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Full text of "Annual report of the Federal Security Agency"

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PRINCETON 

UNIVERSITY 

V LIBRARY y 




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{Whole Xur.iber gtl 

REPORT 



OF THS 



COMMISSIOIER OF EDUCATION 



FOR 



THE YEA.Il 1893-94:. 



Volume 1. 

OONTTAXNJNG- FAUT I. 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1896. 



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THE UNITED STATES 

BUREAU OF EDUCATION. 

Created aa a Department March 2, 1S67. 
Made an Office of the Interior Department July 1, 1S69, 



COMMISSIONERS. 



Henry Barnard, LL. D., 
March 14, 1867, to March 15, 1870. 

John Eaton, Ph. D., LL. D., 
March 16, 1870, to August 5, 1886. 

Nathaniel H. R. Dawson, L. II. D., 
August 6, 1886, to September 3, 1889. 

William T. Harris, Ph. D., LL. D., 
September 12, 1889, to date. 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



THE COMMISSIONER'S IITTRODIJCTION. 

Page. 

General summary of pnpils , xiii 

The oomxnon schools xin 

The growth of cities xvi 

Secondary schools , xxi 

Higher edncation xxii 

Edacation in European countries xxrv 

The correlation of studies xxxv 

PART I. 
Chapteb I 

Whole T?"uMBKn of Ptpils and Students 3 

Chapteb H.— Coxsoudated Statistics of Statb A^'D Citt Common School Systems. 

I. — State school systems : 

Table 1.— Total popolation, school popnlatlon, adult male population 7 

Tablo 2. — Belation of school i>opnlation to total i>opnlat!on and to adult mxde population ; 
proportion of the white school population of foreign birth or extraction ; percentage of 

foreign bom of total population 

Table 3.— Enrollment of pupils in common schools at rarious periods, and relation of enroll- 
ment to school population 10 

Table 4.— School enrollment of 1803-9A classified by sex 12 

Table 5. — ATcrage daily attendance at various periods, and its relation to enrollment 12 

Tablo 6.— Average length of shool term ; aggregate number of days* schooling given to all 

pupils 14 

Table 7.— Xumbcr and sex of teachers 15 

Table S.^Teachers* salaries IB 

Table O.^Schoolhouscs and value of school property 17 

■ Tabl« 10.— Private schools / 18 

Table 11 .—Receipts of school moneys 19 

Table 12. — School revenue compared with adul t male population and with school population 20 

Table 13 — Progress of school expenditure 21 

Table 14.— The school expenditure classified 22 

Table 15.— Amount expended per pupil; percentage analysis of expenditure; average 

monthly expense of each pupil 23 

II.-»-City school systems : 

If otes on the statistics 24 

Tablo 1 — Summary of statistics of city schools ^ 20 

Table 2.— Summary, by States, of attendance, superintendents, and teachers 27 

Table 3. — Summary of school property and expenditures 28 

Table 4.— Comparative statistics of city schools 29 

Table 5.— Comparison of school enrollment of the several ages with population of like 

ages 80 

Table 0.— Statistical comparison of the schools of tea largest cities in the Fnited States. 82 

Cha-'-teb III.- Statistical Review of Secondary Education. 

Comments on the statistics of seoondary schools 33 

Public hi^^h schools 33 

Students and studies 43 

Equipment and income 49 

Private high schooU 60 

ni 



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ly TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Pagn> 

Distribation of stadenU 51 

Stndentsand studies in private high schools 53 

Equipment and income 54 

Denominational schools 53 

Public and private high schools compared 56 

Public and private secondary students 61 

Other secondary students 63 

Table 1.— Summary of statistics of public high schools 65 

Table 2.— Students and courses of study 66 

Tables 3-7. — Students pursuing certain studies 67 

Table 8.— Equipment and income 72 

Table 9.— Schools, instructors, andstudents 74 

Table 10. — Studenta and courses of study in private secondary schools 75 

Tables 11-15. — Students pursuing certain studies 76 

Table 16.— Equipment and income 81 

Tables 17 and 18.— Denominational schools 83 

Tables 19 and 20, —Averages of j^ublic and private high schools 85 

Tables 21-24. — Summary of statistics of public and private high schools 88 

Table 25. — Distribution of students receiving secondary instruction 92 

Chapter IV.— Statistical Ekview op Hioubb Education. 

I.— Universities and colleges 97 

Table 1. — Professors and instructors 98 

Table 2.— University and college students 100 

Table 3. — Students in the several courses 105 

Table 4. — Preparation of freshmen 106 

Tables 5 and 6.— Eesidenco of college students 108 

Diagram showing number of college students to population 109 

Diagram showing proportion of college students that attend colleges in their own States . 11 

Table 7.— Total number of degrees conferred 117 

Table 8. — Degrees conferred on men 118 

Table 9.— Degrees conferred on women by coeducational colleges 119 

Table 10.— Honorary degrees conferred 120 

Table 11.— Property of universities and colleges 122 

Table 12. — Income of ttniversities and coUeges 123 

II.— Colleges for women : 

Division A, instructors, students, property 124 

Division B, instructors, students, property 128 

m.— Colleges of agriculture and the mechanic arts 134 

Summary of statistics of colleges of agriculture and the mechan ic arts 135 

lY.— Schools of technology 139 

v.— Professional schools 14 1 

General summary of statistics of professional schools 141 

Summary of statistics of schools of tSieology 141 

Law 142 

Medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, nurses, veterinarians 143 

VI.— Normal schools 146 

Pedagogy in higher institutions 151 

Summary of statistics of normal schools 154 

Chapter V.— Great BRiTAm and Ireland. 

Educational statistics and movements 165 

Evening schools - 171 

Evening continuation school code 173 

Industrial schools and Juvenile crime 182 

Technical education under the London County Council 183 

University colleges aided by the Government 184 

Chapter VI,— Education in France. 

Summary of educational statistics 187 

Primary schools, classification and supply 189 

Distribution of pupils in various classes of schools 192 

Training of teachers 197 

School buildings and equipments 198 

Besultsof elementary instruction 109 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. V 

Chapter VII Education in Central Europe. 

Pago 

Retrospective view of tbe Bureau's pnblicatlona on the sabject, since 1889 203 

Results of Prusaian oommon school statistics of the year 1891 200 

Th t c(»mmon schools of Pmssia , 206 

The common-school teachers of Pmssia 225 

History and development of the common-school system of Berlin 245 

The common-school system from 1820 till 1860 246 

The common school system from 1870 to 1893 256 

Statistiea of the schools of Berlin 201 

Attendance in secondary schools for boys in Germany 298 

Courses of study in history foand in vogae in Europe 302 

Bibliography of German books on history of education 306 

Statistice of the university libraries in Europe 308 

German bibliography of the history and methods of arithmetic 314 

Chapter VIII.— Public Instruction in Italy. 

Preface 325 

rniticatfon of Italy 326 

Dawn of the new era 830 

The administration of public instruction 332 

Normal schools 345 

Secondary classical schools 348 

The universities 358 

Miscellaneous schools >- 368 

Govern men t libraries 369 

Twenty years of public schools in Rome 369 

S unuuary and oonclusion 378 

Chapter IX.— Education in Russia. 

Population and administration 385 

StaUnt ical data 386 

length of school year, and ages of pupils 390 

General s npervision of schools 391 

Teachers - 292 

Courses of study ^ 394 

Education of the blind 395 

Current movements and discussions 396 

Ed ncational and charitable work 401 

Memorable dates 410 

Brief statement of education in Finland 413 

Chapter X.— The Pstcholoqical Revival. 

Chief events in the movement during the year 1893-94 425 

University equipment for psycho-physics and courses in child study 428 

The old psychology versus the new, by W T. Harris, United States Commissioner of Education . 433 

The new psychology, by Prof. Hugo Miinsterborg 437 

Psychology in universities, by Dr. G. Stanley Hall 445 

Suggestions on the study of children, by William L. Bryan, Ph. D 450 

Initial measures in the organization of the department of the Iowa soeiety for child study 457 

Interrelation of mental, moral, and physical training, by Dr. E. M. Hartwell 458 

Bibliography of psychology 465 

Chapter XI — Report or the Committee of Fifteen, on Trainlxq of Teachers. 

Introductory statement 469 

Report of the subcommittee on the training of teacliers 472 

Conditions for professional training, age, and attainments 472 

Training schools, academic studies 47S 

Professional work 475 

Study of children 476 

Training in teaching 478 

The practice Hchool 479 

Lengt h of training-school course 480 

Tests of success 482 

Train Ing of teachers for secondary schools 483 

Post-graduate year 486 



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VI TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

CuAPTEB XII.— Report of thb Comuttteb of Fifterk, oh Cobsblation of Studies. 

Report of the subeommittce on the correliition of studlea in elementary education 489 

The course of study — educational values 492 

Language studies 492 

Arithmotio 497 

Geography 602 

History 605 

Other branches .' 508 

Difference between elementary and secondary studios 513 

Correlation by synthesis of studies 520 

The school programme 622 

Metho<l8 and organisation 629 

Dissenting opinions 632 

CUIPTEB XIII.— RePOBT op THB Ck>MMITTEB OF FIFTEEN, ON ClTY SCHOOL SYSTEMS. 

The organization of city school systems , 543 

Chapteb xrv Tbbdjltim Repobts of Recitations in Abithmstic and Lanouaqb in the 

Schools of Kansas Citt, Mo. 

Reports of recitations in arithmetic 5S7 

Reports of recitations in language 69A 

Chapteb XV. 

Educational Values, by William T. Harris 617 

Chafteu XVI.— Public Schools in the United States dubing the Colonial and Revolu- 
TiONABY Pbbiods, by Rev. A. D. Mayo. 

Introduction— The American common school 639 

The beginnings of the American common school in New England 648 

In Virginia and the provinces of the South 074 

Popular education in the Central American colonies before the Revolution 694 

The epoch of the Revolution and establishment of the l^ational Government, 1776-1800 708 

Chapteb XVII. 

ROBEBT CHABLeS WINTHBOP AND THE PEABODY EDUCATION FUND FOB THE SOUTH 739 

Chapteb XVIII.— Nabie Reoisteb. 

Chief State school officers 773 

City superintendents 773 

Presidents of colleges for males and of coeducational ooUeges of liberal arts 781 

Presidents of colleges for vromen 780 

PART II. 

Chapteb I. 

Aobicultubal and Mechanical Colleges 791 

The Teaching of Agriculture, address by William T. Harris, United States Commissioner of 
Education, at the meeting of the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experi- 
ment Stations in 1894 804 

Chapteb II. 

FoBESTBY Education, by C. Wellman Parks, C. E 809 

Chapteb III. 

Geology in the Colleges and Univebsities of the United States, by T. C. Hopkins 819 

Table 1.— Statistics of colleges in which geology is taught, length of time, equipment, etc 852 

Table 2.— Summary of statistics of colleges in which geology is taught 870 

Table 3.— Graduate students in geology in 1893-94 870 

Table 4.— Number of colleges beginning the subject of geology in the different years from 1846 

to 1895 871 

Listof college presidents who teach geology 871 

Chapteb IV. 

Rules fob the Spellino and Pbonuncl^tion of Chemical Tebms 873 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. VII 

CHAPTEn v.— MajojAl Tralviko, by C. M. T\'ood\rarU. 

PacoL 

Itsriaoanil progress 877 

The (irganization of manoal training schoolM MO 

Tb© cuniculmxi 012 

A model prospectus 914 

The Mechanic Arts High School of Boston 017 

Hannal Training High School of Denver 020 

Manual Training High School of Louisville, Kj 028 

Cost per pupil per year 034 

Occupations of graduates of the St. Louis Manual Training School 005 

Occupations of graduates of the Baltimore Manual Training School 049 

Chapteb VI. 

Ukttebsity Extension 051 "^Z. 

Chapter VII.— Professional Education. 

Theological seminaries 973 

Medical schools 080 

Nurse training 988 

Law schools 994 

Chapter VIII. ^ 

Education of the colored race in industry IO19 

Statistics of schools for the education of the colored race 1029 

Bibliography of negro education 1038 

Bibliography of negroes in America IOI8 

Works by negro authors 1056 

Chapter IX.— Dioket op the Laws Keoclatdco the Administration, Character, and 
^ Finances of the Pcbuc-School Systems of the States of the UmoN. 

Introductory notes 1003 

Laws regulating the school system of Maine 10(J5 

Kew Hampshire 1070 

Vermont 1073 

Massachusetts 1077 

Bhode Island 1089 

Connecticut 1094 

Kew York 1101 

ifow Jersey 1110 

Pennsylvania 1116 

Delaware 1119 

Mar>-land 1122 

Virginia 1125 

West Virginia 1129 

Kentucky 1131 

North Carolina 1138 

Tennessee 1140 

South Carolina 1145 

Georgia 1U7 

Floritla 1152 

AlabMhia 1155 

Misaissippi 1157 

Louisiana IICO 

Arkansas 1163 

Texas 1168 

Ohio 1171 

Indiana 1181 

Illinois 1186 

Michigan 1102 

Wisconsin 1109 

Minnesota 1206 

Iowa 1212 

Missouri 1218 

North Dakota 1223 

Sonth Dakota 1229 

Nebraska 1233 



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VIII TABLE OP CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Kansas -. 1239 

Oklahoma 1245 

Montana 1249 

Wyoming ^ 12o4 

Coiorado 1259 

Nevada 1264 

Idaho ^ 12C8 

Washington 1274 

Oregon 1282 

CaUfornia '. 1288 

Chapter X.— Sakitaby Lboislation Affectino Schooui in the United States. 

State and Territorial legislation .- 1301 

City legislation 1326 

Actaaland possible legislation conoeming school sanitation 1344 

A proposed schedule for a sanitary investigation of schoolhouses 1348 

Chapteb XI.— Education in the Sevebal States. 

•Arizona, fix>m report of superintendent of public instruction 1351 

Arkansas 1352 

Colorado 1353 

Connecticut: 

Town management of schools 1354 

Eeport of an examination of the schools of Fairfield County, by Mr. M. A. Warren; dem* 

onstration of the superiority of graded schools 1361 

District of Columbia, free text-books and supplies 1366 

Florida 13C8 

Kansas - 1375 

Maine, change Arom the district to the town system 1376 

Massachusetts 1380 

Minnesota 1389 

Missouri 1303 

Nebraska 1397 

Kew Hampshire 1399 

Kew Jersey 1400 

Kew York .-. 1404 

North Dakota 14U 

Ohio 1414 

Woman sufi^ge in school afliairs 1416 

Oklahoma 1421 

Oregon 1422 

Pennsylvania 1423 

Ehode Island , 1427 

South Carolina 1431 

Texas 1432 

Vermont 1434 

Virginia 1438 

Washington 1439 

West Virginia 1441 

Wisconsin 1444 

Chapter XII.— Report on Education in Alaska. 

Kumber and general condition of the schools of Alaska 1451 

Beindeer herders 1453 

Independent mission schools .- 1466 

Itinerary 1471 

Chapter XIII.— A Prbuminart List of American Learned and Educational Societies. 

Historical introduction 1493 

Societies devoted to general science 1511 

Mathematics and physics j 1532 

Chemistry and pharmacy 1534 

Geography, geology, and mineralogy 1536 

Biology, including botany, ornithology, microsoopy , entomology, and anthropology 1538 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. IX 

Eoonomio science and atatlatics 1561 

Mechanical science T 1564 

Literature an d 1 an goa^ 15(0 

History, biography, and genealogy 1670 

Ethnology „ .* 161(1 

Archeology, numismatics, and philately 1616 

Uemorial and patriotic 1620 

Painting, scolpture, and architecture 1629 

Law 1631 

Medicine and dentistry 1632 

Edacaiion 1637 

Addenda... 1649 

Index of societies mentioned 1663 

Chapter XIV. 

CBiMiiroixxiiCAL Studies 1663 

Chaptkb XY.— Pstchological, CBmraoLooiCAL, and Demooraphical Ck)2(ORBS8£8 IN Europe. 

The study of human beings 1677 

International Congress of Experimental Psychology, held in London 1678 

Third session of the International Congress for Criminal Anthropology, held in Brussels 1683 

The Demographical Congress, held in Budapest, 1894 1687 

Bibliography of congresses in social pathology v 1697 

Chapter XVI. 
BoKE Recent Educational Bibuooraphies and Lists ov Books Dbsioned Mors Particu- 

LARLT for the ITSB OF EDUCATORS AND STUDENTS 1701 

Chapter XVII. 

International Exposttion of 1804 in Milan 1723 

Chapter XVIII. ^ 

The Lyons TTnivbrsal Exposition of 1804 1729 

Chapter XIX. 

General Prooramme of the World's Conqresses at the Columbian Exposition 1735 

Chapter XX. 

Kecroloqt , 1761 

PART III.— STATISTICAL TABLES. 

Statistics of population, private schools, and public school enrollment, attendance, supervising 

officers, and teachers in cities of over 8,000 inhabitants 1780 

Statistics of property, receipts and expenditures of public schools of cities of over 8,000 inhabit- 

tnta 1797 

List of cities from which no recent school data have been received 1814 

School statistics of cities and villages containing between 4,000 and 8,000 inhabitants 1815 

Statistics of public high schools 1823 

Statistics for 1892-03 of public high schools which foiled to report in 1893-94 1920 

Statistics of private secondary schools 1028 

Statistics for 1 892-93 of private secondary schools which failed to report in 1893-94 2008 

Universities and colleges for men only, and for both sexes 2017 

Colleges for women. Division A 2035 

Colleges for women, Di v Ision B 2036 

Colleges of agriculture and the mechanic arts 2040 

Technological schools 2044 

Schools of medicine 2045 

Schools of dentistry 2051 

Schoolsof pharmacy 2053 

Schools of veterinary medicine 2055 

Schools for training nurses 2056 

SehooUof law 2058 

Schools of theology 2060 



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X TABLE OP CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Public normal schoola...^. 2071 

Prirato normal acLools 2080 

Statistics of manual training in city public schools, Parti 2008 

Statistics of manual training in city public scLools, Part II 2007 

Statistics of manual training in colleges, normal schools, schools for the deaf, blind, etc.. Part I. 21U 

Statistics of manual (raining iu colleges, normal schools, schools for the deaf, blind, etc.. Part II. 2136 

Statistics of business colleges 2170 

Schools of art, music, and elocution 1 2198 

State institutions for the deaf 2201 

Public day schools for the deaf 2208 

Private schools for the deaf 2212 

State institutions for the blind 2215 

Schools for the feeble-minded 2221 

Heform schools : 2227 

Benefactions to oduoational institutions since 1871 2234 

Educat ion in foreign countries 2236 



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ILLUSTRATIOIsrS. 



Mechanic Arts High School, Boston, Mass 017 

First -floor plan 018 

Second-floor plan 019 

Manaol Training High School, Denver, Colo 920 

Basement plan 921 

First-floor plan 922 

Lathe demons trat ion 923 

Pattern shop 023 

Socond-floor plan 024 

Third-floor plan 025 

Manual Training High School, Louisville, Ky 026 

Plan of basement of recitation building 927 

G round plan of shops 928 

Ground plan of recitation building 929 

Plan of second floor of shops 930 

Plan of second floor of recitation building 931 

Plan of third floor of shops 932 

Plan of third flqor of recitation building 933 

Landing the first tame reindeer in Alaska H65 

School on St. Paul Island. Bering Sea 1463 

St. James Mission, Fort Adams, Alaska 1*®7 

Examination by kymograph 1608 

Instruments used m psychological examination 1^^ 

XI 



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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Department of the Interior, 

Bureau op Education, 
Washington^ D. C, June J20, 1895. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith my sixth annual report, 
tlie same being for the year ending June 30, 1894. 

whole number of persons enrolled in schools and 

colleges. 

There were enrolled in the schools and colleges of the United States, 
both public and private, during the school year 1893-94, 15,530,268 
pupils and students, being an increase of 446,638 over the preceding 
year. A detailed classification of these pupils and students is given 
on pages 3 to 6. In addition, there were some 400,000 persons enrolled 
in various special schools and institutions, such as business colleges, 
trade schools, conservatories of music, schools of art and elocution, 
schools for the delinquent and defective classes, Indian schools, etc., 
making a grand total of nearly 16,000,000 persons who attended a 
school of some kind for a longer or shorter period during the year. 

the common schools. 

The term "common schools" is understood by this office to include 
public elementary and secondary (or high) day schools. The statistics 
of the diflFerent State common-school systems, compiled from data 
furnished by State superintendents, are given in detail in Cliapter I. 
The following table contains a condensed summary of the common- 
school statistics, with the corresponding figures for 1892-93 in a 
parallel eoliimn: 

GENEKAL STATISTICS. 



1.— General ataHiUcs. 

Popalation of the TJnitod States (estimated) 

Nnniber ofpersonA 5to 18 veara of age (entiraated) 
Nnmber of different pnpfls enrolled in the com- 
mon scbooU 

Per rentof popaUtion enrolled 

Per cent of pereona 5 to 18 years of age enrolled . . 
Average dauy aUendance 



1892-93. 



66, 087, 900 
19,662,491 

13.510,719 

20.45 

69.10 

8, 855. 717 



1893.M. 



67,891,380 
20, 086, 423 

13, 935, 977 

20.53 

69.39 

9,187,505 



Increase (4-) 

or 
decrease (— ). 



1,808,480 
533,932 

425,258 
.08 
.29 

331.788 



Per cent 

of 
increase 

or 
decrease. 



+ 2.73 

+ 2.73 

+ 8.15 



-h 3.76 



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XIV 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



GENERAL STATISTICS-Continned. 





1892-93. 


1893-94. 


Increase (+) 

or 
decrease (— ). 


Per cent 

of 
increase 

or 
decrease. 


Ratio to enrollment ....... 


65.54 
136.7 
1,210,754,931 

61.9 
89.6 


65.92 
139 
1,277,037,178 

63.6 
9L6 


+ .38 
+ 2.3 
+ 66,282,247 

X I'' 




Average lens th of school term in days 




AflTfirreirate number of davs' attendance. . ........ 


-f 5.47 


Average number for each person 5 to 18 years of 


Average number attended by each pupil enrolled. 






Male teachers 


122,056 
260,954 


124, 768 
263,239 


+ 2.712 
+ 2,285 


-t- 2.22 


Fernnlo teachers ..... .1**^. ..xx^. 


+ .88 






Whole number of teachers....... .......... 


383.010 
3L9 


388,007 
32.2 

$44.76 

$37.48 

236,529 

$425,024,341 


+ 4,997 
+ .3 


+ 1.80 


l?er cent of male teachers . ................ 




Average monthly wages of teachers in 40 States : 




Female 








Number of schoolhonses ........ ................ 


235,420 
$398,435,039 


-f 1,103 
+$26,689,802 


+ .47 


Value of school nronertv. 


+ 6.67 






U.-^Finaneei. 
Receipts : 

Tiipi>nie of i>ernianent funds .- rr^--, 


$8,674,945 

$33,694,813 

$106,425,054 

$14,228,070 


$8,486,052 
$33,074,152 
$111,255,258 
$14,235,930 


- $188,893 

— $620 661 
+ $2,830,204 
+ $7,860 


— 2.18 


From StatcT taxes 


— 1.84 


From local taxes..... 


+ 2.61 


From other sotiroes. 


+ .05 






Total revennea 


$165,022,882 


$167,051,892 


+ $2,028,610 


-f 1.28 






Per cent of the total revenue derived from— 
Permanent funds . ...............r. ......... 


5.3 
20.4 
65.7 

8.6 


5.1 
19.8 
66.6 

8.5 


— .2 

— .6 

± :? 




State taxes 




Local taxes 




Other sources 








Expenditures : 

For sites, buildings, furniture, libraries, and 
apparatus 


$31,439,580 
104,090,607 
27, 813, 091 


$29,237,231 

108, 520, 730 

32, 626, 212 


-$2,202,349 
+ 4,430,123 
+ 4,813,121 


— 7 


For salaries of teachers and superintendents. 
For other purposes 


+ 4.25 

+17. 31 






Total expenditure 


163,843,278 
2.47 


170,384,173 
2.51 


-f 7,040,895 
+ .04 


+ 4.31 


Average expenditure per capita of population . . 






Average expenditure per capita of average at- 
tendance: 
For sites, buildings, etc 


8.56 
1L76 
8.14 


3.18 
U.81 
8.66 


- .87 

+ .05 
+ .42 




For salaries 




For other purposes 








Total 


18.45 


18.55 


+ .10 








Per cent of the total expenditure devoted to— 
Sites, buildinffs. etc 


19.2 
68.7 
17.1 

$1.72 
2.70 


17.2 
68.7 
19.1 

$L70 
2.67 


— 2.0 


+ 2 

— $0.02 

— .03 




siffiM^T.!!...:.::!.....;. ...::.......... 




other purposes 




Average amount expended per month for each 
pupil: 
Fer salaries only 




For all purposes 









It will be observed that there was an increase dnring the past year 
of 425,258, or 3.15 per cent in the nnmber of pupils enrolled in the 
common schools. This is an unusual rate of growth, the average annual 
increase for the ten years ending with 1892-93 having been only about 
286,000. It is worthy of note that this well-marked gain in school 
attendance occurred during a period of widespread business depres- 
sion, and it sx>eaks well for the people that they endeavor to make up 
for the loss occasioned by irregular and uncertain wages by sending to 
school not only the younger children at such times, but also their older 
children, thrown out of occupation as wage earners. 



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THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 



XV 



The percentage of the total popnlaUou enrolled in the schools was 
20.53, as compared with 19.67 in 1879-80, and 20.32 in 1889-90. That 
is to say, in every 10,000 persons there are now 86 more enrolled in the 
common schools than in 1880. 

Another noteworthy gain was that of 2.3 day's length of the school 
term, which is now 139 days, or nearly 10 days longer than in 1880. 
The average number of days attended by each pupil enrolled, however, 
was only 91.6, or about two-thirds of the time the schools were in 
session. 

There was an increase of 2,712 in the number of male teachers, and 
2,285 in the number of female teachers. The x)ercentage of male 
teachers (32.2) shows an increase the first time in a number of years, 
another item to be explained by the business depression, men having 
less reason to desert the calling of teacher and venture in more lucra- 
tive employments. 

The increase in the number of schoolhouses was only 1,103, while the 
total value of school property gained over $26,000,000. These figures 
would seem to indicate that much of the expenditure for schoolhouses 
had been devoted to the improvement and enlargement of existing 
buildings. 

In a former report I have discussed the question of the average total 
amount of schooling given to each individual in the nation. I have 
had a comparative table made, showing this item for each division of 
the country and for the whole United States, for the years 1870 and 
1880, and for each year in the present decade. 

The table includes the items of higher and special education which 
were omitted in my former estimate. For 1891 1 found the result to be 
4.3 years for each citizen. But by including these items the average 
is increased to 4^ years. 

Average total amount of schooling {including all grades, pMio and private) each indi* 
vidual of the population would receive under the conditions actually existing at the 
different dates given below, 

[Amonnt of schooUnf^ being oppressed in years of 200 school days.] 





1870. 


1880. 
3.59 


1890. 


1891. 


1802. 
4.41 


1893. 
4.48 


1894. 


United States 


3.32 


4.41 


4.51 


4.63 






North Atlantic Division 


4.08 
1.20 
1.09 
4.00 
3.46 


6.77 
2.13 
1.81 
4.76 
4.06 


6.04 
2.68 
2.48 
6.28 
4.44 


6.04 
2.72 
2.60 
5.87 
4.65 


6.08 
2.68 
2.02 
5.14 
5.00 


6.09 
2.73 
2.58 
6.30 
4.83 


6 32 


Bopth A ihmi^ T«vi,f An 


2.00 


South Central Division 


2 88 


North Central Division 


6 30 


Western Division 


4.92 







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XVI 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



The following table gives the same item, omitting the private Bchools 
and all higher and special education: 

Average total amount of schooling received per inhabitant, considering only publie 
elementary and secondary schools. 





[Expressed in years of 200 days each.] 










1870. 


1880. 


1890. 


1891. 


1892. 


1893. 


18M. 


United States 


2.91 


3.45 


3.85 


8.93 


3.97 


3.99 


4.18 








North Atlantic Division 


4.43 
0.80 
0.78 
3.71 
2.77 


4.84 
1.90 
L57 
4.19 
8.67 


4.99 
2.42 
2.20 
4.67 
3.98 


5.06 
2.46 
2.31 

4.74 
4.16 


6.10 
2.46 
2.41 
4.75 
4.46 


6.10 
2.61 
2.38 
4.84 
4.39 


6 28 


South A tlantio Division 


2.70 


South Central Division 


2.04 


North Central Division 


4 85 


"Western Division 


4.49 







THE GROWTH OF CITIES. 

The disproportion between the percentages of population of the 
Korth and of the South found in cities makes its influence felt in the 
item of total average school attendance, and hence calls our attention to 
the influence of cities on the length of school sessions and the location 
of schools at convenient distances. In the North Central, and North 
Atlantic divisions the number of cities having over 8,000 inhabitants 
was, in 1890, 351, the same being an increase of 118 over the number 
in 1880. In the South Atlantic and South Central States the number 
of cities had increased in the same decade from 42 to 73. 

The city brings together the producer and the consumer. In the 
city the raw material brings the highest price, and the manufactured 
product is found at its cheapest price. 

The city makes combinations; it seeks out the producer and buys his 
product, selling him its equivalent of the merchandise of the world. 
The city thus connects the people of its environment with the world. 
The family that produces for itself its own food, clothing, and shelter 
is living on a low plane of civilization. It should produce some spe- 
cialty for the market of the world, and exchange it for a share in all 
the productions of mankind. Such process of exchange is like a sac- 
ramental consecration. Each i)erson consumes or partakes of the pro- 
duct of the world of universal human society; each, himself, contrib- 
utes to the supply of all others. It is this process of intercommunication 
of each with all that is the essence of civilization. 

The family that produces all that it consumes does not enjoy luxury 
or culture as the result of its labor. But when it has access to the 
market of the world through the mediation of the city, then it may 
have endless variety in what it consumes. By the division of labor, 
skill and productive power are increased, so that the share of each per- 
son is multiplied. Hence, each gets more than he gives to the world 
market. It is a sort of living mirror of grace — by giving one's product 
to the world, one gets in return manifold. Hence this mediation rf 
one's labor by aid of the world market may be called a sacrament. 



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THE GROWTH OF CITIES. XTH 

Here is seen the vast significance of the school education in enabling 
the citizen who shares in the productions of his fellow-men to know his 
fellows and understand their views of the world. It euables him to 
know their opinions, and to share in their spiritual as well as in their 
material productions. It enables him to participate in the formation 
of national and international public opinion. 

The type of modern cil y, coming into existence since the days of steam 
and electricity have made cheap and rapid transportation possible, is 
that of a compact business center and a wide area of suburban resi- 
dence extending out from the city's center to a distance of 5, 15, or even 
25 miles. The evils of city life in the middle ages were due to lack of 
sewerage, lack of a supply of pure water, and the consequent poisoning 
of the air in the dwellings, which were poorly lighted and ventilated. 
The city of the future, and indeed the city of the present, is a vast 
improvement. The death rates in London have been reduced to an 
average below that of most rural districts. 

It is the destiny of all civilization to increase the number and size of 
its cities. It is the necessary result of the invention of machinery and 
the labor-saving devices which flow from new discoveries in science, 
for the city is the necessary resort of the surplus laborers no longer 
needed on the farm. Not so many people are needed to procure the 
raw materials of food, clothing, and shelter, but more and more people 
are required to turn these raw materials into articles of comfort and 
luxury; more and more people to work at transportation and intercom- 
munication, and more persons in the work of giving culture to the rest. 
The savage tribe, unaided by machinery, can allow but one i)erson for 
the production of ornamentr-nearly all are needed for the supply of 
food and clothing of the plainest sort. But the partly civilized tribe 
can afford ten persons for the production of ornament and luxury. The 
proportion increases rapidly as we ascend in the use of machinery, and 
the time is arrived now when more than a hundred in a thousand are 
needed for the production of ornament and luxury. 

In transportation and intercommunication by means of railroads, 
telegraphs, postal systems, new8pax)ers, books, libraries, schools, and 
churches — the line rises from mere transportation through intercom- 
munication up to culture. In these employments more and more of 
the population will find occupation. 

Instead of ninety-nine drudges producing raw material and one per- 
son working to furnish and diffuse directive intelligence, it will come 
to pass in the distant future that one man will, by the aM of machin- 
ery, furnish the raw material, another man's labor will make the use- 
ful articles for food, clothing, and shelter, ten more will elaborate 
articles of comfort and luxury, the rest, more tlian 80 per cent of the 
community, will take up vocations having to do with protection and 
culture. With the growth of cities, therefore, there is a rapid increase 
of educational facilities. 
ED 94 n 

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Xyill REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

lu the past twenty years tlie South has increased 54 per cent in i)op- 
ulation, but its school attendance has increased 130 per cent — that is to 
say, more than twice as fast as the population. This means that there 
is a larger proportion of the population kept in school during the year. 
While in 1S74 an average of 14 J out of every hundred were enrolled in 
school, ten years later (1884) the average had risen to 18J per hundred, 
and in 1894, or twenty years later, the number enrolled is 22 in the 
hundred. Of all the people of the South, white and black, 1 in 5 
is in attendance on school for some portion of the year. In the twenty 
years from 1874 to 1894 the value of school property increased from 
S1G,000,000 to $51,000,000— an addition of $40,000,000, or $2,000,000 a 
year. It built better school buildings and adopted modern improve- 
ments to such an extent that while in 1874 the average value of a 
sehoolhouse in the South was only $373, in 1894 the value had risen 
to $G43. 

Iligher education has also a good record. It did not have so far to 
climb as the elementary schools for all classes of people. But while in 
1874 the number of college students for the South numbered 10,103, in 
1894 the number is 25,304, or two and one-half times as many. 

Turning to the important subject of race education, we find that the 
statistics are still more to the credit of Southern statesmanship. 

In 1876 the South had an enrollment in its schools of 571,500 colored 
children, and 1,827,139 white children. More than half a million col- 
ored children were in actual attendance on school for some portion of the 
year. But in 1894, eighteen years later, the white pupils had increased 
to 3,835,593, while the colored pupils had increased to 1,424,995. The 
increase of white pupils for the eighteen years was 109 per cent, while 
that of the colored was 150 per cent. Twenty-three out of every 100 
white inhabitants are enrolled in school, and 19 out of every 100 of the 
colored inhabitants. 

But with this fine showing as to numbers, it appears from the statis- 
tics here presented that the length of the school term is not yet up to 
the average. The average number of days in which schools are taught 
is, for the whole nation, one hundred and thirty-nine days, while the 
average number of days for the South Atlantic Division of States is 
only one hundred and six, and for the South Central Division only 
ninety-three days. But the South had in twenty years increased its 
school term twelve days. With the growth of cities and large villages 
here discussed, the length of the annual school session will increase 
until it is quite as long as that of the Forth Atlantic States. The city 
schools keep their doors open about two hundred days. In the agricul- 
tural districts there is a winter session of seventy to ninety days, and 
in many cases a shorter summer session. It is this that makes the 
average school years so short in the South. 

In the rural districts of New England the school term was only seventy- 
five days, as a usual thing, until the growth of large villages and cities 



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THE GROWTH OP CITIES. XIX 

with tlieir ten-month schools finally created a public sentiment which 
now insists on long terms for all districts. 

The best device yet discovered to help the schools in sparsely settled 
districts is the payment of cost of transi)ortatioii by the school com- 
mittee and the consolidation of districts. The children from outlying 
districts arc brought to the town center, where a large, well-graded 
school is kept up for two hundred days of the year. The cost of trans- 
portation for the pupils living more than a mile away is not so great an 
item as the cost of furnishing teachers and school buildings for half a 
dozen pupils each. 

In the small rural school no classification can be attempted, and for 
the most part the pupils never get beyond the rudiments of reading, 
writing, and arithmetic. With good classification the city teacher can 
teach from 40 to GO pupils well. In the ungraded school not even 16 to 
30 pupils can be well taught. 

This increase of graded schools explains how it is that In the South, 
with a great increase of expenditures and with a much longer school 
session, the average cost per pupil is not materially increased. Twenty 
years ago it was $8.40; last year it was only $8.G2. But the pupil 
receives now better accommodations, better instruction, and a longer 
school session than then, and the newly established training schools 
are sending into the work thousands of professional, trained teachers. 

It is interesting to note the effects of urban growth and the increase 
of schools in the South on the wealth and productive power. 

The wealth is estimated as follows by the United States Census: 

South Atlantic States: 

1890 $5,132,980,666 

1880 3,759,000,000 

Increase 1,373,980,666 

South Central States : 

1890 6,401,281,019 

1880 3,882,000,000 

Increase 2,519,281,019 

Education has produced a laboring class that can use machinery to 
assist the strength of bone and muscle. It has made possible the 
great change of vocations from the production of mere raw materials 
to the production of the finished product. This is a change going on 
in all civilized countries. The machine is coming in at one end, and 
the mere drudge is going out at the other. The uneducated, unskilled 
man is not needed, for his hands and muscles can not compote with the 
machine. He is needed, however, in the work of directing the machine, 
and is therefore called upon to step up from the occupation of the mere 
drudge to the occupation of the overseer. The change from hand 
work to brain work is a necessity. But this can not go on without 
schools that fit the pupils out with alert and versatile intelligence. 



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XX REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

Even in the fertile fields of the South unskilled labor does not bring 
good wages. But the skilled laborer in the city, using tools and direct- 
ing machinery, earns and receives an average of double the wages that 
the farm hand gets. 

Machinery is going out from the city to the farm; and the farm, too, 
needs fewer laborers, and can furnish more productions. The surplus 
farmers must go into mechanical industries, into transportation, and 
commerce. Fewer and fewer people are needed for the production of 
the raw materials of food, clothing, and shelter all the world over, 
thanks to mechanic inventions, which are pushing the mere illiterate 
drudge out of his vocation. He must climb to the plain of the skilled 
laborer or else starve in his attempt to compete with the machine. 

A school system makes possible a change of vocations among its 
people. It puts alertness and versatility in place of mere brute strength 
and persistency. More than this, the school puts aspiration and ambi- 
tion into its pupils. It Ufts the veil of distance in time and place, and 
shows them the achievements of the race. " You, too, can achieve the 
like.'' The school next proceeds to teach the sciences by which the 
wonders of the world have been accomplished; mathematics, the tool 
of thought, by which matter is moved and forces are tamed into the 
service of man; history, and geography, and grammar, and literature, 
by which man comes to know men, and gains the ability to combine 
with them in civilized effort. 

The work of education is the direct work of helping individuals to 
help themselves. 

Small as is the schooling given by the nation to its people, some four 
and one-half years apiece, it suffices to make reading and writing uni- 
versal, and in addition to these gives also a limited acquaintance with 
the rudiments of arithmetic and geography. This fits the citizen to 
become a reader of the daily newspaper, and thus to bring him under 
an educating influence that will continue throughout his life. A news- 
paper civilization is one that governs by means of public opinion. The 
newspaper creates public opinion. !N"o great free nation is possible 
except in a newspaper civilization. By aid of the printed page the 
school educated person makes present to himself daily the events of 
the world and lives an epic life, for the epic life is the life of nations. 
A certain portion of the day of each citizen is given to contemplating 
world events, and to discussing them. He sees the doings of his State 
and nation, and forms his own opinion. His opinion in the aggregate, 
with those of his fellow- citizens, is collected and offered to the world 
by the newspaper. Our schools suffice to produce a government by 
public opinion. This is a result of a higher order than the other good 
results which we have canvassed as among the benefits to the South of 
the education which it is giving to its children. To give people the 
power to readjust their vocations and to climb up to better-paid and 
more useful industries out of lives of drudgery is a great thing, a suffi- 



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SECONDARY SCHOOLS. XXI 

cient reason in itself for establishing a public-school system. But to 
give the people the power of participating in each other's thoughts, 
to give each one the i)ow.er to contribute his influence to the formation 
of a national public opinion, is a far greater good, for it looks forward 
to the millennium, when no wars will be needed for the mediation of 
hostile ideas. 

SECONDARY^ SCHOOLS. 

In Chapter 3 will be found a fuller presentation of the statistics of 
secondary education than ever before attempted by this Bureau. In 
Part III of this annual report more than half the space is occupied 
with detailed tables relating to public and private secondary schools. 
There will be found the names and the usual statistics of 5,94G public 
high schools reporting to this office in 1894. This is an increase of 
1,700 over the number reporting in 1893. A special effort was made 
to secure returns from all the public high schools in the United States, 
and it is believed that only a small per cent failed to report The 
totsil number of secondary students in these schools is 407,919, an 
increase of 78,821 over the number reported in 1893. In 1894 there 
were 3,964 public high schools, with 289,274 students, and 1,982 private 
high schools, with 118,645 students. One must not suppose that there 
has been within a year or even two years any such increase as these 
figures would indicate, although the growth of secondary schools within 
five years has been remarkable. The Bureau has reached out and 
gathered m statistics of all public and private high schools that could 
be persuaded to send reports to this oflBce. Many of the schools are 
new and many more have been in existence for several years. 

The tables m Chapter 3 are very full and comprehensive. The deduc- 
tions drawn from them will prove of deex) interest to those who are 
watching the development of secondary education in this country. The 
results of the work of these secondary schools, both public and private, 
indicate steady improvement. For>example, there was relative increase 
in the number graduating m 1894 over 1893, and a comparison of the per- 
centages of students pursuing the ten leading secondary studies shows 
marked advancement. The per cent of students in Latin increased 
from 43.06 to 44.78 in the public high schools and from 39.23 to 40.77 
in the private secondary schools. The per cent studying algebra in 
the public schools was 52.88 in 1893 and 56.14 in 1894, while in the pri- 
vate schools the increase was from 42.75 to 44.37. There was an almost 
imperceptible decrease in the per cent of students in Greek in the pub- 
lic schools and an insignificant falling off in the percentage of students 
in German, but for all the other high-school studies the percentages 
are higher for 1894 than for 1893. 

A bird's-eye view of the statistics of secondary schools for 1894 is 
given in Table 20. This table, in connection with the six full-page dia- 
grams in the same chapter, will convey a clear idea of the comparative 



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XXII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

importance and present standing of public and private secondary 
schools. Table 25 shows the distribution of the 480,358 secondary stu- 
dents reported to this Bureau in 1894. 

HIGHER EDUCATION. 

Universities and colleges. — The statistical summaries of universities 
and colleges are given on pages 91-118. They show the number of insti- 
tutions reporting as 47G, there being one institution for every 131,559 
persons. The number of professors and instructors was 10,897, of which 
number 13.8 per cent were women. The average number of instructors 
per institution was 23. The students reported were as follows: Pre- 
paratory, 45,188; collegiate, 60,415; resident graduates, 3,026; nonres- 
ident graduates, 993; i>rofessional, 21,265; total in all departments, 
143,032. Of the total number, 24.5 per cent were women and 4.9 i>er 
cent were colored. 

The home residence of collegiate students in 447 universities and col- 
leges has been collected and tabulated in a summarized form. From 
the data thus obtained the j)roportiou of the population of the several 
States attending college has been computed and represented graph- 
ically. 

The value of the entire equipment of the universities and colleges is 
given as $212,181,552, of which amount $98,527,052 are endowment 
funds. The total income was $15,365,612, of which amount 38,1 per 
cent was derived from tuition fees, 34.3 i3er cent from productive funds, 
17 per cent from national. State, and municipal appropriations, and the 
remainder, or 10.6 per cent, from miscellaneous sources. The benefac- 
tions during the year amounted to $9,025,240. 

Colleges for xcomen. — The 166 colleges for women reporting to this 
office, and not included in the list of 476 above referred to, had, in 
1893-94, 2,460 instructors and 23,707 students. Of the 15 fellowships 
reported, Byrn Mawr College holds 11. The benefactions to colleges 
for women amounted to $369,183. 

Colleges of agriculture and the mechanic arts, — The number of students 
reported by the 63 institutions endowed by the acts of Congress of July 
2, 1862, and August 30, 1890, was 17,280, of which number 4,568 were 
in preparatory departments, 12,358 in collegiate departments, and 354 
in graduate departments. The total income reported by these institu- 
tions was $5,991,101.40, of which amount 36.6 per cent was received 
from the General Government, either as income from the funds realized 
by the sale of lands granted by the act of July 2, 1862, or as appro- 
priated by the acts of March 2, 1887, and August 30, 1890. The present 
condition and progress of these institutions during the year under 
rciview, as reported by the several presidents, may be found in the third 
section of Chapter IV. 

University extension, — Chapter VI of Part II presents the work in 
university extension during the year as reported to this office by the 



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PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION. XXIII 

various agencies. Included in this chapter are interesting accounts 
of the work ia Ohio by Prof. Willis Bough ton, and in New Jersey by 
Dr. Austin Scott, president of llutgers College; also a report of the 
School of Applied Ethics. 

Professional education. — The number of students in theological 
schools was 7,058. Presbyterians had the largest number, 1,375; Cath- 
olics come second with 1,250, followed in order by the Baptists, Luther- 
ans, and Methodists. In comparison with the number of members, 
Congregationalists come first. 

There are G7 law schools, with 7,311 students. The legal profession 
of this country wields an immense influence in all matters that pertain 
to State, national, and municipal politics. They constitute mainly our 
public oflBcers — legislative, judicial, executive — both State and national. 
Notwithstanding this, it seems that the qualifications for entering the 
legal profession are as low, if not lower, than for any other profession. 
The requirements for graduation from law schools, too, are less rigid 
than from any other class of professional schools. The fault lies not 
with the schools. They can not demand high attainments when so 
many States i>ractically require no special attainments for legal prac- 
tice. The American *Bar. Association has in recent years uudertiiken 
eflicient means to enlighten public opinion on this important theme. 

There are 152 medical colleges, with 21,802 students — 17,601 regular, 
1,C0G homeopathic, 803 eclectic, 1,732 graduate, etc. The process of 
raising the standard of medical education still continues. The Asso- 
ciation of American Medical Colleges a few years ago lengthened the 
course to three years of not less than six months each. In 1894 they 
again raised the standard to four years for all students entering upon 
the study of medicine in 1895 or subsequently. Moreover, nearly half 
the States require a State medical examination, while many others have 
strict regulations. 

There are 88 schools of dentistry and pharmacy each, with 4,152 
dental students and 3,058 students of pharmacy. 

The statistics of normal schools are summarized in Chapter IV. 
There were 80,767 students in training courses for teachers in five 
classes of institutions; 37,809 in 160 public normal schools, 27,995 in 
23S private normal schools, 5,500 in pedagogical courses in 173 colleges 
and universities, 5,041 in teachers' training courses in 153 public high 
schools, and 4,332 in similar courses in 137 private high schools. The 
public and private normal schools sent out 8,271 graduates in 1894. 
There is reported a very large increase over the previous year in the 
amount of appropriations from States, counties, and cities for the sup- 
l)ort of public normal schools for 1894. In 1893 the appropriations for 
this purpose amounted to $1,452,914, and in 1894 the aggregate was 
$1,996,271. This increase was due in part to the increase in the num- 
ber of schools reporting. In like manner there was an increase in the 
amount appropriated for building from $810,826 in 1893 to $1,583,399 



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XXIV REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

in 1894. One of the interesting things noted in the chapter on normal 
schools is the increase in tho number of students in pedagogical 
courses in universities and colleges. In 1891 the number of such 
students was 3,978, and in 1894 the number reported was 5,500, an 
increase of more than 38 per cent in three years. 

Chapter Y presents the statistics of schools and colleges in Great 
Britain and Ireland for 1893, so far as these are attainable. The 
absence of special statistics of secondary schools in the kingdom is 
noticeable. Until this gap is filled, international comparison with 
respect to the scholastic influences by which nations are most deeply 
affected must be exceedingly partial and unsatisfactory. It is hoped 
that the supply of this data will be one outcome of the royal commis- 
sion now deliberating over the problems of secondary education. 

From the comparative statistics of elementary education in England 
presented in the chapter, it appears that in the period from 1876 to 1893 
the accommodation in elementary day schools increased 70 per cent, the 
enrollment 74 per cent, and the average attendance 106 per cent. The 
increase in the population during the same time was 22.6. For the 
somewhat shorter period, 1880 to 1893, Scotland shows an increase of 
22.5 per cent in school accommodation, of 24.4 peV cent in enrollment, 
and 34 i)er cent in average attendance. The population in the same time 
increased by 10.4 per cent. The high rate of increase in enrollment in 
England calls to mind the dearth of school provision and the alarming 
degree of illiteracy which gave rise to the agitation resulting in the 
school law of 1870. The first purpose of the law, i. e., the bringing of 
school privileges within the reach of all children, has been accom- 
l^lished. In the matter of school enrollment, England now occupies a 
leading position, 17^ of the population being included in the school 
registers. Scotland had no such deficiencies to overcome. Here the 
passage of the school law (1872) was simply a measure for adjusting the 
school system to modern conditions j even here, however, the increase 
in school attendance is greater than the increase in population. The 
slightly smaller x^roportion of the population enrolled in Scotland than 
in England (16^ as against 17J per cent) is due to the smaller attend- 
ance of the infants (i. e., children under 7 years of age) in the northern 
division of the Kingdom. 

Among other interesting facts brought to view by the comparative 
table is the increase in the adult teaching force, with the accompanying 
decline of the pupil-teacher system. The gradual elevation of the ideal 
of elementary instruction is of scarcely less importance than the steady 
effort to make adequate school provision. This developing ideal appears 
from the survey of changes in the conditions under which schools may 
share in the Government grant. 

The latest regulations (i.e., for 1895^) practically put an end to the 
system of "payment upon results." Similar changes have taken place 



' Received at the time this report is going through the press. 

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EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. XXV 

also with respect to evening schools, which in the great cities are rap- 
idly assuming the character of evening high schools. 

In an article on "Industrial schools versus juvenile crime,'' cited in 
the chapter, Mr. A. A. W. Drew, an official of long experience in the 
work, makes many pertinent suggestions on the relation of truancy to 
juvenile criminality and the nature of corrective agencies. 

The chapter closes with a tabular summary relating to state-aided 
colleges, which are the latest outcome of the sense of public responsi- 
bility with respect to popular education. 

Chapter YI deals with education in France. As regards the system 
in general, no oflficial information has been published since the issue of 
my last annual report. The detailed view of primary instruction pre- 
sented in Chapter VI is condensed from the latest report of the 
government statistical commission.* The report covers the periods 
1887 to 1892, maintaining at every point comparison between the 
beginning and the end of the half decade. 

On the whole, the condition of primary instruction appears to be 
very satisfactory. The school provision of the country for children 
of the obligatory school age — 6 to 13 years — is nearly complete, and is 
supplemented by infant schools and adult schools, which are liberally 
supported. The enrollment in primary schools (5,471,402) is a little 
more than 14 per cent of the populatioo, a ratio relatively about the 
same as in neighboring countries, although absolutely less. The 
inequality is due to the fact that the ratio of school population to total 
population in France (12 i)er cent) is below the normal. The main- 
tenance of a high standard of preparation, both professional and 
scholastic, is a characteristic feature of the primary teaching force. 

Of the men teachers less than 1 J per cent were without a teacher's 
diploma or a universit}'^ degree in 1891-92, and of the women only 12J 
per cent without diploma. The public schools surpass the private in the 
proi>ortion of teachers having diplomas, the ratios being respectively 98 
and 82 per cent. With regard to certain other particulars the showing 
is less favorable. As compared with 1886-87 there has been a slight 
decline in school enrollment, in round numbers 55,000, or a little less 
than 1 per cent. This is in part accounted for by the decline in the 
school population (three tenths per cent) during the same time. 
Increased attendance upon the primary classes of secondary schools 
and temporary causes would account also for a part of the loss in the 
primary schools. Still, with all the conditions in view, the commission 
express the opinion that the compulsory law (1882) is not so strictly 
enforced as at the beginning of the period reviewed. The schools that 
have suffered loss are either private secular or public clerical schools, 
chiefly the latter. 

iPor advanced shcots of this report the office is indebted to M. E. LevasseaXy 
president of the commiBsion. 



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XXVI REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF' EDUCATION. 

Naturally, all the data bearing upon tlie relative strength of public 
and private, or, more particularly, of secular and church schools, are 
carefully analyzed by the commission. The public schools derive their 
support from the Government, and are intended to be nurseries of 
patriotism; private schools, although subject to Government inspec- 
tion, are free from Government control; they may even foster social 
and political sentiments at variance with the Government. 

Whatever be the general course of the private schools in thiise 
respects, the church schools are naturally opposed to the Government 
policy of secular education, hence they afford a means of measuring 
the strength of that policy. In 1892, private schools of all classes 
enrolled 23 per cent of the pupils in elementary schools as against 20 
per cent in 1887. The gain has been wholly in the church schools, 
which enrolled 20 per cent of the pupils at the later date as against 17 
per cent at the earlier. The change is due chiefly to the transfer of 
boys from public schools owing to the enforcement of the law prohib- 
iting the further employment of teachers belonging to religious orders. 
The time allowed for the execution of the law in schools for boys expired 
ii) 1891. It is yet too early to decide what the ultimate outcome of the 
law may be; meanwhile the immediate effects are watched with deep 
interest. 

Average attendance, as the term is understood in the United States, 
is an item that does not appear in French reports. Instead of this the 
attendance on two days, one at the season of highest average and the 
other at the season of lowest, is reported. Compariscfh in this respect 
between 1887 and 1892 shows a slight decline at the later date. The 
increased attendance upon superior primary or high schools, about 20 
per cent in five years, and the increasing number of pupils securing the 
certificate of primary studies and the high-school diploma (an increase 
of 30,000 in the former case and 600 in the latter) are adduced among 
the excellent results of the spread of popular instruction. In this con- 
nection, also, is noted the decreasing ratio of illiterate conscripts, there 
having been 89.7 per cent able to read and write in 1880 as against 92.G 
in 1891. 

The criminal statistics of the country have been carefully analyzed 
by the commission with a view to showing what they disclose, if any- 
thing, as to the relations of crime and education. With the spread of 
public instruction, the proportion of illiterate criminals necessarily 
declines; the stiitistics indicate, however, that the standard of attain- 
ments on the part of criminals is very low. It appears also from the 
results of the prison schools that a certain proportion of criminals, 
about 15 per cent, are incapable of profiting by instruction. The cur- 
rent expenditure for primary education increased about 7 per cent dur- 
ing the half decade, reaching, in round numbers, $37,200,000. The 
increase in the proportion of the expenditure borne by the State, i. e., 
from 49 per cent to 68 per cent, was caused by the State assuming the 



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EDUCATION IN FOBEiaN COUNTRIES. XXVII 

payment of teachers' salaries. This has been done with a view to 
securing a fair miuimum salary to all teachers and perfecting the 
organization of the service. 

The fact, however, that school attendance decreases while the central 
Government increases its efforts for the improvement of the schools, 
throws some doubt on the wisdom of the centralizing policy. Possibly 
a larger measure of local responsibility would increase local enthusiasm 
for the schools. It is difficult to draw conclusions from conditions 
totally unlike those that prevail in our own country. It appears, how- 
ever, that while a centralized authority is more favorable for the incep- 
tion of reforms in a system of education, it does not insure greater 
stability or efficiency than is attainable through local influences. 

Chapter VII, on *' Education in Central Europe," begins with a brief 
mention of the previous publications of the Bureau on the subject of 
public education in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. 

Then follows an article on "Eesults of Prussian common-school sta- 
tistics," which is prepared from Professor Tews's elaborate expose of 
that subject. The school authorities of most German States publish 
summaries of school statistics only at intervals of three or more years; 
the last one of Prussia received was published in the year 1891. The 
official statements were used in the reports of this Bureau without com- 
ment. But since then a number of weighty criticisms have appeared 
which place the statistical facts offered in the proper focus and analyze 
them from the standpoint of present necessities. Xo hostile motives 
prompted these efforts, for the minister of public education himself 
frankly admitted in the House of Deputies that "he was still strug- 
gling to obtain the daily bread with which to maintain the schools." 

The author. Prof. J. Tews, of Berlin, discusses the statistics of 
elementary schools and teachers of Prussia. He shows ability in 
grouping, analyzing, and presenting statistical data, and hence his 
statements are readily accepted by the press of Germany and other 
countries. In his statements concerning the school population and 
overcrowding of class rooms he goes into statistical details, and his 
comparisons reveal new and interesting data. For instance, it appears 
that in 188G Prussia had still 17,744 ungraded rural schools, with 
1,146,701 children; while in 1891 the number of such schools had 
decreased to 16,600, with only 969,598 children. There is a general 
increase in the grading of schools going on in Prussia. 

The comparisons between the east and west sections of the Kingdom 
are very noteworthy and instructive. In city schools the average num- 
ber of class rooms to the school varies between 6 and 25. The most 
surprising fact brought out is that within nine years the number of 
teachers needed and not supplied has increased from 6,000 to 12,000, 
and that the proportion of teachers to the number of classes has 
decreased from 01 per cent to 80 per cent. The showing in regard to 
the number of pupils to one teacher appears better, because while in 



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XXVIII REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

1882 tlie number of pupils to each teacher was 72.4, in the year 1890 
it was exactly 70. 

School attendance in Prussia is another prominent subject of which 
hitherto very little hjvs been accurately known. The author notes a 
marked improvement. He also shows that the salaries of teachers 
have greatly increased, although he is unable to prove them adequate 
as yet. The comparison made by the author reveals that the Protestant 
schools have made more rapid progress than the Catholic schools. 
Over these conditions the State has no control, since elementary edu- 
cation is, and has ever been, so far as organization is concerned, a mat- 
ter belonging strictly to local communities. It is only in the super- 
vision of the instruction and the distribution of State funds that the 
State takes a hand in the management. The upper grades of elemen- 
tary schools, the so-called intermediate or middle schools of Prussia, 
are then compared, and the comparison proves fruitful. This class of 
schools is very dear to the average citizen, representing as it does the 
most advanced state of elementary education. 

A very curious and, indeed for our conditions here in America, inter- 
esting fact is revealed in the comparison of nationalities as represented 
by the language spoken in the families of the school population of 
Prussia. It shows that there is still a large percentage of the popula- 
tion of the State who speak Polish only, or Danish only, amounting to 
about 10 per cent of the population. 

Like the foregoing facts, the statement concerning the proportions in 
which State and community meet the expenditures attract our atten- 
tion. The statistician, Mr. Mulhall, recently published the statement 
that the United States paid about $2.50 per capita of population for its 
schools, while Germany paid only 50 cents. The oflScial statistics of 
Prussia show that this is erroneous, because the 50 cents per capita 
represent only the contribution of the State as such, communities and 
other agencies paying 42 per cent of the expenses. This would raise 
the amount to nearly $1. Tuition fees, receipts from school funds and 
endowments and from church exchequers amount to a great deal more, 
so that the per capita in Prussia, which is by no means the largest per 
capita in Germany, amounts to nearly $1.50. 

Accepting Mr. MullhalPs consideration of the purchasing power of 
money in Germany as compared with that of America, it is reasonable 
to say that there is little difference between the $1.50 paid in Prussia 
and the $2.50 quoted for America. Mr. Tews concludes his article with 
the statement fully upheld by the facts preceding it, that an improve- 
ment of common schools is, and ever will be, a question of finance. 

In the second part of this scrutiny of Prussian school statistics, the 
conditions of the teachers are spoken of. The author has much to say 
on the question of parentage of teachers in Prussia. Is it true, that 
these are chiefly from the lower strata of society ? The oflicial statistics 
make an attempt at social definitions which seem reasonable. The 



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EDUCATION I]S' FOKEIGN COUNTRIES. XXIX 

fullowing statement is the general result: The 62,273 men and 8,439 
women teachers come, in 22,701 cases, from the agricultural popula- 
tion; in 20,409 cases from the industrial population; in 7,190 cases from 
the commercial population; and in 18,740 cases from the professional 
population. 

Also with reference to creeds, the statistics of teachers are reviewed. 
Then follows an attempt at grouping the teachers according to their 
age. Tables are given which may be used in this country as a basis of 
comparison in future computations. 

The question of sex in teaching is less ably treated for the obvious 
reason that the fact only lately begins to impress itself upon the Ger- 
man educational authorities that women are particularly well fitted for 
the teaching of primary grades. Various other points of interest may 
be left unnoticed in this introduction. 

The author mentions, however, the great discrepancy in the expendi- 
ture for elementary schools, as compared with those for secondary and 
higher iustitutions of learning. His calculation shows that every ele- 
mentary school child costs the State $7.08 a year. Every student in 
the intermediate schools costs $21.66. A student in a secondary school 
costs $26.89, and one in the universities $148.75. 

After this statistical expos^ a brief article on the attendance in sec- 
ondary schools in Germany is offered which is based on the publications 
and statistical survey made for the World's Fair in Chicago. This has 
a particular interest to teachers in secondary schools in this country, 
since it reveals the fact that the proi)ortion of students m secondary 
schools is about 5 per cent of the entire school population. 

A survey of the courses of study pursued in history in secondary 
schools found in vogue in Germany is opportune because the courses of 
study in secondary schools are made the subject of more thorough study 
m this country. The facts offered are given by Professor Baar, of 
Malmedy, Bhenish Prussia. 

For the history of education a bibliography of German books is 
added. This is a continuation of similar work begun in previous reports. 
This bibliography contains only books of recognized literary value. 
Mere magazine articles are omitted. 

An exhibit of the statistics of the university libraries in the several 
countries of Europe shows nearly six million volumes in Germany, two 
and one-half millions in Italy, and a less number in each of the other 
countries. It is to be remarked, however, that in Great Britain and 
France the public libraries (British Museum, Liverpool Public Library, 
for example) make up for the deficiencies of the universities, if indeed 
the figures are correct for those countries. 

Among the appliances for teaching which every university offers its 
teachers and students the library takes the front rank. A statistical 
summary of the number of volumes in these libraries, their actual 
expenditures, and, so far as possible, the number of books used in a 



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XXX REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

giveu year, throws ligbt upon the degree of scientific equipment of the 
institutions and offers a useful ratio of comparison. 

The chapter contains also a survey of the common schools of Berlin 
which exhibits in characteristic features the growth and improvements 
of that city school system. It is a memorial prepared for the dedica- 
tion of the two hundredth city common-school building by one of the 
assistant school superintendents, Dr. Zwick. This memorial contains 
a great amount of local history, and the part which shows how the 
common school has gradually arisen from the so-called city pauper 
school proves that the German common school is not older than the 
American common school; that, indeed, the idea of a school common 
to all classes of society is not a German creation at all. 

Professor Mischler, of Strasburg, the statistician, has collected a 
number of summaries of i)ublic education from all the civilized coun- 
tries of the world, placed them in juxtaposition and compared them 
with reference to a few leading items, namely, attendance, expenditure, 
illiteracy, etc. He has done this for periods of thirty, forty, or fifty 
years, as far as obtainable, and endeavored to show the ratio of prog- 
ress in various countries. ^Naturally, he has been limited to very few 
items, because the science of statistics itself scarcely dates back far- 
ther than the beginning of school registers in the present generation. 
The final results and conclusions at which he arrives are hopeful and 
encouraging. 

The growth of the Italian people, from the time when Italy was the 
field of contest for other nations to the date of a united Italy, is shown 
in Chapter VIII, by Dr. Hinsdale, professor of pedagogy in Michigan 
University. In the annual report of this Bureau for 1800-91 an excel- 
lent exhibit of education in Itjily was prepared by Professor Oldrini, 
and additional matter of great value was furnished by the director of 
the royal statistical bureau of Italy, Signor Luigi Bodio, who courte- 
ously proffered his aid on his visit to this country to attend the session 
of the International Statistical Association held in. Chicago (1894). 
Famed as Italy was for centuries in the matter of higher education, its 
I)eople's schools were neither numerous nor well attended until com- 
paratively recent times. From northern Italy, where the most progres- 
sive movements originated, popular education has gradually advanced 
southward. The Casati law, enacted by the Sardinian Parliament in 
1859, furnished the first basis of educational progress, and, with mod- 
ifications, it has been adopted in each province as it became a part of 
the political unity. The unification of Italy with its provinces, one by 
one wrested from foreign invaders, was the first step toward the present 
conditions, where, in a country burdened with debt and supporting 
an enormous army and navy, over §23,000,000 annually is spent for 
education. 

The centralization of the administration and educational forces in 
Eorae, with the King as the executive, gave an impetus to educational 
effort. Through the department of public instruction, with its ramifl- 



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EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. XXXI 

cations into tlie various provinces, liis majesty is cognizant of and takes 
interest in all progressive measures throughout Italy, and this very 
centralization of authority has aided in securing popular education 
throughout the Kingdom. 

In ISCl, omitting Ycnetia and Homo (the former subject to Austria, 
the latter to the Pope), the illiteracy of the inhabitants above 20 years 
of ago was 73.50 per cent; twenty years later (1881) this had decreased 
to 63.15 per cent. In 1801 the percentage of illiterates of all ages was 
55; from 12 to 20 years, 12; and the marriage registers show only 28.39 
per cent for men and women in northern Italy. 

The number of pupils in public elementary schools has doubled since 
18C2. In that year 1,008,074 pupils were reported in 21,353 schools; 
in 1892, 2,206,593 pupils in 49,217 schools. In the last five years 
(1887-1892) training schools for teachers have increased from 135 to 
149; pupils from 11,060 to 18,020. 

Education is not compulsory above the elementary grades, yet the 
classical schools (ginnaso and licei, corresponding to our high schools 
and academies and including our first two years of college) had 71,751 
students in 1891-92, and the technical schools and institutes 40,928 stu- 
dents in 1890-91. Seeking classical training in 1881, students, 63,800; 
seeking technical training for practical life in 1880, students, 28,009. 

The 21 universities show an accelerated increase in number of pupils; 
in 1856 a student population of 9,449, in 1882 of 12,919, in 1891-92 
increase to 17,792. The faculties of law and medicine had and have 
the largest number of students — 5,330 in law in 1888, in medicine 8,018; 
in 1892 there were 5,442 law students, 7,320 in medicine and surgery, 
and 1,452 in pharmacy. 

Special attention is called in this article to the growth of the public 
schools in Rome during a twenty-years' period. The development is 
noticeable in i)oint of numbers, in the variety of schools, and range of 
instruction. In 1870 there were 41 schools and 6,291 pux)ils; in 1890, 
142 schools and 26,149 pupils. The cost of the schools of Kome in 
1871 was 579,375 lire ($111,810) ; in 1889 it was 2,760,816 lire (8522,837). 

Developing with "the new political Italy" there has been "a new 
educational Italy;" there is now '^a national system of education," 
**born of national spirit," "coextensive with the national territory." 
Practical training and scientific instruction now interest the people "in 
the land of the Renaissance," where also "the classical tradition was 
always strong." 

The subject of education in Russia was presented at some length 
in my report for 1890-91 (pp. 194-262). Attention was called to the 
complex conditions with which the authorities have to deal in their 
efforts to educate a people of which only 79.89 per cent are Russians; 
8.11 per cent belong to the Aryan races from the East; 2.67 per cent 
to the Semitic races; 9.17 per cent to the Finnish and Tartar groups; 
0.17 per cent to other races. Special attention was directed to the 

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XXXII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

form of goveniineut — the mir, or village coinmmiity (of which there 
were 107,493 in European Russia), whose affairs are regulated in a gen- 
eral assembly of all the heads of families of the mir or village; to the 
Russian system of village industries suited to the locality, and to the 
reform movements in Russian universities which tend to more thor- 
oughly nationalize these institutions. 

The following brief statement epitomizes the above facts; it presents 
a total of 6.9 per cent of children of school age in school in 1875 and 
of 11 per cent in 1888, an increase in 13 years of 4 per cent. Thus it 
appears that there were 93.1 per cent of children of school age who 
were not in school in the former year and 80 per cent in the latter year. 
According to reports, only 2 per cent of the aggregate population are 
at school, and only 20 per cent of the recruits can read and write. 
School officials — curators, directors, etc. — have been called to St. Peters- 
burg to discuss the subject, and, as a result, compulsory attendance 
is to be enforced from the beginning of 1895 in the " governments" of 
Oharkov, Poltava, Kursk, and Woronetz. 

It is stated that ^< a rural school-teacher averages about $8.82 salary 
for a winter's teaching." The teacher has lodging and board, however. 

Special effort is being made to nationalize (or ^^ Russianize") all 
schools. This is particularly noticeable in the Dorpat district, where 
the German element predominates; a Russian inspector has now taken 
the place of the rector of the university, student societies have been 
prohibited, and the Russian language is to be used in giving instruc- 
tion. 

A commission, or number of committees, is engaged in devising the 
best means to be adopted in founding a system of education for the 
whole Empire. One committee has acted as agent for the distribution 
of needed school books. In 1894 the number distributed was 51,500, 
of which S6 per cent went to the ^* governments" of Central Russia, 
where the Zemstvos, or provincial assemblies, were endeavoring to 
improve their schools. Another committee aided in the establishment 
of school libraries; another is engaged in collecting statistical informa- 
tion so as to more thoroughly present the educational needs of different 
subdivisions of the Empire. 

From the remotest period to the accession of Peter the Great the 
social organization of Russia was based on the patriarchal idea — women 
being excluded from school privileges. Catherine the Second was the 
first sovereign to display an interest in the education of the women of 
Russia. She established, in 1764, an Educational Home for Girls of 
Noble Birth. From that beginning there was developed an educational 
work which is presented in an historical sketch of the Marie (so called 
from the Empress Marie Fedorovna, 1796-1828) educational and chari- 
table institutions. Under the immediate patronage of their majesties, 
the Czar and Czarina, these include hospitals and benevolent institu- 
tions, schools for the deaf, dumb, and blind, public schools and insti- 



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EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. XXXin 

tutes for girls. In twelve years the Rassian people have contributed 
10,000,000 rabies toward the support of the 472 institutions. In 1891 
there were 24,417 persons in the educational establishments and 498,108 
were aided by the Marie institutions which receive support from the 
Imperial family, from endowments previously founded, from a subsidy 
composed of 500,000 rubles accorded by the State treasury, from pay- 
ments of pupils, and from public contributions. 

In addition to the development of the Eussian village industries, 
manual training is now taught in 19 teachers' seminaries, in G gymnasia, 
in 18 military colleges, in 150 town and village schools, and there are 
eleven temporary manual-training courses for teachers. 

In Finland, a grand dachy of Russia, one still finds much of the 
sturdy independence of the Swedes, to which nation it belonged until 
1800. 

The Swedes and Finns formed a single nation for seven hundred 
years, and for a long period Swedish ideas predominated. About 85 
per cent of the inhabitants of Finland are Finns and 14 per cent are 
Swedes, but the Swedes have been the dominating, cultured elemeut 
for years 5 now there is greater equalization. In religious persuasion 
98.05 per cent are Protestants. 

Each nationality has its own schools where the instruction is given 
in either the Swedish or Finnish language, and there are also Swedish- 
Finnish schools in sections where the population is of too mixed a 
character to make it advisable to support separate schools. 

The ambulatory school, as in Sweden, is a noteworthy feature. The 
teacher holds a school for a short period in one place and then moves 
on to another, much in the way that the circuit courts move about in 
the United States. In Finland in 1891 the ratio to the hundred of pop- 
ulation was 7.47 in ambulatory schools and 2.41 in stationary schools of 
an elementary grade. Of the school population of 470,382 (7 to 16 
years), only 21,523 children were not receiving any instruction at all. 

Coeducation has been attempted in some schools of both elementary 
and secondary grades, and it is stated that, since 1883, five private 
coeducational institutions (four for the Swedes, one for the Finns) have 
been created, but the authorities do not as yet favor the giving of sub- 
sidies to coeducational institutions. 

The benefits of education have been brought within the reach of the 
humblest peasant in Finland, and the comparative prosperity of the peo- 
ple is due in part to this. Impetus has been given to agriculture and 
horticulture, and to dairy farming, and prizes are oflfered to encourage 
the peasant class to develop the best methods of carrying on agricul- 
tural pursuits. Skilled persons go from place to place and instruct in 
carpentering, smithcraft, fish curing, etc. Temperance associations 
have been organized, and many pamphlets distributed which point out 
the dangers of alcoholic stimulants. 
KD 94 in 



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XXXIV REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

Competition in athletic sports is auotber feature authorized by th© 
authorities; gymnastics is obligatory for both sexes in institutions of 
all grades, and school children are taught to swim, to skate, to ride 
bicycles, etc. 

In my report for 1892-03 I included a chapter on child study ( VoL I, 
pp. 357-391). The subject is continued in the present report, in con- 
nection with a survey of recent movements pertaining to psychology in 
general (Chap. X). 

Attention is called to new periodicals devoted to the subject as a 
whole or to some particular phase — i. e., The Psychological Eeview, The 
Child Study Monthly, etc. — and to the societies formed for promoting 
research in this province. Em]>hasis is placed upon the movements 
for correlating the results of different classes of investigation; the 
equipment of the leading universities for research in psycho-physics is 
given somewhat in detail with notices of the courses in child study 
maintained side by side with laboratory work. The principal results of 
the new psychology bearing directly upon school work are cited, and 
emphasis is placed upon their agreement with the conclusions reached 
by physiological investigations. 

To the general survey of the movement several papers are appended^ 
comprising discussions of the relations between the old and the new 
psychology, by Dr. Mtinsterberg, the bearing of the new psychology 
upon education by Dr. G. Stanley Hall, and other papers, discussing 
certain aspects of child study, the scope of psycho physiology, and the 
grounds for the medical inspection of schools. The chapter concludes 
with a bibliography of the general subject covering the current year. 

The National Educational Association has of late years undertaken 
several problems of great importance. A committee appointed at the 
Saratoga meeting in 1892 was charged with the examination of the exist- 
ing courses of study and conditions of the secondary schools — that is 
to say, all institutions above the elementary schools which undertake 
to prepare students for college. This *^ committee of ten," as it is 
commonly called, reported extensively on its work, and its report was 
completed and published in the spring of 1894. 

Meanwhile, in the superintendents' section of the National Educa- 
tional Association, another committee was appointed to investigate 
in a like manner the work of elementary schools. This committee 
consisted of fifteen members. Three questions were submitted to it: 
(a) The organization of city school systems; (b) the correlation of 
studies in elementary education, and (c) the training of teachers. In 
order to facilitate the work the committee was divided into three sec- 
tions, each consisting of five members, and each of these sections was 
intrusted with reporting on one of the three questions mentioned. 
Their reports were laid before the National Educational Association in 
February, 1895, and were vigorously discussed in the educational and 
other journals of this country. In order to preserve these documents 
I have caused them to be reprinted in this annual report. 



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] 



COKRELATION OP STUDIES. XXXV 

One of tbo members of the committee, Buperiiitendent James M. 
Greeuwood, of Elausas City, IMo., dissents from the majority report in 
the Ofunion expressed regarding arithmetic He has kindly furnished 
IQO a number of shorthand rep<^s of arithmetic lessons taken in the 
schools under his charge. They are of sufficient interest to teachers to 
give them a place in this volume in the form of a supplement to the 
committee report. I add also a reprint of an article from the report of 
the St Louis schools for the year 1872-73, entitled '^Educational 
values.'' It contains a somewhat fuller discussion of some of the points 
rdative to the educative value of the several studies in elementary and 
secondary schools, and in this way may be useful in explaining |X)ints 
that would seem to be obscure in the report of the subcommittee on the 
correlation of studies. 

In the report of the committee of fifteen on the correlation of 
studies it was partly assumed that the studies of the school fall natu- 
rally into five coordinate groups, thus permitting a choice within each 
group as to the arrangement of its several topics, some finding a place 
early in the curriculum and others later. These five coordinate groups 
were, first, mathematics and physics; second, biology, including chiefly 
the plant and the animal; third, literature and art, including chiefly the 
study of literary works of art; fourth, grammar and the technical 
and scientific study of language, leading to such branches as logic and 
psychology; fifth, history and the study of sociological, i)olitical, and 
social institutions. Each one of these groups, it was assumed, should 
be represented in the curriculum at all times by some topic suited to 
the age and previous trainuig of the pupil. This would be demanded 
by the two kinds of correlation defined in that report as (1) << symmet- 
rical whole of studies in the world of human learning," and (2) "the 
psychological symmetry, or the whole mind." 

The first period of school education is education for culture and edu- 
cation for the purpose of gaining command of the conventionalities of 
intelligence. These conventionalities arc such arts as reading and 
writing and the use of figures, technicalities of maps, dictionaries, the 
art of drawing, and all of those semimechanical facilities which enable 
the child to get access to the intellectual conquests of the race. Later 
on in the school course, when the pupil passes out of his elementary 
studies, which partake more of the nature of practice than of theory, 
he comes in the secondary school and the college to the study of sci- 
ence and the technic necessary for its preservation and c<{pimunication. 
All these things belong to the first stage of school instruction, the aim 
oi which is culture. On the other hand, post-graduate work and the 
work of professional schools have not the aim of culture so much as the 
aim of fitting the person for a special vocation. In the x>ost-graduate 
work of universities the demand is for original investigation in special 
fields. In the professional school the student masters the elements of 
a partioalar practice, learning its theory and its art. 



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XXXVI REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

It is in the first part of education — the schools for culture — that the 
five coordinate branches should be represented in a symmetrical man- 
ner. It is not to be thought that a course of university study, or that 
of a professional school should be symmetrical. The study of special 
fields of learning should come after a course of study for culture has 
been pursued in which the symmetrical whole of human learning and 
the symmetrical whole of the soul are considered. From the primary 
school, therefore, on through the academic course of the college, there 
should be symmetry, and five coordinate groups of studies represented 
at each part of the course, at least in each year, although perhaps not 
throughout each part of the year. 

Commencing with the outlook of the child upon the world of nature, 
it has been found that arithmetic or mathematical study furnishes the 
first scientific key to the existence of bodies and their various motions. 
Mathematics in its pure form, as arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and the 
application of the analytical method, as well as mathematics applied 
to matter and force or statics and dynamics, furnishes the peculiar 
study that gives to us, whether as children or as men, the command of 
nature in this, its quantitative aspect. Mathematics furnishes the 
instrument, the tool of thought, which gives us power in this realm. 
But useful, nay, essential, as this mathematical or quantitative study is 
for this first aspect of nature, it is limited to it, and should not be 
applied to the next phase of nature, which is that of organic life; for 
we must not study in the growth of the plant simply the mechanical 
action of forces, but we must subordinate everything quantitative and 
mathematical to the principle of life or movement according to internal 
purpose or design. The principle of life, or biology, is no substitute, on 
the other hand, for the mathematical or quantitative study. The forces, 
hent, light, electricity, magnetism, galvanism, gravitation, inorganic 
matter — all these things are best studied from the mathematical point 
of view. The superstitious savage, however, imposes upon the inor- 
ganic world the principle of biology. He sees the personal effort of 
spirits in winds and storms, in fire and flowing streams. He substi- 
tutes for mathematics the principle of life, and looks in the movement 
of inanimate things for an indwelling soul. This is the animistic stand- 
point of human culture — the substitution of the biologic method of 
looking at the world for the quantitative or mathematical view. 

The second group includes whatever is organic in nature — especially 
studies relating to the plant and the animal — the growth of material 
for food and clothing, and in a large measure for means of transporta- 
tion and culture. This study of the organic phase of nature forms a 
great portion of the branch of study known as geography in the ele- 
mentary school. Geography takes up also some of the topics that 
belong to the mathematical or quantitative view of nature, but it 
takes them up into a new combination with a view to show how they 
are related to organic life — ^to creating and supplying the needs of the 



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CORRELATION OF STUDIES. XXXVII 

plant, animal, and mau. There is, it is true, a ''concentration" in 
this respect, that the mathematical or quautitative appears in geogra- 
phy as subordinated to the principle of organic life, for the quantita- 
tive — namely, inorganic matter and the forces of the solar system — 
appear as presuppositions of life. Life uses this as material out of 
which to organize its structures. The plant builds itself a structure 
of vegetable cells, transmuting what is inorganic into vegetable tissue; 
so, too, the animal builds over organic and inorganic substances, draw- 
ing from the air and water and from inorganic salts and acids, and by 
use of hsat, light, and electricity converting vegetable tissue into ani- 
mal tissue. The revelation of the life principle in plant and animal is 
not a mathematical one; it is not a mechanism moved by pressure from 
without or by attraction from within; it is not a mere displacement or 
an aggregation, or anything of that sort. In so far as it is organic, 
there is a formative principle which originates motion and modifies the 
inorganic materials and the mere dynamic forces of nature, giving 
them special form and direction, so as to build up vegetable or animal 
structures. 

Kant defined organism as something within which every part is both 
means and end tQ all the other parts; all the other parts function in 
building up or developing each part, and each part in its turn is a 
means for the complete growth of every other part. These two i)hases 
of nature, the inorganic and the organic, exhaust the entire field. 
Hence a quautitative study conducted in pure and applied mathe- 
matics and biology (or the study of life in its manifestations) covers 
nature. 

It has been asked whether drawing does not belong to a separate 
group in the course of study, and whether manual training is not a 
study coordinate with history and grammar. There are a number of 
branches of study, such as drawing, manual training, physical culture, 
and the like, which ought to be taught in every well-regulated school, 
but they will easily find a place within the five groups so far as their 
intellectual coefficients are concerned. Drawing, for instance, may 
belong to art or aesthetics on one side, but practically it is partly 
physical training with a view to skill in the hand and eye, and partly 
mathematical with a view to the prodwtion of geometric form. As a 
physical training its rationale js to be found in physiology, and hence 
it belongs in this respect to the second phase of the study of nature. 
As relating to the production of form it belongs to geometry and 
trigonometry and arithmetic, or the first phase of nature, the inorganic. 
As relating to art, or the aesthetic, it belongs to the third group of 
studies, within which literature is the main discipline. 

But beside literature there are architecture, sculpture, painting, and 
music to be included in the aesthetic or art group of studies. Manual 
training, on the other hand, relates to the transformation of material 
such as wood or stone or other minerals into structures for human use. 



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XXX VUI REPORT OF THE C0MMI8SI0NEB OF ; EDUCATION. 

namely, for architecture and for macliines. It is clear enough that the 
rationale of all this is to be found in mathematics, hence manual train- 
ing does not furnish a new principle different from that found in the 
first or the second study relating to nature. 

The first study relating to human nature, as contrasted with mere 
organic and inorganic nature, is literature. Literature, as the fifth and 
highest of the fine arts, reveals human nature in its intrinsic form. It 
may be said in general that a literary work of art, a poem, whether 
lyric, dramatic, or epic, or a prose work of art, such as a novel or a 
drama, reveals human nature in its height and depth. It shows the 
growth of a feeling or sentiment first into a conviction and then into a 
deed; 'feelings, thoughts, and deeds are thus connected by a literary 
work of art in such a way as to explain a complete genesis of human 
action. Moreover, in a literary work of art there is a revelation of man 
as a member of social institutions. 

The nucleus of the literary work of art is usually an attack of the 
individual upon some one of the social institutions of which he is a 
member, namely, a collision with the State, with civil society, or with 
the church. This collision furnishes an occasion for either a comic or 
a tragic solution. The nature of the individual and qf his evolution of 
feeling into thoughts and deeds is shown vividly upon the background 
of institutions and social life. The work of art, whether music, paint- 
ing, sculpture, or architecture, belongs to the same group as literature, 
and it is obvious that the method in which the work of art should be 
studied is not the method adopted as applicable to inorganic nature or 
to organic nature. The physiology of a plant or an animal, and the 
habits and modes of growth and peculiarities of action on the part of 
I)lants and animals, are best comprehended by a difierent method of 
study from that which should be employed in studying the work of art. 

The work of art has a new principle, one that transcends life. It is 
the principle of responsible individuality and the principle of free sub- 
ordination on the part of the individual to a social whole. It is in fact 
the exercise of original responsibility in opposition to a social whole, 
and the consequent retribution or other reaction that makes the con- 
tent of the work of art. Further discussion is not necessary to show 
how absurd would be a purely^athematical treatment, or a biological 
treatment, of a work of art. Mathematics and biology must enter into 
a consideration of works of art only in*a very subordinate degree. It 
would be equally absurd to attempt to apply the method in which a 
work of art should be studied to the study of an organic form or to the 
study of inorganic matter and forces. 

The next coordinate branch includes grammar and language, and 
studies allied to it, such as logic and psychology. In the elementary 
school we have only grammar. Grammar treats of the structure 
of language; there is a mechanical side to it in orthography, and a 
technical side to it in etymology and syntax. But one can not call 



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COBEBLATION OF STUDIES; XXXIX 

grammar in any peculiar sense a formal study any more than he can 
apply the same epithet to one of the natural sciences/ I^atural science 
deals with the laws of material bodies and forces. Laws are forms of act- 
ing or of being, and yet by far the most important content of natural 
science is stated in the laws which it has discovered. So in the studies 
that relate to man the forms of human speech are very important. All 
grammatical studies require a twofold attitude of the mind, one toward 
the sign and one toward the signification j the shape of a letter or the 
form of a word or the peculiarity of a vocal utterance, these must be 
attended to, but they must be at once subordinated to the significance 
of the hidden thought which has become revealed by the sign or 
utterance. 

The complexity of grammatical study is seen at once from this point 
of view. It is a double act of the will focusing, the attention upon two 
difierent phases at once, namely, upon the natural phase and the 
spiritual phase, and the fusion of the two in one. Looking at this 
attitude of the mind, at this method of grammatical study, we see at 
once how different it all is from the attitude of the mind in t*be study 
of a work of art. In grammar we should not look to an evolution of a 
feeling into a thought or a deed; that would be entirely out of place. 
But we must give attention to the literal and prosaic word written or 
spoken, and consider it as an expression of a thought. We must note 
the structure of the intellect as revealed in this form. The word is a 
part of speech, having some one of the many functions which the word 
can fulfill in expressing a thought Deeper down than grammatical 
structure is the logical structure, and this is a more fundamental reve- 
lation of the action of pure mind. Logic is in fact a part of psychology. 
Opening from one door toward another, we pass on our way from 
orthograi>hy, etymology, and syntax to logic and to psychology. All 
the way we use the same method; we use the sign or manifestation as 
a means of discovering the thought and the scientific classification of 
the thought. 

Much has been said in the report of the committee of fifteen on the 
abuse of grammar in the study of literary works of art. The method 
of grammar leads to wonderful insight into the nature of reason itself. 
It is this insight which it gives us into our methods of thinking and 
of uttering our thoughts that furnishes the justification for grammar 
as one of the leading studies in the curriculum. Its use in teaching 
correct speaking and writing is always secondary to this higher use, 
which is to make conscious in man the structure of his thinking and 
exi^ession. Important as it is, however, when it is substituted for the 
method of studying art it becomes an abuse. It is a poor way to study 
Shake^eare, Milton, Chaocer, and the Bible to grammatically parse 
them or analyze them, or to devote the time to their philological pecul- 
iarities, the history of the development of their language, or such 
Blatters. The proper method of studying the work of art is not a 



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XL REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION, 

substitute for that in grammar; it does not open the windows of the 
mind toward the* logical, philological, or psychological structure of 
human thought and action. 

There is a fifth coordinate group of studies, namely, that of history. 
History looks to the formation of the state as the chief of human 
institutions. The development of states, the collisions of individ- 
uals with the state, the collisions of the states with one another — these 
form the topic of history. The method of historic study is different 
from that in grammatical study and also from that in the study of lit- 
erary and other works of art. Still more different is the method of 
history from those employed in the two groups of studies relating to 
nature, namely, the mathematical and biological methods. The history 
of literature and science has many examples of misapplications of 
method. For instance, Buckle, in his History of Civilization, has 
endeavored to apply the biological method and to some extent that of 
physics, apparently thinking that the methods of natural science, 
which are so good in their application to organic and inorganic nature, 
are likewise good for application within the realm of human nature. 
The reader of Buckle will remember, for instance, that the superstitious 
character of the Spanish people is explained by him as <? ..t to the fre- 
quency of earthquakes in the Peninsula. In selecting a ph^^sical cause 
for explaining a spiritual effect, Mr. Buckle passed over the most obvi- 
ous explanation, which is this: The people of Spain were for many 
centuries on the marches or boundaries of Christian civilization and 
over against a Moslem civilization. Wherever there is a border land 
between two conflicting civilizations — a difference, either political or 
religious — there is a sharpening of the minds of the people so far as to 
produce the effect of opposition and bigotry. A continual effort to hold 
one's reh'gious belief uncontaminated by the influence of a neighboring 
people leads to narrowness and to a superstitious adherence to forms. 
Karrowness and bigotry in religion are the foe to science and the firiend 
to all manner of superstitions. 

Mr. Buckle's work has interested people very much because it is an 
attempt to bring the methods of natural science into the study of human 
history. But it can not be regarded as anything more than an example 
of the attempt to substitute for the true method in history a method 
good only in another province. 

In biology the whole animal is not fully revealed in each of his mem- 
bers, although, as stated in Kant's definition, each part is alike the 
means and the end for all the others. The higher animals and plants 
show the greatest difference between parts and whole. But in his- 
tory it is the opposite; the lower types exhibit the greatest difference 
between the social whole and the individual citizen. The progress in 
history is toward freedom of the individual and local self-government. 
In the highest organisms of the state, therefore, there is a greater 
similarity between the individual and the national whole to which he 



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CHILD STUDY. XL! 

belongs. The individual takes a more active part in governing bimselfl 
The state becomes more and more an instrument of self government in 
bis bands. In the lowest states tbe gigantic personality of the social 
whole is all in all, and the individual personality is null, except in case 
of the supreme ruler and in the few associated with him. 

The method of history keeps its gaze fixed upon the development of 
the social whole and the progress which it makes in realizing within its 
citizens the freedom of the whole. This method, it is evident enough, 
is different from those in literature and grammar; different also from 
the biological and the mathematical methods. In history we see how 
the little selves or individuals unite to form the big self or the nation. 
The analogies to this found in biology, namely, the combination of indi- 
vidual cells into the entire vegetable or animal organism, are all illusive 
so far as furnishing a clew to the process of human history. 

From the above considerations it is jwssible to see what is the relation 
of this inquiry into educational values to the questions of child study 
and other topics in psychology, as well as to the Herbartian principle 
of interest. First and foremost, the teacher of the school has before 
him this question of the branches of learning to be selected. These 
must be discovered by looking at the grown man in civilization rather 
than at the child. The child has not yet developed his possibilities. 
The child first shows what he is truly and internally when he becomes 
a grown man. The child is the acorn. The acorn reveals what it is in 
the oak only after a thousand years. So man has revealed what he is, 
not in the cradle, but in the great world of human history and litera- 
ture and science. He has written out his nature upon the blackboard 
of the universe. 

In order to know what there is in the human will, we look into Plu- 
tarch's Parallel Lives. To see what man has done in philosophy, we read 
Plato, Aristotle, Leibnitz, and Hegel. For science we look to the New- 
tons and Darwins. We do not begin, therefore, with child study in our 
school education. But next after finding these great branches of human 
learning we consider the child, and how to bring him from his possi- 
bility to his reality. Then it becomes essential to study the child and 
his manner of evolution. We must discover which of its interests are 
already on the true road toward human greatness. We must likewise 
discover which ones conflict with the highest aims, and especially what 
interests there are that, although seemingly in conflict with the highest 
ends of man, are yet really tributary to human greatness, leading up to 
it by winding routes. All these are matters of child study, but they 
all presuppose the first knowledge, namely; the knowledge of the 
doings of mature humanity. There can be no step made in rational 
child study without keeping in view constantly these questions of the 
five coordinate groups of study. 

Chapter XVI contains a sketch of the history of the American 
common school during the Colonial and Revolutionary period in the 



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XIAl REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

United States. After a general introduction, in which the author disr 
cusses the educational theory of the American common school, he pro- 
ceeds to trace, with some detail, the main outlines of the progress 
of the common-school idea from the time of its earliest appearance in 
New England. He recounts, also, the attempts at popular education 
in all of the other Colonics before the era of the Revolution, traces the 
increased interest in education of the various States as shown by the 
constitutions adopted during the war of the Revolution, and i)oints 
out the awakening sense of nationality in matters of education which 
was displayed in the grants of magnificent areas of territory in what 
was then the new Forth west for purposes of education by the Congress 
of the Confederation. 

In Chapter XVII, Rev. A. D. Mayo has given a sketch of the services 
of the lato Robert Charles Winthrop to the Peabody education fund. 
In this paper also he traces briefly the career of George Peabody, show- 
ing how his fortune was accumulated, and unfolding the motives which 
led him to devote so largo a share of his fortune to this particular form 
of education. Dr. Mayo traces also the career of Mr. Winthrop, and 
suggests the thought that his greatest service to the American people 
lies not in his political career, nor in his speeches and writings, but in 
the ability and fidelity which he displayed as president of the Peabody 
trustees in administering that great fund. The Peabody fund has been 
used to stimulate State and municipal action toward the organisation 
and equipment of schools. It has also encouraged individual effort. 
To it more than to any other instrumentality is due the establishment 
on firm foundations of the common-school system in the South. 

By an act of Congress approved August 30, 1890, additional funds 
were granted to the different States and Territories for the more com- 
plete endowment of their colleges of agriculture and the mechanic arts. 
According to the terms of the act, the expenditure of the sums so 
appropriated was to be restricted to certain specified purposes. The 
dLSi>osition of these funds made during the current year by the various 
beneficiary institutions is given in detail iu a table in Chi^ter I of 
Part II (pp. 792-794). 

The effect of forests upon climate, agriculture, and in regulating the 
flow of water iu streams has long been acknowledged. Several Euro- 
pean nations own extensive forests, which not only perform important 
economic functions, but also, under expert management, yield immediate 
and direct revenue. The national forests of France, of 2,200,000 acres, 
yield annually about $5,000,000 net income. The planting, care, and 
preservation oi forests are therefore subjects which these nations have 
recognized as demanding serious study* Mr. C. Wellmau Parks, whom 
I appointed as special agent of this Bureau to the Antwerp Exx>osition, 
made an inquiry into the instruction given in several typical European 
forestry schools, the results of which are given in Chapter II of Part II 
{fiip. 809-^18). The account cloaes with a statement of the instruetioii 



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MAirUAI* TBAINIKG. XLin 

in fwestry given at the difTercnt land-grant colleges in the United 
States. 

*^ Geology in the colleges and unirersities of the United States'' is 
tke sabjeet of Chapter III ci Pstf fe II, eontribnted by Thomas Cramer 
Hopkins, A. M., S. M., fellow in geology, University of Chicago. Tbe 
iufbrmation compiled and the mattar discussed in this cbi4)ter will 
prove especially y^aable to teachers of geology and to pros]>ective 
students in geology who are desirocis of comparing the work done and 
the faeilities offered m the different institutions in this branch of 
science. In preparing the chapter Mr. Hopkins used the replies from 
colleges and universities received in response to a circular sent out 
from this office asking for statislies on this subject. Besides having 
access to college catalogues, ho gained much information from x)ersonal 
correspondence and interviews, and secured contributions from a num- 
ber of well-known gecdogists in fading institutions. The matter is 
conveniently arranged and discussed bj States, about 380 colleges 
and universities being mentioned, the chapter concluding with the 
statistical tables. 

In 1887 a committee of distinguished chemists was api)ointed by the 
American Association for the Advancen>ent of Science to consider the 
question of attaining uniformity in the spelling and pronunciation of 
chemical terms. Thdr report was adopted by the association at its 
meeting in 1801, was readopted in 1893, and is printed in fhll in Chapter 
IV of Part II of this report (pp. 873-876). The sammary of rules 
which it eontaiss has also been printed by this office in tbe form of a 
chart for distribution to high schools and colleges. 

In Chapter V, Dr. C. M. Wo€>dward, director of the St. Louis Manual 
TrainiBg School, has sketched the ^^Eiso and i^t>gress of manual train- 
ing:.'' This phase of the general 6ub|ect of industrial training has 
attracteil a great deal of atteotioB within the last few years, because 
of the ability of its advocates and the novelty of their claims in cer- 
tain respects, but more especially because the decay of the system of 
i^^prenticesbip has led people to look for some means of industrial 
education that coidd prepare youth lor their future vocations, without 
at the same time deprrving them of general culture in letters and 
tbe arts^ 

Professor Woodward is the founder of the first school in this country 
that aimed to give a manual training that is educative in its entire 
effect. 

The umverai^-exteiimon movement has attained con3ider<U>le xiro- 
portiens since irst introduced into this eountry in 1800. In some cases 
the exte&siott work has been dropped after a trial, these instances 
oceurri&g mainly in spmseSy settled regions^ where the expenses of a 
circuit of lectures are too great. In general, however, the plan has 
been foand to be a nsefiil and practicable means of supj^ementing the 
oommoQ-fleheol instrsetifliL of large numbers of persons who for on«t 



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XLIV REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

reason or anotlier have been debarred from the privileges of attending 
a college or university. Chapter VI of Part II (pp. 951-971) gives a 
detailed account of the status of university extension in the United 
States, the courses offered by various institutions, and reports of the 
work accomplished. 

In Chapter YIII, Part II, education of the colored race is discussed 
at some length with particular reference to the industrial training of 
the negro. In the 160 schools there are 18,595 pupils in elementary 
grades, 13,375 in secondary, and 1,161 in higher or collegiate grades, 
making a total of 33,131 in these schools. Of the total number, 33,131, 
there were 8,050 students in industrial departments, 5,940 studying to 
be teachers, and 1,067 studying a learned profession. Chapter VIII 
reviews the financial history of several colored schools, showing how 
they were established and how still supported. The courses of study 
are somewhat critically examined and the courses in industrial training 
in several of the leading schools are discussed in detail. 

A digest of the public school laws of the several States is given in 
Chapter IX of Part II (pp. 1063-1300). To facilitate examination and 
comparison of the legislative provisions and requirements of the differ- 
ent States upon any given point, a uniform mode of treatment has 
been employed. 

In Chapter X of Part II (pp. 1301-1349) is given a compendium of 
sanitary legislation affecting schools in the United States, compiled by 
Miss Hannah B. Clark, of the University of Chicago. An attempt has 
been made to include in it all the laws affecting the health and safety 
of school children which appear upon the statute books of the different 
States, as well as city ordinances and regulations of school boards and 
boards of health. It would appear from Miss Clark's investigations 
that about one-third of the States require vaccination of school chil- 
dren 5 one- third take some slight precaution against fire; one- fourth 
have enactments designed to prevent the spread of contagious diseases; 
eight States require suitable sanitary arrangements; two prescribe 
proper ventilation, and one (Kentucky) the minimum amount of space 
to be allotted to each pupil. Kentucky is also the only State that 
requires school seats to be "suited to the age of the child." 

Various questions relating to the status of education in several of 
the States are treated of in Chapter XI of Part II (pp. 1351-1449). 
Chapter XII (pp. 1451-1492) is taken up with the "Report on education 
in Alaska,'' by Rev. Sheldon Jackson. 

Chapter XIII, Part II, presents "A preliminary list of American 
learned and educational societies." The compilation of this list was 
originally begun by Mr. Appleton Morgan, president of the New York 
Shakespeare Society, assisted by Mrs. L. L. Lawrence, of Plainfield, 
N. J., to both of whom my thanks are due. The work was continued 
and completed by Dr. Stephen B. Weeks, of this Bureau. An effort 
has been made to give the leading facts connected with the life history 



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CRIMINOLOGICAL CONGRESSES. XLV 

of eacb society, its objects, the time and place of organization, the 
names of its foonders, its present officers, and some notice of the extent 
and form of its poblications. Sach a list as that undertaken here has no 
direct predecessor in the United States, and has been particularly dif- 
ficult for that reason; but it is believed that the list as printed will be 
of service, and will be useful in making future lists more complete. 

In Chapter XIV of Part II, Dr. A. McDonald, specialist in education 
and crime, contributes a chapter on his criminological studies. He 
endeavors to prove that there can be no rational treatment of crime 
until causes are investigated. He estimates nine- tenths of crime to be 
due to bad social conditions. But he contends that crime is not a dis- 
ease, in the medical sense, for statistics recently gathered by this 
Bureau show 82 i>er cent of criminals in good health. But the crim- 
inal should be imprisoned, first of all, because he is dangerous to the 
community. 

Criminology is not yet a science, except by courtesy. It is an initi- 
atory step in the direct study of human beings themselves and their 
relations to their surroundings. The students engaged in this field of 
research hold that the brain and the mind of the criminal naturally 
act and react upon each other, but can not decide which is primary in 
the present state of our knowledge. 

There is little chance of lessening crime until children have the 
educative influence of a proper home or home-like institution. 

In Chapter XV of Part II, Dr. McDonald mjikes rei)ort on tlie recent 
international congress held at Budapest for psychological, criminologi- 
cal, and demographical questions. 

The best measures of combating or ameliorating criminal degener- 
acy are those of education (von Liszt). Whether responsible or not, 
the criminal must be placed where it is impossible for him to do injury, 
if he is dangerous to life or property (von Liszt). 

At the Demographical Congress the Bertillon system of measure- 
ment was recommended not only for criminals but for all persons, so 
that every citizen could easily establish his identity beyond doubt. 

The congress favored legislation that would gradually enact an eight- 
hour work day for all trades, and that would prohibit night work 
except where general public considerations require it. In regard to 
hygiene the congress resolved that: At all universities professorships 
should be constituted for the advancement of scientific researches in 
hygiene. In all elementary and special schools instruction in hygiene 
should be combined with and form the complement to gymnastics, 
games, and other exercises of the season. The teaching might be car- 
ried on in conjunction with the instruction In natural-science branches. 
There was a general agreement among those experts of diflferent 
nations who examined young men for entering the military service 
that for the last few years there has been a gradual degeneration, phys- 
ical and moral. 



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XLVI REPORT OP THE COMBUSSIONEB OP EDUCATION. 

Tbo extent to which industrial training in its various phases has 
been engrafted upon the work of education in America is brought out 
by the tables upon pages 2003 and 2114. These show that industrial 
training is of such prominence as to be almost the principal purpose of 
many of the schools for colored youth in the South and for Indians in 
the West; that it is nn essential part of the training of reform schools^ 
and in a less degree of that of schools for the socalletl defective classes; 
and that the number of charitable concerns in which industrial training 
is the central idea is constantly growing. In institutions of these classes 
the instruction is avowedly intended to be of direct use to the pupil in 
earning his livelihood, and as such it amounts to trade-teaching pure 
and simple. But in other classes of schools represented in the tables 
the "trade idea'' is scouted, and the statement is made that the princi- 
pal, if not the sole, purpose of the manual training given is its educa- 
tional value. In this category are to be included the distinclively 
"manual training schools" and most of the normal schools and city 
public schools. Other schools combine the two ideas and attempt to so 
adjust their instruction as to give it a direct practical use, claiming for 
it at the same time an important pedagogical value. In this category 
may be included most of the mechanical training given in the colleges 
and schools of technology, as well as in many schools of lower grade. 

Notwithstanding these dltterences in purpose and the resulthig varia- 
tion of method, there is a strong similarity between them, and all must 
be included in any presentation of industrial training in America. 

The showing is on the whole a creditable one. In the tables there 
are represented as giving industrial training the public schools of 94 
cities, 10 normal schools, 40 institutions of collegiate grade, Go schools 
for colored youth, 28 schools for Indians, 27 schools for the blind, 57 
schools for the deaf, 20 schools for the feeble-minded, 55 reform schools, 
17 manual training schools, C trade schools, and 10 charity schools. 

Numerous bibliographies of educational literature have been com- 
piled and i)rinted. Some of these bibliographies are general in their 
character, covering the whole field of education, while others are re- 
stricted in their scoi>e to some particular subject, such as "child study" 
or the "study of geography.'' They are to be found princijially scat- 
tered through official reports, text-books, pamphlets, periodicals, etc. 
In Chapter XVI of Part II (pp. 1701-1722) an attempt has been made 
to compile a classified list of such recent educational bibliographies 
as were more readily accessible to the compiler or of the existence of 
which he obtained knowledge through any source. Details of size and 
classification or contents of the bibliographies, publisher, and price of 
the work they are contained in, are given when obtainable, as well as 
such other information, in the form of notes, as would enable a reader 
to determine whether any bibliography were such a one as he wanted, 
and put him in the way of getting it if he desired it. 



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EDUCATIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHIES. 



XLVII 



Several useful bibliographies and reference lists, compiled by various 
hands, appear in the present report, to wit: 

1. List of articles on Education in Great Britain that have api)eared 
in the Commissioner's Eeport, p. 165. 

2. Similar list for Education in France, p. 187. 

3. Bibliography of German works on the History of Education, pp. 
30G-308. 

4. Bibliography of German works on the History and Methods of 
Arithmetic, pp. 314-323. 

5. List of works on Education in Italy, including articles in the 
Bureau's Keports, pp. 380-333. 

G. Material consulted for chapter on Education in Eussia, p. 385. 

7. Material consulted for statement on Education in Finland, p. 413. 
Recent works on Education in Finland, p. 424. 

8. BibUography of Psychology, 1893-94, pp. 4G5-1G7. 

9. Bibliography of Education of the Colored Race, pp. 1038-1047,- 
Negroes in America, pp. 1048-1056; Works by Negro Authors, pp. 
105G-10G1. 

10. Bibliogiaphy of Congresses in Social Pathology, pp. 1G97-1G99. 
I include in a noto^ a list of the blank forms of inquiry sent out to 

obtain the material for ttie tables of this reix)rt. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

W. T. Habsis, Commissioner. 
Hon. Hoke Smith, 

Secretary of the Interior. 



* List of blank forms of inquiry sent out. 



Schedules (annual). 



Stato systems 

City systems 

Manual training in city aclioul systems. 

City and Tillage systems 

Manual and industrial training 

Pablic secondary schools 

Privato secondary schools 

Universities and colleges 

Colleges for women 

Schools of technology 

University extension , 

Agricultural colleges 

Medical schools 

Law schools 

Theological schools 

Dentilschools 

HchooU of phannacy 

Kurso tmimng schools 

Normal schools 

Commercial schools 

Institutions for the blind 

Institutions for the deaf 

Institutions for feeble-minded 

Beform schools 

Schools for tho colored 

Learned Hocieties 

G«ology in colleges 



Items. 


Soliedules 
tabulaUnl. 


" 





41 


554 


30 


DC 


19 


225 


30 


410 


42 


3,904 


42 


1,982 


74 


476 


28 


106 


37 


20 


8 


20 


25 


03 


13 


152 


12 


67 


15 


147 


12 


35 


12 


35 


11 


06 


20 


398 


28 


518 


23 


37 


80 


88 


62 


27 


32 


82 


10 


100 


8 


400 


8 


875 



Sche<lnle8 
mailed, 
about — 



2,0U0 

500 

2,000 

2, 000 

15,000 

7,o00 

1, ICO 

400 

40 

70 

400 

300 

100 

200 

50 

50 

150 

1,500 

1, 000 

150 

250 

150 

250 

500 

800 

1,000 



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I>^RT I. 



Chap. I.— Wliolo Namber of Papils and Stauents (p. 3). 

II. — Consolidated Statistics of State and City Common School Systems 
(p. 7). 
in.— Statistical Review of Secondary Education (p. 33). 
IV. — Statistical Review of Higher Education (p. 97). 
y. — Education in Great Britain and Ireland (p. 165). 
VI. — Education in France (p. 187). 
VII. — ^Education in Central Europe (p. 203). 
Vm.— Public Instruction in Italy (p. 325). 
IX. — Education in Russia (p. 885). 
X.— The Psychological Revival (p. 425). 

XL— Report of the Committee of Fifteen . The Training of Teachers (p. 469). 
XII.— The same. Correlation of Studies (p. 489). 
XIII. — ^The same. Organization of City Systems (p. 543). 
XIV. — Verbatim Reports of Recitations in Arithmetic, etc. (p. 557). 
XV. — ^Educational Values of the Several Branches of Study (p. 617). 
XVI.— Public Schools during the Colonial Period (p. 639). 
XVII.— Robert Winthrop (p. 739). 
XVIII. — List of State and City Superintendents and College Presidents (p. 773). 



ED 94- 



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PART I. 



CHAPTER I. 

WHOLE NUMBER OP PUPILS AKD STUDENTS. 



The following table has been prepared to sboir, as near as can be 
ascertained, the total number ef persons in the schools and colleges of 
the United States, pablic and private. The classification has been 
made according to toe grade of the instruction received, irrespective 
cf the character of the institutions which the pupils attend, the object 
being to ascertain the number of pupils of each grade. Thus all pupils 
in the ^^preparatory" departm^its of colleges have been classed as 
secondary, white all elementary pupils attending secondary schools 
have been given their proper classification. 

It would appear tiiat there were 15,530,268 persons in the United 
States who attended a school^ or educational institution of some sort 
at some period during the school year 1893-94. Two persons out of 
every nine (22^ per cent of the population) were at school. 

As compared with the preceding year, there was an increase of 
446,638, or 2.97 per cent. 

It is to be understood that these figures are only {^proximate. The 
statistics of private elementary education B^e very imperfect, and their 
degree of accuracy varies from year to year. The large increase over 
the preceding year in the number of secondary and higher students is 
in part a result of their number having been more fully ascertained the 
present year. There have fA&o been some changes of classification, by 
which the number of pri\'ute normal students in particular appears to 
have been largely increased. On the whole, this table is not strictly 
comparable with corresponding tables published in previous reports of 
this office for aso^taining the increase in the number of pupils; it is 
believed, however, to be more accurate than any heretofore published, 
except as regarding private elementary pupils (column 3). 

'ExclndiBg, ia genenikl, eyening sdMols; muaio, elocution, art, industrial tn^ning, 
tr^es, and private bastness scheols; schools for the defective, dependent, and delin- 
quent classes, and Indian schools. These collectively enroll some 300,000 pupils^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EDUCATION 



REPORT, 1893-94. 




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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



CHAPTER II. 

CONSOLIDATED STATISTICS OF STATE AND CITY COMMON 

SCHOOL SYSTEMS. 

Korm.— Tbo eommon aohools as here understood Include publio day aohoola of elementary and 
■eeondary grade*; i. e., pabUo primary, grammar, and high 8cho<^. Claasiflcation by race ia given 
•laewbere in this report. 



I. — State School Systems. 

The foUowing tables contain the common school statistics of the 
yarioas States and Territories for 1893-94, with the exception of some 
half dozen States, for which the figures of 1892-93 are given. The 
totals for the United States are therefore subject to correction. 

Tables 1 and 2 contain various details regarding different classes of 
the population and their relations to each other, which it is important 
to have in mind in considering the educational status of the several 
States. The total population, the number of i)ersons from 5 to 18 years 
of age, and the adult male population have been carefully estimated 
for the epoch 1894, using wherever possible as a basis the increase 
of the State school population as determined by the annual school 
censuses. 



Table l,^Tke total population, the school population, and the adult male population. 




Estimated 
total popu- 
lation in 
1894. 


The school population. 


Bstimated 
number of 

malca 21 
years of age 

and over 


State or Territory. 


Estimated number of children 5 to 
18 years of age in 1894. 


Percent- 
age of 
males. 




Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


in 1894. 


1 


il 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


United states 


67,891,380 


10,138,302 


9, 948, 121 


20, 086. 423 


60.47 


18. 426. 220 


moTih AUon tic DiTiaion 

South Atlantic Division 

South Central Division 

Iforth Centra] Division 

Weatem Division 


18,617,700 

9.431,900 

12, 054, 500 

24,135.000 

3,651,280 


2, 372, 620 
1,618,180 
2, 120, 580 
3, 577, 340 
449,582 


2.357,452 
1,501,220 
2. 064, 760 
3,497,660 
437, 029 


4, 730, 072 
3, 209, 400 
4,185,340 
7,075.000 
886,611 


50.16 
50.42 
50.66 
60.57 
50.71 


5. 405. 700 
2, 147, 000 
2, 774, 980 
6. 702, 000 
1 396 540 






'SoTih AtUntic Division: 
Maine 


645.300 

389,000 

832,500 

2,422,000 

389,800 

794,100 

6.810.000 

1,628,000 

5,708,000 


80,220 
43,400 
42,260 

275.900 
47,300 
93,910 

774,500 
a212,339 

802,800 


78,580 
43,300 

39, no 

277.900 
47,730 
92.990 

775, 500 
a211,54^ 

790,200 


158,800 

86.700 

81.070 

553,800 

95.030 

186,900 

1,550.000 

a 423, 872 

1,593,009 


50.53 
60.00 
51.55 
49.83 
49.78 
50.24 
49.95 
60.09 
60.38 


196 400 


Now Hsmnahire. ........ 


122, 100 


Vermont ....-..-..--... 


101. 700 


MsMtaohnnetta ......•••.. 


719 300 


Bhode Island 


112,800 


Connecticnt .......••••••• 


238.500 


New York 

New Jersey (1893) 

Pennsylvania 


1,862 000 

465,900 

l,587,00t 



a State school census. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



8 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

Tadlb l.—Tlte total jwpulation, the school population, and the adult male popula- 
tion — Continaed. 



State or Territory. 



Estimated 

total popu- 

latioD m 

1894. 



Tlie school population. 



Estimated namber of children 5 to 
18 years of age in 1894. 



Malea. 



Females. 



Total. 



Percent- 
age of 
males. 



Estimated 
number of 

males 21 
yeantofago 

and oyer 
in 1894. 



South Atlantic Division: 

Delaware (1892) 

Maryland 

District of Ck>lumbia. 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Korth Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

Soutli Central Division: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee (1893) 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana (1883) 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

North Central Division : 

Ohio 

Indiana (1893) 

Illinois 

Michigan 

AVisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western Division : 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona (1893) 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

CalU'omia 



173.200 
1,089,000 

266,400 
1. 746, 000 

809,900 
1.719,000 
1.220,000 
1,954,000 

454,400 

1,930.000 
1,806,000 
1,703,000 
1.396,000 
1,178,000 
2.582.000 
1.214,300 
245,500 

3,748.000 
2,253.000 
4,331,000 
2.227,000 
1,893.000 
1,555.000 
2,018,000 
2,895.000 
268.700 
401, 300 
1.156,000 
1.380,000 

194, 700 
88,750 
495. 200 
196,400 
76,120 
243,000 
43,010 
116, 700 
458.200 
890,200 
1,349,000 



24.750 
159,900 

82.840 
800,600 
137,700 
307,130 
228,700 
350,800 

75,760 

319.450 
814,500 
308,200 
260,100 
201.500 
458,700 
219.800 



537,900 
335,800 
616,200 
811,850 
285,000 
227,200 
809,300 
454,400 
87,910 
60,130 
177,860 
223,790 

17,760 

0,804 

55,100 

28,150 

9,775 

89,890 

4,773 

16,250 

53,240 

53,140 

161,700 



24,080 
158,900 

84,790 
295,700 
134,600 
300, 610 
224.400 
842,900 

75,240 

812,780 
803,600 
299,800 
252,200 
199,700 
447,000 
218, 300 
85,780 

525.600 
829,800 
607,800 
300. (^ 
280.800 
222,800 
299,690 
446,800 
85,450 
57,870 
170, 810 
215,180 

17,400 
9,129 
53,900 
26,970 
9,575 
88,960 
4,635 
15,340 
60,760 
52,060 
158,800 



48,830 
318,800 

67.630 
696.800 
272.300 
607,740 
453,100 
693, 700 
151,000 

632,230 
618,100 
608.000 
512, 300 
401,200 
906,300 
433,100 
74, 110 

1,063,500 
665,600 

1,224,000 
618,500 
666.800 
450,000 
608,900 
900,700 
73,360 
117,500 
848,170 
438,970 

85,160 

18,933 

109,000 

55,120 

19,350 

78,850 

9,408 

81,590 

104,000 

105.200 

820,000 



60.60 
50.18 
48.55 
50.41 
50.56 
50.54 
50.48 
50.57 
60.17 

50.53 
60.89 
50.69 
50.78 
50.22 
50.61 
50.75 
51.73 

50.67 
50.45 
50.84 
50.42 
50.87 
50.48 
50.79 
50.45 
51.67 
51.16 
51.08 
50.98 

50.52 
51.78 
50.56 
51.07 
50.52 
50.59 
60.73 
51.43 
51.20 
50.52 
50.54 



48.900 
282,800 

74,600 
899,300 
192,600 
864,100 
249.700 
423,300 
111,700 

468.100 
411.200 
865. COO 
293.500 
264,000 
619, 100 
277,400 
76,080 

1,037,500 
611,600 

1,214.000 
656.800 
618.200 
449.200 
549,300 
762,700 
82,800 
118, 100 
829,200 
873,100 

96.360 
89,540 
198.100 
67.480 
80.250 
63,660 
19,690 
43,560 
192,700 
139,000 
516,200 



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STATE SCHOOL SYSTEMS. 



9 



Table 2. — Belaiion of the school population to the total population and to the adult male 
population; proportion of the white school population of foreign birth or extraction; 
percentage of foreign horn of total population. 



State or Territory. 



United States. 



North Atlantic Division. 
Sooth Atlantic Division. 
Soath Central Division.. 
North Central Division.. 
Western Division 



North Atlantic Division: 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey , 

Pennsylvania 

South Athuitic Division: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. 

Tirji[inia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

South Central Division: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

NoHh Central Division: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Dlinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa , 

Missouri 

North Dakota , 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Ku nifflJ i 

Western Division: 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

Now Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oreson 

Caim»mia 



Number of children 5 
to 18 years of age to 
every 100 persons of 
the total population. 



1870. 



81.27 



1880. 



30.04 



33.02 
83.92 
32.40 
25.57 



28.01 
24.75 
27.18 
25.51 
25.68 
25.86 
28.09 
29.01 
30.55 

31.84 
31.30 
27.01 
82.39 
34.13 
33.60 
33.15 
34.42 
34.03 

84.41 
34.13 
34.40 
33.70 
31.11 
84.80 
84.16 



31.74 
33.75 
32.24 
30.23 
83.57 
82.45 
83.06 
83.57 

23.74 

28.07 
29.83 

10.20 
9.80 
22.47 
31.90 
16.78 
35.05 
12.56 
11.80 
26.96 
32.84 
24.48 



26.87 
32.24 
33.13 
30.63 
25.13 



25.71 
22.80 
25.96 
23.98 
24.64 
24.97 
26.32 
27.08 
29.43 

29.11 
29.89 
26.87 
32.43 
33.37 
32.80 
83.21 
33.17 
82.82 

83.14 
83.44 
88.87 
84.12 
81.93 
32.60 
33.15 



29.75 
31.37 
80.66 
28.87 
80.85 
80.43 
31.40 
82.35 

24.34 

29.88 
31.73 

17.10 
18.06 
18.72 
29.85 
19.50 
83.39 
18.22 
22.98 
27.19 
28.63 
25.03 



1890. 



29.61 



25.39 
34.04 
34.76 
29.33 
21.33 



24.60 
22.29 
24.65 
22.87 
24.88 
23.54 
24.57 
26.04 
27.92 

28.19 
29.28 
25.38 
84.16 
33.62 
85.35 
37.14 
85.50 
33.23 

82.76 
84.22 
35.70 
36.69 
34.04 
85.10 
85.68 
30.18 

28.87 
29.54 
28.26 
27.77 
29.88 
28.93 
80.17 
81.11 
27.30 
29.29 
80.12 
31.59 

18.06 

21.83 

22 

28.07 

25.42 

82.45 

21.87 

27.07 

22.60 

26.06 

23.72 



Number 
of adult 
males to 
every 100 
children 

5 to 18 
years of 

age in 
1890. 



91.4 



114.4 
66.8 
65.9 
94.6 

156.7 



123.7 
140.8 
124.1 
129.9 
118.7 
127.6 
120.1 
109.9 
99.6 

100.1 
88.7 

110.3 
67.0 
70.7 
59.9 
55.1 
61.0 
74.0 

74.0 
66.5 
60.1 
67.3 
65.8 
68.8 
64.0 
102.7 

97.6 
91.0 
99.2 
106.2 
01.6 
99.8 
90.2 
84.7 
112.2 
100.5 
94.5 
85.0 

274.0 
208.8 
181.8 
104.3 
156.4 
80.7 
200.3 
137.9 
185.3 
132.1 
161.3 



Percent- 
age of 
white 
diildren 
6tol8 
years of 
age that 
were of 
foreign 
birth or 
parent> 
n^rein 
1890. 



Per et. 
33.5 



45.8 

6.6 

8.6 

41.5 

44.7 



25.0 
88.4 
33.4 
60.5 
62.4 
54.6 
54.8 
48.3 
82.3 

17.3 
24.4 
26.3 
2.8 
6.9 
.7 
2.3 
2.1 
11.5 

8.7 
2.9 
3.2 
8.1 
17.8 
16.9 
3.5 
9.6 

30.4 
17.8 
47.0 
66.1 
72.4 
76.4 
42.6 
22.5 
80.3 
61.2 
42.1 
26.4 

49.4 
47.2 
36.3 
13.2 
57.1 
66.6 
60.8 
41.1 
39.3 
27.9 
61.8 



Percentage of foreign 
bom of total popula- 
Uon. 



1870. 



Peret. 
14.44 



20.49 

2.85 

3.62 

17.97 

81.64 



7.80 
0.30 
14.27 
24.24 
25.40 
21.14 
25.97 
20.85 
15.48 

7.31 

10.68 

12.84 

1.12 

3.87 

.28 

1.14 

.94 

2.65 

4.80 
1.53 
1.00 
1.35 
&53 
7.62 
1.04 



13.98 
8.42 
20.28 
22.03 
84.56 
36.55 
17.14 
12.91 

33.05 

25.00 
13.28 

88.74 
38.53 
16.55 
6.12 
60.15 
35.38 
44.25 
52.57 
20.97 
12.76 
37.45 



1880. 



Per et. 
13.32 



19.40 
2.29 
3.G8 
16.80 
28.29 



1890. 



Peret. 
14.77 



22.34 

2.35 

2.03 

18.16 

25.46 



9.07 
13.34 
12.33 
24.87 
26.76 
20.88 
23.83 
19.60 
13.73 

6.46 

&86 

9.04 

.97 

2.95 

.27 

.77 

.69 

3.68 

3.61 
1.08 
.77 
.81 
5.76 
7.20 
1.29 



12.35 
7.29 
18.96 
23.73 
80.82 
84.28 
16.11 
9.76 

38.32 

21.53 
11.05 

29.42 
28.14 
20.48 
6.73 
39.69 
30.56 
41.20 
80 59 
21.04 
17.45 
33.87 



11.94 
19.21 
13.26 
29.35 
30.77 
24.60 
26.19 
22.77 
16.08 

7.81 

9.05 

8.15 

1.11 

2.48 

.23 

.54 

.66 

6.86 

8.19 
1.13 
.98 
.62 
4.45 
6.84 
1.26 
4.43 

12.51 
6.67 
22.01 
25.97 
80.78 
35.90 
16.05 
8.77 
44.58 
27.60 
19.18 
10.36 

32.61 
24.57 
20.38 
7.33 
81.52 
25.52 
82 14 
20.69 
25.76 
18.27 
30.82 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



10 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94 



ENROLLMENT. 

The common school enrollment for 1893-94, as given in Tables 3 and 
4 following, is less than that found by adding together columns 2 and 4 
of the table of Chapter I (p. 4), in that it does not embrace secondary- 
pupils in public universities and colleges. 

The whole number of pupils enrolled in the common schools is found 
to be 13,935,977, or nearly twice the number in 1870-71. The increase 
over the number reported the preceding year, 425,258, is unusually large, 
and would seem to indicate that periods of " hard times '' have a favor- 
able effect upon school attendance, numbers of children, perhaps from 
lack of remunerative labor, being diverted from the factory or workshop 
to the school. 

The percentage of the school population (5 to 18 years of age) enrolled 
in the schools is 69.39, as against 69.10 in 1892-93. 

Table 3. — Number of pupils entailed in the common echooU at various periods, and the 
relation of the enrollment to the school population. 



Stato or Territory. 


Number of different pupils enrolled during 
the school year, excluding duplicates. 


Per cent of school popnlatioa 
(5 to 18 years) enrolled. 




1870-71. 


187^-80. 


188d-90. 


1803-94. 


1870-71. 


1879-aO. 


1888-90. 


1893-94. 


1 


9 


3 


4 


ft 


6 


7 


8 


• 


United SUtes 


7,561,582 


9,867,505 


12,722,581 


13.835.877 


61.45 


65.50 


68.61 


68.38 


North Atlantic Division. 
Sou til Atlantic Division. 
South Central Division.. 
North Central Division.. 
Western Division 


2, 743, 344 
603,019 
7tJ7, 839 

3,300,660 
140, 120 


2,930.345 
1,242,811 
1, 371, 975 
4.033,828 
288.540 


3,112,622 
1.785,486 
2, 293, 579 
5,015,217 
615, 677 


3,293,714 
1,981.336 
2,652,795 
5, 357, 952 
650,180 


77.95 
30.51 
34.17 
76.87 
54.77 


75.17 
50.74 
46.43 
75.84 
64.96 


70.45 
59.23 
60.14 
76.46 
70.01 


68.63 
61.74 
63.37 
75.73 
73.33 


North AUanUc Division : 
Maine 


al52.600 
71,957 
665,384 
273,661 
«34,000 
113.588 

1,028,110 
160,430 
834,614 

20.058 

115,683 

15, 157 

131,088 

76.999 

a 115, 000 

66,056 

49,578 

14,000 

yl78,457 
a 140, 000 
141, 312 
117,000 
57.639 
63,504 
»,927 


148,827 
64,341 
75,238 

806,777 
40,604 

119.694 
1, 031, 593 

204,961 

937,310 

27,823 
162,431 

26,430 
220,736 
142.850 
252. 612 
134,072 
236.533 

39.315 

^276.000 
300,217 
179, 490 
236,654 
77,642 
a220.000 
81.072 


138,676 

S9.813 

«05.608 

371.492 

52,774 

128.505 

1,042,160 

234,072 

1,020,522 

31,434 
184,251 

36,906 
342,269 
193. OM 
322,533 
201,260 
881,297 

92,472 

398,660 
447,950 
301.615 
334.158 
120,253 
466.872 
223,071 


135.815 

62,437 

65,548 

400,609 

55,671 

136,049 

1.124,998 

d 249, 588 

1.062,999 

/33,174 
204,846 

40,678 
352,710 
218, 815 
370,890 
226,766 
436,682 

96,775 

467,451 
d463. 461 
306, 014 
345.584 
4155. 470 
598.608 
285.159 
31.048 


87.35 
91.31 

"72.34' 
59.24 
80.83 
82.98 
63.20 
76 35 

50.04 
46.70 
41.60 
32.84 
49.47 
31.23 
27.28 
11.89 
21.21 


89 80 
81.32 
87.21 
71.76 
59 59 
76.97 
77.10 
64 77 
74.37 

65.20 
58 13 
55.40 
45.00 
69.21 
55.87 
40.56 
46.24 
44.16 


85.88 
7L28 

'*7i*66* 
62.65 
72.02 
70.71 
62.21 
68.53 

66.19 
60.37 
63.10 
60.51 
75.27 
56.39 
47.08 
58.45 
7L10 

65.64 
74.05 
55.83 
" 70.62 
31.58 
68.50 
55.41 


85.52 

72.03 
79.97 
72.35 
58.59 
72.80 
72.57 
d58.89 
66.71 

/67.93 
64 27 


New Hampshire 

Vermont 


Massachusetts 

Bhodo Ishind 

Connecticut 


Now York 

New Jerseyc 

Pennsylvania e 

South Atlantic Division: 
Delaware 


Vnryli^iuf 


District of Columbia. 
Virginia 


60.16 
59 14 


West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Geortfia 


80.33 
61.04 
60.04 
62.97 


•^ Florida 


64.10 
73 93 


South Central Division: 
Kentucky 


Tennessee 


32.00 
40.36 
40.60 
24.78 
21.00 
40.29 


68.21 
42.60 
61.29 
25 87 
42.40 
30.81 


ti75.00 
50 32 


Alabama 


Mississippi 


67 47 


Lonittiana 


d38 65 


Texas 


66 04 


Arkansas .^ 


65 83 


Oklahoma 


4h90 



a Estimated. 

6 Includes only pupils of school age (5 t» SO). 

•Same (5 to 18). 

dInl892-93. 



e Enrollment of Philadelphia estimated. 

/In 1891-02. 

g Highest number enrolled. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATE SCHOOL SYSTEMS. 



11 



Tablk 3. — Nmmber of jptcjHlf enroUed in ih§ common adiooU at rariou$ ptriod$, and the 
relation of the enroUmeni to ike eekool population. — Continued. 



State or Territory. 



ISorth Ceatral Dividon 

Ohio 

IndlcM 

lUinoia 

liicbigan 

WiadMMin 

Hioneaota 

Iowa 

Htaaomi 

Horth Dakota 

SoQthDakoto 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western Diriaioii : 

Hontam 

Wvoming 

Colorado — 

KewMexieo 

Arizona 

Utah 

Kevada 

Idaho 

WMhiaftoB 

CaSfomia*. '.'.'. '.'.'.','/. 



Kmnber of different pnpUs enrolled during 
the school jear, exdodiog daplicates. 



1870-7L 



71©, 872 
4M,0ft7 
«7«,787 
292, 4M 

2»,a» 

113,963 
341,968 
830,970 

51, 660 
23,266 
89,777 

1,66T 

6469 

4.867 

M,8» 



16,908 

8,196 

906 

65,000 

21,000 

91,882 



1870-80. 



789,499 
511,283 
704,041 
862,556 
299,457 
160,248 
426,057 
482,986 

13,718 

92.549 
231,434 

4,270 
2,907 

22,119 
4,755 
4,212 

24,326 
9.045 
5.834 

14,780 

87,538 
158,766 



797,439 
512,955 
778,819 
427,062 
851,723 
280.060 
493.267 
620,314 
35,543 
76,048 
240.300 
390,322 

16.980 

7,052 

66.490 

18,215 

7.969 

37.279 

7,387 

14, 311 

55,964 

63,254 

221,756 



1803>94. 



809,780 

a517, 459 

855,988 

468,979 

385,620 

387,861 

622,731 

657,505 

47,361 

87,826 

273.062 

393,840 

25,720 
10,310 
84,448 
21, 471 

all, 320 
57.908 
6,827 
21,266 
86,720 
77,941 

243,249 



Per cent of school popolation 
(5 to 18 years) enrolled. 



1870-71. 



84.04 
78.64 
81.01 
79.66 
73.93 
75.92 
84.44 
56.03 

39.28 

58.79 
74.22 

70.24 

45.34 

42.28 

4.42 



53.36 
53.97 
46.06 
69.00 
67.78 
63.63 



1879-80. 1880-90.. 1893-94. 



76.69 
82.39 
74.61 
76.08 
73.78 
76.87 
83.52 
68.85 

41.68 

68.48 
73.28 

63.77 
77.44 
00.82 
13.82 
53.16 
50.61 
79.73 
77.86 
72.36 
75.02 
73.37 



76.54 


76.15 


79.21 


a 77. 75 


7L97 


60.93 


73.45 


75.84 


69.77 


68.17 


74.59 


75.06 


85.51 


85.84 


74.43 


73.00 


7L26 


64.55 


81.04 


74.72 


75.85 


78.43 


88.56 


89.72 


71.14 


73.13 


54.46 


54 46 


72.20 


77.50 


42.25 


38.96 


52.72 


a58.50 


55.26 


73.45 


73.60 


72.57 


62.66 


76.80 


70.58 


^.^ 


74.78 


77.38 


76.02 



a In 1892-93. 



5 Estimated. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



12 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



Table 4. — The school enrollment of 1893-94 classified by sex; j*er cent of the male and 
female school population enrolled. 



State or Tcjrritory. 



United States. 



North Atlantic Division. 
South Atlantic Division. 
South Central Division.. 
North Central Division.. 
Western Division 



North Atlantic Division: 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey (18»2-93).. 

Pennsylvania 

Sooth Atlantic Division : 

DoU war© (1891-92).... 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. . 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

South Central Division : 

Kontncky 

Tennessee (1892-93) . . . 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana (1692-93)... 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

Nortli Central Division: 

Ohio 

Indiana (1892-93) 

IllinolB 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western Division : 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona (1892-93) 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

Califomia 



Whole number of different 
pupils enrolled. 



Males. 



32,003 
33. ({64 



28,118 



125, 970 
539, 244 



19,038 
178,773 
115,400 
188,333 
113,081 
218,040 

48,251 

240,540 
238,280 



172,900 

78, 219 

301,850 

147,511 

15,902 

416, 448 
265,093 
434,103 
236.389 
196,860 



333,349 
25,065 
46,349 
140. 547 
202.519 



5,339 
'i2,*945 



29,578 
3,493 
12,568 
44,814 
89,225 
123,604 



Females. 



80,434 
81,884 



27,553 



123, 618 
523,755 



21,640 
173,937 
103,415 
182,557 
113,685 
218, 636 

48,524 

226,911 
225, 181 



172,624 

77,251 

296,752 

137,618 

15, 146 

393, 832 
252,366 
421,835 
232,590 
188,754 



824,156 

22,290 

41,477 

132,505 

191,291 



4,971 
*8,*626 



28,830 
3,334 
11,098 
42,406 
88,716 
119,645 



Total. 



13,935,977 



8,293,714 
1, 981. 336 
2, 652, 795 
6. 357, 952 
650,180 



135, 815 
02,437 
65,548 
400,603 
65,671 
136, 049 
1, 124, 998 
249,588 
1,062,999 

33,174 
204,846 

40,678 
352,710 
218,815 
370. 890 
226,766 
436,682 

96,775 

467, 451 
463,461 
306,014 
345,584 
155. 470 
698,608 
285,159 
31,048 

800,780 
617,459 
855,938 
468, 979 
385,620 
337,861 
622,731 
657,505 
47,361 
87,826 
273.052 
393,840 

25,720 
10, 810 
84,448 
21, 471 
11,320 
67,908 
6,827 
24,266 
86,720 
77,941 
243,249 



Percent of school population 
(5 to 18 years) enrolled. 



Male. 



73.72 
79.65 



50.44 



69.83 
67.17 



67.97 
60,47 
83.82 
61.33 
49.44 
62.17 
63.70 

75.30 
76.75 



66.60 
38.83 
66.81 
67.11 
41.49 

77.42 
7&96 
70.45 
75.80 
69.00 



78.35 
66.13 
77.07 
79.02 
90.64 



64.45 
'45.'08 



74.15 
73.18 
77.34 
83.24 
73.82 
76.42 



Female. 



Male and 
female. 



70.20 
80.80 



67.71 



68.44 
66.28 



62.20 
68.83 
76.84 
60.73 
60.66 
63.76 
64.40 

72.65 
74.18 



68.45 
88.68 
•6.30 
64.62 
42.33 

74.83 
78.62 
60.88 
75.87 
67.22 



72.63 
62.80 
72.80 
77.80 
88.00 



64.46 

'si'ii 



72.72 
71.03 
76.26 
83.66 
74.87 
76.68 



60.80 



60.63 
61.74 
63.37 
75.73 
73.33 



85.52 
72.08 
70.07 
72.85 
68.60 
72.80 
72.67 
68.80 
66.71 

67.03 
«L27 
60.16 
60.14 
80.33 
61.04 
60.04 
62.07 
64.10 

73.03 
76.00 
50.32 
67.47 
38.75 
66.04 
65.83 
41.00 

76.15 
77.75 
00.03 
76.84 
68.17 
76.06 
85.84 
73.00 
64.65 
74.71 
7&43 
80.72 

73.13 
64.46 
77.60 
88.05 
68.50 
73.45 
72.57 
76.80 
83.40 
74.08 
76.02 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATE SCHOOL SYSTEMS. 



13 



Table 5. — The average dailjf attendance at various periods j and its present relation to ike 

school enrollment. 



SUt« or Territory. 



United SUtes . 



Korth Atlantic Diviaioii. 
South Atlantic Division. 
South Central Division . . 
Korth Central Division.. 
Wcatem Division 



North Atlantic Division : 

Maine 

Kew Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic Division: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Distrioi of Columbia. 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 



Georgia . 
»rida.. 



Florid 
South Central Division : 

Kontucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

North Central Division: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

lUinoia 

Michigan 

Wisc<msin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 



Western Division : 
Montana 



Wvomiug 

Colorado ..... 
New Mexico. 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington. 

Oregon 

Calubmia.... 



Average number of pupils in attendance each 
day. 



1870-71. 



1879.^. 



1889-90. 



4, 545, 317 



1,827,208 
368,111 
635,632 

1,911.720 
102,646 



100,392 

48,150 

44,100 

201.750 
22,485 
62.683 

493.648 
86,812 

567,188 

a 12. 700 
50,435 
10,261 
77,402 
61,336 

73,000 

a 44, 700 
31,377 

a 10, 900 

120,866 
a 89, 000 

107,660 
90,000 
a 40. 500 
a 41. 000 
a 46. 000 



432,452 
295,071 
341,686 
a 193. 000 
a 132. 000 
50,694 
211,562 
187,024 

a 1,040 

a 14, 300 
52,891 

a 1.100 
a 250 
2,611 
a 880 



12,819 

a 1,800 

a600 

a 3. 800 

• 15,000 

64,286 



6.144,143 



1, 824, 487 
776,798 
902,767 

2,451,167 
188,024 



8,153.635 



2,036,450 
1, 126, 683 
1.467,649 
3, 188, 732 
334, 112 



103,115 
48,966 
48.606 
238,127 
27.217 
73.546 
578,089 
115, 194 
601.027 

17,439 
85,778 
20,637 

128,404 
91,604 

170. 100 
a 90, 600 

145. 190 
27.046 

178,000 
208.528 
117,978 
156,761 

a 54, 800 
a 132, 000 

a 64, 700 



476,270 

321.659 

431.638 

a 240, 000 

a 156, 000 

a 78, 400 

259.836 

a 281, 000 

8.530 

60.156 
137,669 

a 3, 000 
1,920 

12,618 
3.150 
2,847 

17, 178 
5,401 
8,863 

10,546 

27,435 
100,966 



98,364 

41,526 

45,887 

273. 910 

33.905 

83.650 

642,984 

133,286 

682,941 

19,040 
102, 351 

28,184 
108,290 
121,700 
203,100 
147, 799 
240, 791 

04,819 

225,739 

323,548 

182.467 

207,704 

87,536 

1 291, 941 

( 148, 714 



549,269 

342,275 

538,310 

a 282, 000 

200,457 

127,025 

306,309 

384.627 

20,694 

48,327 

146. 139 

243,300 

10,596 

a 4, 700 

38,715 

a 13. 000 

4,702 

20.967 

5,064 

a 9, 500 

36,946 

43,333 

146, 580 



1893-94. 



Per cent 
of enroll* 
ment in 
1893-94. 



9. 187. 505 



2.233.288 
1.231.432 
1.009,672 
8, 580. 112 
44J.001 



00.115 
42,030 
40.120 

209.069 
88.587 
91, 471 

721,063 
5151,273 

759,560 

ae 22, 693 
116,542 

31,348 
203,874 
135,381 
2:M). 301 
165, 115 
262,040 

64,138 

268,464 
b 330. 078 
a 185, 100 

206.247 
6107,870 

418,060 

166.544 
16,900 

583,599 

6371,298 

565,107 

286,077 

a 253, 352 

209,307 

331,408 

469,846 

32.305 

a 54. 400 

171. 198 

252,215 

16,423 
a 6. 508 
53,127 
16,987 
66.921 
39,821 
5.047 
16,030 
58.399 
58.984 
104,064 



05.93 



67.80 
62.14 
64.17 
66.82 
68.14 



66.36 
67.80 
61.20 
74.67 
69.31 
67.23 
64.07 
* 6 60.60 
71.45 

a«68.40 
56.89 
77.05 
57.80 
61.87 
62.00 
72.83 
60.00 
66.27 

57.44 

6 71.40 

a 60. 40 

59.67 

669.07 

69.85 

58.41 

64.42 

72.07 
6 71.75 
66.01 
61.00 
a 65. 69 
61.94 
62.39 
71.47 
68.22 
61.94 
62.69 
64.03 

63.87 
a64.00 
62.90 
79.12 
6 61. 15 
68.75 
73.93 
66.16 
67.34 
75.70 
67.70 



a Estimated. 



6 In 1892-93. 



e In 1891-02. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



14 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-W. 



Table 6. — (1) Average length of school i&rm. CS) Aggregate number of day^ eekooling 
given to all pupils; the same compared with the school population and the school 
enroHmmt 



Stato or Territory. 



Average length of school term in 
days. 



1870-71 1879-80 1880-M 1893-M 



Aggregate 

number of 

days' school' 

ing given. 



'51! 

^ ° 9 






HI 



United States . 



132.1 



130.3 



134.7 



130.0 



1,277.037,178 



03.6 



Korih Atlantie Division . . . 
Sonth Atlantic Division... 

Sonth Central Division 

North Central Division 

Western Division 



Korth Atlantie Division : 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Hassaehosetta 

Rhode Island 

Conuectiout 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Sooth Atlantic Division: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Oeorgia 

Florida 

South Central Division: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

, Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

North Central Division : 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western Division: 

Montana 

AVyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington , 

Oregon 

California 



152.0 
97.4 
91.6 
133.9 
110.2 



98.0 
70.0 
115.6 
169.0 
170.0 
172.4 
176.0 
178.0 
127.2 

132.0 
183.0 
1>00. 
93.2 
76.8 
&S0.0 
MOO.O 
50.0 



150.2 
02.4 
79.2 
130.8 
120.2 



100.0 
105.3 
125.5 
177.0 
184.0 
179.0 
178.5 
102.0 
133.4 

168.0 
187.0 
103.0 
112.8 
00.0 
50.0 
70.0 
665.0 



& 110.0 

677.0 

66.5 

110.0 

6 65.0 

b 140. 



102.0 
68.0 
81.3 
74.5 

78.8 
71.7 



ie6w6 

09.0 
88.2 
148.0 
135.0 



112.0 
117.7 
136.0 
177.0 
188.0 
182.5 
186.5 
192.0 
147.6 

166.0 
184.0 
178.0 
118.2 
07.0 
50.2 
60.6 
83.3 
6120. 

04.0 
86.0 
73.5 
686.0 
100.6 
100.0 
6 75.0 



165.0 
08.5 
146.7 
140.0 
155.0 
683.0 
130.0 
90.0 

6 75.0 

72.0 
110.0 

6 80.0 

6200.0 

02.0 

6111.0 



152.0 

142.0 

645.0 

680.0 

690.0 

123.0 



152.0 
130.0 
150.0 
150.0 
165.0 
94.0 
148.0 
6104.0 

696.0 

82.0 
120.0 

96.0 
119.0 
6132.0 
lll.O 
109.0 
128.0 
143.0 

04.0 
691.0 

90.0 
146.6 



160.5 
130.0 
155.4 
156.0 
158.6 
128.0 
156.0 
120.4 
113.0 
145.0 
140.0 
135.0 

142.7 
6120.0 
144.4 
6 67.0 
126.0 
133.0 
140.0 
669.8 
97.2 
118.2 
157.6 



385.083,178 
133,177,086 
160,816.147 
527, 720. 008 
61, 239. 850 




6e3,640,881 
21, 009, 806 

5,768,032 
24, 464. 880 
13,538 100 
14,531,993 
14, 199, 800 
28,077.273 

6, 247, 041 

32,218,000 
a 28, 464. 108 
6 13. 512, 300 

20, 080. 524 
a 11, 270. 063 

41,806,925 

12, 157, 712 
1, 306. 515 

03, 375. 840 

a 40, 382. 634 

98, 173, 605 

41,481.465 

640,536,320 

82,306.806 

52. 362. 464 

56.851,414 

8,876,548 

65.671,495 

22,084,542 

31, 526, 875 

2,373.162 

942.411 

67,974,363 

1, 443, 895 

a 1,349, 595 

6, 052, 792 

759.069 

1,753,682 

6, 980. 058 

0. 420, 256 

26, 181, 576 



81.4 
41.5 
40.6 
74.6 

eo.1 



60.8 
63.1 
IB. 4 
04.5 
78.4 
80.5 
87.4 
a 67. 8 
76.3 

6e74.e 
68.7 
85.3 
41.0 
40.7 
23.0 
3L3 
41.8 
41.4 

51.0 

a 46.0 

622.2 

56.8 

a 28.1 

46.1 

28.1 

17.6 

87.8 

a 74. 2 

80.2 

67.1 

671.7 

72.0 

86.0 

63.1 

52.8 

648.3 

63.4 

71.8 

67.5 
40.8 

673.2 
26.2 

a 69. 8 
76.8 
80.6 
55.5 
57.5 
61.1 
81.8 



01.6 



116.8 
67.2 
64.0 
98.5 
01.2 



81.6 
S7.6 
S8.I 
130.6 
133.0 
123.0 
120.4 
a 115. 1 
114.3 

6el0e.7 
106.0 
141.8 
60.3 
61.0 
80.2 
62.6 
66.8 
04.5 

68.0 

a 61. 4 

644.2 

84.1 

a 72. 5 

69.8 

42.6 

42.1 

115.3 
a 95. 4 

114.7 

88.4 

6105.1 

05.0 

100.2 
86.5 
81.8 

664.6 
80.0 
80.1 

02.8 
0L4 

694.4 

67.3 

a 119. 2 

104.5. 

111.8 
72.8 
69.0 
82.5 

107.6 



a In 1892-93. 



6 Approcimately. 



• Inl891-92« 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATE SCHOOL 8Y8T£M8. 15 

Tablk 7. — Xumber and Mar </ i$ a ekt §, Fri^p^tion of male teachers. 



State or Tacrltorj. 



rnited States 

}f ortli Atlantie DirMoa . . 
South AtlantioDivisioB.. 
9oath Central Dhrision . . . 
Koith Central DfyiHion . . . 
Weeten IMTtoton 

Ifferth Atlantie IMTiaiea : 

Maine 

NewHaMpakire 

VermoDt 

HanaetKMCta 

Rhode lalaMi 

Cenneetlca* 

KewYork 

Kew Jeraey 

Pennaylraola 

Scnth Atlantic IMviaion: 

Delaware 

Maryfaaid 

Diatnot of Celnmbia. 

Yirrinia 

Wea* VirglBU 

Korth Carolina 

Seatk Carolina 

Georsi* 

Florila 

Sevtii Central IMrision : 

Kentucky 

Tenneoaeo 

Alabama 

MiMiaoippi 

Lonisiaaa — 

Texan 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

Korth Centnd Dirision : 

Ohio 

Indiana 

nitnote 

Mickigaii 

TVhieonain 

liinnesotn 

Iowa 

Misamiri 

North Dakota 

Sooth Dnkota 

^ INeliraska 

Kansas 

Western DiTfsion : 

Montana 

Wromittg 

Colorado 

liew Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Kwada 

Idaho 

Washington 

OrMfon 

Cal&mia 



Whole number of teachers 
employed. 



Malea. 



124.768 



18,124 
20,4C1 
29. 8» 

M.4e8 
5,825 



al.406 

280 

438 

!,«• 

1» 

•4» 

G,OM 

ft 737 

8.464 

c218 
965 
ll« 
3,028 
8.585 
4,535 
2,141 
4.547 
1,2IH 

<S06 
65, 146 
• 4.168 

8,624 
»].29i 

6,561 

4.267 
323 

10,156 
»6,523 
6.123 
8,479 
2,867 
2.234 
5,261 
5,567 
812 
1,368 
2,368 
4,2Se 

206 

96 

0^706 

324 

687 

470 

42 

801 

1,150 

1,186 

1,268 



females. 



363,239 



77,340 
24.877 
25,729 
121.414 
18,679 



05,925 

2,907 

8,290 

10.706 

1.884 

•8,388 

27,838 

ft4, 131 

17,777 

£022 
3,823 
824 
5,185 
2,530 
3.825 
2,453 
4,496 
1,629 

5,803 
»3.66G 
•2,446 

8.963 
ftl.945 

5.899 

2,019 
504 



14, 

*7, 

16. 

12, 

10, 

8, 

22, 

6, 

1, 

3. 

7. 

7, 



674 

811 

oft 2, 195 

222 

5196 

645 

237 

411 

2,018 

1,976 

4,904 



ToUl. 



388,007 



96.464 
45.338 
55.624 
171.877 
19.764 



7.421 

8.187 

3,728 

11. 714 

1.554 

•3.822 

82,929 

64,868 

26,241 

e840 
4,818 
942 
8,213 
6,115 
8,366 
4.594 
9,038 
2,923 

9,808 
68,812 

6,608 

7.577 
63,244 
12,462 

6,286 
827 

24.904 

613,547 

22,857 

16,196 

12,581 

10,822 

28,063 

14,521 

2,700 

4.816 

9,473 

11,903 



407 
62,895 

546 
6283 
1.115 

279 

712 
8.166 
3,162 
6,267 



Percentage of male teachers. 



41.0 



26.2 
63.8 
67.5 
43.2 
45.0 



• 24.4 
15.0 
16.5 
1X7 

•20.4 

•22.1 

22.9 

82.5 

42,8 

• 29.9 
45.0 

8.2 
«1.5 
79.0 
•73.2 
62.4 
71.4 

• 65.7 

• 66.0 
•75.0 

66.8 
•60.8 

50.9 
•77.3 

• 75.6 



43.2 
66.5 
43.5 
26.3 

• 28.8 
83.7 
39.0 
65.8 

• 24.7 

51.9 
47.2 

• 60.3 

• 28.6 
48.8 

• 01.7 



55.0 
82.4 

• 64.3 

• 46.5 

• 51.7 
40.0 



1879-80. 



42.8 



28.8 
62.5 
67.2 
41.7 
46.3 



• 27.2 
16.8 
16.8 
13.2 
20.2 

•22.8 
26.0 
28.5 
45.5 

•46.6 

42.6 

7.8 

61.8 

75.2 

• 71.3 
59.5 

• 65.2 
61.6 

64.6 
74.4 
63.8 
61.2 
46.1 

• 75.0 
78.4 



47.8 
57.5 
39.7 
29.2 
28.9 
35.0 
33.6 
58.1 

40.8 

40.7 
45.1 

38.5 
44.3 
36.4 
78.0 
47.5 
54.5 
46.7 
57.4 
87.4 
48.3 
88.6 



1880-90. 



34.5 



20.0 
49.1 
57.5 
32.4 
81.1 



• M.0 
9.8 
12.0 
9.8 
12.6 
•13.4 
16.9 
1&4 
34.2 

•31.0 
27.8 
13.0 
41.5 
63.4 
60.1 
49.6 
53.3 
48.0 

49.8 
61.8 
62.9 
49.6 
44.7 
61.1 
68.5 



43.1 
5L1 
82.5 
22.3 
19.8 
23.0 
20.6 
44.4 
28.3 
29.0 
27.1 
40.8 

22.9 
22.4 
26.2 

•62.2 
38.8 
46 6 
16.3 

• 33.4 
40.6 
43.8 
21.4 



1893-94. 



32.2 



19.0 
45.1 
53.7 
29.4 
29.6 



•20.2 

as 

11.7 
8.6 

10.9 
• 11.4 

15.5 
615.1 

82.3 

C26.0 
23.0 
12.9 
86.9 
58.6 
54.2 
46.6 
50.3 
44.3 

45.9 

658.4 

063.1 

47.8 

640.0 

62.7 

67.9 

89.1 

40.8 
648.2 
26.8 
21.5 
18.3 
21.6 
18.8 
38.3 
80.1 
28.4 
25.3 
35.5 

23.4 
23.6 
•624.2 
50.3 
630.7 
42.1 
15.1 
42.3 
36.3 
37.5 
20.2 



o Approximatoly. 



6Ial892-6S. 



c In 1891-92. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



16 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



Table 8. — Teachers^ salaries. 



State or Territory. 



United States a. 



North Atlantic INvisiona . 
South Atlantic Division a . 
South Central Division a . . 
North Ceneral Division a . . 
Western Divisiona 



North Atlantic Division: 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachosetta 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

NewYorkfr 

New Jersey (1892-93). 

Pen nsy Ivania 

South Atlantic Division : 

Delaware (1889-90).... 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. . 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

South Central Division: 

Kentucky 

Tennesseo (1892-93) . . . 

Alabiuna 

Mississippi 

Louisiana (1892-93)... 

Texas (1892-93) 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

North Central Division: 

Ohio 

Indiana (1892-93) 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakote 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western Division: 

Montana. 



Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arisona (1892-93). 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Orejion 

California 



Average 
monthly 
wages of 

male 
teachers. 



$44.76 



54.89 
28.11 
41.01 
45.70 
64.46 



44.81 
49.78 
37.86 
129.41 
101. 19 
85.87 



79.99 
44.16 



36.60 



Increase 

or 
decrease. 



D.. 10.16 



D.. .67 

D.. .80 

I .. 1.24 

D.. .03 

D.. 1.14 



D.. .81 

I .. .95 

I .. 3.80 

D.. 11.82 

I .. 4.90 

D.. .61 



.22 



38.13 



24.60 
23.13 



35.50 



41.26 
33.45 



29.49 
34.60 
66.71 
37.43 



41.98 
46.00 
68.96 
48.56 
e47.80 
46.40 
88.19 
45.94 
44.75 
36.00 
46.74 
43.09 

65.20 
66.70 
72.76 



87.50 
70.00 
101. 24 



51.45 

50.00 

d80.10 



.07 



D.. 
D.. 



.72 
2.46 



2.12 



I .. 



.40 



Average 
monthly 
wages of 

female 
teachers. 



Increase 

or 
decrease. 



$37.48 



37.00 
25.45 
35.24 
87.59 
54.40 



27.56 
27.36 
26.12 
47.91 
60.10 
41.48 



47.73 
83.05 



84.08 



27.14 



21.68 
10.90 



84.00 



34.02 
27.82 



29.75 
31.82 
46.48 
38.47 



I .. 



D. 

n.. 



1.94 
83 



I .. 3.60 
D.. .47 



D.. 



.54 



I .. 1. 
I .. 2.74 



D.. 
D.. 



2.89 



.63 



D.. .82 
D.. 1.11 
D.. 1.35 



87.50 
40.20 
49.35 
35.19 
C33.15 
85.08 
81.60 
42.23 
89.03 
32.00 
89.52 
35.01 

46.95 
49.15 
63.75 



72.50 
44.00 
63.65 



46.08 

39.56 

d65.42 



I ..$0.81 



I .. .14 

D.. .90 

I .. 2.19 

I .. 1.29 

D.. .29 



.16 
.36 
.84 
.22 
.66 
.84 



.01 



.85 



.92 
2.01 



8.15 



l.(» 

'i'28 
.83 

8.67 
.42 
.79 
.93 

2.81 



1.46 
.48 



.78 



D.. .13 



.60 

2.18 

.13 



a These summaries include only the States tabulated below in the tame column. 

b Average of all teachers, $50.88. 

e Does not include cities. 

d Does not include high school teachers. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATE SCHOOL SYSTEMS. 



17 



Table d,—Schoolhou»es and value of school property. 



State or Territorj-. 



United States 

X<nth AUantic Diriaion. 
South AUanUc Division. 
South Central Division . . 
North Central Division.. 
Western Division 

North Atlantic Division : 

Maine 

Kew Hampshire 

Vermont 

Maasachasetts 

Bhode Island 

Conneoticat 

New York 

New Jersey (lfiW-93) 

Pennsylvania 

Sonth Atlantic Division: 

Delaware (1891-92)... 

Maryland 

District of Columbia 

Yirf^nia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

Sonth Central Division : 

Kentaelty 

Tennessee (1892-93) . . 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana (1892-93).. 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

North (Central Division: 

Ohio 

Indiana (1892-93) .... 

Dllnois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Westom Division : 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arixona (1892-93).... 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

Calubmia 



a Number of Bchools. 
ED 94 2 



b Approximately. 



Number 


Value of aU 


of school* 


school 


houses. 


property. 


9 


. 3 


236,529 


$425,024,341 


46,546 


160.423,841 


34,648 


18.299,877 


43,014 


20,786.384 


100,854 


188.908.099 


11,467 


86, 606, 140 


4,320 


8.917,129 


1,998 


3.086.824 


2.208 


1.022,087 


a 7, 833 


632.200,000 


505 


3.864,862 


1.622 


8,042,411 


12.005 


53.026,319 


1.725 


10.374,218 


14,330 


544,890,000 


a 497 


904,426 


a2.330 


63.070.000 


106 


62,738,000 


6.718 


2. 94a 680 


5,302 


3,120,927 


6,657 


1, 150, 148 


3,138 


617.059 


a7,849 


62,290,000 


2,051 


559,637 


8.018 


6,803,511 


6.817 


2.950,004 


'IZ 


61,873,000 


1,629,860 


a2,645 


»832,000 


8,380 


6.128,883 


8.866 


1.769,086 


622 


400,000 


13,064 


89.017.384 


9,737 


16,777,504 


12,516 


34, 716, 434 


7,769 


16,583.399 


6,795 


611,100,000 


6,485 


12 875, 194 


13.519 


15,520,160 


9,840 


17.208,288 


1.770 


1,010,639 


8,432 


8,434,805 


6,593 


8, 570, 887 


9,334 


11. 103. 396 


520 


2,079.362 


257 


396. 914 


1,509 


6.998,937 


482 


6250.000 


133 


419,700 


ae893 


3.189.447 


190 


282,946 


559 


733,211 


1,751 


5,014,396 


1,795 


2. 707, 182 


8,369 


15,534.045 


e In 180 


2-03. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



18 



EDUCATION BEPOBT, 1893-94. 
Table 10.— Private $cho0lB. 



State or Territory. 



TTnited Slates. 



l!I<>rth Ailantio Divieion . 
Soath Atlantic I>ivi«ion.. 
South Central Division. . . 
l^orth Central Diviaion . . . 
Western Division 



Korth Atlantic Division: 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont (1»1. 92) 

Ifaasachnsetta 

Khode Islaml 

Connecticut 

KewYork 

New Jersey (1882-93) .... 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic Division : 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Colombia 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina ( 1891-92) . 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

South Central Division: 

Kentucky a 

Tennessee (18D1 -92) 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas , 

ArliauBas 

Oklahoma 

North Central Division: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

lUiDois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western Division: 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado (1692-93) 

New Mexico 

Arisona 

Utah (1891-92) 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washingtcm 

Or^on 

California > 



Pupils 

attending 

private 

schools. 



1.318,800 



551.300 

84.700 

187.200 

441,000 

54,600 



7,425 
7,857 
06,163 
15.155 
25,965 
178.764 
49.167 



1,894 
26.198 



14. 151 



19,200 
45,428 



19,943 



ToUl public 
and private 
enrollment. 



Per cent 
of pupils 
in private 
schools. 



15.254,777 



3.845.014 
2,066.036 
2.830,995 
5,798,952 
704,780 



125,636 
44,842 
25,292 



34,103 

16,736 

400 

1,888 



839 



3,813 
4.129 



10,934 



2,925 
5,112 
21,779 



73,171 
466,772 

70,826 

162,014 

1,303,762 

296,766 



230,709 
861.566 



450.833 



886,315 
532,^5 



86S,527 



981.574 
513,821 
410,912 



(56,834 

074.241 

47,761 

89.714 



26,559 



80,902 
25,000 



66,382 
7,215 



89,645 

83,053 

265,028 



a Does not include cities. 



Digitized 



byG00gI( 



STATE SCHOOL SYSTEMS. 
Tablk 11. — RecelpU of school moneys. 



19 



State or Territory. 



From per- 
manent 
fontU and 
rents. 



United States 

Korth Atlsntic DiTision . 
Sonth Atlantic Division. 
Soatb Central Diviaion. . 
Korth Central Division. . 
Western Division 

Korih Atlantic Division: 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Yennont 

Maasaohnsetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York (1898-93).. 

New Jersey (1892-90) 

Pennsjlvania 

South Atlantic Division : 

Delaware (1889-90) a. 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. 

Yfa^inia 

"West Virginia 

North (Molina 

South Carolina (1892-93) 

Georgia 

Florida 

Soath Central Division: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee (1802-93). 

Alabama. ........... 

Mississippi 

Louisiana (1892-93).. 

Texas 

Arkanass 

Oklahoma 

North Central Division : 

Ohio 

Indiana (1891-92).... 

niinols 

Michigan (1892-93).. 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa , 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraaka 

Kansss 

Western DiTision : 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Cokrado (1891-92).. 

New Mexico 

Arixona (1892-93).... 

Utah 

Nevsda , 

Idaho 

WasbingUm 

Oregon 

Caliiornia 



$8,486,052 



933, (K)9 

447,436 

1,907,666 

4,451,120 

746,221 



a 90. 000 

14,753 

06,255 

6183,733 

8,517 

168,302 

294,359 

147,660 



W.OOO 

54,911 



43,000 

a42,167 





212,052 

35.306 

144, 818 

124,884 

115.887 

96,640 

46,070 

1,379,361 





246,680 
635,327 
667.061 
311.578 

a 190, 000 
388,200 
233.570 
727,332 
154. 126 
146,220 
396,161 

0354,856 





108.463 



6,573 



96,002 

14.831 

96,904 

162.948 

• 260,000 



From taxation. 



From State 



$33,074,152 



$111,255,258 



12.017,287 
4.408,622 
6. 531, 603 
7,331,267 
2,785,373 



a 456, 003 

86,817 

88,026 



118,199 

254,185 

3.771,667 

2, 251. 700 

4,990,690 

47 6,000 
585,234 

d 465. 262 
887,840 

a 250, 049 
646,543 
449.068 

1,008,752 
100,874 

1.766.140 
1,240.931 
513, 674 
923.500 
275,223 
1. 269. 670 
486,431 
a56,025 

1,877,585 

1,636,548 

1.000,000 

686.117 

a 584. 145 

655,718 



613, 189 

152 867 



123,098 











178.164 

302,596 

11,941 







2.292,672 



From local 
taxea. 



$144,329,410 



40,227,050 
5,026.474 
3, 570. 481 

54, 925. 572 
7, 505. 681 



979,744 

729, 176 

519,920 

9,778,644 

1,022.241 

1, 713. 649 

12,884,903 

1.460,007 

11, 138, 766 

209,000 

1, 335, 126 

465,262 

814, 330 

1,280.135 

13,323 

73,620 

389.702 

445,967 

1,303.996 

(/) 
17141.861 
171,931 
418,769 
764.464 
676.460 
a 91, 000 

9, 589. 391 
2, 872, 173 
12.921,238 
4,589,005 
3,510,056 
3, 241, 502 
6,942,953 
8,886,848 
630,431 
1,006,968 
2, 295, 518 
3.439,489 

560,119 

193,960 

1, 462. 109 

82.136 

40. 375 

458.178 

83,770 

303,641 

1, 179, 617 

744, 397 

2,388,359 



Total from 
taxation. 



From all 

other 
sources. 



52, 244. 337 
9.435.096 
10.102.084 
62.250,839 
10,291.054 



1,435,747 

815,993 

607.946 

9, 778. 6U 

1, 140, 440 

1,967,834 

10,656,570 

3.711,707 

16, 129, 456 

215,000 
1.920,360 

930. 524 
1, 702, 179 
1, 539, 184 

659.866 

522,688 
1,398,454 

546, 841 

3, 072. 136 
1, 240, 931 

655.535 
1.095.431 

693.992 
2, 034, 143 
1.162,891 
a 147, 025 

11,466,976 
4,510.721 

13,921,238 
5.275.122 
4,094,201 
3. 897. 220 
6, 942, 953 
4,500.037 
783,298 
1, 006. 968 
2,418,616 
3,439.489 

560,119 
193,980 

1, 462, 109 
82,136 
227,539 
760,774 
95,711 
303,641 

1, 179. 617 
744.397 

4, 681. 081 



$14,235,930 



Total rev- 
enue, 

excluding 
balance 

on hand 
and pro- 
ceeds of 

bond sales. 



$167,051,392 



5, 804. 003 

548.228 

625.309 

6, 173. 446 

1,084.944 



76.911 

60,963 

24, 461 

5,850 

43.724 

873.592 

2.271,361 

7,820 

2,939,321 



220,264 



29,273 

22,896 

117,213 

14, 141 

64,019 

« 80, 422 



250.839 

9,531 

19. 771 

231,877 

181. 907 

26.231 

a 5. 153 

624.400 
463.607 
546.885 
432, 081 
450, 612 
611,994 
1, 200. 405 
385.905 
63,715 
186,600 
919, 101 
297, 172 

23,049 

4.797 

753. 182 

43,687 

111 

38,780 

1,080 

2,794 

10, 181 

140. 404 

66,929 



58,961.049 
10,430,760 
12. 635. 059 
72.881.403 
12,122.219 



1,562,658 

891.709 

608. G62 

9,968,227 

1.192.711 

2,509.728 

19. 222, 290 

3. 867. 187 

19,068,777 

275.000 
2, 195, 535 

930,524 
1,774.452 
1,604.247 

777,079 

536,829 
1,674,525 

662,569 

8.216.954 
1,616,654 

780,953 
1,211,842 

971.945 
3.595.411 
1, 189. 122 

152, 178 

12, 338, 056 
5. 609. 655 

15, 135, 184 
6.019,681 
4, 734. 813 
4, 897. 414 
8,376,937 
5,613,274 
991,139 
1,339,857 
3, 733, 878 
4,091.517 

583, 168 

198. 777 

2, 323, 754 

125, 823 

234,223 

799.554 

194,703 

820, 766 

1,285,652 

1. 047, 749 

6.007,060 



a Approximstflly. 

h Includes some misceUaneouareceipts. 
9 State appropriation for negro schools. 
d United States appropriation. 



e Includes balance from previous yei^. 

/ Notrelwrted ; a part is included in ♦♦other sources.' 

g Report incomplete. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



20 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



Table 12. — The school revenue compared (1) wiih the adult tnale population {taxpayeH) 
and (f) with the school population. Percentage analysis of the school revenue. 



Stato oi' Territory. 



United SUtes. 



North Atlantic Division. . 
South Atlantic Diyiaion.. 
South Central Diviaion... 
North Central Division... 
Western Division 



North Atlantic Division : 

Maino 

New Hampshiro 

Ytrmont 

Massachusetts 

Rhofie Island 

Connecticut , 

New York (1892-93).... 

New Jersey (1893-93).. 

Pennsylvania 

Sonth Atlantic Division : 

Delaware (1889-90) a... 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. . . 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

Sonth Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

South (Antral Division: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee (1892-93) 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana (1892-93) 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

North Central Division: 

Ohio 

Indiana (1891-92) 

Illinois 

Michigan (1892-93) 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western Division: 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado (1891-92) 

New Mexico 

Arizona (1892-93) 

UUh 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

California .\. 



Average amount raised per tax> 
payer. 



$0.46 



.17 
.21 
.00 
.66 
.53 



«.25 
.12 
.65 

6.26 
.08 
.71 
.16 
.82 


L26 

.19 



.11 

a. 22 





.50 

.32 

.31 

.30 

.32 

.33 

.17 

2.23 





.24 

1.06 

.55 

.49 

a. 87 

.86 

.43 

.95 

1.87 

1.24 

1.20 

a. 95 





.59 

.00 

.22 



4.98 

.33 

.50 

1.17 

a. 50 



I 

CO 



3 



$1.79 



a 2. 32 

.71 

.87 



1.05 

L07 

2.07 

4.83 

3.15 

I .13 
2.07 

d6.24 
2.22 

al.84 

1.78 

1.80 

2.38 

.90 

8.77 
8.02 
L40 
3.15 
1.04 
2.05 
1.75 
a. 74 

1.81 

2.73 

.82 

1.07 

a 1.13 

1.46 



.80 

1.80 



.87 











5.89 

4.75 

.61 







4.44 



$0.04 



$0.78 



.61 
.05 
.06 
.05 
1.01 
.13 



$0.07 



7.95 
7.31 
6.87 
13.86 
10.57 
10.53 
10.54 
8.30 
12.02 

5.78 
7.76 
12.48 
4.44 
8.33 
2.13 
2.15 
3.96 
5.93 

6.87 
3.93 
2.14 
4.13 
3.68 
5.81 
4.29 
2.00 

11.89 
0.35 
12.46 
9.42 
9.14 
10.90 
15.26 
7.30 
12.04 
11.35 
11.35 
10.97 

6.05 
5.03 

12.63 
2.19 
7.74 

12.56 
9.89 
7.86 
6.67 
7.54 
9.70 












$8.32 



12.47 
8.25 
3.02 
10.30 
13.67 



9.84 
10.20 

8.53 
18.00 
12.55 
13.43 
12.66 

9.12 
1L97 

5.79 
0.89 
13.76 
2.08 
5.80 
L28 
L19 
2.41 
4.39 

5.09 
2.62 
1.28 
2.37 
2.42 
3.97 
2.75 
2.05 

11.60 

8.59 
12.37 
10.00 

8.37 
10.89 
13.75 

6.23 
13.51 
11.40 
10.73 

9.32 

10.59 
10.50 
22.98 

2.28 
12.11 
10.14 
20.70 
10.15 
12.87 

9.06 
15.65 



Per cent of the whole reve- 
nue derived from— 



88 

SI 



I 

s 



Percl. Perct 
5.1 19.8 




a 3. 2 

1.7 

9.5 

bl.8 

7 

6.7 

1.5 

3.8 



21.8 

2.5 



2.4 

a 2. 6 





12.7 

5.3 

4.5 

7.7. 

14.8 

8.0 

4.7 

38.4 





2.0 
11.3 
4.4 
5.2 
a 4.0 
7.0 
2.8 
13.0 
15.6 
10.9 
10.6 
a 8. 7 





4.7 



2.8 



50.3 

4.5 

7.5 

15.6 

a 5.2 



a 29. 2 

9.7 

12.6 



0.9 

10.1 

19.6 

58.2 

26.2 

c2.2 
26.7 

d50.0 
50.0 

a 16.1 
83.2 
83.6 
60.2 
15.2 

54.9 
76.8 
65.8 
76.2 
28.3 
35.3 
40.9 
a 36. 8 

15.2 

20.2 

6.6 

11.4 

a 12.3 

13.4 



10.9 

15.4 



3.8 











76.1 

87.8 

6.1 







45.8 



i 

3 



lO 



Peret. 
60.6 



11 



68.2 I 

48.2 

28.3 

75.4 

6L9 



62.7 
8L8 
74.4 
98.1 
85.7 
68.8 
67.0 
37.8 
58.4 

76.0 
60.8 
50.0 
45.9 
79.8 
1.7 
18.7 
23.3 
67.2 

40.6 

(/) 

g 18.2 

^ 14.2 

43.1 

21.8 

56.0 

a 59. 8 

77.7 
51.2 
85.4 
76.2 
74.1 
66.2 
82.9 
69.2 
63.6 
75.2 
6L5 
84.1 

96.0 
97.6 
62.9 
65.3 
2L1 
67.3 
43.0 
94.7 
9L8 
71.0 
47.7 



PtrcL 
8.5 

51 
5.2 
4.9 
8.4 
&9 



4.9 
6.8 
3.5 
.1 
3.7 
14.9 

n.9 

.2 

15.4 



10.0 



1.7 

1.5 

15.1 

2.7 

8.8 

e 12.8 


15.5 
1.2 

i.e 

23.9 

5.0 

2.2 

«3.4 

^6.l 
&8 
8.6 
7.2 
9.6 
12.5 
14.3 
6l9 
5.4 
13.9 
24.6 
7.2 

4.0 

2.4 

32.4 

34.7 



4.9 

.« 

.8 

.7 

13.4 

L3 



a Approximately. 

b Includes some miscellaneous receipts. 
e State appropriation for negro schools, 
d United States appropriation. 



s Includes balance iY^m previous year. 

/Not reported ; a part is included m " other sources.** 

g Report incomplete. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATE SCHOOL SYSTEMS. 



21 



Table 13. — Progress of school sxpenditure. 



State or Territory. 



United States. 



$eo, 107, 612 



Korth AtUnUoDiriBlon. 
South Atlantic Division 
South Central Division . . 
^'ortb Central Division . . 
Western Division 

North Atlantic Division : 

Maine 

New Hampshire..... 

Vermont 

Uassachnsetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticnt 

Now York , 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic Division : 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. 

Tlr^nla 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

Sontti Central Division : 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

North Central Division : 

Ohio 

Indiana 

lUinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North DakoU 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western Division : 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

UUb 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon , 

Califomia 



Total expenditure for common schools. 



1870-71. 



$78,094,«87 



29,7IM,885 
3,781,581 
4,&'>4,834 

28,430,033 
2.244.829 



950,662 

418,545 

499,961 

6,579,363 

461, 160 

1, 496. 981 

9,607,904 

2,302,341 

8,479,918 

153.509 
1,214.729 
373,585 
587.472 
577, 719 
177.498 
275,688 
292.000 
129,431 

61.075,000 
6758,000 
6370.000 
960.000 
531.834 
6650,000 
6520,000 



6,831.035 
2.897,537 
6,666,642 
2,840,740 
1,032,539 
960,558 
8, 260. 190 
1,749,040 

i 6 23.000 

865,520 
904.323 

635,600 

67,000 

67,895 

64.900 



6117,000 

685.000 

19,003 

635,000 

6160,000 

1,713,431 



1879-83. 



$140,506,715 



28,538.058 
5.130,492 
4,872,829 

35,285.635 
4, 267. 673 



1.067,991 
665,339 
446,217 

4.983,900 
626.112 

1,408,375 
10, 296, 977 

1,873.466 

7,369,682 

207,281 
1.544.367 
438,567 
046,109 
707.553 
876,062 
324,629 
471,029 
114,895 

1,069,080 
744, 180 
6500.000 
880.705 
411,858 
61,030,000 
287,056 



7,166,963 
4,491,850 
7,014,092 
2,776,917 
2,177.023 
1,328,429 
4.484,043 
2,675,364 

245,000 

1.108.617 
1,818,337 

78,730 

28.504 

395.227 

28,973 

61, 172 

132,194 

220.245 

38.411 

112.615 

307,031 

2,864,571 



1889-90. 



$170,384,173 



48, 023, 492 
8, 767, 165 
10. 678. 660 
62,823,563 
10.213,815 



1,327,553 

844,833 

711,072 

8,286,062 

884.966 

2,167,014 

17,543,880 

3.840,190 

12,928,422 

6275,000 
1,910,603 

905,777 
1.604,509 
1,198,493 

714.900 

450,936 
1. 190. 354 

516,533 

2,140,678 
1.626,241 
6890,000 
1. 109, 675 
817. 110 
8,178.300 
1,016,776 



10. 602. 238 
6.245.218 

11,645,126 
5,349,366 
8,801.212 
4. 187. 310 
6.382.953 
5,434.262 
626,949 
1, 199, 630 
8. 870. 332 
4, 972, 967 

864,084 

6225,000 

1, 681. 379 

685.000 

181.914 

394,685 

161.481 

169.020 

968,111 

805,979 

5, 187, 162 



1803-94. 



$1.75 



59, 081, 591 
10, 590, 070 
12,965,805 
74, 861. 983 
12. 884, 724 



1, 557. 862 

920,803 

783,805 

9,968.227 

1,478,841 

2,642.628 

19, 308, 571 

a3, 834, 103 

18, 586, 751 

64; 275, 000 
2, 301, 118 

930. 524 
1,825,433 
1,611.642 

783,405 

632, 767 
1,683,006 

647, 175 

3,315,024 
a 1,647, 790 

663,859 
1, 226. 146 
a992,000 
3, 765. 501 
1,244,818 

202,158 

12.524.444 
d5. 609, 655 
15, 807, 450 
6, 978, 366 
4. 801. 390 
5.020,882 
7. 840. 098 
6, 816, 634 
1,081,609 
1,687,918 
4. 165, 087 
4,438,450 

643. 749 

203, 181 

d 1,981, 035 

137,905 

a 216, 779 

963,151 

203,140 

346, 332 

1,525,948 

1,238,111 

5,424,793 



Expended per capitaof 
population. 



1870- 
71. 



$1.56 $2.84 



2.38 

.63 

.73 

2.14 

2.15 



1.51 
1.30 
1.51 
8.73 
2.05 
2.74 
2.17 
2.48 
2.36 

1.21 

1.53 

2.77 

.47 

1.26 

.16 

.38 

.24 

.66 

.80 
.50 
.36 

Lll 
.71 
.74 

1.02 



2.52 
1.70 
2.57 
2.33 
1.70 
2.06 
2.70 
.99 

Jl.29 

2.61 
2.24 

1.C2 

.71 

1.44 

.05 



1.28 

1.93 

1.17 

1.30 

1.66 

2.93 



1879- 
80. 



1889- 
90. 



1.97 

.68 

.65 

2.03 

2.41 



1.65 
1.63 
1.34 
2.80 
1.90 
2.26 
2.03 
1.66 
1.72 

1.41 

1.65 

2.47 

.63 

L14 

.27 

.33 

.31 

.43 

.66 
.48 
.40 
.73 
.44 
.65 
.36 



2.24 
2.27 
2.28 
1.70 
1.65 
1.70 
2.76 
1.23 

L81 

2.45 
1.83 

2.01 
1.37 
2.03 

.24 
1.51 

.92 
3.54 
1.18 
1.50 
1.76 
3.31 



2.76 

.90 

.97 

2.81 

3.37 



2.01 
2.24 
8.14 
8.70 
2.66 
2.89 
2.92 
2.31 
2.46 

1.63 

1.83 

3.93 

.97 

1.57 

.44 

.39 

.65 

1.32 

1.15 
.86 
.69 
.86 
.73 

1.42 
.90 



2.89 
2.89 
3.04 
2.55 
2.25 
3.22 
3.34 
2.03 
(3.43 
f3.66 
8.19 
8.48 

2.76 
3.71 
4.08 
.56 
3.06 
1.90 
8.53 
2.00 
2.74 
2.57 
4.29 



1803- 
94. 



$2.61 



8.17 
1.12 
1.06 
8.10 
8.63 



2.41 
2.87 
2.86 
4.12 
8.80 
8.88 
8.07 
a2.36 
3.20 

6«1.63 

2. a 

3.49 

1.05 

1.90 

.46 

.44 

.86 

1.42 

1.72 

a. 91 

.89 

.88 

a. 84 

1.4S 

1.03 

.82 

3.84 
d2.64 
3.67 
2.68 
2.64 
3.23 
8.88 
2.01 
4.02 
4.21 
8.60 
8.19 

3.31 
2.20 

d4.81 
.70 

a2.85 
3.96 
4.72 
2.97 
3.33 
3.17 
4.02 



a In 180^93. 



6 Estimated. 



e In 1889-90. 



din 1891-92. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



22 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 
Table 14. — The school expenditure clasaified. 



State or Territory. 



United SUtes 

Korth Atlantic Division. 
8oath AUantio Division. 
South Central Division .. 
liorth Central Division .. 
Western Division 

North Atlantic Division: 

Maine 

"New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Bhode Island 

Connocticat 

New York 

NewJeroey (1892-93). 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic Division: 

Delaware (1889-90).a. 

Maryland 

District of Columbia 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

South Central Division : 

Kentucky 

Tennessee (1892-93) . . 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana (1892-93) .. 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

North Central Division : 

Ohio 

Indiana (1891-92) .... 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

MinnesotA 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakoto 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western Division: 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Olorado(1891-02).... 

New Mexico 

Arixona (1892-93) .... 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

Caltfomia 



For sites, 
buildings, 
furniture, li- 
braries, and 
apparatus. 



$29,237,231 



11.396,041 
1. liHK, 351 
1,40«.015 

12,584,193 
2, 683, 731 



169, 08i 
103,691 
105.186 

1,710,495 
431,728 
593,350 

4,139,296 
667,293 

3,396,818 

d 21, 796 

287,082 

96,706 

209,646 

288.770 

53,892 

45,244 

141, 883 

tf20,333 

466,316 

186,801 

tfl8,230 

25,346 

80.342 

324,041 

193.209 

6111,730 

1,618,217 
895,220 

4,231,963 
846,511 
787.630 
753.023 

1, 009, 182 
982,120 
260,042 
184,900 
617,050 
398,335 

155,126 

30.253 

650,562 

16,993 

42, 514 

376, 471 

9,030 

63.485 

874,672 

288.403 

666,313 



For salaries 
of teachers 
and superin- 
tendents. 



$108,520,730 



34,723,843 
8, 128, 153 
10,710,413 
46.746,060 
8, 203. 261 



a 1.112. 807 

622,944 

509,063 

66,836.351 

781,259 

1.548.148 

12, 243. 017 

2. 511. 910 

8,996,344 

225,000 

1,703,140 

051,075 

1,435,703 

075,767 

634,299 

454,847 

1.514,708 

533,524 

2,841,122 
1,340,446 

618,668 
1,074,521 

681,744 
3.028.623 
1,051.009 

682,680 

8.027,250 
3.835,919 
8,958.615 
3.889.083 
3. 159. 622 
2.982,606 
4.957.251 
3,949.124 
510,582 
914, 046 
2.490.751 
3,065,119 

376,583 
139. 970 
985,137 
103.425 
139,993 
510,025 
100.797 
204,041 
752.519 
825.04.-1 
4,005,722 



For other 
purjrases. 



$32,626,212 



12,960,807 

1,295,566 

840,877 

15,531,780 
1,997,732 



255,971 
134.166 
100.556 

1, 921, 381 
265.854 
501,130 

2,926,258 

654,900 

£6,191,580 

26,205 
310.896 
183,743 
179.994 
847,105 
95,214 
32.676 
26,415 
93,318 

7,586 
120,552 
€26.461 
125.279 
229,914 
322,837 

67,748 

2,878.977 

878.516 

2,706,872 

1,242,772 

854.138 

1.285.161 

1,873,665 

885,390 

310.966 

568.072 

1,051.286 

974,996 

112,040 

32.J*62 

336,936 

17,487 

34,272 

76,655 

32,404 

78,806 

398,757 

124,665 

752,758 



Total ex- 
penditure. . 
excluding 
payment 
of bonds. 



$170,384,173 



69. 081, 501 
10.500.070 
12.065,806 
74,861,063 
12.884.724 



1, 557, 862 

920,803 

783,805 

0,068,227 

1. 478, 841 

2.642,628 

10,308,571 

3,834,103 

018,686,751 

275,000 
2,301,118 

090,524 
1,826.433 
1, 6U, 648 

783,406 

532,767 
1,663.006 

•47,175 

8,816,024 
1,617,700 

663,350 
1,225,146 

092,000 
8, 675, 501 
1,244,818 

202,158 

12,524.644 
6,600,656 

15,807,450 
6,978,366 
4,801,300 
6,020,882 
7,840.008 
6,816,634 
1,081,600 
1,687,918 
4.165,087 
4,438,450 

643,749 

263,181 

1,981,635 

137,905 

216, 779 

968,151 

203.140 

846,332 

1, 626. 048 

1,838,111 

6,424,793 



a Includes janitors' services. 
6 Approximately. 



e Includes bonds paid. 

d In city of Wilmington only. 



e Report Sncom^te. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATE SCHOOL SYSTEMS. 



23 



Table 15. — (1) Amount expended per pupil (ba$ed on average attendance); (2) percentage 
analysis of expenditure; {$) average monthly expense of each pupil. 



SUie or Territory 



United SUtes . 



Korth Atlantic DiFiaioi).. 
Sfouth Atlantio DiviBion. . 
South Central Divuion... 
Korth Ceotral Division . . 
Western Division 



Korth Atlantic Division : 

Maino 

Vew Hampshire 

Tennont 

Massachusetts 

Bhode Island 

Conaecticat 

KewYork 

Kew Jersey < 1802-93). 

Pennsylvania 

Sonth Atlantic Division: 

Delaware (1880-90) a. . 

Maryland 

District of Colnnibia . 

VlTRiBia 

West Virginia 

Vorth Carolina 

South Carolina 



Georgia . 
}nua.. 



Florid 
Sooth Central Division : 

Kentucky 

Tennessee (1892-93).. 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Ixmisiana (1892-83)... 

Texas * 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

North Ontral Division: 

Ohio 

Indiana (18«l-tt) 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Miasonri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western Division : 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado (1891-92).... 

New Mexico 

Arizona (1892-93) 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

Calfibmia 



Average expenditure per pupil 
(for the whole school year). 



Fop 
sites, 
bnild- 
ii»g». 

etc. 



$3. IB 



5.10 

.83 
3.51 
a06 



1.74 
.56 

e.lO 
.12 
.75 
.77 

1.16 
»G.60 

2.77 
2.48 
7.49 
2.06 
3.11 
3.60 
3.05 
2.00 
8.05 
3.4a 
3.60 
L58 

9.45 
4.58 

13.76 
1.00 
6.14 
0.45 
1.97 
3.06 
6.42 
4.89 
4.05 



For 



fll.81 



15.55 
6.60 
6.31 
18.06 
18.52 



2.10 


a 12. 35 


3.90 


14.83 


2.62 


14.18 


5.72 


621.18 


11.19 


20.24 


6.40 


16.02 


5.74 


16.98 


4.42 


16.61 


4.47 


11.85 


dl.21 


11. 4G 


2.46 


14.61 


3.05 


20.77 


1.03 


7.04 


2.13 


7.21 


.23 


2.75 


.27 


2.76 


.54 


5.78 


0.32 


8.32 



10.58 
4.05 
3.34 
5.21 
0.35 
7.24 
6.31 

6 4.89 

13.76 
10.64 
15.85 
13.59 
12.47 
14.25 
14.96 
&40 
15.81 
16.80 
14.58 
12.15 

22.93 
21.21 
26.55 
6.00 
20.22 
12.61 
31.86 
12.73 
12.88 
13.99 
24.33 



Fop 
other 

pur- 
poses. 



$3.56 



5.79 
1.05 
.49 
4.34 
4.51 



2.84 
3.19 
2.74 
6.43 
6.90 
5.48 
4.00 
4.33 
(8.15 

1.33 

2.67 

5.86 

.89 

2.57 

.42 

.20 

.10 

L45 

.03 

.36 
«.14 

.61 
2.14 

.78 



6.47 

4.94 
2.44 
4.79 
4.35 
3.37 
6.14 
5.65 
1.89 
9.62 
10.83 
6.15 
3.87 

6.81 
5.00 
7.03 
1.03 
4.95 
1.93 
6.42 
4.92 
6.84 
2.11 
4.57 



Total 
pupil. 



$18.55 



26.44 
8.60 
7.63 
20.91 
29.09 



17.29 
21.92 
19.54 
83.33 
38.33 
28.89 
26.72 
25.36 
C24.47 

13.99 
19.74 
29.68 
&96 
11.91 
3.40 
8.23 
6.42 
10.09 

12.35 
4.97 
3.58 
5.94 
9.24 
8.79 
7.47 

11.96 

21.47 
15.56 
28.13 
20.90 
18.95 
23.09 
23.66 
12.38 
33.48 
81.03 
24.83 
17.60 

39.19 
30.79 
41.34 
8.12 
81.31 
21.19 
40.25 
21.61 
26.14 
20.09 
32.95 



Expenditure 
per pupil 
per month. 



Percentage of total ex- 
penditure devoted to — 



For 
sala- 
ries. 



♦1.70 



1.80 
1.22 
1.26 
1.77 
2.68 



a 2. 03 
2.28 
1.77 

62.42 
2.10 
1.86 
1.81 
1.75 
1.48 

1.38 
1.55 
2.26 
1.18 
1.44 
.88 
.64 
1.04 
1.70 

1.76 
.94 
.92 
.74 
1.21 
1.44 
1.73 
61.27 

1.72 
1.61 
1.82 
1.88 
1.56 
1.81 
1.90 
1.89 
2.64 
3.22 
2.26 
1.94 

3.18 
2.96 
2.74 
1.44 
2.07 
1.68 
4.24 
2.32 
2.52 
2.56 
3.06 



For 
all pur- 
poses. 



$2.67 



8.07 
1.59 
1.53 
2.84 
4.20 



2.80 
3.30 
2.44 
3.80 
3.90 
3.16 
2.85 
2.67 
C3.06 

1.07 
2.10 
3.22 
1.49 
2.38 
1.08 
.76 
1.16 
2.08 

2.06 
1.16 
e.98 
.84 
1.70 
1.76 
2.04 
3.09 

2.68 
2.36 
3.24 
2.88 
2.36 
8.10 
3.00 
2.04 
5.58 
5.96 
3.78 
2.82 

5.42 
4.32 
5.51 
1.92 
3.21 
3.18 
5.36 
3.94 
5.10 
3.86 
4.14 



Sites, 
build- 
ings, 
etc. 



Per et. 

17.2 



19.3 
11.0 
10.8 
16.8 
20.8 



12.1 
17.8 
13.4 
17.2 
29.2 
22.5 
21.4 
17.4 
18.3 

d8.7 
12.5 
10.3 
11.5 
17.9 
6.9 
8.5 
8.4 
«3.1 

14.1 
11.3 
«2.7 
2.1 
8.1 
8.8 
15.5 
6 56.6 

12.9 
16.0 
26.6 
14.2 
16.4 
15.0 
12,9 
16.0 
24.0 
11.0 
14.8 
9.0 

24.1 
14.9 
33.3 
12.3 
19.6 
39.1 
4.9 
18.3 
24.5 
23.3 
12.3 



Sala- 
ries. 



Perct. 
63.7 



58.8 
76.7 
82.7 
62.4 
63.7 



a71.4 
67.7 
72.6 

663.6 
52.8 
58 6 
63.4 
65.5 
48.4 

81.8 
74.0 
70.0 
78.6 
60.5 
81.0 
85.4 
90.0 
82.4 

85.7 
81.3 
93.3 
87.6 
68.7 
82.4 
84.5 
640.0 

64.1 
68.4 
56.4 
65.0 
65.8 
59.4 
63.2 
67.9 
47.2 
54.1 
59.9 
60.1 

68.5 
68.9 
49.7 
75.0 
64.6 
52.9 
79.2 
58.9 
49.3 
66.6 
73.8 



Othep 
pur- 
poses. 



lO 



Perct. 
19.1 



21.9 
12.3 
6.5 
20.8 
15.5 



16.5 
14.5 
14.0 
19.2 
18.0 
1&9 
15.2 
17.1 
C33.3 

9.5 
13.5 
19.7 

D.9 
21.6 
12.1 

e.1 

1.6 
14.5 

.2 

7.4 
e4.0 
10.3 
23.2 

8.8 



63.4 

23.0 
15.0 
17.0 
20.8 
17.8 
25.6 
23.9 
15.2 
28.8 
34.9 
25.3 
21.9 

17.4 
16.2 
17.0 
12.7 
15.8 
&0 
15.9 
22.8 
26.2 
10.1 
13.9 



•ladndes janitors* serviees. 
6 Approximately . 



tflnelndes bonds paid. 

din city of Wilmington only. 



€ Beport incomplete. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



24 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

II.— City School Systems. 

[Seo Part III of this report for the school stAtistics of individaol cities.] 

The most conspicuous of the facts brought out by the following tables 
is the relatively reduced expenditure for city schools during the year 
covered by this report. 

In view of the stringency of the times, this was to be expected. 
Retrenchment has been the rule in all lines, and the schools have been 
no exception. It is rather a matter of congratulation that they have 
fared so well, for in the cities of only a few States has there been an 
actual decrease, and in the country at large the increase in expenditure 
in cities has been 5.92 per cent upon the same basis which shows an 
increase in enrollment of 8.68 per cent and in average attendance of 
10.37 per cent. The total cost of the city schools per capita of average 
attendance has been $30.64 in 1893-94, or a reduction of $1.28 from 
that of 1892-93. 

It is worthy of note that instances have been rare in the cities of 
actual decrease in the salaries paid to individual teachers. Necessary 
retrenchment has been as a rule secured by postponing the erection of 
new buildings, by increasing the number of pupils allotted to each 
teacher, and by curtailing the expense for all incidentals that could be 
spared without serious detriment to the schools. Thus it happens that 
the average amount paid to supervisors and teachers was substantially 
the same in 1893-94 as in 1892-93, being about $614 in both years, and 
that the expense for teaching and supervision has increased in a much 
greater ratio than the total expenditure. 

The States in which there has been an actual falling olf in the total 
amount spent for schools in the cities are Tennessee, Mississippi, 
Arkansas, Wisconsin, Missouri, South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, 
Utah, Washington, and California. In only three of these, namely, 
Tennessee, Arkansas, and Missouri, has there been a similar reduction 
in the amounts p'aid for tuition. 

In the consideration of the statistics of cities the fact should not be 
overlooked that the list of places which are represented in such tables 
is constantly increasing as communities reach the minimum limit of 
population prescribed for classification as " cities." The limit of 8,000 
inhabitants followed by this office is an arbitrary one and differs from 
that recognized by the laws of some of the States. But its adoption 
was based upon reasonable assumptions, and since uniformity of prac- 
tice is, after all, the most essential consideration, and other statistical 
bureaus have adopted the same rule, its use by this office has been 
entirely satisfactory. 

It is impossible to determine accurately every year just what com- 
munities have reached the required numbers, and it necessarily follows 
that the annual revision of the list is attended with perplexities and 
doubts. The collection of school statistics of cities and villages of 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



CITY SCHOOL SYSTEMS. 



25: 



between 4,000 and 8,000 inhabitants was begun for this report, and a 
means is thereby obtained of determining with a fair degree of cer- 
tainty just what additions should be made to the list of cities. Eighty- 
one new communities appeared from their school statistics to be worthy 
of rank among the cities of 8,000 inhabitants, and their statistics were, 
accordingly incorporated in the city table. This number (81) was much 
greater than the number of new cities in the report of 1892-03, and 
in this fact must be found the explanation of the increase in enrollment 
of 8.68 per cent for the last year as against 4.86 per cent for 1892-93. 
These two quantities are not comparable with each other, but are to be 
used only in comparison with other ratios for the same years. 

One of the effects of the infusion of a greater proportion of small 
cities into the list is to be seen in the heavy increase in the number of 
schoolhouses and the smaller average size of each. Small houses are 
necessities for scattered settlements, in order that the schools may be 
sufficiently accessible to the pupils. As the territory fills up the small 
buildings are gradually replaced by larger ones, the small houses being 
demolished or sold; thus it happens that cities of 8,000 inhabitants 
have usually as many schoolhouses as cities three or four times their 
size. 

To the introduction of 81 new small cities, therefore, must be ascribed 
a great part of the increase of 786 in the number of buiklings. Six of 
the new places added to the list in Massachusetts alone have 108 school- 
houses. Nevertheless there are several instances in which larger cities 
have made extensive additions to the number of their buildings. Buf- 
falo, N. Y., reports 21 more than last year and Brooklyn 30 more. 

The increase of 7.58 per cent in the value of school property appears 
anomalous in view of the reduced expenditures for such purposes and 
of the general stagnation in business which has checked the normally 
steady increase in the value of city real estate. The only explanation 
is to be found in the supposition that the increase mentioned is the result 
of the nnusually heavy expenditures for buildings during 1892-93. 

The following notable differences appear in the valuation of school 
property as reported in the years 1892-93 and 1893-94: New York, in- 
crease, $1,485,221; Chicago, increase, $2,143,000; Cincinnati, increase, 
$2,000,000. 

The increase of 480, or 16.58 per cent, in the number of supervising 
officers during the year is remarkable. The following table shows that 
the greater part of the increase comes from a few cities : 



City. 



St Louis, Ho 

Detroit. Mich 

Gnuid Rapids, Kich 

Chicago, lU 

8tPaaI,Minn 

La Crosse, Wis 



Sapervising 


1 


officers 




reported in— 


In- , 




crease. 


1892^. 


1893-04. 




60 


122 


02 


9 


47 


38 ' 


7 


27 


20 1 


210 


238 


28 1 


8 


41 


33 I 


2 


10 


N 




Milwaukee, Wis 30 

Clevelaod, Oliio 13 

Buffailo.N.Y 65 

Philadelphia, Pn 76 

Waterbury, Conn 5^ 

Digit zed by 



Sapervising 

officers 
reported In— 



1892-03. 1893-94. 



45 
48 
132 
86 

inoo<jl( 



In. 



6 
85 

77 
10 
12 



26 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1898-94. 



It is gratifying to note that the average length of the school term for 
all the cities shows au Increase of 1.3 days over last year. For the 
previous three years there had been a steady diminution in this respect, 
and this evidence that the apparent tendency toward an unnecessarily 
short school year has been checked must be regarded as encouraging. 



Table 1. — Summary of ataiisiics of school Sjfstems of cities containing over 8^000 inJiabit- 
antSy shotving increase from previous pear, 

[NoTK — No corroct list of cities of a given x>opalation can be made in otlier than censns yoars. 
The percentages of increase shown below, therefore, are relative only, and are intended to be nsed for 
DO other purpose than comparison with each other.] 



189^93. 



1893-M. 



Increase. 



Per cent 
of in- 
crease. 



BDToUment 

Aggregate days nttendtince of pupils 

AA'erage daily attendance 

Average len|;th (in days) of school term 

Enrollment in private and parochial schools (esti- 
mated) 

Sapervising officers 

Teachers 

Batldings 

Sittings or seata 

Valaeof school property 

Expenditure for teaching and sapervislon 

Expenditure for all purposes, excepting loans and 
bonds 



2.876,866 

3»4, 017, 038 

2,066,850 

100.6 

775,910 

2.894 

68,522 

«,9S7 

2.093,522 

$205,338,077 

$37, 717, 838 

$65,981,388 



a, 126, 659 

437,585,317 

2,281,237 

191.9 

820,250 

8,374 

62,999 

7,743 

2,898,295 

$228,439,384 

$40, 717, 650 

$69,886,413 



249,793 

43, 568, 279 

214,387 

1.3 

44,340 

483 

4,477 

786 

204.773 

$23,101,257 

$2,999,812 

$3,905,025 



a68 
11.06 
10.87 



5.72 
16.58 
7.65 
1L3D 
7.58 
7.58 
7.95 

6.92 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



cm SCHOOL SYSTEMS. 



27 



Tabuc 2. — Summutrifj bpStatts, of enroUmenty aiiendancB, $upervisin(f officers y and teachers 
in cities amtmnim^ oter 8,000 inhabitants, (a) 



CiUe««r— 



Uidtod States . 



north AOantie DirWeii . 
Sonili Atlantto Dirialon . . 
South Contral DtriaioD. 
north Central DivMoa. . . 
Weotera DivisioB 



Horth AtlaBtic Division: 

Jlaine 

New Hampohize 

Vermont 

Maaoachnaotto 

BhodelalaBd 

Coimectieat 

Hew York 

Kew Jersey 

Penaay trania 

Soath Ailantio DiTision : 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Cohnibia. . 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Korth CaroUaa 

South CaroUna 

Georgia 

Florida 

South Central Division: 

Kentacky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Loaisiasa 

Texas 

Arkansaa 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territory 

2forth Central Diviaion: 

Ohio. 



nBDois 

Miekigaa 

WiaeonsiB 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Miasonri 

Korth Dakota. 
South Dakota. 

Nebraska 

TTaimmi^ 

Western Diviaion: 

Montana , 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico . . . 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington.... 

OrMon 

O^ornia 



Num> 
her of 
school 
sys- 
tems. 



6M 



219 
40 
48 

213 
94 



• 

5 

2 

4S 

7 

le 

00 
22 
50 

1 

4 

s 

10 
8 
6 

4 
7 
3 

11 
6 

6 
8 
8 
14 
4 
1 


42 
91 
34 
28 
20 
7 
21 
11 

1 

10 
18 

2 
1 
8 


» 
1 

4 
3 
14 



Enroll- 
ment in 
public 
day 
sckools. 



1,482,504 
224,400 
171,386 

1,060,556 
171.723 



Aggregate 
numb^of 

days' at- 
tenuanceof 

all pupils. 



8,126,650 487,865,317 



280.660,142 
30,078,601 
23,016.27<t 

150, 775. 296 
24,064,813 



21,467 

12,7121 

4,236 

267,650 

43.208 

67,2601 

588,366 

130.738 

355, ik8 

8,700 
74,452 
40.678 
31.784 

8,831 



0,787 
31,581 



47.531 
28,231 
12,818 
5.534 



3,041,819 

1,506,090 

487.107 

40,582,605 

5,132,654 

9.240.229 

83,402,2n 

17, 755, 887 

48, 441, 874 

1,358.582 
9,705.338 
6,727,381 
4,248,841 
1,324.837 



1,440.959 
4.184,663 



6,550.821 
3,887,285 
1,676,639 



Average 
daily 
attend- 
ance. 



2, 281. 237 820, 250 



1,075,938 
160.571 
127.585 
796, 130 
122, 013 



18.! 

8,764 

2.782 

268,177 

26.964 

48,263 

419,430 

88,208 

255,400 

7,188 
49.283 
31.127 
23.430 

7,062 



Enroll- 
ment in 
private 
and pa> 
rocbial 
schools. 



379, 402 
52.060 
48.730 

315,166 
24,881 



4,417 
6,730 
1,850 

49, 078 
9,930 

14,981 
109,167 

36,383 

86,865 



7,786 
23,229' 



20.175 
6,000 
9,246 
1,400 



2.650 





29,865 

7,974 

740 



164.353 
60,006 

200.233 
79,696 
59.800 
48.151 
45,575 
81.720 

1.401 
26,088 
28,515 

4.180 

806 

18,282 





9,928 




12.189 
9,216 
65,153 



Num- 
ber of 
su]>er- 
vising 
ofli- 
cers. 



3,374 4.753 



No. of teachers. 



1, 516-1.964 



190 

173 

1.268 

227 



479 

886 

1.551 

353 



58,246'62,000 



29.706 
4,459 
3.416 

21.020 
3,438 



27,782 
3.980 
3,030 

20,860 
3,085 



38 
17 

7 



210 523 



221 
102 
729 
167 
236 



588 

302 

96 

6,091 

874 

1.456 

610|10. 635|ll, 246 

2,208 

6,815 



03 
121 



72 

633 



6,259 

1.' 

300 



66,950 

24,161 

88,780 

ai,S88 

32,134 

15,580 

12.502 

31,135 



120 

6.072 

6,117 

662 

75 

3,065 







337 

128 

89 

118 

101 

147 



2 

48 

18 




2,060 
1,017 
14,950 




25 
11 
131 



6 

147 

100 

92 

17 



22 
54 



87 
47 



135 
21 
2 




188 

82^ 195 
275 



117 

116 

65 

75 

181 



8 

46 
86 

11 

64 





33 




21 
28 
193 



661 

285 

89 

5,568 
811 

1,335 



2,226 
6,282 

200 
1,387 
796 
467 
196 



152 



506 560 



876 
430 
236 
111 



673 

151 

23 



4,C 

1,512 

5,018 

2,119 

1.564 

1,35b 

1.323 

8,084 



41 

715 

637 

113 
27 

488 



210 



1,687 



lO 



206 
1,5U 
880 
558 
213 



174 



517 
288 
118 



806 

172 

25 



4,448 

1,707 

6.293 

2,236 

1.620 

1,416 

1,398 

2,265 



U 

761 

733 

124 
27 

553 



243 




327 
254 



1.8 



• In the preparation of this table omisaioBs and deficiencies in the returns of individual cities were 
nppUed mm the beat aoorcea available. If no accurate information could be had tn any particular 
MM, an eatlmata booed npoo the ratios developed in the other eities of the aame State was used unless 
itnpsared that the oonoitlons were essentially different in the city for which preeise data were 

naaka fndf eata that tb« nnmber of eitieo which reported the item was not aofflcient to justify an 
Mtimata to supply the defloienoy. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



28 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



Tablk 3. — Summary f by States^ of school property and expenditures in cities containii^ 

over 8,000 inhabitants, (a) 



Cities of— 



Namber 

of build- 

ingB. 



sittiDMfor «rtyii»edfor 



Ezpeodi 

turo for 

flnperviftioD 

and teacli- 

ing. 



Expendi- 
ture for all 
purpoaea 

except 
loans and 

bonds. 



United States. 



NoHb Atlantic Division. 
Soutb Atlantic Division. 
Soiit h Central Division . . 
North Central Di vision. . 
Western Division 



North Atlantic Division : 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massacliusetts 

Rbodo Island 

Connoctiont 

NcwYork 

Now Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic Division: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. . 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina. . . , — 

Georfda 

Florida 

South Central Division : 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territory 

North Central Division: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

IlUnols 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western Division : 

Montana. 



Wyoming.... 

Colorado 

New Mexico. . 

Arizona 

Utoh 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington . 

Oregon 

Callfomia.... 



5 



7,743 



2, 898, 205 



$228,439,384 



$40,717,850 



$00,888,418 



8,883 
401 
430 

2.635 
408 



1,378,385 
209,365 
149,876 

1,014,673 
147,996 



111,843,026 
11,055,115 
9,144,329 
77,961,101 
18,435,763 



19, 293, 607 
2,574,420 
1,050,857 

13,062,787 
2,035,970 



106 

80 

16 

1,126 

185 

235 

804 

231 

810 

27 
129 
100 
69 
24 



25,249 

13,207 

8.190 

271,710 

87,507 

62,188 

534.035 

108,718 

820.581 

10,064 
72,975 
34,610 
28.220 
9,060 



9.150 
28,280 



103 
52 
42 




40,776 
22,624 



126 
30 
13 


498 
240 
508 
296 
224 
147 
211 
246 

10 
123 
132 

25 
5 

77 



51 



37,660 

9,047 

866 



213, 850 
77,166 

256,646 

101, 617 
76.750 
54.050 
58.610 

103,308 



1,672 

32,135 

37,861 



1.000 

25,722 





3,300 





50 

40 

244 




17.856 
10, 148 
82,716 



1, 847, 383 

1, 523, 851 

236,000 

27,373,088 
8,212,830 
5,662,518 

42. 484, 613 
6.223,680 

23,770.044 

622,707 

3, 181, 753 

3,400,000 

983,240 

667.145 



258.154 

172.413 

45.486 

4,303.063 

540.530 

896,342 

7.575.063 

1.864.737 

4, 136, 919 

101, 459 
845.332 
648,575 
271,566 
97,578 



226,150 
1.434,430 



82.624 



2,365.175 

1.238.637 

633.500 

217.500 



597,226 
280.606 
158.094 
45,322 



2.774.567 

618, 150 

3,500 



18, 276, 020 
5.439.085 

10,280.221 
7. 072, 463 
4,847,565 
6.882,474 
4, 462. 700 
6, 760, 373 

255,000 
2,620.000 
2.064,300 

900,000 

134.641 

4, 189, 500 





1,795,478 



471, 049 

100,396 

15,025 



2.864,899 
066.856 

3.972.938 

1. 272. 178 
981.611 

1,001,855 
760,331 

1, 241, 248 



23,230 

482,228 

886,413 

93,660 

22,309 

467,443 





178,303 





2,006,594 

874,414 

8,484,561 





289,718 

212,858 

1,648,839 



33,806,973 
8.643,457 
2,866,737 

25.399.773 
4.660,473 



447,466 

260,087 

87,879 

7,088.415 

1. 190. 867 

1,533.475 

12,723,000 

2,229.877 

7,745,907 

166.080 
1, 176. 192 
936.933 
351.652 
189,832 



113,092 
480.073 



897.039 
407.904 
192.827 
54.823 



756.802 

150,920 

23, M8 



5,097,080 

1,480,663 

8,110.600 

2,121.096 

1,648,874 

1,710,227 

1.395.707 

2,897,278 



44,026 

844,619 

660,103 

200,372 
82,396 

915,367 



484,707 





509.248 

353,661 

2,069,528 



a In the preparation of this table omissions and deficiencies in the returns of individual cities were 
supplied from the beat sources available. If no accurate information could be had in any particular 
case, an estimate based upon the ratios developed in tho other cities of the same State wss used unless 
it appeared that the conditions were essentially different in the city for which precise data were 
lacking. 

Blanks indicate that the number of cities which reported the item was not sufficient to justify an 
estimate to supply the deficiency. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



CITY SCHOOL SYSTEMS. 



29 






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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



30 



EDUCATION BBPOBT, 1893-94. 



Table 5. — OmipariBon of ike $chool enroHnieni of the several ages with the population of 
like ayes m certain diies (slatistics of 1890), 



CitiM. 



Baltimore, Md .. 

Boston, Mass 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

St. Loui8. Mo 

Omaha, Nebr 

Newark. N.J 

Brooklyn, N. Y 

Syracuse. N. Y 

Cincinnati, Ohio... 
Kicbmond, Va 



Total. 



5 years of ago. 



Papils 

in 
school. 



!,020 



3.201 

1.121 

2.494 

715 



Chil- 
dren 
in the 
city. 



9,368 
8,008 
3,528 
0.979 
3,605 
4,109 
17,296 
1.835 
6,074 
l,57d 



Per 
cent in 
school. 



0.9 
25.2 



33.3 
27.3 
14.4 
89.0 



3.7 



63'earaofage. 



Papils 

in 
schooL 



4.484 

4.289 
2,428 
8,0&7 
1^616 
8,116 
7,764 
1,302 
6.757 
441 



ChU- 
dren 
in the 
city. 



0,409 
7,241 
3,350 

10, 015 
3.070 
4.038 

17,034 
1,762 
6,282 
1,571 



a8,542 045,707 18.6 89,254 03.781 61.5 42,403 61,830 68.7 



Per 

cent in 
school. 



47.6 
59.2 
72.6 
80.5 
&2.S 
77.1 
45.6 
74.0 
01.6 
28.1 



7 years of age. 



Pupils 

in 
school. 



5.802 
5.368 
2,254 
8,424 
1,510 
8,127 
0,326 
1,206 
4,516 
898 



Chil- 
dren 
in the 
city.* 



0,164 
7,170 
3,009 
9,503 
2,902 
3,960 
16.277 
l,7iS4 
6,277 
1,676 



Per 
cent in 
schooL 



63.8 
74.8 
73.4 
88.7 
50.5 
78.8 
56.7 
73.5 
71.0 
53.6 



Cities. 



8 years of age. 



Pupils 

in 
■ehool. 



Baltimore, Md 

Boston, Mass 

Minneapolis, Minn 

St. Louis, Mo 

Omaha, Kebr 

Newark, N.J 

Brooklyn, N. Y . . . 
Syracuse, N. Y.... 
Cincinnati, Ohio.. 
Bichmond, Va . . . . 

Total 



6,106 
5,709 
2,231 
7,327 
1,400 
2,046 
9,920 
1,332 
4.565 
1.216 



42,758 



Chil 
dren 
in the 
city. 



8.902 
7,158 
2,728 
9,237 
2,739 
3,719 
15,806 
1,501 
5,832 
1,514 



59,220 



Per 
cent in 
school. 



68.6 
79.7 
81.8 
7a3 
61.1 
79.2 
62.8 
83.8 
78.3 
80.3 



72.2 



years of age. 



Papils 

in 
■chooL 



6,414 
5,777 
2,060 
6,611 
1,287 
2,731 
10,312 
1,310 
4.473 
1,283 



42,487 



Chil- 
dren 
in the 

city. 



?,570 
6,003 
2,584 
8.557 
2,527 
8,527 
14,848 
1,602 
6,732 
1,507 



56.403 



Per 
cent in 
schooL 



77.1 
82.2 
82.2 
70.6 
50.8 
77.4 
60.4 
82.4 
78.0 
80.8 



75.2 



10 years of age. 



Papils 

in 
schooL 



6,403 
6,083 
2,052 
6,007 
1,230 
2,872 
10,742 
1,874 
4,202 
1,460 



42,504 



Chil- 
dren 
in the 
city. 



8,763 
7,361 
2,400 
0,087 
2,646 
8,671 
15, 915 
1,629 
6,028 
1,731 



59,321 



Per 
cent in 
schooL 



73.1 
8L8 
82.4 
67.1 
48.4 
78.2 
67.5 
84.8 
71.1 
84.8 



71.6 



CiUes. 



Baltimore, Md 

Boston, Mass 

Minneap<dis. Minn 

St. Louis, Mo 

Omaha, Nebr 

Newark, N.J 

Brooklyn, N.Y..-. 

Syracuse, N. Y 

CincinnaU, Ohio . . 
Richmond, Va 

Total 



11 years of age. 



Papils 

m 
s<^ool. 



5.443 
5,758 
1,980 
5.696 
1,151 
2,589 
9.857 
1.338 
3,879 
1,365 



39,058 



Chil- 
dren 
in the 
city. 



7,641 
6.647 
2,240 
8,087 
2.089 
3,320 
14,068 
1,536 
5,508 
1,491 



52,627 



Per 
oeoiin 
sehool. 



7L2 
86.6 
88.9 
70.4 
55.1 
78.0 
70.1 
87.1 
70.4 
91.6 



74.2 



12 years of age. 



Papils 

in 
school. 



6,277 
6,754 
1,033 
5,801 
1,145 
2,534 
0,384 
1,314 
8,427 
1,448 



37,517 



Chil- 
dren 
in the 
city. 



8.681 
7,565 
2,480 
0,307 
2,425 
3,540 
15,713 
1,653 
6,008 
1,847 



50,218 



Per 
cent in 
schooL 



60.0 
76.2 
77.0 
66.0 
47.2 
7L7 
50.7 
70.6 
56.7 
73.0 



63.3 



13 years of age. 



Papils 

in 
schooL 



4,130 
5,405 
1,764 
4.214 
084 
1,850 
7,318 
1,203 
2,516 
1,261 



30,645 



ChU- 
dren 
in the 
city. 



7,081 
7,004 
2,881 
8.788 
2.167 
3,240 
13,932 
1«560 
5,653 
1,725 



64.330 



Per 
cent in 
sohooL 



61.7 
77.2 
74.1 
48.0 
45.6 
67.1 
52.6 
76. S 
45.8 
73.1 



56.4 



a Ezclnding Minneaptdis. St. Lonis, and Cincinnati. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



CITT SCHOOL SYSTEMS. 



31 



Table 5. — Ck>mparis<m of the school enrollment of the several ages %eith the population of 
like ages in certain cities {statistics of 1890)^Cont\nued. 



CItfea. 



BaHinoT&Md 

Boston, Mass 

HiDDeapolM, Minji 

St.Loai9.Mo 

Omaha, Kebr 

Kewurk, K.J 

Brooklyn. N.Y.... 

SrracaBe, K. T 

Cincinnati, Ohio... 
BiohnuMid, Va 

Total 



Cities. 



BaItinaT«,Md 

Boston, Mass 

If inBoaitolis, liinn . 

8t.Loais.Mo 

Omaha. Nebr 

Kewark. K.J 

Brooklyn, K.Y 

Syracuse. K.Y 

Ciacinnati, Ohio . . . 
£iehmond,ya 



Total. 



14 years of age. 



PnpiU 

in 
school. 



2,939 
4,323 
1.401 
2,»44 

760 
1,118 
4,823 

994 
1,808 

904 



21.964 



Chil- 
dren 
in tho 
city. 



8.497 
7,676 
2,410 
9,873 
2,826 
3,779 
15,903 
1,747 
6.470 
1,759 



59.940 



Per 
cent in 
school. 



34.6 
56.3 
6L8 
31.4 
32.6 
29.6 
30.3 
56.8 
24.8 
54.8 



36.0 



15 years of age. 



PapUs 

in 
school 



1.603 

3,079 
086 

1,587 
481 
598 

2,459 
687 
782 
709 



12.871 



Chil- 
dren 
in the 
city. 



7.825 
7,220 
2,275 
8,952 
2,148 
8,434 
14,420 
1.608 
5,684 
1.502 



55,158 



Per 
cent in 
school. 



20.5 
42.6 
43.3 
17.7 
22.4 
17.4 
17.0 
36.5 
13.8 
44.5 



10 years of ago. 



Pupils 

in 
schooL 



855 

1,821 

613 

al,853 

268 

304 

1,180 

339 

440 

871 



23.3 66.197 



ChU- 
dren 
in tho 
city. 



8,909 
7,884 
2,608 
9,530 
2,437 
8,794 
16,443 
1,607 
6,195 
1.858 



651,825 



Per 
cent in 
schooL 



9.6 
23.1 
23.4 



11.1 
8.0 
7.2 

19.9 
7.1 

20.0 



12.0 



17 years of age. 



Pupils 

in 
schooL 



340 
954 
403 



136 
137 
476 
172 
245 
193 



63,063 



Chil- 
dren 
in the 
city. 



8,528 
7.587 
2,539 
8.889 
2,322 
3,488 
15,488 
1,741 
5,729 
1,769 



649,201 



Per 
cent in 
schooL 



4.1 
12.6 
15.8 



5.8 
8.9 
3.1 
9.9 
4.3 
10.9 



6.2 



18 years of age. 



Pupils 

in 
schooL 



126 
440 
167 



72 
d94 
192 

80 
103 

50 



« 1,236 



Chil- 
dren 
in the 
city. 



9.523 
8,551 
8,151 
9,997 
2,932 
3,859 
16,804 
1,910 
6,755 
2.008 



951.634 



Per 
cent in 
schooL 



1.3 
6.1 
5.3 



19 years of age. 



2.4 



1.1 
4.2 
1.5 
2.8 



2.4 



Pupils 

in 
schooL 



34 

o215 

90 



24 



/321 



Chil- 
dren 
in tho 
city. 



8.821 
8,609 
3,167 
9,609 
3,112 
3,5U8 
15,385 
1.761 
6,156 
1,774 



/40,176 



Per 
cent in 
school. 



2.8 
".8 



.5 
2.3 

.7 
1.2 



Cities. 



20 years of age. 



PnpiU 

in 
schooL 



ChU. 
dren 
in the 
city. 



Per 
cent in 
schooL 



21 years of ago. 



PupUa 

in 
school. 



Chil- 
dren 
in the 
city. 



Per 
cent in 
schooL 



Baltimore, Md 

Boaton, Maes 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

St. Louis. Mo 

Omaha. Kebr 

Kewark, K.J 

Brooklyn, K.Y.... 

Srracnse, K. Y 

Cfinclnnati, Ohio... 
Richmond, Va 



9,425 
9,897 
3,819 

10,685 
3,843 
3,880 

17.661 
1,933 
6,229 
2.087 



.05 



1.6 
".2' 



g5S 



P5 



.1 

1.2 

.1 

.05 



Total. 



/134 



/44,997 



a 16 years aad over. 
6 Exelading SL Louis. 
€ 19 years and over. 
d 18 yean and over. 



s Exdncling St. Louis and Kewark. 

/ Excluding St. Louis, Kewark, and Boston. 

g 21 years and over. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



32 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



Table 6,—Staii$iical comparison of the sckooU of ike ten largest cities of the United States, 



City. 



KewTork.N.T.... 

Chicago. lU 

PbilaiTelpbia. Pa- 
Brooklyn. N.Y 

St. Louis. Mo 

Boston. Mass 

Baltimore, Md 

San Francisco, Cai. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio.... 



City. 



School census 
taken near- 
est to June, 
1893. 



o o£ 
.•OS 



5-21 
6-21 



5-21 
0-20 
5-15 
6-21 
5-17 
6-21 
6-21 






4M.000 
403,060 



296,000 
102,878 
70. 139 
110.731 
08.390 
85,666 
87,887 



ua-S 

ja 



486.000 
433.700 



296.000 
184,700 
123,200 
119, 100 
92,400 
92,000 
94,400 



g'S.&S 



69,500 
68.694 
41,000 
34.000 
25,000 
11.291 
19,000 
8.973 
17,717 
17,950 



2 



Mi 

1 

a 



227,032 
185,358 



146, 406 
68,839 
74,328 
09.425 
44,319 
38,5.37 
44,002 



n 



^ 



107,634 
139,333 



97.076 
49,591 
57,741 
45,846 
29,718 
30.639 
33,405 



234 

238 

86 

196 

122 

26 

36 

60 

41 

48 



lO 



4,131 

8,655 

2.902 

2.292 

1,412 

1,415 

1,440 

862 

704 

003 



143 

269 

288 

124 

120 

198 

112 

81 

58 

52 



New York. N.T... 

Chicago.Ill 

Philadelphia, Pa.. 

Brooklyn, N. Y 

St. Louis, Mo 

Boston, Mass 

Baltimore, Md 

San Francisco, Cal 
Cincinnati, Ohio... 
Cleveland, Ohio... 



^^ 
IS 

Mo 

«» 9 >k 

o d-d 

I" 



11 



222. 
102, 
130 
108, 
68, 
70. 
08, 
39, 
89, 
45, 



491 
127 
556 
903 
100 
053 
025 
526 
338 
000 



19 



$20,695,854 
13.843.000 
9,801,939 
7,953,230 
3,950.000 
10,000.000 
8,008.253 
5.063.863 
4.000,000 






s 



t 

H 



•o . 

J3 O 



13 



I 



12,956.343 

8, 034, 255 

2,062.625 

1, 895, 102 

733,942 

1,44;, 568 

803,447 

814, 110 

650,681 

034.534 



II: 



3l! 



14 



$5,633,353 
6, 466, 995 
3. 461, 183 
2,686.270 
1,490,908 
2,290,967 
1,121,033 
989.000 
080.027 
1,175,663 



.2a 



;-og 
'§1 



OiO 



ill 

til 



15 



188,668 
179,648 



115.594 
90,861 
87, 578 
30,675 
39.078 
35.746 
32,448 



16 



P.et. 
38.8 
41.4 



39.0 
49.2 
30.5 
25.8 
42.3 
38.9 
34.4 



Proportion 
of aver- 
age at- 
tendance 
to— 




17 



P.cL 
46.9 
42.7 



49.5 
87.3 
60.3 
58.3 
48.0 
4L9 
46.6 



18 



P.et. 
84.5 
82.1 



32.8 
26.8 
46.9 
38.5 
32.2 
83.3 
35.4 



19 



P.eL 
73.9 
75.2 



66.8 
72.6 
77.7 
66.0 
67.0 
79.5 
7&.9 





Avorago 
number 
of pupils 
in attend- 
ance to— 


h 

P 

• « 

i 


y 


Value of school 
property per 
capita of— 


Expense for 
tuition per 
capita of— 


Total ex. 
penditure 
per capit* 
of— 


City. 


1 
1 


^1 




^5 




97 


1-^ 


< 


1 


ilO 


91 


219 


93 


94 


96 

$6.08 
7.00 


98 


99 


NewTork.N.Y 

Chicago.Ill 


40.6 
38.1 


1,172 
518 


1.556 
603 
453 
878 
485 
354 
C07 
488 
678 
805 


1677 
780 
679 
762 
478 
1,000 
548 
883 
808 
667 


$42.60 
30.91 


$123. 50 
99.35 


$17. Co 
22.29 


$n.56 
14.01 


$33.60 
46.41 


PhlladPlphia. Pa 




Brooklyn. N.Y 

St. Louis. Mo 


42.4 
35.1 
40.8 
3L8 
34.5 
40.1 
37.0 


783 
413 
2S2 
410 
367 
528 
642 


26.98 
21.30 
81.18 
25.25 
54.80 
43.48 


8L94 
79.66 
173.20 
65.50 
170. 37 
130 57 


0.40 
3.97 
11.70 
6.75 
8.81 
7 07 


19.54 
14.80 
24.97 
17.52 
27.20 
2L23 
19.00 


9.07 
8.09 
18.60 
9.41 
10.70 
10.65 
12.45 


27.67 
30.07 


Boston, Mass 


89.68 


Baltimore. Md 


24.46 


San Francisco, Cal 

Cincinnati, Ohio 


83.28 
31 99 


Cleveland. Ohio 




6.74 


35.19 












CHAPTER HI. 
STATISTICAL REVIEW OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



More than half the space devoted to detail tables in Part lY of this 
report is surrendered to secondary schools. Of the 8,364 educational 
institutions mentioned by name in the two volumes, 5,946 are schools 
of secondary grade, viz, 3,964 public high schools and 1,982 private high 
schools and academies. In these 5,946 high schools there were 407,919 
students pursuing secondary studies in 1894. In the same schools 
there were 677,933 pupils in elementary grades. In Part IV will bo 
found the two tables giving the statistics of each school in detail. The 
following table is a review of the statistics of public and private high 
schools for the past five years, summarized for each year: 



Tear reported. 



Public. 



I 



Private. 






CD 



Total. 



I 



1 



1890-81 
1881-92 
1883-93 



2,6M 
2,771 
3,035 
2,812 
3,964 



9,120 
8,270 
9.504 
9,480 
12,120 



202,963 
211,596 
239.556 
232,851 
289,274 



1,632 
1,714 
1,650 
1,434 
1,082 



7,209 
6.231 
7,093 
0,261 
8,009 



94,931 
98. 400 

100,739 
96,147 

118,645 



4,158 I 
4,485 ' 
4,585 
4,246 ' 
5,046 I 



16,829 
14.501 
16.057 
15,750 
20,129 



297, 8M 
309, 99e 
840.296 
820,096 
407,919 



The sudden increase from 4,246 secondary schools and 329,098 stu- 
dents in 1893 to 5,946 schools and 407,919 students in 1894 should be 
explained. It was known that several hundreti high schools, both 
public and private, had never reported to this office. Many of these 
were comparatively new schools. Some had grown up out of elementary 
schools and the development of village into city systems, but most of 
them were independent high schools established within the last five 
years. 

For several months during the spring and summer of 1894 the statis- 
tician of the Bureau was busy coUectiug lists of public and private 
ED 94 3 ^ 33 , 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



34 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

secondary schools from all the States. Circular letters were addressed 
to all county and city superintendents of public instruction and to 
the officials of schools already on the lists in this office, asking for infor- 
inatiou concerning new schools. The result was that more than 10,000 
schools, public and private, were reported to this office as high schools, 
including those already known to the Bureau. Blank forms for statis- 
tical information were sent to these schools. More than 2,000 of those 
addressed were never heard from, and it was concluded that most of 
these were elementary schools. Nearly 2,000 of the schools reporting 
were found to be below the secondary grade. Many of these were high 
schools in name, but had no students pursuing high school studies. 
Some had students in only one study which could be classed as second- 
ary and many others were elementary schools, reporting two or three 
or more students in high school studies, but giving no evidence that 
they were organized as secondary schools or making cflforts to reach a 
high school standard. 

After throwing out the rei)orts of all schools whicli should be classed 
as element'ary the result of the investigation was the addition of 1,700 
to the list of secondary schools over the number rei>orting the previ- 
ous year* This was an increase of 1,152 in the number of public high 
schools and 548 added to the number of private high schools. The 
increase in the number of secondary students was 78,821. Of this in- 
crease 56,323 were in the public high schools and 22,498 in the private 
schools and academies. 

In 1893-94 — that is, for the school year beginning in the fall of 1893 
and ending in June, 1894 — the average number of secondary students 
to each high school was 69; in 1892-93 the average number was 77; in 
1891-92 the number was 74; in 1890-91 it was 69; and in 1889-90 the 
average number to a school was 71. The fluctuation in these aver- 
ages is largely due to the manner in which many principals made their 
reports, in many instances elementary pupils being classed as second- 
ary students. The large diflference between the average numbers for 
1892-93 and 1893-94 can be easily explained. There was possibly a 
slight falling off in the attendance in some sections of the country. 
Many of the new schools had fewer students than the average of the 
old schools, but the apparent falUng off is chiefly due to a more rigid 
classification of students. 

It was supposed that the addition of so many new schools to the 
lists would lower the average standing, but such has not been the 
result. The decrease in the average number of secondary students 
accredited to a school has doubtless contributed to raise the standing 
of the average school. It is easily shown that the 6,946 schools report- 
ing in 1894 rank higher than the 4,246 reporting in 1893, when the 
percentages of graduates and the percentages pursuing high school 
studies are compared. The following tables, comparing percentage 
figures for the two years in public and private schools and for the two 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL BEVTEW OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



35 



classes of schools combined, will show that there was decided improve- 
ment in the schools of 1894 over the schools of 1893: 



Percentage of stadenU pursuing certain studiee. 





LaUn. 


Greek. 


French. 


Ger- 
man. 


Alge- 
bra. 


Georo- 
etrj-. 


Trig. 

ODome. 

try. 


Phys- 
ios. 


Chem- 
Utry. 


nia- 

tory. 


1893. 
Public 


43. oe 

39.23 
41.94 

44.78 
40.77 
43.59 


3.40 
8.61 
4.92 

3.33 
9.01 

4.99 


6.02 
18.47 
9.94 

6.81 
18.85 
10.31 


11.92 
15.63 
13 

11.77 
15.25 
12.78 


52.88 
42.75 
49.92 

56.14 
44.37 
52.71 


96 

20.37 
24.86 

27.20 
20.54 
25.25 


2.78 
5.76 
8.61 

2.93 
5.9S 
3.80 


23.27 
19.76 
22.25 

25.29 
20.91 
24.02 


10 
9.94 
9.96 

10.31 
10.82 
10.31 


83.68 


Prirate 


32.46 


Both 


33.46 


18M. 
Public 


86.48 


Private 


34.07 


Both 


85.78 







The above figures show the percentages for 1893 and for 1894 of 
stad^its in each of the ten leading high school studies. The per cent 
studying Latin increased from 43.00 to 44.78 in the public high schools 
and from 39.23 to 40.77 in the private schools^ which was an increase 
from 41.94 to 43.59 for public and private high schools combined. The 
per cent studying algebra increased from 52.88 to 50.14 in the public 
schools and from 42.75 to 44.37 in the private schools, the increase for 
public and private schools combined being from 49.92 in 1893 to 62.71 
in 1894. There was a barely i>ereeptible decrease in the per cent study- 
ing Greek in the public high schools, more than counterbalanced by an 
increase in the private schools. There was the falling off of less than 
<me-quarter of 1 per cent in the percentage of students in German. In 
all the other studies the percentages for 1894 stand considerably higher 
than the corresi>onding figures for 1893. The per cent of graduates 
was also greater in 1894 than the previous year. In the public schools 
the per cent of graduates increased ftom 12.02 in 1893 to 12.90 in 1894, 
and in the private schools the increase was from 8.05 to 9.40. 

It may be interesting to note that the number of pupils in elementary 
studies in the public and private high schools is considerably greater 
than the aggregate number of secondary students in the same schools. 
In 1893-94 the number of elementary pupils in the 5,940 high schools 
was 077,933, or 114 to each school. In 1892-93 there were 501,035 ele- 
mentary pupils in the 4,240 schools, or 118 to each school. 

The line between the real and the so-called high school is each year 
becoming more distinct and the classification of students into elemen- 
tary and secondary is more rigid. The methods of collecting informa- 
tion have been improved, and with the continued growth of high schools 
the statistics of secondary education show better results. Each year 
for twenty-three years the report from this Bureau has contained a 
chapter devoted to secondary schools. A brief survey of the results of 
this work may prove of interest 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



36 • EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



A STATISTICAL REVIEW. 

In 1871 the United States Commissioner of Edacation began to col- 
lect statistics of secondary schools. In the report for that year appears 
a list of 638 private high schools and academies. In these schools 
80,227 students were receiving instmction. This number, doubtless, 
included all the pupils in the schools, those in the elementary branches 
as well as those pursuing secondary studies. The next annual report 
shows a list of 811 schools, with 98,920 students, for 1872. The 1873 
report had a list of 944 schools, with 118,570 students. It is probable 
that in 1874 an attempt was made to exclude from the enumeration at 
least a portion of the elementary pupils, for while the number of schools 
reported for that year had increased to 1,031 the number of students 
was less by 20,000 than the previous year and some hundreds less than 
two years before. The number of students reported in the 1,031 schools 
for 1874 was 98,179. For 1876 the number of schools was 1,143 and the 
number of students 108,235. 

The Bureau began collecting the statistics of city high schools in 
1876. That year the report of the Commissioner of Education showed 
that there were 22,982 secondary students in the public schools of the 
192 cities reporting. From 1876 to 1889 the annual reports contained 
statistics of public high schools in connection with city systems. 
During the same period the reports from private secondary schools 
were published annually. In 1884-85 the number of these schools 
reporting had reached 1,617, with 160,137 students. Two years later 
the number of schools had dropped to 936 and the number of students 
to 101,112. A similar falling off is noticeable also between 1892 and 
1893. The violent fluctuations in the printed statistics of different 
years should not be attributed to rapid increase or decrease in the 
number of schools, but in part to peculiar conditions affecting the col- 
lection of statistics, and in part to changes in the form of inquiry. 
These changes grew out of efforts to arrive at a somewhat precise dis- 
tinction between elementary and secondary school work. Such effortB 
had become necessary both by reason of the great increase in the num- 
ber of high schools and classes, due to the development of the public 
school systems of the Southern and Northwestern States, and also in the 
number of so-called secondary courses of study. From the nature of 
the case the best means of arriving at the facts desired under the new 
conditions could not be immediately determined. The statistics and 
discussions of secondary education for several years indicate the com- 
plications of this problem and the progress made toward its satisfactory 
solution. Considering secondary students without reference to the class 
of institution in which they are found, the increase in the number of 
such students has been quite regular on the whole. So far as actual 
secondary work is concerned, the statistics for the successive years up 
to 1890 are quite as valuable as the reports of the past five years, and 
afford proper bases of comparison with the statistics of later years. 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OP SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



87 



The following table shows the number of secondary schools reporting 
to this office each year f^om 1871 to 1894, and the nainber of high school 
students reported e.ach year: 



Tear reported. 


Pablic. 


Private. 


Totel. 


Schools. 


StndenU. 


Schools. 


Students. 


Schools. 


Stadents. 


1871 ..^ 






638 
811 
944 
1,031 
1,143 
1.229 
1,220 
1,227 
1,230 
1,264 
1,330 
1.482 
1,588 
1,617 
1,440 
036 
1,104 
1,324 
1,632 
1,714 
1,550 
1,434 
1,982 


80,227 

98,929 
118,570 

98,179 
108, 235 
100.647 

98,371 
100, 374 
108,734 
110, 277 
122.617 
138,384 
152.354 
160,137 
151,050 
101, 112 
126, 721 
146.561 

04.031 

98,400 
100,730 

96,147 
118, 045 






1872 










1873 










1874 










1875 










1876 


192 

195 

218 

240 

244 

251 

263 

266 

276 

471 

513 

684 

♦718 

2,526 

2,771 

3,035 

2.812 

3,964 


22,982 

24,925 

28.124 

27,163 

26.609 

36,594 

89,581 

34,072 

35.307 

70,241 

80,004 

116,000 

125,542 

202,963 

211.596 

239,556 

232,951 

230, 274 


1,421 
1,421 
1,445 
1,476 
1,508 
1,587 
1,746 
1,854 
1,893 
1,911 
1,451 
1.848 
2,037 
4,158 
4,485 
4,585 
4,246 
5,946 


120,629 


]g77 


123.296 
128,498 


1878 


1879 


135,897 


1880 


136,886 


1881 


159, 211 


1882-83 


177,965 
187,026 
195,444 


1883-84 


1884-85 


1885-86 


221,291 


1886-87 


181,116 


1887-88 


242,730 


1888-89 


272,103 


1880-90 


297.894 


1800-01 


309,996 


1891-02 


340,295 


1892-93 


829.098 


1803-04 


407,919 







* From 1876 to 1889 the fignres given in the pablic high school column npply to city high schools only. 
From 1800 to 1894 all pablic high schools are incladed. 

Prior to 1889-90 few public high schools outside of the city systems 
had been reached. Meanwhile, in the endeavor to sift out pseudo 
secondary schools, some private schools had been lost that belonged 
proi)erly in the secondary class. But the view of the whole field had 
become clearer, and in 1890 a systematic effort was made to collect 
statistics from the public high schools and classes not reached by the 
city inquiry, and also from private schools not previously reached or 
temporarily lost from the list. The result of the effort was the increase 
in the list from 713 in 1889 to 2,526 in 1890, and the increase of over 
75,000 students rejwrted in the public secondary schools. Of course 
there had been no such actual increase in one year, nor in several 
years. The Bureau had only reached out and gathered statistics from 
a source hitherto overlooked, namely, the independent public high 
schools. 

Since 1890 a uniform system of collecting information has been fol- 
lowed, greatly augmenting the value of the statistics of secondary edu- 
cation compiled for the last five years. Similar schedules of inquiry 
are sent to public and private high schools, and the form of tabulating 
the statistics is the same for each. This facilitates comparison. 

In this chapter will be found the statistical summaries for secondary 
schools for the scholastic year ended June, 1894. The tables give the 
numbers of pablic and private high schools, the numbers of teachers, 
of students, of graduates, and of students pursuing certain studies in 
each State and Territory. There are also tables of percentages and 
comparisons between public and private high schools. Six diagrams 

igitized by VjOO 



38 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 














R 








Q> 


s 




$ 




o> 




r^ 




S5 




55 




0$ 






c^ 




^i 













s 



P4 



a" 



JOD 






I 



9 

S 

t 

5 



I 
s 

p 
I 



11 






I 






1^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OP SECONDARY EDUCATION. 39 

are iusertcd, sbowiug the distribiition of secondary students according 
to the geographical divisions of the country. Diagram 1 serves the 
doable purpose of showing the distribution of students and indicat- 
ing the comparative prominence of public and private high schools in 
each division, as well as in the United States as a whole. Diagram 2 
shows the ratio of male and female students in the secondary schools. 
The four remaining diagrams indicate the relative number of students 
pursuing four leading secondary studies. The six diagrams are easily 
understood when studied in connection with the tables. 

Public Uigh Schools. 

Reports were received from 3,946 public high schools for the year 
ended June, 1894. It will be seen by reference to the second column 
of Table 1 that 1,063 of these schools were in the North Atlantic Divi- 
sion, 294 in the South Atlantic, 389 in the South Central, 2,043 in the 
Korth Central, and 175 in the Western Division. The State reporting 
the largest number of public high schools was Ohio. That State had 
402, a greater number than could be found in either the South Atlantic, 
South Central, or Western Division. New York came next, with 297, 
and Illinois next, with 272. 

The number of teachers instructing the 289,274 secondary students 
in the 3,904 public high schools was 12,120. More than half of these 
teachers, or 6,382, were women. In the North Atlantic Division there 
were 3,899 instructors of secondary students — 1,589 men and 2,310 
women. In all the other divisions the proportions of male and female 
teachers are more nearly equal, the male teachers predominating in 
the South Atlantic and Western divisions. The female teachers in the 
North Atlantic Division are 59.25 per cent of the teaching force in the 
public high schools of that section, and this preponderance increases 
the i)er cent of female teachers for the United States to 52.66. 

A comparison of the first and fourth columns of Table 1 will show 
that the average number of teachers to each school was 3.1 for the 
whole country, 3.7 for the North Atlantic Division, 2.8 for the South 
Atlantic, 2.5 for the South Central, 2.9 for the North Central, and 3.3 
for the Western Division. In Table 19 is shown the average number 
of teachers to each school in each State and Territory. There are 
marked differences between the averages of different States. Ohio, 
with 402 schools, has 1,040 teachers, or 2.6 to each school, while New 
York, with only 297 schools, has 1,161 teachers, or 3.9 to each school. 
Table 19 also shows the average number of secondary students to each 
school in each State and the average number to each teacher, as well as 
the projwrtion of male and female teachers. Another column of the 
same table gives the average number of elementary pupils to each 
school. 

The distribution of secondary students is shown in columns 5, 6, and 
7 of Table 1. Of the 289,274 secondary students in the^^ublic. high 

igitizedbyCjOOgle 



40 



EDUCATION REPOBT, 1893-94. 




■i 
•§ 







8 a 






In 




b3Q 



II 









il 



^M 



J3 

s 

I 

3 

g. 



"a 

I 
1 

-a 






WT 



■ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OP SECONDARY EDUCATION. 41 

Rcliools of the Unitetl States, 117,202, or 40.45 per cent, were male^, 
and 172,072, or 59.55 per cent, were females. This proportion practi- 
cally holds good in each of the five divisions, though individual States 
vary considerably from these percentages. The largest percentage of 
male students for any State is 47.39, in Mississippi, if wo omit Wyoming 
and New Mexico, where the number of schools is very small. The 
largest jiercentage of female students was 65.68, in Louisiana. The 
second and third columns of Table 6 show these proportions for each 
State. 

The number of c9lored students included with the 289,274 secondary 
students was 4,107. Of these 774 were in the North Atlantic Division, 
983 in the South Atlantic, 841 in the South Central, 1,554 in the North 
Central, and 40 in the Western Division. Columns 8, 9, and 10 show 
the distribution of these colored students among the States. 

The number of elementary pupils in the 3,964 public high schools of 
the United States is much larger than the number of secondary stu- 
dents in the same schools. There were 583,329 of these elementary 
pupils— 282,702 males and 300,627 females. Tims, while the number of 
secondary students to each school was 73, the number of pupils below 
the secondary or high school grades was 147 to each school. The aver- 
age number of elementary pupils to each public high school in the 
North Atlantic Division was 122, in the South Atlantic 111, in the 
South Central 181, in the North Central 156, and in the Western 
Division 182. Compare these averages with the average number of 
secondary students in each school as shown in Table 19. Compare 
columns 2 and 4 by divisions and by States. 

The principal of each public high school was asked to report the 
number of students preparing for the college classical course and the 
number preparing for a scientific course in college or technical school. 
When summarized, these reports show that 22,774 students were pre- 
paring for the college classical course and 18,606 were preparing for a 
college scientific course. These figures are not considered important, 
from the fact that the questions were differently understood by differ- 
ent principals. Many gave the number of students pursuing courses 
in the directions indicated; others reported only students who had 
declared their purpose of studying for college; others failed to answer 
the questions for the reason that they did not know the number of 
students preparing for college. The summaries by States of the two 
classes of college preparatory students are given in the first six col- 
umns of Table 2, and the corresponding percentages will be found in 
Table 6. 

The 3,964 public high schools sent out 37,328 graduates in the spring 
or summer of 1894, or an average of 9.4 to each school. The number 
was 12.9 per cent of the number of secondary students. The distri- 
bution of these graduates by States can be seen from columns 7, 8, 
and 9 of Table 2. The average number of graduates to each school in 

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42 



EDUCATION EEPORT, 1898-94. 




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STATISTICAL REVIEW OP SECONDAEY EDUCATION. 48 

tlie Xortli Atlantic Division was 12.4, in the South Atlantic (}.5j in the 
South Central 4.5, in the i^orth Central 9.1, and in the Western Divi- 
sion 10.8. Compare these averages with the average number of stu- 
dents in each school as shown in Table 19. 

Of the 37,328 graduates 13,233 were males and 24,095, or G4.55 per 
cent, were females. The per cent of female graduates, G4.55, is consid- 
erably greater than the per cent of female students, 59.55. Not only 
does the number of female students exceed the number of male stu- 
dents in every State in the Union, but the number of female graduates 
is very much larger in each State. Fewer boys enter the public high 
schools and fewer still complete the course of study. 

The last column of Table 2 gives the number of students in the 
graduating classes of 1894 who had been preparing for college. The 
number was 9,966, or 26.70 per cent of the number graduating. There 
were 4,797 male college preparatory students among the graduates, 
and 5,169, or 51.88 per cent, females. It will thus be seen that a larger 
number of boys than girls, in proi)ortion to the number graduating, are 
college preparatory students. Of the number of male graduates, 36.25 
per cent were preparing for college, while only 21.45 per cent of the 
girls intended to go beyond the public high school course. The pre- 
ponderance of male college preparatory students in the gradnating 
class is very great in all the States of the North Atlantic Division and 
is noticeable in many of the Southern and Western States. A study 
of the last six columns of Table 2, in connection with the correspond- 
ing percentage columns of Table G will prove interesting. 

STUDENTS AND STUDIES. 

High school principals were requested to report the number of stu- 
dents pursuing each of the ten leading secondary studies, Latin, Greek, 
French, German, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, physics, chemistry, 
and general history. The rex>orts from the 3,964 public high schools are 
summarized in Tables 3, 4, and 5. These three tables, giving the num- 
ber of students in each study in each State and Territory, should be 
examined in connection with Table 6, which gives the corresponding 
{percentages. These tables are also illustrated by diagrams 3, 4, 5, and 6. 

Latin, — The number of students pursuing Latin was 129,524, or 44.78 
I)er cent of the whole number. The per cent of male students studying 
Latin was 44.40, and the per cent of female students 44.45 per cent. 
The South Atlantic Division shows the highest percentage of Latin 
students, 63.68; the South Central comes next, with 51.74 j the Western 
next, with 44.25; the North Atlantic next, with 43.53, and the North 
Central last, with 42.25 per cent. The State reporting the highest per 
cent of students in Latin was North Carolina, with 84.80. Next in 
order come North Dakota, Delaware, Alabama, Maryland, and Georgia, 
all showing percentages above 65. 

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44 



EDUCATION EEPOBT, 1893-94. 













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STATISTICAL REVIEW OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 45 

Oreek. — Only 9,633 high school students studied Greek. This was 
only 3.33 per cent of the whole number. The per cent of male students 
pursuing Greek was 4.95, and the per cent of female students 2.23. In 
the North Atlantic Division C.70 per cent of the students pursued this 
study, 3.81 per cent in the South Atlantic, 2.85 in the Western, 1.70 in 
the South Central, and 1.32 per cent in the North Central. In eleven 
of the Western States not a single student was reported as pursuing 
Greek. Maine shows the largest per cent of students in this language, 
13.47, Rhode Island following with 11.64 per cent. In no other State 
does the rate reach 10 per cent. The only State outside of New Eng- 
land reaching even 6 i>er cent is Georgia, with a percentage of 7.25. 

French. — The number of students in French was 19,702, or 6.81 per 
cent of the whole. Of this number 6,683 were males and 13,019 females. 
The per cent of male students pursuing French was 5.74 and the per 
cent of female students studying the language was 7.56. As in the 
case of Greek, the North Atlantic Division leads, with the largest per- 
centage, 14.40. The South Atlantic follows, with 8.56 per cent; the 
Western with 4.34 j the South Central with 4.09, and the North Central 
Division is last, with 2.19 per cent of students in French. The single 
State showing the largest per cent of students in this language is Lou- 
isiana, with 67.27 per cent. Massachusetts is next, with 34.04 per 
cent, followed by Bhode Island with 24.36, and New Hampshire with 
22.01. Eleven States and Territories had no students in French. 

German. — The German language was studied by 34,056 students in 
the public high schools, or 11.77 per cent of the whole number. Of 
these, 12,665 were males and 21,391 were females. The i)er cent of 
males studying the language was 10.80 and the per cent of females 
12.43. In the North Atlantic Division 13.01 per cent of the students 
studied German, in the South Atlantic 12.55, in the Western 12.17, in 
the North Central 12, and in the South Central only 3.82 per cent 
The largest x>6rcentage, 33.55, was in Maryland. New Jersey came 
next, with 30.53, the District of Columbia next, with 30.14, and Colorado 
next, with 27.59. Oregon had 20.92 per cent of her students in German, 
and Wisconsin had 20.02. All the other States fell below the last 
figure, and seven States did not rex>ort a single student studying the 
language. 

Algebra.— The high school study claiming the highest number of stu- 
dents was algebra. Of the total, 289,274, there were 162,386, or 56.14 per 
cent of the whole. The number of males pursuing this branch was 
67,553, or 57.64 per cent of the total number of male students. The 
number of female students in algebra was 94,833, or 55.11 per cent. 
The Southern schools seem to be strong in mathematical studies. In 
the South Central Division 70.02 per cent of the students were pursuing 
the study of algebra, and in the South Atlantic the per cent was 64.96. 
In the Western Division the per cent was 63.24, in the North Central 
55.39, and in the North Atlantic only 51.37. It may be claimed that 

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46. 



EDUCATION BEPOBT, 1893-94. 




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STATISTICAL REVIEW OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 47 

in many of the New England schools algebra is begun in the grammar 
school and is dropped a year sooner in the high school than is the case 
in most Sonthern schools. 

Geometry, — In the whole country 78,680 public high school students 
received instruction in geometry. This was 27.20 per cent of the whole 
number. Of these, 31,368 were males and 47,312 females. The per cent of 
males studying this branch of mathematics was 26.76 and the per cent 
of females 27.49. The Western Division shows the largest percentage, 
34.60. The South Atlantic shows 33.59 per cent, the South Central 
33.19, the North Atlantic 26.37, and the North Central Division 25.27 
per cent. In Maryland 71.94 per cent of the students studied geometry 
and in Louisiana 41.71. California shows a per cent of 40.87 and Texas 
40.40. As in the case of the study of algebra, most of the States of the 
two Northern divisions show smaller percentages of students in geom- 
etry than do the Southern and Western States. 

Trigonometry, — Comparatively few public high schools include trig- 
onometry in the course of study. Only 8,464 students studied this 
branch, or 2.93 per cent of the whole. Of these, 4,036 were males and 
4,428 females. The i)er cent of males studying trigonometry was 3.44 and 
the per cent of females 2.57. Again it is noted that the two Southern 
divisions take the lead in a mathematical study. In the South Central 
the per cent is 7.48, in the South Atlantic 6.48, in the Western 2.63, 
in the North Central 2.33, and in the North Atlantic Division 2.20. In 
Kentucky the i)er cent of students studying trigonometry is 14.99, in 
Maryland it is 10.40, in Georgia 10.39, and in Alabama 10.24. It may be 
said that most students who take trigonometry in the high school have 
in view a short course in surveying or civil engineering. Very few of 
them are college preparatory students. 

Physics. — Of the 73,162 students studying physics 30,433 were males 
and 42,729 were females. It is seen that 26.96 per cent of the males 
and 24.81 i)er cent of the females in the schools pursued this branch 
of study. The per cent, of the total number was 25.29, the largest 
relative number being in the Southern States. In the South Central 
Division 34.20 per cent of the students pursued the study of physics, 
in the South Atlantic 30.75 per cent, in the Western 28.82, in the North 
Central 23.93, and in the North Atlantic Division 23.76 per cent. 
Nevada, with only eight schools reported, had 66 per cent of the stu- 
dents in physics, Maryland had 58.94, Mississippi 39.83, and Texas 
38.79. This again indicates the practical trend of the courses of study 
in mo^t of the schools of the South and West. 

Chemistry. — ^The total number studying chemistry was 29,819, or 10.31 
per cent of the whole. Of the males 10.02 per cent, or 11,744, and of 
the females 10.50 per cent, or 18,075, were studying chemistry. The 
Western Division now takes the lead with 16.17 per cent of the high 
school students of that section studying chemistry. The South Central 
Division had 11.57 per cent, the North Atlantic 11.54, the North Cen- 

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48 



EDUCATION BEPOBT, 1893-94. 






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STATISTICAL REVIEW OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 49 

tral 9.05, and the Soath Atlantic 7.39 per cent. Kevada shows 32 per 
cent, Louisiana 20.11, California 18.41, and Colorado 18.40. 

Oeiieral history. — The importance of historical study is admitted in 
all the States, as shown by the large percentage of students in all parts 
of the country pursuing this branch. In the public high schools 105,521, 
or 36.48 per cent, were reported as studying history other than that of 
the United States. The i)er cent of males in this study, compared with 
the total number of male students, was 36.08, and the per cent of 
females 36.74. In the Western Division the per cent of the whole num- 
ber is 57.55, in the South Atlantic 51.68, in the South Central 41.50, 
in the North Atlantic 35.48, and the North Central Division 32.28. In 
Louisiana the i>er cent of students studying general history was 81.71, 
in Nevada 70, and in Colorado 69.11. 

Diagrams 3, 4, 5, and 6 illustrate the proportions of students in four 
representative studies in the five geographical divisions and in the 
United States as a whole. Latin, algebra, physics, and general history; 
representing studies in language, mathematics, natural science, and his- 
tory, are taken for illustration. 

EQUIPMENT AND INCOME. 

It is an easy matter for a school officer to rei)ort the number of teach- 
ers, students, graduates, and the number pursuing certain studies; but 
it is more difficult to answer questions relating to the income and equip- 
ment of the institution. Very few can give more than an estimate of 
the value of school buildings and grounds, and not all are willing to 
state the exact amounts of money received from tuition and other 
sources. For these reasons the figures shown in Table 8 should be 
taken as summaries of estimates. 

The aggregate value of buildings and grounds of the public high 
schools reporting this item is $64,638,091. This would give an average 
value for each institution reporting of $21,596. The value of the build- 
ings and grounds belonging to public high schools in the North Atlantic 
Division amounts to $21,604,054, or $28,130 for each of the 768 schools 
reporting; in the South Atlantic the aggregate value is $1,624,165, or 
$7,519 for each of the 216 schools reporting; in the South Central the 
aggregate is $3,802,910, or $11,665 for each school reporting; in the 
North Central the aggregate is $32,912,042, or $21,180 for each school 
reporting; in the Western Division the aggregate value for all report- 
ing on this item is $4,694,920, or $36,395 for each of the 129 schools. 

The aggregate amount of State and municipal aid received by the 
public high schools is shown to be $8,488,181. This figure is too small, 
for the reason that many principals found it impossible to give even an 
estimate of the amount received from this source. This is especially 
true of high schools in the cities where no separate account is kept of 
the funds exi>ended for elementary and secondary grades of the city 
system. Of the 3,964 schools 1,582 failed to report this item. 

^ ^ * Digitized by GoOglC 



50 EDUCll^N BEPOBT, IW^^&i. 

The Bchedale sent out from this Bureau to seoosdaiy sctioids called 
for the amount of State or muuiciixal aid, the amount derived from 
tuition, and the income from all sources. It was found when the work 
of tabulaticm began that the e^m of the first two items did Jiot in all 
cases equal the third, although in many oases it was stated that there 
wexe other sources of income. For this reason it was ibund necessary 
to correct many of the schedules by inserting <<from other sources and 
unclassified'' sums large enough to make the financial statements bal- 
ance. These necessary estimates force the <^ other source and unclas- 
sified ^ aggregate up to $2,956,989. It is piob^le that a large proi>ortion 
of this amount more properly belongs in the column of << State and 
municipal aid,'' «nd possibly put ^f it should have been reported as 
tuition fees. 

The aggregate incone of the public high seho<ds from all sources was 
#12,274,057. As this item was reported by only 3,109 of the 3,964 
schools, the average £or each sdKKd reporting was $3,947. If it may be 
assumed that the 855 schools not reporting the amount &t their income 
each received this average sum the grand aggregi^ may be shown to 
be $15,045,908. 

The amount of income reported for the public high schools of the 
North Atlantic Division was $3,561,686, or $4,491 for each school report- 
ing; in the South Atlantic the amount was $525,020, or $2,253 to each 
school r^>orting9 in the South Central the amount was $961,526, or 
$2,870 to each; in the North Central the amount was $6,206484, or 
$3,842 to each^ in the Western Division it was $1,019,641, or $7,666 to 
each school reporting. 

Only 2,972 schools are reported as having libraries. It is fair to 
assume that nearly all the schools failing to report on this item were 
without libraries. The aggregate number of volumes reported was 
1,572,690, or 529 volumes to each school reporting. The public high 
schools of the Korth Atlantic Division had 637,056 volumes in their 
libraries, or 742 to each; in the South Atlantic 46,610 volumes were 
rei)orted,or 405 to each school reporting; in the South Central the 
number was 55,575, or 332 to.each school; in the Korth Central there 
were 783,507 volumes, or 466 to each school; in the Western Division 
49,942 volumes were reported, or 326 to each school reporting. 

Peivate High Schools. 

The statistics of yni vote high schools and academies are saaunarized 
in Tables 9 to 18. The statistics ci each of the 1^982 scho(dsr^)orting 
will be found in the detail tables in the last part of this r^)ort. The 
items taliulated correspond to the items tabulated for publk; high 
schools. The tables of summaries 1 to 8 for public high schools are 
similar to Tables 9 to 16 for private high schools, and may be compared 
item by item and State by State. 



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STATISTICAL KEVJEW OF SECONBAEY EDUCATION. 51 

The private high sdiools are more evenly distributed over the country 
than is the case with public secondary schools. Of the 1,082 private 
schools 662 are in the !N'orth Atlantic Division, 40G in the South 
Atlantic, 435 in the South Central, 354 in the North Central, and 125 
in the Western Division. New York reported the largest number, 201; 
Pennsylvania comes nert with 139, North Carolina follows with 111, 
and Tennessee reports 161. The other States had fewer than 100 each. 

The number of teachers instructing the 118,645 secondary students 
in the 1,982 private high schools was 8,007. More than half of these 
teachers — 4,272, or 53.36 per cent — were women. The male teachers 
numbered 3,735, or 46.64 i)er cent. The preponderance of female 
teachers is shown in each of the five geographical divisions, but is 
more marked in the North Atlantic Division. In the North Atlantic 
there were 3,429 teachers — 1,84W) (or 53.66 per cent) women, and 1,589 
(or 46.34 i)er cent) men. In the South Atlantic there were 670 female 
teachers, or 53.82 per cent, and 575 male teachers, or 46.18 per cent. 
In the South Central the 712 female teachers constitute<l 53.61 per 
cent, and the 616 male teachers 46.39 per cent. In the North Central 
there were 797 female teachers, or 52.20 per cent, and 730 male teachers, 
or 47.80 per cent. In the Western Division the numbers were 253 and 
225, or 52«93 per cent females to 47.07 per cent males. 

The average number of teachers to each of the 1,982 private high 
schools was 4, or about one more than the average for the public high 
schools. The average number of teachers to each school in the North 
Atlantic Division was 5.2, in the South Atlantic 3.1, in the South 
Central 3.1, in the North Central 4*3, and in the Western Division 3.8, 
A column in Table 19 shows the average number of teachers in each 
private high school for each State and Territory. 

DISTRIBUTION OF STUDENTS. 

The distribution of secondary students in the 1,982 private schools 
is shown in columns 5, 6, and 7 of Table 9. Of the 118,645 secondary 
students 59,786, or 50.39 per cent, were males, and 58,859, or 49.61 per 
cent, were females. This is a more nearly equal division than was 
noticed in the number of male and female students in the public high 
schools, where the female students included about 60 per cent of the 
whole number. In the North Atlantic Division the proportion of male 
to female students was 52.04 to 47.96, in the South Atlantic 50.45 to 
49.55, in the South Central 47.76 to 52.24, in the North Central 51.68 
to 48.32, and in the Western Division 43.75 to 56.25. The largest per- 
centage of male students in the private high schools in any State 
was 67.40 for Wisconsin, The second and third columns of Table 14 
give these proi)ortions for each State. 

The number of colored students included in the 118,645 secondary 
students in private high schools was only 3,782. Of these 1,620 are 
females and 1,162 are males. Only 94 were reported from the North 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



52 EDUCATION BEPORT, .1893-94. 

k ." •.*. 

Atlantic Division, 96 from tlie Nortli Central, and 3 from tbe Western 

Division. These were colored students in white schools. In the 

South Atlantic 1,030 were reported, and in the South Central 959, all 

in schools for the colored race. The distribution of colored secondary 

students by States is shown in columns 8, 9, and 10 of Table 9. 

The number of elementary pupils in the 1,982 private high schools 
was 94,604. Here the girls predominate, the nulhber being 51,345, as 
against 43,259 boys. In the Forth Atlantic Division there were 12,098 
males and 12,151 females, while in the other divisions the proportion of 
female students in the elementary grades was much larger. 

In the case of public high schools it was seen that the number of 
elementary pupils was much larger than the number of secondary 
students, there being 73 secondary and 147 elementary to each school 
on an average. In the private high schools the proportion of second- 
ary students is much larger than the elementary. There were 60 
secondary students and 48 elementary pupils to each school. Table 19 
shows the average number of elementary pupils to the school in each 
State, as well as the average number of secondary students. 

The first six columns of Table 10 show the number of secondary 
students in the private high schools preparing for college. There 
were 30,736, or 25.91 per cent of the whole number. The per cent pre- 
paring for the college classical course was 16.36 and the per cent 
preparing for a college scientific course was 9.55. Combining columns 
4 and 5 of Table 14 it will be seen that 29.62 per cent of the secondary 
students in the private schools of the Forth Atlantic Division were 
preparing for college, 26.79 per cent in the South Atlantic, 23.70 in the 
South Central, 21.09 in the North Central, and 23.90 per cent in the 
Western Division. In all the divisions save the Western larger num- 
bers were preparing for the college classical course, but in the latter 
section the college scientific preparatory students exceed the classical 
preparatory in number. 

The number graduating from the private high schools in the class of 
1894 was 11,151, an average of 5.0 to each school. Of the number 
gi-aduating 5,940 were males and 6,211 females. The number gradua- 
ting was 9.4 percent of the whole number of secondary students. The 
distribution of these graduates by States can be seen from columns 7, 
8, and 9 of Table 10. The average number of graduates to each pri- 
vate high school in the United States was 5.6. The average number 
for the Forth Atlantic Division was 7.8, for the South Atlantic 3.6, for 
the South Central 3.7, for the Forth Central 0.0^ and for the Western 
Division, 4.6. 

Of the 11,151 graduates from the private high schools 5,022, or 45.04 
per cent, were college preparatory students — 3,410 males and 1,612 
females. The last columns of Table 10 will show the number of male 
and female college preparatory students in the class of 1894 in each 
State and division. In Table 14 will be found the per cent of graduates 



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STATISTICAL REVIEW OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 63 

in each State prepared for college. In tbe Korth Atlantic Division 
60.36 percent were college preparatory graduates; in the South Atlan- 
tic, 43.08 per cent; in the South Central, 38.64 per cent; in the North 
Central, 39.80 per cent; in the Western Division, 39.93 per cent. 

STUDENTS AND STUDIES. 

Tables 11, 12, and 13 show the number of students in the private high 
schools in each State pursuing each of the ten principal secondary 
studies, and Table 15 gives the percentages correspondin g. These tables 
are also illustrated by diagrams 3, 4, 5, and 6, placing the number of 
students pursuing certain studies in the private high schools in contrast 
with the number in the same studies in the public high schools. 

Latin. — ^The number of students pursuing Latin was 48,374, or 40.77 
per cent of the whole number. In the case of public high schools 
the per cent was 44.78. The South Atlantic Division shows the high- 
est per cent of private secondary students studying Latin, 47.44. The 
North Atlantic is next with 44.67 per cent, the South Central has 36.23 
per cent, the North Central 35.12, and the Western Division, 31.38. 

OreeJc. — In the private high schools 10,720 students, or 9.04 per 
cent, studied Greek, while only 3.33 per cent in the public high schools 
included this language in their course of study. It is noticed that 
more than half of the students in Greek, or 6,660, were in the North 
Atlantic Division. It is also significant that 8,914 of the total number 
were males and only 1,806 were female students. 

French, — ^The number studying French was 22,370, nearly two-thirds 
of this number, or 14,898, being female students. The number study- 
ing French was 18.85 per cent of the whole. More than half, or 12,854, 
of the students in this language were in the North Atlantic Division, 
where 20.03 per cent studied French. The percentage for the South 
Atlantic was 18.39, for the South Central 9.21, for the North Central 
11.07, and for the Western Division 15.80. 

German. — In the study of the German language the male students 
take the lead in numbers. Of the 18,096 students in German 9,455 
were males and 8,641 females. As in the case of French, more than 
one-half of the students in German, or 9,135, were in the North Atlan- 
tic Division. Of the remainder, 4,958 were in the North Central Divi- 
sion. For the whole country 15.25 per cent of the private secondary 
students studied German. In Wisconsin the per cent was 46.02. 

Algebra. — Of the total number of secondary students in the private 
high schools 52,637, or 44.37 per cent, studied algebra — 28,487 males 
and 24,150 females. As in the public high schools, this branch claims 
a greater number of students than any other study, but in the case of 
the private schools the per cent, 44.37, falls far below the per cent in 
algebra in the public schools — 56.14. In the private schools of the two 
Southern divisions, as was true of the public schools, the per cent 
studying algebra was much greater than the per cent in this study 



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54 EDUCATION REPOET, 1898-9i. 

iu the other divisions of the ooun^y* In the South Atlaxitic the per 
cent was 51.99, in the South Central 50.64, in the North Oentaral 40.97, 
in the North Atlantic 40.17, and iai the Western Division 38.36 per eent. 
In the District of Columbia 73.85 per cent of the private secondary 
students included algebra in the course of study in 1893-94. 

Oeometry, — The number studying geometry was 24,374, or 20.54 per 
cent of the whole. Of this number 14,275 were males and 10,099 were 
females. There is not a wide variation of percentages for the five divi- 
sions, but the individual States show percentages varying from 3.01 to 
38.46. In many schools geometry is taken up in the last year of the 
course, in many instances in the last half of the final year. 

Trigonometry. — ^This branch of mathematics was pursued by 7,030 stu- 
dents — 4,441 males and 2,595 females. The percentage for the United 
States was 5.93. For the South Central Division it was 7.76 per cent, for 
the ISorth Central 6.99, for the South Atlantic 5.05, fw the North 
Atlantic 4.95, and for the Western Division 4.78 per cent. In Indiana 
the rate was 13.53, in New Jersey 10.52, and in Michigan 10.44. 

Physics. — The number of students pursuing physics, 24,812, was 20.91 
per cent of the whole, almost equally divided as to sex in the aggre- 
gate. For the five divisions there was considerable variation in the 
percentages. In glancing down the column of States wide differences 
will be noted. In Florida 34.14 per cent of the private secondary 
students studied physics, while in Vermont the per cent was only 
12.65. For the North Atlantic Division the per cent studying physics 
was 19.71 and in the South Central 24.57. 

Chemistry. — ^Of the 12,241 students in chemistry, 6,216 were males 
and 6,025 females. The per cent to the whole number of private sec- 
ondary students was 10.32, the &Ye divisions showing but small varia- 
tion from this rate. As in the case of physics the same wide difference 
is observed between individual States. 

General /M«<ory.— Measured by the number of students in each study, 
general history occupies the third place in importance in the private 
high schools, algebra and Latin claiming larger numbers of students. 
Of the 118,645 private secondary students, 40,418 were studying gen- 
eral history— 18,228 males and 22,190 females. The per cent was 34.07 
for the United States, 36.62 for the South Atlantic Division, 36.52 for 
the North Atlantic, 35.90 for the Western, 31.13 for the North Central, 
and 29.98 per cent for the South Central Division. In Maryland the 
rate was 61.22 and in the District of Columbia 54.91. 

EQUIPMENT AND INCOME. 

About 63 per cent of the private high schools had libraries in 1894. 
Of the 1^982 only 1,242 reported the number of volumes. In the libra- 
ries reported there were 1,420,336 volumes, or an average of 1,144 vol- 
umes to each school librtury. Iji the North Atlantic Division 68 i>er 
cent of the schools had libraries and an average of 1,545 volumes to 



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STATISTICAL REVIEW OP 6EC01JDABY EDUCATION. 65 

«deh. In tiie South Athuitic 45 per cent of the schools reported libra- 
ries, the arerage being 932 volumes to each. The per cent of schools 
having libraries in the South Central was nearly GO, with 613 volumes 
to each. In the North Central 74 per cent of tho private high schools 
possessed libraries, the average b^ng 1,179 volumes to each. For the 
Westa-n Division the x>er cent was 72 of the number of schools, and 
the average number for those reporting was 097 volumes. In the 63 
school libraries reported firom Massachusetts th^e were 111,114 vol- 
nmes, or 1,732 volumes to each. The 140 schools rejwrting libraries in 
the sState of New York have 381,161 volumes, or 1,583 to each. Seven 
schools in the District of Columbia report 30,780 volumes, an average 
of 4,397 to each. 

Only 1,463 of the private secondary schools reported the value of 
buildings and grounds. These reported a total valuation of $49,495,897. 
This would be an average of $33,831 to each school reporting. In the 
North Atlantic Division the average value of each was $60,415, in the 
South Atlwtic $15,546, in the South Central $14,179, in the North 
Central $35,718, and in the Western Division $40,329 to each school 
reporting. 

Only 308 schools reported having received State or municipal aid. 
The total amount thus reported was only $172,163. 

Of the 1,982 schools, 1,259 reported the amounts received iix>m tuition 
fees, tho aggregate for the United States reaching $5,500,918. The 
income from ^^all sources" reported by 1,416 schools aggregated 
$8,204,352. This is larger than the sum of State aid and tuition fees, 
for the reason that many of the schools reported only total income. 
This made it necessary to insert a column induding it^ns ^^frorn other 
sources and unclassified," This cohuan includes the sum of $2,531,271. 
A small per cent of this perhaps belongs to the State aid column, a 
obtain per cent was derived from benefacdous, but tho larger pro- 
portion embraces receipts from tuition fees not separately reported. 
The average total income for each school reporting was $5,794. The 
average for t^e schools of the North Atlantic Division was $10,515, for 
the South Atlantic $2,836, for the South Central $2,505, for the North 
Central $5^474, and for the Western Division $5,787 to each school 
rep<Mrtiflg. 

BENOMINATIONAL SCHOOLS. 

Forty^three per cent of the private secondary schools were reported as 
doBominational schools. That is, 852 of these schools were controlled 
<nr partially snpporied by a rdigious denomination and 1,130 were non- 
sectarian. 

The 1,130 noDsectarian schools had 4,309 teachers and 06,050 students 
in secondary studies. The 852 deuominatioiual schools had 3,098 
teadk«*s and 52,595 secondary students. These flgurse can be verified 
by refcTMce to Tables 17 and 18. 



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56 EDUCATION REPOET, 1893-94. 

The Baptist denomiuatiou controlled 93 schools with 433 teachers 
aiul 7,320 studeuts; the Congregational, 56 schools with 190 teachers 
and 2,757 pupils^ the Episcopal, 112 schools with 579 teachers and 
5,402 students; the Friends, 54 schools with 236 teachers and 3,444 
students; the Lutheran, 31 schools with 130 teachers and 1,805 stu- 
dents; the K^ortheru Methodist, 57 schools with 322 teachers and 5,781 
students; the Southern Methodist, 50 schools with 201 teachers and 
4,333 students; the Presbyterian, 97 schools with 338 teachers and 
4,889 students; the Roman Catholic, 254 schools with 1,062 teachers 
and 13,127 students. All other denominations controlled 48 schools 
with 207 teachers and 3,727 students. 

Tables 17 and 18 show in what States these denominational schools 
are found. It may be remarked that no single denomination con- 
trolled secondary schools in every State and Territory of the Union. 

Public and Private High Schools Compared. 

To emphasize the points of similarity and contrast between public 
and private high schools Table 20 has been prepared. This table will 
show for the United States and for each of the five geographical divi- 
sions separately, for public high schools, for private high schools, and 
for both in combination, the number of schools, number of teachers of 
secondary students, and number of students in secondary studies. 
These totals are followed by the average number of teachers to a 
school, average number of secondary students to a school, average 
number of secondary students to a teacher, average number of gradu- 
ates to a school, and average number of elementary pupils to a school. 
All the columns from 11 to 33, inclusive, show percentages. There are 
shown the percentages of male and female teachers, male and female 
secondary students, male and female graduates, and male and female 
college preparatory students in graduating class. There are also shown 
the percentages of college preparatory students, both classical and 
scientific, to the total number of secondary students; also the percent- 
ages of students pursuing each of the ten leading high school studies. 

The average number of teachers to the public high school was 3.1, 
while the average number to the private high school was 4, as will be 
seen by reference to column 6. The next column shows-the number of 
secondary pupils to a public school to be 73 and to a private school only 
60. This gives 24 students to a teacher in the public and 15 to a teacher 
in the private school, as shown in column 8. It is probable that in most 
private high schools the teachers of secondary students were also teach- 
ers of the elementary students, while in the public high schools, where 
the work of each teacher is more strictly confined to certain grades, 
fewer high school teachers are called upon to instruct elementary 
pupils. 

A glance down columns 6, 7, and 8 will reveal the fact that the dis- 
proportion between the number of teachers to the public and to the 



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STATISTICAL REVIEW OF SECONDABY EDUCATION. 67 

private school is about the same in each geographical division. The 
North Atlantic Division had the greatest number of teachers to the 
school — 3.7 to the public and 5.2 to the private school. The number of 
secondary pupils to a teacher in the public schools varied from 22 in 
the two Southern divisions to 24 in the two Northern and 25 in the 
Western Division, In the private schools the number of students to a 
teacher was 13 in the North Atlantic and Western divisions, 16 in 
the South Atlantic and North Central, and 18 in the South Central 
Division, 

The number of secondary students to a public school was 89 and to 
a private school 67 in the North Atlantic Division. The Western Divi- 
sion is next with 84 and 49, the North Central with 69 and 68, the South 
Atlantic with 60 and 49, and the South Central with 54 and 56, the 
latter division being the only one in which the average number of 
private secondary students was greater than the number of public 
secondary students to a school. 

The average number of graduates to a school hi 1894 is shown in 
column 9. The number was 9.4 to each public school and 5.6 to each 
private school. This column should be compared with column 18, 
which shows the per cent of graduates to the number of secondary 
students. Not only does each division turn out a larger number of 
graduates from each public high school, but also a larger percentage 
of graduates to the number of secondary students than from the pri- 
vate high schools. 

The average number of elementary pupils to a school is shown in 
column 10. For public schools the number was 147 to a school, or double 
the average number of secondary students. For private high schools 
the number to a school was 48, or only four-fifths as great as the 
average number of secondary students. The averages for the several 
divisions show wide variations, the smallest average for public schools 
being 111 in the South Atlantic, and the highest 182 in the Weste)*n 
Division; the smallest average for the private schools being 37 in the 
North Atlantic and the highest 70 in the Western Division. 

The remaining columns of the table, 11 to 33, deal with percentages. 
Columns 11 and 12 show the percentages of male and female teachers. 
In both public and private high schools in each of the divisions, with 
two exceptions, the number of women who were instructing students 
exceed the number of male teachers. In the public schools of the 
South Central only 46.26 per cent were women, and in the Western 
Division the female teachers were only about 48 per cent of the whole. 
In the North Atlantic Division they were 59.25 per cent for the public 
schools and 53.66 per cent for the private schools. In the private schools 
of each division the force of female teachers was larger than the male 
force by 2 to 4 per cent. 

In columns 13 and 14 will be found the percentages showing the 
proportion of male and female secondary students. In the public 



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58 EDUCATION EEPOBT, l«»3-94. 

schools the per cent was 40.45 for males and 5d«55 for females, while in 
the private schools the divisioi^ was more nearly equal, being 50.39 for 
males and 40.61 for females. In the five geographical divisions the 
proportion of male and female students was about as 40 to C0« In the 
private schools of the North Atlantic Division the per cent of males 
was 52.04, in the South Atlantic 50.45, in the South Central 47.76, in the 
North Central 51.68, and in the Western Division 43.75. 

The next three columns, 15, 16, and 17, show the proportions of sec- 
ondary students reported as preparing for college courses, classical or 
scientific. The \yer cent of public secondary students preparing for 
college was 14.30, divided between classical and scientific students in the 
proportion of 7.87 to 6.43. The per cent of private secondary students 
preparing for college was 25.01. The per cent of classical students was 
16.36, and of scientific stud^its dJ>5. The per cent of college prepara- 
tory students, combining public and private schools, was largest in the 
South Central Division, 23.37, the per cent of public and private 
school college preparatory students being about the same. While the 
South Central has a larger i)ercentage of college preparatory students 
in the public high schools than has any other division, the North 
Atlantic, South Atlantic, and Western divisions had larger percentages 
in the private schools. The North Atlantic has 29.62 per cent of the 
private secondary students preparing for college — ^18.25 per icent classi- 
cal and 11.37 i>er cent scientific students. The South Atlantic shows 
the highest per cent of classical students in the private high schools, 
19.36 i>er cent, while the South Central had the highest per cent of 
classical iireparatory students in the public high scho(ds, 14.36 i>er cent 

In the public high schools of the North Central Division and in both 
public and private high schools of the Western Division the scientific 
college preparatory stad^its outnumber the classical preparatory stu- 
dents. In all other instances, as shown in the table, the classical 
students are preponderant. 

Column 18 shows the per cent of graduates to the whole number of 
secondary students. In the public high schools the graduating classes 
of 1894 composed 12.90 per cent of the totaL In the private secondary 
schools the per cent of graduates was 9.40. In all the divisions the 
public high schools show the highest percentages of graduates. 

In column 19 is shown the per cent of college preparatory students 
in the graduating class of 1894 to the number of graduates. In the 
public high schools 26.70 per cent had prepared for college, and in the 
private high schools 45.04 per cent In all the divisions the private 
high schools lead the public schools in large percentages of college 
preparatory graduates. In the North Atlantic 50.36 per cent of the 
private high school graduates had prepared for college and only 21.63 
per cent of the public high school graduates. In the Western Division 
the per cent of college preparatory students amoog the graduates waa 
34.39 for the public high schools and 39.93 for the private secondary 
schools. 

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STATISTICAL KEVIfiW OF SECONDAKY EDUCATION. 59 

Tbe fact should not be forgotten that the students in the pubhc high 
schools numbered nearly two and one-half times as many as the num- 
ber in the private high schools, and that the former turned out 37,328 
graduates in 1894 to 11,151 by the latter, and that among the public 
high school graduates were 0,966 college preparatory students and 
5,022 among the private high school graduates. 

The x>er cent of male and female graduates can be seen by inspecting 
columns 20 and 21. In the public 'high schools the per cent of male 
graduates was 35.45 and of female graduates 64.55. It is thus shown 
that a larger proportion of girls than of boys complete the high school 
course, for it is seen in columns 12 and 14 that the proportion of male 
and female students is about as 40 to 60. In the two Southern divisions 
the per cent of female graduates in the public schools was nearly 69. 

In the private high schools the males comprised 53.27 per cent of the 
graduates. In these schools there was almost an equal number of 
males and females. Only in the South Central Division did the per 
cent of female graduates exceed the males. There the per cent was 
55.45. In the North Atlantic Division the per cent of male graduates 
in the private schools was 56.72. 

A study of columns 22 and 23 will prove the fact that a larger pro- 
portion of young women than young men fail to go beyond the high 
school. While the female graduates are nearly 60 per cent of the whole 
number, the proportion of college preimratory students for male gradu- 
ates is nearly 55 per cent. In the public high schools the proportion is 
about 48 males to 52 females, and in the private high schools 68 males 
to 32 females. In the Korth Atlantic Division the proportion of male 
college preparatory graduates was even greater, being 57 per cent in 
the public hi^ schools and nearly 76 i>er cent in the private high 
schools. In the North Central and the two Southern divisions more 
than half the college preparatory graduates from the public high schools 
were females, but the proportion is much smaller than the proportion 
of girls graduating. In the Western Division more than 52 per cent of 
the college preparatory graduates were males for the public schools 
and 71 per cent for the private high schools. In all the divisions the 
male college preparatory graduates in the private high schools far exceed 
in number the female graduates prepared for college. 

The remainder of the table, columns 24 to 33, shows the per cent of 
students pursuing each of the ten leading high school studies. In the 
public high schools of the United States about 45 per cent of the stu- 
dents pursued Latin and in the private high schools only 41 per cent. 
In the NorUi Atlantic Division the per cent was 43.53 for the public 
schools and 44.67 for the private schools. In the South Atlantic 03.68 
I>er cent of the public high school students studied Latin and 47.44 per 
cent of the private secondary students. In the South Central the per 
centwas 51.74 for the public and 36.22 for the private schools. In the 
North Central the perc^iti^pes for the public and private schools were 
42.25 and 35.12, and in the Western Division 44.25 and Sh^S. 

igitized by ' 



60 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

Greek was studied by only 3.33 per cent of the students in the public 
high schools and 9.04 per cent in the private high schools of the United 
States. The corresponding rates for the North Atlantic Division were 
6.70 and 12.78. 

In the public high schools of the United States 6.81 per cent of the 
students studied French and 18.85 per cent in the private schools. For 
the North Atlantic Division the corresponding percentages were 14.40 
and 29.03. In the South Atlantic the per cent for the public high schools 
was 8.56 and for the private high schools 18.39. 

German was studied by 11.77 per cent of the students in public high 
schools, 15.25 per cent in private high schools, the North Atlantic and 
North Central divisions showing the highest percentages for this study 
for public and private schools combined. 

Algebra is the leading secondary study in both public and private 
high schools in each of the five geographical divisions, the only excep- 
tion being in the private high schools of the North Atlantic. For the 
whole country 56.14 per cent of the students in the public high schools 
and 44.37 per cent in the private high schools study algebra. As 
already noted in this chapter, the two Southern divisions lead in math- 
ematical studies. In the South Atlantic the percentages for algebra 
in the public and private high schools were 64.96 and 51.99, and in the 
South Central 70.02 and 50.64. In the North Atlantic the correspond- 
ing percentages were 51.37 and 40.17, in the North Central 55.39 and 
40.97, and in the Western Division 63.24 and 38.36. 

Geometry had less than half the number of students claimed by 
algebra. For the United States the per cent in the public schools was 
27.20 and in the private schools 20.54. In all the divisions the per- 
centage was highest in the public high schools, being above 33 per cent 
in the two Southern divisions and nearly 35 per cent in the Western 
Division. 

Trigonometry claims a i>ercentage of 2.93 in the public high schools 
and 5.93 in the private schools. In this study the two Southern divi- 
sions again lead, the private high schools of the South Central showing 
a percentage of 7.76. 

Physics is the only science study in many secondary schools. It was 
pursued by 25.29 per cent of the students in the public high schools 
and 20.91 per cent in the private schools. In this study the South 
Central Division leads with 34.20 per cent in the public and 24.57 in 
the private schools. 

Chemistry is studied by about 10 per cent of the high school students 
in the United States, the Western Division leading with 14.68 per cent, 
16.17 per cent in the public high schools and 11.11 per cent in the 
private schools. 

General history follows algebra and Latin in importance as a high 
school study, claiming 35.78 per cent of the whole number of students, 
36.48 per cent in the public and 34.07 in the private schools. The West- 



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STATISTICAL EEVIEW OP SECONDAEY EDUCATION. 61 

em Divisiou bad 57.55 per cent of its public bigb school students in 
this study and 35.90 per cent of its private secondary students. Tbe 
corresponding figures for tbe South Atlantic were 51.68 and 30.62, for 
tbe South Central 41.50 and 29.98, for tbe North Atlantic 35.48 and 
36.52, and for the North Central 32.28 and 31.13. 

Diagrams 3, 4, 5, and 6 are graphic comparisons of tbe number of 
students in the United States and in the five geographical divisions 
studying Latin, algebra, physics, and general history, public and pri- 
vate secondary schools being represented in contrast on the same page, 

PUBLIC AND PBIVATE SECONDABY STUDENTS. 

The distribution of secondary students in high schools, without ref- 
erence to the classification of public and private, is shown in Tables 21, 
22, 23, and 24. These tables deal with numbers and percentages 
arranged in parallel columns. The first column of Table 21 gives the 
number o£ high schools in each State, and the second column the num- 
ber of secondary students in these schools. The third column gives 
the iiuanber of male students and the fourth column their per cent to 
the whole number, while the fifth column shows the number of female 
students and the sixth their per cent to the total. The seventh column 
gives the number of students preparing for the college classical course 
and the eighth column their per cent to the whole number of students. 
The first column of Table 22 shows the number of students preparing 
for a college scientific course and the next column their per cent. The 
third column gives the total number preparing for a college course, 
whether classical or scientific, and the next column shows the per cent 
to the whole number of students in the schools. As will be seen, col- 
umn 3 of Table 22 is obtained by combining the seventh column of Table 
21 and the first column of Table 22. In the fifth column of Table 22 
will be found the number of students graduating in the classes of 1894 
and in the next column their per cent to the total. In column 7 of 
Table 22 is given the number of college preparatory students in the 
class that graduated in 1894 and the next column shows their per cent 
to the total number of graduates. Tables 23 and 24 show the number 
of students in each of the ten high-school studies and the per cent in 
each to the total number of secondary students. 

For greater convenience reference may be made to Table 20, which 
gives, by divisions, the total numbers of secondary schools, teachers, 
and students, as well as the numbers for x^ublic and private schools 
separately. In that table the average number of teachers to a school 
is shown to be 3.4, the average number of students to a school 69, the 
number of students to a teacher 20, the number of graduates to a 
school 8.2, and the average number of elementary jiupils to a school 
114. These averages are for the United States. The averages for each 
of the five geographical divisions are given in the same table. 



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62 EDUCATIOH REPORT, 18W-94. 

From Table 21 it will be seen that of the 407,919 secondary stadents, 
176,988, or 43.39 i^er cent, are males, and 230,931, or 56.61 per cent, 
are females. The male students exceed the female students in number 
only in Kew Hampshire, Few Jersey, Indian Territory, and Utah. 

In the high schools of the United States there were 72,116 secondary 
students preparing for college, or 17.67 per cent of the whole — 10.34 per 
cent for a classical course and 7.33 per cent for a scientific course. The 
State showing the largest i>er cent of classical preparatory students 
was North Carolina, with 20.77 per cent, and the State having the 
highest per cent of scientific preparatory students was Minnesota, with 
17.03 per cent. Arkansas shows the highest i>er cent of college pre- 
paratory students, 36.17 per cent, classical and scientific combined. 

The number of students graduating from the high schools in the class 
of 1894 was 48,479, or 11.83 per cent of the total number of students 
for that year. The North Atlantic Division had the largest per cent, 
13.21, and the South Central the smallest, 7.37. Of the 48,479 grad- 
uates there were 14,988 students who had been preparing for college. 
This number was 30.92 per cent of the number of i^raduates. The 
per cent of college preparatory graduates was considerably smaller in 
the North Atlantic and North Central than in the three other divisions. 

Tables 23 and 24 give the numbers and percentages of students pur- 
suing the leading high school studies in each State. Algebra was 
studied by 62.71 per cent, Latin by 43.59 per cent, general history by 
35.78 per cent, geometry by 25.25 per cent, physics by 24.02 per cent, 
German by 12.78 per cent, French by 10.31 per cent, chemistry by 
10.31 per cent, Greek by 4.99 per cent, and trigonometry by 3.80 per 
cent. 

It has been noted that the Southern divisions lead in the per cent of 
students pursuing mathematical studies and in the ]>er cent of students 
in Latin. In the South Atlantic 55.12 per cent studied Latin and 57.86 
per cent algebra. In the South Centtal 44.49 per cent studied Latin 
and 59.63 per cent algebra. The North Atlantic Divisicm shows larger 
percentages in Greek, French, and German than any other division. 
The South Atlantic leads in Latin, the South Central in algebra, 
trigonometry, and physics, and the Western Division in geometry, 
chemistry, and history. 

A study of Tables 23 and 24 will prove of value to those interested 
in tracing the apparent popularity of certain high school studies. If 
we 8upx)ose that only the ten branches mentioned are taught in the 
high schools and that each student pursues regularly three of these 
studies at a time, and only three, it is apparent that the sum of the 
percentages given for each study should equal 300^ that is, the first line 
of percentages across the tops of Tables 23 and 24 opposite " United 
States'' when added should equal 300, provided each student pursued 
three and only three studies confined to the ten mentioned in the 
table. As a matter of fact, the sum of the ten i)ercentages for the 



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STATISTICAL iBUEVIEW OP SEOONDAKY EDUC3lTI0N. 63 

United States is only «b<»it 224. It is clear that on an average two of 
tho ten stadies xrere taken and about one-quarts of another, or one- 
quarter of the tisie of a chird study was taken, leaving about three- 
fourths of the time for one study to be given to secondary studies not 
mentioned or to studies below the secondary grade. The sum of the 
percentages for the North Atlantic Division is nearly 232, showing 
approximately that two of Ae ten studies were taken and one^third of 
the time of another. For the South Atlantic Division the ten i)ercent- 
ages equal 252, showing that two studies were taken and more than 
half of tJie time of another. For the South Oentral the sum of the 
percentages is 22d, indicating that an av«-age of two of the ten studies 
were taken and 28 per cent of the time of another. For the North 
Central Division the perc^itages equal 206, showing thnt two of the 
studies were pursued, leaving only a small fraction of time for a third. 
The sum of the percentages for the Western Division is 246, showing 
that two of the studtes were pursued and almost half of the time of a 
tiiird was taken. 

These figures can only show that other studies in addition to the ten 
mentioned enter into the course in many schools and divide the time 
of the students, always supposing that each student has three studies 
at a time. Doubtless in many cases these additional studies are below 
the secondary grade, but it is certain that not a few schools prescribe 
in addition to the ten several other high school studies. Among these 
may be mentioned astrcmomy, physical geography, geology, zoology, 
botany, physifdogy, psychology, rhetoric, civics, and English literature. 

OTHBB SBCONDABY STUDENTS. 

In addition to the 407,919 secondary students in public and private 
high schools there were many others pursuing secondary studies in the 
public and private elementary schools of the country. In States where 
high schools are lew one or more pupils may be found in almost every 
common school pursuing certain high school studies. Not a few young 
men have prepared themselves for college in the elementary schools with 
the assistance of the country school-teacher who could spare a few 
minutes' time each day to direct the work of a few students in second- 
ary studies. These secondary students are seldom reported as such to 
State superintendents of public instruction, and this office is without 
sufficient data upon which to base an estimate of the number in each 
State, but it is not improbable that in the United States there are nearly 
100,000 students in the elementary schools pursuing secondary studies 
for at least a portion of the year. 

The number of secondary students in the preparatory departments of 
colleges and universities, in normal schools, and in manual training 
schools is known. By reference to the statistical summaries of the 
above classes of institutions it will be found that in the colleges and 
universities there were 47,976 secondary students, in tho colleges for 



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64 • EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

womeu 4,576, in normal schools 16,469, and in manual training schools 
3,418. These numbers, added to the total for public and private second- 
ary schools, bring the grand total of secondary students up to 480,358. 
This number does not include any number supposed to be in the elemen- 
tary schools, but only the secondary students reported to this Bureau for 
the year ended June, 1894. 

Table 25 is a r^sum^ showing the distribution of all the secondary 
students in the United States as reported to this office. The first 12 
columns show the distribution of public secondary students, columns 
13 to 28 private secondary students, and the last column gives the total. 
Columns 1, 2, and 3 recapitulate the numbers of male and female stu- 
dents in the public high schools, giving the total 289,274. In columus 4, 
5, and 6 the number of secondary students in the preparatory depart- 
ments of public colleges and universities will be found, the total being 
5,441 — males 4,053 and females 1,388. These institutions are State uni- 
versities and agricultural and mechanical colleges. In columns 7, 8, 
and 9 are given the numbers of secondary students in public normal 
schools. The total number was 7,291 — males 2,032 and females 5,259. 
Column 12 shows that the total number of public secondary students 
was 302,006, the two preceding columns showing that the males num- 
bered 123,287 and the females 178,719. 

In column 15 the number of secondary students in private high 
schools is given — 118,645. From column 18 it will be seen that there 
were 42,535 secondary students in the preparatory departments of 
private universities and colleges — 28,884 males and 13,651 females. 
Column 19 shows that in the preparatory departments of colleges for 
women there were 4,576 secondary students. The institutions of higher 
education previously mentioned are coeducational or for men only. The 
number of secondary students in private normal schools is given as 
9,178 in column 22, there being 5,021 males and 4,157 females. In 
manual training schools there were 3,418 secondary students — 2,059 
males and 1,359 females. Only 11 States are here represented, 15 
independent manual training and trade schools reporting the 3,418 
secondary students. Column 28 shows the total number of private 
secondary students to have been 178,352. There were 95,750 males and 
82,602 females. 

The last column of the table gives the grand total of secondary stu- 
dents in the United States so far as reported to the United States 
Bureau of Education. The total number was 480,358. As shown in 
columns 29 and 30, there were 219,037 males and 261,321 females. In 
the North Atlantic Division there were 151,507 secondary students, in 
the South Atlantic 46,472, in the South Central 58,557, in the North 
Central 198,210, and in the Western Division 25,612. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OP SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



65 



Tabljs 1. — Summary of atatiatics of public high schools. 
SCHOOLS, INSTRUCTORS, AND STUDENTS. 



State or TenrtUirjf . 



Secmt^nrf 


J3istractortt. 




6 




i 


£ 


■5 


' — ' 







"I i' 

Vnited State*. . 3. OW 5, 73S 0. aa2 1% IStt I IT. 201! 172, 072 2fi», g74 1 



Secondary uladeti ts. 



3 

'S 

H 



In jirirpiMng 






1 


"5 


• 


1 




1"' r ^ 


1 ■ 





Kfirtb A tlAutic 
Blvmion ....... 

Siiulh Atbi^i till 
Diviftion , „ 

Bomb CeiDir&J 
DLirinJon ....... 

Kortti Centra) 



"I" 



1^06ai,5«0 2,m 



29i 



&2*^ 452 



BIS 

877 



557 2, 6iO 4, 1&7 282. 702 ao«l, (k27,5S3, 31^ 



2Bjm G5,50l !>4,2a7 
1 I 

7,23fl 10,501 i7.73T 

8.ajS 12,327 21, Ifi'i 



I 






IJO 
44 

47 

£10 

13 

&& 

£97 



ISO 
4t» 

409 



15 
SI 
II 

m 

10 
46 

Iff! 
30 






132 
71 
00 
filO 
52 
121 
752 
158 
354 



20 
Bl 
4S 
73 
12 
12 
4i 

loa! 



262 
t09 



2.fi7a 3,130a 
1,^0 l^fliO 
l.(m 1.421 



07S ll,03)i 14] 199, 



B5 

24fl 
71S 



771 
2.511 
10. 5«7 
2.444 
0, ISO 



tt^ 171 



Id 

121 


174 


3S 


83 


3 


2 


3 


I 


lOE 


597 


Sft* 


323 


272 


457 


2:10 


m 


170 


211 


67 


1^1 


25e 


3m\ 


1% 


'^\ 


12 


35 


la 


iiS 


13» 


m 


120 


m 


14 


L-i 


2 


2 


34 


ia 


A 


e 


B 


fi 


ft 


7 


« 


n 


e 


fi 


33 


m 


12 


15 


06 


m 



10 

78 

20 

u 
s 



453 
217 
4i:i 
447, 
214 
2141; 

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10 

17 

im 

120, 

Ifl' 

67, 



D70 
14S| 1. 

id 

^i 
94; 
21 OJ 
41 



T5 
161 
50 

m 

5 
4 



OJ 
133 



540 
94{) 
774 
425 
547 
707' 
S&3 
25 
35 
319 

n 

5 
135 

e 

5 
13 

15 



30 
SOS 



1,19^ 
2V< 
»04 
§00 

2,113 
274 



l,2atl 
2. 075, 

15, 540 
3.347 

11,475 



^1 
Uu 
514 
237; 

mt] 

4H0, 
1131 

75*1; 

9041 



Djvi^itm.- 2,043:2,»212.»2fi 5,&4» 50.297 85.051141,3:1 

West erp Division. 175 SOU 2m 5§3J 6,05a S,e©2 34.750 

Kortln A tlantio 
Divinkn: 
Miiiaf^^,.^., 

Tertnottit.. 

IfiMdrtaaoettA,. 

Bliwloltliind*,* 
Cftfttirrljr.aj. .... 

KfrMi- Y4«rk.... ... 

Kew Jersey,.,. 

Petinsylva&lit.. 

Bvutb A ttutitic 

DetaTTiiro -.,*--, 
Mnrjlatifl ....... 

Dlftt.ci^rColimibta 

Virj^iiilfli 

\Yc»t VirRinia,*, 
Kfirth Carolina., 
i^jutii CiLrinliiui . . 
Gettrgio., --....,, 
Fl«rMm.. ...,.-.. 
SratU Central 

Tf*iifn'T*«fie^ 

AUbo^niA., 

Ti^xM 

ArkAnAfts 

CikLiiljrjfnn .«*.*, 
Imdian Terf Itory 
Kunh Central 
DtvMias ; 

Ohio...... , 

IitdHita , . 

IllijioiB,. .,.__. 
Mii^hfgBii 

MiTi}i«Hota ...... 

lowi ^^,,^.,, 

Mbumuri ........ 

KortU lUkrita... 
SJonth Dakutfl... 

Kpbrwlfa _ 

Kacmai. ......... 

TTi^toriiDivMulJE 
liMltaiiiM.,,, .* .,. 

Onunwlo ........ 

tJt*li. ,,...„„.. 



1*172 
1,§06 

esT 

l,4ie 

302 

2.D09 

561 
3l' 

la 



10,006 
5.:;9<k 
ft, f^l7i 

7,t?2S, 

4.2:^ 
3. isn 

fl.292' 

D,K«o; 

3031 

;B4ft 



489 
l.}M9i 

1. -m\ 

ua7 
1,04:4 

2, EM 
4aO| 

I 

1.0511 
2,251 

],572| 
57^1 

4, K<s! 

712 

53' 
34l 



115, 

il54| 

C71 
Jie4:i 

mi' 

074 



7.231 



Ij 

275 
7^ 
1,150 
71 
60 
112 
187 
77 

3,052 



15. 173 
7.615 
15, mi, 
11.2Sfl, 
5,700 

4.ra7 

9.34?^ 
0, 6til 
220 
425 
4,23(J 
4,557 

39(1 

m 

],SSO 
71 

lef. 

103 

5!») 
4,M 



30:t 471 
33*1' C55 
329 512 



I 
774, 02, 07 g; 07, 227 123, 905 

32,70^ 

70. 517 



&aS IS, 7S^1 16, 074 
\ 

8J1 :asra 3ae24 

I I I 

fy7^ 975 t, 554 l?i4, 547 li?3, 701 II fl, 24 F 
13! :i7| 4U 35,7L>0. 10,101 31,^^7 



2fl,07»] 
12, 91 J, 
2;i OHJ 
19/124| 
9,9»6, 
7, 13201 
15, m\ 
10. 5 17 

7, lf7g 
7, 453 

B7l! 
1591 
2,!pi42 
I42i 
139 
207 

18fl: 

1. 540, 

7, 'm\ 



02 




29 
HO 
4fi 

Q 
5 
27 



107| 

7:jj 
as 

42i 

&i 
17] 
&5 

l| 

: 

2 





1 



4 

21 





41 

7 

1341 



0B£i 1,213 2,175 

Mi. 325 ai^ 

2. IM 2,370^ 4,5*t:i 

79* 1.027, 3,821 

41 '<i7 m 

1 6lrt 1,658 3,27« 

90 1415 i^i'L xi,mi, ;i5.H,]:! eH,H9:i 

Ck 5MJ 3541 l*,70;i, Q.m 1».717 

18a; 13, 892 14, ^1. 



21^ 



02 127 



2S.733 



«;ij lli4 

a 



aits, soil i.5,ii> 

75 HM; £,472| 3,327] 5,79!^ 

rtai 4w' 0| r» 

m m 9.341 S,17^ 6,319 

1.220; 3,Zf:i 

u i.&m 1.1 

37 04 2,20L», 2. 4 en 

1^07 3,4(K» :i,521 



nn 


lis' 


1 

£tr2 


70 


r^f 


195 





i\ 





113 


en 


2U0 











m 


104 


I7:i 


17 


45 


02 


c» 


°i 


e 


101 


2tn 


302 



lOi 
149, 

50 

m 

10 
41 
IL-i 

I 

1 

13 

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2fitn 

221, 
9)! 

?'' 

180 
2 
1 
21 

314' 



4 


14 

i! 



1 - 1 



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a; 
»! 

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1 



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i57 



asm 

5,4or> 

2, '^hS 
5, 022 

4:1*: 
ll,t<-.' 
4, 3H4, 

1, i:ist, 

52 



24, Bar 

14. tHO 

27,wi.i8 

B, 492 

fl,0l7| 

IS. 5 32 

15,545 

3171 

b:(9 

11, 5:itJ, 

U,4i3j 

2, Ffifi] 
r»02i 

2, ^;i•^\ 

317 

ol 
0321 

2, '159. 
1, 70t> 
4, 010; 



i»2 



a, 381 

IS, ifi:s 

2,302 

&, 150 
4:4 
12.979 
4,tt01 
1JM4 
2341 



21 810 
l.'j, W41 
15, 0*)7 
2S, lf92 
ft, W50 
9, 451 

21, o:ni 

16,320 

320 

flSO 

12,424 

lt>, 350 

3,113 
B22 

2, 52IJ 
E:il 
105 
€ 
718 
932 

2. US] 



2, iSI 

3. h.^tf 

4, 7:(:' 

1, 7411 



6,574 

It, 05H 
4.51M» 

10, ]8l 

2. 1J7 
2(W 



49, m 

30,204 
21*. 197 

m. 800 

17,31? 
10, 4 OH 
41. IM 

ai,yt>5 

3,32fV 
23,954 
IE*, im 

5, 9R2 

1,024 

4,953 

548 

195 

1, 4fK) 
1,801 

4,277 



1,052| 3,721 
3,K0QJ 7,%m 



ebM- 



Digitized 



by Google 



66 



EDUCATION BEFOET, 33^-94. 



Table 2. — Summai*ff of gtaiistice of pubUc high schools, 
STUDEKTS A>JD COURSES OF STUDY. 



State or Torritorj'. 



XJoited States.. 

North Atlantic Di- 
Tieion 

South AtlanUc Di- 
vision 

South Central Di- 
vision 

North Central Di- 
viaion 

Western Division . . 



11.505 111,260 !22.774 19,759 8,847 



Students preparing for college. 



Classical course. 



Scientific course. 



Male. 



Fe- 
male. 



Total. I Male. 



Fe- 
male. 



U 



I 



Total. 



18.606 



5.132 

1,186 

1,861 

3,847 
479 



North Atlantic Di- 
vision : 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts. . 

Khode Island — 

Connecticut ! 

Now York 

New Jersey I 

Pennavlvania ! 

South Atlantic Di- 
vision : I 

Delaware I 

Maryland ! 

Dist. of Columbia 

Virginia 

West Virginia... 

North Carolina . . 

South Carolina . . 

Creorgia [ 

Florida 

South Central Di- 
vision : 

Kentucky 

Tennesscie 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territory. 
North Central Di- 
vision : 

Ohio 

Indiana..' 

Dlinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota ... 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western Division : 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Wastatngion 

Oregon 

lOftlifoniia ....... 



136 
Ibi 

2,0to 
261 
376 

1,019 
161 
413 



68 

74 

17 

191 

32 

57 

168 

563 

21 



107 

182 
124 
336 

30 
437 

61 
4 



716 
261 
463 
291 
149 
129 
313 
288 
29 
34 
332 
842 

27 



74 

11 

1 

6 

10 

15 

50 



■| 



1,678 

4,228 
467 



431 
160 
104 
1,738 
148 
260 
614 
136 
305 



62 

46 

16 

165 

17 

89 

173 

404 

26 



276 

183 

154 

335 

25 

599 

103 

8 





672 
335 
676 
387 
184 
146 
472 
846 
32 
47 
420 
511 

53 



93 

7 

4 



15 

10 

78 

30 

177 



9,030 

2,184 

3,039 

7,575 
946 



I 
3,503 1,902 

324 289 

891 

4,320 l5,043 

721 I 674 



1,010 169 

296 U6 

257 , 206 

3,763 ' 892 

409 53 

686 I 410 

1,633 ; 965 

299 229 

718 457 



180 
120 

83 
356 

49 
146 
336 
967 

47 



473 

365 

278 

061 

55 

1.036 

164 

7 





590 
,139 
678 
333 
275 
785 
634 
61 
81 
752 



80 



167 

18 

5 

6 

25 

26 

128 

60 

482 



18 
12 
62 
1 
20 
100 
84 
26 



122 
152 

43 
126 

16 
245 
185 



062 
286 
629 
796 
302 
670 
314 
257 
32 
80 
166 
177 

84 



124 

13 
4 



15 
467 



97 

78 

193 

281 

71 

33 

712 

102 

835 



108 
122 

28 
179 

14 
298 
190 



699 
275 
872 
787 
314 
838 
428 
323 
38 
25 
213 
231 

24 

2 

136 

14 

6 



5,405 

613 

1,830 

9,863 
1.395 



266 
194 
309 

1,173 
124 
449 

1,677 
331 
792 



10 
36 
18 
106 
1 
47 
179 
156 



230 
274 

71 
305 

32 
543 
375 



12 

6 

67 

18 

804 



1,861 
660 

1,501 

1,583 
616 

1,508 
742 
580 
70 
55 
379 
408 

56 
2 
260 
27 
10 



19 
11 

119 
28 

661 



Gradaates in the 
class of 1894. 



College prepar- 
atory students in 
graduating 
class of 1894. 



Male. 



13,233 



24,005 



4,848 
599 
551 

6,491 

744 



324 
164 
150 

1,518 

80 

279 

1,181 
286 
871 



48 
87 

117 
92 
23 
20 
37 

159 
16 



123 
107 
16 
86 
86 
145 
88 



Fe- 
male. 



Teftal. 



37. 3M 



8,285 

1.324 

1,265 

12,135 
1,146 



1,246 
617 
954 
877 
539 
375 
824 
367 
18 
37 
285 



81 

15 

120 

7 
10 
19 

9 

66 

54 

409 



531- 
281 
268 

2,406 
187 
435 

1,836 
551 

1.888 



64 
246 
299 
218 
04 
38 
72 
304 
18 



221 
255 

73 
151 
130 
265 

66 



4,797 



13, 133 

1,023 

1.756 

18.626 
1,600 



2,256 
1,006 
2,261 
1,441 
799 
580 
1,577 
1,014 



673 
610 

60 
8 

213 
11 
17 
14 
50 
18 

U4 
88 

S68 



855 
395 
418 

3,919 
217 
714 

3,019 
837 

2,759 



112 

333 

416 

310 

87 

59 

109 

403 

34 



344 
362 
89 
227 
166 
430 
124 



3,502 

1,622 

3,215 

2,318 

1,338 

905 

2,401 

1,381 

48 

76 

858 

962 

81 

18 

333 

16 

24 

24 

60 

27 

179 

142 

977 



Male. 



5,169 



1,623 

245 

205 

,384 
840 



1,218 

281 

280 

3,060 
810 



140 
67 
74 

420 
48 

156 

475 
50 



861 
209 
328 
326 
176 
178 

146 
13 
11 

17B 
150 

4 

6 
67 
S 

« 
S 

17 
1« 
821 



Fe- 
male. 



2,841 

526 

485 

5,464 
650 



88 
48 
76 

865 
27 
76 

351 
89 

163 



16 
12 
24 
83 
10 
16 
61 
166 
10 



418 
218 
456 
«7 
178 
213 
429 
218 
19 

260 
240 

10 
8 
64 

5 

5 

• 

9 

7 

» 

29 

1«6 



Digitized 



by Google 



1,966 



223 
105 
150 
785 

75 
232 
826 

89 
856 



28 
45 
63 
59 
19 
28 
76 
192 
10 



84 
51 
17 

135 
13 

145 
30 



799 
427 
784 
763 
349 
391 
722 
S59 
32 
19 
423 
896 

14 

8 

121 

8 

5 

12 

11 

10 

82 

30 

•87 



STATISTICAL EBVIEW OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



67 



Tablr 3. — Summary of aiaiUiics of public high schools. 
STUDENTS PURSUING CERTAIN STUDIES. 



State or Territory 



United States 52, (M2^77. 482 120, 524 5, 804 



North Atlantic Division . . 
South Atlantic Diviaion. . 
South Central Division. . . 
North C«n tral Di vision . . . 
Western Division 




North Afiantic Division 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachasetta 

Rhode Island. . 

Connecticut . . . 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania. 
Soath Atlantic Division: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia.. 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina. 

South Carolina. 

Geonria 

Florida 

South Centml Diviaion : 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territon* 

North Central Division: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota. 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

yansaa 
Western Division : 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Orejfon ... 

California 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



68 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



Table 4. — Summary of staiiaiics of public high schools, 
STUDENTS PURSUING CERTAIN STUDIES. 



State or Territory. 



United States 

North Atlantic Division. . 
Sou til Atlantic Division. 
South Central Division. . 
North Central Division . . 
Western Division 

Korth Atlantic Division : 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

NewJersey 

^ Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic Division : 

Drfaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia 

Virginia 

"West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

South Central Division : 

Ken t uc k y 

• Tennessee 

Alabama 

Misi^issippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territory 

North Central Division : 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western Division : 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

California 



Algebra. 



Male. JFemale. Total. 



67, 553 



94,833 162,386 



!' 



21, 086 
4,676 
6,271 

31, 707 
3,813 



1,522 
616 
495 
6,215 
. 465 
1,497 
4,866 
1,633 
4,787 

249 
832 
234 
848 
182 
220 
479 
1,448 
184 

975 

1,063 

419 

899 

242 

2,249 

390 

31 

3 

6,844 
3,264 
4,803 
3,212 
2,044 
1,692 
3,579 
2,659 
89 
183 
1,606 
1,732 

150 

38 
680 

53 
6 

92 
155 

39 

381 

284 

1,935 



27,348 
6,846 
8,547 

46, 577 
6,515 



1,805 

687 

630 

5,471 

500 

1,558 

6,765 

2,306 

7,621 

324 

1,603 

400 

1,205 

203 

275 

588 

1,908 

214 

1.463 

1,439 

738 

896 

278 

3,109 

550 

58 

16 

8,957 
4,424 
7,394 
6,977 
2,619 
2.180 
6,212 
4,083 
117 
270 
2,472 
2,872 

211 

48 

917 

49 

9 

152 

253 

61 

471 

403 

2,941 



48,434 
11,622 
14,818 

78, 284 
9,328 



3,327 
1,303 
1,131 

10,686 

965 

3,055 

11, 621 
3,938 

12,408 

673 
2.435 

700 
2,053 

445 

495 
1,067 
3,356 



2,438 

2,502 

1,157 

1,795 

520 

6,358 

940 

89 

19 

15,801 
7,688 

12,197 
9,189 
4,663 
3,872 
8,791 
6,742 
206 
453 
4,078 
4,604 

361 
86 

1,597 
102 
15 
244 
408 
100 
852 
687 

4,870 



Geometry. 



Male. Female. Total 



31,368 



10,666 
2,363 
2,765 

13, 743 
1,931 



720 
298 
260 

3.241 
229 
655 

2,541 
629 

1,993 

116 
824 
234 
251 
58 
69 
132 
695 
94 

625 

410 

179 

285 

68 

1,148 

136 

14 



3,096 

1,340 

2.127 

1,534 

882 

833 

1,443 

1,004 

49 

60 

699 

687 

63 

23 

363 

9 

3 

48 

35 

15 

170 

111 

1,005 



47, 312 



14,298 
3.594 
4,258 

21,977 
3,185 



891 
411 
327 

3,743 
287 
874 

3,321 
907 

3,637 

202 
1,417 
274 
451 
111 

78 
161 
817 

83 

701 

622 

308 

288 

299 

1,773 

237 

23 

7 

4,517 
1,996 
4,016 
2,256 
1,268 

i.iai 

2, 290 
1,858 
71 
100 
1,149 
1,274 

73 

16 
523 

20 
9 

71 
109 

31 

254 

170 

1,909 



78,680 



24,864 
6,957 
7.023 

3^. 720 
5,116 



1,611 

709 

687 

6,984 

616 

1,529 

6,862 

1,536 

6,630 

318 
2,241 
508 
702 
169 
137 
293 
1,412 
177 

1,226 

1,032 

487 

573 

367 

2,921 

373 

37 

7 

7,613 
3.336 
6,142 
3,790 
2,130 
2,016 
3,733 
2,862 
120 
169 
1,848 
1,961 

126 

39 

886 

29 

12 

119 

144 

46 

430 

281 

3,004 



Trigonometry. 



Male. Female. Total. 



4,036 



1,178 
532 
673 

1,448 
205 



23 

22 

4 

174 

8 

141 

313 

85 

408 

33 

138 

52 

62 

8 

1 

6 

219 

14 

212 

75 

64 

73 



228 
19 



623 I 
118 
176 
111 

29 

24 

111 

153 

1 

3 

62 

37 

10 
17 
56 





5 

4 


12 
14 
88 



4,428 



893 

617 

909 

1,841 




82 

79 
282 
73 
364 


186 

8 
87 
16 



6 

301 

14 

286 

97 

84 

75 



295 

64 

1 

7 

844 
123 
223 
86 
26 
24 
149 
212 

11 
78 
66 

7 
3 

68 


1 
1 


16 
4 



8.464 



2,071 
1,149 
1,682 
3,289 
373 



80 
28 
4 
256 
8 
220 
695 
158 
772 

33 
324 

60 
140 

24 
1 

10 
620 

28 

498 
172 
148 
148 




8 

7 

1.467 

241 

399 

196 

55 

48 

260 

S65 

1 

14 

140 

103 

17 

20 

123 





6 

5 



28 

18 

156 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OP SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



69 



Tabjle 5.— Summary of siatiatica of public high schools. 
STUDENTS PURSUING CERTAIN STUDIES. 



State or Territory. 



United States . 



North Atlantic Diviaion. 
South Atlantic Division.. 
Sonlh Central Division.. . 
North Central Division. . . 
Western Division 



North Atlantic Division : 

Haine , 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachasetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

South Athmtic Division: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia . 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Korth Carolina , 

Soath Carolina 

Georgria 

Florida 

South Central Division : 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabxuna 

Hisflissippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territory 

North Central Division : 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri. 

North DakoU 

Sonth Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western Division: 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idabo 

Washington 

Ore con 

California 



Physics. 



Male. Female. Total, 



30.433 



0.864 
2,327 
3,012 
13,584 
1,616 



42,r-£9 



12,637 
3,127 
4,225 

20,235 
2,605 



641 
369 
221 

2,684 
122 
689 

1,885 
726 

2,527 

132 

725 

181 

359 

55 

69 

221 

493 

92 

373 

428 

207 

620 

81 

1,167 

111 

7 

18 

2.484 

1,653 

2.109 

1,628 

804 

676 

1,574 

1,076 

30 

87 

759 

804 

85 

12 

292 

9 

3 

25 
114 

26 
165 
124 
701 



881 
416 
183 

3,088 
322 
697 

1.884 
987 

4,079 

181 
1,111 
162 
480 
03 
04 
288 
603 
110 

500 

7:t7 

323 

570 

181 

1,638 

206 

8 

2 

3,505 
2, 126 
3,024 
2,2R2 
1,087 

817 

2,278 

1,816 

55 

102 
1, 142 
1,401 

108 

11 
462 

16 
9 

39 
183 

23 

218 

133 

1,403 



73,162 



22, 401 
5.464 
7,237 

33.819 
4,251 



Chemistry. 



Male. 



11,744 



4,435 
604 
900 

5,021 

784 



Female. Total. 



18, 075 



6.445 
706 
1,548 
7,775 
1.601 



1.522 


283 


785 


153 


404 


122 


5.772 


1.504 


444 


82 


1,386 


201 


3,769 


1,047 


1,713 


191 


6,606 


872 


313 


83 


1,836 


107 


343 


69 


839 


92 


148 


13 


163 


35 


509 


4 


1.101 


169 


202 


32 


933 


217 


1,165 


129 


530 


119 


1,190 


75 


282 


42 


2,805 


295 


317 


23 


15 





20 





5,989 


885 


3,679 


533 


5.733 


036 


3,910 


776 


1,891 


199 


1.493 


310 


3,852 


466 


2.892 


350 


85 


13 


189 


14 


1,901 


308 


2,205 


231 


193 


60 


23 





754 


203 


25 





12 


1 


64 


4 


2l>7 


45 


49 





383 


56 


257 


58 


2,194 


367 



396 
193 
98 

1,937 
124 
355 

1,003 
334 

2,003 

51 
29 
83 

168 
29 
31 
31 

243 
41 

375 

280 

141 

104 

135 

434 

64 



9 

1,485 
762 

1,659 
955 
217 
350 
751 
765 
20 
10 
445 
356 

52 

320 
1 
2 
6 

99 


65 

70 



29,819 



10,880 
1,310 
2.448 

12. 706 
2.385 



659 
346 
220 

3,441 
206 
556 

2,052 
525 

2,875 

134 

136 

152 

260 

42 

66 

35 

412 

73 

592 

415 

260 

179 

177 

729 

87 



9 

2,370 
1,295 
2,596 
1,731 
416 



1,217 

1,115 

33 

24 

753 
587 

102 


523 
1 
3 
10 

144 


121 

128 
1,353 



History. 



Male. Female. Total. 



42,304 



13, 935 
8.681 
3.468 

17.841 
3,379 



768 
418 
307 

4.049 
430 
751 

2,586 
9G3 

2,760 

148 
840 
339 
620 
132 
149 
375 
800 
228 

507 

595 

207 

428 

226 

1,272 

205 

25 

3 

3.279 

1,754 

2.774 

2, 375 

1,043' 

968 

2,059 

1,453 

74 

119 

950 

993 



25 

790 
29 
27 
32 

113 
20 

206 

101 
1,907 



63,217 



19. 519 
5,486 
6.315 

27.788 
5,100 



1,087 

648 

425 

5,938 

644 

1,138 

3,828 

1.307 

4,604 

09 

1,376 

647 

1,094 

230 

239 

477 

1,132 

184 

634 

942 

517 

696 

493 

1,843 

245 

36 

9 

4,771 
2,581 
4.869 
8,414 
1,572 
1,603 
3,209 
2,448 
80 
137 
1,566 
1,638 

108 
22 
1,174 
30 
52 
55 

202 
18 

275 

327 
2,846 



105,621 



83,464 
9,167 
8,783 

46,620 
8,488 



1,855 

066 

732 

10,887 

1,074 

1.892 

6,414 

2,270 

7.364 

247 

2,215 

1,036 

1.714 

371 

388 

852 

1,932 

412 

1.141 

1,637 

724 

1,024 

719 

3.115 

450 

61 

12 

8,060 
4.335 
7,643 
6,789 
2,615 
2,471 
6,268 
3,901 
164 
266 
2.616 
2,631 

174 

47 

1,964 

69 

79 

87 

316 

38 

481 

491 

4,763 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



70 



EDUCATION REPOBT, 1893-94. 



Table 6. — Percentages for public high schooU, 
STUDENTS AND COURSES OF STUDY. 



StAteor Territory. 



United States , 

North Atlantic Dirision. 
Sotith Atlantic Division. 
Sonth Central Division. . 
North Central Division. . 
"Western Division 

North Atlantic Division: 

Maine 

Now Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticnt 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic Division: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Colombia 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

Sonth Central Division : 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

► ^ Indian Territorj- .... 

North Central Division: 

. Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South DakoU 

Nebraska 

^-^ Kansas 

^'We8tem Division : 
% Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

O re^on 

Calii'omia , 



Total 
number 
of sec- 
ondary 
■Indents. 



289,274 



»4,287 
17,737 
21,162 
141,338 
14,750 



6,281 
2,840 
2,514 

25,237 
2,061 
5,486 

26,113 
5,791 

17,964 

859 
8,115 
1,954 
2,989 

625 

671 
1,843 
5,007 

674 

3,823 

8,850 

1,446 

2,988 

880 

7,231 

1,303 

89 

52 

26,079 

12, 911 

23,610 

19,124 

9,996 

7,820 

15,640 

10,517 

382 

728 

7,078 

7,453 

671 
159 

2,842 
142 
139 
297 
450 
180 

1,540 
980 

7,350 



Per cent to total number. 



Male. 



40.45 



41.14 
40.80 
41.75 
39.83 
41.07 



42.56 
42.25 
43.48 
43.74 
87.41 
45.77 
40.47 
42.20 
36.12 

43.07 
40.64 
85.81 
39.91 
36.16 
45.31 
43.41 
42.20 
40.65 

41.29 
41.53 
37.14 
47.39 
84.32 
41.47 
43.06 
34.83 
34.62 

41.82 
41.02 
36.07 
40.93 
42.32 
40.32 
40.23 
36.95 
42.41 
41.62 
40.24 
38.45 

40.98 
49.69 
40.68 
50.00 
35.97 
37.71 
37.11 
42.78 
41.43 
38.88 
41.52 



Female. 



59.55 



58.86 
59.20 
58.25 
60.17 
58.93 



57.44 
67.75 
56.52 
56.26 
62.59 
54.23 
59.53 
57.80 



56.93 
59.36 
04.69 
60.09 
63.84 
54.69 
56.59 
57.80 
59.35 

58.71 
58.47 
62.86 
52.61 
65.68 
58.53 
56.94 
65.17 
65.38 

58.18 
58.98 
63.93 
59.07 
57.68 
59.68 
69.77 
63.05 
57.59 
58.38 
59.76 
61.55 

59.02 
60.31 
59.32 
60.00 
64.03 
62.29 
62.89 
57.22 
68.67 
61.12 
68.48 



Classical 
prepar- 
atory. 



7.87 



9.58 
12.31 
14.36 
6.36 
6.41 



16.22 
10.42 
10.32 
14.91 
19.84 
11.69 
6.26 
6.16 
4.00 

15.18 

3.85 

1.60 

11.91 

7.84 

21.76 

18.23 

19.31 

6.97 

14.23 
9.48 
19.23 
22.12 
6.26 
14.33 
12.59 
7.87 


6.32 

4.62 

4.82 

3.65 

3.83 

3.62 

5.02 

6.03 

15.97 

1L13 

10.62 

11.46 

U.92 



5.88 

12.68 
8.60 
2.02 
6.66 

13.89 
8.31 
6.12 
6.88 



Scientific 
prepar- 
atory. 



6.43 



5.73 
3.46 
8.66 
6.62 
9.46 



4.24 
6.83 
15.87 
4.65 
6.02 
8.18 
0.42 
5.72 
4.41 

1.16 
1.12 

.92 
3.66 

.16 
7.00 
9.71 
3.10 
9.20 

6.92 
7.12 
4.91 

10.21 
3.64 
7.61 

28.78 



5.22 
4.84 
6.36 
8.28 
6.16 

19.28 
4.74 
6.61 

18.32 
7.66 
6.36 
6.47 

8.64 
1.26 
9.15 
19.01 
7.19 



4.22 
6.11 
7.73 
2.86 
11.71 



Grad- 

uatesin 

1894. 



12.90 



13.93 
10.84 
8.30 
13.18 
12.81 



13.61 
13.91 
16.63 
15.63 
10.63 
13.01 
11.66 
14.46 
15.36 

13.04 

10.69 

21.29 

10.87 

13.92 

8.79 

5.91 

9.25 

5.04 

10.35 
9.40 
6.15 
7.93 

18.86 
6.95 
9.52 



7.69 

13.43 
12.56 
13.62 
12.12 
13.39 
11.67 
15.36 
13.13 
12.57 
10.44 
12.12 
12.91 

12.07 
11.32 
11.72 
11.27 
17.27 
8.08 
15.83 
15.06 
11.62 
14.49 
13.29 



Per cent 
of num- 
ber grad- 
QMing 
prepared 

for 
college. 



28.70 



21.63 
27.35 
27.62 
29.34 
84.89 



26.08 
36.66 
86.89 
20.03 
84.66 
82.49 
27.36 
10.63 
12.90 

25.00 
13.61 
16.14 
19.03 
21.84 
47.416 
69.72 
41.47 
47.06 

24.42 
16.85 
19.10 
56.96 
7.83 
83.72 
24.19 



22.82 
26.33 
24.39 
32.92 
26.08 
43.21 
30.07 
26.00 
66.67 
26.00 
49.30 
41.16 

17.28 
44.46 
86.34 
50.00 
20.83 
50.00 
16.94 
59.26 
17.88 
26.35 
39.61 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL EEVIEW OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



71 



Table 7. — Percentciges for public high schools, 
PER CENT OF STUDENTS IN CERTAIN STI DIES. 







Per cent to total number of sec 


oudary students. 




SUte or Territory. 


44.78 


1 

O 
3.33 


6.81 


O 


1 

< 


i 

o 

27.30 


1 


1 

25.29 


1 


1 

a 


United States 


11.77 


66.14 


2.93 


10.31 


36.48 






North AtlMitic DivisMMi. . . . 
South Atlantic Division... 

South Central Division 

Korth Central Division 

"Weslfim Division 


43.53 
63.68 
51.74 
42.25 
44. S 


6.70 
3.81 
1.70 
1.32 
2.85 


14.40 

8.56 
4.09 
2.19 
4.34 


13.01 
12. 55 
3.82 
12.00 
12.17 


5L37 
64.96 
70.02 
55.39 
63.24 


26.37 
33.59 
33.19 
25.27 
34.69 

2.1.65 


2.2(» 
6.48 
7.48 
2,33 
2.53 


23.76 
30.75 
34.20 
23.93 
28.82 


11.54 
7.89 

11.67 
9.05 

16.17 


35.48 
51.68 
41.60 
32.28 
57.55 






Korth Atlantic Diviaion: 
Maine 


50.29 
51.80 
43.95 
J50.20 
55.75 
51.84 
33.48 
33.19 
44.41 

75.09 
60.80 
60.19 
60.22 
32.00 
84.80 
48.24 
66.60 
50.94 

60.64 
50.26 
73.31 
40.62 
60.68 
46.76 
43.44 
50.55 
23.08 

51. 52 
57.46 
35 52 


13. 47 
7.78 
7.40 
9.73 

11.64 
7.73 
4.62 
2.80 
3.22 



5.30 

6.02 

.40 


1.49 
LOO 
7.25 
1.04 

4.12 

.81 

3.65 

1.37 



1.27 

.54 





2.10 

.47 
1.47 
1.85 

.34 
2.15 

.26 

1.25 





1.53 

.63 




6.00 



1.68 



2.34 


3.22 


13.95 

22.01 

11.65 

34.04 

24.38 

11.57 

5.35 

3.95 

2.42 



6.62 

10.59 

8.10 

.16 

1.94 

4.29 

14.86 

4.30 

.87 

.78 

8.78 

1.20 

67.27 

.65 

.38 





1.43 

4.86 
3.25 
4.20 


1.53 
.32 
4.02 
8.25 
10.92 
11.85 
18.04 
30.53 
14.60 

1.05 

83.65 

30.14 

15.46 





.64 

1.78 

3.26 

13.66 

.94 

4.08 

.10 



2.97 

2.38 

11.24 



10.29 
8.98 
13.18 
16.58 
20.02 


52.97 


.48 

.99 

.16 

l.Ol 

.39 

4.01 

2.28 

2.73 


24.23 
27.64 
16.07 
22.87 
21.54 
25.26 
14.43 
29.58 


10.49 
12.18 
8.75 
13.63 
10.00 
10.13 
7.86 
9.07 
16.00 

15.60 


29.63 


Termont 


45. 88 1 24. 97 
44. 99 23. Xi 


34.01 
29.12 


Hassschasetts 


42. U 
46.82 
55.60 
44.60 
68.00 
60.07 

66.71 
78.17 
35.82 
68.69 
71.20 
73.77 
57.89 
07.03 
59.05 

73.37 
64.99 
80.01 
60.07 
59.00 
74.10 
72.14 
100.00 
36.54 

60.59 
59. 55 
51.66 


27.67 
25.04 
27.87 
22.45 
26.52 
30.78 

37.02 
71.94 
26.00 
23.49 
27.04 
20. 42 
15.90 
28.20 
26.26 

36.89 
26.81 
33.68 
19.18 
41.71 
40.40 
28.63 
41.57 
13.46 

29.19 
25.84 

94t 01 


43.14 


Bhode Island 


52.11 


Connecticut 


34.40 


New York 


24.56 


Now Jersey 


39.20 




4.30 1 36.77 


40.00 


Soath Atlantic Division : 
Delaware 


3.84 

10.40 

8.07 

4.98 

3.84 

.15 

.54 

10.39 

4.15 

14.99 
4.47 

10.24 
4.95 

7.23 
6.37 
8.37 

13.46 

5.63 

1.87 

1.69 

1.02 

.55 

.61 

1.66 

3.47 

.26 

1.92 

1.98 

1.38 

2.53 

12.58 

4.33 





2.02 

1.11 



1.82 

L84 

2.12 


36.44 


28.75 


Maryland 


58.94 4.37 


71.11 


District of Columbia 

yirciiiia 


17.55 
28.07 
23.68 
24.29 
27.62 
21.99 
29.97 

28.08 
30.26 
36.66 
39.83 
29.77 
38.79 
24.33 
16.85 
38.46 

22.96 
28.50 
24.28 
20.45 
18.92 
19.09 
24.63 
27.60 
22.26 
25.96 
26.86 
29.59 

28.76 
14.47 
26.53 
17.61 
8.63 
21.65 
66.00 
27.22 
24.87 
26.22 
29.85 


7.78 
8.70 
6.72 
9.84 
LOO 
&23 
10.83 

17.82 
10.78 
17.08 
6.09 

ao.ii 

10.08 

6.68 



17.31 

9.09 
10.03 
10.99 
9.06 
4.16 
8.44 
7.78 
10.60 
8.64 
3.30 
10.64 
7.88 

15.20 



18.40 

.70 

2.16 

3.37 

32.00 



7.86 

13.06 

18.41 


53.02 
57.34 


WestVirriBia 


59.36 


North Carolina 


57.82 


Sooth Cait>lina 


46.23 


(roorgia 


38.59 


Florida 


61.13 


Soath Central Division : 

Kentucky 

Ten nesttee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Lonisiaiia 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territory 

North Central Division: 

Ohio 

Indhma 

Illinois ... . 


34.34 
39.92 
50.07 
34.27 
81.71 
43.08 
34.64 
68.54 
23.08 

30.87 
33.58 
32.37 


Michigan 


32.54 
24.04 
51.32 
37.32 
41.34 
82.46 
42.03 
44.65 
51.89 

50.62 
63.52 
68.97 
29.68 
17.27 
42.76 
17.33 
34.44 
M.65 
22.86 
46.44 


48. 05 ' 19. 82 
46.65 ; 21.31 
49. 51 25. 78 


30.27 


Wisconsin ... 


26.16 


Minn^iwta 


5. 18 14. 00 


31.60 


Iowa 


.33 

2.81 



1.65 

1.84 


8.83 
9.05 
1.05 
4.94 
8.62 


56.21 
64.11 


23. 87 
27.21 


33.68 


Missouri 


37.00 


North Dakota 


53.93 31.41 
62. 23 23. 21 
57.61 26.11 
61. 77 26. 31 


40.31 


South Dakota 


35.17 


Nebraska 


35.55 


Kansas 


. 26 10. 12 


35.30 


Western Division : 

Montana 


2.24 


8.44 



8.42 



1.49 


4.50 


2.24 



27.59 

1.41 



ao8 

1.78 



12.14 

20.92 

7.76 


63.80 
64.09 
56.19 
71.83 
10.79 
82.15 
90.67 
65.66 
55.33 
70.10 
66.84 


ia78 
24.53 
31.18 
20.42 
8.63 
40.07 
32.00 
25.56 
27.92 
28.67 
40.87 


25.03 


Wyominji 


29.56 


Cotorado 


69.11 


New Mexico 


41.55 




66.84 


Utah 


29.20 


Serada ................ 


70.00 


Idaho 


21.11 


Washinffton ...»-...-... 


31.23 


Oregon ........--..-.. 


60.10 


Caiiferaia 


64.67 







Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



72 



EDUCATION BEPOET, 1893-94. 



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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OP SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



73 






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74 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



Tablk 9. — Summary of statiatics of private secondary schools. 
SCHOOLS, INSTRUCTORS, AND STUDENTS. 



Stale or Territory. 



United States. 



Colored second- 
ary stadenta 
(included in 
preceding 
ccdums). 



Elementary 
pupils. 



1, 982 3, 



North Atlantic Division. 
South Atlantic Divi.sion. 
South Central Division.. 
North Central Division. . 
Western Division 



North Atlantic Division 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetta 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

Now Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic Division : 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. 

Virginia 

WestVir^^inia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

/ Georgia 

Florida 

South Central Division: 

Kentucky 

Tenuessce 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Toxas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territory 

North Central Division : 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michi<;au 

"Wiscon.sin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri , 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western Division : 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

Cabfurnia 




Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OF SECONDABf EDUCATION. 



75 



Table lO.^Summary of stati§iic8 of private secondary schooU. 
STUDENTS AND COURSES OF STUDY. 



St«te or Tenitocy. 



United Ststeg. 



12.706 6,64019,406 7, 896 3, 434 11. 33o| 5, 940 5,211 

■ ill 



North Atlantic Division. . 
South Atlantic Diriaion. . 
South Central Division... 
Korth Central Division. . . 
Western Division 



Korth Atlantic Division: 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Haasaehusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Fannsyl vania 

gonth Atlantic Division: 

Delawaro 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. . 

Virg i nia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Ploritla 

South Central Division: 

Kentucky 

Tennesjico 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territocy 

Korth Central Division: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Dlinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western Division: 

Mon tana 



Morado 

New Mexico. 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington . 

Oregon 

CalUbmia .... 



Students preparing for college, j 



Classical course. Scientific course. 



Graduates in class 
of 1894. 



I 






6,004 2,07« 8,080 4,128 
2,417 1.418 3.830 790 
2.234' l.asd 3,920, 1,088 
1,664| 1,272; 2,936 1,264 
447 193: 640 626 



392i 
527 
205 
929 
98 
430! 

1,488 
811 

1,123 



16 
110 
286 
509 

49 
740 
184 
453 

61 

346 
546 
316 

250 
38 
447 
278 



162 554 

60 587 

61 266 
458 1,387 

111 109 
I25I 5551 
459; 1,948 
1781 989, 
562 1,685 



909^ 5,037 
68O; 1.470 
7871 1.875 
855, 
20S{ 



2,932 2,237 

7721 675 

710 < 

2,119; 1,224' 1,123 

829^ 296; 285 



16 
124 

13 
164 

26 
418 
193 
407 

52 

153 
826 
148 

264 
145 
438 
212 



13 

301 
24 

295 
19 

141 
42 

163 

424 
11 
36 

107 

101 



50 





44 

61 

260 



187 

103 

230 

i1 

45 

56 

96 

305 

4 

24 

82 

99 

14 



32 
234 
299 
673 

75, 

1,167, 

377 

860 

113| 

499 
872 
864 
514 
183 
885, 
490 



45 

178 

96 

605 

53 

2411 

1, 026 

852, 

1,030 

10 
36 
85 

146 
20 

231 
77 

175 
10 



63 
228 
141 

700 



18 
50 

1641 

15 

22 263| 
237, 1,263 
136, 9881 
224> 1,254 



I 



141 
287j 

imI 

46 

216< 

70i 



11 

256 

6 

42 

153 
14 

184* 
10 

70 
172 

78j 
164 

32 
211 

52 



13 

488 
1271 
525| 

60| 
186 

98 
259 
729 

60' 
189i 
200 

18, 



45 

182 

1 

277 

80 

42 

60 

109 

876 209 



7 

45 

85 



80 



218 



36! 



107 

7 



11 

1 
27 
15 
115 



I 

76! 
375I 



9 
74 
857 



13 
20 
75 

10 



21 
292 

91 
188 

25 
383 

91 
359 

20 

211! 
459i 
2071 
318 

78 
427i 

122 



53| 

2711 

Ij 

108j 
50 
74 

191 

675 



20 

741 

160 

10 



128,' 

18 



153 
127 
133 

^ 

195' 
872! 
344| 
622j 

10. 

91 
80! 
136! 
16 
152 
161' 
150| 

1 

132 
146 
108 

96 

80 
183 

45 


26 



182 
133 
109 
323 
42 
182 



643 1,515 



219 
26 
160 
41 
143 
120 
160 
220 
8 
11 
23 
75 

8 

12 

4 



40 112 



52 
106 
402] 



63 


26 
19 
170 



183 
440 

23 
77 
32 
98 
6 
120 
123 
176 
20 

106 
213 

72 
152 
111 
180 

28 


29 

160 
89 

194 
90 
79 
64 

130 

178 

6 

13 

40 



2 
5 
13 
3 



8 



17 

23 

170 



College prepar- 
atory students in 
graduating; class 
of 1894. 



11,1511 3,410 



5,169 1.967 

1, 447! 370 

1, 6071 352 

2, 3471 556 

581i 165 



340 
260 
242 
751 
95 
377 



527 
1,062 

33 
168 

62 
234 

22 
272 
284 
326 

46 



359 
180 
248 
141 
313 

73 


55 

37!» 
115 
363 
131 
222 
184 
299 
398 
14 
24 
63 
155 

5 

5 

25 

7 



106 

8 



43 

42 

340 



83 

82 

74 

338 

45 

112 

534 

292 

407 



42 

15 
63 

9 
85 
68 
78 

7 

43 
80 
58 
58 
14 
51 
24 


"i 

53: 
12 
100; 
30 

'•i 

58 

75 
121 

3 

A 

35 



1,612 



636 
262 
260 
378 
67 



40 

24 

132 

9 

38 
172 

67 
118 

4 
43 
23 
15 

1 
65 
48 
55 

8 

31 
61 
16 
47 
49 
88 
16 

11 



15^ 

18 

121 
1061 



5,022 



2,603 
632 
621 
934 
232 



129 
123 

08 
470 

54 
150 
706 
349 
525 

7 
85 
38 
78 
10 
150 
116 
133 
15 

74 
141 
74 
106 
63 
80 
40 

35 

92 
52 
157 
49 
66 
04 
122 
179 
6 
12 
45 
60 



21 
2 

24 
94 
148 



Digitized 



byG00gI( 



76 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94 



Table 11. — Summary of statistics of private secondary schools. 
STUDENTS PURSUING CERTAIN STUDIES. 



State or Territory. 



Latin. 



United States 27,31121,003 



Greek. 



French. 



48,;t74' 8.»U l,¥m 



North Atlantic Division. 11.403 8,380 19. -:: 
South Atlantic Division. I 5.342 4,0t4l 9 ■;<'> 
South Central Division..' 4,580 4,278! 8 ftrid 



North Central Division. 
Western Division 



North Atlantic Division : 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic Division: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

South Central Division : 

Kentucky 

TeunesRee 

Alabama 

MissiHsippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territory 

North Central Division : 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

MiHsouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western Division: 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

California 



4,945 3,4731 8, 4VM 
1,041 888 him, 



558| 
793 



403 

356 

407 319 

1,726 1,396 

2551 174 

807 663 

2, 652' 2, 250 

1, 530 629 

2,675; 2,100 



87 

598 

328 

1,123 

90 

1,389 

670 

1,075 

82 

790 

1,156 

691 

489 

152 

849 

417 



36 

938 
279 
760 
109 
592 
287 
497 
978 
13 
49 
156 
287 

18 



115 

14 



129 





86 

153 

526 



117 
539 
112 
632 
S6 
970 
851 
1,139 



645 

,125 
404 



4.7J2 
I. 3i2 

1. 5rvT 



1,061 
1, 149 

726| 
3,122 

429| 
1, 470' 



291 
433 
162 
836! 
961 
265 



4,902 1,087 
2, 1591 822 
4, 775 750' 



204 
1, 137 

440 
1,755 

186, 
2,359 

92ll 
2, 214i 

170 



1,435 
2,281 
1,095 
596, 1,085 
222 374' 
953 1,802, 
289 706' 
12 12 
32 

699 1,637 

337 616 

572 1,332 

158 """ 



169 
170 
350 
613 
6 
51 
160 
188 

22 
18 
66 
18 



147 

26 

5 

84 

111 

392 



761 

457 

847 

1,591 

19 

loo: 

31 6| 

4751 

4o| 

18, 

181| 

32i 



16 
128 
199 
139 

20 

874 

109 

353 

5 

261 

238 

112 

112 

39 

106 

52 



3 

268 
60 

202 
24 

298 
77i 

127 

313i 

^*\ 

60 

120 






Ml 

4& 



110 
64 
41 

210 
24 
68 

245 
64 

102 

4 
7 


4 



10 

93 

9 

50 
112 
13 
32 
2 
58 
32 




\Vl:720 7,47214.89822,370 



^jm 5,061, 7,79312.854 4,772 



German. 



9,455 



J,:ii« 1,039 2,599 3,038 

l.'^iJl 534 1,719, 2,253 

1,(^14 640, 2,014) 2,654 

;^.«| 198, 773, 971 



276; 

25| 

5 

170] 

264 

918 



23 

63 

42| 

120, 



401! 
487 1 
203! 

1,046 
120 
333 

1,332 
880 
852 



19 
135 
199 
143 

23 
440 
119 
446 

14 

311 

350 

125 

144 

41 

164 

84 



4 

322 

77 

262 

56 

302 

84 

171 

359 

4 

21 

104 

152 

I 





95 

9 



115 
281 1 
118 
960 
17ll 
215' 
,686 
820j 



44 

154 
114 
279 

17j 
112' 
200; 
118' 

1 

61 

48 
68 
25| 

2471 

61 

43 



1 

139 
14 
911 

531 

lis; 

19 
142 

105 

6 

9 

1 



252' 367 
145 426 
157 275 
1,495 2,455 
1H5I 356 



61 



^1 



1,118 
646 

2,747 
272 



827( 



2,745 4,431 

841 ' 1.661 

1,361 2,056 



1331 

727! 
291] 
410 

481 
284| 
305, 
373 

28i 



177 
881 
405; 
689 

051 
396 
505 
491 

29 



249 300 

212 260| 

190, 2581 

66 81 

763 1,010' 

1971 248 

49i 92; 

1| 1 

21 3 



412 
204! 
522. 
1331 
lOOl 
96 

378 

lol 

25 

2l| 
105 

32! 
2' 



551 

218 

013 

180 

215 

115 

20 

520 

10 

2H 

27 

151 

13 


41 
3 



27 

1 

1, 

06 

55 

131 





41' 
37! 
97j 



40i 
4 

72' 
541 



48 
4 

113 
91 
658 



25 

62 

60 

330 

31 

218 

1,786 

953 

1,307 

16 
330 
113 
352 

23 
163 

81 

36 
6 

139 

112 

60 

8 

9 

173 

53 



2 

435 

112 

359 

137 

659 

216 

207 

428 



23 

61 

110 





19 

1 



52 


27 
51 
122 



8,641 



18,096 



4,363 
808 
726 

2,211 
634 



40 

89 

113 

325 

63 

449 

1,606 

687 

1,091 



129 
43 
96 
87 



161 

146 

60 

26 

34 

246 

52 

5 

6 

467 

184 

361 

124 

226 

175 

156 

271 

4 

28 

78 

147 



1 



86 





70 

1 

2 

63 

68 

284 



9,135 
1,926 
1,271 
4,968 
806 



65 

161 

ira 

655 
04 

667 
3.392 
1,540 
2,398 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OP SECOJTOARY EDUCATION. 



77 



Table 12. — Sammaty of staiistica of private secondary schools, 
STUDENTS PURSUING CERTAIN STUDIES. 



State or Territory. 



United States. 



North Atlantic Division. . . 
Sonth Atlantic DiviHion. . . 
South Central Divinion. . . . 
North Central Division. . . . 
Western Division 



North A tlantio Division : 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Hassachnsetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey ^ 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic Division : 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina.. 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

South Central Division: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee < 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territory 

North Central Division : 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

Sonth Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western Divisioti : 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

NewMexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

California 



Algebra. 



Male. [Female. Total. 



28. 487 24, 150 



10, 145 
6,679 
6,105 
5,309 
1,159 



510 

508 

292 

602 

254 

684 

2,954 

1,863 

2.478 



602 

431 

1.065 

97 

1,464 

575 

1,279 

98 

878 

1,335 

921 

672 

199 

1.460 

629 



101 

1,205 
262 
497 
198 
555 
373 
509 

1,257 
21 
53 
161 
218 

18 

5% 
27 



229 


79 
139 
608 



7,642 
4,608 
6,190 
4.511 
1,109 



532 
270 
324 
700 
151 
554 

2,349 
744 

2.018 

91 
700 
224 
660 
136 
959 
532 
1,215 

91 

717 

1,357 

606 

779 

575 

1,633 

344 

10 

69 



314 
640 
284 
218 
263 
534 
978 
21 
65 
162 
226 

66 

5 

105 



138 
25 
4 
120 
130 
667 



52,637 



17.787 
10,287 
12.385 
9,820 
2,358 



1,042 

778 

616 

1. 302 

405 

1,238 

5,303 

2,607 

4.406 

159 
1,302 

655 
1,725 

233 
2,423 
1.107 
2,494 

189 

1,595 
2,602 
1,527 
1, 4.')1 

774 

3,093 

1,073 

10 

170 

2,011 
576 

1,137 
482 
773 
636 

1,043 

2,235 
42 
118 
823 
444 

84 

5 

164 

66 



Geometry. 



Male. Femaltu Total 



14,275 



5,948 
2,235 
2,727 
2,679 



10,099 



3,452 
1, 420 
2,677 
2,618 
532 



367 

25 

4 

199 

269 

1,175 



278 

294 

185 

339 

182 

346 

1,905 

1.039 

1.380 

82 
330 
157 
476 

40 
416 
200 
514 

61 

350 
546 
478 
264 

64 

761 

215 



49 

556 

113 

289 

102 

405 

164 

270 

571 



81 

81 

97 

5 

30 
19 



101 





42 

63 

436 



197 
124 
170 
196 
76 
303 
1.180 
349 
857 

37 
196 

44 
145 

27 
174 
211 
525 

61 

225 
523 
276 
340 
267 
813 
189 
4 
40 

390 
189 
814 
154 

81 
103 
238 
325 
6 

30 
106 

82 

3 

86 
15 



72 
15 
2 
44 
44 
801 



24,374 



9,400 
3,655 
6,404 
4,697 
1,218 



475 

418 

855 

535 

258 

649 

3.085 

1.388 

2.237 



535 
201 
621 
67 
590 
411 
1,039 
122 

575 

1,069 

754 

604 

331 

1,574 

404 

4 



046 
302 
603 
256 
486 
267 
608 
896 
6 
61 
187 
179 

8 


66 
84 



173 
15 
2 
86 
97 

737 



Irtgonometry. 



Male. Female.' Total. 



4,441 



1,682 
631 
903 

1,033 
192 



26 
82 
84 
160 
84 
71 
525 
454 
287 

3 
128 
67 
149 
18 
80 
88 
140 
18 

167 
200 
171 
107 

10 
167 

44 


22 

831 
70 

102 
64 

102 
21 
75 

169 

1 

11 

35 

63 



2,586 



609 
845 



643 
102 





28 

7 

46 
82 
22 
100 
16 
162 

5 
82 
11 
71 

6 
40 
81 
144 

6 

120 
227 

02 
150 
116 
246 

16 
4 

17 

130 

112 

68 

62 

16 

7 

46 

130 





30 
83 

2 


7 
7 



7,036 



2,101 

076 

1.800 

1,676 

294 



35 
110 

41 
214 

66 

03 
724 
469 
430 

8 
100 

08 
220 

24 
120 

60 
284 

23 

287 
433 
263 
260 
135 
413 

69 
4 

3& 

461 
101 

170 

nc 

lis 

2^ 

121 

308 

1 

11 
65 
86 

2 

19 
12 



66 
6 

1 
32 
18 
150 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



78 



EDUCATION BEPOBT, 1893-94. 



Table 13. — Summary of statiatics of private $eoondary sckooU, 
STUDENTS PURSUING CERTAIN STUDIES. 



Stato or Territory. 



Physics. 



Male. Female. Total 



United States 12,550 



Korth Atlantic Division . . 
South Atlantic Division.. 
South Central Division... 
North Central Division... 
"Western Division 



North Atlantic Division : 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

]{bode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic Di\nsion : 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

South Central Division: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territory 

2forth Central Division: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western Division : 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

CaliTomia 



4,820 
1,907 
2.603 
2,547 
673 



190 
237 
159 
586 
90 
196 

1,244 
905 

1,213 

18 
195 

59 
450 

46 
467 
172 
436 

64 

273 
455 
409 
417 

86 

747 

165 



51 

510 

105 

328 

102 

322 

168 

285 

491 

3 

18 

93 

122 

9 



40 

12 



128 




44 
60 
380 



12,262 



3,909 
2,037 
3,406 
2,279 
631 



215 
04 
150 
432 
99 
325 
1.270 
377 
947 

32 
:^26 
158 
321 

37 
332 
235 
533 

63 

353 
610 
314 
575 
378 
973 
148 
5 
50 

369 
216 
356 
186 
129 

75 
230 
491 

10 

9 

120 



24.812 



8,729 
3,044 
6,000 
4,826 
1,304 



405 

331 

309 

1,018 

189 

521 

2,514 

1,282 

2,160 

50 
521 
217 
771 

83 
799 
407 
969 
127 

626 

1,065 

723 

992 

464 

1,720 

313 

5 

101 

879 
321 
684 
288 
451 
243 
515 
982 
13 
27 
213 
210 

19 



101 



Chemistry. 



Male. iFemale.i Total 



6, 216 ! 6, 025 



2,814 
830 
912 

1,329 
331 



208 



82 
61 
317 



126 
121 
697 



82 
162 

91 
331 

46 
109 
717 
615 
661 

16 
136 

28 

160 

7 

139 

72 
221 

51 

149 
190 
161 

83 

26 
211 

72 


20 



99 

79 

70 

69 

49 

246 

1 

6 

41 

83 

9 

23 
4 



113 




15 

18 

149 



2,051 
1,061 
1,382 
1,179 
352 



108 
88 
51 
339 
43 
124 
642 
183 
473 

21 
155 
102 
112 

16 
139 
111 
347 

58 

211 
295 

78 
141 
315 
283 

39 
3 

17 

207 

134 

209 

126 

19 

44 

72 

256 

10 



12,241 



4,865 
1,891 
2,294 
2,508 
G83 



53 



41 
152 



History. 



Male. Female. Total 



18,228 



190 
250 
142 
670 
89 
233 

1,359 
798 

1,134 

37 
291 
130 
272 

23 
278 
183 i 
568 , 
109 



485 
239 
224 
341 
494 
111 
3 
37 

711 
216 
308 
205 

89 
113 
121 
502 

11 
8 

81 
143 

14 

45 
11 



166 




87 

50 

301 



7,673 
3,389 
2,933 
3,523 
810 



460 

198 

1,033 

245 

468 

2,216 

1.094 

1,542 

45 
433 
234 
692 

34 
874 
383 
645 

49 

703 
649 
361 
318 

80 

570 

205 



47 

622 
222 
355 
161 
607 
206 
331 
684 

43 
117 
175 

18 




24 



22,190 



8,598 
3,856 
4,399 
3,940 
1,397 



394 
193 
216 

1,291 
156 
579 

2,960 
845 

1.964 

110 
751 
253 
iM5 

79 
650 
412 
868 

79 

741 
887 
386 
422 
662 
1,037 
176 
10 
78 

605 
453 
721 
308 
234 
165 
294 
759 
18 
73 
165 
145 

57 
21 
29 



40, 418 



189 
2 
1 
138 
97 
824 



16, 171 
7.245 
7,332 
7,4«3 
2,207 



702 

662 

414 

2,324 

401 

1,047 

6,176 

1,939 

8,506 

155 
1,184 

487 
1,337 

113 
1,533 

795 
1,513 

128 

1,444 

1,536 

747 

740 

742 

1,607 

381 

10 

125 

1,227 
675 

1,076 
469 
841 
371 
625 

1,443 

18 

116 

282 

320 

75 
21 
73 
63 



349 

2 

1 

231 

169 

1,223 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL fiETIEW OP 8E0OSDABT EDUCATION. 



79 



Table 14. — PtremiagtB for pritmie aecottdmry $ck0ol8, 
BTUDEirrS AND OOIJRS3CS OF STUDY. 





^1 

a 

1 


Per cent to total number. 1 


1 

1 


Stat© w Territory. 


^ 


P4 


1 


1 




United SkMiem 


118,645 


50.39 


49.61 


16.36 


a. 56 


46.04 


60.30 






NoiJi AtlaaticDiviska. 


44,283 
19,765 
24,459 
23,971 
6.147 


52.04 
50.45 
47.76 
5L68 
43.75 


47.96 
49.55 
52.24 
48.32 
56.25 

50.12 
37.47 
44.88 
51.60 
41.64 
55.87 
51.93 
38.42 
^.63 

59.25 
58.01 
40.83 
40.62 
58.52 
45.97 
51.17 
49.56 
54.03 

46.56 
51.33 
45.78 
52.43 
7.'J.42 
55.46 
46.57 
190.00 
39.92 

44.85 
66.64 
67.24 
57.88 
32.60 
39.31 
47.64 
47.03 
51.20 
64.73 
47.61 
47.23 

80.85 
100.00 
48.45 
56.49 


18.25 
19.36 
16.03 
12.25 
10.41 


11.37 
7.43 
7.67 
&84 

13.49 


11.67 
7.31 
6.57 
9.79 
0.45 


50.36 


Sooth Atlantic Divieieo 


43.68 


South Central Division - 


88.64 


liarth Cesitral Dtrision - - 


89.80 


Wfwten Division 


39.93 






Korth Atintic Division : 

^sfne :. 


3,001 
1.892 
2.442 
6,035 
819 
2,821 

12.270 
4.459 

10, M4 

373 
1,934 

887 
3.361 

581 
5,652 
1,835 
4.790 

372 

3.136 
5,812 
2,715 
3,046 
1.595 
6,013 
1,879 
15 
248 

4.696 

1,412 

3,169 

1,111 

1,923 

1,468 

2,502 

4,939 

166 

292 

794 

1.499 

94 

21 

386 

131 


49.88 
62.53 
55.12 
48.40 
58.36 
44.13 
48.07 
6L58 
54.37 

40.75 
41.99 
5a 17 
53.38 
41.48 
54.03 
48.83 
50.44 
45.97 

53.44 
48.67 
54.22 
47.67 
26.58 
44.54 
53.43 

00.08 

56.15 
33.36 
42.76 
42.12 
67.40 
00.69 
52.36 
52.97 
48.80 
35.27 
52.30 
62.77 

19.15 



51.55 

43.51 


18.46 
31.03 
10.89 
22.98 
13.01 
19.72 
15.88 
22.18 
15.98 

8.58 
12,10 
33.71 
20.02 
12.91 
20.65 
20.54 
17.95 
30.38 

15.91 
15.00 
17.09 
16.87 
11.47 
14.72 
26.08 


2.10 
12.05 

5.77 
12.74 

&30 

9.32 
ia29 
22.16 
11.80 

5.63 

15.10 
10.26 
5.59 
4.30 
«.78 
4.96 
7.49 
5.38 

6.73 
7.90 
7.62 
10.44 
4.89 
7.10 
6.49 


11.88 
U.47 
9.91 
12.44 
11.60 
13.86 
12.35 
lLe2 
10.07 

8.85 
8.68 
6.99 
6.96 
3.7t 
4.81 

15.48 
6.81 

12.87 

7.98 
6.18 
€.63 

8.14 
8.84 
5.21 
8.88 

22.18 

ao7 

8.14 
11.45 
11.79 
11.54 
12.53 
1L85 
8.06 
8.43 
&22 
7.93 
10.84 

5.82 

23.81 

6.48 

5.34 


37.94 


Now Hampaliire ..^.. 


46.93 


Venotmt - 


40.50 


'MaiwarbnfKitta 


62.58 


Khode Island 


56.84 


Cfltmecticut 


SO. 79 


If^w York -— .. 


46.60 


Ne"«r Jersev ..,..«.... ..... .... 


66.23 


Pesmavivaaia 


49.44 


fioBth Atlantic DiTi»i<m: 

Ddanraro - 


21.21 


MaTylan'l 


50.60 


Diatrietof Colvmfaia 


61.29 


Virgioia 


83.33 


W€«t Vinriaia .^ 


45.46 


North Caioliiia 


55.15 


Sontii Carolisa — - 


40.85 


OeoTfiA - — ...--..-.. ...... 


40.80 


Fioi^a 


32.61 


SonUi Central DivudMi: 

Keatmdky 


31.09 


TfwmrAsrn 


39.28 


Alabama 


41.11 


Misaiaaippi 


42.34 


I^ocifaiana 


44.68 


T<!X&s • . ................ 


28.43 


A rkanaaii 


54.80 


OklaiHiaia 





Indian Tftrritory -r...... 


5.24 

10.39 

8.99 

16.57 

5.40 

9.67 

6.68 

10.35 

14.76 

9.04 

20.55 

23.80 

13.34 

19.15 


2L37 

5.77 
.07 

15.62 
9.72 
2.60 
5.04 
7.63 

13.67 



6.85 

9.32 

10.67 

10.64 


63.64 


North Oentatl DiriaioB : 

Ohio 


24.27 


Tndijna.. 


45.22 


niiaois - 


43.25 


Micfaii^aui 


37.40 


Wiflorasiu - 


29.73 


MkiPMK»M 


51.09 


Iowa --.-.. 


40.80 


MiBSOTiri 


44.97 


North Dakota 


42.86 


t^oBtli Dakata 


50.00 


arcteaaka 


71.43 


IS^nnaas 


88.71 


WaateniDiTiiiian: 
Montana 


60.00 


l^yiaminQ . 




Colorado*".... 


9.33 
1.53 


33.16 
13.74 


82.00 




100. 00 






Utah ..— .- 


1.740 

80 

5 

747 

570 

2,405 


66.66 


22.89 
51.30 
41.12 


44.94 
100.00 
100.00 
77.11 
48.70 
53.88 


3.51 



20.00 

9.60 
18.13 
15.59 


6.44 
2.66 

**'6*96' 

18.31 
16.72 


6.00 
20.51 

5.76 
7.25 
14.14 


19.81 


Narada -.. 


25.00 


Idaho 





Wasfaineton 


55.81 


Oreeon 


57.14 


California 


42.06 







Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



80 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



Table 15. — Percentages for private secondary schools, 
PER CENT OF STUDENTS IN CERTAIN STUDIES. 



State or Territory. 



United States. 



North Atlantic Division 

South Atlautio Division. 
South Central Division.. 
North Central Division.. 
Western Division 



Per cent to total number of secondary students. 



I 



40.77 



44.67 
47.44 
36.22 
35.12 
31.38 



North Atlantic Division : 

Maino 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

Now Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Sonth Atlantic Division: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. . . 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

Sonth Central Division: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama I 40.33 

Mississippi I 35. 62 

Louisiana I 23. 45 

Texas ' 20.97 

Arkansas I 37.57 

Oklahoma | 80.00 

Indian Territory 

North Central Division: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western Division : 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 15.86 

Nevada 64.10 

Idaho 100. CO 

Washington 22.76 

Oregon 45.60 

Califomia 38.17 



35.02 
60.73 
29.73 
51.73 
52.38 
52.11 
30.95 
48.42 
45.29 

54.69 
58.79 
49.61 
52.22 
32.01 
41.74 
50.19 
46.22 
45.70 

45.76 
i.25 



27.42 

34.86 
43.63 
42.03 
24.03 
39.57 
31.13 
33.85 
32.21 
11.45 
34.25 
39.80 
31.69 

42.55 
85.71 
46.89 
24.43 



I 



9.04 



12.78 
7.77 
5.00 
7.98 
6.26 



13.36 
25.74 

8.31 
17.33 
14.65 
11.80 
10.86 
10.87 

8.08 

5.00 
0.98 
22.44 
4.25 
3.96 
7.78 
6.40 
9.31 
3.76 

9.92 
6.02 
4.00 
4.73 
2.57 
2.73 
4.47 

1.61 

6.86 
5.45 
8,27 
5.04 
15.70 
6.72 
6.83 
7.27 
2.41 
7.19 
13.10 
10.14 





24.61 

6.87 



18.85 



29.03 
18.39 
9.21 
11.07 
15.80 



1.55 
2.56 
20.00 
8.84 
9.50 
5.45 



12.23 
22.51 
11.26 
40.68 
43.47 
29.32 
36.11 
37.25 
19.50 

47.45 
45.55 
45.66 
20.50 
11.19 

7.01 
27.52 
10.25 

7.80 

9.57 
4.47 
9.50 
2.66 
63.32 
4.12 
4.90 
6.67 
1.21 

11.73 
15.44 
19.34 
16.74 
11.18 
7.83 
.80 
10.53 
6.02 
9.59 
3.40 
10.07 

13.83 



10.02 

2.29 



2.76 
10.26 

15.13 
15.72 
27.36 



S 
i 



16.25 



20.63 

9.73 

6.20 

30.68 

13.11 






44.37 



40.17 
51.99 
50.64 
40.97 
38.36 



S 



20.54 



2.17 
7.98 
7.08 
10.85 



34.72 
41.12 
25.22 
21.57 



11.48 I 49.45 
23.64 , 43.80 



27.65 
34.54 
22.75 

14.75 
33.87 
19.73 
14.31 
11.36 
4.58 
6.43 
2.15 
3.76 

9.25 
4.44 
3.68 
1.08 
2.70 
6.97 
5.59 
33.33 
3.23 

19.21 
20.96 
22.40 
23.49 
40. 02 
26.64 
14.51 
14.15 
2.41 
17.47 
17.51 
17.14 

1.06 



14.25 

.76 



7.53 
2.56 
40.00 
12.05 
20.55 
16.88 



43.22 
68.47 
42.64 

42.63 
67.32 
73.85 
51.32 
40.10 
42.87 
60 33 
52.07 
50.81 

50.86 
46. 32 
56.24 
47.64 
48.53 
51.44 
57.10 
66.67 
68.55 

42.82 
40.70 
35.88 
43.39 
40.20 
43.32 
41.69 
4.5.25 
25.30 
40.41 
40.68 
29.02 

89.36 
23.81 
42.49 

50.38 



21.09 
64.10 
80.00 
26.64 
46.46 
48.86 



21.23 
18.47 
22.09 
19.59 
19.82 



15.83 
22. 09 
14.54 
8.80 
31.50 
23.01 
25.14 
31.13 
21. 22 

18.50 
27.66 
22.60 
18.48 
11.53 
10.44 
22.40 
21.69 
32.80 

18.34 
18.39 
27. 77 
19.83 
20.75 
26.18 
21.50 
26.67 
35.89 

20.14 
21.39 
19.03 
23.04 
25.27 
18.19 
20.30 
18.14 
3.61 
20.89 
23.55 
11.94 

8.51 



17.10 

25.95 



P 

o 

faC 



5.93 



9.94 
38.46 
40.00 
11.51 
10.75 
30.04 



4.95 
5.05 
7.70 
0.09 

4.78 



1.17 
5.81 
1.68 
2.55 
8.06 
3.30 
5.90 
10.52 
4.16 

2.14 
8.27 
7.67 
6.55 
4.13 
2.12 
3.76 
5.93 
6.18 

9.15 
7.45 
9.69 
8.73 
8.46 
6.87 
3.14 
26.67 
15.73 

9.82 
13.53 
5.36 
10.44 
0.14 
1.91 
4.95 
6.24 
.60 
3.77 
8.19 
5.74 

2.13 



4.92 

9.16 






20.91 



3.16 
12.82 
20.00 
4.28 
3.11 
6.24 



19.71 
19.93 
24.57 
20.13 
21.21 



13.50 
17.49 
12.65 
16.87 
23.08 
18.47 
20.49 
28.7a 
20.49 

13.40 
26.94 
24.46 
22.94 
14.29 
14.14 
22.18 
20.23 
34.14 

19.96 
18.32 
26.63 
32.57 
29.09 
28.60 
16.60 
33.33 
40.73 

18.72 
22.73 
21.58 
25.92 
23.45 
16.55 
20.58 
19.88 
7.83 
9.25 
26.83 
14.01 

20.21 



26,17 

22.90 



11.95 
6.13 



16.87 
20.90 
28.98 



i 



10.32 



10.99 
9.66 
9.38 
10.46 
11.11 



6.33 
13.21 

6.81 
11.10 
10.87 

8.26 
11.08 
17.90 
10.76 

9.02 
15.05 
14.66 
8.00 
8.06 
4.02 
0.07 
11.86 
20.30 

11.48 
8.34 
8.80 
7.35 

21.38 
8.22 
6.01 

20.00 

14.02 

15.14 

15.30 
0.72 

18.45 
4.63 
7.70 
4.05 

10.16 
6.63 
2.74 

10.20 
0.64 

14.80 



11.66 

8.40 



0.64 




11.65 
10.19 
12.52 



I 

H 



34.07 



36.52 
86.62 
20.08 
31.13 
85.00 



84.00 
16.05 
38.51 
48.06 
87.12 
42.16 
43.40 
33.25 

41.65 
61.22 
64.01 
30.78 
10.45 
27.12 
43.32 
81.50 
84.41 

46.06 
26.43 
27.51 
24.20 
46.52 
26.73 
20.28 
66.67 
60.40 

26.13 
47.80 
33.95 
42.21 
43.73 
25.27 
24.08 
20.22 
10.84 
80.73 
36.52 
21.36 

79.70 
100.00 
18.01 
48.09 



20.06 
5.13 
20.00 
30.02 
20.19 
60.85 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OP SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



81 



B 

J. 

I 



^1^ 



o 



§ s 

T P 

I ^ 

3 § 



I 



< 



gas§ 

5.25 I 





H 



I 



ii 



o V s 

o 






S 









cg8 



3 



•5^ . 



I 



H 

I 

00 






38Ss" 









Siia" 



CO 00 jp 00 



3S§° 






55i|S 



Sslli 



5a§i8 



gg§iisi«§ i§ii§§i§i i§i§isr§ 



aaag«sss56 "s-^s^sss" ss^sass** 



si§g«gssi 'lisiisii isa§is§°i 



SSi^lg^^S lllgsg§§i §§i§gli"§ 



SaaS'-SSSS "S^S-Si??!* sssssss** 



siiiiiSi' 'i°3°5iii isiiiiri 

r^ f-l 9< rs r-t r-t fH 



4 M ■« CO rt eO ifl '^ O O>AO-<«iOC4a0«iH 00 '-i 3 £ rl 1^ a O r4 



22g- «5SS"S« 



isiiiii^i isgiiigsi iii§§i§§§ 

iiSI'^g'i^l' S§li2li|s §iS§!5i"s's* 



^ fHt-mt* 



5Si8*ss!a3 «?!'*g^§?;?'- r;s:52as§'^^ 






?j8c5S^S98S "S^1?**5S?§^ :;2S5$S2§5 




ED 94 6 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



82 



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EDUCATION EEPOBT, 1898-94. 






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Digitized by VjOOQIC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OF SBOONDABY EDUCATION. 



88 



Table 17. — Denominational mUboU included in the tahlee of jprivate eecondanj schools, 

{See Table 18.) 



Hti^mtmtTitOTj, 



KoTth A (Ian tic IMvitlcm 
^utii^Uiuilio DirUioa 
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Miiaw ....*.», .- 

Kew 11ilin|l«itirQ. ... - - 
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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



84 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

Table IS,— Denominational achoola, number of teachers, and students — Continned. 



State or Territory. 



United SUtes . 



67 



North Atlantic Division. . 17 
South Atlantic Division.. 19 
South Central Division. .. 13 
Korth Central Division... 6 
Western Division 2 

North Atlantic Division : 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Kbodelsland 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic Division : 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. . . 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

Sooth Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

South Central Division : 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

MisRissippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territory 

North Central Division : 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western DiA'ision : 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

California 



Methodist. 



822 



1 


9 








2 


20 


1 


14 


1 


12 


1 


2 


7 


51 


2 


32 


2 


23 



5,781 



163 2,949 



50 



1,330 
779 



48 



246 

347 
206 
211 
11 
707 
487 
674 

128 
179 


135 
84 
508 
175 
177 



4 

250 

32 

79 



257 

120 











60 

199 



291 





51 








13 




35 




Methodist 

Episco- 
pal South. 



201 



4,333 





787 

2,593 

948 

15 



















70 

239 

84 



288 

106 

818 

990 



228 

68 

727 

172 



90 





427 







173 

848 


















15 



Presbyterian. 



97 



19 



333 



4,889 



254 



1. 15D 
1.306 
1,044 
1,103 
277 















122 

580 

457 

50 





847 

104 

397 

281 

127 



358 

104 



248 



246 

II 



77 

189 

54 

118 

11 

93 



90 

295 





144 

109 




60 

141 





70 



Boman Catholic. 



Other denomi- 
nations. 



1,062 



121 
186 
305 
161 



7 

16 
15 
16 
20 
141 
20 
54 



45 

36 

1 

5 

5 

8 

14 

7 

49 

23 

7 

4 

06 

35 



2 



44 
24 
41 
23 
35 
31 
32 
44 
4 
5 

10 
12 

4 
4 

17 

8 

8 

1 



27 

14 

78 



5 



13.127 



48 207 3,727 



3,633 
1,356 
2,164 
3.992 
1,982 




71 
153 
200 
139 
2.030 
341 
619 



464 

456 

IB 

40 

113 

100 

105 

60 

595 

351 

61 

65 

663 

414 



15 



460 
514 
531 
366 
443 
478 
329 
469 
50 
71 
70 
211 

59 

21 
164 

69 
170 

10 



510 

147 

832 



1,041 
400 
462 
493 

1,331 





30 

142 

206 





115 

97 

451 





184 
85 

131 




253 
73 

119 
18 





67 


54 




77 

205 







100 





1,190 




56 
79 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAIi REVIEW OP SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



85 



Table 19. — Averages for public and private high echooh, 
TEACHERS AND STUDENTS. 



State or Territory. 



United States. 



North AtlanUc Diviaion. . 
South Atlantic Diviftion.. 
South Central Division... 
North Central Division... 
Western Division 



North AUantic Division : 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

If assachnsetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New J ersey 

Peiinsy vania 

South Atlantic Division: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. . . 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

South Central Division : 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territory 

North Central Division : 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsiu 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nt'braska 

Kansas 

Western Division : 

Montana 

Wvoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

AriEona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Orepin 

California 



Public high schools. 



'1 

Eg 

I 



3.7 
2.8 
2.5 
2.9 
3.3 



2.4 
2.0 
2.3 
4.7 
6.5 
3.9 
3.9 
3.9 
3.2 

2.9 
3.2 
22.2 
2.3 
1.9 
2.2 
2.6 
2.4 
2.4 

3.2 
2.1 
2.0 
2.4 
5.0 
2.7 
2.1 
1.7 
2.0 

2.6 
2.6 
3.5 
3.2 
2.5 
4.0 
2.8 
3.3 
2.1 
1.8 
2.4 
2.4 

2.4 
2.5 
4.0 
1.3 
1.7 
6.6 
1.9 
1.8 
2.8 
2.5 
4.0 



5 

II 

•O Q 

f 



73 



57 
65 
53 
120 
159 
98 
88 
92 
81 

72 

69 

488 

47 
39 
52 
51 
57 
40 

79 
47 
89 
45 
88 
60 
52 
30 



65 
03 
87 
80 
59 
90 
01 
88 
32 
38 
53 
58 

48 
80 
84 
24 
46 

149 
56 
36 
67 
82 

111 



93 



24 



•'I 



147 



122 
111 
181 
156 
182 



l-s 

es a 

a 

1 



9.4 



Private secondary schools. 



4.0 



12.4 I 
0.5 
4.5 I 
9.1 I 

10.8 : 



6.2 
3.1 
3.1 
4.3 
3.8 



20 


7.8 


4.3 


15 


0.0 


6.0 


97 


8.0 


5.8 


9 


18.7 


5.5 


5 


16.7 


7.0 


58 


12.8 


4.4 


232 


10.2 


5.2 


313 


13.3 


4.8 


129 


12.4 


5.5 


127 


9.3 


4.5 


129 


7.4 


4.6 





104.0 


5.1 


100 


4.9 


2.8 


153 


5.4 


3.3 


246 


4.5 


2.7 


131 


3.0 


2.7 


79 


5.3 


2.8 


103 


2.0 


3.0 


157 


8.2 


2.8 


142 


4.4 


3.1 


124 


2.4 


2.7 


152 


3.5 


2.4 


88 


16.6 


3.7 


205 


3.5 


4.2 


374 


6.0 


2.7 


716 




2.0 


143 


2.0 


2.6 


123 


8.7 


4.8 


148 


8.0 


3.3 


107 


11.8 


6.0 


238 


9.7 


4.2 


102 


7 9 


4.6 


189 


10.4 


4.5 


161 


9.4 


4.0 


266 


11.5 


3 9 


54 


4.0 


2.7 


70 


4.0 


4.2 


180 


0.5 


4.1 


153 


7.5 


4.5 


427 


5.8 


1.5 


512 


9.0 


4.0 


146 


9.8 


4.7 


91 


2.7 


2.8 


65 


8.0 
12.0 







4.6 


175 


8.0 


2.5 


378 


5.4 


1.0 


180 


7.8 


3.6 


310 


11.8 


3.8 


120 


14.8 


3.9 



60 



15 






48 



84 
29 
66 

23 
54 

42 
62 
82 
86 

40 
67 
56 

00 
67 
72 
51 
25 
146 

86 
61 
64 

148 
40 
47 
62 
36 
68 



65 
66 
106 



I- 
1 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



86 



EDUCATION EEPORT, 1893-94. 



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STATISTICAL BEVIEW OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



87 





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88 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



Table 21. — Summary of staiiatics of public and private high schools, 
SCHOOLS, INSTRUCTORS, AND STUDENTS. 



State or Territory. 



Num- 
ber of 
schools. 



United States 

North Atlantic Division... 
Soutli Atlantic Division... 

Soutli Central Division 

Nortli Central Division 

Western Div islon 

North Atlantic Division: 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massacbusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic Division: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District uf Columbia. . . 

Virginia 

Weet Virginia 

Nort h Carolina 

South Carolina 

Geor^ria 

Florida 

South Central Division: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territory 

North Central Division : 

Ohio 

Indiana 

niinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

M issouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska . . -• 

Kansas 

Western Division: 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Wanhington 

Oregon 

California 



5,946 



1,725 
700 
824 

2,397 
300 



Second- 
ary 
students. 



146 

70 

74 

304 

22 

117 

498 

132 

362 

18 
81 
18 

149 
25 

124 
81 

177 
27 

115 

183 

92 

131 

45 

180 

58 

4 

7 

454 
226 
823 
256 
197 
111 
294 
198 
15 
25 
148 
150 

18 

3 

41 

11 

3 

21 

10 

6 

35 

25 

127 



407,019 



138. 570 
37.522 
45.621 

165,309 
20,897 



9,282 
4.732 
4,956 
81, 272 
2,880 
8,307 
38.883 
10,250 
28,508 

1,232 
6,049 
2,841 
6,350 
1,206 
6,323 
8,678 
9,797 
1,046 

6.459 
9,662 
4,161 
6,034 
2.475 
13,244 
3,182 
104 
300 

30.775 

14,323 

26.779 

20,235 

11.919 

9,288 

18. 142 

15,456 

548 

1,020 

7,872 

8,952 

765 

180 

3,228 

273 

139 

2,037 

489 

165 

2,287 

1,559 

9,755 



Male. 



Number. 



176,988 



Per 
cent. 



43.39 



61.833 
17, 217 
20.516 
68,675 
8,747 



44.62 
45.89 
44.97 
42.51 
41.86 



4,170 
2,383 
2.439 

13,959 
1.249 
8,756 

16,465 
6,190 

12,222 

522 
2,078 
1,135 
2.987 

467 
3.358 
1,696 
4,520 

446 

3,048 
4,428 
2,009 
2,865 

726 

6.677 

1,565 

81 

167 

13,496 
5,767 
9,872 
8.296 
5,526 
4,044 
7.602 
6,602 
243 
406 
3,264 
8,657 



79 

1,355 

128 

60 

1,070 

167 

77 

809 

678 

4,041 



44.92 
50.36 
49.21 
44.64 
43.87 
45.22 
42.90 
50.64 
42.87 

42.37 
41.16 
39.95 
47.04 
88.72 
53.11 
46.33 
46.23 
42.54 

47.19 
45.83 
48.28 
47.48 
29.33 
42.86 
49.18 
29.81 
55.67 

43.85 
40.26 
36.87 
41.00 
46.36 
43.54 
41.90 
42.07 
44.34 
39.80 
46.45 
40.85 

38.80 
43.89 
41.98 
46.89 
35.97 
52.63 
34.15 
41.62 
85.37 
43.49 
4L42 



Female. 



Number. 



230, 931 



76. 737 
20,305 
25.105 
96.634 
12.150 



Per 
cent. 



56.61 



55.38 
54.11 
55.03 
57.49 
58.14 



Classical prepara- 
tory. 



Number. 



42,180 



17,110 
6,014 
6.959 

10.511 
1,586 



6,112 


66.08 


2.349 


49.64 


2.517 


50.79 


17,313 


55.36 


1,631 


66.63 


4.551 


54.78 


21,018 


57.10 


6,060 


49.36 


16,286 


57.13 


710 


57.63 


2,971 


58.84 


.1,706 


Gi).05 


8,363 


52.96 


739 


61.28 


2.965 


46.89 


1,982 


53.67 


6,268 


53.77 


601 


57.46 


8,411 


52.81 


6.234 


54.17 


2,152 


5L72 


8,169 


52.52 


1,749 


70.67 


7,667 


67.14 


1,617 


50.82 


73 


70.19 


133 


44.33 


17, 279 


56.15 


8.556 


59.74 


16.907 


63.13 


11,939 


59.00 


6,393 


53.64 


5.244 


66.46 


10, 540 


58.10 


8,954 


57.93 


305 


55. 66 


614 


60.20 


4,608 


53.55 


6.295 


59.15 


472 


6L70 


101 


56. U 


1,873 


58.02 


145 


53.11 


89 


64.03 


967 


47.47 


822 


65.85 


108 


58.38 


1, 478 


64.63 


881 


56.51 


6,714 


58.58 



1.673 

883 

623 

5,150 

618 

1,191 

3.581 

1,288 

2,403 

162 
354 
332 

1,029 
124 

1.313 
713 

1.827 
160 

972 

1,237 

742 

1,175 

238 

1,921 

664 

7 

13 

1,876 
723 

1,664 
738 
519 
373 

1,044 

1,363 
76 
141 
941 

1,053 





203 

20 

6 

67 

25 

26 

199 

136 

807 



Per 
cent. 



10.84 



12.35 

16.03 

15.26 

6.35 

7.59 



16.94 
18.66 
10.55 
16.47 
17.99 
14.34 

9.80 
12.57 

8.42 

13.15 
7.01 
1L09 
16.20 
10.28 
20.77 
19.39 
18.65 
15.30 

15.05 
12.80 
17.83 
10.64 
9.61 
14.50 
20.66 
6,73 
4.33 

6.09 
6.04 
6.21 
8.64 
4.35 
4.01 
5.75 
8.81 
13.87 
13.83 
11.95 
11.76 

12.81 

6.26 
7.32 
8.60 
8.28 
5.11 

14.05 
8.70 
8.72 
8.27 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OP SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



89 



Table 22. — Summary of atatiaiica of public and private high achoola. 
STUDENTS AND COURSES OF STUDY. 



Stat© or Territory. 



Scientific pre- 
paratory 



Number. 



Per 
cent. 



United States. 



North Atlantic Dirislon. 
South Atlaotio Division. 
South Central Division.. 
North Central Division.. 
Western Division 



North Atlantic Division : 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Maanachnsetts 

Khode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Sooth Atlantic Division : 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. 

Virginia 

"West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

Sooth Central Division: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

L^uidana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territory 

North Central Division: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wiscousin 

Minnestoa 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansns 

W^tem Division : 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

Caliiomia 



29.936 



7.33 



10. 442 
2,083 
3,705 

11,482 
2,224 



7.53 
5.56 
8.12 
6.94 
10.64 



329 


3.54 


422 


8.91 


540 


10.90 


1,942 


6.20 


192 


6.66 


712 


8.57 


2,940 


7.66 


1,319 


12.87 


2,046 


7.17 


31 


2.51 


327 


6.47 


109 


3.83 


294 


4.63 


26 


2.15 


430 


6.80 


270 


7.34 


514 


5.24 


82 


7.83 


441 


6.82 


733 


7.58 


278 


5.30 


623 


10.32 


110 


2.80 


970 


7.32 


497 


15.62 


53 


17.67 


1,632 


5.30 


561 


3.91 


1.996 


7.45 


1.691 


8.35 


666 


5.58 


1,582 


17.03 


933 


5.14 


1.255 


8.12 


70 


12.77 


75 


7.35 


453 


6.75 


568 


6.34 


68 


8.88 


2 


1.11 


388 


12.02 


45 


16.48 


10 


7.19 


112 


5.49 


20 


4.09 


n 


6.94 


171 


7.47 


134 


8.59 


1,2C3 


12.02 



Total college pre- G rad u ates in 
paratory. 1804. 



Number. 



72,116 



27, 552 
8,097 
10,664 
21,993 
8,810 



1,902 
1,305 
1,063 
7,092 
710 
1,903 
6,521 
2.607 
4,449 



193 

681 

441 

1,323 

1,272 

1,743 

983 

2,341 

242 



1,413 

1,970 

1,020 

1,798 

348 

2,891 

1.151 

7 

00 

3,508 
1,284 
3,660 
2,429 
1.185 
1,955 
1,977 
2,618 
146 
216 
1,394 
1,621 

166 
2 

591 
65 
15 

179 
45 
37 

370 

270 
2,070 



Per 
cent. 



17.67 



Number. 



48, 479 



Per 



11.88 



19.88 
21.58 
23.37 
13.29 
18.23 



18, 302 
3.370 
3,363 

20, 973 
2.471 



20.48 
27.57 
21.45 
22.67 
24.05 
22.91 
16.96 
25.44 
15.59 

15.66 
13.48 
15.52 
20.83 
12.43 
27.57 
26.73 
23.89 
23.13 

21.87 
20.38 
22.13 
29.96 
12. 41 
21.82 
36.17 
6.73 
22.00 

n.39 
8.95 
13.66 
11.99 
9.93 
21.04 
10.89 
16.93 
26.64 
21.17 
17.70 
18.10 

21.69 

1.11 

18.28 

23.80 

10.78 

8.77 

9.20 

10.90 

16.17 

17.31 

21.19 



1,195 

655 

660 

4.670 

312 

1,091 

4.534 

1.364 

3,821 

145 
501 
478 
544 
109 
331 
393 
789 
80 

582 
721 
269 
485 
807 
743 
197 

59 

3,881 

1,737 

3.578 

2,449 

1,560 

1,089 

2,700 

1,779 

62 

100 

921 

1,117 



Zi 

358 

23 

24 

130 

77 

27 

222 

184 

1,317 



13.21 
8.98 
7.37 
12.69 
11.82 



12.87 
13.84 
13.32 
14.93 
10.83 
13.13 
11.81 
13.31 
13.40 

11.77 
9.92 

16. 83 
8.56 
9.03 
5.48 

10.69 
7.87 
7.64 

9.01 
7.46 
6.46 
8.03 

11.85 

5.61 

6.19 



19.67 

12.61 

12.13 
13.36 
12.10 
13.09 
11.72 
14.88 
11.51 
11.31 
9.80 
11.70 
12.48 

11.24 
12.75 
11.09 

8.42 
17.27 

6. ,39 
15. 75 
14.59 

9.70 
11.80 
13.50 



Graduates pre- 
pared for college. 



Number. 



14,988 



5.444 
1,158 
1.106 
6.398 
882 



352 
227 
248 

1,255 
129 
882 

1,632 
438 
881 

35 
130 
101 
137 

29 
178 
192 
825 

81 

158 
202 

91 
240 

76 
234 

70 


35 



479 
941 
812 
415 
485 
844 
638 
38 
31 
468 
456 

17 
8 

129 
15 
6 
83 
13 
16 
66 
60 

630 



Per 
cent. 



30.02 



29.75 
84.36 
32.89 
30.51 
35. 6e 



29.46 
34.66 
37.68 
26.87 
41.36 
86.01 
83.79 
82.11 
23.06 

24.10 
25.95 
21.18 
25.18 
26.61 
63.78 
48.86 
4L10 
88.75 

26.53 
28.02 
83.83 
48.48 
24.76 
81.49 
86.63 

69.39 

22.96 
27.68 
26.30 
83.16 
26.60 
44.54 
89.36 
80.24 
61.29 
81.00 
60.81 
40.82 

19.77 
84.78 
86.04 
66.22 
20.83 
26.38 
16.88 
69.26 
25.23 
82.61 
40.24 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



90 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-W. 



Tablk 23. — Summary of statiaUca of public and private high achoola, 
STUDENTS IN CERTAIN STUDIES. 



SUte or Territory. 



Latin. 



I 



Greek. 



French. 



German. 



Num- 
ber. 



Per Nam- 
cent. I ber. 



United States 

North Atlantic Divialon. 
Sontb Atlantic TMvision . 
South Central DlTiaion.. 
North Central DiTiaion.. 
Western Division. .' 



. 177,898 ' 43.5«» 20,353 



North Atlantic Division: 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

MasHachuBotts 

Kliude Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylrania 

South Atlantic Division: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Di.itnctot' Columbia.. 

Virginia 

TVest Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georpia 

Florida 

Sooth Central Di\ision: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mlssissipxii 

LouiHiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territory 

Nortli Central Division: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

IllinoJH 

!&Iichi;;an 

IViHconsin 

iMinnesotu 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

"Western Division : 

Montana 

W vomiug 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

A r i zona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

California 



60.822 
20,681 I 
19,807 i 
69, 132 
8,456 ' 



4,210 
2, 620 
1,831 

15,790 
1,578 
4,314 

13. W 5 
4,081 

12,753 

840 
3,314 
1,010 
3,555 

386 
2,928 
1,810 
5,049 

574 

3,450 

4,210 

2,155 

2,478 

90S 

5,183 

1, 272 

05 

80 

15, 074 
8,o:i4 
9,719 
6,490 
3,164 
4.470 
6,684 
5,939 
334 
406 
3,476 
4,342 

379 

119 

1,857 

74 

24 

403 

103 

49 

702 

488 

4,258 



43.91 
55.12 
43.42 
41.42 
40.46 



11.979 

2,213 

1,.583 

3,773 

805 



Per 
cent. 



Num- 
ber. 



Per 



Num- 
ber. 



4.0Q I 42,072 10.31 62,152 



45. 36 


1,247 


55.37 


708 


36.95 


389 


50.49 


3,502 


54.79 


360 


51.93 


757 


35.55 


2,538 


39.82 


1,048 


44.73 


1,430 



68.91 
45.83 
56.88 
55.98 
32.01 
36.78 
49.21 
57.66 
54.88 

53.41 
43.63 
51.79 
41.07 
36.69 
39.13 
39.98 
62.50 
26.66 

48.98 
56.00 
36.29 
32.07 
20. 55 
48.13 
36.84 
38.42 
60.95 
39.80 
44.16 
48.50 

«9.54 
66.11 
57.63 
27.11 
17.67 
19.78 
21.06 
26.49 
30.69 
31.30 
43.65 



19 ! 
300 I 
297 
155 I 

23 I 
450 
139 
809 

"1 

448 

381 

177 

185 

41 

256 

91 



4 

892 
138 
008 
410 
336 
252 
211 
400 
4 
21 
212 
199 

d 


237 

9 


32 

1 

1 
102 
.•>5 
368 



8.64 
5.89 
3.47 
2.28 
3.85 



13.43 
14.96 

7.84 
11.20 
12.49 

9.11 

6.61 
10.22 

5.01 

1.54 
5.94 
10.45 
2.44 
1.90 
7.11 
3.77 
8.25 
2.00 

6.93 
3.94 
4.25 
3.06 
1.65 
1.93 
2.86 

1.33 



.96 
1.79 
2.02 
2.81 
2.71 
1.16 
3.24 

.72 
2.05 
2.69 
2.22 



20,436 I 18.36 21,398 

5, 156 I 13. 74 ; 4, 152 

3,119 I 6.83 2,079 

6,750 I 3.47 '21,922 

1,611 1 7.70 2,601 



Per 

cent. 



Algebra. 



Num- 
ber. 



12.78 ,215,023 



1/V.4& 

ll.it7 

i:i. 2fi 

12,45 



' 011.221 
, 27, 21-3 

i ii.ii^tj 



1,243 
1,051 

568 
11,046 

858 
1,462 
6,828 
1,890 
2,490 

177 

1,084 

612 

931 

66 

409 

58-1 

1,235 

58 

329 

290 

385 

117 

1,602 

295 

97 

1 

3 

924 

218 

1,700 

807 

257 

520 

71 

816 

10 

40 

157 

170 

28 









7.34 


281 


3.29 


3 








1.67 


73 


.20 


4 


.54 





4.46 


136 


3.52 


91 


3.77 


995 



13.39 
22.73 
11.46 
35.32 
29.79 
17.60 
15.10 
18.44 
8.73 

14.37 

21.47 

21.54 

14.66 

5.47 

6.46 

15.88 

12.61 

5.54 

5.09 
3.00 
9.25 
1.93 
G4.73 
2.22 
3.04 
.76 
1.00 

3.00 
1.52 
6.57 
3.98 
2.15 
5.59 
.39 
5.27 
1.80 
3.92 
1.99 
1.89 

3.66 



8.70 

1.09 



3.58 

.81 



5.94 

5.83 

10.20 



161 

160 

274 

2,737 

319 

1,317 

8,102 

3,308 

5,020 

64 

1,700 
764 
943 

66 
259 
128 
192 

36 

744 

294 

159 

36 

43 

634 

136 

15 

8 

3,585 

1,455 

3,821 

3,432 

2,886 

1,493 

1,744 

1,051 

8 

87 

749 

1,011 

16 



839 

3 



155 

9 

2 

277 

324 

970 



1.73 
3.38 
5.62 

8.75 
11.08 
15.85 
21.11 
32.27 
17.61 

5.19 

33.67 

26.89 

14.85 

5.47 

4.09 

3.48 

L96 

3.44 

11.62 
3.04 
3.82 
.59 
1.73 
4.78 
4.27 
14.42 
I 2.66 

I 11.65 

' 10.16 

14. 27 

16.96 

24.21 

12,77 

9.61 

10.68 

1.44 

8.52 

9.51 

11.29 

2.09 



25.99 

1.09 



7.60 

1.83 

1.08 

12.11 

20.78 

10.01 



Per 
cent. 



52.71 



4,369 
2,081 
1,747 

11,988 
1,370 
4,293 

16.924 
6.546 

16,904 

732 
8,737 
1,355 
3,778 

678 
2,918 
2,174 
6,850 

587 

4.033 
6,194 
2,684 
3.246 
1,2»4 
8,451 
2,013 
99 
189 

17,812 
8.264 

13,334 
9,671 
6,436 
4,508 
9,834 
8,977 
243 
671 
4.401 
5.048 

446 

91 

1,761 

168 

15 

611 

433 

104 

1,051 

056 

6,051 



47.81 
67.86 
59.68 
53.30 
55.98 



47.07 
43.98 
35.26 
88.33 
47.57 
51.68 
44.09 
63.85 
69.30 

50.42 
74.01 
47.60 
69.50 
56.22 
46.15 
59. 11 
59.71 
56.12 

62.44 
63.76 
61.50 
63. 79 
52.28 
63.81 
63.26 
95.10 
63.00 

57.88 
57.70 
49.79 
47.79 
45.01 
48.54 
54.20 
58.08 
4.5.20 
65.98 
55.91 
66.39 

50. 4S 
60.56 
54.55 
61.54 
11.04 
29.90 
88.55 
66.22 
45.95 
61.32 
62.03 



Digitized 



byG00gI( 



STATISTICAL BE VIEW OP SECONDABf EDUCATION. 



91 



Table 24. — SHmmarif of ataihiios of public and pnrate hitjh schools. 
STUDENTS IX CEKTAIX STUDIES. 




United SUtes 103.0&4 . 25.1 



North Atlantic Division. 
South Atlantic Division. 
South Central Division.. 
North Central Division. . 
Western Diviaun 



Korth Atlantic Division: 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Maasacliosett.s 

Rhode Island 

Connecticnt 

New Yorlj 

Kew Jersey 

Pennsvlvajjin 

Soath AtUmtic Division: 

Delaware 

Harrland 

IHstriot of CoInmUia. . 

Virginia 

"West Virginia 

North Carolina 

Sonth Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

Sonth Central Division: 

Kentucky 

Tenneasce 

Alabama 

Misaissippl 

I^niKiana 

Texas 

Arkansn» 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territorv 

Korth Central Divi'aion: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michij^an 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North DakoU 

South DakoU 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

VTestem Division: 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

WMhington 

Oregon 

Cahfomia 




22.47 
2.'}. 82 
10.01 
24.04 
26.87 
28.28 
23.31 
28.53 
27.24 



387 31.41 

2, 776 I M. 08 

709 I 24. 96 

1,323 20.83 

236 I 10.57 

727 11.47 

704 I 10. 14 

2,451 I 25.02 

299 28.59 



1,801 

2,101 

1,241 

1,177 

098 

4,405 

777 

41 

96 

8,559 
3,638 
6.745 
4,046 
2,616 
2,283 
4.241 
3,758 
126 
230 
2,035 
2.140 

134 

39 

952 

63 

12 

292 

ISO 

48 

516 

378 

3.741 



4, 'Jt'/2 
3.1i?5 

mi 



65 

138 

45 

470 

74 

313 

1.319 

627 

1,211 

41 
484 
128 
369 

48 
121 

79 
804 

51 



I 



27.81 
25.40 
25.19 
19.00 
21.05 
24.58 
23.38 
24.31 
22.90 
22.55 
25.85 
33.90 

17.52 
21.67 
24.49 
23.03 
8.83 
14.33 
32.52 
25.06 
22.56 
24.25 
38.35 



3.07 


31,130 ; 22.48 


15, 745 


11.37 


5.66 


9, 398 25. 05 


3,201 


8.53 


7.61 


13, 240 29. 03 


4,742 


10 64 


3.00 


38, 015 23. 38 


15,304 


9.25 


3.19 


5,555 26.58 


3,068 


14. C8 



27.82 


785 , 


1 21.74 


605 1 


1 29.82 


411 


19.51 


414 


28.20 


1.35 


33.94 


936 


J 24.42 


142 


! 39.42 


7 


I 32.00 


48 



1,928 
432 , 
569 
312 
173 I 
76 I 
381 I 
673 I 

251 
205 
189 

19 
20 

142 
12 

61 
10 
1 
60 
36 

306 



49. 625 
16.412 
16.115 
53.092 
10, 695 



.70 
2.96 

.90 
1.50 
2.50 
3.76 
3.43 
6.11 
4.24 

3.32 
9.58 
4.50 
5.81 
3.98 
1.91 
2.14 
8.20 
4.87 

12.15 
6.26 
0.87 
6.86 
5.45 
7.06 
4.46 
6.73 

15.33 

6.20 
3.01 
2.12 
1.54 
1.45 

.81 
2.10 
4.35 

.36 
2.45 
2.60 
2.11 

2.48 
11.11 
4.39 
4.30 

2.09 
2.04 
.54 
2.62 
2.30 
3.13 



1,927 
1,116 

753 
C,790 

033 
1.907 
6,283 
2,005 
8,766 

363 

2,357 

560 

1,610 

231 

962 

916 

2,070 

329 

1.559 
2,230 
1.253 
2, 182 

720 
4.525 

630 
20 

121 

6.868 
4,000 
0,417 
4,108 
2.342 
1,7:W 
4,307 
3,874 



2,114 
2, 415 

212 

855 

65 

12 

272 

299 

49 

509 

378 

2,801 



20.76 
23.58 
15.10 
21.71 
21.98 
22.06 
16.37 
29.22 
30.75 

20.46 
46.68 
10.71 
25.35 
10. Ui 
15.21 
24.01 
21.13 
31.45 

24.14 
23.08 
30.07 
36. 16 
29.33 
34.17 
19.80 
19.23 
40.33 

22.32 I 
27.93 I 
23.96 
20. 75 
19.65 
1«.C0 
24.07 
25. OG 
17.88 
21. 18 
26.85 
20.98 

27.69 
12.78 
20.49 
20.15 
8.83 
13. 35 
01.14 
26.49 
22. 20 
24. 25 
29.64 



849 

596 

362 

4,111 

295 

789 

3,411 

1.323 

4,000 

171 
427 
282 
538 
65 
344 
218 



052 

000 

499 

403 

518 

1,223 

198 

3 

46 

3,081 

1.511 

2,903 

1,930 

505 

773 

1,338 

1.617 

44 

32 

834 

730 

116 



568 

12 

3 

176 

144 



208 

188 

1,654 



I 



9.14 
12.60 

7.30 
13.15 
10.24 

9.40 

8.88 
12. 91 
14.06 

13.88 
8.45 
9.92 
8.47 
5.39 
5.44 
5.92 
10.01 
17.40 

11.71 
0.31 

11.91 
6.67 

20.93 
9.23 
6.-22 
2.88 

15.33 

10.01 
10.55 
10.81 
9.56 
4.23 
8.32 
7.37 
10.40 
7.92 
3.13 
10.59 
8.15 

15.16 


17.60 
4.30 
2 20 
8.64 

29.45 



9.09 

12.06 

10.96 



2.557 
1.628 
1.146 

13.211 
1.475 
2.030 

11,500 
4,200 

10, 870 

402 
3,300 
1,523 
3,051 

484 
1,921 
1,647 
3,545 

540 

2,585 
3.073 
1,471 
1,704 
1.461 
4,722 

831 
71 

137 

9,277 
5,010 
8,710 
6. 258 
3,456 
2,842 
5, 893 
4,344 
172 
372 
2,798 
2,051 

249 

68 

2.037 

122 

79 

436 

317 

39 

712 

660 

5,976 



35.83 
43.74 
35.31 
32.12 
51.18 



27.55 
ai.40 
23.12 
42.24 
51.22 
35.38 
30.20 
41.16 
38.13 

32.63 
07.32 
53.61 
48.05 
40.13 
30.38 
44.78 
36.10 
51.63 

40.02 
31.80 
28.08 
29.23 
59.03 
35.65 
26.12 
68.27 
45.66 

30.14 
34.06 
32.56 
30.93 
29.00 
30.60 
32.44 
34. .'>8 
31.37 
36. 47 
35.54 
32.06 

32.55 
37.78 
63.10 
44.00 
56.84 
21. 40 
64.83 
21.08 
31. 13 
42.33 
61.26 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



92 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



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STATISTICAL REVIEW OP SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



93 



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EDUCATIOII BEPOST, 1893^4. 



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STATISTICAL REVIEW OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



95 






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byG00gI( 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



CHAPTER IV. 
STATISTICAL REVIEW OF HIGHER EDUCATION. 



I. — Universities and Colleges. 

Institutions. — The number of universities and colleges for males and 
for both sexes from which reports were received at the close of the 
scholastic year is 476. Of this number 76 are located in the North 
Atlantic Division, 65 in the South Atlantic Division, So in the South 
Central Division, 208 in the North Central Division, and 42 in the 
Western Division. Comparing the number of institutions in the sev- 
eral divisions with the population, we find that in the North Atlantic 
Division there is 1 institution for every 228,968 persons; in the South 
Atlantic Division, 1 for every 136,276; in the South Central Division, 
1 for every 129,093; in the North Central Division, 1 for every 107,511; 
in the Western Division, 1 for every 72,086; while for the entire coun- 
try there is 1 institution for every 131,559 persons. 

The number of institutions belonging to the various religious denomi- 
nations were reported as follows: 

Religious denomination. 

Nonsectarian 113 

Roman Catholic 52 

Baptist 51 

Methodist Episcopal 65 

Methodist Episcopal South 19 

African Methodist Episcopal 4 

Methodist Protestant 2 

Protestant Episcopal 5 

Presbyterian 40 

Cumberland Presbyterian 8 

United Presbyterian r 6 

Congregational 24 

Christian 21 

Lntherau 24 

United Brethren 12 

Universalist 4 

Evangelical , 3 

Friends 7 

Reformed 9 

Seventh Day Adventist 3 

Church of God 1 

New Church 1 

Dnnkard 1 

Unknown 1 

Total 476 

ED 94 7 97 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



98 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



Professors and instructors. — The number of professors and instructors 
in the various departments of the universities and colleges is given by- 
States in the following table: 

Tablk 1. — Universities and colleges — Professors and instructors. 



State or Territory. 



I Preparatory 

Infltitu! ilcpartments. 
I tious. 



ColleKJato 
departments. 



Profossional 
departments. 



Total. 



Male. Female 



United States 

North Atlantic Division . . 
South Atlantic Diviaion. . 
South Central Division. . . 
Korth Central Division. . 
"Western Division 

North Atlantic Division : 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusettrt 

Bhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic Division: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia 

Virginia 

"West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georpia 

Florida 

South Central Division : 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territory 

North (Jcntral Division : 

Ohio 

Indiana ■ 

Illinois 

Mirhijcau 

Wisconsin 

Minueaota 

Iowa , 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western Division : 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

OreiTon , 

Caliturnia 



476 



1,902 



76 
C5 
85 
208 
42 



3 

1 

2 

9 

1 

3 
23 

4 
30 

1 
10 

4 

9 

4 
13 

9 
10 

5 

15 
23 



5 

9 
13 

9 

1 

1 

40 
15 
31 
11 
10 

23 1 
30 

3 

6 
10 
18 

1 
1 
4 
1 
1 
1 
I 
1 
7 
8 
16 



298 
203 
217 
1,017 
167 







31 





158 

20 




58 
30 
30 

3 
31 
20 
19 
12 

28 
68 
13 
10 
41 
43 
12 
2 


188 



49 
77 
138 
450 
93 



17 



Male. Female. Male. Female. Male. 



5.597 



666 



173 


66 


67 


36 


41 


12 


59 


20 


78 


53 


103 


81 


20 


11 


31 


17 


88 


37 


100 


31 


3 


2 


1 


1 


15 


7 


3 


4 


6 


2 


13 


2 


4 


3 


10 


3 


16 


14 


38 


24 


58 


31 



1,762 
620 
574 

2,197 
444 



41 

30 

35 
305 

64 
163 
576 
121 
427 

13 
143 

92 
108 

23 

94 

64 

63 

20 

83 

186 

05 I 

32 I 

70 

93 

38 

4 

3 

404 
193 
423 
171 
123 
168 
169 
217 

24 

34 
115 
156 

9 
11 
40 

3 

10 
14 
11 

9 

32 

33 

272 



2,847 



24 9,388 



37 
49 
105 
403 
72 






2 


6 

29 

I 
12 i 

3 

7 

1 
11 

6 

7 

2 

13 

38 

4 

3 
18 
14 
14 



1 

63 
22 
53 
29 
11 
32 
42 
48 
9 
13 
48 
33 

2 
1 

7 

1 

2 





2 
18 
12 
27 



985 
24G 
258 
1,042 
316 



16 

16 

20 

276 



75 

307 

3 

272 



31 

130 

18 

2 
30 
10 
23 

2 

28 
148 

9 

1 
40 
30 





2 

210 

39 
276 

68 

43 

82 
134 

81 



81 

28 



I 
95 ' 












67 
154 



Female. 



1,509 



2.931 
959 
950 

3,736 
812 



50 

48 

65 i 
609 

64 
245 
993 
131 
780 

13 

197 
235 
141 

31 
138 

75 
101 

28 

145 
337 
84 
40 
147 
144 
45 
5 
3 

747 
282 
802 
241 
184 
235 
314 
404 

26 

42 
228 
231 

11 

12 

134 

3 

10 

16 

14 

10 

40 
119 
443 



82 
135 
251 
873 
165 






5 



20 
4 

53 



20 
9 
11 
4 
27 
14 
25 
25 

35 

81 
12 
8 
35 

52 
26 

1 
4 

158 
46 

156 
59 
21 
87 
99 

124 
II 
28 
68 
66 

5 

2 

9 

4 

2 

2 

3 

3 

27 

39 

60 



The average number of instructors per institution is as follows: 
Nortli Atlantic Division, 39.6; South Atlantic Division, 1G.8; South 
Central Division, 14.2; North Central Division, 22.2; Western Division, 
23.3; and for the entire country, 22.0. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL BEVIEW OP HIGHER EDUCATION. 



99 



Tho proportion of male and female instructors in the several depart- 
ments is as follows: 

Sex of iustruciors. 



Division. 


Preparatory 
departments. 


Collegiate 
departments. 


Profoasional 
departmeuta. 


Total. 




Male. . Female. 


Male. Feraalo. 


Male. Female. 


Male, i Female. 

1 


Unitea States 


Percent. 
70.2 

85.6 
72.5 
61.1 
69.3 
64.2 


Per cent. 

29.8 

14.4 
27.5 
38.9 
30.7 
35.8 


Per cent. 
80.4 

97.9 
92.7 
84.5 
84.5 
86.0 


Per cent. 
10.6 

2.1 
7.3 
15.5 
15.5 
14.0 


Per cent. 
90.2 

~99.8 
100.0 
99.6 
98.2 
99.4 


Percent. 
.8 

.2 
.0 
.4 
1.8 
.6 


Per cent. 
86.2 


Per cent 
13.8 


North AtlanUc PiTision... 
South Atlantic Division... 
Sonth Central Division .... 
North Central Division. . . . 
"Western Division 


97.3 
87.7 
78.9 
81.1 
83.1 


2.7 
12.3 
21.1 
18.9 
16.9 







This summarized statement shows that the largest proportion of 
women instructors is found in the preparatory departments of colleges, 
and that the largest, proportion of male instructors is found in the 
North Atlantic Division, the home of the leading colleges for women. 

Students. — The summarized statistics concerning the sex and color of 
the students in the several departments of the universities and colleges 
are given by States in the following tables: 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



100 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 
Table 2. — University and college siudenia. 



Preparatory departments. 



Collegiato departments. 



State or Territory. 



White. Colored. 



I ^ 



Total. 



AVbite. 



•3 



-a 

s 






•a 
s 



Colored. 



United States 28,910 12,604 1,903' 1,511 30.81314,37547,072 12,500 658 



_l_ 



Xortli Atlantic Division..' 5. 1G9 680 
South Atlantic Division..' 2.080 1.006 
South Central Division...: 4.078 1.978 
North Central Division... 14.745 7. 8iU 
Western Division 2. 218 1,3C:{ 



Korth Atlantic Division: 

Maine o! 

New Hampshire o' 

Vermont Oi 

Massachusetts 432 

Rhode Lsland o' 

Connecticut 0, 

New York 3,184 

KewJersey I 217 

Penosy vania 1, 33C! 

South Atlantic Division : ! 

Delaware 

Maryland 589 

District of Columbia.. 260 

Virginia 335 

West Virginia 8S 

North Carolina 468 

South Carolina 190 

(Jeorgia 516 

Florida 229 

South Central Division: 

Kentucky 566 

Tennessee 1,32^) 

Alabama 230 

Mississippi IGG; 

Louisiana 472, 

Texas 941, 

Arkan.sas 282' 

Okl.ilionia 09 

Indian Territory 23^ 

North Central Division: i 

Ohio 2,8:.2 

Indiana 1.012 

Illinois 2. 42U 

Michigan 1, 0^*51 

AVisconain 1 054 

Minnesota 512 

Iowa 1.337| 

Missfuiri 2, 140' 

North Dakota , 173 

South Dakota ' 307i 

Nebraska 1,0041 

Kansas 1,174 

Western Division: 1 i 

Montana I 20 

Wyoming , 27, 

Colorado j 133! 

New Mexico , 02^ 

Arizona 21 1 

Utah 39, 

Nevada 58 

Idaho I 133 

Washington 234 

Oregon ' 414 

Cahtornia 1, 09l| 









22 





118 

25 

521 



79 

2 

05 

13 

29.'. 

29 

301, 



299 
083 
153 

Ill 

402 

235 

55 

..^ 

1,417' 
276 

1. 105 
016 
174; 
204' 
991 1 

l.H^ 
182 
403 
625, 
635 

15I 

24 

132 

80 

10 

7, 

00, 

83. 

175| 

305 

412, 



4 

903 

843 

89, 

41 



0, 

S' 

0, 
0. 
2 

2j 

oi 

113 

72i 

0. 



289| 

225' 

204| 

Oj 

227| 

89 

20 

228, 

153, 

49! 

0| 

,3 

1 
4 
Oi 

1 
0' 

2j 

o| 



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0, 

1 

Si 

Si 

0, 

Ji 

0| 




.577 

876 
58 




5, 173 
3,643 
4,921 
I4,a34 
2.242 



686,17, 126 
1.583 4,893 
2,854 5.930 
7, 889 10, 557i 
l.:io:i 2,506 



o; 

0, 

S! 

S' 

2- 

J 

& 

190 

240 



113 

184 

70 

10 

2=>0 

225, 

18; 





50 
2 
3 
1 


1 



1 




<>; 

0' 
S! 

Oj 






1 




457 








352 








235 



432 





3, 184 

219 

1.338 

0' 
702' 
338 
335! 

88! 
7571 
415 
779 
2291 

643 
1, 556, 
319 
186; 
700' 
1,094 
331 
69 
23; 

2,928 ; 

1.013 

2,433 ; 

1,085 
655, 
512' 

1, 339 

2,146 : 
1731 
367' 

1,007 

1, 176| 

26 

27 
134 

62, 

21 

39 

58 

133 

235 

416 

1, 091 







118 

521 



140 

14 

65 

13 



3, 391 
480 

2.019 

4. 779 
1.394 
4,013 

80' 

727, 

368| 

1,070. 

273! 



369 1,064 
219 542 
541, 688 
222I 



412 

867 

223 

27 

367 

627 

25:1 

55 

23 



1.187 

1,610 

844 

453 

617 

891 

314 

1 

13 



I 



,467 
278 



3,115, 

_ _ :.634 

.108 2,608 

617 1,5J5 

174 1,233 

264 1,413 

992; 1,328| 

,143| 1,764 

I82I 43 

403 124 

626, 755, 

635 1,005 

I 

15, 

24 

132 

80. 

10 



00 



60 
83 
175, 
305 
412; 



21 

144 

2 

19: 

*'\ 
35 
12 
2o5t 
J 80' 
1,8731 



Total. 



-a 



I 



125 47,73012,085 



1, 620 
657 
1.824 
7,304i 
1,149 



191 
194 
227 
44 
2, 



17,317 1,628 

5,087, 711 

6,157, 1,884 

16,60l| 7,313 

2.568 1,149 



1-?:) 



83 

212. 

73, 

47, 

604 



462 

I 



92 

101 

143 

115 

76 

23, 

46 

"1 

206; 

356 

1981 

60 

170! 

477 

284 



7 

1,305 
584 

1,116 
783 
292 
517, 
727, 

8or 
20; 

56 
496 

"1 

3' 
15 

85 
0, 
8 

35 

143 
142, 
6771 



1 
3 
1 
2 
4 
0, 
6 
0, 
174 

0; 
16* 
24' 

0| 

8O' 
32, 

42! 

a 

115' 

?l 

52, 
22 
12 



30 
2 
1 

1 

2 



2 
6 
I 
• 








1 



1 



1 



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3 
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2 

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11 1 

3 
30, 





1^81 

3. 




3' 

0, 
2 

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1, 

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3 





ot 

0, 



4.58 
355 
230 
393 
490; 
019 
785, 
394 
187, 
I 
80! 
743. 
392 
076 
2731 
144; 
574' 
730 

"1 

,204 
725 
840 
400, 
669 
913 
326 
1 
13' 



146 



81 

212 

73 

47 

004 



462 



90 
107 
143 
115 
87 
28 
76 
01 

270 
374 
201 
68 
190 
488 
286 

7 



145' 1,308 
636 584 
609, 1.118 
535| 783 
292 
547 
728 
801 
20 
56 
496 
580 

8 
15 
85 



8 
85 

35; 87 

12 4 

206, 143 

186| 142 

1, 874 077 



2341 
4131 
3301 
764; 
43| 
124 
757, 
1,011 

22, 

2I1 
144 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OP HIGHER EDUCATION. 



101 



Table 2. — University and college students — Continued. 



Btmtfl or Terrfloiy, 



North Atlnntld DrFUian 

Sfiti tti Ce n trill JH v i sion . 
i'nrth Coot nil DJviAinii. 
Weattni Div lulaa 

Korth Atlantic Division 

Miiiue 

New Hampshire 

Vennout 

Mas8acliu8ett8 

Kbode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic Division: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia 

Virginia 

West Virginia........ 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia , 

Florida 

South Central Division: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama , 

Missis:^! PI»i 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territorjr 

North Central Division: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

"Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

TVestem Division : 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

California 



GrHduato departments. 



B««idQiit. 



^otaJ. 




Nonresident. 
^'^'^«'omi.''^o^ 



^1 

61 

ol 

385! 

56 
121 
500! 

92 
166j 

344' 

l! 

0, 
13 

:i 

3G| 
15' 

3| 

21 

13' 




02 fiG7 *59| 886 

I a2t4 167j 879 

ZUf^ 9 24 

'.' 2 37 

(^1.1 _34! 430 

J or, 47; 16 



0, 

1 


0, 


Ji 



96 42| 



yj 



75' 35' 

67 18' 

222; 8&! 

63 18 

54 121 

77 18 

29 20| 

8' 7' 

0; 0, 

0; 

27 10' 

23, 71 









10-11 3, 889104 



rrofessional depart menta. 



White. 



19,955j 560 



Total. 



-all 



•a 



0,379| 18^ C, 
0| 27; 2, ]. 

I ' 



723; 18 20, 678 



ol 371 8' 2, 1711 



H75 



0'430' 711 8.003' 374 
0, 10, 6| iiHi m 



?.(\ 
41K S 
^40 12 

•^l 1 
Ol 



fl, :t2fl 106 



2, Ufl 

U, 125 



587 







i 

Oj 

0! 

0; 0' 

ol 0, 

0' 0; 

Ol 
0. 

o| 





6! 

0, 

3851 30 

56! 7 

124 34 

500 54 

92^ 

166. 33 



15; 1 



0; 

0' 

0; 

01 ol 
0' 0, 




344' 
22 

5; 


13 

3| 
9, 
0. 



0' 


0| 


0' 
0, 
278! 16 
8 0, 
41; 0. 



371 
0, 





0; 











0, 





I J 





13| 0, 

15' 6 

0' 

4': 1 



75; 35 236 14, 



07 181 
222 °" 
63 
54 



8 61 



77 

29 

8 





27 

23, 

0; 
0, 

^i 
?! 

2 

l\ 

1 



89' 78] I3I 

18j 36, 16 

12| 311 13| 

0' ol 



18 

20] 13i 

71 15 



06 42 



I t I 

in 

130' oj 

163 

1, .'>32| 83| 

0; ol 

3S7 0, 

2781 10; 2,01K{| -JS 

01 81 Ol 32 0, 
0, 411 1,812, 



Oj 

0, Oj 

0' 

0' 15, 1 

0; 37; 

01 0, 



0' 

0; 0. 

0, 0} Ol 

0, 3| 

0| 

0| 21 2 

3 0! 

ol 0. 

0, 




124, 



0, Oj 
6' 



OoOi 15 209 5 



0| 

0; 

Ol 

0, 

Oj 0' 

0' 0, 



01 

0' 



373, 

47| 
135 

i 

366j 

1,010 

25 

20 

453 

29' 





8 



Oj 01 

0: 

136, 

01 43{ 

0) 24' 0, 

0, 0, 



236; 14' 1,368 

0, 81 " 
71 



36 

0, 31 



13 

0, 15' 

0| 

0, 0, 

4 

0, 9l 



Ol 
4 173| 

Ol 3, 



0; 46' 

51 6, 

0, 18 

Ol 

0: 



17 

13' 3,110 144 

10; 1,265' 99, 

13 3511 3 

023, 25 

905 49 

Ol 






289' 20 
164, 8 

0' 

Oj 

I85I 21! 

0) 



0| 
6, 


SI 

ol 
o| 

I 

8, 0. 


8, 1 



6 0, 



0' 0, 

0, 

I ' 

1, 







0! 

0, 



137 12 
530 30 



111 

132 

163 

1,534 



387 

2.094 

32 

1,873 


130 
1,159 
373 
47 
271 
55 
102 
12 

366 

1,183 

23 

20 

- 499 

303 

18 





1,376 

354 

3,118 

1,265 

351 

629 

905 

474 





289 

165 





185 













137 

530 



SO 
U 

376 



a 




83 



25 





20 








10 


6 
5 





17 
145 
99 
3 
25 
49 



20 
8 



21 






12 
30 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



102 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



Table 2. — rniversiUj and college siudenls — Continued. 




United States. 

Korth Atlantic Division. 
South Atlantic Division. 
South Central Division. . . 

Korth Central Division.. 
"Western Division 



Iforth Atlantic Division: 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Mafisachnsetta 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic Division: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. . 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

South Central Division: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Loui«i ana 



Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territory 

North Central Division : 

Ohio 

Indiana , 

Illinois 



Michigan . . 
"Wisconsin . 
Minnesota . 
Iowa 



Missouri 

North Dakota. 
South Dakota. 

Nebraska 



Kansas 

"Western Division : 

Montana 

"Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico... 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

"Washington... 

Oregon 

California 



( (U9) 

I 30, ' 



441 I 2,828 s 
9,622 ! 1,7^4 

(464) 
12,527 ! 4,244 

(1,340) U 

AZ,bll I 20,180 ;C 



231 . 

l,88d ' 1,087 

(437) 
1,608 I 1,497 

100 ; 81 



6,052 I 



3,473 



568 

489 

452 
5,889 

579 

2.496 

10. 755 

1,711 

(149) 
7,502 



80 
1,701 
1,607 
1,763 

445 
1,674 

744 
1,292 

316 



(464) 
2,178 
3,940 
1,114 



1.503 

2, 343 

598 

1)1 

39 

7,997 
2,043 

(784) 
9.315 
4,028 
2,421 
2,490 
4,010 

(42) 
4,926 I 
224 
520 I 

(174) 
2,077 I 

(346) 
2,626 



50 

49 

473 

64 

40 

184 

95 

145 

501 

705 

3,686 



145 


83 
351 

81 
100 
853 



1,100 



131 
208 
156 
375 
52 
360 
283 



374 
92 

283 

1,073 
530 
72 
31 

3.905 
1,072 

3,135 
1,950 
600 
1,029 
2,648 

2,251 
205 
512 

1,198 



47 
59 

239 
80 
18 

201 
97 
87 

502 

719 
l,36i 



2 j^ (140) 
^ ^l 30,672 ; 2,830 
11, 507 t 2, 821 

(901) 
14, 135 I 5, 741 
< (1,346) 
\ 43,737 I 20,201 
1 6,008 3,474 



569 

494 

453 
5,803 

583 

2,496 

10, 762 

1,713 

(140) 
7,700 



1,830 
2, 010 
1,763 

445 
2,265 
1,176 
1,622 

316 



(464) 
2,272 i 
4,591 
1,205 i 
781 I 
<437) 
1,892 
2,524 
740 
91 

8,116 
2,946 i 

(784) 
9,327 
4.028 
2,423 
2,496 
4,014 

(42) 
4,926 1 
224 I 
520 

(174) 
2,082 f 

(340) 
2,635 I 



50 

49 

474 

64 

40 

184 

95 

145 

503 

767 

3, 087 



1 



146 


84 
351 

81 
100 
853 

25 

1,-190 


234 
320 
208 
156 
595 
393 
630 
283 



818 

1,636 

447 

239 

575 

1,315 

603 

72 

31 

3,970 
1,074 

3.141 
1,951 
600 
1.029 
2,651 

2,251 
205 
512 

1,199 

1,078 

47 
59 

239 
80 
18 

201 
07 
87 

563 

719 
1,364 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OF HIGHER EDUCATION. 



103 



Tlie total number of students in all departments of the 470 institu- 
tions was 143,032, divided as follows: Preparatory departments, 31.5* 
per cent 5 collegiate departments, 42.1 percent; graduate departments, 
2.8 per cent; professional departments, 14.8 per cent, and other depart- 
ments, 8.8 per cent. The classification of students by sex and color 
in the several departments was reported as ibllows: 

1. Studenta in preparatory depart )utn la. 



Divisiou. 



Tklalo. 



Per cent. 

United States | C8.2 

North Atlantic Division 88.3 

South Atlantic Division 09. 7 

South Central Division ! 63.3 

Korth Central Division ' 05.3 

Western Division 62.2 



Female. 



Per cent. 
31.8 



White. 1 Coh.red. 



Per cent. Per cent. 
9J.4 I 7.6 



11.7 


99.9 


30.3 


70.5 


36.7 


77.9 


34.7 


99.3 


37.8 


99.9 



.1 

29.5 

22.1 

.7 

.1 



2. Stttdcfitfi in coUerjiaie departments. 



Division. 



United States 

North Atlantic Division 
South Atlantic Division 
South Central Division. 
North Central Division. 
Weatc m Div iaion 



Male. 



Per cent. 
79.0 



91.4 
87.7 
76.6 
69.4 
69.1 



Female. 



White. 



Per cent. Per cent 
21.0 ■ 98.7 



3. Students in graduate departments. 



8.6 


99.0 


12.3 


95.7 


23.4 


96.4 


30.6 


99.8 


80.9 


99.9 



Colored. 



iVr cent. 
1.3 



1.0 

4.3 

3.6 

.2 

.1 



Division. 



United SUtes 

North Atlantic Dirision 
South Atlantic Division 
l^onth Central DiN-iaion. 
North Central Division. 
Western Division 



Male. 

Per cent. 
84.8 


>Vmale. 


White. 


Per cent. 
15.2 


Per cent. 
100.0 


88. B 
97.8 
97.8 
73.4 
69.5 


11.2 
2.2 
2.2 
26.6 
20.5 
1 


100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 



l*er cent. 



4. Students in professional departments. 



Division. 


ilale. 

Percent. 
97.2 


Female. 


White. 

Per cent. 
96.5 


Colorecl. 


United .States 


Per 


cmt. 
2.8 


I'er cent. 
3.5 








North Atlantic Division 


9H.3 
99.1 
99.1 
90.0 
93.1 




1.7 

.9 

.9 

4.0 

6.9 


99. 4 
80.5 
}'9.5 
99.7 
100.0 


.0 


Sonth Atlantic Division 


19.5 


South Central Division 


10.5 


North Central Division 


.3 


Western Division 










Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



104 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



5. Students in 


all departments. 








Division. 


Male. 


Female. 


^"fllr- ^™'«- 


Colored. 


United States 


Percent. Percent. 
73. 9 24. 5 


Per cent. 
1.6 


Per cent. 
95.1 


Per cent. 
4.9 










Xorth Atlantic DiviBJon 


91.1 
80.3 
08.0 
66.9 
63.0 


8.4 
19.7 
27.6 
31.0 
36.4 


.5 

.0 

4.4 

2.1 

.0 


99.3 
79.3 
83.0 
99.6 
99.9 


.7 


South Atlantic Division 


20.7 


South Central Divi.sion 


17.0 


Nortli Central Division.... 


4 


AVestcrn Division 


.1 







All examinatiou of tlie preceding summarized statements shows that 
tlie colored students form a very small percentage of the total number. 
This is especially true with respect to the collegiate and graduate 
departments. The colored students are liiost numerous in the prepara- 
tory aud ])rofessional departments of institutions in the South Atlantic 
and South Central divisions. As would naturally te expected, the 
proportion of women students is smallest in the Korth Atlantic Divi- 
sion. This is due undoubtedly to the number of excellent colleges for 
women located in said di\dsion. In the Southern States nearly all the 
institutions for colored people are open to both sexes. This fa<;t, 
together with the recent opening to women of a number of institutions 
which had previously been open only to males, accounts for the com- 
paratively large proportion of women students in the South Atlantic 
and South Central divisions. The largest proportion of women stu- 
dents is found in the Xorth Central and Western divisions, where 
nearly all of the institutions are coeducational. 

The number of students to each instructor in the collegiate depart- 
ments is as follows: United States, 9.7; North Atlantic Division, 10.5; 
South Atlantic Division, 8.7; South Central Division, 11.8; Korth 
Central Division, 9.2; and Western Division, 7.2. 

Of the 00,415 Students reported as being in the collegiate depart- 
ments only 45,GG4, or 75.G per cent, were reported in courses leading to 
a first or bachelor's degree. This percentage is known to be too small^ 
as the desired data were not given by a number of institutions. In 
some cases, especially in institutions where the system of "schools" is 
used, it is impossible to give in advance the particular degree for which 
a student may apply. The percentage of students reported in under- 
graduate degree courses that are pursuiug courses leading to the 
several degrees, together with the number of students in pedagogical 
and business courses, are as follows : 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OF HIGHER EDUCATION. 



105 



Table S.Students in courses of study in universities and colleges. 



State or Terrilorj-. 



Per cent of stvidenta in nndergradaato degree 
coarscR pursuing courses leading to — 



rni ted States 45,664 ' 50.0 10.0 i 6.7 



20.0 




1.3 1.0 I 1.9 



o 


S 


gt 


a 


li 


it 


rS 


•=§ 


•^ 3 


11 


a 




S 


P 


1 



4,907 



North Atlantic Division. 
South Atlantic Division. 
South Central Division.. 
North Central Division. . 
WcBtem Division 



10, »|4L 

I8,fr|5 
ti. 753 



C3. » a 

TJJ.a 5 3 

45. fl I 13. 7 

57.5 11.2 



1.6 I 13.9 ! 
1. 7 12. 2 I 
9.2 32.0 
11.2 I 24.0 
9.6 I 19.5 



4.0 
1.1 1 
1.0 
1.4 

.7 



'^\ 



3.5 I 
•3 , 



.6 
.7 



1.5 
.3 ' 



2.5 
.9 
.6 

2.0 
.5 



227 

738 

935 

2,643 



North Atlantic Divicion : 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Khode Inland 

Connecticut 

New York 

New JeiRey 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic Division: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columhia. 

Virginia 

We«t Virginia 

North Carolina 

Sonth Carolina 

Georgia 

Floriaa 

South Central DiHsion: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mii*si89ippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Indian Territory 

North Central Division: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan | 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota ' 

Iowa I 

Missouri I 

Korth Dakota , 

South Dakota :.! 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

TTestem Divinion : I 

Wyoming ' 

Colonulo 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Nevada I 

Idaho 

Washington | 

Orejron ' 

California I 



572 


100.0 


371 


54.5 


307 


43.6 


8,330 


84.6 


417 


66.4 


1,955 


06.3 


4,454 


43.0 


1,302 


62.1 


3,873 


65.8 



18.2 I 

.6 I 
27.1 ! 
31.0 
6.7 I 



17.5 



.1 
2.8 



6.0 2.1 



726 
281 
365 

6 I 
957 I 
460 
620 ' 

"i 

503 ' 



54.3 ' 
95.2 1 

74.4 ' 
99.2 I 



2.5 



80.2 
70.5 
57.1 



55.1 

, 55.0 

558 I 55.5 
472 39. 8 



770 

618 

254 

20 

3,798 
1,876 
2,610 
1,808 
1,212 
1,140 
1,749 
1, 743 
(13 
172 
1,164 
1,304 

21 
131 



50.4 
62.2 
52.0 
35.0 ' 
I 
45.5 
53.6 
49.5 
32.7 
27.4 
:J4.3 
36.7 
55.9 
95.2 
48.8 
CO. 6 
53.0 

28.6 
23.7 



14.6 
5.9 
3.5 
1.3 

3.4 
4.6 
3.0 
4.2 
.4 
6.0 
23.6 



CO. 7 
2.9 

"".2 

11.7 I 

24.4 

3.3 

.7 

9.5 



23.7 
23. 5 
12.1 
.5 
2.6 
17.8 
23,8 
15.1 



I 



4.3 
14.7 1 

.4 
6.0 



2.3 I. 



5.9 I 6.5 I 9..4 

12.4 ' 1.7 

3.5 I 4.3 , 1.0 1 1 



7.9 



2.9 20.0 

2.3 

22.4 i 2.8 

.8 I 



7.1 14.3 , 1.4 



I 



15.1 .... 

13.9 I 

22.3 I 2.9 I 
3.9 ; 



.3 I. 



33.3 

I .7 



.3 

20.0 



27 I 25.9 



70 

15 

90 

227 

2,172 



55.7 
20.0 
50.0 
60.4 
60.5 



20.2 

14.2 

13.4 

21.6 

2.1 

7.4 

23.9 

10.1 

1.6 

9.4 

1.1 

3.4 



38.2 



13.3 
1.1 
2.6 

11.4 



26.9 
1.6 



10.1 

6.7 

7.6 

17.4 

34.7 

26.7 

1.1 

10.7 

1.0 

15.7 

.3 

7.3 

14.2 
7.6 



17.1 ' 
36.3 I 
35.7 I 
43.9 ' 
49.2 
11.7 
22.8 
65.0 

14.5 
19.8 
29.3 
28.3 
19.3 
21.0 
35.6 
2:. 9 
1.0 
26.1 
38.0 
23.8 

28.6 
17.6 



•^ i 
2.7 



2.0 
2.6 



2.3 
1.4 
.1 



.8 

1.0 



3.4 3.2 

.8 2.5 

! .1 



4.9 I 

3.0 

2.0 



4.2 
1.3 



7.2 
4.4 



7.8 
16.7 
9.5 



63.0 
44.3 
46.7 
34.4 
20.3 
17.3 



.7 



I 28.0 
I 3.1 



20.0 
6.7 



.5 



.2 
1.3 

.1 
1.4 



12.5 



8.4 



51 



88 I 
'i34"| 



82 

5 

13 

78 

319 

96 

140 

5 

56 
445 
76 
95 
51 
92 
111 
9 

741 
167 
176 
120 
151 
120 
260 
316 
12 
140 
186 
254 

21 



93 

53 
127 



7,300 



307 
1.699 
4,037 

575 



314 

49 

296 



42 

35 
76 
5 
89 
31 

601 



19 

98 

588 

21 

7 

775 
150 
732 
123 
125 
192 
451 
580 
55 
117 
131 
606 



170 
20 
4 
56 



67 
58 
210 



Preparation of freshmen. — The iuquiry concerning the kind or class 
of schools in which the college students were prepared has been con- 
tinued during the year with but moderate success. Replies on this 
point were received from but 25G of the 47G institutions, and show that 
the freshmen in these institutions were prepared as follows: In prepar- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



lOG 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



atory departments of colleges, 39.9 per cent; iu private preparatory 
schools, 15.5 per cent; in public liigh schools, 40.9 per cent; and by 
private study, 3.7 per cent. The results of the inquiry, by States and 
divisions, are given in the following table: 

Tadlk 4. — Prejiaraiion of freshmen. 



State or IVriitory. 



United States. 






250 






10, 125 



Per cent of fresbmeu revolted pro- 
pared by— 




^ 


, 


tt 


>i 




-o 


^JS 


2 


o 5 


so 


•^.£3 


s 


3S 




d 


h4 


Ph 


Pi 


40.9 


3.7 



North Atlantic IMvision. 
South Atlantic Division. 
Sonth ( entral DiviHion . . 
North Central Division. . 
Weateru Diviaion ^. 



North Atlantic Division : 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

MassachusottH 

Bhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersej' 

rennsylvania 

South Atlantic Division: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. . 

Virginia 

TW'St Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

South Central Division : 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

TiOuisiaua 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Okiahouia 

Indian Territory 

North Central Division : 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan : 

"Wiftcon.sin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western Division : 

Montana 

"Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

AVashingtdu 

Oregon 

California 



120 
25 



2, 922 
645 
1.231 . 
4,590 I 

731 I 



20. C 


28.4 


55. 2 


21.1 


49.7 


17.6 


48.7 


6.4 


31.9 


12.6 



46.5 I 
20.8 I 
28.0 
42.5 j 
47.3 



14.1 



24.9 



93 
744 



37.6 i 
:J3.7 1 



1,046 
103 , 

759 I 

19' 
172 I 
55 
63 



21.6 
45.6 

29.2 



80.2 
50.9 
27.0 



18.3 
20.4 
37.7 

15.8 

1.2 

20.0 

60.3 



144 I 
94 I 
54 
44 

104 I 

342 : 



63.2 
44.7 I 
37.0 I 
45.5 

02.9 ' 
44.4 , 



13.9 
30.8 
Cl.l 



23.7 
20.2 



171 

85 

283 

143 

1 

12 

564 
383 
791 
187 
160 
327 
338 
598 
9 
57 
936 
246 



27 

9 

46 

04 

499 



39.2 
CO.O 
55.5 
35.7 
100.0 
91.7 

51.6 
45.2 
55.8 
50.8 
93.1 
20.2 
45.9 
03.2 
55.0 
91.2 
35.6 
40. 



33,3 
13.0 



22.4 



4.8 
4.9 
9.4 
1.6 



8.0 , 
10.0 
8.9 






.2 
22 4 



100 
50.8 



72.7 



37.0 
100.0 
58.7 
89.1 
15.9 



4.4 



59.9 



61.3 I 
55.0 ' 



53.7 
33.0 
25.3 

73.7 
14.5 
23.7 
12.7 



20.8 j 

23.4 I 

1.9 1. 

47.7 I 

13.4 . 
20.2 I 



26.3 
23.5 I 
43.4 ' 
41.9 



8.3 

42.7 
47.5 
33.5 
47.1 

0.3 
70.0 
43.5 
23.2 
44.4 

8.8 
58.9 
87.0 



41.5 



55.6 



13.0 
10.9 
57.7 



4.5 
2.9 
4.7 
2.4 
8.2 



Digitized 



byGoOgl 



1.1 



1.1 
4.4 



3.4 
1.0 
7.8 

10.5 
4.1 
5.4 



2.1 
1.1 



6.8 



15.2 



1.2 
3.5 
.4 



.9 
2.4 
1.3 
.5 
.6 
1.2 



4.7 



5.3 
.4 



23.9 



9.8 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OF HIGHER EDUCATION. 107 

Resilience of college studentft, — One of tlie items of iuforuiiitiou fre- 
quently called for by correspondents of this office is tbe proportion of 
the i)opulation of the several States and Territories tliat attend col- 
lege. This item can be ascertained only approximately. This is due 
to the fact that the only way to obtain the number of students from 
the several States attending college is to examine the catalogues of all 
the universities and colleges of the country and ascertain the home 
residences of the students enrolled. The inaccuracy of the statistics 
thus derived is caused by the failure of a number of institutions to 
publish either the home residences or the classification of their stu- 
dents. An examination of the catalogues of the universities and col- 
leges in the possession of this office has resulted in obtaining statistics 
concerning the residence of students irom 44^7 institutions, including 
the principal colleges for women and technological schools. In this 
examination only students in collegiate courses of study have been 
counted, preparatory students and students in law, medicine, theology, 
pharmacy, music, art, etc., not being included. 

The total number of college students in the 447 institutions that 
reported the residences of the students was 67,170, of which number 
GC,357 reside in the United States and H40 are residents of other 
countries. 

The following table gives for each State and Territory the popula- 
tion, the number of students in college, the proportion of i)opulation 
in college, proportion of students attending college in their respective 
States, proportion of the students attending college in the several 
States who are residents of those States, and the proportion of stu- 
dents attending college in the several States who are residents of the 
geographical division in which the several States are located: 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



108 



EDUCATION EEPORT, 1893-94. 



Table 5.- 


-Residence 


of college students. 












J 

a 




Hi 

II 


mts attending 
f the eeyeral 
residences are 
hical division 
several States 


State or Territory. 


i . 


55 

111 


'Si 

a 


ill 


er cent of stud 
colleges of the 
whose residcnc 
States. 






3 


■ '3 1*5 


2 


III 


er cent 
the CO 
States 
in the 
in whi 
areloc 




Ph 


o 


Pk 


Ph 


P. 


^ 






Per cent. 


Per cf n<. 


Ptr cent. 


Per eent. 


United States 


62. 622, 250 


66,357 


.106 




98.75 


98.75 



North Atlantic Division. - . 
South Atlantic l)ivi»ion... 

South Central Division 

North Central Division 

Weatoru Division 



17,401.545 
8, 857, 920 
10,972.89:j 
22, 362, 279 
3. 027, 613 



North Atlantic Division : 

Maine 

Now Hampshire 

Vermont 

Mas-sachiiHCtts 

lihode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic Division: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Di.**lrict of Columbia. . 

Tirginia 

AVcst Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

South Central Division: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

MiHsissippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territory 

North Central Division: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

TTisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missonri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

"Western Division : 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

On'gou 

California 



22,146 I 

7. 138 

"7,720 I 

25,414 I 

3,939 



661. 086 


1,021 


376. 530 


530 


332, 422 


652 


2, 238, 943 


4,709 


3t5. 506 


618 


710,258 


1,244 


5, 9'J7, 853 


6. £98 


1,444,9.33 


1,431 


5, 258, 014 


4,943 


i68. 493 


179 


1,042.390 


1,020 


230, 392 


572 


1, 655. 980 


1,267 


762. 794 


437 


1, 617, 947 


1.287 


1,151,149 


1,092 


1, 837, 353 


1,020 


391, 422 


264 


1,858.635 


1,705 


1.707,518 


1,455 


1,513.017 


881 


1,280,000 


908 


1,118.587 


780 


2. 235. 523 


1,589 


1. 128, 179 


353 


61,634 


15 




34 


3, 672. 316 


4,721 


2, 192, 404 


2, 513 


3, 826, 351 


4,143 


2, 093. .S8'.) 


2,251 


1, 686. 880 


1,575 


1.301,826 


1,684 


1,911.890 


2,811 


2.079.184 


2,117 


182, 719 


123 


328. 808 


485 


1, 058. 1)10 


1.178 


1,427,006 


1,813 


132, 1.59 


115 


60. 705 


52 


412, 198 


611 


153,593 


66 


59, 620 


38 


207. 905 


280 


45, 761 


90 


84.385 


67 


349. 390 


C38 


313, 767 


578 


1, 208, 130 


1,814 



.127 
.081 
.070 
.114 
.130 



.154 
.141 
.196 
.210 
.179 
.167 
.117 
.099 
.094 

.106 
.098 
.248 
.076 
.057 
.080 
.095 
.055 
.007 

.092 
.082 
.058 
.070 
.070 
.071 
.031 
.024 



,129 
.115 
.108 
.108 
.093 
.129 
.147 
.079 
.067 
.147 
.111 
.127 

.087 
.086 
.124 
.043 
.064 
.135 
.197 
.068 
.097 
.184 
.150 



94.89 
82.81 
88. 52 
88. 22 
85.02 



83.32 
84.75 
93.91 
93.42 
89.86 



63.90 
41.13 
53. 8:) 
85.58 
69.20 
59.89 
65.38 
44.72 
71.09 

36.31 
62.16 
46.15 
83.50 
58.12 
88.11 
78.11 
78.73 
67.95 

79.94 
85.57 
85. 02 
78.85 
77.31 
82.00 
71.10 
6.67 



86.72 
51.42 
*).C9 
53.35 
57.61 
32. 40 
69.93 
36. 57 
74.37 

81.25 
63.50 
46.07 
70.49 
64.47 
85.97 
94. 25 
93.37 
C6.d4 

80.21 
68.14 
90.13 
92.51 
95.56 
95.53 
93.66 
100.00 



83.21 
64.98 
84.45 
73.40 
83.19 
79.51 
72.74 
02.00 
78.50 
80.48 
82.68 

60.00 
67.31 
72. 02 
66. CO 
65.79 
79.29 
71. 11 
36.84 
63.02 
81.31 
87. 32 



84.17 
77.59 
73.23 
6-!. .38 
82. 52 
84.50 
87.72 
85.51 
92. 77 
92.03 
91.51 
90.08 

97.18 
94.59 
82. 33 
90.24 
96.15 
89.52 
86.49 
91.30 
95.95 
94.00 
77.72 



83.32 
84.75 
93.91 
0?.42 
89.86 



97.34 
03.16 
96.78 
81.35 
94.35 
77.93 
64.04 
76.97 
84.34 

97.60 
66.76 
68.29 
85.08 
68.27 
96.89 
96.67 
97. .13 
97.47 

92.85 

87.03 
93.60 
99.48 
99.37 
98.31 
97.01 
100.00 



90.43 
92.21 
90.97 
90.68 
96.20 
96.74 
97.41 
93.56 
100.00 
98.79 
97.59 
90.85 

98.69 
07.30 
a">. 91 
00.24 
06.15 
99.10 
100.00 
100.00 
97.75 
9&60 
85.57 



Au examiuation of the preceding table discloses a number of inter- 
esting facts. For instance, in the third column — the proportion of the 
population in college — we find that the District of Columbia has a 
larger proportion of its population in college than any other State or 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OF HIGHER EDUCATION. 



109 



Territory. This is due undoubtedly to tbe largo number of people who 
are called to the capital city of the country by official duties and 
who reside there temporarily, and whose children while attending col- 
lege are frequently credited to the District of Columbia when they 
should really be credited to other States. Kext to the District of 
Columbia is Massachusetts, with 0.21 per cent of its population in col- 
lege. Then follow Nevada, Vermont, Oregon, Khode Island, and Con- 
necticut, in the order named. Among the geographical divisions of the 
country the Western Division leads, with a percentage of 0.130, followed 
by the Korth Atlantic Division, with 0.127. The x)roportion of popu- 
lation in college may perhaps be more graphically represented by the 
following diagram: 

Xumher of college students to each 100/00 of population. 



United States 106 ' 

North Atlantic Division . 127 

Soath Atlantic Division . . 81 

South Central Division ... 70 

North Central Division.. . 114 

Western Division 130 

iCorth Atlantic Division : 

Maine 154 

KewIIaropsliire 141 

Vermont 196 

MassachuKotts 210 

Rbodolsland 179 

Connecticut 167 

New York 117 

New Jersey 99 

Pennsylvania 94 

South Atlantic Division : 

Delaware 106 

Marvlnnd 98 

District of Columbia. 248 

Virpinia 76 

West Virginia 57 

North Carolina 80 

South Carolina 95 

Georgia 55 

Florida 67 

South Central Division: 

Kentucky 92 

Tennessee 82 

Alabama 58 

;&IisHis8ippi • 70 

Louisiana 70 

Texas 71 

Arkansas 31 

Oklahoma 24 

North Central Division: 

Ohio 129 

Indiana 115 

Illinois 108 

Michigan 108 

Wisconsin 93 

Minnesota 129 

Iowa 147 

Missouri 79 

North Dakota 67 

South Dakota 147 

Nebraska Ill 

Kansas 127 

Western Division : 

Montana 87 

Wyoming 86 

Colorado 124 

New Mexico 43 

Arizona 64 

Utah 135 

Nevada 197 

Idaho 68 

Washington 97 

Oregon 184 

California 150 



Digitized by VjUU^Ic 



110 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



The proportion of college students that attend college in their own 
States is another interesting item, and is represented in the following 
diagram : 



Proportion of college students that attend the colleges of their own States. 



Per cent. 
North Atlantic Division . . 94. 89 
South Atlantic Division.. 82.81 
Scut h Central Di v isiun ... 88. 52 
Korth Outral Division... 88. 22 
Western Division 85.02 

North Carolina 88.11 

Caliiomia 87.32 

Ma}»8acliu.sett» 85.58 

Teiinesaoe 8o. 57 

Alabama 85.02 

Michigan 84.45 

Virginia 83.50 

Indiana 83.21 

Minnesota 83.19 

Kansas 82.68 

Texas 82.00 

Ore-ion 81.31 

Nebraska 80.48 

Kentucky 79. 94 

Iowa 70.51 

Utah 79.29 

M issisHippi 78. 85 

Georgia 78. 73 

SouthDakota 78.56 

Sonth Carolina 78. 11 

Louisiana 77.31 

Ohio 75.79 

AVisconsin 73.46 

Mi.ssouri 72.74 

Colorado 72.02 

Nevada 71.11 

Arkansas 71. 10 

Pennsvlv.ania 71.09 

Rhode Island 69.26 

Wyoming 67.31 

Arir.ona 65.79 

New York 65.38 

Illinois 64.98 

Maine 63.96 

Wash in cton ' 63. 02 

North Dakota 62.60 

Mar\land 62.16 

Montana 60.00 

Connect icut 59. 89 

West Virginia 58.12 

Florida 67.95 

New Mexico 56.00 

Vei-mont 63.8;i 

District of Columbia 46. 15 

New Jersey 44.72 

New Hampshire 41.13 

Idaho 36.84 

Delaware 30. 31 

Oklahoma 6. 07 



I 



* From the diagram we find that the North Carolina colleges hold a 
larger proportion of the students of their own State than the colleges 
of any other State in the Union. Kext come California, Massachusetts, 
Tennessee, Alabama, Michigan, and Virginia. Among the divisions 
we find that the North Atlantic Division leads with a percentage of 
94.89, showing that but 5.11 per cent of the students of that division 
attended college in other sections of the country. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OF HIGHER EDUCATION. Ill 

The following diagram shows the proportion of students in the col- 
leges of any one State whose residences are in that State: 

Proportion of etudenis attending college in the several States uhofie residences are in those 

States, 



Per ctntA 
North Atlantic Dlv.. 83. 32- 
South Atlantic Di v.. 84.75- 
Sijuth Central Div ... 93 9lL 
Xorth Central Di v.. . 93 42'. 
Western Di vision 89. 80 - 



Oklahoma 100.84 — 

Montana 97.00' — 

Florida 96.18 — 

Arizona 96.15 — 

Wa»hing;ton 95 95 — i 

Ix>ui6iana 95 50 — 

Texas 95 53 — 

Wvoming 94.59 — 

South Carolina 94.25.. 

Oregon 94.00«i 

Arkansas 93. 66 « 

(ieorina 93.37 — 

Xorlh Dakota 92. 77 — 

Mississippi 92. 51 •■ 

South DakoU 92.03 — 

Nebraska 91.50 — 

Idaho 91.30- 

Kanitas 90.68 — 

KewMcxico 90.24 — 

. AUbama 90.13 — 

Utah 89.52 — 

Iowa 87.72 — 

Maine 86.72- 

Nevada 86.49^— 

Kenturkv 86.21'- 

Xorth Caipolina 85.97|— 

Missonri 85.51 — 

Minnesota 84.50 — 

Ohio 84.17;- 

Wisconsin 82.52|— 

Colorado 82.33;— 

Delaware 81.25'- 

Vermont 80.69'— 

California 77.72- 

ludiana 77.59- 

Pennsylvania 74. 37 - 

Illinois 73.23- 

Tirgfnia 70.49- 

NewYork 69.93. 

Michigan 68.38'— 

Tennessee 68.14- 

West Virginia 64.47;- 

lihodo Island 57.61' 

Marjland 53.50- 

Massachusetts 53.35- 

New Hampshire 51.42 — 

l>istrict of Col umbia . 46. 07 !- 

New Jersey 36.57>« 

Connecticut 32. 40 - 



Here we find that Oklahoma heads the list of States and Territories 
with 100 per cent, showing that all of the college students attending 
college in Oklahoma were residents of Oklahoma. We also find that 
in Connecticut the local students form but 32.49 per cent of the total 
number, showing that the Connecticut colleges draw 07.51 per cent of 
their students from other States. We see, therefore, that while Con- 
necticut and New Jersey hold but a comparatively small proportion of 
their own college students, they draw very heavily from other portions 
of the country. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



112 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



The number of students from the several States and Territories 
attending college in any one State or Territory is given in the follow- 
ing tables: 

Tablk 6. — Residence of college students. 





s 




Keaidenco of students. 


state or Territory. 

1 




1 

1 

'A 




1^ 


1 


1 
1 


t 


1 
'A 


S 
1 


3. 

% 

A 


1 
United States 

North Atlantic Division..' 
South Atlantic Division. . , 
South Central Division...' 
North Central Division. . . 
"Western Division 

North Atlantic Division : 
^aiuo .............. 


447 


1,021 


530 


652 


4,709 


618 


1,244 


6,998 


1,431 


4,943 |22,146 


86 
63 
73 
184 
41 


981 
13 


612 
3 


630 
2 


4,581 

47 

4 

08 

9 


694 1, 185 
20 25 

2 

4 30 
2 


6,624 

108 

6 

224 

36 


1,372 
26 

4 
26 

3 


4,535 

158 

9 

224 

17 


21,014 
402 
25 


21 
6 


12 
3 


16 
4 


025 
80 


4 
2 
3 
J5 

4 


653 

24 

I 

219 
10 
40 
26 


24 

218 

6 

211 

20 

10 

9 

1 

4 


3 

60 

351 

136 

10 

32 

24 

4 

1 


41 
76 
20 
4,030 
133 
124 


2 2 


5 
12 
38 
822 
42 
565 
4,575 
371 
194 


1 

i* 

129 
15 
85 
303 
640 
198 

1 

22 

1 

1 


2 

1 
2 

225 
8 

163 


733 


New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Khode Island 

Connecticut 


3 

1 

113 

428 

14 


1 

1 

262 

26 

745 

111 

14 

23 


395 
421 

6,147 
701 

1.787 


New York 


24 


109 20 
15 1 2 


321 ' 5,498 


New Jersey 


5 1 


299 I 1,347 


Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic Division: 
Delaware 


27 

1 

4 

3 
14 
9 


7 


33 


11 


3.514 1 3,985 
1 2 


Mar3'land 


7 1 
6 2 


1 
1 


31 
12 
2 


17 

1 
1 


20 
5 


62 

41 

10 

3 

2 


80 231 


District of Columbia. 
Virginia 


39 108 
6 20 


West Virginia 

North Carolina 






29 
2 


32 


r::*: 




1 


1 




6 


South Carolina . 


;"■.:::.::..:::.:; 




Georgia 


9 














i'l 1 


riorida 


5 

11 
19 
7 
6 
10 
12 


;:;... 1 i 


1 

2 
2 








1 

3 

1 


3 
6 


2 


South Central Division : 
Kentucky 








1 

4 


9 


Tennessee 


1 ! 





1 


14 


Alabama 


1 




Mississippi 


1 ' 






1 





1 


Xiouisiana ............ 


1 1 






............. .|--..-.. 




Texas 


;;;;:::i i..;... 






11 .1 ( ' 1 2 


Arkansas 


7 

1 

35 


1 






^ 1- 1 ' 


Oklahoma 






1 i 


North Central Division : 
Ohio 


1 1 

.q .^1 6 


17 
4 

18 
13 
5 
7 
1 
1 


1 12 ' M 


4 ! Ill 


213 


Indiana 


15 2 j 

27 10 

12 1 2 1 5 

5 j 2 

10 1 2 ! 


1 
2 
2 

1 
1 


2 

1 i 10 
1 2 

^ 


33 
56 
51 
12 
3 
5 
4 


1 
16 
4 

i" 


20 
42 
28 
2 
2 
3 
9 


63 


Illinois 


155 


Michigan 


107 


^Visconsiu ........... 


25 


Minnesota 


16 


Iowa ... .... 


22 

22 

4 

8 


1 
1 




11 


Missouri 




2 


18 


North Dakota 


^ 1 


1 




South Dakota 


, 




1 
1 


1 


1 
3 






2 


Nebraska 


8 
16 

2 

1 
5 
2 
1 
2 
1 
1 
7 
8 
11 


. .. 




i 




6 
2 





Kansas 






1 




1 


2 1 


6 


Western Division : 

Montana ............. 












Wyoming 










I 


! 1 




Colorado 







3 


1 


3 

1 1 


3 

1 


10 


New Mexico 


1 




2 


Arizona . . . 












1 


1 


Utah... 








1 




Nevada 








' ' ' ' 1 


Idaho 








' 1 , ! 




Wasbin*»"ton 


1 




1 


i:::::::::::::::; :':::::" 


1 \ 
1 '" 


8 


Oregon 








1 


1 


California 


1 ^ 


3 


4 


5 


1 i i 32 1 2 


03 






1 


i 


! 





Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL KEVIEW OP HIGHER EDUCATION. 
Table 6. — liesidence of college students — Continued. 



113 



State or Territory. 



United SUtcs 

KOTth Atlantic Division. 
Sooth Atlantic IMvision. 
South Central Division. . 
North Central Division. . 
Western Division 

North Atlantic Division : 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Bbode Island 

Conner ticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Sooth Atlantic Division : 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georsia 

:piorida 

South Central Division : 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

North Central Division: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western Division: 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

California 





1 


Maryland. ' 




Rcsi 


denco of otud< 

i 1 
1 1 


?nts. 








1 


6 


•3 
1 

1 

> 


1 


1 


m ' 


f 


447 


179 


1.020 


5 i 


1,267 


437 


1,287 


1,092 


1,020 


264 


7,138 


86 
63 
73 
184 
41 


88 
80 

1 
3 

1 


263 

710 

6 


204 
3i7 

4 
22 

5 


72 

1,157 

17 

20 

1 


49 

'1 


29 

1,220 

26 

10 

2 


47 

1,002 

88 

4 

1 


46 

873 

94 

7 


24 

193 

37 

9 

1 


823 

5,911 

232 

157 

16 


4 






2 
2 

1 
61 

***26* 
43 
27 
48 




2 










4 


2 














2 


8 














1 
13 
3 
4 
9 
8 
8 


"2* 
6 

4 
6 


2 


15 
2 


19 
...... 

7 
U 

40 


i7 

1 

16 
28 
41 
160 


10 
1 
2 

17 
9 

33 


5 


4 


13 


148 
5 


4 
24 

5 
27 


2 
10 

8 
22 


2 
13 

i 


3 

16 
7 
8 


62 
140 
117 
333 


1 


65 
18 
8 


13 
634 

28 

41 

2 

1 
















78 


9 
4 
9 
3 
14 



54 

2W 

17 

...... 


37 
24 
1,058 
10 
24 
3 
1 


11 

7 

50 

254 

I 

...... 


19 
2 

35 

1 

1,134 

24 

.5 


9 

""36" 

"*"98" 

853 

12 


7 

6 
29 

2 

14 

11 

803 

1 


2 

'"4 

2 

16 
153 


791 

334 
1,277 

269 
1,278 

893 


9 




1 


837 


r> 




1 


154 


11 

19 

7 


...... 


3 
8 


...... 


4 
9 


4 


2 
24 


1 

83 
3 


8 
48 
36 

1 
1 


6 
17 
13 

...... 


28 
144 
52 


e 












1 


10 






1 

1 
2 








2 


12 












1 


8 


7 










2 


1 




1 






t i 




35 
15 
27 
12 


...... 

1 
1 


14 
6 

4 
4 


8 
9 

4 
5 


7 
3 
2 
5 

1 


40 
3 
3 
4 

1 


i' 

6 

1 


1 
3 


2 

1 
2 


3 


1 
2 
1 
1 
1 


70 
23 
26 
22 


5 




1 
1 


5 


10 






2}..:::.. 


4 


22 








i 

1 




2 


22 




3 






1 




4 


4 
8 
8 
16 

2 




1 


1 








. .. 










.::*.:::i:::::: 


















.. 1 








1 










1 


1 














1 ■ 




1 










1 1 


1 




5 










1 


i 


. 1 


1 


2 














1 




1 




















2 












1 






1 


1 


















1 
















i 




7 










1 








1 


8 


















11 


1 


1 


6 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 ' 


18 



ED 9i- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



114 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 
Tablk 6. — BeMdence of college studenU — Continiiod. 





a 

a 

3 

OB 
S 


1 
1 






Eesidence of students. 








Steto or Territory. 


1 

s 

a 


1 

CI 


1 
1 

908 


780 


3 

1.589 


•2 


1 




k 

M 


1 . 

r 


■United States 


447 


1,705 


1,455 


881 


353 


15 


. 


7,720 




North Atlantic Division 

South Atlantic Division 

South Central Division 

Korth Central Division 

Western Division 


86 
63 
73 
184 
41 

t 

3 
15 

2 

4 
24 

5 
27 

1 
9 
4 

3 
14 
9 
9 
5 

11 
19 

7 
G 
10 
12 

7 
1 

35 
15 
27 
12 
5 
10 
22 
22 
4 
8 
8 
16 

2 

1 
5 
2 
1 
2 
1 
1 
7 
8 
11 


105 

60 

1,429 

108 

3 

~7 


57 
74 
1.280 
42 
2 


18 

33 

817 

13 


14 

36 

847 

10 

1 


29 
30 
707 
14 



49 

47 

1,436 

54 

3 


10 
20 

301 
21 

1 


1 

A 


3 
8 
14 
9 


286 

309 

6,834 

281 

lA 






North Atlantic Division: 
Ma i ne 






1 




2 


New llanspshire. . .. ... 






1 










1 


Vermont 




















MftH8iichnsett8 




^} 

15 
26 
14 
17 


15 
2 

11 
13 
8 
8 


6 

1 
1 

4 
5 

1 


4 

""2 
3 
4 


4 
9 

8 


19 

1; 

I 

6 


3 






85 


Ithoilo Isiaud ....... 






5 


Connecticut........ .... 


i 

2 






42 


New Yorlc 







tig 


New Jersev 





i 

2 


40 


Pennsylvania 


4 


1 


43 


South Atlantic Division: 
Delaware 




Marvlaud 


6 
31 
6 

1 

::i 

1,363 
59 
2 
1 
2 
2 


6 
5 
50 

i' 

2 

1 
1 

29 

1,245 

.3 

3 


5 
5 

1 
6 
4 
3 


3 
4 
21 


6 


I 
30 


1 
2 
13 


1 


39 




34 


Virginia 


1 


3 


172 


^'est Virffiniii ... 


7 


North Carolina 


2 
1 
5 


2 


I 
4 


3 


3 


28 




10 


Georgia 


1 


1 


18 


Florifla . 


1 


South Central Division: 

Ken tuck v 


i 

57 

749 

6 

1 


23 
71 
17 
716 
13 
5 
2 


6 
45 

3 

32 

003 

16 

2 


3. 

78 
2 

7 

8 

1,303 

4 


8 
..0 


1 

' ^ 


1,468 


Tennessee 


1,590 


Alabama.... .. 


777 







770 


Louisiana 




C*>7 


Texas 


6 
251 


i 

1 

1 


7 

1 

""2 


1,341 


Arkansas 


260 


Oklahoma 




1 


1 


North (!entral Division: 

Ohio 


29 

46 

11 

3 


8 
6 

'- 


2 
4 
2 


3 
...... 

2 

I 


2 

1 
....„ 


9 

7 
7 
2 

1 
1 


1 
3 
4 

3 


55 


Indiana 


69 


Illinois 


t" 


!Michigau 


23 


AV iscon.siii .............. 


3 


^I iunesota 


1 
1 

12 










2 


Iowa 


2 
13 


1 
1 


1 



1 
3 








n 


Missouri......... . .... 


10 


2 


4 


GO 


North ]):ikota 




South Dakota 




1 








■ 







1 


Nebraska .. 






















Kansas 


5 






2 


2 


' 





5 


^ 


•M 


Western Division: 

Montana 


1 




I 


"Wy oiuin ij ... 




:::::: ::::::::::::.: 




Colorado '. 


1 









1 








2 


New Mexico 




1 












Arizona... 












Utah 




: 


1 




Nevada 








1 




Idaho 








. .. ' '- - * 




W^ashingtou .... ....... 










1 , 








1 


Oregon 








" 










CaliTomia 


2 


1 


1 


... 


M 


1 


1 




6 











Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OP HIGHER EDUCATION. 
Table 6. — liesidence of coJUge iiudenta — Continned. 



115 



State or Tenriton*. 



United States. 













^k 


« 
















ej 




9 


a 
S 


1 


^ 


1 


1 




1 


a 


O 







a 


^ 



Kesideucc of stiidenta. 



ci 






■a* 






ilrl 




M 




? 


§ 


» 


^ 


• 



f « I I % 

?5 ^ ^ M }< 

I I I 'I I •" I I I I 

447 4.7212,513 4.143 2,2511,575 1,684 2,8112,117 123 4851,1781,813 25,414 



Korth Atlantic Division ) 80 

Soufh Atlantic Division a3 



iwutli Central Division. 

Korth Central Division 

Western Division 



73 



C58 123 654 161 139! 114 142 214 5 11 

90 22 36 151 111 18 18 47 21 2l 
27 171 31 01 9' 1 4 40. 



64| 76, 2,361 

8 12) 281 
"' " 148 



184:3, 817 2, 319 3, 384 2, 061 1, 407 1, 517 2, 013 1, 790 116 469 I, 091 1, 705 22, 419 



North Atlantic Division: 

Maine 

New Hampshire , 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Bhode Island 

Connecticut ] 

Kew York ' 

New Jersey i 

• rennaylvania 

Soath Atlantic Division: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. 

Virginia 

West Virjrinia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

South Central Division: 

Kentucky 

TennesjwH' 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

North Central Division: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missonn 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western Division : 

Montana 

Wroming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

California 



29 32 38 



1 

3 

3 1 



24a 

89 
138! 

54; 
118 



9 

11! 

26 



41 



11 
19 

7 

6 

12' I 1 

7; 



12 
2 



35 261, 

1; 5' 



5! 



A- 
39; 

2! 

32; 

65 
10; 



341 20 . . 



12 13 205 



50. 

^\ 

56' 
3 

8 



53 
2. 
18' 
22 
"5 
12 



63 105, 
1'. 
43. 
33 . 
19 
11 



1... 
h 4 



20i 



131 
27 
19 
20 



I I 



i 



3 

23 
10 

913 
24 
328 
611 
182 
267 



23 

15 

51 

47 



3 
6 



171 
121 

5. 

2! 



3 
13j 



6 
12 



13. 

22 . 



4, 4 











...1 


1 

1 






.; .1 


1 .. 

1 












1 


1 




j 


i 


t 


1 


2 ' 1 ' 




1 . 

9! 

6| 


t 


1 






:::::..:::::::'::::::::: 


17. 


12! 

1 .. 


ii 

1 


1 
4 

5;.. 


1 


2 


1 

15... 


1 i 




i 
3 


10 


17.. 


.;....; 


3.. 






1 


1 














! 



35 3, 

27! 
12: 

5 
10 
22 
22 

4 

**; 

8 
16 



I. 



578 581 
99 2, 091 
78 

108 



I 



14 



1 
2 
1 

1 

11 20 



62 
142 



40 

41. 

72 2, 602 58 

751 2471,901 

2| 92 

2. 211 
3! 51 1 

3. 49 



21 
6 

67 



2j 12 
10 10 



10 

3 

46 

16' 

1, 157l 201 
4 68 1,401 
6 29 

1 3 
1 1 

1 3 
2 

2 2 



.1. 



82 
'83 

27 

83 

1 
2 
1 

64 
66 
1 
1 

1 
9 




24 
41 

77 
23 
4 

3 

44 2, 235 30 

li 201,540 

2I 2 
1 3 

8 9 



19 
27t 
146 
581 
35: 
37 



1. 

30 



... 3 

3 12 

... 11 

1 7, 

30 23| 

3, 18 



13 
3< 

39 
13| 

4 

26 
11 



16 

26: 
54; 

21| 



40, 



77....' 

1 38l| 9' I 

7 048i 12 

2 21 1, 499, 



3.844 
2,485 
3,344 
2,521 

1, 350 
1,004 

2, 482 
1,085 

8;{ 

409 
1,011 
1,001 



1 

47 

2 



1 II 

5j 8 



5 
119 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



116 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 
Table 6. — Itesidence of college students — Continued. 





1 

447 


Residence of students. 


State or Territory. 


i 

115 


1 
1 

52 


1 

oil 


66 


38 


i 

280 


1 
90 


i 

57 


1 

1 


1 


i 


•i 

V 

'5 


1 

1 

P 


1 

8 


United States 


338 '578 


1,814 


3,939 


66,357 


840 


North Atlantic Division 

South Atlantic Division. . . . 
South Central Division 


86 
63 
73 

184 
41 

4 

2 
3 

15 
2 
4 

24 
5 

27 

1 
9 
4 

9 
8 
•14 
9 
9 
5 

11 
19 

7 
6 

10 

12 

7 

1 

35 


17 
2 
1 
13 
82 


6 

1 

"o 

39 
3 


71 
4 

1 
56 
379 


10 


2 

1 


20 
4 
2 

25 
229 


2 ! 7 

1| 1 


18 21 
2 t 1 
1 .... 

44 20 

273 536 


122 

12 

8 

69 

1,603 


296 
29 
13 

252 
3,349 


24, 779 t 442 
6,932 43 
7,252 1 25 

23, 734 263 
3 600 fi7 


Korth Central Division 

Western Division 


10 


2 
33 


.... 7 
87 42 








— 




7 


North Atlantic Division : 
Maine 












1 


4 

2 

1 

131 

3 

40 

79 

13 

17 


746 


New Bampshire 

Vermont 






1 


:::;::::: 


1 


■■"i *" 


423 
434 

7,424 
738 
2,-205 
6,405 
1,699 
4,645 

80 

1,160 

568 

1,497 

392 

1, 314 

904 

859 

158 

1,674 

1,815 

831 

774 

630 

1,359 

268 

1 

4.208 
2,660 
3,619 
2,727 
1,391 
1,642 
2,627 
1,787 
83 
414 
1,034 
1,642 

71 
87 

444 
41 
26 

248 
74 
23 

222 

499 
1,975 


1 
















1 
12 


"'is' 
3 

13 

37 

3 

7 


1 


Massachusetts * 

Rhode Island 


7 


1 


r28 


3 .... 


12 


2 


3 


5 


132 


Connecticut 


6 
2 
2 


"2 


15 

21 

5 

2 


3 

1 


1 


Jl:::: 


1 
2 


"4 2 


?S 


New York 


5 
1 
3 


3 
2 

1 


137 


New Jersey 


51 


Pennsylvania .......... 


3 




1 






80 


South Atlantic Division: 
Delaware 












Maryland . .. . - ^ , . r , ,- 


1 
1 


"i' 


2 

1 






4| 1 


.... 


2 1 1 


6 
5 

1 


17 
9 

1 
1 


?S 


District of Columhia. . . 






•> 


Virginia 






...J .. 






4 


West Virginia 






1 






...J..-. 








? 


North Carolina. . .....*. 








".".l.:j:v. 










5 












....■ ! 












1 


Georgia 
























1 


1 


Florida 
























South (Antral Division : 
Kentucky 


1 








1 










4 

1 
1 


5 

1 
1 
2 


7 


Tennessee 








1 










n 


Alahnma . 










....|.... 












Mississippi 












2 












Louisiana 






















1 


Texas 






1 










1 


.... 


2 


4 




Arkansas 








1 








Oklnhoroa 




























North Central Division : 
Ohio 


1 


1 
"i* 


7 
1 

14 
14 
1 
1 
3 
2 


1 
1 
1 
8 

1 




1 
2 
7 
11 






7 

4 
8 
7 


2 

2 
4 

4 
1 
1 
3 
1 


6 
6 
23 
11 
3 
1 
7 
7 


26 
20 
61 
54 
8 
16 
19 
20 


4!l 


Indiana .............. 


15 ' 1 
27 t 1 




3 

1 


35 


Illinois 


'S7 


Michigan 


12 
5 
10 
22 
22 
4 


3 
2 
3 


51 


AVisconsin 






11 


Minnesota . . ... 




1 

• 






9 
6 

1 


18 


Iowa 










21 


Missouri 


2 




3 




2 




2 


14 


North Dakota 




South Dakota 


8 


















1 
"1 


"2" 


1 
8 

1 


' 2 
14 
12 

70 
36 

384 
37 
25 

246 
74 
23 

217 

493 
1,744 




Nebraska . .......... 


8 
16 

2 

1 
5 
2 
1 
2 
1 
1 
7 
8 
11 


69 
**3' 


2 
2 


6 

8 






1 




1 


? 


Kansas 






11 


Western Division: 

Montana 










1 




WvominflT 


35 
2 


1 
368 


















Colorado 


6 
37 




1 










5 


3 


New Mexico 












Arizona 








25 
3 
















Utah 


1 


2 






222 


1 
64 


16 






1 

10 

...... 

2 
1.584 




Nevada 












Idaho 














21 


1 

213 

18 

41 


1 

2 

470 

63 




AVashin gton ...... ...... 


1 
2 
6 
















Oregon ." 














1 
3 


1 


Calnomia' 


.... 


10 


4 


5 


6 


22 


fa 







Degrees. — ^The total number of degrees, excluding professional degrees 
conferred on examination, as reported by the several universities and 
colleges, was 8,835, of which number 7,359, or 83.3 per cent, were con- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OP HIGHER EDUCATION. 



117 



ferred on men, and 1,476, or 16.7 per cent, were conferred on women. 
The number of different kinds of degrees conferred was 22. Of this 
number the A. B. degree leads, with a total of 4,402, or almost 50 per 
cent of the total number conferred. The following tables show: First, 
the total number of degrees conferred; second, the number conferred 
on men; and third, the number conferred on women by the institutions 
of the several States and Territories : 



Table 7. — Total number of degrees confeired. 



State or Territory. 




< 


« ! 


03 


i 

7 
5 

"i 
1 


« 

828 

316 
34 
25 

420 
33 


i 

29 

7 

22 


i 

232 

Tift 

38 

7 

05 

4 


466 

66 
10 
32 
310 
42 


18 
2 


14 


23 


a-g 


w 

1 

w 


3 


< 


46 

11 

1 

1 

19 

ii 


1 

36 

1 


4^ 


rnited States 

North Atlantic Divieion. 
Sonih Atlantic Division. 


4,402 

2,090 
finft 


1 1 
9781,372| 96 

530| 368, 28 
113 m i; 


1711 561 40 21! 12 

) 1 1 1 

lOOJ 36' 38| 9! 8 

21I 4-. -J.- ! 1 


10 


Snntli PAntral Division I ^7:^ Ai ^A !t 


3, 13 
13].. 


15 ^ 


--- , 1 


K< 


North Central Division.. 
Wftfltfim Division 


1, 3991 250 
132' 25 

129 13 
40 


675, 54 
61 Ti 


33, 


id 


2 


S, 3 


ll* 


North Atlantic Division: 
Maine 


- ""t 


r^c 


= 


= 




^= = 


1 'I 


_ 


= 


New Hampshire 


20 
10 
62 












20 






3 


:::;i:::v::.:::i":' 






29 
591 

61 
289 
324 
144 
477 

6 
105 
28 
67 
26 
103 
57 
115 
1 

59 
93 
43 
12 
26 
24 
15 
1 

344 

185 

101 

123 

58 

55 

132 

136 

6 

10 

53 

106 

3 


*U7 
1R 






14 






... 1 I...L * 






Massachnsetts 




? 


20 




n 








4---J 8'---l 1 








Rhode Island 


' 1... 


19... 
105... 
113 7 


2 

21 

44 

2 

23 








1 
1 
54 
11 
26 

4 


.----...'.. 








Connecticut ..••••.••. 


28 


n 


1'..- 


1 
20 

"25 


"2 
b 




4 

?4 


1... 


4 
7 


... 




New York 


071 a 98 
106 24 


13 
4 
10 


3 


181 5 


7 


A 


New Jersey 


"8 


f> 






Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic Division: 
Delaware 


121 


cl37 




45 




7 


4 






1 




Maryland 


22 
17 
30 

"9 

10 

7 

9 

10 
16 
11 
1 
8 
14 

63 
29 
56 
20 
16 
4 
12 
17 


3 
6 
8 
7 

28 
5 
4 
1 

25 
65 
84 
9 










33 
6 


1 




















District of Colnmhia. 


3 




... 






... 


3 
3 
















Tirginia 








....!. 


4 




...1 - 








WeSt Virginia 

Nort h Carolina 




... 


8 
11 
14 






?l 


... 






1 


1 










' 












South Carolina 












........ 






:::i:::'::: 






Georgia 


2;... 


1 






1 
2 

10 
4 






6 






...'...1 






Florida 








1 






1 






South Central Division : 
Eentuchy 


...L. 

3 --- 


3 
4 




















Tennessee 




.... 
3 

1 
1 




9 


1 " 


"'\"' 


1 


5 




Alabama 


... 




u... 


. .. ,1 


11 


1 


'"{'" 




Mississippi 


4I 


1 




' 










Lionisiana 


35 














4 




, 








Texas 










2 


10 


'A 


...1 




1 








Arkansas 


4 

1 

85 
52 
186 
83 
60 
42 
73 
51 




3 




4'... 
t 


11 




1 


\ 








Indian Territory 

North Central Division : 
Ohio 




....1 :.. 


1 








8 
5 

12 
6 
3 
2 

11 
2 




107 
56 
48 
70 
4 
19 
83 
20 


6 

"3 
9 

1 

"3 


19 
3 

22 
5 
1 
2 


69 
17 
56 
47 
69 
93 


1 
1 
4 
3 
2 
2 




11 
6 

3 


9I 


' 4 




4 


6 




Indiana - 




niinois 












3 


Michigan 


9 


* 1 


1 




4 


5 




Wisconsin 


...' T 


' 




Minnesota 




5 
3 


2, 1, 2 










Iowa 


7' 13 
1' 1.3 


6 
3 


1 
3 


1 


Missouri 


2 


v-i ' 






North Dakota 








South Dakota 


"12 
21 


* 4 

28 
21 


"'5 




3 
2 
8 






2 








....!.. ..1... 










Nebraska 


"i 


1 
4 










^ 


1 










Kansas 


7 










1 




2 


1 




Western Division : 

Montana 








1 


4 






Wyomin*' 




1 



























2 




Cotorado" 


13 


1 


1 




4 


... 


1 


1 








....I....I... 








New Mexico 








1 1 






6 




Uteh 






1 
2 

6 
36 


1 
















....|....|... 








Nevada 


3 
9 
21 

83 


.... 

4 
19 




























W ash in crton ..... 


2 


















;;.i" 






3 
3 






I 


2 
27 






4 

37 








1... 




5 
9 




Cwibmla 


2i 




3 


... 




2 


T 














1 


1 1 T' 







a Includes 13 B. Arch. 



b 1 Litt. D. 



e Includes 2 P. C. 



.118 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-Pi. 
Table 8. — Degrees conferred on men. 



State or Territorj-. 




a 
< 


w 
M 


(/5 

75 


P 
7 


A 
g 










Hi 

1^ 




56 


1 




< 
11 

T 
1 


3 


1 


United States 


3,941 


908 


1,077 


1 
579 |19 


1 

213 206 |10 


1 !l71 

...100 
...'21 
1 15 
... 33 
9 


40 bl 




Korth Atlantic Division. 
Soutli Atlantic Division. 
South Centra*. Division.. 
North Central Division.. 
"Wftstern Diviiiion 


1,973 
478 
244 

1,146 
100 


511 
108 

52 
216 

21 


337 

48 

154 

494 

Ad. 


21 
4 


5 


272 4 
29 .... 
23 I.... 

238 ; 15 

17 ---. 


101 i 41 
38 8 

7 1 18 
63 119 

A ! on 


1 
'9 


36 
4 
4 

12 


38| 9 


3 1 1 

..1 


3 i 1 
43 1 

4|... 








2 
13 
9 




2 


8 3 
4 ... 


1 
1 








) ' 1 _ 


] 




North Atlantic Division : 
Iklaiuo 


111 
46 
24 

561 

59 
288 
304 
144 
436 

6 
92 
25 
C7 
26 
96 
57 
109 


!•> 


\ 1 1 


1 1 


1 


t 




...!...i...i. . 


New Ilampshiro 


.... 

145 
14 
27 
91 
106 
116 


20 
15 
60 


1 . ' -. 


20 


...1 

...!'-*-■ 


3 






...1...;.. ■ 




4 
9 


1 






......i.: . 




.... 2 


*>(\ 








4 

1 
1 

54 
11 
26 

4 


.... 


8 


... 1 




Khode Island 


19 '.... 
103 '.... 


2 
14 
37 

2 
20 













16 
a88 

24 
cl20 




1 
14 

"6 


i 

ib) 


... 


4 
24 






3 ! 


New Vork .. ........ 


7 3 


18 
5 

7 


5 1 6 

1 








4 
10 


1 1 




rennaylvania 

South Atlantic Division : 
Delaware 


......... 


1 

...... 


1 


M^arvland 


22 a 


,-- 1 1 


33 
5 












...1...'. ..■ 


District of Columbia 


15 
39 

"9' 

10 
7 
6 

10 
16 
11 
5 
10 


3 

8 
5 
20 


2 


\ 1 






3 
3 
5 


1 ' 


::.i::.i. ..-::: 




t 1 






4 




. ..'..J 


"West Virginia 

Nortli Carolina 




3 

11 


1 


1 


...1... 






i\...'... 








' 1 ' ' 




Soutli Carolina. ... 


4 l-.-.i... 14 

4 ! 9. L.J 1 


.... 






1 


1 








1 1. ..'-__ 


6 




1 , 


Florida 


1 


It 






9. 




....).... 


1 ' : 


South Central Division: 
Kentnrkv 


56 
86 
38 
12 
16 
20 


15 
51 
20 

8 

26 
26 

2 


1 


3 

4 






7 
1 




1 




1 


1 1 


Tennessee . ........ 


3 |... 




3 

1 
1 


I 


9 






2 




12 .... 
1 


i 1 


....'.... 


1 


T^ia^is^inni 


1 


4 !...' 1 


1 




TiOuisiaiia 


1 






4 






Texas 


.... 


' 




2 


5 

1 


... ..J 


::::':::l::::: ':: 




15 1---- 


3 




•: 1 : 


"\X\V\"' VJ'"' 


Indian Territory . 


1 
290 








1 


I 


II It 


North Central Division : 
Ohio 


5R 


64 
45 
126 
67 
42 
29 
46 
36 


7 
3 
12 
6 
3 
2 
5 
2 


...' 56 5 
... 30 - - - 


18 
2 

22 
5 

1 
2 
7 

1 


11 
10 
15 
25 
33 


1 
1 '... 


11 
6 
3 
2 

1 


9 


....I4L.L. 6 


Xndiaua ......... 


134 19 
176 51 
09 17 
54 16 
49 ; 1 
99 1 7 


... ! ..'. '.. 


Illinois 


... 32 

1 t 43 


3 




....'...L.J..J 


Michiirau 






X ;...;. .; 3 


Wisconsin 


... 1 ' 1 

... 10 '.... 
... 50 ' 1 
...' 12 .... 






Minnesota 


7 1 2 ... 5 

8 '...'...' 3 

7|...|...- 2 


2 


1|2 


1 >.. ' 


Iowa 


1 


I 


Missouri 

North Dakota 


107 
5 
9 


15 


v:-:l' 


i*" 


South Dakota 




2 
19 
18 






1 


1 


2 


...f...'....!....l----l--. 


. .' 1 


Nebraska 


38 i 12 
86 ! 20 


....1... 

3 1... 

I 


1 




1 
4 


..'. :::;!.::: 


' 




..t- -' 


Kansas 


2 ; 1 


1 








1 ; 1 


"Western Division: 
Montana ..... 


1 
11 












Mil 


4 






Colorailo 




6|....|... 


4 




1 




'!*• 1 r 




1 


New Mexico 


11 ,---. 




..! ..*.'....'.. ..!.!.. 








1 


Utah 


1 


1 

2 
5 

1 
30 


1 




1 




t 


I -.1. _-.!.... 








Nevada , . . 


1 
8 
14 
05 


1 
4 
16 




1 




...'....1 ).. 


....'....'.... 






1 


Washington 


1 


... 

1. . 




....i----i •--- 


1 








1 


Orecon 




!ii 
1 






3 

17 


1 1 


I 






1 


California 


2 1-^- 




3 


...(-- 


2 


1 






1 ,-.. 










1 


'*'r"T" 




i 



a Includes 11 B. Arch. 



b 1 Litt. D. 



c Includes 2 T. C. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OP HIGHER EDUCATION. 
Tablk 9. — Degr€€9 conferred ati women hg coedMcaiional colleges,^ 



119 



State or Territory. 


461 1 


295 


n 

249 


^ 

» 


v4 


< 
70 


21 


S ! Pi 
8 1 19 


i 
10 


'41 


i 
I 


6 


t 

pa 




2 
< 


Uuited States 


200 1 13 


10 i 2 


18 1 1 


2 


Korth Atlantic T>i vision .. . 


117 1 
30 ' 
29 ' 

253 ' 

32 1 

18 

5 
30 

2 

1 
20 t 
*l! 
13' 


31 
14 

52 

181 

17 


1 

2 

182 

16 


25 1--. 


19 
5 
8 

34 
4 

T 


7 

1 

ii" 
2 


1 17 

"'3 '.'.'.'. 

4 1 2 


.... 


8 
1 
1 
18 
13 


6 






1 


tv 


Sonth Atlantic Division . . . 


2 

14 

197 

22 


1 
12 








Soath Central Division.... 


' 


3 






North Central Division 


*i ' 


1 


Western Division .......... 


12 


' 


Xorth Atlantic Division: 
Maine 


^n 


^= 







1 


V ennont .............. 


I 


1! 








1 












Massachusetts 






2 
4 

I 
6 
5 








, 




i 


Khode Island 








, 




:;::"" 






Connecticut 


1 

10 
17 


2 
20 

1 






1 



.... 7 
1 7 
.... 3 


3 


1 
7 




................ 


New York 


6 

19 

1 







1 


1! 2 


Pennsylvania.-.-. 




Sooth Atlantic Division: 
MarA'lantl. ........... 




1 


1 


District of Columbia. . . 


3 
2 
8 
1 






2 


1 


t 




'< I • ' 


West Vir«;iuia 


5 


1 




, 




1 


1 ' 


H^ortb Carolina 


^i 


" ■ 1 1 




' 


South Carolina 






, ' 






Oooriria.-. ............. 


3 

7 ' 
5 

io' 

4 






i ' 




j ' ; 


Floricla 










3 








South Central DiTi.>>ion : 
JCeutuckv ............. 


10 
14 
8 

1 
9 
7 
2 

1 

21 
7 
CO 
10 
8 
13 
27 
15 


..... 


3 
8 


i 




1 1 1 1 1 


Tennessee 








1 


1 1 3 '... 


Alabama 














Mis.Hissippi 










1 














1 


Texas 


::::: 


5 

3 


ii- 




3 




1 


Arkansas .... ........ 






1 


Indian Territory 














Korth Central Division: 
Ohio 


&4 

6 
33 
29 

■ 

2 


61 

20 

10 

27 

3 

9 

33 

8 


58 




5 

10 
5 
3 


1 
2 


.... 1 
.... 1 
2 




4 


1 1 1 


Indiuna. ...--....-.... 


41 '.'.'.'. 
22 


* 


Illinois 






3 


Michi>;an 


2.... 




4 


....,' 2 ...... 


M'iscousm 


30 




... I ... 


Minnesota 


IG 
5 





3 
5 

2 




1 


.j....'....i... 


Iowa 












1 


[ 


Missouri 


1 1 , 1 


Is or til Dakota 








1 ' 


South Dakota 


2 

3 


2 

1 
6 




t 


' ■ 1 


Nebraska 
















ICansas . ....... 




1 


1 


2 


1 




1 


2 > 


We.-item Division: 

Montana 


:iA... 


^Vvoraini? . 


1 
1 




1 














« 




Colorado 


2| 




..... 


i .... 


1 


I 








...... . 




ICew Mexico 








••*•)""* 


..M:::v::: 


Nevada 


2 

1 i 
7 
18 1 




















Washington 


4 
5 
6 


..... 
15 


■I,;;;; 


"3' 


1 






"4 




>> 


i )reeon 


.... 3 ........ 


California 






■** *' ■ '■ 1 ' 



• For degrees conferred on women by colleges for women see pp. 120, 131. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



120 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



Honorary degrees. — The total number of honorary degrees conferred 
by the institutions under consideration was 785. The number of differ- 
ent kinds of degrees coiiferred by the institutions of the several States 
and Territories is as follows : 

Table 10. — Honorary degrees conferred. 



state or Territory. 


P 
P 


P 

1-3 


P 

33 

14 
3 
5 

10 


P 
H 

CO 

4 
3 


P 

w 

3 

2 
1 


p 


P 

15 


d 

p 

3 

'2" 

1 


10 


1^ 
inri 


i 








i 




p 


d 


TJnited States 


323 


U7 


18 11 


2 3 


la ' u 




1 

* 


North Atlantic Division 

South Atlantic Division 


"86';~w" 

52 1 21 
49 ' ft 


16 

1 


2 


7 ' 77 I ' 1 
I 1 :u - ^ 1 




2 


... 


Soath Central Division 


..,-21 






10 
2 


.,.!... 






North Central Division 


127 
9 

8 
2 
8 
3 
9 

19 
2 

35 

8 
4 
8 
3 

15 
9 
5 

4 

O30 
3 
3 

4 
1 
4 

46 
15 
23 
7 
4 
2 
8 
7 
2 
7 
6 


52 


1 






1 


'2 ' AV 


1 I 


IS 


S 1 5 




1 


Western Division 


2 1 1 




1 




7 




North Atlantic Division: 
Maine 


12 


= 


= 


== 


6 


5 




^^= 


10 
1 
4 
4 

13 

25 
3 

17 

18 
3 
1 
3 
3 
1 


^ 


— 




= = 


=:= 


= 


Vermont 


2 

7 
2 
8 
19 
























MftHBachn spits 








1---- 


1 














Rhode Island 








4 




1 














Connecticut ............ 












4 


... 








.1--- 






New York 


7 


3 


1 








2 


i" 
1 


1 
i 


.... 

1 


1' 








New Jersey 


5 
9 

11 
3 
4 


4 

3 


1 
5 












Ponusvlvania. ...... . 


... 


1 


3 




1 
1 


1 




1 




South Atlantic Division : 
Xfarvhiml 


1 




District of Columbia 






1 


1 






















Virginia ................. 






1 






















West Virginia 


9 








1 






















North Carolina 


I 












... 




1 












South Carolina .... 


2 

1 

1 


1 












1 






















5 

s 
11 

5 




...L_.J_._. 










South Central Division: 
ICciituclcv 





— ,•*• 
























Tennessee 


2 
53 












? 


.... 
















Alabama 


1 


















10 










Mississippi 


1 

""i 

18 
5 
5 
5 
2 






























Louisiana 


1 
1 
2 

2 

"5" 
















.. i . L... 










Texas 












1 








'"V" 






Arkansas 














2 

16 
8 
4 
3 
2 








1 






North Central Division: 

Ohio 










1 


.... 




1 


n|....c5 








Indiana 


1 








1 








Illinois 












!!.!.!! 


3 2 


.... 5 






Michigan 
















Wisconsin 






i 






1 


i 




1 






Minnesota 












! 




"V" 






Iowa 


5 






1 








3 
2 

1 
1 
1 


...;... 


1 




' \"' 






Missouri 






::.''.'::::": 




1 




*l 






South Dakota 






1 






1 




...1... 






Nebraska 


6 


2 
1 




1 


1 






1 




1 






Kansas 




1 






1 










1 


Western Division : 

Utah 






1 




















V Idaho 




2 
















1 




1 






Washington 


5 
2 
2 


1 




1 








1 
5 

1 


...I...I.... 




" 1 






Oregon 




1 








...1 




.. .I... 






California 








1 








. 1 


















1 








1 











a Also 1 B. D. 



&AI80ILL.B. 



eMu8.B. 



Property. — The property of uuiversities and colleges may properly 
be classed as follows : Fellowships, scholarships, libraries, apparatus, 
grounds and buildings, and productive funds. 

The number of fellowships reported was 305, of which number 149, 
or 48.9 per cent, are held by the institutions of the North Atlantic 
Division. The value or income of fellowships and scholarships was 
given in full in the Annual Keport for 1892-93. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OP HIGHER EDUCATION. 



121 



The value of the entire equipment of the institutions is given as 
$212,181,552, of which amount $98,527,052 are reported as permanent 
endowment funds. The proportion of property held by the institutions 
of the several divisions is as follows : 



Proportion of property held by the colleges and universities of the several divisions. 



Division. 



North Atlantic Divinioii 
South Atlautic Divirtiou. 
Soath Central Division. . 
North Central Division.. 
Western Diviaion 






I 



I 

o 



Per et. 
16.0 
13.7 
17.8 
43.7 
8.8 



Peret. 
48.9 
10.5 

8.2 
30.1 

2.3 



Peret. 
48. G 
12.9 
13.8 
23.0 
1.1 



a . 
^-3 



Per et. 


44.8 


11.3 


6.8 


32.8 


4.3 



Per et. 

49.0 
8.8 
4.7 

29.1 
7, a 



1^ 
•s| 

U 

o 



Peret. 
38.5 
10.7 

8.5 
33.9 

8.4 






Per et. 

55.8 

7.8 

7.0 

2«.0 

3.6 



The above statement shows that the institutions of the North 
Atlantic Division are very well provided for in the way of property 
and endowments. This may be seen by comparing the proportion of 
institutions to the proportion of property held by the institutions. 

Tlie summary, by States and Territories, of the property is given in 
the following table: 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



122 



EDUCATION EEPOBT, 1893-94. 



Table 11. — Proj^ri^ Tteld Jfg unitperaitiet and coUeff€9, 



Stoto or Territory. 



Vnited States. 



o 
305 



5,714 



Xorth Atlantic Division. . . 
South Atlantic Division...! 

South Central Division ' 

North Central Division. .^ .' 
Weatem Division ' 

ITorth Atlantic IHvision : 

Maine | 

New Hampshire ; 

Vermont * ■ 

Massachusetts 

Khode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jeraej' i 

Pennsylvania ! 

South Atlantic Divii«ion : | 

Delaware 

Maryland I 

District of Columbia. . . I 

V^irginia ..j 

West Vir;?inia 

North Carolina ' 

South Caroliua ' 

Georgia 

Florida ., ' 

South ('cntral Division: 

Kentucity 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Missiasi j)pi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas , 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territory 

North Central Division: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

niinois 

Michigan 

^Visconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

"Western Division: 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico , 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevatla 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

California 



140 I 

32 ; 

25 1 

92 I 



2,779 
739 
785 

1,346 
65 



Libraries. 



5, 496, 957 



2, 463, 650 
620,369 
872, Ml 

1, 806, 240 
234,037 



•a 

a 












&5 



-a* 



"I 

o > 

4 



1, 184, 917 



$12, 590, 487 nOl, 064, 013 $98, 527. 052 






^ I 
48 

2 ' 
12 , 
62 I 
11 
14 ; 

1 

"''\ 


I 

l\ 



t 
' 
22 1 

SI 

• 

l\ 

i 

8 : 

1 ; 

71 I 

1 i 
8 • 

2| 












. 








* 









204 
194 
165 
678 
100 
112 
941 
94 
291 

30 

107 ; 

43 , 

97 



346 , 

19 , 

33 I 

4 



367 
120 ; 

41 ' 

15 
146 

65 

25 I 


; 



I 



I 



301 I 

3 ' 
470 I 

2 
155 
21 
201 
141 

4 
40 

8 






12 





1 






20 
33 



98,630 , 

75,000 

63,735 
558,563 i 

80,000 I 
280,000 ' 
722,915 t 
133,869 ' 
450,938 

6.267 
150, 520 
95,531 . 
141,050 
10,767 
80,000 , 
03,050 I 
01, 204 

9,900 ; 

50,888 . 

134, 858 

30, 8.30 1 

24,000 t 

76, 100 I 

36, 145 I 

12. 800 I 

200 ' 

8U0 I 



357, 093 
181, h76 
490,940 
181,576 
105, 950 
73,883 
123,697 
147, 551 
7,068 
9,277 
49, 474 
68,255 

1,500 

2. 926 

22,000 

200 

872 

15,000 

4,920 

2,000 

11,064 

18,425 

J54, 230 



667,949 
103, 634 

7a 196 
309, 272 

35, 866 



10,000 

20,000 

200 

222.750 

20,000 

29,000 

116, 0S4 

5,015 

234,950 

5,674 

43,970 



6, 284, 131 
1.098.884 

503>295 
3. 669, 577 

044,600 



38, 905, 076 , 
10.834,200 I 

8,500,828 
34, 237, 829 1 

8, 487, 080 



54, 894, 531 
7, 647. 215 
6, 860, 512 

25 628,605 
3,496,099 



23,350 

350 

16,640 

2,100 
10.550 

1,000 

6,171 

26,725 

4,050 

9,000 

19.300 

8,570 

4,050 

130 

200 

90,450 
15,693 
41,103 
58,985 
11,300 
3,025 
12,800 
52,071 
8,000 
2,410 
8,075 
10,300 

300 
1,800 
2,500 

100 
2,087 
3,000 
2,534 
1,000 
5,675 
2,750 
14, 120 



114. 397 
100. 000 
173, 000 

1,281,748 
232. 600 
iJiO, 635 

2,642,030 
570, 000 

1, 019, 712 

36,334 
253.200 
143,000 
403,200 
5,000 
110.200 

20,200 
114, 750 

13,000 

46.000 

259,120 I 

35,675 I 

70,000 j 

09.500 1 

97,350 

13.950 ' 

1.200 I 

500 

737, 050 
304,494 
735, 950 
603.690 
239,500 
198, 520 
177, 823 
201.050 
21,250 
10, 050 
215. 300 
224, 900 

2,500 
25, 000 
93,500 
500 
35,000 
45,000 
25,000 
15,000 
29,450 
23,40) 
650, 250 



900,000 
500,000 
369,000 
7, 171, 000 
1, 250. 000 
6, 712, 300 
12, 103, 635 
1,920,000 
7, 983, 141 

80,000 
1,787,000 
2, 500, 000 
2, 123, 000 

307.000 
1.226,200 

865,000 
1,666,000 

280.000 

1, 024, 000 

2,910,450 

778,500 

480.000 

1.668,378 

1, 356, 500 

297,000 

50,000 

35,000 

6. 678, 000 
3, 906. 692 
6, 453, 400 
1, 818, 922 
2.141,000 
2, 629, 237 
2, 317, 528 
4, 203, 200 
205,000 
439,000 
1, 702. 550 
1.743,300 



1,321,000 

1,076,622 

601,000 

13,283,115 
1,201,531 
5, 323, 295 

22, 576. 060 
3, 200, 000 
6,311,900 

83,000 
3,048.500 
415.000 
1, 867, 982 
111, 200 
&18. 316 
514. 000 
940,217 
149,000 

1, 222, 453 

2, 140, 740 

351. 200 

704, 400 

1 659. .398 

736, 821 

45.500 





6, 652, 097 

2, 130, 582 

6, 749, 590 

1,591.703 

1,378,743 

1, 666. 750 

1, 547, 502 

2,955,958 



63.400 

222,770 

669,000 



50,000 





125,000 




1, 102, 680 


387,729 


40,000 





66,000 





280,000 





85,500 





130, 000 


3.487 


1,004,000 


3,500 


536.000 


371,000 


5, 067, 900 


2, 730. 383 



Digitized 



byG00gI( 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OP HIGHER EDUCATION. 



123 



Income and benefactions. — The total income reported by the univer- 
sities and colleges was $15,365,612, of which amount 38.1 per cent 
was derived from students' fees, 34.3 per cent from endowment iunds, 
17 per cent from State, municipal, and national appropriations, and 10.6 
per e«nt from miscellaneous sources. The institutions m the North 
Central Division received 61.3 per cent of all State appropriations. 
The summarized statement of income and benefactions is as follows: 
Table 12. — Income of universities and colleges. 



State or Territory. 



Income. 



Tuition 
fees. 



Pro- 
ductiTe 
funds. 



State or 
mnnioi- 
pal ap- 
propria- 
tions. 



United 
States 
Govern- 
ment ap- 
propria- 
tion. 



Other 
sourooa. 



Total. 



I$enef»c. 
tion«. 



United SUtes $5, 850, 505 $5, 277, 052 $2, 095, 302 $515, 554 $1,021, 199 $15, 365, 012 $9. 025, 2J0 



Korth Atlantic Division . . . 
South Atlantic Division- . . 

Sonth Central Division 

North Central Division 

Western Division 



Korth Atlantic Division: 

Maine 

New Hampshire ... — 

Vemtont 

Massachusetts 

Khode Island 

Connecticut 

Now York 

Now Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Sonth Atlantic Division: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. . 

Virginia 

West Virginia. . . : 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

(Georgia 

Florida 

Sooth Central Division: 

Kentucky 

TennMuee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas , 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territory 

North Central Division: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Mi8M>uri 

North Dakota 

Sonth Dakota 

Nebraaka 

Kansas 

Weatem Division : 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

California 



2,575.005; 2,861,.^ 239.416J 
475, 646 386, 95C! 153, 612 
532,8711 458,8521 65,275. 

2,009,011 1,389,945 1,284,947; 
263.9721 179,711 352.052' 



80, 130, 
94, 244 
28,20r 
172, 9791 
140. OOO' 



47,881 

34,091 

7, 632 

660,495 

59, 374 
437, 626 
713, 748 

45,610 
568, 5J8' 


157, 816 
65,000 
94, 175 
9,483 
60,082 
19,373 
31,755 
17, 962 

68.420 
146, 518 
64,965 
17,000 
69, 131 
125, 8M 
39.5.34 
700 
700 

308, 757 

230,762 

458,498 

172,460 

50,613 

104,321 

161, 137 

308,310 

2,006 

22,900 

68,167 

131,080 

5,900 

255 

19,709 











22,149 

33,753 

182,200 



54, 9391 

36,960! 

39,294! 

743. 518^ 

143, 304' 

275, 8671 

1,100,710 

1H8, OOOl 

278, 996i 



4.1 
120,455 
20,394 
99. 8Zi 

6,96; 
39, 647 
32, 715 
51,012 
10,1 

69,967 

124,912 

27,100 

42,243 

114, 358 

77,242 

3,030 





300,459 

105,224 

335,098 

98,382 

77,310 

80,996 

94, 476 

181,800 



4,044 

20,256 

31,900 



188 

21,186 









393 

500 

24,180 

133,264 



0; 

7. 500 

8,400 





151,006 


72,500 

3,000 
18,500 

40,000 
25, 700 
20,000 
38. 190, 
4,222 
4,000i 



I 





27, 130 



0, 



19,000 

34,000 



15,200 


28,800 


16,000 



15,244 

19,000 






2,400 
1,515! 
8,100, 

o' 

46,200, 



^1 
19,000 

9,201 





7, 000, 
0| 

153,850 

44,000 

141, 882 

250,000 

276, 095 

69.500 

67,000 

14,000 

36,900 

28,5.50 

118,170 

85,000 



3,797 

70,000 

14.000 

7,706 

37,500 

25,000 

24,412 

19.500 

30.000 

120, 137 





1 

19,000 

^\ 
34,000 


34,000 
34,000 


17, 979 




34,000 




19,000 




34,000 


19,000; 
34,0001 

X' 

34, OOOl 



691, 392| 
197,860 
118,1.51, 
572, 388! 
41,408 



( 





11,587 

394' 

155, 790 

0| 

21, 028; 

321,896 

100,000! 



1,271 
31,353 
22,816 
63,777 
234 
24,774 
16.500 
23,600 
13, 475 

7,149 
39, 898 

8,015 
10, 070 

7, .500 

28,649 

12,500 



'4,370 

132,229 
88,085 

111,707 
77,588 
60,469 
51,453 
23,440 
20,383 
5,870 
8,533 
18, 137 
24,494 





10,477 



585 

1,725 





12,690 

600 

15, 331 



6, 447, 531 i 2,302.843 
1, 308. 318, 196. 505 
l,203,350l 302,440 
6,429,270 3.370,249 
977,1431 2,853,197 



102, 820, 

90. 138! 

82, 850 

1, 5,59, 809 

202, 678 

734, 531 

2, 306, 360 

367, 610i 

1, 000, 735, 

24,451 
328, 124 
157, 010 
297, 775 

58,382 
144, 503 
122,022 
129,649 

46, 402 

145, 545! 

332, 788; 

101,595, 

77,413 

200, 190 

277,985, 

55, 004 

7,700 

5,070 



167,105 
15, 127 
7,450 

277.580 
69, 224 

400,049 

673,264 

792," i 44 



20,699 
&,200 

22,565 
d,500 

80, 352 
4.600 

33, 922 

75,667 

.'il, 725 

68.776 

2,025 

4.861 

151,741 

24, 100 

9,215 







974,295 


543, 247 


418. 071 


40,010 


1,081,185 


1,7.36,742 


598,430 


193, 731 


498,487 


140, 837 


340, 270 


45,443 


346, 053 


165,975 


642, 472 


323,513 


44, 776 


0,155 


64,027 


101,757 


248. 730 


44,»40 


272,474 


16,000 


5,900 


40,000 


23,240 





121, 372| 
14,000 
42,291! 
39,225. 
44, 000, 
58,805 
64,839 
88,533! 



1,800 




60,000 



6,000 

5,624 

103,400 



484,938 2,6371373 



D i git i zed i 



124 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



From tbe preceding table we find that the proportion of income 
derived from tbe various sources by the several divisions is as follows: 



Division. 



United states — 

Nortb Atlantic Division 
South Atlantic Division 
South Central Division. 
North Central Division., 
Western Division 



Proportion of income derived from- 



TuJtion 
fees. 



Produc- 
tive 
funds. 



State or 
munici- 
pal appro- 
priation. 



Per cent. 
38.1 



39.0 
36.4 
44.3 
37.0 
27.0 



Per cent 
34.3 



44.4 
29.6 
38.1 
25.6 
18.4 



Per cent. 
13.6 



3.7 
11.7 

5.4 
23.7 
S6.0 



United 
States 

Govern- 
ment. 



Per cent. 
3.4 



1.3 
7.2 
2.4 
3.2 
14.3 



Other 
sources. 



Per cent, 
10.6 



10.7 
15.1 

9.8 
10.5 

4.8 



11. — Colleges for Women. 



DIVISION A. 



Institutions. — The total number of colleges for women rei>orting to the 
Bureau for the year 1893-94 is 1C6, of which number 16 are placed in a 
table by themselves. They are Kadcliffe, Smith, Mount Holyoke, and 
Wellesley, in Massachusetts; Wells, Elmira, Barnard, Rutgers, and 
Vassar, in New York ; Evelyn, in New Jersey; Bryn Mawr, in Pennsyl- 
vania; Woman's College of Baltimore, in Maryland; Randolph-Macon 
Woman's College, in Virginia; Cleveland College for Women, in Ohio; 
Rockford College, in Illinois; and Mills College, in California. It will 
be noticed that 11, or 68.8 per cent, of these institutions are located 
in the North Atlantic Division. 

Professors and instructors, — The entire number of professors and 
instructors reported by the 16 institutions is 513, of which number 
473, or 92.2 per cent, are in the regular college departments, and but 
27, or 5.3 per cent, in preparatory departments. The remaining 13 
instructors are teachers of special studies, as music, art, etc. Of the 
total number of instructors 280, or 54.8 per cent, are women and 231, 
or 45.2 per cent, are men. 

Students. — The total number of students enrolled in these institu- 
tions was 3,986. In the college departments there were 3,463, or 86.9 
-per cent; in the preparatory departments there were 265, or 6.6 per 
cent, while 115, or 2.9 per cent, were enrolled in the graduate depart- 
ments. 

Of the total number of students reported as pursuing courses lead- 
ing to degrees 2,238, or 76.3 per cent, were in courses leading to the 
A. B. degree; 162, or 5.5 per cent, to the B. S. degree; 491, or 16.7 per 
cent, to the B. L. degree; 33, or 1.1 per cent, to the Ph. B. degree, and 
the remainder to other first degrees. Twenty-nine students were 
reported in pedagogical courses. 



Digitized 



byG00gI( 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OP HIGHER EDUCATION. 



125 



The summarized statistics concerning instructors and students are 
given in the following table: 

Table 1. — Professors and siudefits in colleges for women, Division J. 



State. 



United SUtes 

North Atlantic Di- 
vision 

Soatb Atlantic Di- 
YiBion -. 

North Central Di- 
vision 

Western Division.. 

Korth Atlantic Di- 
vision: 

Massachuaetts . 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsvlvania . . 
Sonth Atlantic Di- 
vision : 

Maryland 

Virginia 

North Central Di- 
vision : 

Ohio 

lUinols 

Western Division : 

CaUfomia 



Professors and instmet* 
ors. 



Pre- 
para- 
tory 
depart- 
ments. 



i ! 1 . -J^ 



Colle- 
giate 
depart- 
ments. 



Total 
number. 



1 I 26 225 248 232 



I 6 
I 3 



' I I 
183 210 1184 217 



22 18 t 22 



19 15 21 

1:55 



I 106 133 

1 7 44 , 63 

1 , 7 I 13 j 6 
I 20 ' 9 



I 



I 
15 15 
7 3 



19 4 
11 

1 



21 



Students. 



265 







1 


5 


s 


1 


*S) 


S 


a 


s 


1 


1 


3,463 


115 


3,980 



In collegiate depart- 
monts pursuing 
courses leading to — 



980 2,238 162 491 



42 



3,081 


108 3,231 


243 


4 277 


124 
15 


'3 317 

....1 161 



.906 162 441 



194 . 

46*. 

2 I- 



22 



2,038 



18 
223 



165 

78 



101 
23 



15 



38 2,076 ,1,153 135 



853 
81 
271 



169 

108 



104 
213 



161 



013 

221 



151 
40 



27 



34 



16 



33 



33 



il 



33 



29 
20 



17 
12 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



126 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



PrefiaratUm of freshmen, — ^Twelve of the sixteen institutions answered 
the inquiry concerning the preparation of freshmen, and the results 
obtained from the figures given are as follows: 

Tablk 2. — Preparation of freshmen in colUges for women j Dirision A. 





§.2 
1 

OD 

a 

M 


1 


Per cent of freshmen prepare«l hy— 


State. 


4 = 

Hi 


Private prepar- 
atory Bcnools. 




•3 

1 


1 


9 


3 


4 


5 

37.2 


6 

54.4 


7 


Uoited States 


12 


900 


5.7 


2.7 






North Atlantic Division 


8 
1 
2 

1 


784 

76 

34 

6 


3.7 
21.1 
11.8 
33.3 


38,5 
43.4 


55.0 
32.9 
88.2 
66.7 


2.8 


Sonth Atlantic Division 


2.6 


Korth Central Division 




"Western Division .............. ...... ...... 




\ 








North Atlantic Division : 

Massachusetts 


3 
3 

1 
1 

1 

1 
1 

1 


638 

186 

3 

57 

76 

28 


6 


1.3 
10.8 
33.3 

1.8 

21.1 


33.7 
4L9 
66.7 
7L0 

43.4 


62.6 
46.7 


2.4 


New York * 

New Jersey 


1.6 


Pennsylvania 


15.8 

82.9 

100.0 
33.3 

66.7 


10.5 


South Atlantic Division: 

Maryland 


2.6 


North Central Division: 

Ohio 




Illinois 


66.7 
33.3 






Western Division: 

California 













Degrees, — The number of degrees conferred are given in the summa- 
rized statement herewith presented : 

Tahle 3. — Degrees conferred in 1S93-04 hy colleges for iromen. Division J, 



State. 


A.B. 
305 


B.L. 
79 


B.S. 

76 


A.M. 
30 


Ph.D. 


Mus. B. 


Honorary 
A.M.*' 


United States 


2' 4' 3 






North Atlantic Division 

Sonth Atlantic Division 


282 
IG 
5 
2 


71 


76 


27 

1 

2 



16 
4 


2 , 4 1 3 


North Central Division 


4 
4 





1 i 


Western Division 


1 1 






North Atlantic Division: 

Massachusetts 

New York 


157 

22 
16 

4 

1 

2 


70 

i' 


70 


i' 


*! 3 


New ■ Jersev 


-. 


Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic Division: 

Maryland 

North Central Division : 

Ohio 




7 

1 
2 


1 















4 




! 




llbnois 








Western Division : 

CftlifOmia ..T...--,-r r--1-^-.^r..^.r 


4 




1 









' 1 1 







Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OP HIGHER EDUCATION. 



127 



Property. — ^The 15 fellowships held by the institutioDs under consid- 
eration are in the possession of the institutions of the North Atlantic 
Division. Bryn Mawr College has 11 of them. The proportion of 
property held by the institutions of the several divisions is as follows: 



Division. 



North Atlantic Division. 
South Atlantic Division. 
North Central Division.. 
Western Diviaion 



« 


i 


.1 


-8 


a 
9 


u 


1 

s 

M 


pS4 


A 

^ 


at JS 

1^ 


•M 
< 


Jl 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per et. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


68.8 


100 


76.3 


89.7 


75.1 


75.1 


12.5 





16.5 


3.7 


0.8 


12.4 


12,5 





1.2 


3.5 


16.5 


5.2 


6.2 





6.0 


3.1 


1.6 


7.3 



Per ct. 

84.7 

8.0 

5.4 

1.9 



The statistics of property by States are given in the following table: 

Table 4. — Property held by colleges for women , Diviaion A, 



Libraric'8. 



State. 



Follovr- Scholar- 
! ships, ships. | 



Bonnd , 
volumes. 1 



Pani' 
phlets. 



I Value of 
scientitic 
I appara- ■ 
tuB aixl ' 
' libraiios. 



^»^"*^V^ Amount of 
*'""nllS*^'* product ivo 
buildings. f»"^- 



Vnitcd States . 



15 



249 143,673 1*1,080 $607,407 $5,501,151 $3,962,416 



North Atlantic Division. 
Spnth Atlantic Division - 
Korth O'Dt ral Division . . 
Western Division 



15 190 128.923 1 

41 5,250 ; 

3 6,000 



15 



4,500 



9,855 , 455,907 

1,000 41,500 , 

125 100,000 ' 

100 10,000 



4,134,151 3,356,916 
682,000 j 315,000 

285.000 I 215,500 



Korth Atlantic Division : 

Majwachusetts 

Now York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic Division: 

Maryland 

Virginia 

Korth Central Division: 

Ohio 

Illinois 

Western Division: 

California 



4 


11 



149 



73,037 1 
30,886 1 
5 3,000 
8 , 22.000 : 



50 
1,805 ; 



20ft, 062 
187,845 



400. 000 ! 



2, 138, 130 
1,122,015 



41 



5.000 
250 



I 



8,000 
1,000 I 



40.000 
1,500 



3 I 
15 



5,000 
4,500 I 



t 



125 I 
100 ' 



100,000 
10,000 



587.000 ; 

95,000 

125,000 ' 
160, 000 j 

400.000 ' 



1, 008, 149 
1, 348, 767 



874.000 1,000,000 



225, 000 
90,000 

175.000 

40, 500 

75,000 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



128 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



Income and benefactions. — The total income reported by these iosti- 
tutions was $1,071,562, of which amount 72.1 per cent was derived from 
tuition fees, 19.7 per cent from endowment fiinds, and 8.2 percent from 
miscellaneous sources. The proportion of income derived from tuition 
fees is almost twice the proportion derived from the same source by 
tlie coeducational colleges and colleges for men only. It will be noticed 
that these institutions do not receive any State aid. The statistics 
concerning income and benefactions are as follows: 

Table 5. — Colleges for wotnetif Division A, — Income and hcnefacHons, 



State. 



United States 

North Atlantic Division. 
South Atlantic Division . 
North Central Division.. 
Western Division 

Korth Atlantic Division: 

Massachusetts 

New York 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic Division : 

Maryland 

Virginia 

North Central Division : 

Ohio 

niinois 

Western Division: 

California 



Income. 



Tuition 
fees. 



$772,501 



G14, 140 
69, 092 

37, 869 
50,500 



Productive 
funds. 



Other 
sources. 



$211, 144 



180, 172 
16,260 
11, 607 
3,105 



$87,917 



86,248 

1,400 

269 





Total. 



$1,071,562 



880,560 
87. 652 
49, 745 
53,605 



379,930 
210. 210 
24,000 


62,590 
62, 582 
55,000 


28,282 

67,866 




62,219 
7,773 

6,000 
31,869 


11,260 
6,0 JO 


1,400 


9.524 
2,083 



269 


60,500 


3,105 






470, 802 

330, 758 

79,000 

74,879 
12,773 

15,524 
34,221 

53,605 



Benefac- 
tions. 



$229,658 



200,908 



28.700 
50 



145, 3<« 
35.540 
20,000 



26,000 
8,7CO 



DIVISION B.— COLLEGES FOR WOMEN. 

Students. — The 150 colleges in Division B of tlie table of colleges for 
women reported a total attendance of 19,721, of which number 10,395 
were reported in collegiate departments. Only 5,236 of the students 
in collegiate departments were reported as pursuing courses of study 
leading to degrees. The number of students that were reported as 
having graduated during the year 1893-94 was 1,536. The statistics 
concerning professors and students follow: 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



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STATISTICAL EEVIEW OP HIGHER EDUCATION. 



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EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 





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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OF HIGHEE EDUCATION. 



131 



Degrees, — The total number of degrees conferred by the institutions 
in Division B was 1,064, of which number 6 were honorary A. M. 
degrees. The classification by States is as follows : 

Table 7. — Degrees conferred hy colleges for women, Division B, 



sut«. 










1 


I 

C5 






07 


si 


1^ 


Tnited States 


319 


4U 


112 


66 


124 


20 


1 


2 2 


2 


6 








North A tUmtte Division 

South AUantio IM vision 


22 
&4 
180 
63 


35 
212 
129 

38 


1 

34 
52 
14 
11 


1 
1 

47 
7 


19 
57 
13 
35 


*""8 
18 


1 2 1 2 1 2 1 


South Central Division 


"•••■I" ,-• — -,•"--•, 


North Central Division 


i 


i 1 


« 


Western Division 


..... 














North Atlantic Division : 

Maine 




2 






1 


1 1 2 2\--\-^- 


New Hampshire 


2 

20 

18 
2 
9 

25 

7 
56 
66 
39 
9 
3 

17 








2 

! 


T*onnBvlvftnia ....,r....r,.. 


33 

18 
54 
42 

98 

17 
24 
62 
21 


1 

7 
2 

1 
24 

18 

20 

1 

10 


i 

1 



18 
12 
17 


18 

1 
15 

9 
32 

2 
4 


1 


I . 1 ... 


Sonth Atlantic Division: 

Virannia 


' 1 1 


.... 




No& Carolina 


, 







South Carolina 


■i::;;:v:::::c::;|:::::: 

4 1 1 

I'll 




Georgia 




Sonth Central Division: 

Kentucky 




Tennessee. ................. 




Alabama 


■wl:::;: :::::: ":::■.]!:::"::.::: 


Mississippi 




liOniaiana . . .............. 


1 ' 1 ' 


Texas 


5 

6 
1 
4 
4 
2 
19 
2 


3 
6 







1 :. 


North Central Division : 

Ohio 


1 


7 




1 1 


Indiana .. ............. 




1 


Illinois 


16 

1 




9 




::: i 


Wisconsin 








1 .- . ... 


Minnesota 







2 
17 


i 1 

1 ' i 




Misjiouri ................... 


29 


8 


6 


6 






1 


.. i . 




Western Division : 

California 




11 






1 1 



























Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



132 



EDUCATION BEPOBT, 1893-94. 



Property. — The total value of the property owned by the 150 institu- 
tions is $10,009,917, of which amount $796,737 form endowment funds. 
The balance is invested in grounds, buildings, and apparatus. The 
statistics follow : 

Table 8. — Property held by colleges for wometif Division B, 



State. 



United States 

North Atlantic Division. 
South Atlantic Division. 
South Central Division. . 
North Central Division.. 
Western Division 

North Atlantic Division: 

Maine 

New Hampshire , 

Massachusetts 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic Division : 

Maryland 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

South Central Division: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

North Central Division : 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Dlinois 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Missouri 

Kansas 

Western Division: 

California 



Volumes 
in library. 



213,072 



43,»00 
67, 137 
63,257 
43,278 
5,500 



10,000 
2,000 
1,900 
5,800 
1,000 

23,200 

5,555 
13, 812 
300 
9,720 
8,900 
18,850 

13,200 

20,300 

U,032 

7,000 

4,500 

4,100 

125 

13,200 
2,000 
8,400 
4,638 
1.500 

10,250 
3,200 

5,500 



Value of 
scientific 
apparatus. 



$305, 701 



79, 579 
64,550 
73, 577 
66,495 
21,500 



9,000 

6,000 

2,500 

21,579 



40,500 

6,000 
14,900 



7,350 
11,200 
25,100 

16,050 
16,125 
18,802 
11,400 
3,000 
7,450 
750 

18,000 
2,000 
5,500 
9,500 
4,000 

26,295 
1,200 

21,500 



Value of 

grounds and 

buildings. 



Amount of 

productive 

funds. 



$8, 907, 279 



1, 648, 639 
2,690,500 
2,448,140 
1, 917, 000 
203,000 



250,000 
75,000 

140,000 

218, 639 
40.000 

925.000 

170,000 
895,000 
8.000 
480.000 
308.000 
829.500 

483,000 
768,000 
459,640 
342,000 
105,000 
263,000 
27,500 

456,000 
80,000 

310,000 
85,000 
40,000 

657,000 

390,000 

203,000 



$796. 737 



217,812 

128.925 

85.000 

365,000 





110,000 

30,350 



18,402 



69,000 

5,000 

7,500 



10,425 

41,000 

65,000 

3,000 
80.000 



20,000 
32,000 




107.000 



2,000 
165.000 
26.000 
75,000 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OF HIGHER EDUCATION. 



133 



Income and benefactions. — The total incoiiie was reported as (2,213,629, 
derived from the following sources: Tuition fees, 84.7 per cent; pro- 
ductive funds, 2.1 per cent; State and municipal appropriations, 2.2 
I)er cent, and miscellaneous sources, 11 per cent. It will be noticed 
that but a very small proportion of the income of these institutions 
is derived from productive funds, and that nearly all of the income is 
paid by the students. 

The benefactions for the year amounted to $139,525. 

The summarized statement of income and benefactions follows : 



Table 9. — Income of colleges for women , Division B, 



. 




Income. 








State. 


Tuitioa Productive 
foes. funds. 


Stat« or 
municipal 
appropria- 
tions. 


All other 
sources. 


Total. 


Benefac- 
tions. 


United States 


il. 875. 843 ' M6.26d 


$242,867 


$^ 213, 629 


$139, 525 






North Atlantic Division 


367,067 
529,816 
555.560 
385.000 
37,800 


11.693 
7,256 
5.250 

22,070 




75,535 
56.463 
58,159 
52,700 


454,895 
616, (i95 
644.469 
459, 770 
37.800 


24 HOO 


South Atlantic Division.... 

South Central Division 

North Central Division 


23,160 
25,500 


6, 5l»5 
45,050 
6'i 150 


Western Division 














Korth Atlantic Division: 
Maine 


9,500 
8,000 
15.000 
80.000 
2,000 
2o3,167 

60.600 

154,881 

900 

100. 595 

65,990 
146,850 

120,150 
211,600 
02. 145 
59,165 
10,500 
59.000 
3,000 

80,500 

15,000 
102.400 

16,000 

2,800 

142,100 

26,200 

37,800 


6,600 

2,700 



293 




900 
12.000 
60,000 


16,000 
22.700 
75, 000 
80,293 
2,000 
258,902 

65,900 


2,500 


New Hampshire 

MfMi«achnH<^tts -r 










New York 


20 300 


New Jersey 








Pennsvlvaoia 


3 100 




2,636 

5,000 
4,105 


2,000 
50 


South Atlantic Division : 
Maryland 


300 
460 




Virginia 




159, 436 5. 000 


West Virginia 




900 
112,421 




North Carolina 


526 
2,080 
3,900 




11, 300 
25,058 
11,000 

9,600 
9,500 
24,559 
9,500 
2,000 
3.000 


32,000 

6,000 




1 WS 


Soath Carolina 


160 
23,000 


93,288 250 


Oeorgia .*.............. 


184,750 




Sonth Ceutrai Division: 
Kentucky 


129,750 
222,900 
116, 704 
02,665 
17,450 
62,000 
3,000 

118,250 
20,000 

102, 500 

24,750 

5.470 

154,100 
34,700 

37,800 




20,000 


Tennessee 


1,800 






A lal>ania 




150 


Mississippi 


1,000 
2,450 


23,000 
2,500 


200 


Louisiana - 


6,400 


Texas 


18,300 


Arkansas 



5,750 








Korth Central Division : 
Ohio 


6,500 


Indiana r... .r...... 




87,000 


Illinois 


100 
8,750 
1,570 
6,900 





1,500 


Wisconsin 




MinncsotA ... 




1,100 
6,100 
8,500 


1 200 


Misnonri •• ...t... 




14.950 






3,000 


Weatem Division : 

California 



















Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



J34 EDUCATION EEPOET, 1893-94. 

III.— Colleges of Ageicultuee and the Mechanic Aets. 

The number of colleges of agriculture and the mechanic arts endowed 
by the acts of Congress of July 2, 1862, and August 30, 1890, is 63. Of 
this number 14 are for the education of colored students, and of the 
other 49 two have annexes in which colored students are taught, but 
whose statistics are incorporated with those of the institutions for white 
students. 

The number of students reported by the colleges- of agriculture and 
mechanic arts was 17,280, of which number 4,508 were in preparatory 
departments, 12,358 in collegiate departments, and 354 in graduate 
departments. It will be seen from an examination of the statistics that 
the proportion of preparatory students in this class of institutions, as 
in the case of universities and colleges, is least in the North Atlantic 
Division. 

The total receipts for the year 1893-94, as reported by the several 
institutions, were $5,991,101.40. Of this amount, $2,192,386.24, or 36.6 
per cent, were received from the United States Government either as 
income from the funds realized by the sale of lands granted by the act 
of July 2, 1862, or as cash appropriated by the acts of March 2, 1887, 
and August 30, 1890. 

The statistics concerning these institutions are given, by States and 
Territories, in the following table: 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REYIEW OF HIGHER EDUCATION. 



135 



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EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 









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STATISTICAL BEVIEW OF HIGHER EDUCATION. 



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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OF HIGHER EDUCATION. 139 



lY.— -Schools of TECu^•OLOGY. 

The number of indei)endeiit scbools of technology, including the 
United States Military and Naval Academies and excluding the institu- 
tions endowed by the acts of Congress of July 2, 1862, and August 30, 
1890, is 20. Of this number 4 report themselves as having preparatory 
departments. The Armour Institute at Chicago, 111., does not classify 
its students. The principal statistics concerning these institutions are 
as follows: 

Number of InBtitntions 20 

Professors : 

Preparatory departments — 

Male 15 

Female 2 

Collegiate departmeuts — 

Male a58 

Female 5 

Total number — 

Male 40i 

Female 27 

Students : 

Preparatory departments — 

Male 381 

Female 25 

CoUegiate departments — 

Male 3,052 

Female 35 

Gradaate departments — 

Male 53 

Female 

Total number — 

Male 4,097 

Female 499 

Students in degree courses 2,020 

Per cent in : 

A. B. course .74 

B. S. course 35. (m 

C.E. course 18.91 

M. E. course 18.06 

E. M. course 12.38 

E.E. course 7.33 

Other degree courses 6. 93 

Libraries : 

Bound volumes 252,201 

Pamphlets 17,859 

Number of scholarships 276 

Value of scientific apparatus and libraries $570, 211 

Value of grounds and buildings 5, 259, 256 

Amount of productive funds 8, 700, 000 

Benefactions 56, 084 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



140 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

Income : 

From tuition fees 217,825 

From productive funds 360,657 

From State or municipal appropriation 188, 225 

From United States Government appropriation 815, 851 

From all other sources 23, 509 

Total income 1,606,067 

The entire incomes of the United States Naval Academy and United 
States Military Academy are derived from annual appropriations by 
the Congress of the United States. The amounts thus appropriated 
were $815,851, not including the amounts paid to cadets, which are as 
follows: At the United States Military Academy each cadet is paid 
$540 per annum, while at the United States Naval Academy the pay 
of a cadet is $500, which, with one ration, makes his entire pay for the 
year amount to ^609. With the money thus received the cadets are 
required to pay for their board, clothing, washing, books, etc. 

Degrees, — The degrees in course conferred by the technological 
schools were as follows: 0. E., 60; E. M., 12; M. E., 66; B. S., 127; 
B. Agr., 8; M. S., 6; A. B., 1; E. E., 21; A. 0., 6. The honorary 
degrees conferred were 1 Sc. D., 2 Ph. D., and 1 LL. D. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OF HIGHER EDUCATION. 

v.— Professional Schools. 

Table 1. — Gentn-al summary of statistics ofprofessional schoolSyfor 1893-94, 



141 



Class of schools. 


Schools. 


Inatructora 


Stuilents. 


Graduates. 


TbeoloiricAl .................•.......>•....•...•..•...■• 


147 
67 

152 

35 

35 

8 

66 


963 
621 
4,105 
794 
283 
118 


7,658 
7,311 
21.802 
4, 152 
3,658 
554 
2,710 


1,462 


Jjt^Mf 


2,454 


Medical 


6.133 


Dental 


877 


Phaitnaceiitiioal . ...................................... 


988 


V#»t*»T*fnarv , --» 


171 




970 








Total 


610 


6,974 


47,845 


12,055 







Table 2. — Summary of statistics of schools of theology, for 189S-94, 



State. 



United States 

"Sorih Atlantic Division .... 

Booth Atlantic Division 

Sonth Central Division 

Korth Cen tral Division 

Weatern Division 

Korth Atlantic Division : 

Maine 

Massachnsetts 

Connecticnt 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Soath Atlantic Division : 

Maryland 

District of Colombia. . . 

Viffrinia 

North Carolina 

Sonth Carolina 

Georgia 

Sonth Central Division: 

Kentncky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Louisiana 

Texas 

North Central Division : 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Mis«rari 

Nebraska 

Western Division: 

Colorado 

Oregon 

Califomia 



147 



Professors 

and in* 
strnctors. 



i 



701 



63 

236 

30 



a 

Is 



Students. 



,7,658 



115 2,865 
917 



777 
3,034 
05 



65 
4U 

198 
855 
466 
837 



83 
184 
70 
97 
93 

465 

223 

38 

10 

41 

438 
148 
1,245 
118 
314 
183 
209 
848 
31 

30 

4 
81 




3 



a to 



vi 



1,462 |2,185 '111,092,004 



i 

.3 



a 



s- 

o 



^18,753,962 $1,152,116 



664 J, 231 

158 126 I 
99 82 ; 

545 740 

6 6 I 



5. 448. 944 
1, 490, 500 

598,000 
3, 174. 123 

380,437 



10 
107 
64 

177 
121 
185 

76 
6 

42 
8 

16 

12 

59 

32 

5 

1 
2 

93 
19 
249 
4 
39 
47 
17 
69 



4 
256 
16 
362 
277 
316 

2 
2 
62 
13 



29 
63 




117 
5 

368 
17 
27 
45 
19 

140 
12 



125.000 
723, 161 
452,000 
2, 212, 429 
1, 128. 200 
808,164 

496,500 
630.000 
130.000 
9.000 
50.000 
175,000 

298.000 
300,000 



392,500 



1. 917, 329 



100,000 
265,000 

84,294 
350.000 

65,000 

97,000 



283,)137 



9. 957. 123 
1,891,000 
1, 347, 000 
4,621,339 
937,500 



276,000 
1,666,809 
1,097,305 
8, 639. 047 
1. 716, 697 
1,763,265 


400,000 
660,000 



280,000 
551,000 

960.000 
380,000 



17,000 
823,000 



1,033,615 

86,000 

100.000 

452,500 

60,943 

65,281 



250,000 



687,500 



268,332 

01,300 

162, 976 

ei6, 508 

13,000 



6,260 
60,000 
81,376 
74,008 
14,368 
92,331 



85,000 





6,000 
50,300 



106,500 
62,000 




4,476 



91,800 



492, 142 



25,000 
1,000 
4,566 
2,000 




13,000 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



142 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



Table 3. — Statistics of theological schools, hy denominations, for 1893-94, 



DenomiDation. 



Pre«byt<»rian 

Boman Catholic 

Baptist ^ , 

Latheran 

HethcNiist 

Confjnrogational , 

Prototttant Episcopal 

Christian 

Kefomicd 

Evangelical 

Uni vcrsalist 

NoDsectariau 

Hebrew 

United Brethren 

Unitarian 

Moravian 

New Jerusalem (Swodenborgian) 



SchooU. 



Instruct- 
ors. 



183 

128 

111 

66 

126 

116 

86 

23 

34 

6 

27 

18 

14 

6 

9 

6 

5 



Stndents. 



1,375 

1.250 

1,101 

938 

924 

626 

444 

366 

183 

97 

96 

96 

58 

49 

42 

9 

4 



Value of 

grounds and 

buildings. 



a 92, 656. 031 
(c) 
d 957, 827 
e 1. 122, 102 
943.000 
h 1 . 233. 229 
1, 870, 601 
(c) 
(c) 



175,000 



35.000 
40.000 
37,714 



60,000 



Endow- 
ment. 



6 $6, 373, 618 

(c) 

a2, 535. 242 

/393.106 

al, 990. 800 

« 8, 367, 689 

2,580.056 

ic) 

(0 



346.000 



60.000 

85.000 

282.000 



200,000 



aFivo schools did not report this item. 
6 Three schools not reporting. 
c No report from several schools. 
d Seven schools not reporting. 



t Four schools not reporting. 
/Eight schools not reporting, 
y Eleven schools not reporting 



Table ^^^Summary of statistics of schools of late, for 1893-94, 



States. 



SchooU. 



Professors and 
instructors. 



Regular. 



Special 

or 
assistant. 



Students. 



In attend- 
ance. 



Gradn* 
ating. 



United States 

North Atlantic Division 
South Atlantic Division 
Soutli Central Division - 
North Central Division . 
"Western Division 

Massachusetts 

Conmcticut 

New York 

Pennsylvania 

Marbliiud 

District of Columbia — 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North C:urolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Colorado 

Orepon 

California 



67 



380 



118 
71 



123 

38 



241 



o7,311 



72 
20 
15 
105 
29 



2,597 
1.372 

445 
2,514 

383 



611 

188 

1,508 

200 

232 

739 

230 

47 

70 

6 

42 

48 

145 

18 

20 

75 

108 

31 

360 

112 

410 

668 

163 

815 

166 

176 

65 

79 

95 

83 

205 



2,454 



684 
484 
208 
995 
83 



135 
73 

413 
G4 
73 

251 
CO 
23 
46 
« 
25 
26 
74 
16 
12 
84 
35 
11 

144 
35 

124 

800 
81 

103 

116 
25 
25 
42 
25 
28 
30 



a Fifty-four of these were womc?i. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OF HIQHEB KDUCATIOX. 



143 



Tabus 5. — Summary of 8iail$tio§ of schools of medidney dentUiry, pharmacy, and for 
muTBts and veteriuari€M9, for 189S-^4, 




Total medical 
Dental 

Pharmaceutical 
Nurae IraioiDg 
Veterinary 



North Atlantic 
South Atlantic 
South Central 
North Central 
Western 



C— BY STATES AlTD CLASSES. 

Medical tehooU. 

Re^lar: 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Masaachuset ts 

Connecticnt 

New York 

Pennsylvania 

Maryland 

District of Colarabia 

Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Xcntocky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Ohio 

Indiana 

lUinoii! 

Michigan 

Wiactfflsin 

Mmncsota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Colorado 

Oregon 

CaUforaia 

North Atlantic IM vision.. 
South Atlantic Division... 
South Central Division... 
North Central Division . . . 
"Western Division 

United SUtes 



a One of these called a school of hygeiotherapy. 



:g,tized by Google 



144 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



Tablb 5. — Summary of statistics of schools of medicine, dentistry^ pharmacy, and for 
nurses and veterinarians, for 1893-94— -Contmxxed, 



Sobools. 



Profesaors aod 
iDstractora. 



Regn- 
iSc. 



Special 

or 

aasistr 

ant. 



Hen 
enrolled. 



Students. 



Women 
enrolled. 



TotAl 
enroll- 
ment. 



Gradu- 
ating. 



Per 
cent 
grada- 
ating. 



C— BT STATES AND CLA88B8.— 

continued. 



Medical ichooU- -Continued. 



Homeopathic: 

Massac busetts. 

New York 

Pennsylvania . 



Maryland 

District of Columbia. , 

Kentucky 



Ohio 

niinois 

Michigan.. 
Minnesota. 

Iowa 

Missouri... 



California 

North Atlantic Division.. 
South Atlantic Division.. 
South Central Division. . . . 

North Central Division 

Western Division 



United States. 



Eclectic : 

Now York. 



Georgia.. 



Ohio 

Illinois . . . 
Indiana... 
Missouri . 
Nebraska . 



California . 



North Atlantic Division.. 
South Atlantic Division.. 
North Central Division. . . 
Western Division 



United SUtes.. 

Oraduate. 

New York 

Pennsylvania 



Louisiana. 



lUinois .. 
Missouri. 



North Atlantic Division. 
South Central Division.. 
North Central Division.. 



United States.. 
Dentistry, 



Massachusetts. 

New York 

Pennsylvania. . 



Maryland 

District of ColumbU. 



22 



140 
281 



149 

451 

20 

4 
50 
C3 

29 



131 
183 
281 



« 


29 


12 


1 


15 


7 


8 


17 


2 


20 


178 


47 


124 


675 


137 


5 


25 





13 


17 


2 


16 


66 


15 


34 


97 


21 



52 



19 



72 
22 
17 
177 
22 



503 

37 

9 

737 



92 

7 

8 

221 

23 



595 
44 

17 

058 

52 



140 
19 > 

2 : 

231 ! 

7 



310 



168 1, 315 



1,666 



23.9 



17 



78 

60 

826 
105 
41 
79 
38 

76 



23 

90 
30 

12 ,. 



C3 

60 

531 

63 



78 

60 

589 

76 



129 



55 
62 ! 



101 
51 



83 



48 



117 
**83 



200 



152 
"48' 



200 



717 



803 



858 
104 



19 



123 



552 
17 



16 



568 
17 



962 
'669 



1.011 
**'685 



1,531 



65 



1,596 



11 



23!: 

157 . 
14 . 



205 



25.5 



13 



13 



18 



220 
294 

771 

291 
79 



225 
294 
793 

291 



49 

62 

906 

81 



a 81 16 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OF HIGHEB EDUCATION. 



145 



Table 5. — Summary of statUticB of $ehooU of medicinef dentistryf pharmacy, aud for 
nurses and veterinarians, for 1893-94--Contin\\ed. 



Schools. 



Profeseora and 
instructors. 



Regu- 
lar. 



Special 

or 

Msist- 

ant. 



Men 
enrolled 



Students. 



Women 
enrolled. 



Total 
enroll- 
ment. 



Pop 
Gradu- ' cent 
ating. gradu* 
ating. 



C— BT STATES AKD CLASSES— 

continued. 

Z)«ntw<ry— Continued. 

Tirglnia 

Georgia 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

Colorado 

California 

North Atlantic Division 

Soath Atlantic Birision , 

Sonth Central Division 

North Central Division 

Western Division 

United States '. 

Pharm^ietf. 

Massachusetts 

New York 

Pennsylvania 

Maryland 

District of Columbia 

Virginia 

North Carolina 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Louisiana 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

Kansas 

Colorad o 

California 

North Atlantic Division 

South AtianUc Division 

South Central Division 

North Central Division 

Western Division 

United States 

Nurse traimng. 

Vermont. 

Massachusetts 

Khode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Maryland 

Districtof Columbia 

Georgia 

ED 94 10 



35 



35 I 



•i 

1 I 
19 I 
3 , 
9 

1 

1 I 



53 
61 
34 
199 
15 



187 



149 
92 

185 
27 

178 
101 
813 
215 
43 
143 
318 

17 
126 



22 
140 

92 
167 

27 

182 
106 
833 
223 
44 
151 
321 

18 
133 



16 
154 
34 



1.285 
541 
284 

1,811 
143 



27 

il 

49 



1,312 
543 
280 

1,860 
151 



432 



4,064 



5 
16 
3 

1 
4 
3 

1 

6 

1 


11 ! 

* : 

4 I 

8 I 
7 

I 

5 



245 
520 



127 
95 
10 
13 

87 
35 
31 

348 
81 

681 
75 
39 
4 
67 

247 
50 

17 
95 



1,462 
251 
153 

1,592 
112 



96 ' 



3,570 




37 
5 

143 









4,152 



254 
537 



127 
97 
16 
13 

97 
40 



360 
85 

600 
78 
42 
4 
71 

250 
55 



27 
360 

36 

72 
730 

88 
429 

28 
67 



1,489 
253 
169 

1,635 
112 



3,658 



27 
397 

41 

72 
873 

88 
429 



30 

31 ! 
8 I 



140 
65 
6 
82 
65 

3 

18 



317 
127 

43 
369 

21 



877 



17 
194 

204 

86 
82 



19 
15 
11 

118 
36 
138 
31 
12 
1 
9 
60 
12 



21.1 



45 I 

426 < 
34 



27 



5'. 

143 . 

17 . 

12 . 

332 . 

38 
162 



13 
67 16 



Digtizedb?G06g-k 



146 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



Tablk 5. — Summary of »tai\stic8 of BfihooU of medicine, deniisiry^ pharmacy^ and for 
nurses and veterinarians, for 1895-^4 — Continuod. 



C— BY STATES AND CLASSES— 

continued. 

Nurte fraiJiiHj— Continned. 

Toias 

Indiana 

I Ilfnois , 

Micbi;;an 

M iuuesota 

Iowa 

H iaaouri 

Ohio 

Wisconsin 

Calirornia 

North Atlantic Division 

South Atlantic Division 

Sontli Central Division 

North Central Division , 

Woatom Division 

United States 



Schools. 



Professors and 
instructors. 

, Special 
Eescu- I or 
lar. I assist- 
I ant. 



Students. 



Men 
enrolled. 



Total L^^„ i!?J. 
.>n....ii I Uradn- cent 

, ating. 



Women ' 
enrolled. 



40 , 
i I 
1 

20 

1 



GO ' 






17 


17 


8 





18 


18 


7 


31 


297 


328 


100 





68 


08 


38 





«7 


67 








4 


4 








44 


44 


18 


9 


05 


74 


23 





44 


44 


13 





29 


29 


19 



185 


1,742 


1,927 





90 


90 





17 


17 


40 


007 


647 





29 


29 


225 


2,485 


2,710 



709 |. 
29 1. 



205 
10 , 



970 



VI. — Normal. Schools. 

The Dumber of normal students, or students in various institutions 
pursuing training courses for teachers, in 1804 was 80,767, according to 
the returns made to this office. These students were distributed as 
follows: In IGO public normal schools, 37,800; in 238 private normal 
scliools, 27,005; in i)edagogical or teachers' training courses in 173 
universities and colleges, 5,500; in 153 public high schools, 5,041; in 137 
private high schools, 4,332. It will thus be seen that normal students 
were reported from 8G1 distinct institutions. The 308 public and private 
normal schools sent out 8,271 graduates. The other institutions did 
not report separately their normal graduates nor the number of students 
completing pedagogical courses. 

A special effort was made by this Bureau in 1804 to secure reports 
from all new normal schools and from the many institutions of this 
class known to have been in existence for several years but from which 
this office had never received statistical reports. The result was an 
enormous increase in the number of normal students reported, an in- 
crease from 52,008 in 1803 to 80,767 in 1804. In 1803 there were 27,926 
students reported in 121 public normal schools and in 1804 the number 
was 37,147, reported by 160 schools. In 1803 the number of students 
reported by 30 private normal schools was 7,286, and in 1894 there 
were 238 schools, reporting 27,005 students. In 1803 there were 5,232 
normal students reported in 155 colleges and universities, and in 1894 
the number rei)orted was 5,500 in 173 of these higher institutions. In 
1893 the number of normal students reported in public high schools 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OF HIGHER EDUCATION. 147 

was 4,803, and iu 1894 the nninber was 5,041. There was a decrease in 
the number of normal students reported in private high schools between 
1803 and 1894. The number in the former year was 6,701 and in the 
latter 4,332. This is easily explained. Many of the private high schools 
and academies had been gradually modifying their courses of study 
from year to year until those institutions had become practically normal 
schools, and in very many instances the names of long-established 
academies had been changed to ^^ normal school," indicating beyond 
question the change in the scope of the institution. In such cases the 
school has been transferred from the list of private secondary schools 
to that of private normal schools. It is readily seen that the falling 
off of 2,429 in the number of normal students in private high schools 
is not a real loss. The apparent loss is simply a number transferred, 
which makes up a portion of the 20,709 increase of students in private 
normal schools. 

In this chapter are ten tables summarizing the statistics of normal 
schools and showing the distribution of normal students. Tables 1, 2, 
and 3 show the number of teachers and students, amount of income, 
value of equipment, etc., for public normal schools, and Tables 4, 5, and 
6 give the same items for private normal schools. The statistics of the 
398 normal schools are given in detail in Part IV of this report. 

PUBLIC NORMAL SCHOOLS. 

Table 1 shows that in the 160 public normal schools there were 1,561 
teachers instructing normal students, and 551 teachers engaged wholly 
in other departments. It also shows that in the total enrollment of 
56,849 there were 37,899 normal students. Of these 11,606, or 30.62 per 
cent, were males, and 26,293, or 69.38 per cent, females. These 160 
schools turned out 5,952 normal graduates, or 15.70 per cent of the 
number of normal students. The last column of Table 1 shows that 
2,713 colored students were included in the total of 37,899. These 
colored students were nearly all in public normal and industrial schools 
in the two Southern divisions. More than three-fourths of the normal 
students reported in the 160 public normal schools were iu the North 
Atlantic and North Central divisions. 

Table 2 gives the number of pupils in model schools connected with 
the public normal schools as 23,842. This number doubtless includes 
a large proportion of the 13,392 given in the same table as elementary 
pupils. There were 933 students in business courses, and 7,291 classed 
as secondary students. 

Table 3 is a financial exhibit of the public normal schools for the 
year ended June, 1894. The aggregate of appropriations from States, 
counties, and cities for support was $1,996,271. Tuition fees amounted 
to $393,329. The third column gives $334,273 as the aggregate of 
unclassified sums reported and money received from miscellaneous 
sources. As a number of schools reiwrted only total amount received 
for support it is evident that a part of the $334,273 properly belongs 
in the first column and probably a smaller proportion in the second 



148 ^ EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

column. The total amoant received for support by the 160 public nor- 
mal schools was $2,723,873. This was an average of $17,023 to a 
school. In the North Atlantic Division the average was $21,938 to 
a school, in the South Atlantic $11,614, in the South Central $9,134, 
in the North Central $19,770, and in the Western Division $17,628. The 
14 public normal schools in the State of New York received $425,557 
for support, or an average of $30,397 to a school. The 5 schools in 
Virginia received $165,954, or an average of $33,191 to a school. 

Public normal schools received appropriations from States, counties, 
and cities for building purposes aggregating $1,583,399. More than 
half of this amount was received by schools in the North Atlantic 
Division— $856,670— the North Central Division receiving $374,799 and 
the Western Division $279,000. In the South Atlantic Division the 
appropriations for building amounted to $49,580 and in the South 
Central to $23,350. 

The aggregate value of buildings and grounds is shown to be 
$15,571,846, and the value of other property $1,289,100. The value of 
buildings and grounds in the North Atlantic Division was $8,152,186, 
or more than half the total; in the North Central the value was 
$3,588,179, in the Western $1,435,000, in the South Atlantic $1,430,200, 
and in the South Central $966,281. 

Table 10 is a review of appropriations for public normal schools for 
the past five years, showing the amount received for support and the 
amount for building each year. For 1893-94 both items were larger 
than for any previous year— $1,996,271 for support and $1,583,399 for 
building. The largest previous aggregate for support was $1,567,082 
in 1891-92, and the largest amount previously reported for building 
was $900,533 in 1889-90. The increase of appropriations for support 
in 1894 over 1893 was very large in each geographical division, the 
increase being about 100 per cent in the two Southern sections. The 
increase of appropriations for building was very large for the North 
Atlantic, the North Central, and Western divisions, but there was 
a slight decrease for the South Central Division. In the South the 
demands for support are more urgent than the needs for building. 

PRIVATE NORMAL SCHOOLS. 

The 238 private normal schools reported in 1894 were very unevenly 
distributed among tlie States. The North Central Division had 110 of 
these schools, the South Central 59, the South Atlantic 46, the North 
Atlantic 13, and the Western Division 10. Iowa alone reports 23 
private normal schools and Ohio 20. By an inspection of the second 
column of Table 4 it will be seen that thirteen States and Territories 
were without private normal schools, and nine States reported only one 
each. 

In the 238 schools reporting, there were 1,086 teachers instructing 
normal students and 918 teachers wholly engaged in other departments. 
In a total enrollment of 62,934 there were 27,995 normal students. Of 



STATISTICAL BEVIEW OP HIGHER EDUCATION. 149 

these 14,1 76, or 50.64 per cent, were males, and 13,819, or 49.36 per cent, 
were females, as shown in Table 7. It was noted in connection with 
public normal schools that the female students constituted nearly 70 per 
cent of the number in training courses for teachers. The 238 private 
schools reported 2,319 graduates, or 8.28 per cent of the number of 
normal students. Compare this with the 15.70 per cent graduating 
from the public normal schools as given in Table 7. 

The North Atlantic Division had only 1,385 students in teachers' 
training courses in private normal schools as against 16,424 in public nor- 
mals. The North Central had 19,454 in private normals and 12,056 in 
public normals. In the South Atlantic the numbers were 2,728 for the 
private and 3,334 for the public normals; in the South Central 3,421 
private and 3,374 public, and in the Western Division 1,007 private and 
2,711 public. Of the 5,522 colored students in private normal schools 
3,589 were in the South Atlantic and 1,703 in the South Central Divi- 
sion. These colored students were in normal and industrial schools 
which are supported by churches or benevolent societies. A few of 
these schools are of high grade, but manjr could scarcely be classed as 
secondary schools, but they are normal schools educating colored men 
and women to become teachers of elementary schools for their own 
race. 

Table 5 gives the number of pupils in the model schools connected 
with the private normal schools as 3,520. There were in these schools 
19,078 pupils in elementary studies, 6,395 students in business courses, 
and 9,178 in other courses of study of secondary grade. 

Table 6 shows that the private normal schools received appropriations 
from States, counties, or cities amounting to $24,544. The aggregate 
reported as received from tuition fees was $564,628. The amount from 
all other sources^ including unclassified sums from tuition. State appro- 
priations, and productive funds, was $174,009. The total received for 
support was $763,175. Of the $76,127 derived from productive funds, 
a portion was exi)ended for support and the remainder devoted to 
permanent improvements. 

These schools received from public appropriations $135,910 for build- 
ings. The total value of buildings and grounds was $3,750,259, and of 
other proi)erty $719,938. 

IN OTHER INSTITUTIONS. 

Table 8 shows the distribution of the 14,873 normal students reported 
in other institutions than public and private normal schools. In 173 
colleges and universities 5,500 students were in pedagogical courses. 
These students were not reported to this office by sex, but a large pro- 
portion of them are males. In 153 public high schools there were 5,041 
normal students — 1,390 males and 3,651 females. In 137 private high 
schools 4,332 normal students were reported^2,000 males and 2,332 
females. 

Of the normal students in higher institutions nearly half, or 2,707, 
were found in the North Central Division, Ohio alone reporting 744. 

' Digitized *^ ^ 



150 



EDUCATION EEPOET, 1893-94, 



Of the 1,187 reported jfrom the South Central Division Tennessee had 
473. Of the 5,041 normal students in public high schools 2,184 were 
in the Korth Atlantic Division, New York reporting 1,054 and Penn- 
sylvania 770. In the North Central Division there were 1,529, Iowa 
reporting 438 and Kansas 423. Of the 4,332 normal students in pri- 
vate high schools 1,727 were rei)orted from the North Central Division, 
Ohio alone having 411 and Iowa 455. 

The last column of Table 8 shows that normal students outside of 
public and private normal schools were distributed geographically as 
follows: In the North Atlantic Division, 3,361; South Atlantic, 2,297; 
South Central, 2,332; North Central, 5,963, and Western Division, 920. 

Table 9 is a recapitulation of the totals in preceding tables, showing 
the distribution of the 80,767 normal students in the five classes of 
institutions by divisions and by States. 

NORMAL SCHOOLS FOE TEN YEARS. 



The table below is a statistical review of public and private normal 
schools for the past ten yeai:8. The growth since 1884 has been steady. 
The apparent decrease in the number of students in the public normal 
schools in 1888, as shown in the fourth column, was due to a change in 
classification. For the i)reccding three years all students had been 
reported, but since that time normal students only have been included 
in that column. In 1884 there were 132 private normal schools, but 
subsequently about 100 of these were transferred to the list of private 
secondary schools. In 1894 many of these schools again appear as 
normal schools. 

Public and private normal schools. 



Year. 



1884-85 
1885^6, 
1886-87 
1887-88. 
188»-89 
1889-90. 
1890-91, 
1891-92 
1892-93 
1893-94 



PubUc 



Schools. 



131 
117 
124 
133 
136 
135 
131 
138 
121 
160 



Instmct- 
ors. 



1,234 
1,115 
1,235 
1.189 
a 1.485 
1,182 
1,361 
1,436 
1,301 
1.561 



Normal 
Btudcnts. 



26,090 
25,750 
26, 594 
17, 319 
22.618 
26,917 
31, 792 
32, 727 
27,926 
37,899 



Normal 
grad- 
uatcs. 



3,162 
3,440 
3,557 
4,381 
4.564 
4,413 
5,060 
5,849 
4,491 
5.952 



Private. 



Schools. 



132 
36 
26 
41 
46 
43 
46 
40 
39 

238 



Instmct* 
ors. 



842 

279 

238 

a365 

a 370 

274 

257 

235 

268 

1,086 



Normal 
students. 



17,068 
6,197 
6,873 
6,534 
4,487 

67,897 

610,515 

5,710 

7,286 

27,995 



Grad- 
uates. 



1,366 
299 
258 
219 
315 

e824 

c966 
507 
552 

2,319 



a Tnclndce instrnctors in all the courses. 

6 Includes students in all the courses. 

c Includes all the graduates, normal and others. 

The above table shows that the number of public normal schools 
increased from 131 in 1885 to 160 in 1894, the number of normal 
instructors from 1,234 to 1,561, the number of students from 26,090 to 
37,899, and the number of graduates from 3,162 to 5,952. In the ten 
years the private normal schools increased from 132 to 238, the number 
of instructors fi'om 842 to 1,086, the number of students from 17,068 to 
27,995, and the number of graduates from 1,366 to 2,319. ^ t 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OF HIGHER EDUCATION. 



151 



PEDAGOGY IN HIGHER INSTITUTIONS. 

Many uiiivei'sities aud colleges, recognizing tbe necessity of profes- 
sional training for teachers, have organized departments of pedagogy 
or prescribed certain courses of study for those who may expect to 
become teachers after leaving college. In 1891 the Bureau made its 
first inquiry regarding students in pedagogical courses in these higher 
institutions. That year the number of such students reported was 
3,978. Unfortunately the number of institutions reporting was not 
recorded. In 1893 the number of institutions reporting was 155 and 
the number of students 5,232. For the year ended June, 1894, this 
item was reported by 173 colleges and universities, and the number of 
students in pedagogical courses was 5,500, an increase of more than 38 
per cent in three years. 

The following table gives the name and location of each college or 
university reporting i>edagogical students for the year 1893-94 and the 
number reported by each : 



Location. 



Instituiion. 



Normal 

8tU- 

doQts. 



Alabama: 

BlouBtflville 

Lafayette 

Selma 

UanUTille 

Arkauaas : 

Clarksville 

Little Rock 

Do 

Do 

Mountain Home 

Conway 

California: 

Berkeley 

College City 

Santa Kosa 

Stanford University 

Woodbridg© 

San Jose 

District of Colombia: 

Washington 

Florida: 

Leesbnrg 

St. Loo 

Georeia: 

Atlanta 

Do 

Birmingham 

Gainesville 

Lagrange 

MiBedgeviU© 

niinols : 

A bingdon 

Carthago 

EfBngham 

Eranston 

Fulton 

Napenrille 

Qutncy 

iCook Island 

Upper Alton 

W^ostfleld 

Jacksonville 

KnoxTille 

Indian Territory : 

Bacone 

Indisna: 

Hanover 

Merom ^.... 



Blount College 

Lafayette College 

Selma Univeniity 

Huntsvillo Female College. 



Arkansas Cumberland College 

Arkansas Baptist College 

Little Rock University 

Philander Smith College 

Mountain Home Baptist College. 
Central Baptist College 



University of California 

Piero© Christian College 

Pacific Methodist College 

Leland Stanford Junior University. 

San Joaquin Valley College 

College of :NotroDame 



Gallaudet College. 



Florida Conference College. 
St. Leo Military College 



Atlanta University 

Morris Brown College 

Methodist Episcopal College 

Georgia Female Seminary 

Lagrange Female College 

Georgia Kormal and Industrial College. 



Hedding College 

Carthage College 

Austin College 

Northwestern University. 
Northern Illinois College. . , 

Northwestern College 

Chaddock College 

Augnstana College , 

Shurtleff College 

Westfleld CoUeg 
Illinois Female C 
St. Mary's School. 



Indian University . 



Hanover College 

Union Christian College. 



17 
15 
41 
19 

17 
8 

12 
8 

71 

11 

57 
14 
G 
37 
13 
20 



25 
16 
20 
21 
158 

17 

10 

52 

11 

40 

16 

10 

8 

3 



7 

40 



5 

18 



Digitized 



by Google 



152 



EDUCATION BEPORT, 1898-94. 



Location. 



Institution. 



I Normal 
I 8lu- 
Uonts. 



Indiana— Continne<l. 

Moorea Hill 

RldgeviUe 

Upland 

Iowa: 

Charles City 

Hopkinton 

Indianola 

Mount Pleaaant. . . 

Sioux Citv 

Storm Lake 

Toledo 

Kansas: 

Baldwin 

Enterprise 

Holton 

Lecompton 

Lindsborg 

Ottawa 

Salina 

Wichita 

Kentucky : 

Berea 

Columbia 

Hopkinsvillo 

Lancaster 

Harrodsburg 

Winchester 

Louisiana: 

New Orleans 

Do 

Mansfield 

Maine : 

Kents Hill 

Maryland: 

Baltimore 

Massachusetts : 

Worcester 

WoUesley 

Michi«;an: 

Alma 

Benzonia 

Hillsdale 

Olivet 

Minnesota: 

Excelsior 

Minneapolis 

St. Peter 

Winnebago City.. 
Mississippi : 

Daleville 

Holly Spri^jgs 

University 

Columbus 

Pontotoc 

Missouri : 

Albany 

Do 

Bowling Green 

Cameron 

Carthage 

Columbia 

Lawson 

Trenton 

Warrenton 

Fulton 

Nebraska : 

Belle vue 

Betha^iy 

Crete 

Fairfield 

Neligh 

University Place. 

York 

Nevada : 

Keno 

New Mexico : 

Albuquerque 

New York: 

New York 

Elmira 



Moores^ill College. 
Uidgeville College.. 
Taylor University .. - 



Oerman-English College 

Lenox College 

Simpaon College 

German College 

University of the Northwest. 

Buena Vista College 

Western College ' 



Baker University 

Centra] College 

Campbell University 

Lane University 

Bethany College 

Ottawa University 

Kansas Wesleyan University. 
Wichita University 



Berea College , 

Columbia Christian College. 

South Kentucky College 

Garrard College 

Young Ladier CoUeee 

Winchester Female College. 

New Orleans University 

Straight University 

Mansfield Female College 



Maine Wesleyan Female College. 
Morgan College 



Clark University. 
Weilesley College. 



Alma College , 

Benzonia College . . 
Hillsdale College.. 
Olivet College 



Northwestern Christian College. 

University of Minne.sotJi 

Gustavus Adolphus College 

Parker College 



Cooper-Huddleston College 

Rust University 

University of Mississippi 

Mississippi Industrial Institute and College. 
Chickasaw Female College 



Central Christian College 

Northwest Missouri College 

Pike College 

Missouri Wesleyan College 

Carthago Colleffiate Institute) 

University of tlio Stat^of Missouri 

Presbyterian Collegoof Upper Missouri. 

A valon College 

Central Wesleyan College 

Syuodical Female College 

University of Omaha , 

Cotuer Ciii versity 

Doaue College 

Fairfield College 

Gates College 

Nebraska W^esleyan University 

York College 



State University of Nevada. 
University of New Mexico. . 



University of the City of New York. 
Elmira College 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OP HIOHEB EDUCATION. 



153 



Locfttion. 



Institution. 



Normal 
stu- 
dents. 



North Carolina: 

Cbarlott« , 

Guilford College — 

Raleigh 

Rutherford College 

Saliabnry 

Lenoir 

Korth Dakota: 

Fargo 

Ohio: 

Akron 

Alliance 

Athens 

Defiance 

Delaware 

Findlay 

Hillsboro 

Hiram 

Hopedale 

Lima 

New Concord 

Richmond 

Tiffin 

West Farmington. 

Wilberforce 

Oregon: 

Salem 

University Park. . . 
Pennsylvania: 

Anuville 

Jefferson 

Hew Berlin 

Philadelphia 

Pittsburg , 

Charobersburg 

South Carolina: 

Columbia 

Orangeburg 

South DsikoU: 

East Pierre 

Hot Springs 

Mitchell 

Redfield 

Tennessee: 

Harriman 

Huntingdon 

KnoxviUe 

Do 

Milligan 

Mossy Creek 

Nashville 

Do 

Sewanee 

Spencer 

Columbia 

Rogersville 

Somerville 

Texas: 

Brenham 

Brownwooil 

Campbell 

Fort Worth 

Marshall 

Tehuacana 

Waco 

Virginia: 

Bridgewfl ter 

New Market ♦.. 

Lynchburg 

Staunton 

Winchester 

Washington ; 

Burton 

Seattle 

Tacoma 

West Virginia: 

Barboursville 

MoTjsantown 

Wiuconsin : 

Ripon 

Wyoming: 

Laramie 



Biddle University 

Guilfonl College 

Shaw University 

Rutherford College 

Livingstone College 

Davenport Female College. 

Fargo College 



Buchtel College 

Mount Union College 

Ohio University 

Defiance College 

Ohio Weslevan University. 

Findlay College 

Hillsboro College 

Hiram College 

Hopedale Normal College. . . 

Lima College 

Muskingum College 

Richmond College 

Heidelberg University 

Farmington College 

Wilberforce University 



Willamette University. 
Portland University. . . 



Lebanon Valley College 

Monongahela College 

Central Pennsylvania College 

Central High School 

Dnquesne College 

Wilson College 



Allen University.. 
Claflin University. 



Pierre University . . . 
Black Hills College. 
Dakota University . . 
Redfield College.... 



American Temperance University. 

Southern Normal University 

KnoxviUe College 

University of Tennessee 

Milligan College 

Carson and Newman College 

Central Tennessee College 

Fisk University 

University of the South 

Burrltt College 

Columbia Al henasum , 

Rogersville Synodical College 

Somerville Female Institute 



Evangelical Lutheran College. 

Howard Payne College 

HeuryCollego 

Fort Worth University 

Wiley Unlveraity 

Trinity U ni versity 

Paul (i^ninn College 



Bridgowater College 

Polytechnic Institute 

Randolph-Macon Woman's College. 

Wesleyan Female Institute 

Valley Female College 



Vashon College. . 

rWaahiugton 
Puget Sound University.. 



University of Washington. 



Barbon rs ville College 

West Virginia University. 



Ripon College 

University of Wyoming. 



40 
20 
189 
18 
52 
7 

12 

24 
135 
105 
34 
81 
36 
50 
75 
75 
55 
16 
20 
7 
21 
60 



27 

14 

67 

7 

16 



25 
8 
56 
51 

20 
60 
80 
47 
40 
26 
35 
87 

8 
42 
10 

8 
10 

22 
15 

13 
8 

24 
4 
6 

5 
8 

7 



28 

59 

6 

57 
21 

151 

21 



Digitized 



by Google 



154 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



Table 1.— Summary of statistics of public normal schools. 
SCHOOLS. INSTRUCTORS. AND STUDENTS. 



State or Territory. 



United States. 



North Atlantic Division . 
South Atlantic Division. 
South Central Division. . 
North Central Division . . 
Western Division 



South Atlantic Division : 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Khodelsland 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic Division: 

Delawan* 

Maryland 

District of Columbia 

Virginia 

"West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

Sonth Central Division : 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mis8issipi)i 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territory 

Nort h Central Di v ision : 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa •- 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western Division: 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Orei^on 

California 



Teachers. 



55 
o a 



160 1,561 



JS 



Total enrollment. 



-3 



665 
176 
173 
418 



12 104 



26 
6 
21 
83 
10 
31 

209 
28 

271 



250 
87 
96 
91 
21 



29 I 
39 . 
44 

30 ! 
66 ; 
58 
27 
55 I 
16 
17 
14 
23 



551 19. 702 37, 147 i56, 849 



11,600 



6,830 
1,832 
2,791 
7,278 
965 



16, 126 ,22, 962 
3, 276 5. 108 
3.000 ' 5,791 

12,310 19,588 
2,435 I 3,400 



237 



96 

66 

199 

7 

1.935 

336 

3,960 



33 

3 

693 

570 

322 

59 

75 

77 

781 

193 

1,147 

510 

43 
290 
550 

48 



75 
561 

1,269 
435 
813 
509 
510 

1,991 
218 
161 
148 
495 



143 
44 

29 



213 
383 
153 



637 

86 

455 

1.245 



646 

6,626 

922 

5.509 



396 
74 
778 
533 
955 

411 
109 

992 
315 
,001 
510 
154 
456 
436 
68 



454 
909 

1,538 
933 

1,459 

1,290 
822 

3,078 
843 
311 
343 
830 



372 
32 
62 



874 
86 

551 
1,311 

190 

653 
8,561 
1,258 
9,469 



429 

77 

1,471 

1.123 

1,277 

59 

486 

186 

1,773 
508 
2.208 
1,029 
197 
746 
986 
116 



529 

1,473 

2,807 

1,368 

2,272 

1,889 

1.332 

5,069 

561 

472 

491 

1,825 



515 
76 
91 



338 
413 

1.218 



551 

796 

1,371 



Normal students. 



4,400 
1,098 
1,474 
4,012 
622 



227 



96 

61 

199 

7 

892 

50 

2,868 



lO 



26,293 37,899 5,952 i 2,713 



I 

! 



i8 

»- a 



11 119 



12,024 !l6,424 2,910 j 35 



2, 236 3, 334 

1,900 3,374 

8,044 12,056 

2,089 2,711 



627 

86 

445 

1,171 



410 

4,447 

589 

4,240 



20 

3 

288 

514 

161 

59 

15 

38 

132 
193 
533 
97 
43 
267 
161 
48 



358 

74 

494 

487 

610 



168 

45 

203 
315 
575 

70 
154 
393 
122 

68 



25I 

552 j 
378 
259 
455 
253 
297 
994 
94 
107 
148 
450 



379 
894 
739 
703 

1,057 
830 
594 

1,314 
148 
221 
343 
762 



275 
32 
58 



86 
226 
153 



192 
314 

1,218 



854 
86 

541 
1,232 

199 

426 
5,389 

639 
7,108 



143 

27 

94 

244 

29 

124 

940 

180 

1,135 



378 
77 
782 
1,001 
771 



506 
,108 
167 
197 
660 
283 
116 



404 

1,440 

1,117 

1,022 

1,512 

1,083 

891 

2,308 

242 

328 

491 

1,212 



1,250 
1,382 
,008 I 46 
489 



483 



97 

76 ' 

61 , 

52 

61 I 

32 

27 

10 

35 
144 
113 

32 ' 

29 

94 

30 




161 
50 
113 
190 
207 
281 
148 



87 



363 
76 



278 

540 

1,371 



28 
88 
324 






7 
1 

8 
8 
11 



2 
536 
51 
644 


18 

lU 



825 

202 





241 





16 
17 


1 





9 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REYIKW OF HIGH£B EDUCATION. 



155 



Table 2, — Smmwuwjf of siaiiBtics of public normal achooU, 
STUDENTS AND COUESES OF STUDY. 





Pupils in model 
schools. 


Elementary pupils. 


Stndento 

in business 

courses. 


Secondary 

students in other 

courses. 


State or Territory. 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


•a 


1 


H 


1 


i 
1 


1 


1 


9 


3 


4 


5 


6 


T 


8 


9 


10 


11 


19 


13 


United States 


10,826 


13, 016 


33,842 


6.272 


7,120 


13,392 


431 


562 


993 


2,032 


5.259 


7,291 


Nmih AtiantScDlTiBion. 
South Atlantic Division. 
Sooth Central Division. 
North Cimtral Division. 
Western Division 


5,2» 
747 
706 

3,671 
473 


«,S<6 
908 
830 

4,211 
602 


11,794 
1,655 
1,536 
7,782 
1.075 


1,T74 '|2,259 

327 424 

1,550 1,329 

2,429 ;2,853 

192 1 255 


4,033 

761 

2,879 

5,282 

447 


146 

18 
71 
149 
47 


85 

189 

184 

90 

14 


231 
207 
255 
239 
61 


586 
253 
475 
615 
103 


2,723 
617 
603 

1.434 
82 


3,309 
770 
Q78 

2.049 
185 


North AtlanticDivisioB: 
Maine 


IM 

106 
25 
795 
200 
865 
1,772 
414 
926 


135 

142 
35 
339 
200 
947 

3,265 
419 

1,083 


261 

248 

60 

1,134 

400 
1.812 
5,037 

833 
2,009 


1 
1 





« 








10 


10 


20 


New Hampshire 

Vermont 




' 


1 







20 


65 






30 

201 


10 
5 



237 


824 



4 

22 
2,130 
33 
524 


10 


HassaehusetU 

Rhode Island 


^ 


70 


70 





10 

136* 


9 



Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey --.. 



796 
286 
692 


205 

1,064 

300 

620 


205 
1,860 

586 
1,312 


22 

2,367 

33 


Pennsylvania 

South Athintlc Division: 
Delaware 


848 


Maryland 






















1 


District of Colnmbia 


375 
255 

2 
30 
65 
20 

223 
62 
163 
194 
67 

7 


378 
345 

8 
70 
90 
22 

243 
107 
243 
171 

50 


16 


748 

600 



10 
100 
155 

42 

466 
169 











1 
13 





1 
4 
60 



2 
17 
00 



173 
24 
46 



311 
38 
74 





Vireinia 


106 
19 
115 


98 

24 

211 


204 
43 
326 


484 


W«t Virginia 

North Cait>lina 

South Carolina 


02 
120 


Georeia 


60 
87 

490 


25 
66 

428 


75 
103 

848 


4 


38 


124 
■ 

172 


128 


210 


10 


94 


104 


Florida 




South Central Division: 
Kentncltv 


191 


189 


380 


Tennessee 




Alabama ........... 


406 


1^ 


266 
347 


724 
719 


12 
16 


5 


10 



2 


22 

16 



? 


144 
30 



110 


210 

20 





84 


354 


Missiflsinni 


365 1 ft79 


50 


Xjoiiisiana •. 


107 


"- 





Texas .... 



23 


23 
277 


63 
225 


86 
502 





Arkansas 


194 


Oklaboma 




Indian Territory 














1 










North Central Division : 
Ohio 


669 
345 
599 
272 
358 
633 
245 
318 

10 
162 
106 

45 


634 
270 
571 
268 
404 
630 
278 
359 
272 
215 
142 
68 


1,303 
615 

1,170 
540 
762 

1,163 
523 
677 
291 
377 
248 
113 














72 
65 

12 















29 

38 



23 









I 

101 
103 


85 




50 


33 




28 
494 
5 
5 



75 


22 




78 
1,230 

23 
6 



125 


Indiana ,.... 


"12 
858 
176 
358 
346 
113 
465 
19 
87 


15 
777 
170 
402 
400 
121 
507 
272 

61 


27 
1,635 
346 
760 
806 
234 
972 
291 

98 





Illinois 


55 


Michigan 





Wisconsin 





Minnesota 





Iowa 


106 


Misjionri 


1,724 


North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 


28 
11 



Kansas 


45 


68 


113 




Western Division: 

Montana. .- 














Wyoming 














■ 












Colorado 


40 




82 




122 




40 


82 


122 








15 


15 


30 


New Mexico 










Arizona 




















Utah 




















Nevada 
















1 








Idaho 
















- 








Washington 

Oregon ............. 


127 
37 
260 


146 
40 
334 


273 

77 

603 


127 
25 


146 
37 


273 
52 



43 



10 53 



87 



64 



151 


California...: 














I 









Digitized 



byG00gI( 



156 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



Table 3. — Summary of statistics of public normal schools, 
EQUIPMENT AND INCOME. 



State or Territory, 


i 


1 
1 


li 
If 


i 1 

ll 

r 


Ui 

< 


1^* 

III 
III 


^ o 


hi 
9 

.a 

> 


1 


^ 


S 


4 


d ' 


II 


t 


8 


B 


United StAtos,-., 


$l.B0e,27im3.B3» 


1 
1334, 273 ^,m, 873, |38,i2& 


\ 

#1, 583. 30» illJ, 571, 840^tl, ^, 100 


NortJi A llatitifi Bi vUion ■ 
South At huiticDiviiikia. 
S<*utli Control Diviiiion, 
Korlb Central PlTiHiun* 
\Vv H tort! Div 1 Ejlcm ....... 


121.460 
11«,&4I> 
e»l.g24 


233. 265 
22,048 
23.S4D 
mi^l 
14,!J06 


2^,457 
0»,2«3 
121.5(H> 
at), 203 
70t> 


1,1B2,732| 
313, C71 2IJ,«26 
204, 8«a 
771,048 10,200 
21U534| 


ft&fl.070 
40, 580 
23,a&0 
3T4.7W 
270,*MjO 


8,1&2.1«« 

i,4ao,aoo 

»0O,2Bl 
3, 5ft8, 171* 
1, 4^5,000 


m.000 

37»,0OO 

10,500 

773,600 


Korlh Atlxmtio JJiTleioa ; 


2flv4aO 

13. IJ3» 

122 104 

1ft, OCW 

307.523 


2.176 

250 

l.§40 

30 



moeo 

1S6,519 


37& 

"i.'eoo 

"io.662 


29,000 

ie.4aft 
12tl«4 

mooo 

70. BM 
425, &57: 

80,143 
40U444 











12,500 

'*'*iiaoo 

; 274,200 



1211^000 

10,000 
324. »?7 


03,500 
9I),O0O 
30,000 
»75,fflO0 

100,000 

aT»,0O0 




VcroH>nt 







M nuftiicli n»e 1 1 B * * V * 
Coil tieniitii; 1 1 ti 






K<^w York..- 





Kf^ w J 1? r-it^y . , w ... 


114,000 


r<siii]flvlvjT(Ola,--^--. 
Soath A diiiitie Divisions 


12,000 


Mftrj'lfliid 

Bjjitri c t of Columbia 


lO,fiW 


7,3oa 





17,801 






180,000 
USO0 

7«»,000 
2<KI,0O& 
£4,700 










Viridnm ___..., 


27,!>5(J 
18, T18 

7.250 

23,a07 

3.600 

23,5Se 
l.SiXJ 

3,950 
12,500 
35, mi 
1^500 

7,500 


3 075 


T!tl C)'2fl 


1S5,654, 30. flSfi 


km 

20.000 
1,030 


370,000 


Went Virftiiiia...... 

North tjnrollim 


2^ 142 2] 082 

4, S&U 0, 752 

88 2,000 

B.450 3,i>0tf 

... — mum 

i 

1.23fi! fi.Bfl& 


24,542 
4a 8?7 

33.&57 
lO.OUO 

30,088 
40,600 

15.014 
S7.500 
21.818 
8.100 













Gporjfift ♦♦**•*. 


2, BOO 
7,400 

2.600 


mioo 

Hsai 
aoo^ooo 

n.soo 
fs^ooo 
n»,ooo 

8S,7B0 
mOBO 





FUidda. ............ 





Sootb CfeiaLfai Diviaioo: 
K^utuckv , 










Akbama. ... 

MtiwistaiDoi... . 


B,23£ 
3.52:t 

3.7B« 
flOO 


*U. ^0 

3.&U 
3.500 













1,300 

1,S0 
8,000 

aoo 

15,000 


t(^SOD 


}jrliii.4ftif|]|. ... 





TfiSiMI . .. ......*. 





Aril an Htm . . , . ... 





OktabonLn . 


s 


I til 1 i :ii] !^l'n^ tfir V 




Nortb Ct iitriil UlvUlob i 
Uliio* * 


too 

02,ai& 
130. oil 
§2,000 
27,STS 
142.5*1 
20.01)0 
30,250 
gt, 2<»0 


250 




1.060 
44,100 
Ua,BOlJ 

0a, 521 

IS 1,015 
101.723 

37,859 
17l», HiH 

2i>,000 

21,200 
'4^m 




i 

4300 






10,000 


30,000 
30,000 

ucwo 
a^ooo 

104, 4Ti 

8,100 



so. 000 


1.000 

mm 
nfhm 

4^,000 

im»oo 

»er7,i5O0 
70, 000 
»S,OO0 

ia0,£0O 

1^.000 


t 


Indlftns...^ **•. 


2 4fM .^ -..-.. 


9 


IliiaulB.......... 


15,0afl 
5, IHH 

11, im 

li^, fl22 


I.OOfl 
333 


i^ioo 


MlMiiiran .. 




Wi^Ciin^in ...._^ 








Ictwft ..» ..««. 


0.4841 IHKI 
24.8881 2,836 


1, OOQ 


lIt««oiiii ,. 


[ > 


Kvrtii Dakota » * 


r fiOO.OOO 


SoatUDjiltoU*.* 


2.236,,.,.... 


;:;:;;;;;; 


' TL]llJ»<ritf .-,,,* 


8,a«o 


15,000 


STltOOO 


Wentcni Ujvklon: 


















::::::::::;]:::::::::: 


Colimulo. .-..^ 


1(^600 
a. 500 
T,BOO 






15,000 


''""*0 


m,<m 

12. (KM) 

a.ooo 


ifia,0OO 


',,••.,... 


ITow Mfiloo 








Arisoaa . ,*■*.•> 


BQti 




12,000 


1 


tJtilt 


...-.-• 


^Mflmila 














V""\"^'^": 


i^J^ """:::::' 












r» 


"" i: .:;._ 


l^itf^hinjjfoii..,...*. 


11,121) 
W.300 


0... 

g.90fl 7O0 

G IDO' 


3f*aoo 
mm 

90, 100 







iiiooo 

11.000 


i0«,ooo 

fS^OflO 
t, 100, ooo 


_ .,. 

1 




! 















Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OF UIOHER EDUCATION. 



167 



Tablr 4. — Summary of statistics of private normal schools. 
SCHOOLS, INSTRUCTORS, AND STUDENTS. 



SUte or Territory. 



United States { 238 



North AtUntio DiTision.. 
Soath Atlantic Division.. 
South Central Division... 
North Central Division... 
Western Division 

North Atlantic Division: 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

Hew Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Sooth Atlantic Division : 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Districlof Columbia.. 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia. ..« 

Florida 

South Central Division : 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

iKiuisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territory 

Korth Central Division : 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Miiwonri 

Korth Dakota 

Sonth Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western Division : 

Men tana 

Wyoni ing 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oreeon 

Caluomia 




Normal students. 


s 






















4 








9 








1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


s 


im 


H 


|Zi 


8 


• 


lO 


" 1 


14.170 


13,819 


27, »5 


2.318 ; 






5,522 



«40 
l,l«6 
1,«20 
10,267 

483 



21 



745 
1,562 
1,801 
9,187 

52i 



1.385 
I 2.728 

3.421 
119.454 
I 1,007 



60 

181 

376 

1,610 



2 
I 3,589 
' 1,703 

I M 
I 144 



51 



46 I 



55 



36 I 39 



3 
11 

9 
21 
14 
40 
22 

17 1 

31 
64 
8 , 
63 I 



18 

8 

45 

28 I 
9 

33 
85 
5 , 
50 



950 

33 
76 
146 
177 
305 
874 
922 
959 
230 

1.033 
2,203 

78 
1,419 



25 I 
11 I 



38 



20 j 106 
14 I 127 



36 
28 
15 
12 
101 
70 
2 
13 
50 
53 



201 



726 
207 



4.283 

4.685 

1,568 

1,194 

222 

322 

3,401 

1.95(> 

100 

194 

2,782 

1,150 



908 , 1,868 



21 

32 

57 

800 

315 

1,192 

1,197 

1,397 

218 



54 

108 

203 

477 

620 

2.066 

2.119 

2,856 

448 



1,063 , 2,096 

2, 017 4, 220 

180 I 258 

1,486 I 2.905 



1,162 

216 ! 



l.« 



2,342 
3.727 
1,172 
1,372 

128 

96 

3. 052 

1,680 

20 

208 
1,888 
1,124 



610 



112 
87 
193 
221 
141 
274 
70 

399 

567 

89 

845 



21 
23 



21 
23 



625 1,235 



203 
67 



65 I 65 
14 16 

3 ' 70 



6,625 • 
8.412 I 
2,740 
2,566 I 
350 [ 
418 ' 
6,453 I 
3.630 
120 t 
492 
4,670 
2.274 

130 
30 
73 



2,084 

2,892 

723 

462 

34 

165 

1,221 

1.328 

30 

194 

686 

448 

14 
2 
3 



590 , 



424 I 1,014 447 



7 

25 

57 
196 
198 
375 
277 
358 I 

69 

363 
591 
76 
361 



323 
87 



1,304 

2,164 

661 

860 

23 

73 

1.412 

1,156 

20 

298 

754 

462 



7 
93 
169 
283 
391 
596 
418 
632 
139 

762 

1,158 

115 

706 



52G 
154 



16 I 
5 I 
70 , 



3,388 
5,056 
1.384 
1,322 
57 

238 

2.633 

2,484 

50 

402 
1,440 

910 

30 

7 

73 



241 



17 I 249 



820 



17 



192 I 



! 




23 



29 
7 
28 
51 
40 
14 

57 

141 

2 

114 



222 
126 



620 
1,564 




761 
258 
206 



335 
143 



147 
754 
181 
55 
13 
28 
115 
139 



3 

100 



59 



2 
8 
3 



3 
50 



13 
5 


1 




148 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



158 



EDUCATION REPOKT, 1893-94. 



Table 5. — Sutnmarjf of siatUUcs of private normal achaoU, 
STUDENTS AND COUBSES OF STUDY. 





Pupils in model 
schools. 


Elementary pupils. 


Students in busi- 
ness courses. 


Secondarj- 

studenta in other 

courses. 


State or Territory. 


4 


1 


i 


6 
1 




H 


i 


& 


1 


1 


6 
1 


1 


1 


a 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


lO 


11 

5,021 


19 

4,157 


13 


United State* 


1,G90 


1,830 


3,520 


9,170 


9,808 


19, 078 


4,712 


1.683 


6,395 


9.178 


North Atlantic Division 
South Atlantic Diviaion 
South Central DiviRion. 
North Ccutral Division. 
Western Division 


52 
229 
658 
542 
209 


38 
230 
748 
529 
285 


90 

459 

1,406 

1,071 

494 


319 
1,647 
2,785 


237 

2.383 

3,267 

3,953 

68 


556 
4,030 
6,052 
8,299 

141 


89 

135 

497 

3,901 

90 


44 
69 
156 
1,393 
21 


133 
204 
653 
5,294 
111 


129 
484 
797 
3,505 
106 


173 
443 
912 
2,421 
208 


303 

027 

1,700 

5.926 

314 


North Atlantic Division : 
Maine 


1 


69 


4 


73 











10 


6 


16 


Nnw Hamnshire. . . 






Vftrmont . ......... 














..X.. 










10 


16 


26 

















4 


1 


5 


'RIiotIa iHland 












! 


102 


132 


234 














15 


25 


40 


Now York 


25 


' 


25 








1 


t" i 


Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic Division : 


17 


22 


39 


148 


101 


249 


89 

3 
5 


44 

6 

1 


133 

8 
6 


100 

30 
5 
34 
40 
27 

120 
52 

159 
17 

. 89 

286 

3 

280 


141 

9 





45 

41 

84 

145 

110 



65 
289 


241 
30 










4 





4 


5 


T)iftirirt of Coltimbift 








* 34 


Virginia 


56 
29 
60 

54 
30 

49 
261 


82 
32 


91 
25 

45 
309 


138 
61 
60 


145 
55 

94 

570 


12 
52 
503 
433 
526 
117 

446 

1,081 

36 

818 


49 
63 
716 
508 
920 
127 

613 

1,031 

102 

869 


61 
115 

1,219 
941 

1,446 
244 

1,059 

2,112 

138 

1.687 


38 
33 
30 


26 

100 
196 


10 
13 
18 


22 

21 
58 


48 
46 
48 


48 

121 
254 


85 


West Virginia 

North Carolina..^.. 

South Carolina 

Georgia 


«8 
204 
107 
278 


Fiorina 


17 


South Central Division: 
Kentucky 


154 


Tenuesseo 


578 




5 


MissiHsippi 


279 


289 


568 


72 


35 


107 


578 


Ijouisiaua .......... 




Texas 



69 


25 
80 


25 
149 


310 
94 


548 
104 


858 
198 


129 



42 




171 




84 
46 


230 

25 


323 


Arkansas 


71 


Oklahoma 




Indian Territory .... 


1 




1 














North Central Division : 
Oliio 


161 
10 
41 
46 

130 

25 
81 


148 
7 

45 
53 
105 

25 
85 


309 
17 
86 
99 

235 

50 

166 


95 
632 
294 
106 
130 


162 
799 
289 
161 
105 


257 
1.431 
583 
267 
235 


421 
777 

375 

382 



00 
787 
278 

50 


98 

879 

158 

157 



4 

171 

84 




519 

1,156 

533 

539 



94 

908 

362 

50 


1,703 
885 
176 
244 

67 
343 
124 


758 

384 

64 

194 



19 

348 

219 

.... 


2,461 


Indiana 


769 


Illinois 


240 


Michigan - 


438 


Wisconsin 







86 


Iowa 


1,248 
228 
20 


1.175 

213 




2,423 
441 
20 


601 


Minsonri ., . , ^ , , - 


343 


North I^kotn 




South Dakota 


5 
26 
17 



84 

27 


5 
60 
44 








Nehraska 


1,261 
332 

31 


641 

408 

12 


1,902 
740 

43 


553 
238 

2 



214 
128 

6 



767 
366 

8 



321 
142 

33 
12 


309 
126 

28 
11 


630 


Knnsas ............. 


268 


Western Division: 

Montana 


61 


w vominir .......... 


5 
63 


8 
127 


8 
190 


23 


Colorado ...... ...... 










New Mexico 


















Arizona 





















Utah 


72 


75 


147 








88 


15 


103 


55 


168 


9?3 


Nevada 










Idaho 




















1 




Washington 
























Oregon 

























Calitornia 


69 


80 


149 


42 


56 


98 











" 


1 


7 







Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OF HIGHER EDUCATION. 



159 



Table 6. — Sumwarif of etaiiBtics of prirate noiiRal schooh, 
EQUIPMENT AXD INCOME. 



State or Ttrritory, 



I- 



s n ^ 

it- 3 fc- 

<5 



rni(edSt*UM-. ,|S4,&4* 



I 



13 

S 



n 



1504, flsa 



tlT-l.OOO 






300 



1,423 

840 

250 
2,306 



IS'ortli AtlftnticBivifliott.-.J u 

JS**ut(i 1 Vntral JJivisioQ ]i>, aSl 

yanh C'critriil Diviai^....,! 11,000 



^orth AUftn tic Division .' 1 

Maine ' 

New Hampshire [ 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Khode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvan ia 

Soath Atlantic Division: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. 

Tirjrinia 

"West Virginia 

2s orth Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georsia 

Plorida 

South Central Division: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

LfOnisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territory 

Korth Central Division : 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

MiJineaota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

Korth Dakota 

South Dakota 

N^ebraska 

Kansas 

•Western Division : 

Montana 

Wvoming 

Colorado 

Kew Mexico 

Arizona 

UUh 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

California 



5,365 



3,000 




9,000 

550 



650 





500 

800 















22, 48:i 
23,705 
W, 746 

411, ua^ 

22.500 



1,000 



21,483 

1,400 
770 



4.151 
3,486 
2.675 
3,100 
3,657 
4,517 

21,844 
34,533 



18,280 



2,104 
7.085 



75,802 

119,067 

16, 755 

25,855 

105 

8,600 

74,063 

30,167 

1,400 



84,152 

10,012 

2,000 
165 



7,177 



$703, 175 



13,000 
^386 
4:^.003 
67,6^5 

21, im 



5,000 



8,000 
350 



5,053 
475 



3,601 

18.677 

150 

1,500 
16,740 



15,301 



2,780 
6,673 



8,180 
15,360 
1,745 
1,233 
9.283 
1,900 
6.120 
4,582 



1,150 
52,278 
16, 012 



21.925 



13.254 



t 



I 



E 
P. 

H 
II 



176,127 



la 



c a « 

< 



1 


;A 




■c 


a 




h 


% 


s S 


^ 


^ e 


1 


^ G) 


o 


o 


Vi 




o 


o 


« 


s 


s 


-3 


•3 


U- 


> 


8 


9 



$135,910 $3,750,259 $719,938 



3^.48:2 


IL! 


U.TU 


Ll^ii 


]:!«.7:io 


<m, liKi 


48ti, 71? 


i^,m 


44, bZl 










*-r. i:.5 

30,1*75 




175, 150 
401. 139 
387, 210 
2, 686. 760 
100.000 



200 

9.000 

23,533 

202, 205 

485,000 



6,000 



29,483 

1.750 
770 



9.204 
3,961 
2.975 
6,800 
23, 757 
5,507 

23.594 
53,648 



38, 946 



4,000 



150 I 



12 



350 










600 



7,884 I 
14,658 I 65,500 



92,982 

134,977 

18,500 

27, 738 

9.448 

10,500 

80,689 

44,043 

1,400 

1,150 

52, 278 

16, 012 

2,000 
165 



29,102 





300 





6,000 



1,165 





2,' 200 



85,000 



175,000 



15,000 
66,000 






75 


80 
2,000 

3,120 
60,160 



1,200 




91,000 
79.000 
14,500 
45,000 
62,700 
37,939 

44,750 
19,500 



172,000 



113. 500 
36,560 



I 



1,075 



1,500 




13,500 
14,200 



281,600 
707, 000 
196,000 
131,350 
75,000 
73, 000 
400, 710 
197, 200 



3,000 
514. 000 
102,000 

14.000 

I 



200 





2.000 

7,000 



100 
21,500 




1,933 



82,000 

3,000 

15,000 



100,000 

200 

16, 075 

700 





82,230 

3,000 



11,700 I 235,000 



13, 254 



74, 300 250, 000 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



160 



EDUCATION REPOET, 1893-94. 



Table 7. — Percentage of male and female students and percentage of graduates to total 

number in the normal course. 



State or Territory. 



United SUtes. 



North Atlantic Divinion. 
South Atlantic Division. 
South Central Division .. 
North Central Division.. 
Woateru Division 



North Atlantic Division: 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New YorK 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic Division: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

South Central Division: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

LouiHiaua 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Oklahoma 

Indian Territory 

North Central Division: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsiu 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South DakotA 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Western Division: 

Montana. 



Wyoming... •- 

Colorado 

New Mexico., 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington . 

Orei;on 

California ... 



In public normal schools. In private normal schools. 



Male. 



30.62 



26.79 
32.93 
43.69 



22.94 



26.58 



17.74 

4.95 

100.00 

1.64 

16.71 

7.82 

40.35 



5.29 

8.90 

86.83 

51.35 

20.88 

100.00 

8.20 

45.78 

89.40 
37.99 
48.10 
58.08 
21.83 
40.45 
56.89 
41.38 



6.19 

38.17 
33.84 
25.34 
30.09 
23.36 
33.33 
43.07 
38.84 
32. 62 
30.14 
37.13 



24.24 
57.80 
30.12 



30.94 
41.85 
11.16 



Female. 



09.38 



Graduate 



73.21 
67.07 
56.31 
66.72 
77.06 



73.42 
100.00 
82.26 
95.05 

98.36 
83.29 
92.18 
50.65 



94.71 
96.10 
63.17 
48.65 
79.12 

01.80 
54.22 

60.60 
62.01 
51.90 
41.92 
78.17 
50.55 
43.11 
58.62 



03.81 
61.83 
66.16 
74.66 
60.01 
70.64 
66.67 
56.03 
61.16 
67.38 
60.86 
62.87 



75.76 
42.11 
60.88 



15.70 



17.75 
11.88 
14.32 
13.84 
18.04 



16.74 
31.40 
17.38 
19.81 
14.57 
29.11 
17.61 
28.17 
15.97 



25.67 

98.70 
7.80 
5.19 
7.91 

54.24 
3.82 

12.05 

10.45 
28.85 
10.20 
19.16 
14.72 
14.24 
12.72 




39.85 

4.08 

12.80 

18.59 

13.69 

25.95 

16.61 

U.61 

1.24 

11.59 

16.90 

7.18 



9.64 



16.87 



Male. 



50.64 



46.21 
42.74 
47.36 
62.78 
47.96 



41.96 



16.36 



Female. 



Graduate. 



49.36 



53.79 
57.26 
52.64 
47.22 
52.04 



58.04 



83.64 



100. < 
100.1 



49.39 


73.12 
66.27 
30.74 
49.36 
37.08 
33.73 
43.35 
50.36 

52.36 
48.96 
33.91 
48.87 



38.59 
43.51 



61.51 
57.20 
52.24 
34.05 
59.65 
69.33 
46.37 
53.46 
60.00 
89.43 
47.64 
49.23 

46.67 
28.57 
4.11 



64.97 



60.06 
58.15 
88.84 



10.07 
16.30 
23.63 



8.13 



50.61 

100.00 
26.88 
33.73 
69.26 
50.64 
62.02 
66.27 
50.65 
49.64 

47.64 
51.04 
66.00 
51.13 



61.41 
56.40 



88.40 
42.80 
47.76 
65.05 
40.35 
30.67 
53.63 
46.54 
40.00 
60.57 
52.36 
50.77 

53.33 
71.43 
05.89 



35.03 



01.87 



8.28 



4.08 
6.63 
10.00 
8.28 
8.24 



42.86 
100.00 



3.00 



85.71 
6.45 



10.25 
1.70 
4.70 

12.20 
6.33 

10.07 

7.48 
12.18 

1.74 
16.15 



10.65 
3.00 



4.34 
14.91 
13.08 

4.16 
22.81 
11.76 

4.37 

6.60 



.61 
7.36 
7.58 

10.00 



10.10 



1.16 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAL REVIEW OF HIGHER EDUCATION. 



161 



Tablk 8. — Xonnal students in universities and colleges, and public and private high 

schools. 





In univer- 
sities and 
colleges. 


In pnblio high schools. 


In private 1 


kigh sc 

i 

1 


hoolfl. 

1 




SUte or Territory. 


1 


1 
1 


1 


1 


£ 


1 


Total. 


1 


» 


3 


4 


5 


6 


y 


H 


9 


lO 


11 


19 


United Stat«8 


173 


5.500 


153 


1,890 


3,651 


a.tui 


137 


2,000 


2.332 


4,332 


14,873 




, _,-. 


Korth Atlantic Division 

Soatb A Uan tic Division 

Sonth CeiitnU Division 

North Central Division 

'We*5tem Division 


11 
25 
45 
78 
14 


266 

956 

1,187 

2,707 

884 


67 
12 
25 
43 
6 


477 
178 
270 
439 
26 


1,707 
431 
289 

l.OflO 
134 


2,184 
609 
559 

1,529 
160 


30 
23 
27 
47 
8 


822 
283 
327 
892 
176 


589 
449 
259 
835 

200 


911 
732 
586 
1,727 
370 


3,361 
2.297 
2,332 
5,963 
920 






Vorth Atlantic DivUion: 

Maine 


1 


6 


2 
3 

1 
10 
2 









23 
41 
5 
172 
25 


23 
41 
5 
172 
25 


3 
2 


53 



98 
21 


151 
21 


180 


New Hampshire 


62 








5 


'MflsiMichn'fetts 


2 


22 


1 
1 
1 
9 
1 
12 




2 

48 



219 


15 
2 


147 
2 

3<)4 


15 

1 

195 

2 

523 


209 


Khode Island 


27 


Connecticut 






2 


New York 


2 


100 


34 
3 
12 

1 
1 


324 

8 

,45 


2 


730 

86 

625 

21 
11 


1,054 
94 
770 

21 
13 


1,349 
96 


New Jersey 


Pennsylvania 


6 


138 


1.431 
21 


Sontli Atlantic Division: 

Delaware 


Maryland 


1 
1 
5 
2. 
6 
2 
6 
2 

6 

i:h 

4 
5 
3 
7 
« 


82 

5 

25 

78 

326 

96 

339 

5 

167 

473 
95 

170 
53 
92 

122 


2 


11 


12 


23 


118 


District of Columhia. . .... 


5 


Virginia 


2 

1 
3 
1 
2 
1 

4 
4 
2 
7 
1 
6 
1 


20 
89 
46 
•1 
14 
56 

107 
47 

2 
52 



89 
23 




124 
24 
37 

7 

7 

200 

73 
26 
20 
67 
21 
57 
25 


144 
63 
83 
8 
21 

256 

180 
73 
22 

110 
21 
06 
48 


4 
3 
6 
3 

4 

5 
5 
2 
6 


55 
107 
33 
29 
21 
27 

109 
32 
10 
43 


150 
98 
60 
67 
44 
18 

t\ 

20 
54 


205 
205 
93 
96 
65 
45 

170 
60 
30 
97 


374 


West Virginia 


346 


North Carolina 


502 


South Carolina 


200 


Georgia 


425 


Florida 


306 


Soath Central Division : 

K^ntuck V 


517 


Tennessee 


612 


Malminft 


147 


Mississippi 


386 


Xjouisiaua 


80 


Texaa 


3 
6 


59 
74 


25 
65 


84 
139 


272 


Arkansas 

Oklahoma 


309 


Indian Territory 


1 

15 
5 
12 

4 
1 
4 
7 
10 
I 
4 
7 
8 


9 

744 
167 
223 
120 
151 
120 
260 
830 
12 
140 
186 
254 
















9 


Horth Central Division: 

Ohio 


11 
2 
6 
3 
5 


120 
24 
5 
11 
12 


176 
80 
81 
64 
25 


296 
54 
86 
75 
37 


11 

4 
4 
2 
2 


232 
56 
22 
29 
24 


179 
78 
23 

104 
22 


411 

i;i4 

45 
133 
46 


1,451 


Indiana 


355 


lUinoiii 


354 


Michigan 


328 


Wisconsin 


234 


Minnesota 


120 


Iowa 


11 

1 


31 
74 


407 438 
46 120 


8 
8 


290 
116 


165 
93 


455 
209 


1,153 


Missouri 


659 


North Dakota 


12 


South Dakota 








2 
3 
3 


87 

5 

81 


53 
26 
92 


90 
31 
173 


230 


NebraskA 






1. 


217 


Kansas 


4 


162 


261 423 


850 


Western Division : 

Montana 




Wvoniinff .. .. ..... 


1 


21 




1 1 










21 


Colorado ............ 


2 


20 


94 1 114 










114 


New Mexico 


1 


30 


1 





8 


8 


38 


Arizona 









XTtah 








! ' 


a 


65 


58 


123 


123 




1 


40 


1 


5 


22 1 27 


67 


Idaho 


1 








Washington 


3 
2 
6 


93 
53 
147 




1 










93 


Oregon 


2 

1 


1 



15 1 16 
3 ! 3 


1 

3 



111 


2 
132 


2 
243 


71 


Califomift 


393 











ED 9^- 



-11 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



162 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



Table 9. — Distribution of students pursuing teachers^ training courses in various insH" 

tutions. 



State or Territory. 


In public 
normal 
schools. 


In private 
normal 
schools. 


In universi- 
ties and 
colleges 


In public 

high 
schools. 


In private 

high 

schools. 


Total 
normal 
students. 


1 


9 


3 


4 


5 


• 


7 


United States 


37,890 


27,995 


5,500 


5,041 


4,332 


80,767 






North Atlantic Division 

South Atlantic Division 

South Central Division 

Xorth Central Division 

"W C8tcm Division ........... 


16,424 
3,334 
3,374 

12,056 
2. 711 


1,385 
2,728 
3,421 
19.454 
1,007 


266 

956 

1,187 

2,707 

384 


2,184 
009 
559 

1,529 
160 


Oil 
732 
586 
1,727 
SIR 


21, 170 
8,350 
9.127 

37.473 
•4,638 








Xorth Atlantic Division: 
Maine 


854 
86 

&41 
1,232 

199 

426 
5,339 

639 
7,108 


51 


6 


23 

41 

5 

172 

25 


151 
21 


1,085 
148 


New Hampshire 

17ermont . ............ 






546 




55 


22 


35 
2 
2 

195 
2 

523 


1,496 
226 


Hnode Island 


Connecticut -. 


21 
23 




449 


New York 


100 


1,054 

94 

770 

21 
13 


6.711 


New Jersev 


735 


'PoniiRvl VAnifi ••.*•• 


1,235 

7 

93 
169 
283 
391 
596 
418 
632 
139 

762 

1,158 

115 

706 


138 


9,774 
28 


South Atlantic Division: 
Delaware ............... 


Maryland 


378 
77 

782 
1,001 

771 
59 

183 
83 

335 
508 
1,108 
167 
197 
660 
283 
116 


82 
5 

25 

78 

326 

06 

339 

5 

167 

473 
95 

170 
59 
92 

122 


23 


589 


District of Columbia 


251 


T^iririnia ............... 


i44 
63 
83 
8 
21 

256 

180 
73 
22 

110 
21 
96 
48 


205 
205 
93 
96 
65 
45 

170 
66 
30 
07 


1.439 


"West Virginia 


1,738 


North Carolina 


1,809 
• 677 


South Carolina 


Georcia. ................ 


1,240 


Florida 


528 


South Central Division: 
Kontuckv 


1,614 


Tennessee 


2,278 


Alabama 


1,370 


Mississinni 


1,259 




277 


Texas 


526 
154 


84 
139 


1,458 
746 


Arkansas 


Oklahoma 


116 


Indian Territory 




9 

744 
167 
223 
120 
151 
120 
200 
830 
12 
140 
186 
254 






9 


North Central Division : 
Ohio 


404 

1,446 

1,117 

1,022 

1.512 

1,083 

S)l 

2,308 

242 

328 

491 

1,212 


3,388 
5,056 
1,384 
1,322 
57 

238 

2,633 

2,484 

50 

492 
1,440 

910 

30 
7 
73 


296 
54 
86 
75 
37 


411 
134 

45 
133 

46 


5,243 
6,857 
2,855 


Indiana ................ 


Illinois 


Michigan 


2,672 
1 803 


"W^isconsin ...... . ...... 


Minnesota 


1,441 
4,677 


Iowa 


438 
120 


455 
200 


Missouri 


6,451 
•304 


North Dakota 


South Dakota 




90 
31 
173 


1,050 


Nebraska 




2.148 
2,972 

30 


Kansas 


423 


"Western Division : 

Montana 


"Wvomincf . .......... 




21 






28 


Colorado. ............... 


363 
76 
83 


114 




550 


New Mexico 


30 


8 


114 


Arizona 






83 


Utah 


688 






123 


811 


Nevada 




40 


... 

27 


67 


Idaho 










Washington 


278 

540 

1,371 




03 
53 
147 






371 


Oregon 




16 
3 


2 
243 


611 


California 


209 


i,vn 





Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



STATISTICAli REVIEW OF HIQHEB EDUCATION. 



163 









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2s ass a 



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e4C« C9 



rt »HCQ If J 



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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



164 



EDUCATION BEPOET, 1893-94. 






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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



CHAPTER V. 
GRKAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



Educational Statistics and Movements 1893.' 

For previous articles on education in Great Britain, see — 

Detailed view of the educational system of England. Keport 1888-89, Vol. I, pp. 
78-111. 

Brief view and current statistics. Report 1889-90, Vol. I, pp. 237-248. 

Educational system of Scotland. Ibid., pp. 187-236. 

Elementary education in London and Paris. Ibid., pp. 263-280. 

Brief view of systems of England and Scotland, with current statistics. Heport 
1890-91, Vol. I, pp, 125-134. 

Provision for secondary and for technical instruction in Great Britain. Ibid., pp. 
135-150. 

Educational system of Ireland. Ibid., pp. 151-164. 

Elementary education in Great Britain and Ireland, 1892. Report for 1891-92, Vol. 
I, pp. 97-104. 

Technical instruction in Great Britain. Ibid., pp. 105-137. 

Religious instruction under the London school board. Report for 1892-93, pp. 208- 
216. 

Topical Ovtlhhj^.— Educational BiatUticSf 1893. — Comparative viao of elementary edu- 
cation, England, 1876 v. 189S; Scotland, 1880 v. 1893, — Gradual progress in schol- 
arly ideaU indicated by changes in the departmental regulations {annual code); liberal 
spirit of the code for 1895; practical end of the system of ^^ payment upon resuJtoJ^ — 
Improved status of evening schools. — Citations: Industrial schools and juvenile crime; 
Technical education under the London county councils. — Tabular vietv of State-aided 
colleges. 

The following table presents the chief educational statistics of Great 
Britain and Ireland, as set forth in recent official reports or other speci- 
fied sources. As will be observed, the entire province of secondary 
instruction is omitted from the table. Presumably one outcome of the 
royal commission appointed (December 8, 1893) to investigate and 
report upon secondary education will be a systematized view of the 
existing schools of secondary grade : 



» Prepared by A. Tolman Smith. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



166 



EDUCATION EEPORT, 1803-94. 

Educational statistics. 



Sources of infor- 
iiiatiou. 



Statesman's Tear 
Book, 1894. 



Oflicialreport, 1803- 
94. 



Statesman's Year 
Book, 1894. 



Official report, 1893- 
94. 



Statesman's Year 
Book, 1894. 



Official roi>ort, 1893- 
94. 

Official r(i)ort, 1801. 



Institutions. 



GREAT IJBITAIX. 

Ungland and Wales. 

Universitiea: 

Oxford (23 colleges) 

Cambridge (19 colleges) 

Durham ( 1 c^jllcge) 

Detaehetl coUpq^cs (15) 

University colleges for women 
(4). 

Bedford College for "Women 

Elementary day schools 

Night schools 

Training colleges for' elementary 
teachers. 

Scotland. 

Universities: 

Aberdeen (1 college) 

Edinburgh (1 college) 

Glasgow (1 collegr) 

St. Andrews (Icollege) , 

Dundee University College . . . . 

Elementary day schools 

K igh t schools . . .*. 

Training colleges for elementary 
teachers. 

Ireland. 

Universities: 

Dublin Univeraity (1) 

Belfast, Queen's (Jollego (1) ... 

Cork, Queen's College (1) 

Galway, Queen's College (1) — 

Elementary day schools 

Training colleges for elementary 

teachers. 
Under department of science and 
art: 

Science schools and classes — 

Art schools and classes 



I>"t«of ^';,^lX''irr„f.ssor.' Expemli- 



report. 



1893 
1893 
1893 
1893 
1893 

1893 
1893 
1893 



1893 



1893 
1893 



1893 



1892 
1892 



students 
or pupils. 



lor teachers. 



8,232 

2,912 

196 

^7,3()0 
371 

146 I 
6,126,373 

81,068 I 
4,033 



748 

8,138 

2,041 

205 

250 

664,838 

19, 575 

945 



1,103 
394 
230 
108 
832.545 
694 



/180,410 
/ 115, 848 



90 ! 
108 I 

13 ' 
775 i 



a $31 7, 832 
a 212, 055 



110,285 I 42,046,420 



I 



43 
102 
94 
27 
19 
14,103 



C, 229, 886 



64 

20 
25 I 
17 I 
d 11, 586 



<• 5, 700, 222 



^17 3,167,352 



a University, exclusive of the colleges. Whilt^ker's Almanac (1893) gives a total of £200,187 as tho 
combined Income of 19 Oxford colleges and £305,061 as that of 17 Cambridge colleges. 
b Also 8,253 evening students. 

c Average number on rolls. The number of pupils who made at least one attendance was 1,032,287. 
d Also 5,454 paid monitors, 
f From Statesman's Year Book. 

/In Mldition to pupils in elementary schools receiving grants from the science and art department. 
g Parliamentary grant for use in tho work of the department, 1893-94. 

While it is extremely difficult to obtain a compreliensive view of 
higher education as maintained in Great Britain, the statistics of ele- 
mentary education are very complete and uniform for the successive 
years from 1870. 

Up to a very recent date the chief effort of the Government has been 
to get all children under instruction and to secure appreciable results 
as an outcome of tho public money expended. So long as this standard 
prevailed the statistics of attendance, enrollment, etc., offered a suffi- 
cient"index of progress. The following table brings into comparative 
view the chief items relating to the elementary school system of England 
and Wales for the years 1876 and 1893 and to the system of Scotland 
for 1880 and 1893. As regards England and Wales, it should be noted 
that the earlier of the two dates (1870) was the year of the passage of 
the ftrst of the laws amending the original "education act" of 1870. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EDUCATION m GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 167 

Tlie purpose of the law of 1876 was ^^to afibrd additional means for 
securing the attendance of cliildren at school, especially in districts 
where there was no school board, or where there were no by-laws in 
force as to school attendance.^ The authorities constituted by the new 
law in districts not under school boards were termed ''school attend- 
ance committees.'' 

The six years during which the law of 1S70 had been in operation 
had shown clearly the need of greater stringency in respect to school 
attendance. It will be remembered that the chief purpose of the origi- 
nal law had been to secure the instruction of all children, and thus free 
England irom the stigma of dense and increasing illiteracy. The part 
which the Government assumed in the work was simply to require 
adequate school provision in every district. I'his might be afforded in 
public elementary schools managed by elected boards and maintained 
in part by local taxes (rates), or in private (voluntary) schools, of which 
the various religious denominations were in general the owners and 
managers. Both classes of schools were to receive grants from the 
Government upon the same conditions, and their proi>er fulfillment of 
the conditions was to be determined by annual examinations conducted 
by Government inspectors. Since 1876 the system has been further 
modified by the laws of 1880 and 1891, the former obliging local authori- 
ties to make by-laws for compelling parents to send their children to 
school and the latter providing for the remission of school fees by means 
of an annual grant to the schools accepting its provisions. The efl'ect 
of the law of 1891 has been to make elementary education practically 
free. 

The earlier of the two years (1880), employed in the comparative 
view for Scotland, is not marked by any event of special importance. 
The law establishing the Scotch system was passed in 1872. The Gov- 
ernment assumed substantially the same relation to the work in Scot- 
land as in England. The Scotch law was, however, more comprehensive, 
as suited the more highly developed and more homogeneous state of 
popular education in the northern division of the Blingdom. In Scot- 
land a school board was called into existence in every parish, and not 
only were the parish schools, but also the higher grade burgh schools, 
placed under the management of the boards, although the burgh 
schools did not share in the public funds. Subsequently these high- 
grade schools were permitted to share in the local taxes, so that the 
system of public education in Scotland was carried to the door of the 
universities. 

As the Scotch law embodied a compulsory clause, its effects upon 
school attendance were uniform throughout the country. Religious 
instruction was restrained simply by a conscience clause, which per- 
mitted children to bo withdrawn from the exercise at the request of 
their parents, whereas in the English law, not only was there a con- 
science clause binding upon all the schools, but there was also a clause 

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168 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



prohibiting board schools from giving instruction in any "religious 
catechism or religious formulary which is distinctive of any particular 
denomination.'^ 

Scotland has been entirely free from the contentions over this subject 
that have repeatedly convulsed England. The former was the first, 
also, to secure exemption from school fees, the laws providing for their 
remission bearing date 1889 and 1890. 

It should be added, for the more complete understanding of the 
comparative statistics, that until 1890 the amount of the grant for 
each school depended in a measure upon the actual number of children 
present on the day of the inspector's examination, hence this item has 
always been reported. 



Comparative statistics of elemefitary 


schools. 








England and Wales. 




Scotland. 










Increase 






Increase 




1876. 


1893. 


or de- 
crease. 


1880. 


1893. 


or de- 
crease. 








Per cent. 






Per cent. 


I. Entimated popalntion 


24, 244, 010 


29, 731, 100 


-+- 22.6 


3, 705, 314 


4.090,315 


+ 10.4 


II. JJ umber of schools, day and 














uight (institutions), in- 














spected 


14,3<S8 


19,867 


-f 38.0 


3,064 


3,008 


— 24.0 


ni. Pupils. 








Accommodation for— 














1. Day schools 


3,426,318 


5,762,617 


+ 70.0 


602,054 


737,797 


+ 22.6 


2. Night schools (not 














connected with 














day schools) 


14, 810 


9,913 


— 33.0 


1,301 


803 


— 41.0 


Enrollment, day schools 


2. 943. 734 


5,126,873 


+ 74.0 


534,428 


664,838 


+ 24.4 


Present at examinations— 














1. Day schools 


2.412,211 


4, 728, 535 


+ 96.0 


470, 581 


618. 021 


+ .31.0 


2. Night schools 


41. 133 


78. 298 


4 90.0 


14. 809 


18, 910 


+ 27.0 


Average attendance— 














1. Day schools 


1,084,573 


4, 100, 000 


+106.0 


404, 618 


542,851 


■1- 34.0 


2. Night schools 


49,858 


81,068 


+ 62.5 


14,297 


19, 575 


+ 37 


IV. Number of teachers: 














Certificated 


23,053 


49, 340 


+ 114.0 
+691.0 
15,0 


5,330 
444 


8,325 
1,874 
3,775 


+ 56.0 
i-322. 


Assiittant 


3,173 


25,123 


Pupil 


32.231 


27,288 


4,582 


17J0 


Studying iu training 












colleges ....... ...... 


3,007 


4,033 


+ 14.0 


892 


858 


.04 


V. Finances: 










Current expenditure. . . 


$16, 584. 356 


$42,046,420 


+153.0 


$4,122,879 


$6,229,886 


+ 51.0 


Government grant 


7. 457, 084 


028,577,428 


+283.0 


2, 167, 808 


a4, 400, 927 


+104.0 



a Includes the grant in lieu of fees. 

As regards the view presented above it will be seen that certain 
items included in the table have little more than local interest. Even 
these, however, serve to make the impression more precise and definite. 
The variation in the number of institutions inspected, for, example, 
may arise from purely accidental causes, as severe weather rendering 
the schools in certain rural regions, especially of northern Scotland, 
inaccessible. 

The decline in the number of pupil teachers is significant, especially 
when considered in connection with the increase in the number of cer- 
tificated and assistant teachers. It shows a growing preference for 
adult teachers who have passed through the training period. It can 



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EDUCATION IN GREAT BEITAIN AND IRELAND. 169 

not escape observation that almost in every particniar considered there 
has been marked increase during the periods covered by the compari- 
son. Along with the progress in these measurable quantities there 
has been also a remarkable development in the ideal of scholastic work. 
This has always been determined chiefly by the conditions for obtain- 
ing the annual parliamentary grant. These conditions are formulated 
each year by the department in the so-called *'code," or body of regu- 
lations, which must be sanctioned by Parliament before it can be 
adopted. The radical changes that have been introduced into these 
documents from time to time are the indexes of the most important 
changes that have been effected in the schools. 

For the purpose of making these changes intelligible a historical 
survey of the earlier codes is here presented. It is taken substantially 
from the introduction to the School Board Chronicle edition of the code 
of 1891. The survey is carried back to a period antedating the law of 
1870. It will be remembered that the Government began making grants 
to elementary schools as early as 1833. In 1860 the various "minutes" 
which had been issued for the guidance of the committee of council in 
charge of this fund were consolidated, and with this digest as a start- 
ing i>oint the document known as "the revised code" of 1861 was 
issued to regulate the future distribution of the grants. Under this 
code the grant was made to depend chiefly on the average attend- 
ance and the results of the individual examination of the s'cholars in 
reading, writing, and arithmetic. The effects of this code are thus 
summarized by our authority: 

The inevitable result followed that the teachers were compelled to confine their 
attention to these elementary subjects, while others, such as history, grammar, geog- 
raphy, mathematics, which in the hands of a capable teacher foster mental activity 
and create a thirst for knowledge in the scholar, were starved out; and this serious 
result was not couuterbalauced by the fact that the new system of individual exam- 
ination enabled the inspector ''to report with all but absolute certainty upon, at aU 
events, the attainments required*, and to apply praise or blame with an amount of 
firmness and decision which, under the former code he was able to do." 

Perhaps the effect of the revised code could hardly be better summed up than in 
the language of Mr. J. G. Fitch, one of Her Majesty's inspectors of schools. In one 
of his reports he says : 

*'I can not resist the unwelcome conviction that the new code (1861) is tending to 
formalize the work of the elementary schools and to render it in some degree lifeless, 
inelastic, and mechanical. I find too many teachers disposed to narrow their sense 
of duty to the * six standards,' or to what they sometimes call, with unconscious 
sarcasm, the ' paying subjects.' I find an increasing eagerness on the part of teachers 
to get hold of text-books which are * specially adapted to the requirements of the 
revised code,' and which claim, as their chief merit, that they do not go a step 
beyond those requirements. The practice of explaining and questioning on the 
meanings of words appears to me on the decline. Spirited oral teaching, mutual 
interrogation, home lessons, and other devices by which the intellectual life of a 
school IS kept up are far less common than they ought to be, and, as I have reason 
to believe, than they once were. The teaching of grammar, history, aud geography 
has been much discouraged. It has always been a characteriBtio of the best schools 



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170 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

that in each of them there was some one sahject which, if not a hobby of the master^s, 
was yet one in which his own tastes led him to take particular interest, and which 
by it« special finish and excellence served to prove that his heart was in his school 
and that he was proud of its success. I regret to say that I see comparatively little 
of this sort of enthusiasm, and that the adoption of a uniform standard' tends in 
some measure to discourage it/' 

The late Mr. Matthew Arnold's condemnation of the system under the revised code 
was, if anything, stronger than that of Mr. Fitch. In his report on education in 
Germany, France, Italy, and Switzerland, he wrote: 

"The fault of the teaching in our popular schools at home is that it is so little form- 
ative ; it does little to touch their nature for good and to mold them. Again and 
again I find written in my notes, 'The children human.' They had been bronght 
under teaching of a quality to touch and interest them, and were being formed by it.'' 

Passing to conditions under the law of 1870, the writer continues: 

When the education act of 1870 was passed a pledge was given that the amount 
of the annual ghauts previously available for the support of elementary schools 
should be increased. A new code was accordingly framed in 1871 with 6x>ecial refer- 
ence to the alterations required by that act. The principle of payment by results 
was still maintained, but a more liberal view was taken, both of the subjects which 
might be taught and the amounts to be earned. The schedule of specific subjeots 
for which grants were allowed included geography, history, grammar, algebra, 
geometry, natural philosophy, physical geography, the natural sciences, political 
economy, and languages. 

With slight modifications the code of 1871 remained in force until it was super- 
seded by the code of 1882. 

This code, generally known by the name of its author, Mr. Mundella, 
at that time vice-president of the education department, made the first 
break in the mechanical system that had grown out of the " revised 
code." Individual examination in the elementary subjects was still 
maintained; for these alone a teacher could secure from the grant rates 
varying from 13s. to 16s. per capita of the children who passed. Liberal 
grants were offered also for attainments in the higher subjects. The 
most important feature introduced by the new regulations was the 
" merit grant." This was to be awarded at rates varying from Is. to 38. 
per capita of average attendance, according to the report of the in- 
spector as to the general conditions of the school — i. e., whether excel- 
lent, good, or fair. Inspectors were instructed in making up the report 
to consider the special difficulties of the teachers, the general intelli- 
gence of the district, etc. 

The spirit of the new regulations was progressive, but in actual 
practice they accomplished less than was expected. Even the merit 
grant proved to be a means of increasing mechanical teaching, and was 
a special subject of complaint before the commission of 1886 appointed 
to inquire into the workings of the elementary school laws. An out- 
come of the recommendations of this commission was the code of 1890. 
In this, for the first time, there was a radical departure from the sys- 
tem of "payment upon results." It allowed the larger proportion of 



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EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 171 

the grant to be paid at a fixed ratio upon the basis of average attend- 
ance.* Moreover, the individual examination of all pupils was no longer 
demanded; instead, the inspector might examine the class in general 
or a few pupils, according to his judgment. The law of 1801 providing 
for the remission of school fees gave rise to some special regulations 
which were embodied in the code for 1892, but these were not in line 
with the movement here discussed. 

The last measures in the series that have emancipated the schools 
from a deadening routine are embodied in the regulations just issued for 
the year 1895. The most important of these has reference to the inspec- 
tion of schools. Heretofore the inspectors have made a rigid annual 
examination of every school on the Government list. From this ordeal 
schools that have reached a certain standard are now excused; in place 
of the formal examination there may be substituted two annual visits 
from the inspector, the visits to be made without notice. On these 
occasions the inspector is to test the instruction and the general condi- 
tion of the school, and from the notes taken at the time to make up his 
report of the school. If the report is satisfactory the school will be 
entitled to the full grant. Thus virtually ends the system of " pay- 
ment upon results.'' 

The regulations have also reduced the work required in the lower 
grades, introduced a special schedule for small schools (i. e., those with 
an average attendance below GO), and have placed cottage gardening 
as a subject of instruction for boys on the same basis as cookery, 
laundry, and dairy work for girls. Another provision which shows 
the tendency toward freer methods of instruction is that allowing the 
time spent by pupils during school hours in visiting museums, art gal- 
leries, etc., to be counted as school attendance. It is stipulated that 
the visits shall be made under proper guidance. 

EVENING SCHOOLS. 

The measures adopted for the development of evening schools show 
the same progressive spirit as those that are gradually transforming 
the day schools. The present ideal of evening schools is indicated 
by the new name applied to them, i. e., " Evening continuation schools." 

Prior to the regulations of 1893 they were essentially elementary 
schools, conducted like the day schools upon a rigid system of payment 
for results. The spirit of the new regulations and the conditions 

» Prior to 1890 the grant comprised four divisions in ''scliools for older scholars," 
as follows: (1) A fixed grant of 48. to 6s. per papil. (2) A merit grant varying from 
1ft, to 38- per pupil, according to the inspector's report. (3) A grant for the three ele- 
mentary subjects of instrnction according to the number of pupils passing a satis- 
factory examination in each. (4) Various grants in class and specific subjects. The 
code of 1890 raised No. 1 from 4s. to Gs. to 12|s. to 14s., made Xo. 2 a definite grant of 
Is. to 1}8. for good discipline and organization, and abolished No. 3. 



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172 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

which have made them necessary are thus clearly summarized in the 
London Journal of Education (July 1, 1893): 

Mr. Aclancl's ' eveDing school code has not disappointed the hopes of those who 
expected hold and useful reforms. For the first time we are to have real continua- 
tion schools, and yet the new vice-president has had the advantage of the criticisms 
bestowed on the abortive attempt in the same direction of his predecessor. Indi-» 
vidual examination is abolished and inspection without notice substituted; no 
scholar will henceforth be compelled to take the elementary subjects; adults may be 
freely admitted, and will earn grauts; a variety of practical and recreative subjects 
have been recognized. The princii^le of the minute of 1892 is adopted in the appor- 
tionment of the variable grants, viz, that they shall depend on the number of 
hours' instruction given in each subject, and this is extended to the fixed grant, pay- 
ment by average attendance being superseded. 

These are daring changes, but some of them had been long advocated by educa- 
tionalists. The cautions relaxation in 1890 of the old trammels had produced an 
immediate increase in the night schools, but the tradition that evening schools were 
for the three R's was still too stroug, and the increase has not been maiutained. After 
our heavy expenditure on day school children, we have allowed them to forget every- 
thing from the moment they have reached a standard where intelligence is begin- 
ning to be evoked. After a year or two at work, the ordinary London boy can not 
sum, his writing is atrocious, his grammar worse, his reading merely sufficient for 
comic cuts. 

Let us glance at the figures for London day and night schools. Taking the com- 
pulsory period, and assuming the children are in the day schools for eight years, i. e. 
from 5 to 13, the average number between those ages on the rolls for the last eight 
years is about 575,000. Last year there were enrolled in the evening schools 30,000 
boys and girls between 13 and 21. True, many of the 575,000 have died after leaving 
school, and there would be slight compensation by immigration, but one would 
suppose there would be now over 500,000 young people between 13 and 21 in London. 
The proportion in day continuation schools is, unhappily, very small. Further, of 
the 30,000 enrolled in the evening schools, an average of 10,000 only attended during 
the two winter sessions, and only half that number in the summer. The immense 
majority of our working lads and lassies are not carrying on their education at all 
during these valuable years. 

Mr. Acland wishes to have interesting schools to attract them and thorough teach- 
ing when they have come in. The most important of his new X)rovisions is doubtlc.^ 
the abolition of the formal examination and payment by individual passes. For 
years we have been crying out against the cram to which teachers and pupils resorted 
before the examination — a cram which was distasteful and useless. We are now to 
have an inspection of methods of teaching of general knowledge and intelligence. 
To prevent a slackness of work the inspector will reduce the variable grant from 
Is. 6d. to Is. if both the actual teaching and its method are not thoroughly satis- 
factory. 

The fixed grant ought to be larger when paid, as is proposed, on each complete 
twelve hours of instruction, as it will enable us to disregard a falling off in numbers, 
and to continue to teach the earnest pui)ils whom we have previously sacrified to 
the necessity of keeping a high average attendance. 

The explanatory memorandum* also suggests that meetings can be lengthened, but 
after a day's work it is unwise to exact too long a time for instruction. We must 
not omit to note that, under article 14, a limit of grant is fixed on the basis of aver- 
age attendance ; but we hope the department has calculated that this will not nullify 
the change and prevent our opening more frequently for special subjects, and allow- 
ing pupils to attend only some of these. 

^ Vice-president of the education department. 

* Issued by the education department. r-^ t 

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EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 173 

For the fixed grant time U recognized, though spent over snbjectd for which no 
Tariahle grant can be given—e. g., drawing, manaal training, physical exercises, and 
housewifery. It is evident from, the exordium and from the fifth article (which 
provides that these may be given on other premises if necessary) that it is desired 
to encourage these. 

The following citations from the code and appendixes give in outline 
the programme for the evening schools, also the expanded programme in 
English subjects, and in detail the section pertaining to civic instruc- 
tion. To this is added the explanatory memorandum in which < he pur- 
poses of the Government in re8i)ect to these schools are more fully 
expressed. 

It should be added that corresponding changes have been made in 
the regulations for evening schools in Scotland. 

EVENING CONTINUATION SCHOOL CODE, 1893. 

2. Grants may be made for any of the subjects of instruction named in the schedule 
to this code, and for any other subjects sanctioned by the department, provided that 
a graduated scheme for teaching any such subject be submitted to and approved by 
the inspector. 

The subjects named in the schedule are the following: 

Elementary subjects, — Reading or recitation, or both combined; writing and com- 
position; reading and writing combined; arithmetic. 

English subjects. — English, geography, history, the life and duties of the citizen. 

Languages. — French, German, Welsh (for scholars in schools in Wales), Latin. 

Mathemalics. — Euclid, algebra, mensuration. 

Science subjects and subjects of practical utility. — Elementary physiography, ele- 
mentary physics and chemistry, science of common things, chemistry, mechanics, 
sound, light, and heat, magnetism and electricity, human physiology, botany, agri- 
culture, horticulture, navigation, bookkeeping, shorthand. 

Vocal music. — Subjects for girls and women only. — Domestic economy, needlework. 

Schemes for teaching these subjects are given in the schedule. 

Grants are also made for cookery, laundry work, and dairy work as subjects of 
instruction for girls and women. 

3. Instruction may be given in other secular subjects and in religious subjects, but 
no g^nt is made in respect of any such instruction. ( Elementary education act, 1870, 
sec. 97, L) 

4. Instruction in the following subjects is recognized for the purpose of the fixed 
grant (art. 13 a), but no variable grant (art. 13 b) is paid in respect of tbem : 

Drawing. (Grants for drawing are made by the science and art department.) 
Manual or technical instruction. 
Suitable physical exercises. 
Military drill (for boys and men). 
Housewifery (for girls and women). 

5. Instruction in the subjects mentioned in article 4, and also instruction in the 
following subjects mentioned in article 2: Science, vocal music, cookery, laundry 
work, dairy work, or needlework (for girls and women) may bo given elsewhere than 
on the school premises, provided that special and appropriate provision, approved by 
the inspector, is made for such instruction, and the times for giving it are entered 
in the approved time-table. Except as provided by this article, all instruction must 
be g^ven on the school premises. 

6. No meeting of the school is reckoned at which less than one hour's secular 
instmction has been given. 

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174 ^ EDUCATION REPORT, 1898-94. 

7. The registers must be marked at the beginning of eacb lesson. If any scholar 
registered as attending is withdrawn before the end of the lesson, the entry of 
attendance should be at once canceled. The registers must show clearly the num- 
ber of hours' instruction received by each scholar in each subject in which he is 
instructed. There should be separate registers for each subject. No lesson of less 
than half an hour in length is recognized for purposes of registration. 

8. No scholar may be entered or continue on the register who is under 14 years of 
age, unless such scholar is deemed by the department to be exempt from the legal 
obligation to attend school. 

9. The *' school year" is the year ending on the 30th of April. 

10. Any person over 18 years of age approved by the inspector^ and not being a 
pupil teacher engaged in a public elementary school, may be recognized as teacher 
or assistant teacher. The teachers need not be lay persons. 

11. The following conditions must be fulfilled in order that a school may receive 
an annual grant : 

(a) The principal teacher must be certificated or recognized under article 10, and 

must not bo allowed to undertake duties not connected with the school 
which may occupy any part whatever of the school hours. 

(b) The school must have met on not less than thirty evenings in the school year. 

If a school has been closed during tho year under medical authority or for any unavoidable 
caime, a corresponding reduction is inade from tho number of m^tings required by this 
article. 

(c) Notice must be given annually At the beginning of the session to the depart- 

ment that the managers desire a grant for tho school. 

(d) The time-table must bo submitted to and approved by the inspector at the 

beginning of the session. The time-table must show the several subjects 
in which instraction is given, and the time allotted to each subject. Any 
alteration in the time-table affecting the days or hours of meeting must 
be notified to tho inspector. 

(c) The school must have been visited by the inspector at least once in each 
school year, unless some cause accepted as satisfactory by the department 
prevent such visit. The inspector's visits will, as arule, be made without 
previous notice being given. 

(/) Tho school must be reported efficient by the inspector. A school will not bo 
reported efficient unless the inspector is satisfied that the order is good, 
that tho teaching is systematic and intelligent, and that the scholars are 
making genuine progress in the subjects taught. 

12. The annual grant becomes due at the end of the school year, and is paid as 
soon as may be after that date. 

13. The annual grant is made up of tho several grants, which, with their amounts, 
are enumerated below: 

(a) A fixed grant calculated as follows: All the hours during which each regis- 
tered scholar has received secular instruction (articles 6 and 7) during the 
school year shall be added together, and a grant of Is. 6hall be paid for 
every complete twelve such hours. The fixed grant may not be withdrawn 
unless the whole grant is withdrawn. No fixed grant will be paid unless 
some other grant under this code is payable. 

(h) A variable grant of Is. 6d. or Is. for every complete twelve hours* instruction 
received by any registered scholar during the school year in any subject 
allowed by article 2, in which not less than fifteen hours' jnstruction has 
been given during the same period. Tho department shall decide which, 
if either, of these suras shall bo paid after considering the report of the 
inspector's visit or visits. The grant will be separately assessed for each 
subject. (1) No variable grant shall be paid for any scholar on account 
of less than two or more than five subjects. (2) No variable grant shall 
be paid for any scholar on account of any subject in which he has been 

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EDUCATION IN GBEAT BBITAIN AND IRELAND, 175 

prerionsly examined by the science and art department. (3) No variable 
grant shall be paid for any scholar on accoant of more than two science 
sabjects. (4) If a scholar is to be presented for examination in two 
science subjects by the science and art department in the May following 
the close of the school year, no Tariable grant shall be paid for him on 
account of any science subject, and if he is to be so presented in one 
science subject, no variable grant shall be paid for him on account of more 
than one science subject. 

(c) Where the inspector reports that special and appropriate provision is made 

for the practical teaching of cookery by a teacher holding a certificate 
from some training school of cookery recognized by the department, a 
grant of 2s. or 4s. is made on account of each girl or woman who has 
attended not less than twenty or forty hours during the school year (of 
which not more than four hours may be in any one week) at a cookery 
class of not more than 24 scholars, and has spent not less than ten or 
twenty hours in cooking with her own hands. 
The time for cookery must be entered in the time-table, and should not be 
less than a continuous hour or hour and a half at any meeting; provided 
that for the purposes of article 13 (b) (1) cookery shall bo considered as 
a subject, and that no grant shall be paid for a scholar on account of 
cookery only. (1) Where the inspector reports that there is no convenient 
means of obtaining a certificate, the certificate above mentioned shall not 
be required, but the competency of the teacher must be proved to the 
satisfaction of the department. (2) For the purpose of demonstration, 
not more than three classes of 18 scholars may be present, provided the 
inspector reports that the number present may be conveniently accommo- 
dated; but for the ten or twenty hours required for cooking with their 
own hands (during which time no demonstration lesson can be given) not 
more than 18 scholars shall be taught at the same time by one teacher. 

(d) Where the inspector reports that special and appropriate provision has been 

made for the practical teaching of laundry work by a teacher recognized 
by the department as qualified to teach that subject, a grant of 2s. is 
made on account of any girl or woman who had attended not less than 
twenty hours during the school year at a laundry class of not more than 14 
scholars. 
The time for laundry work must be entered in the time-table; provided that 
for the purposes of article 13 (J) (1) laundry work shall bo considered as 
a subject, and that no grant shall be paid for a scholar on account of laun- 
dry work only. 

(e) Where the inspector reports that special and appropriate provision has been 

made for the practical teaching of dairy work by a teacher holding a cer- 
tificate recognized by the department, or otherwise recognized by the 
department as competent to teach dairy work, a grant of 4s. is made on 
accouut of any girl or woman who has attended for not less than 20 les- 
sons, of at least two hours each, a class of not more than 14 scholars. 
The time for dairy work must be entered in the time-table, and should be 
not less than two continuous hours at any meeting; provided that for the 
purposes of article 13 (h) (1) dairy work shall bo considered as a subject, 
and that no grant shall bo paid for a scholar on account of dairy work only. 
14. For the purposes of section 19 of the elementary education act, 1876 (see Appen- 
dix, art. 107), the average attendance shall be found by dividing the total number of 
hours of instruction (art. 7) received by registered scholars during the school year 
T>y the total number of hours during which the school has been open during the same 
period. 



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176 EDUCATION BEPORT, 1893-94. 

15. The department, as occasion reqaires, may cancel or modify articles of the code, 
or may establish new articles^ bat may not take any action thereon until the same 
shall have lain on the table of both houses for at least one calendar month. 

16. The code shall be printed each year, in such a form as to show separately all 
articles canceled, modified, or established since the last edition, and shall be laid 
on the table of both houses within one calendar month from the meeting of Parlia- 
ment. 

17. The schedule annexed to the code has the same effect as the articles of the 
code and is subject to the provisions of articles 15 and 16. 

KiMBERLEY, 

Lard President of the Council. 
Arthur H. D. Acland, 
Vice-President of the Committee of Council on Education, 

G. W. Kekewich, 

Secretary. 
Education Department, May 18, 1895. 

English Subjects. 

(1) English. — Parsing and analysis of sentences; paraphrasing of simple poetical 
extracts ; history of the English language. 

(2) Geography. — General geography of the British Isles, their chief industries, and 
means of communication by land and water. 

General geography of Canada and the United States, or of Europe or Australasia 
or British India, with special reference in each case to their industries and to their 
commercial relations to Great Britain. 

Colonization and the conditions of successful industry in the British Possessions 
generally. 

(S) History.— (a) Particular periods or subjects, e. g. : The reign of Queen Vic- 
toria; history of the British colonies; the Stuart period, with especial reference to 
the constitution and functions of Parliament; the Expansion of England in the 
eighteenth century. (6) Biographies of leading persons and the chief events in a 
selected portion of history, e. g., 80^ to 1215 A. D., or 1688 to 1760 A. D. 

In Welsh schools special attention may be given to geography, history, and indus- 
tries of Wales. 

(4) The life and duties of the citizen. (See Set B.) 

SET B. {DETAILED SCHEMES.) 

1. — Life and Duties of the Citizen. 

It la ova business carefully to cultivate in our minds, to rear to the most perfect vigor and matur- 
ity, every sort of generous and honest feeling that belongs to our nature. To bring the dispoaillons 
that are lovely in private life into the service and conduct of the Common weal tit —so to bo patriots 
as not to forget we are gentlemen. * * • Public life is a situation of power and energy ; he tres- 
passes against his duty who sleeps upon his watch, as well as he that goes over to tho enemy. 
(Burke: Thoughts on the Cause of tho Present Discontents.) 

[This syllabus touches only on certain limited aspects of the public life of the 
citizen. Various important considerations are therefore omitted which teachers will 
no doubt discuss in dealing with the subject. 

The subject as here set out will be found difficult to teach, except to those older 
scholars who are in the habit of reading and thinking intelligently about public 
affairs. For the instruction of such students tho general outline here given may be 
of service to teachers, though it covers more ground than can be dealt with even in 
two or three courses. The teacher will select that part which is must appropriate to 
the circumstances and needs of the school and the locality. For younger scholars a 
much simpler form of syllabus should be prepared from which the more technical 
treatment of the machinery of local and central government should be omitted. 

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EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 177 

The object of the teacher should be to proceed from the known and familiar, each 
M the policeman, the rate collector, the board of gnardians, and the town council, 
to the history of and reasons for our local and national institutions and our responsi- 
bilities in connection with them. 

Good illustrations and diagrams and pictures will be of great service in teaching 
this subject.] 

INTKODUCTION. 

What the citizen should aim at in the interest of his country. 

Public duties accompany all forms of work in life, whatever the occupation or 
profession. 

Serving personal interest alone is not enough. 

The individual benefits from a well-ordered community. The community ought to 
benefit in its turn from the efiforte of the individual. ''All for each" should be 
requited by '*each for all." 

The reasons for attachment to our country and for a sense of duty toward our 
fellow-citizens are similar to those for love of home and family. Loyalty to one's 
own village or town should lead to a larger patriotism. Those who are growing up 
into citizenship should realize their debt to the men and women who have served 
the nation generously and wisely in the past, and their own duty to their country in 
the present. Self-interest and class interest should be subordinate to general and 
national interests. 

The nation and the state, — What they mean. Diflference between representative 
government and despotic government. Responsibilities involved in representative 
government. 

I. — Reprksentativr Government. 

What repreeentatire institutions mean. The cooperation of the people in the work 
of government. The power of the majority ; its limits. The force of public opinion. 
Need of public spirit and of intelligence for good government. 

The machinery of government is partly local, partly central. 

A. LOCAL GOVERNMKNT. 

Local government districte, small and large. — Institutions of local self government. 

1, The vilUige and the parish. — The vestry. The choosing of overseers, guardians, 
etc. 

S. School districts. — School boards, school managers, and school attcudnnco com- 
mittees. 

S, The poor law uiiiofi. — Boards of guardians. 

4. Local board districiSy horoughSy and counties.— luoctil boards, town councils, and 

county councils. The choosing of mayors, aldermen, and councilors. 
Composition and methods of election of bodies above mentioned. 
Work and powers of these bodies as regards— 

1. Rating and expenditure. —The rate collector. Purposes for which money is 

spent. Difference between rating and taxation, 
f. ^eaZ/fc.— Sanitary condition of houses; drainage, baths, and washhouses; 
gas; water; purification of rivers. Hospitals; sick nursiug. Sanitary 
and medical officers. 

5, Education. — Day and evening continuation schools. Provision of schools and 

attendance at school. School attendance officers. Free libraries. Picture 
galleries and museums. Technical education. 

4. The destitute poor. — The relieving officer. Outdoor and indoor relief. The 

workhouse. 

5. UoadSf streets, buildings, and /and.— Paving and lighting of streets. Public 

parks and recreation grounds. Town halls and municipal buildings; 
what goes on inside them. Purchase of land for improvements and public 
purposes. Allotments and small holdings. 

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178 . EDUCATION EEPORT, 1898-94, 

6. Police and justice.— The policemAiiy his powers and duties. The magistrate, 
how appointed; his powers and duties. Petty seasions and quarter ses- 
sions. Public houses and licensing. 
The local representative bodies have in most cases certain responsibilities to 

or dealings with the central government. (See B, (iii) Executive government.) 

B. CENTRAL GOVEUXMENT. 

(i) The Crown and the two Houses of Parliament, 

(2) The Crown, — Its constitutional position and powers. 

(2) Home of Lords. — (a) Composition, (&) powers. 

{$) House of Commons, — (a) Composition. How members of Parliament are 
elected. The franchise and the ballot. (5) Powers. 

{4) Working of the Parliamentary system, — Taxation, legislation, administration. 
Party government. Ministry and cabinet; their joint responsibility. 
Ministry and opposition. Majorities and minorities; their powers. How 
a bill becomes an act of Parliament, 
(it) The judicial system. 

Justice. — The lord chancellor, judges, magfistrates, coroners; how appointed. 

Courts of law, — Civil and criminal. Petty sessions, quarter sessions, county 
courts, assizes, high court, court of appeal, House of Lords. Privy council. 
Juries and their relation to courts of law. 
(tii) Executive government, — The duty of carrying into effect many of the laws, and 
the decisions of Parliament from time to time, is intrusted to various pub- 
lic departments, the most important of which are presided over by 
responsible ministers of the Crown. 

The work and powers of the executive government. — (1) In connection with the 
work of representative local bodies in matters of education, health, and 
the destitute poor. (Education department and local government board.) 
(2) In matters of trade, commerce, agriculture, post-oflQce, telegraphs, and 
savings banks. (Board of trade, board of agriculture, post-office.) (3) In 
matters of labor. (See under III. Home office, board of trade.) (4) In 
matters of justice. Prisons and police. (Home office.) (5) In connection 
with Scotland and Ireland. (Scotch office and Irish office.) (6) In con- 
nectiou with the colonies, India, and foreign countries. (See II. The Em- 
pire.) (Colonial office, India office, foreign office.) (7) In connection 
with the army and navy. (War office, admiralty.) The army; the army 
reserve, militia, yeomanry, and volunteers. The navy; naval reserve, 
coast guards. Duties and responsibilities of the soldiers and sailors of 
the country by land and sea. The evils of war. Efforts that have been 
made to avert it by arbitration. (8) In matters of taxation and finance. 
(The treasury.) The country's yearly bill. What we pay Ibr, How the 
money is got. Direct and indirect taxation. 

C. DUTIES OF CITIZENS IN RELATION TO LOCAL AND CENTRAL G0"VT:RNMENT. 

/. Bight and duty of voting, — Different kinds of votes. Need of honesty in giving a 
vote. The vote a *' trust" as well as a ''right." Each vote has a special end 
and aim, which ought to be considered. The gain and loss of party spirit. 

S, Sates and truces, and what we get in return for them. Seasons for willingness to 
contribute to common purposes in well-administered countries. Illustrations of 
gain to the community from improved conditions of life and health as a result 
of rates and taxes well spent. 

S, Public health. — Attention to sanitary matters at home, cleanliness, and ventilation. 
Isolation and disinfection in illness; temperance and temperate habits; duty to 
neighbors as we^ as home and family. Healthiness of a district; its value to 
the community. Public parks, gardens, and oi>en spaces; duty of making them 

beautiful and taking good care of them. r^^^^T^ 

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EDUCATION IN QBEAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 179 

'4, Education. — Duty of parents : To enforce re^larity of attendance, to cooperate 
Trith the teacher in regard to conduct of scholars, to home lessons, ami the care 
and use of books. Duty of scholars : To make full use of the advantages of 
the school, and thus fit themselves to become capable and nsefnl citizens. Influ- 
ence of school on character as well as on intelligence. Waste of force and 
money through leaving school too early. Technical education, its value for the 
worker. Higher edncation and the universities. School and college only the 
beginning of the citizen's education. 

5. Provision for the poor, — Care of poor children and the sick and aged poor. Con- 

sideration of the causes of paux>erism, and how to diminish it. Importance of 
self-dependence and habits of providence. 

6. Seed of order and respect for Zair.— The citizen ^s home and protection. Respect for 

tho persons, opinions, property, and reputation of others. Discouragement of 
fraud in all relations of life and business. Support of the law and encourage- 
ment by example of peaceable behavior by all citizens. Examples of what the 
law demands: (a) Registration of births, deaths, and marriages, (b) Notifica- 
tion of infections diseases, (o) Preveotion of cruelty to children and to animals. 

7. Puhlio spirit and publio opinion, — Force of public opinion ; need of honesty and 

intelligence. Freedom of speech and writing. Uses of public meetings; how 
tiiey should be conducted. Watchfulness over public bodies. Services of the 
public press in these matters. Active cooperation of the whole body of the 
people essential to good government and freedom. Willingness of capable per- 
sons to serve in a representative capacity on public bodies of great importauce. 

n.— The Empire. 

Great Britain and Ireland. " Greater Britain."— The colonies. 

Variety of races in colonies and dependencies. Self-governing colonies. Crown 

colonies. Protectorates. India and its government. 
Imperial coinage and imperial postage. 
Appointment of governors-general and governors. 
Obligation to cultivate knowledge about our brethren "across the sea." Native 

races within the Empire and our duties to them. 
Extension of friendly feeling and of courtesy and fair dealing toward foreign 

nations. Appointment of ambassadors, envoys, and consuls. 

III.— Industrial and Social Life and Duties. 

Selection for boys or girls of work in life. Loss to the nation when they are set to 
uncongenial labor. Corresponding gain of ''tools to the men who can use 
them." 

What constitutes national wealth. Every capable and industrious and self-respect- 
ing citizen should add to the wealth of the community. Relation of skill and 
knowledge (a) to personal well-being and happiness; (&) to industrial success; 
(c) to power of publio usefulness. 

The great industries of the country, their growth and development. 

Changes caused by the use of machinery. 

AsMociations of workers, — (1) Trade unions, their history and work. Labor disputes 
and strikes. Arbitration and conciliation. (2) Cooperative societies ; their work 
in distribution and production. (3) Friendly societies. Training in habits of 
industry; thrift and self-help. Value of the work of voluntary associations in 
the education of the adult citizen. 

The state and lo^or.- Factory acts; mines acts; women's and children's labor. Dan- 
gerous employments. Health and safety of the worker. Information as to con- 
dition of workers. Labor department of board of trade. The governmeut and 
municipalities as employers of labor, dockyards, arsenals, and public works. 



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180 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94, 

The importance to the nation of effective; honest, and intelligent management of 
all forms of basiness and indnstry. The disaaters which resnltft'om mismanagement 
or fraud. 

The duty of the community to sympathize with every reasonable effort of the 
workers to improve their condition and develop their intelligence. That which 
injures their efficiency or lessens their hopefnlness leads to national loss and to the 
maintenance or increase of poverty and ignorance. A healthy and skillful body of 
workers, upright in character and self-reliant, is a source of strength to the country. 

Faithful discharge of homelier duties of life is the best preparation for their dis- 
charge in city and nation. Civic duty begins in the life of the family, expands with 
occupation in trade, business, and profession. 

In earning their livelihood men and women also servo their fellow-citizens and 
their country. Membership of self-governing societies is among the best means of 
civic education. 

As intelligence, honor, and virtue are essential to the welfare of the family, so is 
patriotism necessary to national and social life. We have to recognize that our 
public responsibilities are duties as much as personal and family obligations. We 
have no right to expect just legislation or impartial administration unless we per- 
form with intelligence those public duties which devolve upon all. If we suffer 
iigustice in connection with public affairs, we have little right to complain unless we 
have done our own duty. 

EXPLANATORY MEMORANDUM. 

I. The objects contemplated in the evening continuation school code are: 
(a) To give freedom to managers in the organization of their schools. 
(6) To offer to managers and teachers a wide choice of subjects adapted to the 
various needs of scholars and districts. 

(c) To suggest, both concisely and in detail, courses of instruction in these 

subjects. 

(d) To enable managers to combine instruction in subjects for which grants are 

paid by the State with instruction in other subjects for which no such 
grants arc paid, but which it may be for special reasons desirable to include 
in the curriculum. 
n. The following are the principal changes now introduced : 

(a) The attendances of persons over 21 years of age will henceforth be recog- 
nized. 

(6) No scholar will henceforth be compelled to take the elementary subjects. 

(o) Further precautions are taken to avoid duplication of grants by the educa- 
tion department and the science and art department. 

(d) Grants will be paid as in day schools for the instruction of the school as a 

whole instead of, as formerly, for the attainments of individual scholars. 

(e) The fixed grant is no longer paid on the average attendance, but on the aggre- 

gate number of hours' instruction received by the scholars. This will give 
a direct encouragement to the prolongation of evening school sessions and 
the lengthening of meetings. 

(/) Instead of grants for individual passes, grants will now be paid for time 
devoted to each subject, the amount of such grant being dependent on the 
value of the instruction given. 

(g) Examination by the inspector on a fixed day is abolished and visits of inspec- 
tion without notice are substituted. 
III. The new regulations are designed generally to meet the requirements of schol- 
ars who are no longer subject to the law of compulsory attendance at school and who 



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EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 181 

desire to prolong their edaoatioii| either in tho ordinary school sabjects or in some 
special sabjects in order to fit themselves for some industrial career. Evening con- 
tinuation schools will have to meet various needs, as, for instance : 

(a) The case of the smaller schools, which are intended mainly to 8u))ply defects in 
early elementary instruction and to continue such instruction with a view 
to tho ordinary pursuits of daily life. 
(h) The case of schools, especially in the more populous districts, in which the 
general education of the scholar is prolonged and combined with some form 
of useful and interesting employment, 
(o) The case where the principal part of the work will be preparatory to the 
special studies directed by the science and art department or to lectures 
established by the county councilsi university extension lectures, or other 
forms of secondary or higher education. 
IV. The duties of Iler Majesty's inspector in giving effect to the provisions of the 
evening continuation school code will be : 

(a) To visit without notice, on one occasion at least, and if possible on more than 

one, at some time at which the school is shown by tho time-table to be at 
work, every school for which a grant is claimed, and to devote if possible 
to the inspection the whole time of one meeting of such school. 

(b) To confer with the managers, whose presence, if it can bo obtained, is very 

desirable, and with the teachers ; to ascertain that due arrangements have 
been made for securing accurate registration of attendance ; to examine the 
registers and time-tables, and to report on the qualifications of the teachers 
and the course of instruction, 
(o) To hear lessons and observe the manner in which the classes are conducted ; to 
question the scholars on the work which has been done in at least two of 
the sabjects taught in the school, and to report generally on tho instruction. 
(d) To satisfy himself that the schoolrooms are suitable for their purpose, bearing 

in mind the importance of an adequate supply of artificial light. 
(0) To recommend what variable grant (if any) should be paid, having due regard 
to the opinion he has formed upon the general character of the teaching 
and the particular methods employed. The higher of the two grants will 
not be paid for any subject unless the inspector is able to report that both 
the actual teaching of the subjects and the methods employed in such 
teaching are thoroughly satisfactory. 
y. My Lords will be interested to learn from the reports of Her Majesty's inspectors 
the results of any successful experiments by which evening continuation schools 
have been rendered more attractive, e. g. — by means of lantern illustrations, music, 
manual work, discussion of some book which has been read by the class; field, uat- 
nralisty or sketching clubs; gymnastics, or other employments of a more or less 
recreative character. For many of these purposes grants of public money can not 
be given, but, provided that the managers take care that at least one hour at each 
meeting is devoted to the teaching of the subjects mentioned in article 2 of the 
code, and that the instruction is systematic and thorough, every arrangement for 
making the school attractive should be carefully considered. For instance, besides 
the introduction of some of the recreative subjects mentioned above, encourage- 
ment might be given to capable lecturers to deliver from time to time short lec- 
tures, well illustrated, in connection with some of the subjects in the school time- 
table. 

VI. Unless special efforts are made to encourage those who are leaving the day 
school to continue their education at evening schools, the chances of success in the 
evening schools will be much diminished. Care should therefore be taken to give 
fall information to such scholars of the times and places at which evening continu- 
ation schools are held. With this object the managers of those schools should put 
themselves in communication with the managers of the neighboring day schools. 



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182 EDUCATION BEPORT, 1808-94, 

YII. My Lords will be glad to know from timo to time of any special diffionlliea 
which appear to be connected with the work of evening continuation schools with • 
view to their being lessened or removed. They attach a very high importance to 
the work which may be done under this code, as efi^'ective continuation schools sap- 
ply one of the most important means for turning to^ better account than at present 
the money and time now spent in the day schools. 

In connection with the snrvey of the elementary schools of Great 
Britaiu, it is not out of place to consider the agencies created by the 
Government for the restraint and correction of vicious and lawless 
youth. The following citation from a recent article by Mr. A. A. W, 
Drew, who has been officially engaged in the work, will put the reader 
in possession of its salient features. To this statement is added a 
short extract from a recent article touching the new lines of educa- 
tional work which have been assumed by the London County council 
in its effort to rescue the slum x>opulation: 

INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS AXD JUVENILE CRIME. 

About the year 1866— i. e., four years before the introduction of the school board 
system which gave new life to the work of public elementary education in England — 
a great wave of doubt had passed over tbe minds of our senators, which made them 
question whether the old plan of committing juvenile offenders to prisons or to 
reformatories was either a wise or a judicious one; and the result was the introduc- 
tion into Parliament of a bill to deal with that question, and the passing of an net, 
known as the industrial schools act, which made a great change in our method of 
dealing with youthful criminals. 

In 18G9y the year before the first school board act was passed, as many as 10,314 
juvenile criminals, under the age of 16 years, were committed to prisons in England; 
while the last completed returns — viz, those for 1891 — show that in that year only 
3,855 were so committed. Also, in 1869 there were sent on to reformatories 1,331 
children, of whom 1,075 were boys and 256 were girls; while in the year 1891 there 
were only 1,020 children committed to reformatories, of whom 885 were boys and 
135 were girls. What had become of the balance of juvenile criminals from 1869 to 
1891, so that the number sent to prisons or reformatories had decreased from 10,314 
in the former year to 3,855 in tbe latter? Is it true that education, by a curative 
process, had largely dimiDished the number of such children, notwithstanding the 
enormous increase in the population of the country t 

Of late years there has sprung up, under the fostering influence of the industrial 
schools act of 1866, a large number of schools, differing absolutely fhun prisons and 
very widely from reformatories, known as " certified industrial schools." In 1866 
there were in this country, not including Scotland, only 57 such schools, contain- 
ing a total of 2,566 children, of whom 1,893 were boys and 673 girls. In 1861 there 
were in Great Britain 153 certified industrial schools, containing 23,688 children, 
of whom 19,292 were boys and 4,396 girls. These numbers include those detained 
in truant schools under tbe elementary education act, and also in certified day 
industrial schools ; so that it will be seen that although the number of children 
committed to prisons and reformatories has decreased, the numbers in industrial 
schools has increased from 2,566 in the year 1866 to 23,688 in the year 1891. 

From this it wiU be seen that public elementary education has not yet reformed 
our juvenile criminals, only that tbe policy of the country has transferred them 
from prisons or reformatories to industrial schools. Even this is a great step to have 
taken, but the same policy requires to be vigorously followed up by tbe removal of 
those blots which still remaiu as biudrances to the reformation of youthful offenders. 
And this our Parliament alone can briog about by legislation. 



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EDUCATION IN GBEAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 183 

The fact of tlio matter is that, short of Utopia, there must of necessity exist for 
corrective, indastrial, and educational purposes a graduated series of estahlishments 
suitnlilo for the manj varying cases which come under treatment. 

After nearly thirty years of close acquaintance with the juvenile population of 
this great metropolis, I have no hesitation in saying that truancy is to he credited 
with nearly the whole of our juvenile criminality, and that if much more energetic 
steps were taken to deal with our young truants, the list of convictions for criminal 
oilenses would he very largely reduced, and in my opinion it is well worth while 
seriously to make the attempt. 

The percentage of truants cured hy a single short visit to a well-managed truant 
school has already heen given as 80 per cent, and, to take the latest return of the 
home office, the j)ercontage of industrial school children in 1891 who have passea 
through these schools, and are now reported as doing well, is, for hoys, 85.5 per ceni,, 
and for girls, 84 per cent; thus incidentally showing, what actually is the fact, that 
the reformation of a bad boy is just a shade easier than that of a bad girl. 

The industrial schools amendment act of 1880 is a most useful oue, especially as 
regards girls; and I marvel to find that so very little use is made of it. I can only 
say that our committee never neglects to deal promptly with any case which comes 
before it under this act, which adds to section 14 this further condition under which 
a child may be sent to an industrial school, '' that is lodging, living, or residing with 
common or reputed prostitutes, or in a house resided in or frequented by prostitutes 
for the purpose of prostitution, or that frequents the company of prostitutes." 

Yet another very useful act is that of 1891. It is entitled '^Anact to assist the 
managers of reformatory and industrial schools in advantageously launching into 
useful careers the children under their charge," and its provisions authorize the 
managers of all such schools, with the child's own consent, and, if necessary, without 
the parents' consent, ''to apprentice him to or dispose of him in any trade, calling, or 
service, or by emigration, notwithstanding that his period of detention has not 
expired, and such apprenticing or disposition shall be as valid as if the managers 
were his parents.'' But in the case of emigration the consent of the home secretary 
must also be obtained. (Andrew A. AV. Drew, Contemporary Review, May, 1893, 
732-742.) 

TECHNICAL EDUCATION UNDER THE LONDON COUNTY COUNCIL. 

If it be asked what new thing the present council has done, apart from extending 
the first councirs work, I think we may with some confidence refer to the starting 
of its department of technical education. The circumstances of London differ so 
niQch from those of other eities and counties, the difficulties and complications of 
its educational problems are so great, the chtu>s of uncoordinated authorities is so 
bewildering, that the first council may well be excused for not immediately adding 
technical education to all its other duties. But the second council grappled with 
the problem in its very first summer. Having been, from the outset, the chairman 
of the special bommittee and then the technical education board, to which the 
council has delegated its educational functions, I am disqualified from expressing 
any opinion nsio the success of this new departure, but I think it will be admitted 
that we have made good use of our time. The technical education board, which 
carries on this part of the councirs work, has already established a comprehensive 
"scholarship ladder," from the board school right up to the highest technical col- 
lege, the best art schools, and the university. It has done much, by its liberal grants 
and skilled inspection, to develop and improve the various *' polytechnics" now 
growing all over the metropolis. Under the expert guidance of Dr. Gamett it has 
worked a beneficent revolution in evening science and technology classes, and made 
more practical the instruction in those subjects given in the public secondary 
schools; whilst the London schools of art are, under its fostering care, springing 
into new life. By the appointment, as its art advisers, of such expert craftsmen as 
Mr. George Frampton, A. B. A., and Mr. William Lethaby, a distinguished sculptor 

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184 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-M. 

and a uo less distingaislied architect, the board has shown how keenly it is aliye to 
the need for a thorough reorganization of the " arts and crafts" side, and we need 
not now despair of London one day possessing a municipal art school to rival that 
of Birmingham. Nor have the women and girls been forgotten. Besides sharing in 
all the preceding advantages, they enjoy a special department of their own. The 
board has set up three "schools of domestic economy" (shortly to be increased to 
five), which intercept the maidens of thirteen who would otherwise be leaving 
school to " take a little place." It has started at Battersea a domestic economy train- 
ing school which is already turning out skilled teachers accustomed to the house- 
keeping of the London poor; and, by a permanent staff of qualified instructors in 
cookery, dressmaking, laundry work, and hygiene, it has given thousands of lessons 
in these subjects to groups of workingwomen in all parts of London, who are too 
old or too poor, too hard worked or too apathetic, to take advantage of any exist- 
ing institutions. (Sidney Webb, Contemporary Review, January, 1895, pp. 141-142.) 

UNIVERSITY COLLEGES AIDED BY THE (JOVERNMENT. 

The report of the Commissioner for 1 891-92 gave an account of recent 
provision for technical instruction developed in the chief industrial cen- 
ters of Great Britain. Along with this movement, and in many cases inti- 
mately connected with it, is the establishment of university colleges — 
that is, colleges which maintain the courses of instruction required 
for degree examinations (usually of London University) or which are 
affiliated with Durham or Victoria universities. In 1889, Parliament 
allowed a grant of £16,000 ($75,000) to these colleges, a policy which 
has been renewed each succeeding year. In consideration of this allow- 
ance the colleges participating in the £15,000, and also the three col- 
leges in Wales which receive from the treasury an annual grant of 
£4,000 each, were invited in 1893 to furnish a report to the education 
department. This was to comprise in each case a historical outline, a 
statement of the constitution and purposes of the college, and its pres- 
ent status. The statements submitted have been published as a report 
of the Department, and from this source the following tabulated par- 
ticulars are derived. Of the colleges included it may be said that, 
while they present great divergence in respect to origin, government, 
endowment, and facilities, they have certain common characteristics. 
They have all arisen in response to the need of a wider diffusion of 
higher education than is possible through the agency of Oxford and 
Cambridge alone, coupled with the equally urgent demand for special 
training in the applications of science and the methods of scientific 
research. 

As will be seen by reference to the table, women share freely in the 
provisions of these colleges. With regard to the showing in the table 
as to scholarships, it should be said that both items given, i. e., the 
number and the annual value of the scholarships, are approximates 
only. From the nature of the data presented in the original report 
exact statements are impossible. In several instances free scholarships 
are mentioned, of which neither the number nor the money equivalent 
is specified; in others, one or the other item is given, but not both. 

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EDUCATION IN GBEAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 185 

Af^in, a scholarship is sometimes available in any one of two or more 
colleges, according to the choice of the successful competitor, so that 
there maybe even duplication of funds in the tabulation, but this could 
occur in a few instances only. The showing, with all imperfections, is 
important, as it gives a fairly clear idea of the provision for higher 
education available for young men and women of marked ability, but 
who could not otherwise afford the expense of advanced instruction. 
In England, where free high schools are almost unknown and free 
universities entirely so, the provision of endowed or of free scholar- 
ships is a matter of great public moment. It should be added that 
while in the majority of instances the scholarships secure tuition in the 
colleges to which they pertain, a few are intended to secure university 
advantages for the holders. 



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186 



EDUCATION EEPOBT, 1893-94. 









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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



CHAPTER VI. 
EDUCATION IN FRANCE, 1891-92. 



France, Republic, — Area, 204,092 square miles. Population (actual) April 12, 1891, 
38,095,156; domiciled or legal, 38,343,193. 

Civil divisions. — For purposes of civil government France is divided into 8G depart- 
ments (90 if Algiers be included), each having its local legislative assembly ^yhich is 
formed by election. The departments are subdivided into arrondissoments and these 
into cantons. The smallest civil divisions comprised within the cantons are com- 
munes. 

For previous articles see — 
The educational system of France. Report, 1888-89, Vol. I, pp. 112-149. 
BexK>rt of the educational congresses and exhibition held in Paris, 1889. Ibid., 

pp. 41-186. 
Educational system and operations for 1888-89. Ibid., pp. 249-261. 
Elementary education in London and Paris. Ibid., pp. 263-280. 
Education in France: Statistics, 1890-91 ; progress of primary schools since Guizot^s 
law, 1833; higher primary and classical schools of France. Report, 1890-91, 
Vol. I, pp. 95-124. 
Education in France : Outline of the system and statistics for 1892, state faculties ; 
proposed transformations and development of teaching functions. Report, 
1891-92, Vol. I, pp. 73-95. 
Civil service in France. Ibid., pp. 369-412. 

Topical Outline — Statistical summary. — Detailed vietc of primary instruciioiiy 1891-93, 
and comparison tciih 1887-88 after the report of the statistical commission : Classifica- 
tion of schools; school enrollment; average attendance; high schools; teachers ^ num- 
ber, qualifioaiions and salaries; school buildings and equipments; auxiliarjf agencies; 
finances; results of elementary instruction. 

Summary of educational statistics. 



Clftsaes of iuatitutiooa. 


I>ate. 


EnroUment. 


Teachers. 


Current ex- 


Male. 


Female. 


Men. 1 Women. 

1 


penditures. 


Infant schools (6cole8 
matemelles), ages 2 
to8 


1891-92 
1891-92 


325,841 
2,805.849 


353, 738 
2, 750, 621 




8,753 
SO. nil 




Elementary primary schools 
(public and private), ages 
<|tol3 


66.363 










Total 




6, 236, 049 


155 427 j of37,261, 215 








SeoondAiT schools : 

Pnblic, ages 8 to 20 

Private, ages 8 to 20.... 
Normal schools : 

Primary, ages 1« to 20.. 
Unirersities : 

Tuculties— 

Public 


1892 
1892 

1892 

1893 
1883 


85,291 
89,666 

3,878 

23,397 
988 


11, 605 




1 




, 


3,707 


6890 


c72l' 


Private 


i 






1 


1 



a Pnblic primary only. 6 Including 181 directors and lioiiseliold officials. 

c Including 141 directors and houschohl otticialtt. 



* Prepared by A. Tolman Smi th. 



Digitized by VjOOv IC 



188 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

The system of public education in France has been considered very 
fully in the three preceding reports of the Commissioner. Every year 
sees some modification in the details, but the essential features of the 
system remain unchanged. Characterized in brief, it is a highly cen- 
tralized system under the direction of the minister of public instruc- 
tion, flue arts, and worship.' His control is exercised through a 
graded series of appointed officials belonging to the central adminis- 
tration or to the academies (17 in number, including 1 in Algiers), 
which are the local subdivisions of the system. Public instruction is 
a state service, professors and teachers constituting a professional order 
whose qualifications, duties, privileges, honors, emoluments, and penal- 
ties are as rigidly fixed by law as those of other branches of the civil 
or those of the military service. 

Professional judgment and experience are brought to bear upon the 
conduct of the system through the councils, i. e., the superior and 
academic, the majority of whose members are chosen by their peers 
from the several teaching orders. 

The public scholastic institutions are grouped in three classes — 
superior, secondary, primary— corresponding to three departments of 
the central administration. The affairs of each are separately admin- 
istered. On the scholastic side the secondary and superior institutions 
are closely coordinated; tlie course of study of the primary schools is 
also made continuous with the modern secondary course. Private 
institutions flourish side by side with the public; the former are also 
subject to the general supervision of the minister and his agents. 

The principal statistics of public and private instruction, as presented 
in the latest official reports, are given in the foregoing summary. The 
summaries relating to primary instruction are from the latest volume 
prepared by the commission on the statistics of primary instruction. 
The same report is the source of the detailed information which follows. 
The particulars considered are such as show the progress or the actual 
efficiency of the schools in respect to matters of general interest. 
Before proceeding with the statistical analysis it may be well to note 
that the commission, whose report is here reviewed, was constituted in 
the ministry of public instruction and flne arts, March 15, 1876, and has 
issued altogether flve reports. The first, bearing date 1878, covered the 
school year 1876-77 ; the second, 1880, presented in comparative view 
all the statistics that had been collected from 1829 to 1877, inclusive; 
the third and fourth covered, respectively, the years 1881-82 and 1886-87. 
The present volume deals with the year 1891-92 and also with the quin- 
quennial period 1887-1892. These successive reports have been pub- 
lished in the years of the quinquennial census, an arrangement which 
facilitates the comparisons between the school population and school 
attendance. 

'M. Poiucard waa appointed to 'the office January 26, 18^, replacing M. Leygne**, 
who had been appointed the June preceding. January 27, 1895, the ministry of 
worship was attached to the province of this minister. GoOqIc 



EDUCATION IN PBANCE. 



189 



In the intervening years the minister of public instruction has pub- 
lished an annual summary of the state of primary instruction. The 
sources of information for these annuals, as also for the more detailed 
quinquennials, are chiefly the annual statement submitted Ijy the 
primary inspectors (450 in number) for their respective districts and 
by the academic inspectors of each department. These are collated by 
the central commission. The financial statistics are drawn in the same 
way |rom the annual accounts of the prefects of departments and the 
detailed statements of receipts and expenditures prepared annually for 
the Government. 

PRIMARY SCHOOLS, CLASSIFICATION AND SUPPLY. 

The classes of primary schools recognized under the law of October 
30, 1885, are infant schools (^coles maternelles) for children 2 to 6 years 
of age, elementary primary schools for children of the obligatory 
school period, 6 to 13 years of age, and superior primary or high schools. 
Every commune must support at least one public primary school unless 
especially authorized to combine for this purpose with another com- 
mune (law of 1833), and every commune of 500 inhabitants must main- 
tain a separate school for girls (law of April 10, 1867) uuless authorized 
to substitute a mixed school (for boys and girls.) 

The extent to which these requirements have been met in 1891-92, and 
comparison in this respect with 1886-87, are shown by the following 
statistics: 



[France and Algiers included.] 



1886-87. 



ConunnneB : 

Total number. 

One or more public ecbooU 

One or more private schools 

United with other communes in maintaining a publio school 

Noschool 

At least one public school for girls 

More than 500 inhabitants 

At least one public school for girls 

Only a private school for girls 

No special school for girls 



36,461 

35,332 

67 

961 

98 

21,669 

19,403 

17, 717 

970 

716 



1891-92. 



36,492 

35,525 

46 

871 

50 

21,032 

19, 021 

17, 594 

772 

655 



Per cent 
increase 
or de- 
crease. 



+ 0.08 
+ .5 

— 24.7 

— 9.5 

— 49.00 

— 2.93 

— 1.9 

— 4.95 

— 20.00 

— 8.52 



From the foregoing table it is evident that the provision of public 
schools increases. Only 50, or one-tenth per cent of the whole number 
of commanes, remain to be brought into compliance with tlie law. The 
provision of separate schools for girls accords with the sentiments 
which long adherence to the Catholic Church has fostered in the 
common people of France. The number of communes making such 
provision exceeds the number coming under the provisions of the l^w, 
of 1867, although a few communes having the required population have 
not lulfllled the law. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



190 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

The table refers to the elementary primary schools (i. e., for cUildren 
of the obligatory school ages, 6 to 13). It may be added that the 
establishment of an infant school (dcole maternelle) is obligatory only 
for commaues having a population above 2,000 inhabitants, of whom 
at least 1,200 are collected at one center. The number of such com- 
munes is about 8,000 and the number of infant schools 5,411 (public^ 
2,003; private, 2,808). In reality, the commission say less than 3,000 
communes are without an infant school or an infant class attached to 
a primary school. 

School enrollment. — The enrollment in primary schools (public and 
private) is for France alone, 5, 171,402; for Algiers, 85,068; total, 5jiJ5(}j' 
470. Since 1886-87 there has been a loss of 40,000, or seven-tenths 
per cent, in the total enrollment, and of 54,963, or nine- tenths per cent, 
in that of France alone. To understand the bearing of this fact it will 
bo necessary to follow the report in its analysis of school population 
and enrollment. In this consideration Algiers is omitted. ^ The enroll- 
ment for France is equivalent to 14.35 per cent of the population (actu- 
ally present, census 1891), as against 14.72 per cent of the i)opulation 
enrolled in 1886-87. Part of the loss in enrollment is accounted for 
by the relative diminution of the school i)opulation (i. e., ages 6 to 13), 
which was only 12.1 per cent of the total poi^ulation in 1891, as against 
12.4 per cent in 1886.^ While the actual i>opulation of obligatory school 
age (6 to 13) was 4,663,671 in 1891, the enrollment for those ages in the 
primary schools was 4,408,268. The enrollment for the same ages in 
the infant schools (113,892) and in the elementary departments of sec- 
ondary schools (64,413) brings the total to 4,586,573, about 77,000 less 
than the population of the ages specified. Of these 5,000 were known 
to be receiving instruction at home. As to the remainder, a little above 
1 per cent of the school population, it is not to be supposed that they 
have never been or will not be instructed. The laws regulating child 
labor,^ together with the law of compulsory education, form an efifectual 

1 For obvious reasons comparisons between school enronment and population in 
Algiers would be valueless, so far as European countries are concerned. 

3 Tbo diminution in tbe ratio of school population to total population is attribnted 
by the report to the low rate of births and to immigration, which is almost wholly 
of adults. That the ratio is below the average of other countries would be explained 
by the same reasons, with the added consideration of the strong vitality of the 
French adult population. 

^(France. Law of June 2, 1874). Children below 10 years and girls below 21 years 
shall not be employed in any work on Sundays by their patrons, in manufactories, 
mines, wood (or dock) yards, and workshops. In workshops where constant fires are 
kept up children may h6 employed on Sundays and holidays in indispensable work 
conformably to the public administrative regulations. 

(a) Children shall not be employed in any kind of work before having completed 
their tenth year. 

• (6) Restrictions with respect to children from the beginning of their eleventh year 
until their twelfth year complete : 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EDUCATION IN PfiANCE. 191 

safeguard against illiteracy, provided they be enforced. The machinery 
for enforcing the laws exists; nevertheless, the opinion is expressed in 
the report of the commission that in some localities the authorities 
have relaxed their vigilance in these matters. It is further suggested 
that discrepancies between the census and the school tabulations may 
have arisen from different constructions of the age limits. It is evi- 
dent that a portion of the children of school age not enrolled belong to 
the floating population (mariners and foreign merchants), passing from 
school to school, one day here and another there, and being actually 
registered nowhere. That there is quite a large contingent of such 
children appears from the fact that certain localities have established 
special schools for them. The number of children under 6 years of 
age enrolled in the elementary i)rimaries is 545,706 and in the infant 
schools 567,856, a total of 1,113,562, just about 41 per cent of the whole 
population of those ages. Of youth 13 to 16 years of age, 525,055, or 
23 per cent of the census number, were on the rolls of the primary 
schools. 

From comparison of the statistics for 1891-92 with those of 1886-87, 
it appears, (1) as regards children of the obligatory school age (6-13), 
that the census shows a decline of 1.4 per cent between 1886 and 1891, 

1. No child must be employed nnless it be ahown tbat he actually attends a public 
or private school. 

2. Children of this age must not be employM except in industries specially des- 
ignated by a public administrative regulation (spinning factories of all classes, 
twisting work, printing on cloth, paper industries, glass manufacturing work, etc.). 

3. Children shall not be subjected to work for any length of time exceeding six 
hours a day. 

4. The working hours must be divided by a recess. 

5. Children shall not be employed in any kind of night work. All work between 
9 o'clock in the evening and 5 o'clock in the morning is considered night work. 

6. They shall not be employed in work on Sundays or legal holidays. 

(c) Restrictions with respect to children from the beginning of their thirteenth 
year until their fourteenth year eomplete : 

L They shall not be employed more than twelve hours a day. Before the age of 
15 years complete, no child shall be permitted to work more than six hours a day 
except it be proved that he has acquired an elementary primary school education. 

2. The working hours shall bo divided by recesses. 

3. They shall not be employed in any night work. 

4. They shall likewise not be employed in any work on Sundays or legal holidays. 

5. The work of children in subterranean passages is not ]>ermitted, except under 
the special conditions determined by the public administrative regulations. 

(rf) Exceptions: 

1. In workshops where continued fires are maintained children may be employed 
at night or on Sundays and holidays in work determined by the public administrative 
regulations. 

2. The public administrative regulations determine the different kinds of work 
-which, because they are sources of danger to children or exceed their strength, are 
prohibited. 

3. Children can not be employed in the manufactories and workshops indicated in 
the official list of unhealthy or dangerous establishments except uader the special 
conditions set forth by the public administrative regulation. ^ t 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



192 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



and the school registers (all classes of schools incladed) a loss iu enroll- 
ment of 3.3 per cent during the same time. This diminution has occurred 
whoDy in public schools, the private primary schools showing an 
increase of 14 per cent in their enrollment. (2) The census shows a 
diminution of 3.8 per cent in the number of children from 2 to 6 years, 
inclusive, with only a decline of one-tenth per cent in the number of 
those ages enrolled in infant and in primary schools. (3) As regards 
youth above the obligatory school age, or from 13 to 16, there is shown 
an increase of 4.2 per cent between the census of 1886 and 1891 and an 
increase of 8.3 per cent in the number enrolled in primary schools (chiefly 
superior primary). The enrollment for these ages in 1891-92 was 25.5 
-per cent of the total x>opulation of these ages, as against 24.5 per cent 
in 1887. 

DISTRIBUTION OF PUPILS IN VARIOUS CLASSES OF SCHOOLS. 

The distribution of pupils in the various classes of schools is inter- 
esting as an index of the social influences afl'ecting them. Here are to 
be considered the distribution in mixed and in separate schools for 
boys and girls and in secular (lay) and church schools. In these con- 
siderations Algiers is included. Under the first head it appears that 
for every 1,000 pupils enrolled in public primary schools 106 were on 
an average in mixed schools in 1891-92 (165 in 1886-87). At both 
dates 54 per cent of the pupils in mixed schools were boys and 46 
per cent girls. In the private primary schools the proportion of 
pupils in mixed schools is much less, i. e., only 26 on an average in 
every 1,000. Here the proportion of girls is higher than that of boys, 
i. e., 61 per cent, as against 39 per cent. The fact of a slight increase 
in the enrollment in mixed private schools (9 per cent since 1887) 
indicates at least that the prejudice against coeducation for children is 
not increasing. 

The following table shows for the first and last years of the quin- 
quennial period the distribution of pupils in secular and in church 
schools, public and private : 





Secular schools. 


Church schools. 




Boys. 1 Girls. 


Total. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


1887-«8: 

Public 


2, 333, 372 ' 1, 397, 179 
59,012 1 112,002 


3,730,551 
171,014 


154,573 
290, 5«7 


607,770 
662,035 


762, 343 


Private 


952,603 






Total 


3,901.565 


1, 714, 045 




1 

2, 318, 349 1, 434, 901 
53, 955 93, 772 

1 


36,969 
396, 576 


490,9^4 
730,984 






1691-92: 

Public 


3, 753, 250 
147. m 


627,933 


Private 


1, 187. 560 






Total 


3, 900, 977 


1,655,493 




1 


i 





Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EDUCATION IN FRANCE, 

Haiio of pupils in the several classes of schools. 



19$ 





Secular. 


Chunk. 


1887-^: 

Public 


66.4 
8.1 

67.5 
2.6 


13. » 


Private 


17.^ 


1891-92: 

Public 


•l^ 


I*rivale 


HL^ 







From an exauiiDation of the above tables it appears that the relative 
ratios of pupils iu secular schools and in church schools were very 
nearly the same at the end as at the beginning of the period, being for 
the secular schools 70 per cent in 1891-92, as against 69.5 per cent in 
1887-88, and in church schools 30 per cent and 30.6 per cent at thft 
respective dates. The proportion of the pupils in the public secular 
schools varied slightly, the former gaining about 1 per cent and the^ 
latter losing one-half per cent on the^ total enrollment. In the churcb 
schools, on the other hand, the changes are more marked, public church 
schools losing above 4 per cent on the total enrollment, while privata 
church schools gained 3 per cent. It appe<ars that the loss in the enroll- 
ment of public church schools was very largely due to the transfer of 
boys to private schools, church and secular. This movement is an out- 
come of the execution of the clause of the law of October 30, 1886y 
relative to the " laicization " of schools; in other words, substituting 
lay teachers for those belonging to religious orders. 

It was ordered that the law should be carried into effect with respect 
to all schools for boys in five years from its passage; that is, by Octo- 
ber, 1891, whereas no limit was put to the time in the case of schools 
f6r girls. The ratios of actual gain or loss in the several classes of 
schools in the period considered, 1887-88 to 1891-92, are shown in the 
following table: 



Class. 


Secular 
Bcboola. 


Church 


rnblic ^v 


Per cent 
+ 0.6 
-13.6 


Per cent 
—30.0 


Private 


+18.3 




Gain or loss in total enrollment 


- .01 


—Z.49 







Atercuie attendance. — The statistics of enrollment are of first impor- 
tance as showing the actual spread of instruction. The details of the 
classification of pupils are interesting as an index of the relative 
strength of public and private schools. Neither of these particulars, 
however, gives any idea of the hold which the schools have ui>on the 
pupils. This, indeed, it is difficult to express by statistics; the item 
which bears most directly upon the subject, i. e., average attendance, 
does not seem to be kept at all in the registers of French schools. In 
place of this an enumeration is made from time to time, under the order 
ED 94 13 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1D4 



EDUCATION REPOBT, 1893-94. 



of the minister, of the actual number of pupils present on two days, 
one in the season of highest atteudauce, the other in the season of 
lowest attendance. Such enumeration was made at the beginning and 
at the end of the quinquennial period, with results as follows : 

For every 1,000 pupils enrolled there were present on the days 
specified : 



SchooU. 


Dec. 7, 1891. 


Jnne7,1892. 


Bee. 7, 1886. 


Jane 7, 1887. 


Pablic 


786 


719 
849 


801 
879 


720 


Private 


86S 

1 


866 



These conclusions are supi)orted by this showing: 

(1) That the attendance in December is greater than in June, a fact 
easily explained, as in the latter month many pupils are withdrawn to 
work in the fields. 

(2) That the average attendance was not so high in 1891-92 as in 
1886-87. 

(3) That average attendance is higher in the private than in the 
public schools. This difference is attributed by the report to the more 
favorable situation of the private Schools, which are found chiefly in the 
cities and towns. 

High schools and classes (ficoles primaires suf^rieures et cours com- 
pl^mentaires). — By a law of January 26, 1892, the superior primary 
schools, in which industrial or commercial training is the predominant 
feature, were transferred to the jurisdiction of the minister of commerce 
and industry, and are henceforth to be known as practical schools 
of commerce and of industry. The number of schools so transferred 
was 14, of which 12 were for boys and 2 for girls. They numbered, 
December 31, 1891, a total of 1,916 pupils, i. e., 1,511 boys and 405 girls. 
There remain under the joint authority of the minister of commerce 
and the minister of public instruction 43 superior primaiy schools (32 
for boys, 11 for girls) and 4 complementary courses (3 for boys, 1 for 
girls) in which technical instruction is given, but does not form a prin- 
cipal feature. There are in addition under the jurisdiction of the min- 
ister of public instruction 259 superior primary or high schools, and 
1,009 complementary courses for general instruction. Of the schools, 
21 are private establishments, and of the courses, 531. This leaves 238 
public high schools (not technical) and 478 courses. The statistics of 
these schools and courses are included in the totals already considered. 
They comprised in 1891-92 an enrollment of 45,599 pupils (32,806 boys, 
12,793 girls), as against 38,441 in 1886-87. Of the total, 41,844, or 91 
per cent, were in public establishments. Paris furnished 5,659 pupils 
in this grade, or one-tenth of the whole— a slight increase over its 
proportion at the beginning of the decade. 

Of the public high schools, 101 have a two years' course and 180 a 
three years' course. Provision is made by scholarship ftinds (bourses) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EDUCATION IN FRANCE. 



195 



for aiding promising pnpils who could not otherwise continue their 
stadies in the high schools. The number of pupils so aided in 1891-92 
was 1,110 (674 boys, 436 girls). 

Te€icher8. — The" total teaching force of the primary schools was 
155,427. Of these, 8,753 (all women) were in the infant schools, 5,100 
in the public, and 3,613 in the private schools of this class. As to the 
146,674 teachers in the primary schools proper (elementary and supe- 
rior), 70 per cent were in the public schools and 30 per cent in the 
private. Of the former, 54 i)er cent were men, as against 56 per cent 
in 1886-:87. Of the latter, 24 per cent, as against 21 per cent at the 
earlier date. 

The classification of the teachers with respect to position and secular 
or clerical relations are set forth in the following table: 

Primary schooU. 
TEACHERS. 



Poiition. 
Men: 

Principttls 

In charge of a class 

Women: 

Principals 

In charge of a class 

Total 

Clas$. 
Hen: 

Lay 

Belonging to religions orders 
Women: 

Lay 

Belonging to religions orders 

• Total , 



Pablic schools. 



1888-87. i 18»l-©2. 



88,608 
17,009 

28,874 
14,278 



38.200 
17. 401 

17,902 
17 002 



98.769 



53.073 
2,544 

29.887 
13,265 



98,709 



102,486 



55,559 
132 

35,446 
11,349 



102, 486 



Per cent 
increase 
or de- 
crease. 



- 0.8 
+ 2.3 

+ .1 

+25.4 



+ 3.8 



+ 4.7 
—94.8 



+18.6 
—14.4 



+ 3.8 



Private schools. 



1886-87. 



2.564 

5.868 

11,059 
20,405 



39.886 



1891-92. 



3,248 
7,424 

12,023 
21,493 



44.188 



1,842 
6,560 

6,923 
24. 541 



30,886 



1.423 
9,249 



6,186 
27,330 



44,188 



Per oent 
increase 
or de- 
crease. 



+27.2 
+20.5 

+ 8.7 
+ 5.3 



+10.8 



—22.7 
+40.6 

—10.6 
+ 11.4 



+10.8 



The number of imncipals, i. e., of teachers directing a school (82,454), 
is not quite equal to the number of schools (82,533). This discrej)ancy 
is explained by the fact that the superior primaries or high schools, 
which are comprised in the total of the schools, are in several instances 
in charge of the same principal as a lower grade school. It is notice- 
able also that the total of all teachers, principals, and assistants is a 
little greater than the total number of classes — 102,486 as against 
100,815. This is due to the fact that in schools comprising as many as 
six classes and 300 pupils the principal is not charged with a partic- 
ular class. 

The law provides that mixed schools may be directed by either a 
master or a mistress. The greater proportion of masters employed in 
these schools, i.e., 70 per cent of the total, is explained, the report says, 
by the desire of the mayors of small communes to secure their services 
as secretaries. 

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196 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



As already indicated, there is, as a rule, a distinct teacher for each 
class in a school. An interesting view of the relation of teachers to 
the work of the schools is afforded by statistics showing the aver- 
age number of pupils to a class. From these it appears that 88.0 per 
cent of the classes do not exceed 50 pupils. In 1887 this proportion 
was 84.8 per cent. The increased proportion of lay teachers in the 
public primaries and the reverse movement, i. e., increase in the pro- 
portion of church teachers in the private primaries, are due to the 
same causes as the transfer of pupils from secular to church schools 
already considered. 

Classification of teachers with restpect to diplomas— public and private schools. 



Men. 



1886-87. 1891-02. 



Women. 



1886-«7. 1891-02. 



Principals : 

Elementary diploma (breveta) 

Superior diploma 

Kot having a teacher's diploma (non brevet^s) . 
In charge of schools : 

Elementary diploma (brevets) 

Superior diploma 

Kot having a teacher's diploma (non brevet^s) . 



85.331 

6,206 

128 



1,072 



84.948 

6,434 

156 

16,040 

7,671 

910 



80,484 
8.850 
5,165 



6,478 



83.080 
6.0T0 
8,817 

24,804 
8,104 
0,206 



In respect to the above showing it should be explained that teachers 
without a professional diploma may have an equivalent or higher guar- 
anty of preparation in a university degree, i. e., the baccalaureate, or 
even, as is the case with many teachers in the superior primaries, the 
"licenci6" or the doctor's degree. In fact all the men in charge of a 
school in 1801-02 had either a teacher's diploma or a degree, while of 
the women principals less than 12 per cent were without diplomas. 

The decrease in the proportion of assistant teachers not provided 
with diplomas, which was noticeable in 1887 as compared with 1882, 
has continued during the last half of the decade, amounting to a 
decrease of 15 per cent in the case of men and of 4.2 i)er cent in that 
of women. As might be expected, the proportion of teachers in the 
public schools having diplomas is larger than of those in private schools, 
i. e., 08 per cent, as against 82 per cent. The proportion is, however, 
increasing in the private schools. 

For the full title of teacher (titulaire) a diploma (certificat d'aptitude 
pddagogique) higher than the "brevets" is required. This diploma can 
not be obtained without at least two years' actual practice in teaching. 
The proportion of teachers possessed of the same increases as shown 
by the following table: 

France and Algiers, 



Principals 

In charge of sckooU . 



Men having faU 
title. 



Per cent. 
19.4 
4€.0 



1893. 



Per cent 
30.3 
49.0 



Women having fnU 
tiUe. 



1888. 



Per cent 
9.8 
24.2 



1888. 



Percent 
ia4 
26.1 



EDUCATION IN FRANCE. 



197 



Under the law of July 19, 1889, the State pays the salaries of primary 
teachers. Principal teachers are dividetl into three groups, viz, elemea- 
tary, superior primary, and normal; each group is divided into five 
classes, with annual salaries fixed as follows : 





Primary schools. 


Snperior 
primary 
teachers. 






Men. 


Women. 


Men. 


Womea. 


Fifth class 


$200 
240 
300 
360 
400 


$200 
240 
280 
300 
320 


$360 
400 
450 
500 
560 


$700 

800 

900 

1,000 

1,100 


7Ut 


Fourth olasM 


Third class 


800 


Second class 


MM 


First class .- 


i,oot 





An additional sura of $40 is allowed principals in charge of a school 
of three or four classes, and of $80 for a school of more than four 
classes. 

Promotion firom one grade of salary to the next may be made with- 
out a change of place; it depends upon the length and efficiency of 
service and can only take place when there is a vacancy. Moreover, 
• teachers of the fifth and fourth classes can not be promoted to a supe- 
rior class until after five years' service in the inferior position; no 
teacher is eligible to the second or first class who is not provided with 
the highest certificate (brevet superieur) and who has not served at 
least three years in the class preceding. It is, however, expressly 
provided that, so far as length of service affects promotion, teachers 
having served ten years may be placed in the fifth class; fifteen years, 
in the fourth class; twenty years, in the third, and twenty-five years, in 
the second. 

Assistant teachers in primary schools are paid $160. Assistant 
teachers in superior primary schools, from $220 to $420. 

In addition to his salary every teacher must be provided with a 
residence or with a money equivalent for the same. The law imposes 
this provision upon the communes and fixes the rates of indemnity for 
residences. 

Cities of more than 150,000 inhabitants are not included in these 
provisions. Their schools are maintained by municipal funds, except- 
ing that the State may contribute thereto a sum not exceeding the 
product of 8 centimes additional to the direct taxes. 



TRAINING OF TEACHEBS. 

The law requires every department to maintain two normal schools, 
one for men, the other for women, unless authorized to unite with 
another depai'tment for this purpose. In 1886-87 only one of the 90 
departments was without a normal school for men. Since that year 
the number of these has been reduced to 87 by the union of depart- 
mental schools in two cases. Meanwhile the number of normal schools 
for women has risen from 81 to 85. The schools for men employed a 

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198 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



force of 124 directors 413 regular professors and teachers, and 353 spe- 
cial instructors, and had an enrollment of 3,878 students. The noimal 
schools for women employed 141 directors, 361 regular professors and 
instructresses, and 219 assistants. Their enrollment was 3,707. From 
1887 to 1892, inclusive, the schools for men had a total of 7,189 grad- 
uates, as against 8,054 in the five years preceding, and the schools for 
women 5,615, as against 4,285. 

It may be added that the professors in the departmental normals are, 
as a rule, graduates of the State normal schools, St. Cloud (for men) 
and Fontenay-aux-Eoses (for women). In addition to the public normal 
schools, there are the following private institutions for the profes- 
sional training of teachers: Institut des Fr^res de la Doctrine Chr6- 
tienne, a Protestant normal school, Boissy St. L^ger, and the school of 
the Alliance Israelite. 

SCHOOL BUILDINGS AND EQUIPMENTS. 

The buildings for primary schools of all grades are, as a rule, the 
property of the communes. This is the case as to 53,362 schoolhouses 
or groups of buildings, leaving 9,870 rented. The number of public 
primary schools having a gymnasium, more or less complete, is 6,234, 
an increase of 642 above 1887. There are also 752 schools provided 
with a workshop, 52,309 with a garden, an increase above 1887 of 286 
in respect to the former and of 1,965 in respect to the latter. The fol- 
lowing statistics pertain to the chief auxiliary agencies for promoting 
popular instruction : 





Libraries. 


Books. 


Books loaned. 


Increase 
or de* 




188«-«7 


1891-92 


1886-87 1 1891-92 


1886-87 


1891-92 


crease. 


School libraries 


85,329 
2,683 


39,645 
2,861 


4,453,876 4.858,120 
895,367 1,006,421 


5,406,103 


6,862,850 


Percent. 
26 


Teachers' libraries ........... 




CirculatiD^ library of the 
Mns^e Pedagogique.* 


2,624 


4,118 






' '1 1"" 





School savings banks (caisses d'epargne scolaires.) 



Year. 


Knmber 
of banks. 

22,642 
19,826 


Nnrabor 
of deposi- 
tors. 


Amount 
dopoeited. 


1886-87 


483,727 
419.896 


$2, 554, 776 


1891-92 


2,589,051 





The number of school savings banks diminishes from year to year. 
In part this is explained by the fact that many teachers prefer to sub- 
stitute for the school bank the i)ostal savings bank. 



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EDUCATION IN FRANCE. 199 

Funds for aid of poor children (cai»aes des ^col€s)J 



Tear. 



1891-92. 



Number. , Amount. 



Amount 
distributed. 



17,080 i $1,039,590 
16,121 1,032.012 



$716,841 
804,255 



Teachers' mutual beneficial associations are numerous. They showed 
in the year under review a total of 46,643 members, with funds amount- 
ing to very nearly $1,500,000. 

FINANCES. 

The current expenditure for public primary education, including the 
maintenance of the primary normal schools, has increased about 7 per 
cent since 1887, rising from $34,648,211 to $37,261,216. This amount 
was distributed as follows: Expenses of inspection, $449,312; obliga- 
tory expenses of primary schools, $20,768,032, or 79 per cent of the 
total; normal schools, $1,856,849; divers exi>enses, chiefly optional 
with the communes, $5,187,022. Of the total above given, the State 
furnished 87.9 per cent, as against 49 per cent in 1887. This great 
increase in the proportion furnished by the State is a result of the law 
of 1889, under which the State assumed the payment of the teachers' 
salaries. The exi>enses per capita of pupils in the public primary 
schools, infant schools included, rose from $6.61 in 1887 to $7.57 in 
1892. Upon the supposition that the cost per capita is about the same 
in private as in public primaries, the exi>enditure for the former would 
be about $12,000,000, which would swell the total expenditure to very 
nearly $50,000,000. The expenditure for buildings for public primary 
schools amounted in the fifteen years ending with 1893 to $118,800,000, 
and for normal schools to $8,000,000. 

RESULTS OF ELEMENTARY INSTRUCTION. 

It is not easy to determine the immediate outcome of a system of 
popular instruction, or at least to state this in any precise terms. The 
report deals, however, with several conditions bearing upon this 
inquiry : First, as to the certificates of primary study awarded upon 
the results of examination for which children may present themselves 
at 11 years of age and upward. The number who passed the exami- 
nation in 1891-92 was 175,675 (boys, 96,412; girls, 79,263), an increase 
of 30,541 in five years. 

The high school diploma (certificat d'etudes primaires sup6rieures) 
created by a decree of December 28, 1882, was awarded to 1,850 candi- 
dates (1,132 boys, 718 girls) in 1892 as against 1,212 in 1887. The 
report also gives a detailed statement as to the course taken by high 
school pupils immediately after leaving the school. 

* Every commune is required to maiutaiu such a fund, it needed, under the law of 
1882. 

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200 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

The facts thus presented may be summarized as follows: 



Entoced into normal or tecfanicalsohooU 

Entered into lyc^es or oolleees , 

Entered as inHtmctors in otner schools 

Entered into the civil service 

Entered into niilitarv or naval service 

Employed in railroad service 

Employe«l in commercial or tecbnicai careers 

Employed in banks, notaries public, etc 

Scholarships secored for study In foreign conntries . 
Unknown or dead 



1887. 



1892. 



Percent. 


Percent 


11.3 


23.0 


5.3 




1.5 


.1 


3.8 


8.9 


2.4 


1.4 


1.6 


1.5 


56.8 


60.0 


6.3 


1.7 




.6 


11.0 


7.8 



The statistics indicating the degree of illiteracy are given under two 
heads, as follows : 




1891. 



Conscripts aole at least to read . 
Brides able to sign the register.. 



Percent 

92.6 

a87.4 



a The proportion of bridegrooms signing the marriage register is almost the same as in the case of 
conscripts. 

As to these items the commission say: "They prove but little and 
moreover relate to persons who have been out of school eight years or 
more. It is, however, noticeable that departments which stood lowest 
ten years ago have made greatest advance. In 1881, as regards con- 
scripts able to read, the difference between the highest and the lowest 
department was 40; that is, for every 100 conscripts there were 40 
more in the latter unable to read. In 1891 the difference was only 26. 

It is interesting to note that the diffusion of elementary instruc- 
tion has greatly reduced the need of provision for instruction among 
conscripts. 

Eegimental schools are no longer an indispensable feature of military 
camps, and under an order of December 27, 1887, instruction is to be 
provided for recruits only where it is actually needed. 

Schools for marine conscripts are still maintained, but since 1883 only 
those recruits are accepted who can read and write. Schools are main- 
tained in all prisons and a classified record kept of the status of crimi- 
nals with respect to their attainments at the time of their commitment 
and of their discharge. 

Two facts are emphasized by these statistics: (1) That the proportion 
of illiterate criminals diminishes, although for the m^yority the degree 
of attainment is very low. For example, of 10,420 men under deten- 
tion in 1889-90 a little less than 9 per cent had finished the primary 
course; a very small proportion, 2 J per cent, had been in the high 
schools. The proportions were almost identical for women prisoners. 
(2) A certain proportion of criminals seem incapable of instruction. 
In 1890, of men prisoners under instruction, 18 per cent, and of women 



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EDUCATION IN FRANCE. 



201 



12 per cent, were reported as remaining illiterate after a year's instrac- 
tiou. So of 12,706 persons (men and women) committed in 1890 od 
short sentences 16 per cent were reported as illiterate at the time of 
their discharge, although they had been under instruction in the 
interval. 

Comparative view of the enroUmtnt in univer$ity faculties, secondary schools, and primary 

schools at specified dates, 

NUMBER OP STUDENTS OR PUPILS. 





1875. 


1876. 


1876-77. 


1887-88. 


Facnlties: 
Publicu- 

Parin 


1 17,630 






5 9,140 
262 


Provincial 

Private 






Secondary acboola (Iyc6ea and colleges) : 




75.259 
78,065 




87,979 
70,250 


Private 














Primary schoola: 

Ihiblic 






3, 823, 348 
89 J, 587 


4,492,894 
1,123,616 


Private 












Total (orimarv) 






4, 716, 935 


5, 616, 510 











1888-89. 


1889-90. 


1890-91. 


1891-92. 


1892-93. 


Faculties: 
Pablio— 

Paris 


I 




20,785 
931 


C 9,387 

^ '''^ 

6 85,291 
89.566 


10, 110 


Provincial 

Private - 


i 




23,287 


Secondary acbools (lyc^ea and collegCH) : 


84,775 


84,186 




Pri vate 


90,327 














Primary, Bcboola: 

Pnblic 


4,446.851 
1,176,550 


4, 405, 543 
1,190,024 


4,384,905 
1, 208, 978 


4,281,183 
1,275,287 




Private 








Total {primarv) . - - 


5,623,401 


5,010,567 t S SJW M.T 


5,556,470 








■ ' 





a Also 10, 403 students in public secondary schools for girls. 

b Also in 1891 11,645 students in public secondary schools for girls. 



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CHAPTER VII. 
EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 



EETROSPECTIVE VIEW OP THE BUREAU'S PUBLICATIONS ON THE 

SUBJECT, SINCE 1889. * 

The annaal report of the Bureau of Education for 1888-80, Part I, 
contains in chapter 2 a comparison of the schools of the United States, 
Germany, and France, with large diagrams giving the number of 
pupils and other items of information, in squares, each representing 
5,000 pupils. This chapter also contains a graphic representation of 
the courses of study in American, German, and French elementary and 
high schools with reference to linguistic studies, history and geog- 
raphy, mathematics and natural sciences. For purposes of easy com- 
parison typical courses of study are quoted and placed side by side, 
showing in what branches one kind of schools excels and in what 
branches it is excelled. The chapter closes with some extensive quota- 
tions from foreign educators. 

The same annual report contains two charts which show graphically 
the ratio of entire population in schools between kindergarten and 
university of every State and colony in North and South America, 
and also in Europe. These charts have been reproduced in a different 
manner and brought up to date in the succeeding annual reports of 
1880-90 and 1800-91. 

Chapter 5 of the annual report of 1888-80 also contains a bird's-eye 
view of the schools of Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, which gives 
in brief manner their historical development, together with statistics 
and diagrams. 

The annual report of 1880-00 has accounts of the so-called middle or 
intermediate schools in Prussia, of private schools in Prussia, of the 
movement for promoting public play of school children, of the educa- 
tion of neglected and depraved children, and of juvenile wage workers 
in Prussia. The schools of the Kingdom of Saxony are described and 
their statistics given in detail. A diagram exhibiting the economic 
development of the Kingdom of Saxony between the years 1875 and 
1880 brings out some curious facts. A brief article on school gardens 
gives a r68um6 of what is done in that respect for the children in 
Europe, 

203 

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204 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

The famous December conference on secondary schools was called 
and in part conducted by the Emperor of Germanj^ who had insisted 
upon reforming the secondary schools, which he believed to be incapa- 
ble of meeting the just demands of the present age. This conference 
consisted of some of the most distinguished educators of Germany, 
and their views and deliberations are sketched in an article found in 
the same annual report of 1889-00, which also contains a brief view of 
the schools of Austria-Hungary, a brief statement of the school system 
in Prussia, and a diagram showing the proportion of the population in 
elementary, secondary, and higher institutions. 

In view of the fact that the authorities in Germany publish school 
statistics only at intervals of three years, no new statistical features 
could be obtained in the following year; hence, in order to do full jus- 
tice to the important educational interests of central Europe, the 
annual report of 1800-01 contains an account of the industrial and 
technical education in central Europe, in which the lower, secondary, 
and higher institutions for technical and industrial education are 
described and in part compared. A statistical view is appended. 

The same annual report contains a statistical summary giving, first, 
the total number of youth in schools below universities in the various 
civilized countries of the world; second, the teachers; and third, the 
expenditures so far as obtainable. All data offered in these tables are 
given in absolute numbers as well as in ratios. 

Legal education is also a topic discussed in the annual report of 
1890-01. It does not confine itself to America, but extensively describes 
the European law courses, and presents a comprehensive bibliography 
of legal education. Volume II of the same annual report opens with 
a review of the history and status of public kindergartens in European 
and American States, written by Dr. W. N. Hailmann. The article is 
illustrated. 

The next annual report of the Bureau, that for 1801-02, has in chap, 
ter C an article on the training of teachers in Germany, Austria, and 
Switzerland, in which an historical review, statistics, rules, and regula- 
tions of European normal schools, their present management and course 
of study, as well as views of normal school men concerning the train- 
ing of teachers, are given. 

The Swiss school system finds attention both historically and statis. 
tically in the same volume. The exhibitions in various countries of 
appliances for teaching are briefly enumerated and sketched in the 
same report. 

Chapter 10, on German universities, was translated from a work pre- 
pared by Professors Paulsen and Conrad for the World's Fair in Chi- 
cago. The historical reviews and reflections on the present status of 
the universities in Germany by Professor Paulsen and the minute 
statistics of Professor Conrad have attracted wide attention. 



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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 205 

Chapter 11 of the volume mentioned contains an account of the schools 
'for recruiting the civil service iu France and a statement of the require- 
iiients for civil service in Prussia, prepared by Profs. W. F. and W. W. 
Willoughby. 

The annual report of this Bureau for 1892-93 contains a discussion of 
recent developments in the teaching of geography in central Europe, 
giving first a historical sketch of geography as a study iu schools, then 
a discussion of geography in the schools of to-day 5 then a contribution 
of Professor Goodison of the State normal school, of Ypsilanti, Mich., 
on modern methods and devices of teachin g geography in central Europe, 
illustrated copiously, and followed by accounts of personal observations 
iu schools of Germany. This chapter also concludes with a bibliography 
on the subject of geography. 

The schools of Bavaria, like the schools of Saxony in previous reports, 
are reviewed by a correspondent of this Bureau at Munich. 

The important recent movement toward a profound study of psycho- 
logical phenomena has resulted in the formation of a society for child 
study and experimental psychology. The annual report of 1892-93 
gives a symposium on that subject, which contains a number of full 
papers and extracts of papers prepared by eminent educators of the 
United States. 

This is followed by a chapter on German criticism of American edu- 
cation and education exhibits by noted German educators who were 
sent by their Government to Chicago for the purpose of reporting upon 
the exhibits in Chicago as well as the schools. These accounts go into 
minuto details where their authors were brought face to face with fea- 
tures of American life and educational efforts new to them. Naturally 
they are not always absolutely correct, but it is surprising to notice the 
felicity with which they point out the excellent features of the schools 
as well as their weak points. The educational congresses held in con- 
nection with the Fair are amply treated by these authors, as is also the 
congress of the librarians. 

The report on American technological schools, reprinted in English 
translation from a German publication, sheds light on this feature of 
the educational world, and the observations the author makes prove 
him to be impartial and just. His numerous diagrams bear evidence 
of a diligence in comparing statistics worthy of imitation. 

The statistical table of elementary instruction in foreign countries is 
for the first time iu the history of this Bureau complete with regard to 
the States of Germany. The Prussian statistical bureau has under- 
taken to furnish a summary for all the States of Germany, thus enabling 
the world to judge of the combined efforts in behalf of public education 
of the united German Empire. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



206 EDUCATION EEPOET, 1893-94. 

Besults of Prussian Common School Statistics of the Year 

1891. 

introduction. 

The school authorities of Prussia, Bavaria, and other States of Ger- 
many publish at intervals of three or more years summaries of school 
statistics and detailed accounts of the changes occurring. The last 
comprehensive publication on Prussian and Bavarian schools was pre- 
pared for the Chicago World's Fair. The Sjummaries oflfered then 
were used in the annual report of this Bureau for 1892-03, and a 
recapitulation of official data would be unprofitable. The data were 
freely commented upon, chiefly in a laudatory manner, by the German 
commissioners to the World's Fair (see pp. 521-575 of Ann. Eep. of 
1892-93) ; but since then a number of weighty criticisms have appeared, 
which place the statistical facts offered in the proper focus and analyze 
them from the standpoint of modern demands. No hostile motive 
prompted these eftbrts, for the minister of public education himself 
frankly admits that he is struggling to obtain " the daily bread with 
which to maintain the schools;'' and it is conceded, even by opponents 
of the Government, that the authorities make every effort to keep pub- 
lic education abreast with that of other countries and in harmony with 
its own glorious past. 

In the two following articles on "Eesults of Prussian school statis- 
tics of 1891 ^ a calm, dispassionate analysis of the official data is offered, 
adapted from a work of the same title by Mr. J. Tews, of Berlin. This 
critical expos6 sheds light on Prussian elementary school statistics 
which are apt to escape observation. The author is a master in group- 
ing, analyzing, and comparing statistical data, and hence his state- 
ments are readily accepted in the press of Germany and other 
countries. 

The author divides his expose into two articles: (1) "The common 
elementary schools," and (2) "The teachers of common elementary 
schools," which articles are offered here in English garb stripped of all 
unnecessary and irrelevant matter. The author subsequently published 
another article on the courses of study, which, however, goes beyond 
the scope originally contemplated, and is therefore omitted in this trans- 
lation. 

Part I.—THE COMMON SCHOOLS OF PRUSSIA. 

Statistics of Prussian common schools, dated May 20, 1886, proved 
that the provisions for education in the **land of schools'^ were inade- 
quate, and no one well informed in the case extenuated existing facts. 
A retrogression has been officially confirmed. Undoubtedly there are 
substantiating facts that make the retrogression in the provisions for 
public education and teachers' salaries appear less glaring. A difScult 

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EDUCATIOir IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 207 

taak eonfronted the Prussian administration of education early in the 
eighties. The number of pupils in common schools rapidly increased 
in eight years (from 1878 to 1886) from 4,200^160 to 4^838^47 children; 
between 1882 and 1886, from 4,339,720 to 4,838,247 children; conse- 
quently about 13 per cent and lOJ per cent, respectively. Such an 
augmentation could only be managed by straining every power; instead, 
it was oftener the case that everything went on in the old ways. 

Statistical publications of Prussian common schools until then 
awakened little interest, but the publication of 1880 attracted special 
attention. The exposed evils not only aroused teachers, but in a great 
measure were animadverted Bx>on by the press* Consequently the 
latest reports, of May 25, 1801, 8upi)orted by facts and events, fell upon 
well-prepared ground. The question in the minds of all who consulted 
the two ample volumes was. Do they show a forward or a backward 
moTement; have school administrators been occupied in rectifying the 
existing deficiencies, or have th^ meekly looked on the decline of the 
States' educational institutions? The exhibition of statistics prepared 
tor the Exposition in Chicago did more than was necessary to direct 
pablic attention to the authoritative sources of Prussian statistics. 

Sothing can be more easily misused than statistical data. Irre- 
spective of the not infrequent cases in which correct statements are 
intentionally misapplied, few only are able to read a statistical work in- 
teBigently. Absolute figures are never understood easily ; they should 
always be taken in their relative, comparative value. The question, 
ther^bire, whether a school system has made satisfactory progress 
within a certain period, is not to be judged offhand according to a few 
figures, but demands a careful examination and comparison of all rele- 
vant fiactors. A mere increase in number is of itself no satisfactory 
X^rogress. Presupposing, for instance, that teachers' salaries during 
a certain period averaged an increase of 1(X^ marks, bat that cost of 
living and the payment of other officials at the same time increased 
in greater proportion, there would necessarily follow a manifest retro- 
gression in the mode of living and social position of teachers. Or 
if the number of pupils to every teacher diminished from 70 to 60 
within a certain time a satisfactory progress would only have been 
attained, if this improvement were not behind similar improvements in 
other States. From this point of view, all that has been done for the 
promotion of education in Prussia since the seventies is inadequate, 
as otiher German States, France, and Austria as well, have in the mean- 
time accomplished incomparably more. In the order of States, if meas- 
ured hy their educational efforts, Prussia has taken a place in the rear. 

The task of imiwoving Prussian common schools between 1886 and 
1891 was comparatively easy. Whereas the increase of pupils was 
nnnsus^ly large from 1878 to 1886, the period since 1886 shows only a 
minimum increase in the whole State, and even a decrease in many 
toei^tieSf notably in the country. While the entire population be- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



208 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

tween 1885 and 1890 increased 5.8 per cent, namely, from 28,318,470 to 
29,959,388 persons, the number of school children increased only 1.4 
per cent, namely, from 5,225,891 to 5,299,310. In 1886 the number of 
children of school age (6 to 14) constituted 18.4 i^er cent of the entire 
population ; in 1891 only 17.6 per cent. The number of children attend- 
ing common or people's schools increased in a little larger proportion, 
from 4,838,237 to 4,916,476, i. e., 1.62 per cent, while private schools, 
elementary and other, show a decrease in the number of pupils. An 
increase of pupils has only taken place in cities and in a few country 
districts, particularly in the west. In most rural districts the number 
of pupils has diminished. This decrease is particularly noticeable in 
the districts of Konigsberg (—10,000), Gumbinnen (—6,200), Frankfort 
(_4,000), Coslin (-5,600), Breslau (-14,500), Liegnitz (-4,200), Cassel 
(—4,300), Cologne (—8,000). The retrogression is not so considerable 
in the districts of Marienwerder, Stettin, Posen, Bromberg, Erfiirt, 
Schleswig, Liineburg, and Wiesbaden, and altogether insignificant in 
Danzig, Stralsund, Hildesheim, Stade, Osnabriick, Aix-la-Chapelle, and 
Hohenzollern. A considerable increase of rural pupils took place only 
in the districts of Potsdam (+8,000), Miinster (+4,300), Arnsberg 
(+12,800), DUsseldorf (+6,500), and Trier ( + 7,500). The year 1891, 
compared with 1886, showed that among the school children of the 
whole State there were 41,500 fewer in the country and about 111,500 
more in cities. With reference to the religious denominations it is 
noteworthy that in many districts the number of Catholic pupils was 
comparatively below that of the Protestant; while the number of 
Jewish pupils, both in cities and country, dimished. 

If the school administration had desired to leave afTairs in the same 
condition during the five years in question, then additional institutions 
would have been necessary for only 78,229 newly admitted children. 
As in 1886, there was one teacher for every 75, and one class room for 
every 64.4 children, the odium of a retrogression would have been 
avoided by creating 1,043 teachers' positions and forming 1,215 classes. 

The question follows. Were these favorable conditions taken advan- 
tage off The author attempts the answer in the following: 

The difficulty of educational administration varies in the different 
divisions of the State. In the first place, there is a great difference in 
the number of children in various communities. The least number of 
school children, in general, is found in the governmental districts of 
Potsdam, North Saxony, East Hanover, North Schleswig, East Prussia, 
parts of Lower Silesia, and the districts bordering on the Netherlands. 
The minimum is reached by the Hanoverian district of Liichow, with 
15.1 per cent school children, followed by Lowenberg (Silesia), with 
15.8 per cent, and West Priegnitz (Brandenburg) with 16 per cent 
The whole territory between the Vistula and the Oder (Posen, Upper 
Silesia, west Prussia, the governmental district Coslin), South Han- 
over and South Saxony, and the whole territory between the Bhine 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 20* 

and the Weser, together with !N'orth Hanover and Holstein, have^ 
comparatively few school children. The maximum is reached by th<^ 
districts of Schraiegel, in Posen, with 22.9 per ceut; the town of Essen 
follows with 22.0 per cent, Hoerdo with 22.4 per cent, and Kosten 
(Posen) with 22 per cent. To understand the true value of these 
figures, we must bear in mind that with the ratio of children in 
Liichow, Prussia would be obliged to accommodate in school 4,526,868 
children, but 6,860,810 with the ratio found in Schmiegel. This fact 
alone suffices to demonstrate that the principle of common schools 
should not be so rigidly carried out that the community would have to 
bear the full burden of expense. Educational efforts of larger cities 
appear very modest when compared with reference to tbe number of 
children they accommodate, as may be demonstrated by a proximate 
example. In 1890 the province of Pomerania had somewhat fewer 
(1,520,889), and Hesse-Nassau (1,664,426) more inhabitants than Berlin 
(1,578,794), but in 1891 Pomerania had 251,229, Hesse-Nassau 268,627, 
and Berlin only 175,620 children to provide for in the public common 
schools. Pomerania needed 4,672, Hesse-Nassau 5,027, and Berlin 
only 3,206 class rooms for instruction. In view of these figures, it 
appears more pardonable that Pomerania should have only 4,264 and 
Hesse-Nassau but 4,254 schoolrooms, than that Berlin should lack 
apartments for four classes only. Pomerania had 4,192, Hesse-Nassaa 
4,147, and Berlin 3,203 teachers. Nevertheless, large cities are still in 
the front rank, but not so far ahead as is generally believed. 

The Prussian common school is very far from being, as it is usually 
idealized, the common elementary school for all. Unfortunately, sta- 
tistics do not furnish information enough on this point. They register 
the number of children in obligatory attendance at common or other 
schools, but do not specify how many nonattendants receive instruction 
in the elementary classes of secondary schools for boys and advanced 
schools for girls. 

Altogether 4,916,476, or 93 per cent, of the 5,299,310 children of school 
age, were placed in common schools; in cities, 1,615,455, or 85.4 per 
cent, of the 1,891,031 children of school age; in the country, 3,301,021, 
or 97 per cent, of 3,408,279. The laws of 1888 and 1889 have brought 
about a perceptible rearrangement of schools in many cities. Since 
the limit between the common schools and institutions beyond their 
scope have been strictly defined, many have been removed from the 
category of common schools to that of intermediate or middle schools, 
and vice versa. Many of the larger cities are still far from recognizing 
the general common school as the common foundation of all higher 
educational institutions; meanwhile, an approximation to this end is 
noticeable. 

Konigsberghas 11,391 of its 22,211 children in obligatory attendance 
in common schools; Danzig has 12,289 of its 17,792; Berlin, 175,620 
of 212,681; Charlottenburg, 7,115 of 10,442; Stettin, 11,109 of 16,493; 

ED 94 14 C"n,r\rf]r> 

Digitized by VjOOQ Ic 



210 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

Posen, 5,725 of 10,869; Breslau, 30,260 of 49,156; Frankfort on the Main, 
12,902 of 23,580. On the other hand, in many cities of the west the 
common schools are attended by the majority of children. In Dortmund 
there are 16,286 common school pupils to 16,793 school children; in 
Crefeld, 17,854 to 19,224; in Essen, 12,941 to 14,215; in Bochum the 
number in attendance even exceeds the number of children of school 
age (9,854 to 9,224), probably on account of earlier admission and longer 
attendance at school. The above figures show in a general way how 
differently private schools, elementary classes of secondary schools, and 
so-called middle schools have developed. 

That a number of Prussian children of the laboring i)opulation do 
not in name even attend school during the whole time required is well 
known; but it is not uninteresting to compare the respective figures. 
In the spring of 1891, 3,229 children (2,431 of them in Posen) could not 
be admitted because of overcrowded schools; 17,527 children are men- 
tioned as not having entered school at the completion of their sixth 
year, but were kept back one or two years; 62,838 were allowed to leave 
school before the completion of their fourteenth year; 20,945 of the 
latter belonged to Eheuish Prussia and 13,566 of them to the district 
of Diisseldorf. The last figures probably indicate children permitted 
by the sui>erintendent to leave school. In reality a much larger num- 
ber leave before the legally appointed time, to lose in a short time in 
factories and industrial work a great deal of what has been acquired 
at school, if liberal provision is not made by establishing continuation 
schools. 

After these digressions let us examine Prussian schools more closely. 
Prussian statistics, unlike the Austrian, by way of example, do not 
refer to the accommodations. Counts Briihl and von Buch, in the House 
of Deputies, say the schoolhouses are palaces; Eepresentative Rickert 
is of the opinion that there are many dilapidated huts among them. 
The statistical report is noncommittal on this point. Only 70,950 class 
rooms were provided for 82,746 classes, so that not fewer than 23,592 
classes were obliged to share apartments with others. If we deduct 
rented class rooms there remain only 68,593 owned by the State. In 
1886 there were 62,095 for 75,097 classes. At that time 13,602 (in 1891 
14,153) classes lacked their own rooms.^ 

In regard to the construction of school buildings also a retrogression 
is noticed. Minister von Gossler's demand for 20,000,000 marks for 
school buildings was not regarded in the least exorbitant, and the 
Clerical-Conservative majority in the Diet gave the strongest evidence 
of their friendly attitude toward schools when they voted down the 

^ It is a hygienic requirement that each class, even in half-day schools, shonld have 
a class room of its own. Anyone acquainted with the A B C of school hygiene will 
not consider this demand unreasonable. It borders on inhumanity to oblige chQ- 
drcn of widely different ages to sit on the same benches; to instruct a second class 
in an already vitiated atmosphere and let the other class wait outside in all sorts of 
weather. ^-^ ^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EDUCATION m CENTRAL EUROPE. 211 

lamp sum of 6,000,000 marks demanded by the present minister by 
appropriating instead 2,000,000 marks for tbis purpose annually. 

The most widely different conditions in tbis respect are noticeable in 
the separate provinces. Schleswig-Ilolstein, the first in order in every- 
thing excellent pertaining to schools, approaches nearest to normal 
conditions, owning 3,6G0 rooms for 3,670 classes. In this province the 
number of rooms is about equal to that of the classes. Last in order 
is Silesia, which has but 8,495 rooms for 12,323 classes. In the rural 
districts of that province only 6,101 rooms are provided for 9,432 classes; 
in the district of Breslau, 1,500; in that of Liegnitz 1,100 classes are 
without apartments of their own. While in Silesia the number of 
classes increased by SCO, only 453 additional rooms were provided; in 
the rural districts of that province the number of classes increased by 
573, that of class rooms by 268. 

As far as the formation of classes is concerned Prussia ranks among 
the countries which do not favor coeducation. 

Classes in 1S8G and 1S9L 



Boys* djwsefl. . 
Girla'clasHcs.. 
Mixed clasaes. 

t Total ... 



1886. 



10.006 
10.297 
54,704 



189L 



12,168 
12.281 
fi8.297 



75,097 



82,746 



The number of separate classes for boys and girls we see increased 
20 per cent; that of mixed classes only by 6 J per cent. In the cities of 
several provinces the number of mixed classes has decreased according 
to absolute figures. City and country must be separately considered 
in this respect. In cities, in 1891, 28 per cent, or only 7,467 out of 20,631 
classes, were mixed. The greatest number of mixed classes is to be 
found in the city schools of Posen (908 out of 1,339, or 68J per cent). 
Ehenish Prussia (2,128 out of 4,956, or 42^ per cent) ranks next. The 
district of DUsseldorf particularly distinguishes itself in this respect 
(1,764 out of 2,949, or 60 per cent). Third in order comes Westphalia 
(795 out of 2,063, or 39 per cent). The least number of mixed classes is 
found in Berlin (29) and in the city schools of Schleswig-Holstein (82). 
In the rural districts separate classes for the sexes are found to any 
noteworthy extent only in a few provinces (Rhenish Prussia, West- 
phalia, Silesia, Brandenburg) possessing a greater number of villages 
with urban conditions, still the separate classes (5,205) throughout 
constitute 9.4 per cent of the sum total (56,095), 30 i)er cent (2,216) in 
Rhenish Prussia (total 7,417), and 25 per cent (1,139) in Westphalia 
(total 4,477). There are no separate country schools for the sexes in 
the governmental district of Bromberg; Coslin and Marienwerder 
each has one. Whether there be any advantage in separate instruction 
for boys and girls may be doubted. Altogether, 1,718,269 out of 

■gitized by Google 



212 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



2,467,558 boys and 1,691,812 out of 2,448,918 girls are instructed in 
mixed classes, consequently more than two-thirds of the total number, 
but only three-tenths in cities. 

The grading of pupils has likewise suffered little alteration in Prus- 
sian common schools during late years. It moves parallel with the 
growth of villages. The following table presents a survey of the 
changes that have taken place: 





1886. 


1891. 


Grades. 


Schools. 


Classes. 


School 
children. 


Schools. 


Classes. 


School 
childrvB. 


One 


17,744 
8.846 
8,949 
1,352 

649 
1.187 

290 


17,744 
18, 141 
12,661 
6,408 
4,102 
12.825 
3.315 


1,146,701 
1, 078, 459 
833. 013 
449. 744 
285. 282 
829, 823 
215,225 


16,600 
9.474 
4,447 
1,553 

692 
1,551 

425 


16,600 
19.425 
14.054 
7,247 
4,253 
16,181 
4,931 


96S.608 
1,047.607 
850.383 
476.403 
274.412 
M4.9SS 
803. 22L 


Two 


Tbree 


Fonr 


Five 


Six 


Soveu and more 





The change is easily recognizable. The ungraded school is fast losing 
ground ; schools with two to five grades show only insignificant changes, 
while the schools with six or seven grades are rapidly increasing. In 
1882 there were still 20,083 ungraded schools (30.5 per cent) in which 
1,336,404 children were instructed. The fewest ungraded schools are 
found in Silesia and Westphalia; the next in Pomerania and West 
Prussia; 40 per cent of the common school pupils of the last-mentioned 
provinces are still instructed in ungraded schools; in the country in 
East Prussia almost one-half, in Pomerania more than one-half (101,497 
of 179,828 children). The two-grade school is found oftenest in East 
Prussia and Posen ; schools of three grades in Silesia, Hanover, West- 
phalia, and Hesse-Na.'^sau (20 to 25 per cent of the children); schools of 
four grades again in Silesia and Westphalia (12 per cent); the five- 
grade school in Silesia and Saxony (7 to 8 per cent); the six-grade 
school in Berlin (all schools with one exception), Brandenburg, and 
Saxony. The seven and higher grade schools alone constitute a large 
percentage in Hesse-Nassau (17 per cent), in Wiesbaden (25 per cent), 
followed by Khenish Prussia (in this case, Diisseldorf with 20 per cent), 
and Westphalia (10 per cent). The district of Diisseldorf is about to 
follow the order of the day by replacing the unprofitable, though other- 
Wise preferred, six-grade school by schools of seven and more grades. In 
the latter the number of pupils increased from 40,600 to 70,199; in the 
former, the six- grade schools, it decreased from 77,349 to 67,707. Hopes 
are entertained that the adoption of the same measure in a smaller 
degree in the districts of Hanover andOsnabriick means the beginning 
of a reform that will spread over the whole State. 

In the rural districts schools of few grades predominate. The fol- 
lowing table presents a review. In 1891 there were: 



Digitized 



by Google 



EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 



213 



Grades. 


Schools. 


Classes. 


ChildrM. 


One 


16,136 

9,145 

3,9ri0 

1,015 

300 

254 

357 


16. 136 
18.740 
12,401 
4,472 
1,711 
2.258 
325 


M7«0M 
1,008,030 
740,877 
298. S35 
118,900 


Two 


Three 


Fonr 


Five 


Six 


158,528 


Seven 





Aside from the decrease in the pumbcr of ungnuled schools (1,041), 
the changes are inconsiderable. Country schools of five or more grades 
prevail only in Silesia, Brandenburg, Westphalia, and Ehenish Prussia. 

Of not less importance than the number of grades is the number of 
classes in a schoolhouse. We shall confine ourselves to the city schools 
of six and more grades. The six-grade schools averaged 10.7 classes; 
the schools of more grades, 11.8. In the various provinces the differ- 
ence is not considerable, but nevertheless noticeable throughout. For 
instance, Silesia has fewer schools than Saxony, and Ehenish Prussia 
fewer than Westphalia. The six-grade schools of Silesia average 9 
classes; those of Saxony more than 12; the seven and higher grade 
schools of both provinces between 11.6 and 17.5. In Westi)halia the 
seven and higher grade systems average 14.G; in Khenish Prussia only 
9.3 classes. In this respect a review of the largest cities is of great 
. interest. 



ClUes. 



Koni^sberg 

DanKig 

Charluttenbnrg 

Berlin 

Slotlin 

I*o»»©n 

Breslau 

Gorlitz 

Magdcbnrff 

Halle on the Saale 

Erf art 

Kiel 

Altona 

Hanorerd 

Ofloabriick 

MiinHter* 

Dortmund 

CaiiRel 

Honaa 

Wie*»ba<lon 

Frankfort on the Main , 

Crefeld 

Duitburg , 

Ensen 

IhiAaeMorf 

Elberfeld 

Barmen 

Cologne 

Aix laChapelie 



Grnden in 

nw^jority 

of ttchoofs. 


SihooU 
in the 
city. 


Total 
daasea. 


Aversfee 
ofcUases. 


.6 


14 


182 


13.0 





10 


204 


10.7 


aO 


12 


140 


11.7 


6 


192 


3,206 


16.7 


6 


20 


227 


11.4 


6 


6 


105 


17.5 


C 


104 


672 


C.5 





8 


121 


15.1 


be 


41 


480 


11.7 


e6 


9 


226 


25.0 


4 


4 


88 


22.0 


7 or 8 


16 


132 


&3 





26 


278 


10.7 


7 or 8 


20 


263 


13.2 


7 or 8 


8 


78 


9.8 




11 
21 


72 
240 


6.5 


7 or 8 


11.3 


7 or 8 


10 


135 


13.5 


7 or 8 


2 


38 


19.0 


7 or 8 


7 


130 


1&6 


8 


18 


241 


13.6 


7 or 8 


41 


282 


«.» 


6 


24 


148 


0.2 


/6 


19 


173 


9.1 


7 or 8 


26 


300 


11.5 





41 


320 


7.8 


fl7or 8 


41 


281 


6.0 


6 


61 


6-J8 


10.3 





24 


227 


9.5 



a Will very shortly introdnno tho Roven-grade syntem, 

6 Magdeburg haa among others ungraded Bchoola, but also 3 seven-grade achools each with 21 
clai*8oii. 

cSix flcboolfl with 127 rlasnes have six grades ejich, and 2 schools with 94 classes, seven grades. 

dXine schools with 121 classes have six gratles, and 10 schools with 13G classes, seven or eight 
grades. 

elvro schools with 8 classes in two grades; 3 schools with 15 classes in three grades; 1 school 
with 8 classes in lour grades, 3 schools with 20 classes in five grades; 2 schools with 12 classes in six 
grades. 

/Eleven schools with 92 classes have six grades, and 5 schools with 70 classes, seven grades. 

(7 Sixteen schools with 101 classes have six griides; 17 schools with 147 classes, seven grades. 



214 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



As it is to the interest of education for schools to be as small as 
X^ossible, consequently that the number of classes should not exceed if 
possible the number of grades, it is an encouraging fact that in six- 
grade schools the average of classes has fallen from 10.8 to 10.5. Cor- 
respondingly the number of classes in schools of seven and more 
grades has increased from 11.4 to 11.6. 

In Prussia, during the last few years, thousands of schools have 
arisen in which the number of classes is larger than that of the 
teachers. Until 1878 there were very few of these schools. In 1878 
there were 57,165 teachers' positions for 57,780 classes; consequently 
only 615 classes were unprovided for. From that time on conditions in 
this respect have become worse. There existed in — 





1882. 


1886. 


1891. 


(][l|^gg0g 


65,968 
59,917 


75,097 
64,750 


82,746 


Xouclicrs . ............................................................. 


70,094 






Deficit in Iho Dtunbcr of t6Acliera . ...................... 


6,051 
0.91 


10,347 
0.81 


12,652 
0.80 


Pronortion of ttiocliers to clflHses .............. ........................ 







This statement shows that in 1886 there were no teachers for 10,347 ; in 
1891, none for 12,652 classes; or, that in 1886, 20,694, and in 1891, 25,304 
classes shared teachers with other classes. Substitutes and assistants, 
it is true, are not included in the total number of teachers (1886, 1,183; 
1891, 1,657); but, on the other hand, neither are unfilled or not regu- 
larly filled positions deducted (1886, 467; 1891, 1,020). In every case a 
decided retrogression has taken i)lace, which is particularly manifested 
in the arrangement of two-grade schools with one teacher (1882, 2,989; 
1880, 5,481; 1891, 5,925), and three-grade schools with only two 
teachers (1882, 1,847; 1880, 2,610; 1891, 3,136). 

In view of this fact, the diminution of overcrowded classes means 
little. A stroke of the pen can change an ungraded into a school of 
two grades with one teacher, or a two-grade school with two teachers 
into a three-grade school; neither money nor teachers are required, 
since these teachers have to work additional time. Improvements thus 
accomplished are not real. The statements concerning normal and 
abnormal class attendance have therefore little value. The only true 
standard is, "Have the numerical relations between teachers and 
pupils improved or not?" The following statement gives the answer: 





1882. 

4, 339, 729 

50,917 

72.4 


1886. 

4.838.247 

64,750 

75 


1891. 


Number of cli ildron 


4.916,476 

70.094 

70 


Num bor of t4.*ni'hera 


PupiU to every le.icher 







Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EDUCATION IN CENTBAL EUROPE. 



215 



How easily the apparent improvement was ofi'ected Las been seen, 
and is evident from the above figures. The improvement has infloenced 
the whole State, even if in very unequal degrees, but has not yet brought 
about satisfactory conditions. 

The following table indicates the most progressive and the most 
backward districts. 

To one teacher the number of pupils was as follows : 



GumbinneB 
Stralsund.. 

Stettiu 

Ciiftlin 

Liiijeburg. . 
Osnabruck . 

Trier 

Du»'*eldorf. 

Oppeln 

AruBberg . . 
MuiiBter ... 



City acbooU. 1 


1882. 1886. 


1891. 


40 
49 
55 
59 
56 
70 
68 
72 
72 
80 
83 


66 
53 
56 
68 
62 
82 
72 
75 
75 
79 
67 


51 
52 
52 
53 

U 

68 
70 
70 
74 
85 



Stralsand 
Schl««wig 
Liineburg 

Stade 

Coftlin ... 
Breslau.. 
Oippeln.... 
Minden .. 
Miiiist«r . , 
Posen..... 



CooDtry Bchoolft. 
1882. 1886 1891. 



55 
56 
56 
60 
67 
94 

102 
99 
85 

106 



56 
56 
59 
61 

7a 

95 
96 
97 
92 

110 



53 
54 
56 

59 
64 

a83 

•84 

80 

90 

&95 



aTbo conspicuous improvoment in this case was duo to the appointment of aspistants: Oppeln, 575; 
Breslnu, 365. 

feTho conditions of the city schools in tho district of Poson were more favoralde (1SS2, 73; 1886, 
74; 1891. 63). 

The latest statistics contain numbers that, unfortunately, do not show 
the numerical relation of teachers to scholars in any better light than 
the averages. The average numbers of certain districts are very high. 
The Catholic rural schools in the district of Posen are examples, as 
follows: 



District. 


Teachen. 


ClaMea. 


Pupils. 


Pupils to 
every 

teacher. 


Wreschen * 


88 
51 
59 
49 
28 
40 
48 
16 
23 
28 
51 
46 
48 
33 
46 
29 
81 
83 
42 


72 
89 
83 
90 
40 
83 
83 
28 
42 
52 
91 
78 
93 
54 
82 
60 
61 
48 
76 


4,290 
5,608 
6,493 
5.639 
3,008 
5,452 
5.717 
1.8R9 
2.939 
3, 505 
5,798 
5,286 
6,472 
3, 752 
5.4U9 
3.563 
8. 8u5 

3,aod 

4,225 


Ill 


JarotHchin 


110 


Schruda . . . 


110 


Sclirinini. ..... 


113 


£aHt Posen 


107 


West Posfn 


136 


tiamter 


119 


Sim1)<iuni... .- ... 


118 


Xewtowischel 


119 


Gratz 


127 


Bomst -- - 


114 


Schniic jit^l 


115 


Koaten ...-* f 


135 


RawitscU 


114 


Gostvn . - 


118 


Kosrliniiu 


123 


KroloJichin 


123 


Schildberg 


100 


K^mi>*n T . ^ , . T ,,r..T, . - 


101 







As there are small schools, too, in the districts, a deduction from these 
numbers is easily made, the foregoing figures being from a district that 
does not rank unfavorably. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



216 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

The Handbook for Scbool Inspectors, Clergymen, and Teachers, of 
the years 1891 and 1892, for the governmental district of Merseburg, 
states: 

Of the 1,048 Bcliools with one or two teachers, 226 villages have 80 to 120 pupils to 
one teacher ; 55 villages have over 120 pupils to one teacher, and 188 each two teachers 
to more than 120 pupils. To bring these schools to the normal condition designated 
in the general regulations, 1. e., one teacher for every 80 children, the government 
must appoint 524 additional teachers. This number is wanting alone in schools of 
one and two grades in a single governmental district. In all the other schools, hence 
in the cities of that district, there exists the same repletion. For instance, 3 schools, 
each with one teacher, have 197, 194, and 193 children respectively. Oftentimes one 
teacher has over 150 or 160 children in charge. In 8 schools two teachers instruct 
250 and more pupils; in another place 288 children are taught by two teachers. 

After the above statement, even a moderate equipment of teachers 
can not be accepted as an unconditional proof of the satisfactory con- 
dition of the schools. The question is: How many teachers are there 
for the number of classes! The overcrowding of many classes, com- 
bined with the lack of teachers, will emphasize present unsatisfactory 
conditions. Of the 4,916,476 common school pupils 1,661,182 children 
were members of overcrowded classes. A class is considered over- 
crowded according to the existing law when it numbers more than 80 
in an ungraded school, and more than 70 pupils in a school of two or 
more grades. Not less than 1,309,175 children sat in classes numbering 
from 81 to 100, or 71 to 90 pupils respectively; 324,821 children sat in 
classes of 101 to 150, or 91 to 120 pupils respectively, and 27,186 chil- 
dren in classes of more than 150 or 120 pupils respectively. In the 
face of such circumstances it is easily understood why the minister of 
public instruction should say that the school administration could not 
guarantee the maintaining of the present educational standard of the 
people. "It is true," he said, "that it was worse in former times; but 
then Prussia was justly called the *land of schools,' for it stood at the 
head; to-day, however, we are behind countries whose schools are very 
much younger than ours; for instance, France, where every 40 to 50 
children have a teacher." 

The most backward governmental district in this respect is Munster. 
Only 21,462 or 23.01 per cent of the 93,264 school children were mem- 
bers of classes having the normal number. Fully 71,802 children (76.99 
per cent), or seven-ninths of the total number, were in classes with more 
than 70 to 80 children. The next districts, Arnsberg with 35.78 per 
cent, Dusseldorf with 39.86 per cent, Oppeln with 43.64 per cent, classes 
of normal capacity, are as far ahead of Miinster as they themselves are 
below the average (66.21 per cent). The above numbers do not give 
entire evidence of the conditions of the district of Miinster. In its 
cities only 10.08 per cent of the children are seated in classes not 
crowded. Miinster, however, is entitled to the credit of levying the 
minimum of school taxes. In 1891 throughout the State these taxes 
amounted to 4.89 marks per head of the population.* Miinster man- 



» A mark is equal to 23.8 cents. Digitized by GoOq1( 



EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 



217 



ages its schools with 3.60 marks, in the country with 3.41 marks; while 
Oppeln expends 3.68 and Konigsberg 3.75 marks; the neighboring dis- 
tricts of Arnsberg raise 6.06; Minden, 4.71; DUsseldorf, 5.69; Cologne, 
6.35; and even the poor district of Coslin, 4.75 marks. 

The average requisite amount throughout the State for the schooling 
of a child is 29.74 marks (in the country 24.73 marks). Miinster again 
makes the most moderate demands; it maintains its schools with 20.70 
marks. In the cities of the governmental district of Miinster, above 
all in the city of Miinster itself, education is particularly cheap. They 
expend 24.43 marks for each child, while the State average in cities 
amounts to 39.99 marks, and even East Prussia requires more than 32 
marks. In the last thirty years (since 1864) the expenses of a common 
school pupil average an increase of about 17 to 18 marks — the exact 
amount can not be obtained. Again Miinster is last in order with 
12.88 marks. 

School attendance in the larger cities is of special interest. It is, to 
some extent, characteristic of the school system, since, as a rule, in 
cities there is one teacher for every class who keeps the register of 
attendance. The following table is a summary of 28 of the largest 
cities of Prussia: 



City. 



KocigBberg 

Danzif; 

( 'harlutlf ubiirc 

Fraukfort on the Oder 

Stettin 

Pown 

Breslan 

Li<'g;ni(z 

>I n cdeb urg 

Hafie...... 

Krfurt 

Altoiia 

Kiel 

Hanover 

Miinster , 

Dortmund 

Bochum 

f'awiel 

Frankfort ou the Main 

Creleld 

Puisburg 

Kfispu 

DiiKAeldorf 

Elberfeld ..., 

Bamien 

Cologne 

Aix-Ia-Chapelle 

Berlin 



School children. 



1889. 



15,061 

11.562 

4,045 

5,610 

9.929 

6.305 

37, 1J8 

5,298 

20,700 

10, 137 

7,483 

16,903 

7,467 

14, 270 

6,257 

14,825 

0.232 

7,530 

12,040 

15. 478 

9,309 

11,748 

16,799 

17, 791 

18. 486 

21.117 

13,299 

151. 130 



1891. 



11,391 
12.289 

7,115 

4, 929 
11,109 

5,725 
39,260 

6.217 
26.580 
13.006 

5.150 
18.614 

7.280 
15. 898 

5,899 
16,286 

9, 8H 

7,251 
12,902 
17,854 
10, 326 
12, 941 
20. 312 
19, 570 
18, 926 
39, 433 
13,944 
175, 620 



Classes. 



1886. 



227 
187 

62 
101 
203 

99 
579 

83 
344 
171 
126 
237 
133 
216 

62 
205 
115 
136 
219 
225 
127 
154 
241 
266 
249 
346 
181 
2,725 



1891. 



182 
204 
140 

94 
227 
105 
672 

84 
480 
226 

88 
278 
132 
263 

72 
240 
127 
135 
244 
282 
148 
173 
300 
320 
2a3 
028 
227 
3,200 



Average clasa 
atteuoanoe. 



1886. 



18BL 



61 
6S 
4» 

S5 

68 

as 

65 
6/ 
68 
67 
65 

m 

82 
68 
78 
64 
63 
63 
67 
75 
68 
61 
67 
63 
61 
65 



Among all these cities we see that Stettin shows the best conditions 5 
but still a rather large attendance in the lower classes is easily reckoned 
from its average of 49. In Stettin the law does not allow over 60 
pupils in a class; hence the class rooms are certainly not empty in this 
city either. It follows that Miinster is last in order, with Bochum next 
above. 

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218 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

We must pass, with ouly few suggestions, over otlier extremely inter- 
esting conditions, illustrated by statistics. The number of boys in 
common schools (2,407,558) is very little greater than that of girls 
(2,448,918), because a greater number of school boys are instructed in 
other educational institutions. In cities (805,182 boys and 810,276 
girls), particularly in Berlin, the " City of Intelligence" (86,544 boys 
and 89,070 girls), girls are in the majority, despite the fact that 1,000 
births average from 512 to 515 male children. One thousand five hun- 
dred and forty-eight more boys than girls were born in the year 1891 
alone (averaging in the whole State 33,000 to 36,000 more). In former 
years the number of female pupils was still lower than that of male 
pupils (in 1822 about 60,000), because with girls obligatory attendance 
was less strictly enforced than with boys. At present, there is hardly 
a perceptible difference resulting from the law, with the exception of 
Schleswig-Holstein, where boys are required to attend school one year 
longer than girls. The influence of this regulation is particularly 
noticeable in the rural districts of that province (73,090 boys; 64,804 
girls). 

The Catholic has more children on an average than the Protestant 
population, and a larger percentage of Catholic children attend com- 
mon schools. The intensely interesting figures are here omitted, as 
their interest is almost purely theoretical. If, in consequence of the 
greater number of children, Catholic commanities should be more 
heavily taxed, measures of equalization are adopted by the State when 
ever possible. Since 1887 permission of the governmental district 
authorities is indispensable for the adoption of such measures, and 
these men are not always of opinion that improved education is a bene- 
fit. The two denominations do not always show an equal readiness 
to make sacrifices for educational i)urposes. 



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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 



219 



Older statistical reports ou Prussian common schools classify educa- 
tional data more according to the denominations than do the present; 
for instance, in regard to salaries. These figures deserve to be wrested 
from oblivion. The average amount of teachers' salaries in 1801 was 
as follows : 

[Considering the greater iturcbaaing power of a tlialer in Oerinany, it may safely bo takiu as at par 
witD our dollar, though it is worth only 72 centjt in gold. J 



District. 



CI 


y. 


Country. 


Protes- 
tant. 


Catholic. 


Protes- 
tant. 


Catholic. 


ThaUrt. 


Thalert. 


ThaUrt. 


ThOieri. 


267 


166 


144 


150 


274 


245 
256 


161 
205 




347 


181 


281 


204 


163 


154 


253 


209 


145 


100 


243 


198 


115 


138 


464 


241 
207 
232 






284 


199 
212 




2C2 


210 


272 


253 


163 


100 


242 


152 


115 


97 


306 


288 
259 


177 
198 




311 


140 


263 


234 


170 


148 


310 


273 


228 


162 


291 


242 


221 


252 


288 


215 
191 


272 
189 




265 


157 


321 


301 


257 


210 


374 


292 


268 


238 


257 


248 


169 


160 


296 


222 


198 


176 


383 


258 


229 


187 


263 


254 


168 


166 


323 


210 


227 


170 


342 


241 


219 


169 



KonigAberg... ...•••••• 

Gumbinucu 

Danzig 

Marienwerder 

Posen 

Brom berg 

Berlin 

Potsdam 

Frankfort on the Oder 

Stettin 

Cortlin 

Stralsund 

Brealau 

Oppoln 

Liegnitz 

Magdeburg 

Merseburg 

Erfurt 

Cologne 

Diisseldorf 

CobU'nz 

Trier 

Aix-la-Cbai>eUe 

Miin«ter 

Minden 

Arnsberg 



These references go to show that Catholic teachers were on an aver- 
age paid less than Protestant' 

The numerical relation between teachers and pupils was formerly 
and is to-day less favorable among Catholics. A change has been 
effected since the influence of the church has been restricted from the 
beginning of the era inaugurated by Minister Falk. From 1871 to 
1886 the number of Catholic teachers increased 34.56 i>er cent, or in 
greater proportion than the number of pupils; the number of Protes- 
tant teachers increased 25.24 per cent, corresponding with the moderate 
increase in the number of pui)ils. And still a difference prevailed in 
1886, when there were 82 pupils to every Catholic and 71 to every 
Protestant teacher. The number of pupils to the class in Catholic 
schools averaged 71, in Protestant schools 61 children.' 

'In commnnities where school societies stiU exist these ineqtialities are found 
oftcner. A specimen compilation of these instances would not bo inopportune. 

^ITio Polish nationality and the policy of the school authorities were each in part 
responsible for the fact that in Prussia in 1871 6.G per cent of Protestant and 15.16 
per cent of Catholic men, and 11.37 per cent of Protestant and 21.81 per cent of 
Catholic women, were illiterate. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



220 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

Since 1886 the difference has increased; Protestant schools have 
made more rapid progress; Catholic schools have either followed at a 
slower rate or remained at a standstill; the State has no control over 
these conditions. 

In 1891 Protestant schools numbered 3,050,864 pupils; Catholic 
schools, 1,635,779 pupils. The two denominations, therefore, show a 
ratio of 13 to 7. Consequently, if both were equally progressive, there 
should be a little over 1 Catholic school, class, etc., to 2 Protestant. 
The following figures show the real facts. The increase in city and 
country combined was as follows: 





Protestant. 


Catholic. 


Schools 


615 93 


TeacherH 


4,712 1,915 
4, 741 2- 53A 


Cloasfs 









Proportionately, very few additional Catholic schools and teachers' 
positions were established. While just as many teachers' positions 
were created for the 4,741 new classes of Protestant schools, 611 addi- 
tional classes were opened in Catholic schools without the new appoint- 
ment of a single teacher. Protestant and Catholic schools increased, 
respectively, 2.13 and 0.92 per cent; teachers, 11.42 and 9.76 per cent; 
the number of classes, on the other hand, 9.81 and 11.14 per cent. In 
Protestant schools there are 66 pupils to every teacher; in Catholic 
schools the proportion is 69 to 1 ; in cities alone, 59 to 1 Protestant, and 
69 to 1 Catholic; in the country, 69 to 1 Protestant, and 79 to 1 Cath- 
olic. The differences are still greater in the various provinces. In the 
district of Miinster there are 65 pupils to every teacher in Protestant, 
and 90 in Catholic schools. Under the late school laws the Protestant 
schools of the district increased their number of teachers 13.2 per cent; 
the Catholic schools, 9.8 per cent. Similar figures are derived from 
nearly all the other governmental districts. Proportions found in the 
Polish districts can not be accepted unconditionally. Only a few facts 
may be quoted. In the Protestant and Catholic schools of the district 
of Posen there is 1 teacher to 65 Protestant and 103 Catholic pupils; 
in cities the proportions are 1 to 60 and 1 to 77; in the country, 1 to 67 
in Protestant, and 1 to 110 in Catholic schools. Official statistics of 
1891, among other things, present a special list of classes with extraor- 
dinarily large attendance, i. e., more than 150 children to a class in 
ungraded schools, and more than 120 to a class in schools of two or more 
grades. Of these, 67 are Protestant, 98 Catholic, and 9 mixed schools. 
Posen has 26 Catholic and no Protestant schools; Silesia has 3 Protes- 
tant and 39 Catholic; Westphaha, 10 Protestant and 18 Catholic, of 
which 2 and 14, respectively, are in the district of Miinster; Ehenish 
Prussia, 2 Protestant and 13 Catholic. Of the larger Prussian cities, 
as already stated, Miinster and Bochum have the poorest equipped 

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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EURORE. 



221 



schools; in the city of MUnster there are 88 children to every Catholic 
and 66 to every Protestant common school teacher. 

It is cruel irony on the "wounding of non sectarianism," perpetually 
deplored, to say that an improvement of schools was made possible 
only by the intervention of State governmental power, and that their 
retrogression began with the investment of the power to command in 
communities and district boards. 

To give a clearer view of the position of both creeds in respect to 
education, we must include those branches of our public school system 
that are not so completely subject to State authority as elementary 
common schools, i. e., intermediate or middle schools. Neither must we 
forget in this case that the proportion of both creeds in Prussia is 13 to 
7; consequently an equal development must show figures on the Cath- 
olic side a little over half of those on the Protestant. The following 
figures indicate the results: 



Public int^nnedUte schools for bojs 

Pahlio higher schools for girls 

Public iDtemiediate schools for cirls 

Other pnblic iDtcmiediate schools 

Private intermediato schools for boys 

Private higher and iiit«nnediat« schools for girls. 
Other private intermediate schools 



Total of intermediate schools. 



Pupils. 
Protestant. Catbolto. 



82,420 
35, 114 
25,354 
17,818 

7,031 
89,3^ 

2.771 



159, 832 



8.727 
8.819 
1,978 
1,432 
2.740 
12.517 
178 



26. fl 



These numbers indicate the readiness of Catholic and Protestant com- 
munities to make sacrifices for educational purposes, as State authority 
here ceases and private liberality has full scope for action. The author 
does not incline toward overrating intermediate schools j many of them 
could be spared, he thinks, for they only serve caste prejudices. If com- 
mon schools were better provided for in places where intermediate 
schools do not exist, the foregoing figures might be considered favor- 
able to the Catholics, but deductions prove a reverse of conditions. 

The proportion of nationalities represented by the pupils of common 
schools is particularly interesting. The language spoken in the fami- 
lies of the 4,916,476 children is German only in 4,268,909, Polish only 
in 491,142, Polish and German in 76,298, and Danish in 22,735 cases. 
The others are divided among the nationalities of smaller representa- 
tion. Official statistics attest for the whole State a small increase of 
from 86.58 to 86.83 per cent of German-speaking children. Ilowever, 
the case is reversed in the decisive positions of the contending nation- 
alities. 

In the province of Posen the German nationality has retrograded 
during the last five years instead of progressing. In many districts 
the number of German-speaking children has considerably dccreaaed, 
while the Polish have increased. The case is reversed in only few 
districts; as, for instance, in the district of Eawitsch, in which the 

■gitized by Google 



222 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

number of German-speaking cbildren lias increased by 627 (in 1886 by 
1,812,- in 1891 by 2,439); tlie number of Polisli-speaking children has 
remained stationary (between 685 and 678). Those speaking both Pol- 
ish and German have likewise increased in number. A similar state 
of affairs exists in the cities of the districts of Colmar in Posen and 
in the county of Bromberg. In the latter the number of German- 
speaking children rose from 699 to 1,113, while the number of others 
changed but little. In many districts the number of children of both 
nationalities decreased, but to a greater extent among the Germans 
than among the Poles. The relations of the city of Posen are partic- 
ularly conspicuous; the number of German speaking children fell from 
2,257 to 1,647; the number of Polish slightly increased (from 3,543 in 
1886 to 3,653 in 1891), and the number of those speaking both German 
and Polish slightly decreased (between 505 and 425). Consequently 
in every case there is a loss of the German nationality. It is a con- 
spicuous fact that the retrogression of the German element is much the 
strongest in cities of Posen. In the cities of the district of Wreschen 
the number of German-speaking common school pupils decreased to 
less than half (1886, 755; 1891, 337), while the Polish increased in 
the same proportion (between 692 and 1,035). The following figures 
refer to the whole governmental district of Posen. The number of 
German-speaking children decreased by more than 3,000, from 61,760 
to 58,561; the number of Polish diminished by 500 (in 1886, 134,573; 
in 1891,133,885); the number of those speaking German and Polish 
remained almost the same (between 7,628 and 7,728). In the district 
of Bromberg the number of those speaking German decreased about 
1,800 (from 51,613 to 49,849); those spciikiug Polish about 600 (from 
63,013 to 52,461) J those speaking both German and Polish likewise 
about 600. The percentage of the retrogression of the German 
nationality is apparently large throughout. 

It is apparent that in this case there is no question of momentary 
displacements, exiolained by certain si)ontaueous actions. Evidently 
more Germans than Poles have emigrated. The numbers of common 
schools alone give no absolute standard for the relations of school chil- 
dren and population, as higher and intermediate schools are propor- 
tionately moi'e largely attended by Germans than by Poles. In Upper 
Silesia, too, the number of Polish-speaking children has greatly 
increased. In 1886 there were no Polish pupils in the city schools of 
the districts of Ratibor and Leobschiitz ; in 1891 there was quite a con- 
siderable number. In the rural districts of the district of Kreuzburg 
there was a decided increase of Poles. In the entire district of Oppeln 
the number of German-speaking childreu diminished by more than 
4,000, while the Polish increased by 3,500, as was also the case with 
the number of those speaking both German and Polish. In Upper 
Silesia, also, the displacement is strong. Conditions in West Prussia 
have remained about the same. Displacement in individual instances 

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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 223 

are less important, and liave not all taken place with a disadvantage to 
Germans. In the remaining provinces the scattered i>opnlation not 
German shows a greater or less diminution, as, for instance, on the 
Danish frontier. Most undoubtedly in cases where the greatest stress 
is laid upon Germanization, progress compared with retrogression sinks 
into insignificance. 

In conclusion, the expenditures incurred by Prussian common schools 
may be mentioned. 

Marka. 

Salaries and pensions amounted to 92, 716, 500 

They include: 

Fixed salaries 74,735,602 

Increase for age or premiums for meritorious service 8, 431, 975 

Pensions 5, 969, 185 

The remainder is spent for minor purposes. 

The incidental expenditures, including school buildings, amounted to.. 53, 508, 812 

Total 146,225,312 

Or, $34,801,624.25. 

A question of special interest is, In what proportions do State and 
community meet these demands? The State contributes only a small 
amount (2,000,000 marks) to the expenditures for buildings. Since the 
enactment of the school-tax law it defrays a large part of the expenses 
for salaries. 

Forty-one per cent, or 31,750,000 of the 74,736,000 marks, which the 
teachers draw for salaries are paid out of the State treasury, namely, 
5,835,000 marks allowances for rent and 25,549,000 marks from the 
State school tax. Communities, landed proprietors and societies, that 
is, those obliged to support schools, contribute 32,500,000 marks, or 42 
I)er cent. The sum of 1,379,000 marks was raised by tuition fees; school 
funds and endowments yielded 0,544,000; churches, etc., contributed 
2,476,000 marks. Besides, the State pays male and female teachers 
8,432,000 marks for increased salaries on account of age and meritorious 
service. The relations are very dissimilar in cities and the country. 
While in cities the State contributes only 274 P^r cent, or 9,215,000 
marks, toward salaries, and 1,651,000 marks for increase of salaries on 
account of age, only 22,295,000 marks, or QGi per cent, remain to be 
paid by communities and other local authorities. In the rural districts 
the State pays much more than half the amount of salaries, namely, 
22,544,000 marks, or 55 per cent, and besides this 6,781,000 marks for 
increased salaries on account of age. There remained only 10,281,000 
marks, or 25 per cent, to be paid by the local authorities. In the year 1885 
the sum of 35,291,000 marks toward teachers' salaries had to be raised 
for rural schools, besides 6,130,000 marks for tuition fees, which item had 
dwindled in 1891 to 346,000 marks. The decrease in the communal bur- 
den amounts to about 19,000,000 marks in round numbers. The lowest 
amounts from communities, great land owners and societies are collected 
in East Prussia; next in order come Pomerania and the districts of 

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224 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

Erfurt, Hildeslieiin, and Cassel. The following figures show wliat small 
amounts are collected in many rural communities: In the district of 
Ortelsburg 109 teachers receive salaries amounting to 127,000 marks; 
the rural communities in the district of Pillkallen pay 2,162 marks 
(80,000 marks are necessary for 100 teachers) ; Darkehmen pays 1,668 
marks (61,000 marks for 79 teachers are required); Goldap, 1,461 
(86,000 marks for 112 teachers) ; Oletzko, 1,860 (83,000 for 106 teachers) j 
Lyck, 2,103 (93,000 for 117 teachers) ; Lotzen 722 (71,000 for 94 teachers) ; 
Sensburg, 868 (83,000 for 108 teachers). We see that in these districts 
of East Prussia the teachers' salaries are paid almost entirely by the 
State. Similar conditions exist in most of the Pomeranian country 
communities. The district of Demmin contributes 2,596 marks (88,000 
marks are requisite for 105 teachers); Anklam, 525 (51,000 for 61 
teachers); Pyritz, 1,377 (82,000 for 97 teachers); Naugard, 1,458 (87,000 
for 105 teachers; Greifenberg, 966 (67,000 for 85 teachers) ; Regenwald, 
568 (80,000 for 98 teachers); Belgrad, 2,319 (75,000 for 97 teachers); 
Kummelsburg, 1,008; Bublitz, 878; BUtow, 501; Lauenburg, 1,527. 
Similar and somewhat higher numbers are indicative of the conditions 
in the provinces of Saxony, Hanover and Hesse Nassau. The western 
provinces show quite favorable results from country communities also. 

The following figures show how much communities in the country 
and landed proprietors owe to the relief afforded by the school law of 
1888, not to mention the cessation of tuition fees. Country communi- 
ties contributed in 1885 to teachers' salaries in the district of Konigs- 
berg 807,000 marks; in 1891 only 128,000; in Gumbinnen, during 1885, 
6 13,000, but in 1891 only 44,000; in Danzig, in 1885, 392,000, but in 1891 
only 92,000; in Marienwerder, in 1885, 622,000, but in 1891 only 144,000; 
in Stettin, in 1885, 172,000, in 1891 only 43,000; in Coslin, in 1885, 
206,000, but only 52,000 in 1891 ; in Stralsund, in 1885, 141,000, but in 
1891 only 18,000; in Posen, in 1885, 602,000, but in 1891 only 176,000; 
in Bromberg, in 1885, 304,000, but in 1891 only 55,000. The equalize- 
tion of expenditures in cities caused by the law referred to can hardly 
be compared with the foregoing figures. In most districts the expend- 
itures of cities for teachers' salaries have increased, despite State 
appropriations, and only in few cases in proportion to the increase of 
population. In 1885 cities expended altogether for teachers' salaries 
21,003,000 marks; in 1891, 22,295,000. 

The sums paid for common schools are considerable. Official statis- 
ticians calculate an average of 29.74 marks, or $7.08, for every child. The 
accuracy of this calculation may be doubted. However, let us take for 
granted that the figures are approximately correct. Secondary educa- 
tional institutions, with only 150,000 students, cost 31,500,000 marks, of 
which 14,500,000 are raised by tuition fees, so that each pupil still 
requires 113 marks ($26.89) additional. The Prussian universities, for 
about 12,000 students, require 7,500,000 marks State appropriation, an 
average of 625 marks ($148.75) per head. In comparison the demands 

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EDUCATIOK IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 225 

of elementary common schools are modest. Even the schools dearest 
to the people, the intermediate, are far more expensive than the ele- 
mentary. Each one of their pupils costs 91 marks C$21.66), or about 50 
marks after deduction of tuition fees. 

The improvement of the common schools is, and ever will be, a ques- 
tion of finances. This the managers and councilors of the State admin- 
istration know very well. The old adage is frequently quoted, 

Money which on schools is spent 
Brings in the highest rate per cent. 

PART II.— THE COMMON-SCHOOL TEACHERS OF PRUSSIA. 

This is intended to be a presentation of comparative statistics relative 
to the position of Prussian common school teachers, women included. 

It is the custom of our time to deal with subjects impersonally. A 
"government" is praised or condemned when only an individual or sev- 
eral oflBcials are meant. We speak of the '^churcji" when we mean the 
clergy, and of the "school" when the question refers to teachers alone. 
This manner of expression is as just on the one hand as it appears 
open to objection on the other. By identifying officers with the insti- 
tution whose representatives they are, the intention evidently is to 
characterize their full imi)ortancej a more significant background is 
thereby given to matters pertaining to them personally. On the other 
hand, we express ourselves impersonally when we do not desire to ele- 
vate the institution concerned. Knowing, however, that the institution 
in itself is a phantom, that it is and becomes something only through 
the persons connected with it, we speak most frigidly about its signifi- 
cance, but when occasion offers give the persons concerned with it a 
rebuff. Manx speeches and publications overflowing with good will 
for the "school" manifest this temper. The present Prussian minister 
of education. Dr. Bosse, strongly emphasized the insufficiency of the 
teachers' salaries, and assisted the "school reformers" in city councils 
by telling them very distinctly and in plain language where and what 
the real force of the public system of instruction is. When he sub- 
mitted his bill on the "Improvement of common schools and salaries 
of teachers, male and female" (the title was sufficiently expressive of 
the minister's meaning), he spoke as follows in his introductory speech, 
January 10, 1893: 

The Royal Government has arrived at the conviction that a systematic gradi^ 
tion and a proportionate regulation and fixedness of the salaries of common school 
teachers, especially the increase just necessary for teachers in the poorer distrists^ 
is altogether impossible nnder the provisions of the law of May 26, 1887. It recog- 
nizes more and more in this law — I am speaking advisedly — the danger of a stand- 
still and the decay of a imiform development, not only of tbe system of compensation^ 
but of our entire public school system. » * * i sball confine myself only to the 
general conclusion that the law of May 26, 1887, leads, and must lead, to conse- 
quences which neither the Royal Government nor the Diet foresaw, or could have 
foreseen; to consequences which most seriously imperil the Prussian school systenk 
tiiroughout. 

ED 04 15 ^ .. C^n,n,n]o 

Digitized by VjOOy IC 



226 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94? 

When Depnty liickert demanded energetic efforts in behalf of tl» 
instruction in domestic economy, Dr. Bosse replied that he must first 
procure " daily bread " for the schools. He doubtless used the term 
in a different sense from the one applied above. Soon afterwards thia 
debate was most forcibly exemplified. The city of Elbing, which has 
50 teachers (among them 8 women) for 5,021 children, and pays most 
meager salaries, wanted to establish a school of domestic economy 
after the model at Marienburg, The minister refused his sanction, to 
the satisfaction of all true friends of education. 

A great deal of insincerity attaches to efforts in behalf of schools, 
efforts that ai)pear to teachers like the cat going around the hot broth in 
the tale of old. That is the one reason why teachers as a body oppose 
many "reforms'* often more directly than by mere criticism. Yet 
teachers should be identified with current movements. In the midst 
of the stream they can always keep up with the current. They can 
also, if necessary, build a dam and turn aside the stream into a direc- 
tion in which it will spread greater blessing. Some educational journals 
in Germany believe even now that thej^ may and must ridicule reforms 
like instruction in domestic economy and manual training. They mean 
to reclaim the school for " general " education in Pestalozzi's name. 
Pestalozzi, however, united, as is known, his educational system most 
intimately with practical, useful work — spinning cotton. Outside 
reformers are often better disciples of Pestalozzi than their antago- 
nists. For this ix^ason it is no cause for surprise to hear that teachers 
with such views meet with strong opposition from the public, who 
judge the teacher's attitude in the same way in which the resistence 
of many ecclesiastics to religious reforms is judged. Teachers must not 
decline but accept what is of value, and admit what is new with the 
greatest generosity, and expose the shortcomings of what should have 
been accomplished. Otherwise they refute idealists without convincing 
materialists. Both are led to an unhealthy fellowship instead of solic- 
iting the aid of the former, so that with their help they may take pos- 
session of more defensible positions. 

"Impersonal" school advocates can not be told too often that their 
endeavors are unnecessary labor, if not dissimulation. "The teacher 
constitutes the school." Undoubtedly this is an aphorism, but aphor- 
isms prove nothing. They are correct only if we add a long series of 
presuppositions, restrictions, and explanations, a condition which, of 
course, does not apply to imperative demands arising in public. Con- 
sequently public discussion becomes proverbial wisdom that is only 
half true and detrimental when an enrichment of general ideas, but 
not when a distinct action is aimed at, which is possible only by means 
of an agreement of a few well-instructed persons. Then there are 
catchwords which, when rightly used, strike like lightning. Such a 
one is the old phrase: "The teacher is the school." Most assuredly. 
The teacher in great measure truly makes the school. Where is there 



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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 227 

an excellent school without a teacher professionally inspired t There 
is none. Professional zeal, fidelity to the duty of vocation, and peda- 
gogical tact, can partly overcome existing miserable conditions ; whereas 
the most excellent external conditions can in no single part replace 
the missing good teacher. This fact is fiilly appreciated by the chief 
Prussian school authorities, as has been already mentioned. The min- 
ister of education, Dr. Bosse, has not only repeated and expressed in 
warmest terms how highly he estimates the i)ersonality of the teacher, 
bat has also pointed to the sad circumstances that handicap the edu- 
cator in the exercise of his official duties. 

Undoubtedly every man, hence also every teacher, is in a great meas- 
ure himself responsible for the part he takes in professional or in civil 
Ufe. In educational work, much or little can be made out of natural 
powers. Self- discipline, self • stimulation, self- education, and self- 
restraint do much to cover many outward deficiencies. But, with the 
majority, these stimuli soon decline, if legislation and administration of 
education do not do what they are bound to do to create an excellent 
universally well-equipped corps*of teachers. 

The efficient teacher can not be conjured up by magic like a Deus ex 
machina; when considered from purely personal individual worth, he 
is a product of all the influences brought to bear upon him during his 
youth at home and at school, during the time of his professional devel- 
opment and during his professional life. Excellent teachers are neither 
instantaneously created by bureaucratic mandate, nor are they brought 
forth by more or less seasonable effusions on the virtues of a teacher; 
but they are the result of long, continuous solicitude and provident care; 
a fruit maturing only long after the sowing. What Dinter long ago 
affirmed of the school question is true even now. Higher education for 
the teacher, better salaries and professional supervision are vital ques- 
tions to-day more than ever before. Meanwhile in the political life of 
modern time are added full political freedom and a position of the pro- 
fessional body unobstructed by exceptional laws, i. e., in school admin- 
istration, pro\dsory care of schools, as well as in civil life. 

In many respects we must consider the personnel of the teaching 
force in our solicitude .for education. It may be of much greater 
importance to a school from what kind of ^ family the teacher comes, 
what kind of a wife he has, how he educates or rather can educate his 
own cliildren, how his family dresses, keeps house and recreates, and 
what social i)08ition he and his family occupy than how the schoolroom 
is furnished, the schoolhouse built, the system of heating is arranged, 
etc. CJonclusively, in everything the man as such makes the things, 
and excellence can be accomplished by excellent men only. 

The statistics which furnish the material for the following showing 
can suggest nothing concerning the internal momenta of the teacher's 
personality. They necessarily deal with outward facts. But in this 
connection reference will be made beyond bare numerical material to 
causes and effects that can not be expressed in figures. r^^^^T^ 

igitized by VjOOv IL 



228 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

Individuals and professionals are not unjustly judged according to 
tbeir family connection. Oftentimes unconsciously a value is set upon 
education at home, against which we certainly can advance no objec- 
tions. It is evident that consideration is thus given to caste; but even 
such unpleasant things as family pride and class prejudice are partly 
justifiable. 

What is the parentage of teachers in Prusia? 

It is an old prejudice designedly nurtured by true friends that 
male teachers are recruited from the lower classes, and in this respect 
are not on a level with female teachers. This opinion has already 
become so firmly rooted that even teachers themselves express it in 
good faith, though not always opportunely and to the benefit of the 
cause. Statistics, Mn so far as they refer to the personal and private 
relations of teachers require a different view of the case. 

The official statements concerning the parentage of teachers gen- 
erally distinguish 6 main groups: (A) Agriculture, cattle raising, for- 
esters, and hunters j (B) mining, civil engineering; (0) commerce and 
transit; (D) domestic service; (E) imperial and State service, etc, 
and liberal professions; (F) without any profession or specified pur- 
suit. Of these groups D and P need not be considered at all. Out 
of 62,272 male teachers they averaged between 202 and 854, and out 
of 8,439 female teachers, between 11 and 203. The remaining 4 groups 
are separated into 28 subdivisions, further distinguished by: (a) Inde- 
pendents, including business managers and sui)erintendents; (b) audit- 
ors, commissioners, and supervisors; and (c) assistants and "hands.'* 
An attempt at social definition, we see, enters into very minute details. 

The following statement is a general result. The 62,272 male and 
8,439 female teachers are descended as follows: 



A . A^onltnre, cattle raising, hnnting 

B. Miniug, civil enginet^riug, and industry 

C. Coramerc© and transit 

D. Court and state service and liberal pi-ofussions . 




These numbers prove the already well-established fact that the 
majority — more than one-third — of common school teachers belong to 
the peasantry or agricultural class. In former times this was even 
more generally the case. Villages with small and moderately large 
farms were the best recruiting grounds of preparatory institutions; 
lately, however, they have proved less available. Eailroads have 
brought cities closer together, and thereby opened to the i>easant's 
son the gymnasium on the one hand and commerce and industries on 
the other. Military service, too, at present, engages a comparatively 

1 The authority for the followmg statements are ''Prnssian Statistics, vol.120; 
The Common School System of Prussia in 1891 ; Berlin, 1893." — ^Imperial Burean of 
Statistics. 



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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 



229 



large pi:oportion of the surplus peasant population. In consquence the 
authorities fail in their purpose of trying to draw from the villages 
boys for normal education. A preponderance of the peasant element 
among teachers does the school no harm, for generally only gifted 
members of i)easants' families adopt this profession. The most excel- 
lent acquisitions are received from the agricultural classes, as also 
undoubtedly many impractical idealists who with difficulty find their 
right places in the world. Later, when they understand that the 
recruiting officers, in which capacity ecclesiastics and preparatory 
instructors specially officiate, have not sufficiently enlightened them 
on tlie important point of material success, and on the civil and pro- 
fessional position of teachers, their pleasure in life and vocation is 
not increased. In Eastern Prussia female teachers seldom come from 
rural districts, in western Prussia more frequently j on the whole, there 
are only half as many women as men teachers. Among both sexes 
recruits belong to indei>endent agricultural families } 86.5 per cent of 
18,840 male, and 89.3 per cent of 1,173 female teachers. The fathers of 
1,390 male and 105 female teachers were classed among auditors, commis- 
sioners, and supervisors; those of 1,548 male and 36 female teachers, 
among assistants and "hands" in agriculture. 

The second strongest group are mechanics, represented by 28.5 per 
cent men and 31.4 per cent women teachers. It may be here remarked 
that the industries of clothing and cleaning (tailors, shoemakers, etc.) 
proportionately furnish the most teachers (4,034 men and 401 women); 
next to them are builders (2,372 men and 414 women). 

Commerce furnishes more female (18.4 j^v cent) than male teachers 
(9 per cent) ; 2,234 male and 808 female teachers belonged to families 
of merchants and commercial agents. Ilotel proprietors and tavern 
keepers furnished 1,745 male and 171 female teachers. 

lu these groups, men as well as women teachers are not at all con- 
spicuous among the lower strata of the respective occupations, as the 
following statement shows: 



(a) Independent persons 

(6) Auditors, commissioners, sod sapervisors 
(c) Clerks and assistants 



Male. 



Number. ; Per cent 



37, 624 
3.378 
3,183 



60.4 
5.4 
5.0 



Female. 



Number. Percent. 



4,374 
744 
417 



51.9 
8.8 
6.0 



Hence it may be said that in so far as the agricultural and industrial 
classes augment the number of teachers, they offer recruits from social 
strata which enjoy satisfactory material existence. From this point of 
view the friends of the teaching profession can hardly, as has been 
repeatedly done, raise any objection to equitable demands on the part 
of the teachers. In so far, these statistics have great and practical 
value. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



230 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

That the lower strata of officeholders, from which 25.7 per cent men 
and 32.1 per cent women teachers come, likewise famish only a propor- 
tionately small number of teachers, can be found just as satisfactorily 
from statistics. The classes specified by (a) independents, supplied 
13,912 male and 1,878 female teachers; those by (b), auditors, commis- 
sioners, and supervisors, being 1,629 and 730 j those by (c), clerks and 
assistants, being only 490 and 102. Still, these numbers prove little 
respecting men teachers. The greater number of these (13,008) belong 
to teachers' families, which also supply a considerable number of female 
teachers (874); while other officeholders manifestly force their sons to 
become teachers. It is of interest that imperial and State service ftur- 
nished a very considerable number of female teachers (1,038). The 
"privy counselor's daughter" is no isolated figure in common schools, 
though not so frequent as we incline to believe from appearances in some 
large cities. The ministry furnished 183, the army and navy 130 female 
teachers. The number of men teachers belonging to the last groups 
were 201 and 176. 

As concerns the proportion of male and female teachers, details differ 
to some extent from what we might infer from the general statements. 
Thus, for instance, in agriculture, there is the difference whether the 
"independent farmer" be a peasant or landed proprietor; and in trade 
or industry, whether the one referred to be a merchant or small trades- 
man. Statistics say nothing about these facts; they only i)oint out 
the formal differences. Neither must we lay much stress upon them, 
nor, above all things, deduce unfavorable conclusions for one or the 
other sex. As a rule, the richest families do not allow their childten 
to pursue the profession of teaching. Among the wealthier strata the 
motive, almost without exception, lies in material relations. A landed 
proprietor, manufacturer, or merchant reduced in circumstances may 
stand lower than a rising peasant, mechanic, or tradesman. A palpa- 
ble difference between families of male and female teachers is noticeable 
only in imperial. State, and communal officers. These furnish only 
1,803, or 2.9 per cent of male, and 1,038, or 12.3 per cent, of female 
teachers. This fact, as well as other proportions of descent not to be 
enlarged upon here, often plays an important part in the financial and 
professional position of both sexes. 

More striking differences come to light when we' consider the two 
creeds. The proportions are as follows: In 1891 there were 22,199 
(92.6 per cent) male and 3,527 (7.4 per cent) female Protestant teachers, 
in contrast to 17,737 (78.5 per cent) male and 4,853 (21.5 per cent) 
female Catholic teachers. In the former case female teachers consti- 
tuted only one-fourteenth; in the latter two-ninths of the totals repre- 
senting each creed. But how about the parentage! A great many of 
the Catholic female teachers belong to the agricultural class; i. e., 1,042, 
or 21.5 per cent, in contrast to 271, or 7.7 per cent, of Protestant teachers. 
That a peasant's daughter in the one case so often and in the other so 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 231 

rarely attains prominence is sufficiently explained, jwirtly by the fact 
that a disproi)ortionately larger number of Catholic female teachers are 
engaged in the country (2,540, or 62.3 -per cent, against 574, or 16.3 i)er 
cent, Protestant), and partly by the fact that Protestant teachers are 
educated principally at institutions affiliated with girls' higher schools, 
whereas Catholics are educated at special normal seminaries.' Notice- 
able, but less striking, is the preponderance of Catholic teachers whose 
parents are devoted to industrial pursuits; i. e., 1,894, or 39 j^t cent, 
contrasted with 753, or 21.3 i)er cent, Protestant teachers. In the group 
of commerce Catholics are in the minority relatively considered, namely, 
77G, or 16 per cent, while 734, or 20.6 i)er cent, are Protestants. The 
Catholics are fully eclipsed by the Protestants in the last group (impe- 
rial, State, and communal officeholders). This last group has 1,005, or 
20.7 per cent. Catholic, and 1,695, or 48 per cent, Protestant female 
teachers. These differences are less pronounced among the men 
teachers. The numbers are as follows: Agriculture supplied 15,136 
Protestant and 6,649 Catholic teachers. The number of Catholics is 
comparatively greater, particularly in reference to independent farmers. 
Industrial pursuits supplied 12,572 Protestant and 5,082 Catholic male 
teachers. The percentage (20 per cent) is almost the same on both 
sides, and identical with that of commerce (3,788 Protestant and 1,693 
Catholic male teachers), while officeholders are less strongly repre- 
sented by Catholics — 4,026 against 1,193 Protestant teachers. It is of 
particular interest that a smaller percentage of Catholic teachers have 
fathers who are school-teachers — 3,225 against 9,753 Protestants. The 
larger influx to the Catholic ministry amplj' explains this fact. 

Similar records from earlier years do not exist Comparisons would 
throw an interesting light on the development of the profession and 
thereby on common schools themselves. An old school principal, Mr. 
Fritz Oehmke, of Cammin, Pomerania, asserted in a late publication 
that teachers formerly were recruited from the better classes. He thus 
writes: 

I sball nofc suppress the fact that preparatory teachers formerly enjoyed the advan- 
tage of educatiDg talented, earnest youths for the teachers' profession. If parents 
mostly of the middle classes noticed that their sons comhlned a ready understanding 
with earnestness of character, they decided upon their hecoming teachers; and if 
the local teacher and minister agreed with them their resolution was carried into 
effect. Out of such material something could be made; hut how do we stand to-day 
with few exceptions? Talented children of well-to-do parents choose every profes- 
sion before that of teaching. If children of such parents are of somewhat limited 
capacity, and in addition physically weak, the impression is that they can still 
become teachers. Formerly, poor people did not dare to think of their sons hecom- 
iDg teachers; now, their ambition is not to raise their children to be day-laborers 
like themselves, but to make teachers of them, that they may live like gentlemen. 
Even if they have no money for their education, they know that their children will 
be provided for in preparatory institutions and seminaries. 

'At present there exist in Prussia three Protestant (Berlin, Drossig, Augusten- 
burg), five Catholic (Munster, Paderborn, Montabaur, i^arburg, Xanten), and two 
nonseetarian (Trier, Posen) normal seminaries. . -iuC^oOqIp 



232 



EDUCATION BEPORT, 1893-94. 




In judging the whole character of the pamphlet the author can not 
be taken too seriously, and Dr. Bosse's words that he could not under- 
take to guarantee the support of common education would, in conse- 
quence, be more significant. 

Statistics furnish the same conclusions for male and female teachers 
of intermediate schools. Eesults on the whole are the same, only 
fewer teachers belong to families actively engaged in agriculture. 

Fathers of the 2,955 male and 1,310 female teachers in intermediate 
and higher female schools are classed as follows: 



A. Affricultore, cattie raisini;, forestora, and hontiDg. 

B. Mming, industry, civil engineering 

C. Commerce 

D. OfliceholderH, teacliers, liberal professions 



In this case 529 male and 79 female teachers belonged to families of 
common school teachers. The social position of the fathers within 
these groups was the same as among teachers of common schools. 
The results are the following figures : Male teachers, (a) 2,480, (6) 284, 
(c) 191; female teachers, (a) 1,075, (6) 210, (c) 25. The preponder- 
ance of officeholders' children in this division is evident, particularly 
among female teachers, of whom 304 were daughters of actual office- 
holders, 94 of parsons, and 97 of teachers of secondary schools. 

Of great importance for the official action as well as nonofficial influ- 
ence of a profession is the average age of its members. A class like 
that of privy counselors or other higher govermental officials receives 
a certain prestige from the gray hairs of its members. Transgressions 
among them are rare, and moreover, it represents a iwsitive view of 
life, a conservative one. In a class, however, in which the youthful 
element predominates social influence is greatly jeopardized; at aU 
events, the whole class feels perhaps too strongly the impetus of these 
fresh forces, whose influence manifests itself in unguarded words and 
rash actions. Youth most certainly has the ascendency among teach- 
ers, as the following statement shows: 



Age. 



Under 20 years.... 

20 to 25 years 

25 to 30 years 

30 to 35 years 

36 to 40 years 

40 to i5 years 

45 to 50 years 

50 to 55 years 

55 to 60 years 

60 to 65 years 

66 years and over . 



Total 20,727 



City teachers. 



Male. Female. 



25 

2,055 

5,035 

3,400 

2,761 

2,021 

1.890 

1,301 

962 

645 

446 



35 

607 

1,347 

1,151 

855 

627 

866 

209 

102 

60 

14 



5,273 



Country teachers. 



Male. Female. 



241 
8.048 
9,003 
6,177 
4,214 
8,040 
3,225 
2,617 
2,141 
1.668 
1,135 



41,545 



42 

637 
913 
608 
353 
225 
178 
105 
63 
25 
17 



City and conntry 
teachers. 



Male. Female. 



10,139 
14.038 
9,673 
6,975 
6,061 
5,115 
4«008 
3,103 
2, 313 
1,581 



3,166 



Digitized 



62,272 



77 

1,244 

2,260 

1,750 

1,208 

762 

6U 

814 

166 

86 

31 



8,439 



byCiOOgk 



EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 



233 



That "youth" is so strongly represented in the teaching profession is 
probably not generally known. At most one-sixth of the male teaehers 
are younger than 25 years of ago, and two-fifths are younger than 30. 
Male teachers up to the thirty-fifth year are in tlie majority. In com- 
parison with male female teachers number fewer between the ages of 
20 and 25 years, but more between 25 and 30 years, and strikingly 
more in the next five years. A comparison of the absolute differences 
between the sexes on this point would be .of little value. If there 
should be a war between "the young and the old," the former would 
have the advantage of numbers, particularly in the country. A num- 
ber of deplorable occurrences always taken advantage of by opponents 
of the teaching profession are self-explained by the foregoing figures; 
for if tlie lower five years were abandoned, i. e., if teachers were, in 
the ages mentioned, still occupied in educating themselves, or acting as 
substitutes under supervision, all in all the result would be a gain. 

While the number of young teachers is large, that of old teachers is 
small. That only 2.54 per cent reach the age of 65 years in teaching 
proves that the duration of life and preservation of strength are very 
limited among teachers. The increase of teachers' positions in the last 
forty years must be taken into consideration when judging the figures. 
It is interesting to note that cities have proportionately fewer old 
teachers than the country. The 446 teachers above 65 years of 
age are only 2.15 per cent of city teachers; the 1,135 country teach- 
ers of the same age are 2.73 per cent. The city teachers over 60 
years constitute only 16.7 per cent; the country teachers of the same 
age, 18.2 per cent. In this case also the great increase in cities must 
be considered; but it is nevertheless remarkable that of the 2,181 
teachers and principals of Berlin only 1 served more than fifty years, 
only 3 from between forty- five and fifty, only 12 between forty and 
forty- five, and only 38 between thirty-five and forty years. One of the 
districts of Berlin (" Kleine Gaulte") numbers only 6 principals and 3 
regular teachers at the age of 70 years and above. Prolongation of 
life is therefore hardly to be expected from settling in a large city. 

More important materially than duration of life is the time of service, 
to which the following statement refers: 



Time of service. 



1 to 5 years . . 
5 to 10 years . 
10 to 15 years 
15 to 20 years 
20 to 25 years 
25 to 30 years 
30 to 35 years 
35 to 40 years 
40 to 45 years 
45 to 50 years 
Over 50 years 



(a) City teachers. 



Hale. Female. 



3,094 
4,835 
3,567 
2,715 

3,722 
2,084 

638 

72 



1,438 

1,382 

1,174 

655 

474 

130 

18 
2 



(2>) Country teachers. 
Male. Female. 



10,869 
8,119 
6,032 
3,781 



1,073 
749 
593 
328 



6,229 


295 


4,408 


103 


1,842 


23 


175 


2 



(c) City and country 
teachers. 



Male. Female. 



13,063 

12,954 

9,599 

6,496 

5, 333 

4,618 

3,759 

2,823 

1,679 

801 

247 



2.511 

2,131 

1,767 

983 

511 

258 

171 

62 

30 

11 

4 



Digitized 



by Google 



234 EDUCATION BEPOETy 1893-ai. 

Tlii:^ table demonstrates the same facts that are brought to light in 
considering duration of life; at the same time a series of other truths 
force themselves on our observation. The accumulation in the first 
lines of the above statement is even larger than in the foregoing table. 

The fact that the number of young teachers is proportionately large 
play^ an important part in the consideration of salary. Scales of sal- 
ary like those lately adopted in Berlin, according to which pay rapidly 
increases during the first years of service, have an entirely different 
effect on the whole body of teachers from those long scales, the middle 
of which is reached late in life, and the end rarely ever. The highest 
ratios between the ages of 25 and 40 years should be considered. 
Every salary over and above these has only a problematic value. The 
familiar scales, according to which the highest salary is received after 
forty years of service, do not represent the facts very truthfully. If 
in all Prussian cities collectively only 710 out of 20,727 teachers serve 
tliat time, it means the institution of a lottery setting a premium upon 
physical endurance, and not fixing an aim attainable under ordinary 
circumstances. If we start the scale from the twenty-fifth year of life, 
the last increase in salary should be made at the thirtieth year of 
service, or possibly at the twenty-fifth. 

The number of veterans still in office after fifty years of service is small 
(247, or 0.4 per cent), and has essentially decreased in later years, since 
the enactment of the p^ttsion law. In 1871 there were 540, or 1.09 per 
cent of 49,594 teachers who had served more than fifty years. During 
the same year 6.48 per cent had served more than forty years, in 1891 
only 4.4 per cent. At present many an aged teacher, grown old in his 
profession, can retire earlier. During the years 18SC-1891 the number of 
pensioners increased from 3,938 to 5,691. For the most part pensioners 
die soon; in May, 1886, they numbered 3,592; reduced to 1,627 in 1891. 
The different provinces present striking differences in regard to the 
time of service. In Berlin teachers who had served from one to five 
years (225) formed only 10.3 per cent, in East Prussia 22.22 per cent <rf 
the totality. East Prussia (31) and Hanover (40) have the greatest 
number of old teachers; Berlin (1 who had served over fifty years), 
Schleswig-Holstein (2), West Prussia (6), Westphalia (10), and Ehenish 
Prussia (only 28 who had served fifty years out of 8,355) have very few. 
The small proportion of female teachers of long service is explained by 
the fact that until 1864, with very few exceptions, only Ehenish Prussia 
admitted female teachers in to common schools. Berlin followed in 1857. 



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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 



235 



The condition of teachers' families is of the greatest interest. 
Statistics record the following facts: 



Age of fblljr occupied teachers. 



In cities. 

FnUer 20 years 

20 to 25 years 

26 to 30 years 

30 to 35 yoar« 

35 to 40 years 

40 to 45 years 

45 to 50 years 

50 to 55 years 

55 to 60 years 

60 to 65 years.... 

Over 65 years 

Total 

Jn the country. 

Under 20 years 

20 to 25 year* 

25 to 30 years 

30 to 35 years 

35 to 40 years 

40 to 45 years 

45 to 50 years 

50 to 55 years 

55 to 60 years 

60 to 65 years 

Over 65 years 

Total 

In the whole State. 

Under 20 years 

20 to 25 years 

25 to 30 years 

30 to 35 years 

35 to 40 years 

40 to 45 years 

45 to 50 years 

60 to 55 years 

55 to 60 years 

60 to 65 years 

Over .65 years 

Total 







Those that 


Living 


Single. 


Married. 


had been 


children. 






married. 


(a) 


25 
1,950 








104 


1 


44 


2,846 


2,140 


40 


2,017 


868 


2,561 


67 


4.476 


327 


2,382 


52 


5,878 


171 


1,794 


56 


6,570 


126 


1,688 


76 


5.549 


77 


1.246 


68 


4.166 


55 


809 


98 


8,058 


51 


519 


76 


2,149 


10 


332 


98 


1.520 


6.512 


13,585 


630 


34.427 


241 
7,608 








481 


5 


217 


4,060 


4,871 


72 


6,915 


921 


6,148 


108 


11,866 


280 


3,832 


102 


12. 874 


137 


2,835 


68 


11,423 


104 


2,990 


131 


13,199 


80 


2,396 


141 


11,525 


70 


1.881 


190 


9,395 


45 


1,400 


223 


7,173 


29 


877 


229 


5.035 


13,565 


26,711 


1.269 


88,621 


266 
9,548 








585 


6 


261 


6.906 


7,020 


112 


7,932 


1,789 


7,709 


175 


16, 341 


607 


6,214 


154 


18,752 


308 


4.629 


124 


16,993 


230 


4,679 


206 


18,748 


157 


3,642 


209 


15,691 


125 


2,690 


288 


12,453 


90 


1,019 


298 


9,322 


45 


1,209 


327 


6,655 


20,077 


40,296 


1.899 


123.048 



a Eight-elevenths, or 72 per cent, of the children arc under 18. 

Cities and country present very little diflference. The marriage ques- 
tion is affected to some extent by the fact that teachers under 25 years 
of age arejnore numerous in the country (8,325, or 20.04 per cent) than 
in cities (2,080, or 10.03 per cent). On an average, country teachers 
marry sooner than their city colleagues. In cities the number of teach- 
ers married befoi-e the completion of their twenty-fifth year amounts to 
104, or 5.26 per cent of the whole class at this age } in the country, to 481, 
or 6.13 i>er cent. Between 25 and 30 years of age, 2,149 (42.5 i)er cent) 
are married and 2,846 single; in the country, 4,871 (54.12 per cent) are 
married and only 4,060 single; between 30 and 35 years of age, 2,561 city 
teachers, or 73.25 per cent, are married and 868 single; in the country, 
5,148 (83.30 per cent) are married and 921 are single. The number of 
bachelors over 50 is quite small. Altogether there are 423 — in cities 
119, and 234 in the country— which constitute about 0.7 per cent of the 
totality, and hardly compare with the married teachers or widowers 
older than 50 and numbering about 10,582. ^.^.^^^^^ ^^ GoOqIc 



236 EDUCATION KEPORT, 1893-94. 

Statistics also record the number of living children. Altogether 
there are 123,048. Every marriage averages almost 3 children (2.9); 
2.4 for cities (34,427 children) and 3.2 for the country, showing no 
insignificant difference in this respect either. 

^We can not pass over these figures without recurring to the early 
marriages of teachers, for a longtime a favorite theme of the conserva- 
tive press and even in the Diet. Dr. Bosse has given this subject also 
its true value. It is hardly to be commended, but easily explained by 
the existing circumstances, that of the 10,405 teachers whose age does 
not exceed 25 years, 6S5 (5.62 per cent) are already married. It is not 
even explainable why 104 out of those 585 are city teachers. The fact 
remains, however, that out of 10 teachers of that age 1 decides upon 
so early a marriage. In the country 1 out of 16 enters the married 
state at that early age. The number of such marriages will positively 
decrease as soon as the Government more firmly carries out the prin- 
ciple of placing the youngest teachers rarely if at all in independent 
positions in which marriage is often a necessity. Further on we do not 
notice too great a haste in marrying. As the foregoing statement 
shows, there are rather a considerable number of middle-aged bachelors, 
while the number of unmarried old men is not large. 

A comparison of the aforementioned numbers with those of the 
statistics of the entire population is not only interesting but of impor- 
tance in judging the whole subject. This is not the place to institute 
comparisons with allied professions, as the necessary foundations are 
wanting. A smaller percentage of teachers as a rule enter upon mar- 
ried life than the average population over 20 years of age. Wliereas 
in the entire population of Prussia the number of unmarried men is 
only 46.7 per cent of the married, or 31.86 per cent of the entire male 
population over 20 years of age, the number of bachelor teachers is 
49.8 per cent of the married, or 33.25 per cent of the totality. (Widowers 
are not included in either case.) This preponderance of bachelors 
among teachers applies exclusively to those under 25 years of age. 
While on an average 7.75 per cent of males between 20 and 25 years 
of age are married, there are only 6.62 per cent of teachers of that age 
married. At a more advanced age the proportions are reversed. 
Between the ages of 25 and 30 years an average of 48.5 per cent of 
men are married, and exactly 50 per cent of teachers; between the ages 
of 30 and 35 years the average is 76.6 and 79.9 per cent of teachers. 

The number of teachers' widows is disproportionately high. While 
there is 1 widow to every 3.33 married teachers, or 6.25 teachers in 
general, the number of widows in the entire population is notably less; 
i. e., 1 widow to every 4 marriages, or to every 6 men above 20 years of 
age. The reasons for this state of the case may be the early mortality 
among teachers, and the disinclination and meager prospect of widows 
for a second marriage. 



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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 237 

In considering personal relations of the teaching profession, the 
examinations deserve to be mentioned as an important point. The 
62,272 male teachers and principals are thus divided according to the 
examinations : 

Passed a cqimnoii school teachers' examination 59, 502 

Passed an intermediate school teachers* examination 678 

Passed a principal's examination 1, 651 

Passed the examination for the higher branches or the ministry 231 

Passed no examination as yet 203 

Of the 8,439 female teachers, 6,011 were examined for common schools, 
2,107 for girls' higher schools, and 24 for principals' positions; 39 had 
not been examined as yet. The remaining 258 (204 examined and 54 
not examined) were fully employed industrial teachers. Conspicuous 
differences are not iceable between the creeds. Catholic teachers (17,737) 
constitute 28.5 per cent of the totality 5 they number only 142 (20.9 per 
cent) of examined intermediate school teachers, and 326 (20.3 per cent) 
of principals. Catholic women teachers (4,843) constitute 67.5 per cejit 
of the totality; of them 430 took the examination for girls' higher 
schools. With Protestant women teachers the majority (1,635) are 
examined for girls' higher schools, the minority (1,599) for common 
schools. 

An interesting comparison is furnished by the teachers of interme- 
diate and girls' higher schools. In these institutions 468 teachers 
'* examined for intermediate schools" are employed against 1,348 exam- 
ined for 'common schools only. The majority of "intermediate school 
teachers," therefore, remain true to common schools. In intermediate 
schools, moreover, corresponding to the small number of Catholic pupils, 
the Catholic element sinks into greater minority (2,664 Protestant and 
281 Catholic male teachers, 1,190 Protestant and 113 Catholic female 
teachers), so that in the event of preferment, Catholic teachers are at 
an evident disadvantage, the greater, since a corresponding remunera- 
tion in common schools does not follow; on the contrary, the unfortu- 
nate law of the 26th of May, 1887, that paralyzes the State, Catholic 
districts are again forced into stagnation. 

Tlie question of sex not only belongs to a presentation of the subject 
of the teaching profession, but may in fact be considered one of the 
most important features. As stated before, the two creeds present 
entirely different results in the numerical comparison of the sexes. 
The proportion is unequal in the separate provinces, too. The follow- 
ing table shows the results for cities and country: 



Digitized 



byG00gI( 



238 



EDUCATION REPORT, 18^-94. 



Regular female teachers. 



Provinces. 




East Prnsaia. 
"West Prussia. 
I City of Berlin 
Srandonburg 
Poroerania. 
Poson 
SileHia 
Saxony 

Schleswig-Holstein 
Hanover... 
Westphalia 
Hesse- Nassao 
Klionish Prussia 
HofaenxoUerD 



The whole State 



Besides these 1 other Christian of different faith, and 58 Jewish (40 
in Berlin) regular female teachers, and 207 assistants hold positions. 

The eastern part of the State has throughout a few female teachers. 
They are confined to three provinces : Berlin, Westphalia, and Ehen- 
ish Prussia, which together have 6,815 female teachers, or 68.4 per 
cent of the totality, while these provinces employ only 14,808, or 23.8 
per cent, of the male teachers in the monarchy. 

The two creeds offer material for comparison. Collectively, there 
are 62,272 male to 8,439 female teachers; consequently 1 woman to more 
than 7 men; in other words, female teachers constitute 12 j>er cent of 
the teaching profession. Protestant schools number 3,527 female to 
44,199 male teachers, a proportion of 2 to 25j respectively, or female 
teachers constituted 7.4 per cent of the totality. Catholic schools 
employ 17,737 male to 4,853 female teachers, a proportion of 2 female 
to less than 7 male teachers; in other words, female teachers consti- 
tuted 21.5 per cent of the totality. Protestant female teachers officiate 
principally in cities; of the 3,527, only 674 hold positions in the country. 
On the other hand, the greater number (2,540) of Catholic female 
teachers fill positions in the country. The inequality in the distribu- 
tion of female teachers of both creeds is more noticeable in the sta- 
tistics of single provinces and districts than in those referring to the 
State. The city schools in the district of Miinster employ 41 Protes- 
tant male and 11 female teachers. On the other hand, Catholic female 
teachers are in the majority in the same district; there are 115 male to 
136 female teachers. The Protestant city sehoolsin tliedistrict of Miuden 
employ 241 male and 19 female teachers; the Catholic, 70 male and 60 
female teachers. The district of Arnsberg numbers 613 male and 130 
female teachers in Protestant city schools, and 280 male and 281 female 
in Catholic schools. The following figures refer to the city schools of 
Khenish Prussia : 



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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 



239 



City. 



Coblenz 

I>a3sel<lorf 

Cologne 

Trief. 

Aix-IaCbapelle 



I*rotostaiit teach • 
ers. 



Men. Women. 



94 
1,240 
111 
51 
22 



208 

21 

23 

8 



Catholic teach- 
ers. 



Men. 


Women. 


119 


76 


934 


521 


413 


403 


101 


83 


238 


213 



The difference in country schools is strikingly greater. In the Prot- 
estant rural schools the 547 female teachers constitute 2 per cent of the 
totality (29,269) ; in the Catholic, on the other hand, with five times as 
many female teachers and three-sevenths as many male (12,164), the 
female teachers constitute 17 per cent of all the teachers. The two 
western provinces again bring out this difference most prominently. 
The following table presents the relations in the country schools of 
Ehenish Prussia and Westphalia : 



City. 


Proteatant teach- 
ers. 


Cathol 
e 

Men. 


ic teach* 

rs. 




Men. 

e2 

478 
1,007 


Women. 


Women. 


Miinster 


6 

7 

161 


422 • 251 


Minden.... .. -. - - . 


252 ' 116 


ArnaUerg 


561 1 312 


WeatpUaJia 


1,547 


164 


1,235 1 679 


Coblenz 


472 
479 
120 
243 
18 


2 
45 

3 
42 


708 1 180 


DiUseldorf 


796 475 


Cologne 


001 .^13 


Trier 


909 
733 


493 


Aix-la-Chapelle 


178 








Keniab Prussia 


1,392 &2 


3,747 


1,639 









In Westphalia the number of Protestant men teachers in rural schools 
is greater by 300 than the Catholic; the number of Protestant women 
teachers, on the other hand, amounts to little less than one-fourth of 
the Catholic. In Ehenish Prussia the Protestant country school female 
teaehers are numerically not worth noticing, while the Catholic female 
element is almost one-third of the total number. The numbers reported 
from the district of Diisseldorf are particularly important. Although 
there were 203,000 Catholic and only 137,000 Protestant school children, 
the number of Catholic male teachers (1,730) equaled the Protestant 
(1,728). In 1891 Protestant schools numbered only 283, the Catholic 
990 female teachers. 

From 1886 to 1891 the total number of female teachers increased 
from 6,848 to 8,439; hence, by 23.2 per cent; while the number of male 
teachers at the same time advanced only by 7.55 per cent. The increase 
at present particularly affects Protestant teachers (1886, 2,551; 1891, 
3,527, an increase of 40 per cent in five years). In 1886 Catholic female 
teachers numbered 4,233; the in(Tease (14 per cent) was therefore not 
so important. In 1861, in Prussia, 431 Protestant and 1,321 Catliolic 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



240 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



female, and 23,023 Protestant and 10,347 Catbolic male teachers were 
engaged in teaching in the common schools. 

The question of female teachers can not be further amplified here, or 
we should be obliged to clear away a heap of worthless superficialities 
and manifest untruths derived from different sources. We may consider 
the increase in the number of i)ositions for women teachers an evidence 
of educational interest, if we are satisfied with superficial reasons. It 
is often a question of securing an income for unmarried women, a 
motive never entirely wanting. The introduction of the woman ques- 
tion is a palpable superficiality. A female teacher displaces a teacher^s 
wife, so that the woman question is really not promoted a single step. 
However, that is a subject which does not permit of being treated 
secondarily. He who wishes to write on this subject intelligently must 
not be afraid of clearing away errors. From the school standpoint, 
there is much to say on the question, particularly in reference to school 
politics. It is known what great value the Catholic clergy place upon 
the service of women teachers. 

And now to the question of salary. The statistics are so well known 
that we might leave them out, if thereby one of the most essential 
features in a presentation of the condition of Prussian common school 
teachers were not omitted. 

The following report for the year 1891 includes all allowances for 
time of service, exclusive of free dwellings and fuel, or corresponding 
indemnification : 

Teachers in cities and country. 





(a) In 
cities. 


(6) In the 
country. 


(c) Total. 




(a) In 
clUes. 


(6) In the 
country. 


(e)Totid. 


Below 450 marks 

450 to 600 marks 

001 to 700 marks 

760 to 900 marks 

901 to 1,050 marks.... 
1,051 to 1,200 marks.. 
1,201 to 1,350 marks.. 


40 
855 
1.544 
2,318 
2,306 
2,220 
2,070 


87 
2,309 
6,127 
8,692 
6,952 
6,041 
6,011 


127 
2,664 
7,671 
11, 010 
9,258 
7,261 
7,081 


1,851 to 1,500 marks. 
1,501 to 1,80U marks. 
1,801 to 2,100 marks. 
2,101 to 2,400 marks. 
2,401 to 2,700 marks. 
2,700 to 3,000 marks. 
Over 3,000 marks - . . 


1,783 

3,544 

2,261 

1,460 

632 

224 

252 


3,339 

3,028 

1,092 

388 

107 

40 

16 


6.122 
6,673 
8.358 

739 
9M 
267 



The average income in cities is found to be 1,452 marks ($345.57), 
in the country 1,000 marks ($238) ; cities and country together, 1,203 
marks ($286.31). 

Whoever wishes to acquaint himself better with the import of these 
numbers should consult the proceedings of the Prussian House of 
Deputies from the 10th of January, 1893, and the scheme for the im- 
provement of the common school system and salaries of teachers, male 
and female, in which the minister of education. Dr. Bosse, presented a 
tabulation of these numbers that might have aroused qualms of con- 
science in the most zealous advocates of small salaries. 

The fluctuation of the amounts of teachers' salaries in Prussia is 
demonstrated in the following table: 



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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 
Average salary. 



24t 



Tear. 



1P20 
1861 
1871 
lt*78 
18^0 
1891 



In Cities. 



Marks. 

C38 

846 

1,031 (1.042) 

1.405 (1,414) 

1.275 (1,279) 

(1,452; 



lu tbo country. 



Marks. 
258 
548 

667 (678) 

053 (954) 

051 (954) 

(1, 080) 



In cities and 
country to- 
gether. 



Marks. 
323 
634 

790 (7©7> 

1,107 (1,102). 

1,060 (1.007) 

(1»20JK 



The numbers in parentheses are the average amounts for the whole^ 
State, consequently include Schleswig-Holstciu, Hanover, and Hesse- 
Nassau. The first in order refer to the old provinces only. 

The proi)ortion between male and female teachers is not uniformly 
regulated. The average salary of the latter in 1891 amounted to 1,003- 
marks ($23471), city; 8C2 ($205.15), country, and 950 ($227.10), citiea 
and country together. 

The salaries of male and female teachers bear the following ratios:: 
In cities, 100 to GO; in the country, 100 to 80; on an av^erage of 100 ta 
79, or 5 to 4. These about correspond to the number of hours employed 
by both sexes, so that the principle, equal pay for men and women, la 
generally carried out with Prussian common school teachers. In single- 
instances we of course meet with differences. Oftentimes the young: 
female teacher is proportionately or absolutely better paid than the^ 
male teacher of equal time of service (Berlin) ; whereas in more advanced 
age the male teacher is more liberally paid, a piece of social justice to- 
be found anywhere, except in such ill-regulated conditions as those of 
the capital of Pomerania. This proportion should bo increased if male^ 
teachers are expected to establish families and male and female teachers- 
to retain the same social standing. 

One of the most interesting tables of all the official returns is the- 
comparison of salary and .time of service. Unfortunately, the tabl& 
includes dwellings and fuel; if it referred to salary only it would 
manifest very plain facts. But it answers every purpose as it is. The 
following data, demonstrating the defective regulation of teachers^ 
salaries, are plain : 

On the one hand — 



Male toachers, to 5 ycan$ of serrico a. . . 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Female teachers, to 5 years of service. . 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Female teachers, 5 to 10 years of service. 



Number 




of 
teachers. 


Salary. 




Marks. 


15 


2, 401 to 3, 00(^ 


74 


1.80lto2.40a 


ft 258 


1. 501 to 1. 80(K 


c],219 


1,201 to 1,500 


16 


1.501 to 1, 650- 


119 


1.851 to 1,500 


d43 


1.2U1 to 1.350- 


c6U 


1. 051 to 1, 2U0 


8 


1.051to2,100« 



a Mostly principals e4acate<l in theology, who have adopted teaching. 
h Among them a teacher under 20 years of age. 

ED 94 16 



c AmoDf; them 5 under 20. 
(f Among them 1 under 20.. 



242 EDUCATION REPORT, 18$3-94. 

On the other hand — 



Xumber ' 
I of I 
1 teachers. ' 



Salary. 



Male teochor, 10 to 15 years of eervice.... 
Male teacher, 15 to ilO years of service.... 
Male teachers, 10 to 50 years of service .. 

Halo teachers, 5 to 10 years of service 

Male teachers, 10 to 50 years of service.... 

Male teachers. 5 to 10 years of service* 

Male teachers, 10 to 30 years of service... 

Male t«a(^er8, 5 to 10 years of service 

Female teacher, 10 to 15 years of service.. 
Female tt'acher, 15 to 20 years of service. . 
Female teachern, 10 to 30 years of service. 
Female teachers, 10 to 40 years of service. 



1 
1 

12 
67 
U 
181 
11 
152 
1 
1 

19 
49 



Jfarl*. 

Below 300 
301 to 450 

. 461 to 600 
45ito600 
flOl to 750 
601 to 750 
751 to 810 
751 to 810 

Below 300 
301 to 450 
451 to 600 
601 to 750 



These figures are a convincing proof of the inadequate regulation of 
salaries; a female teacher 19 years old with 1,201 to 1,350 marks; a 
male teacher of the same age with 1,501 to 1,650 marks (rural position); 
and next to them a male teacher of 40 to 50, and two others of 30 to 
40 years of service with 451 to 600 marks ! Similar incongruities would 
not be permitted to exist among any other class of public officers. 

The close connection between salary and service is sufficiently known, 
but the practical consequences are not deduced. While the salaries 
of bachelors and female teachers are sufficient to permit even certain 
incidental expenses (traveling, etc.) which other officeholders with 
corresponding education are allowed in greater measure, teachers with 
families often suffer jwsitive want. The average is, indeed, so regulated 
that a moderately good day-laborer receives almost as good wages as a 
teacher. This can be demonstrated by a simi>le arithmetical example 
that has, of course, no claim to mathematical exactness. 

According to reports on personal relations, Prussia, in 1891, had 
62,272 male teachers. The salaries for 63,237 positions amount to 
75,020,124 marks ($17,854,789.51), consequently 1,186 marks ($282.27) 
for each position. Sixty-two thousand tw6 hundred and seventy-two 
teachers would, therefore, clear 62,272 x 1,186 == 73,854,592 marks. This 
sum must support: 

Unmarried male teachers 20,077 

Married male teachers 40,296 

Teachers' wives 40,296 

Widowers 1,899 

Children 123,048 

Total 225,616 

Nearly a quarter of a million persons are to live on 74,000,000 marks. 
It is true 34,620 children are over 18 years of age, consequently are partly 
self supporting. But if we calculate that many of the younger and older 
children must not only be supi>orted but educated, we are not exagger- 
ating if we allow only a bare support for all the children. What is the 
normal sum which a Prussian school-teacher has at his disposal for each 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 243 

member of his family? K we divide tlie salary by the number of 
persons the result is 327 marks ($77.83). But such a calculation is 
seriously wron^. Baclielors are counted in with 327 marks. If we 
contrast young and old teachers, allowing: each three-fourths of the 
average salary, which corresponds with facts, there remains for tho 
505^9 members of country teachers' families a sum of 56,000,000 marks 
($11,900,000) in round numbers; i. e., 272 marks ($64.74) to a person.; 
in round numbers, 75 i>fennig or 17 cents a day, or 3.75 marks (89 cents) 
for a teacher's family, and this leaves no allowance for abnormal cases 
of ten or more members, since in teachers' families, as in schoolrooms, 
overcrowding is not rare. This belongs to the natural history of Prus- 
sian common school teachers. 

These salaries are not all derived from schools; a not inconsiderable 
part are derived from church services; another part must be collected 
&om the utilization of lands. In 1891 the number of school positions 
united with church offices amounted to 15,430. It is greater on the 
Protestant than on the Catholic side. In the former case, out of 17,737 
teachers only 3,082 held church offices. In cities the two creeds, col- 
lectively, performed between 1,555 and 390; in the country between 
10,793 and 2,692 church service. The payment of church functionaries 
averages greater on the Protestant side; in cities 404, in the country 312 
marks, whereas Catholics received only between 308 and 247 marks. 
Protestant church service is best paid in the communities within the 
district of Gumbinnen (1,191 marks on an average); then follow the 
city positions in the district of Stralsund (850 marks). Last in order 
are Casscl (97 marks), Bromberg (94 marks), and Wiesbaden (72 
marks). Catholic ecclesiastics are paid somewhat better only in the 
communities of Konigsberg (501 marks) and in the cities of Liegnitz 
(478), Oi>peln (472), and Hanover (572 marks). 

A gift of land is connected with 30,684 positions, of which 2,018 are 
in cities. The positions connected with the best land donated are in 
the districts of Konigsberg, Gumbinnen (4 hectare on an average), the 
province of Hanover (Luneburg and Stado between 7i and 6§ hectare); 
the poorest land donations are in Ehenish Prussia, particularly in Aix- 
la-Chapelle (one-sixth hectare) and Cologne (one-half hectare). 

The acquisition of a home is of great importance for the welfare of a 
teacher's family. Unfortunately, in cities, a strong retrogression has 
set in^ In 1871 the communities owned 7,017 teachers' dwellings, of 
which 2,964 were rented; the last statistics numbered only 4,292 house 
owners and 207 tenants. At present, principals only are furnished 
with dwellings. In the country there are 37,654 home^ (rented or 
owned) for 41,545 teachers, consequently 3,891 teachers must provide 
their own homes. Only 2,036 dwellings are at the disposal of the 3,166 
female country teachers. A home, the foundation of so many comforts 
in life, is becoming a rarer possession among teachers every day. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



244 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94, 

Id conclusion, an important question for a class of ofBceholders is, 
How many of tUem can acquire a leading or self-supporting position! 
There are 41,545 teachers for 30,871 schools. According to the above 
numbers about 11,000 teachers are between the ages of 20 to 27, hence 
every country school-teacher can be a principal or have full charge 
of a school himself at the age of 27. On an average, teachers of 60 
years of age and older may become principals with two or more 
assistants ; but every country school- teacher between 25 and 50 years of 
age might have a position with one assistant. The ambition to super- 
intend others in their profession is easily realized in the country as 
well as in cities. In 1891 there were 3,871 schools in cities. If the 
appointment of principals went directly according to time of service, 
every teacher 49 years old and over could be rector or principal in Ber- 
lin, despite the great number of schools. This end could be attained 
at 47 years of age. As the appointment of principals follows from 
other considerations, partly justifiable, rather a large proportion of 
teachers must relinquish the anticipation of practicing their profession 
in an iudex)endent or prominent position, a fact fraught with many 
suggestions which explain the proposition of Dorpfeld to introduce 
schools of four classes. 



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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 246 



History and Development of the Common-school System of 

Berlin. 

The following statement is abridged from a work of Dr. Hermann 
Z wick, one of the six assistant superintendents (Stadtschulinspectoren) 
of Berlin, published as a memorial on the occasion of opening the two 
hundredth communal school. Omissions in this English version are 
made in sections of no interest to the American reader. The whole 
expose is well adapted for comparison with our American conditions 
as found in large cities. The author touches upon the interior work of 
the schools as well as their exterior management and government. His 
work is a calm, dispassionate statement, which deserves great credit. 
Contents.— Historical Review— The Communal School System from 1820 to 1869— 
Tlie Communal School System from 1870 to^ 1893, especially from 1878. (l) 
Repeal of tuition fee; increase in attendance. (2) Census of cbildren of school 
age; estimates for classes and schools. (3) Number of classes in communal 
schools; buildings; their arrangement and equipment. (4) Number of pupils to 
one teacher. (5) Teachers, salaries, hours of duty. (6) Supervision, school 
districts, school boards. (7) Course of study, length of sessions, division of 
time, examination for promotion, branches of study : Religion, German, arith- 
metic and geometry, history, geography, natural history, drawing, singing, 
female handiwork, gymnastics, domestic training, school gardens. (8) Contina- 
ation of teachers' studies. Conclusion. Supplement: Eleven tables. 

INTRODUCTION. 

The education of the young is a public affair, common to all citizens; 
hence it can flourish only in public schools under the care and manage- 
ment of the entire population, endowed with the prerogatives of self- 
government. 

This conviction is the fundamental thought that has created the 
Berlin common schools, and has guided all efforts toward their perfec- 
tion on the part of the city authorities. The system began on a small 
scale, but it has since assumed the proportions of a stately, well-con- 
structed edifice. In viewing the course of its development two periods 
are distinctly discernible. 

During the first period, from 1826 to 1869, the city authorities grad- 
ually assumed the care of the children of school age by establishing a 
well-organized system of schools and making arrangements for regular 
attendance of all the children of that age. The tuition wa« either 
gratuitous or a fee had to be paid. However, the common school had 
the unmistakable stamp of a pauper school, which seemed for a time 
indelible, the well-to-do classes of society avoiding them and patroniz- 
ing i)rivate schools. 

In the second period, from 1870 to the present time, the public school 
system of Berlin became what it is now, to wit: A common school sys- 
tem in the true American sense of the word. Its exterior and interior 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



246 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

is well planned in outline; it is capable of being enlarged, and aflfords 
opportunities for new members to be organically connected witb it. Its 
gates are open to tbe youth of all strata of the population and instruc- 
tion is gratuitous, while the fulfillment of the duty of attendance is 
secured by laws which appear to the community as self-evident as nat- 
ural laws. The common school of Berlin is supported on the principle 
that all children, regardless of the wealth or poverty of the parents, 
shall sit side by side in school, and be taught and trained according to 
the same principles of culture and civilization, because this is consid- 
ered the best way for the elevation of the morally forsaken and for 
uniting the different classes of society and establishing a homogeneous 
population. 

Within the second period the year 1878 has especial significance, 
inasmuch as it is the year in which the completion of the system was 
reached. The municipal supervisory organs that are considered neces- 
sary conditions of a sound internal development began their activity 
during that year, and more attention was given to the pedagogical 
management, as well as to a careful revision of the course of study. 
Beginning with that year the common school system increased to 
unheard of dimensions, so that within fifteen years the number of 
school buildings increased from 100 to 200; the number of children 
attending fipom 79,000 to 180,000; the number of classes from 1,365 to 
over 3,300, and the annual expenditures, exclusive of new buildings, 
increased from 3,890,668 marks to nearly three times that sum, namely, 
to 9,191,327 marks.^ This memorial is intended to sketch the last 
period more minutely, but in order to understand and judge it cor- 
rectly a review of the development preceding it is necessary. 

THE COMMON-SCHOOL SYSTEM FROM 1820 TILL 1869. 

The beginning of the Berlin common school system dates from the 
3'ear 1820. In this year the city relieved the State of the care of the 
city poor, and also of the pauper schools. Six pauper schools, with 7 
classes and 500 children, besides 700 children taught in private 
schools — that was the nucleus of the system; up to that year the 
public schools of Berlin were not communal institutions. The children 
of school age attended partly secondary schools, but for the most part 
the numerous giadeil ^nd ungraded private schools, the educational 
results of which were very meager. The children of the poor had 
been attending schools connected with orphan asylums or church con- 
gregations and other corporations; a large number (in 1818 about 
8,000 of 27,000) did not attend any school. 



'On tlio 1st of June, 1894, tho number of schools was 204, with 3,435 classes (1,690 
hoys' and 1,709 girls* classes, 35 mixed), and a total of 182,393 children (90.297 boys, 
92,056 girls), the number of teachers 4,138 (203 principals, 2,093 men teachers, 1,136 
women teachers, 609 women teachers for women's handiwork, and 97 assistanta); 
the annual expenditures amounted to 9,904,428 marks, to which the city treasury 

contributed 9,811,898 marks. (^ r^r^r-i]r> 

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EDUCATION IN CENTEAL EUEOPE. 247 

The first imi>ortant step to a well-organized system supported by the 
commnnity was made iu tlie year 1820. The city council passed a reso- 
lution ** to reorgauize the pauper schools and extend them so that they 
would satisfy all demands." A member of the city council became the 
technical leader, whose title was "City school councilor.'^ He cooper- 
ated with the city deputies and the royal commissioners in framing a 
plan of organization. According to his plan all poor children should 
in future be taught in public city elementary schools. In 1827 the city 
was divided into four **pooi districts," each one of which should in 
future have at least one communal paupei school. The schools were 
named after the number of the district, and this has given rise to the 
nomenclature adhered to to the present day. Since it took a long 
period ot years before these city schools could be erected, the attend- 
ance of pauper children was secured by paying tuition for them from 
the city treasury in private and parochial schools. Children of school 
age who were working in factories and shops during the day were 
required to attend evening and afternoon schools. A tuition fee was 
required if the conditions of the pai^ents justified it; if not, the fee 
was remitted. 

Since the city authorities had taken the public school system under 
its own care, and had appointed a professional supervisor, the former 
school board was dissolved, and a purely communal committee of 
school administration was appointed, in accordance with the law of 
1808, which provided for the government of cities. This committee 
of the council was promptly confirmed by the authorities of the 
State. On the 1st of August, 1829, the committee began its work; its 
true name is "City school deputation." The city ordinance which 
called the school committee into existence defined its functions, and 
up to the present day they have not undergone any essential changes, 
although in the course of time its membership has increased in accord- 
ance with the phenomenal increase of the school system and the entire 
city. The committee consists of members of the "niagistrat" (the 
upper house of the city legislature) and the common council (the lower 
house), of a certain number of private citizens elected by the two 
houses aforementioned, and of the ecclesiastical superintendents of 
the city (who up to the year 1877 acted as royal commissioners, that is 
to say, as the representatives of the State government); hence there 
were four distinct classes of members, namely, representatives of the 
upper and of the lower homses of the city council, private citizens, and 
ecclesiastical members. In 1853 a second city school councilor, sive- 
ciallr designated for the elementary schools, was appointed by the 
council. In 1866, after most of the Catholic elementary schools had 
become city institutions, the archdeacon of St. Hedwich's Church 
l)ecame a member of the committee. Since the year 1875 the number 
of members has been 32, namely, G members of the upper house, 10 of 
the lower house of the city council, 11 city deputies, 4 Protestant super- 
intendents, and the Catholic archdeacon. In the y^^^Atrt^M^ ^^^Y 



248 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

school inspectors (in this country called assistant superintendents) 
became also members of the committee; they are, however, city as well 
as State oflBcials, and as State officers bear the title of *' royal district 
inspectors." The business of the committee (school deputation) con- 
sists of the supervision and administration of the entire common school 
system of Berlin. 

The city authorities began in 1827 with the establishment of com- 
munal pauper schools according to the plan agreed upon and the means 
available for that purpose. Up to the year 1840, 12 such schools, with 
73 classes and 7,074 children, were in existence; in 1850, their number 
had increased to 15, having 126 classes and 10,691 children; in 1860, 
there were 20 schools with 185 classes and 14,178 children. The expendi- 
tures increased in the three decades mentioned from $52,467 to $130,945, 
and $200,902. The part borne by the community after the deduction 
of tuition fees amounted to $4,150 in 1840 and $111,904 in 1850, but 
$165,595 in 1^60. 

Each of these pauper schools had at first 4 classes or two grades; 
that is, 2 boys' and 2 girls' classes each, with 75 children ; in all, about 
300. Later they were changed, as the needs of the community increased, 
to 8 classes each; that is, 4 ascending grades for boys and 4 for girls, 
each school containing about 600 children. 

These schools were partly kept in buildings owned by the city, partly 
in rented quarters. Since 1840 schoolhouses were built so that besides 
two dwellings for the principals and the first assistant teacher, there 
were eight class rooms. The thirteenth communal school attached to 
the Elizabeth Church, containing two dwellings for teachers and ten 
class rooms, which school has recently been removed to give room to a 
modc^rn structure, dated from 1840, 

The corps of teachers of these pauper schools consisted of a head 
teacher who was charged with the supervision of the external manage- 
ment of either the boys' or the girls' dei>artment. Later, this head 
teacher was made the principal of the entire school building. He acted 
as class teacher of the highest grade, assisted by the requisite num- 
ber of class teachers, and a limited number of assistants, such as 
teachers of female handicraft. These last-named assistants did not have 
to pass an examination, nor were the children graded in this branch. 
The salaries and number of hours of work were different for teachers 
of boys and girls. Those of boys received between $300 and $400, and 
assistants between $160 and $300. The class teachers taught between 
twenty-four and thirty-two hours, the assistants between eighteen 
and thirty-two hours. Teachers in female handiwork received a com- 
pensation of $50 per year for eight hours' work per week. Since the 
year 1840 a regular increase in salaries at stated intervals was arranged 
for. In 1855 a schedule adopted by the city council fixed the salary of 
head teachers at between $650 and $750; that of the class teachers 
in nine steps, between $300 and $650. 

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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 249 

The course of study of these pauper schools, which it must be under- 
stood were attended by other than pauper children, embraced only that 
which seemed most necessary for life, namely — religion, the mother 
tongue, arithmetic, penmanship, and singing. To these were added 
in the three upper grades of the boys' classes the elements of geome- 
try with exercises in drawings also, in the upper classes of both- boys' 
and girls' departments, the elements of natural history, geography, and 
history, while for the girls alone instruction in knitting, darning, sew- 
ing, and marking of linen was added. The number of hours work per 
week was thirty-two for the two upper classes, twenty-six for the two 
lower classes (see course of study from the year 1840 in Table No. 9). 
Annual examinations in the presence of deputies of the city council and 
the school board, who reported upon their result to the provincial 
authorities, were held and premiums were distributed among poor and 
diligent children. The success of the instruction given in these schools 
was almost uniformly characterized as very satisfactory, and it con- 
firmed the city authorities in the further development of the system. 

Local supervision over the communal pauper schools, as well as over 
parochial and private schools, was exercised by local school boards con- 
sisting ea<5h of a clergyman of the i)arish and two secular members. 
The duties of these boards were defined by ^* instructions" issued in 
1832. These local boards were also the organs through which the city 
school committee conferred with the teachers. At first, this school 
committee was only a city supervisory board, for the administration of 
the pauper schools was still conducted by the board of charities. Not 
until the year 1837 did the school committee assume the administration, 
but even then the board of charities fixed the amount of tuition fees 
payable monthly. The principals of the schools were charged with the 
collection of the fees. In every case the city school committee deter- 
mined what school a child should attend, i. e., the division of the city 
into school districts. 

Only a small number of the children of school age were accommo- 
dated in city pauper schools entirely free from paying tuition fees, 
others (and up to 1860 they were the majority) attended free of charge 
any of the numerous parochi.il or private schools which were conducted 
by private teachers licensed by the city authorities. The city paid for 
the indigent children attending such schools. In 1840 these private 
elementary schools had 6,292; in 1850, 11,772; in 1860, 14,178 children 
of school age; that is, one-half of all the pauper school children. The 
fact that these private institutions were indispensible induced the city 
authorities to bestow much attention to their improvement. 

Though direct interference in their administration on the part of the 
city school authorities was precluded, the authorities were nevertheless 
able to exert an influence over them, since they could make the assign- 
ment of pupils for which the city paid, dependent upon certain condi- 
tions. On the other hand, simple prudence prevented too severe con- 
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250 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

ditions, since the city could not do without these private schools, its 
own provision for indigent pupils being inadequate. 

The Eoyal Government, as early as 1832 and 1839, had issued orders 
and regulations for the licensing, administration, management, and 
supervision of private elementary schools esseutially similar to those 
intended for communal pauper schools. In 1846 the Government issued 
new regulations concerning improvements in management, teaching 
force, and supervision; and in 1855 a new course of study was pre- 
scribed for these schools. 

The city authorities, after the year 1845, supported more liberally the 
private elementary schools to which indigent pupils were assigned, by 
raising the monthly fees and by granting material assistance to the 
teachers, such as appropriations for ftiel, and by entering into formal 
contracts for the tuition of certain numbers of pupils of the respective 
districts. By these measures the principals were relieved of soliciting 
pupils, knowing that they could rely upon a certain number of pupils 
to start with. They were thus enabled to bestow more interest upon 
their buildings and eqiiipment. They could now enter into contracts 
with assistant teachers and prevent overcrowding of classes. With 
the beginning of the sixth decade the number of these schools decreased 
quite perceptibly in proportion to the increase in the number of city 
schools, so that in the ye^r 1890, Avith the abandonment of the last 
private elementary school (Hube's institution), the last remnant of a 
former system vanished. Several historians of the Berlin schools call 
the period from 1845 to 1860 the '^ period of private school misery." 

We must return, though, to the period preceding it, by saying that 
city pauper schools and private elementary schools accommodated the 
greater part of all the pupils of school age in Berlin. Children of school 
age not found there either attended the elementary classes of secondary 
institutions, or if they were very poor and obliged to earn money dur- 
ing the day, they attended since 1830 so-called city supplementary 
schools. These were evening schools, occupied the dty pauper school- 
houses, and were taught by the teachers of such schools. The time 
devoted to instruction in these evening schools amounted to between 
eight and twelve hours i>er week ; the tuition fee was very low, and in 
many cases instruction was gratuitous. It was confined to religion, 
reading, writing, and arithmetic. Since 1840, no child was admitted 
to these evening schools unless during the day engaged in factory 
work. Other requirements were that the child must have completed 
its eleventh year of life, and have attended day school for at least three 
years. The results of thege evening schools were anything but satis- 
factory, so that in the year 1848 they were changed to Sunday schools, 
open between 8 and 12 in the morning. These Sunday schools had in 
1848, 1,639; in 1850, 1,568, and in 1860, 1,004 pupils. 

When, in 1853 the old rules and regulations, dated 1839, concerning 
the occupation of children in factories, were changed, it was ordered 

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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 251 

that every child engaged in factory labor must have at least three 
hours' instruction in a day school, and for the Sunday schools the age 
for admission was changed from the completed eleventh to the com- 
pleted twelfth year of age. Since 1855 the Sunday schools were sup- 
plemented by factory schools with half-day sessions. In 1860 the city 
had still two such factory schools which later on were changed into 
regular city day schools, as was done also with the remaining Sunday 
schools. The number of factory children for which the parents desired 
a half day session diminished to such extent during the seventh decade 
that the schools had to be abandoned. 

In 1892 an imperial law was passed that no child under 13 was 
allowed to work in factories, and children over 13 only in cases where 
the common school course had been completed, and dispensation f^om 
attending school was obligatory. This law had a remarkable effect 
upon the schools, as is clearly seen from the statistics which show an 
increase in the number attending advanced grades. 

Up to the middle of the forties the city authorities had laid the 
foundation of a system of communal schools which was able to develop 
without revolutionary measures or violent reforms; that is to say, pro- 
vision necessary to accommodate all children of school age was made 
I>ossible. !N'ow it became necessary to create authorities which would 
secure the enrollment and regular attendance at school, so that the 
law of compulsory education could be thoroughly carried out. The 
local boards mentioned before were replaced by local school committees 
in the year 1845. This measure was the second important step for the 
establishment of an entire system that embraced all youth of school- 
going age, legally prescribed to be 6 to 14. 

These local committees, which are still in existence, made it possible 
to carry out the duty of attending school prescribed by law. From 
that time children who had completed their sixth year were taken in 
charge at once, and placed in the schools where they belonged, and 
their attendance was constantly controlled by means of the daily reg- 
ister of the teachers, and the visits of the committee. At the begin- 
ning opportunities for attending school were offered, but the strata of 
population for which the schools were established had little compre- 
hension of the necessity of regular attendance. " The benevolence of 
^atuitous instruction" (thus we read in official report of 1846) "had 
to be urged and forced upon the poorer people." The city authorities 
were in this respect quite inexorable; they were convinced that the 
progress of the city was dependent upon good schools and the educa- 
tion of the entire population. The authorities considered themselves 
in duty bound to enforce enrollment and attendance at schools of all 
the children that came under the law, and to do it with all the power 
at their command, even calling in tbe aid of the police to arrest 
truants and bring them to school. Although in this resi)ect the com- 
pulsory attendance law had always been obeyed by a large majority 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



252 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

of the populatiou, and both school principals and clergymen had 
aided the city authorities in finding and indicting refractory and care- 
less parents; and although the royal police authorities had given their 
aid in securing legal school attendance, these measures had proven 
inadequate, because they acted from a distance, as it were, and because 
the city authorities were lacking the necessary truant officials for the 
execution of the law. In 1833 as many as 10 to 15 per cent of the 
enrolled children attended school very irregularly, or not at all. In 
that year 2,032 children were found who had not been enrolled. 

The law of 1830, concerning the occupation of children in factories, 
gave the authorities the necessary lever for enforcing regular attend- 
ance, and enabled them to secure regular control of the attendance. 
In 1845 State regulations were issued for controlling the attendance of 
children in school and confirmation lessons. These regulations fixed 
the punishment for absence from school. In later years these measures 
were supplemented and perfected, and to this day they form the corner 
stone of the State law which requires regular attendance at school. 

These regulations are so characteristic that their provisions deserve 
to be sketched. They provided for two measures: (1) The issue of so- 
called attendance cards, and (2) the formation of local boards as organs 
of the city school committee analogous to the already existing boards 
of charity. 

The attendance cards mentioned served the purpose of finding chil- 
dren of school age not attending, each child attending school receiving 
such a card. They were distributed among the school children of the 
city and kept by the parents. If a member of the local boards called 
to see whether the children of the family attended school, the parents 
exhibited these cards, which was proof positive of their attendance. 
Of children who had no such cards it was presumed that they failed to 
attend school. Whenever a family moved and announced its new ad- 
dress at police headquarters, the police authorities demanded inspec- 
tion of the attendance cards. If they were not forthcoming, it was 
regarded proof positive that the children of that family failed to attend 
school. Any such case was reported to the city school committee who 
instantly appealed to the organs of the law. 

The local school board controlled the attendance of school children. 
Their members consisted and still consist of six to ten citizens each, 
appointed for three years by the house of deputies of the city council 
and confirmed by the magistrate (upper house of the city legislature) 
to serve in the local school board, an honorary duty which is cheerfully 
performed. The members of these boards have each assigned to them 
a number of streets and houses of their district and they visit the fami- 
lies living in them at regular stated intervals. Each of these boards 
has a commissioner, who performs the office work and distributes 
among the members the business to be performed. 



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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 253 

la order to facilitate the work of these boards the principal of each 
school makes a report to the commissioner of cases of nonatteudance. 
Cases of justifiable absence are, of course, not reported. The member 
of the board then attempts by personal inquiries to ascertain the 
causes of the absence, warns the parents, threatens in cases of recur- 
rence, and reports to the school committee in cases wherein his influ- 
ence proves futile. The city school committee then orders immediate 
trial and is entitled t^ impose fines or imprisonment. Appeals may be 
taken within eight days before the upper house of the legislature, that 
is, the magistrate, but the decision of the magistrate is considered final. 

These provisions, and especially the activity of the local boards and 
their commissioners, as well as the application of fines and imprison- 
ment, proved successful and beneficial. Within a brief period of time 
after the regulations were adopted, school attendance became regular 
and the number of nonattendants without cause decreased rapidly. 

While the local school boards controlled school attendance, the busi- 
ness of placing children in the schools was performed by the central 
committee, and the applications for attendance in free schools or release 
from paying fees and the gift of free textbooks for poor children, were 
still performed by the board of charity. 

The next •step taken in the progressive development of the whole 
system was the complete severance of the city school system from the 
board of charity and the management of the institutions for the poor. 
It took some time to bring this about. The main idea which was dis- 
cussed was to change the local boards into organizations which would 
perform on a smaller scale, of course, the same duties which the central 
school committee did for the entire city. However, this plan had to be 
given up because if the city school districts were made independent it 
would necessarily presuppose a severance of the parochial and the 
school authorities, and in this case the clergy insisted upon appointing 
the supervisory staff. This would seriously have weakened the influence 
of the central authority. 

Though the plan of making the local boards independent was dropped, 
their functions and authority were increased. All former duties of the 
commissioners of the poor were transferred ui)on the local boards and 
their commissioners. On December 17, 1868, the revised series of reg- 
ulations for the local school boards of the city of Berlin were issued. 
According to them the city was divided into forty school districts and 
each district into ten divisions for inspection. The local boards con- 
sisted of the councilmen of the respective city district or their substi- 
tutes, the principals of the public elementary and private elementary 
schools of the district, and a number of the citizens .appointed by the 
city council, among whom one must be a principal of a school. 

The sphere of duties of these local boards comprises at present — 

(1) Keeping a list of all children of school age living in the district. 
The royal police ofl&ce aids the board by furnishing quarterly a list of 

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254 EDUCATTON KEPORT, 1803-94. 

all new children of school age and of all those who have moved durmg 
the three months past. The so-called attendance card« were aban- 
doned because unnecessary. 

(2) The proper distribution of the children within the schools of the 
district. 

(3) Control of the attendance. 

(4) The fixing of the amount of tuition fees as well as the granting 
of release from paying. 

(5) Granting of free text-books and other school appliances of 
instruction. 

Each board appoints for each of its ten divisions of inspection a 
commissioner who conducts the office business of the board, and acts 
as a curator for the various buildings within the district. This new 
organization began April 1, 1869, and in the course of time it has been 
subjected to slight modifications. Since 1878 the school districts have 
increased their divisions to sixteen each instead of ten. The following 
table shows how enormously large the apparatus for managing the 
schools of Berlin has become: 



Year. 


Local 
boartls. 


Members. 


1878 ... 


88 
130 
150 
151 
152 
160 
168 


1,003 


1885 


1,464 


1889 


1,670 


1890 


1,682 


1801 


1,700 


1892 


1,820 


1893 


1,972 







The new order issued April 6, 1875, for the pui^pose of controlling 
the attendance in school and providing punishment for unexcused 
absence, has had a good influence upon the regularity of attendance. 
The number of indictments decreased from year to year. This result 
is all the more favorable since the number of children of school age 
has increased quite considerably. It would be still more favorable if 
the public could be generally convinced of the fact that the termina- 
tion of the school age is not the completion of the fourteenth year of 
life, or the children's confirmation in church, but the successful com- 
pletion of the course prescribed for elementary schools. 

The preparation for confirmation in church is not controlled any 
longer, but it is the duty of the principals of schools to hand in to the 
authorities at the beginning of every half yearly term a list of those 
pupils who have completed their thirteenth year of life during the 
semester just closed, and have not received any preparation for con- 
firmation. The organization of local boards and their activity has 
been and is now the foundation of communal school management. 
That the most intense interest coupled with greatest readiness for 
pecuniary sacrifice for school purposes x)ermeates the entire population 
of the metropolis of Berlin ; that today there can scarcely be found a 

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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 



255 



Berlin child tliat escapes its duty to attend school, it may be said that 
these results are owing to the nearly two thousand men who have 
placed their time and strength into this honorary and unremunerative 
service. 

The city government had meanwhile gradually iucreased the i)auper 
schools, had raised the salaries of the teachers, and effected improve- 
ments in exterior and interior organization of the schools. Yet the 
greater number of children up to the year 1860 were still accommo- 
dated in private schools at the expense of the city, and not until the 
middle of the sixties did the city authorities establish a greater number 
of communal schools. This had the inevitable effect of reducing the 
number of private schools. Tlie following table will show this plainly: 





Year. 


City 

pauper 

1 schools. 


1 
Classoa. 


Pauper 
children. 


Private 
schools. 


Paupers in 
private 
schools. 


1840 

1850 




1 

i 12 

1 15 


73 
128 
185 
341 
615 


7,074 
10,691 
13, 703 
20, 344 
37,663 


42 
43 
43 
26 
20 


6,292 
11,722 


1800 




20 


14, 178 


1865 

1870 




33 

53 


10, 831 
11,059 






1 





Despite all preventive measures the communal schools bore the 
unmistakable stamp of pauper schools. They accommodated the pau- 
per children who paid nothing, as well as those who were admitted at 
reduced rates. The private schools, however, were open to all children 
who could pay the tuition fee. As late as 18G9 the connection between 
the school committee and the board of charity existed, for it was the 
latter-named board which fixed the tuition fees and furnished the 
appliances of instruction, su(^ as text-books and other things. 

The idea to change the character of the city schools — that is to say, 
take away from them the odium of being pauper schools and make them 
institutions of the civil society for all children of school age, rich and 
poor — spread quite rapidly during the sixth decade. It was borne by 
the conviction that such a change was neoessary in the interest of 
justice and equality. To wipe out the difference between rich and poor, 
at least in the public schools, and to mingle the children of the poor 
and forsaken with the children of parents better situated, and thus 
promote an approach of the different classes of the people to each other 
and make a true elevation of the lower classes possible, was a noble 
undertaking, the results of which have been greater than any of its 
earliest promoters dared to prognosticate. 

Social equality in school was the x>riuciple to be carried out, but to 
pi'actically do so an entire abandonment of all school fees and the intro- 
duction of gratuitous instruction in all the city elementary schools 
became necessary. This priinuple of gratuitous school attendance has 
guided all the measures of the city authorities with regard to the ele- 
mentary schools during the last twenty-five years with the most bene- 
ficial results. 

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266 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

THE COMMON-SCHOOL SYSTEM FROM 1870 TO 1893. 

{!) Abolition of tuition fees; increase of pupils. — On the 22d day of 
December, 1869, the city council, upon motion of the magistrate (or 
upper house of the city legislature), resolved that " on the 1st of Janu- 
ary, 1870, tuition fees in the Berlin communal schools shall be abol- 
ished." 

Article 25 of the constitution of the Prussi.in Monarchy, adopted in 
1850, contains the following provision: "Instruction in imblic elemen- 
tary schools is to be gratuitous." This constitutional provision was not 
carried out in the city of Berlin until the year 1870. The resolution 
quoted gave to the communal schools of Berlin their present character 
of common schools for the entire population. 

The report of the city government of Berlin, embracing the period 
from 1861 to 1876, says: 

The city government has rarely ever adopted so beneficial a measure and one of 
such unprecedented boldness as gratuitous instruction ; nor lias there ever been in 
the entire population a pecuniary sacrifice so readily made as tbat which this step 
called for. 

Ever since the pauper schools became city schools the tuition fees 
had been fixed at a certain normal rate, only indigent pupils being 
exempt from the payment. The principals of the schools collected the 
tuition fee monthly and charged 10 per cent commission. In 1868 the 
sum total of expenditure for the public elementary schools amounted 
to $489,770, while the tuition fees amounted to only $46,090, or 9.4 per 
ceut of the entire sum. 

It is obvious, therefore, how little the communal schools were in 
demand by the paying strata of the population; also why they were 
generally called pauper schools. The situation was not satisfactory; it 
prevented the development of the system, essentially hindering its edu- 
cational influence, because the citizens who were better situated kept 
their children from contact with the so-called pauper children by patron- 
izing private schools. 

In one of the meetings of the committee to which the question of 
gratuitous instruction was referred, it was said that the most lamenta- 
ble feature of the existence of psiuper schools was the immoral influ- 
ence upon the nou paying children because from their earliest youth 
they bore the official stamp of poverty. And the gentleman added that 
the tuition fee was a tax paid by the poorer classes. Tuition fees were 
not based upon property or income, but upon the size of the taxpayer's 
family ; they burdened him the more, the more children he had. The 
wealthier strata of society would be given an opportunity by the abol- 
ishment of tuition fees to aid the social needs of the people without 
giving alms, and without disturbing the economical order of social 
intercourse; hence the abolishment would be of the greatest and most 
enduring benefit to the entire community. 

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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 257 

The preseut coiniuou school, in which tuition is gratuitous to all, has 
to be maintained by taxes paid by all; hence it must be ojien to the 
children of all the citizens. Its establishment was not any longer left 
to the pleasure of the city government, but had become a necessity, a 
duty, determined by exterior factors. The duty of establishing and 
maintaining city schools had to be performed even though the number 
of children to be accommodated should increase beyond all expectation 
and prognostication. It was not enough to sinii>ly perform the duty, 
it was a matter of paramount importance to do so in the best possible 
manner; that is to say, all the communal schools which had hitherto 
been considered pauper schools had to be so improved that they could 
meet the just demands of the wealthiest members of the community and 
face the criticism of experts without fear or favor. And, indeed, during 
the last twenty- three years the common school system has changed in 
extent beyond all expectations and has claimed an amount of expendi- 
tures greatly in excess of what had been calculated ; its inner and outer 
development has demanded the greatest energy from all who were 
called upon to manage and conduct it. In judging its results, the extent 
of the task solved within a little more than two decades must be con- 
sidered, and also the fact that it was not an establishment upon the 
virgin soil of a new state, but an organic development of existing 
institutions. If we consider this we shall see why the best intentions 
had sometimes to give way to what was absolutely necessary or merely 
attainable. 

It was very natural that the poorer population, who had felt the tui- 
tion fee as an oppressive burden, at once sought the gratuitous common 
school. Not less than 12,900 children came in 1870 and 1871 and 
demanded admission ; the elementary grades of secondary schools lost 
3,500 children. That was the beginning of the transition period. The 
year 1872, the year in which the 5,000,000,000 francs from France 
poured into Germany, decreased the influx of nonpaying children, 
but their number was still 2,041. From 1873 until 1878, that is, in five 
years, the number of common schools increased from 71 to 104; the 
number of classes from 050 to 1,457; the number of children from 
55,580 to 86,652. The further development of the common school 
system, from 1878 until 1893, is given in tables at the close of this 
article. 

The jwpulation of Berlin increased within fifteen years (from 1878 to 
1893) by about 600,000. The number of common school children by 
about 100,000; the number of school buildings by about 100; the num- 
ber of classes by about 2,000. The increase per year was, on an aver- 
age, 40,000 inhabitants, 6 to 7 schools, 130 classes, and 6,000 pupils. 
The school authorities had to provide on an average for 130 class rooms 
and teachers, for the organization of the districts, establishment and 
erection of school buildings, division of classes, the control of attend- 
ance, ete. Since the year 1873 the school authorities, i. e., the city 
ED 94 17 



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258 EDUCATION EEPORT, 1893-94. 

school committee, lias had annually a certain sum at its disposal for 
the erection of new schools. 

The enormous extent of the work and the great responsibility is at 
once admitted, for it is one thing to annually add a few more classes to 
a system of schools and another to add the. enormous number of 130. 
If we compare a small town of 40,000 inhabitants with Berlin, we see 
that Berlin has increased to an extent equal to fifteen such cities. This 
new city, as it were, added every year, was not added on the outskirts 
of the city, but these new 40,000 inhabitants spread over the entire 
extent of the city, each one seeking to satisfy his own interests with 
reference to occupation, rent, etc. And the new 6,C00 children every 
year called for admission in all the schools available, so that the con- 
stant shifting of the school population made a ceaseless vigilance in 
the control of attendance necessary. 

The population, however, did not increase in the regular manner 
indicated. It varied between 30,(:00 in 1878 and 56,000 in 1888 and 
32,000 in 1892. The increase of the next following year could never 
bo exactly foretold at the close of any school year. From 1878 until 
1885 it rose steadily until it reached the figure 52,000; in 188G it fell to 
46,000. But even in the course of a single year the population was any- 
thing but stable, as it might be exi)ected in a city of 40,000 inhabitants 
with a well-established industry; on the contrary, newly arising indus- 
trial enterprises caused the laboring i)eoi)le of one part of the city to 
move into another quarter, hence there was a disturbing fluctuation of 
the population within the city. Experience proved that the school popu- 
lation was strongly influenced during any year following this apparent 
unrest. An important increase in the number of classes in one city 
district was at times followed by a standstill, nay, even a retrogression. 
These movements aff'ected not only the children approaching the school 
age, but more so the children who had already been assigned to their 
schools. Extensive changes in the number of classes and children of 
certain city wards or school districts had to be made which necessitated 
a disturbance of the even progress of the work in school. 

Consider the difficulty to accommodate this fluctuating population 
and gauge correctly the work required by these frequent increases and 
decreases, and we shall see how unreliable were the plans made for 
any succeeding year. Consider that at times it was extremely difficult 
to find the proper sites for schoolhouses, which difficulty the city shares 
with every other metropolis; think of the care needed to meet the 
pressing demands for new schoolhouses in order to avoid the use of 
rented quarters, always unsuited for school purposes; think of the many 
annoying situations arising from leasing buildings to accommodate 
temporarily the children that had to be in school by order of the law; 
think of the number of teachers who had to be selected from the can- 
didates, and it will become clear that the authorities had to strain 
every nerve. In order to make a perfect assignment of pupils to the 



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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 259 

proper schools, and to secure proper grading and control of attcndanie 
amid such extensive chang^es, enormous cfl'orts had to be made by the 
organs of the city school administration. But the heaviest duty fell 
upon' the teachers. They were expected to see to it that chihlren 
shifted and shunted from district to district were properly graded 
and enabled to organically continue their studies witliout break or 
hindrance. 

The foregoing sketch may give an idea of the extent and complexity 
of the work that was to be pertbrmcd annually; it may indicate that 
it could be done only by means of careful local and individual investi- 
gation concerning increase, distribution, and fluctuation of the popula- 
tion, concerning enrollment and attendance in each district, and their 
variations, which required the most painstaking statistical work, a 
work that could be successful only if based upon a local census taken 
at brief intervals in order to make correct calculations possible. 

(5) Census of school population^ estimates for new classes and school- 
houses. — Tlie entire work of assignment of pupils lies in the hands of 
168 local boards. Each of these boards has a limited part of the city 
to attend to; each has one, two, or three so-called district schools at its 
disposal to which it can assign children. The commissioner or secre- 
tary of that board receives semiannually from the poHce authorities a 
list of children who have just completed their sixth year of age and live 
in tbe districts of the respective boards. He compares this list with the 
registers of attendance kept by the teachers, then assigns the new 
pupils (either born in or moved into the district) to the school nearest 
their residence, and hunts up the children who have failed to be 
enrolled. Every child assigned to a sch(K)l by the respective commis- 
sioner or secretary of the local board, must be accepted by the principal 
at the beginning of the year, even though the classes be overcrowded. 

The principal of the school reports to the school inspector or assist- 
ant superintendent, within three days after the beginning of the semes- 
ter, the number of pupils enrolled and the capacity of his class rooms. 
After this semiannual enrollment has taken place, the principal and 
commissioner or secretary of the board meet with the inspector and 
determine upon the mode of equalizing the assignment according to the 
distance of the school from the pupils' residences. New classes are 
opened and preliminary provision is made for them. At the end of the 
first school week a so-called ^^ correction conference" of all the inspectors 
or assistant superintendents meets at the city hall, hears the reports, 
sanctions certain measures of equalization taken, eventually corrects 
errors, and determines definitely upon the new classes to be oi)ened 
and questions of grading that may have arisen during the new assign- 
ment. This cx)nference sometimes lasts three or four days, so that within 
ten days after the beginning of the half yearly term the schools are in 
running order. 



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260 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



On the Ist of November and on the Ist of May of every year the 
principals hand in a report, for which blanks are furnished, concerning 
the capacity of their schools, number of classes, number of pupils en- 
rolled, and the percentage of pupils coming from other districts. Then 
a summary is made of all items of statistics thus obtained, especially 
with reference to increase and decrease in certain districts, so that for 
fiiture estimates a basis is furnished for the establishment of new schools 
or the opening of new class rooms. The results of statistics of the pre- 
vious half year are taken to measure the provisions necessary for the 
following half year. This is one of the wisest provisions of the Berlin 
school system. The following table exhibits the changes found on 
November 1,1889: 



District. 


ChUdren. 


Decrease. 


Increase. 


First 


62 
73 
6 
65 
185 
32 




Second 




Third 




Fourth 




Fifth 




Sixth 




Seventh 


41 


Eiffhth 




1,008 


Kinth 




728 


Tenth 


53 




Eleventli 


188 


Twelfth 




354 


Thirteenth 


184 




Fourteenth 


051 


Fifteenth 




456 


Sixteenth 




7 


Seventeenth............... 




907 


Eighteenth 




806 








Nonresident children 


609 
126 


5,536 






Total 


735 








Net increase 




4,801 







This summary shows that generally the number of children in the 
older parts of the city — that is, the one in which commerce with its 
large stores and warehouses is carried on^-decreases steadily. Kents 
in the inner portion of the city increase, and the working people and 
others of small incomes move outward toward the suburbs. For the 
above-mentioned increase of 4,801 children there were opened 81 classes 
between the date of enrollment and the 1st of April 1890; that is a 
little less than 60 pupils to the teacher. 

These estimates are carefully scrutinized and are submitted to the 
city school committee, the magistrate, and tbe city council, so that for 
the coming year the appropriation may be regulated a<JCordingly. The 
executive officers are charged with the duty of assigning teachers, select- 
ing sites for new schools, erecting buildings, etc., within the extent of 
the appropriation. 

However carefully the assignment of pupils and the enumeration 
and enrollment are made, and however exact tbe appropriations are 



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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 



261 



measured, they do not, as experience sbows, give infallible informa 
tion as to what will be needed the following year, since the movement 
of the population is incalculable. A great increase in the number of 
classes m one year is not always followed by a similar increase in the 
next. If we consider that every new class costs the city per year 3,000 
marks, or $750, and furthermore that the erection of a new school 
building has to be carefully discussed, and that even after the adoption 
of a plan the building takes two years to complete it, it is easily seen 
that errors may arise and therefore the school census has a prominent 
financial importance for the city. 

In order therefore to avoid the errors which would arise from basing 
the new provisions upon a short period of six months, the authorities 
resorted to calculations upon longer periods and especially upon esti- 
mates based upon the attendance in schools where tuition fees are 
charged. 

The relation of children paying tuition fees and those who do not is 
determined by two things — first, the variations in commerce and indus- 
try, and secondly, the reputation which the common school enjoys 
among the public. How much the changes in commerce and industry 
influence the attendance was noticed during the first few years of gra- 
tuitous instruction. The year 1872 recorded a greater increase of the 
number of paying children over that of the nonpaying. The former 
was 1,400, the latter only 900. In the year 1875 the former was only 
200, the latter 782. 

The following table is of special interest as showing the stability of 
the number of paying children: 



Year. 



1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1WJ2 
18S3 
1881 
1885 
1880 
18S7 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 



Enrolled 
childreu 
between 
6 and 14. 



115, 173 
121. 252 
127,553 
136, 024 
147, 436 
156, 744 
166. 401 
178, 314 
184,368 
191, 690 
197, 748 
202,277 
205.111 
208, 165 
209. 350 



In free schools. 


Paying c 




Per cent 




Number. 


of en- 
rollment. 


Number. 


79.981 


69.44 


35, 192 


86,852 


71.63 


34, 402 


9:^, 591 


73.87 


33,962 


102,656 


74.97 


34, 269 


112,863 


76.55 


34,573 


122, 098 


77.90 


34. 646 


131,933 


79.24 


34,558 


142,982 


80.19 


35.332 


149. 514 


80.88 


35 354 


156,053 


81.41 


35,637 


162,230 


82.04 


35.518 


166. 619 


82.37 


35.658 


169. 681 


82.70 


35, 492 


171,994 


82.62 


36, 171 


173, 338 


82.95 


86,012 



Per cent 

of en- 
roUniout. 



30.56 
28.37 
26.63 
25.63 
23.45 
22.10 
20.76 
19.81 
19.12 
18.59 
17.96 
17.63 
17.30 
17.38 
17.14 



In 1879 the sum total of the first eight generations (that is, of chil- 
dren between 6 and 14) in the common schools was 86,852, in the pay 
schools It was 34,402; in 1885, the two numbers were 142,982 and 
35,332; hence the total of eight generations in these eight years 
increased by 57,094, and of this increase the common schools gained 
56,352, while the pay schools only gained 841. But 841 children are 

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262 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

about the sixty-sixth i)art of the total increase in the common schools. 
During the following year no change in these rehitions took i)lace; the 
number of paying children remained almost the same, and since the 
year 1888 the new school children sire almost entirely absorbed by the 
common schools Since that year the school authorities do not, and 
need not consider the attendance in the pay schools when they esti- 
mate the appropriations for the coming year, or the erection of new 
schcolhouses. Parents who could very well aftbrd to pay tuition fees 
for their children send them to the common school for elementary 
instruction, and thereby prove the general and deep-rooted confidence 
in the work done in these schools. 

According to the official inquiry of July, 1894, the parents of 182,347 
common school children were: 

Laborers aud artisans 108,362 

ludcpendcnt artisans and tradesmen 44,155 

Subaltern oflScers, teachers, and military men 20, 162 

Engineers, merchants, physicians, bigh-gradc officers 9, 278 

It is plain that the level of the social strata that intrusted their 
children to the common school gradually rose, but an inevitable conse- 
quence of it was that the demands made on them became greater, 
Lence the schools became more successful and better, and thus also 
more attractive to people of means and culture. But when that part 
of the population patronizes the schools their influence upon the lower 
strata rises perceptibly. In this respect the gratuitous instruction in 
the common schools has fully realized the expectations entertained by 
the advocates of gratuity. 

(3) Number of classes, school buildingsj and equipment, — The measures 
taken by the authorities make it i)ossible to follow the needs of the 
school population without delay, aud to satisfy them soon after they 
arise; it is done in organic connection with existing institutions and in 
the best possible manner. Berlin possesses at iiresent a well-organized 
school system which is evenly distributed over the entire city. The 
royal authorities state in their official report of 188G that ^* according 
to minute calculation of distances and areas, Berlin of all the cities of 
the Kingdom is best provided with school facilities." 

The normal course of study prescribed for the Berlin common schools 
provides for six ascending grades. The '^ mixed" schools had originally 
a department for boys and one for girls, hence 12 classes. As late as 
1874 the first 17 communal schools had each G boys' and 6 girls' classes, 
hence their school buildings were provided with 12 class rooms. 
Gradually the separation of the sexes was carried on further, by desig- 
nating certain schoolhouses for boys and others for girls, or erecting 
double buildings. 

The lower classes became overcrowded, owing to the rapid increase 
of the.population and the withdrawal of i)upils from the upper grades j 
hence parallel classes were arranged for the lower grades, so that in 



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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 263 

the course of time some of the schools had as many as 20 ciasses. In 
1878, 90 schools had together 1,358, or an average of 14 classes; in 1880, 
156 schools had together 2,586 classes, or on an average 17 classes. 
Meanwhile the average number of pupils i)er class had risen from 54 in 
1877 to 55.72 in 1880. Upon the basis of these experiences the normal 
number of classes for each school was fixed at 10, and that number was 
officially adopted in planning new buildings. 

On the occasion of sanctioning a building plan for the forty-fifth com- 
munal girls' school, in 1885, the question came up how many classes 
a principal could supervise without disadvantage to his pedagogical 
duties. This question was of importance, since it arose from the idea 
that an unwise economy might increase the number of classes indefi- 
nitely, so as to go beyond the capacity of the principals and injure the 
work of the schools. The central school committee decided the ques- 
tion by a resolution in January, 1886, that 20 be the maximum number 
of classes of an elementary city school, though the supervisory staff 
expressed the opinion that 16 should be the maximum. 

The following reasons were advanced by the supervisors : The duties 
of a principal (or rector, as he is called in Berlin) are: (1) He must 
know and observe those children who awaken apprehension by their 
conduct and social influence; (2) he must guide and promote the course 
of development of such pupils as are prominent in diligence and talent; 
(3) he must be well informed concerning the conduct and results of the 
teachers, and support and aid with advice especially the younger col- 
leagues; (4) he must conduct the exterior management of the school, 
the business of enrolling, must keep lists for the purpose of controlling 
the attendance, conduct the correspondence, and supervise the work of 
the janitors. 

However, the city council decided that 20 class rooms be fixed as 
the maximum number to be supervised by one principal, although the 
magistrate favored the substitution of 16 as the maximum number. 
The question has given rise to much discussion, and is not, as it 
appears, definitely settled; it creates new discussion every time a new 
schoolhouse is to be built. At present 14 of the 200 communal schools 
have over 20 classes. 

The city autliorities have of late years promoted the building of 
schoolhouses in the most generous manner. During the period from 
1882 till 1888 the enormous sum of 12,710,000 marks, or $3,024,080, 
had been expended for the erection of elementary school buildings. 
The estimate of approprijitions for 1885-86 required for the five years 
following altogether 50 of such buildings, or 10 per year. After that 
it was thought that 5 new buildings per year would suffice. That was 
the plan. The actual facts are, that during the five years mentioned 
42 new buildings were erected; in 1889, 8 more; in 1890, 6 more, so that 
the projected number was exceeded by 6. During the last three years, 
1891 to 1893, again 12 buildings were found necessary, so that in the 



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264 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

period of 1878 till 1894 the annual increase in the number of school- 
houses built and owned by the city was between 6 and 7. 

The expenditures for new buildings during the period of 1878 till 
1893 will be found in Table 5; the sura total was 23,941,512 marks, or 
$(),098,080. To this should be added the cost of enlarging buildings of 
former periods, which amounted to 311,322 marks, or $74,095. 

The number of classes has increased from 1,264 in 1876 to 3,435 in 
1894. Table 6. gives the exact data. One hundred and eighty-five 
classes are accommodated in rented quarters and 13 classes in city 
buildings not designed for schools. 

Despite the vigorous activity on the part of the authorities in build- 
ing new schools, the annual increase in the number of x)upils makes it 
necessary from time to time to rent temporarily rooms and buildings 
for school puri>oses. While in 1878 the city had 88 schoolhouses of its 
own and 16 schools in rented buildings, the number of buildings owned 
by the city in 1885 had increased to such an extent that only 11 of the 
schools were in rented quarters. (Compare Table 1.) At times, espe- 
cially at the beginning of a school term, so-called half day classes are 
organized, in order to accommodate all the pupils enrolled. This, how- 
ever, is done only for a short time, until the authorities have found 
proper localities for housing the classes. 

With the enormous increase in the number of schools and houses 
changes and improvements in the size, style of architecture, and equip- 
ment have gone hand in hand, and are now in harmony with modern 
educational demands. The high prices of the ground made it neces- 
sary to utilize the space as much as possible without violating hygienic 
and educational requirements. In tlie course of time certain typical 
plans have been agreed upon for sites of certain dimensions and loca- 
tion. The older buildings contain 10 to 12 class rooms, besides a dwell- 
ing for the principal and the janitor. These buildings have neither a 
large session room in which the whole school can be assembled, nor 
satisfactory conference rooms and laboratories, nor have they gym- 
nasia for physical exercises. Their fronts are plain, and have a coat 
of plaster painted. These old buildings have separate stairways and 
corridors for boys and girls. The mode of heating is very primitive, 
namely, by stoves. In later years the class rooms were built much 
higher. Hot- water heating is resorted to, ventilating shafts are pro- 
vided, and the playgrounds have each a gymnasium for physical 
exercises. 

In cases where the site would allow it a double schoolhouse was 
built, one for boys and one for girls. They do not stand back to back, 
so to speak, but are separated from each other, each one having its play- 
ground on three sides. During the last few years, after the authorities 
had become able to cope with the increase in population, and could 
find sites in the suburbs where ground was cheap, economizing in space 
has not been so necessary. The spa<5e of a class room is calculated to 



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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 265 

be 64 square meters, wbicli will give room for 70 pupils in the lower 
grades, 65 in the middle, and GO in the upper grades, so that each pupil 
has 0.77, 0.83, and 0.90 square meter space. All new school buildings 
have a spacious session room, an office for the principal, a conference 
room, a museum or laboratory, and stationary washstands for the chil- 
dren. In most of these school buildings the principal and the janitor 
have dwellings. 

The mode of heating adopted for new buildings is that of hot water 
or air. In late years the hot- water heating is preferred. The school- 
houses commonly are four-story buildings, accessible by broad stx)ne 
stairways. The corridors are wide and conveniently lighted. In older 
schoolhouses the corridors were rather narrow, but the new buildings 
are provided with spacious halls, which run alongside the class rooms 
of each story. The size of the class rooms is 9 by 6 meters (or about 
30 by 20 feet). Each class room is provided with three windows. In 
order t4) keep the air of the schoolroom pure, especially from the odors 
rising from moist wraps and overcoats, special cloakrooms are provided 
for. In order to control the movements of the pupils in the corridors 
and yards they are allowed to pass only through specially designated 
doors, while others are closed to them. This is done also for the pur- 
pose of preventing contact with strangers entering the schoolhouse to 
transact business with the principal and teachers. 

In order to obtain a proper standard of measurement for the condi- 
tions of light in the schoolrooms a number of careful investigations 
has been made during several years with Weber's photometer. The 
results of these measurements and calculations are being used in 
planning new buildings. 

Since the year 1889 the authorities have adopted into their normal 
schoolhouse plan one special room for the purpose of serving as an 
asylum for children after school hours. This asylum is usually situated 
in the basement, provided with suitable furniture for manual work, and 
]S used to occupy the time after school hours of boys whose parents 
are working in factories. Several of the new schools have this com- 
mendable feature. 

The fronts of the new school buildings are built of pressed brick 
with stone facings and terra cotta ornaments. The dwellings of princi- 
pals could not well be provided for in double schoolhouses; in these 
cases a separate dwelling house is placed adjacent to the schoolhouse. 
Usually the dwelling faces the street, and the schoolhouse is situated 
in the inner court of an entire block. The gymnasium also is a sepa- 
rate building; it is commonly 19 by 10 meters in size (or about 65 by 35 
feet). It is provided with all the necessary apparatus and apphances 
for physical exercises. 

The area of the playground is determined by the number of classes. 
It is always intended to afford the children time for play during recess; 
commonly, the play ground is calculated to require IJ square meters 



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266 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

area for every pupil in the school. Hence, a school with 2,000 papils 
requires a playground of 3,000 square meters. The playground for 
boys contains some apparatus for gymnastic exercises in the open air. 

A site for a double school, according to these requirements, must 
measure between 4,500 and 5,000 square meters. In the outskirts of 
the city, where the ground is cheap, larger sites are selected. 

The equipment of the class rooms comprises school benches (single 
seats are not yet considered necessary in German schools), teachers' 
desks on platforms, cupboards, blackboards, etc., which arc calculated 
to cost 550 marks ($131) per class. The pupils' benches are arranged 
for three or four pupils each. The following are the measurements 
(in centimeters) applied in providing seats: 



Lower grades.. 
Midille grades . 
Upi>er grades. 



I I ! I I DlB- 

Length !Widtl.; Bis. iWidth He^^SblHe^^^^^^^^ ^^^ 

of scat, of desk.' tauce. of seat. 

1 I ! 



of desk of de»*k from 
bebiud. in front, seat to 
I desk. 



G8 ' 34 6 28 ■ 67 

74 37 ' 8 I 29 ! 70 

80 40 I 10 I 30 75 



Ueigbt I Length 
of seat, of seat. 



I 



59 


25 


66 


27 


70 


28 


, 





53 
56 
59 



In a few schools a more modern construction of desks and seats has 
been temporarily used, but the authorities have not as yet adopted it 
for the entire school system. 

Particular attention is given to appliances and api)aratus for the 
study of i)hysics and natural history. For physics, apparatus is pro- 
vided which is suitable for demonstration within the class room, is 
durable and strong, and guarantees the success of the experiments 
made. Preparations for natural history and charts, as well as speci- 
mens of plants (sent from the school garden during the summer months 
twice a week), and mineral cabinets for boys and girls are found in 
every school. In order to promote and enliven the instruction in sci- 
ences visits to the zoological gardens, the aquarium, and the urania are 
arranged for entire classes. 

Every schoolhouse in Berlin possesses a teachers' library, equipped 
with scientific and pedagogic w^orks of general value, but not with 
works of fiction. For the purpose of maintaining and further develop- 
ing these libraries the city school autliorities include in their annual 
appropriations the sum of 54,000 marks, or $12,852. This sum is divided 
up according to the needs of the different districts. For the purpose 
of equipping the schools with the necessary stationery, the teacher of 
each new class room opened receives 60 marks; the other schools 
replenish their stock as needs arise. The appropriation is made upon 
motion of the principal through the school inspector (or assistant super- 
intendent). A conference of the school inspectors decides upon the 
books and kind of stationery to be provided for pupils and teachers. 
For the instruction in drawing a special fund is set aside, in order to 
furnish the necessary materials to indigent pupils. Text books are 



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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 



267 



given to indigent pupils also at the central office of the school com- 
mittee, while stationery is given out by the principal of each school. 
Every school in the city receives 30 marks per annum for new books to 
be placed in the pux)ils' library, while a new school receives a first gift 
of 60 marks for that purpose. For current expenses and small expen- 
ditures found necessary, such as for chemicals and the like, each school 
is provided with an extra fund. 

{-!) Xnmber of pupils per teacher, — Like other cities, Berlin has made 
it a special object to giade its common schools, so that the children of 
like age should be taught together in ascending grades. Before 18G0 a 
few schools had six grades, but since 1872 every Berlin common school 
is expected to have six ascending grades; some have seven or more, and 
it is the intention of making the organization one of eight grades 
throughout the system by splitting the upper grades which now are 
taught in two divisions each. Though the law prescribes the maximum 
number of pupils per teacher to be 70 for lower grades, 65 for middle 
grades, and 60 for upper grades— the schools in Berlin average a smaller 
number per teacher. The following table shows the averages for 1878 
and 1892: 






Average 


Pupils. 


class. 


18, 797 


42 


23, 341 


48 


29,968 


63 


33.839 


66 


33,594 


61 


35,548 


62 



The average number of pupils per teacher during the last eight years 
was as follows : 

ISai 55.00 

1885 55.33 

1886 55.72 

1887 55.3^1 

1888 55.59 

LB89 55.64 

1880 55.16 

1891 54.78 

1892 54.14 

These averages do not show the actual state of affairs, for in some 
schools the lower grades are overcrowded, as they always will be. 
Some of these lower grades have as many as 70 i>upils. Konpromotion 
is one of the causes of the greater number of pupils in the lower grades, 
though it is expected that every child entering at 6 years of age will 
be able to go through the entire school within eight years, there is 
always a considerable number who do not reach the highest grade. 
Hence the question has come up how to relieve the lower grades so as 

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268 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

to assure more individual work and attention to each pupil, and thus 
to enable all the pupils to pass through the entire course of study of 
eight years. 

(5) TeaeherSj salaries^ and hours o/worh — The most essential factors 
of the work of the school and its abiding influence are good teachers; 
hence to procure them has at all times been one of the chief objects of 
the administration. For, however carefully all other requirements of 
public education are fulfilled — they can not suffice unless supported by 
excellence and devotion to duty on the part of the teachers. To secure 
good teachers was possible only under one condition — by offering them 
salaries commensurate with the demands of life in a metropolis; fur- 
thermore, by securing them regular increases at stated intervals, and 
oflering pensions at the time of retirement, and to their widows and 
orphans. The salaries for the city teachers have steadily increased 
during the last twenty years. 

In the common elementary schools of Berlin the class-teacher system 
is adhered to, except for certain branches in which artistic skill is 
required. The class teacher gives instruction in the main branches in 
his room. The princijial, having only twelve hours per week of such 
work in his grade (the highest), is relieved by other teachers of lower 
grades whose classes have fewer hours devoted to lessons than the 
teacher has hours of duty. 

Departmental teaching is resorted to in a limited degree, owing to 
the employment of women teachers, the reduction in the number of 
duty hours for older teachers, and, lastly, to afford the teachers oppor- 
tunities for improvement in their profession. The so-called technical 
branches (music and drawing), though as a general thing required of 
every teacher, presuppose a certain exceptional skill and talent which 
makes it seem economical to employ the best talent among the staff of 
a school to teach these branches to all or many of the classes. If to 
this limited degree the teachers have become special teachers, it remains 
an inviolable rule that each class teaeher shall teach the three main 
branches, religion, language, and arithmetic, to his own class. 

The staff of a city school consists of the principal (with twelve duty 
hours m the school room per week), the class teachers, male and 
female, the assistant teachers (graduates of normal schools who have 
not as yet passed their second state examination), and finally the 
special teachers for woman's handiwork and gymnastics. The total 
number of class teachers, including the assistants, amounted to 3,370, 
among them 1,033 women in 1893; the number of special teachers for 
handiwork, gymnastics, and drawing was 563. 

Up to the year 1803 only men had been employed. The beneficial 
influence of the women teachers in the ])rivate elementary schools 
accommodating pauper children paid for by the city, induced the city 
administration to employ women as regular teachers in lower and 
middle grades. 



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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 269 

After these introductory remarks it will be in place to discuss more 
minutely the salaries and other circumstances of the professional life 
of the teachers. This is a fitting occasion since a new system of regu- 
lar increase in salaries was adopted April I, 1894. 

Up to the year 1871 the wages of teachers were regulated by a 
"normal" or personal budget. This budget fixed the extent of increase 
in salaries at stated intervals. For class teachers the principle was 
adhered to that the increase should be subject to the number of years 
of service. Beginning with the minimum salary of 400 thalers,' the 
income increased Jit intervals of three and four years until at the expi- 
ration of twenty-four years' service a maximum of 800 thalers was 
reached. The principals at that time could reach a maximum of 900 
thalers. If at the close of the entire school year a saving had been 
made, or, in other words, if the appropriation was not exhausted, the 
remainder was divided pro rata among the teachers. 

The majority of the teachers consisted, in consequence of the enor- 
mous increase of classes, mostly of new teachers, with a brief 
period of service in Berlin, hence the lower rates of salaries were pre- 
dominant. The regulation was therefore disadvantageous to teachers 
who entered the Berlin schools at an advanced age. On the Ist of 
October, 1871, the principle of granting an increase according to 
t^rm of service in the city was abandoned and the so-called average 
salary was adopted. The authorities adopted the following scale: 900 
thalers for principals, 600 thalers for class teachers, and 375 thalers 
for women. These sums were raised by resolution passed July 1, 1873, 
in the following manner: All salaries above 500 thalers to be increased 
20 per cent; all salaries below 500 thalers to be increased 30 per cent. 
In 1874 the salaries of principals were raised 100 thalers, and in 1877 
a deduction of 10 per cent formerly made for rent was abolished. 

Since that year the average salaries amounted for principals to 3,540 
marks ($843), with either a dwelling free of rent or an indemnity for 
rent amounting to 600 marks per annum ($143) ; for teachers, 2,235 
marks ($532); for women teachers, 1,462 marks ($348). These sums 
furnished, by multiplying them by the number of positions existing (the 
number of positions is equal to the number of common school classes), 
at the beginning of each school year, the exact amount to be appro- 
priated plus the estimated number of new positions created and paid 
for at the minimum rate. The salaries were at first for principals of 
three classes, 3,900, 3,540, and 3,180 marks; for male teachers in seven 
classes, 3,240, 2,880, 2,520, 2,340, 2,160, 1,800, and 1,560 marks; for 
women teachers in four classes, 1,755, 1,560, 1,365, and 1,170 marks. 

In 1882 twelve positions for assistants were established. This con- 
tinued for three years, so that at the close of the third year 36 of 
such positions were in existence. These were established for the pur- 



> A thaler equals about 72 cents, or 3 raarks, but its purchasing power is greater in 
Germany than that of a doUar in the United States. 



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270 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

pose of giving the graduates of the normal schools in Berlin an oppor- 
tunity for perfecting themselves in the art of teaching before entering 
upon their duties as full-fledged teachers. It was required that they 
should have passed their first state examination ; that they should teach 
twenty-six hours a week (later twenty-eight hours), and be at the dis- 
posal of the principal for four more hours per week. The salary of these 
assistants was fixed at 1,200 marks. Since the average salary of a 
regular teacher is 2,235 marks, the administration saves 1,035 marks 
every year; multiplied by 36, equals 37,200 marks, or about $9,000. 

When, after 1876, the demand for teachers became very great, and 
the number of private schools diminished, the authorities could not 
supply teachers for the vacancies from the private teachers thrown out 
of employment, a largo number of teachers provided with good testi- 
monijils came from other provinces of the Kingdom and applied for 
positions. They were subjected to trial lessons in the schoolroom, and 
if they proved themselves skillful teachers were ciiUed to fill vacancies. 
Thus it came to pass that while during the year 1877 eight-ninths of 
all newly appointed teachers had come from private schools in Berlin, 
in the year 1883-84 that proportion had dwindled to one-twelfth. 
Eleven-twelfths — or, to be exact — 131 new teachers had come from 
outside. 

From the year 1878 to 1893 the number of teachers rose from 1,015 
to 2,340, an increase of 1,325. Presuming that about 30 new te«achers 
came from the Berlin normal school and from private schools, the total 
number of new teachers was during these years 450; hence during the 
same period 875 teachers must have come from outside. It was 
required that they be not older than 35 years of age. Since the year 
1875 this age has been fixed at 28. 

The embarrassingly large number of candidates for secondary 
schools — that is, men who had gone through the university and had 
mostly acquired the degree of Ph. D., and the impossibility to accom- 
modate them all in secondary institutions — caused these candidates 
to apply for positions in the lower schools. The school authorities 
accepted many of them, and later selected from their number the 
teachers for intermediate or advanced elementary schools, called 
burgher schools in Germany. 

The principle of paying average salaries for men and women class 
teachers has been adhered to to the present day, only two amendments 
to the regulations having been adopted : First, the category of teachei-s 
called assistants has been abolished, and the teaching force now con- 
sists of principals and full-fledged teachers; second, that substitutes 
be paid two-thirds of the salaries for the time served. Thei>e substi- 
tutes were special teachers for gymnastics. Another saving was made 
by increasing the hours of duty from twenty-four to twenty-eight of 
teachers of female handiwork. The enormous annual increase in the 
number of positions led at the close of the seventies to a rapid advance- 



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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 271 

ment of salaries. After the year 1886, when tbo number of new toaeliers 
declined, the authorities were able to fill the vacancies with younger 
teachers, and thus establish a more equitable ascension iu the scale of 
salaries. 

In 1878 the Berlin school system had 90 principals, of whom 28 were 
in the highest grade of salary, 43 in the second, and 28 in the third 
grade. Ih 1884 there were 137 principals, of whom 44 were in the first, 
40 in the second, and 44 in the third grade of the salary scale. For the 
teachers the scale of salaries contains seven grades. 

The average number of years of service for teachers before reiiching 
the various grades was, in 1878 and 1884, as follows: 



Grade of salary. 



First (highest). 

Seoonci 

Third 

Ponrth 

Fifth 

Sxih 



Years of 


serv- 


ice 




1878. I 


1881. 


18.86 


18.89 


12.15 


14.05 


8.59 


11.60 


6.56 ■ 


7.90 


4.25 1 


5.05 


2.25 ; 


2.72 



In 1880 a uniform increase of 00 marks per head was granted, and in 
that year the number of i)rincipal8 was 177, with an average of 3,540 
marks ($843); 1,830 men teachers, with an average salary of 2,235 
marks ($532); 020 women teachers, at 1,460 marks ($348), and 36 
assistants, with an average salary of 1,200 marks ($285). 

In 1801-02 another increase was resolved upon, and the indemnity 
for rent for principals was increased from GOO to 800 marks; besiaes, 
an extra annual appropriation of 00 marks was made for fuel, and the 
number of grades in salary of the teachers was raised from 7 to 8, so 
that they could rise to a maxinuim salary of 3,600 marks, or $734. 

The foregoing sketch shows in outlines how the salaries of teachers 
had gradually increased until April, 1804, when the new schedule of 
salaries was adopted. This schedule regulates all salaries as follows: 

(1) The maximum salary in any of the elementary common schools 
is fixed at 3,800 marks. 

(2) No new teacher begins with less than 1,200 marks. Tliis is 
increased as follows : 

Marks. 

After 4 years of service 1, 600 

After 6 years of service 1, 900 

After 8 years of service 2, 200 

After 11 years of service 2, 600 

After 14 years of service 2, 80!) 

After 17 years of service 3, 000 

After 20 years of service 3,200 

After 23 years of service 3,400 

After 27 years of service 3,600 

After 31 years of service 3, 800 

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272 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

(3) The time of service is counted regardless of where the teacher 
has served, except that it must have been within the boundaries of the 
Empire, hence this does not discriminate against private schools. 

(4) The definite appointment of a teacher is dependent upon his 
reaching the second grade of salary, namely, 1,600 marks. The assist- 
ant teachers who have not as yet passed their second state examina- 
tion, can not lay claim to either definite appointment or iiltrease of 
salary. 

(5) Teachers in orphan asylums, who have free dwelling and light 
and fuel, are reduced in salary 300 marks in order to equalize the 
salaries. 

The foregoing statements have reference only to men. For women 
the beginner's salary is fixed at 1,200 marks, like that of the men, but 
they can not rise beyond 2,200 marks, after eighteen years of service. 

The number of hours of duty a teacher must serve, since the year 
1801, has been thirty-two for men and twenty-six i^er week for women. 

It has, however, not been required of the teachers to fill them all, 
because every school had as many teachers as classes, and for manual 
training, female handiwork, gymnastics, and other special instruction, 
special, so-called technical, teachers were employed. These circum- 
stances brought it about that the teachers' time was unequally occu- 
pied, and this caused the adoption of a regulation according to which 
men were paid 30 cents and women 25 cents for every extra hour's work. 

Female teachers. — Women teachers were employed first, as has been 
stated, in 1863, but exclusively in girls' schools. Natural skill, inborn 
aptitude for disciplining and teaching, ease and simplicity in impart- 
ing knowledge, but especially their capacity and talent for prompting 
the emotional nature of children and tactful conduct, all these qualities 
soon dispelled objections arising from their deficient physical capacity 
and the social position of woman. At first only well-experienced lady 
teachers were accepted. It was made a condition that she should 
be unmarried, or that she would resign in case of marriage. Her 
salary was fixed at 300 thaler, her hours of duty at twenty-six per 
week. Women were specially appointed for the lower and middle 
classes of girls' schools. In 1875 a rule was adopted to employ for 
every 24 girls' classes, 13 men and 11 women, but in 1879 this propor- 
tion was reversed. 

In 1863 the first trial was made with 10 women, and up to 1879 as 
many as 478 had been appinted. Of these, 87 had resigned. The 
maximum age of appointment was at first fixed at 35 years, but in 1889 
that limit was reduced to 30 years. 

There is of course a disadvantage in the fact that women teachers 
become claimants for pensions earlier than men. This financial dis- 
advantage is, however, balanced by the fact that a goodly number of 
women resign and marry, whereby they lose their claim to a pension, 
contributions to the pension fund not being returned. Eapid rotation 



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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 273 

in office, however favorably it may aftect the finances, is not promot- 
ing the educational side of the question, inasmuch as it destroys the 
possibility of accumulated exx)erience and pedagogical insight. 

Experience showed that young teachers lost their freshness of mind 
and body too soon by teaching full time, hence the number of duty 
hours for women was reduced to twenty-two, but linancial considera- 
tions and difficulties arising from the management of the schools, 
restored the former number of twenty-four. For certain branches, 
such as language, history and religion, as well as drawing, some women 
teachers displayed aptitude in the upper grades also. 

The number of female candidates increased from year to year, partly 
because a greater number of young ladies adopted teaching as a pro- 
fession, and partly because the decrease in the number of private 
schools closed avenues to an occupation formerly open. 

In order to afford lady candidates opportunities for familiarizing 
themselves with the work in common schools, an arrangement was made 
in 1879, which admitted them as ''hospitants'' or visitors. After three 
or four years of irregular attendance, during which they were called 
upon to act as substitutes, they were considered when new teachers 
were appointed. At the close of 1893 the city schools had 177 of such 
hospitants. For special branches, such as female handiwork, drawing, 
gymnastics, etc., hospitants arc also allowed; however, their number 
has dwindled considerably of late. 

Since the year 1863, when ladies were first employed in the city 
schools of Berhn, 1,454 have been a[)pointed; of these, however, only 
1,033 are still in service, 419 either having married, died, or were pen- 
sioned. The constantly increasing number of female teachers induced 
the authorities to inquire into their state of health, and to tind whether 
the profession of teaching affected their physical strength In order to 
arrive at an answer to this inquiry the authorities noted down the 
time of absence, day after day, for a number of years. This record was 
carefully and conscientiously kept; it stated (1) the number of days 
and half days of absences in any calendar year; (2) the number of days 
of absence in every year of life; (3) the days of absence in every year 
of service. The summaries resulted in the following statements: 

All the women teachers appointed between 1863 and 1893, or within 
a period of 30 years, had together served 9,858 years, and within that 
time 83,129 days had been days of absence from duty; so that each 
teacher was absent on an average of 8.4 days per year. Now, if we take 
the year to have an average of 250 school days, the days of absence 
amounted to one-thirtieth of the time; hence, of 1,033 teachers, about 
34 had constantly to be provided with substitutes. 

Observations made with' reference to the age of service and absence 
of lady teachers show that the average number of days of absence dur- 
ing the first four years' service is below the general average; during 
later years it surpasses the general average, and after 14 years of serv- 
ED 94 18 ^ T 

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274 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



ice a maximum of 22 J days absence per year is reached; after tbat, 
the time of absence decreases. If the women teachers are ranged 
according to their years of life, it is found that the average of absence 
remains below the general average before they have reached their 
twenty-ninth year of age. With those of 30 years it is 8 J days; then 
it decreases, but from the thirty-fourth to the forty-second year of age 
the time increases to 15.8 days. These numbers, of course, are sub- 
ject to various accidents owing to the brief period of observation. Con- 
sidering all this, the authorities have arrived at the conviction that 
exaggerated apprehension concerning the time of absence from duty of 
lady teachers need not be entertained. 

Pensioning teachers of communal schools is done in accordance with 
the pension law of March, 1872, amended March, 1882, which law is 
applicable to all State officials. For the teachers a specific law was 
passed in July, 1885. According to the latter law a teacher's pension 
is partly paid by the State aud partly by tlie community. The State's 
part amounts to 600 marks. 

It is hardly necessary to mention the many aid societies aud pension 
funds started, managed, and mfiintained by private enterprise. It suf- 
fices to show in round numbers what one of these societies does in 
aiding teachers' widows and orphans : 



Year. 



Number 
I of persons Amount. 
I aided. ' 



1887-88 

1HH8-89 1 

1880-UO .' 



35 
56 
49 



Marks. 
4,460 
8,190 
7,550 



Year. 



1890-91 
1891-92 
1892-93 



Number ; 
of i>eriftou8| Amount, 
aided. > 



56 

70 
50 



Marks. 
6,848 
6,130 
4.987 



The special women teachers giving instruction in female handiwork 
and gymnastics in girls' schools are permitted also to teach drawing, 
provided they have the necessary qualifications. The oldest of these 
teachers were only examined in handiwork. A small number of them 
had been appointed definitely before the year 1874, but without claims 
to pensions. All those appointed since have no definite appointment. 
Their number of hours of duty was fixed at eight per week, and the 
salary at 327 marks per year. Since the introduction of gymnastics 
and the possibility of i^assing an examination in drawing exclusively, 
the requirements for these special teachers were increased, making it 
necessary for them to be proficient either in handiwork and gymnastics, 
or in handiwork and drawing. The number of duty hours has been 
reduced to six per week, and they can not be dismissed except by giv- 
ing them four weeks' notice. If such a teacher teaches more than six 
hours per week she can claim pay for extra work at 25 cents per hour. 

(G) Supervision, school districts, and school hoards, — The common 
school system of Berlin is subordinate to the royal provincial school 
authorities, who are in the same relation to the city schools as the State 



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EDUCATION IK CENTRAL EUROPE. 275 

superintendent, or the State board of education, is to the city schools in 
niostof tbe United States, the provinces standing for States. The city- 
supervisory authorities consist of the central school committee, the city 
school councilor, and the principals of the schools. In the rules and 
regulations of 1852 they were considered head teachers merely, in those 
of 18C3 the principal of a school was called the '^conductor of the 
school," and in those of 1870 he was termed *Mmmediate superior of the 
class teachers." The rules and regulations adopted in 1875 ternied the 
principal '^the responsible conductor of the school, and the nearest 
superior of the men and women teachers employed in said school." 
From these quotations we see that their functions have greatly increased 
in the time mentioned. A natural consequence of this was that by reso- 
lution of the authorities, passed in April, 1878, only such teachers should 
be called to the priucipalship who had passed the required principal's 
or rector's examination. The official title these principals bear is that 
of rector. Since the year mentioned all principals had that title. 

Previous to March, 1872, each communal school had its school super- 
intendent, who was also royal school inspector; his office was an honor- 
ary one, and was usually filled by the clergyman of the parish who 
performed the duties ])ertaining to the schools only as supplementary 
duties. An uninterrupted intercourse between these men and the cen- 
tral authority was impossible, nor is a regular inspection of the schools 
under their charge. These men, who were only in rare cases practical 
educators and teachers, did not maintain any regular exchange of 
ideas — i. e., did not meet in council — and hence their local arrange- 
ments frequently clashed, since they were made according to no fixed 
principles agreed upon. 

In the interest of a safe development of the entire school system a 
change in these relations was found necessary. The city authorities, 
after protracted deliberations, concluded, in October, 1877, to appoint 
city school inspectors whose number should be limited, but who must 
be theoretically and practically experienced schoolmen; their office 
should be to inspect the schools, represent them before the other city 
authorities, and regulate and conduct the teachers' meetings. The 
introduction of these official school inspectors into the organism of 
self-government and their position with reference to the State govern- 
ment, caused at first some difficulties which were, however, cheerfully 
solved by the royal authorities in a manner satisfactory to all parties 
concerned. It was decided th€at the city authorities should enjoy inde- 
pendence, in so far as the laws do not contradict the measures taken. 
The principles of the new arrangement were found in the legal enact- 
ments concerning school supervision. Paragraph 3 of the law pertain- 
ing to school supervision says: '^ This law does not interfere with the 
school supervision of communities that have regularly appointed 
organs for that purpose." The royal provincial school authorities 
finally raised the school inspectors, or, as we call them, the assistant 
superintendents, to the rank of royal officers. ^^ , 

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276 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

The question whether this State commission was for a given period 
or for life was decided by the royal minister of education in favor of 
the given period. But these school inspectors tis executive organs 
of the city authorities are also communal officers, and it is provided 
that the two commissions, or the two offices, should not be identical, 
since the hitter, that is, the communal office, is one for life. The ques- 
tion is a mere theoretical one, so long as there is no occasion for the 
State authorities to interfere. 

The qualifications of a city school inspector are that he be a protes- 
sional teacher who has the scientific preparation of a principal of a 
normal school and head master obtained in a university. The minister 
of education determined upon these qualifications and the city adopted 
them. The city was then divided into six school districts, and for each 
a city school inspector was appointed and confirmed by the royal 
authorities. Being State officials as well as city officers, these school 
inspectors have the inspection and management of all elementary 
schools within their district, be they city, State, or private institutions. 

The rapid increase of the school system during the following year 
soon made an increase in the number of school inspectors necessary; 
it was done in October, 1881, and the number of districts and inspectors 
increased to eight. In October, 1893, a redistricting of the city and 
an increase to ten districts and inspectors took place. Whether this 
number will suffice for the future it is as yet too early to surmise. 

Since experience in local sui)ervision had not been gathered in the 
city of Berlin, it was at first difficult for the six school inspectors to 
know exactly how to proceed and what to do; everything depended 
upon the men who with circumspection and tact entered upon their 
duties and conscientiously tried to follow the intentions of the royal as 
well as the city authorities, and meet the justifiable demands of practical 
school work, as well as the teachers themselves. Their work was 
essentially lessened by relieving them of dry routine office work, which 
was left to the clerks at the central school office. The chief work of 
the school inspectors is now to periodically inspect and examine the 
schools under their charge, and to report to both the city and royal 
authorities; to examine all the private schools; to hold conferences 
and meetings with principals and class teachers; make brief visits to 
all the classes; arrange for local changes immediately necessary at the 
beginning of the year; finally, consulting both with the local school 
boards and the central school committee as to changes in the appoint- 
ment of teachers and the opening of classes. This college of assistant 
superintendents holds conferences every week with the royal school 
councilor or general superintendent as chairman. All questions of 
principle and technical execution, as well as questions of management 
and promotion, are here discussed and decided upon. Since the year 
1886 the school inspectors have also been charged with the revision of 
the courses of study, that is to say, with thetdeviations from the normal 



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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 277 

course prescribed, so far as these changes pertain to local require- 
ments and needs. They are furthermore charged with the distribution 
of stationery and books within the sum appropriated by the central 
authority; and lastly, they are charged with arranging for leaves of 
absence, substitutes, and decisions in cases of contest concerning dis- 
cipline. During the meetings of the central. school committee (the 
authority which in American cities is commonly called the school 
board), the inspector represents all the measures with which his 
immediate superior, the school councilor, or general superintendent, 
charges him. 

Since the appointment of school inspectors in 1877, the number of 
questions intimately related to school education requiring profound 
study and careful comparison with institutions in foreign countries 
has gradually increased ; the extensive field of hygienic measures, the 
question of kindergartens, children's asylums, playgrounds, manual 
training, domestic economy, and other topics, claim much attention and 
interest. 

The central school committee has to face these questions and needs 
expert advice. The committee refers these questions, as they come up, 
to the supervisory staft*. The school inspectors, having a seat in the 
school committee but no vote, are desirous of having the privilege of a 
vote on all questions on which they themselves report. The city legisla- 
ture, that is, the lower house of it, the city council, has, however, disap- 
proved the plan. Of the original six school inspectors appointed in 
1877, three have accepted other positions, one has died, one is pen- 
sioned, and only one is still active. Concerning the work of the super- 
visory staff the report of the magistrate, embracing the period from 
1877 to 1881, contains the following sentence: 

The secure development which the communal scliool system has had was possible 
only with the cooperation of these officers; tbey have grown within a short time to 
be essential factors of the system, so that their authority is as firmly rooted and their 
sphere of activity as circumscribed as though supported by ancient tradition. 

The introduction of school inspectors led to a change in the local 
boards. Their membership was made to consist of three members, 
namely, a school inspector, one member of the school committee, and 
the rector or principal of the school. Their duties are well defined, as 
follows: The school inspector is the chairman and represents the cen- 
tral school committee in pedagogical questions; the member of the 
committee, who is also the superintendent of the building, attends to 
all aJBfairs concerning enrollment and control of attendance, repairs, 
etc.; the rector has the immediate duties of supervision within the 
house and grounds, but the class teachers, being full-fiedged teachers, 
are not hampered or influenced in the methods of teaching they may 
choose to select. The private schools also have a local board ; in place 
of the former ecclesiastical member the city school inspector acts as 
supervisor. 



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278 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

The general principle Las been followed that ecclesiastical school 
inspection was replaced by secular sui)ervision ; but for the sui>ervision 
of religious instruction, somewhat different measures had to be taken. 
It was agreed to make a clear distinction between supervision and 
direction of that instruction. The former was delegated to the school 
inspectors, the latter was left to the religious congregations or their 
delegates, the clergymen. 

This course was necessary, because in 18G6 the city government had 
entered into an agreement with the church dignitaries of St. Hedwig 
by virtue of which the six Catholic elementary schools of the city had 
been incorporated into the city school system on the condition that 
they should be placed under city supervision and be opened for pupils 
of other denominations. The matter was settled by the minister of 
education and the provincial school authorities by adopting the follow- 
ing rules: The clergymen designated for the purpose shall have the 
right (1) to visit tbe schools during the hours when religion is taught; 
he may also examine the i)upils; (2) he may demand that the course of 
study and the programme of topics be shown him, and he may question 
the teacher concerning them; (3) he is not allowed to give orders, but 
must consult the school inspector; (4) the hours devoted to the instruc- 
tion in religion are to be made known to the respective clergymen; (5) 
the clergymen may be present during the examination for promotion so 
far as it concerns the study of religion. 

It may be stated with satisfaction that the good feeling existing 
between the supervisory staff and the clergymen designated to direct 
the religious instruction has never been seriously disturbed. Only the 
difficulty of arranging the hours for confirmation lessons leads to con- 
siderable disturbance in the regular school instruction. 

(7) Course of study, length of sessions^ division of time, and examina- 
tions for promotion, — The aim of tbe Berlin common school is like that 
of every elementary school — to accustom the children to serious mental 
labor, and to lead them through strict discipline to order, diligence, 
and obedience. The education and training is done through instruc- 
tion, and the school practices educative influence in precisely the same 
measure in which it conducts its instruction earnestly and successfully. 
The instruction embraces branches, the selection of which is deter- 
mined partly by the child to be educated, partly by the ethical commu- 
nity in which it lives, moves, and has its being. The selection of 
branches of instruction can not be essentially different from those pre- 
scribed for all elementary schools of the country ; and yet a rural school 
near the Polish boundary or the sand dunes of the Baltic coast, even 
though it be fully graded, has a different task of civilization from 
the six-grade common school of Berlin. The peculiarity of life in a 
metropolis demands of a city school an education fitting a child of the 
metropolis, and an amount of knowledge that will secure to the future 
citizen a possibility to support himself, and ability to aid in solving 
problems arising from close community with others. 

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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 279 

The child coming from small, inconvenient tenement rooms will find 
in the large, light, airy schoolrooms, and in the extensive playgrounds 
what the parental dwelling fails to give. Vigorous gymnastics supple- 
ment the physical wants of a child by means of bodily occupation, 
systematic and manifold exercises for strengthening the muscles and 
the nervous system. The danger of too much liberty resulting in 
flightiness and distraction, is met by a strict school discipline and by 
the demand for concentration of thought upon different problems. The 
boys' propensity for loitering and idleness is met by the demand for 
home work, and the inclination for amusement and frivolity is counter- 
acted by a strong emphasis upon ideal pursuits and ethical points of 
view. 

The child of Berlin, growing up between high brick walls, has little 
opportunity for movement in the open air and observation of nature's 
life and action. It's comprehension of natural evidences and phe- 
nomena within its own horizon is often too limited; the city school will, 
therefore, furnish a small comi)ensation by the study of plants and cut- 
tings sent weekly from the botanical gardens, and by periodical visits 
to the zoological garden, the aquarium, and the urania. By means 
of more extensive matter and a different kind of instruction than is 
offered in a secondary school, the vivacious city child, whose later life 
will perhaps be passed amid commercial, industrial, or trade pursuits, 
the school will give ample nourishment — mental food — that will inter- 
est him, awaken spiritual aspirations, and create that skill which equips 
him for the struggle for sustenance that is sure to await him. 

These few observations will make it obvious why the demands upon 
the elementary institutions of learning in the city must be peculiar 
with reference to locality, course of study, and appliances for teaching; 
but above all with reference to the teachers and their methods. 

To meet these peculiar demands has been the constant care of the 
administration, especially since the year 1878, when the consolidation 
and organization was completed, and special tasks and problems could 
be taken up for the i>urpose of improving the interior work of the 
school. The first thing done was to scrutinize the courses of study and 
more carefully grade the matter of instruction and fix the limits of 
work for each grade. In many conferences of the school inspectors, 
principals, and teachers of both city and private schools, all branches 
of study were discussed, and the points of view were fixed from which 
the selection of the matter and best method of teaching them could 
be determined upon. Thus a basis was gained for the purpose of fram- 
ing special courses within the frame of the prescribed normal course 
which, while considering the special needs of localities, would not 
destroy the unity and extent of the course, nor change the treatment 
of each branch. Rules and regulations were agreed upon in confer- 
ences of the supervisory staff and submitted to the central authority. 
For all these revisions teachers, principals, and supervisors were given 



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280 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

opportunities forau exchange of opinion concerning questions of method 
and educational principles. 

The length of daily sessions and the hours of work were submitted 
to discussion and the following points were agreed upon: 

(1) Instruction in the two lower grades, both in boys' and girls' 
classes, is to be given in the forenoon. Whether the school begins in 
the summer at 7 or at 8 o'clock, and in winter at 8 or at 9 o'clock, was 
left to be determined by local considerations. 

(2) Instruction for the middle grades in boys' schools shall also be 
given in the forenoon, but gymnastics as well as special branches may 
be given in the afternoon for one or two hours. Whether one or two 
afternoons per week would be needed for these studies was left to the 
decision of the principals and teachers of each school. The instruc- 
tion for girls in the middle grades was also to be given in the forenoon 
only, except female handiwork, to which two hours for two afternoons 
per week were assigned. 

(3) Instruction in the upper grades, both in boys' and girls' schools, it 
was decided to arrange in the forenoon and leave free as many after- 
noons as possible. The rule was established, however, that no afternoon 
instruction should begin before two hours had elapsed after the close of 
the morning session. Usually the morning session has five hours, from 
8 till 1 ; but when the afternoons are used the morning session closes 
at 12. 

The revision of the course of study was of grave importance for the 
internal development of the schools. Previous to the adoption of the 
famous regulations of October 1, 2, and 3 of 1854 a normal course of 
study had been framed by the city authorities for communal, parochial, 
and private schools. This normal plan was changed in 1855 to make 
it harmonize with the ministerial requirements of 1854. The entire 
change and great external development of the schools during the fol- 
lowing decade and the more liberal tendency of the time caused certain 
demands to be made upon the schools, which found expression in 1864 
in an amended normal course for all elenientary schools under the charge 
of the city school committee. This amended course gave evidence of a 
more liberal elementary education than was prescribed in the minis- 
terial regulations. It provided for a seventh grade called " selecta." 
When, under Minister Dr. Falk, in October, 1872, the former regula- 
tions of 1854 were abolished and *' general directions" were issued by 
the Royal Government which gave expression to principles and methods 
that had long been i)ractically tried in the Berlin schools, it was easy 
to frame within the limits of these directions of the minister a new nor- 
mal course for the elementary schools of Berlin. How the time was 
distributed upon the dififerent branches and what changes have taken 
place within the last fifty years may be seen from Tables 9 and 10 at 
the close of this article. 



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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 281 

The normal course adopted gave for each bratfch only the end in 
view, tbat is, the amonnt of knowledge to be imparted ; hence the schools 
needed special courses, which required the approval of the authorities. 
These special courses were tried, both for each grade and each branch, 
and thus a final decision was reached. Their temporary application 
was necessary owing to great fluctuations of the population, which 
required a certain elasticity of the course. 

In September, 1875, rules for the examination for promotion were 
adopted, and they are now in force. These regulations permit a survey 
of the instruction and its results. The order of examinations is fixed 
by the principal, wlio also presides, though the class teacher himself 
examines; it is done orally, but the written work done during the year 
is inspected. After that a conference of the teachers of the school, 
with the principal in the chair, takes place, in which cases of difference 
of opinion concerning the promotion of pupils are discussed. The 
teachers, both men and women, who during the year taught in the class 
have the right to vote; in cases of a tie the principal has the deciding 
vote. In cases where the principal objects to the promotion of a child 
the school insi)ector decides the question. All decisions concerning 
the promotion of children from class to class are entered upon the 
minute book of the conference. No child is promoted on trial and 
children may be returned to a lower grade if found wanting. Children 
who can not keep pace with the work of the class are reported to the 
school inspector, and all those who come from other city schools are 
assigned to the grade to which they are entitled by their standing in 
the former schools. 

In 1893 the college of school inspectors conferred concerning the 
changes in the examinations for promotion. These changes had refer- 
ence to a more minute statement of the limits of each grade and a 
division of the upper grade into two yearly divisions. 

The regulations then adopted designated the minimum of what a 
pupil must know at the close of a year's work, except for the highest 
grade, because that question is dependent upon various factors. Gen- 
erally it is accepted that a pupil having passed through the course is 
expected to "read fluently and with good emphasis, write orthograpic- 
ally, distinguish between high German and provincial idiom, know 
the etymology of his language, and be able to analyze a sentence. He 
must be able to repeat in writing a brief narrative or give a descrip- 
tion, and know something of the lives and works of poets such as 
Gellert, Schiller, Goethe, Arndt, Uhland, Chamisso; he must know the 
outlines of their biography and have memorized some of their i)oems. 
In arithmetic he must be able to operate with decimal and common 
fractions, solve problems by the rule of three, and understand the 
customary busiress rules. In geometry he must be able to prove the 
axioms of the congruence of triangles and angles within a circle, to 
compare planes bounded by straight lines, and have had practice in 



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282 EDUCATION KEPORT, 1893-94. 

simple constructioii. Some cliaracteristic forms of plants and animals, 
as well as tlie most familiar minerals, elementary observation of nature, 
and experiments with the most common physical apparatus are the 
limits for ilature studies. The pupil must know the geography of 
Europe and a little of all the other continents, but thoroughly the 
physical and political geography of Germany. He must know the 
imi^ortant dates and personages of German history." 

This is merely the minimum of what is required of the elementary 
child ready to leave the common school; but the city provides in 
advanced private schools for more than was sketched in the foregoing. 
The pupils are offered, since 187(>, a superior education, for which the 
city is ready to pay, so that they may enter secondary schools belong- 
ing to the city where they are free of tuition fees. In order to offer 
talented pupils a practical education for industrial pursuits some of 
the city elementary schools contain so-called select classes, or supple- 
mentary classes, in which twenty- four weekly hours are devoted chiefly 
to nature studies, physics, and drawing, but only pupils who have 
finished their elementary course at the age of 12 can enter these 
"selecta." Since the year 1884 the city has opened a number of sec- 
ondary schools without Latin, which receive the pupils after they have 
completed their elementary course. 

-After these general remarks a consideration of the separate branches 
of study may follow. 

Religion: (This being a subject excluded from the course of study in 
American public schools, the details of the course in Berlin are here 
omitted.) 

Language: Instruction in the mother tongue (reading, writing, spell 
ing, and grammar) follows the normal course of 1873. During several 
years following 1873, orthography and the grammatical terminology 
were repeatedly discussed in the meetings referred to in a foregoing 
paragraph. It was decided that the readers should be the basis of the 
spelling exercises and that in grammar the Latin terminology should 
be applied only in the upper grades. In 1879 a test in penmanship and 
orthography was ordered for all the schools. Each teachei* should 
select the three best pupils of his class and dictate to them a piece of 
thrqe foolscap pages. Many of these papers were found to contain not 
a single mistake in spelling; the six best pupils received prizes. 
Those tests have taught several lessons to the teachers and have been 
repeated in girls' schools as well. 

A definite decision concerning the rules of orthography was reached 
by the adoption of the new rules and word list prepared with the 
approval of the minister of education, which expressed the results of 
the famous conference for the simplification of German orthography, a 
conference which consisted of the most noted German philologists and 
authors, and which met under the auspices of the Eoyal Government. 
All text-books used had to be revised in order to comply with the new 
rules of spelling. ^ . 

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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUftOPE. 283 

In 1878 a motion for a cliange of readers led to a number of confer- 
enc5es concerning the requirements of a good reader. It was agreed 
that too great a uniformity, such as would be caused by the adoption 
of one single series of readers for all the schools of the city, should be 
avoided; hence a limited number of series were adopted for certain 
parts of the city. In compliance with this rule the following series 
were introduced and are now found in use: Engelien and Fechner, 
Bohm and Liibcky, Berthold and Eeinicke, Schmidt and Schillmann, 
Wetzel and Bilttner. For children who move into school districts 
where other readers are used, exchange depots are arranged, so that 
they may change their readers without cost to the parents. 

Arithmetic and geometry: As early as 18G8 a ministerial order was 
carried out with reference to the teaching of decimal fractions and the 
metric system, so that the pupils might be enabled to apply the metric 
system, shortly to be introduced generally. It was arranged to intro- 
duce decimal fractions not only in the upper but also in the middle 
grades. Of course, it was done in an elementary way. Reduction of 
common fractions to decimal fractious and addition and subtraction, 
partly also multiplication and division, of decimals were taught in the 
middle grades, while multiplication and division, reduction and the con- 
venient uses of decimal fractions in practical problems were taught in 
the upper grades. Within a few years from the date mentioned it was 
found that problems in simple proportion with easy common and deci- 
mal fractions were not practiced enough. In order to test this conclu- 
sively, in the year 1882 a trial was held in each school, to which three 
pupils from each room were admitted. This trial confirmed the appre- 
hension which dictated it, and more attention has since been given to 
routine exercises. 

In geometry the old rules of 1873 are still in force, according to 
which this branch is taught by means of immediate observation, i. e., 
sense perception, and in close relation with instrumental drawing. In 
the upper grades instruction in geometry is separated from drawing, 
and embraces, besides plane geometry, mensuration of solid bodies. 
The treatment this branch receives is not the systematic method of 
Euclid, although several problems are treated as he treats them. All 
problems are brought into connection with circumstances from civil 
and industrial life — that is to say, they are not abstract and hypothet- 
ical, but concrete and practical exercises. 

History: In order to secure good results of instruction in history in 
the upper grades, a guide was prepared for the Berlin city schools, in 
which information was given concerning aim, selection of matter, and 
method of teaching. A new stimulus was given to this branch by a 
ministerial order of May, 1889. According to this order the history of 
the Fatherland should (a) be continued to the date of the ascension of 
Emperor William II; (b) it should begin in the middle grades with 
pupils of 10 years of age, and not be confined to the upper grades (12 



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284 EDUCATION KEPOET, 1893-94. 

to 14 years) ; {c) it should dwell particularly in the upper grades upon 
the efforts the Prussian Kings have made in promoting the welfare of 
the people; (d) wherever a shortening of the course becomes impera- 
tive, it should not be done at the expense of modern history, but in that 
case a later historic date should be chosen for a beginning. 

These new rules coming from the Royal Government necessitated a 
recast of the daily programmes in order to make room for the increase 
in history study, and also a rearrangement of the matter of instruction. 
As usual, conferences were held, and it was finally determined (1) that 
in the lower of the two middle classes instruction in history should be 
combined with geography; (2) that in the ui)per of the middle classes 
two hours per week of the instruction devoted to language should in 
future be devoted to history, with this provision that one and the same 
teacher should teach both branches; (3) in the girls' classes two of the 
hours hitherto devoted to female handiwork should be devoted to his- 
tory. These changes, and the proposed distribution of the matter of 
historic study, were submitted to the Royal Government and approved 
June 20, 1891, without alteration. 

Geography : Since history had been introduced into the middle grades, 
and since history can not be taught without accompanying instruction 
in geography, a change in the course of geography was found neces- 
sary, which was determined upon in 1892. 

The "normal plan" of 1873 prescribed only twenty-eight hours per 
week for the middle grades of girls' schools; geography did not begin 
till the third grade was reached; in later years this was changed, so 
that two hours were added per week, and these were devoted to geog- 
raphy. The new plan of 1892 transfers some parts of the geography 
of Germany to the third grade and prescribes for the highest grade a 
review of the geography of Germany with special reference to com- 
merce and industry, and also prescribes elements of mathematical geog. 
raphy. 

Nature studies : The course in natural history was revised in the year 
1880. The general outlines prescribed by the Royal Government is too 
sketchy to be followed in a graded school, nor did the Government 
intend to prescribe any more than outlines, expecting that each school 
system should carefully grade the matter of instruction to suit local 
needs and peculiarities of each section. The Berlin schools had to 
further divide the time assigned to natural history, inasmuch as the 
local course of study required physics, and since the distribution of 
the work was different for boys' and girls' schools, it became necessary 
to clearly define the limits of each branch. 

The former '< normal plan" required for natural history in boys' schools 
two hours per week in the two middle grades, two hours for the lower 
of the higher grades, and three hours for the highest grade. For girls' 
schools it had been the same, except that nature studies begin one 
year later. 



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byG00gI( 



EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 285 

With reference to tlie fact that iustruction in physics shouUl not be 
confined to the highest, but be taken np in the one beh)w, and that 
botany shonld be tauglit in the summer, the following course was 
determined upon: 

A. In boya^ schools, beginning in the third year of the course, zool- 
ogy in winter, botany in summer, two hours a week; physics in the 
grade below" the highest in winter, two hours per week, while in sum- 
mer the time between Easter and the summer vacation be devoted to 
botany. After the vacation till the close of fall, zoology should be given 
two hours per week. In the highest grade all through the year physics 
is to be favored with two hours a week, while natural history receives 
one hour a week, the year being divided to suit the requirements of 
that study. 

B. In girls' schools the study of natural history begins one year later, 
and two hours a week are given to it. In the grtule below the highest 
this study is continued, but it does not share its time with that devoted 
to physics, as in the boys' schools. In the highest grade in winter the 
girls study physics two hours a week; in spring, summer, and fall they 
continue their study of botany and zoology. 

After this scheme was adopted, the inspectors, principals, and teach- 
ers decided what subjects should be taken up in the various grades, 
and they were 8electe<l with special reference to boys and girls. Ob- 
servation of natural bodies and phenomena, demonstrations and experi- 
ments with suitable apparatus — in fact, the entire course in nature 
studies has of late years greatly changed in extent and interest, both 
among teachers and pupils. 

Drawing: Since April, 1878, drawing has been extended to the lower 
grades, so that all grades from the lowest to the highest have instruc- 
tion in drawing. Formerly it was done entirely by the class teachers; 
later, the most talented teacher in a school undertook to teach the 
drawing in all the grades of that school. The development with refer- 
ence to method and plan of study remained a problem until in 1887 
the minister of education published a guide for the teaching of draw- 
ing in the public schools of three or more grades. This guide caused 
a change in the course of tlie Berlin schools, since it shortened the 
course by beginning drawing in the second year instead of the first, 
thus giving back, in the first year, to language study the two hours 
hitherto devoted to drawing. Other changes were found unnecessary, 
since the plan followed in the city schools of Berlin was almost identi- 
cal with the guide ijublished by the minister, and thus proved that the 
authorities of Berlin had been in touch with the latest improvements 
in the study of drawing. 

(The author here goes very much into details and touches upon text- 
books and various methods in drawing, all of which may be here 
omitted, since many technical terms would be required, not generally 
understood.) 



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286 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

Singing: Concerning the i^osition and treatment of instruction in 
singing in the city schools a number of lectures were delivered before 
the teachers, men and women, during the years 1877 and 1878. After 
several conferences concerning the number of church hymns to be 
learned, the royal authorities in 1880 determined their number to be 30. 
They were carefully selected and distributed among the six giades of 
the school. 

Female handiwork: As early as the year 1840 the school authorities 
introduced this branch into the girls' schools, which had at that time 
only four grades. Eight hours per week was the time devoted to it. 
It was confined to knitting, darning, sewing, and marking linen. In 
the year 1850 this instruction was confined to the two upper grades. 
In 1853 a reorganization of that branch in the city schools was begun, 
and in 1854 it was determined to have it taught in the three upper 
grades. Four afternoons each week, between 2 and 4 o'clock, were 
devoted to female handiwork. The instruction aimed at skill in female 
occupations, without reference to the pupils' grading in other branches. 
For indigent pupils each school had a small fund to defray the expenses 
for obtaining material. Since 18G3 an appropriation for all the schools 
for that purpose is regularly made by tbe central authorities. 

In 1853 experienced women were called upon to inspect this instruc- 
tion. Since 18G0 the duties of these supervisory ladies were regulated 
by special instructions, and these instructions are still in force, but not 
applied vigorously, owing to the improved professional preparation of 
the teachers of that branch. Since 1858 a teacher of female handiwork 
has to prove her ability to teach that branch, a special city board of 
examiners granting certificates. In 1861 the communal schools had 49 
of such teachers, who received a salary of 60 thalers each. 

In 1872 instruction in female liandiwork was regulated by minis- 
terial decree, which made it an obligatory branch of the public school. 
Absence from the lessons in handiwork was punished as well as 
absence from other school lessons. Female handiwork extends over 
the four upper grades, with six hours per week. With the introduc- 
tion of history in the middle grades of the girls' schools handiwork 
was curtailed by two hours. In order, however, not to let this branch 
suffer it was resolved to employ two teachers for each class at the same 
time. 

From the irreducible funds of the former industrial schools the sum 
of 45,000 marks, or about $11,000, has been set aside, the interest of 
which is used for prizes for diligent xHipils in female handiwork. These 
prizes are not large, but they suffice to give an impulse to the study, 
especially since a i)rivate bequest of 1,500 marks per annum has 
increased the available means. The first prize may be as high as 125 
marks in one half year. Pupils have the choice to either take the prize 
or have their expenses defrayed for three years. The first prizes were 
distributed in 1871) in consequence of a sewing test. 



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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 287 

Gymnastics: Exercises in physical culture were introduced as early 
as 1854. At first only the recess and noon hour were devoted to those 
exercises, and Ling's system was followed. After a ministerial order 
of May, 1860, gymnastic exercises had been made an obligatory branch 
of the course in elementary schools. The Berlin city schools were at 
first provided with the required apparatus in the i)laygrounds. The 
arrangement of the yards and the preparation of teachers were given 
over to the care of a city gymnast, whose appointment was confirmed 
in 18G4, and since 1877 the entire supervision of gymnastics in the city 
schools is left to him. Gymnastics properly so called began with two 
hours a week in the summer of 1862 for boys in the middle and upper 
grades of twenty-two schools. In the winter it had to be abandoned, 
becjiuse the apparatus was not under roof, but since that time every new 
schoolhouse built has been provided with a suitable gymnastic hall. 
The older ones of these halls were really only sheds, that is, rOofs sup- 
ported by columns, but later ones were built with walls. Since Octo- 
ber, 1868, gymnastics were continued all through the winter, and in 
1876 thirty-one commodious and spacious gymnastic halls were in use. 

The chief gymnast prepared the teachers of gymnastics in accord- 
ance with the guide published by the minister of education for Prus- 
sian schools. The teachers are paid 1.50 marks per hour. 

In girls' schools gymnastic exercises are conducted according to 
Spiess's method, and in October, 1876, forty-two classes received regu- 
lar instruction. As the school system develoi)ed and better school- 
rooms and gymnastic halls were provided for, this branch was made to 
share in the general improvement. A new course for girls' gymnastics 
was prepared by Schettler in 1883, and officially adopted. 

Up to the year 1889 instruction in gymnastics extended only over 
the middle and upper grades of the school. The faulty positions of 
school children in the lower grades when writing at their desk led to 
the introduction of gymnastics in the lower grades also, so that at 
present gymnastics is a regular branch of the course for all the grades. 
In the lower grades it is confined to suitable exercises in calisthenics 
and marching. Gymnastics on apparatus is confined to the middle 
and upper grades. Though the number of gymnastic halls greatly 
increased in course of time, the number of classes to be accommodated 
grew faster, so that it is necessary often to accommodate two classes 
in one hall. The year 1893 saw the completion of the ninety-first 
gymnastic hall connected with elementary schools. 

Besides gymnastics, the play of the children is carefully observed 
and supervised, playgrounds for the children attending school arc set 
aside in both the Friedrichs and Humboldtshain in the Tre])tow Park 
and the Tempelhofer Field. The children congregate there at specially 
designated hours in summer and go through a number of games jind 
plays conducted by the teachers. Similar efforts are made in the play- 
grounds of the city schools. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



288 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

Domestic instruction : The society for the welfare of children who 
have passed through the schools petitioned the magistrate in 1893 for 
the use of suitable rooms in the school buildings for the purpose of giv- 
ing instruction in domestic science to girls during the last school year. 
The magistrate, with the sanction of the chamber of deputies or city 
council, granted the request and placed at the disposal of the society 
suitable rooms in several new schoolhouses. Instruction began in the 
winter of 1893. Since this branch is not obligatory, it is taught only 
on afternoons not occupied by school work. The girls who choose to 
enter these classes are excused from attendance ui>on lessons in handi- 
work for two hours per week. The attempt has proven eminently sat- 
isfactory and a motion to continue and extend this department has 
been made, and is likely to be supported by the authorities. 

School gardens : The fact that it becomes more and more difficult in 
a metropolis to provide for the necessary number of plants for instruc- 
tion in botany led to the establishment of a school garden in 1869. 
The commission of parks and gardens was authorized to arrange it, and 
in the year 1875 the tirst plants were distributed among six schools. 
During the following year forty-nine schools could be sui)plied, and ever 
since 1877 every public school of Berlin is regularly supplied. Since 
1881 the private schools of the city are also supplied, as well as the 
royal institutions, if they pay a small sum of $10 to $20 per year for 
100 or 200 i)lants or cuttings twice a week. 

During the summer at 6 o'clock in the morning two large wagons 
start from the school garden loaded with cuttings packed and labeled, 
which are delivered to the different schools. All the city schools are 
divided into three groui)s, each group receiving its cuttings on two 
days, the lessons in botany being arranged accordingly. Every packet 
contains one sx)ecies. On an average every city school receives four 
diflferent species, in secondary schools six species, per week. Every 
packet has between 150 and 190 cuttings. During vacation, of course, 
the supply ceases. In order that the superabundance in summer be 
not followed by a scanty supply in the fall, annuals are chiefly raised, 
and it is done so early that the blossoms are obtained long before the 
very hot season sets in. This is necessary, owing to the fact that the 
plants have to be cut on the evening previous to their delivery. In 
order to acquaint the teachers with what they nmy expect from the 
school garden during the following week, the daily papers have regular 
announcements, and since 1887 a list of the plants raised is submitted 
to the special teachers, who consult with the gardeners as to what may 
or ought to be sowed or planted. Teachers in botany are permitted to 
take their classes into the school gardens and give a lesson in the open 
air, where they are aided by the gardeners who cut the specimens. 

But the plants thus placed at the disi)osal of the teachers are not 
the only ones observed and studied, for the playgrounds of every 
school has flower beds; shrubbery and trees are maintained which offer 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 289 

opportunity for observation, and poL plants kept by teachers and 
pupils give aid in the same direction. All these arrangements for a 
rational teaching of botany have proven eminently beneficial. 

[8) Continuation of teachers^ studies. — If the common school has a 
thoroughly prepared corps of teachers it would seem sufficient to 
secure success, but the demands each branch of instruction makes are 
so great that only a continuous occupation and study will make it 
possible to completely master them and thus secure the success in the 
schoolroom which is so much to be desired. Teachers must have 
opportunities, besides those commonly offered in the metropolis, for 
self-culture, the extent and direction of which meets the desires and 
the free determination of the individual. The authorities have felt 
this and have been ready to meet the demand. Teachers' libraries 
and the city school museum, with its valuable collection of books and 
ai>pliance8 for teaching, are open for teachers of both sexes. Then 
there are regular continuous courses and scientific lectures, for which 
the city government cheerfully defrays the expenses. Special opportu- 
nity is given for study in the natural sciences in the school garden, 
the urania, the zoological garden, and the aquarium. 

The city school museum has occupied the session room of the 
seventy-second common school since 1877. It contains a library of 
about 13,000 bound books, has an annual appropriation of 81,000 for the 
purchase of new books, which are selected from new publications on 
the theory and practice of teaching. Private bequests have increased 
the stock of appliances and the collection of objects for natural history 
study, as well as the physical apparatus, which collections are very 
valuable. The books and collections are open for inspection and use 
on Saturdays between 3 and C and on Sundays until 1 p. m.; books 
may be obtained also on Wednesday between 3 find 4 \\m. The num- 
ber of books borrowed and returned, as well as the number of visitors, 
has grown from year to year. In this museum the continuous lecture 
courses for young teachers are held. 

Other courses, such as for drawing, have been held ever since the 
year 1874, and since 1880 the drawing from solids has been made a 
special feature; these courses are given in the school for artisans. 

The school inspectors have held, since 1878, a great number of pro- 
fessional conferences or teachers' meetings, each one in his district. 
All the branches of instruction have been treated extensively with 
reference to matter and method, and since 1879 there have been added 
scientific lectures on mathematics, physics, history, and literature, 
which lectures are gratuitous and attended by a great number of zeal- 
ous teachers. Under the presidency of the chief gymnast of the city 
a conference of gymnasiic teachers is held during every term. 

Side by sjde with all these institutions for self-culture, there are a 
number of private institutions maintained by the Berlin Teachers' 
Association; lecture courses, for instance, and a separate school 
museum. ^ I 

ED 94—19 ^'^'^'^^' 'y <^oogle 



290 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

CONCLUSION. 

The foregoing memorial was intended to ^liow tlic main features of 
the development of tlie Berlin common school system during the last 
fifteen years. It has considered only the primary or elementary schools, 
and left entirely out of consideration, as not germane to the question, 
all the other city schools devoted to secondary instruction, nor has it 
touched upon the city institutions for the blind, deaf-mutes, orphans, 
and idiots, nor the reform schools. All these institutions, numerous as 
they are, lie outside the subject under consideration. 

From the facts given — and naturally this memorial deals with facts 
only — anyone may form an opinion concerning the institutions called 
the ''Berlin common schools.'' It is easily seen that the entire popu- 
lation nurses and loves its favorite child, the common school, and holds 
its protecting hand over it, so that it may grow steadily. Yet no one 
within or without these schools will .deny that there is still room for 
improvement in various directions. 

At present very essential questions are laying claims to the attention 
of the school administration. Especially pressing are the questions 
of internal development. The present organization of six ascending 
grades has during thirty years been able to furnish secondary schools 
with but a small fraction of pupils. Most of these latter institutions 
have elementary and preparatory schools of their own. How to do 
away with these and raise the elementary school to such a degree, that 
they mfiy be the preparatory institutions for secondary schools, is one 
of the burning questions. 

The organization of schools with more than six grades is one of the 
means of raising the standard of education with the great mass of the 
population. A school organization is the better the greater the per- 
centage of population it accommodates, and the greater the number of 
children who pass through all the grades of the school from the lowest 
to the highest, and thus obtain an education for life commensurate with 
the demands of our modern time. This is best atta-ined by reducing 
the size of the school and by a better grading. Organization, quality of 
pupils, and the number of pupils are in closest correlation. Equaliza- 
tion in attainments is best secured by grading the children into eight 
grades analogous to their ages from to 14. A recent resolution of 
the central school committee has added one grade to the already exist- 
ing six grades, by dividing the sixth into two grades. But a better 
grading is likely to follow in the near future. 

We conclude this memorial with the words of the annual report of 
1870, which, though published nearly twenty years ago, are still 
applicable: 

It is the intention to establish over the entire city a complete net of elemeiitary 
schools organized alilie, large enough to admit all the children of the city gratui* 
tously, and effective enough to deserve the general confidence of the population; a 
system of local school boards extending over all the districts, and consisting of citi- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 



291 



zeus who act witUoatpay, being acquainted with their neighbors, and who will insist 
upon the children fulfilling the duty of attending school, tolerating no unnecessary 
absence; a central school committee (** central administration '^ endowed with 
authority and provided with all the necessary technical assistants so as to meet the 
needs of schools in every part of the city, as soon as they arise; and lastly-, a corps 
of teachers thoroughly prepared, faithful to duty, and with devotion to the i)rofe8- 
sion of teaching, breathing life into the elementary institutions of learning. 

That was, and is still, the intention, and it will remain an object of 
solicitude among all the strata of society in the city of Berlin. 

Taiilk 1. — Growth of the common school system from 187S to 1S93. 



School districts 

School ingpectioii diHtrict8 

Loc»l school boards 

Members of local boards 

City common schools 

Class rooms m commou schools 

Children : 

In oommon schools 

Protestant 

C^atholic 

Jewish 

Dissenting 

Scboolhouses owned by city 
Schools in rented cjuarters. . 
Schools in other city buildings 
Classes in scboolhouses owned by- 
city 

Classes in rented quarters 

Classes with half-day sessions 
Private schools with children for 

which the city paid 

Classes in such private schools 

Children in snch private schools... 
Newly built city scboolhouses 
Classes in the new buildings 



School districts 

School inspection districts 

Local school boards 

Members of local boards 

City common schools 

Class rooms in common schools. . . 
Children : 

In common schools 

Protestant 

(vStholic 

Jewish 

Dissenting , 

Scboolhouses owned by city 

Schools in rented quarters 

Schools in other city buildings 

Classes in scboolhouses owned by- 
city 

Classes in rented Quarters 

Classes with halfuay sessions 

Private schools with children for 

which the city paid 

Classes in such private schools. . . . 
Children in such private schools. . . 

Newly built city scboolhouses 

Classes in the new buildings 




Digitized 



byG00gI( 



292 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



Table 2a. — Increase in population of Berlin, 





• 






Increase 


At close of 


Popula- 


In- 


Births. 


in chil- 
dren of 


year— 


tion. 


crease. 




school 










age. 


1872 


864.300 


39, 817 


35, 532 




187:i 


900, 020 


36, 320 


36, 159 


3, 212 


1874 


932, 760 


32, 140 


40.216 


3,900 


1875 


964, 240 


31,480 


43. 758 


5,344 


1H76 


095, 470 


31,230 


46, 266 


6, 2«»5 


1877 


1,024,193 


28, 723 4.-.. 875 


3.467 


1878 


1,0.")4.701 


30, 508 1 45, 86L 


4,088 


1879 


1, 089, 070 


34, 369 1 46, 065 


6,081 


1880 


1, 12;i,GK0 


34.610 1 45.8G8 


6,299 


1881 


1, lt)Q. 382 


32,702 ' 45,246 


9,371 


1882 


1, 192, 073 


35. 601 46, 268 


10,512 



I A t close of 
i year— ] 



Popula- 
tion. 



1883 1,226.392 

1884 1,26.3,196 

1885 ' 1.31,5.613 

1886 ' 1,362,455 

1887 1 1,413,603 

1888 ! 1,470,231 

1889 ; 1,. 526, 045 

1890 1,579,980 

1891 ' 1,624,313 

1892 1 1.656,698 



j In- 
I crease. 



34, 319 
36,804 
62, 417 
46,842 
51, 148 
56, 628 
55,814 
53, 935 
44.333 
32,385 



Increase 
I inchil- 

' Births. ' dren of 
j I school 

I age. 



45,938 
46,400 
46, 975 
47,599 

48. 014 

49, 796 
50,845 
51.899 
51,924 
52,442 



9,308 
9,747 
11.823 
6,554 
6,822 
6, 0.58 
4,529 
2,834 
3,054 
1,185 



Table 2h. — Increase in school population of Berlin. 

BOYS AND GIULS IN XLL THE SCHOOLS OF BERLIN, ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY. 

PUBLIC AND PRIVATE. 



Year. 



1872 
1873 
1874 

1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 



Per cent of the I 
population— 



Ofnnm 



jOfnuni- 



Children 
of school 

age iuuuni-| !,„_ „f 



10.18 

10.12 

10.20 ' 

10.41 

10.72 

10. 76 ; 

10.92 I 

U.13 

1L35 

11.84 I 

12.37 



95, 275 


87,966 


11.03 


98,545 


91, 179 


10.94 


103, 158 


P5, 079 


n.07 


108, 904 


100.423 


11.29 


115.154 


100,718 


11.57 


119,781 


110, 185 


U.70 


125, 599 


115,173 


11.91 


132. 912 


121, 254 


12.20 


139, 034 


127,553 


12.45 


149. 091 


136, 924 


12.89 


159,814 


147, 436 


13.41 



1 


Total. 

109, 725 
179,607 
190. 474 
198, 173 
205,604 
212, 205 
217,698 
221,216 
224,572 
225,923 


Children 
of school 

age 
(6 to 14). 

156. 744 
106, 491 
178,314 
184.868 
191, 690 
197. 748 
202. 277 
205,111 
208,105 
209,350 


Per cert of the 
population— 


Year. 


Ofnum- 
herin 
school. 


Of num- 
ber of 
school 
age. 


1883 

1884 

1885 

1 1886 

' 1887 

1888 

1889 

1 1890 

' 1891 

1892 

1 


13.84 

14.22 

14.48 

14.54 

14.54 

14.43 

14.27 

14 

13.83 

13.64 


12.78 
13.18 
13.50 
13.56 
13.56 
13.45 
13.26 
12.98 
12.82 
12.64 



Table 2c. — Inci'eaae in attendance of common schools, 

CHILDREN TAUGHT AT THE EXPENSE OF THE CITY, IN PCBLTC AND PRIVATE 

SCHOOLS. 



Year. | Total. 



i Per cent of the 

IChiMren' P°P»'««»"- : 
•of school irir«««, 

, agB |Ofnum-^{["°"}- 



Year. 




Total. 



I Per cent of the 
^. „ , I population- 
Children L_ * 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 



293 



Table 3. — Number of children bom and enrolled. 



In the year— 



18S2 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1880 
1887 
18^8 
18S9 
1890 
1861 
1892 
1803 
1894 
1805 
1890 
1897 
1898 



Entered 
or will en- 
ter the 
children 
bom in— 

1876 


Leave 

school, 

children 

born in— 




1877 


1868 


1878 


1869 


1879 


1870 


1880 


1871 


1881 


1872 


1882 


1873 


1883 


1874 j 


1884 


i875 ' 


1885 


1876 


1886 


1877 


1887 


1873 .... 


1888 


1879 


1889 


1880 


1890 


1881 


1891 


1882 


1892 


1883 




1884 



Number 
of chil 



dren born 



46.206 
28.831 

45. 875 
29. 192 1 
45,861 ' 
31.302 I 

46. U05 
28. vH05 ! 
45,880 ; 
35, 532 

45. 246 t 
36, 159 

46. 268 I 
40.216 I 
45, 938 
43. 758 
46, 400 , 
46, 266 I 

46. 975 
45, 875 

47, 599 I 
45.861 . 
48,914 
40,065 

49. 796 
45, 868 

50. i-Ab 
45. 246 
51,899 
48, 288 
51,924 
45, 938 
52,442 
46,400 



Differ- 
ence. 



Actualin- 

creano in 

public 

schools. 



il 



} 



17,435 

16,683 

14.499 

17,260 

10,340 

9,078 

6,052 

2,180 

134 

1,100 

1,738 

2,849 

3,928 

5.599 

5,631 

5,986 

6.042 



10,512 
9,308 
9,747 

11,823 
6,554 
6,822 
6,058 
4,529 
2,834 
3,054 
1,185 

(?) 

(?) 

(I) 

(?) 

(?) 

(?) 



TAblk 4. — Expenditures for neto school buildings behceen 1878 and 189S, 



Year. 



1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 



Enlarging ' 

New buildings, old build- j 

ing8. I 



Marks. 

177, 825. 86 

162, 156. 88 

554, 262. 31 

772, 257. 62 

2, 362, 973. 78 

241, 665. 30 

643, 325. 30 

2.734,731.54 

2, 201, 528. 56 

1,696.729.22 



I Marks. 



65, 406. 78 



60, 280. 93 
22, 205. 69 
34, 854. 09 



10. 659. 80 



Year. 



1888 

1889 

1800 

1891 

1892 

1893 

Total 
Or. 



New buildings. 



Marks. 
041,133.03 
145,491.15 
802, 457. 32 
894, 790. 77 
260. 234. 93 
249, 948. 61 



941,512.18 
698, 079. 86 



Enlarging 
old build- 
ings. 



Marks. 
13, 747. 15 



7. 528. 84 
33, 268. 04 



63,371.29 



311,322.61 
$74, 094. 78 



Table 5. — Classes and percentage of children taught in schoolhouses owned by the city 

between 1878 and 1893. 



Year. 


Clasges. 


Per cent 

of total 

number 

of 

children. 

86.89 
82.87 
79.62 
79.41 
81.66 
82.81 
79.93 
76.00 


Year. 


Claases. 

2.160 
2,314 
2,445 
2,563 
2,705 
2,868 
3,024 


Percent 

of total 

number 

of 

children. 


1878 


1,273 
1,330 
1,387 
1,508 
1.710 
1,733 
1.774 
1.984 


1886 


78.70 


1879 


1887 


80.00 


1880 


1888 


82.20 


1881 


1889 


83.75 


1882 


1890 


88 30 


1883 


1891 


88.37 


1884 


1S92 


92.17 


1885 











Digitized 



by(^OOgU 



294 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



Table 6,— Expenditures of tlie cittfj exclusive of those for huildifufs, beiiveen ISIS and 1893. 



Tear. 



Expendi- 
ture. 



1877-78.. 
1878-79.. 
1879-80.. 
1880-Sl.. 
1881-82.. 
1882-83.. 
1883-84.. 
1884-85.. 
1885-80.. 



Mark*. 
3, 670, 988 

3. 890. 668 

4. 231, 408 
4. 607, 343 
5,019,689 
5,435,864 
5,801,776 
6, 255, 090 
6, 713, 070 



Increa.se 

over laHt 

year. 



Marks. 
207, 596 
219, 680 
340, 740 
435, 935 
352, 346 
416, 195 
365,892 
453, 314 
457, 980 



rer CAD- 1 

iUof 
cbiltlren 
enrolled. 



MarU. 
48.60 
48.00 
47.83 
48.89 
47.99 
47.33 
46.58 
46.58 
46.30 



Year. 



Marks. 

1886-87 7,124,022 

1887-88 7.408,229 

1888-89 7,688,641 

1889-90 8.102,582 

1890-01 8. 302, 381 

1891-92 ' 8.901,093 

1892-93 ' 9.101,327 



■!?-.««« J J Increase 

^tS™.""" -«''■"•* 

year. 



Marks. 
410, 952 
284, 207 
280,412 
413, 941 
109,799 
666.203 
289,634 



Averages.. 6,400,300 i 365,926 



Per cap- 
ita of 
children 
onroUod. 



Marks. 
46.73 
40.62 
46.53 
47.65 
47.95 
50.62 
51.84 

47.88 



a£qual0$11.4O. 

Table 7. — Comparative data concerning the common schools of Berlin for the two years 

ISSO and 1891. 

[From the Prussian State reports of those years.] 



1886. 
Marks, i Per cent. 



Total cost of maiutonance ; 8,388,767 

For salaries ' 4, 493, 5 14 



For buildings and incidentals. 

Defrayed by city 

Defrayed by State 

Raised from tuition fees. . 
Per capita of population. 



3. 445, 253 
8. 324, 229 
37. 917 
26, 421 



58.93 

41.07 

99.23 

.45 

.32 



6. 38 or $1. 52 



1891. 



Marks. Per cent. 



11,090,005 . 
6, 360, 289 I 
4,729.716 I 

10,212,814 
877, 191 



57.35 

42.65 

92.09 

7.91 



7. 02 o.- $1.67 



Per capita in 1878, 5.50 marks ($1.31) ; in 1871, 3.49 marks (84 cents) ; in 1867, 3.31, marks (78 cents) ; 
in 1861, 1.33 marks (32 cents). 



Average expendltnre for one common school. 

A vera<;e expenditure for salaries 

Average expenditure for buildings 

Per capita of pupils 



1878. 



Marks. 
45,848 
ol, 782 
14,066 
50. 75 z= $12. 08 



1886. ■ 



1801. 



Marks. 


Marks. 


50,535 


57, 761 


29.780 


33,127 


20, 755 


24,634 


55. 51 =$13. 21 


63.15 =$15.03 



1878. 



1891. 



Marks. I Marks. 

Average salary for men | 2,37orr$o03. 25 2,597= $618.08 

Average salary for women i 1,457 - 346.77 I 1,538=: 366.04 

Marks. 

Pensions paid to men in 1891 100,402 — $23,895. 68 

Pensions paid to women in 1891 19, 896 -^ 4. 735. 25 

Total 120,298= 28.630.93 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 



295 



Table 8. — Time tables of the Berlin common schooh used in lS40j 1860^ 1873 ^ and 1803, 

A.— 1840. 
[The schools liaving four gra<les, grade 1 bfiny tho liigliest] 



Branches of instniction. 



Keligion 

heading 

German language and orthography. 

PenmanHhip 

Arithmetic 

Geometry 

Kational and universal history — 

Siugiug ' 

Female handiwork 



Hours per week for boys. HourH per week for girls. 

jGradel. Grade2. Grade3. ;Gra<le4.Gradol. Grade2, Gradel (iradel. 

4 



Total. 



32 



32 



10 



G 
10 : 



C C 4 4 
4 4 7 8 
2 2 

4 ' 4 , 4 4 3 2 

4 j 4 4 4 3 3 



2 ! 



2 ; 

8 



2G 



26 



32 



32 



26 



26 



In 1850 the course for Ijoys was changed so as to read for " national and universal history," 4 hours, as 
follows: History, 2 hours; knowle<lgo of nature (in summer), 2 hours, and geography, 2 hours (iu 
winter). For girls the course was changed to read " geography " instead of " uuivursarListory." 



B.— 1800. 
[The schools having six grades, grade 1 lieing the highest. 



Hours per week for hoys. Hours per week for ^ii l.s. 



Branches of instruction. 



I 



Religion | 

Keading and language I 8 

Writing i 4 

Arithmetic | 4 

Geometry and drawing , 4 

Nature study I 2 

History and geography 2 

Singing ' 2 

Female handiwork ' . . - 



Total 32 



-i I w 



I l1 'I .1 |1 I 



O ' O 



32 



26 I 26 26 



I . I 



G 

, 

3 I 4 

3 4 



G ' C 
10 



6 
10 

4 
4 



20 32 32 



V,'.\ 



32 , 26 26 26 

I 1 I 



C— 1873. 
[The schools having six grades, grade I being the highest.] 



Keligion 


4 

8 
4 
2 
2 
3 
3 

I 
2 


4 

8 
4 
2 
2 
2 
2 

I 
2 


4 

1. 

4 


4 4 


4 

12 


4 

6 

4 
2 

I 


4 

G 
4 
2 
2 
2 


i 
4 4 4 


4 


German (2 hours' object lessons in grades 5 
and C) 


10 
4 


12 


8 ; 10 

4 1 4 


12 


1? 


Arithmetic. .... . 


4, 4 


4 


History ' 


i - 




Geography (home geography iu grade 4) 


2 
2 


2 
2 




2 :....;.... 




Nature stud V . .............. .......... .... 


1 


2 






1 






Drawing 


4 
2 
2 


2 ........ 

2 2 12 


2 
2 


2 
2 


2 




Singing 


2| 2j 2 






2 


1 




Female handiwork 


::::!:::: 


8 
32 


32 


8 8 .... 
32 28 22 




Total 


17 


1 
30 ^0 


28 22 22 


22 



















Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



296 



EDUCATION 



REPORT, 1893-94. 



Table 8. — Time tables of the Berlin common schools used in 1840^ 1860, 1S7S, and 189$ — 

Continued. 

D.— 1893. 
[Though the course prescribes six grades, many schools have seven. See Text.] 



Branches of instruction. 


Hoi 

O 

4 

8 
4 
2 

I 
I 

2 
2 


irs per w 

III 

c |0 

"""1 " 

4 ! 4 
8 8 
4 4 


eokl 

1 

e 

4 

10 
4 


or boy«. 

2 £ 

a o 

9 11 
4 4 


Hoars per week 1 

»H ci j M •* 

nil 

w U 'J O 

4 4 4 14 
6 6,8 8 
4 4 4 1 4 
2 2 2 .... 
2 2 2 2 


"or girls. 

III 


Rclifiion 


4 4 


German (2 hours object IcsHons in grades 5 and 6) . 
Arithmetic 


9 11 
4 t 4 




2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 


2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
9 




Geocrninhv (homo tr«^offvai»hvin crrade 4) 


2 
2 




. ..1 














Drawing 


2 
2 
2 


2 

1 
2 


.... 


2 
2 
2 
U 

32 


I 

2 
6 

32 


2 
2 
2 

32 


2 
2 
2 
4 

28 




2 




1 1 1 


(rvmnastics 


2 1 2 




...J.-.. 




Total 


32 30 , 30 

1 


28 


22 


2. 


22 22 







Tablk 9. — Distribution of the school children according to age. ( Tear 189 J,) 




Grand total. 3,271177,087, 



21,17, 746|21, 843|23. 730 22, 805j22, 478 21, 202 20, 829|19, 678 3, 708 



13 
~41 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 



297 



Table 10. — DistrihuHon of the pupih born in 187S, showing the absolute numbers and 

percentages. 





Grade. 


« to 7 yearn 

old, tint 
school year 


7 to 8 years 
old, second 
school year 

1885. 


8 to 9 years 

old, tliinl 

school year 

1880. 


9 to 10 years 
old, fourth 
school year 

1881 

Num- IVr 
her. cent. 

1 


10 to 11 

old, 
school 

18i 

Num- 
ber. 

19 
1,525 
4,383 
3, 453 
1,087 
117 


years 
llfth 
^year 




Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent. 


Per 
cent. 


1 . 


BOYS. 






.13 
14 41 


2 














26 h .24 

2,348 21.59 

5, 320 48. 97 

2. 789 25, 64 

387 3.56 


3 










45 

3, 361 
6,050 
1,470 


.41 

30.73 
55. 37 
13.49 


41 40 


4 






58 
4.600 
6.022 


.54 
43.11 
56.35 


32 63 


5 


21 
7. 032 


.30 
99.70 


10 27 


«._ 


1.11 




Total 

OIBLS. 




100. UO 






7,053 100.00 


10.689 


100.00 


10,938 


10.876 -100.00 


10, 584 


100.00 


1... 














7 
1,243 
4,314 

4,208 

1,300 

111 


.06 


2 













io .90 

1,774 I 15.93 

5,617 1 50.44 

3,342 i 30.01 

393 1 3.53 


11.11 


3 










i-l i . 12 

2, 646 1 23. 55 
6,6i»7 1 59.61 
1,878 1 16.72 


38 56 


4 






20 
3,883 
7.138 


.18 
35.18 
64.64 


37.61 


5 


9 
6.459 


.is 

99.87 


11.67 


6 ., -- - 


99 




Total 






6,468 


100. 00 


11,039 


100.00 


11.235 ino on 


11,136 100.00 


11, 189 


100 00 




Grand total 






12,173" 








13,521 




21,728 







^-0»2| 


21,773 





Grade. 



11 to 12 years 

old, sixth 

school year 

1889. 



BOY8. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

Total 

OIKLS. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

« 

Total 

Grand total 



Num- 


Per 


ber. 


cent. 


961 


9.22 


3,448 


83.10 


3,618 


34.74 


1,957 


18.82 


385 


3.70 


45 


.42 



12 to 13 years 
old, seventh 
school year 

1890. 



Num- 
ber. 



2,926 

3.696 

2,560 

985 

145 

18 



10,414 100.00 ' 10,330 



756 
3,319 I 
4, 189 I 
2,351 

445 I 
46 



6.81 
29.89 
37. 72 
21.17 

4.01 
.40 



11, 106 100. 00 



21, 520 I 



2,886 
4,018 
2,957 
1,127 
172 
15 



11, 175 



21,505 



Per 
cent. 



28.33 

35.78 

24.78 

9.54 

1.40 

.17 



13 to 14 years 

old, eighth 

school year 

1891. 



Num- Per 
ber. cent. 



4,450 
8,147 

1,501 

472 

48 

2 



100.00 I 9,620 



46.26 
32.71 
15.60 
4.91 
.50 
.02 



100.00 



25.83 


4,654 


35.96 


3,395 


9". id 


1,729 


10.08 


518 


1.54 


64 


.13 


8 



44.89 

32.74 

16.67 

5.00 

.62 

.08 



100.00 I 10.368 100.00 



19, 988 



0\er 14 years, 

ninth school 

year 1892. 



Num- 
ber. 



919 

539 

241 

65 

7 



Per 
cent. 



1,771 



51.89 
30.43 
13.61 
3.67 
.40 



100. 00 



Total. 



1.028 

554 

271 

71 

10 

3 



1,037 
"3^708 



53.07 
28.60 
13.99 
3.66 
.52 
.16 



100.00 



9,275 
12, 381 
14.696 
15, 677 
15, 147 
15,094 



9,333 
12, 539 

15, 248 
10, 553 
15, 928 

16, 059 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



298 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



ATTENDAXC E IX SECONDARY SCHOOLS FOR BOVS IN GERMANY. 

In an appendix to the expose on the universities in Germany, the 
annual report of this Bureau for 1891-92 contained a summary (p. 368) 
which has served as a basis for comparisons with other States. The 
imperial secretary of state at Strasburg, Dr. George von Mayr, a 
noted statistician, subjects the sources of that table, published by 
Prof. Dr. C. Eethwisch for the Chicago World's Fair, to a criticism 
which reveals most interesting details, and he brings out features of 
secondary school attendance in Germany which are particularly wel- 
come in this country at a time when high schools and colleges are tak- 
ing an inventory of good intentions and results. 

In preseutiug this statistical material it is necessary to reiterate that 
the tables show only the number of boys studying in secondary schools, 
not of girls. The boys in Germany who are predestined by their par- 
ents to i)ursue higher studies must begin at an early age — say at 10 or 
11 years. For girls who aim at entering upon higher studies, ample 
provision in the form of public preparatory secondary schools is not 
made as yet in Germany, though there are numerous private institu- 
tions of that kind. Efforts are being made of late to establish public 
gymnasia, or classical schools, for girls, and the Government has the 
question under advisement. Dr. Mayr, in summarizing the material 
furnished by each State, arrives at the following totals for the year 
1890: 

Boys. 

'* Gymnasia/' or classical schools 134,845 

"Real schools," with Latin 50,947 

" Real schools," without Latin 62, 579 

Total 248,371 

This is about 3 per cent of the school-going population. 

The separate States show remarkable differences in the attendance 
in the three classes of schools. While in Prussia and in Bavaria the 
classical schools have still the majority of students. States like Saxony, 
Wiirtemberg, Baden, and Hessen display an opposite tendency. 

The confessions or religions of the students are mentioned separately, 
both in totals and in ratios, as is seen from the following paragraphs. 
The numbers are not quite correct, owing to the fact that two States 
make no returns concerning the denomination of their students. 

Germany has 1 student in secondary schools to every 1^9 of its 
inhabitants; that is, 1 Protestant student to every 181 Protestant 
inhabitants; 1 Catholic student to every 307 Catholic inhabitants; 1 
student of other Christian confessions to 204: of such inhabitants; 1 
Jewish student to every 30 Jewish inhabitants. A computation of 
the attendance in the three categories of schools with reference to the 
religion or confession can be made only by leaving out the nu^nbers 
from Wiirtemberg and Oldenburg. The result is as follows: 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 



299 



Attendance in sccondartf schools in Germany, ISOO. 



CyninaHia or claasical scbools for 
boys. 



Slates*. 



Pro. 

tC8< 

I tauts. 



Cat ho- 
lic». 



Other ' 
Chris- Jews. 
tiauH. 



Total. 



Ivonl dchooli*," with Latin, for 

l>OV8. 



! 



54,038 
5, 73H' 
5, 333 
(0 I 
2,092 
1,577 
1,378, 
703 
545 
(?) 

1,674 
261 
505 
281 
327, 
930' 
149' 
331' 
149 
157| 
305 
193 
361 
530' 
784' 
830 
2, 034 



19.539, 

11.418' 

121 

(?) I 

2,089 

567| 

111. 

14'. 



(?) 



Prussia 

Bavaria 

Saxony 

"Wiirtembcrg 

Baden 

HeHAen 

Uecklenburg-Sch werin 

Saxe Weimar 

Mecklenburg-Strelitz 

Oldenburg 

Brunswick 

Saxo-Meiniugen 

8axe- A Itenburg 

SaxeCoburg 

Saxe- (lotka 

Aulialt 

Schwarzbnrg-Kmlolstadt 

Schwarzbnrg-Sondersliausen . 

WalUeck 

ReusA, aenior 

Reuss, Junior 

Schauiuburg-Lippe 

Lippe 

Liibeck 

Bremen 

Hamburg 

Alsoce-Ixirraiue 



German Empire: ' I 

Total '.... 

AVithout Oldenburg i 

Without Oldenburg and 
Wurtemberg 81,205 36,414 



I 



18. 
2. 

10* 

I: 

li: 

5. 
2. 

...I. 



149 
32 

13| 

8 
22 

\'.v.\'^ 

*(V)*i 



7,253 
814 
1G9 
(?) 
404 
24 
33 
18 
18 
(?) 
27 
23 



17. 
3'. 

18| 

2,544 



19 

Ml 

28 

1 

5 

13 

2 

1 

9 

25 

18 

13 

142 

334 



241 9,621 



80. 979 

18,002 

5.636 

0,453 

4,593' 

2, 407 

1,422 

735 

5651 

91l'. 

1,719 

289 

506 

3111 

340 

964 

151 

340 

167, 

1611 

306 

208, 

403 

551, 

816 

1.000, 

4. 913 . 

134, 845 . 
133, 934 . 



Pro- 
tants. 



ICath 



Other I I 

Chri«- [Jewn.i TotAk 



■t 



I 



26,788 

2451 

3 002' 

(?) I 

1. 732! 

802 

1, 372 

4H9 

212 



4.687' 
146 

(?) i 

1. 246, 

179 

51 
6! 

li 



(') 



146 2.844! 

61 

40 

(?) 

392 

87 

30 

21 

1 



325 

305 

192 

233 

90 

436 

226- 

349 

93: 

37 

3D4 

38 

34 

117 

592 

631 




4 2 

.1 5 

5 2 



15 . 
Ill 



34,465 

452 

3.136 

1.972 

3,381 

1,083 

1,407 

616 

214 



338 
319 
193 
351 

91 
463 
229 
360 
100 

37 
400 

43 

41 
118 
620 
718 



50.947 
50,947 



127,481 38,734 6,409 182 3,650 48,975 



I 



"Real 8cliooli»," without Latin, 
for boj'B. 



Total. 



States. 



■ Pro lr'„#i.«'Other ! 

tea- S"?*. ' Chris- Jews. Total. 
tauts. "*^*- I tians. ' ' 



Protos 
tants. 



Cath 
olics. 



Other 

Chris- Jews. 
tinns. 



Pruasia 14,558 

Bavaria , 4.531 

Saxony 4.839 

"Wiirtemberg 6,919 

Baden I 1,333 

Heasen ' 2,031 

Meoklenborg- Schwerin | 5601 

Saxe-Weimar ' 533 

Mecklenborg-Strelitz 

Oldenburg ; 4591 

Brunswick 1,302' 

Saxe-Meiningen I 203' 

Saxe- Altenburg I 102 

Saxe-Coburg ' 

BaxeOotha 442! 

Anhalt 184j 

Bchwarzbarg-Rudolstadt 

Schwarzbarg-Soudeishauseu . ' | 

Waldeck ' 

Reuss, senior 

Reuss, Junior 

Schaumborg- Lippe 
Lippe. 



3,218 

5, 227 i 

102 

1,269 

952 

705 

2 

12 



104' 2,01319.893 
69' 1,1311(\968 
3 118 5.062 
" 396 8,593: 
319, 2,613; 
51 5i 3.292 
672) 
4 1 555 



9 

41 
1 



11 . 
16'. 



20. 
244 1 



Iiiibeck I 664 

Bremen ' 1,210 

Hamburg i 3,217 

Alsace-Lorraine | 1,230, 



2. 
19. 
96, 

908 



German Empire: 

Total 44.217 12.549 

"Without Oldenburg ! 43,758 12,538 

'Without Oldenburg and . | | 

Wiirtemberg " 36,839 11,269, 

I I I 



211 
7 



490, 

1,562 

20:{t 

105, 

.1 



472! 
IS 



"I" 



21 587 

10 1,245: 

337l 3.671 

374 2,513 



95,384 27. 
10, 514 16, 
13, 174 
13.002 3, 
5, 157| 4, 
4,410 1, 
3,310' 
1,725 

7571 
(?) I ( 
3, 301 

769 

7991 

514! 

859 
1,550 

375; 

680 

242i 

104! 

699; 

23li 

395 
1,211 
2,586 
4,078 
3, 264, 



I 
444 

91 
3011 
2551 
287, 
451 

18, 

32 

3. 
?) 1 

1L 

3- 

17 
lOl 
15. 

3 . 

6 

0. 

2 . 

4. 



399 12,110 
101, 2,006 
26; 333 
281 733 
22 1,121 
78 843 



(?) 



72 
43 
19 
(?) 
279 
36 



Totai. 



121t 
.452 



30! 
00 



1 

19 

2 

3 

14 

27 

40 

42 

553j 

708 



135,337 

29,412 

13,834 

17,018 

10,587 

6,782 

3,401 

1.806 

779 

1,401 

3,619 

808 

804 

562 

903 

1,620 

380 

70J 

267 

198 

706 

251 

444 

1,256 

2,681 

5,389 

7,426 



266 5,55-162,579 i I 24a 371 

206,5,527 62,089 169,780 57,347 708,19, 135, 246, 970 



257 5,13153,490; 150,778 54,092 

I [ : II 



680 18, 402: 229, 952 

I i 



Digitized 



byG00gI( 



300 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

Nuinder of inhahitanta to every student {without Wilrtemherg and Oldenhurg), 



rrotcRtant 

Catholin 

Other (leuominatious. 
Jow« 

Total 





Heal schools. 




Gym- 
nasia. 




With 


Without 


Total. 


1 


Latin. 


Latin. 




' 361 


758 


715 


187 


464 


2,651 


1.507 


314 


571 


757 


535 


202 


55 


146 


104 


30 


370 


960 


879 


205 



This mode of computation involuntarily leads to the opinion that 
small numbers presuppose a numerous i)articipation, while large num- 
bers presuppose a small participation, in secondary studies. This cer- 
tainly is correct, but it does not give as adequate a statement as ratios 
would. For that reason the table is repeated here, displaying the 
number of students to every 10,000 inhabitants. 

Number of students to every lOjOOO inhabitants. 



Protestant 

Catholic 

other denominations. 
JewH , 

Total 



1 


Real schools. 




Gym- 
nasia. 


Withl 


Without 


Total. 




Latin. [ 


Latin. 




27.7 


13.2 


12.5 


53.4 


21.4 


3.8 


6.7 


31.9 


17.5 


13.2 


18.7 


49.4 


173.7 


65.7 


92.7 


332.2 



48.9 



In all the three classes of secondary schools we find the Jews more 
numerously represented than the Christians. This is equally true in 
classical and modern high schools. The Protestant population also makes 
use of the opportunities for secondary education much more frequently 
than the Catholic, but there is quite a difference between the number 
of those in classical and those in modern high schools (so-called Keal- 
schulen). These differences in the participation of the different dinom- 
inations are so great that a more minute statistical comparison than the 
one presented in the foregoing table (see p. 299) would not materially 
alter the result shown in these ratios. Absolutely correct comparison 
would be possible only if the entire number of students in secondary 
schools could be viewed according to religious denomination and age, 
and compared with the male population divided in the same manner — 
that is, with reference to their religion and age. This is impossible, since 
neither the school statistics nor the general German census offer the 
material. The latter particularly, as far as the total for the Empire 
comes into question, suffers from a want of combination. Kot even 
the most elementary distinction between the confessions, namely, that 
according to sex, is given. This is owing to the want of detailed enumer- 
ation in soire States. German statisticians therefore earnestly desire 
that the next census may reveal the facts necessary for this and similar 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 301 

comparisons. As far as the numbers go, the participation of the four 
groups (Protestant, Catholic, other Christians or dissenters, and Jews) 
in secondary education as given in the table must suffice for the present. 

Tlie facts which the foregoing ratios reveal are not in any way sur- 
prising, since estimates based upon Bavarian statistics, and upon those 
of a few other States, had revealed similar proportions years ago. Thus, 
for instance, the classical schools — that is, the so-called- gymnasia in 
Bavaria — had some years ago among their pupils 3G.5 Catholics, 4G.3 
Protestants, 86.7 Israelites of every 10,000 of the inhabitants. For 
1890 Bavaria exhibits the following ratios of students to the total pop- 
ulation (distinction as to sex being missing): Catholics, 28.8; Protes- 
tants, 36.5; Jews, 151.0, for every 10,000 inhabitants. Hence, the Jews 
in Bavaria, as was shown in 1863, have increased their ratio of students 
in gymnasia enormously — that is, nearly 100 i)er cent within about 
thirty years. The extraordinary increase in the participation of Jews 
in the secondary schools without Latin — that is, in the modern high 
schools, or Kealschulen — is even greater. 

Professor Von Mayr quotes in this connection a paragraph from 
Volume I of his Bavarian Statistics of Education (1873, p. 40), with 
reference to the attendance in classical high schools. lie at that time 
remarked : 

I sboiilil like to warn my roadere not to draw immediate conclusions from the 
relative proportion of the different confessions upon the talent or inclination of the 
8tndent8, or the confession to which thoy belong. There are other considerations 
that determine the real participation in any branch of education besides talents 
and inclination, and amon<^ these are the ease or difficulty of attending certain 
schools. These are dependent upon the habitation of the parents and the location 
of the schools. Doubtless the population of auy place or city furnishes the compar- 
atively greatest contingent of students. Now, it must be considered that the Jew- 
ish population is nearly always found in largo cities which have a variety of schools 
beyond the scope of the elementary schools. Hence, we find the Jewish children 
more frequently in secondary schools, while the Catholics are chiefly agriculturists, 
farmers, and the like, and live in hamlets, villages, and small towns, which do not 
oft'er opportunities for secondary education as large cities do. Similar proportions 
are found where the members of one confession are preferably grouped in larger 
cities, as, for instance, the Protestants in Upper Bavaria, where the participation of 
Protestants in secondary schools is comparatively lar/nrer than in Lower Bavaria, 
where they are found both in the cities and in rural districts. 

What Dr. Mayj* said twenty years ago is, in a measure, still applica- 
ble to-day, though it may not be possible to control it statistically. 
The statistics of the Empire fail to go into details on the subject of con- 
fessions with regard to the locality in which they are represented. If, 
however, Prussian statistics, which are very minute, are taken as a 
standard of measurement, we find (1) that the Jews form 1.2 per cent 
of the entire population of Prussia; (2) that they form 2.6 per cent of 
the city population; (3) but only 0.3 per cent of the rural population; 
and (4) 2.8 per cent of the population in cities of over 20,000 inhabitants. 

From this it is obvious that the Jews have better opportunities for 
attending secondary schools. Their present strong participation^iju such 



ion in sucl] 

.oogle 



302 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

schools, is, however, not explained by this objective relation only; aside 
from this there must be a subjective tendency. This tendency is nursed 
doubtless by tlie choice of profession and occupation common among 
the Jews, they being found chiefly among the merchants and profes- 
sionals, but not among mechanics and farmers. 

Though it may be of interest to record similar statements from edu- 
cational statistics of the United States, it can not be considered essen- 
tial, since the undenominational character of the schools in this country 
precludes any reflections such as Professor Majnr was able to make fojr 
Germany. His reflections and ratios concerning denominations are not 
the essential features of his summary (see p. 3), but the proportion 
of students in the various classes of schools regardless of their denom- 
ination is of supreme importance, since it shows an enormous increase 
of pupils in the schools without Latin, and only a moderate increase in 
those with Latin. In viewing the table we must constantly bear in 
mind that the total of very nearly a quarter of a million pupils in sec- 
ondary schools represents only the boys. If we add the number of girls 
attending secondary schools not enumerated here the total number 
would be increased to half a million. One-half a million of 50,000,000 
inhabitants is 1 per cent. This is a very extraordinary percentage, for 
it means that of every 100 men, women, and children, one is in the sec- 
ondary schools. If we abandon the total number of inhabitants and 
take the total number of school-going age, 6 to 20 — namely, about 
10,000,000 — the proportion in secondary schools would be 5 per cent, a 
proportion not reached by any other country. 



Courses of Study in History Found in VoauE in Europe. 

Prof. Joseph Baar, Ph. D., published in a supplement to the annual 
catalogue of his school (a progymnasium in Mahnedy, Germany, 1895) 
an essay in which he subjects the courses of study prescribed for the 
study of history in secondary schools in several European countries 
and the United States to a rigorous comparison. He then summarizes 
the various courses in such a way that the amount of time and matter 
prescribed may, at a glance, be seen. The matter is of suj)reme impor- 
tance to teachers in this country, where universal history has remained 
a subordinate study, being reserved, as it were, to grace the high- 
school course. 

The author starts out with this weighty remark: 

Whether the study of history will bear fruit for life, or whether it remain mere 
text-hook knowledge accumulated for examinations, or both, or neither; whether it 
develops the whole soul life of the pupil, clears the intellect, and fills the emotions 
and the heart with noble sentiments, or whether it will leave the heart cold, the 
head empty, causing confusion — all that depends principally upon the scientific and 
ethical personality of the teacher. Good text-books can only aid him in his work. 
Prescribed courses of study determining the aims and methods of his instruction 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 303 

may promote or retard liirn; they can do Dotliing else. If wo wish to sketch a per- 
fectly true picture of how history is taught iu foreign countries we should have to 
know above all who the teachers are that give the instiuctiou and how they do it. 
As a matter of self-evidence, sources of such information are lacking. All we can 
do is to show what is intended by the authorities and adequately fix the rank in 
which the study of history is placed in the dift'erent countries by stating how much 
time is devoted to it and what matter is to be gone over. 

The interest iu this inquiry is a threefold one — a scientific, educational, and polit- 
ical interest. For the principles according to which the courses are framed, the text- 
books chosen, the selection of matter, and the distribution over the several years of 
the course determined, and lastly the method employed are all dependent upon the 
question ; Why is history studied? (1) For the historian the science of history has 
it« own aim. Ho desires to gain as extensive and thorough a knowledge as possible 
of historical facts. (2) It is difierent with the educator; history to him is a means to 
an end; ho wants to give his pupils an intellectual and ethical education which is 
most desirable for life. Hence, ho will select the matter of instruction to that end 
and form it in content and extent according to the capacity of his pupils. (3) The 
third and iu most countries decisive motive power, the State, has the same purpose, 
but aside from that it has a political end in view. It emphasizes love of country, 
adherence to the existing form of government, and a general comprehension of gov- 
ernmental relations. According to this purpose the State schools will of necessity 
occupy themselves with home history, and according to the existing form of gov- 
ernment the study of history will result in a history of princes or a history of the 
people — that is to say, it will be supported either by a monarchic-dynastic spirit or 
by a republican spirit. In private or denominational schools of Belgium and America 
other considerations, such as dictated by the church, come into play besides the 
political. 

The author then subjects the courses and methods pursued in France 
Eussia, and the United States, and compares them with those generally 
adopted in Germany, Austria, Italy, and other countries. (See sum- 
mary at the close of this article.) With reference to the United States, 
he points out that here the authorities do rarely more than prescribe 
the countries and epochs to bo gone over; method and distribution of 
matter are left to the teacher. He says: 

Nevertheless there are a number of uniform features in the teaching of history in 
America which show clearly that all the schools of the various States, though not 
ruled by a centralized power, are following a general, well-understood motive, that 
of amalgamating the foreign elements and making the population of the Union 
homogeneous in sentiment and aspiration. The aim of the study of history in the 
United States is more than in monarchical states — apolitical one. It is to prepare 
the young to a self-active participation in the life of the State by giving them the 
requisite historical knowledge and by training them in true American sentiment. 
This explains why the grammar schools generally confine themselves to American 
history. This home history is taught vory thoroughly during the last two years of 
the elementary course (thirteenth and fourteenth year of life), and also in form of a 
review in the high schools. Ancient history, on the other hand, is taught only in 
the high or other secondary schools, and very superficially at that. English history 
is all that finds a little attention besides ancient and home history. 

The author then subjects various textbooks and courses of study to 
a critical analysis, quotes the course of study followed in the Baltimore 
City College, and finally places the various courses in juxtaposition. 
This summary is very interesting, and is here reproduced in full and 
very minute translation : Digitized by GoOglc 



304 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



Courses of study in history.^ 
[Hours per week.] 



Year of age. 



Kleventh , 



Twelfth . 



Thirteenth .. 



Fourteenth . 



Fifteenth ... 



Sixteenth... 



Seven teouth 



Eighteenth . 



Nineteenth . 



Prussia since 1892. 



I 



Austria since 1884. 



Belgium since 1889. 



A,— Elementary department. A.— Elementary department. 



Biographies from native history, 1 
hour. 



Narratives "rom roj'thological his- 
tory of the Grp«l;8 and Romans, 
1 hour. 



Ti.— Secondary department. 



Greek and Ivoman history from 
Solon to the Diodorhi and from 
Pyrrhus to Augustus, grouped 
around leading characters; also 
important parts of oriental his- 
tory— 2 bourt*. 

Brief review of "Western Roman 
Empire; German history to the 
close of Middle Ages; "history 
of other countries only where of 
general importance— 2 hours. 



German history from the close of 
Middle Ages till 1740; special 
stress on Brandenburg- Prussian 
history: other countries where 
nee<lod for the comprehension of 
native history— 2 hours. 

Gennan and 'Prussian history 
from 1740 to the present time; 
comparative consideration of 
social and economic develop- 
ment — 2 hours. 

n. COURSE. 

(Jbief events of Greek and Roman 
history till 476 with reference to 
cause and etl'ect; special stress 
on constitutional history, condi- 
tions of civilization, in groups 
facilitjiting comparison — 3 
hours. 

Account of events that have made 
epochs in the world's history 
from 476 to 1648. with reference 
to cause and effect; other states 
only where of great historical 
Importance; historical and ge- 
ographical review of the states 
ot i!,uropo at the close of the 
thirty years' war— 3 hours. 

The most importunt event s of mod- 
ern, especially Prussian, history, 
with constant reference to cause 
and effect; same matter as in 
previous years, only more pro- 
foundly treated— 3 hours. 



Preparatory lessons, 1 
hour. * 

B. — Secondary department. 



Ancient historv : Greece 
and Rome mythology and 
biographies, 2 hours. 



Historj^of the Middle Ages, 
especially of Austria- 
Hungary, alternating 
with geography, 3 hours. 

Mo<lem history, especially 
of Austria- Hungary, 
alternating with geogra- 
phy, 4 hours. 

II. COURSE. 

Ancient history to conquest 
of Italy: special att«ution 
to history of civilization — 
3 hours. 



Historv of Rome till 470, and 
of Middle Ages; history 
of civilization — 4 hours. 



History of modem times 
with especial attention to 
religious, political, and 
economic revolutions, and 
their eflectj* ujion civiliza- 
tion, 3 hours. 

History of Austria-Hun- 
gary; interior develop- 
ment of the Empire — 3 
hours. Daring second 
half year: Geography and 
ethnology, 2 hours;' re- 
view of ancient history, 1 
hour. 



A.^Elem^entary 
department. 

Sketch of universal 
history, 2 hours. 

li.— Secondary 
department. 

I. c<iinisE. 

Ancient and Middle 
Ago history 
(Greece and Rome) 
to the Cmsades, 
2 hours. 



Review: History of 
I tho Middle Agee 
to the present time, 
I till 1789, 2 hours. 



Brief review of the 
history of modern 
times; history of 
Belgium — 2 hours. 

II. COURSE. 

Ancient hi.story of 
Gr«;ece and Rome, 
and Middle A ges to 
Crusades, 2 hours. 



Review of matter 
gone over in previ- 
ous year, 2 hours. 



History of Belgium 
(65 hours); history 
of late vears (15 
hours)— 2 hours. 



> Tho courses are sketched in the briefest possible manner. The ministerial order of May 24, 1892, 
contains minute dotailH. 
* These lessons are chiefly on home history. 



Digitized 



byG00gI( 



EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 

Congress of study in history — Continued. 



305 



Tear of age. 


France since 1890. 


Italy since 1894. 


Eussia since 1890. 


United States (Balti- 
more City College). 




A.— Elementary 


K,— Elementary 


A..—Elem,entary 


A.— Elementary 




department. 


department. 


department. 


department. 


Tenth 


ElementaiT biogra- 
phieA ; historical 


















Acenes—ll hours. 








Eleventh 


Sum mar V of his- 










tory of France to 










death of Loais 










XI, li hours. 








Twelfth 


Same tiU 1815, U 
hours. 




Element arv course 
of Uussian his- 
















tory, 2 hours. 






B. — Secondary 


B — Secondary 


'R.— Secondary 


B.^ Secondary 




dej)artmmt. 


department. 


department. 
I. COURSB. 


departm^ent. 


Thirteenth .. 


History of the Ori- 


History of the Ori- 


Systematic course 


History of the 




ent, li hours. 


ent and Greece 


of ancient his- 


Unitt^d States; 






(including geogra- 


tory; essentials 


English history; 






phy), 3 hours. 


of oriental his- 
tory— 2 hours. 


cousti t utional 
history— 3 hours. 


Fourteenth.. 


History of Greece, 


Hbtory of Italy 


Systematic course 


History of Rome; 




li hours. 


till 4'7e (including 
geography), 3 
hours. 


of the history of 


constitution of 






Middle Ages, aud 


Mttryland-2 






of Russia to Ivan 


hours. 








IV, 3 hours. 




Fifteenth.... 


History of Rome, 


History of Europe, 
OHpecially Italy, 


Systematic coarse 


History of oriental 




1^ hoars. 


of modern history 


nations and 






from 476 to Henry 


from 1775 to pres- 


Greece; historical 






VII of Luxom- 


ent time; same of 


composition— 1 






borg, 3 hours. 


Russia— 2 hoars. 

11. COURSE. 


hour. 


Sixteenth.... 


History of Eorope, 


Same from Henry 


Extensive reviews 


Constitntional his- 




especially France, 
till 1270, 1$ hours. 


VII till 1748, 4 


of Greek and Ro- 


torv, with compo- 




hours. 


man history; re- 


sitions, 1 hour. 








view of Russian 










history— 2 hours. 




Seventeenth . 


Same from 1270 till 
1610, 1| hours. 


Same from 1748 till 
present time, 4 
hours. 




Political economy; 
most important 
events of the nine- 


ft.f%^ V %^«A «n^^/K*Wfta • 


















teenth century- 1 










hour. 


Eighteenth.. 


Same ffom 1610 'till 








1789, 1 4 hours, ami 










^hourccmfercuce. 








^finpteentli 


Same from 1789 lill 
the present time, 








AY XAJIVf V%.;^''B vaA •* 










3 hours. 









ed94- 



-20 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



306 EDUCATION BEPOBT, 1893-94. 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF GERMAN BOOKS. 

AxDRAE, Dr. Carl. Eatwicklungs-Gcschichte der deutschen Lehrerbildungs- 

Anstalten, 1893. 
Anonymous. Geschichte der osterreichiachcn Scbulreform, 1875. 

Die Volksschule Ocsterreichs von Einst und Jetzt, 1889. 

Ballien, Tii. Abrisa der Cretcbiohte dor deutscbon Piidagogik, 1872. 

Baumaxn, J. Gescbichte dor padagogiscbon Tbeorien, 1890. 

Beer, A., and F, Hochegger. Fortscbrttto des Unterricbtswesens in den Cnltur- 

staaten Europas, 2 vols., 1867-68. 
B^HM, H. Leitfaden der Gescbicbto der Piidagogik, mit besonderer Beriicksicb- 

tigung der Volksscbule, 1882. 
BOiiM, J. Gescbicbte der Piidagogik^ mit Cbaracterbildern bervorragender Piida- 

gogen und Zeiten, 2 vols., 1878-79. 

Kurzgefebsste Grescbicbte der Piidagogik, 1889. 

Erziebong und Unterricbfe bei den Romern zur Zeit der Konige und dc3 

Freistaatee, 1886. 
Breznik, Fr. Erziebnng und Unterricbt bei den Griecben, 1886. 
Bruckbach, G. Wegweiser durcb die Gescbicbte der Piidagogifc, 1869. 
BCdtnger, Max. You den Anfiiagen des Scbulzwanges, 1865. 
Cassau, Karl. Die Piidagogik der Alton, Cbaracterbilder, 1882. 
Clausnitzer, L. Gescbicbte des preussiscben Unterricbts-Gesetzes, 1891. 
Cramer, Fr. Gescbicbte der Erzi^nng in weltbisteriselier Entwicklnng, 2 vols., 

1832-38. 
Denifle, P. H. Die Universitliten der Mittelalters, 1885. 
DiTTES, Dr. FRiEDRicn. Gescbicbte der Erziebung und des Unterriebts fiir Volks- 

scbuUebrer, 1878. 
DuLON, RuD. Aus Amerika. Ueber Scbule, etc., 1866. 
Eckstein, Fr. Aug. Gestaltung der Volksscbule durcb den Piotismus, 1867. 
Fleischner, Dr. L. Gescbicbte des ongliscben Bildnugswesens, 1893. 
GUDEMANN, M. Das jiidiscbo Unterriebts weson wiibrend der spanlscb-arabiscben 

Periode, 1873. 
Quelleuscbriften zur Gescbicbte der Erziebung bei den deutscbeu Juden, 

1891. 
Haiin, G. p. R. Beitrag zur Gescbicbte der Piidagogik im 18ten Jabrhundert, 1883. 
Haneberg, Dr. D. Scbul- und Lebrwesen der Mubamedaner ira Mittelalter, 1850. 
Hekgard, S. Darstellung der Piidagogik uud ibrer Gescbicbte, 1884. 
Heindl, J. B. Giillcrie beriibmter Piidagogen aus der Gegenwart in Biograpbien, 

2 vols, 1859. 

Biograpbien der berlibmtesten Piidagogen der Vergangenbeit, 1860. 

Heppe, Dr. H. Gescbicbte des deutscbeu Volksscbulweseus, 5 vols., 1860. 

Sobulwesen des Mittelalters und Reform im 16ten Jabrbundert, 1860. 

Herold, Jul. Zeittafel zur Grescbicbte der Piidagogik, 1878. 
HuNZiKER, Dr. O. Gescbicbte der scbweizeriscben Volksscbule, 1881. 
Just, Dr. K. S. Piidagogik des Mittelalters, 1879. 

JOTTING, Dr. U. Kritiscbe Gescbicbto des Lese- und Anscbauungs-Unterrichts, 1890. 
Kaemmel, H. J. Gescbicbte des deutscbeu Scbulwesens im Uebergange vom Mittel- 
alter zur Neuzcit, 1882. 
Kakstaedt, Siegfr. Hilfibucli zur Gescbicbte der Piidagogik, 1887. 



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EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUBOPE. 307 

Kfmr, Dt. C. Gesebichte der Methodik, 1890. 

Keurbach, Karl, editor. Monumenta Germanisp Piidagogica, 15 vole. 

KehreiX; — . Ueberblick liber die Gesehichte der Erziehnng. Edited by Dr. J. 

Kayser, 1890. 
Kkllxer, Dr. L. K«rze Gescbiehte der Erziebong ond des Unterrichts. 1S89. 
Kley, Heinr. Abriss der Geschiclite der preussischen Untcrriclitsgesetzgobiing^ 

1886. 
KlOpper, Dr. K. Bepotitorinm der Geflebicbte der Padagogik, 1891. 
Kr>xiG BAUER, Joachim. Gescbicbte der Padagogik nnd Metbodik, 1889. 
KoRNER, Fr. Gescbicbte der PUdagogik von den altesten Zeiten bis zur Gegen- 

wart, 1886. 
Krause, J. H. Gescbicbte der Erziehung nnd der Bildnng bei den Griechen, Etma- 

kern und Romem^ 1851. 
Lags, Bertha v. d. Untenicbtswesen und die £rziebnngf»deale des spaniscben 

Amerikas, 1889. 
Lauer, Dr. M. Entwicklnng und Gestaltang des niederliindiscben Volksscbnl- 

wesens, 1885. 

Entwicklnng and Gestsltnng des belgiacben Volksscbnlwesens seit 1842, 1885. 

Lei'tz, Ferd. Gescbicbte der Padagogik. Part III of Lehrbncb d. Erz. und d. 

Untcrricbts, 1889. 
Mascher, U. a. Das dentsehe Sebnlwesen nacb seiner bLstoriscben Entwicklnng, 

1876. New edition, Vol. 1, 1879. 
Masius, IIerm. Einwirkong des Hnmanismns auf die Gelebrtenscbulen, 1862. 
31 ASS, Th. Zeittafel zur Gescbicbte der Padagogik, 1890. 
Meiners, C. Gescbicbte der Entstebong und Entwicklnng der bohen Scbulcn 

unseres Erdtheils, 4 vols., 1802-1805. 
Meyer, J. F, Reaktion und Volksscbule. Dreissig Jabre preuseiscber Scbnlge- 

scbichte, 1840-1870, 1883. 
Mi'LLER, J. p. Deutsche Srhulen im Anslande, ibre Gescbicbte und Statistik, 1885. 
Niedergesass. R. Gescbicbte der Padagogik in Biograpbien, 1883. 

Gescbicbte der Padagogik in Proben aus piidagog. Hauptwerken, 1886. 

Paetzoli), W. Tabellon zur Gescbicbte der PUdagogik, 1891. 

Paulsen, Dr. Fuieder. Gescbicbte des gelebrteu Unterripbts, 1885. 

Rau, Heribkrt. Gescbicbte der Entwicklnng des menscblicben Geistes. 1882. 

Raumer, Dr. Karl. Gescbicbte der Piidagogik, vom Wiederauf bliihen klassiscber 

Studien an, 4 vols., 1846-54. 
Reixecke, H., and A. ScnoRN. Gescbicbte der Padagogik (extracts from educa- 
tional writers), 1885. 
Rocnow, Freiberr Eberh. v. Gescbicbte meiner Scbnlen, 1890. 
Scnii-LKR, Herm. Lebrbucb der Gescbicbte der Padagogik, 1887. 
ScUMiD, Dr, R. A. Gescbicbte der Erziebung, first vol. not published yet, second 

and tbird vols, eacb in two parts. After tbe deatb of autbor, coutiuued by 

Dr. Georg Scbniid. 
Schmidt, Karl. Gescbicbte der Erziebung und des Unterricbts, 1883. 
Schmidt, Dr. Karl. Gescbicbte der Piitlagogik, 4 vols., edited by Dr. Wicbard 

Lange. Vol, I, Vorcbristlicbe Zeit. Vol. II, Von Cbristus bis zur Reforma- 
tion. Vol. Ill, Von Lutber bis Pestalozzi. Vol. IV, Von Pestalozzi bis zur 

Gegenwart. 
Gescbicbte der Padagogik, Vol. I, edited by Dra. F. Dittos and Em. Haunak, 

1892. 
ScHMiTZ, Herm. J. Das Volksscbnlwesen im Mittelalter, 1892. 
Schulz, G. Grundriss der Volksscbul-Piidagogik. VoL I, Gescbicbte, 1884. 
Schumann, Dr. J. Gescbicbte der Padagogik im Seminar-Unterricbt, 1879. 
Schumann, J. Ch. G. Gescbicbte der Padagogik im Umriss, 1881. 
Schuricht, Herm. Gescbicbte der dcutscbon Scbnlbestrebuugen in Amerika, 1884. 
SchCtze, Dr. H. Lebrer und Padagogen des Mittelalters, 1879. 



Digitized 



byG00gI( 



308 EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 

Schwartz, Dr. H. Chr. Geschichte der Erziehnng unter den Volkern alter und 

Deuer Zeit, 1829. 
Seyffahrt, L. W. Stadtschulen und Dorfschulen. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der 

Piidagogik, 1867. 
Seyffarth, L. W., editor. Chronik, allgemeine, des Volkeschnlwesens. (Began in 

1865.) 
Specht, Fr. A. Geschichte des Unterrichtswesens in Deutschland, 1885. 
Strack, Karl. Geschichte des deutschen Volksschulwesens, 1872. 
Stuassburger, B. Geschichte der Erziehung bei den Israeliten [with bibliography 

of Jewish pedagogy], 1885. 
Thilo, W. Preussisches Volksschulwesen nach Geschichte iind Statistik, 1867. 
UssiNG, I. L. Erziehnng und Unterricht bei den Griechen und Romern, 1870, 
VoGEL, Dr. Aug. Geschichte der Piidagogik als Wisseuschaffc, 1877. 
VoLKMER, Dr. Geschichte der Erziehung nnd des Unterrichts. Vol. I of Gnindriss 

dor Volksschul-Piidagogik. 1891. 
Voss, Hans. Geschichte der Volksschule Mecklenburg- Schwerins, 1893, 
Walther, Ed. Geschichte des Taubstunimen-Bildungswesens, 1882, 
Weber, Dr. Adalbert. Geschichte der Volksschulpiidagogik, 1889. 
Weickkr, Gust. Das Schulweseu der Jesuiten nach den Ordensgcsetzen darge- 

stent, 1863. 
Wendt, Otto. Padagogisches Repetitorium. Auszug aus dor Geschichte der 

Piidagogik und Methodik, 1884, 
Wentzel, C. a. Repetitorium der Geschichte der Padagogik, 1888. 
WiTTSTocK, Alb, Geschichte der deutschen Padagogik im Umriss, 1866. 
WoHLFAiiRT, J, Fr, Th, Geschichto des gesammten Erziehungs- und Schulwesens, 

1855. 
Wolfram, L., editor, Allgemeine Chronik des Volksschulwesens, (Begun in 1865.) 
ZiEGLER, Theobald. Geschichte der Erziehung. Vol. I of Handbuch der Erzie- 

huugs- und Unterrichtslehre fUr hohere Schnlen, 1895. 



Statistics of the University Libraries in Europe. 

There have been recently published a number of authentic books on 
the origin, management, spirit, and present status of European uni- 
versities, notably on those in Germany, The report of the Bureau of 
Education of 1891-02 contains an English rendition of the most authori- 
tative of these books, that of Professors Paulsen aud Conrad, which is 
remarkable for its historical and statistical reviews. But none of these 
publications gives much information concerning the libraries of these 
famous seats of learning. Dr. R. Kukula, the author of Minerva, Jahr- 
buch der gelehrten Welt, has undertaken to gather the information 
desired, and presented it in an article published in the Academische 
Eevue (March, 1895), the substance of which is here reproduced. Dr. 
Kukula, says: 

Among the appliances for teaching which every university offers its 
teachers and students the library takes the front rank. A statistical 
summary of the number of volumes in the libraries of universities in 
the large States of P]urope, their annual expenditures, and, so far as 
possible, the number of books used in a given year, would throw light 
upon the degree of scientific equipment of the various institutions, and 
offer a ratio of comparison for the countries represented. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 309 

Of course it would be erroneous to draw far-reaching conclusions 
from the facts gathered, such as judging the importance of an institu- 
tion of learning from the extent of its library. Several large and valu- 
able libraries are found preserved in unimportant but formerly eminent 
centers of culture. The data oflFered in the following tables are chiefly 
derived from the fourth volume of Minerva. They permit the con- 
clusion that in some countries the importance of higher education may 
be gauged by the importance bestowed upon the university libraries. 
However, for most countries this would not hold good, since many of 
them possess, aside from great state, church, and private libraries, 
certain renowned scientific central libraries. In the following sum- 
maries these are not considered, and this fact should prevent the 
reader from hasty conclusions. 

The Royal Library in Berlin ; the Royal Court and State Library in 
Munich; the British Museum in London; the Bibliotheque Rationale 
in Paris; the Biblioteca Nazionale Ceutrale in Florence; the Imperial 
Public Library in St. Petersburg; the Royal Libraries in Stockholm, 
The Hague, and Copenhagen, are unquestionably the largest and most 
important libraries of their respective countries. Nevertlieless they 
are here purposely omitted, since it was the object to give the status 
of libraries specifically intended for university use. If the possessions 
and expenditures of such eminent institutions as the British Museum 
and others mentioned above were counted in, they would naturally 
change the order in which the countries appear. 

Before turning to the tables, it is necessary to state that the data 
collected with reference to the number of books, etc., are for the calen- 
dar year 1894; the data concerning expenditures or appropriations for 
the fiscal year ending in 1894, and the data referring to the frequency 
with which the books have been used or loaned (so far as it was possible 
to obtain the information) for the school year 1893-94. 

Germany, as a matter of self-evidence, stands at the head of the list, 
because its university libraries have always been the chief sources of 
information for learned men in that country. The character and extent 
of higher education in Germany has ever been closely connected with 
and dependent upon the universities, and erudition outside of universi- 
ties is rarely acknowledged, except by drawing it into the universities. 
.Paulsen says in his recent work on the German Universities: 

Learned man and professor aro synonymous terms in Germany. When a great 
scholar is mentioned there, the question at once arises, In what university is he 
activef And if ho is not in a uniTersity, it may be confidently expected that he feels 
this official disregard. Again, when a professor is mentioned, the question is asked. 
What has he written? what are his scientific achievements? The consequences of 
this relation have been most significant for the formation of the entire German 
intellectual and scientific life. 

To this may be added that this relation of erudition to the higher 
seats of learning has been decisive for the development of the great 
libraries of Germany. This explains the vast aggregations of books in 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



310 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



tbe centers of culture, while in England and America quite an oppo- 
site tendency has made itself felt. In these countries many large and 
influential libraries are established and maintained by the x>6ople^ and 
they in turn iufluence the people; they are public, democratic institu- 
tions, while the German university libraries are exclusive institutions* 

Of course this statement is only relatively true, since the German 
university libraries may be used by the public also. But the needs of 
the university are cousideied first in the purdiase of books, not the 
needs and demands of the reading public, which would, as experience 
shows, run to books of fiction. 

After Germany come Italy and Great Britain, the classic countries of 
bibliophiles. France, the centralized government of which called into 
existence the University of France, has neglected the libraries of the 
so-called "facult^s," and since the Bibliotheque Rationale is excluded 
from the following list, France api)ear8 to be ranking low, but in fact 
it far outranks Austria and Russia, being but slightly behind Italy and 
Great Britain: 

GERMAN r. 



Berlin 

Bonn 

Brealaa 

Erlanpen... 
Freiburg... 

Giessen 

Gottingen.. 
Greifswald . 
Halle 



Heidelberg.. 

Jena 

Kid 

Kiiui^sberg . 

Leipzig 

Marburg .... 

Munich 

Rostock 

Stra8bnrg . . . 
Tiibingen ... 
Wiirzburg. . . 

Total.. 



Possessionn in 1894. 



I AnniuU appropria- Volumes used la 
. tion for 1894. 1893-i>4. 



Volumes. 



148,100 
251,235 
303, 135 
184.100 
256. COO 
250, 200 
466,000 
146, 320 
190, 408 

401,000 

205, 000 

219, 500 

220, 750 
500. 545 
156, 450 

402, 9C0 

175.606 
700,200 
300,000 
321«800 



5, 811, 549 



MSS. 



221 
1,273 
3,7C2 
2,035 

600 
1,400 
5,800 
1.070 
1.832 

3,425 

900 
2,380 
1. 120 , 
4, 138 ! 

557 

2.022 

1,356 
3,870 
3,500 
1.500 



Pam- 

pbleto, 

etc. 



National 
currency. 



72,000 

(?) 

30,000 

127,000 

63,000 

c415 

b 14, 400 

(?) 

(?) 

173.000 

tf28, 200 

100. 000 

63.100 

(?) 

(?) 

05. 000 
46, 000 
<;668 
(?) 
a 40, 000 
(?) 
(?) 



I5 173.000 i> 
} tf28,200 ^ 



Marks. 
18,000 
31,435 
29,490 
22, 707 
16,000 
18, 367 
44,710 
19.758 
25,565 

16,000 

17. 760 
19,060 
27, 003 
40,000 
21, 122 

12,000 

20,590 
68,750 
21,667 
23,000 



United 
SUtes 
equiva- 
lent. 



In the 
library. 



Loaned. 



42, 707 



(?) 



$4,284 I 
7, 482 
7.019 
5 404 
3,806 
4,371 

10,641 
4,702 
0,004 

3,808 

4,238 
4,678 
6.569 
9,520 
5,027 

2,856 

5,020 
16,363 
5,156 
5,474 



514, 790 122, 520 



I 



6,000 

(?) 
35.000 

5,000 

3.800 
16,000 
27,609 

2,707 

(?) 
35,000 

(?) 

12,395 
9,141 
(?) 
(?) 

(?) 

600 ! 
40,337 
16, 195 
20,000 



(?) 



82,000 
80,000 
8»,000 
12,000 
16,968 
16,192 
44.413 
16, 048 
26,033 

26,230 

12.000 
14,509 
24,080 
38,000 
23,000 

(?) 

14.827 

48,838 

25,105 

21,000 



(?) 



a Engravings. 



h Maps. 



c Documents. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE, 
ITALY. 



311 



Bologna .. 
Cagbari . . 
Cauierino. 
Catania .. 
Ferrara -. 

Genoa 

Messina . . 
Modeiia .. 
Naples . . . 

Fauua 

Palermo-., 
Parma — 

Pa via 

Perugia . . 

Piaa 

Homo 

Sassari — 

Siena 

Tnriu 

Urbino . . : 



Po«8e 


anions in 1894. 


Annual appropri a 
tion for 1894. 










United 




MSS. 


Engrav- 


National 


States 






ings*. 


curreucy. 


OQuna- 
leiit. 
















Lire. 




296.000 


5,000 


(?) 


8,900 


$1,718 


ft). 000 


367 


(?) 


3,493 


672 


40, 000 


122 


<?) 


1,150 


222 


80,000 


200 


(?) 


4.050 


782 


91.000 


1.889 


5 2,350 
i a3, 191 


^ 2.500 
8,380 


483 


157.000 


1.586 


(0 


1.617 


32,400 


778 


(?) 


3.793 


732 


27, 700 


1 


(*) 


1,000 


193 


209.800 


109 


(?) 


17.000 


3,2H1 


201.000 


2, 326 


(?) 


8.894 


1,717 


180. 000 


1,.507 


(?) 


11,018 


2,250 


272.000 


4.769 


60.000 


9,000 


1,737 


216 000 


1,100 


(?) 


8,000 


1.544 


20.000 


(0 


(?) 


3, 320 


641 


133. 000 


274 


(?) 


8.700 


1.679 


163,000 


284 


(') 


11,400 


2,200 


40,400 


207 


(') 


3.600 


695 


95.000 


4.800 


(?) 


6.030 


1.165 


200.900 


4,126 


10,321 


22.215 


4, 287 


25,000 


120 


(?) 


500 


97 



Volumes used in 
1893-04. 



I 



In (be 
library. 



Loaned. 



23.501 

12.854 

2. 242 

36, 863 

(?) 

16. 545 

33,344 

1.814 

178,789 
30.069 
44,808 
25, 051 
36,035 
976 
24. 028 
43,901 
7,001 
10, 891 

141,679 
(?) 



1,276 
745 
390 

3,491 

(?) 
962 

448 

334 

3,686 

1,681 

1,296 

789 

2,085 

334 

2.612 

1,303 

801 

430 

1,906 

(?) 



Total ' 2,563.700, 29,655 ( ?) 



143,579 27,611 



(?) 



(') 



a Autographs. 



GREAT BUITAIN AND IKELAND. 



Annual appropria- 
tion for 1894. 



United 
States 
equiva- 
lent. 



England : 

Cambridge . . 

Bulwich 

Manchester . 

Oxford 

Scotland : 

AlH'rdeen ... 

St. Andrews. 

Edinburgh . . 

Glasgow .... 
Ireland : 

Dublin 




Total 1,849,600 



a About. 
Note.— The follo^ng English, Scotch, and Irish universities and colleges either have no large 
libraries of their own and use the cxcellont public libraries established and maintained by the com- 
munities, or, if tliey have distinct college librariea^ they have failed to report to Prof. E. Kukula: 
Aber^-stwith (Wales); Bristol, Durham, Leeds, Liverpool, London, Newcastle, Nottingham, Shef- 
field (England); Dundee (Scotland); Belfast, Cork, and Galway (Ireland). 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



312 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1893-94. 



AUSTRIA-HUNG A.RY. 



AnBtria: 

Czemowitz... 

Grpz 

Innsbrack ... 

Krakau 

Lemberg 

Pramie 

Vienna 

Hungary : 

Agram 

Budapest 

Klanseuburg 

Total 



Possessions in 1894. 



Volnmes. 



102.000 
135.200 
135, 900 

292, 500 

124, 700 
211,200 
435,000 

91,000 

241, 000 

d 100, 000 



1, 808. 500 



MSS. 



• 43 

^1, 709 

1,078 

465 

3.848 

611 

500 
1,500 
(?) 



16, 339 



Miscel- 
laoeons. 



(?) 

(?) 

(?) 

S a 7, 705 

^ 69,481 

511,000 

el, 602 

(?) 

(?) 

<!> 

(?) 



(?) 



Annual appropria- 
tion for 1894. 



National 
currency. 



Florins. 
7,364 
8,968 
8.674 

I 10,484 

9,384 
14, 937 
25,236 

5,200 
12,000 
6.000 



108, 247 



United 

States 

eauiva- 

lent. 



$3,535 
4,305 
4,163 

5,032 

4,5(U 
7,170 
12, 113 

2,496 
5,760 
2,880 



Volumes used in 
1893-94. 



In the 
library. 



9,186 
46,286 
(?) 
(?) 

54,899 
247, 467 
310,078 



Loaned. 



4,560 
6,827 
5,877 

15.000 

15.560 
17,634 
28,349 



3,315 

45, 671 

(?) (?) 



(?) 



(?) 



a Engravings. 



& Coins. cDocnroents. 

RUSSIA. 



d About. 



Charkow...... 

Dorpat 

Kazan 

Kyew 

Moscow 

Odessa 

St. Petersburg. 

Warsaw 

Helsiugfors — 



Possessions in 1894. 



Volumes. 



137, 100 
288,700 
146,000 
118,000 
217,000 
108,000 
220, 500 
400. 000 

170, ooa 



Total 1,805,300 



MSS. 



233 
772 
811 

(?) 

213 
9,340 
1,310 
2,000 



14.688 



Maps. 



760 
'6,'566 



Annnal appropria- 
tion for 1894. 



National 
currency. 



Ruble*. 
6.U(j0 
6,000 
6,000 
6.000 
6.000 
6,000 
6.000 
6.000 
12,903 



6U.903 



United 
States 

equiva- 
lent. 



$2,118 
2.118 
2,118 
2.118 
2,118 
2,118 
2.118 
2,118 
4.555 



21.499 



SWEDEN AND NORWAY. 





PoRSf 

Volumes*. 


ssions in 1 
MSS. 


894. 

Pani- 
phlets. 


Annnal appropria- 
tion for 1894. 


Volumes used m 
1893-94, 




National 
currency. 


United 
States 
equiva- 
lent. 

$7,618 
3,418 
1,072 
2,432 


In the 
library. 


Loaned. 


Cbristiania 


320,000 
150,000 
30,000 
275, 000 


(?) 
(?) 
(?) 
12,000 


(?) 
(?) 
(?) 
5,000 


Kt'onern. 

28. 500 

12, 752 

4,000 

9,078 


42, 533 
19, 437 
(?) 
34. 934 


26.582 
6.809 
1 000 


Lund 

Stockholm 


Up.HaIa 


10, 138 


Total 


775, 000 


12,000 


(?) 


54,330 


14,540 


f?) 


44,529 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EDUCATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. 
SPAIN 



Barcelona.. 

Cadiz 

Granada . . . 

Madrid 

Oviedo 

Salaniancu . 
Santiago... 

Seville 

Valencia. .. 
ValladoJid . 
2Sarago8«a . 

Total 



Po8Be86ioD9 in 1894. 



Volumes 



MSS. 



313 



Annual api 
lion for 1894 



United 
xSational ' States 
currency, eauiva- 
lont.