Institute in 1880 had 843 students, distributed as follows: Physi- 
cal sciences and mathematics, 34; medicine, 263; law, 389; pharmacy, 86; drawing, 
painting, and sculpture, 71. The 17 high schools in the provinces had 2,176 students, 
aad there were 918 enrolled in the intermediate course at the institute, making a total 
of 3,937 of this dass of students. 

The university at Santiago has 5 fiiculties (law, medicine and surgery, engineering 
and architecture, theology, and philology). The number of students at the university 
in 1880 was 724. The high schools give instruction in Latin, French, English, general 
history, and history of Chili and America, philosophy, literature and history of litera- 
ture, physical geography, physics and chemistry, mathematics, drawing, natural history, 
and book-keeping. In the schools in the mining districts the application of physics and 
chemistry to mining and metallurgy id taught, and in commercial centres suitable instruc- 
tion is given to prepare students for active life. There are also an agricultural school, a 
technical school, and a school of fine arts. 

In Santiago is the national library, with more than 60,000 volumes. The university, 
institute, and many private schools as well as the provincial schools have excellent libra- 
ries also. In Santiago and Valparaiso there are museums of natural history, and in Sesena 
and Oopiapo, museums of mineralogy. 

X^niTED Statbb of OoiiOifBiA, federal republio: Area, 004,773 English aquare miles; popaladon 

(in 1870), 2,951,328. 

This confederation of nine states has its primary, secondary, and superior instruction 
under the direction of a secretiury of state, who is a part of the federal ministry. Each state 
has also a director of public instruction, as an officer of the ministiy, and each director 
has at his orders as many superintendents as there are departments in each state. Each 
department is divided into districts, in each of which the educational affi»irs come under 
chaige of a school commissi^ composed of 3 members named by the superintendent. This 
commissionwatchesover the school attendance, which is obligatory for all children between 
8 and 14 years of age, attends to the establishment of new schools In rural districts, over- 
sees the monthly examinations for promotion, and presents the requisite reports to the 
superintendent. This system of public instruction was established in 1870. Normal 
schools were founded throughout the confederation, and the schools generally were 
arranged as lay institutions. A revolt on the part of those desiring religious instruction 
in the schools, in 1876, was soon quelled, and the lay schools aro continued. The course 
of studies in the primary grades comprises reading, writing, arithmetio, national and 
universal geogn^hy, history, agriculture, botany, aoology, fVench, English, Overman, 
Spanish, and military exerdsee. The primary schools number 1,500; pupils, 75,000. 
Numerous private schools are also reported, Bogota alone, vrith a population of 100,000, 
having 22. The National University, the militaiy school, and schools of wchitectnre, 
painting, and music are at Bogota; the school of mines is at Antioquia; the naval scbo(d, 

at Csrthagena. 

YI.— Australasia. 

South Australia, British oolony: Area, 008,425 square miles; popalaUon, S70,86S> Oinpital, Ade> 
laide. Minister oontroUing education, J. Langdon Parsons. 

The following information is derived ftom the annual report for 1881 : 
School aUondamie, — Average monthly enrolment in public and provisional schools, 
27,061; average attendance, 20,653. Average monthly attendance of scholar holding 



Digitized by ^OOQIC 



EDUCATION m FOREIGN COUNTRIES. CCLXXV 

free certificates, 2,220. Number of teacbeis at the dose of the year, 786 ; percentages 
of popils passed at inspector's examination: public schools, 69.87; prorisional schools, 
61.77; infant departments, 84.40. Average duration of schools, public, 225.5 days; pn>- 
Tisdoiial, 224.1 days. 

The number of night schools open during the year was 73 for an average of 69 nights 
eiidi; avenige monthly attendance, 1,360 ; amount of fees received fiom scholars, 590/. 128. ; 
bonus paid by department, 722Z. 15s. 3d. The advanced school for girls had an attend- 
ance oi 98 during the last quarter of the year, being an increase of 21 over the number 
for 188a 

The report of the training college shows that 41 pupils were admitted in January, of 
Tfaom 38, vis, 23 men and 13 women, completed the course. At the certificate ezami- 
oataon, held in December, all the students, except one who was ill, were presented and 
were soccesBfiiL 

Qui of education, — The average cost for each child instructed during the year was 
U, 14t. 0]<i., and for each child in average attendance, 31 Of. 10}€L If the expenses of 
nanagement and inspection be added, these rates will be 12. IBs. O^d, and 3L 7a. IIH*, 
respectiTely. The amount of school fees paid by the parents was 19,736t. ISs. 6d., of 
whidi sum 13,1192. 14s, 11<2. were retained by the teachers of public and provisional 
aebooI& The same teachei6 received from the department 1,3192. 13s. 4d, on account of 
idiolars whose fees are paid by the state. 

The total amount expended in school buildings was 31,4872. 88. 8d, The total cost of 
publie instruction during the year 1831, exclusive of the expenditure on school buildings, 
was 91,4102. 17s. Id. ; the revenue in aid of the foregoing expenditure, derived from the 
xoitB of dedicated lands and other sources, was 19,5502. 168. 5<2., shovnng the net cost 
to tbe state to be 71,8602. Os. 8^2. The total area of lands dedicated for educational pur- 
poKB amounted on the 15th of December to 241,538}^ acres. 

Compulsum. — Under the operation of the compulsory act the percentage of children 
absent without a satisfactory reason shows a steady decline. 

Kcv SoCTH Wales, British colony : Area, 323,487 square miles; population, 761,468. Oapltal, Syd* 

ney; population, 220,427. 

My report Ibr 1880 gives particulars of the public instruction act which went into 
Kay 1, 1880, together with a somewhat detailed account of the progress of tbe 
fyr that year. No later report has been received from the colony. 
Slfdm^ Umivtmiy, — New South Wales was the first colony in Australasia to found a 
It was inooiporated by act of Parliament in 1851 and is constituted on the 
oi the British universities. It is supported by the state, and up to the present 
taM has cost in buildings and endowments over 200,0002. The object of its founders 
wto offer the highest forms of culture to all, '* without any distinction whatsoever. '' 
Tkb uaiverBity receives an assured government endowment of 5,0002. a year, and each 
«r As colleges 5002. for salary of a principal. About 50,0002. have been bestowed upon 
Ifts vniv^nsity by wealthy colonists for scholarships and prizes, and recently 180,0002. 
^von bequeathed to it by the late Mr. J. H. ChaUis. By a royal charter graduates are 
**to the same rank, title, and precedence as graduates of universities within tbe 
Kingdom." 
IjBge grants have been given to supplement private subscriptions for the affiliated ool- 
fB witliin the university, of which there are now three: the Anglican College of St. 
M, Boman Catholic College of St John, and the Presbyterian CoU^e of St Andrew. 

F-^*^ «e several ot^er eolleges erected and maintained at great expense by the Church of 
id, the Roman Catholic Church, and other denomination^ 
seeondary educational institutions include several of high character, among which 
I TecbnksX or Workingmen's College and the Sydney Grammar SchooL 



Digitized by 



Google 



CCLXXVI REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION.' 

QUEBNSLAFD, British colony: Are*. $88,224 square mfles; population, 818,525. Capital, Brisbane ; 
population, 81,1CS. Seoretary for public instruction, A. Archer. 

From the report of the secretary it appears that in 1861 there were 341 schools in 
operation, with 364 classified teachers and a lai:ge number of assistants and pupil teach- 
ers. The annual enrolment in the schools was 40,309; the average daily attendance, 
21,752; the gross expenditure on primary education was 110,231/. 33. Sd. The depart- 
ment has charge of six institutions for the rearing of neglected children, and during the 
year maintained 21 children at the New South Wales Institution lor the Deaf, Dumb, 
and Blind. 

Tasmavia, British colony : Area, 26,215 square miles ; population, 115,705. Capital, Hobart Town. 
Chairman of Uie board of education, Henry Butler. 

During the year 1881 there were 175 schools in operation; total enrolment, 13,644; 
average monthly enrolment, 9,258; average daily attendance, 6,701; total expenditure 
in aid of public schools, 18,191Z. It, Id, 

BECOMMENDATIONS. 

I have had the honor in previous reports to recommend that provision be made, by 
resolution of Congress, for the publication of 15,000 copies of this annual report. The 
correspondence of the Office has so increased that this number should now be made 
20,000 copies, and whatever Ongress may deem best to distribute under the personal 
direction of members should be in addition to this number. 

The organization of the educational museum which I have had the honor to recom- 
mend, now fairly commenced, should have sufficient appropriation to enable it, by 
exchange and otherwise, to supply similar collections in the offices of the several State 
superintendents and the leading cities when desired. There can be no question of the 
effective aid these collections would render to the progress of education. Through this 
Office the best illustrations of improved appliances could be collected and distributed to 
all parts of the country. 

The reports of efforts to educate the youth of 30,000 Alaskans continually disclose the 
embarrassments arising fh>m all absence of local administration of law. It is said the 
parents are disposed to have their children taught and the pupils learn readily, but it is 
clear there can be no satisfactory success, that the entire youth cannot be reached, until 
some form of law is provided for the organization of society. The pledges of the post 
and the honor of the nation would seem to permit no delay. Some inexpensive form of 
organization can Be devised, and an appropriation of |>50,000, it is believed, would give 
the work of education an excellent start, and is earnestly recommended. 

The remaining recommendations I have the honor most earnestly to renew: 

(1) I recommend that the office of superintendent of public instruction for each Terri- 
tory be created, to be filled by appointment by the President, the compensation to be 
fixed and paid as in the cose of other Federal appointees for the Territories. 

(2) In view of the large number of children growing up in ignorance on account of the 
impoverished condition of portions of the country, and in view of the special difficulties 
in the way of establishing and maintaining therein schools for universal education, and 
in consideration of the imperative need of immediate action in this regard, I recommend 
that the whole or a portion of the net proceeds arising iVom the sale of public lands be 
set aside as a special fhnd, the interest of said fhnd to be divided annually ihto rata 
among the several States and Territories and the District of Cdlumbia, under such pro- 
visions in regard to amount, allotment, expendittire, and supervision as Congress in its 
wisdom may deem fit and proper. 

The returns of the last census emphasize the importance of this recommendation. The 
per cent of illiteracy of persons 10 years of age and upward has decreased ftoxn 20.03 in 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 



CONCLUSION. CCLXXVII 

1670 to 17 in 1880, but the nnmber of illiterates oyer 10 years of age has increased from 
5,656,144 to 6,239,958 in the same period. 

(3) I reoommend the enactment of a law requiring that aU &cts in r^rurd to national 
aid to education and all facts in regard^ to education in the Territories and the District 
of C(dnmbia necessary for the information of Congress he presented through this Office. 

(4) I reoommend an increase of the permanent force of the Office. The experience of 
tiie Office indicates clearly that the collection of educational information and publication 
of the same, as required by the law regulating it, cannot be properly done with the 
jHesent limited clerical force. 

CONCLUSION. 

I take pleasmre in acknowledging my indebtedness to the fidthAil laborers in the Office 
and to aU others elsewhere who have contributed to the success of its work. 
I hftYe the honor to be, very respectfdlly, your obedient servant, 

JOHN EATON, 

Oommimoner. 
Hod. Samuel J. Eibkwood, 

Secretary of the Imterior. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ABSTRACTS 

OF THE 

OFFICIAL REPORTS OF THE SCHOOL OFFICERS OF STATES, 
TERRITORIES, AND CITIES, 

WITH 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION FROM VARIOUS SOURCES. 






Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



PBEFATOBT IVOTE. 

Hm following abstracts ipfedacation in the States and Territories are derived ftrom aneat variety^ 
of sources. First amonip tnese come reports of State officials^ such as State boards of eauoaUon and 
State saperintendents of instruction ; next, those of county and city superintendents, school com- 
Buttees. actine; school visitors, and principals of State institutions. From these is derived nearly all 
the information ffiven respectinsr elementary and special instruction, city school systems, and nor- 
Bsl schools, andmuch of that relating to secondary schools, as the high schools of the States and 
cities. What conoems private secondary schools is aimost wholly f^om returns made by the princi- 
pals of these to the Bureau of Education, supplemented by catalogues and other documents. 

For the matter 1 
«Doe is placed on 1 
iikd on special returns, »»«.« »»»« 
inquiry sent them by the Bureau. 

In every instanoe, official authority only is relied upon for statements distinotiv and definitely 
Bade, the printed catalogues and reports being chiefly used for this purpose, though sometimes an 
item of interesting information fkom other than offi<nal sources may be given, with a reference to 
the quarter from which it is derived. In such cases, however, the effort is always made to verify 
the statement before it is committed to the press. 

The matter derived from the various sources atx>ve indicated is formulated, in the abstraoCs of ed- 
ueatioo for each State, substantially in accordance with the schedule given below. 

GENERAL PLAN OF THE ABSTRACTS. 

L STATtmcAL suMSf ABV (d) School population and attendance. 

(6) School districts and schools. 
' IcS Teachers and teachers' pay. 

(a) Income and expenditure. 
1 State school bt8Tkii„ \a) Officers. 

) Other features of the system. 
I Oeneral condition, marking specially anything 
new and noteworthy. 

1 Crrr school ststkxs (a) Officers. 

lb) StatisUcs. 

(c) Other particulars. 

4. TKAnnxo of tkachebs (a) Normal schools and normal departments. 

lb) Teachers' institutes. 
(c) Educational journals. 

3>. Sbcdtdabt nraTBrcnoH (a) Public high schools. 

(6) Other secondary schools. 

ft. StFUtiOB ncsTRCcnoir (a) Colleges for men or for both sexes. 

(bj Colleges and high grade schools for women. 

7. ScmrrEFic Asm rmovEmiojx JiL iN8TBUonoir....(a) Training in scientific schools and agricultural 

colleges. 

E Training in theology. 
Training in law. 
Training in medicine, dentistry, and pharm- 
acy. 

8. SmAL Dnmrcnox (o) Deaf, dumb, blind, Ac. 

(6) Industrial and reformatory training. 
(e) Instruction in oratory, music, art, so. 
Sl Edccatiostal co3rvEiino!f8 (a) Meetings of State associations. 

(b) Special meetings of teachers, school principals, 

and superintendents. 

10. XdrEWOKTHT BU ET ACnOHS. 

U. Obituabt bjdoo&d (a) Brief memorials of teachers, superintendents, 

and other promoters of education who have 
died during the year. 

H CKixr 9rATB school offices (a) State superintendent. 

Tbe sfatlstics Ihmished the Bnrean in ansxrer to its circulars of inquiry, for convenience of refbr- 
cnee and comparison, are given in tables following these abstracts, while summaries of these statis- 
^ ~ aay be found under their appropriate heads in the report of the Commissioner preceding. 
" d aty 



Si 



Pec toe general courtesy with which his circulars have been answered, alike by State and dty offl- 
sis, b^ college presidents and heads of schools, as well as for documents additional to these re- 
fies. tae CoiunMSoner of Education here tenders his cordial thanks to all concerned. 

3 



Digitized by 



Google 



EEPOBT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



ALABARIA. 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY. 



rOPULATION AND ATTENDANCE. 



White youth of school age 

Colored youth of school age 

Whole number of school age 

Whites enrolled in public schools. . 
Colored enrolled in public schools. 

Whole enrolment.. _. 

Ay erage attendance of whites 

Average attendance of colored 

Whole ayerage attendance 



SCHOOL DISTBICT8 AND SCHOOLS. 

Number of school districts. 

Public schools for whites 

Public schools for colored 

Number of public schools reported. 

Pupils in spelling _. 

Pupils in reading 

Pupils in writing 

Pupils in arithmetic 

Pupils in geography 

Pupils in grammar--- 

Average length of schools in days. . 

Days in schools for whites 

Days in schools for colored 

Valuation of public school property. 

TEACHEBS AND THEIB PAY. 

White teachers in public schools. - . 

Colored teachers in public schools. 

Whole number of t^ichers 

White male teachers 

White female teachers -. 

Colored male teachers 

Colored female teachers . 

Average monthly pay of teachers.. 

In white schools 

In colored schools 



1879-'80. 1680-'81. Increase. Decrease. 



INCOME AND EXPENDITUBE. 

Total receipts for school purposes.. 
Total expenditure for sdiool pur- 
poses. 



217,500 

170,413 

388,003 

107,483 

72,007 

179,490 

67,794 

50,184 

117,978 



1,741 

3,085 

1,512 

4,597 

168,295 

128,020 

80,167 

65,016 

32,974 

22,423 

80 



3,094 
1,521 
4,615 
1,864 
1,230 
1,080 
441 
$21 08 



$388,013 
375,465 



217,690 

170,413 

388,003 

107,338 

68,951 

176,289 

66,840 

48,476 

115,316 



1,776 

2,981 

1,591 

4,572 

165, 157 

114, 544 

78,385 

74,669 

33,016 

22,214 

81.21 

84 

76 

$285,976 



3,053 
1,645 
4,698 
1,873 
1,180 
1,169 
476 



$22 98 
23 15 



$397,479 
410,690 



35 

'79' 



9,653 I. 

42 L 



1.21 



124 

83 

9 



89 
35 



$9,466 
35,225 



145 
3,056 
3,201 

954 
1,708 
2,662 



104 



25 

3,138 

13, 476 

1,782 



209 



41 



50 



(From reports of Hon. H. Clay Armstrong, State superintendent of education, for the 
years indicated.) 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 



ALABAMA. 



STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM. 



OFFICERS. 

Tliere are State and oounty saperintendents of education, township snperintendeoits of 
poblic schools, and county boards of education. These last are composed of the county 
soperintendent and two teachers associated with him for the purpose of examining 
teachers and conducting teachers' institutes. — (Constitution and laws.) 

OTHEB FEATURES OF THE SYSTEM. 

To sostain the schools there ^e the funds supplied from the State treasury, from op- 
tional local taxes in each county (except Mobile) of not over 10 cents on the $100, and 
from a poll tax of $1.50 on each male 21 to 45 years of age. Half the proceeds of the 
county tax must be used for the pay of teachers. School moneys are distributed acoord- 
mg to the enumeration of children between 7 and 21 years in each county, but no de- 
nominational schools are to receiye any. Separate schools for each race are to be main- 
tuned by the sdiool authorities. The scholastic month is 20 days of hours each. To 
nodrt their pay, teachers are required to be duly licensed, to be members of the county 
institute for their race (which they must attend once annually), and to ftimish quarterly 
TCportB to the county superintendent of education. — (Constitution and laws of 1879.) 

aENERAIi CONDITION. 

The State snxterintendent of education reports steady and gratifying progress and im- 
rement in free education within the year, yet the statistics furnished in<&cate a slight 
i in enrolment and average daily attendance, in the number of schools, and in the 
pupllfl in spelling, reading, and writing. There wcare, however, 35 more school districts 
reported, 8i more teachers employed, 9,653 more students in arithmetic and 42 more in 
geogr^ihy. The average length of schools in days was 81.21, against 80 last year. The 
average monthly pay of teachers of white schools was reported as lower than that of colored 
teadiere, being $^.98 in the Jformer case and $23.15 in the latter. Mr. Armstrong adds 
^aX either the salaries of the teachers of white schools in almost every school district in 
the StaAe were increased or the schools continued a longer term than stated. The number 
«f acbool-houses in 1881 was said to be 1,297; their value, $285,976; number of visits by 
toasstj saperintendents to schools, 2,361 ; number of institutes held, 89. These statistics 
se veiy imperfect, as but few of the counties reported. The total receipts forschool pur- 
poses increased ^,466, and the expenditures $35,225. It is thought that the receipts of 
tbe sixteenth section capital fund will be largely increased in 1882, as the legislature passed 
■I aet authorizing a compromise and settlement of certain claims, and the results in 1881 
framise imSl for the school ftmd of the friture. An act of the legislature providing for 
graded cestificates of license for teachers, and requiring rigid written examinations to pro- 
cure tb^D, wOl, it 18 said, reduce the number of schools temporwily as well as exclude 
ten the schools worthless and inefficient teachers. — (State report. ) 

kinderqXbten. 

For any schools of this class reporting for 1881, reference is made to Table Y of the 
qppcDdix. 

AID FROM THB FEABODY FUND. 

The amount received from this source for the year ending September 30, 1881, was 
$1, 800. It paid for nine scholarships in the Nashville (Tenn. ) Normal College. Promise 
mm made <» $5,000 for the following year. — (State report) 

CITY SCHOOL SYSTEMS. 



OFFICERS. 



City siroerintendentB are reported for Birmingham, Eu&ula, Huntsville, Mobile, Mont- 
fomefy, (^>elika, and Selma; city boards of education for Eufeula and Montgomery; a 
eombined city and oounty board of school commissioners for Mobile; and a board of trust- 
eesforOpemca 

STATISTICS. 



XtbOcCocraiity) 



Population. 



1880. 



48,093 
IS, 713 
7,829 



Children of 
school age. 



8,798 
1,787 



Komber of 
schools 
taught. 



Enrolment 
in public 
schools. 



6,180 
905 
887 



Average 
daily at- 
tendance. 



4,684 
488 
686 

iJigitized 



Number of 
teachers. 



126 
12 



jy^Qogile 



Expen- 
diture. 



6 EEPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

ADDITIONAL PABTICULAES. 

MobUe (iuclading both city and connty schools) reports 41 school districts; 60 schools 
for whites and 36 for colored ; general average length of white and colored schools, 166 days ; 
the schools visited 300timesby the connty superintendent; 73 school-houses, valued, with 
school ftimitnre, apparatus, &c., at $108,700; the average monthly pay of teachers for 
the white schools, $41.25; for the colored schools, $40.90; average cofft of pupil a month, 
84 cents. The total school population was 23,865, that for the city alone not being 
given. The number of pupils studying orthography was 5,040; reading and writing, 
5,050 each; arithmetic, 4,985; geography, 3,679; grammar, 2,384, all but 86 white; 
history, 2,055, all white. — (State report.) 

Montgomery reports 1 school district, in which 7 white and 5 colored schools were taoght 
an average of 160 days. The enrolment was divided into 351 white and 644 colored pu- 
pils; the attendance, into 160 white and 328 colored. — (State report) 

Sdma received a total of $1,612 to maintain the 8 white and 6 colored schools taught 
in 1881 in the school district The average length of school in days vras 195; daily at- 
tendance, whites 428, colored 258. One school building, valued, with furniture, i^para- 
tus, &c., at $5,500, is reported. The county superintendent of schools made 4 visits 
during the year. — (State report) 

TRAININO OP TEACHERS. 
STATE KOBMAL SCHOOLS. 

The 8Uae Normal School, Florence, reported 6 resident instructors, 68 normal and 111 
other students present in 1880-^81. The State impregnation for the year was $7,500; 
graduates, 4: of these 3 are engaged in teaching. The Ml course occupies 3 years. A 
model school is connected with the institution, and a chemical laboratory is mentioned. 
The Peabody fund trustees aid this school to the amount of $2,000 a year, which is equiv- 
alent to 16 scholarships. — (Return and catalogue.) 

The State Normal ^hool for the Education of Chlored TeacherSy Huntsville, had an en- 
rolment of 133 pupils and an average attendaiM^ of 94 during 1880-'81. Pour gradu- 
ates are already occupying teachers' positions. The 4 years' course includes the ordinary 
branches, book-keeping, and vocal and instrumental music Pour educational journals and 
magazines are taken. — (Return, State report.) 

'Die Lincoin Normal University^ Marion, also has a 4 years' course, the completion of 
which entitles the graduate to teach in the common schools of the State or city without 
further examination. There were 222 students in 1880--' 81, an increase of 25 per cent 
over the preceding year. The standard for graduation has been raised ftOM 80 to 85; 
pupils have been more regular in attendance and have remained longer in school than 
formerly. A library was commenced by the students during the year, and 100 or more 
books were purchased. Eight graduates have become teachers. The aim of the school, 
to prepare intelligent, upright, and moral teachers of the colored race, is being attained. — 
(Return, State report.) 

The Tuskegee Normal School, for colored students, reports 112 students engaged in noi^ 
mal studies in a 4 years' course, under 4 non-resident instructors. Tuition is free. The 
institution was granted an appropriaticm of $2,000 by the State and received $5,000 from 
private sources. Drawing and vocal music are taught, and there is a libnuy of 500 
volumes. The school was organized in 1881. 

OTHEB NOBMAL SCHOOLS AND DEPABTMENTS. 

These were the Rust Normal Institute, Huntsville, which reported 2 teachers and 111 
pupils in 1881, and a steady growth in popularity; the Emerson InstitutCy Mobile, report- 
ing 36 studento in the 4 years' normal course, vocal and instrumental music taught; the 
Alabama Baptist Normal and Theological School, Selma, 63 normal pupils, a 3 years' course 
of study, vocal and instrumental music included in the course; and the normal depart- 
ment of Talladega College, which had 48 normal pupils in the 4 years' course, one of the 
2 graduates having already become a teacher. — (Catalogues and returns, report of Freed- 
men's Aid Society, Methodist Advocate.) 

TEACHEBS' INSTITUTES. 

By laws of 1879 boards of education were required to organize and maintain teachers' 
institutes in their respective counties. Separate institutes for white and colored iiersons 
are to be held, provided not less than ten licensed teachers of the race are found in the 
county. Every licensed teacher must be a member of such institute and must attend 
at least one of the annual meetings. There were 89 institutes reported in the various 
counties during 1881. The attendance is not mentioned.-— |(Lgi^7^|afl^§|^(^report.) 



SECONDARY INSTRUCTION. 
PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS. 

The latest laws make no provisioii for scbools of this grade and no mention is made in 
the State report of 1861 of any schools or studies above &e grammar grade. 

OTHEB SECONDABT SCHOOLS. 

For informataon concerning business colleges, private academis schools, and preparatory 
departments of colleges, see Tables lY, YI, IX, and X of the appendix, and the sum- 
maries thereof in the report of the Commissioner preceding. 

SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. 

OOLLBOIS FOB YOUKO MEN OB FOB BOTH SBXSS. 

The Vmtjersity of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, has within the last two years revised and ex- 
teoded its cnrricidum and elevated the standard of graduation. In the academic de- 
partment there are three courses of instruction: scientific, classical, and eclectic. Can- 
didates for degrees must take either the ftdl scientific or the claraical course, each of 
which requires 4 years' study, but students are received in any of the nine schools and 
are entitled to diplomas on (p»duating from any school they mi^ enter. There were 143 
students reported in 1881, outside of those in professional schools. The degrees in couiae 
coDferred were M. A., 16, and B. A., 10. — (State report^ catalogue, and return.) 

Tlie SoiMlkem Umtfersify, Greensboro', and Howard Cmege, Marion, are also arranged in 
sdioolB, the fi[>rmer having 7, the latter^ 11. The first mentioned gives pr^taratoiy in- 
stniction prior to the four years' classical and three years' sdentafic school. There is 
aho a master's course of one year. The legal and medical departments were not in 
opoatioa during the year. Howard College has a regular classical course, gives the 
degree of B. a, teaches book-keeping, and reports schools of engineering and of military 
art and sdenoe. Spring EiU oSdege, Mobile, last heard from in 1878-'79, commenced 
with the grammar grade and advanced through the classics. Anew college, the WtUiam 
nd Emmta Awtin CoUege, Stevenson, is arrayed for the education of botii sexes. The 
studies begin with the primary grades, and Kindergarten training is also mentioned. 
The five sdiools for the college proper include English history, natural sciences, mathe- 
ButicB, ancient languages, and philosophy. Whether the ooUegiate dq[>artm6nt is yet 
in operation is not known. — (Catalogues and returns.) 

For ftill statistics of ooll^^ reporting, see Table IX of the api>endix; for a summary of 
their statistioB, a corresponding table in the report of the Commissioner preceding. 

IWOTTTUTIONS FOB THE 8UPEBI0B INSTBUCTION OF YOXJNQ WOMEN. 

For infi>rmation regarding the colleges for this sex alone, reference is made to Table 
Vm of tJie appendix. A summary of this table will also be found in the report of the 
CommiBsioner preceding. 

SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL INSTRUCTION. 

SCIENTIFIC. 

The Alabama A^cultural and Mechanical CoU^, Auburn, has 5 regular degree courses, 
viz: scientific agriculture, leading to B. 8. A. ; civil engineering, B. c. B. ; mining engi- 
neering, B. M. E. ; literature, A. B. ; science^ B. s. Each of these courses occupies 4 years, 
but for the first two years the studies are identical. More than 1,000 young men have 
abeady been instructed here. Eleveiynstructors were reported in 1881 and 1^ students. 
In the preparatoiy department 47 students, under the charge of 1 teacher, were reported. — 
(dtate report, catalogue, and return.) 

PBOFESSIONAL. 

T%ailogieal instruction is burnished by the Alabama Baptist Normal and Theological 
Institate, Selma, which has a 3 years' course and reported 30 students in 1881; by the 
TalliMdega Theologiod Seminary, Congregational, reporting 11 students in the 3 years' 
ooorae; and by the Institute for Training Colored Ministers, a Presbyterian school at 
Tascalooaa, which reported 17 students in 1881 in a 5 years' course and 3 graduates. All 
these schools require an examination for admission. — (Returos. ) 

Legal training is given in the law department of the University of Alabama, at Tus- 
cafeoaa. The course may be completed in nine months. The instruction takes in inter- 
■iliiaiisl saaA constitutional law, common and statute law, and equity jurisprudence. 
There were 20 students reported in 1881 and 13 graduates. — (Catalogue and returns.) 

The law department of the Southern University was suspend^ jij ^QfJ^OQlC 



8 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

The Medical College of Alabama, Mobile, requires an examination for admisBion, while 
for graduation the stndents most have attended 2 cooises of lectures of 20 weeks ea<^ 
and have pursued the usual 3 years' course of study. Chemical laboratory work is not 
obligatory, but a knowledge of medical botany is essential to a diploma. There were 
60 students in 1881. — (Catalogue and return.) 

The medical department of Southern University was suspended in 1881. 

SPECIAL INSTRUCTION. 
EDUCATION OF THE DSAF AND DUMB AND THE BLIND. 

The Alabama Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind, Talladega, has a com- 
plete corps of instructors in both departments and offers aooommodations for one hun- 
dred persons, although only 50 pupils were in attendance during the year 1881. The 
ordinary branches of a practical English education are taught here, also shoemaking, 
cane seating, mattress making, printmg, plumbing, and* ^ fitting. Articulation does 
not enter into the course. Agriculture is one of the pursuits in which training is giyen. 
(State report, and return.) 

EDUCATIONAL CONVENTION. 
ALABAMA STATE TBACHEBS' ASSOCIATION. 

No mention is made of any meeting in 1881, but there is a prospect of the 
together of teachers in such a body in 1882. The result of these efforts will be 
in the Report of the Commissioner of Education for that year. 

CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICER. 

Hon. H. Olat Abmstbono, 8UxU tuperMendmU of educoHan^ Montffom&ry. 
[Term, November 28, USO, to November 28, 1882.] 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ARKANSAS 



» 



ARKANSAS. 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY. 





1879-»80. 


1880-»81. 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


POPCLATIOK AND AITKNDANCE. 

Yottth of school age (6-21) 


247,647 
70,972 

3,100 

785 
$198,608 

1,432 

395 

1,827 


272,841 

98,744 


25,294 
27,772 




Enrolled in public schools 

9CH00UB AND SCHOOL-HOUSES. 

Public schools reported 






School-houses reported 


1,172 
$283,125 

1,688 

481 

2,169 

$47 42 

40 90 

38 58 

34 76 

31 64 

29 15 

$710,462 
388,412 


387 
$84,517 

256 

86 

342 




Tftlnatioii of school property re- 
ported. 

TEACHKBS Aim THEIB PAY. 

Uen tfrhfng in public schools 

Women teaching in public schools- 
Whole number employed 








ATcnge monthly pfty of first grade 

male teachers. 
kwea^ mcmUily pay of first grade 

female teachers. 
ATeo^B monthly pay of second 

gcade male teachers. 
ATen^ monthly pay of second 

gmde female teachers. 
ATenge monthly pay of third grade 

male teachers. 
Avenge monthly pay of third grade 

feoiale teacheiB. 

JXOOME AKD KXPKNI>ITUBS.a 

fieeapCs fi^ public schools 

^endituxes for public schools 


































$256,190 
238,056 


$464,272 
150,356 









ainoompleftely reported in 1879-*80. 

(From report and return of Hon. James L. Denton, State superintendent of public in- 
itractioo, lor 1879-'80, and from special return by the same for ISSO-'Sl.) 

STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM. 

OFFICEBS. 

A State superintendent is elected biemiially by the people, and there is a board of 
eonunisBianers of the common school fVmd^ composed of the goyemor, secretary of state, 
tad superintendent of schools, the last actmg as secretary of the bou^. Local officers 
»B eofmty examiners, appointed by the county courts, and district directors, elected by 
the people, the latter for terms of three years, one going out each year. 

Public sdiools are sustained finom the income of the State school fhnd and a per ci^ 
ili tax of $1 on males OTer 21, together with such appropriation as the legislature may 
■taiiart. The optional district taxes allowed are limited by law to one-half of 1 per 
«Bt on the assessed yaluatloiL The minimum school term is three months; district 
iatdaa determine how mudi longer it may be made, and, in case the reryenues of a 
^■trict in any year are not sufficient for a three months' school, TOters of the district 
■iy detemine tiiat no school shall be taught during such year. Public fhnds are appor- 



10 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

tioned to districts on the basis of residents 6-21 therein. District directors must makt 
annual report of school statistics to examiners, and the latter to the State saperintend- 
«nt. A fiulore on the part of directors involves loss to the district of pabUc school 
money due, and directors are personally liable for such loss. White and colored youth 
must be taught in separate schools. The use. of sectarian books in the public schools is 
forbidden by law. Provision is made for teachers' institutes^ to be held by examiners 
in each county and by the State superintendent in each judicial district, schools to be 
<dosed during the sessions and teachers to attend the institutes, receiving pay as tisoiCl. 
Teachers must also attend the quarterly examinations held by the county examiner and 
must hold a license fix>m him to teach in order to receive pay &om public funds. — (School 
laws, 1875.) 

GENEBAL CONDITIOX. 

The reports of this State being biennial, very little information has been received in 
regard to the public schools later than that given by the State report for 1879 and 1880. 
The above statistical summary, from figures kindly furnished the Office by the State 
superintendent shows, however, that the very large increase of school youth (25,294) was 
more than met by a great addition (27,772) to the public school enrolment; that, to pro- 
vide for this addition, there were 342 more teachers employed and 387 more school- 
houses used; that the value of school property was thus increased by $84,517 and the 
public school expenditures by $150,356; and that, though the average monthly pay of 
teachers generally is not given, it was both more liberal than in many former years and 
was fairly proportioned to the qualifications of the teachers as indicated by the certifi- 
•cates they held. 

CITY SCHOOL SYSTEM. 
LITTLE BOCK. 

Officers, — Aboard of school directors of 6 members, elected for 3 years, 2 going out each 
year, and a superintendent i4>pointed by the board. 

i8to<M<u».— Population of the city, 13,138 ; white youth of school age, 3,216 ; colored 
jrouth, 2,072 ; enrolment in public schools, 1,768 white and 870 colored pupils ; total en- 
rolment. 2,638, an increase of 135 for the year; average daily attendance, 1,680; per 
cent, of enrolment on school population, whites 55, colored 42; number of teachers, 
34; the schools were taught 173 days; expenditure for public school purposes, $31,872. 

Additional parHeidan. — The superintendent reports satisfleu^tory progress, alt^ngh the 
lower grades were too crowded to give the best results; he enlarges on the special 
importance of improving these, since a majority of pupils do not go beyond the fifth 
year. The grades are primary, grammar, and high, eadi covering 4 years, but the su- 
perintendoit advises that another year be added below the high schools. Of these there 
are 2, one for each race, that for whites having an average enrolment of 68, with 60 in 
4iverage attendance ; that for colored an average enrolment of 42, with 37 in average at- 
tendimce. — (City report and return.) 

TRAINING OP TEACHERS. 
NOBMAL SCHOOLS AND DEPABTMEKTS. 

A normal department in the Arkansas Industrial University, Payetteville, offers &cilitie8 
for the training of white youth, and a branch normal at Pine Bluff the same for colored. 
In each school there are 237 State scholarships, entitling the holders to free tuition for 
^e entire course of 4 years. The department at Payetteville had 82 pupils during 
1880-'81, and the branch normal at ^ne Bluff, 123, who, besides other instruction, 
vrere trained in methods of teaching, school organization, grading and government, 
and duties of teachers under the school law. The branch normal reports veiy satisfoc- 
tory progress during the year in all grades, and the attendance better than ever before, 
malring necessaiy a new building, which was in process of erection. 

Normal instructioii is also given to colored youth in Southland College and Normal 
Institute, near Helena, a school under the direction of Priends. It was organized as 
ji normal institute in 1869, and has since sent out as teachers 12 graduates from the col- 
legiate and 4 from the normal department, besides 160 other students. A normal course 
is reported by Judson University, Judsonia. 

TKACHEBS' INSTITUTIW. 

In the absence of any State school report for the year no statistics can be given regard- 
ing either the county teachers' institutes, required by law to be held in each county by 
the examiner, or the district institutes, required to be held in each judicial district by 
the State superintendent It i^peais, however, that at least 1 county and 4 district 
institutes were held during 1881, and others were advertised in the Arkansas Journal. 
At the district institutes reported, the addresses were generally confined to practical 



ARKANSAS. 11 

fldanrtkwwl U^ica, and it is said they did much to inspire and energize teachers, to 
itoaae interest in free schools, and to remove popular prejudice against them. — (Ar- 
kaaoM School JoumaL) 

SCHOOL JOUKNAL. 

The Arkansas School Journal, a monthly published at Little Rock since November, 
1980, gires teachers hearty support and encouragement, as vrell as educational infor- 
mstvm, and makes such criticisms on school work as may appear to be called for. 

SECONDARY INSTRUCTION. 

PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS. 

The number of public high schools cannot be given; only 4 are known to be in op- 
cntioD: 2 at Little Rock, 1 at Bentonville, and 1 in Searcy; and only from the first 2 
hsve repofrts been received for 1880~'61. Of these the Sherman High School for white 
fufUa Imd an average of 68 enrolled, and the Union High School for colored an averace 
^ 42. The reports from both were satisfisM^ry, as &r as particulars were given. In 
tkst for colored pupils the attendance was better than for the year before and the disd- 
pliiie was good. 

OTHEB SECONDABY SCHOOLS. 

For tbe names and statistics of business colleges, private academic schools, and pre- 
pHBtofy departments of colleges or universities, see Tables lY, VI, and IX of the appen- 
dix, and fivr a summary of their statistics, see corresponding tables in the report of the 
ConmussioQer preceding. 

SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. 

UNIYSBSITIBB AND COLLBQBS FOB BOTH SEXES. 

Tb^ Arkan sa s Industrial Universiiy, Fayetteville, with property valued at about 
1300,000 and 441 pupils in all departments, is making substantial pogress. A decided 
advMioe in the reqmrements for admission appears £rom a comparison of the catalogue 
ftr 1860 witii the preceding one, and that for 1881 shows that the standard of work for 
giadoation has been raised. Further efforts have also been made to bring the institution 
within the reach of students vrith small means: 60 free scholarships have been offered 
to indigp i nt students throughout the State, additional to the 350 beneficiaries and 237 
kddeiB of normal scholarships whose iq>pointment8 are made by county judges, and the 
oldumveiaity building has been fitted up as asteward's hall for the purpose of furnishing 
board at reduced rates. Besides preparatory, musical, and medical depifftments, there are 
9 aadeigTaduate courses, includmg classical, Latin letters, English letters, modem Ian- 
goagea, a normal d^tartment, and a general scientific and three technical scientific 
anuses.— (Catalogue, 1880-'81.) 

Beodes the State Universiliy, 3 institutions of collegiate rank in this State have reported 
fcr 1880-'81 or for the previous year, viz : Cane Hill College, Boonsboro'; Judson Uni- 
YCfsity, Judsonia; sand St. John's College, Little Rock. There is no information from 
Aiksnaas College, Batesville, later than for 1878. In the 3 colleges reporting, both 
nam are admitted on equal terms. All have preparatory and 2 of them even primary 
departments, and all have the equivalent of classicsu courses, although in Judscm Univer- 
mtj and St. John's College the curriculum is arranged in independent schools. Two 
have general scientific courses, 1 adding engineeriiu;. Cane Hill College presents a 
Z years' collegiate course for such young women as pre& it to the regular one. All offer 
iBBtmction in music, 1 in art, and 2 in commercial branches. 

It is reported that the Methodist Episcopal Church proposes to establish a university 
it Little Rock, that ground has been purchased for a site on which a building is to be 
«rected during 1882, and that the college of letters and of sciences will be opened in Octo- 
ber. The other colleges contemplated are of commerce, law, music, and art, and a nor- 
mal college. — (Arkansas School Journal. ) 

SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL INSTRUCHON. 

SCIENTIFIC. 

A eooxve in g^ieral sciences exists in the Industrial University, St. John's College, and 
Jodson University. Cane Hill College offers a 3 years' course in civil engineering. 
The Indosbial University has 4 years' courses in civil and mining engineering and 
io agricolture; the engineering students have a special preliminary trtuning in English, 
Praich, C^erman, mathematics, and drawing, extending over 2 preparatory years and 
fte tat/L college year, the scientific work proper beginning vrith the second collegiate 
ymt. Sorveyore' and engineers' field instruments ofthe best construction are fUmished 
irtibe inatmction of studEmts, who are required to use them in actual work. Military 
I form a part of the course for all able-bodied male students of the univer- 



12 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

sity. Students laboring on the farm are remnnerated as far as the finances will permit, 
from 8 to 10 cents an hour being paid. — (Catalogue, 1880-'81.) 

PEOFESSIONAL. 

The only professional school reporting is the medical department of the Arkansas In- 
dustrial University, Little Rock. Orga^iized in 187^' 80, it had an attendance of 32 
during its second year, and graduated 10. The required course of study is the old one, 
comprising 3 years under a regular practitioner and including 2 courses of lectures of 
6 months each. There is also a voluntary graded course of 3 years. — (University cata- 
logue, 1881-»82.) 

SPECIAL INSTRUCTION. 

EDUCATION OF THE DEAF AND DUMB. 

Instruction is given to the deaf at the Arkansas Deaf-Mute Institute, Little Rock, 
which receives pupils between 9 and 30, ^ving board and tuition at public expense. 
Pupils are instructed in the common English branches, also in coopering, shoemaking, 
out door and house work, and sewing. Articulation and lip reading is used in the 
instruction of those who have retained some power of speech, but the main reliance is 
on the sign language. There were 74 students in 1881 under 5 instructois. 

EDUCATION OF THE BLIND. 

The Arkansas School for the Blind^ Little Rock, a free school maintained by the State 
for the education of the blind, is open by law to all of this class of suitable charac- 
ter and capacity between 6 and 26 years of age, but the actual number is limited by lack 
of funds. Pupils receive not only tuition, but board, washing^ medical attention, and 
the use of books, without char;^ All branches of a good English education axe taught, 
also music, calisthenics, and piano tuning, besides sudi employments as broom and mat- 
tress making, upholsteiy, chair seating, sewing by hand and machine, and ^mcy work. 
There were 36 pupils in the school dunng the year 1880-^81, a slight gain over former 
years.— (Return, 1880-^81, and printed report, 1880.) 

EDUCATIONAL CONVENTION. 

STATE ASSOCIATION. 

The state Teachers' Association held its annual meeting at Russellville, July 5-8, 
1881. There was a &ir attendance, 50 teachers being enrolled as members, besides a 
lai^ number of citizens of Russellville present. The teachers were generously enter- 
tained by the citizens, who also rendered important aid by furnishing excellent music at 
the evening meetings. The programme was in the main carried out, although several 
teachers who were on it fiuled to appear. The annual address of the president, F. W. 
Hays, was practical in character, and the papers and discussions were in the main interest- 
ing and frnitftil. During the evening serous addresses were delivered by prominent 
educators, including Mr. J. M. Fish, superintendent of the Little Rock schools; Mijor 
J. B. Merwin, of the American Journal of Education, St. Louis, Mo.; and the State super- 
intendent, Hon. J. L. Denton, who spoke on public education in Arkansas. Among 
the resolutions passed was one indorsing the importance and effectiveness of the super- 
intendent's work and pledging him the cooperation of membeis of the asBOciation in his 
efforts to popularize fi:ee education. — (Arkansas School Journal, July, 18^.) 

CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICER. 

Hon. Jambb L. Dknton, Stale guperiniendent ofptMic {nslrueUon^ LitUc Book, 
[Second term, November 2, 1880, to November 2, 1882.1 

Information has oome that this energetic and active snperintendent had died before the e3cpii»- 
tlon of his term. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CALIFORNIA. 



13 



CAMFOBNIA. 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY. 





1879-^80. 


1880-»81. 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


POPULATION AND ATTENDANCE. 


215,978 
148,885 
158,765 
100,966 
14,953 
62,140 

2,063 

1,719 

1,900 

1,899 

1,000 

646 

958 

1,241 

604 

2,803 

73 

146.6 

$6,914,306 

1,208 

2,387 

3,595 

635 

446 

622 

829 

44 

463 

180 26 
64 73 

$3,573,108 
2,864,671 

$2,006,800 


211,237 




4,741 


Number of these in imblic schools . 
Total pabtic school enrolment 






163,855 
105,541 


5,090 
4,575 






Enrolled in private schools 

Vnt st±k^^tiimtr flDY ffchool , 










DI8TBICI8 AND SCHOOLS. 

yomber of school distncts - 








With good aooommodations 














With well ventilated schools 








WiUi well furnished schools 








Well supplied with apparatus 

Xtiinber of first grade schools 

Xmaber of eeoond grade schools... 

Kmnher of third grade schools 

Whole immber of fichoolfl 




























1 


Xew sduxd-hooses built 




i 


Avenge time of schools in days 

TKACHEBS AND THEIB PAT. 

Xale teachers in public schools 

Fcai^ teachers in public schools. . 

Whole number of teachers 

Smber holding life diplomas 

HoUn^ educational diplomas 

SuBber with first grade State cer- 
t^eates. 

Komber wi^ second grade 

Snmber with thiixl sm^e 


115 
$6,998,825 

1,198 
2,539 
3,737 




31.6 


$84,519 




10 


152 
142 











I 














Teachers who are graduates of nor- 
mal schools. 

Avenge numthly pay of men 

Aver^^ monthly pay of women. . . 

VSOOMM AND SXPENDITUBE. 

"Whole inrfHue for public schools. . . 
Wbole expenditure for them 

STATE SCHOOL FUND. 








$79 60 

64 74 

$3,680,161 
3,047,605 

$1,990,400 




$0 76 


$0 01 

$107,063 
183,034 








$16,400 









i •r- Dder the law of 1880 the public schools are free to youth between 6 and 21, but the basis of ap- 

piiiiiiiniiit is the number between 5 and 17. 
I 

fham the report of Hon. Fred. M. Campbell, State superintendent of ipublic ix^truc- 

««. fcr the year 1879-'80 and return for 1880-'81.) 9' '"^^ by ^UO^ 



14 KEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM. 

OPFICEES. 

These consist of a State superintendent of pnblic instmction; a State boaid of eda- 
cation^ of which the superintendent is secretaiy, and which acts as a State board of ex- 
amination; county superintendents of schools, with county boards of education acting 
as boards of examination ; city superintendents; city boards of education and of ex- 
amination; and school district trustees, 3 for eveiy rural district, serving each for 3 
years, with annual change of 1. Up to 1880, State and county boards of examination 
existed; now the boards of education act as such. Formerly a city was obliged to have 
a board of examination; now it is optional. Women, by act of March 12, 1874, are 
eligible to all school offices except those from which they are debarred by the oonstitation. 

OTHER FEATUBE9 OF THE SYSTEM. 

The public schools are to be sustained by a State poll tax of $2 on each voter, a county 
tax not to exceed 50 cents on $100 of taxable propa*ty, and a district tax not to exceed 
70 cents for building school-houses or 30 cents for other school purposes. The State 
school flmds, except the 10 per cent, reserved for district school libraries, must be ap- 
plied exclusively to the payment of teachers of the primary and grammar grades, the 
higher schools allowed by law being sustained by their respective communities, under 
the direction of thp local boards. 

To receive its apportionment of the public moneys a district must have maintained a 
school during the preceding school year for at least 6 months and the teacher mnst hold 
a 1^^ certificate of qualification. The schools must be non-sectarian. Text books are 
chosen by the local boards. Books having been adopted, no change can be made under 4 
years, and an^ city or district using others forfeits 25 per cent, of the State school mon- 
eys to which it may be entitled until it complies. The course of instruction includes 
vocal music, elements of book-keeping, industrial drawing, manners, morals, and physi- 
cal exercise. Teachers must be duly licensed by the local boards and have attained 18 
years of age. The number of children entitled to free instruction is to be determined 
by an annual census. All between 6 and 21 are admitted to the schools free, while the 
basis of apportionment is 5 to 17. All having chaige of children between 8 and 14 are 
required to send them to a public school at least two-thirds of the time during which 
schoolsare taught. The discrimination against Indians and Chinese as pupilsin the public 
schools formerly made has been dropped in the later editions of the law, though they are 
still excluded from the b^iefits of the public frinds, except where the Indian children are 
under the guardianship of white persons. Female teachers in the public adiools over 
21 years of age holding the same grade certificates and doing like services as men are 
to receive the same pay. Women over the age of 21 are eligible to educational offices. 
The pnblic school system includes primary, grammar, high, evening, technical, and nor- 
mal schools, and teachers' institutes; the State school tax, however, is applied exclusively 
to the 8up9X)rt of primary and grammar grades. The school month is 20 days. 

A State university, non-political, non-sectarian, and open for both sexes, completes the 
system. At least one collie of agriculture and mechanic arts is to be sustained by the 
revenue from the agricultural college grant, in connection with the university. — (School 
laws, 1881.) 

GENERAL OONDITTOK. 

In the absence of the annual report for 1880-'81 only a meagre comparison with 1879-^80 
can be made. The few items at hand indicate general progress. Notwithstanding a fill- 
ing off of 4,741 in youth of school age, there was a gain of 5,090 in enrolment and of 
4,575 in average daily attendance. Tne average time of school, however, was shortened 
nearly 32 days. There was a total gain of 142 teachers, 152 more of the teachers being 
females. The average monthly pay of men, although slightly decreased during the year, 
remained $14.76 higher than that of women. The only other items show an mci^ease of 
$107,053 in receipts for public schools and of $183,034 in expenditures, but a fitlling off of 
$16,400 in the aviulable ftmd. 

KINDEBOABTEN. 

Private information from one in a position to be well informed indicates the ezistenoe 
of at least 15 of these excellent means of primary instruction, one of them at Oakland, 
most of the others at San Francisco. 

CITY SCHOOL SYSTEMS. 

OFFIGEBS. 

In each city in the State having a board of education there may be a board of exami- 
nation or the board of education may act as such. In each city of over 30, 000 inhahitants 
the superintendent is allowed a deputy. Digitized by V^ OOQ IC 



CALIFOBNIA. 



15 



STATISnCB. 



aaea. 


Population, 
cenmiaof 
1880. 


Chfldrenof 
aohoolage. 


Enrolment 
in public 
schools. 


Average 
daily at- 
tendance. 


Knmberof 
teachers. 


Expendi- 
ture. 


Urn Aiisel€8 - „ 

rHkKn? 


U,188 
34,555 
21,420 
233,800 
12,667 
10,282 


3,(117 
81242 


2,006 
7,262 


1,285 
5,238 


35 
137 


$37,403 
160,454 


flMnunmto ... ... . 




Sn Fmaotsoo „ 

S^Jo«6 „ 


65,115 


040,187 


29,008 


719 


827, 82« 


ftockton 


2,204 


2,106 1,826 


84 


45,494 



a IndndinflT some duplicate enrolments. 



ADDITIONAL PARTICULABS. 

Lot Am^dtf reports school bnildingB, grounds, apparatus, &c., worth $64,500. The 
Idi^ school bcdldiiig is a handsome stractnre; the sdiool has scientific, UUsasj, and das- 
fial coQT B cs , oocapying 4 years each, in which students are prepared to enter the corre- 
eponding eomses in the State Umveisity ; it enrolled 100 pnpils. There were 6 primary 
id 3 gEABunar schools; the two grades had a course of 8 years. The pupils were taught 
to collect Hiinerals, insects, shells, and other curiosities, and arrange them in little cabi- 
aels, thus coltivatbig their ihculty of observation and awakening and sustaining a high 
degree of enthusiaBm. One speoal teacher in drawing was employed. There are 14 
wcbooi bnildlngs valued, with sites, fhmiture, and apparatus, at |64,500. In private 
md parocfaiftl schools, there were 518 enrolled; attending no school, 1,001. — (Return and 
dty report.) 

OakUmd bad 17 school buildingB, containing 127 rooms for study and recitation, with 
6,462 sttin^s; school property was valued at|364,825. The primary schools were taught 
IB 72 rooms; the grammar and evening, in 47; the high, in 8. Of the 137 teachers, 74 
vers in the primary department, 49 in the griunmar^ in the high, 2 in the evening 
Mbool, and 3 were teachers of music and drawing. The attendance was uniform and 
reaebed nearly 96 per cent, of average daily attendance on average belonging. The high 
Riiool has 3 optional courses of study, the scientific, literary, and classical, each covering 
3 yean. The school numbered 352 pupils, reached 98.3 per cent, of average daily at- 
teq^ace on ATcrage belonging, and graduated 56. Music and dravnng were taught in 
iIlAe grades. The evening school enrolled 154 pupils averaging 18 years of age ; all but 
9 wexe workmen in &ctories. Discipline was improved and truancy much reduced. 
Sdwola were taught 205 days. There was an enrolment of 1,000 in private schools. — 
(Betnxn and city report ) 

Sam I^mmtiaeo reported 70 school buildings, with 634 rooms, of which 361 were used 
by the primary, 236 by the grammar, and 37 by the high schools. Of the 719 teachers, 
372 were in the primary department, 244 in the grammar. 32 in the high school, 4 were 
special teachers of French, 8 of German^ 4 of music, 2 of drawing, 1 of book-keeping, 23 
were regular substitutes, and 29 were m the evening schools. In all the schools, 573 
pi^tls steadied French and 1,990 Gennan. The 3 evening schools enrolled 3,511, with 
m average attendance of 880. Substitute teachers were employed for all the grades, 
indndiDg the evening 8dio(^ They take charge of classes when teachers are absent, 
fQ Tacanoifls, and instruct new daaaes until regular teachers are appointed. They are 
|ad aeeosding to grade, from |6 to $2 a day while in school uid $1.60 when not 
awdnd. Four frame buildings were erected during the year. The total valuation of 
«iM») property was $3,137,000. The schools were tau^t 205 days. Private and paro- 
dial selMxda enrolled 5,731. — (Betum and city report!) 

fltocW^a reports few figures in addition to those given in the table, but it is learned from 
aietam made by the dty 8ni>erintendent that there was no change in the number of 
Khodl bnildingB or rooms, that the schools were taught 210 days, that special teachers 
of miHie and penmanship were employed at good salaries, and that there was an average 
of 41 pmnls to a teacher. 

TRAINING OF TEACHERS. 

CALI70BKIA STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SAN JOSl^ 

This school was oiganized at San Francisco in 1862, but was removed to San Jos6 in 
19701, where a stately building was completed for it in 1872 and used till 1880. when it 
vas lost 1^ fire. For 1880-'81 it received from the State $33,300, which was $77.50 per 
laia of the number of students for the year. The school emploved 16 resident in- 
J onoUed 432 normal students (of whom 372 were females}, and had 57 other 
I in preparatory studies, making a total attendance in the year ^ f^n-fh ^^^'^^ 

ijigi ize y ^ 



16 REPORT OP THE COBOflSSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

of 34 leoeived diplomas of gradoation, from 95 to 98 per cent of whom weie teaching. 
Giadnates holding diplomas of this school may, unth others having State diplomas, 
leoeive comity certificates without examination, at the discretion of the comity boards. 
The fbll comse coyeis 3 years, the scholastic year being 40 weeks. The school has a 
library of 1,450 volmnes, 150 of which are peda^^cal, a chemical laboratory, apparatus, 
and a mnsemn of natural history. Vocal music and drawing are taught, and there is s 
model schooL — (Return and school laws.) 

In Mardi, 1880, the legislature appropriated $50,000 for a branch normal school at 
Los Angeles, of the opening of which no notice was received up to the dose of 1881. 

NOBMAL SCHOOL FOB KINDEBGABTEN TBADONO. 

The California E^indergarten Training School for Normal Instruction, San Francisoo, 
Miss Kate D. Smith Wi^ins prind]^ for 1880-^81 reported 14 female normal students 
and 4 graduates, all the latter teaching. A tuition fee of $100 is charged for the coarse, 
whidi occupies 45 weeks. In addition to a model schooL instruction was given in vocal 
music and drawing. Miss Emma Marwedd, at Oakland, the originator of the Kinder- 
garten movement on the Pacific Coast, also trained normal pupils in Kindergarten meth- 
ods. — (Hetums.) 

OTHEB NOBMAL TBAININQ. 

The normal dass in connection with the girls' high school in San Francisoo enrolled 
155 in 1880-'81 and gpiduated 76. Graduates of this school receive diplomas and cer- 
tificates valid in the catyf which are mded like those of the State Normal School. Tlic 
Pacific Methodist College, at Santa Rosa, and the Hesperian College, at Woodland, H^ 
noarmal departments of special training for the profession of teadiing. — (Ofttaloguee.) 

TBACHBBS' IN8TITUTB8. 

Teadiers' institutes seem to have been hdd in nearly all the countlee, but in the 
absence of official reports no statistics can be given. 

At a recent convention of county superintendents at San Francisoo the sul^ect oi 
holding teachers' institutes was i\illy discussed. As generally conducted in the State, 
it was admitted that they had not been of great service to that lai^ dass of teachexa 
they were mainly designed to benefit. There seemed to have been no well defined idea 
among a large proportion of superintendents and .teachers as to the function of the insti- 
tute in sup^ying the place of normal schools to such t&Ekdiers as have not been able to 
attend them. It was hoped that some change in the law on this point would be made. 

EDUCATIONAL J0X7BKAL. 

The Pacific School and Home Journal, San Francisco, continued in 1881, as a monthly 
journal, to give effidcnt aid to the educational interests of the Pacific Coast, not only by 
publishing educational intelligence, but also by Hiarniwaing many questions connected 
with the improvement of the school systems. 

SECONDARY INSTRUCTION. 
PUBUC HIGH SCHOOLS. 

The high school at Los Angdes had 3 optional courses of 4 years each, literary, sden- 
tific, and classical, with an attendance of 100. Oakland High School sustained its high 
rank, and is reported to have matriculated more students into the State University than 
any other on that coast. It enrolled 352 and graduated 55. The girls^ hig^ school in 
San Frsoidsco had 850 pupils; 602 were exaimned and 500 promoted. Many of the 
students of this school prepare for teadiing. The boys* sdiool of this grade had a 3 
years* course in English and one of 4 years in classical studies. There was an enrohnent 
of 325. Of the 179 examined 170 were promoted. 

OTHEB SECONDABY SCHOOLS. 

For statistics of business colleges, private academic sdHMls, preparatory schools, aad 
preparatory departments of colleges or universities, see Tables IV, VI, VII, and IX of 
the iq>pendix following, and the summaries thereof in the report of the Commissioner 
preceding. 

SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. 

OOLLBQBS FOB TOUNG MEN OB FOB BOTH SEXES. 

The Vmvernty of OaUfamia, Berkeley, crowning the educational system of the State, 
aims to complete the work begun in the public schools. To establish doser relations 
with these than formerly existed, it proposed in 1881 to adopt the Michigan pUm of ad- 
mitting graduates of the public high schools without examination, on condition that a 

Digitized by V^OOQLC 



CALIFORNIA* 17 

ODmi^ee of the Realty, invited to viflit snch high schools, shall approve their cotirses 
of instruction. The university (outside of its professional schools) is organized in two 
dqurtm^ts of science and letters, comprising 8 colleges, with courses leading to degrees, 
aid also certain ixr^ular courses not leading to degrees. The college of letters main* 
\xm 2 courses, one dassical, leading to the degree of A. B. ; another literary, leading to 
the degree <rf ph. b. ; each requires a full course of 4 years* study. The literary is sun- 
Qir to the daasical course, except that modem languages take the place of Greek. In 
1B81 the requirements for admission to the literary course were extended and ftirther 
reqniiements were announced for 1882, 1883, and 1884. An elementary acquaintance 
with literature, with evidence of intellikent reading and study of good authors, will be 
aeoepted as an equivalent for advanced knowledge of technical grammar. In both the 
leieotific and the literary colleges Crerman, French, and Anglo-Saxon enter into the courses 
^the freshmen and sophomore classes, while in the junior classes they are elective. Pro- 
nskm is also made for the optional study of Spanish, Hebrew, Chaldaic, and Syriac The 
muTeiaity library contained 16,000 volumes in 1881, valuable especially for reference, 
nd was being constantly augmented from the Reese Amd of $50,000. It was soon to be 
cemoTed to the new Bacon Library and Art Building, which was meant to accommodate 
)0,0OO volumes. 

Besides the university there were 12 schools claiming collegiate rank in 1880-'81, of 
which number 2 were termed universities (somewhat prospectively). Of those termed 
coUeges, 1 Protestant Episcopal, -3 Eoman Catholic, 2 Christian, and 1 non-sectarian 
appear from their own reports to be rather preparatory schools than real collies. The 
rei&aining 5, viz, University of Southern Califomia, Los Angeles; St. Ignatius College, 
S«i Francisco; Santa Clara College, Santa Clara; University of the Pacific, at the same 
plaoe, and Pacific Methodist CoUege, Santa Rosa, all presented collegiate courses of fidr 
standard and of 4 years' duration in their classical departments, with 3 or 4 years in the 
Kientific All tbe 12 offered instruction in music, vocal and instrumental, and 5 in 
drawing, to which 3 added painting. Most had busmess courses also, and 2 — the Uni- 
Tetaty of Southern California, Los Angeles, and Washington College, Washington — 
oflbred normal training. In all French and German were at least optional studies and 
in 9 Spanish was such; in the State university and one other college Hebrew and its cog- 
Date langoages were optional. — (Catal<>gues and returns. ) 

F(v other information, including statistics, see Table IX of the appendix, and a sum- 
Duiy of it in the report of the Commissioner preceding. 

DrerrrunoNs fob the supebiob instrtjction of youno women. 

The 6 colleges above referred to as giving instruction to young women as well as to 
ywiQg men are the State University, Berkeley ; Pierce Christian College, College City ; 
CmTcoity of the Pftdfio, Santa Clara ; Pacific Methodist College, Santa Rosa ; Washing- 
tao O^lege, Washington ; and Hesperian College, Woodland. 

Fbr institntioiis especixdly for young women, see Table VIII of the appendix, and a sum- 
ottiy of its statistios in the report of the Commissioner preceding. 

SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL INSTRUCTION. 
SCIENTIFIC. 

Tbong^ its colleges of agriculture, mechanics, mining, engineering, and chemistry, the 
Umrenitj of Califomia initiates the student in the principles of modem science, giving 
ia the fint two years about t^e same instruction in all and in the third and fourth years 
fecial attention to tiie studies iu the college elected by the student. Students in special 
ttd partial courses in agriculture and chemistry are received on examination, and may at- 
^aid soeh lectures and exerdses as belong to their particular studies. In the collie of 
iMdonics industrial drawing is taught with special reference to the construction of mar 
dsnery. All the scientific courses lead to the degree of PH. B. In the college of mining 
agiadaate course of two years leads to the degree of M. E. and a similar course in the col- 
% of eDgineering to a d^ree of c. E. 

Scienti& courses were reported in all the colleges of the State and an additional Latin- 
*«3itific comae of 3 years iu the University of the Padfia There was also an additional 
Phikwphical oourse of 4 years in the University of Southem Caliibmia. There was 
icported a school of engineering in Baa Frandsoo, but with no details for 1880-'81. — 
^(^klilogoes and returns.) 

PBOFESSIOKAL. 

l^giveinstractionin theology^ the Pacific Theological Seminary, Oakland (Congre- 
IPtiwnl), has a three years' course and requires a collegiate course, or its equivalent, 
kado&ion. Of its 6 students during the year, 2 graduated. From a donation of 
IMIO two scholarships of $1,000 each were established. SanFranc^^]^h^^;|^^^- 



18 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

nary (Presbyterian) received in 1880 an endowment fund of $50,000 from R. L. Stewart, 
of New York. Pierce Christian College, Collie City (Christian), gives, in its Bible d.e- 
pariiment, elementary instruction which may aid in preparation for the ministry. In 
the University of the Pacific, Santa Clara (Methodist Episcopal), in connection vritli t.lie 
collegiate course, studies leading to the ministry are pursued. In 1879-'80 stefis i^v^ere 
reported to have been taken toward the formation of a theological class, but no notice of 
such action appears in the catalogue of 1881. — (Catalo^ee and return.) 

For further mformation, see Table XI of the appendix. 

Legal instruction is given in the Hasting College of Law, connected with the State XJni- 
versity, Berkeley. The course reqTiires 3 years. Applicants for admission to the jxuiior 
class must have sufficient knowledge to enable them to profit by the course of study ; and 
a satis&ctory examination in the preceding studies is the condition of entering eitlier of 
the other classes. — (University register^ 1879-^80.) 

To provide medical instruction the Medical College of the Pacific and the medical de- 
partment of the University of Califomia, "regular," San Francisco, have had, since 1879, 
graded courses of 3 years, with lecture terms of 5 months each year. In the former, ^be- 
sides the required ^ weeks of attendance, there are 15 more optionaL This school in 
1880-'81 ^^duated 9; the other, 172.— (University Register, 1879-'80, and returns. > 

The California Medical College, Oakland (eclectic), organized in 1879, offers a graded 
course of ioBtruction of 3 terms, and requires a fair English education and attexuiazice 
on 3 regular lecture courses of 6 months each (or 2 sudi and one of 13 weebs), wltli a 
course of dissection, a thesis, and the i>a88age of a satisfactory examination. Of its 30 
students in 1880-'81, 11 graduated. It admits both sexes on equal terms. — (Catal<>giie 
and return.) 

According to an official circular, the opening exercises of a woman^s medical college 
were held in San Francisco November, 1881, and its first session was to begin Noveiiil>er 
16 and continue 20 weeks. No other official information respecting it has reached, tliis 
Bureau. 

The Cogswell Dental College of the University of California, arranged for in 1879, in. San 
Francisco, is to be opened to both sexes, when in full operation, and is to have 7 profess- 
orships. The exercises had not begun in 1880-'81. — (University register.) 

The California College of Pharmacy^ San I^'rancisoo, although affiliated with the XJni- 
Yersity of California, retains its own organization. It requires the usual 4 years' ejcpe- 
rience in an apotheouy store, attendance on 2 lecture courses of 6 months each, a thesis, 
and the passage of an examination, written, oral, and practical. The 2 years' grskded 
course projected for 1881 does not appear to have been established up to the summer of 
that year. The college reported 4 resident professors and lecturers, with 47 students in 
its last class. — (University register, 1880, and return.) 

For statistics of scientific and professional instruction, see Tables X, XI, XII, and XXET 
of the appendix; for summaries of them, like tables in the report of the Commissioner 
preceding. 

SPECIAL INSTRUCTION. 

EDUCATION OP THE DEAF AND DUMB AND THE BLIND. 

At the California Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind, Berkeley, instamc- 
tion is given in the common and high school branches and in gardening and fiEirmlng. 
Articulation was taught. Founded in 1860, the institution has received 239 pupils^ 
most of them remaining about 5 years. In 1881 there were 116 deaf and dumb pupils^ 
under 12 instructors. 

In the department for the blind there were 30 pupils, who were instructed in vocal cuad 
instrumental music, bead and crochet work, as well as the common and high acliool 

studies. The whole institution was entirely supported by the State, at a cost of $40, OOO. 

(State report, 1880, and return for 1881.) 

For fhrther information, see Tables XVTII and XIX of the appendix. 

EDUCATION OP THE CHINESE. 

The Chinese are tatlght in evening and Sunday schools, in connection with the Christian 
missions. The Baptists had an evening school at Oakland ; the Methodists, schools at San 
Francisco, San Jose, Oakland, andSaoamento; the CongregationalistSy at San Francisco, 
Oakland, Stockton, Petaluma, Santa Barbara, and Mar^rsville; the Reform Church, one at^ 
Oakland; the United Presbyterian, at Los Angeles; and the Presbyterian, in San Francisoo, 
San Jos6, and Santa Rosa. As nearly the same elementary instruction is given in. the 
evening and Sunday schools, statistics of both are given: enrolled in evening schools, 
/2,700; in Sunday schools, 3,300; average attendance at evening schools, 825; at Sundays 
schools, 1,100.— (Repoorts, and letter from Sarah B. Cooper April 3, 1881.) 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 



CALIFORNIA. 19 

EDUCATION OF OBPHANED AND ABANDONED CHILDBEN. 

TTiere were 16 of these institutions in 1880 receiving aid iix)m the State, containing 
521 orphans, 1,639 half-orphans, and 83 abandoned children, the State having paid dur- 
ing that year $146,737. Among the duties of the State superintendent, he is required 
bjthe sciiool law **to visit the several orphan asylums to which State appropriations are 
mide and examine into the course of instruction therein." He reported that, "so far 
as it has yet been ixwsible to discharge this duty, the results have been most satisfactory. 
The 000196 of study has been found to embrace the branches usually taught in public 
and pfivate schools. To these are added religiou*? instruction and training in other prac- 
tioJ directions, as, on the part of girls, in plain and ornamental needlework, &c. In all 
OMS the children have been found to be well housed and fed, and, in short, well cared 
fe, p^sically, mentally, and morally." — (State report, 1^80.) 

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING. 

Thd CSty and County Industrial School of San Francisco, under the care of tlie city au- 
fhorities, organized in 1856, admits youth under 18 years of age, who, through neglect, 
se in danger of becoming criminals, and trains them in the elements of a common school 
edncitHm, in music, and in such industries as shoemaking, tailoring, laundry work, 
aidenii^ and filming; the girls are taught various kinds of machine needlework and 
domeBtac duties. There were 177 diildren received during the year ending in June, 1881. 
The educational department was well oiganized, and a high standard of scholarship and 
deportment was maintained. Many former inmates have become good citizens and are 
getting a living by t^ trades learned in this school. — (Report. ) 

TRAINING IN ART. 

TTie San Francisco School of Design was organized in 1873, under the aa«?pices of the 
San Francisco Art Association. Instruction is given in painting and drawing. Xo pupils 
under 14 jeais of age are admitted; those entering pay tuition fees, and any deficiency is 
Bade jxp by the association. For statistics, see T^ble XXIII of the appendi.x. 

EDUCATIONAL CX)NVENTIOXS. 

STATE ASSOCIATION. 

The State Teachere* Association held its fifteenth annual meeting at San Franciwo 
Deeember 27, 1881, Ex-Superintendent James Denman presiding. After an addrt'^s of 
vekooie by J. S. C. Stubbs, president of the board of education of San Francisco, President 
Deoman read an address on ^^ Graded schools and their defects,'' and Selden Stiirgis, of 
fiu Franciaeo, one on ''The uses and abuses of the credit system," which led to (H)iisid- 
oable discnaaion. Wednesday, Rev. A. L. Cole, D. D., of Dixon, dwelt on the need of 
TeIi|poii9 instruction in the public schools, the discussion of which developed general op- 
position to his views. State Superintendent F. M. Campbell then addressed the conven- 
tion CO * * Education as the true liberty. ' ' Jesse Wood, superintendent of Butte County, 
presented the subject of "County superintendents" and their duties under the new 
ooBStitntion. President W. T. Reied, of the State University, exposed the "Current 
fcn^f^^ in education," one of which was that a pupil shall not follow the language 
«f the text book. Professor White, of the boys' high school, explained the working of 
tbs credit ^jstem in that institution. He believed in it and had no trouble. The follow- 
iar was nnaninoously adopted: 

^^Raoivedy That this association views with dis&vor any attempt to disturb the strict 
■eatnlity of the public school system upon questions of religious fiuth." 

On Thursday, Superintendent J. M. Guinn, of Los Angeles, read a paper on " Mechan- 
ical pedagogy:" Dr. J. H. Wythe, one on "Symmetrical education;" and President Charles 
H. ATUai, of the State Normal School, San Jos^ one on the ' ' Necessity of trained teachers. ' ' 

ne meeting was one of great interest, there being present 254 teachers, who came fiom 
■eoriy every county in the State. — (Pacific Journal, February, 1882.) 

StrPEBINTENDENTS' MEETINQ. 

One of tbe most Important features of the meeting of the State Teachers' Association 
w the oonventaon of the county superintendents. About forty of the fifty-two counties 
ifte State were represented, State Superintendent Campbell presiding. A large amount 
as done. The school law was taken np, article by article, and various amend- 
\ were discussed, and committees i^pointed on each important division. These corn- 
after much deliberation, reported changes and new sections, which were dis- 
by the fall convention and final action taken. 

t action of this body in regard to teachers' institutes is reported under that heading. 
\ School and Home Journal, January, 1881.) 

CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICER. 

Sod Fbed. H. Campbell, SUxte tuperinienderU of public iiutruetUm^ BawamerUo^Q IC 
[Tenn, 1880-1884.] ^ 




20 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



COLORADO. 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY. 





1879-'80. 


1880-»81. 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


POPULATION AND ATTENDANCE. 

Youth of school age (6-21) 

Enrolled in graded State schools. - - 
Enrolled in ungraded State schools- 
Whole number in State schools 


35,566 
10,377 
11,742 
22, 119 
12,618 
62 

67 

414. 

292 

13,509 

3,642 

$682,410 

26 
140 
221 
291 

678 

521 
1101 75 

64 39 

42 84 
40 87 


40,804 
13, 198 
12,802 
26,000 
14,649 
63 

56 

454 

314 

19,486 

5,037 

$977,213 

32 
184 
213 
372 
801 

633 
$103 33 

62 87 

53 68 

47 43 

78 50 

55 15 

6$708,516 
557, 151 


5,238 
2,821 
1,060 
3,881 
2,031 
1 


f 








AvftraiTft dailv atfi^.ndanftft 




Per cent, of enrolment on school 




population. 
Per cent, of aven^ attendance on 
enrolment. 

SCHOOL DISTRICTS AND SCHOOLS. 
School districts renorted 


1 


40 

22 

5,977 

1,395 

$294,803 

6 
44 




School-houses in these 




Sittinizs for nunils 




Volumes in school libraries - _ _ . 




Valuation of State school property. 

TEACHEBS AND THEIK PAY. 

Men teaching in graded schools 

Women teaching in graded schools. 
Men teaching in ungraded schools. 

Women teaching in the same 

Whole number employed in the 

year. 
Whole number at one time 








8 


81 
123 

112 

$1 58 








Average monthly pay of men in 

graded schools. 
Average monthly pay of women in 

graded schools. 
Average monthly pay of men in 

unladed schools. 
Average monthly pay of women in 

un^naded schools. 
General average pay of men a 

month. 
General average pay of women a 

month. 

INCOME AND EXPENDITURE. 

Whole receipts for public schools . . 
Whole expenditure for them 




$152 


10 84 
6 56 












a$622,681 
395,527 


$185,935 
161,624 









a Includes f37,615 balance (Vom 1878-*T9. 
b Includes $127,0&4 balance from 1879-'80. 

(From import of Hon. Joseph C. Shattuck, State superintendent of public instructionj 
for 1879-'80 and returns from Hon. Leonidaa S. Cornell, Mr. Shattuck's sacceasor, fd 
1880-'81.) 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



COLORADO. 



21 



STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM. 

OFFICEES. 

These are a State board of education for general supervision of the pnblic schools, with 
B Stite superintendent of public instruction as president and executive officer, county 
anperintendents of schools, boards of 3 to 6 directors for school districts (to be voted 
tar bf women, they being also eligible), and high school committees of 3 members, with 
the county superintendent as a member and president ex officio, for union high schools, 
ijfined by the joint action of contiguous districts. All these except the high school com- 
mittees are provided for by the constitution as well as by the school law. Other consti- 
totioDal officers, less directly connected with the system, are a board of 6 regents of the State 
UniTersity and a board of 4 commissioners of public (including school) lands. — (Consti- 
totion of 1876 and school laws of 1877 and 1879.) 

OTHEB FEATUBES OF THE SYSTEM. 

The schools of the State are for the free instruction of all youth G-21 in the districts 
where they are held. Non-residents and adults may be admitted on terms prescribed 
by the school board. They are sustained from the proceeds of a small State school fund 
and of a comity school tax of 2 to 5 mills on $1, both distributed on the basis of the youth 
6-21 in each district To aid in lengthening the annual term and to improve the 
boiklings and advantages, additional district taxes may be levied. For districts to receive 
their ^lare of State and county school funds schools must be taught at least 3 school 
Booths of 20 days under duly licensed teachers. High schools and school district libra- 
ries, to be open to the public, are provided for in dStricts with more than 350 youth of 
idiool age. Sectarian instruction in the State schools, as well as distinction or classifica- 
tion of pupils by race or color, is forbidden. Instruction in them must be in English, 
tiKm^ German and Spanish, or either, with gymnastics, may be taught when the parents 
•r guardians of 20 or more pupils demand it or the school board deem it expedient. Other 
fanodies of learning are left to their discretion, as are the exerdses in the schools, the 
■election of the text books, and the determination of the character and length of course. 
Teachers must make the reports as to school term, pupils, &c, required by law before re- 
cefTing their pay. — (School laws, edition of 1881.) 

CaaJEEAL CONDITION. 

No printed report for 1880-*81 having been received, the statistics supplied by the State 
mpermteodent form the only guide to the educational condition of the year. These indi- 
crte a most encouraging advance, 5,238 more youth of school age, 3,881 more of this age 
in the State schools, 2,031 more in average attendance daily, and this in 22 more school- 
hooses, with 5,977 more sittings, under 112 more regular teachers. Teachers for the 
most port received better pay. The advance in receipts for schools reached $185,935, the 
expenditures for them being also $161,624 greater. School property, through the rap- 
idly improving condition of the State and through the better quality of new buildings for 
the mdiools, was rated $294,803 higher. 

KINDEBGABTEN. 

For any of these means of elementary instruction that may report fbr 1881, see Table Y 
qT the appendix. 

CITY SCHOOL SYSTEMS. 

OFFICEBS. 

A general law gives to school districts with more than 1,000 youth of school age boards 
of ti directors, ch^en by the people, one-third of the board being liable to change eadi 
year. Denver and Leadville have boards in conformity with the provisions of this gen- 
oal law, each board appointing a superintendent of its schools. Golden, under a law for 
4mtru^ of smaller school population, has a board of three members, one liable to change 
oMchyear. 

STATISTICS. 



cmtm. 


Population, 
census of 
1880. 


Children of 
school age. 


Enrolment 
in public 
schools. 


A veroiere 
daily at- 
tendance. 


Number of 
teachera. 


Expendi- 
ture. 


DMKver a.».^ 


85,629 
14.820 


5,700 
2,084 


4,0fl7 
1,533 


2,730 
1,039 


67 
26 


6tl31,157 
c2S,000 









«Tbe statistics of Denver, as in previous years, are for school district No. 1, which includes about 
l i iu li xtlMi of the entire citv. 
AlaclodlnK $33,962 for buildings and furniture and $17,116 paid on indebtedness of preceding yean. 



22 REPORT OF xnE com:^iissioner of education. 

ADDITIONAL PAETICULARS. 

In Denver the adyanced position of former years was maintained and extended- Three 
new school buildings were completed and occupied, gi\ing, with former ones, 2,460seate, 
which, by alternating the lower grades, were made to accommodate the 2,730 pupils in 
average attendance. Two more buildings which were in progress were expected to be 
ready for use by Christmas, 1881, bringing the seating capacity up to 3,000. Each pupil 
in all these buildings was to have 27 square feet of floor space and 460 cubic feet of air 
space, with ample ventilation. One of the two to be completed in December was in- 
tended for the high school and a firee public library. In all classes of the public schools 
beyond the third grade the study of German was permitted, 13 of the regular teachers 
giving instruction in it, with occasional aid and supervision from a special G^man teacher. 
From 260 to 360 pupils were thus instructed in (Jerman during the year. In reading 
English, a book supplementary to the First Reader was used wit£ advantage one day in 
eac£ week in the first and second grades. As a rule, passage from grade to grade was 
r^ulated partly by the record of the average daily scholarship and partly by Sie results 
of the semiannual examinations. For the high school, see Secondary Instruction, further 
on. — (Report and return.) 

Golden appears to have been still improving its school system, levying for it a tax of 
10} mills, expending on it $18,657 for the year, and maintaining the grades adopted, with 
good attendance and good discipline. For the Ml term there were 562 pupils enrolled and 
410 in average attendance, and for the winter term 541 enrolled and 402 in average attend- 
ance, with 83 maintaining during the year a standing of 95 per cent, or more in scholar- 
ship and deportment. — (Report. ) 

LeadmUe in its 5 school buildings (rated at $113,550, with sites, furniture, and appa- 
ratus) had 1,400 sittings for study, fairly accommodating the average enrolment and going 
beyond the average daily attendance. A special teacher of music was employed. Lead- 
villegave its superintendent $2,000, its high school principal $810, its other t^i€hers$720. 
(Return.) 

TRAINING OF TEACHERS. 

NORMAL SCHOOLS. 

The University of Colorado, at Boulder, and Colorado College, Colorado Springs, both 
present definite normal courses, the former of 3 years, the latter of 4, each requiring for 
admission evidence of acquaintance with elementary English studies. The University 
of Denver also provides training in such studies as may prepare teachers for their work. 
How far it gives instruction in the science and art of teaching does not apx>ear, though 
this has frx>m the first been attended to at Colorado College and is promised at the Uni- 
versity of Colorado in 1882. The high schools of Denver and Leadville afford the means 
of special training for school work in those cities. 

TEACHERS* INSTITUTES. 

As was stated in the report for 1880, the law providing for the instruction of teachers 
by means of specially called institutes in each judicial district has thus &r proved inop- 
erative from the great extent of territory in each district and the consequent difficulty 
of assembling at any central point enough teachers to make an institute successfuL 

SECONDARY INSTRUCTION. 

PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS. 

Denver and Leadville both cany their instruction up into fiur high school studies, the 
former ha\dng 3 courses, each of 4 years, one chiefly English, another English and 
Latin, and a third including Greek also, French being optional in the last 2 years of any 
course. The Denver schodl closed its sixth year in 1881, having then representatives at 
West Point, Yale, and Wellesley, the one at West Point said to be leading his clasfe in 
scholarship. 

OTHER SECOND AKY SCHOOLS. 

From the reports of institutions to this Bureau and from the year books of different 
churches aiil associations, there appear to be in Colorado at least 5 church schools of 
academic rank : 2 of them, Jianis HaU, for boys, and Wolfe Hall, for girls (Protestant 
Episcopal), both at Denver; 1, St. Mary's Convent Academy, for girls (Roman Catholic), 
also at Denver; and 2, Leadville Academy and Trinidad Academy, under Congr^ational 
influence, and believed to be in each case open to both sexes. Four other schoob under 
Roman Catholic government, all styled academies, existed in 1881 in different parts oi 
the State, the ToSk. of which for that year has not yet been determined. Golden Awj^" 
emy, Golden (Protestant Episcopal), is not reported lor 1881, having probably been merged 
in Jarvis Hall, out of which it originally sprang. Digitized by LnOOQLC 



COLORADO. 23 

For the statistics of business colleges, private or church academic schools, preparatory 
cboola, and preparatory departments of colleges, see Tables IV, VI, VII, IX, and X of 
tbe appendix; for sommaries of their statistics, see corresponcUng tables in the report 
flc the Commissioner preceding. 

SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. 

O0LLBQE9 FOB YOUNQ MEN OB FOB BOTH SEXES. 

The University of Colorado^ Boulder, chartered in 1875 and organized for work in 1877, 
SffiDed in 187^'80 its first collegiate class of 8, half being young women. The class that 
Mlowed this consisted of 7 young men and 3 young women, the classes of 1882 and 1883, 
tf 19 and 35, respectiyely, each including both sexes. ^ Its course, as fiir as given, appears 
to be well up with the requirements of the day, covering 3 years of preparatory and 4 of 
cdlegiate study, divided into classic^ and scientific, with special courses of indefinite 
dnimtiffn that do not lead to a diploma. A normal course of 2 years is also offered. 

Colorado College, Colorado Springs (under liberal Congregational influences), and the 
Uwuxrmbf of Uincer'^ (Methodist Episcopal) both present full and good preparatory 
coarses of 4 years, with classical collegiate of the same length; both admit young women 
to full privileges, and both give normal instruction to suc^ students as desire to teach, 
tbe ^tter adding also training in music and art and offering training es|)ecially prepara- 
tofT to business. For what they offer in practical sciences, see Scientific Ins^ction, 
farther on. 

Fbr statistics of 1880-^61, as fiu- as they may be given, see Table IX of appendix; 
fiff B summary of such statistics, a corresponding table in report of the Commissioner pre- 
ceding. 

Dig r mj T i oys fob the supebiob iNsrrBUcnoN of young women. 

As befi>re stated, the University of Colorado, University of Denver, and Colorado Col- 
ic^ all open their doors to young women as well as to young men ; but, as fiur as can be 
avertained, no institution of full collegiate rank espeoally or exclusively for them had 
been established in 1881. 

SCIENTIFIC ANirPROFESSIONAL INSTRUCTION. 
scientific. 

The State University, the two other collegiate institutions previously mentioned, with 
the State Agricultural College,' Fort Collins, and the State School of Mines,^ Golden, 
aH aiSosd opportunities for scientific training useful to the agricultural, engineering, and 
mining industries of the State. In the State University, the State A^cultural College, 
and tiie University of Denver the courses cover 4 collegiate years beyond the prepaia- 
tarr; in the State School of Mines and the regular scientific course of Colorado College, 
3 yeais. This last offers also special courses, of less definite duration, in mining engineer- 
ing and metallurgy. — (Calendars and circulars.) 

For such statistics of scientific classes as these institutions may report, see Tables IX 
sMi X of the apx)endix; for summaries of these statistics, see corresponding tables in the 
Tcpi^t of the Commissioner preceding. 

PBOFESSI0»AL. 

Tkeoloffieal instruction, under Protestant Episcopal influences, was given in 1880-'81 
in tbe Cathedral Theological School, Denver, by 4 instructors, to apparently a single stur 
(knt. This school is the successor of Matthews Hall, Golden, which, after 6 years* ser- 
Tice, was suspended in 1877, and lost its buildings and library by fire April 6, 1878. — 
.Protestant Episcopal Almanac) 

Medieal instructi<m, appaiantly after the * * regular " system, was offered in the autumn 

' A «abi«c<]i2ent catalogue showH that the young women, with a single exception, had dropped out 
U tbe collegiate classes by the close of 1881. 

* This university is the ontgirowth of a school that was chartered in 1884 as the Ck>lorado Semlnarj, 
i»der Methodist Episcopal influences^ it continued for some years, but eventually failed troux lack 
j( ftmda. It b^;an its new life as the Denver University and Colorado Seminary In 1880, but in 1881 
1 the latter port of its title, the seminary having been made a preparatory department of tha 



l aiie i siiy w — {Catalogues and return.) 
'TteSMe Agricultural College, receiving 90,000 acres of land as an endowment firom the eon- 
land grant for such colleges, was first chartered in 1877 and organized in 1879, In a new 
«9ted for it in 1878, where, on a form of 240 acres, it has since been steadily Increasing its 
advantages. During the winter of I&r79-'d0 it held 7 farmers* institutes in different parts 

*^m1SuUe Qchqol of Mines, chartered in 1872 and organized for work in 1873, was made a Stato 

d reequipped in 1879-'80, it entered a new build- 



._ by act of February 9,1S74. Reorganized andr. _._ .. 

, wWt sreaUy augmented apparatus for its work, October 13, 1880. 



Digitized by ^OOQIC 



24 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

of 1881 by the Coll^ of Medidne of the Umversity of Denver, which seems to have 
been then j ust organized, with 17 instructors. The requirements for admission are an ex- 
amination in English composition, writing, grammar, arithmetic, natural philosophy, and 
the rudiments of Latin and Gredc, except for high school graduates Qr others certified 
by their instructors in such a school to be proficient in these studies; for graduation, 
study under a physician for three years, attendance on at least 2 full courses of lectures 
(which in this school are of 26 weeks) , with a thesis and the passage of a satisiactory exam- 
ination in the 7 principal branches of medical science. The full curriculum embraces 3 
consecutiYe graded courses of lectures; but, while this is earnestly recommended, it was 
not made obligatory in 1881-'82, nor was any inducement offered to complete it, beyond 
a reduction of one-half in the fees for the third year. — (Calendar of university.) 

SPECIAL INSTRUCTION. 

EDUCATION OP THE DEAF AND THE BLIND. 

The Colorado Mute and Blind Institute, Colorado Springs, is a State school, begun in 
1874, with a course of instruction meant to cover 7 years; it had 40 pupils in 1881, out of 
64 entered from the beginning of its work. These, all deaf-mutes (accommodations for 
the blind not bein^ then complete), were instructed in the ordinary sdiool studies, with 
drawing, articulation, and lip reading, as also in such industries as printing i>r the boys, and 
sewing, dressmaking, household work, care of younger children, &c, for the girls. Pro- 
vision for the accommodation of the blind appears to have been in progress, and it was 
hoi>ed that after the opening of the new building other useful employments might be in- 
troduced. Instructors in sdiool studies, 3; in household industries, 1. 

INSTRUCTION IN ABT. 

The University of Denver presents courses of instruction in music and painting: the 
former includes vocal and instrumental training that covers 4 years and leads to the de- 
cree of MUS. B. ; the latter extends through 14 stages, the time rtquired for which and 
ror the degree of bachelor of painting is to depend on the ability and application of the 
student. Both courses, as detailed, appear to be more thorough and comprehensive than 
is common in the colleges. — (Catalogue and circular.) 

NOTEWORTHY BENEFACTIONS. 
aiFTS FOB EDUCATION. 

The prospectus of the University of Denver in 1880 stated that, when Colorado Scmi- 
naiy, out of which the university has grown, failed some years ago Irom want of funds, 
Ex-Governor Evans, one of the earliest and most earnest Mends of the seminary, bought 
the property, paid the debt, and at the date of the circular proposed to give the ground 
and buildings to the trustees of the university and to add $3,000 to purchase apjuiratus, 
while another zealous friend, Mr. J. W. Bailey, offered $10,000 more. No explicit no- 
tice of the accomplishment of these benevolent propositions appears in the catalogue or 
letum for 1881; but, as the buildings have evidently come into possession of the trustees 
improved and much enlarged, it is taken for granted that these gentlemen have carried 
out their kind intentions. 

EDUCATIONAL CONVENTION. 

COLOBADO STATE TEACHEBS' ASSOCIATION. 

The meeting of this body for 1881 was appointed for December 28-30, at Colorado 
Springs, and is said to have had an inspiriting programme prepared for it; but no account 
of its proceedings has been received. 

CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICER. 

Hon. LEOiaDAS 8. Corkkll, Slate superintendent of public instruetion^ Denim', 
[Term, January 13» 1881, to January 9, 1883.] 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CONNECTICUT. 



25^ 



CONBTECTICVT. 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY. 



1879-'80. 



188(>-»81. 



Increase. 



Decrease. 



POPUULTION AND ATTENDANCE. 

Yottth of school age (4-16) 

Number enrolled in public schools 
Number enrolled over school age . - 

iTeiage attendajice in winter 

Average attendance in sommer 

Percentage of enrolment to enomer- 

ataon. 
Pupils in other than public schools. 

Attending schools of all kinds 

CinMren of school age in no school. 
Poeentage attending all schools. . . 

SCHOOL DISTBICTS AND SCHOOLS. 

Number of towns - 

Number of school districts 

Number of public schools 

Departments in pnblic schools 

Schools with two departments 

ScboolB with more than two 

Whole nomber of graded schools. . . 
Beptrtments in graded schools — 
School-bouses built during the year. 
School-houses in good or &ji condi- 
tion. 

School-booses in XKX>r condition 

Aienge time of schools in days ... 

IXACHEBS AND THEIB PAY. 

TeadierB in winter public schools. . 
Teachers in summer public schools. 
Tocheis continued in the same 
school 

Hen teaching (estimated) _. 

Women teaching (estimated) 

Afnage monthly pay of men 

Aretage monthly pay of women.. 

SECEIFTS AND EXPENDITUBES. 

Income for public schools 

Expenditure for public schools — 

PUBLIC SCHOOL FUND. 

Amount of State school fund 



140,236 

119,694 

4,349 

78,421 

68,672 

85.35 

13,900 

132,343 

13,565 

94.37 



167 

1,473 

1,630 

2,594 

130 

178 

308 

1,276 

20 

1,436 

211 
179.02 



2,771 
2,746 
2,119 

746 

2,354 

$56 43 

36 42 



11,481,701 
1, 408, 375 



$2,021,346 



143,745 

119, 381 

3,942 

76,028 

69,050 

83.05 

12,500 

131,856 

17,545 

91.73 



167 

1,471 

1,634 

2,627 

134 

180 

314 

1,314 

16 

1,446 

208 
179.98 



2,800 
2,781 
2,144 

680 

2,432 

$60 69 

36 37 



$1,482,026 
1,476,691 



$2,021,346 



3,510 



378 



3,980 



4 
33 
4 
2 
6 
39 



10 



0.96 



29 
36 
25 



78 
$4 26 



$324 
68,316 



313: 

407 

2,393- 



2.30. 

1,400> 

487 



2.64. 



2. 



3- 



66i 



$0 06- 



(From reports and returns of Hon. Birdsey G. Northrop, secretary of State board or 
edacrtion, wr the two years indicated.) 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 



26 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM. 

OFFICEES. 

The general control of educational interests is confided to a State board of education 
composed of the governor, lieutenant governor, and 4 persons appointed by the general 
assembly, one from each congressional district, who hold office 4 years, 1 being changed each 
year. The board appoints a secretary, who is its executive officer and acts as superin- 
tendent of schools, and a general agent to supervise the execution of the compulsory 
school laws. There is also an assistant secretary for office work. Town school officers 
are boards of visitors of 3, 6, or 9 members, or else school committees of 6, 9, or 12, the 
latter in towns which have aboli^ed the district system. District officers are school 
committees of 3 members, except in school districts which succeeded former school 
societies, where there are, instead, boards of education of 6 or 9 members. 

OTHER FEATUKES OF THE SYSTEM. 

School frmds are derived from local taxation, from the income of a State school frind 
and town deposit ftmd. and from a State appropriation of $1.50 for each child 4-16, 
which age is the basis or apportionment of public school moneys to towns. No district 
may receive its share of State school frmds unless it has provided school accommodations 
satis&ctory to tJie town board of visitors, has made through its committee an annual 
report to tJie town board, and sustained school at least 30 weeks during the year if there 
are 24 or more children 4-16 years old in the district, and 24 weeks if the number be 
less. Towns n^lecting to provide for the support of schools forfeit to the State a sum 
•equal to the amount which they were by law required to appropriate. School visitors must 
report annually to the secretary of the State board and the latter to the general assem- 
bly. In order to receive pay from public frmds teachers must hold a certificate of quali- 
fication from school visitors, keep a roister, and report to school visitors. Provision is 
made for public school libraries, graded and high schools, a normal school, a reform 
school, and an industrial school for girls. All children 8-14, unless physically or mentally 
disabled, must attend some school at least 3 months in each year, of which 6 weeks must 
be consecutive, or else be taught the common school branches at hopie for an equal length 
of time; and such children may not be employed in any business unless they have been 
taught for at least 60 days during the year preceding. 

NEW LEGISLATION. 

Among the amendments to school laws passed during the January session, 1881, was one 
giving the city council of any city power to establish and maintain a public library and 
reading room and to levy a tax for such purpose not to exceed one mill and a half on 
the dollar annually. 

The same privilege was extended to any town or borough in which, on the petition of 
<50 legal voters, a majority of the voters should decide in &vor of the imposition of a tax 
withm the 3 mill limit for this purpose. — (State report) 

GENERAL CONDITION. 

The statistics show a slight increase during 1880-'81 in the number of public schools 
taught, in the departments or rooms in them, in the length of school term, and in the 
number of teachers and their pay. But the number of pupils receiving instruction not 
only did not keep pace with tlie increase in school population, but acUially fell ofiT by 
313 in public schools and 1,400 in private. It is thought that the attendance on private 
schools was greater than the number given, for, although school visitors are required to 
report on this point, the law gives them no authority to obtain the necesBary information 
except as it may be given voluntarily. The decrease in public school enrolment, it is 
i^d, will not justify the inference that education was considered less important than 
heretofore; but, on the contrary, it is more clearly seen each year that a State whose 
prosperity depends so largely as does this on skilled labor cannot afibrd to allow any por- 
tion of its youth to be unschooled. It is explained that during 1880-*81 more chUdren 
under 5 were excluded from public school than ever before, and that an increased pros- 
perity in business caused the withdrawal of more youth 14-16 for work. It is thought that 
the number not in any school was almost entirely made up of the latter class and of children 
under 6 (the enumeration taking in all 4-16), and that almost all the children 8-14 were 
in school during some portion of the year. The expenditure for public schools increased 
by $68,316 and the income by $324, though the amount raised by local tax and volun- 
tary contributions was $14,539 less. The compulsory school law had continued to be 
useful in preventing truancy and absenteeism. The agent of the board visited about 200 
schools in 44 towns, causing the prosecution of 6 parents and 1 guardian for neglecting 
to send their children to school. During the ten years past, 17 parents and guardians 
have been prosecuted for such neglect. Most of these paid the fine and costs ; but in some 
•cases judgment was suspended while the children attended school for at least 3 months, 
and then the complaints were withdrawn. ^.^.^.^^^ by ^OOQIC # 



CONNECTICUT. 



27 



CITY SCHOOL SYSTEMS. 

OFFICERS. 

These are boards of school visitors of 6 to 9 raembers, boards of education of 9 to 
12, and dty superintendents. 

STATISTICS, a 



Cilies and towns. 


Papulation, 
oensus of 
1880. 


Children of 
school a£:e. 


Enrolment 
in public 
schools. 


Average 
daily at- 
tendanoe. 


Number of 
teachers. 


Bxpendi- , 
ture. 


Bridgeport 

thaburv 

Derby... 

Greeowioh 

Htftford. 

Meriden 

Middletown 

Sew Britain 


29,148 
11,660 
11,650 

7,892 
42,551 
18,340 
11,732 
13,979 
62,882 
10,537 
13,956 
21,143 
11,297 
20,270 

8,264 


7,135 
2,761 
8,104 
1,918 
9,590 
4,893 
2,651 
8,852 
14,882 
2,090 
3,136 
5,073 
2,574 
4,577 
1,971 


5,191 
2,263 
2,702 
1481 
7,553 
3,0^ 
2,058 
1,873 
12,282 
1,891 
2,375 
4,216 
1,685 
3,650 
1,158 


8,540 
1,506 
1,705 

796 
4,615 
1,832 
1,162 
1,244 
9,059 
1,277 
1,402 
2,792 
1,048 
2,630 

679 


80 
43 
48 
29 

142 
48 
47 
35 

287 
41 
42 
97 
85 
67 
28 


$88,605 
36,752 
31,602 
13,688 

165,664 
35,341 
28,826 
22,695 


Sew Haven 


197,254 


New London 


22,796 


Konralk 

Korwidi 

.^amford 


26,772 
84,817 
21,276 


Waterbory 

Wmdham „ 


59,058 
15,059 



•The sUtifltios here given, except for population, are from a table in the State report for 1880-'81. 
ADDITIONAL PAETICULAE8. 

Bridgeport J besides 5,191 pupils attending public schools, reports 450 in private schools, 
making 5,641 under instruction and leaving 1,634 not attending any schooL There was 
aa increase of 77 in public school enrolment and a slight decrease in average attendance. 
Of the 90 teachers, 81 had been continuously employed and 9 were beginners; 87 were 
women, who received an average monthly pay of $44.95. The three men were paid 
$146.67 each. A new and commodious high school building was erected in a central and 
otberwiae desirable locality of the city. It is of 3 stories, contains 14 study and recita- 
tioti rooms, also 6 others, including a chemical laboratory and library. All the modem 
OQQveni^iceB and improvements l^ve been introduced, the most approved methods of 
heating, lighting, and ventilation being adopted. 

In Danlntry the public school enrolment and average attendance decreased slightly 
daring 1880-'81. There were 116 pupils attending private schools and 436 not under in- 
•tniction. Of the 47 teachers all but 4 had been continuously employed; aU but 6 were 
vomen, who received an average of $37.74 a month, men being paid $63.50. 

Der^ reports 36 children in private schools and 387 not under instruction. Of the 
teacheiB 6 were men and 42 women; 46 had been continuously employed, the men being 
pud uk average of $85.42 monthly, the women $41.06. 

Greemeich hatd a lower public school enrolment by 71, with 64 fewer in average attend- 
ance, than during 1879-'80; private schools enrolled 145, leaving 339 not attending any 
sebooL Of the ^ teachers only 2 were beginners. Men were* paid an average of ^8.89 
iBonthly; women, $32.19. Schools were generally prosperous. Steps were being taken 
in t pOTtion of the district to secure a much needed ad(Mtion to the accommodations for 
pfipik 

Uariford reports a slight decrease during the year in public school enrolment asd 
avoige attendance, 1,487 pupils in private schools, and 1,093 children out of school. Of 
tile public school teachers (20 men and 122 women), all had been continuously employed, 
tbe men receiving $195.92 monthly, the women $60.05. There was a fall attendance on 
CTening schools of students 8 to 50 years of age, who earnestly endeavored to improve. 
The endeavor to keep truancy within bounds was reasonably successful. Twenty truants 
%txt ecHnmitted to reformatory institutions, against 15 the year before. The high 
Kfaool was efficient, as in former years. It has become an educational necessity which 
^ people would not be without for many times its cost. Subsequent information in- 
<baies that the beautiful buildmg it occupied has been destroyed by fire. 

The Maiden public schools during 1880-^81 gained 106 in number of pupils enrolled 
lid ioBt 4 in average attendance. There were 655 attending private schools and 845 
npposed to be in no school. Of the teachers only 2 were begmners in the work; 8 were 
■msid 40 women, the men being paid $104.38, the women $44.88 monthly. A cen- 
iziladiool ibr the nuNre advimccd pupils was established to meet a need which has ex- 
ited fer some time, and which had been i)artially supplied by teaching some of the 
^^ branches in the graded schools. Drawing, which had been neglected of late, was 
to neeive special attention. 



28 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

Middletaum had 17 more papils enrolled in public schools in 1880-'61 than the year be- 
fore, but owing to the prevalence of diseases the average attendance was less by 213. 
There were 494 attending private schools, and 301 were supposed to be without instruc- 
tion. All the teachers hsuiX been continuously employed. Men received an ai^erage of 
$91.63, women of 138.85 a month. A great improvement in discipline is reported, and 
this improvement was ascribed to the fact that corporal punishment had b^sn discour- 
aged and almost abolished. •From January to July there were only 16 cases of flogging, 
against 187 the year before. 

In New Britain the enrolment and average attendance in public schools were consider- 
ably less than the year before; more pupils attended parochial schools, and the public 
sdiools sufl'ered also from absences caused by vaccination. The attendance in private 
and parochial schools was 817, and 720 were reported to be in no school. Of the 35 teachers 
2 were men; £dl had been continuously employed, the men at $148.95 a month, the women 
at $38.63. A class of 6 was graduated from the high schooL Botany was added to the 
course of study there. 

New Haven had 756 more pupils attending public schools during 1880-'81 than the year 
before and 706 more in average daily attendance. Private schools enrolled 1,586 chil- 
dren and 1,616 were in no school. Of the teachers in public schools — 17 men and 220 
women — 225 were continuously employed. Men were paid an average for the month of 
$179.53; women, $51.02. Gratifying progress was made in the primary departmeat. 
The experiment of teaching children to read and write script at tibe very beginning of 
their course was successful and had been largely extended. Teachers say that script is 
learned quite as easily as print and that much time is saved by banning thus early. 
The high school course has been upward, with little serious interruption, during a niun- 
ber of years. There were 580 pupils enrolled in the high school, of whom 331 were in 
average daily attendance. In 1881, for the first time since the graduating class became 
laige, all who desired to teach were admitted to the training schooL 

New London reports a decrease of 176 in public school enrolment and of 56 in average 
attendance, 40 pupils in private schools, and 242 not in any. The 41 public school 
teachers — 3 men and 38 women — had been continuously employed, men being paid an 
average of $186.67 a month and women $38.95. 

Norwalk also reports a loss in public school enrolment and average attendance; 465 
attended private schools and 330 no schooL All the teachers in public schools had been 
continuously employed, men receiving an average of $76.75; women, $43.11. 

In Norwich public school enrolment decreased by 81 and average attendance by 34; 
385 pupils were reported in private schools and 503 in no schooL Of 97 public school 
tcAchers, 90 had been continuously employed, the average monthly pay of men being 
$90.04; of women, $38.74. 

Stamford reports a slight increase in public school ^irolment and average attendance, 
566 pupils in private schools, and 451 in no school. Of 35 publicschool teachers — 7 men 
and 28 women — 32 had been continuously employed, men receiving an average of $88. 57 
and women $41.74. • 

Waterbury enrolled 144 more in public schools and had 183 more in average daily at- 
tendance. Of 57 teachers — 5 men and 52 women — 51 had been continuously employed. 
The private school attendanceof 489 raises the total to 4,139; 520 were reported as not at- 
tending any schooL 

In WindJuim there were 1,158 pupils enrolled in public schools, 679 in average attend- 
ance, 481 attending private schools, and 410 in no schooL Of the 28 public school 
teachers, 21 had been continuously employed, men receiving an average of $69.33 a 
month; women, $32.10. 

TRAINING OF TEACHERS. 

STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL. 

The state Normal School, New Britain, admits pupils who are at least 16 years old 
who pass an examination in the common school branches and declare their intention to 
teach in the public schools, giving free tuition in a 2 years' course and also furnishing 
text books without charge. There were 150 pupils registered during the year and 115 
in average attendance, as large a number as can well be accommodated. Two classes 
were gn^uated, one of 20 in January and of 25 in June, nearly all of them engaging in 
teaching. But the number of students graduated does not represent the entire influence 
of the institution on the public schools; a considerable number of the normal pupila 
enter the profession before completing the course, but not without receiving valuable 
instruction, suggestions, and inspirations, and acquiring more or less familiarity with 
improved methods. A liberal appropriation was made by the legislative assembly for 
a suitable normal school building to be erected immediately. 

TBAINING CLASSES AND DEPAETMENT8. 

Connected with the public high schools in a number of the m >re important cities ai« 
dasses or departments for the preparation of teachers. 



CONNECTICUT. 29 

TEACHEBS' IK8TITUTBS. 

The mstitates of 1880-'81 were largely attended by teachers, school officers, and citi- 
sens. A total of 696 attended the 4 institates held; the seasions of each lasted 3 days, 
with an ayeiage of 224 attending, or 18 more than in any former year. The lecturers 
employed were practical teachers, who described methods they had themselves tested. 
Besides the institutes, and in connection with them, educational meeting were held in 
many of the towns by the secretary of the board, for the purpose of enlistmg the interest 
of teachers and citizens in education. A greater number of these local meetings was held 
this year than usual; they were cordially welcomed by the people and largely attended. 

SECONDARY INSTRUCTION. 
PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS. 

In this state all towns are authorized by law, but none are required, to establish and 
maintain schools of a higher grade than the ordinary public schools. Those in operation 
eompriae town and district high schools, senior depsulments of graded schools, and en- 
dowed academies conducted so as to form a part of the public sdbool system. For this 
reason, says the State report, it is difficult to decide as to what may properly be called 
public high schools. A list is given, however, of 51 which have claims to be included, 
bat no statistics are presented. 

OTHBB SBCONDABY SCHOOLS.^ 

For statistics of business colleges, private academies, and preparatory schools reporting, 
see Tables IV, VI, and YII of the appendix, and summaries of these in the report of the 
CommisBioDer preceding. 

SUPERIOR INSTRUCnON. 

OOLLBGfiS FOB YOUKO MEN OB FOB BOTH SEXES. 

Tale College, New Haven (Congregational), Trinity College, Hartford (Protestant 
Episeopal), and Wesleyan University, Middletown (Methodist Episcopal), are the insti- 
tntioDs for superior instruction in Connecticut. The youngest of these (Wesleyan) has 
beea in existence half a century. Trinity 55 years, and Yale 180 years. The two oldest 
are exclusiTely for young men; Wesleyan University has since 18r72 admitted women on 
equal terms. 

Tide CbUege offers instruction in departments of theology, medicine, law, and pluloeo- 
pfay aod the arts. The last comprises, besides an undergraduate academical department, 
<iouA ' s u8 for graduate instruction, the undergraduate section of Ihe Sheffield Scientific 
School, and a school of the fine arts. The a^emical undergraduate course for the first 
two years is prescribed, while the junior and senior classes are allowed a large number 
^ optionals. This department never knew a more prosperous year than that of 1880-*81. 
gdiohMTship was well maintained and the number of students and of instructors ^as never 
lietoe so large. It was decided to allow candidates for admission an examination in the 
niare elementary studies a year or more in advance of 'the final one; also, that an exam- 
iniiig committee be sent hereafter to San Francisco, such committees having been hitherto 
-sent cmly to Chicago and Cinciimati. Bequests were made to the institution during 
the year by various firiends amounting to more than $350, 000. Of this sum $10, 000 were 
^[▼eo by Lucius Hotchkiss, of New Haven, to the ihnd in aid of needy students of the 
academical department. Dr. Timothy Dwight Porter, who died in December, 1880, left, 
ia addition to former gifts, property worth $43,000, which, leas an annuity of $5,000, was 
-Uy be used to increase the teadiing force in the academical department A laboratory 
tar inatmctaon in physics was pledged by two graduates, one of the most opportune gifts, 
it is SAid, that oomd have been mi^e. All the arrangements for sewerage and dramage 
•on the ooll^ campus were reconstructed during; the year, at considerable exi>ense and 
vnder direction of one of the most thorough samtary engineers of the country, although 
-BO eomplaint had been made of the old phm and the health of students had been excep- 
tisiially good. There were 50 students in the school of the fine arts, and 601 undergrade , 
mate sad 44 graduate students. 

Trhd^ CoSege offers the regular classical course, and also special studies, including 

n languages and general science, the degrees being a. b. and b. s. Students de- 

\ to study without reference to a degree are admitted to such classes as they are 

1 to enter. The college received a ^ of $40,000 during the year from Col. C. H. 

^ of Hartford, for the erection of a building. The college had 101 students un- 

iBT 12 professors in 1881. 

iTIw OmmeiTf a flomewhAt celebrated school of this class at Washington, Conn., lost by death 
k Jjnusi, ISBl, ns fonnder and noted principal, Frederick W. Gunn, a brief account of whose life 
Hi b# found Anther on. Digitized by ^OOglC 



30 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

WesUyan Univenity provides 3 ondcTgradaate courses of study, classical, Latm-scieiitific, 
and scientific; 163 students attended in 1881. In the first two, many studies of the last 3 
years are elective, but in the scientific course electives are permitted only in the last 2 
years. Opportunities for graduate study in any of the branches taught are offered. Ex- 
aminations for admission wore to be held in 1881 in Philadelphia, Cleveland, Cincinnati, 
and Chicago. 

SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL INSTRUCTION. 

SCIENTIFIC. 

The Sheffield Scientific School of Yale reports for the year 1880-*81 a decided increase 
in the number of students. Whether this was due to accidental causes or to* the revival 
of interest in those studies which bear directly upon the progress and prosperity of the 
country was doubtful. This school was orgamzed in 1847, through the generosity of Mr. 
Joseph E. Sheffield,* and received in 1863 t£e State's share of the congressional appropria^ 
tion for the benefit of industrial education. Three undergraduate courses of study are 
provided, embracing, among other branches, instruction in diemistry, civil and dynamical 
engineering, and agriculture. There are also a number of graduate courses arranged to 
suit the wants of college graduates and other persons of liberal education. In 1881 there 
were 185 students attendBig the school. 

PBOPESSIONAL. 

Theological instruction is given in the theological department of Yale College (Congre- 
gational), in the Berkeley Divinity School, Middletown (Protestant Episcopal), and in the 
Theological Institute of Connecticut, at Hartford (Con^egational). All present courses 
of study covering 3 years and require an examination for admission whidi must show a 
collegiate or equivalent training. Of 38 undergraduate students in the Berkeley Divinity 
School 36 held degrees in letters or science, and of 29 in the Hartford School 24 held such 
degrees. Out of 97 theological students in the school at Yale 84 had already taken one 
or more degrees and the others had attended colleges or seminaries without graduating. 
Provision is made at Yale and at the Hartford Seminary for graduate study. At Yale 7 of 
the 97 students in 1880-*81 were in a graduate dass. The school at Htuiford reports 1 
graduate student. A new library building has been erected for the theological library at 
Yale, at a cost of $10,000, being a donation from a former benefiictor. 

Legal instruction is given in the law department of Yale College, which offers an onder- 
graduate and a graduate course, each of 2 years. An examination for admission to the un- 
dergraduate department is required of all who are not college graduates. The proportion 
of students who have had a collegiate training has continued to increase in the school, and 
during 1880-'81 such students comprised two-thirds of the junior dass. The graduate 
course, open to graduates from any law school, has created at Yale a school of political 
sdenoe, in which, among other topics, instruction is given in American and Engfish con- 
stitutional history, the formation and regulation of municipal corporations, international 
law, political economy, parliamentary Law, canon law, general and comparative juris- 
prudence, Roman and French law, sociology, and the conflict of laws. A fund of $60,000 
(subject to a life interest) was bequeathed by Hon. Lafiiyette S. Foster, who died in 
September, 1880, to found a profe^orship of English common law. This is the first legacy 
ever left to the school, and the chair for which it makes provision is the only one yet 
endowed. 

The medical department of Yale Collie reports more effective work done daring 
1880-'81 than in the years preceding, the factors in this improvement being an increase 
in the amount of the instruction given, a further development of the plan of study, and 
material permanent improvements, such as apparatus, instruments, and laboratory smd 
lecture room conveniences. The work of instruction is represented by 1,389 hours, 
against 1,274 the year before, including only the hours spent in actual lectures, recita- 
tions, and laboratory teaching. During this, the second year of the graded system, the 
gradation has been much more complete than it was in the first: chemistry and normal 
histology were assigned to the first year, physiology to the last half of the junior and 
the first half of the middle year, and certain special courses to the senior year. Exam- 
inations are held at the end of each year in the branches studied. The library received, 
among other donations, a valuable one from the late Prof. David P. Smith, who be- 
queathed to it his valuable professional library and surgical instruments. He also left 
to the school a portion of his estate to be applied (at the death of his widow) to the en- 
dowment of a chair of the theory and practice of medicine. 

SPECIAL INSTRUCTION. 

EDUCATION OF THE DEAF AND DUMB. 

The American Asylwmfor the Education of the Deaf and Dumbj Hartford, has given inr 
Btruction to 2,288 deaf and dumb youth of Connecticut and the other New England 

> Since this wim written, Mr. Sheffield hat died, leaving a large part of his great wealth to the sohooL 



CONNECTICUT. 31 

States since its organizataon in 1816. During the year 1880-'81 225 pupils were regis- 
tered, and at date of the rejKwrt 179 were attending, only 49 of these l^ing from C5n- 
necticut; 30 were from Mame, 17 fix)ni New Hampshire, 16 from Vermont, 61 firom 
Maasachiisetts, and 6 from Rhode Island. Besides the common school branches, tailor- 
ing, cabinet making, and shoemaking are taught. Of 10 boys who graduated from the 
first class in June, 1680, 8 secured steady employment at good pay and 2 entered the 
National Deaf-Mute Coll^ at Washington. The plan of instruction pursued here is the 
eombined method, embracing articulation, the sign language, and writing. It is believed 
that by articulation alone instruction can be conveyed oiSy to the semi-deaf and to ex- 
cepfemally bright pupils among the congenitally deaf, but that a large proportion of the 
latter never attain facility in lip reading and can be better taught by other means. 

Whipple HomeSchoolf Mystic River, a private school for deaf-mutes established in 1869, 
had 11 deaf and dumb under instruction during 1880-^81. The plan followed is that of 
articulation exclusively. All are taught the common school branches; the boys learn 
also to w<Mrk on the &rm and the girls to do housework. 

EDUCATION OF THE BLIND. 

CtHmecticut has no Institution for the blind, but provides for their instruction in the 
Bcbflols of other States. 

EDUCATION OF THE FEEBLE-MINDED. 

The Connecticnt School for Imbeciles, Lakeville, gives instruction to this class of 
duldrenin the more elementary common school branches, in Kindergarten work, sewing, 
&ncj work, singing, dancing, and gynmastics, the aim being to extend a healthy train- 
ii^ to tiie physical as weU as the mental powers. About 35 per cent, of pupils since the 
beginning nave been improved by the course. 

BEFOBMATOBY AND INDUSTBIAL TBAININQ. 

The Oojmeeticwt SUxte Refcrm Schooly Meriden, receives boys committed to it by the 
courts for crime or truancy, and also others placed here by parents or guardians for refor- 
mati(m. The mild yet firm discipline and x>£fcrental care given the boys are producing 
good results, as shown by their improved character and conduct There have been 3,076 
under instruction since the organization of the school in 1854 ; the number present Novem- 
ber, 1880, was 307. The schools are thoroughly classified in 7 grades, and liberally sup- 
plied with approved books and other necessities. Besides their literary studies, the boys 
vt taoght fitrming, the cane seating of chairs, and the manufacture of overalls. They 
ve foinished with an abundance of wholesome food, are comfortably and neatly dad, 
>Dd are lodged in single beds in light, well ventilated rooms. Bathing conveniences ar^ 
veiy complete, and untiring attention is given to cleanliness. 

The Connecticut Industrial School for QirU^ Middletown, is not strictly a State institution, 
^Mxi^ fostered and encouraged by the State, but aprivate charity in its initiation and man- 
agem^ and designed to save, educate, and prepare for useful life girls that are in danger 
of filing into vice and crime. To this end it gathers them into homes containing, as a 
Tole, not more than 35 each, with ample &cilities for instruction in the elements of 
Naming, in morals, in good domestic habits, and in usefhl industries, and bestows a like 
eve on Uiem to that which the reform school gives boys, the age for admission being 
B to 13. First op^ed in 1870 with 24 inmates, it had at the dose of 1880 received 430, 
of whom 408 were dismissed and 138 returned. There were 160 in the school December, 
1880, of whom the primary department enrolled 52; the intermediate, 51; the higher, 57. 
Tbe aim is to give a thorough common school education, together with such industrial 
tndning as will prepare for self support. The school is managed on the family plan, and 
Itti foor hoiKBes, for which it is indebted mainly to individual gifts, about half of those 
cDinneiated in the report bdng from benevolent women. A fHth house is about to be 
*Wed, an ^propriation of $10,000 having been made for the purpose by the general as- 
^ottbly. The general result of the instruction given in the school is said to be that 75 pei 
«at of the girls are saved. — (Reports, and letter from Rev. Thos. K. Fessenden.) 

TBAININO FOB NUBSES. 

"Hie Connecticut Training School for Nurses, organized in 1873 with 4 pupils, report* 
1? nnder training at the New Haven Hospital during 1880-^81, besides 5 who had com- 
pleted their year of hospital study and service and remained at the school for the five 
awnths of outside practice required of all. Eight pupils received diplomas, having com- 
pleted the entire course of 18 months. Candidates for admission must be 22 to 40 years 
of age, of good character and sound health, and must sign a written agreement to remain 
Wider the direction of the school 18 months. At the end of their hospital course they 
STB allowed a month for rest During the first 12 months they receive board, lodging, 
^Bitkn, and $2 a week; during the li^ 5, $14 a month and board. Duiang^the^^ 150 

uigi ize y ^ 



52 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

applications for nnisee were made at the hospital, of which only 52 could be granted. A 
number of applications were also made for nurses to take charge of training schools. — 
(Eighth annual report of training school.) 

EDUCATIONAL CONVENTIONS. 
OOKKECnCUT 8TATB TEACHEBS' ASSOCIATION. 

The thirty-fifth annual meeting of the State Teachers' Association, held in Hartford, 
October 27-29, 1881, was largely attended by teachers and educators fix)m all parts of the 
State. The first address, by Rev. L. T. Chamberlain, of Norwich, on *^ Education and 
schools,'' is described as one of the soundest ever delivered before the association; it 
showed the importance of moral, intellectual, and physical training, also touching on 
the question of sanitation in school building. 

On the second day the association met in sections, all three being laigely attended. 
Before the primary section papers were read by Superintendent H. M. Harrington, of 
Bridgeport, by Miss Hattie Ball, of Middletown, and by Miss E. G. Cilly, of Norwich, on 
methods of teaching; Professor Sawyer, of New Britain, also spoke briefly on the subject 
in the discussion that followed. ^^ Language: its rank as a study and some methods of 
teaching it" was the subject of an essay by Mr. (xeorge R. Burton, of New Haven. Miss 
Fanning, of Norwich, read a paper on the same subject, and it was farther discussed by 
a number of others. 

In the grammar school section Miss Ellen J. Whiton, of Waterbury, with the assist- 
ance of two pupils firom her school, gave an object lesson in United States history by 
means of an ingenious arrangement of pieces of colored cambric pinned on an outline map of 
the United States; the pupils also rehearsed a history of the United States flag, unfolding 
flag after flag used in the revolutionary war before the present one was ad(4>ted. Mr. 
E. L. Mead, of Winsted, spoke on ''The school and the community," and Mr. S. T. 
Dutton, of New Haven, gave his views as to the duty of teacheis to pupils. Mr. C. W. 
Walcott, of Waterbufy, addressed the teEichers on ''Three systems of musical notation: 
thestafif notation, Galen's figure notation, and tonic sol-fa notation," after which an 
address on reading in grammar schools, by Pro£ B. Huxley, of the Adelphi Academy, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., closed the programme. 

The fiist address before the high school section