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THE LIBRARIES 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



HEALTH SCIENCES 
LIBRARY 

Giff of 
Alumni Association 

College of Pharmacy 



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ANNUAL REPORTS 

OF THE 

PRESIDENT AND TREASURER 

TO THE 

TRUSTEES 

WITH ACCOMPANYING DOCUMENTS 

FOR THE YEAR ENDING 

JUNE 30, 1917 



NEW YORK 
I917 



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UNIVERSITY PRINTING OFFICE 
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



CONTENTS 

I. ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT OF 
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY TO THE TRUSTEES 

War Conditions 3 

Gifts 7 

Taxation of Gifts 9 

Problems of Size 12 

A Junior College 15 

Worth of College Teaching 18 

The Study of German 34 

Progress of Graduate Instruction 36 

Academic Discipline 38 

Government and Administration 41 

Academic Tenure 45 

Academic Obligation 48 

Academic Manners 51 

University Convocation of May 10 52 

Columbia War Hospital 53 

Deaths of University Officers 55 

Graphic Statistics 56 

The Site 61 

Teaching Staff 62 

Student Body 63 

Degrees Conferred 64 



IV CONTENTS 

REPORTS TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE 
UNIVERSITY 

A. Educational Administration: 

Report of the Dean of Columbia College 65 

Division of Year into Two Periods — First Period — Second 
Period — Effect of the War on the College — Attitude of 
College Men toward the War — Change in Organic Fabric 
— College Training a Patriotic Duty — Military Training as 
Part of the Curriculum — Ultimate Effects of the War on the 
College — Recognition of Student's Place in Public Order. 

Report of the Dean of the Law School 73 

Registration — National Service — Future of School — Law 
Review — Research Work — Chair of Legislation— Curricu- 
lum — Demand for Graduates. 

Report of the Dean of the Medical School 82 

Registration — Anatomy — Bacteriology — Biological Chem- 
istry — Dermatology — Laryngology and Otology — Neu- 
rology — Pathology — Physiology — Internal Medicine — Sur- 
gery — Vanderbilt Clinic — Library — Growth of School — 
Admission of Women — Allied Institutions — Influence of 
the War — Columbia War Hospital. 

Report of the Director of the George Crocker Special 
Research Fund 99 

Plant — Staff — Cancer Cures — General Research — Other 
Activities. 

Report of the Dean of the Schools of Mines, Engineer- 
ing, and Chemistry 104 
Class of 191 7 — Change to New Course Completed — Dean 
Goetze Gives upOfifice — Acting Dean Appointed — Students 
Entering War Service — Naval Instruction — Effect of War 
on Attendance — Research Laboratories — Chemical Engi- 
neering Department — Professor Kemp. 

Report of the Dean of the Faculties of Political 
Science, Philosophy, and Pure Science no 

Registration — Administrative Caution — Method of Re- 
search — Scientific Work of the University Generally Consid- 



CONTENTS V 

ered — ^The Degree of Master of Arts — Comment on Com- 
pleted Reforms — Scholarly Aspects — Financial Aspects — 
Election of Courses — Residence Requirements and Schol- 
arship Requirements. 

Report of the Acting Director of the School of 
Architecture 1 20 

Registration — Curriculum Staff — Visitors — Student Work 
— Fellowships and Medals — Hospital Design — Public » 
Service — Certificate of Proficiency — Exhibitions — New 
Equipment — Library — Casts and Slides — Cross-Registra- 
tion — Lectures. 

Report of the Director of the School of Journalism 131 

Registration — Class of 19 17 — ^The School and the War — 
Division of Intelligence and Publicity — Problem of Stu- 
dents Entering Service — Students in Service — The Journal- 
ism Student and the War — Increased Period of Preparation 
for Journalism — Fifth Year in Journalism — Range of 
Studies. 

Report of the Dean of Barnard College 144 

Registration — Faculty — Trustees — Buildings — Gifts — 
New Course — War Work — Finances — Cooperative Dormi- 
tory — Needs. 

Report of the Dean of Teachers College 150 

Retirement of Professor Sachs — Sachs Library Fund — 
Death of Pro/essor Norsworthy — Changes in the Faculties 
— Investigations — Establishment of a Department of Scout- 
ing and Recreation Leadership — Other Gifts — General 
Outlook. 

Report of the Director of the School of Education 155 

Enrollment — Degrees Conferred — Choice of Subjects — 
Matriculation for the Doctorate — Modifications by the 
Department of Educational Research — Restatement of 
Requirements for Master's Degree — Authorization of 
Diplomas in Additional Subjects — Studies for Religious 
and Social Workers — Industrial and Rural Education — 
Practical Field Work — Statistical Laboratory — Group 
Conferences — War Conditions — Education as a National 
Service, 



VI CONTENTS 

Report of the Director of the School of Practical Arts 162 
Attendance — Graduate Students — Professional Work in 
Practical Arts — Faculty Advisers — Honor System — Emer- 
gency Instruction — Popular Instruction — Extension Classes. 

Report of the Dean of the College of Pharmacy 168 

Curriculum — Library — Evening Courses — National Ser- 
vice — Drug Farm — Deaths. 

Report of the Director of the Summer Session 1 72 

Effects of the War — Registration — Teaching Staff — Pro- 
gram of Studies — Grand Opera — Other Musical Enter- 
tainments — The Devereux Players — Public Lectures — 
Chapel Service — Students' Welfare Committee — Recog- 
nition of Law Courses — Freedom in Selecting Courses — 
Excursions — Camp Columbia. 

Report of the Director of Extension Teaching 183 

Progress of Extension Teaching — Diversity of Program — 
Special Subjects — Library Economy — Spoken Languages — 
Oral Hygiene — Extramural Courses — War Courses — Lec- 
tures .for City Policemen — Concerts — Institute of Arts 
and Sciences — Plans for Coming Year. 

Report of the Director of the School of Business 191 

Budget — Registration — Administrative Board — Teaching 
(War Credit) Staff — Collegiate Prerequisite — Practical 
Work — Research — Building — Montgomery Prize — Rela- 
tions with Business Houses — Program — Demand for 
School. 

Report of the Director of University Admissions 197 

Increase of New Students — Graduate Students who are 
not fully Qualified — University Students — Changes in 
Entrance Requirements — Comparison for Last Ten Years 
— Difficulties Due to Increase of New Students — Two Dis- 
tinct Groups in College. 

Report of the Secretary of the University 209 

University Printing Office — New Eligibility Rules — Ab- 
sences — Religious Activities — Student Board Constitution. 



CONTENTS Vll 

Appendices: ^ 

1. Report of the Committee on Women Graduate 
Students 223 

New Duties— Residence Hall — Medical School — War 
Work — Social Life. 

2. Report of the University Medical Officer 227 
Office Consultations — Place in Community — Value of 
Health in Present Emergency — New Appointment — Resig- 
nation — Need of Visiting Nurse — Need of Resident Medical 
Attendant in Dormitories. 

3. Statistics Regarding the Teaching and Admin- 
istrative Staff 231 

4. Report of the Secretary of Appointments 247 
War Ser^ace — Student Employment — Graduate Appoint- 
ments — Vocational Guidance — Endowment. 

5. Report of the Chairman of the Board of Stu- 
dent Representatives 265 

Routine Work — Legislation — Activities of Special Interest 
— Student Discipline — Conclusions and Recommendations. 

Report of the Registrar 273 

Enrollment — Table I. Registration at Columbia University 
in all Faculties during the Academic Year 1916-1917 — 
Table H. Registration at Columbia University in all 
Faculties during the Academic Year 1906-1907 to 1916- 
1917 — Table HL Percentage of Increase and Decrease of 
Registration in all Faculties 1906-1907 to 1916-1917 by 
years, by Five-year Periods, and for the Ten Years — 
Table IV. Duplicate Registrations between the Summer 
Session of 19 16 and the Academic Year 19 16-19 17 — Table 
V. Classification of students in the Schools of Mines, En- 
gineering, and Chemistry — Table VI. Classification of 
Seminary Students — ^Table VII. Classification of Candi- 
dates for the Degrees of Master of Arts, Master of Laws, 
Master of Science, and Doctor of Philosophy — Table VIII. 
Subjects of Major Interest of Students Registered for the 
Higher Degrees — Table IX. A. Summary by Divisions. 
B. Summary by Faculties — Table X. Residence of Stu- 
dents — Table XI. Residence of Students of the Entire 
University, excluding Students of the Summer Session 
and Extension Teaching for the past ten years — Table 



Vlll CONTENTS 

XII. Percentage of Higher Degrees Held by Students. 
A. Higher Institutions in the United States. B. Higher 
Institutions in Foreign Countries — Table XIII. Nature of 
Degrees Held by Students — Table XIV. Degrees and 
Diplomas Granted 1916-1917 — Table XV. Number of 
Degrees and Diplomas Granted 1907-1917 — Table XVI. 

A. Specialties of Recipients of Higher Degrees 1916-1917. 

B. Higher Degrees Granted under each Faculty — Table 
XVII. Table of Ages— Table XVIII. Classification of 
Students Attending One or More Courses of Instruction in 
the Various Departments — Table XIX. Aggregate Attend- 
ance in all Courses 1916-1917 (excluding Barnard College, 
Teachers College, and the College of Pharmacy) — Table XX. 
The Amount and Distribution of Free Tuition, other than 
that Provided by Scholarships — Extension Teaching — Sta- 
tistical Summary. A . Students Classified According to Sex. 
B. Registration in Special Classes (not included in other 
Tables). C. Students Classified According to Faculties. 
D. Students Classified According to Residence. E. Ag- 
gregate Attendance on Courses — Summer Session of 191 7 — 
Statistical Summary — Appendix: Record of Action taken 
in the Several Schools and Colleges Concerning Academic 
Credit for Students who have Withdrawn from War 
Service. 

B. Library: 

Report of the Acting Librarian 327 

Organization — Space Requirement — Deposit Collections — 
Page Service — Lost Books — The Catalogue — Reading 
Room — War Problems — Transfers of Collections — Inven- 
tory — P e r i o d i c a 1 s — E x c h a n g e s — Loans — ^Accessions — 
Special Purchases — Low Papers — Exhibitions — Alumni 
Bibliography — The Staff Administration — Departmental 
Libraries — Needs. 

2. REPORT OF THE TREASURER TO THE ^ 

TRUSTEES 347 

Financial Statement, Barnard College 453 

Financial Statement, Teachers College 459 

Financial Statement, College of Pharmacy 462 

Appendix: 

Report of the Columbia University Committee on 

War Work 463 



ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

PRESIDENT OF COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

To the Trustees: 

Pursuant to the provisions of the Statutes, the annual 
report of the activities of the University for the year 
ending June 30, 1917, is submitted herewith. These activ- 
ities have become so numerous and so many-sided that 
it is no longer possible, or even desirable, to attempt to 
refer to each one of them in the report of the President. 
The appended reports of the several Deans, Directors, 
and other chief administrative officers are themselves to 
be regarded as integral parts of the President's Annual 
Report and as such are now submitted to the Trustees 
for their careful study and consideration. 

When on February 3 it was announced that the German 
Ambassador had been given his passports, it became 
evident that the entry of the United States 
into the war could not be long delayed. On Conditions 

February 6, an impressive Convocation of 
the University was held in the Gymnasium, at which the 
duty and responsibility of the University and of its mem- 
bers were set forth by the President, by Professors Gid- 
dings and Erskine, and by Dean Keppel, all of whom had 
hoped, and earnestly labored, for the maintenance and 
better security of international peace. On February 12, a 
Committee of the Faculties designated by the President 
for the purpose, met to formulate and to institute plans for 
preparing the University for national service. Professor 
Henry E. Crampton of the Department of Zoology pro- 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



posed a specific plan, which was adopted, for the organiza- 
tion of the teaching staff into eight corps and for enrolling 
officers, graduates, and students of the University in a way 
that would ascertain and record their specific qualifications 
for service. Through the aid of the Registrar and his as- 
sistants, 55,000 registration cards were issued, of which on 
May 10 some 18,000 had been returned with the informa- 
tion called for. These cards were then classified according 
to sex, special ability, specific equipment, and geographical 
location, under the direction of Professor Robert E. Chad- 
dock, of the Department of Economics, and the Columbia 
University Mobilization Committee for Women's Work. 
Officers in different parts of the University gladly offered 
their services, and in many cases assumed severe obliga- 
tions as to hours and work in order to carry forward the 
undertaking. It was later a matter of pride and satisfac- 
tion that the United States Bureau of Education saw fit to 
point to the mobilization plan adopted at Columbia Uni- 
versity as a model that might well be followed in essen- 
tial points. The Bureau of Education sent a descriptive 
circular to this effect to institutions of higher education 
throughout the country. 

Inasmuch as at the time there was no provision for mili- 
tary training in the University, an emergency training 
corps was organized by the Eighth or Alumni Corps, of 
which Mr. James Duane Livingston, a Trustee of the Uni- 
versity, was Chairman. Early in April a Military and 
Naval Bureau was established in East Hall, with Mr. 
David Keppel, a graduate of the School of Architecture in 
the Class of 1901, as Executive Secretary. The work of 
this Bureau was concluded on June 10, at which date Mr. 
Keppel became associated with the work of the Red Cross. 
The success of the undergraduate drill, the large number 
of men who went to the first series of officers' training 
camps, and the plan for military training at Camp Colum- 



PRESIDENT S ANNUAL REPORT 5 

bia, are all due in no small measure to the efforts of Mr. 
David Keppel. Through him the University secured, by 
the courtesy of the Canadian Government, the services of 
Lieutenant (now Captain) R, Hodder- Williams, who had 
seen service in France as an officer in Princess Patricia's 
Canadian Light Infantry, to take charge of the military 
instruction at Camp Columbia and later to have oversight 
and direction of the military training at the University 
itself. Professor Coss, of the Department of Philosophy, 
was designated Executive Secretary of the corps having 
charge of military instruction, and also acted as adjutant 
to Professor Crampton in the general work of University 
mobilization of which Professor Crampton, whose labors 
were devoted and untiring, himself had command. On 
April 10, the Columbia University Mobilization Commit- 
tee for Women's Work, with Miss Virginia Newcomb, a 
graduate of Barnard College in the Class of 1900, as Execu- 
tive Secretary, began work with offices in Philosophy Hall. 
By the end of the academic year this Committee had fur- 
nished 790 women for volunteer work and 25 for salaried 
positions. Of the volunteer positions filled, 600 were 
clerical, 25 were as lecturers, 1 1 as stenographers, and the 
remainder to aid in the sale of Liberty Bonds and for 
various forms of social service. No fewer than 2,756 indi- 
viduals were interviewed and given advice by the officers of 
this Committee to aid them in securing positions where 
they could render service or in securing training that would 
fit them for such positions. 

New courses of instruction of an emergency character 
were quickly provided In a variety of different fields by 
the Administrative Board of Extension Teaching and 
by the Faculties of Teachers College. 

At the instance and under the supervision of Professors 
Pitkin, R. C. E. Brown, and Henry B. Mitchell, of the 
Division of Intelligence and Publicity, a series of War Pa- 



6 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

pers was published for the purpose of informing and guid- 
ing public opinion as to different forms of possible coopera- 
tion with the Government. In addition, several special 
bulletins were issued by Teachers College to give informa- 
tion on specific topics connected with diet, cookery, and 
nursing. The Columbia War Papers had an enormous 
circulation, some of them being reprinted in editions of as 
many as 40,000 for distribution throughout the country. 
Inasmuch as various syndicates used these War Papers for 
different purposes, it has been estimated that they reached 
in all not fewer than twenty million persons. 

In a special appendix to this report, prepared by Professor 
Coss, the exact record of all these various activities is set 
out in a form suitable for record and permanent reference. 

It is not practicable to record, or even publicly to ac- 
knowledge, in this report all the devoted service that was 
rendered during the closing weeks of the academic year. 
Suffice it to say that the spirit of the entire University, 
officers, students, and alumni, was one of supreme devo- 
tion to a great national and human task. Never in its his- 
tory has Columbia University appeared to better advan- 
tage or more accurately revealed its truest and best side. 

Meanwhile, the teaching staff of the University has 
been heavily drawn upon for national service of the most 
varied character. Members of the Columbia Faculties are 
now to be found in high administrative posts at Wash- 
ington, in charge of important research with direct bearing 
upon the conduct of the war, enlisted as officers in the army 
or navy of the United States, or engaged in some of the 
many new forms of civil administration that the war has 
called into existence. Several score of them are on the soil 
of France, either in hospital service, in ambulance service, 
in aviation, or preparing to take their place in the front 
line of action. Two Trustees — the Chairman of the Board, 
Mr. Parsons, and Mr. D wight — were among the first 



PRESIDENT S ANNUAL REPORT 7 

American officers to leave for France. They have been 
for some months past actively engaged in engineer work of 
an important character. 

Close cooperation has been established between several 
of the scientific departments of the University and the 
Navy Department. For some weeks and until the De- 
partment could establish a training center of its own at 
Pelham Bay, there was maintained at the University a 
general course of training for the members of the Naval 
Reserve of the administrative district which includes New 
York. The Navy Department has formally established 
at the University the United States Navy Gas Engine 
School under the charge of Professor Lucke as civilian 
director. A number of University teachers have received 
commissions in the Naval Reserve in order to take effective 
part in the work of this school. The University is losing 
no opportunity to offer the fullest measure of cooperation 
to the various branches of Government service with which 
cooperation might be useful. 

The disturbed financial and industrial conditions due 
to war, together with the rapidly growing burden of 
taxation, naturally affect the number and amount 
of gifts made to the University. Despite these 
conditions, however, the gifts received during the year 
ending June 30, 191 7, were 154 in number and amounted 
to $1,238,221.12. Of these the largest and most impor- 
tant was a gift in securities valued at $586,500 for the 
construction of a building for the School of Business. 
The site for this building has been designated on the north- 
east corner of Broadway and 11 6th Street, and plans for 
the building have been prepared. The enormous rise in 
the cost of labor and materials due to the war has, how- 
ever, rendered necessary the postponement of work upon 
this building, with the approval of the donor. Construe- 



8 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



tion will be begun as soon as practicable. Other gifts of 
unusual importance were $150,000 from Mr. Joseph P. 
Chamberlain for the endowment of a Professorship of 
Legislation in the Law School; $127,500 for the School 
of Dentistry Endowment Fund, of which $100,000 was 
given by Mr. James N. Jarvie; $75,000 from Mrs. Wil- 
liam D. Sloane as an addition to the Sloane Hospital for 
Women Endowment Fund; $68,000 from an anonymous 
donor for the Church and Choral Music Endowment 
Fund; and $15,000 from Mrs. George G. De Witt to 
establish a scholarship fund in memory of the late George 
G. De Witt of the Class of 1867. 

For the purpose of comparison with previous Reports, 
there follows the usual summary of gifts in money re- 
ceived during the past year by the several corporations 
included in the University. 



Purpose 


Columbia 
University 


Barnard 
College 


Teachers 
College 


CoUege of 
Pharmacy 


Totals 


General 
Endow- 
ments 

Special 
Funds 

Buildings 
and 
Grounds 

Immediate 
Use 


55i3.S65.86 
597,659-64 
126,695.62 


$1,500.00 

10,703.31 
300,000.00 

10,267.65 


$26,554.00 
25,000.00 
22,332.70 




$1,500.00 

551.123.17 
922,659.64 

159,295-97 


Totals 


$1,238,221.12 


$322,470.96 


$73,886.70 




$1,634,578.78 



The following statement records the gifts made in 
money alone since 1890 to the several corporations in- 
cluded in the University : 

1 890-1901 $5,459,902.82 

1901-1916 24,912,706.86 

1916-1917 1,634,578.78 

Total .... $32,007,188.46 



PRESIDENT S ANNUAL REPORT 9 

The Congress of the United States, in drafting the War 
Revenue Act, has wisely provided that contributions or 
gifts actually made within a given year to cor- 
porations or associations organized and oper- ^f^GifT 
ated exclusively for religious, charitable, sci- 
entific, or educational purposes, no part of the net income 
of which inures to the benefit of any private stockholder 
or individual, to an amount not in excess of fifteen per 
centum of the taxpayer's taxable net income as computed 
without the benefit of this provision, shall be allowable 
as a deduction from taxable income for that year. This 
is clear and satisfactory recognition of the principle that 
private money contributed for public purposes shall not 
be taxed, at least up to the limit fixed in the statute. Com- 
plete recognition of this principle would require that 
private money given for public purposes should be exempt 
from taxation no matter what relation its amount may 
bear to the giver's taxable income. The limitation set by 
the Congress is probably due to a fear that if full recogni- 
tion were given just now to this undoubtedly sound prin- 
ciple the Government might suffer loss through its abuse 
by unscrupulous persons. 

While recognizing this sound principle so far as it 
related to gifts, the Congress in the same War Revenue 
Act violated it by imposing an onerous and highly disad- 
vantageous tax upon legacies and bequests to charitable, 
educational, and religious institutions. The first step in 
this direction was taken in the Act to Increase the Revenue, 
approved September 8, 191 6, which contained no exemp- 
tions whatever of property passing to educational or 
charitable uses. The provisions of this Act were amended 
by the Act of March 3, 19 17, so as to increase, by fifty per 
cent., each of the rates fixed by the Act of September 8, 
1916. The amount which the Government will receive in 
revenue from these provisions, if they are kept upon the 



lO COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

statute book, will be very small in comparison with the 
grave damage thereby inflicted upon the educational, 
philanthropic, and religious institutions of the country. 
It would be indeed disastrous if the many and far-reach- 
ing changes that are to accompany the war and the new 
forms of taxation which the war will compel, took such a 
form as to imperil the effectiveness and even the existence 
of the great philanthropic and educational institutions of 
the country. It is the well-established tradition of Amer- 
ican life that all possible encouragement shall be given 
to those individuals and groups of individuals who labor 
to aid the spiritual and intellectual life of the nation or 
to relieve suffering and want, by building up and main- 
taining institutions of religion, of philanthropy, and of 
education. In many states indirect aid is given to such 
institutions through the exemption from taxation in 
whole or in part of property actually occupied by them or 
used solely for their institutional work. As a result of this 
wise and far-sighted policy, there have been built up in 
the United States, without public tax, a great group of 
religious, philanthropic, and educational undertakings 
that are the glory of the country and the envy of other 
nations. To institutions of this kind there has been for 
nearly a century past a constant flow of private benefac- 
tions. Legacies and bequests made to them are, as a rule, 
free from the usual transfer and inheritance taxes, on the 
principle that these legacies and bequests represent private 
moneys transferred to public uses. If the effect of taxing 
gifts, legacies, and bequests of this kind were to dry up the 
streams of benefaction by which so much of all that is 
best in the United States has heretofore been fertilized 
and strengthened, the result would be lamentable in the 
extreme. Thirty-four States and the Territory of Hawaii 
exempt, in whole or in part, from the operation of their 
several inheritance tax laws, bequests for educational, 



PRESIDENT S ANNUAL REPORT II 

charitable, and other public purposes. The Act to Provide 
Ways and Means to meet War Expenditures, approved 
June 30, 1898, as originally enacted, contained no exemp- 
tion of gifts to charities, but this defect was remedied by 
the amending Act of March 2, 1901. Later, by the Act of 
June 27, 1902, the Congress provided that the Secretary 
of the Treasury should refund all taxes which had been 
paid upon bequests or legacies of this character under the 
terms of the original Act of 1898. In this way all taxes 
levied under the act mentioned, upon property passing 
for religious, literary, charitable, educational, and other 
similar uses were repealed. 

The strongest possible pressure should be brought to 
bear upon the Congress to take similar action now and to 
exempt, without delay, from the operation of the federal 
estate tax law, legacies and bequests to educational, 
philanthropic, and religious institutions. To urge this is 
not to ask a favor, but rather to assure the continuance of 
a characteristic American public policy, the results of 
which have been beneficent in the extreme and greatly 
to the credit and advantage of the American people. 

A single illustration may suffice to make clear what 
the effect would be were the present provisions of law to 
be continued without amendment or repeal. 

The will of the late John Stewart Kennedy of New 
York, upon its publication, was hailed throughout the 
world as a model of wise and well-ordered philanthropy. 
Mr. Kennedy's total estate amounted to approximately 
$71,100,000. On an estate of this amount the federal tax, 
computed in accordance with the provisions of existing 
law, would have amounted to $10,665,000. Were this 
great sum to be subtracted from bequests to private 
beneficiaries, there might be no just ground for criticism. 
But the burden of this tax would have fallen upon Mr. 
Kennedy's residuary estate, and that residuary estate was 



12 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



left, in major part, to public institutions established and 
maintained for educational, philanthropic, and religious 
purposes. A computation has been made to show how 
each of these residuary legatees would have been affected 
had the present federal estate tax law been in force at 
the time of Mr. Kennedy's death in 1909: 



Legatee 


Bequest 


Deduction for 
Federal Tax 


Amount Receiv- 
able after Deduc- 
tion in Tax 


Presbyterian Church : 








Aid for Colleges and Acad- 








emies 


$829,000.00 


$166,000.00 


$663,000.00 


Church Erection Fund 


2,490,000.00 


500,000.00 


1,990,000.00 


Church Extension 


1,660,000.00 


332,000.00 


1,328,000.00 


Foreign Missions Board 


2,490,000.00 


500,000.00 


1,990,000.00 


Home Missions Board 


2,490,000.00 


500,000.00 


1,990,000.00 


American Bible Society 


829,000.00 


166,000.00 


663,000.00 


Charity Organization Soc. 


829,000.00 


166,000.00 


663,000.00 


United Charities 


1,660,000.00 


332,000.00 


1,328,000.00 


New York Public Library 


2,490,000.00 


500,000.00 


1,990,000.00 


Metropolitan M useum of Art 


2,490,000.00 


500,000.00 


1,990,000.00 


Presbyterian Hospital 


2,490,000.00 


500,000.00 


1,990,000.00 


Columbia University 


2,490,000.00 


500,000.00 


1,990,000.00 


New York University 


829,000.00 


166,000.00 


663,000.00 


Robert College 


1,660,000.00 


332,000.00 


1,328,000.00 


Totals 


$23,726,000.00 


$5,160,000.00 


$20,566,000.00 



Problems of 
Size 



As has frequently been pointed out in these reports, the 
rapid and almost alarming increase in the University 
enrolment has been in the face of steadily 
advancing standards of admission and of grad- 
uation. There seem to be endless thousands 
of ambitious men and women who are ready to meet any 
test of time or scholarship in order to put their names 
upon the rolls of Columbia University and to enjoy its 
advantages. Yet it must be borne in mind that while 



PRESIDENT S ANNUAL REPORT I3 

the sum total of the annual enrolment is literally enor- 
mous, this enrolment is divided among so many different 
units of administration that it is only at one or two points 
that actual congestion occurs. One of these points is now 
in Columbia College, and another is — or was, previous to 
the war — in a few departments, notably English, in the 
Graduate Schools. The present year has seen what is 
something like a congestion in the School of Medicine, 
but whether the conditions that have brought this about 
are likely to continue or are only temporary, cannot at 
the moment be definitely ascertained. It seems plain that 
since examinations of exceptional difficulty, or previous 
academic residence of not less than two years, are insuf- 
ficient to keep down the attendance at Columbia, some 
additional test must be devised and applied in order to 
make sure that the resources of the University are being 
expended only upon the education of those whom the 
University thinks it really worth while to train. 

No arbitrary rule of limitation is either practicable or 
just. If attendance in a given School be limited to, say, 
five hundred, the five hundred and first applicant for 
admission may present a record and credentials that 
would justify his being preferred before one-half or even 
two-thirds of those who had preceded him. Probably the 
only additional test which the University can apply is one 
of selection by its own officers and representatives. In a 
general way it may be said that the attitude of the Uni- 
versity at present is that it will accept any one as stu- 
dent who is not shown to be unfit or unprepared. It 
would be wise policy to retreat from this position, which 
is that held by colleges and universities time without end, 
in order to fortify and to hold the position that the Uni- 
versity should itself, by an affirmative process of selection 
and not merely by a negative process of exclusion, choose 
those upon whom it wishes to expend its funds and its 



14 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

energies. If there were but a single college and a single 
university in the United States such a policy could not 
be followed without public damage. But inasmuch as 
opportunities for higher education, both general and pro- 
fessional, exist on every hand and in great variety, there 
seems to be no reason why Columbia University should 
not say that, in order to prevent the further over- taxing 
of its financial resources and the energies of its teachers, 
it will hereafter select, by such process as it deems fit, 
those students w^hom it will receive. The existing exam- 
inations for college admission and the existing require- 
ments of previous academic residence for admission to 
the professional schools or to the graduate schools would, 
of course, be maintained, but they would be maintained 
solely for the purpose of creating an eligible list, from 
which eligible list would be selected, year by year, those 
whom the several Faculties wished to accept for instruc- 
tion and training. The one serious difficulty in the way 
of the adoption of such a plan is to be found in the fact 
that it requires both labor, a faculty for decision and a 
willingness to accept responsibility, which human quali- 
ties are no more superabundant within a university than 
outside it. 

The University's work in Extension Teaching, includ- 
ing the Institute of Arts and Sciences, represents, and 
most creditably and honorably represents, the Univer- 
sity's service to the general public and to the great 
company of those students who, by reason of occupation 
or otherwise, can only attend for instruction at late after- 
noon and evening hours. From the view-point of public 
policy, therefore, the University is at liberty to take 
such steps as it may think wise in order to restrict the 
number of students in residence to those w^hom its re- 
sources enable it adequately and properly to care for, and 
who at the same time have been definitely selected be- 



president's annual report 15 

cause of their record, their personality, and their promise. 
The sooner that such a policy can be entered upon the 
better for the University. 

In the Annual Report for 191 6 in discussing the ques- 
tion of the College degree (pages 10-13), it was pointed 
out that Columbia College is not only a col- 
lege in the ordinary sense, but that it is also '^.•^"°^°'' 

1 ,, . 1 r . • College 

the collegiate member 01 a great university 
system. The College was there described as the vestibule 
through which great numbers of students constantly pass 
on their way to highly organized professional study of 
one sort or another. It was made clear that this fact has 
a direct and powerful influence in shaping the College 
program of study. 

While Columbia College has been taking on this form, 
it has grown so greatly in numbers as to offer a very real 
educational problem. For years past it has been the 
definite policy of the College to learn as much as possible 
about the life history, the intellectual and moral charac- 
teristics and the ambitions of each individual student, 
with a view to offering him instruction and guidance par- 
ticularly suited to his own nature and his own needs. By 
the devoted labors of the Dean, the assistants to the Dean, 
and the various undergraduate advisers, this policy has 
been carried out with a large measure of success. The 
continued growth of the College in size, however, makes 
this increasingly difficult and also brings clearly into view 
the fact that Columbia College of the present day car- 
ries upon its rolls two very different types of student. 
There are, first, those students who are College students 
in the traditional sense. They intend to spend at least 
three years, and probably four years, in the pursuit of 
those liberal and elegant studies which have long since 
established their primacy as instruments for the education 



l6 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

of a scholar and a gentleman. Then there are those stu- 
dents, rapidly increasing in number, who come to Colum- 
bia College with the definite notion of preparing them- 
selves as speedily as possible to meet the requirements 
for admission to the Schools of Mines, Engineering, Chem- 
istry, Medicine, Law, Architecture, Education, Journal- 
ism, or Business. Of the present College enrolment of 
about 1200, perhaps 700 students fall in the former class 
and probably 500 in the latter. This division of enrolment 
and of interest suggests that the time has come when there 
might be established in the University a Junior College — 
a term which has come to have a specific meaning in this 
country — separate from Columbia College, either under 
the care of its own Director and Administrative Board, 
or under the continued supervision of the Dean and Fa- 
culty of Columbia College, designed especially for the care 
and direction of those students who are definitely prepar- 
ing themselves for professional studies from the time of 
college entrance, and who wish to enter upon those studies 
with the least possible delay. 

The ground for such a separation has been prepared 
by the recent action which established the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts as the sole credential to be awarded 
upon the recommendation of the Faculty of Columbia 
College, and which requires that candidates for that 
degree shall not be permitted to take any professional 
option earlier than the Senior Year. All such students 
are really students in Columbia College, as that designa- 
tion has existed for generations. The other type of stu- 
dent is in College because he is required to be there as a 
condition precedent to entering upon professional studies 
at any university of the highest class. Were the policy 
indicated to be pursued and a Junior College established, 
the Dean and Faculty of Columbia College would thereby 
be put in position to treat the Columbia College student 



president's annual report 17 

as they would like to treat him and as he would like to be 
treated, while the student in the Junior College would 
be able to receive, under the most favorable conditions, 
precisely what he wants without thereby affecting the 
policies of the Faculty toward students of a wholly dif- 
ferent type. 

Were such a distinction between Columbia College and 
a Junior College to be drawn, it might then be practicable 
to look forward to a time in the not distant future when 
Columbia College may be made a residential college in 
accordance with the best English and American traditions. 
Hartley and Livingston Halls, with a capacity of some 600, 
might be set aside for Columbia College and the atten- 
dance limited to so many as could be provided for in those 
Residence Halls, together with a restricted number living 
at their homes in New York and vicinity, or in registered 
fraternity houses. The scholarship funds already estab- 
lished, and that to be established under the terms of the 
will of the late Miss Kate Collins Brown, might be so ad- 
ministered and applied as to attract to Columbia College 
the best type of American student from all parts of the 
land. Such a prospect must make strong appeal to the 
imagination of those who, looking back upon the old 
College of thirty or forty years ago, wish the Columbia 
College of the future to represent everything that was 
good in the college life and work of the last generation and 
to add thereto everything that is helpful and uplifting in 
the life of the present. During the years of rapid Univer- 
sity development, Columbia College has been of necessity 
more or less the creature of circumstances. While en- 
deavoring to pursue its own college policy, it has been 
compelled at the same time to endeavor to serve the needs 
of a large and many-sided university. May it not be that 
the time has now come when a Junior College will take 
excellent and sufficient care of these needs and so set 



l8 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Columbia College free to resume without farther inter- 
ruption or hindrance the natural lines of its own collegiate 
development? 

The step now suggested could be taken without expense 
and by a mere stroke of the pen, since it is wholly a matter 
of reclassifying and regrouping students who are already 
in residence according to the degrees for which they are 
candidates. Columbia College students of the type first 
referred to are all candidates for the degree of Bachelor 
of Arts. Columbia College students of the second type, 
who would then become students in the Junior College, 
are all candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Science 
in one or another of its various forms. 

The suggestion for the establishment of a Junior Col- 
lege is offered as an easy and practical way of meeting the 
very real difficulties that have arisen in Columbia College 
owing to its size and the diversity of interest and aim 
among its students, as well as a means of sharpening and 
defining the place of the historic Columbia College in the 
Columbia University of today and tomorrow. 

No academic officer can be indifferent to the criticisms 
that are constantly levelled against the effectiveness and 

worth of college teaching. The causes which 
J^^i ° give ground for these criticisms are numerous. 

Teaching ^^^ some of them at least are elusive. There 

can be no reasonable doubt that part of the 
difficulty arises from the fact that many college teachers 
are not really college teachers at all, but men who should 
be engaged in other forms of intellectual work. They 
might, for example, be useful and successful men of letters; 
or they might be meritorious, or even distinguished, in 
conducting research and in guiding graduate students. 
College teaching is something quite different from either 
of these, and it is worthy of pursuit as an end in itself. Its 



PRESIDENTS ANNUAL REPORT I9 

present ineffectiveness, in so far as it is ineffective, may be 
traced, first, to a false philosophy of education which 
decries and derides discipline, thoroughness, and the in- 
valuable training which follows upon the successful per- 
formance of hard and unwelcome tasks. It is due in part 
also to the mad competition, not only between colleges, 
but between departments in the same college and even 
between teachers in the same department, for a goodly 
number of students. This has led to the attempt to make 
college teaching entertaining and attractive by making it 
superficial and flippant. Wherever the lecture system has 
displaced teaching, this result is easily possible and often 
already apparent. There is probably no college in the land 
where an ambitious young American cannot today secure 
a thorough college education of the best type, if he insists 
upon getting it ; but, on the other hand, there are very few 
colleges in the land where it is quite certain that by spend- 
ing four years he will get such an education. It is just here 
that the difficulty lies. When the critic of the colleges 
cries out in public against their deficiencies, he has his eye 
not upon the saved, be they many or few, but upon the 
lost, be they few or many. Yet it is rather distressing to 
find it publicly stated that it is the judgment of high 
officers in the United States Army that the American 
youth brought to them for training by the operation of the 
Selective Draft Act are both mentally and physically 
slouchy. This is not an agreeable word to have to use in 
description of the young men of the nation, but it is pre- 
cisely the word to use of those teachers and those influ- 
ences that have brought them to this pass. 

How are conditions like these to be met and overcome? 
The experience of the present war may suggest remedies. 
Indeed, one of these remedies has already been forced upon 
public attention by the wholly admirable results of the 
three months or less of intensive training given in the 



20 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

officers' training camps at Plattsburgh and elsewhere. 
Here young men of college and university age have been 
set at definite tasks in orderly fashion, and kept at work 
under close and intelligent supervision. They have not 
been talked to or droned to while sitting in rude and dis- 
courteous postures in an ill-ventilated room, taking occa- 
sional notes of what they only partially understand and 
listening to something in which they are only slightly 
interested. The college men who have exchanged a col- 
lege for Plattsburgh have been compelled to stand, to walk, 
and to sit erect, to keep their persons and their clothing 
clean, neat, and in good order, to be respectful to their 
elders and superiors in rank, and to devote themselves 
unceasingly to something that was plainly necessary 
for the task in which they were soon to engage. All 
this is most illuminating and it suggests a proper frame- 
work for a college program as well as for the instruction 
of a Plattsburgh camp. A slouchy mind expresses itself 
in a slouchy body, and a slouchy body readily invites 
a slouchy mind. The college is too often slouchy and 
attempts to entertain when it should instruct and dis,- 
cipline. 

The other side of the picture is brighter. The Columbia 
College of a generation or two ago, obvious as were its de- 
ficiencies, certainly trained leaders of men. To confute 
those who think that there is no correspondence between 
undergraduate achievement and subsequent success in life, 
one need but turn to the Annual Register of Columbia 
College for 1 889-1 890, where on pp. 20-22 are printed the 
names of the First Honor men in each succeeding class, be- 
ginning with that of 1859. A slight acquaintance with the 
men of consequence in New York and vicinity will soon 
show that this list contains an exceptionally large propor- 
tion of names of men who in later life attained positions of 
large service and high distinction. 



PRESIDENT S ANNUAL REPORT 21 

None are in better position to judge of the worth and ef- 
fectiveness of present-day college teaching and to contrast 
it with the college teaching of the past generation, than 
those who, as teachers of graduate students in professional 
schools, have hundreds of college graduates pass under 
their eyes each year. Therefore, the opinions have been 
sought and are here published of four officers of the Uni- 
versity whose experience is perhaps unrivalled and whose 
observations and opinions will carry the greatest weight. 

Dean Stone of the Faculty of Law writes (August 5) : 

I do not suppose any teacher in a professional school would 
have any doubt as to the very great benefit of college training 
to men entering any of the professions. I have had unusual 
opportunity, both as teacher and student, for comparing the 
college graduate with the non-college man engaged in pro- 
fessional study. Other things being equal, the college man is 
superior in two ways, first in his method of approach to new 
intellectual problems and, second, in his ability to generalize, 
to orientate and then to see the particular in its proper rela- 
tion to the whole. 

With respect to the first of these qualities, the intellectual 
training of the college student and his experience in mastering 
new subjects gives him increased facility in approach, in taking 
up the study of his chosen profession. And I may add that 
business men are finding this is a quality which counts in tak- 
ing up a business career. So that although the college man 
goes into business later in life than the boy who graduates 
from High School into business, nevertheless, he is likely to 
go much further and in the end do much better, than the 
High School graduate. 

He knows how to read intelligently, to sift the essential 
from the non-essential, and to arrange his selected material in 
orderly fashion and to reason from it with some reference to 
logic. He is not thrown off his balance by novel ideas. In 
all these particulars the non-college man is at a disadvantage. 
He lacks method and ability to grasp new intellectual situa- 



22 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

tions. He loses time and wastes energy in straying into 
by-paths. 

The ability to generalize and to see the particular in its 
relation to the whole differentiates the professional man 
of broad training and scholarly attitude from the man whose 
training has been narrow and technical. Of course, the col- 
lege man may get only narrow and technical training in pro- 
fessional school, if that is the only kind of training it has to 
offer, but if its aim is higher, it must have college-trained men 
as students in order to do its work effectively. Philosophical 
treatment of a professional subject is likely not to make much 
appeal to the non-college graduate and in any event it is 
more likely to be beyond his intellectual power than is the 
case with the college man. 

Of course, it may be said that I am speaking of the ideal 
college man, and to a certain extent this is true for I believe 
that all educational problems should be dealt with from the 
point of view of the intellectually competent and ambitious. 
But I think that what I have said applies also of the average 
man who reasonably avails himself of his opportunities during 
his three or four years of college life. 

On the other hand, most teachers in the professional schools 
would agree that the average college man has faults in his 
intellectual equipment, which if not due to his college train- 
ing ought at least to have been remedied by it. 

He too often lacks thoroughness, he may get through with- 
out having formed habits of industry. He is inclined to ac- 
cept what his instructor says as gospel truth without ques- 
tioning its soundness and to a considerable number of men, a 
college education means learning as nearly verbatim as pos- 
sible what the instructor says and remembering it long enough 
to write it down on an examination paper. The result is that 
with some students at least the critical faculty is slightly 
developed and the capacity to form independent judgments 
is wanting. 

With reference to these specific criticisms, I believe teachers 
in colleges have a great deal to learn from the methods and 
practices of professional schools of the higher type. It is only 



president's annual report 23 

fair to say that my observation is that Columbia College has 
shown immense improvement with respect to these subjects of 
criticism in recent years. And we are getting a much better 
average grade of Columbia men in the Law School than we 
did some years ago. 

On the whole, I think the college man of today is much 
more broadly educated than were his predecessors of twenty 
years ago. He knows more of economics and the social sci- 
ences and he is more a man of the world. I am inclined to 
doubt whether the better men are as profound or accurate 
thinkers as the same type of men twenty years ago who con- 
centrated on a narrower range of subjects which were conse- 
quently studied more intensively. 

I observe generally that the average college student of today 
has a radical tendency due in part, no doubt, to the trend in 
that direction of our political thinking. This is a wholesome 
condition when it is based on accurate observation and sound 
thinking, but I cannot avoid the conclusion that this tendency 
has been unduly encouraged by the fact that our colleges have 
attracted to their faculties a considerable number of loose 
thinking sentimentalists who seem to be much more impressed 
with the dramatic quality of their utterances than influenced 
by the desire to arrive at the truth. In fact, I believe the most 
immediate problem of our educational institutions is to devise 
some method of attracting to their faculties a greater number 
of men of brains and balance. 

Dean Lambert of the Medical Faculty writes (Septem- 
ber 24) : 

Since I have been dean of the College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons (1904-19 1 7), the minimum requirements for admission 
to the College have been raised from a high school diploma 
plus an entrance examination to the completion of two years 
of college work. During this period of thirteen years, there- 
fore, I have seen the character of the preliminary education 
of the student in the school undergo a complete revolution. 
Of course, there was always in the school a considerable num- 



24 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

ber who exceeded this required minimum, and even thirty 
years ago (1885), when no prehminary education at all was 
required, there were fourteen per cent, of graduates holding 
baccalaureate degrees. 

The quality of the educational requirement for admission 
has changed during my deanship, as well as its quantity, until 
now the college years must include eighteen hours out of 
thirty of prescribed work in language and preparatory sci- 
ences or, measured in Columbia College points, thirty-six 
out of sixty- four are predetermined. 

The medical students of today, as a class, are trained in- 
tensively in science and in English, to the exclusion of Greek, 
Latin, and advanced mathematics. Such a training undoubt- 
edly fits them for successfully beginning the work in medical 
education with understanding and without an initial interval 
of hopeless and discouraged floundering with new concepts 
and an unknown nomenclature. When every student begins 
his course in medicine, however, he finds himself in an entirely 
new kind of work. The atmosphere of leisure and of casual 
thought which adheres to a college curriculum of fifteen to 
twenty hours a week of required attendance in laboratory or 
classroom is inconceivable in connection with the course in a 
medical school with its one thousand hours a year crowded 
into thirty weeks, as required by the state laws governing 
medical practice and education. 

The medical curriculum is still a nightmare as seen from a 
collegiate viewpoint. The student's time is overcrowded with 
the acquisition of facts and of technical skill and with the intel- 
ligent correlation of theory with practice. The urgent need 
today is for the addition of a fifth year, both to secure a longer 
hospital experience and to increase the scientific training, but 
especially to introduce periods of rest for thought and quiet 
study. 

Success in following the present four-year curriculum de- 
pends on a personal equation more than on a college training. 
It has frequently been noted that the young man who has 
devoted himself in college to the extra-curriculum activities, 
such as college business or editorship, or even athletics, and 



president's annual repor.t 25 

whose class-standing is only medium but 'safe', will make a 
phenomenal success in the professional work of a medical stu- 
dent. I believe such a case is explained in part by the fact 
that that individual has found in medicine a peculiar interest, 
but more by the fact that he has a mental discipline for inten- 
sive work which enabled him to master in a short time enough 
of his college class work to pass him, while he gave most of 
his time and energy to excel in his extra-curriculum interests. 
The mental discipline of a college training is due, in other 
words, not only to the curriculum, but to the influences of the 
whole environment of the institution. I see no difference in 
the mental discipline of the men who come to the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons after four years at college as com- 
pared with those who remain there only two years. I find it 
a question of the individual and of his age rather than of his 
education alone. 

The same is true of the student's capacity for work. It is 
an individual characteristic. It is not infrequently noticed 
that a student's capacity for work will improve during his 
stay in the school and it has been suggested that the inclina- 
tion to hard work is lessened in students with bachelor degrees 
as compared with those who have only two years of college 
to their credit. I am not ready to endorse this view unquali- 
fiedly as due to the influence of a modern college education. 

It is a noteworthy fact that raising the standard of entrance 
to eliminate all students with less than two years' credit has 
not reduced the number of failures to complete the full course 
by any very large amount; about one-fifth of all students 
who enter the school fail to graduate. 

You ask also for a comparison of the college-bred men of 
today as compared with those of twenty-five or thirty years 
ago. I omit from this comparison the old students with no 
special education at all who formed a majority of the students 
at that time. The elimination of this class of students from 
the College has permitted the removal from the curriculum of 
the courses in elementary anatomy. Twenty years ago, the 
anatomical department was used as a training field to instil 
in these untrained students a mental attitude and discipline 



26 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

which is now acquired in college work by all the students of 
medicine in Columbia before they begin their medical work. 

The college man of the '8o's' had a less specialized basis 
for his education than the medical student of today. He had 
a classical training and, except in those colleges in which the 
course was diversified by too much electives and therefore 
dominated by too many subjects all left at elementary stages 
of development, the college-bred man had received a broader 
education than the medical student of today with his two 
years of intensive work on premedical science. But such a 
man had a difficult beginning with his professional training 
and that too in spite of the fact that medicine of thirty years 
ago knew nothing of modern specialties and of the medical 
sciences of bacteriology, clinical chemistry, and pathology. 

I believe that the college education of thirty years ago, as 
compared with that of today, placed in a man's soul a better 
potential for the educated physician to be a Doctor in fact 
as also in name. It gave him no better chance, perhaps, to 
succeed in the material things of his profession, but certainly 
it gave a greater chance for him to enjoy whatever success 
he may achieve and to appreciate the lives and the work of 
others, both of his contemporaries and of past generations. 

Modern medicine demands an intensive education, both as 
a preparatory and as a professional course, and modern social 
conditions deny to the majority the time for a broader line 
of study during the undergraduate years. But I am con- 
vinced that it is no waste for any man to attempt to secure 
both. 

Dean Russell of Teachers College writes (August 15) : 

The following statement is based on my recollections of the 
classical course in Cornell University thirty years ago and ob- 
servation of the work of three sons in Cornell, Haverford, and 
Columbia, respectively, and of Teachers College students in 
general. 

My college course was largely prescribed, although at the 
time a choice was given between courses leading to the degrees 



PRESIDENTS ANNUAL REPORT 2^ 

of A.B., Ph.B., and B.S. The teaching for the most part was 
abominably poor, the equipment meager, and the care of stu- 
dents neghgible. Only three men influenced me to any appre- 
ciable extent: Hiram Corson, by reading good literature to us 
and commenting on it; Benjamin Ide Wheeler (a young pro- 
fessor in my senior year), by talking about Greece and her 
glories; and Jacob Gould Schurman (my senior instructor in 
philosophy) , who by his consummate skill as a lecturer led me 
to study and think for myself. There was apparently little team 
work in the Faculty, and comparatively little serious study on 
the part of students. I should judge that three-fourths of my 
classmates escaped without the smell of academic fire on their 
garments, and none of them was seriously singed. 

In contrast with this, my own boys have been required to 
work; they have almost invariably had good instructors, and 
they have come out much better equipped than I was. They 
have had the benefit, too, of closer supervision (at least in 
Haverford and Columbia), and gained a broader perspective 
from their studies. This is doubtless due in part to the more 
flexible curriculum in the modern college, and to more humane 
consideration from deans and other pastoral officers. 

My opinion is that there has been extraordinary progress in 
the efficiency of collegiate instruction in the last thirty years. 
The curriculum is broader and the teaching better. The stu- 
dents are under wiser surveillance and are graduated better 
prepared to take the next step. 

It should be borne in mind, however, that a generation ago a 
few boys had relatively a better chance than is offered now. 
Boys from cultured homes who could afford to attend good 
schools had a great advantage over those who came to college 
poorly fitted, or, put in another way, the number of poorly pre- 
pared boys was relatively greater than it is now. The handicap 
upon the poorer students was a serious obstacle, both for the 
boys and their instructors. A fair task for the majority was 
too light for the best. The inevitable outcome was discourage- 
ment for the poorest, if a reasonable pace was set, or the habit 
of dawdling for the best, if the capacity of the poorest or the 
average was considered. The latter course being the rule in 



28 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

most classes, those best at the beginning were not always best 
at the end. 

Nowadays the average standing at the beginning is much 
higher, the extremes are not so far apart, and better teaching 
and supervision beget more orderly progress. Under present 
conditions, the capable student has less inducement to form 
bad habits; and if he is studious, I see no reason why he should 
not excel to an even greater extent than he might have done 
under the old plan. 

I put no confidence in the assertions sometimes made that 
college graduates of today are less disciplined, less cultured, or 
less capable than those of a generation ago. Surely those I 
knew were not overburdened in any of these respects. They 
were then as now just a little less 'raw' at the end than at the 
beginning. If a change is noticeable in the product, it is due 
primarily to the change in the type of material. Today stu- 
dents go to college with all kinds of cultural backgrounds; it is 
a cosmopolitan aggregation representative of our cosmopolitan 
population. In the last generation college students were more 
homogeneous; they represented the America of thirty years 
ago, not the America of today. In intellectual equipment, 
however (and that is the only quality tested), there is far less 
diversity now than then, and the average is much higher. 

There are in my judgment two conspicuous weaknesses 
in the college graduate of the present time; one is due to 
the administrative policy of the colleges in the last thirty 
years, and the other is incidental to our present-day standards 
of life. 

I. The colleges have steadily forced up entrance require- 
ments by exacting more in quantity rather than better quality. 
The result is that boys come to college a year or two too old, 
and because everybody knows they should be engaged in pro- 
fessional preparation at twenty, they can't be kept in college 
for a four years' course. Hence, in all colleges but the poorest, 
the strictly collegiate curriculum is now reduced to two years — 
a period too short for a boy to become accustomed in a new en- 
vironment and get the best from it. It were better to reduce 
the requirements for entrance to what boys of sixteen can rea- 



president's annual report 29 

sonably be expected to meet and stress quality of preparation 
rather than quantity. 

2. The other fault is in limiting the requirements for admis- 
sion to purely intellectual tests. The present system of exam- 
inations serves notice upon every teacher that only intellectual 
attainments count, that sufficient knowledge and technical 
skill to meet certain tests are all that the candidate need ac- 
quire, and that no account will be taken of the methods by 
which the teacher teaches or the learner learns : whereas every 
teacher knows that the ways of teaching and learning are of 
fundamental importance. The boy who acquires the habit of 
gaining his ends by fair means, if possible, but by foul means, if 
necessary; who reckons his success by the number of winnings, 
regardless of the methods used, is acting in characteristic 
American fashion, but not in a way to promote the best in 
American life. Moreover, the college is at fault, not only in 
forcing such methods upon the schools, but in continuing the 
same methods in dealing with its students throughout their 
course. It stresses intellectual ability of a particular kind to 
the exclusion of moral worth. 

The popular discontent with the product of our schools and 
colleges is due, in my opinion, to the lack of moral fiber and of 
practical efficiency in their graduates. Both moral fiber and 
practical efficiency are the result primarily of the ways of teach- 
ing and learning, and only incidentally of what is taught or 
learned. We need both intellectual ability and moral strength. 
The colleges can render the highest patriotic service in this 
time of national need by examining schools and teachers along 
with their pupils, and letting it be understood that honest 
methods of work and integrity of purpose are at least of as 
much worth as the mere winning of the game. 

Director Talcott Williams of the School of Journalism 
writes (September 13) : 

The basal difference between the American College now and 
forty years ago is that the intellectual life was to the fore 
then as the decisive factor in the life opinion and policy of 



30 COLUMBIAUNIVERSITY 

students. No one can doubt that in the college before 1875 
to 1890, when the new life began, the writer, the speaker, 
the student of scholarship, had relatively a better chance 
to win student honor, honors and recognition in the frater- 
nities, in class organizations, and in Senior societies where 
such existed than today. The valedictory, the 'Lit' triangle 
or a certainty of winning the great speaking prize at the end 
of the course once made a man pretty sure of a Senior Society 
in Yale. These do no longer. So elsewhere. Who knows 
the Phi Beta Kappa man now? Who did not know him once? 
A College Fraternity once needed him to hold its place in its 
own college world and with its alumni. It needs him no 
longer. 

The Faculty as well as the student recognize the fact that 
the hegemony of college life rests with the precise type of 
men who in the wider world of material success carry the day. 
This is the reason the big corporations turn to the athlete, 
and the man active in college activities because he is exactly 
their kind of men. Students know this. The faculties know 
it. The College Employment Bureau knows it better than 
any one else. The American College, in its internal organiza- 
tion and its conspicuous student honors, has frankly accepted 
the qualities and powers, the type and character, which makes 
for material advance rather than those which stand for intel- 
lectual devotion. 

This change has been accompanied inter alia by a large 
increase of college men in the general management and higher 
command of American railroad systems. I can quote no 
figures, but between 1875 and 1890, in my newspaper work, 
I very infrequently met graduates among railroad men, ex- 
cept among the technical ofificers. Charles Francis Adams 
emphasized the employment of college men in his brief man- 
agement of the Union Pacific between 1884 and 1890. From 
1895, the number of college men in railroad offices steadily 
grew. They are today numerous and some railroads, for a 
wide range of executive posts, require academic training. 
Since 1900 the same change has come in the managing staffs 
of the great integrated industries. While the share going into 



PRESIDENT S ANNUAL REPORT 3I 

business in our larger eastern colleges has increased, the pro- 
portion entering the professions has decreased, and the num- 
ber of college graduates distinguishing themselves in literature 
has greatly decreased. No one would venture to place the 
literary men our colleges sent out from 1865 to 19 10 on a 
level with those sent out in the forty- five years from 1820 to 
1865. In the later period, with the great increase in the study 
of literature, the literary output of our colleges has relatively 
lost in value while college life has permeated the virtues effi- 
cient in business and regarded less than in the previous period, 
1835 to 1875, the ability, aptitude, aspiration, and achieve- 
ment which takes shape in letter. Similar comparisons could 
be presented in other fields. They are not conclusive, but they 
are worthy careful consideration at a time when year by year 
the student body of our colleges gives its applause, approval, 
and acceptance to the virtues of the market-place rather than 
to the inspiration of the Grove. 

This view has come to me after many years' observation of 
the young collegian. 

I was in contact with newly graduated college students en- 
tering the service of the Philadelphia Press, for more than 
thirty years. For six years, I have been teaching classes made 
up, for more than three-fourths of their membership, of college 
graduates. I have, during my newspaper work in Philadelphia, 
seen high school graduates addressing themselves, as begin- 
ners, to the same work as college graduates. I was myself in 
college, 1869 to 1873, in Amherst when courses in science, 
modern languages, and English literature had been introduced 
only to about one-third of the college curriculum. The re- 
mainder was devoted to Greek, Latin, and mathematics, 
obligatory for three years and taken by most of the students 
for four, taught along the old lines, with a rigid and somewhat 
mechanical drill, but one which, aside from other advantages 
in these studies, brought before a student sharp, definite, and 
easily measured standards. 

My comparison of the college undergraduate is therefore 
with a somewhat distant period, ruled by conditions which 
have now everywhere disappeared, even in colleges which lay 



32 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

emphasis on the familiar trivium of the past. A distinct 
change in the college student, as I had known him, was appar- 
ent to me about twenty- five years ago, at a date which I 
should place between 1890 and 1895. From whatever college 
he came, and the Philadelphia Press drew its recruits from 
'small colleges* rather than from large, the college graduate 
of today knows the world without far better than his prede- 
cessor of thirty to fifty years ago. He knows more of affairs 
in general, though he is far less interested in politics as such, 
and knows less. The college graduate has a wider personal 
acquaintance. He has visited other colleges. Fraternities, 
debates, and athletics have made the college world more one, 
than a generation ago. Cities, the theater, social life, causes 
and movements, the field of contemporary letters and art are 
more familiar to the student than in the past. He is less clois- 
tered than he was and beset by more distractions. 

All this has been purchased at the cost of a life far less or- 
dered, concentrated, and regulated than in the past. The 
teaching of the college is far better than it once was. The old 
lack at this point is incredible. Laboratories, apparatus, libra- 
ries, methods, and the intelligent use of sources have all im- 
proved until they make of college another world. The teach- 
ing staff like the student has its more vigorous contact with 
outer life and the frequent assertion that great personalities 
were once abroad in all the old colleges is a myth born of 
unconscious mendacity and slow time. Such men there were 
— sometimes — but they are just as common now, better edu- 
cated and displaying very much better manners. 

But the student has lost at one point and the graduate 
shows the loss wherever he goes. The new college does not 
require hard drill, unremitting work. It is far harder to probe 
a man's actual knowledge in modern studies than in the clas- 
sics and mathematics. Deficiencies are more glaring in the 
latter. Many students work in spite of a careless college life, 
but to a large share toil is both irksome and unaccustomed. 
Habits of hard daily work acquired in high school are lost in 
college. The young graduate who has been leading a life 
'glittering as a summer brook' works by fits and starts. He 



president's annual report 33 

must have his amusements. He has not been schooled in 
punctuality, and to the ready desire to surrender his own 
convenience and relentlessly to hang on the job. 

The number of college graduates who turn from one field 
to another and another, in the first five years after taking 
their degree, is very large. A much larger proportion of pro- 
fessional students do not practise the calling for which they 
have been trained. Nearly half of eastern college graduates 
go into 'business', often more than half. Neither they nor 
their families know how to find places or for what places they 
are fit. The colleges make a wholly inefficient provision for 
such men. It is appalling to see the time lost by young grad- 
uates before they find themselves, or their jobs. With the 
professional graduates, the path was direct. It is not now. 

The technical schools do better. Schools of business are, 
in a measure, meeting this defect. Professional schools rec- 
ognize this need, but vary much in the attention, effort, and 
organization paid to directing their graduates to the place for 
which they are fitted. Employment agencies in our institu- 
tions do their best, but a college ought to organize its whole 
staff to decide what men can do, and find the place when they 
can do it. The average family is blind from ignorance and 
lack of horizon. 

Here as elsewhere, the college is loose-jointed. Our indus- 
tries, our business, our technical pursuits and our organiza- 
tion of life have tightened up at all points. Time clocks, and 
time-keepers, cost sheets, records of work done, charts, effi- 
ciency curves — an entire machinery for drill, discipline, speed, 
punctuality, and increased output has grown up in the last 
thirty years. The college has neither learned nor heeded this 
example. 

It still remains a place, as Mr. Barrett Wendell argued it 
should be, where men step aside and use a wide margin of 
leisure at will. 

For this the modern world has no place and should have no 
place. The College has all in its hands. Its degree never 
counted for more. For a great host, it holds the keys of social 
as well as intellectual life. It can, if it pleases, make its own 



34 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

standards. In a country where the share held by graduates in 
directing positions, as shown by 'Who's Who', has grown 
twenty per cent, in about twenty years, a college education is 
of increasing value, because as population, wealth, and produc- 
tion grow bigger and bigger, any organization for the life of 
youth is better than none; but no one can watch, in journalism 
for instance — and, relatively, a calling small in number — how 
hard it is for a college graduate to find a good place, and how 
easy it is for a professional school to get one for him, if it gives 
time and attention to the task, without seeing, first, that the 
slackness of work in the students has more than offset the ad- 
vance of the college in equipment and teaching, second, that the 
inordinate time given to social functions and pursuits that 
perish with the doing injures habits of work, as almost every 
observer of college life bears witness; third, that the college 
teacher doing work, whose results in most cases have no ade- 
quate test, has himself grown easier in his methods, and 
fourth, that the student steps out into the world without drill, 
aid, advice, direction or selection for his next task, and in too 
many cases wanders from place to place before he learns the 
inevitable condition of success, unremitting effort and knowl- 
edge of the task for which he is fitted. 

For a generation past the German language and litera- 
ture have been widely taught in the schools and colleges 

of the United States. In some parts of the 
^f^G^rman Country the study of German has been given 

a preferred position by law or by municipal 
action. A first effect of the war has been to arouse a sharp 
antagonism to the study of German, for obvious reasons. 
At a time when passions are stirred, and justly so, by the 
shocking outrages that have been committed by German 
agents in the name of the German Government and the 
German people, it is not easy to reason calmly about a 
matter of this kind. Nevertheless, there are certain ruling 
principles which should be pointed out. 



PRESIDENTS ANNUAL REPORT 35 

No country can have a homogeneous or a safe basis for 
its public opinion and Its Institutions unless these rest upon 
the foundation of a single language. To protect the na- 
tional unity and security, no community should be per- 
mitted to substitute any other language for English as the 
basis and instrument of common school education. In- 
struction in a foreign language should, however, always 
be provided since, as Goethe subtly said, to know but one 
language is not to know any. Whether that foreign 
language should be French, or Spanish, or German, or 
Latin is a matter to be determined in accordance with 
varying circumstances and differing needs. So far as Ger- 
man is concerned, it is unfortunately true that Its study 
has been urged and emphasized In some parts of the 
United States, not because of the Intrinsic value of the 
German language and its literature, but rather as part of a 
persistent political propaganda intended to wean the 
American people from their Anglo-Saxon and Anglo- 
Celtic origins and to divide their national interest and 
national sympathy. Wherever this propaganda has been 
attempted, or wherever it may again be attempted, it 
should be ruthlessly stamped out as a wrong committed 
against our national unity and our national Integrity. 
When this point is guarded, there can be no reasonable 
question not only as to the desirability, but as to the ne- 
cessity, of continuing the study of the German language, 
German literature, and German history when this war 
shall end. There are, perhaps, 120,000,000 people in the 
world who speak German. They constitute an intelligent, 
a highly organized, and a powerful group, and they will 
continue to do so even when defeated. It will certainly be 
the hope and the purpose of the American people to live In 
peace and concord with them when they shall have ad- 
mitted their wrongdoing In fomenting and in carrying on 
this war, and when they shall have accepted those ideas 



36 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

and ideals of political life and social progress which ani- 
mate the rest of the world. Moreover, should Germany 
again go wrong, we must be prepared to appeal from the 
materialistic and force-worshipping Germany of today to 
the Germany of Herder and of Kant, of Goethe and of 
Schiller. We must be able to appeal from the modern 
German barbarism to earlier German poetry, and from 
modern German hymns of hate to the beautiful music of 
her masters of song. 

Under the patient guidance of Dean Woodbridge, sup- 
ported by the Joint Committees on Instruction of the non- 
professional graduate faculties, steady and 
Progress of qjj ^j^g whole satisfactory progress is making 
Instruction ^^ ^^^ better organization and conduct of 
graduate instruction and research. It is no 
small task to disentangle the confusions that have arisen 
in the American student mind as to graduate work, par- 
ticularly that which involves the distinction between it 
and undergraduate study. A surprisingly large number 
of graduate students are slow both to realize and to accept 
the full measure of freedom which a well-organized gradu- 
ate school affords. Doubtless the close organization of de- 
partments, and in lesser degree even the distinction be- 
tween faculties, stand in the way of the most economical 
and the best-ordered plans for graduate study. These ob- 
stacles are to be overcome by increased cooperation be- 
tween departments and faculties and by a willingness to 
surrender departmental or faculty prestige or aggrandize- 
ment in the interest of the larger university good. Steps 
that have recently been taken to distinguish between 
graduate residence and successful candidacy for a higher 
degree are wholly commendable. As this distinction 
becomes increasingly clear to both teachers and taught, 
the University will add to its usefulness and its higher 



PRESIDENTS ANNUAL REPORT 37 

degrees will be awarded on still more satisfactory terms 
than at present. 

The unhappy lecture system imported bodily from the 
German universities of forty or fifty years ago is largely re- 
sponsible for duplication of effort, for waste of time, and 
for dissipation of energy on the part of graduate students. 
This is particularly true in those too numerous cases 
where the lecture is used to convey not inspiration but in- 
formation. The teacher who has nothing to give in his 
lectures but information has no just claim on public sup- 
port and should be required to give way to the printed 
page. Graduate work in non-laboratory subjects may well 
take a leaf out of the book of those teachers who are suc- 
cessful in directing research laboratories. In the best of 
these laboratories, the work of each advanced student is 
adjusted to his individual capacity and interests, and he is 
guided in it so that he may become an independent worker 
as soon as possible. There are well-known cases in which 
university teachers of non-laboratory subjects have been 
equally successful in guiding and inspiring their students 
and in leading them along the paths of independent study 
and inquiry. This can never be accomplished by the lec- 
ture system, least of all by the carefully written lecture 
which is used as a vehicle for conveying information and 
read substantially unchanged from year to year. A 
printed syllabus or outline that is made the basis for pre- 
scribed reading and for lectures of interpretation, offers the 
best possible method of laying the foundation for graduate 
work. Beyond this, the lecture has no place and should be 
given up for personal conferences, for discussions, and 
for that close criticism of the student's own work which is 
the essence of a well-organized seminar. Particularly must 
the last vestiges be removed of the notion that a higher 
degree is to be had by spending so many sessions in resi- 
dence, or by attending so many courses of instruction, or 



38 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

by paying fees of the statutory amount. Where any of these 
matters are not in satisfactory condition, the responsibility 
rests directly upon the University Council or one of the 
Faculties. Theirs is the full power to act and to remedy. 

By the provisions of the University Statutes, Section 2, 

it is made the duty of the President to administer discipline 

in such cases as he deems proper and to em- 

Academic power the Deans of the several Faculties and 

Discipline . t^. r 1 1 a 1 • • 

the Directors of the several Admmistrative 
Boards to administer discipline in such manner and under 
such regulations as he shall prescribe. Cases of academic 
discipline for other than merely trivial offenses are, for- 
tunately, very rare. It has been the long-standing prac- 
tice of the Deans and Directors to administer such disci- 
pline as seems to them necessary without referring to the 
President. Usually a word of counsel or of warning has 
been sufficient to correct any tendency to misconduct or 
breach of academic order. The authority of the Board 
of Student Representatives has generally been quite 
adequate to keep those tendencies and habits which are 
traditional among students within the limits of good tem- 
per, good feeling, and good order. As a consequence of 
this fortunate condition when, after a long interval, any 
serious case of academic discipline arises, it attracts at- 
tention out of all proportion to its importance. 

It is settled academic policy at Columbia that in case a 
student uses or attempts to use unfair means in meeting 
any academic test, he shall be suspended from the Univer- 
sity for one year, with permission to make application to 
be restored to the rolls at the end of that period on giving 
evidence of the satisfactory employment of his time as well 
as of his contrition. For a second offense of this character 
a student is permanently separated from the University, 
since it is plain that his moral uprightness can no longer be 



president's annual report 39 

depended upon. It Is a source of satisfaction that in a 
university population of such size offenses of this character 
so rarely occur. 

The emotions and activities incident to the war, how- 
ever, brought about during the past year a new situation. 
Young persons whose names were or had been upon the 
rolls of the University were indicted and brought to trial 
in the United States District Court on the charge of re- 
sisting and counselling resistance to the operation of the 
Selective Draft Act. One of these students, while admit- 
tedly participating in the activities which led to the 
prosecution, was acquitted by direction of the Court solely 
for the reason that there was no evidence to establish her 
connection with those activities after the date when the 
Selective Draft Act became law. The two others who were 
indicted were convicted and sentenced to pay a fine of $500 
and to be remanded to the custody of the Marshal for one 
day, thus losing their civil rights. The Court, speaking by 
Judge Mayer, made perfectly clear, in its decision, the 
fact that those who had done wrong and who were widely 
heralded in the press of the country as Columbia students, 
did not represent Columbia in any sense whatever. The 
Court pointed out that one of the two persons convicted 
was not then matriculated, and that in any case neither 
of them truly represented the student body or the spirit of 
the University itself. When these events took place the 
academic year was almost at an end, and, therefore, aca- 
demic discipline in the case of these students took the form 
of a direction by the President that they should not be 
permitted to return to the University in any of its parts. 
Columbia University is not a reformatory or a place where 
offenders, however juvenile, are to be given opportunity to 
exploit their activities through use of its name or to cause 
it to be heralded throughout the country as sheltering 
young persons who are worse than irresponsible. 



40 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Somewhat later, a student in Columbia College whose 
earlier record elsewhere had involved him in difficulty, 
appeared in public on at least one significant occasion and 
brought the University's name into disrepute by identify- 
ing himself with notorious persons who had been convicted 
of sundry offenses and with their expressions relating to 
patriotism, loyalty, and the conduct of the war. He, too, 
was notified by direction of the President that he would not 
be again acceptable as a student in Columbia University. 
In this case an action was brought in the Supreme Court 
to compel the University to re-admit this former student 
to its rolls. In denying a motion for an order to this end, 
the Court, speaking by Mr. Justice Mullan, used the 
following language, which it would be difficult to improve: 

I think it will be conceded that the duty of an institution 
of learning is not met by the mere imparting of what commonly 
goes under the name of knowledge. By the common consent 
of civilized mankind through the ages, not the least important 
of the functions of a school or college has been to instil and 
sink deep in the minds of its students the love of truth and the 
love of country. Is such conduct as that of the plaintiff cal- 
culated to make it more difficult for the defendant university 
to inculcate patriotism in those of its student members — if 
there be such unfortunates — who are without it? Does lan- 
guage of the sort used by the plaintiff at public meetings — for 
I assume that he is in substance correctly quoted — make him 
a real or potential menace to the morale of the defendant's 
student body and a blot on the good name of the famous and 
honored university whose degree he seeks? There may be two 
answers to these questions, but I see only one. We are a tolerant 
people, not easily stirred, prone to an easy-going indulgence to 
those who are opposed to the very essence and vitals of our 
organized social life, but there must of necessity be a limit some- 
where to the forbearance that can with safety be extended to 
the forces of destruction that hide behind the dishonestly as- 
sumed mask of the constitutional right of free speech. 



PRESIDENT S ANNUAL REPORT 4I 

Probably no one has better stated than has Mr. Justice 
Mullan in the sentence last quoted the exact facts which 
today confront the nation as a whole, as well as every 
institution within that nation which aims to reflect, to 
protect, and to advance the fundamental principles and the 
highest aims of the American people and their government. 
These words of the Court should be burned into the con- 
sciousness of every American citizen, and particularly that 
of every member of every American college or university, 
whether he be teacher or taught. The dishonestly assumed 
mask of the constitutional right of free speech will never 
be permitted by any people or by any institution that 
retains its sanity, to protect those who wage subtle war 
upon private morality, or public order, or public safety. 

One of the few points upon which practically all writers 
on education agree is that a chief aim, if not the chief 
aim, of the educational process is good character. It is 
quite idle, then, to suppose that a university may over- 
look a student's character, wherever or however mani- 
fested, and be called upon to confer upon him its honors 
and rewards simply because he has complied with certain 
formal rules as to academic residence, fulfilled certain 
prescribed intellectual tests, and paid certain designated 
fees. Such a view of the university's relation to the stu- 
dent would convert the university into a factory and make 
its degrees and rewards merely a matter of manufacture, 
bargain, and sale, and not a matter of education at all. 

Some years ago the London Spectator invited Lord 
Salisbury, then Prime Minister, to read to his colleagues 
in the Cabinet the eighteenth chapter 
of Exodus beginning at the thirteenth ^rdm"dsTrldon 
verse. The writer pointed out that in 
that chapter the true principle of civil administration 
is laid down with a clearness and precision which no 



42 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

subsequent writers on public affairs have ever bettered. 
The passage in question relates the visit of Jethro to his 
son-in-law, Moses, in the course of which Jethro observed 
that the whole of Moses' energy was occupied with the 
details of administration. He therefore felt compelled 
to protest and to ask Moses why he was so continually 
immersed in the details of his work. The answer of Moses 
was not satisfying, and Jethro at once pointed out where 
the weak spot lay. He said to Moses: "The thing that 
thou doest is not good. Thou wilt surely wear away, 
both thou, and this people that is with thee: for the thing 
is too heavy for thee; thou art not able to perform it 
thyself alone." This wise man went on to urge that 
Moses should content himself with laying down general 
principles of action, and that details should be left to sub- 
ordinates. His exact words have not lost their conse- 
quence: "Thou [Moses] shalt teach them the statutes 
and the laws, and shalt show them the way wherein they 
must walk, and the work that they must do. . . And 
it shall be that every great matter they shall bring unto 
thee, but every small matter they shall judge themselves; 
so shall it be easier for thyself, and they shall bear the 
burden with thee." 

More tractable than most sons-in-law, Moses accepted 
the good advice of Jethro, and the record tells that in future 
Moses refrained from interference with matters of detail 
and occupied himself solely with those of importance. 

The distinction between government and administra- 
tion and the principles of good administration could not be 
better stated than by Jethro. Government is the estab- 
lishment of principles, laws, policies, and administration is 
the carrying out and executing of those principles, laws, 
policies. In Columbia University this distinction has been 
accepted and acted upon with increasing completeness for 
thirty years. The records of the University make plain 



PRESIDENTS ANNUAL REPORT 43 

that before 1887 or thereabouts, the Trustees concerned 
themselves not only with the government of the Univer- 
sity, but directly with its administration. Since July i, 
1887, however, and more completely since 1892, the 
statutes of the University have put all initiative and vir- 
tually complete responsibility for the educational policies 
and work of the University, in the hands of the University 
Council and the several Faculties. These bodies are, by 
their nature, legislative, and the execution of the poli- 
cies authorized by them is confided to the President, to 
Deans, to Directors, to Secretaries and to other appro- 
priate officers of administration. Democracy in govern- 
ment is understandable and the professed aim and faith 
of most modern men. Democracy in administration, how- 
ever, is a meaningless phrase. There can be no democracy 
in collecting the fares on a street car, or in painting a 
house, or in writing a letter. Vague and inconsequent 
writers are, nevertheless, in the habit of using the non- 
sensical phrase "democracy in administration," apparently 
without appreciation of the fact that the words are literally 
nonsense. To distinguish between government and ad- 
ministration and then to establish sound principles of ad- 
ministration, are no less important now than in the days of 
Jethro and Moses. 

The organization of Columbia University is prescribed 
by the charter, but a reading of the charter provisions 
would give no idea of the practical working of that organi- 
zation in the present year of grace. The charter gives the 
Trustees full legal power and authority to direct and pre- 
scribe the course of study and the discipline to be observed. 
The Trustees have, however, by statutes of their own 
adoption, long since put the first of these powers in the 
hands of the University Council and of the Faculties, and 
the second in the hands of the President, the Deans, and 
the Directors. There is record of but a single instance 



44 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

since 1892 where any exercise of the powers so committed 
to the Council or the Faculties has been amended or 
rejected by the Trustees, to whom all such action, if im- 
portant, must go for formal approval ; and no case of dis- 
cipline has been appealed to the Trustees since many 
years before that date. 

The present functions of the Trustees, as distinct from 
their legal powers and authority, are to care for the prop- 
erty and funds of the corporation, to erect and to maintain 
the buildings necessary for the work of the University, and 
to appropriate annually the sums which in their judgment 
are necessary and expedient for the carrying on of the 
University's work. In addition, the Trustees select and 
appoint a president and, following the quaint language of 
the charter, "such professor or professors, tutor or tutors 
to assist the president in the government and education of 
the students belonging to the said college, and such other 
officer or officers, as to the said trustees shall seem meet, 
all of whom shall hold their offices during the pleasure of 
the trustees." 

In practice it is only the first of these functions, that 
of caring for the property and funds of the corporation, 
which the Trustees perform without consultation with 
other members of the University. In the planning and 
erection of new buildings those individuals or groups of 
individuals who are to occupy and use any given building 
are always consulted as to its plan and arrangement. For 
at least twenty-five years no appointment to the teaching 
staff has been made, with two exceptions, save upon the 
recommendation and advice of those members or repre- 
sentatives of the teaching staff most immediately inter- 
ested. The two exceptions were cases in which donors 
of new endowments asked for specified appointments to 
the positions which the endowments made possible, sub- 
mitting in each case ample testimony to the competence 



PRESIDENTS ANNUAL REPORT 45 

of the persons named. To all teaching positions below 
the grade of assistant professor, hundreds In number each 
year, the power of appointment Is vested In the several 
Faculties. These appointments are confirmed as a matter 
of form by the Trustees, but there Is no record of any 
such appointment having failed of confirmation. It seems 
plain, therefore, that for a quarter of a century the 
practice at Columbia University has been in accord with 
those Ideals of university government that put the largest 
possible measure of responsibility and power In the hands 
of the university teachers, and that It Is probably far in 
advance of the policy pursued at most other universities 
of rank either in Europe or in the United States. 

As the work of university administration becomes pre- 
cise and better organized, it is better done. Funds are 
by no means adequate to permit the Institution of a 
thoroughly competent and perfectly organized adminis- 
trative staff In Columbia University, but so far as means 
will permit the sound principles of administration that 
have been described are uniformly followed. After a policy 
has once been formulated and adopted by the appropriate 
legislative University authority, it is entrusted for exe- 
cution to an individual. That Individual Is chosen for 
his known competence in the transaction of business and 
in dealing with men. Upon him rests the responsibility, 
easily fixed when need be, for the prompt and effective 
carrying out of the measures put in his hands. 

By the provisions of the Charter, all officers of admin- 
istration and instruction are appointed to hold their 
offices during the pleasure of the Trus- ^^^^^^j. Tenure 
tees. Useful reflection is invited by the 
question why it should usually be considered so normal 
and so natural for a teacher to exercise his pleasure to ex- 
change one academic post for another, while so abnor- 



46 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

mal and so unnatural for the governors of an institution 
of learning to exercise their pleasure to substitute a more 
satisfactory individual teacher for a poorer or less satis- 
factory one. It would seem that the phrase 'during the 
pleasure of the Trustees' opened the way to a termination 
of academic relationship without any necessary reflection 
whatever upon the character of the individual teacher. 
Indeed, this is precisely the judicial construction that has 
been given to these words. In the case of People ex rel 
Kelsey v. New York Medical School, decided in 1898, the 
Appellate Division of the Supreme Court, in a unanimous 
opinion written by Mr. Justice Barrett, used this language 
in distinguishing between removal after charges and re- 
moval at the pleasure of the Trustees (Appellate Division 
Reports, New York, 29 :247-8) : 

The decision of a Board upon charges, after a hearing, cannot 
in any proper sense be deemed a manifestation of its pleasure. 
The power in the one case is absolute, in the other judicial. 

It seems quite reasonable, too, that these alternative pow- 
ers should thus have been conferred. It seems equally rea- 
sonable that a majority vote should have been deemed suf- 
ficient for removal at pleasure, while a three-fourths vote 
should have been required for a removal upon charges. When 
a professor is removed at pleasure, no stigma attaches to the 
act of removal His services are no longer required and he 
is told so. That is what in substance such a removal amounts 
to. When he is removed upon charges, however, he is sent 
out into the professional world with a stain upon his record. 
The distinction here is obvious and the intention to discrimi- 
nate, just. If a professor misconducts himself, he may be disci- 
plined. The College in that case deems it improper to give 
him an honorable discharge or to permit him to depart with 
the impunity attached to a mere causeless dismissal. If, 
however, its relations with him are severed merely because 
he is not liked or because someone else is preferred, dismissal 
at pleasure is provided for. In the latter case, it is reasonable 



PRESIDENT S ANNUAL REPORT 47 

that the majority in the usual way, should govern an act. 
If the former, it is just that the stigma should not be fastened 
upon the professor without a hearing and a substantial pre- 
ponderance in the vote. . . 

Upon the other hand, the College should not be tied to a 
particular person who, however able and worthy, happens to 
be afflicted with temperamental qualities which render associ- 
ation with him disagreeable. There can be no good reason 
why such a person should be permanently inflicted upon his 
associates, so long as he does nothing which renders him 
amenable to charges. . . . The appointment of a profes- 
sor is not an appointment to office in the corporation any 
more than is the appointment of an instructor. It is an ap- 
pointment which implies contractual relations in some form of 
which the by-law is the foundation. The professor may 
leave at his pleasure; the Board may terminate his profes- 
sorship at its pleasure. If the relator's view be correct, the 
'pleasure' is his and his alone. It would follow that he has 
an appointment which constitutes a unilateral contract of 
retention at his own pleasure for life or during good behavior ; 
in other words, a contract which he alone can specifically 
enforce and which is entirely dependent upon his individual 
will. We think this theory is entirely unfounded. 

The sound common sense of this judgment cannot be 
gainsaid. It would be little short of a calamity were it 
not possible for an academic teacher to change his place 
of occupation without thereby reflecting upon the intelli- 
gence or the integrity of those with whom he had been 
associated, and similarly if it became impossible for the 
governing board of a school system or of a school or 
college to substitute one teacher for another without 
bringing charges against the person displaced. Any con- 
trary theory assumes a pre-established harmony of which 
not even Leibnitz dreamed and a pre-established com- 
petence which would render it impossible for anyone to 
be appointed to a teaching position who was not ipso 



48 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

facto entitled to steady promotion and increase in 
compensation and to a lifelong tenure. If advance- 
ment and success in the teaching profession are to de- 
pend upon merit and not merely upon status, there must 
be clear thinking and definite action in respect to these 
matters. Security of tenure is desirable, but competence 
and loyalty are more desirable still, and a secure tenure 
purchased at the price of incompetence and disloyalty 
must sound a death-knell to every educational system or 
institution where it prevails. These are all matters of 
grave importance in the government of an educational 
system or an educational institution. They cannot be 
dismissed with phrases or formulas, but must be met and 
decided in accordance with sound principle and the public 
interest. 

Just as seven cities contended for the birthplace of 
Homer, so not fewer than seven American academic wits 

are contending for the honor of having origi- 
Obti ation natcd the pungent saying : "Academic freedom 

means freedom to say what you think without 
thinking what you say." There is no real reason to fear 
that academic freedom, whether so defined or otherwise, 
is or ever has been in the slightest danger in the United 
States. Evidence to the contrary is quite too manifold 
and too abundant. What is constantly in danger, however, 
is a just sense of academic obligation. When a teacher 
accepts an invitation to become a member of an academic 
society, he thereupon loses some of the freedom that he 
formerly possessed. He remains, as before, subject to the 
restrictions and the punishments of the law ; but in addi- 
tion he has voluntarily accepted the restrictions put upon 
him by the traditions, the organization, and the purposes 
of the institution with which he has become associated. 
Try as he may, he can no longer write or speak in his own 



president's annual report 49 

name alone. Were he to succeed in so doing, what he 
might write or say would have, in nine cases out of ten, no 
significance and no hearing. What he writes or says gains 
significance and a hearing because of the prestige of the 
academic society to which he belongs. To that prestige, 
with all that that word means, the academic teacher owes 
a distinct, a constant, and a compelling obligation. To 
maintain one's connection with an academic society while 
at war with its purposes or disloyal to its traditions and 
organization is neither wise nor just. No one is compelled 
to remain in an academic association which he dislikes or 
which makes him uncomfortable. What the ancient Stoic 
said of life itself is true of a university : "The door is always 
open to anyone who has an excuse for leaving." 

On the other hand, academic obligation is reciprocal. 
The academic society of which the individual teacher is 
a member owes to him encouragement, compensation 
as generous as its resources will afford, and protection 
from unfair attack and criticism, as well as from all 
avoidable hamperings and embarrassments in the prose- 
cution of his intellectual work. Each individual member 
of an academic society is in some degree a keeper of that 
society's conscience and reputation. As such the society as 
a whole must give him support, assistance, and opportunity. 

The same type of mind which insists that it knows no 
country but humanity, and that one should aim to be a 
citizen of no state but only of the world, indulges itself in 
the fiction that one may be disloyal to the academic society 
which he has voluntarily joined, in order to show devotion 
to something that he conceives to be higher and of greater 
value. Both contentions affront common sense and are the 
result of that muddled thinking which today is bold enough 
to misuse the noble name of philosophy. One effect of 
much recent teaching of what once was ethics is to weaken 
all sense of obligation of every kind except to one's own 



50 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

appetites and desire for instant advantage. That economic 
determinism which is confuted every time a human heart 
beats in sympathy and which all history throws to the 
winds, has in recent years obtained much influence among 
those who, for lack of a more accurate term, call them- 
selves intellectuals. These are for the most part men who 
know so many things which are not so that they make 
ignorance appear to be not only interesting but positively 
important. They abound just now in the lower and more 
salable forms of literary production, and they are not 
without representation in academic societies. 

The time has not yet come, however, when rational 
persons can contemplate with satisfaction the rule of the 
literary and academic Bolsheviki or permit them to 
seize responsibility for the intellectual life of the nation. 

Neglect of one's academic obligation, or carelessness 
regarding it, gives rise to difficult problems. Men of 
mature years who have achieved reputation enough to be 
invited to occupy a post of responsibility in a university 
ought not to have to be reminded that there is such a 
thing as academic obligation and that they fall short in 
it. It is humiliating and painful to find, with increasing 
frequency and in different parts of the country, men in 
distinguished academic posts, who choose to act in utter 
disregard of the plainest dictates of ethics and good con- 
duct. It is fortunate indeed that, however conspicuous 
are instances of this disregard, they are in reality neg- 
ligible in number when compared with the vast body of 
loyal, devoted, and scholarly American academic teachers. 
It is noticeable, too, that instances of this lack of a 
sense of obligation rarely arise, if ever, in the case of 
those men whose intellectual occupations bring them in 
contact with real things. It is only when a man is con- 
cerned chiefly with opinions and views, and those opin- 
ions and views of his own making, that he finds and 



president's annual report 51 

yields to the temptation to make his academic association 
the football of his own ambitions or emotions. 

It is important, too, that academic teachers shall not 
be so absorbed in their own individual work as not to give 
thought and care to the larger problems and interests of 
the academic society to which they belong. No part of 
a university system is without experience that is of 
value in helping to meet satisfactorily the questions that 
arise in other parts. The professor of law who is inter- 
ested in the work of the law school alone, or the professor 
of engineering, of medicine, or of classical philology, who 
cannot find time or inducement to concern himself with 
questions affecting the entire university, or those parts 
of it that are foreign to his immediate field of interest, is 
doing only half his academic duty. No formula can be sug- 
gested for improving these conditions. They will be re- 
moved only by patiently pointing out, year after year, 
what the words obligation, loyalty, and duty mean, and 
by refusing to let them all be transmuted either into 
labels for ancient superstitions or names for various 
forms of personal advantage. In order to keep confidence 
in the ultimate achievement of a university's aim, and 
in order to avoid discouragement at the slow progress 
that is making, one may take comfort in the sagacious 
saying of Schiller: "Let no man measure by a scale of 
perfection the meagre product of reality." 

One of the unsatisfactory aspects of the relations be- 
tween the individual teacher and his college or university 
lies in the procedure, or rather lack of proced- 
ure, that is followed when a person teaching Manners 
in one institution is sought by the authorities 
of another. It appears to give some teachers no qualms 
of conscience to receive and to consider an invitation 
from another institution without discussing this with 



52 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

colleagues or administrative authorities of the institution 
which they are serving, or even without revealing it to 
them. In fact there is a certain surreptitiousness about 
the tendering and accepting invitations to pass from one 
college or university to another that is not creditable 
either to those who tender the invitations or to those who 
receive and either accept or reject them. A high standard 
of professional honor and professional obligation would 
seem to require that an institution which wishes to ten- 
der an invitation to an officer of professorial rank else- 
where, should advise the president of the sister institution 
of that fact ; and similarly that when it is desired to tender 
an invitation to an officer of less than professorial rank, 
advice of that fact should be sent to the head of the de- 
partment of the college or university in which the person 
in question is serving. Academic officers are very quick 
to resent being invited to withdraw from service, no 
matter how serious the reason, but many of them have 
no compunctions whatever in deserting their assigned 
work on short notice, or on no notice at all, in order either 
to accept service in another institution, or to enter upon 
a profitable business undertaking, or to give expression 
to their emotions. There can be no serious standards of 
professional conduct in the calling of academic teacher until 
matters like these are regarded as important and are given 
their place as controlling influences in shaping conduct. 

A red-letter day in the history of the University was 

May 10, 191 7, when at a Special Convocation, held in the 

open air on South Court, the members of 

University ^^^ British and French War Commissions 

Convocation . , , 1 tt • 

of May 10 were formally received by the University 

in the presence of an immense assemblage. 

The honorary degree of Doctor of Laws was conferred 

upon M. Viviani, Vice-President of the Council of Minis- 



PRESIDENT S ANNUAL REPORT 53 

ters of the French Republic and Minister of Justice; upon 
Marshal Joffre of the French Army; upon the Rt. Hon. 
Baron Cunliffe of Headley, Governor of the Bank of 
England ; and upon the Rt. Hon. Arthur James Balfour, 
O.M., His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for For- 
eign Affairs. Unfortunately, Mr. Balfour was unable to 
reach New York in time to be present in person at the 
Convocation. He was, however, represented by the Brit- 
ish Consul-General in the City of New York, who received 
on Mr. Balfour's behalf the insignia of the degree. Sub- 
sequently, on the evening of Friday, May ii, the diploma 
and hood emblematic of the degree were returned by the 
British Consul-General to the President of the University, 
who then presented them to Mr. Balfour in person in the 
presence of the British Ambassador, the Governor of the 
State of New York, the Mayor of the City of New York, 
and a small company. Mr. Balfour, in acknowledging 
the degree, spoke briefly and with great charm, as M. 
Viviani had done at the Convocation of the previous day. 
By these formal acts, Columbia University associated 
itself as completely as possible with the consecrated cour- 
age and devotion of the two great nations, whose missions 
were then in this country, which since August i, 1914 
have borne the brunt of the attack which then began 
upon the ordered and advancing civilization of the modern 
world. 

At the suggestion of Dr. J. Bentley Squier, Professor of 
Urology and President of the Medical Society of the 
County of New York, authority was given 

1 1 ^T^ ... ^ ^ Columbia 

by the Irustees on April 2, 191 7, to erect War Hospital 
an emergency war hospital on the so-called 
Williamsbridge, or Gun Hill Road, property belonging to 
the University, provided the funds necessary for the pur- 
pose could be raised by gift. Four days later the President 



54 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

appointed a Committee to have charge of the project, in- 
cluding Dr. William H. Bishop, Frederick A. Goetze, 
Treasurer of the University, Willard V. King, a Trustee of 
the University, Dr. Samuel W. Lambert, Dean of the 
Medical Faculty, Dr. Adrian V. S. Lambert, Associate 
Professor of Surgery, Dr. Francis Carter Wood, Director 
of the Crocker Research Laboratories, and Dr. J. Bentley 
Squier, Professor of Urology. Mr. William H. Woodin, 
President of the American Car and Foundry Company, 
accepted the post of Treasurer of the Hospital Fund, and a 
strong Advisory Committee was formed to assist the Com- 
mittee in its work. The necessary funds, amounting to 
nearly $300,000, were raised in a very short time, and on 
May 30 the first unit of the hospital was ready for service. 
By August I a hospital of five hundred beds, completely 
equipped, was in place. So excellent was the plan of con- 
struction and arrangement, that after inspection by 
representatives of the Surgeon-General of the Army, the 
War Department expressed its willingness to accept the 
hospital and to maintain it as a Government institution, 
designating it Army War Hospital No. i. The responsi- 
bility for the hospital was, therefore, transferred to the 
Government on July 18, 1917, followed by more formal 
public exercises on October 3. No part of the University's 
war preparations or war service has attracted more favor- 
able attention or done it greater credit than the prompt 
and successful carrying through of the plans for this 
hospital. 

An incidental advantage of more than usual significance 
in the life of the University has come directly from the 
institution of the War Hospital. A large group of women, 
composed of teachers in various parts of the University 
and of wives and daughters of members of the teaching 
staff, have given themselves with great devotion and en- 
thusiasm to the task of providing some of the important 



PRESIDENTS ANNUAL REPORT 55 

material which the War Hospital needs. The work of 
these women has been carried on in one of the University 
buildings, and has not only been productive of excellent 
material results, but, in addition, has given a new stimulus 
and a new form to University loyalty and University 
service. 

In this connection it is worth recording the fact that 
on April i6, 1917, the Medical Faculty, by unanimous 
vote, had asked the Trustees seriously to consider this 
same Gun Hill Road property as the most suitable site 
for the Medical Center which the University plans to 
carry forward in cooperation with the Presbyterian Hos- 
pital. 

The following officers of the University have died dur- 
ing the year: 

On December 9, 1916, the Very Rev. William M. Grosvenor, 
D.D., a Trustee of Barnard College since 1898, in the fifty- 
fourth year of his age. 

On December 25, 1916, Naomi Norsworthy, Deaths of 
Ph.D., Associate Professor of Educational Psy- University 
chology in Teachers College, in the fortieth year Officers 

of her age. 

On April 27, 191 7, Thomas F. Main, Trustee and Secretary 
of the College of Pharmacy, in the sixty-eighth year of his age. 

On May i, 1917, B. Aymar Sands of the Class of 1874, ^ 
Trustee of the University since 1900, in the sixty-fourth year 
of his age. 

On May 15, 1917, Mrs. Henry N. Munn, a Trustee of Bar- 
nard College since 1901. 

On August 18, 1917, George L. Rives of the Class of 1868, a 
Trustee of the University from 1882 until his retirement be- 
cause of ill health in 191 7, and Chairman of the Board from 
1903 to 191 7, in the sixty-eighth year of his age. 

The distinction and value of the services of Mr. Rives to 
Columbia University cannot be over-estimated. His broad 
scholarship, his judicial temper, his high sense of public duty. 



56 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

and his unswerving intellectual and moral courage, made him 
an ideal overseer of those intellectual and moral concerns 
which constitute a university's life and purpose. 

In order to bring clearly to view some of the more im- 
portant facts revealed by a study of the financial and regis- 
tration statistics of the University, several 
StTdstks graphic illustrations have been prepared to 

show the distribution of the sources of the 
University's annual income, the apportionment for dif- 
ferent purposes of the University's annual expenditures, 
the sources of financial support for each one of the Uni- 
versity's varied activities, and the grow^th of the student- 
body for a series of years past. Careful examination of 
these graphic illustrations will give both interesting and 
valuable information, as well as food for study and 
reflection. 



president's annual report 



57 



TABLE A' SOURCES OF INCOME 




'■ n'iceHarreous 6 
0.7% 

J. I/icowe -from sfuderr/s'Fees •# /,37Q^ei6.63 

2Jr?come from endoiymenf. &&9,343.24- 

5. Income from special funds 34-7,945.'/l 

4-. From gifts and receipts for desigrrated 

purposes /54-,045.^3 

6. From payments by allied corporations 

for sataries,etc AISJA-S.IO- 

(>. From miscellaneoi/s sources 2 /, 9&3.20 

^ 3, Z4d, 633.61 



58 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



TABLE B -EXPENDITURES 

(fnc/uding l?ec/empf/'o^ rund /^yme/y/J 




■ Corporate /^dm'inlstraf/'on 
'^Jy^.^/Jmc/lfKi /.I'/. 2.4% 

'^- Merest Qo Pebf 3.9'/. 
5arpJa5* ""'-^edempt/o/? Fe/r7d 3.1 y, 
o.^y. 

J. £diKi3fional /Jdm'miraf/on 

and //jsfrc^cf/or) -^ 2,44 &, 01 4:74. 

Z . dalldin^s and 6roi//?d5 Nahfenance t34, 7 17 .33 

3.LJi>rary /2e.06e04 

4. Buiinesi /Idminisirdion of 

fhe Corporaf/an 77,3IS.S9 

S. /Innuffiei 42 .l&o.oo 

i.lnferest on Corporafe Pelrf-,/?o/es.efc /27, 740.04 

7 l?edempifon Fi/nd for eo/7d /ssi/e JOO.OOO.OO 

e> 5urp/i/s ■,. 30.S47.37 

^ 3.24d,6d3.6/ 



president's annual report 



59 



XABIS.C- SOURCES OF INCOME FROM tmCU EXPENDITURES ME MADB 

Mcates 6v»ral liKome C=^ txane {mm 5j>ed(il Funds tzza 6/fls ond ISxeiplshr Pesigndsd F(n-poia 



fducationa/ /?dmm/^Kifion and hsfri/cf/cn 

^//dmg» and Orocmd^ 

l/irary 



Fliys/cal [ddcation 
Phyiic^ ffxpennTC/j/a^) 



Susineii /Administration 



nyiici ( nat/iematicol) 



fdiKofioM /idminiitwfioff 



n/ilic Ion and Jur/jpru dence 
fe/igion 



Foniance langua^s 
5e/!7if/c langixiges 



immmmzzzzzzzzi 



Peuacfiei Mius 

Maiion francoise 

/fgricv/f(/re 



3Ja>ryi/c langc/agei 



Soc/a/ Science 
So/n/ner Session 






2oo/offy 



/Idniinisfrofion, BsJ. 



ffofa/7/ 




C/remhtry 




0?//7e5e 





/Intrfomy 



^ctcrio/agy 



Bio/tyical Oaml-ifry 



Oinica/ Instruction 



dfi/ Fnfmeer/ng 




fifeta/iurgy 



•■ ///j^^///j////j////>/f >'i>'imi77-7-r7-n 
y/idoMi' /Jllona ncei , 

Fellonships ■ 



nzzz^ 



ScMarships 



/fi/s/'c 

Fi!//o30/!ijy and Fsycho/ogy 



fl'/zes and Medals 



■:SZZZZZZ2ZZZ2ZZZZZZZ21 



■3ZZZ22ZZZZZZZZ2i 



Fei/or/ships , icMars/r/ps , Frizes of /'ondS. 



100 yC iO 



M% 



6o 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



TABLE D- NET REGI5TRATI0N 

/?// doi/J:>/e reghirafjons omitted, 
infire (/menifj except £xfe/i5ion Q fxfe/?s/o/? Teaching 




PRESIDENT S ANNUAL REPORT 



6l 



For the purpose of record and comparison from year to 
year there follow the usual statistical exhibits as to the 
site, the teaching staff, the student body, and the degrees 
conferred during the year. 



THE SITE 



• 


Square Feet 


Acres 


A. 


I. At Morningside Heights 








Green and Quadrangle 


734,183.08 


16.85 




South Field 


359,341-15 


8.25 




East Field 


90,824.85 


2.08 




Deutsches Haus 


1,809.50 


.0414 




Maison Frangaise 


1,809.50 


.0414 




Residence of the Dean of the College 


1,809.50 


.0414 




Residence of the Chaplain 


1,809.50 


.0414 




1,191,587.08 


27-3456 




2. At West 59th Street 


75.312.38 


1-73 




1,266,899.46 


29.0756 


B. 


Barnard College 


177,466.60 


4.07 


C. 


Teachers College 








I. At 1 20th Street 


153.898.00 


3-53 




2. At Speyer School 


4,916.66 


.112 




3. At Van Cortlandt Park 


575,843.40 


13.22 




734,658.06 


16.862 


D 


College of Pharmacy 
Grand Total in New York City 


7.515-62 


.172 




2.186,539.74 


50.1796 


E. 


Camp Columbia, Morris, Conn. 
Total 




585.3 






635-4796 



62 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

TEACHING STAFF 



Teaching Staff 


Columbia 
Univer- 
sity 


Barnard 
College 


Teachers 
College" 


College 
of Phar- 
macy 


Total* 




1916 


1917 


Professors 


1 80 


21 


22 


6 


172 


180 


Associate Professors 


56 


13 


5 


3 


46 


56 


Assistant Professors 


113 


3 


30 


I 


117 


"3 


Clinical Professors 


26 


' 






25 


26 


Associates 


48 


4 


ID 




54 


58 


Instructors 


209 


21 


66 


5 


232 


280 


Curators 


3 








3 


3 


Lecturers 


36 


7 


36 




72 


72 


Assistants 


84 


9 


41 


3 


128 


128 


Clinical Assistants 


108 








no 


108 


Total 


863 


78 


270 


18 


Q5Q 


1,024 


Administrative officers, 














not enumerated 














above as teachers 


39 


10 


18 


4 


51 


50 


Retired officers 


16 




2 


3 


13 


16 


Total 


Q18 


88 


230 


25 


1,023 


1,090 



1 Excluding the Horace Mann School. 
* Excluding duplicates. 



president's annual report 



63 



The total enrolment of students at the Winter, Spring, and 
Summer Sessions, as compared with that for the year 19 15- 
1916, was as follows: 



STUDENT BODY 











Gain 


Loss 


Columbia College 


1,453 






197 




Mines, Engineering and Chemistry 


276 








99 


Law 


474 








II 


Medicine 


451 






75 




Political Science, Philosophy and 












Pure Science 


1,358 








158 


Architecture 


90 








5 


Journalism 


155 










Business 


61 






II 




Unclassified University Students 


206 






45 




Summer Session (1916) 


8,023 






2,062 




Total {excluding 77g duplicates) 


11,768 






2,390 


273 


Barnard College 


734 






40 




Teachers College: 












Education 1,277 








120 




Practical Arts 1,167 


2,444 






102 




College of Pharmacy 


428 








82 




15,374 


2,652 


355 


Less Double Registration 


475 










Net Total 


14,899 


2,297 




Extension Teaching (excluding 












1,499 duplicates) 


5,368 






1,116 




Special Classes (brief courses be- 






stowing no general University 












privileges and carrying no 




2,285 








academic credit) 




75 


Grand Net Total receiving instruc- 












tion from the University 


20,267 


2,285 


22,552 


3,458 





64 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



DEGREES CONFERRED 

During the academic year 1916-1917, 1992 degrees and 449 
diplomas were conferred, as follows: 

School of Business: 

Bachelor of Science ... 2 
Master of Science .... 4 



Columbia College: 

Bachelor of Arts 125 

Bachelor of Science ... no 



Barnard College: 

Bachelor of Arts 136 

Bachelor of Science ... 20 



Faculty of Law: 
Bachelor of Laws . 
Master of Laws. . 



Faculty of Medicine: 
Doctor of Medicine . . . 



165 

3 



90 



235 



156 



168 



90 



Faculty of Applied Science: 

Engineer of Mines. . . 22 

Metallurgical Engineer 3 

Civil Engineer 33 

Electrical Engineer. . . 25 

Mechanical Engineer. 24 

Chemical Engineer. . . 36 

Chemist i 

Master of Science 25 

School of Architecture : 
Bachelor of Architec- 
ture 19 

Master of Science ... 2 
Certificate of Profi- 
ciency in Architec- 
ture 8 

School of Journalism: 

Bachelor of Literature 26 



169 



29 



26 



College of Pharmacy: 
Pharmaceutical 

Chemist 

Bachelor of Science . . 



15 

2 



17 



Faculties of Political 
Science, Philosophy 
and Pure Science: 

Master of Arts 389 

Doctor of Philosophy 82 

Faculty of Teachers College : 

Master of Arts 305 

Bachelor of Science . . 326 

Master of Science .... 2 

Bachelor's Diploma. . 238 

Master's Diploma .... 199 

Doctor's Diploma 4 

Total degrees and di- 
plomas granted 

Number oj individuals 
receiving them 

College of Pharmacy: 
Graduate in Pharma- 
cy 199 

Honorary Degrees ... 15 



471 



1,074 



2,441 



1,994 



199 



15 



Nicholas Murray Butler, 

President 



November 5, 191 7 



COLUMBIA COLLEGE 
REPORT OF THE DEAN 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, I917 

To the President of the University, 
Sir: 

I have the honor to present the following report as Dean of 
Columbia College for the Academic Year, 191 6-1 91 7: 

The year divides itself sharply into two parts. The first 

was marked by a carrying forward of the policies which have 

been the primary interest of the College since 
., ... ^^^^ T^i J 1 Division of Year 

Its reorganization in 1905. Ihe second be- • ^ t. n • j 
• 1 1 1 t • rr 1 1 TT • 1 into Two Periods 

gan with the breaking on by the United 

States of diplomatic relations with Germany, and was devoted 
to a rapid and fundamental adjustment of its whole organiza- 
tion, during which more than five hundred of its undergradu- 
ates and a considerable number of its officers withdrew before 
the end of the term, to undertake national service of one form 
or another. 

The most significant event of the first period was the adop- 
tion of a co-ordinated scheme of study for those Juniors and 
Seniors who are looking forward neither to a v ' a 

combined course of collegiate and professional 
study nor to definite specialization through honors courses 
or otherwise, in some particular field or fields; in a word, for 
the old-fashioned undergraduate upper classmen. 

This plan is set forth in the Bulletin of the College as 
follows : 

Beginning with the winter term of 1918, certain candidates for gradu- 
ation in the College will be required to complete in the two years preceding 
graduation three out of four required courses, These courses are to be in 
the field of general literature, in the field of general history, in the field of 
general philosophy, and in the field of general science. The courses are 
to count for three points each, and are to consist each of two lecture hours 
a week, with a weekly conference between each student and the instructor 



66 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

or his assistants. These courses are designed for students who have not 
found any special field of interest, and who, therefore, have not elected to 
be honor students nor have exercised a professional option. In special 
cases the Instruction Committee will adjust the curriculum to the needs 
of students who seem to them to be in parallel case with students exercising 
a professional option; but in general these required courses will be obliga- 
tory for those college students who are taking the old-fashioned college 
course. It is intended that these prescriptions will give a unified view of 
culture, and especially that they will make the students familiar at first 
hand with world masterpieces of literature, of philosophy, and of history, 
with the general history of science up to the beginning of the nineteenth 
century, and with some of the most important scientific ideas of the 
nineteenth and twentieth centuries. A more detailed announcement of 
these courses will appear in the Announcement of Columbia College for 
1918-1919. 

Other and more incidental changes included the requirement 
of the grade of C or better in prerequisites, with a view to 
maintaining higher standards in the more advanced courses; 
and in cases where this did not sufficiently limit the numbers, 
the refusal by the Committee on Instruction to admit more 
students to any elective than could be, in its judgment, dealt 
with to the best advantage; an attempt, by the introduction 
of "laboratory" periods, to bring promise and performance 
nearer to one another in the teaching of French and German 
as living languages; the establishment of a course in ele- 
mentary mathematics for students planning to give but a 
single year to that study, in which the traditional water-tight 
divisions are broken down; and the establishment of an ele- 
mentary (not a pre-professional) course in the law. 

A pleasant incident of the year was the addition to the list 
of important contributions to scholarship by men primarily 
engaged in the work of the College, of Professor Hayes' vol- 
umes entitled "A Political and Social History of Modern 
Europe." 

Finally, through sympathetic study and informal confer- 
ence, rather than by legislation, the effective co-ordination 
between the College and the professional schools of the 
University has been considerably advanced. 

Since the r61e of Columbia College following the breaking 
of diplomatic relations differs only in detail from that played 



COLUMBIA COLLEGE 67 

by Other colleges of the land, it may be appropriate to 

discuss briefly the whole National movement rather than 

our particular share in it, and if in so do- ^ , ^ . , 
_ 1 1, . r , r • Second Period 

mg, 1 shall omit further reierence to certam 

incidents, few in number, but none the less distressing, it is 
because of my belief that these incidents are rather a reflec- 
tion of the ferment of the times and the effect upon human 
nerves of the long strain since August, 1914, than in any way 
representative of American collegiate life, and because of 
their relative unimportance as compared to the constructive 
reaction of the College body, students and teachers alike, to 
the conditions which faced it last spring. 

If I am not greatly mistaken, the entry of the United States 
into the great war will prove to be a stimulus which will pro- 
foundly change the nature, not only of „ , , „, 

, A • 11 • t- ^ / ^t- Affect of the War 

countless American collegians, but 01 the ^^ ^^^ Colleee 

American college itself. Certainly no chap- 
ter in its historical development would be complete without 
some reference to the events of the weeks following the declara- 
tion of war. It is too early to grasp their full significance, but 
that their results will be far-reaching, and will not be merely 
along lines of military training and efficiency, is certain. Much 
of the activity has been typical of a desire on the part of all 
ages and classes of an over-wrought nation to do something, 
and thereby obtain the relief that comes with an emotional 
discharge. Much also has been along the lines of existing 
convention, and of the herding instinct, but these factors are 
of minor import. To understand some of the changes, it 
should be said, also, we must turn back to forces which have 
been developing, often unrecognized, for years; forces which 
have been awaiting some such cataclysm to find an outlet. 

Out of the mass of individual events, two very significant 
general facts may be recognized. In the first place the young 

man in college who has failed to ask 

,. ,f, **, , ^ii.- Attitude of College Men 

himself how he may best take his towards the War 

share in the nation's responsibility 

is the rare exception. Their action has been marked not 

only by proper recognition of the emergency, but by a high 



68 COLUMBIA UNI\'ERSITY 

degree of intelligence of choice — from the glorious risks of the 
Aviation Corps to the hum-drum work of tilling the fields, or 
the even harder decision to finish a course in order to be of 
greater service later on. As a whole, the undergraduates and 
young alumni of our colleges have made a record of which the 
nation may well be proud. 

No one, except a few paciphobes who had been alarmed at 
the growing habit of undergraduates to think for themselves, 
feared that our students, as individuals, would stand back 
in the fear of hardship or danger when the new call to arms 
should come, any more than they did in '6i and '98; but very 
few, if any, realized how complete a revolution in our appar- 
ently hard and fast institutional and social life would be the 
result, or that this would come almost as a matter of course. 
The students gave up witl^out a moment's hesitation their 
cherished games and gatherings, and all the careless, but com- 
fortable, routine of their daily lives. 

I n^Columbiaf College, for example, out of 1,453 students 
registered at the beginning of the second half-year, no fewer 
than 529 had entered some form of national service before 
Commencement, as shown in the table which follows; and 
the summer months will doubtless add very considerably to 
these numbers: 

Military 165 

Farming 108 

Naval 85 

Red Cross 8 

Ambulance 18 

Translation, etc 7 

Miscellaneous, not specified (about) 148 

Total 539 

The second outstanding fact is that ruthless changes may 
be made in the organic fabric of our colleges without inter- 
fering with the essential vitality 
ange m rganic a ric ^^ ^^^ institution. Faculties which 

had seemed forever committed to what they conceived to 
be the only sound standards of education cast away their 



COLUMBIA COLLEGE 69 

measuring rods and rule books, and gave credit for all sorts 
of vocational laboratory courses offered by the School of 
Experience. Teachers have been released right and left for 
national service, and their colleagues are gladly shouldering 
the additional burdens thus laid upon them. Of the men 
whose names appear in the current list of Columbia College 
officers, no fewer than seventeen have already taken up 
government duties, which in most cases involve complete 
removal from their college work. 

Throughout the country the importance of keeping the 
undergraduate machine in good working order, and of 
keeping the younger boys at work, was perhaps over- 
looked at first, in spite of the tragic example furnished by 
England in the early days of the war; but it has now 
been generally recognized. This is less difficult in Colum- 
bia College than elsewhere, perhaps, because of the relatively 
large numbers of the students who enter before the age of 
eighteen. 

It will be hard, but it will be necessary, for the colleges to 
make the students of real possibilities realize that the long 
road of preparation for scientific and 
scholarly achievement is for them a patri- p . .^"^^^ 

otic road. Not only the United States, but 
the world at large will need, as never before, doctors and 
engineers and chemists of the broadest possible training; 
but it will need even more intellectual leaders of thorough 
historical and social preparation for the days to come. When 
boys of this type withdraw for active service as many of 
them will (and who shall blame them), they should be drawn 
back after the war, if necessary, without too strict ad- 
herence to formal regulations. In order to hold the present 
undergraduates who are not of the draft age, it will un- 
doubtedly be necessary to provide military training more 
generally than has been our previous national habit, for it 
would be too much to expect these boys to look far enough 
into the future to recognize the practical value of purely cul- 
tural studies. They and the country at large will demand 
something more concrete. 



•JO COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

How long the military training will remain a part of the 

curriculum, and how permanent will be the present close 

connection between scholarly affairs and 

Parto7^'^'"'"^^' military affairs, it is too soon to say. 

thToirriculum Perhaps the best forecast is that of 

Cosmos: 

National service can no longer remain an empty phrase, but must be 
given life and meaning and universal application. As the spirit and 
principles of democracy require that there be the widest possible participa- 
tion in the formulation of public policy, so this spirit and these principles 
require that there shall be the widest possible participation in the Nation's 
serv'ice, and, if need be, in its defense. An army of hired soldiers as the 
chief dependence of a democratic people is as much an anachronism as an 
army of hired voters would be. . . . Outside and beyond a public educa- 
tional system of the nation there should be established without delay a sys- 
tem of universal training for national service and, should it ever be needed, 
for national defense. Such a policy is the antithesis of militarism ; it is dem- 
ocracy conscious and mindful of its duties and responsibilities as well as of 
its rights. 

At any rate, the colleges will not have fulfilled their func- 
tion until they have played their part in the work of recon- 
struction and reconciliation which must follow the war. If 
the result is to be a real victory for humanity, it is for them 
to break away, when necessary, from the trammels of a 
conventionalized and unthinking patriotism, to remind the 
nations that justice and liberty are as necessary as they were 
in 1776. 

It is also too soon to foretell what permanent changes the 

war will work in the organization and administration of the 

colleges, and in student life, but that these 

Ultimate Affects changes will be profound there is little 

,, ^ „ doubt. Faculties and students alike will 

on the College 

have already learned that regulations and 
customs which seem to be of the very essence of the collegiate 
structure can be swept aside without shock, to say nothing of 
castastrophe. When the normal course is resumed, many of 
these will never be restored or will be in a form almost unrecog- 
nizable. On the other hand, certain tendencies which had 
been at work sometimes for years preceding the war, will be 



COLUMBIA COLLEGE 7I 

greatly accelerated, and will come to fruition without the 
lengthy and perhaps bitter struggle which would otherwise 
have been inevitable. 

The change in the faculty point of view which, of course, 
has operated and will operate with varying intensity in 
different institutions will, I think, be along the following 
lines : 

In the first place, the parental attitude which the American 
college has always maintained toward its students will no 
longer be limited to matters of personal 
morals or conduct, but will include the stu- Recognition of 

J ,, , ,. r 1 •^- r 1 • Student's Place 

dent s public usetulness, a recognition or his • p , ,. q , 

place in the public order. It will mean 
changes in the curriculum to provide for such usefulness, not 
alone in military subjects but in geography and international 
studies, and other fields. It will involve also an increased 
realization of the importance of the physical fitness of the 
group, as a whole, as contrasted with the possession of winning 
teams of specialists. In order to realize Pasteur's conception 
of Democracy as "That form of government which permits 
every individual citizen to develop himself to do his best for 
the common good," it will mean, as individual needs and 
desires must be met, a loss of faith in rules and calendars in 
and for themselves, and, I hope, a corresponding realization 
of what the individual boy, and what the whole group is 
capable of under vivid stimulus. 

I hope also that it will be recognized that questions of disci- 
pline and control are not so terrifying as they have seemed. 
Boys who have been brought up as badly as it is possible to 
conceive, fall promptly and not too uncomfortably into the 
routine of the military training camp. On the other hand, 
one must not assume too much, for the boy with a disciplined 
body may have an undisciplined mind, and vice versa. 

The colleges should plan to profit by the present public 
recognition of the part played by the non-technical under- 
graduate courses, and by the best elements of college life, in 
producing a type of resourceful young men, willing and 
ready to take a responsible part in any national emergency. 



72 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

In closing, I desire to express my personal gratitude, as 
well as the appreciation of the College as a whole, to Pro- 
fessor Lord, and Professor Hawkes, who as 
one usion Acting Dean and Chairman of the Committee 

on Instruction respectively, during my own absence on leave 
since April 19, have carried on with striking success the 
administration of the College during one of the most critical 
and trying periods of its long history. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Frederick P. Keppel, 

Dean 

June 30, igi7 



SCHOOL OF LAW 
REPORT OF THE DEAN 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 3O, I917 

To the President of the University, 
Sir: 

I have the honor to present the annual report of the School 
of Law for the academic year ending June 30, 191 7. 

The registration of students for the 3'ear was 
as follows: Registration 

Candidates for the degree of Master of Laws 6 

Third year — Class 191 7 165 

Second year — Class 19 18 113 

First year — Class 19 19 193 

Non-matriculated students 40 

Total 517 

Summer Session 66 

583 

Less Duplications 53 

Grand Total 530 

During the academic year the degree of LL.B. was awarded 
to 165 candidates, and the degree of LL.M. was awarded to 2 
candidates, the largest number of degrees in law awarded in 
any one year during the entire history of the University. 

The outstanding event in Law School history of the year, as 
indeed it was in the history of the world, was the declaration 
by Congress of war against the German Empire 
and the call for volunteers for the military and g j 
naval service of the United States. This call met 
with an immediate response on the part of the students of the 
Law School. Men from every class at once began to enter the 
various branches of the service and their enlistment has con- 



74 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

tinued without abatement down to the present time. Almost 
uniformly their action has been the result of deliberate choice 
based on a conscientious devotion to duty, and there has been, 
I am happy to say, no evidence of the kind of hysteria which 
so often affects the public mind at the outbreak of a great war. 
Scores of our students of brilliant promise, many of them 
about to take up their professional work in positions already 
assured to them, have calmly and unhurriedly but without 
hesitation offered their services to the government. Not a 
single one, so far as known, has been guilty of any disloyal act 
or thought. 

In the meantime, while the faculty has done everything in 
its power to aid those students who have responded to the call 
of the nation, it has held steadfastly to the opinion that the 
maintenance of the educational work of the school was even 
more a duty in time of war than in time of peace. The great 
war in which we are now engaged is a war of nations and not 
merely a war between the military forces of nations. Until its 
conclusion it will bring to bear ever-increasing stress on all the 
economic, moral, and intellectual forces of our national life. 
In such a time there is grave danger that standards of education 
which have been established through generations of painstak- 
ing effort will be seriously impaired. One of the most signifi- 
cant and distressing episodes of the outbreak of the war was 
the supine manner in which many of our educational institu- 
tions permitted their educational work to become disorganized 
and their student body demoralized without any corresponding 
advantage in the prosecution of the war. 

It has been and will be the settled policy of the School of 
Law to do its work so far as possible without interruption 
and to maintain without impairment its educational standard. 
There has been no omission of lectures, no shortening of the 
term, no lightening of examination requirements. In justice 
to those students who were in good academic standing, who 
had enlisted and were in actual service at the time of the 
spring examinations, they were credited with the successful 
completion of the courses for which they were registered with- 
out examination, provided that they were members of the First 



SCHOOLOFLAW 75 

or Second Year classes or provided that they had previously 
successfully completed one year of work in the school. This 
plan was favored not only because it seemed a just and patri- 
otic policy to pursue but because on the whole it was believed 
to be the least demoralizing to the work of the school of any 
of the various plans which were suggested. It will be observed 
that these concessions were made only to those students who 
have had or will have ample opportunity to demonstrate their 
fitness for their profession before coming up for their degree. 
At the present time, so far as can be ascertained, more than 
one-third of our members have entered national service and 
it is estimated that during the coming academic 

year there will be a falling off in registration of ^^^\^ °, 
, . , , r School 

more than 50 per cent, with a consequent loss of 

law school revenue from tuition alone of approximately 
$45,000. The first effect of this loss of financial resources will 
be the abandonment for the present of well-matured plans for 
the expansion of the school by additions to its faculty, which 
are of the first importance if it is to maintain its position as 
one of the leading law schools of the country. Necessary 
economy will also require the omission from our curriculum of 
such special courses as Mining Law, Water Rights, and the 
courses in law given in the Engineering Schools and in the 
School of Journalism. In other respects the school will be able 
to provide the usual courses during the academic year 1917- 
191 8. It is important nevertheless that the alumni and friends 
of the school, as well as the Trustees of the University, should 
recognize at this time that during the continuance of the war 
the school will be unable to maintain the rate of progress which 
has marked its history in recent years and that the continued 
loss of revenue during any considerable period will have dis- 
astrous effects on the future development of the school. The 
long record of useful and efficient service of the Columbia Law 
School to the bar of the state and the nation merits such 
financial support as may be needful to enable it to continue 
its work in the most effective manner, and I invite the atten- 
tion of all the friends of this school to this opportunity for 
service, no less important in a large and permanent sense than 



76 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

financial assistance to meet the more direct exigencies of 

the war. 

The reduction in the number of students will also create a 

critical situation in the Columbia Law Review. Established 

^ . in IQOI, during the sixteen years of its exis- 

Law Review . , c • ^c • • i-i 

tence it has won tor itselt a position steadily 

increasing in importance not only in the educational work of 

the school but among the scientific legal publications of the 

world. Its income is derived mainly from subscriptions or 

from advertising which is dependent upon the maintenance of 

its circulation. It is therefore dependent very largely upon 

the subscriptions made to it by members of the student body 

which in recent years has loyally supported it. In order that 

the work of the Review may be continued we shall now have 

to ask our alumni to become subscribers in increasing numbers 

and to support the Review by contributions both to its 

columns and to its treasury. It would indeed be a calamity 

to the cause of legal education if, as a result of the war, the 

Review were compelled to curtail its activities, a calamity, 

which, I feel sure, the friends of the School will not permit to 

happen. 

Aside from the financial problems involved, loss of numbers 

will not prove to be an unmixed evil. In my Annual Report 

for 1 9 14 I suggested the possibility of expanding 
,y , our educational work by requiring every student 

in the school to engage in research work under the 
immediate guidance of a professor or competent instructor. 
The experience of the Editors of the Columbia Law Review, 
who embody the result of their researches in the valuable notes 
which are an important feature of the Review, has demon- 
strated that work of this character has the highest educational 
value. It not only increases the familiarity of the student with 
legal literature and the sources of law but it develops with sur- 
prising rapidity his independence of judgment, his originality 
and intellectual power in a manner not possible through the 
processes of class-room work exclusively, except with the more 
unusual student. From time to time the members of our 
teaching staff have assigned to their classes work of this 



SCHOOLOFLAW 77 

character. The large number of students, however, has made 
it practically impossible to give to each student the benefits of 
personal advice and criticism which are essential to the suc- 
cessful carrying out of such a plan. If, however, there should 
be any such falling off in the number of students as is now 
anticipated, it would be possible to develop research work in 
the school in such a way that every student in it will have had 
opportunity to carry on independent investigations in connec- 
tion with his various courses, under competent guidance, and 
to embody the results of his investigations in memoranda 
which may be submitted to the instructor for criticism. We 
shall thus be able to test in a practical manner the educational 
advantages of the proposed plan and it is believed that they 
will be found of sufficient importance to warrant the expendi- 
ture of an adequate sum of money to provide the necessary 
assistance to continue this work when the war is ended and 
the school has its usual attendance. 

It is with great satisfaction that I am able to announce the 
generous gift by Mr. Joseph P. Chamberlain of a fund for 
the endowment of a Chair of Legislation and the 

appointment to that chair of Professor Thomas j . , ^. 

'^^ , , . Legislation 

I. Parkinson with a seat in the Faculty of Law. 
It is becoming increasingly evident that the present genera- 
tion is to see greater and more permanent changes in the 
fabric of the law through legislation than during its entire 
previous history. It was in recognition of this fact that the 
donor of this gift established at Columbia in 191 1 the Legis- 
lative Drafting Research Fund for the purpose of maintaining 
a laboratory for the study and investigation of legislative 
problems from the legal point of view. The success of this 
laboratory under the direct guidance of Professor Parkinson 
has been conspicuous. Its important contributions to the 
movement for improved legislative methods in this country 
has led its donor to provide the means by which its experience 
and data may be made more available in the educational work 
of the school. Professor Parkinson received his A.B. from the 
University of Pennsylvania in 1899, his LL.B. from the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania Law School in 1902, and was admitted 



78 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

to the New York Bar in 1909. It is contemplated that Pro- 
fessor Parkinson will offer a course, open to law students, deal- 
ing with the history and development of legislation modifying 
or supplementing the common law, with special reference to the 
Federal Statutes and the Statutes of New York and that he 
will offer a seminar course which will be open to candidates 
for the LL.M. degree. 

The modification or re-arrangement of the curriculum of a 
Law School involves problems which ought to be approached 
in a spirit of caution and with full recognition 
of the fact that the requirements of a broad and 
philosophical legal education are not met by the elaboration 
of the curriculum or necessarily even by the increase of the 
period of law study. Much of the discussion of this subject 
proceeds on the assumption that the attention of the student 
in the law school is directed almost exclusively to the process of 
analysing judicial decisions in order to determine the law as 
it is by tracing the legal application of general principles as 
revealed in decided cases and that he will acquire no acquain- 
tance with legal history or legal philosophy unless courses 
specifically labelled "Legal History" and "Jurisprudence" are 
introduced into the curriculum. If there be schools where 
unhappily this is true the problem of their reform and improve- 
ment has to do primarily with the character of their teaching 
rather than with the re-organization of their curricula. 
Every teacher of law, whatever his subject, has available to 
him all of the materials from which the legal historian or the 
legal philosopher must draw his knowledge. The teacher of 
contracts, or property, or torts, or any other subject which 
enters into the warp and woof of the law, who does not teach 
his subject with reference to its history and its underlying 
philosophy, is not competent to do the work of the modern 
law school and the consequence of his deficiency can never be 
repaired by the introduction of independent courses, however 
pretentious their titles, and however sound their content. 

Legal history, which is of value to the lawyer, and legal 
philosophy cannot profitably be studied independently of the 
study of the substance of the law itself. Let us not, therefore. 



SCHOOLOFLAW 79 

persuade ourselves that students, who have confined their 
efforts for two or three years merely to the extracting of the 
rules of law as they are from the decided cases, can be con- 
verted into lawyers with breadth of view and a sound philoso- 
phy of law by exposing them to the mild contagion of lectures 
on legal history and jurisprudence at or near the conclusion 
of their course. Such courses can, from the nature of the 
case, have no intimate relation to the daily problems of 
his previous law study and will prove of little value to 
those who, because of their educational experience, are most 
in need of a more intimate acquaintance with legal history and 
jurisprudence. By all means, let us have courses in these 
subjects, especially if the period of law study is to be extended 
as seems not unlikely, which will supplement and round out 
the previous educational experience of the student. But let 
us not attribute to them an undue importance or delude our- 
selves into the belief that they will in any way relieve the 
teacher of the more humble subjects in the law from the 
responsibility of being something of the legal philosopher 
and historian. 

Much more difficult than the problems of adequately pre- 
senting the subjects of legal history and legal philosophy is 
the problem of keeping pace with the development of statute 
law, and the problems growing out of the vast increase of 
written law which is penetrating and overlying the great body 
of the common law. It is much simpler for the competent 
teacher to deal with questions of legal history and philosophy 
in connection with the courses ordinarily offered in the law 
school, than it is to consider the rapidly multiplying problems 
in the field of legislation. To subject the mass of our statute 
\sLW to scientific scrutiny, and classification, to construct its 
philosophy and at the same time to preserve the proper 
balance of the student's effort between these problems on the 
one hand and those of the common law on the other is the most 
immediate of the questions of law school organization which 
are pressing for a solution. 

There will be comparatively few changes in the assignment 
and arrangement of courses during the coming year. The 



8o COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

course in Torts will be increased from two to three hours per 
week for the year. In consequence it is expected that the 
course in Agency will be transferred from the first to the second 
year and will be omitted during the academic year 1917-1918. 
Equity I will be given by Professor Young B. Smith and the 
course in Suretyship by Professor Underhill Moore. The 
course in Conflict of Laws will be given by Professor Powell 
and the course in Municipal Corporations by Professor 
Howard Lee McBain of the Faculty of Political Science. 
Professor Munroe Smith will ofTer a new course in Juris- 
prudence to Third Year men and graduate law students and, 
as already indicated, one or more courses on Statute Law 
and the problems of legislation will be offered by Professor 
Parkinson. 

A fact worthy of note is the increasing demand from the 
best law ofitices in the city — and indeed from many offices out- 
side the state — for our graduates as clerks or ap- 

„ f prentices. These positions constitute an almost 

Graduates ^ 1 r • 1 

necessary first step toward professional success in 

practice in a great city and are eagerly sought for by the grad- 
uates of all law schools. As early as March during the past 
year every member of our Third Year class had had several 
opportunities for such employment at the conclusion of their 
law course, and students with a record of high scholarship were 
able practically to make their choice of the more desirable offices. 
It may well be doubted whether any other profession holds 
out such a definite promise of opportunity to its capable and 
diligent members. The work of seeing that these young men 
were suitably placed in good offices to which their capabilities 
were particularly adapted was greatly facilitated by the 
activities of the Clerkship Committee of the Law School 
Alumni Association and assisted by the University Employ- 
ment Bureau. 

Attention is directed to the interesting report of the Law 
Librarian in which he relates the progress of the Law Library 
in recent years. With the aid of the Law School Alumni 
Fund, the Carpentier Fund, and the William G. Low Fund 
our collection has been increased until it totals 63,846 vol- 



SCHOOLOFLAW 8l 

umes exclusive of books shelved in the general library re- 
lating to Constitutional and Administrative Law. 

The most important recent accession is the Brushe-Fox 
Collection consisting of about 5,000 volumes of early printed 
books relating to English Law, formed by the late H. K. 
Brushe-Fox, M.A., L.L.M., Fellow of St. Johns College, 
Cambridge. The collection includes many interesting and 
valuable early English law reports and treatises which will 
add greatly to the interest and practical value of our library. 
While its recent history, on the whole, denotes satisfactory 
progress, we have nevertheless been building on an inadequate 
foundation and there is still much to be done to bring our 
collection up to the standard of excellence which should pre- 
vail in a great University School of Law. Especially meager 
are the funds provided for the binding which is essential to 
the preservation of books and many of our valuable law books 
are suffering deterioration in consequence. 

It is worthy of note that the use of the law library is steadily 
increasing, the average use of books during the Winter and 
Spring terms exceeding 27,000 per month. There is also a 
large voluntary attendance upon the course of lectures and 
seminar on legal bibliography and use of law books offered by 
the Law Librarian. 

Grateful acknowledgment is made of the gift of the gradu- 
ating class which was appropriately donated in Liberty Bonds. 
The proceeds of these bonds are to be expended in the pur- 
chase of engravings of distinguished lawyers, which are to be 
added to the growing collection of portraits located in the 
several lecture rooms. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Harlan F. Stone, 

Dean 
June 30, igi7 



COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS 
AND SURGEONS 

REPORT OF THE DEAN 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 3O, I917 

To the President of the University, 
Sir: 

I have the honor to report on the work and development of 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons during the academic 
year ending June 30, 1917. 

During the year there were registered at the College a total 

of 524 students who may be classified in several distinct 

_ . . groups. There are the undergraduate medical 

Registration • i 1 1 • 

students, 492 m number, to be separated m 

four classes as follows: 

First Year Class 1 50 

Second Year Class 128 

Third Year Class 118 

Fourth Year Class 96 ~ 

Among those in the first and second years, fifty-eight under- 
graduates from the Junior and Senior classes of Columbia 
College who are taking the combined course are included. In 
addition, there were ninety-five students from the graduate 
school who were taking courses in the medical sciences as can- 
didates for higher academic degrees, and thirty-two special 
students who as medical graduates were also taking advanced 
courses in the laboratories of the school. 

The graduating class numbered ninety, of whom seventy-one, 
or seventy-eight per cent., had received a previous bachelor's 
degree. 

The noteworthy facts concerning special achievement in the 
school and the several changes in personnel are recorded under 
the separate departments. 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 83 

In the Department of Anatomy, Associate Professor Schulte 
resigned to accept a call to Creighton University as Professor 
of Anatomy. The vacancy was filled by the appoint- 
ment as Assistant Professor of Dr. Vera Danscha- 
koff, formerly professor in the Medical School for Women in 
Moscow, Russia. 

Assistant Professor Hopkins has resigned, and the vacancy 

in the Department of Bacteriology has been filled by the 

appointment of an instructor and not of a profes- „ . , 

_, 1-11 -11 t • 1 Bacteriology 

sor. Research m the department will result m the 

publication of a number of articles on the bacteriology of 

syphilis, of poliomyelitis, of septic diseases, and on the general 

problems of immunity. 

The Department of Biological Chemistry has continued the 
research it had begun on many phases of dentistry, and many 
contributions have been added to the current liter- 
ature of that branch of medicine. Assistant Pro- (-1!°°^^^ 
fessor Howe resigned at the end of the first term. 
No appointment has been made to fill the vacancy. 

The Department of Dermatology and Syphilology has car- 
ried on an extensive service in the Vanderbilt Clinic under the 

trying condition of lack of space which hampers ^ , 

, , r , ... X . r , . Dermatology 

every branch of that mstitution. In spite 01 this 

handicap the department has published some fifteen papers in 

current medical literature. 

The Department of Laryngology has benefited both in a 
scientific and in an educational way by the assignment to this 
College of a department devoted to this specialty 
in the wards of Bellevue Hospital. Of course the anZotology 
separation of the ward service from the dispensary 
in two institutions over two miles apart is far from ideal, but 
in spite of this drawback this department has been fortunate 
as compared with most of the other special services of the 
College, and the instruction of the students has been improved 
by the addition of this ward service to the teaching facilities of 
the College. 

The Department of Neurology has developed during the 
year its new research laboratory and has conducted a very 



84 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

large dispensary service at the Vanderbilt Clinic. The chief 
publication of the department will present the work done on 
poliomyelitis, during the epidemic of last year, which 
was made possible by the donation of a special 
fund for the purpose. A monograph on experimental and 
human poliomyelitis will soon present the results of that in- 
vestigation. Other publications have been made on the glan- 
dular nature of the pineal gland, on the vascularization of the 
central nervous system, and on normal skilled movement and 
its disturbances due to lesions involving the central nervous 
system. 

The advantages of the intimate alliance between this Col- 
lege and the Presbyterian Hospital have been further devel- 
oped by the appointment of Professor Tilney to the medical 
staff of the Hospital as Attending Neurologist. By this action 
the Hospital has secured the intimate care of its patients 
suffering from lesions of the nervous system by the specialists 
of the College, and the College has gained the valuable asset of 
a ward service in connection with the outdoor department in 
the Vanderbilt Clinic. The mutual benefit is greater than 
before, when Professor Tilney served the hospital only on the 
consultant staff. 

At the end of the academic year. Professor MacCallum re- 
signed his position to take the chair of Pathology and Bacte- 

^ , riology at Johns Hopkins University. No action 

Pathology , , . -* , , ^,,. r , • • 

lookmg toward the nlhng oi this important vacancy 

can be reported at this time. The vacancy has existed too 
short a time to permit of a careful consideration of the prob- 
lem to be solved. At the close of the year the department 
issued the fifteenth volume of reports, which included studies 
on the white blood cells, on nephritis of bacterial origin, on 
cholesterol metabolism, and on the ductless glands. 

The Department of Physiology has completed under the 
direction of Professor H. B. Williams the additional apparatus 

_, . , needed to complete the electrocardiographic out- 

Physiology r i • i i i i • ^ ^i 

nt which was begun a year ago by placing at the 

disposal of the profession the Columbia Galvanometer de- 
signed by Professor Williams in 191 6. The new apparatus 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 85 

includes an optic bench, a photographic recorder, a rotary 
tuning device, and an automatic arc lamp. Physiological re- 
search has been conducted by Professor Lee on fatigue, by 
Professor Burton-Opitz on the circulation, by Professor Pike 
on the internal ear, and by others on the heart and on the 
chemistry of the blood with reference to muscular action. 

Professor Swift resigned from the Department of Practice 
of Medicine at the close of the year to take charge of the 

Medical Clinic of Bellevue Hospital, which is ^ 

J ^ ^ 11 TT • -^ TT -11 1 Internal Medicine 

assigned to Cornell University. He will be- 
come Associate Professor of Medicine in that University. The 
vacancy created has been filled temporarily by the appoint- 
ment of Dr. W. W. Palmer. The publications of the depart- 
ment include studies on rheumatism, and on syphilis of the 
central nervous system, by Professor Swift, poliomyelitis by 
Dr. Draper, electrocardiography by Professor Hart, and articles 
presenting applications of chemistry, physiology, and biology 
to clinical medicine in the investigation of dyspnoea, acidaemia, 
oedema, and protein intoxication. 

Professor Longcope was invited last January to take charge 
for one week of the Medical Service at the Peter Bent Brigham 
Hospital of Harvard University. He reports that this oppor- 
tunity of acting as an exchange professor on the service of 
Professor Christian afforded an interesting and stimulating 
week, with an opportunity for close and concentrated study of 
methods of teaching and of hospital and departmental admin- 
istration in another institution. The adoption of the same 
custom at Columbia in the Department of Medicine would 
prove valuable to the Department of Practice of Medicine 
and, it is hoped, to the temporary visiting physician-in-chief, 
as well. Such a plan is endorsed by Professor Longcope with 
enthusiasm. 

It is my duty to record still further a resignation from an 
important chair. In March Professor Brewer handed in his 

resignation, to take effect June 30. He had been head „ 

. . . Surgery 

of the department for three years only, and his resig- 
nation at this time was fully contemplated by him at the time 
of his appointment. During this brief term, however, he did 



86 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

much to strengthen the department. He consolidated the 
alliances between the College and the various hospitals, es- 
pecially by furthering the reorganization of Bellevue Hospital 
through the appointment of Professor Darrach as Director of 
the First Surgical Division. Professor A. V.S. Lambert has been 
placed in charge of the department as Acting Professor and has 
been appointed Surgical Director at the Presbyterian Hospital. 

It is necessary to record also the resignation of Professor 
Virgil P. Gibney, the head of the orthopedic subdivision of the 
specialty of Surgery. Professor Gibney has been in 
r ope ic charge of the Department of Orthopedic Surgery 
for twenty-two years, and has filled the chair effi- 
ciently as an interesting and inspiring teacher. It has not been 
possible to fill the vacancy thus created up to the present time. 

The Department of Urology has been definitely united as a 
sub-department to the Department of Surgery. The vacancy 
at the head of this service has been filled by the ap- 
pointment of Professor J. Bentley Squier, who held the 
position of professor at the Post-Graduate Medical School in 
this city. It is a pleasure to record also that Professor Squier 
has been appointed on the Surgical Staff at the Presbyterian 
Hospital as Attending Urologist. In consequence of the 
adoption of the broad viewpoint of medical specialties by the 
hospital, which is evidenced by this appointment, the College 
will secure many of the advantages of a special ward service 
in this important branch of clinical surgery. The further ap- 
plication of this principle of assigning to active duty in the 
hospital the heads of departments of medical specialties would 
solve one of the important problems of medical education 
which confronts the College, and which must be solved when 
the rebuilding of the College and the Presbyterian Hospital on 
a common site becomes a practical undertaking. 

The dispensary service which belongs to the College in the 

Vanderbilt Clinic has shown a steady growth during the past 

three years, especially under the active 
Vanderbilt Clinic , , , . r ^l /^u • r t-w j. i 

leadership or the Chairs or Dermatology, 

Laryngology, and Neurology. This service has outgrown the 

present building, and no part of the College needs more the 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 87 

long-hoped-for development of new and larger buildings than 
does the Vanderbilt Clinic. 

The development of a new medical center for New York 
built around a new college and the new Presbyterian Hospital 
will supply no one improvement of greater immediate need 
than a larger plant for the Vanderbilt Clinic and a hospital for 
medical specialties, in which every clinical department of the 
dispensary service shall have its ward service in such close 
proximity that the two divisions may form an intimate organi- 
zation. The conditions prevailing several years ago when no 
service in the Clinic had its wards under the same professional 
control are now much improved, and the Department of Dis- 
eases of Children controls wards in Bellevue, Presbyterian, and 
the Babies' Hospitals; that of Gynecology has the Sloane Hos- 
pital; that of Laryngology and Otology has its service at 
Bellevue, and the recent appointments to appropriate and new 
positions in the Presbyterian Hospital will supply a few beds 
for the Departments of Neurology and Urology. But the 
separation in location will not permit a real, intimate, and ideal 
relationship. 

The small infirmary in the Clinic has met the need for the 
immediate after-care of those operative cases of minor surgery 
which require an anesthetic or twenty-four hours' rest in bed. 
During the year, 984 cases were cared for in the nine beds 
available for these purposes. In the spring the facilities of the 
Clinic were offered to and accepted by the military medical 
examiners who had in charge the selection of candidates for 
the officers' training camp at Plattsburg. More than 2,500 
men were given during the first two weeks of June the careful 
and thorough physical examination required of the applicants 
for that service. The examining rooms of the Clinic and the 
laboratories of the Department of Clinical Pathology were 
able to meet this emergency by being opened and in use for 
twelve hours a day, without serious interference with the 
routine work. 

The financial condition of the Clinic is sufficient to conduct 
its present activities. The extensive work done in the Depart- 
ment of Tuberculosis is provided for by gift from the treasurer, 



88 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Mr. F. W, Vanderbilt, by income from the tenements of the 
East River Homes Association, and by the self-supported De- 
partment of Social Service and Visiting Nurses, which is run 
by a committee of women known as the Vanderbilt Clinic 
Auxiliary. When the new development and enlargement 
which is hoped for is brought about, an increase in funds will 
be needed. 

A serious problem now confronts all the dispensary services 
in the city. I refer to the increasing difficulty of securing 
young medical men to serve, especially in institutions which, 
like the Vanderbilt Clinic, have no ward service connection. 
This question is particularly urgent in the branches of surgery. 
The acting Professor of Surgery in his report presents this 
question as follows: 

The College, together with all dispensaries in the city, must now com- 
pete with the great industrial and public service corporations in obtaining 
young men for dispensary positions. Formerly this competition did not 
exist, and the College could command the services of the best men just- 
completing their hospital internships, and for their services it was not com- 
pelled to offer any salaries, trusting to the experience so gained to supply 
sufficient compensation; but now with the introduction of Workmen's 
Compensation laws the large corporations have established modern dis- 
pensaries, equipped in every detail in the most elaborate manner, for the 
care of their employees. They also employ young surgeons to attend their 
dispensaries at certain times of the day, and give them salaries which are 
positively munificent as compared to those now offered by the College. 
It is not at all unusual for a young man to receive |i,200 a year for two or 
three hours, work a day, and some more experienced men receive salaries 
as high as $2,400. These men gain considerable experience, and are able 
to work under the most ideal surroundings with every modern facility and 
at the same time receive a living wage. 

It would seem that the College, to meet this competition, would have to 
either raise salaries or offer more facilities to attract the young men. The 
establishment of fellowships for post-graduate workers yielding $1,200 and 
$300 for supplies and apparatus is one of the most urgent needs of the 
department. This would attract the better class of men, and would provide 
the means of investigation and research which is so essential in developing 
an active, progressive department to become a force in the surgical thought 
of the day. 

The condition of the Library of Medical Literature at the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons has improved greatly dur- 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 89 

ing the past three years under the efficient management of 
Mr. Robert, the medical librarian. The school is still com- 
mitted to the system of departmental organization. 
This condition exists because the collecting of books 
in the school began as a result of individual effort on the par 
of each professor. The result has been the formation of five 
excellent collections: the Curtis Library in Physiology, the 
Janeway Library in Internal Medicine, the Library of the 
Alumni Association in Pathology and Bacteriology, the Li- 
braries of Anatomy and of Biological Chemistry. An excellent 
beginning also has been made in the Hartley Library in Surgery 
and the Library in Pharmacology. About fifteen years ago the 
College started a study collection of theses and books for the 
use of the students and opened a general reading-room. This 
student library has now outgrown its original purpose and is 
becoming a reference library of no mean proportion. Mr. 
Robert has developed a system of loaning books to the stu- 
dents during the daily periods when the library is closed which 
gives any one the opportunity for an evening's reading at 
home and which has increased the value of the library 
many fold. During the year, 6,721 books were loaned on this 
plan. 

The erection of the addition to the school building described 
below will free space near the students' library which will be 
turned over as additional stack room to the library during the 
coming year. 

The question of limitation of the number of students in a 
medical school has been solved in several ways. In most 
places where this has been necessary it has been 
done in an arbitrary manner. The authorities of s h I 

the school have tried to select the best of the appli- 
cants up to the limit set. In some schools the pruning-knife 
has been applied to the student body, and the lower portion of 
the class has been eliminated and the predetermined number 
of students allowed to advance to the completion of the course 
and their degrees. This elimination has been applied at times 
as late as the beginning of the third year of the course. The 
students eliminated under this procedure are compelled to go 



90 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

elsewhere to complete their education, not because they have 
failed to reach a satisfactory standard but because certain 
other students are adjudged better and of higher grade. It is 
not necessary to criticize the methods of procedure at this 
time, but it is important for Columbia to determine if this 
College shall limit the size of the student body in any arbitrary 
way, or if Columbia shall endeavor to build up a medical 
center on lines similar to those adopted in the universities of 
Europe, which are situated as is Columbia in a densely pop- 
ulated city. In the Universities of Paris or of Munich, for 
example, no limit is placed on the number of students, and so 
far as the clinical opportunities of New York are concerned, it 
might seem that a similar solution should be considered. Such 
a school development will presuppose an expenditure of money 
proportionate to the number of students who may gather to- 
gether in its halls. This means the securing of an income at 
least three times the size of the fees, paid by those students. 
This ratio (three to one) of the expense of medical education 
to the fees paid is based on a study of some eighty schools in 
the United States made and published a few years ago by the 
Council on Medical Education and corresponds very closely 
with the facts at this College. The plans to care for such an 
unlimited number of students must prepare to develop mul- 
tiple educational plants in the clinical branches which shall 
run parallel and cover the same ground side by side. There is 
in medical education a certain size in laboratory and in clinic, 
so far as the number of students taught is concerned, which, 
except within comparatively narrow limits, can be neither 
increased without loss of efficiency in its educational value nor 
diminished without financial loss as viewed from educational 
results. 

This educational unit is not over 200 students for a labo- 
ratory subject and somewhat less, say 120, for a clinical subject, 
such as internal medicine or general surgery. The solution of 
the question of caring for a large number of students in Euro- 
pean cities has been solved by the founding of separate insti- 
tutions both in scientific and in clinical subjects within a 
single university. In the past in American centers of popula- 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 9I 

tion of equal size, a considerably smaller number of students — 
1,800 in New York as compared with 3,000 in Paris or Berlin 
(these figures refer to ante helium days) — have been educated 
by the founding of separate schools under separate university 
control. 

If Columbia is to meet the educational demand which it 
seems probable will be made on the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons in the not-distant future, additional funds must be 
secured to build larger laboratories and to develop new clinical 
institutes either in existing hospitals or in new ones to be 
founded and erected. A development on lines similar to those 
by which European universities solved the same problem 
would seem to be the logical and only solution. 

The College will admit women students on the same basis 
as men beginning next September. This has been made pos- 
sible by the raising of a fund of $80,000 to build 
and equip an addition to the College building. It . ^ 
is estimated that the admission of women will in- 
crease the total number of students by more than ten per cent, 
of each class. The additional floor space will be devoted to 
increasing the teaching laboratory facilities in the medical 
science subjects of the first two years. The building of such 
an addition was necessary because of the increase in the en- 
rolment made probable by the admission of women. 

During the past year a reorganization of the ward services 

of Bellevue Hospital has been completed, and the trustees of 

that hospital have shown an appreciation of the 

advantages of medical education to a hospital in ^ ..v *• 

° . . *^ Institutions 

a degree never before exhibited. In the past 
Columbia has had an interest in one-fourth part of the hos- 
pital as a matter of courtesy and established custom. Now 
that interest has been made more real and more secure. 
The Trustees have given the University the right of nomina- 
tion to all medical and surgical appointments in the fourth 
part of the hospital and have abolished the old system of 
rotating service and placed each service under a single director. 
Under the rearrangement made, this College received services 
in internal medicine, in general surgery, in children's diseases. 



92 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

in tuberculosis, and in laryngology and otology. This action 
of the Bellevue trustees places about 300 beds at the command 
of the College for use of its students as clinical clerks. The 
services at the Presbyterian Hospital are still more intimately 
associated with the educational life of the College through the 
action of the alliance agreement. These two hospitals would 
furnish almost enough beds to make possible the requirement 
for all students of a fifth hospital year entirely under university 
control. This subject has been discussed a number of times, 
and it is necessary to point out here only the two chief advan- 
tages to be gained from such a lengthening of the course of 
study: An extension of the present system of clinical clerks 
into a full intern year, and the addition to the curriculum of 
needed hours for the medical specialties and laboratory courses. 
New York City seems destined to grow in size as a medical 
center and Columbia wnll get its share of that growth. Any 
considerable increase in the number of students above the 
present enrolment will require a larger number of hospital 
beds than can be furnished by the Columbia division of Bel- 
levue added to those which even the contemplated rebuilding 
of the Presbyterian Hospital will supply. The College is as- 
sociated with a number of hospitals in the manner which was 
common under the older methods of medical education. That 
is, some of the members of the rotating professional staffs of 
these hospitals hold clinical professorships in the College, 
which, therefore, has the possible opportunity of placing its 
students as clinical clerks in those hospitals during the por- 
tions of the year when its professors are on duty. Some of 
these connections are of long standing and at one time formed 
the entire clinical facilities of the College. They are still ex- 
tremely useful and efficient, especially in those hospitals 
which have been reorganized on the basis of a single director 
with assistants. But this service is enjoyed by the College as 
a matter of privilege alone, and no guarantees for the future 
can exist in such a loose relationship. If the College is to es- 
tablish a fifth year under its educational control, it must form 
further intimate alliances with some of these loosely associ- 
ated hospitals. Such a fifth year presupposes that the College 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 93 

controls not a clerkship, but an internship for each student of 
its graduating class. 

The condition of universal war in which this country has 
been forced to join has made already a very marked impression 
on this College and on medical education. Dur- 
ing the past three years the College has been , „^ 
represented for varying periods of time in several 
hospitals connected with the French Army. A number of the 
members of the surgical and other departments served in the 
hospitals which were supported in part by American philan- 
thropy at Jouilly, Sens, Ris Orangis, and at the American 
Ambulance in Paris. During the past two years there have 
been organized under the National Red Cross, a group of 
base hospital units. Seven of these were formed in this city in 
connection with as many hospitals. Ofificers of this college 
are enrolled in the base hospitals founded upon the services of 
the Bellevue, New York, Roosevelt, German, Mt. Sinai, and 
Presbyterian Hospitals. The last named is known as the Colum- 
bia University and Presbyterian Hospital Unit, and its person- 
nel is made up entirely of officers from the departments of the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons. This base hospital under 
the directorship of Professor Brewer is serving now in France 
with the English Army and the others expect mobilization 
orders at an early day. 

Since it was decided to raise a large army for service in 
Europe, practically the whole teaching staff has been eager to 
volunteer for appointment in the Medical Reserve Corps of 
the Army. It is becoming more difficult each week to hold 
a sufficient number, especially from among the younger in- 
structors, to their academic duties and to plan out a working 
basis on which the many educational courses at the college 
may be given in a satisfactory manner. There were on the 
roster of the College, including its hospital connections, at the 
beginning of the year just ended: 

Professors and Clinical Professors 57 

Associate and Assistant Professors 33 

Associates 30 

Instructors 113 

Assistants 28 



94 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Of these the following numbers have signified their intention 
to accept or have already accepted their commission as medi- 
cal officers in the Army: 

Professors and Clinical Professors 14 

Associate and Assistant Professors 9 

Associates 8 

Instructors 36 

Assistants 9 

The law creating a national army by universal conscription 
contains no expressed provision dealing with the question of 
the status of the student of medicine, under the selective 
draft. A situation exists similar to that in England three 
years ago. England had no law compelling military service, 
and England permitted practically all of her medical students 
to volunteer into the regular regimental service. Now after 
three years England finds no young medical graduates to fill 
the depleted ranks of her Medical Corps and has sent urgent 
advice to the United States not to repeat her blunder. The 
medical department of the Army has urged upon all the medi- 
cal schools the great desirability of keeping those schools full 
and in active session throughout the war. The principle of a 
selective draft would seem to imply the right of the executive 
to formulate regulations for its application. It is hoped that 
the needs of the army and the lesser needs of the navy for a 
continuous supply of young surgeons may be met by an ex- 
ecutive regulation which shall exempt all medical students from 
liability under the general draft. If the urgent request to 
keep the medical colleges running, made by the medical author- 
ities of the Army is not acceded to by the War Department, 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons, at least, will practically 
close. For the students as a whole are all able-bodied, health}-, 
unmarried men, full of patriotism and eager to do their best 
for their country. It was only by presenting to them in the 
strongest terms that their patriotic duty was to remain in the 
school and finish their education that they were dissuaded from 
volunteering as enlisted men in the various base hospitals 
which were mobilized in New York City this spring. 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 95 

The Army medical service requires one year's hospital train- 
ing before the graduate of a medical school is eligible for a 
commission in the Medical Corps. It was found, therefore, 
that the custom of all the large hospitals of New York to re- 
quire a two-year intern service left those institutions in the 
unfortunate position of possibly losing their higher grade house 
staff to the Army by volunteering. The War has compelled 
many of these hospitals to rearrange their system of intern 
appointments so that they will require only one year's service 
of each young physician. This will require the appointees for 
January next to be placed on duty in October and November, 
and new vacancies will occur next February and March. This 
is a real war emergency in New York City and in order to meet 
it the College began its next session for the Class of 191 8 one 
week after Commencement, and these students are following 
out the regular course of study through the summer and will 
graduate next February and be eligible at that time for hos- 
pital appointments. 

Whether this reduction of the intern service to one year 
will last after the war or not is an open question. It offers in 
the case of the hospitals allied to the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons a rare opportunity to inaugurate the fifth hospital 
year so often discussed and which has been mentioned above 
in this report. If the fifth year can be made a permanent 
feature of medical education at Columbia, the holder of the 
M.D. degree from this College will be immediately eligible for 
licensure in every state of the Union and for a commission in 
the Army or Nav^'. The change from a system of graduate 
interns having one-year service without resident physicians 
and surgeons, to one with such residents with undergraduate 
intern assistants would be for any hospital an easy and simple 
procedure, and would take place without a hitch of any kind. 
It seems self-evident that such a change would be greatly to 
the advantage of the hospital, as well. 

The members of the medical faculty who lived through the 
experience of the hospitals of New York in caring for the sick 
soldiers of the army during the Spanish-American War in 1898 
were easily persuaded by their colleague. Professor J. Bent- 



96 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

ley Squier, to endorse the proposal to build, equip, and run a 

hospital, which would serve as an emergency institution to care 

for any rush of cases which might be dumped on 

xiT "tt ' VI New York, or to handle the surplus of the local 
War Hospital . , „ , 

hospitals if they should be over-crowded by a 

sudden arrival of army cases. The University offered the use 
of a tract of land of some nineteen acres, situated on top of 
Gun Hill in Williamsbridge, Borough of the Bronx. The 
building fund was begun by the liberal donation of $175,000 
from Mr. Daniel G. Reid, and has been raised by friends of 
the project to a total of $281,000. A hospital was planned on 
the lines of a typical base hospital unit to contain 500 beds. 
Such a hospital is a pavilion hospital of separated buildings 
connected with the service buildings by covered corridors. As 
planned, the Columbia War Hospital consists of iron service 
buildings and operating pavilion and wooden ward and dormi- 
tory pavilions. The buildings were ordered to be of portable 
type, both iron and wood. The work was begun in the middle 
of May. A complete plant on these lines should be ready for 
the reception of patients by August. The committee who had 
this matter in charge discovered early in June that the medical 
department of the army was a very much better equipped 
organization than the same branch of the service twenty years 
ago. It was found that the War Department planned to con- 
trol the care and treatment of all its enlisted men during con- 
valescence from wounds and during illness, so that there was 
no special need for such a hospital under civilian management. 
But it also developed that the Army was anxious to possess 
in New York a large hospital for the care of such wounded as 
may be transferred from Europe and such invalided men as 
may arrive in New York from concentration camps and trans- 
ports. The necessity for the hospital proved to be very real, 
but the need for Columbia to run it was nil. The plant 
was, therefore, leased to the Government, and it will be 
known as General Hospital No. i, and be conducted by the 
Army as the chief distributing hospital center for the port of 
New York. 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 



97 



A list of the officers of the College who have been commis- 
sioned in the Medical Reserve Corps of the Army is annexed, 
as follows: 



George E. Brewer 
Warfield T. Longcope 
Hans Zinsser 
William Darrach 
Nathan E. Brill 
Ellsworth Eliot 
Frederick Kammerer 
Henry H. M. Lyle 
James A. Miller 
Alexander Lambert 
Charles H. Peck 
Eugene H. Pool 
John B. Walker 
J. Bentley Squier 

Homer F. Swift 
Wm. R. Williams 

Louis Casamajor 
J. Gardiner Hopkins 
Bernard S. Oppenheimer 
Alwin M. Pappenheimer 
Horatio B. Williams 
C. N. B. Camac 
David Bovaird 

Walter Bensel 
Edward M. Colie 
Karl Connell 
George Draper 
Robert T. Frank 
Frederic G. Goodridge 
William W. Herrick 
George M. Mackenzie 

George N. Acker 
Sidney R. Burnap 
Gerhard H. Cocks 
Edward C ussier 
Richard Derby 
Paul A. Dineen 
Ransom S. Hooker 
Henry James 
R. A. Kinsella 
Constantine J. MacGuire 
Alex. T. Martin 
Malcolm McBurney 



Professor 


Major 


C. U. & P. H. Unit 


Professor 


Major 


Surgeon General's Staff 


Professor 


Major 


Surgeon General's Staff 


Professor 


Major 


C. U. & P. H. Unit 


Professor 


Major 


Mt. Sinai Unit 


Professor 


Major 


M. O. R. C. 


Professor 


Major 


German Hospital Unit 


Professor 


Major 


M. O. R. C. 


Professor 


Major 


M. O. R. C. 


Professor 


Major 


Red Cross, France 


Professor 


Major 


Roosevelt Hospital Unit 


Professor 


Major 


New York Hospital Unit 


Professor 


Major 


M. O. R. C. 


Professor 


Major 


M. O. R. C. 


Assoc. Prof. 


Major 


C. U. & P. H. Unit 


Assoc. Prof. 


Captain 


M. O. R. C. 


Asst. Prof. 


Captain 


C. U. & p. H. Unit 


Asst. Prof. 


Major 


M. O. R. C. 


Asst. Prof. 


Major 


M. O. R. C. 


Asst. Prof. 


Captain 


C. U. & p. H. Unit 


Asst. Prof. 


Captain 


U. S. Signal Service 


Asst. Prof. 


Lieutenant 


M. O. R. C. 


Asst. Prof. 


Captain 


M. O. R. C. 


Associate 


Major 


M. O. R. C. 


Associate 


Major 


M. O. R. C. 


Associate 


Major 


M. O. R. C. 


Associate 


Captain 


M. O. R. C. 


Associate 


Major 


M. O. R. C. 


Associate 


Captain 


M. O. R. C. 


Associate 


Captain 


M. O. R. C. 


Associate 




U. S. Navy 


Instructor 


Lieutenant 


M. O. R. C. 


Instructor 


Captain 


M. O. R. C. 


Instructor 


Lieutenant 


C. U. & p. H. Unit 


Instructor 


Captain 


N. Y. Hospital Unit 


Instructor 


Major 


M. O. R. C. 


Instructor 


Lieutenant 


N. Y. Hospital Unit 


Instructor 


Lieutenant 


M. O. R. C. 


Instructor 


Captain 


Roosevelt Hospital Unit 


Instructor 


Lieutenant 


M. O. R. C. 


Instructor 


Lieutenant 


M. O. R. C. 


Instructor 


1st Lieut. 


Roosevelt Hospital Unit 


Instructor 


Lieutenant 


M. O. R. C. 



98 c o L I 

John A. McCreery 
C. A. McWilliams 
John P. Peters 
Edwin G. Ramsclell 
Wythe M. Rhett 
Henry A. Riley 
James I. Russell 
Martin DeF. Smith 
Thayer Smith 

F. B. St. John 
Alfred Stillman 
Frederick T. Van Beuren 
Arthur S. Vosburgh 
James R. Whiting 
Percy H. Williams 
Wm. C. White 

Harold Neuhof 
Wm. Barclay Parsons 
Wm. F. Cunningham 
Herbert N. Vermilye 

G. R. Manning 
H. C. Thacher 
R. T. Atkins 
R. Burlingham 

William B. Blanton 
James L. Cobb 
Roderick V. Grace 
Lefferts Hutton 
Kenneth McAlpin 
J. Howard Mueller 
Gouverneur M. Phelps 
Fenton Taylor 
Wm. C. Woolsey 



J M B I A 


UNIVERSITY 


Instructor 


Captain 


C. U. & P. H. Unit 


Instructor 


Captain 


Roosevelt Hospital Unit 


Instructor 


Captain 


C. U. & P. H. Unit 


Instructor 


Lieutenant 


M. O. R. C. 


Instructor 


Lieutenant 


M. O. R. C. 


Instructor 


Lieutenant 


N. G. S. N. Y. 


Instructor 


Major 


Roosevelt Hospital Unit 


Instructor 


Major 


3rd Ambulance Corps 


Instructor 


1st Lieut. 


M. 0. R. C. 


Instructor 


Captain 


C. U. & P. H. Unit 


Instructor 


Captain 


Roosevelt Hospital Unit 


Instructor 


Captain 


M. 0. R. C. 


Instructor 


Captain 


M. 0. R. C. 


Instructor 




U. S. Navy 


Instructor 


Lieutenant 


M. 0. R. C. 


Instructor 


ist Lieut. 


Roosevelt Hospital Unit 


Instructor 


Captain 


C. U. & P. H. Unit 


Instructor 


Lieutenant 


C. U. & P. H. Unit 


Instructor 


Lieutenant 


C. U. & P. H. Unit 


Instructor 


Lieutenant 


C. U. & P. H. Unit 


Instructor 


Captain 


M. 0. R. C. 


Instructor 


Lieutenant 


M. 0. R. C. 


Instructor 


Lieutenant 


M. 0. R. C. 


Instructor 




M. 0. R. C. 


Assistant 


Lieutenant 


M. 0. R. C. 


Assistant 


Lieutenant 


M. 0. R. C. 


Assistant 


Lieutenant 


C. U. & P. H. Unit 


Assistant 


Major 


N. G. S. N. Y. 


Assistant 


Lieutenant 


Aviation Corps 


Assistant 


Lieutenant 


C.U.&P.H.Unit (abroad) 


Assistant 


Captain 


Roosevelt Hospital Unit 


Assistant 


Lieutenant 


M. 0. R. C. 


Assistant 


Captain 


C. U. & P. H. Unit 



June JO, igi7 



Respectfully submitted, 
Samuel W. Lambert, 



Dean 



REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE GEORGE 
CROCKER SPECIAL RESEARCH FUND 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, I917 

To the President of the University, 

Sir: 

I have the honor to submit the fourth annual report from 
the George Crocker Special Research Fund. 

During the past year but little change has been made in 

the equipment of the Crocker Fund, with the exception that 

there has been installed a large and modern X-ray 

r •ii-i--° 11 11 Plant 

transformer, with which it is intended to study the 

biological action of the X-rays upon isolated tissues and 

tumors and to determine the lethal coefficients on tumor 

cells, as was done in this laboratory during the past two years 

for radium. 

Several modifications of, and additions to, the workrooms 
have been made, entirely by the employees of the institution, 
demonstrating the great convenience of the type of construc- 
tion adopted for the laboratory when it was first built. Only 
a few days are required to rearrange the partitions of one of 
the rooms or to build additional rooms when these arc neces- 
sary to accommodate more workers or to house special pieces 
of apparatus. 

There have been but few changes in the staff. Professor 
William H. Woglom has been advanced to associate professor 
and Dr. Robert T. Frank has been appointed asso- 
ciate in cancer research. The war, however, has 
seriously affected some of the work, Dr. Frank and Mr. Paul 
M. Giesy, who had been engaged in some very important ex- 
perimental researches, having been called into service, the 
former as a captain in the Medical Reserve Corps, the latter 
as a captain in the Ordnance Reserve Corps. Their departure 



lOO COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

has completely stopped the investigations which they were 
conducting. 

As in previous years, a number of commercial cancer cures 
have been tested and, as usual, no one of them showed any 
curative value, except in so far as they were 
„ capable of destroying w^th equal efficiency cancer 

tissue and the surrounding normal tissue by their 
caustic action. None of the cures which are administered by 
mouth or by subcutaneous injection has been shown to have 
any effect on tumor growth. 

In some experiments carried out by Dr. Richard Lewisohn, 
the alkaloid, emetine, which has been used as a cancer cure 
on human beings on the assumption that cancer is due to a 
protozoan parasite, was shown to be without effect on tumor 
growth, even when used in very large doses. 

The lines of research which were laid down at the opening 

of the laboratory have been continued in various directions. 

The study of the effects of radium on tissues has 

o , been continued, and a number of patients have 

Research . • r i 

been treated m order that satisfactory data might 

be obtained for a final estimation of the therapeutic capacity 
of this widely heralded substance. Nothing has been learned 
which in any way alters the opinion expressed in last year's 
report, that the chief value of radium lies in its palliative 
effect, and not in its capacity to replace in any way the sur- 
gical treatment of tumors. As a result of th^se studies. 
Dr. Frederick Prime has published a short paper on the ef- 
fects of radium on tissue growth in vitro. 

In connection with this work, also, Dr. Frank has carried 
out a clinical study on the palliative effects of radium in 
cases of inoperable carcinoma of the uterus, the results of 
which have been published. 

Dr. William B. Long, who has had large experience in the 
use of the X-ray, has treated a number of patients with re- 
current tumors; many of these cases have been referred to 
the Crocker Fund from St. Luke's Hospital. 

During the year. Dr. Frank and Mr. Giesy have con- 
tinued their studies on the tissue stimulation produced by 



CROCKER RESEARCH FUND lOI 

certain chemical extracts from the placenta, and have 
obtained interesting results; but, unfortunately, as stated 
above, this line of investigation has been abandoned for the 
present. 

Inasmuch as the phenomenon of spontaneous disappear- 
ance of tumors in animals seems to offer a clue which may 
ultimately lead to information as to the best method of thera- 
peutic attack on such tumors as do not disappear, a large 
amount of work has been done in studying the various im- 
mune reactions which render an animal resistant to the im- 
plantation of tumor tissue. In this line, Dr. F. D. Bullock 
and Dr. George L. Rohdenburg have published a histological 
study of heterologous tumor grafts, and have in press a paper 
on the relation of induced cancer immunity to tissue growth 
and regeneration. They have also reported on the effects of 
stimulation and depression of oxidative processes in the body 
on tumor growth. 

In addition to these investigators. Dr. Shigemitsu Itami is 
conducting certain experiments on immunity, which will soon 
be read}^ for publication. 

Dr. H. N. Stevenson has prepared a paper on the growth of 
human tumors in the chick embryo, and has also studied 
the alleged influence of the spleen upon tumor growth in the 
chick embryo, finding that no such influence can be dem- 
onstrated. In the same connection, Dr. Bullock and Dr. 
Rohdenburg have shown that splenectomy exerts no influ- 
ence upon immunity against transplanted tumors, and Dr. 
Dudley H. Morris has reported on the influence of the spleen 
upon the growth of transplanted tumors. 

Dr. Morris has also published the preliminary results of an 
attempt to produce tumors in animals by the injection of 
tumor filtrates, using a much larger series of animals than 
has heretofore been employed by other investigators in this 
field. The experiments are not yet in shape, however, for 
final publication. 

Professor Woglom has prepared studies on the fluctuations 
in sarcoma production in certain carcinomata of mice, on the 
significance of cartilage in carcinosarcoma of the mouse, on 



102 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

the question of virulence versus adaptation as influencing 
tumor growth, and on chorioepithelioma of the testis in man. 

Experiments in progress last year by Dr. Bullock and Dr. 
Rohdenburg on the induction of tumor formation by para- 
sites have been continued, as has their work on the general 
question of irritation as inducing tumor formation. 

A number of reports have been made by members of the 
staff on the occurrence of rare tumors of animals, and studies 
have been published on rare tumors in man. 

In all, twenty papers have been prepared during the 
year; some of these have been published, while others are 
in the printer's hands and will appear shortly in various 
journals. 

Some 3,000 additional tumor specimens have been added 
to the slide collection, which is rapidly becoming of very 
great scientific value. 

In April the annual meeting of the American Association 
for Cancer Research was held at the laboratory, and papers 
were then presented by several members of the 
- . . . stafif, including the Director, Professor Woglom, 

and Drs. Prime, Stevenson, Morris, and Frank. 
A demonstration of laboratory methods in cancer research 
was given to the visiting members of the American Medical 
Association in June, and in May the Society for Internal Medi- 
cine was entertained at the laboratory with an address by the 
Director on the cancer problem. 

During the year the Director has made addresses before 
the National Fraternal Congress, Medical Section, Cleveland 
(Ohio); the Cleveland (Ohio) Academy of Medicine; the 
Medical Society of the County of New York; the American 
Gynecological Society; and the Albany Medical College. By 
invitation, he also gave the annual address of the Portland 
(Oregon) Academy of Medicine, and spoke on the cancer 
problem before the Tacoma (Washington) Medical Society, 
and the Columbia Alumni Association of San Francisco. Pro- 
fessor Woglom has spoken before the Westchester County 
Medical Society. Several members of the staff have presented 
papers before the New York Pathological Society. 



CROCKER RESEARCH FUND IO3 

As in previous years the Crocker Fund has supplied animals 
bearing transplanted tumors of standard strains to a number 
of laboratories and workers, among them the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons; the Cornell University Medical 
College; the Rockefeller Institute; the Montefiore Home; 
the Albany Medical College; the Bender Hygienic Labora- 
tory, Albany; Johns Hopkins University Medical School; 
Dr. Howard Kelly, Baltimore; the Otho S. A. Sprague Me- 
morial Institute, University of Chicago; and the laboratory of 
Parke Davis and Company, Detroit. 

During a part of the year, Professor Woglom has served as 
acting editor of the Journal of Cancer Research. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Francis Carter Wood, 

Director 

June 30, igiy 



SCHOOLS OF MINES, ENGINEERING, AND 
CHEMISTRY 

REPORT OF THE DEAN 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, I917 

To the President of the University, 
Sir: 

I have the honor to present the annual report of the Schools 
of Mines, Engineering, and Chemistry for the academic year 
ending June 30, 1917. 

In this report on the Schools of Mines, Engineering, and 
Chemistry for the academic year 1916-1917 it is fitting to note 
that the graduating class was the largest of 
the fifty classes that have been graduated since 
the foundation of the School of Mines. The degree of Engineer 
in one of the several branches was conferred upon one hundred 
and forty-four men, the degree of Chemist on one, and the 
degree of Master of Science on twenty-five, seventeen of these 
latter being naval lieutenants detailed to post-graduate study. 

It will probably not be another half century before another 
class as large will be graduated, but it will certainly be a num- 
ber of years, for the graduation of this class of 

ange o marks the completion of the withdrawal of 

New Course ^' . . , 

Completed Columbia University from the field of the four- 

year engineering course founded on only high 
school preparation. Our attention now turns fully to the new 
program of three-year courses in engineering, based on admis- 
sion requirements of a liberal college preparation, with no dis- 
paragement of that older and at present standard course, but 
rather with confidence that past achievements justify and re- 
quire the forward-looking program. 

As has been set forth before, in former annual reports and 
elsewhere, it is not at all a new theory for training men to be- 
come engineers that is being worked out here. It is a method 



MINES, ENGINEERING, AND CHEMISTRY IO5 

of dealing with a fact. That fact, on which our program is 
based, is that in increasing number the best informed students, 
. and the sons of the best informed parents, have been going to 
college for two or more years preparatory to taking up the en- 
gineering course they have in view. They do this for two rea- 
sons: first, because they reason that the college preparation 
will make them men of wider interest and sympathy than the 
technical course alone, and, second, because this judgment is 
supported by the many examples of engineers with that train- 
ing who have achieved the truest success. That the standard 
four-year course has served well and will continue to serve the 
majority of engineering students of the country is not a matter 
of question. 

Very naturally that portion of the public which is interested 
is not yet entirely informed as to the significance of our present 
plan of engineering training at Columbia. Members of the 
University still have frequently to correct the impression, on 
the one hand, that we have here a six-year course in engineer- 
ing, and, on the other hand, that we have a post-graduate 
course for engineering graduates. The latter class of men we 
do have, and they are becoming a factor of increasing impor- 
tance, but largely for special advanced courses and research. 
They are usually candidates for a Master's degree. Our main 
work is with the courses of three-year length leading to the 
engineering degrees in the several branches, requiring for en- 
trance only such college training as can by reasonable foresight 
be got in any good college. 

On February 20, Dean Frederick A. Goetze, who nine 

months earlier had taken on the duties of the Treasurership of 

the University, was permitted to give up the 

office of Dean in order that he might give his ^. tt 

11 • 11 .,.,.. Gives Up 

whole attention to the heavy responsibilities Office 

resting on him as Treasurer. Mr. Goetze had 
been Dean for just ten years. The decade of his deanship is 
characterized primarily as a decade of high standards of con- 
duct and scholarship among the students of the Schools of 
Mines, Engineering, and Chemistry. As an indication of the 
magnitude of the tasks Dean Goetze had to accomplish, it may 



I06 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

be noted that within this period many retirements and deaths 
made necessary the reorganization of ten out of the twelve de- 
partments that are largely engaged in the work of these 
schools. The adoption by the students of the honor system for 
examinations ; the development of laboratories and equipment, 
most notably in Chemistry; the development of the chemical 
engineering department; the institution here of post-graduate 
courses for naval officers; and, finally, study of the future of 
engineering education which led to the adoption of the present 
three-year course, are a few of the features of his deanship that 
bear testimony to the place of high importance it will take in 
the history of these schools of the University. 

Upon the withdrawal of Dean Goetze the undersigned was 

appointed acting dean, pending the appointment of a new 

Dean, and commissioned particularly to study 

. ? . . with the Faculty certain problems of instruc- 

Appointed . . 

tion, of arrangements of the curriculum, and of 
the further encouragement of research. Professor R. E. Mayer, 
as Secretary of the Committee on Instruction and of the 
Faculty, continues as the valuable coadjutor of the dean, par- 
ticularly in handling all business of the office relating directly 
to students. 

Almost immediately thereafter it became certain that the 
country would enter the war. It is hardly necessary to record 
that the problems of instruction with which we have been most 
occupied are those connected with the war. 

By the time of the declaration of war all the naval lieuten- 
ants that had been detailed here for post-graduate work in 
mechanical and electrical engineering had been 

c- ^ . ordered to active duty. Later the faculty 

bntenng •' •' 

War Service voted to award each one of these officers the 

degree of Master of Science, for which he was 
a candidate, on the basis of his work up to the time he was 
ordered to active duty. This wholly appropriate action was a 
source of sincere gratification to these officers of the navy, be- 
cause the advancement in rank and responsibility, which will 
come to them in the war, will almost certainly annul the pos- 
sibility of their return to complete the remainder of the year's 



MINES, ENGINEERING, AND CHEMISTRY IO7 

work. These men are most appreciative of the opportunity to 
do this post-graduate work, and value highly the university 
degree. 

The other students, especially in the graduating class, were 
rapidly drawn away in groups or singly to take part in the 
preparation for war. Most of these went at once into some 
branch of the service in which their technical training would be 
put to use. A student in good standing in any one of his 
courses as tested by examination or otherwise at the date of his 
leaving to enter the public service was credited as for the com- 
pletion of the course. Along with the departure thus of many 
students there was, in spite of the general restlessness, an in- 
creased seriousness on the part of those who were not called 
away, and the year's work was completed in good order up to 
the last duty. 

Members of the Faculty, as has been general in the engineer- 
ing schools of the country, have been very active in measures of 
war preparation. The account of their pro- 
fessional activities in the public service is al- . *. 

'^ . Instruction 

ready too long to be set down here, and is 
rapidly growing. In the field of instruction the establishment, 
in March, of a course of training for students preparing to enter 
the Naval Reserve Force, under general arrangements of the 
University Committee on Public Service, but more directly 
under members of the departments of mechanical engineering, 
was of special importance to the Schools of Mines, Engineering, 
and Chemistry. It provided an excellent preliminary training 
in nautical matters for many of our students, and led directly 
to the establishment at Columbia of the Naval Officers In- 
struction School for petty officers and enlisted men to a number 
as high as three hundred at a time. It continues pending the 
completion of a large Naval Reserve Force base at Pelham. 
This school was officered largely by members of our depart- 
ments of mechanical and electrical engineering, who were com- 
missioned in the Naval Reserve Force, with Professor Lucke, 
head of the mechanical engineering department, as a civilian 
volunteer in charge of the gas engine instruction, and Professor 
Moss as Lieutenant directing the instruction in navigation. 



I08 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

The war puts many problems before us. Members of our 

instructing staff are being called to important duties under the 

government, one-third of our students are in 

„, the service of the government and will not re- 

War on -..,,*'. c ^ • . . , 

Attendance turn. It IS mdicative of their spirit that the 

others will all return, and not one will yield to 
the temptation of attractive salaries that are open to them. 
Our counsel to students who are debating whether to keep on 
in school or to go into the army or navy has been that if the 
army or navy indicates by the offer of a commission that a stu- 
dent is needed without further training, he should by all means 
accept; that otherwise the highest officers of the government 
have said that he should continue his work in the engineering 
school. Voluntary enlistment and the draft will deplete the 
entering class, and through the coming year the selective draft 
will take many away, unless the War Department finds it nec- 
essary to keep engineering students in school. It appears that 
losses from students and Faculty will about balance in such 
manner that the standards of instruction will not be lowered. 
The plans for research laboratories which a committee of the 
Faculty had developed with foresight and keen appreciation of 
the probable development of applied science, 

, , , . have not been pushed for the past few months, 

Laboratories ^ ^ 

not so much because we are at war as because 
we are at the rather unorganized beginning of a war. It is by 
no means unlikely that before the war is over the schools of 
engineering of the country will come to occupy a place of 
much higher relative importance than in time of peace, as cen- 
ters not only of the training of men, but also of engineering 
work and investigation. That the War and Navy Departments 
will have to make suitable provision to have the supply of en- 
gineering graduates continue is evident, though at present the 
provision made is only to advise all engineering students to 
continue in school until they are drafted. That they are avail- 
ing themselves largely of the assistance of the faculties of engi- 
neering schools, both in professional work and in the conduct 
of special training schools, is also very evident. That the new 
conditions that have to be met, as to products to be manufac- 



MINES, ENGINEERING, AND CHEMISTRY IO9 

tured and materials to be used, which have already quickened 
enterprise and inquiry among manufacturers, will mean an 
unusual opportunity for service in the research laboratories of 
engineering schools is none the less apparent. This is well in- 
dicated by the calls made upon our departments for work 
which, if done, would require larger provision for laboratories 
and research staff than we have yet made. 

Within the year the two senior members of the department 
of chemical engineering were offered positions of such impor- 
tance in chemical manufacturing that the 

University was quite unable to retain them. ^ . 

■' ^ . t-ngineering 

Their work was taken up and ably carried out Department 

by Assistant Professor D. D. Jackson, trans- 
ferred in February from sanitary engineering to chemical engi- 
neering, and by Dr. J. E. Teeple, a well-known consulting 
chemist of New York City. Dr. L. H. Baekeland has now be- 
come connected with the department in a direct advisory ca- 
pacity, and further organization is proceeding to the end that 
this department may advance the high position it occupies. 
Just now the number of students entering the chemical engi- 
neering course is much in excess of those entering any of the 
other branches of engineering. 

In March his colleagues and students had the pleasure of 
welcoming back Professor James F. Kemp, head of the de- 
partment of geology, whose absence for a year 

and a half on account of ill-health had left ,^ 

Kemp 

vacant so large a place in the consciousness of the 
University. Professor Kemp was able to carry on his work for 
some time, but asked and was granted retirement at the end of 
the academic year, in order that he might more freely attend to 
his health. It is a pleasure to be able to state that he is in such 
good health that he is actively at work as a geologist in partner- 
ship with a firm of Columbia graduates in Oklahoma, where the 
climate will for the present be of advantage to him. 

Respectfully submitted, 

George B. Pegram, 
June 30,1917 Acting Dean 



FACULTIES OF POLITICAL SCIENCE, 
PHILOSOPHY, AND PURE SCIENCE 

REPORT OF THE DEAN 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, I917 

To the President of the University, 
Sir: 

As Dean of the Faculties of Political Science, Philosophy, and 
Pure Science, I have the honor to submit the following report 
for the academic year ending June 30, 191 7: 

The figures for registration and for the number of degrees 

conferred under these faculties, as exhibited in the tables of the 

„ . . Report of the Registrar, show no significant 

Registration . . , , - , t 1 1 1 • 

variation from those 01 last year. 1 should point 

out, however, that these figures do not indicate the extent of 
graduate work in the University, nor the entire responsibility 
of these faculties for the conduct of this work. Administrative 
changes in the University during the past two years have 
brought about a new classification of graduate students with- 
out a reduction either in the number of these students, or in 
the demand for advanced instruction and research. About 
half the number of students formerly classified under these 
faculties have been transferred to other faculties or set apart as 
unclassified students in the University under the general direc- 
tion of the University Committee on Admissions. Conse- 
quently, there remain under the jurisdiction of these faculties 
only those students who are, presumably, candidates for the 
degrees which are conferred on the recommendation of these 
faculties exclusively. These administrative changes were 
made for the purpose of encouraging advanced instruction and 
research in the professional faculties of the University, and of 
charging the Faculties of Political Science, Philosophy, and 
Pure Science with the care of candidates for a degree only. 
These purposes have already been partially fulfilled. Yet if 



GRADUATE FACULTIES III 

the reclassification of students is disregarded and the graduate 

work of the University is considered as a whole, it is apparent 

that this work has not changed perceptibly in character and 

that it still, in its scientific bearings, is independent of our 

classifications and our faculty and departmental divisions. 

This result is natural because science knows no metes nor 

bounds. I call attention to it, however, because there is a 

danger that administrative machinery, which 

1 r r £ cc J. Administrative 

IS made tor purposes oi economy ot eriort p . 

for administrators, may lead to a dissipation 
of intellectual energy and to unnecessary expenditures of 
money through the duplication of work by one faculty — and 
even by one department — ^which is already provided for by 
another. The statistical method, for instance, has become 
almost indispensable in all departments of research, yet there 
is at present in the University no unified and cooperative at- 
tempt to build up the science of statistics in a way that will ef- 
fectively support statistical work in all branches of knowledge. 
This science is left largely to the initiative and energy of indi- 
viduals whom our administrative machinery tends to keep 
apart rather than to bring together. There is, consequently, a 
danger of waste of effort and of money. There are many 
similar illustrations, linguistics, for instance, and geography in 
its modern economic and political character. 

And there is an illustration which I am beginning to think, 
is of even greater importance. I refer to the method of research 
generally. This method requires the mastery of an 
elaborate technique which varies naturally, and " „ , 

often considerably, with the particular science in 
which it is employed. Yet in many closely related sciences it is 
practically the same. Now this method, which is primarily a 
method of research, has become in recent years the predomi- 
nant method of instruction in a constantly increasing number of 
advanced courses. Indeed, for many minds advanced instruc- 
tion has come to mean almost exclusively the substitution of 
the method of research for the dogmatic method, even in cases 
where the knowledge concerned is not a matter of dispute. It 
is obvious that, for the sound advancement of science, even 



112 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

advanced students must be repeatedly forced to acquire by the 
methods of discovery the estabHshed knowledge they could 
acquire by reading a book, but this necessity does not warrant 
the practice which would abolish dogmatic instruction alto- 
gether. The method of research is the costliest of methods 
both in time and money. It should be used with discrimina- 
tion. I fear it is not so used when in so many courses, as ap- 
pears to me to be now the rule, students are forced to employ 
it to acquire the knowledge which they could otherwise acquire 
in a fraction of the time and with a fraction of the expense. The 
indiscriminate use of this method has been, I believe, one of the 
largest factors in prolonging the time which students must 
spend in the University if they are to secure the professional 
and non-professional degrees which depend on the prior attain- 
ment of a college education in whole or in part. It has been, 
undoubtedly, the greatest factor in causing the sums expended 
for advanced instruction to mount to figures undreamed of 
twenty-five years ago. How far my fears and suspicions are 
correct, I am uncertain, but I am convinced that the whole 
subject is one which should be studied as a University problem 
and not left to the several faculties and departments acting 
independently. 

What is true of such illustrations taken by themselves seems 
to me to be true of the scientific work of the University gener- 
ally. Although for purposes of adminis- 
Scientific Work tration this work must be divided among 

cVntaUrConsidered bodies which can effectively handle it, for 
the purpose of advancing science its unity 
and entirety should not be neglected. As Francis Bacon once 
said : "Generally let this be a rule, that all partitions of knowl- 
edge be accepted rather for lines and veins than for sections 
and separations; and that the continuance and entireness of 
knowledge be preserved. For the contrary hereof hath made 
particular sciences to become barren, shallow, and erroneous, 
while they have not been nourished and maintained from the 
common fountain." In order that the University may work 
enlightened by such a vision, it is important that the deans of 
the several faculties and the directors of the several adminis- 



GRADUATE FACULTIES II3 

trative boards should be brought together to study the prob- 
lem of university education, in view both of the public demand 
and of the advancement of knowledge. This is no easy task, 
but it is a necessary one if we are to supplement administrative 
efficiency with educational success. Too many of us are in 
danger of neglecting the latter in our desire to be eminent in 
the former. 

In my report for last year I called attention to the fact that 
the degree of Master of Arts as then administered b}^ these 
faculties represented in effect a fifth year o^ q., p, 
college work, and suggested the advisability Maste/of Arts 
either of combining the work leading to the 
degree more closely with the college or of changing its character 
and making it auxiliar\^ to research. The question thus raised 
was finally disposed of at the December meeting of the Uni- 
versity Council. Concurring in action previously taken by 
these faculties, the Council then authorized a radical change in 
the requirements for the degree. The change followed the 
principles of the new regulations for the degree of Doctor of 
Philosophy. The residence requirement was distinguished 
from the scholarship requirement and definitely defined. The 
scholarship requirement was left to the several departments to 
be defined in accordance with their peculiar needs and in terms 
of subject matter, rather than in terms of courses to be com- 
pleted. With proper administration the degree should in the 
future represent a grade of work distinctly of the graduate type. 

With this change in the requirements for the degree of 
Master of Arts, the administrative reform of the degree regu- 
lations proposed four years ago has been 

, 1 , , 1 , • '-n^ • r 1 Comment on 

brought to completion. 1 his reform has ^ 1 t d R f 

been guided by the general principle that 
graduate work should represent, not prolonged education, but 
the exercise of intellectual initiative and the attainment of 
independent scholarship. A result like this cannot be reached 
so long as students do not have absolutely free election of the 
courses they wish to attend and are not left to their own re- 
sponsibility in regard to the amount and character of the work 
they care to do in connection with these courses. Nor can it 



114 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

be reached so long as the scholarship requirements for degrees 
are defined in terms of the accumulation of credits for courses 
of instruction. In other words, and stated in terms of the in- 
tellectual atmosphere, these faculties should create, these 
faculties should not be engaged in teaching those whose edu- 
cation is deficient, but in presenting to mature minds for their 
guidance and stimulation the present state of knowledge in 
the subjects with which these faculties deal and the outstand- 
ing problems on which scientific work in these subjects is en- 
gaged. So far as scholarship requirements for a degree are 
concerned, these faculties ought not to consume their time in 
trying to bring a normal percentage of the students under them 
to a proficiency sufficient to pass routine examinations in 
courses, or to perform routine tasks of study and investigation, 
but they should exact of every candidate evidence that he has 
attained independent scholarship on his subject, such as 
scholars generally will recognize, and that he has accomplished 
by his own energy a piece of work which reflects the attain- 
ment of such scholarship. 

These considerations are elementary. My experience and 
observation have, however, led me to believe that they have 
been too much neglected in our American uni- 
Scholarly versities. As the number of graduate students 

has increased, the tendency of universities has 
been to multiply the number of courses offered in such a way 
that the different departments of knowledge might thereby be 
covered with greater detail, and to expect students to complete 
these courses in the same manner as an undergraduate is ex- 
pected to complete a course. This tendency has been eco- 
nomically expensive and intellectually debilitating. 

That it is intellectually debilitating, I have pointed out in 
previous reports. Here I will only repeat that to teach gradu- 
ate students, even in highly specialized courses, as under- 
graduate students are taught, may increase their knowledge, 
but it does not promote in them scholarly independence and 
originality. Experience is, I believe, unequivocal on this 
point. Furthermore, so to teach them consumes the time 
which instructors should be giving to research and produc- 



GRADUATE FACULTIES II5 

tivlty. In an atmosphere of such teaching students and in- 
structors ahke become slaves of routine and tend to lose both 
originality and enterprise. Wherever graduate students are 
not forced to acquire of themselves habits of intellectual inde- 
pendence and initiative, and wherever their instructors are 
forced to acquire habits of routine instruction, there no high 
degree of scholarly originality and productivity can exist. 

On the financial aspect of the matter I wish to comment 
more at length. Adequately to cover the field of any subject 
with highly specialized courses demands a large 
number of instructors and a large equipment. To . 

conduct these courses on the principle of class- 
room teaching requires a still larger number of instructors, for 
if the teaching is to be successful, the classes must be small. 
Now all this involves an expenditure which only a very large 
income can meet. Only in the rarest cases has this income 
been provided for from invested funds. Generally it has been 
provided for in large part from student fees, with the conse- 
quent result that the number of students has become an im- 
portant, and at times a determining, factor in controlling the 
development and character of the work in our universities. 

It is not altogether to be regretted that the number of stu- 
dents has had this effect. For, obviously, the expansion of 
universities is in a measure justified by what society is willing 
to pay for it. Yet it is equally obvious that the development 
of a university which is a matter of scientific cooperation and 
involves generations rather than immediate numbers, is seri- 
ously imperiled if it is in a determining degree controlled by 
an income which represents no permanent endowment. For a 
university which has expanded on the basis of such an income 
cannot readily retrench when that income falls off. Just now 
many of our institutions are facing a financial crisis due to the 
probable loss of students caused by the war. But a loss of 
students may be incident to a change in university policy also 
and to general causes which affect the desires of society from 
time to time. It is incident also to the increase in the number 
of universities in the country. This is markedly affecting the 
distribution of students, so that the largest universities can no 



1 16 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

longer expect the percentage of increase in numbers which has 
attended their growth hitherto. 

I feel that the financial situation thus created deserves care- 
ful attention. When from time to time the proposal has been 
made to retrench and economize, the answer has invariably 
been that retrenchment and further economy are not possible, 
that the work is now being done at a minimum of expenditure 
and b}' underpaid instructors. This answer is correct if the 
work of the University is to proceed along the lines hitherto 
followed. In our own case, there is hardly a department of in- 
struction which is not under-manned and under-equipped, if it 
is to make in its oftering to students the showing of courses and 
laboratory work which the demands of recent University ex- 
pansion indicates that it should make. Retrenchment and 
economy without loss of effectiveness are possible only with a 
changed attitude toward university education. 

It would be presumptuous even to suggest that the ad- 
ministrative reforms which have now been completed are a 
potent remedy for the mischiefs enumerated. They do, how- 
ever, provide the machinery for a real educational reform. 
Simply by divorcing the scholarship requirement for a degree, 
which requirement means mastery of a subject, from the resi- 
dence requirement which means attendance on courses, the 
way is open to abandon in graduate work the methods of under- 
graduate teaching. Departments are freed from the necessity 
of trying to cover the ground of their subjects by highly spe- 
cialized courses. They are in a position to force students to 
perfect themselves independently in many lines of work in 
which they have hitherto instructed them, for it is clear that 
the knowledge which the instruction aimed to impart is readily 
accessible to mature minds without the aid of a teacher. By 
proper examinations and tests, departments can discover the 
attainments of students in such lines in a fraction of the time 
which has been spent in teaching them. The work of depart- 
ments can be directed to the promotion of individual research 
and to the offering of courses which are distinctive for their sys- 
tematic character or for the individual ability and attainments 
of the instructors offering them. Such an educational reform 



GRADUATE FACULTIES II7 

is hardly possible when the residence and scholarship require- 
ments are defined together and on the same principle. As I 
have repeatedly pointed out, when these two requirements co- 
incide, students are restricted in their election of courses to 
those which carry credit for scholarship, and departments are 
forced to provide such courses and to see that the students 
electing them are adequately taught. The results are the mul- 
tiplication of courses, routine instruction, passing grades, and 
slavery to undergraduate methods for both instructors and 
students. 

Under the revised requirements, all the courses offered by 
these faculties — and, indeed under proper restrictions, the 
entire offering of the University — can be thrown 

open to the free election of students so far as the , ^ 
^ , , . . of Courses 

satisfaction of the residence requirement is con- 
cerned. Such an offering would force students to exercise in- 
dependent judgment in the election of courses instead of rely- 
ing on degree regulations, or on the advice of instructors 
framed in accordance with such regulations, or on the hitherto 
controlling consideration whether passing grades in the courses 
elected will satisfy the scholarship requirement. Courses 
which formerly they often desired to pursue, but rarely did 
pursue on account of the fact that these courses were excluded 
from their accepted program, may now be elected by them. 
In recent years it has been rare for a student of letters to hear 
our scientists or for a student of science to hear our men of 
letters. The regulations frowned upon any such show of liber- 
ality, and the enforcement of the regulations made it difficult 
and often prohibitive. Yet the University, by common con- 
sent, should be a place for the exercise of just such liberality. 
A place like that it may now become in fact as well as in theory, 
with the result that the University can adequately serve a 
growing constituency without being forced at the same time 
to provide a corresponding increase in the number of courses 
offered. For with the proper arrangement of courses under the 
new plan the capacity of the University is measured, not by the 
number of instructors or by the number of courses, but by the 
space it can command. What the University has to say to 



Il8 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

its public can be said to hundreds as well as to tens. What it 
requires that candidates for a degree should do, is, so far as 
graduate students are concerned, mainly a matter of providing 
the room, the materials, and the opportunity for them to do it 
on their own responsibility. 

Since the scholarship requirement for a degree is now de- 
fined independent of the residence requirement, the former 
need no longer be defined in terms of 
Residence Requirements passing grades in courses. It may, in- 
and Scholarship ,11 1 r- 1 1 • r 1 i- 

Reau'rements deed, be so denned — exclusive ot the dis- 

sertation for the degree of Doctor of 
Philosophy and its defense — if any department so recommends 
and the recommendation is approved by the faculty. Depart- 
ments, however, have already indicated that it is not their 
intention to define it in this way exclusively. In some cases 
specific courses, or a definite number of courses, have been pre- 
scribed, but the prescription falls short of the full number re- 
quired for residence and is usually supplemented with the 
demand for the mastery of fields of knowledge gained inde- 
pendently. In my opinion, this demand should become con- 
trolling. We have been so accustomed to the system of course 
grades and credits in graduate work that any radical departure 
from it requires time for adjustment. It is one thing to pass 
a student in a course pursued for a session, and it is a radically 
different thing to test his intellectual independence in a subject 
and his mastery of it. To work out adequate tests of this 
character should now be the undertaking of departments. 
When it is done, I am confident that instructors will find that 
they have then secured that coveted time for research and pro- 
ductivity of which the labor of conscientious teaching has 
hitherto robbed them; and students, for their part, will come 
to realize that mature and independent scholarship is required 
of them and not an addition of classroom credits. 

Thus it is that the administrative reforms now completed 
provide the machinery for a change in policy which should af- 
ford a real check on expenditure and at the same time raise the 
standard of graduate work. Whether this result will follow is 
not a matter of new regulations, but solely a matter of steady 



GRADUATE FACULTIES II9 

cooperative and constructive work. I have no illusions about 
the difficulty of attaining it, but the hearty cooperation which 
has marked the deliberations of the faculties hitherto is the 
best assurance that progress will be made. 

During my leave of absence from the University for the 
Spring Session, Professor Seligman acted as Dean of these 
faculties. Besides attending to the routine work of the office, 
he carried sensibly forward the plans of the Joint Committee 
on Instruction for securing more satisfactory arrangements 
with our affiliated institutions. He was made chairman of the 
Committee of Nine, appointed by the University Council to 
cooperate with a committee of the Trustees to inquire into the 
conditions of education and administration in the University. 
To the work of this committee he gave unreservedly his time 
and interest. I wish to express the thanks of the faculties for 
his services and my own high appreciation of them. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Frederick J. E. Woodbridge, 

Dean 
June 30, igii 



SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 
REPORT OF THE ACTING DIRECTOR 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, I917 

To the President of the Ufiiversity, 

Sir: 

As Acting Director of the School of Architecture, I have the 
honor to submit the following report for the academic year 
ending June 30, 191 7: 

There were regularly registered in the School during the 
year 38 candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Architecture, 
41 candidates for the Professional Certificate in 
Architecture, and 2 candidates for the new degree 
of Master of Science, a total registration of 81. In addition to 
these there were 16 students taking the combined course who 
were primarily registered in Columbia College. Attention 
should again be called to the fact that the School no longer 
receives special or non-matriculated students, who were for- 
merly admitted to the courses of instruction and included in 
the statistics of attendance. These students now attend the 
evening courses in Extension Teaching where the registration 
for the Winter Session was 114 and for the Spring Session 90, 
a total continuous registration for the year of 102. 

The number of students graduated with the degree of 
Bachelor of Architecture was 19, with the Professional Cer- 
tificate 8, with the degree of Master of Science 2, a total of 29, 
the largest number ever graduated in one year from the School. 

The only important changes in the curriculum during the 

year were the restoration of the courses in the history of archi- 

^ . , tecture to their former status of three two-hour 

Curriculum . . , , . , 

courses contmumg through successive years; and 

the formulation and incorporation of a correlated course of 

study for the newly constituted graduate degree of Master of 



SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 121 

Science, arranged under one or more of the general groups of 
Design, Architectural Engineering, and Architectural History. 

The only change made in the staff of the School during the 
year was the appointment of Mr. George M. Allen as Instructor 
in Graphics, in succession to Professor Frank Demp- 
ster Sherman who died on September 19, 1916. The 
death of Professor Sherman was a great personal loss to the 
School. Provision was immediately made for the proper con- 
tinuation of the instruction in the subject which he taught, 
but no one will readily be found to fill the place that he occu- 
pied in the hearts of his colleagues or to enact the part that he 
played in the life of the students of the School. His memory 
is one of long and faithful service. He was a member of the 
very first class graduated from the School, with which he then 
for the succeeding twenty-nine years was connected as in- 
structor and professor. He was a man of wide and distin- 
guished accomplishment outside and beyond the work of the 
School, but the history of his life is more intimately the history 
of the School which he did so much to strengthen and develop. 

The Committee of Visitors, appointed by the Trustees on 
the nomination of the Alumni Association of the School, the 
New York Chapter of the American Institute of 
Architects, and of the Society of Beaux Arts Archi- 
tects, each of which is represented by three members, continued 
during the year its active participation in the judgments of the 
School problems in Design. As was intended, this arrange- 
ment has largely contributed to bring the students of the 
School into closer relationship with the great body of practising 
architects of the City, and to give them, as a consequence, an 
active sense of contact with the actual conditions of their 
chosen profession beyond its academic aspects as a subject of 
instruction in the School. 

It is a matter of satisfaction to repeat, what was stated in 
my previous report, that the new conditions at hand in the 
School have had a gratifying effect upon 
the student body. Beyond the fact that the Student Work 
large graduation already noticed indicates, in connec- 
tion with the relatively small enrolment and the increased 



122 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

educational requirements, an improvement in the quality of 
the students who enter the School, there is direct evidence of 
a higher grade of accomplishment. There are on the records 
for the year, namely, but 84 session grades under 60, a per- 
centage phenomenally low and an unmistakable indication of 
an increasing standard of performance. 

In the course of the year there were submitted in the School 
a total number of 511 problems of all kinds in Design. Of 
these, 385, or 75 per cent., were found of passing grade. 60, or 
II per cent., were commended. Of the total number of prob- 
lems submitted in Design, only 126, or 25 per cent., were 
considered under passing grade. In view of the fact that this 
work is entirely competitive this record may be considered an 
excellent one. 

In the major problems, 313 were submitted, and 287, or 92 
per cent., were of passing grade. Of those considered of pass- 
ing grade, 47, or 15 per cent., were especially commended. 

In the minor problems, or nine-hour sketches, 198 were sub- 
mitted, and 98, or 49 per cent., were of passing grade or higher. 
Of those considered of passing grade, 13, or 7 per cent., were 
especially commended. Owing to the nature of the subject, 
the work being uncriticised and the judgments exceptionally 
severe, the records in the minor problems are invariable low, 
so that if a definite rating were established on the basis of 
100 per cent, in the case of major problems, this basis ought to 
be not more than 50 per cent, in the case of minor problems. 

The School undertakes each year a certain number of prob- 
lems under the Society of Beaux Arts Architects. During 
1916-1917, 121 problems were sent to the Society for judg- 
ment. Of these, loi, or 84 per cent., were judged of passing 
grade, and 17, or 14 per cent., were especially commended. 
Of the minor problems, only 4 were sent to the Beaux Arts 
Society. Of these, 3 were considered of passing grade. Twelve 
medals were awarded by the Beaux Arts Society to students in 
the School of Architecture. 

In Extension Teaching, Beaux Arts work only, there were 
submitted 119 major problems. Of these, 95, or 80 per cent., 
were found of passing grade; 19, or 16 per cent., were espe- 



SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE I23 

cially commended. In the minor problems, 16 were submitted, 
and 5 were considered of passing grade. Of these, 3 were 
especially commended. Four medals were awarded to students 
in Extension Teaching by the Beaux Arts Society. The 
records in Design, in particular, should be regarded as in- 
dicative of an improving standard of performance, a stan- 
dard which may doubtless be considered higher and more 
permanently effective than at any time in the history of 
the School. 

The winner of the McKim Fellowship for 1917-1918 was a 
graduate of two years ago, a fact that will encourage other 
graduates to enter future competitions since they 
will not feel that because they are no longer , ^, ^^, 

students they are out of the running. The stan- 
dard set for the McKim Fellowship competition was very 
high. Four sets of drawings were submitted. Of these three 
were by graduates of previous years. 

The medal of the American Institute of Architects was again 
awarded, as was that of the Alumni Association of the School. 
As stated, twelve medals were won by our students in compe- 
titions of the Beaux Arts Society in the course of the year. 
In addition, students from the School were placed in other 
prize competitions as follows: Municipal Art Society Prize 
Competition, the Warren, Loeb, and Pupin Competitions, and 
the Spiering prizes, all under the Beaux Arts Institute of 
Design, and the Plym Fellowship at the University of Illinois. 
In the prize competitions offered by the Beaux Arts Society, 
students from the School submitted 12 drawings. Drawings 
from the School received second and third places in the Warren 
Prize Competition, and the School also had a drawing placed 
in the Pupin Prize Competition. Students registered in Ex- 
tension submitted 9 drawings in the same Beaux Arts Prize 
Competitions, and the Warren Prize was won by an Extension 
student, giving Columbia first, second, and third prizes in this 
one competition. 

Current work of the School was exhibited at the Annual 
Convention of the American Institute of Architects at Minne- 
apolis, at the Annual Exhibition of the Architectural Club at 



1 24 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Pittsburgh, and at the Annual Exhibition of the Architec- 
tural League in this City. 

One of the most interesting events of the year under review 
was the action of the School in the matter of the proposed 

St. Luke's Emergency Hospital. When the project 
ospi a ^£ establishing such a hospital was first made known, 

a one-week problem, with the purpose of establishing 
the design for an emergency addition to the present buildings 
of St. Luke's was given as part of the regular work in the 
School. It was required to design a building to accommodate 
150 beds, 75 feet by 200 feet, two stories, fireproof, and com- 
plete in all appointments, to be integrally connected with the 
present St, Luke's buildings, relying upon heat and other con- 
veniences from the main building, and constructed in such 
manner as to be rapidly and safely built at a minimum ex- 
pense. The building was to be semi-permanent in character, 
not necessarily adhering closely to the design of the pavilions 
already in existence, but in itself of good appearance. The 
drawings submitted in solution of this problem were presented 
to the trustees of St. Luke's Hospital, who, in consequence 
saw fit to appoint the School of Architecture architect of the 
emergency addition. Professor Boring was appointed super- 
vising architect and Professor Warren to criticise the structural 
features. When the actual construction is undertaken Mr. 
Ware will supervise the erection of the building. For the pur- 
pose of preparing the necessary drawings a regular architec- 
tural office was established in Avery Hall. Volunteers from 
the student body were called for and academic relief was 
granted to the five students who undertook draftman's work 
in the office. The whole work of designing, planning, and 
drawing up of structural details of the proposed building was 
undertaken and completed by the volunteer students; and 
these men, unless called elsewhere in the meantime, will follow 
the actual construction of the building and assist in the in- 
spection of materials and methods of erection until the task is 
completed. In connection with this project it should be noted 
that this may be considered as the first example of a bona fide 
drafting office, to all intents and purposes an architectural 



SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE I25 

working laboratory, established in connection with the School 
of Architecture. It involved the execution of a definite com- 
mission, and, in particular, one connected with a public build- 
ing devoted to national service, by students not yet graduated 
and still under the guidance of their instructors who are men 
in actual practice. If this proceeding could be repeated in the 
School, and duplicated in other schools, a considerable advance 
in architectural teaching might well be attained. It is a 
possible inference, furthermore, that the experience of these 
students may be found of practical avail in training others in 
hospital design and construction, and ultimately be of benefit 
in the improvement of war hospital buildings, in which not 
only very little has been done in the United States, but in which 
the European nations engaged in the great war met for a period 
of the first eighteen months with almost untold obstacles. 

In connection with the conferring of honorary degrees upon 
representatives of France and England, various parts of the 

City were decorated in accordance with the ^ , ,. ^^ 

i rt T»/r--,A ^ •• /-^r Public Servicc 

plans of the Municipal Art Commission. Ui 

this Commission Professor Boring was a member, and, as part 
of the policy of assigning to each professional member of the 
Commission a certain locality of the City to be decorated, 
Professor Boring was given the University Campus, and 
specifically South Court and South Field. The plan followed 
by the Commission provided a unified decorative scheme for 
the whole City, comprising Battery Park, the Public Library, 
Grant's Tomb, City Hall Square, etc., and including the Uni- 
versity precincts, so that in this very definite sense the welcome 
of the University was embodied with the general welcome of 
the City. The drawings that were necessary for these decora- 
tions were in part made in the drafting office established for 
the St. Luke's Emergency Hospital and partly furnished by 
Mr. Ware, of the staff of the School. 

The School responded promptly and enthusiastically to the 
call for military service that came with the declaration of war. 
In all cases academic relief was readily granted. Some 
students required only partial relief and continued some of 
their courses through the final examinations; others required 



126 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

entire relief and gave up their whole time to military study 
and training. It should be noted that throughout it all the 
utmost seriousness of purpose was shown and the consciousness 
of a new responsibility. The various branches of military 
activity undertaken by students regularly registered in the 
School are in detail as follows: 

(a) Regular Army 2 

(6) Navy 2 

(c) Coast Patrol I 

{d) Motor Boat Patrol i 

(e) Aerial Coast Patrol i 

(/) Balloon Training Corps 2 

(g) Ambulance Corps I 

Qi) Nursing and First Aid 2 

(?) Officers' Reserve (unclassified) 15 

ij) Plattsburg 7 

{k) Farm I 

Total 35 

In regard to the preceding tabulation it should be stated 

that certain of those who undertook training for the Ofificers' 

Reserve have since gone into other fields, as, for instance, 

signaling; and of those who went to Plattsburg some are 

candidates for field artillery and other branches of the service ; 

some have gone to other camps, such as Leon Springs, Texas, 

and Fort McPherson, Georgia. 

To date, there is definite report of but one final rejection for 
physical incapacity in the group of those who made application 
for Plattsburg or other thoroughly regularized training. 

An important action taken during the year affecting the 
courses of instruction was to reduce the course in Descriptive 
Geometry from five hours weekly to three hours; and to rees- 
tablish a course in Specifications in the third year of the 
typical curriculum. 

A still more important measure was the action in the matter 
of the Certificate. The School of Architecture offers its Cer- 
tificate of Proficiency for the last time in the 

Certificate of ^j- jur^^-jj- 

„ c • present academic year, and hereatter students 

Proficiency ^ , . , ,. , r ^ 

will only be admitted as candidates tor the 

degree of Bachelor of Architecture, or, as graduate stu- 
dents, as candidates for the advanced degree of Master of 



SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 127 

Science. With the approval of the University Council, begin- 
ning with the academic year 1917-1918 a course of study 
leading to a Certificate of Proficiency in Architecture will be 
offered to students in Extension Teaching who have satisfied 
all requirements as to admission and attendance and essen- 
tially equivalent to that now given this year for the last time 
in the School. Students will be admitted to this course, which 
is arranged on a normal six-years' curriculum, on the basis of 
a high school diploma supplemented by one year's office work. 
The requirements for admission to the School have been so 
greatly increased that a large number of students will hereafter 
be prevented from undertaking the study of architecture at 
Columbia unless other opportunity is given them. The course 
as arranged in Extension Teaching is intended particularly, 
however, to meet the needs of students who are working in 
architects' offices during the day and can only attend courses 
of instruction in the evening. It covers essentially the same 
ground as the present curriculum for certificate candidates in 
the School. 

Certificate courses have demanded a day time residence. 
In the course as arranged only Extension residence is required, 
and the candidates for the prospective certificate will be able 
to continue their employment in architects' offices meanwhile, 
thus profiting doubly by professional practice and by profes- 
sional instruction, neither of which needs to be curtailed in the 
process. The establishment of this course is not intended to 
supplant the open elective system now in practice in the courses 
in architecture in Extension Teaching; it means nothing more 
than a proper disposition of work in an organized curriculum 
leading to a definite end. 

Several exhibitions were held in the Avery Library in the 

course of the year that had a direct bearing upon the work of 

the School. These were: architectural drawings „,.,.. 
, _. ^11 1 • 11- 1 Exhibitions 

by Bertram Goodhue; architectural designs and 

etchings by James Whistler ; architectural drawings by Carrere 

and Hastings; an interesting collection of hospital plans by 

Charles Butler; and twelve original designs by William E. 

Fisher. The policy inaugurated last year of restricting exhi- 



128 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

bitions in the Avery Library more closely to material in the 
architectural field, or intimately allied with this field, was again 
followed with correspondingly increased interest among archi- 
tects. The most important feature of this policy is that of 
exhibiting collections of drawings of notable buildings made in 
large offices in New York City; thus, for instance, consider- 
able interest was aroused by the Hastings exhibition, which 
was very complete and of decided value to students and prac- 
titioners alike. The work of members of the Committee of 
Visitors of the School of Architecture has been given preference 
in these exhibitions and it is hoped to continue this policy 
until the work of all the members of the Committee have 
been shown. It is then proposed to obtain collections of 
representative drawings from other large New York offices 
and ultimately from large offices in other cities. By means of 
exhibitions of such character the Avery Library renders a ser- 
vice of distinct value both to the School and to the profes- 
sional practice of architecture. 

Through a special appropriation for improving the equip- 
meni of the School, a convenient life-drawing room in quarters 

^ . formerly used for storage purposes has been 

New Equipment , , . ,, , , , , 

arranged, and a fully equipped dark room 

and storage facilities for drawings held for exhibitions have 
been provided. The School has also obtained a new equip- 
ment of steel lockers, sixteen new drafting tables of special 
design, exhibition cases for water color drawings, and racks 
for the exhibition of students' work. A complete revision of 
the equipment of the Departmental Library has also been 
made possible, and the establishment of an adequate office of 
administration. These improvements w^ill aid materially in 
providing an adequate equipment for the School. 

In the course of the present summer the Department 
Library, which has hitherto been controlled by the School, will 
assume its proper position as one of the branches 
of the general library. This will involve the cata- 
loguing of all but a very few volumes. A complete rearrange- 
ment of books and photographs will also be made during 
1917-1918 as a result of the revision of the library equipment. 



SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE I29 

The School's collection of casts has been increased and made 
more distinctly useful. A large number of casts were hung 
under the direction of Mr. William Laurel Harris 
at the close of the preceding academic year. It ^rj 

is proposed during 1917-1918 to label these casts 
so that they will have a greater instructional value. 

The collection of lantern slides, which now numbers about 
15,000, has been completely labeled and classified and may be 
considered to have reached a maximum of efficiency. As part 
of the slide collection there is now maintained a collection of 
glass negatives so that broken slides may be readily duplicated. 
This collection was begun two years ago and now numbers 
about 1,400. 

A matter to be noticed for its bearing upon general educa- 
tional conditions in the University is the interest taken in 
certain of the courses of the School by students 
of Barnard College. Courses in the history of j^ j^^^ ^j^^^ 
architecture, of ornament, of sculpture, and 
of painting, and on the decorative arts, have been largely 
elected by these students, who have shown a serious interest 
even in the more technical phases of the instruction. By these 
cross-registrations it has been made possible to remedy in a 
small way the deficiency in general art instruction in the 
University and the lack of a department devoted to this 
purpose. Students in Teachers' College have occasionally 
taken such work; but students from Columbia College rarely 
undertake it. This forms a distinct contrast to the conditions 
at hand in several other American universities, where instruc- 
tion in the history of art is freely elected by men in the later 
years of the course. The printing of the above named courses 
of instruction in the announcement of the College would pos- 
sibly be of avail in increasing an interest in this field. 

It is desired, finally, to bring to the attention of the Presi- 
dent a serious need of the School with the hope of its present 
remedy. In carrying out the policy of bringing 
to the service of the School, to the utmost extent 
possible, the great resources of the City and this environment 
for instruction and inspiration, the School finds itself hampered 



I30 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

by the lack of any fund for the payment of honoraria to dis- 
tinguished speciaHsts and experts for lectures to the students 
upon matters connected with architecture in which these men 
have special competence. 

While we have found a ready response from alumni and 
others to invitations to address the students, we have been 
obliged to restrict such invitations to certain defined direc- 
tions. There are many men of distinction, both in and out of 
New York, whom we could not presume to invite to lecture 
without fee; others for whom we ought at least to provide 
expenses; and others who, though willing to give one lecture, 
would hardly consent to give gratis a series of three or four, 
which we should gladly ask them to do if we could offer an 
honorarium. 

In past years, and previous to 1910, there was included in 
the budget of the School an annual item of $600 for lectures, 
which to our great regret was later discontinued. Such a fund, 
if granted in the next budget, would make it possible for our 
students to hear the message of foreigners of distinction visit- 
ing us, like Victor Horta of Belgium, Sir T. H. Mawson, who 
was recently here, Mr. Hammarstrand of Sweden, lately in 
New York, Mr. Clement Heaton, the stained-glass artist and 
craftsman, as well as American experts and specialists: such 
men as George Ford and Charles Mulford Robinson on Civic 
Design, Frederick Law Olmsted on Landscape Art, Ralph 
Adams Cram on Modern Gothic, Professor Bingham of Yale 
on Ancient American Art, and others. The Acting Director 
of the School on behalf of the Administrative Board urges the 
reinstatement of this item in the budget of 1918-1919. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Wm. H. Carpenter, 

Acting Director 
June JO, 1917 



SCHOOL OF JOURNALISM 
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 3O, I9I7 

To the President of Columbia University, 

Sir: 

I have the honor to submit the Fifth Annual Report of the 
School of Journalism covering the academic year 1916-1917. 
This year saw two changes proposed and adopted in the cur- 
riculum of the School. 

The sixth year of the School (191 7-1 9 18) opened with 90 
men and 60 women, or 150 in all, taking the curriculum pre- 
scribed for the degree of Bachelor of Literature ^ . ^ ^. 

. . . . Registration 

in Journalism including those directly regis- 
tered in the School of Journalism and those registered in 
Columbia College and Barnard College for the first two years 
of college work. 

In the first year of the School there were 67 men and 12 
women, or 79 in all; in the second, 108 men and 29 women, 
or 137 in all; in the third year, 131 men and 38 women, or 169 
in all; and in the fourth year with 122 men and 50 women, or 
172 in all; the fifth year of the School (1916-1917) opened 
with 176 men and 47 women, or 223 in all, taking the cur- 
riculum prescribed for the degree of Bachelor of Literature 
in Journalism. 



132 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

The comparative registry of the five years, are as follows: 





Matriculated 


Non-matriculated 


Total 


I9I2-I9I3 


Entered 


Left 


Entered 


Left 


Entered 


Left 


First Year 


16 


8 


22 


13 


38 


21 


Second Year 


II 


5 






II 


5 


Third Year 


14 


4 


2 


2 


16 


6 


Fourth Year 


14 


5 






14 


5 


Totals 


55 


22 


24 


^5 


7P 


J7 


1913-1914 














First Year 


47 


6 


II 


3 


58 


9 


Second Year 


18 


4 


9 


5 


27 


9 


Third Year 


16 


6 






16 


6 


Fourth Year 


28 


ID 






28 


10 


Totals 


log 


26 


20 


5 


72P 


44 


1914-1915 














First Year 


42 


7 


5 


2 


47 


7 


Second Year 


28 


4 


6 


2 


34 


6 


Third Year 


41 


8 






41 


8 


Fourth Year 


21 


5 






21 


5 


Totals 


132 


24 


7/ 


2 


H3 


2d 


1915-1916 














First Year 


44 


I 


II 


2 


55 


3 


Second Year 


25 


7 


I 


I 


26 


8 


Third Year 


34 


3 


2 




36 


3 


Fourth Year 


25 


I 






25 


I 


Totals 


108 


12 


^4 


J 


742 


15 


1916-1917 














First Year 


38 


10 


8 





46 


10 


Second Year 


42 


7 


4 





46 


7 


Third Year 


30 


3 


2 





32 


3 


Fourth Year 


31 


4 






31 


4 


Totals 


141 


24 


■f4 





^55 


24 



The graduating class numbered 26, 21 men and 5 women, of 
whom 5 had a Bachelor's degree. This is the smallest proportion 
in any of the four classes sent out from the 
School. The decrease in the number of gradu- 
ates entering the School is in part due to a prescribed course, 



Class of 191 7 



SCHOOL OF JOURNALISM I33 

which if it continues to exist is liable year by year to be more 
and more rigidly administered. Each year college graduates 
turned aside from the School because four years of college, in 
general useful for the newspaperman, lacked some one or two 
courses prescribed for the degree of B.Lit., and this lack in- 
volved an additional year's work. This policy is liable to turn 
education into an obstacle race, and the hindrance is rendered 
more irritating to the student, if it appears to him unreason- 
able and unjust. 

The declaration of war against the Imperial German Gov- 
ernment on April 6, brought into the School of Journalism the 
problems familiar last spring in all American 
institutions of education, collegiate or profes- d th W 

sional. In the School this break in current work 
was emphasized by the organization of 11 of the fourth year 
class and 16 of the third year class as a Division of Intelligence 
and Publicity. This left pursuing their studies in the fourth 
year 16 persons, and in the third year 27 persons. 

Those detailed to work in the Division of Intelligence and 

Publicity were assigned credit for their work on the basis of 

their grades for the Spring Session 

up to April 9. Associate Professor t ^ n- j d uv v 

. Intelligence and Publicity 

Walter B. Pitkm, who proposed and 

planned the work of the Division, took charge of its publica- 
tions, assisted by Assistant Professor R. C. E. Brown. The 
following papers in the Columbia Division of Intelligence and 
Publicity were issued : 

Columbia War Papers 

Series I 

No. I. Enlistments for the Farm. By John Dewey. A message on 
how school children can aid the nation. 

No. 2. German Subjects Within Our Gates. By The National Com- 
mittee on Prisons and Prison Labor. Some Notes on the possibil- 
ities of internment. 

No. 3. Mobilize the Country-Home Garden. By Roscoe C. E. 
Brown. An appeal to the owners of country estates. 



1 34 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

No. 4. Our Headline Policy. By Henry Bedingcr Mitchell. An appeal 
to the press to recognize in their news presentation our unity with 
our allies. 

No. 5. Deutsche Reichsangehorige hier zu Lande. Vom National- 
Ausschuss fiir Gefangnisse und Gefangnisarbeit. Bemerkungen 
iiber die Mogiichkeiten der Internierung. Zweisprachige Ausgabe 
(Englisch und Deutsch) von Nummer 2 oben. 

No. 6. Food Preparedness. By H. R. Seager and R. E. Chaddock. 
A surv^ey of the basic facts in the food situation. 

No. 7. How TO Finance the War. By Edwin R. A. Seligman and Robert 
Murray Haig. An attempt to construct an equitable program for 
loans and taxation. 

No. 8. Farmers and Speculators. By B. M. Anderson, -Jr. A discus- 
sion of prices as stimulant to production and of the uses of specu- 
lation in war finance. 

No. 9. A Directory of Service. Compiled under the direction of John 
J. Coss. Tells how and where to enlist for different kinds of work 
for the Country, 

No. 10. City Gardens. By Henry Griscom Parsons. Practical instruc- 
tions for the use of small city plots. 

No. II. Bread Bullets. By Roy S. MacElwee. Concerning agricultural 
mobilization in the United States. 

No. 12. Rural Education in War. By Warren H. Wilson. How to 
organize high-school boys for farm work. 

No. 13. Why Should We Have Universal Military Service? Com- 
piled from writings of Munroe Smith, Franklin H. Giddings, 
Frederic Louis Huidekoper, and General Emory Upton. 

No. 14. How Canada Organized Her Man-Power. By J. D. Sears. 

No. 15. Wheat Substitutes. By Robert E. Chaddock, Henry C. Sher- 
man, Mary D. Swartz Rose, and May B. Van Arsdale. 

No. 16. The House Re\'enue Bill. By Edwin R. A. Seligman. A con- 
structive criticism. 

No. 17. The War Cripple. By Douglas C. McMurtrie. 

The students in the division collected information and sta- 
tistics for these publications, and in other ways shared in their 
preparation and in the work of circulating them. In addition 
a number of articles were prepared for newspaper publication. 
Much work in the Bureau in preparing mailing lists and direct- 
ing its publication was done by students, some of whom de- 
cided to return to their studies for the rest of the term. In May 
Professor Pitkin went to Washington and left the Bureau in 



SCHOOL OF JOURNALISM 135 

charge of Professor Brown. The Columbia War Papers were 
widely noticed and favorably commented upon by the press of 
the country and these abstracts distributed by the Bureau 
were republished over the country and appeared in news- 
papers abroad, The London Times giving special attention and 
approval to Professor H. B. Mitchell's on "Newspaper Head- 
lines," during the war. Wide attention was directed to the 
School by the work of the Bureau. Of the entire Spring term 
seven weeks of the period preceding examinations were ab- 
sorbed by this task or, including the examination period, nine 
weeks in all. It was true of this, as doubtless of other similar 
activities which broke into the regular progress of teaching in 
the close of the Spring semester in many institutions, that they 
were of great value to the few who aided on the papers pub- 
lished. Of the effect on character of a new desire to serve of a 
generous consecration and of unselfish enthusiasm there can be 
no question, except in those instances, very few in number, 
which left men desirous of keeping out of the firing-line. For 
the rest little or no benefit followed, and useful as a part 
of the service was, I doubt whether any one, instructors 
or students, look back with satisfaction or approval on the 
desultory work done under various captions as "war service." 
War mobilization is a destructive and deranging process caus- 
ing much loss when most carefully and sedulously organized 
and planned in advance, periodically tested and practised 
annually in army maneuvers. Unorganized "mobilization" 
fizzes much, and fashions little. 

In the School of Journalism a few students were excused for 
farm work. Their intentions were sincere, devoted and 
patriotic, but in too many in- 

stances, not all rather vague, and g^^^^^^^ Enterfng Se>^ice 

this branch of service calls for no 

further remark. A more serious problem was presented by 
students entering the military service. The entrance of the 
students, graduates and non-graduates of the School in the 
Army, Navy, and Medical service of the United States, regular 
and reserve, required the utmost care and attention, and the 
task was rendered no easier bv the incoherent information 



136 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

officially furnished, at a time when every officer in our mili- 
tary establishment on land and sea was seriously over-taxed. 
Certain principles were adopted by the Director. Students 
and those who had shared the membership of the School were 
advised and urged to endeavor to enter some branch of the 
fighting line, before presenting themselves for ambulance 
service, hazardous as this is, the percentage of mortality in the 
medical corps in the present war matching that of any other 
military service, and under some flags exceeding it. As the 
final status of service of those entering the "Mosquito Fleet" 
seemed difficult accurately to define, students were advised 
that it was wiser to seek first the Officers' Reserve Corps and 
endeavor to enter the training camps. 

In June, 191 7, there were 133 students in the School of 

Journalism of whom 17 were women, and 34 men under 21 

years of age, leaving 82. Of these 32, or 41 per 

. c • cent., sought military service in some form. Of 

in Service > o .' .11 

the men who have been registered m the School 

of Journalism since it opened in October 1912, 287 in all, ex- 
clusive of those now in the school, 76, or 26.4 per cent., are in the 
military service of the United States or of the United King- 
dom. Several who were rejected in the physical tests in the 
United States service, army or navy were advised to seek the 
flag under which their ancestors had served before 1776. In 
addition there are 4 in Officers' Training Camps, 4 in Red 
Cross work, 2 have passed the examination for the Aviation 
Signal Reserve Corps, i in Quartermaster's Reserve Corps, 
and one New York Trooper, making a total of 31 per cent, 
engaged in military service. 

As soon as students had been excused for work in the Divi- 
sions of Intelligence and Publicity, numerous requests were re- 
ceived to enter war work of various kinds. In the fourth year 
class, 3 students were excused to practise in the O. R. C. ; one 
was excused to practise in the First Signal Corps; 2 for am- 
bulance work (one leaving for France before the end of the 
term) ; 6 were excused to take the places of men going to war ; 
I was excused to do publicity work for the Red Cross; i for 
farm work, and 2 for prison committee work. 



SCHOOL OF JOURNALISM 



137 



Those excused in the third year class, in addition to those 
excused for work in the Division of Intelhgence and Publicity, 
were: 



To work in plants making war material 


2 


Agriculture ........ 


I 


Excused for aviation work ..... 


I 


For 0. R. C 


5 


For 0. T. C 


2 


Who sailed for France to do ambulance work 


2 


To take the place of a man going to war 


I 



14 

There were 14 excused to do work in the Division of Intelli- 
gence and Publicity, with the 14 mentioned above makes a 
total of 28, leaving 13 students in the third year to pursue 
their studies to the end of the term. 

From the graduates of the School 8 attended Officers' Train- 
ing Camps, and 6 undergraduates attended Officers' Training 
Camps. 



The Journalism Student 
and the War 



The throbbing excitement of war approaching week by week 
through the School year, and at last arrived, emphasized and 
inevitably exacerbated what will al- 
ways be characteristic of the member- 
ship, the student life, and the student 
opinion of a School of Journalism which attracts to its classes 
those who have in them the ability and the central purpose of 
the newspaper man who does the State service and his calling 
honor. The average student undergraduate, graduate or pro- 
fessional, is not brought in his lessons and his daily work in 
immediate contact with the affairs of the day. Many in Col- 
lege classes read newspapers, but with no special attention. 
Many scarcely look at a newspaper. Neither their studies nor 
the daily lives of the overwhelming majority of students in a 
university bring them in direct personal contact with the events 
and opinions of the day. Elections or a war may stir them; 
but the day's news is not their first job. It is, for the students 
in the School of Journalism. He has entered the School be- 



138 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

cause he is interested in the newspaper and in its chronicle. 
He is required to read the papers daily and quizzed on their 
contents. The events of the day are not outside his academic 
Hfe. They are part of it. He is sedulously questioned on them. 
His grades suffer if he is not familiar with the day's events and 
issues. He writes on them, he is discussing them, editorially 
and in the classroom, and he boils with interest — if he is going 
to be worth tiaining as a journalist — over what is in process 
and progress in the affairs of men. The habit of close daily 
reading in the newspaper is indispensable to the training of 
the newspaper man, and if he does not by nature take a vivid 
interest in the day's disputes, he will never really earn his 
weekly wage in a newspaper office. The entire machinery of a 
School of Journalism, properly organized, is directed to train- 
ing, developing, disciplining, and regulating this spirit of keen 
interest in all the news. This spirit is scarcely known to the 
average business and professional man, whose ignorance and 
inattention on the day's affairs are familiar and lead in elections 
and primaries to results disastrous to good government. It 
is the trade and training of the newspaper man to know these 
things and to care for them. 

Inevitably the affairs and the excitement of the day will 
appear in a School of Journalism as in no other school. Its 
members as they reach the end of their course, or before this, 
will in no small share be working on newspapers. The grad- 
uates of the School will be in newspaper offices and in close 
personal touch with all the agencies of publicity. The mem- 
bership of the School will be in immediate relations possessed 
by no other students with newspapers. These things come in 
the nature of things. If the University trains journalists these 
results are certain to follow. They grow out of the inherent 
difference between the newspaper and its work and other 
callings and their work. Lawyer, physician, and priest are 
trained to reserve, to silence, to withdrawal from publicity. 
These are not the instinct, the attributes, or the training of 
journalism. In ordinary times and seasons this aspect of 
newspaper training will pass unnoticed. When great national 
and world issues sweep the tides of democracy and the opinions 



SCHOOL OF JOURNALISM I39 

of free men, the undergraduates and graduates of a School of 
Journalism will respond, and "hear the mighty waters rolling 
evermore." This contact and conflict between a passion for 
news and the still grove of Academe may need sharp discipline 
to regulate the one and preserve the calm of the other, but it 
ought not to awake surprise. It is a sign instead that the 
School has attracted those with aptitude for journalism and 
trained for the work, the ambition and the daily responsi- 
bilities of the newspaper oflice. 

The measure of time needed to gain adequate training for a 
professional calling constantly changes as the content to be 

acquired alters with the social need 

, , . . . ,. Increased Period of 

and demand. Irammg tor medi- „ 4.- r t r ^ 

° Preparation for Journalism 

cine has, taking the weeks of study, 

trebled in the past sixty years, and quadrupled in hours of 
work and the study asked. Add to the mere academic 
requirements, the years in hospital and special studies and 
the increase in time, labor, and expenditure for full medical 
training must be six- or sevenfold. The apprenticeship of 
the law has not grown in the same proportion. The period 
which was once imposed in this State before a man was ad- 
mitted to the bar two generations ago and the time now 
required have not altered as much as the content and value of 
the work have changed. General studies have been prescribed 
for the years which were once a long apprenticeship in the law 
offlce and the years once spent in laboriously learning forms, 
pleadings, and procedure and in "reading" law are less than 
in the past. In applied science, the period of training grows 
decade by decade, evolves into specialized courses, and has 
fully doubled the actual time given science (apart from math- 
ematics) some three-score years ago. The School of Business 
far exceeds the demands in time of the Business College, once 
useful, now superseded. 

The time for the preacher's training is almost stationary. 
The teacher's time of training steadily grows until the eleven 
years from grammar school to job, for the degree of Ph.D. faces 
the lowest expectation in income of any professional course 
except the clergyman's. 



I40 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

The period needed to train in a calling like journalism, 
newer than any of these, less coherent in the content of study 
required, and without any metes or bounds prescribed by law, 
by the conditions of the calling, or by the conscience of the 
community, is certain to vary over a wider range. The School 
of Journalism began in 1912 with four years all taken in the 
School, of which nearly three years were such studies as are 
usually offered in College modified by the special needs of the 
journalist, and a little more than a year, sixteen to eighteen 
hours of work, wholly professional. It was decided a year ago 
to change this to a five-year course, two years taken in College 
and three years in the School, of which three years fully a 3^ear 
was of courses of a general character. The end of last year saw 
the proposal for a four-year course, two in College on college 
subjects and two evenly divided between general and profes- 
sional work, with a year succeeding of professional courses, and 
meeting the needs of the journalist for a Master's degree. 

This leaves the four-year course studied under College direc- 
tion and in the School of Journalism, which experience for five 
years has proved gives a training, the manager 

. T 1- of a metropolitan daily has declared, saves the 

in Journalism ^ ... 

newspaper two years m trammg a newcomer, 

and advances the promotion of a graduate by two to three 
years. The graduates of the School, ceteris paribus, hold posts 
and receive pay in three years won only in five or six years 
without its training. An additional year is needed in the 
course of the School of Journalism to cover subjects now of- 
fered in the training for this calling in other universities. 
These studies are the graphic arts required in the making of the 
newspaper, the composing room, printing-press, the linotype 
and the various fields of photo-engraving, and the color press; 
the publication of the newspaper, including costs and circula- 
tion; advertising on its twin sides of business, and the psy- 
chology of publicity; criticism in practice, dramatic, literary, 
art, etc. (now included in the History of Journalism, but re- 
quiring a full course) ; the editorial and polemic writings gen- 
erally, international law, and an advanced course on financial 
writing. These are all needed in the work of the journalist and 



SCHOOL OF JOURNALISM I4I 

each has its teaching in the four-year course or its graduates 
would not advance so rapidly. 

Nearly all of them are already made part of the curriculum 
of Schools of Journalism in western universities which provide 
courses of five years. The students of these schools come for 
the most part from cities and towns served by the small daily 
or weekly and the lectures and laboratory work look to these 
conditions. In eastern conditions, where the large daily fur- 
nishes more than half the newspaper circulation and very 
much more than half the opportunities of the newspaper men, 
the treatment needed is not the manipulation of linotype and 
small press by the students but a thorough technical study and 
training in the theory, the mechanical engineering and eco- 
nomic working of presses (outputs, costs, etc.), in the entire 
printing field, including color and new processes, now develop- 
ing newspaper illustration in new directions. New York has a 
larger number of men at work carrying some professional de- 
gree in journalism than any other city in the United States. 
Their number grows. A share of those graduated from the 
course of four years will remain for a post-graduate year, open 
like other Master's degrees in professional subjects to those 
who have taken a Bachelor's degree in the calling. About a 
tenth of those engaged in periodical publications in all their 
various forms live in greater New York. The opinion of both 
the writing and the business halves of those related in some 
way to the daily, weekly, and monthly has radically changed 
as to the need of professional training. The Associated Adver- 
tising Clubs have for a number of years given courses in ad- 
vertising. There are advertising firms which submit all their 
proposed advertisements to the scrutiny and tests of univer- 
sity classes in advertising as a practical gauge of the psychol- 
ogy of the public. Periodical tasks and all work relating to the 
regular work of any ofhce issuing a publication at regular 
intervals from twice a day to once a month is singularly en- 
grossing. A suspension of the recurring task is even more dif- 
ficult than it is to a physician and as perilous. There is none 
of the easy provision for a year's absence one has in teaching. 
Once in the engrossing calling of the newspaper office and men 



142 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

are away little. The demand for these courses will come 
principally, if not wholly, from those who can give a part of the 
day to academic work. 

The School of Journalism has arranged and administered its 
curriculum on the imperative rule that sound education must 
first be obtained on the studies needed by all the men who 
serve the public, from copy to circulation in periodical litera- 
ture. Instead of beginning strictly professional learning early 
in the course, it has come late and been denied to those with- 
out this previous education. Graduate courses in journalism 
should only be open for a degree to those who have had this 
general education and the fundamentals of professional needs. 
These needs are very far from being limited to the preparation 
of students for the work of the reporter alone. It was ex- 
pected by newspaper offices that the graduates of the School 
would be equal to the work of beginners. Those by whom the 
work of a journalist is looked on as chiefly the work of a re- 
porter still hold this view. The School of Journalism trains 
reporters, but much more than this. Graduates have gone 
direct to editorial writing; they have passed to the copy desk, 
preparing and editing copy for publication; they have taken 
charge of small dailies and weeklies; they have edited lesser 
magazines and proved themselves fully equal to the interme- 
diate tasks of the periodical in all its three forms, weekly, 
monthly, and semi-monthly. So far from beginning at the 
bottom, their work in the School is equal to from two to three 
years of the untrained and undirected experience of a news- 
paper office. In pay, competent and fully trained men from 
the School more than match in five years the average returns 
of men of seven to eight years' work without training. It was 
doubted early by all concerned if the advantage given by the 
School would justify a college course and two years of profes- 
sional work. There is now no doubt that a prescribed college 
course adequate in character followed by two years of profes- 
sional training would do this. 

The practical difficulty with a prescribed course is, however, 
that the range of studies fitting for journalism is wide. The 
two college years now advised are for thirty hours, of which 



SCHOOL OF JOURNALISM I43 

twenty-four are prescribed, and in a good college at least 75 
hours in all could be named besides these which would 
be about as good as those now required. Latin 
and Greek properly taught, with careful written st d' 

translations, will do at least as much to form 
style as any direct training in the ordinary path of English. 
The newspaper man sorely needs the background of classical 
and medieval history and is less likely to acquire it by general 
reading than he is to gain familiarity with modern history 
since the Fifteenth century and still more of the Nineteenth 
century by his work and reading. It is constantly forgotten 
in the perspective of College studies that the Nineteenth 
century is now our Eighteenth century, which last for most 
of its decades is with the years Noah knew and his three 
sons did not, while Gomer, Canaan and Elam had to be daily 
reminded that such years existed and amazed Noah by their 
unseemly ignorance. Science has its value to the journalist, 
and what are known as "advanced" courses in economics and 
politics have more value to him than elementary economics 
or politics when devoted to the theory or speculative proposals 
rather than the actual working of the economic and adminis- 
trative structure of society. Philosophy and psychology play 
an important part. Now that the principle and practice of a 
sound education preceding the professional studies of a journal- 
ist are established and both colleges and the calling realize that 
the training of the journalist is not mere reporting, greater 
flexibility is needed in the approach to the last year of the 
course, a change proposed to begin in 1918. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Talcott Williams 

Director 
June 30, igi7 



BARNARD COLLEGE 
REPORT OF THE DEAN 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, I917 

To the President of the University, 

Sir: 

I have the honor to submit the following report on the con- 
dition and progress of Barnard College during the academic 

year 1916-1917. 

The enrollment in our four regular classes has 
been as follows: 





1015-1016 


1016-1017 


Seniors 


93 


144 


Juniors 


160 


143 


Sophomores 


169 


177 


Freshmen 


211 


194 



633 658 

Besides the regular students, we have had thirty-five ma- 
triculated specials, as compared with twenty-eight last year, 
and forty-one non-matriculated specials, as compared with 
thirty-three a year ago. The total number primarily registered 
in Barnard College has been 734, an increase of forty over the 
preceding year. 

The number of students coming to Barnard from other 
schools of the University for part of their work has risen 
slightly. We have had thirty-one from the Graduate Faculties 
and thirty-seven from Teachers College, as compared with 
eighteen and forty-six respectively a year ago. Our total regis- 
tration has been 802, an increase of forty-four. 



BARNARD COLLEGE I45 

During the year we have recommended to the University for 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts 136 students and for that of 
Bachelor of Science twenty, making a total of 156, the largest 
number of degrees ever awarded in one year under the Faculty 
of Barnard College. Of these candidates, twelve received the 
degree cum laude and four magna cum laude. 

From the Faculty, Professors Edward D. Perry and Mar- 
garet E. Maltby have been absent on leave during the Spring 

Session. Professor Henri F. Muller's leave has been _ . 

, , , , .,..,, Faculty 

contmued throughout the year, smce he is still on 

active service with the French army. 

For next year there have been three promotions to seats 
upon the Faculty: Miss Eleanor Keller, from Instructor to 
Assistant Professor of Chemistry; Dr. Maude A. Huttmann, 
from Instructor to Assistant Professor of History; and Dr. 
Louise H, Gregory, from Instructor to Assistant Professor of 
Zoology. We are looking forward with pleasure to welcoming 
another new member of the Faculty in the person of Miss Ger- 
trude Dudley, now Associate Professor of Physical Culture at 
the University of Chicago, who will come to us for a year on 
leave of absence as Associate in Physical Education, to organize 
our work in that subject. We are fortunate in securing for the 
new position of College Physician Dr. Gulielma Alsop, a gradu- 
ate of Barnard College in the Class of 1903. 

Our Board of Trustees has suffered serious loss in the death 

of two of its most valued members: Mrs. Henry N. Munn, 

who had been a member of the Board since IQOI, and ^ 

1 rustccs 
the Very Reverend William M. Grosvenor, who was 

elected Trustee in 1898. Though the Honorable Seth Low was 
no longer a member of our Board at the time of his death, this 
report should record the deep grief felt by Barnard College at 
the loss of its first President, who had remained a constant and 
interested friend of the College. 

In spite of very serious handicaps caused by the war, espe- 
cially the great increase in the cost of all building materials and 
labor, the work on Students Hall is now nearing completion, 
and we hope to be able to use the building in September. This 
addition to our space will, of course, be of immeasurable value. 



146 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Alterations will be made during the summer in Fiske, Mil- 
bank, and Brinckerhoff Halls, in order to use for classroom 

„ .. .. purposes some of the space released by moving 

Buildings ^ ^. , ... ^ ^ , TT ,, ^, T-,, 

certam or our activities to Students Hall. Ihe hlla 

Weed Room, equipped by the Associate Alumnae in 1897 in 

memory of Miss Ella Weed, who was in fact though not in title 

the first Dean of the College, will be used as a Trustee and 

Faculty Room, for meetings and conferences. 

The war has made the past year an unfavorable one for 
raising money, and we have unfortunately been able to make 
little progress towards the completion of our million 
dollar Endowment Fund. We have had, however, 
several welcome gifts. The friends of the late Jean Willard 
Tatlock of the Class of 1895 have founded in her memory a 
prize to be awarded each year to the undergraduate student 
most proficient in Latin. Mrs. James Herman Aldrich has 
established a fund of $ 1,000, the income of which is to be used 
to assist in her senior year a student who has shown in her 
college life the moral qualities which go to the making of fine 
womanhood. A valuable addition to our list of scholarships is 
one founded by the Alumnae of the Barnard School for Girls. 
Endowment of a somewhat new type is the Health Fund, given 
by an anonymous donor. It amounts to about $5,000, and its 
income is to be used at the discretion of the Dean to promote 
the health of officers and students of the College. During the 
past year it has been used especially to give short outings in the 
country to students of small means in need of rest and change. 
We are very grateful to Mrs. Willard D. Straight for her gift of 
$2,500 towards the running expenses of our Department of 
Physical Education for the year 1917-1918, and to Mrs. E. H. 
Harriman for the promise of a like sum. 

The College is ofifering for next year through the Department 

of Botany a course in an important subject not hitherto taught 

^ at Barnard, bacteriology. The demand for women 

New Course 

adequately trained in this field will be very great 

during the war. We are enabled to begin this work through the 

generosity of Mr. Charles R. Crane, who has given a fund of 

$1,500 to equip the new laboratory. 



BARNARD COLLEGE I47 

During the year the war has, of course, filled the minds of 
our instructors and students, and affected very fundamentally 
the life and the activities of the College. Many of „, „, , 
our officers and alumnae are occupying positions of 
great importance and performing valuable national service. 
The undergraduates have been active in war relief work. They 
have been contributing to feed the children of the Belgian 
village of Laer. In their workshop in one of our laboratories 
they have made three thousand surgical dressings, which have 
been shipped to France. They are raising money for an ambu- 
lance for the Columbia unit. Twenty of them formed a special 
Barnard group in a course for nurses' aids at St. Luke's Hos- 
pital. Many others have taken various sorts of emergency 
courses, and have acted as volunteers for clerical work and Red 
Cross speaking, as farm workers, as census clerks, as sellers of 
Liberty Bonds, and in many other capacities. The Agricultural 
Training Camp at Mt. Kisco, of which Professor Ida H. 
Ogilvie is Director and which is made up largely of Barnard 
students and alumnae, is one of our most notable contributions 
toward war service. It is proving very valuable in demonstrat- 
ing how successful women can be as farm workers. Barnard 
has also played an active part in the organization of the Co- 
lumbia University Committee on Women's War Work, which, 
in connection with the general University mobilization, has 
enrolled about 8,000 Columbia women and is directing them 
toward useful forms of service and training therefor. 

The war has increased the financial difficulties of the Col- 
lege. The rise in the cost of all supplies causes a serious prob- 
lem. In order partially to meet this at Brooks Hall, 
the Trustees have imposed for next year a special 
maintenance fee of $50 for each resident. We do not, of course, 
anticipate any such decrease in the number of students as that 
faced by the men's colleges, but it seems probable that the 
great demand for workers in all fields will draw a good many 
young women away from their college studies and cause some 
diminution in our enrolment. 

In spite of the war the cooperative dormitory organized by 
the Associate Alumnae last summer has had. a very successful 



148 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

year. The alumnae rented two apartments near the College 

and donated the furniture and equipment. Fifteen students 

were in residence during the first semester, and 

oope a IV thirteen students with one officer of the College 
Dormitory , . , ^, . ^ 

durmg the second semester. The price for room 

and board was $275 for the College year, about $100 less than 
the minimum price in Brooks Hall. A working housekeeper acts 
as cook, and under the general supervision of our College House- 
keeper does the catering. The students in turn do the light 
housework. By buying through our College lunchroom the 
dormitory is able to secure supplies at wholesale rates. The 
alumnse have effectively attained the object they had in 
mind, — providing undergraduates with pleasant and comfort- 
able living accommodations and good food at the lowest 
possible cost, in the agreeable companionship of a Barnard 
group. The Committee in charge has been able to rent the 
rooms in the apartments to Summer Session students, and 
expects to close the fiscal year with a small surplus. It is to 
be hoped that this happy experiment may be continued on a 
wider scale. 

The needs of the College are, as usual, pressing. As soon as 
the prices of building materials and labor attain anything like a 

^^ , normal level we should, if possible, build one of the 
Needs 

wings planned for Brooks Hall, in order to accommo- 
date some of the students now boarding in outside lodgings. 
The new wing should contain small rooms at the lowest pos- 
sible rental. It may be that we can arrange to conduct a sec- 
tion of it on the principle of the Alumnae Cooperative Dor- 
mitory. 

It is, of course, of the utmost importance that we should 
complete our endowment fund. Special endowment for our 
work in science would seem to be a particularly appropriate 
gift at the present time. For example, the excellent training 
received by our students in chemistry is producing skilled 
scientific workers of a sort greatly needed by the Nation in the 
war emergency. This summer we are altering some of our 
chemical laboratories so as to increase our capacity. But in- 
struction in laboratory science is inevitably very expensive. 



BARNARD COLLEGE I49 

The gift of a fund of $100,000, the income of which should be 
used toward the expenses of this department, would enable 
us to improve our work and render more valuable service to the 
country. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Virginia C. Gildersleeve, 



June 30, IQ17 



Dean 



TEACHERS COLLEGE 
REPORT OF THE DEAN 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, I917 

To the President of the University and the 
Trustees oj Teachers College, 

Sirs: 

I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual reports of 
the Directors of the Schools of Education and Practical Arts 
in Teachers College. In these reports appear the salient 
features of the year's work together with some discussion of the 
educational and administrative problems involved. The 
record is eminently satisfactory, and the directors and staff de- 
serve high commendation for their contribution to this success. 

At his own request, Professor Julius Sachs was retired from 

active service at the end of the academic year. For fifteen 

years he has aided in the upbuilding of 
Retirement of t-, , r^ n j. '\^ j.- ^ • ^• 

p - c L leachers College, contnbutmg to our msti- 

tutional needs from an experience excep- 
tionally rich in scholarly and professional attainment. Wise 
in counsel, progressive in spirit, and appreciative of the best 
things in life, he has endeared himself to all his colleagues, and 
secured a permanent place in the affections of his students. 
Himself an example of the highest type of secondary school- 
master, he has instilled into a great body of students of secon- 
dary education his own professional enthusiasm, and thereby 
created standards of professional excellence which will remain 
an abiding possession of the College. 

In honor of the election of Professor Sachs to an emeritus 
professorship in Teachers College, his brother, Mr. Samuel 

Sachs, has established a special fund of 
Sachs Library Fund ^ ^ui u-uclt-u 

^10,000, to be known as the Sachs Library 

Fund, the income of which shall be applied to the purchase 

of books for the library of Teachers College, "that the name 



TEACHERS COLLEGE 151 

of Julius Sachs, an inspiring teacher and devoted scholar, may 
be kept alive." This gift is the more welcome to me because, 
in the multiplicity of needs, the library has been overlooked in 
recent years. It is the first gift for the purpose received since 
the death of Mrs. Bryson in 1900. 

The saddest event of the year was the death of Professor 
Naomi Norsworthy, on Christmas Day. A woman of fragile 
physique, she possessed an extraordinary per- 
sonality, and by virtue of her scholarly at- ^^} 

... , . ... , , Professor 

tamments and professional ability, she became Norsworthy 

a teacher of surpassing merit. Her habit of 
seeing things straight and seeing them whole made her the con- 
fidential confessor of all her students, and the unofficial adviser 
of most of our women students. She leaves a gap in our ranks 
which can not easily be filled. 

The following changes in the faculties have Changes in 
been approved by the Trustees: the Faculties 

PROFESSORS EMERITUS 

Richard E. Dodge, A.M., Geography (July i, 1916). 
Julius Sachs, Ph.D., Secondary Education (July i, 1917). 

NEW appointments 

William C. Bagley, Ph.D., Professor of Education. 

Otis VV. Caldwell, Ph.D., Professor of Education and Director of the 

Lincoln School. 
Arthur D. Dean, D.Sc, Professor of Vocational Education. 
Truman L. Kelley, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Education. 

promotions 

Anna M. Cooley, B.S., from Assistant Professor to Associate Professor of 
Household Arts Education. 

Clifford B. Upton, A.M., from Assistant Professor to Associate Professor 
of Mathematics. 

May B. Van Arsdale, B.S., from Assistant Professor to Associate Pro- 
fessor of Household Arts. 

Marion Rex Trabue, Ph.D., from Instructor to Assistant Professor of 
Education. 

Anna W. Ballard, A.M., from Instructor to Assistant Professor of French. 

Wilhelmina Spohr, B.S., from Instructor to Assistant Professor of House- 
hold Arts Education. 

Isabel M. Stewart, A.M., from Instructor to Assistant Professor of Nurs- 
ing and Health. 



152 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

RESIGNATION 

Harold B. Keyes, M.D., from assistant professorship in Physical Edu- 
cation, to pursue a graduate course in surgery in Roosevelt Hospital, 

LEAVES OF ABSENCE 

For one semester: Professors Baker, Bigelow, Briggs, Hill, Latham, 
McFarlane, Ruger, Sachs, and Van Arsdale. 

For the academic year: Professors Kinne and Noyes. 

Teachers College, comprising as it does both a professional 
school and the University department of Educational Re- 
search, has the dual aim of preparing teachers and administra- 
tive officers and of promoting pedagogical efficiency in the 
work of our public schools. Good workmen, if they are to give 
their best service, need, not only superior skill, but also the best 
of instruments. We serve the public by training annually 
some hundreds of teachers to perform particular tasks more 
satisfactorily than they might otherwise do; and we also give 
not less important service, when we undertake to improve 
curricula, methods of teaching, and modes of administration, 
by experimentation in our own schools and by investigation of 
procedure in other schools and school systems. That the re- 
sults of these studies are appreciated is attested by the fact 
that the public has bought and paid for more than four million 
printed pages descriptive of the work in our schools of observa- 
tion and practice. 

The year under review has been exceptionally fruitful in re- 
sults of investigation of conditions in the field and of experi- 
mentation in our own schools. Professor 
Investigations ^ ... , , . 

Strayer has directed several important sur- 
veys, notably of Nassau County in New York, and of the cities 
of St. Paul, Minnesota, and Omaha, Nebraska, in which his 
students of school administration have received practical 
training in school organization, and from which, through the 
published reports, all school officials may derive benefit. Dur- 
ing a special leave of absence for six months, Professor Briggs 
has made, for the General Education Board, a nation-wide 
study of the junior high school ; and other officers have engaged 
in field work for shorter periods. The most important step 
taken, however, is the establishment of the Lincoln School, to 



TEACHERS COLLEGE I53 

be supported financially by the General Education Board, for 
the purpose of experimentation with the materials of instruc- 
tion, curriculum, and methods of teaching best adapted to a 
modern school. While the Horace Mann School for Girls, the 
Horace Mann School for Boys, and the Speyer School will con- 
tinue to provide classical curricula, the Lincoln School will em- 
phasize in its curriculum the modern languages, science, and 
the social and industrial arts. Directed by an enthusiastic 
scientist and staffed by the best teachers obtainable, the new 
School should give a good account of itself within ten or fif- 
teen years. The experiment is a costly one, but if it achieves 
one-half of the results predicted for it by its adherents, it will 
be one of the best investments made in our generation. 

A splendid contribution to our means for educational experi- 
mentation is a gift of $5,000 a 3^ear for three years by Messrs. 
Cleveland H. and Francis P. Dodge for 

the establishment of a department of Establishment of a De- 
^ . , _, • 1 T 1 1 • partment 01 bcouting and 

Scoutmg and Recreational Leadership. Recreational Leadership 
The object of this foundation is to as- 
certain how scouting can best be incorporated into the educa- 
tional program of the schools. That it is an educational agency 
of highest potentiality is conceded b}' all who know of the activ- 
ity of the Boy Scouts; but the schoolmasters of America have 
not learned how to use it to advantage. We hope to demonstrate 
in our schools that the scoutmaster is really a teacher, specially 
favored in materials and methods for the fixing of moral stan- 
dards for his charges, and for the development in them of civic 
and social responsibility. I confidently expect scouting to play 
a leading r61e in the scheme of public education which must be 
evolved to meet the new conditions that will follow upon the 
ending of this devastating war — conditions which will tend to 
make necessary the emphasizing of the duties of the citizen, 
rather than the magnifying of the rights of the individual. 

The notable gifts of the year, beside those already enume- 
rated, are $5,000 from Mr. and Mrs. Richard M. Hoe for a 

scholarship in memory of their daughter, Mar- ^ , ^.- 

.TT* r r-iif Other Gifts 

garet Hoe; $10,000 from a friend who, for more 

than twenty years, has made a large annual contribution to- 



154 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

ward our general expenses; and $490,000 in pledges toward a 
new Library Building, the erection of which is deferred until 
conditions in the building trades are more settled than they 
are now. Financially, we close the year without a floating debt, 
and with a small surplus, which will probably be needed to 
meet the expected deficiency in next year's operations. 

The outlook under war conditions is discouraging for any 
educational institution. Our young men, officers and students, 
are very properly responding to their country's call for 
^ . , leaders in field and camp. Many of our women stu- 
dents, especially those trained in the household arts 
and in nursing, are volunteering for emergency work in conserv- 
ing the food supply and in promoting the public health. The 
accompanying reports of the Directors of the Schools of Educa- 
tion and Practical Arts tell what we have done as an institution 
to fit our students to meet these emergencies. To the best of 
our ability we have tried to serve the public by fitting our stu- 
dents for whatever work they can most promptly undertake. 
To that extent we have worked to deplete our own ranks and, 
incidentally, to check temporarily our institutional progress. 
How seriously the war will afTect the attendance of students 
next year, I cannot predict; but it is evident that our numbers 
will be smaller and our income correspondingly decreased. The 
country's need, however, is the measure of our responsibility. 
At whatever cost, we must meet the emergency. The quality 
of our ofTering must not suffer; on the contrary, we must go 
forward to greater tasks, and show our patriotism by increased 
devotion to the cause for which Teachers College exists — the 
education of a people for American citizenship. 

Respectfully submitted, 

James E. Russell, 

Dean 

June 30, ipiy 



SCHOOL OF EDUCATION 
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, I917 

To the Dean of Teachers College, 

Sir: 

I herewith submit my report for the School of Education for 
the academic year 1916-1917 : 

The total number of students enrolled in the School of Edu- 
cation has been 1,277, as compared with 1,157 ^or the preceding 

year. Of this number, 174 graduate students _ „ 

. . . . linroUment 

elected Practical Arts majors, as agamst 127 m 

1915-1916. The matriculated students of both schools in the 
summer session, not in attendance during the regular year, 
numbered 1903. Of the total number of students in the School 
of Education during the academic year, 266 were enrolled as 
unclassified graduate students, 574 were candidates for the 
Master's degree, and 437 were matriculated unclassified stu- 
dents. Of this latter number 251 were enrolled as candidates 
for the degree of Bachelor of Science. In the preceding year 
there were 133 candidates for the degree of Doctor of Phil- 
osophy and 521 candidates for the degree of Master of Arts. 

During the year the degree of Doctor of Philosophy was 
conferred upon 9 candidates, 5 of whom had taken the Master's 
degree at Columbia. In the preceding year r f h 

12 doctorates were awarded. box the 
academic year 1916-1917, 305 students in Teachers College 
received the degree of Master of Arts, 2 the degree of Master of 
Science, and 326 the degree of Bachelor of Science. 

Of the 840 graduate students, 77 held the Master of Arts 
degree of Columbia University; 155 students held the degree 
of Bachelor of Science from Teachers College. Other colleges 
and universities were represented as follows: College of the 



156 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

City of New York, 37; Hunter, 28; Barnard, 22; Vassar, 20; 
Wellesley, 18; Smith, 16; New York University, 16; Harvard, 
15; Mount Holyoke, 15; Cornell, 15; Iowa State, 13; Wis- 
consin, 12; California, 10; Chicago, 10; Adelphi, 9; Brown, 
9; Michigan, 9; Stanford, 9; Indiana, 8; Missouri, 8 
Albany State, 7 ; Illinois, 7 ; Kansas State, 7 ; Ohio Wesleyan 
7; Rochester, 7; Colorado, 6; Goucher, 6; Nebraska, 6 
Oberlin, 6; Ohio State, 6; Syracuse, 6; Yale, 6; Clark, 5 
Colgate, 5; Dickinson, 5; Emporia, 5; Southern California, 5 
Washington, 5. 

It is interesting to note the choice of subjects other than 
Education pursued by the Teachers College students in other 
parts of the University. The following depart- 
c , . ments attracted the greatest number: History, 

120; English, 112; Sociology, 54; Psychology, 
45; German, 37; Social Economy, 32; Chemistry, 27; Phil- 
osophy, 19; Economics, 15; French, 15; Mathematics, 14; 
Politics, 11; Business, 9; Spanish, 6; Latin, 5. Other students 
registered in Anthropology, Arabic, Architecture, Botany, 
Geology, Indo-Iranian, Journalism, Music, Public Law, Russian. 
A total of 582 class registrations represents the interest of the 
Teachers College students in other phases of University work. 

With the adoption of the new regulations for matriculation 
for the doctorate there has been a marked decrease in the 

number listed as candidates for this degree. 
Matriculation t^, . , , ^ • j- x ^ 1 

f xL T-v . . A his, however, does not mdicate any actual 
for the Doctorate . ri- 

decrease m the number of students of this 

grade, but only that in accordance with the new regulations, 
adopted throughout the University, the greater number of 
graduate students now appear as unclassified rather than as 
candidates for the doctorate. Thus the number of unclassified 
graduate students was last year 154 as compared with 266 the 
present year; while the candidates matriculated for the doc- 
torate last year were 133 as compared with 81 the present year. 
The real effect of the new regulations is better seen by compar- 
ing the number of students taking the written examinations 
preliminary to the doctorate. Last year the number was 42, 
the largest number hitherto presenting themselves, while this 



TEACHERS COLLEGE I57 

year the number was 59. Of these, 37 were accepted as candi- 
dates, while 22 were advised not to continue. This represents a 
larger proportion of successful candidates than at any previous 
preliminary examination. 

The Department of Educational Research has adopted ad- 
ditional modifications in the matriculation examinations for 
the doctorate rendering them more compre- 
hensive in their scope. In place of the three Modifications by 
rj ,1 w ^ u'uu u the Department 

fundamental sumects, which have been re- . r-j ^- • 

•* 01 Educational 

quired for so many years, or the three out of Research 

four subjects which prevailed for two years, 
the regulations in force hereafter will include every department 
in the general field of education. One subject only, that of 
educational psycholog^^ is required of all candidates, while 
the choice of two others may be made from the remaining 
fields. This, in the judgment of all the members of the staff, is 
the most satisfactory plan that has been tried, providing for 
adequate specialization and yet avoiding a too narrow in- 
terpretation of the professional field. 

In accordance with the new University regulations, the re- 
quirements for the Master's degree have been restated. The 
point rating of courses now refers to tuition 

only. The degree requires the accumulation ^ Restatement of 

, .. . .,,,^^. . Requirements for 

of 30 tuition points within the University. Masters Degree 

The academic or course requirements now 
become more flexible. These requirements can be met with a 
minimum of eight courses or, with appropriate field work, even 
less ; while the students desiring a general rather than a highly 
specialized program can select a maximum of fifteen or 
sixteen courses of a less specialized character. The total tuition 
charge would be the same in either case. Of these at least six 
courses totaling 16 tuition points must be taken in Teachers 
College, while the remainder may be taken in any other depart- 
ment of the University. An essay or some form of written re- 
port on practical or field work is now to be required of all 
candidates. 

During the year professional diplomas in the following sub- 
jects were authorized: Psychologist; Rural Extension Worker; 



158 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Teacher in Foreign Schools; Supervisor of Religious Educa- 
tion. This raised the number of types of diplomas now 

granted to 59. The number of profes- 
Authorization of ^j^^^^j diplomas actually granted during 

Diplomas in , 1 • 1 ^ 

Additional Subjects ^he year was 441 as compared with 633 

degrees. 
New lines of activity projected last year have been develop- 
ing satisfactorily. The special course arranged for advisers of 

.... women and girls was taken by 36 students; 
New Activities . jo 

the entire program of study arranged for such 

advisers was followed by 12 while the diplomas were obtained 
by 5 candidates. 

The program of studies for religious and social workers, pro- 
jected last year, has been formulated and the announcement 
issued. Arrangements with the Home Mis- 
Studies for gj^j^ V>02xA of the Presbyterian Church have 
Religious and , 1 1 • , • 1 1 • 1 1 
Social Workers been completed, m accordance with which they 

direct their small but highly selected body 
of graduate students to Teachers College. Practical work done 
under the specialists of that Board will be accepted as the practi- 
cal work required for the degree; two members of the staff of 
specialists of the Board will offer courses, one on immigration 
problems, the other on social resources of the community, each 
authorized by the executive committee, while facilities will be 
extended for the giving of the single course offered by the 
Board for which no academic credit can be given. Those 
responsible for the training courses for lay workers given by two 
other denominations have expressed much interest in the plan 
and have initiated steps looking toward closer cooperation. 

The course of studies organized offers a wide and adequate 
selection to workers in social fields not connected with religious 
organizations. 

In industrial education and in rural education plans entered 
into last year are enlarged and permanently adopted. The 

passage of the Smith-Hughes bill 
Industrial and Rural Education r • j , • 1 j 

tor industrial education on a na- 
tional scale by the national government will cause a great and 
permanent demand to be made on all higher institutions for 



TEACHERS COLLEGE I59 

the training of teachers. A number of courses are now organ- 
ized relating both to the class-room discussion, documentary 
study, and practical field investigation of all phases of voca- 
tional education and vocational guidance. A large portion of 
the time of the instructors and students will be spent in the 
field. To this is added a new course in the consideration of 
practical problems in practical arts education as now dis- 
tinguished from the more technical field of vocational educa- 
tion. A course is also offered for the training of teachers in the 
continuation schools, now conducted by the city in numerous 
commercial and industrial plants. 

The extent to which practical field work is now organized 
by the institution is indicated by the following figures. The 
number of students engaging during the past 
year in practice teaching in elementary schools t- ,j i^t i 
outside 01 the college schools was 45 ; m secondary 
schools, 54; the number participating in school surveys, 84; in 
rural surveys, 14; in investigations of industrial education, 5. 

Except for abnormal conditions due to war exigencies, this 
work will be greatly expanded during the coming year. 

The new statistical laboratory forms an essential adjunct to 
such field work as well as to class-room work. Tabulated 
records kept for various hours indicate that the 
laboratory is used on an average by 20 students j. , 
daily for an average period of one hour and 
twenty minutes. 

With the growth of the faculty to a size which makes delib- 
eration and discussion difficult, and with the specialization of 

the work of departments leading to intensi- ^ ^ . 
- . . • 1 1 • /• 1 Group Conferences 

ncation m special lines, some further ma- 
chinery to unify the main phases of work seems necessary. To 
meet this need during the year several group conferences have 
been called and two of them definitely organized, following the 
plan of divisional organization instituted in the University 
some years ago. One covers the entire field of vocational edu- 
cation, including the following groups: industrial education, 
vocational guidance, rural education, and religious education. 
A second includes all phases of field survey which relate to the 



l60 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

public school system. Thus the instructors of various depart- 
ments interested in similar lines of investigation or teaching are 
brought together in a functional unity which promises a 
broader basis of institutional work and professional interest 
than that provided for by the departmental organization. 
The close of the year was marked by a noticeable departure 
from the ordinary academic procedure, due to the present 

„, ^ ,. . war emergency. A variety of emergency 

War Conditions ... . . r i i • i 

courses dealing with aspects oi the educational 

and social situation due to conditions of war, were organized 
and offered during the period from May 14 to June i, most of 
which is assigned in the academic calendar to examinations. 
All students who wished to elect at least thirty hours' work in 
such courses were exempted from the examinations. Among 
the courses offered in the School of Education were the follow- 
ing: Social Work in Time of War; Organization of Rural Com- 
munities for War Service; Economic Organization and Eco- 
nomic Problems in War Times ; Organization of Social Service 
in Military and Concentration Camps; Physical Welfare and 
Efficiency; The Boy Scout Movement in Time of War; The 
Girl Scout; Present Day Problems in regard to Food, Cloth- 
ing, and Fuel; and Educational and Practical Problems of 
Gardening. In addition a considerable number of single lec- 
tures on special topics as given. Attendance on the courses 
varied from 40 to 700 or 800. Practically the entire student 
body, except those partially occupied in teaching and giving 
only a portion of their time to college courses, attended these 
emergency courses. A very considerable proportion of the 
students in the School of Education elected the practical 
courses offered by the School of Practical Arts. Wherever 
courses were offered, open to students without previous prac- 
tical training, they were filled by students of the School of 
Education, who thus evidenced their interest in the practical 
forms of education, if such instruction could be concentrated 
in a brief space of time. So successful indeed was the plan that 
it raises the question whether a week's time at the close of the 
year might be devoted to a concentrated and elementary pres- 
entation of the work of each school of Teachers College to the 



TEACHERS COLLEGE l6l 

students of the other faculty. Such a period might be found in 
the week between the close of examinations and the commence- 
ment exercises. Especially to the large body of students taking 
degrees and diplomas, who now find this period one of addi- 
tional expense and of no educational value, this would be 
advantageous. 

Education in itself is a national service and the teacher a 
government servant, in many countries definitely recognized 
as such. A national service, second to none, 

is that rendered by the efficient and pro- t.^ ^. , „ 

•^ , . ,,. National Service 

gressive educator, ready to take mtelligent 

advantage of the present exigencies to promote the effective- 
ness of formal school work. It is no exaggeration to state that 
all of our staff and of our student body recognize this truth. 
But many, in such an emergency, find it irksome to confine 
their activities to such conventional methods and seek the op- 
portunity for more specific service to the nation in time of war. 
Many have found such opportunities. Of the student body, 9 
were excused before the end of the spring session to enter upon 
agricultural emergency work; 3 went into Red Cross work, 
and 14 Into officers' training camps or other forms of direct 
military service. Many others who left no record with the 
College entered upon such service after the close of the session. 
Several entered the army service of the Y. M. C. A. and 
Y. W. C. A. Of the staff. Professor Dean has become the 
supervising officer of vocational training of the New York 
State Military Commission; Professor Snedden Is devoting 
much time to voluntary assistance in the same work; Professor 
Meras has entered the Reserve Officers' Training Corps and 
Is in training at the Military Barracks, Watertown, New York; 
Mr. Gucker has joined the Columbia Unit of the Red Cross 
and Is now In France; Professor Andrews Is with the Home 
Economics Bureau of the Department of Agriculture at Wash- 
ington. Other members of the staff are giving service in 
channels which are not official. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Paul Monroe, 
June 30, 1Q17 Director 



SCHOOL OF PRACTICAL ARTS 
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 



FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, I917 

To the Dean of Teachers College, 

Sir: 

I submit herewith my annual report as Director of the 
School of Practical Arts for the year closing June 30, 1917. 

The total registration of matriculated students in the School 
of Practical Arts from September, 1916, to June, 1917, was 
1,331, 1,157 undergraduate and 174 graduate. In 
addition, more than 700 extension students were 
admitted to technical courses for which they were well quali- 
fied. Last year (1915-1916) there were 1,065 undergraduate 
and 127 graduate students in Practical Arts. The School, 
therefore, gained 92 undergraduate and 49 graduate students. 
The following tabulation shows attendance of matriculated 
students for the five years of the School (19 12-19 17) and for 
the year 1911-1912: 



Attendance 





Undergrad- 
uates in 
Practical Arts 


Graduate 

Students in 

Practical Arts 


Total in 
Practical Arts 


Total in 
Teachers College 


I9II-I9I2 


589 




589 


1,461 


19I2-I9I3 


809 


15 


824 


1,687 


I9I3-I9I4 


793 


37 


830 


1,803 


I9I4-I9I5 


1,070 


95 


1,165 


1,904 


I9I5-I9I6 


1,065 


127 


1,192 


2,222 


I9I6-I9I7 


1,157 


174 


1,331 


2,444 



The increase of graduate students in Practical Arts from 127 
in 1915-1916 to 174 in 1916-1917 has made more pressing the 
problems of building and of teaching staff to 
which I called attention in my last report. 
Especially is this true because, as the following table shows, the 



Graduate Students 



TEACHERS COLLEGE 163 

largest groups of graduate students are in the two departments 
(Household Arts and Fine Arts) which are overcrowded by 
undergraduates : 

GRADUATE STUDENTS WITH MAJOR WORK IN 
PRACTICAL ARTS 

SEPTEMBER, I916-JUNE, I917 

Household Arts 94 

Fine Arts 25 

Industrial Arts 12 

Music 12 

Nursing and Health 6 

Physical Education 18 

Unclassified 7 

Total Graduate Students in Practical Arts 174 

Total Graduate Students in Teachers College 840 

The number (174) of graduate students with major work, in 
Practical Arts is approximately one-fifth of the total number 
(840) in Teachers College. Five years ago (1912-1913) there 
were only 15 in 381 graduate students in Teachers College. 
These figures, however, are far from indicating the total 
amount of work in Practical Arts on account of the graduate 
students for the following reasons : 

(1) More than half and probably two-thirds of the graduate students in 
Practical Arts are in residence more than one year and two summer sessions 
for the Master's degree, whereas practically all graduate students in Edu- 
cation obtain the degree in one academic year or four summer sessions. The 
increased time in Practical Arts is due to requirements of technical prepara- 
tion which is not included in the undergraduate work of most of the colleges 
from which our graduate students come. 

(2) Relatively few graduate students in Practical Arts of the past three 
years have taken for the Master's degree less than six courses in technical 
or educational aspects of Practical Arts and a large number have taken 
eight. Here, again, the explanation is found in the fact that specialization is 
necessary for the student who has not taken undergraduate work in Prac- 
tical Arts and related sciences. 

(3) There are relatively few part-time students in Practical Arts. This 
is largely due to the difficulties involved in offering laboratory courses at 
hours adapted to teachers in the public schools. 



l64 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

The professional character of the School of Practical Arts 
has become more evident with the increase of students 

above the Sophomore year. This is clearly 

Professional Work • j- ^ i • ^u • j. ^- c r 

. . . . mdicated m the registration tor 1916-1917 

in which 352 are classified as Freshmen and 
Sophomores preparing for the professional majors and 745 
Juniors, Seniors, and graduates are distributed among the 
twenty professional majors open to students of these years. In 
addition to the 745 students registered above the Sophomore 
year, the 244 students recorded as 'matriculated unclassified' 
are mature students with college admission credentials, but 
pursuing special programs in professional lines because they 
are unable to give time to the general academic courses re- 
quired of regular candidates for the Bachelor's degree. Also, 
a number of students classified as Sophomores are within one 
summer session of full Junior work in professional majors. 
Certainly more than one thousand of the 1,331 students of 
Practical Arts are pursuing the strictly professional majors 
designed primarily for Juniors, Seniors, and graduate students. 

All of the twenty majors have now been arranged to em- 
phasize their professional aims. In the first years of the School, 
the majors in general household arts and practical science 
seemed to be of little professional and of great general cultural 
value, but gradually they have been changed. Professional 
opportunities have developed in nutrition, bacteriology, sani- 
tation, chemistry, and other phases of practical science included 
in that major. The general household arts major has been 
adapted to the profession of home-making, and is more and 
more attracting Seniors and graduates who are able to forecast 
that their own interest in household arts lies in home-making. 
It now seems certain that, as now organized, the professional 
major in general household arts or home-making will become 
one of the most important of the practical arts majors. 

During the year the Faculty of Practical Arts has con- 
sidered and adopted a new plan for advising undergraduates 

_ , ... concerning their studies. The advisers who 

Faculty Advisers . , , 1011 

were appointed when the School was or- 
ganized five years ago were the representatives of major sub- 



TEACHERS COLLEGE 165 

jects, all of which were professional. The great increase of 
professional students in the Junior and Senior years has over- 
burdened the original advisers and tended toward more or less 
neglect of the students of the first two years. Moreover, there 
have appeared certain difficulties in having students of the 
first two years entirely under the control of professional ad- 
visers who are specialists in one subject, for two-thirds of the 
required work for the Freshman and Sophomore years is gen- 
eral and even most of the practical arts courses for these years 
are so elementary that technical advisers are not necessary. 
Considering these facts, it has become the unanimous opinion 
of the faculty that there should be a division of advisory duties 
between officers of instruction representing the general courses 
that predominate in the first two years and others concerned 
with the professional study of the last two years. Accordingly, 
the faculty has decided to assign as advisers for the general 
curriculum of the Freshman and Sophomore years a group of 
officers of instruction who represent English, science, language, 
and other general subjects that constitute the greater part of 
the students' work in these years. The original advisers are 
thereby limited to the strictly professional curriculum of the 
Junior and Senior years. In order to give the Freshmen and 
Sophomores advice regarding the anticipated professional work 
of the last two years, the complete plan includes provision for 
associate advisers representing the professional majors which 
the students are preparing to elect at the beginning of the 
Junior year. 

Another change in the system of advisers is the assignment 
of associate advisers for certain professional majors of the 
Junior and Senior years. It has become evident to the faculty 
that such associate advisers are needed, particularly in the case 
of the students with technical education majors, in which the 
necessary emphasis on educational problems tends to lead the 
student out of touch with the special subject-matter that is 
necessary for the greatest professional success. It is important 
that this tendency away from the subject-matter should be 
checked by faculty advisers, for beyond doubt there is devel- 
oping on the part of students of practical arts education, espe- 



l66 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

cially those who come to the School after some years of teach- 
ing, the feeling that they know enough subject-matter and that 
the way to professional success or the path of least resistance 
lies in a program with the required minimum of technical sub- 
ject-matter and a maximum of education courses to complete 
the curriculum for the Bachelor's or Master's degree. 

The new plan for advisers has a special advantage with refer- 
ence to Teachers College diplomas in that the Executive Com- 
mittee can have the recommendation of two advisers who 
normally will be in touch with a four-year student. This is espe- 
cially important in household arts — the largest of the six divi- 
sions of the School — for the great majority of students in this 
line become candidates for teaching diplomas through the De- 
partment of Household Arts Education. A student with a 
major within this department will have in the last two or pro- 
fessional years an adviser in household arts education, an asso- 
ciate adviser representing technical specialization (cookery, 
clothing, household administration or nutrition), and will have 
had in the first two years an adviser representing the general 
academic subjects. Usually in such a case the same associate 
adviser will deal with the student throughout the four years. 

The undergraduate students have prepared, through the 

Students' Executive Council, a plan which places the individual 

undergraduate on his honor for submitting his 
Honor System , . , , . . 

own work m note books, exammations, reports, 

essays, and other papers in which the instructor credits the 

students on the basis of the written work submitted. The 

faculty, by unanimous vote, has authorized the Students' 

Executive Council to elaborate the plan and to put it into 

operation in the next college year. 

The war has caused a demand for certain useful knowledge 

related to Practical Arts; and emergency extension courses in 

^ ^ . cookery, nutrition, home nursing, and 

Emergency Instruction _ . , „ , , . « ., , 

nrst aid were oiiered durmg April and 

May. In the last two weeks of the college year all departments 

of the School of Practical Arts offered special courses limited to 

regular students, and more than i ,200 students attended thirty 

or more hours of such instruction. 



TEACHERS COLLEGE 167 

For several years the School of Practical Arts has offered a 

number of special or extension courses designed for popular 

instruction without reference to credit „ , ^ 

, , , ,. , _ - Popular Instruction 

toward degrees and diplomas. In the 

past two years such courses have been conducted as special ex- 
tension courses. Arrangements have now been completed for 
conducting such popular instruction in cooperation with the 
University Institute of Arts and Sciences. Announcements of 
series of lectures and other instruction will be made in the 
bulletin of the Institute, and auditors will obtain cards of ad- 
mission from the ofhce of the Secretary of Teachers College. 
The adjustment of our special or extension classes in Prac- 
tical Arts to the University Department of Extension Teaching, 

begun in 1915-1916, has been fully com- ^ . ^, 

. Extension Classes 

pleted during the present year. There have 

appeared many advantages in the arrangement, especially in 
advertising, in drawing a sharp line between extension and 
matriculated students, and in the control of extension stu- 
dents by officials of the Extension Department. 

Respectfully submitted, 

M. A. BiGELOW, 

Director 
June 30, igi7 



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 
REPORT OF THE DEAN 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, I917 

To the President of the University, 
Sir: 

I have the honor to report steady and substantial progress 
in the educational and material development of the College 
of Pharmacy during the year 1916-1917. 

During this period, the fourth year of instruction of the 

baccalaureate course in pharmacy has been given for the 

^ . , first time in our school and state, contributing 

Lurriculum , . ^^ . . ,, 

two graduates to the University roll. 

In due course, we have arranged our syllabus of instruction 
for the first of the two years of our graduate course. In this 
work, we have adhered to the general plan of that leading to 
the degree of doctor of philosophy, requiring forty hours' 
work weekly, ten hours in each of the departments of chem- 
istry, materia medica and pharmacy, the remaining ten in 
that department selected by the student, and involving 
original investigation. Popularity in the reception of this 
course in the early future is not anticipated, but it establishes 
a sound standard. This standard having been legalized by 
the state, the degree of Doctor of Pharmacy becomes pro- 
tected against the degrading influences to which it has been 
subjected in past years. 

During this year, our faculty has struggled with the problem 
of proportioning the professional and 'non-professional' ele- 
ments in the curriculum. At the same time, we have sought 
the assistance of the University in getting tlie facts regard- 
ing this relation so recorded as to establish an official basis 
of estimate and to remove grounds for misinterpretation. The 
efficiency of our graduates demands close economy in direct- 



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 169 

ing their work along professional lines. In applied science, 
a mistake is fatal. Success demands a physical result which 
can be reached only in obedience to inexorable law. No 
plausible theorizing and no sophistry can take the place of 
this result, which must be attained if failure is not to be 
confessed. Hence the necessity for thorough and complete 
technical preparation. On the other hand, the higher sort of 
success calls for a similar basis of general preparation to that 
which has been laid in other professions. In the latter direc- 
tion, this school has gone farther than is customary in Ameri- 
can schools of pharmacy. While this has tended to repel 
students of superficial tendencies, thus imposing a financial 
handicap upon us, our position in this regard has not been 
fully appreciated in some educational circles. These con- 
siderations have led us, during the past year, to request your 
advice and assistance in establishing our position in the Uni- 
versity system. While this work is not yet completed, we feel 
that it will tend toward promoting closer relations and more 
complete cooperation with the University. 

Our professional work of the year has presented some 
unusual features, due to the publication and legalization of 
the new or changed standards of the United States Pharmaco- 
poeia and of the National Formulary. Our graduating class 
necessarily applied itself to the study of the preceding stan- 
dards during the first year of its work, being compelled in the 
second year to substitute those of the new codes. A serious 
question arose among schools and boards of pharmacy as to 
the extent to which they should require candidates to be 
informed upon the new standards, and various answers were 
returned. We took the ground that as the new standards 
were legal, no half-way state of preparedness on the part of 
pharmacists was admissible. Early in the year we bent our- 
selves to the task, extremely difficult for both faculty and 
student body, of fully meeting the new conditions. With few 
exceptions, our students imbibed our spirit and faithfully 
met our requirements, so that the results of examination quite 
reached our expectations and we graduated the largest class 
in our history. 



1 70 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Coincident with the stringent condition just stated, the 
New York State Board of Pharmacy, acting in harmony with 
a general movement throughout the country, materially 
raised the standard of its examinations and its passing mark, 
a change that should conduce to better educational work in 
this profession. 

During the past year, our library has been made particu- 
larly effective as an educational factor. Besides interesting 
a larger number of students than formerly in reference 
work, our Librarians have arranged a number of 
instructive historical exhibits of ancient pharmaceutical works 
and apparatus. 

In response to our offer of an enlarged curriculum in our 

evening courses, there has been an encouraging increase in 

the size, and improvement in the character of these 

vening ^.j^gggg -yyith promise of a still greater increase for 
Courses . 

the coming year. 

During the early part of the year, our attention was directed 

toward the prospect of a diversion of the student body into 

the ranks of the army and navy. Some special, and 

c . as it has turned out successful, efforts were there- 

bervices 

upon resorted to, to prevent the serious reduction 
in our attendance that appeared to be impending. 

After long and careful study, our Board of Trustees has 
decided that the amount of time and effort that would be 
required for the successful management of a drug 
farm located at the Botanical Garden would be 
out of proportion to the benefits likely to accrue, and that our 
limited corps of officers could better devote this time and 
effort to work at the College building; so, for the present at 
least, this project has been laid upon the table. 

The system of steel lockers installed at the beginning of the 
school year has been found to fully meet our expectations in 
the increased comfort of the students and in the more orderly 
and consistent administration of the building. 

Again it is my painful duty to record the death of several 
of our valued and beloved associates. Mr. Thomas F. Main, 
Secretary of our Board of Trustees, was not only one of the 



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY I7I 

most lovable gentlemen connected with American pharmacy, 
but one of the most active and useful of our ofificers. Pro- 
fessor John Oehler had been longer engaged in teaching 
upon our faculty than any other of its active mem- 
bers. Several others of our deceased fellow members have, 
at former times, been members of our Faculty or of our 
Board of Trustees, and it has been a shocking experience to 
part with so many of them in a single year. 

Respectfully submitted, 
H. H. RusBY, 

Dean 
June 30, igiy 



SUMMER SESSION 
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 

FOR THE SUMMER SESSION OF I917 

To the President of the University, 

Sir: 

It is my privilege to present herewith the report of the 
eighteenth Summer Session of the University which opened 
July 9 and closed August 17, 191 7. When the program of 
the Summer Session of this year was prepared, the participa- 
tion of our own land in the European war was recognized as 
possible, but the actual declaration of war was not expected. 
The offering for the Summer Session was, therefore, made as 
for a time of peace and with the full expectation that the 
members of the student body would certainly be as numerous 
as in the Session of 191 6. We can safely claim that not only 
Columbia University but no other educational institution 
ever set forth so complete and varied a scheme of summer 
study as appeared in the Announcement of the current year. 

Immediately upon the declaration of war, the question 

arose as to the possibility of carrying on the Summer Session. 

The assertion was made that timid students from 

, vv other parts of the country would avoid New York 

and many men would be called for service and, 

therefore, drawn away from educational work, and finally 

that the unsettled state of the country and the restlessness 

existing in the financial world would have a very serious efTect 

upon the Summer Session and would cause an extraordinary 

loss of money for the University. 

These suggestions and opinions were met at once by the 
statement of the administrative officers of the University to 
the effect that the Summer Session would be conducted as 
usual, that the program proposed would be carried out with- 



SUMMER SESSION I73 

out hesitation or modification, and that the recognition of 
such action would justify its support. The result fully justi- 
fied the optimism which refused to see disaster and the neces- 
sity for a withdrawal or a serious modification of plans for 
the Summer Session of 1917. 

The registration for the Session of 19 16 was phenomenal 
because of the presence in New York of the National Educa- 
tion Association which met this year in Portland, . 
Oregon. The registration of the present summer 
should be compared with that of 1915 rather than with that 
of 1916. In 1915 there were 5,961 students, in 1916, 8,023, 
and in 1917, 6,144. Therefore, an increase over the regis- 
tration of 1915 is shown in the figures for 1917. 

Some items in the registration figures deserve comment. 
The percentage of women students to men is about the same 
as in 1916. The figures in 19 15 were forty per cent, men to 
sixty per cent, women; in 19 16, thirty- five per cent, men to 
sixty-five per cent, women; in 191 7, thirty-three per cent, men 
to sixty-seven per cent, women. Approximation to the figures 
of 191 5 is also shown in the percentage of students previously 
registered to that of new students. In 19 15 the proportion was 
forty-three per cent, old to fifty-seven per cent, new; in 1916, 
thirty-eight per cent, old to sixty- two per cent, new; in 
191 7, forty-five per cent, old to fifty-five per cent. new. The 
number in 191 5 of those not engaged in teaching was 2,360; 
in 1916, 2,874; in 1917, 2,384; so that the figures of 1917 
approximate again those of 1915. Of matriculated students 
attending the Summer Session there were in 191 5, 3,407; in 
1916, 4,763; and in 1917, 3,547. Concerning the figures in 
the classification of students according to residence we note 
a falling off of students from Manhattan and the Bronx, one 
hundred and sixty-five less than in 1915 and from Queens, 
thirty less than in 1915. Although, in general, registration 
from the states outside of New York was less than in 1916, in 
some instances the figures were the same or even greater. 
Thus one hundred and seventy-six came from Indiana in 1916 
and in 1917; sixty from California in both years; North 
Dakota gave fifteen against nine in 1916; Porto Rico, thirteen 



174 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

against eleven; China, twenty-seven against nineteen; Cuba, 
eight against seven; Mexico, five against one; and Japan, 
eighteen against thirteen. The numbers of the North Atlantic 
Division were nevertheless greater than those of any other. 
This Division includes the eastern states New York, New 
Jersey, and Pennsylvania. 

The instructors of the Summer Session for 19 17 numbered 
383 of whom 307 were men and seventy-six women. There 
were fifty-five assistants, including the principal 
cf ff * ^ and sixteen teachers of the demonstration school, 
and eight teachers of the junior high school. In 
1916 there were 395 instructors of whom 296 were men and 
ninety-nine women. Of the eighty-eight assistants, forty-six 
were men and forty-two were women. At least twenty-five 
instructors withdrew and their places were filled by substi- 
tutes. The courses numbered 584. The number of instructors 
from outside of the University was 118 — reduced by eleven in 
consequence of the war — as compared with 104 in 1 916; 108 
in 1915; eighty-five in 19 14; sixty- three in 191 3; sixty in 
1912. 

The educational plan of the Summer Session varied very 

slightly from that of 1916 in the diversity of the subjects and 

in the number of the courses offered. The courses 

rogram o j^ certain departments were slightly increased, 

such as in commerce, classical philology, and 

English, but whatever modification was made looked rather 

to the adjustment of the work of the Summer Session and 

a better coordination, a process which naturally takes place 

every summer. 

As has been said above, the prospect of the reduction in the 
number of students did not affect the educational offering. 
Nevertheless, as many of the instructors were called upon for 
national service, it became necessary to withdraw classes for 
which instructors could not readily be secured or if the num- 
bers registered did not justify their continuance. At least 
twenty courses were dropped for these reasons. In every 
instance where the students could not be cared for in other 
courses, the classes were maintained notwithstanding the 



SUMMER SESSION I75 

small registration and the interests of the students were care- 
fully guarded. 

As in Extension Teaching so in the Summer Session, the 
University was requested to offer emergency courses because 
of the war. These were designed to serve the national gov- 
ernment and business houses, particularly banks. The first 
series had as its definite purpose the preparation of workers 
in banks and trust companies and included courses in practical 
banking, elementary bookkeeping and clerical practice, in 
typewriting and in indexing and filing. The second series was 
entitled 'Training Course for Military Interpreters in French 
and German'. This included: Practicum for military inter- 
preters in French and German, military regulations and 
service regulations, and finally typewriting. These series have 
aroused much interest and have been of considerable service 
to the national government. 

The Summer Session has obtained an enviable reputation 
for the opportunity it offers to those who desire to listen to 
music of high grade. The Session of this year 
was made the occasion of the first attempt on Grand Opera 
the part of any educational institution to present 
g-rand opera on the. University grounds for the benefit of the 
student body. To accomplish this achievement it became 
necessary to modify the University Gymnasium so that it 
could serve the purpose of an opera house. The stage was 
raised, a large curtain was erected, and stage scenery of suit- 
able size was introduced. The effect was all that could be 
desired, although the seating capacity was reduced because of 
the caution of the Fire Department of the City. Four operas 
were sung in two series, making in all eight performances. 
These were: La Boheme, Tosca, Faust, Cavalleria Rusticana, 
and Pagliacci. The chorus and orchestra were selected from 
those of the Metropolitan Opera House. Many distinguished 
singers took the leading parts, including such well-known 
artists as Maggie Teyte, Luisa Villani, and Signor Botta. 
The University is greatly indebted to the directors of the 
Metropolitan Opera Company for their generosity in loaning 
many properties and in giving aid and encouragement in 



176 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

many ways. The entire plan was conceived and carried out 
by Mr. Eduardo Petri who was ably assisted by Mr. Milton 
J. Davies, in charge of the Institute of Arts and Sciences at 
Columbia. Mr. Petri assumed the entire expense of the 
undertaking and agreed to give any net returns to the National 
Special Aid Society, Aviation Section. 

Two facts were brought out very clearly through this ex- 
traordinary^ achievement: First, that the University should 
have a large auditorium for its immediate use; second, that 
the University should be the dispenser of opportunities of 
this character in the drama and in music. 

The giving of opera did not interfere with the usual musical 

program as planned by Professor Walter Henry Hall. The 

oratorio of the 'Messiah' was given in the 

„ , _^ . , Chapel and the Chorus of two hundred sang 
Entertainments '^ , . , , ° 

'Samson and Delilah' in the University Gym- 
nasium. The New York Military Band under Mr. Edwin 
Franko Goldman gave the usual outdoor concerts. These 
were attended by large numbers of the students and many of 
the friends of the University who live in the neighborhood. 
The soloists of the 'Messiah' were Miss Marie Stoddart, 
soprano; Miss Margaret Abbott, mezzo-soprano; Mr. Dan 
Beddoe, tenor; and Mr. Alan Turner, baritone. The soloists 
for 'Samson and Delilah' were Miss Margaret Abbott, mezzo- 
soprano; Mr. Dan Beddoe, tenor; Mr. Alan Turner, baritone; 
Mr. Henry Weldon, bass. 

The Devereux Players again gave their plays, preferring 

this summer to use the University Gymnasium so as to avoid 

the possibility of interference by the weather. 

e e\ereux jyju,^!^ regret was expressed that they used the 
Gymnasium rather than the green, as these 
plays have always been greatly appreciated on account of the 
beaut>' of the setting of the University grounds. They gave 
this year, 'Twelfth Night', 'Much Ado about Nothing', 'School 
for Scandal', and 'Learned Ladies'. 

The purpose of these musical and dramatic events is edu- 
cational primarily, although there is an additional advantage 



SUMMER SESSION I77 

secured by the possibility of concentrating the interest of 
the students even in their leisure time at the University. 

The reception this summer was distinguished by the presence 
of President Butler who gave the address of welcome. The 
special address of the evening was given by Dean Virginia C. 
Gildersleeve of Barnard College. The subject of her address 
was 'Women's Work in the War'. The other exercises con- 
sisted of singing by the Musurgia Club and community sing- 
ing by the audience. 

The following public lectures were offered for the benefit of 

visitors and students: Lecture by M. Stephane Lauzanne on 

'Fighting France', illustrated, attendance 500; by 

Professor A. de Pierpont, in French on 'L'Universa- " ^'^ 

. Lectures 

lite de la Langue frangaise', attendance 90; motion 

pictures, 'The Grail — a study in boy psychology', attendance 
900; lecture in French by Professor A. Carnoy, on 'Les Poetes 
mystiques beiges', attendance 75; by Mr. E. Obecny, on 
'Polish Romantic Literature', attendance 115; by Miss Ruth 
Morgan, Chairman, Mayor's Committee of Women on Na- 
tional Defense, on 'Women's War Work — City Mobilization', 
by Miss Mabel H. Kittredge, Chairman, Standing Committee 
on Food, Mayor's Committee, on 'Food', attendance 400; by 
Professor John Driscoll Fitz-Gerald, II, on 'Pan America and 
the War', attendance 85; by Miss Stella A. Miner, member, 
Standing Committee on Social Welfare, Mayor's Committee, 
on 'Women's War Work — Social Welfare', by Dean Virginia 
C. Gildersleeve, Chairman, Standing Committee on Agricul- 
ture, Mayor's Committee, on 'Agriculture', attendance 150; 
by Miss Annie W. Goodrich, Chairman, Standing Committee 
on Nursing, Mayor's Committee, on 'Women's War Work — 
Nursing'; by Dean Virginia C. Gildersleeve, Chairman, 
Columbia University Committee on Women's War Work, on 
'University Mobilization', attendance 200; by Professor L. A. 
Loiseaux, in French, on 'Paris, ancien et moderne', illustrated, 
attendance 138; by Mr. E. Obecny, on 'Polish Romantic 
Literature', attendance 100; by Mr. W. Brewer Brown in 
connection with the Devereux Players, attendance 400; by 
Dr. Anna Howard Shaw, Chairman, Woman's Committee, 



178 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Council of National Defense, on 'Women's War Work — 
National Mobilization', attendance, 1,000; motion picture, 
'Adventures of a Boy Scout', attendance 600; by Professor 
Donald Clive Stuart, on 'The Relation of Drama to Litera- 
ture', attendance 60; by Mr. W. Brewer Brown in connection 
with the Devereux Players, attendance 168; by Professor 
L. W. Crawford, on 'The Washington Irving Region', atten- 
dance 250; by Mr. W. Brewer Brown in connection with the 
Devereux Players, attendance 100; by Dr. Guy Stanton Ford, 
Dean of the University of Minnesota, of President Wilson's 
Committee on Public Information, Washington, D. C, on 'The 
War and Education', attendance 80; by Professor Rossetter G. 
Cole, on 'The Melodrama as a Modern Music Form', illus- 
trated by his musical settings to 'King Robert of Sicily', 
'Hiawatha's Wooing', and 'Pierrot Wounded' (new), Mrs. 
Cole at the piano, attendance 200 ; by Professor James Eustace 
Shaw, on 'Italy in the War', attendance 60; by Dean James 
E. Russell, on 'Educator's Service in War Time', attendance 
100; by Mr. Rafael A. Soto, in Spanish, on 'Vicente Blasco 
Ibanez', attendance 50; by Professor Isaiah Bowman, on 
'Geography of South America', illustrated, attendance 242; dra- 
matic reading by Mrs. Estelle H. Davis, attendance 60; lec- 
ture in French by Mr. Leon Ferraru, on 'L'Influence frangaise 
en Roumanie', attendance 30; by Mr. Frederic H. Ripley, 
Supervisor of Music, Boston, Mass., on 'The Development of 
Songs for Little Children', attendance 100; by Mr. Garibaldi 
Laguardia, in Spanish, on 'La Argentina de Hoy y sus Ante- 
cedentes', attendance 90; author's reading by Professor A. 
deV. Tassin, attendance 70; by Professor Arthur C. Neish, 
on 'Liquid Air', illustrated by experiments, attendance 252; 
by Professor Isaiah Bowman, on 'Geography of South Amer- 
ica', illustrated, attendance 165; by M. Pierre de Bacourt, in 
French, on 'La Presse frangaise', attendance 175; by M. 
Marcel Knecht, on 'The Effort of France and her Colonial 
Empire and of Alsace-Lorraine', illustrated with the official 
French War Office motion picture films, attendance 200; by 
Dr. Richard Hill of Tiflis, a recent eye witness, on 'Behind the 
Russian Line in Armenia', attendance 250; by Professor Isaiah 



SUMMER SESSION I79 

Bowman, on 'Geography of South America', illustrated, atten- 
dance 80; by Mr. Henri C. dinger, in French, on 'Les Ameri- 
cains dans la Legion etrangere', attendance 60. 

The services in the Chapel were held regularly throughout 
the Session at eight o'clock in the morning and on Sunday at 
4:10 p. m., and in the evening at eight o'clock in the 
Grove. Although the evening services were inter- „ ? 
rupted on several occasions by showers the interest 
in these informal gatherings was maintained throughout the 
summer. All of these exercises were appreciated by many of 
the Summer Session students and their importance was clearly 
demonstrated. The Reverend Duncan Browne served most 
acceptably as Chaplain of the Summer Session in the absence 
of the Chaplain of the University. The preachers of the Sum- 
mer Session were: the Reverend G. A. Johnston Ross of 
Union Theological Seminary; Dean Shailer Matthews, Divin- 
ity School, University of Chicago; and the Right Reverend 
Thomas F. Gailor, Memphis, Tennessee. The daily services 
were attended by an average of 200 students who welcomed 
the few moments of religious worship as appropriate introduc- 
tion to their day of study. Many members of the staff of 
instructors spoke at the early chapel exercises. 

The same means of safeguarding the students were adopted 
as in previous years and were found most effective in pro- 
tecting the good name of the University and pre- 
venting mishaps to those entrusted to its care. *^ ^^ ^ 
The Students' Welfare Committee, under the Committee 
direction of Mrs. Margaret P. Kilpatrick, took 
full charge of the housing of the students who could not enter 
the dormitories. Dr. William H. McCastline, University Medi- 
cal Officer, devoted himself to the welfare of the students and 
cared for their health with his usual untiring patience and 
skill. The University in furnishing medical officers and trained 
nurses gives assurance to students who come from a distance 
and to their friends that they are amply protected from serious 
illness while engaged in their studies. 

- Important and encouraging support of the Summer Session 
was found in the decision of the Court of Appeals to recognize 



l80 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

the Summer Session as part of the period of residence re- 
quired of those aspiring to admission to the bar. The Sum- 
mer Session hereafter may, therefore, form part 
ecogni ion ^^ ^^^ residence of the student in law, and his 
Law Courses , , . . , . 

courses will be accepted as bemg given during 

the period of residence. This is a most important action as 
it enables the law student to count his courses and the summer 
term in the same manner as he counts the Winter and Spring 
Sessions of the academic year. 

Another important change which was made by the Admin- 
istrative Board this year was the withdrawal of all restrictions 
as to the selection of courses. Students were 

_ , . „ allowed to select whatever they desired, one 

Selecting Courses . 11, 

course simply or a number as they chose. 

Advice was freely granted as to the appropriate amount, and 
the question of credit in any school regulated and largely de- 
termined the maximum. This method of regarding the stu- 
dent as fully aware of the subjects and the amount he can 
wisely undertake, granting free opportunity to take even 
little or as much as he desires, is evidently the proper Uni- 
versity spirit. This is the free and open plan now adopted 
in Extension Teaching which has given so much satisfaction 
and has made the courses of that department so serviceable to 
the mature student in New York City. 

Another important change introduced by the Administra- 
tive Board was the moving back of the last day of registration 
to Wednesday, July 11. The result of this change enabled the 
students to begin their work more promptly and to prevent 
the postponement of their registration until after the first 
week had elapsed which always weakened the instruction in 
the Summer Session. 

The excursions as organized and conducted by Professor 
Crawford are a deeply appreciated part of Summer Session 
experience. The Administrative Board thus fur- 
Excursions nishes instructive and inexpensive recreation for a 
large number of students. Where the intention 
is distinctly educational, the system admits of a division of the 
students into small groups so that direct information can be 



SUMMER SESSION l8l 

given. Among the excursions which attracted large numbers 
we may mention that entitled 'New York at Night', conducted 
in ten sections, with a total of 518; 'Around Manhattan 
Island', in four sections, 434 students; West Point, 900 stu- 
dents; Washington Irving Region, 571 students; Sandy Hook 
Light Ship, 434 students. Other excursions included trips to, 
the New York Times, to the financial district, John Wana- 
maker's store, Ziegler Publishing Company, and to a ball-game. 
The University maintains at comparatively little expense a 
students' camp in the beautiful country near Bantam Lake, 
Connecticut. This camp is well equipped so 
that three hundred students can easily be ^™ 

accommodated. The original purpose of the camp was to fur- 
nish practical work for students in the Schools of Mines, En- 
gineering, and Chemistry, particularly those enrolled in civil 
engineering. Through modification of the curriculum this 
training was finally limited to the students in civil engineering. 
This change and the placing of the schools of science on the 
graduate basis with the consequent reduction in numbers 
resulted in a very small enrolment at Camp Columbia. Very 
few students were, therefore, expected at the Camp this 
summer. As a large number of applicants for the Plattsburg 
camp had been disappointed, the Administrative Board estab- 
lished military courses at Camp Columbia. Lieutenant Ralph 
Hodder Williams, a Canadian officer, who had been wounded 
at the Battle of the Somme, formerly instructor in history 
at the University of Toronto, was placed in charge. The 
selection of Lieutenant Williams was most fortunate, and 
great success attended the establishment of the military camp. 
Residents living in the vicinity of the camp contributed gifts, 
amounting to $1,575 for the purpose of providing equipment 
and to aid in the conduct of these military courses. It is a 
significant fact that the existence of the Camp is highly appreci- 
ated by the neighbors whose goodwill and interest have been won 
within the past few years. By the erection of a cottage during 
the spring, for the first time the Resident Director is provided 
with a suitable home, as hitherto it has been necessary to rent 
for this purpose a most unsatisfactory cottage near the Camp. 



l82 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

I should recommend most earnestly the use of this camp for 
military training purposes for the few years to come at least 
until the registration in the schools of science increases in such 
a manner as to affect the registration at the summer camp, 
The students attending the military courses this year were 
from Cornell, Pennsylvania, Amherst, New York University, 
and the University of Michigan. 

The Young Men's Christian Association at the Camp was 
under the care of Mr. Walter Fletcher who is now connected 
with the United States Ambulance Corps at Allentown, 
Pennsylvania. Through the agency of this association the 
social tone of the Camp was maintained at an excellent stan- 
dard. Religious services with preaching were held in the 
Y. M. C. A. Building every Sunday night. 

The social interests of the students received much attention 
from Mr. Fletcher and through him the building was made of 
great service to the students. 

In conclusion permit me to say that the Summer Session of 
this year has been different in many ways from others in my 
experience. Although the students have had their usual good 
time, there has been an undercurrent of seriousness in the stu- 
dent body. The work has been carried on most faithfully and 
with such devotion and interest as to awaken the admiration 
of those who have hitherto been strangers to the work of our 
Summer Session. Notwithstanding the extraordinary devel- 
opment of the last two years in this part of the work of the 
University, we are entirely satisfied that the full possibilities 
of summer education at Columbia have not even yet been 
attained. There are subjects and courses that have not yet 
appeared in our list and the educational offering can be 
widened and elaborated even beyond the offering made in the 
present year. The general educational influence of the Sum- 
mer Session may be still further strengthened by use of the 
drama, music, and excursions. 

Respectfully submitted, 

James C. Egbert, 
August 17, 1917 Director 



EXTENSION TEACHING 
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, I917 

To the President of the University, 
Sir: 

I desire to present herewith the Report of Extension Teach- 
ing for the academic year, ending June 30, 1917. 

It is my pleasure and privilege to report a most successful 
year for Extension Teaching. In speaking thus, I do not refer 
to numbers, although recognition of this character places the 
seal of approval on our plans and their development. In fact, 
the enrolment for 1916-1917 was 6,008 as against 4,781 in 
1915-1916, indicating the greatest increase in the history of 
Extension Teaching. Nevertheless, the real success of this 
work rests in the full application of certain principles and 
theories to this phase of university education. Thus we be- 
lieve in the broadest use of the university offering, so that 
higher education without restriction and as extensive as possi- 
ble may be at the service of all who are desirous of obtaining it. 
Coincident with this belief we maintain a purpose to uphold 
true university standards. 

The progress of Extension Teaching which exemplifies such 
principles has been phenomenal and has aroused extraordinary 
interest on the part of those who have shared in 
and aided its success or witnessed its accomplish- progress o 
ments. The organization at Columbia is flexible Teaching 
and extremely efficient. The Administrative Board 
has the standing of the faculties which control the destinies of 
the other schools. It is responsible to the Council alone, al- 
though its educational offerings are largely controlled by the 
various departments which assume the responsibility for the 
teaching of the subject with which they are concerned. The 



l84 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

educational offering, guaranteed, so to speak, by the various 
departments, must of necessity obtain approval in the dif- 
ferent schools. The student in an ideal university manner 
selects the subject and courses which he desires and needs 
After he has completed his work and received his credits, he 
may present them to the appropriate school for acceptance 
when he has satisfied the entrance requirements and become an 
approved student of that school. The important fact upon 
which emphasis is laid is the completion of his course in a 
satisfactory manner, not the place where he attends lectures 
or the hour of such attendance. The student's choice is free, 
his opportunity is broad, and his completed work is duly 
recognized. 

This, in outline, is the plan of a true university, and Colum- 
bia in its Extension Teaching Department is responsible for 
putting it into operation. Only one step remains. The Uni- 
versity should be ready to confer its degrees upon the student 
when he completes in a satisfactory manner the program of 
study required for any particular degree, regardless of the cir- 
cumstances under which such courses were taken in the Uni- 
versity. 

From these statements it is possible to understand how 

diversified the program of Extension Teaching must naturally 

become. I desire to enumerate in a few words the 

iversi y activities which mark the history of the past year, 
oi Program . ... 

This Department offers many courses m subjects, 

which form a part of the curriculum of Columbia College, and 
in the more advanced branches of these subjects, shares in the 
work for the higher degrees. This is the substantial back- 
ground for all the courses of Extension Teaching. Subordinate 
and subsidiary to this are the courses of secondary school 
grade offered for mature students who cannot return to ordi- 
nary schools of this type. In the remaining courses the pro- 
fessional schools are represented by an ever-enlarging program 
of study. Thus many courses belonging to the Schools of 
Mines, Engineering and Chemistry are found in Extension 
Teaching, so that a student may pursue such special branches 
or prepare himself for advanced work in these Schools. Courses 



EXTENSION TEACHING I85 

in architecture are at the command of those who can attend 
only in the evening. In 19 17-19 18 a complete schedule will 
be presented leading to a certificate. Evening classes in busi- 
ness, leading to a certificate, have been greatly appreciated by 
young business men who are engaged during the day. These 
supplement the courses offered in the School of Business. 
Closely allied are those which are devised for young women 
who desire secretarial training. Although few courses of the 
Schools of Law and Medicine are seen in the offering of the 
Department of Extension Teaching, nevertheless many pre- 
paratory courses are offered for those who cannot attend col- 
lege classes and who in this manner can complete the college 
requirements in preparation for these professional schools. 

The adaptability of the organization of Extension Teaching 
is clearly seen in the special subject of study which it has 
been called upon to provide. Thus it cares for a two- 
year course in practical optics closely related to the „ u^^^f 
Department of Physics, thus supplementing the work 
of that Department in the field of optics. Columbia University 
now excels all other universities of this country in its equip- 
ment and its offering in this subject. 

Library economy is arousing much interest today because 

of the demand for trained librarians. Extension Teaching is 

building up an important course of study for those 

who desire to become librarians. A school of ^^ ' 

. . 1 . Economy 

library economy at Columbia is gradually being 

formed and satisfactory progress has been made in this direc- 
tion in Extension Teaching as is shown by the special circular, 
Indicating these courses, which is now regularly prepared. 

A series of laboratory courses in various languages was 
originated three years ago and was received so heartily that 
courses in spoken language were given this year 

in Arabic, Armenian, English, French, German, j 

' > & J > > Languages 

Irish, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese, Rumanian, 

Russian, Spanish, and Turkish. We speak of these as 'courses 

in spoken language'. 

Finally, in the Spring Session, Extension Teaching assumed 
control of the courses in oral hygiene and advanced courses in 



l86 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

dentistry for graduate dentists. The former had been estab- 
lished in Hunter College, but was transferred to the Vander- 

bilt Clinic at the request of the State Department of 
„ . Education and in conformity with the law which 

requires that such courses should be given in an 
infirmary. The latter were transferred to Columbia Uni- 
versity at the request of a number of prominent dentists who 
saw in this arrangement suitable support and encouragement 
for the new School of Dentistry. This committee of dentists 
turned over to the University as a gift a very complete labora- 
tory and infirmary, located at the present time at 35 West 
39th Street. The University, therefore, became the possessor 
of an equipment which may also be used for the new School 
of Dentistry. 

We have been discussing up to the present moment what 

may be termed the intramural division. We should now turn 

to the activities of Extension Teaching away from 

„ the University. The extramural division has 

Courses ... 

within its control the following schools and courses : 

The University offered at Scranton courses in education and 
English; at Springfield, a course in social economy; at Stam- 
ford, a course in education; and at Yonkers, courses in Eng- 
lish and education. At Packer Institute in Brooklyn, graduate 
courses were offered in English, history, politics, and sociology. 
Extension Teaching has had educational supervision and con- 
trol over the courses of instruction in banking practice and com- 
mercial law offered by the New York Chapter of the American 
Institute of Banking which is located at 138 East 35th Street. 
Many young bankers have profited by this opportunity. The 
University appointed the teachers and regulated the educa- 
tional offering of these courses. 

Finally the Department was called upon to care for the pre- 
medical year of the Long Island College Hospital. The Long 
Island College Hospital requested Columbia University to 
come to its assistance, as the State Department of Education 
was unwilling to have academic courses given in a professional 
school. Columbia, therefore, offered in Brooklyn courses in 
chemistry, English, French, German, physics, biology, and 



EXTENSION TEACHING I87 

zoology. This offering covered one year of college work and 
was accepted as such in Columbia College for students duly 
matriculated. Thus a form of junior college was clearly estab- 
lished in Brooklyn, and Columbia cooperated in this interest- 
ing way with the Long Island College Hospital through its 
Extension Teaching Department. 

At no time in its history has the Department of Extension 
Teaching shown such flexibility and adaptability in meeting 
extraordinary conditions as in the past four months 

since the declaration of war. The University was ^ 

. Courses 

called upon to offer certam emergency courses im- 
portant for training for government service of a military, 
naval, and general character. The demand was insistent, and 
yet it was necessary to arrange for such courses without in- 
volving the University in any additional expense. The De- 
partment of Extension Teaching thereupon prepared for a 
number of emergency courses which were placed at the dis- 
posal of students for a low fee. In military service, trench 
warfare, map reading and map interpretation, military map 
making, field service regulations, general telegraphy, radio 
telegraphy, and camp sanitation were offered ; in naval service, 
practical navigation and electrical auxiliaries of the navy; 
in general service, vegetable gardening and garden practice, 
food conservation, cooking, sewing, dressmaking, home eco- 
nomics, and first aid to the injured. Courses were offered in 
gardening for women in cooperation with the National League 
for Women Service. From May 22 to July 3, a series of volun- 
teer emergency courses for clerical workers was given which 
included elementary typewriting, bookkeeping, and indexing 
and filing. All these classes were conducted without added 
expense to the University. 

One course of lectures deserves special mention. I refer to 
that offered to the metropolitan police of New York City. 
At the request of various officers of the police 

force of New York City a series of lectures ^.^ „ ,. 

■^ , City Policemen 

was offered to policemen without any restric- 
tion, twice a week, both in the morning and in the evening. 
There were seven lectures on criminal law, five lectures on 



l88 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

municipal government, and three on criminology. These were 
attended by more than 150 patrolmen. It is the desire of the 
Police Commissioner and of many of the police officers of 
New York City that Columbia should arrange to give regular 
courses for policemen. This has been done at Berkeley in 
California; a series of lectures has been offered to the police- 
men of Cambridge, Mass., by Harvard University. There is 
no reason why Columbia should not once more display its 
interest in serving New York City by establishing a form of 
education for the police officers who are in active service. 

Extension Teaching has always given much attention to 
music and has maintained for a number of years an efficient 

^ chorus under the leadership of Professor Walter 

Concerts ,_ tt n t- • 1 • 1 

Henry Hall. Iwo concerts were given durmg the 

winter in close cooperation with the Institute of Arts and Sci- 
ences. On December 18, the oratorio of 'The Messiah' was 
sung in Carnegie Hall before a large and enthusiastic audience. 
Many tickets were given to members of the student body 
and of the Institute of Arts and Sciences. The second con- 
cert, the oratorio of 'Samson and Delilah', was given on 
April 25. These concerts have been made possible by the 
generosity of a friend who has been interested in the choral 
music at Columbia University. 

The Institute of Arts and Sciences reports its most success- 
ful year both in the quality of the program and in the number 
of members in attendance. Because of the 

. , , e • fact that we have to use a restricted audi- 

Arts and Sciences ... 1 • 1 

torium. It became necessary during the year 

to limit the membership early in the season for a certain 
period. Nevertheless, Mr. Milton J. Davies, who is in charge, 
reports 263 meetings with an attendance of 87,988. The 
membership numbers are as follows: 1913-1914, 1,248; 1914- 
1915. 1.383; 1915-1916, 1,721; 1916-1917, 2,033. In addition 
to the regular program the Institute obtained the privilege 
of reduced rates on certain special events held in other parts 
of New York City. These were concerts given by the Phil- 
harmonic Society of New York and by the Symphony Society 
of New York, and plays by the Columbia Varsity Show, and 



EXTENSION TEACHING I89 

the Morningside Players. The Institute members also re- 
ceived tickets for the concerts given by the University Chorus, 
'The Messiah' in the Christmas season and 'Samson and Deli- 
lah' in the spring. 

Once again the Director must call the attention of those 
interested in the University to the great need of a suitable 
auditorium, especially in view of the rapid development of 
the Institute of Arts and Sciences. This portion of the work 
of Extension Teaching has great possibilities for general edu- 
cational service on the part of the University. We can con- 
ceive in our imagination of notable concerts and spirited per- 
formances of the drama on the grounds of Columbia University 
in an auditorium suited to the purpose. 

The plans for the coming year are stated in the various 
announcements published by the Department. The principal 
announcement of Extension Teaching is a volume 
of 152 pages and sets forth 425 courses in forty- p . y 
five different subjects. In this enumeration we 
do not include no courses offered through the School of Prac- 
tical Arts, those in spoken languages, numbering twenty-six, 
nor those in practical optics in the two-year program leading 
to a certificate. This is the intramural work planned for the 
coming year. 

The extramural part of Extension Teaching will include the 
courses given at the New York Chapter of the American 
Institute of Banking, the educational supervision of which is 
controlled by Columbia University, and the pre-medical year 
at the Long Island College Hospital which will be strengthened 
and developed so as to furnish the students of this medical 
school with the full academic program, including courses in 
English, mathematics, philosophy, history, chemistry, physics, 
and modern languages. Extramural courses in outlying cities, 
e. g., Springfield, Trenton, Yonkers, and Scran ton, will be 
offered as usual. 

Extension Teaching will also conduct the courses in oral 
hygiene for the benefit of students who are preparing to be of 
service in dental offices as hygienists, and advanced courses in 
dentistry for practitioners who desire to keep abreast of the 



igO COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

times in their profession. It will be seen that the work of 
Extension Teaching is, therefore, most varied and most 
comprehensive. 

Respectfully submitted, 

James C. Egbert, 

Director 
June JO, igiy 



SCHOOL OF BUSINESS 
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, I917 

To the President of the University, 
Sir: 

I desire herewith to present for the first time the annual 
report of the School of Business, for the academic year ending 
June 30, 1917. 

It is a privilege not afforded to many to prepare the first 
report of a new and important school of the University at the 
conclusion of the first year of its history. If we add to this 
the fact that the record of the first year is most satisfactory 
and indicates the wisdom of establishing this new endeavor on 
the part of the University, we are fully justified in feeling 
deeply gratified. 

May I call attention first to the fact that through the asso- 
ciation of the School of Business in its financial conduct with 
Extension Teaching, this School has been established 
and has been maintained for the past year without 
added burden to the University budget. This in itself, of 
course, would be a matter of trifling significance were we not 
able to point with pride to a school which, notwithstanding 
its brief life of one year, stands at the forefront of collegiate 
institutions devoted to education in business. Reverting for 
a moment to the financial question, we may indulge in the 
prophecy that this School will before long not only care for 
itself, but will have a noble share in strengthening the financial 
interests of the entire University. 

The registration for the first year was as follows : Students 
of the School candidates for a degree, Master of Science, 5; 
Bachelor of Science, 21; non-matriculated students, 21; stu- 
dents from other schools of the University taking courses 



192 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

in the School of Business, 137. The School of Business offered 
in the past year 19 undergraduate courses and 9 graduate 
. . courses. The work of the School was supple- 

mented by many of the evening courses in 
business which were of a high grade and deserved this recog- 
nition. The degree of Master of Science was awarded to four 
students and the degree of Bachelor of Science to two who 
entered with advanced standing. 

In the organization of the School of Business the control was 
entrusted to an Administrative Board. The following mem- 
bers were appointed by the Trustees on the 
P , nomination of the President for a period of 

three years beginning July i, 1916: James 
Chidester Egbert, Ph.D., the Director; Frederick J. E. Wood- 
bridge, LL.D., Johnsonian Professor of Philosophy, Dean of 
the Faculties of Philosophy, Political Science, and Pure Sci- 
ence; Frederick Paul Keppel, Litt.D., Dean of Columbia 
College; Frederick A. Goetze, M.Sc, Treasurer of the Uni- 
versity; Virginia C. Gildersleeve, Ph.D., Dean of Barnard 
College; Edwin R. A. Seligman, LL.D., McVickar Professor 
of Political Economy; Howard Lee McBain, Ph.D., Associate 
Professor of Politics. 

The staff of the School of Business for the year 1916-1917 
numbered eleven instructors, as follows: one professor, three 
, . _ assistant professors, two lecturers, and five 

assistants. There were fifteen other officers of 
the University giving instruction in business. The staff of the 
School early in the academic year formed an organization 
which held meetings every month. This organization has been 
of considerable service to the Administrative Board by reason 
of the advice which it has given in the conduct of the School. 

The success of the School proves beyond question that the 
Trustees acted with sound judgment in establishing a school 

^ „ . ^ . . which called for a college career of two 

Collegiate Prerequisite ^, ... .... , 

years. 1 he guidmg prmciple m the con- 
duct of the School has been the maintenance of a high stan- 
dard with an exacting demand for certain subjects as pre- 
requisites to the two years' course in business. 



SCHOOL OF BUSINESS I93 

At the suggestion of the staff the students have been en- 
couraged to engage in practical work, particularly in the last 
year of the course. This has been adopted as p t' 1 w w 
a definite policy and has been made possible 
by the close relationship established with the banks and busi- 
ness houses downtown. With the definite purpose of accom- 
plishing this end, a room was rented at 203 Broadway, near 
Fulton Street, where certain classes were held, so as to bring 
the students in contact with the business life of the city and 
to give business men an opportunity to attend such classes. 
Thus, the class in insurance was held down town and also that 
in railroad transportation, with an attendance in each case of 
about forty. 

The members of the staff of the School of Business are very 
earnest in their purpose to engage in research work and 
to induce their students to undertake the solution „ 
of the problems of importance in the business 
life of the City. 

It is gratifying to record that, although the work of the 

School was interrupted to some extent by the declaration of 

war, nevertheless, the students were held faith- „, ^ ,. 
r 11 1 1 • 11 War Credit 

fully to attendance on their courses and only 

those who were actually called for military service were 
allowed to withdraw and receive special credit. 

Early in the academic year the Trustees of the University 
announced the gift of a large sum of money which was defi- 
nitely assigned to the construction of a building for „ ., ,. 

, . 1 • 1 Ml Building 

the School of Busmess, which will stand at the corner 

of 1 1 6th Street and Broadway, opposite the School of Journal- 
ism, This building will not only provide for the School of 
Business, but for classes closely associated with work in 
business given in the evening and for the numerous students in 
Extension Teaching. It is unfortunate that the expense of 
construction at the present time is so great as to demand the 
postponement of the erection of this building which is so much 
needed. The promise of the building, however, has done much 
to increase the interest in the School throughout the University 
and elsewhere, and we are looking forward to a large registra- 



1 94 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

tion in the coming fall, notwithstanding the circumstances 

which will tend to interfere with an increase in the attendance 

of students at the University. 

Mention should be made of the gift to the University of 

$i,ooo on the part of Professor Robert H. Montgomery, 

„ . Assistant Professor of Accounting, for a 
Montgomery Prize . . , , , . 

prize mtended to encourage students m 

their endeavor to secure high grades in their courses, par- 
ticularly in the work in accounting. 

As has been stated above, the School of Business is en- 
deavoring to cooperate with banks, trust companies, and 

business houses in the downtown section of 
Relations with ^y ,r , ^., r^, , , , 

„ . u JNew York City. Ihus, we have already ar- 

Busmess Houses ■' . , -^ . 

ranged to cooperate with the National City 
Bank in placing college men and graduates of the School of 
Business in the service of the Bank. It is the purpose of the 
National City Bank to organize a corps of men who will be 
interested in foreign service. The University selects three 
undergraduates and recommends these to the Bank. Arrange- 
ments have also been made whereby the students in the School 
of Business may take positions in the Bank in the summer 
months. Special attention should be called to the action of 
the National Bank of Commerce in establishing scholarships 
open to our students under which the men receive liberal sti- 
pends while being trained in practical banking through the 
process of shifting from department to department. In this 
way they not only receive practical training but are taught 
subjects which cannot be given satisfactorily at the University, 
such as foreign exchange. 

The Administrative Board of the School of Business, under 
the advice of the organized stafif of the School has arranged for 
cooperation with the manufacturing industries in the metro- 
politan district. There are upwards of 35,000 manufacturing 
establishments in the vicinity of New York City for whose 
service we should be training our young men. This purpose 
can finally be attained only by cooperation betsveen the 
School of Engineering and the School of Business. The first 
step appears to be the organization of a three-year program of 



SCHOOL OF BUSINESS I95 

studies in the School of Engineering. This series of courses 
should contain many of the subjects given in the School of 
Business, but the fundamental courses should undoubtedly be 
those of the School of Engineering. Courses in the evening 
could also be offered through Extension Teaching so that 
those employed during the day may be trained in the theory 
and practice of organization and management. It is to be 
hoped that this plan may be put into operation sometime 
during the coming academic year. 

The members of the staff of the School of Business believed 
that employment in business houses during the summer vaca- 
tion period would prove of great benefit to their students. An 
effort was made, therefore, to secure opportunities for mem- 
bers of the School under conditions which from an educational 
point of view would be as favorable as possible. It is inter- 
esting to note the preference of the students for the various 
forms of business for which the curriculum of the School pre- 
pares, as shown in the selection of employment during the 
summer. Thus, 14 students desired to enter banking; 11, 
foreign trade; 8, brokerage and investments; 6, accounting; 
I, advertising; 6, manufacturing; 2, insurance; 2, salesman- 
ship. Six houses were interested in the plan and were re- 
quested to permit students to enter their employ during the 
summer months so that they might learn something of the 
operation of their business. Mr. Paul C. Holter, of the Com- 
mittee on Employment of Students, very efftciently cooperated 
with Professor Haig, of the School of Business, who had this 
matter under his care. Cooperative relationships were estab- 
lished with the following: manufacturers: George La Monte 
and Son, Goodyear Rubber Company; accountants: Lybrand, 
Ross Brothers and Montgomery; bond and brokerage houses: 
Bertron, Griscom and Company, William P. Bonbright and 
Company, Clark, Childs and Company, Eastman, Dillon and 
Company; advertising agents: Calkins and Holden, the Van 
Cleve Company, Walter Thompson Company; insurance 
companies: Equitable Life Assurance Society ; 5aw^5." National 
Bank of Commerce, Chase National Bank, Guaranty Trust 
Company, Bank of New York, Broadway Trust Company, 



1 96 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

National City Bank. Almost every student who desired a 
place was given one or more opportunities. Of course, the 
declaration of war interfered very seriously with our plans, 
but, nevertheless, the whole scheme was most successful and 
can be carried out in the years to come with excellent results. 

Plans for the School of Business which were made for its 
first year have been found so satisfactory that little change 
has been necessary for the coming year. The staff 
has been increased and strengthened by the addition 
of Dr. H. Parker Willis, Secretary of the Federal Reserve 
Board, who becomes professor of banking; Mr, Ralph H. 
Blanchard, instructor in insurance; and Mr. James L. Dohr, 
graduate student in the class of 191 7 of the School of Business, 
instructor in accounting. The program for the coming year 
includes twenty-seven undergraduate and ten graduate courses. 
This program will be increased by a number of evening courses 
many of which are open to the students of the School of Busi- 
ness. The students also have the advantage of courses offered 
in the Schools of Law and Political Science, and by the Faculty 
of Applied Science, as well as in Columbia College. 

The correspondence of the past year has shown that the 

School has met a widespread demand and the University is to 

be congratulated on the success of its plans and the 

, ^^^^ , high standard which the School has immediately 
for School * , ^, . • , • • • r 1 

assumed. The appreciative disposition 01 the 

business men of New York City is also an indication of their 

recognition of the necessity for instruction in this subject at 

Columbia University. 

It is to be hoped that our national conditions will before 

long assume a normal state so that our building may be erected 

and the progress of the School may not be hindered. 

Respectfully submitted, 

James C. Egbert, 

Director 
June 30, 1917. 



REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF UNIVERSITY 
ADMISSIONS 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, I917 

To the President of the University, 

Sir: 

I have the honor to present herewith my report for the 
year 1915-1916: 

The work of the past year has continued on the lines laid 
out in my report of a year ago. Although the enrolment 
in a few of the schools of the University was 
somewhat less than in the previous year, there j^ st d t 
has been a substantial increase in the Uni- 
versity as a whole, and especially in the schools whose candi- 
dates for admission require the greatest expenditure of time 
and attention in this office. This applies most strongly in the 
case of Columbia College and the School of Medicine. It 
applies increasingly in the case of Summer Session and Ex- 
tension Teaching students in these courses who desire credit, 
toward admission or toward the completion of the require- 
ments for any degree, which must be passed upon in the office 
of Admissions. The students taking Extension Teaching 
courses at the Long Island College Hospital center, as a 
means for gaining admission to the study of medicine, made 
a very large addition to this group. The launching of the 
new School of Business raised many new questions and re- 
quired a very careful consideration of credentials offered for 
admission. The method of administering the requirements 
for admission to a new school may have quite as much to do 
with its standards and its appeal as the content of these 
requirements. 

We have followed for the last three years the policy of 
accepting with full graduate standing only those candidates 



198 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

for admission to graduate study who can present a Bachelor's 
degree or its equivalent of sufficiently high grade to warrant 
their admission with the minimum resi- 
Graduate Students dence requirements for the higher degrees, 
Who Are Not a f ^- ^u u f 11 r.^ f 

F 11 O rfied ^ acceptmg those who tall short of 

this standard only as unclassified students 
whose status is to be finally determined after they have com- 
pleted one or more sessions of work in the University. This 
policy entails much labor, but appears so far as this office is 
concerned to be satisfactory in its results. 

The plan of admitting as students in the University, but 

not under any faculty, qualified persons who desire to take 

one or more courses, but who are neither candi- 

niversi y dates for a degree nor qualified by their previous 
Students ,.^ ^ -^ ^ 

formal trammg to be accepted as such, has also 

proved satisfactory, though it sometimes seems to entail a 
needless amount of trouble for the student, who must go 
through all the motions of registering, though desiring nothing 
but the privilege of attending a course. For most courses, 
such privileges can be extended only sparingly, but there are 
a few lecture courses which are and should be in large demand 
by persons outside the University, and which might perhaps 
as lecture courses be open to a wider public without material 
disadvantage to the real students who are taking them. Some 
such plan as that employed by the Institute of Arts and Sci- 
ences might conceivably be used. 

Columbia College has added Mechanical Drawing to the 
list of subjects which may be offered for admission. It will be 

alternative to Free Hand Drawing. Ele- 

Changes in Entrance ^ t- u t-i ^ r- 

„ r ^ mentary l^rench or Elementary German 

Requirements / ■' 

must hereafter be onered by students 

who do not present the full entrance offering in Latin or Greek. 
In effect, this has been the requirement in the past, but it has 
not been so stated explicitly. The entrance requirements in 
most of the subjects upon our list are fairly satisfactory, but 
there has been much dissatisfaction with the History require- 
ments, and the results of the examinations in this subject are 
usually unsatisfactory. History doubtless suffers much from 



UNIVERSITY ADMISSIONS I99 

bad teaching, particularly in the schools which are too small 
to have well-trained teachers for this subject, and which in 
consequence assign to the work some teacher from another 
department who has a lighter burden than his fellows. But 
this is not the whole of the difficulty. Last autumn a com- 
mittee appointed for the purpose by the Department of His- 
tory considered the matter carefully and issued a report 
wherein they unanimously recommended: 

1. The substitution of Modern European History from the beginning 
of the Sixteenth Century to the present for Medieval and Modern History 
from the death of Charlemagne to the present. 

2. The substitution of Modern England from the beginning of the 
Sixteenth Century and the British Empire, including the history of the 
American Colonies, for English History from the beginning to the present. 

3. The substitution of United States History since the Revolution, and 
American Government, for American History with the elements of civil 
government. 

The Faculties of Barnard College and Columbia College 
adopted these recommendations and will accept the substitutes 
recommended as alternatives to the old requirements in 191 8, 
and instead of them thereafter. 

These two faculties have also adopted a resolution providing 
that beginning with 191 9 all the entrance examinations in 
Latin and Greek shall be at sight. 

Aside from these, there have been few changes of importance 
in the entrance requirements of any school. The advanced 
requirements of the School of Architecture become effective 
in 1917, and those of the School of Medicine in 1918. 

In view of the certain effect of the War on the influences 

controlling the number of applicants for admission to College 

and University, this would seem to be an 

.... c • • ^-i.- ^ Comparison for 

appropriate time tor reviewing recent history t t T Y 

of the growth in the number of new students 
entering various departments. I have selected Columbia Col- 
lege for especial attention, including also, for purposes of com- 
parison, Barnard College and the Schools of Mines, Engineering 
and Chemistry. We shall not consider the total registrations 
under these Faculties, but simply the new admissions, which 
fluctuate more than the total attendance. The facts for the 



200 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

ten years, 1 907-1 91 6, are presented in the following tables 
and in part also in the graphs: 

The irregularities in these curves are striking and not by 
any means fully explicable. It is noticeable that the irregulari- 
ties in those for Columbia College do not coincide to any con- 
siderable extent with those for Barnard College or for the 
Schools of Mines, Engineering and Chemistry. The reasons 
for these differences are not clear. There is, for example, no 
obvious reason why the large entering class in Columbia Col- 
lege in 1 910 should be followed by a much smaller class in 1911, 
while in Barnard College a large class came in the latter of 
these two years, followed by a small class in 191 2, and a still 
larger class in 1913. It is hard to see how financial or other 
external conditions could fully explain these facts, and internal 
conditions do not explain them fully. 

As might be expected, the irregularities are greater in the 
sub-groups than in the total, and in some cases these are easily 
explicable. For example, the number of non-matriculants in 
Columbia College fell on the adoption of a more rigid adminis- 
tration of entrance requirements for such students and a 
wider offering for them in Extension Teaching. It rose sharply 
in 1 914, owing to the fact that the Schools of Mines, Engi- 
neering and Chemistry had gone upon a graduate basis, and 
that in consequence many students with college training 
elsewhere found themselves obliged to take additional college 
work to meet the advanced requirements. Some of them 
already possessed college degrees and others wished only the 
work necessary for their immediate purpose. They were, 
therefore, registered as non-matriculants. The same condi- 
tions were present, to some extent, in the following year, but 
by the end of two years, most of such applicants had planned 
their work ahead and either came prepared for the advanced 
courses or became candidates for a college degree. Variations 
in the curve for students admitted to Columbia College with 
advanced standing are only partly explicable. The drop in 
191 1 was due in part at least to higher standards for such 
students. These have been maintained ever since, so that 
later variations are not due to this factor. 



UNIVERSITY ADMISSIONS 201 

For many years, the College has drawn a considerable per- 
centage of its new students from other colleges. As far back 
as 1900, forty-one students entered in this way in a total of 
191 new students, and the probable explanation that such stu- 
dents are attracted by the wide offering of the University was 
given to account for the fact at that time. The fluctuations 
have always been considerable and they have not been ac- 
counted for. In recent years a large proportion of such stu- 
dents have come to complete the requirements for admission 
to our professional schools, many of them qualifying for the 
privileges of the professional option. 

The fluctuations in the February admissions are also dif- 
ferent from those of the September admissions, though there 
are many points in common. The rise in 1910— 1911 is com- 
mon to both, but the September rise in 1908 is met by a drop 
in February, 1909. The September rise in 19 12 finds no cor- 
responding rise in the following February and the same is 
true of the September rise of 191 3, while the September drop 
of 1 91 5 is more than covered by a sharp rise in February, 
1 91 6. The following chronology may be of interest in this 
connection : 

1909. Policy adopted of accepting separate subjects passed in certain of 
the examinations of the New York State Education Department 
(Regents Examinations) by those who had not fulfilled all the technical 
requirements for a Regents diploma. 

1909. Reorganization of the administration of admission requirements, 
with provision for more personal attention to applicants, and adoption 
of the plan of taking the school and character record into account in 
passing upon candidates for admission. 

1 9 10. Appointment of Dean Keppel and adoption of more personal method 
of administration in the College. 

The College of Physicians and Surgeons ceases to accept students who 
have not had college training (two years). 

1913. Opening of the School of Journalism. 

First year in which State Scholarships for 750 students of each year 
were given. The stipend is |ioo annually for four years, for students 
attending colleges in this State, 

1914. The Schools of Mines, Engineering and Chemistry cease to accept 
students who have not had college training (three years). 



202 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

191 5. New fees effective; an increase in tuition fees of twenty per cent, 
in Columbia College and thirty-three and one-third per cent, in Barnard 
College. 

1916. Opening of the School of Business, with an admission requirement 
of two years of college work. 

When a professional school ceases to accept students from 
secondary schools and begins to require collegiate preparation, 
the number of students entering the college is practically cer- 
tain to increase, though previous to the increase in require- 
ments there were many students entering college who planned 
later to enter the professional school. There are no statistics 
to show how many, so that the exact amount of increase can- 
not be determined by counting those who are planning for 
the professional course. There is no sure way of determining 
just how many of the students who entered Columbia College 
in 1914 in preparation for the Schools of Mines, Engineering 
and Chemistry would have omitted the college preparation 
if it had not been required. Some of them certainly would not 
have done so. 

Changes of fees might be expected to produce their effects 
at once, but no certain effect can be ascribed to the change in 
1915. The number of Freshmen in Columbia College is 
smaller and the increase in advanced standing students is 
slight, but the following February makes the total more than 
even. There was a greater decrease in the Schools of Mines, 
Engineering and Chemistry in the preceding year with no 
change of fees. The small class in Barnard College in 1915 
may have been due at least in part to the much higher tuition. 
Changes in the student social system may also have had some 
influence. Administrative changes, unless of a restrictive sort, 
may be expected to produce their effects more slowly but 
more continuously, though the sudden increase in the Schools 
of Mines, Engineering and Chemistry in 1907 followed im- 
mediately and was doubtless chiefly due to the accession of 
Mr. Goetze as Dean. 

The administrative changes cited above are generally be- 
lieved to have helped the growth of the college, but there are 
no figures to show to what extent this is the case. The freer 



UNIVERSITY ADMISSIONS 2O3 

acceptance of the examinations of the New York State Edu- 
cational Board has played an important part. The students 
in most of the high schools and in many of the preparatory 
schools in New York State are required to take these exami- 
nations in order to graduate from school. Many of them are 
not sure of being able to go to college until near the beginning 
of the college year. Many others have planned to enter a 
college admitting on certificate and have not taken college 
entrance examinations. As they are obliged to take the 
State examinations, it is possible for them to change their 
plans without difficulty, whereas if the State examinations 
were not accepted for admission the necessity of passing all 
the entrance examinations at the last moment would in most 
cases make the admission of such students to Columbia an 
impossibility. The rapidly increasing proportion of students 
offering these examinations requires — and has received — 
attention. Not only the relative but the actual number of 
students entering by the regular college entrance examina- 
tions has decreased, being less than half in 191 6 what it was 
in 1907. This is due in part to the fact that a number of pre- 
paratory schools have in the meantime adopted the Regents 
syllabi and have given the State examinations in their schools. 
It is due still more to the fact that an increasing number of 
students come from the public high schools of the State. The 
New York State Scholarships, which are awarded to 750 stu- 
dents yearly, and which provide for their holders a stipend of 
$100 annually for four years, have increased the number of 
students from the schools of the State and the total number of 
students in college. The first report of the General Education 
Board called attention to the fact that all colleges draw pre- 
dominantly from the more immediate vicinity; with the im- 
provement of local colleges all over the country this tendency 
may be expected to increase, and the older colleges must 
expect to draw a smaller proportion of their students from a 
distance. 

The increasing proportion of students entering by the 
New York State examinations would not be seriously dis- 
concerting were these examinations always of as high a stan- 



204 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

dard as those given by the College Entrance Examination 
Board. With rare exceptions they are not, and perhaps rightly 
so, since their primary purpose is a very different one. To 
meet this difficulty in part at least, we have adopted the plan 
of considering no grade below seventy per cent, a certain 
passing grade, as is the case with other examinations when 
the candidate's school record is unsatisfactory. This plan 
will be put into effect gradually and will help us to select the 
better students. The growth of the past few years has taken 
place in spite of increasing strictness in the matter of admis- 
sion with conditions. The courses in Extension Teaching 
offer an excellent means for trying out those whose entrance 
records are doubtful, and the college classes can thereby be 
relieved of the burden of the weakest students. This plan 
will be carried still farther in the future, but we cannot hope 
to eliminate the bottom of the class altogether. Some of 
our colleagues would not feel it consistent with their self- 
respect to report no failures. 

The decreasing proportion of candidates for the A.B., 
with Latin, in Columbia College, from 1907 on, is striking, 
even previous to 1914 when the new requirements for the 
Engineering Schools brought a large accession of B.S. candi- 
dates. In Barnard College, where the B.S. degree means real 
specialization in Natural Science, and where preparation for 
professions plays a small part, the situation is very different. 
How much of the difference is due to the conservatism of 
schools for girls and colleges for women it is not easy to say, 
but evidently a large part of it is due to these causes. The 
prior question, as to how much this is due to convention, and 
how much to native interest and preference, it would be use- 
less to try to answer. 

An increasing number of students qualify for admission, but 
do not enter. They qualify, as a rule, by means of State 
examinations. Most of those not entering do not go to college 
at all. Some enter the following year, and some enter other 
colleges. Financial considerations seem usually to control. 

The rapid increase in the number of students entering 
Columbia College naturally raises many problems for the 



UNIVERSITY ADMISSIONS 205 

Committee on University Admissions, Less personal atten- 
tion is possible, particularly during and just before the 
registration period, and this is a distinct 
disadvantage. More and more those things Difficulties Due 
which can be made matters of routine have j^^^ Students 

been made so, and it has become increasingly 
difficult to avoid that undesirable state of affairs in which 
only those whose cases are doubtful or irregular can obtain 
much personal attention, except at those seasons of the 
year when candidates for admission are least likely to present 
themselves. 

There is something to be said for a more complete recogni- 
tion in our administrative machinery of the fact that there 
are two distinct groups in our undergradu- 
ate body; one made up of students who are ^^ • r- u 

■' ^ Groups in College 

commg for a college course, no matter 
what may follow it, and another made up of students who are 
spending a limited period in the college as a means of meeting 
the requirements for admission to a professional school. The 
students preparing for Medicine, Journalism, or Business, 
are typical examples of the latter group. 

Aside from certain simplifications which a partial segrega- 
tion of these two groups would make possible in the office of 
Admissions, it offers manifest advantages to the College in 
its endeavors to weld the former group into a more coherent 
whole, and to put the stamp of the College more indelibly upon 
them. The organization of a sort of Junior College would 
easily be possible. In any such reorganization it should, of 
course, be remembered that the "pre-professional" students 
should also be given as much of the liberal spirit as possible. 
A complete segregation of them into groups according to their 
intended profession would set up too many differences and 
would tend to nullify what I take to be a part of the aim of 
the professional schools in requiring college preparation, 
the aim, namely, of securing a body of students who shall 
have something of the broadened outlook and the "well-fur- 
nished mind" which the college man should possess, as well 
as a more thorough grounding in the subjects prerequisite to 



206 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

later specialization. Without losing their professional inter- 
est, these students should acquire also a fund of more purely 
human interest. The details of the plan for a partial segrega- 
tion would require much careful consideration. In its final 
form the plan should make it relatively easy for a student to 
go over from one group to the other. I am confident that some 
such plan could be worked out. At any rate, some method 
of preserving what is valuable in the older college education 
must be found in the face of the growing preponderance in 
college of the "pre-professional" student. 

There is much discussion at the present time of a proposal 
to divide the college course frankly into two parts, each of 
two years, the first two to be devoted to a college course of 
the familiar type, the last two to be confessedly professional, 
including in this the specific preparation for graduate study. 
Such a plan would practically eliminate the old liberal arts 
program and would tend to make of the first two years merely 
a continuation of secondary school study, though in more 
advanced courses. 

The American college, as it has existed, would have no 
place in such a scheme. It is surely worth preserving, if only 
for a minority less in haste than others to enter professional 
study. The plan which I have suggested would leave to it 
the central place. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Adam Lerov Jones, 

Director 
June 30, 1917 



UNIVERSITY ADMISSIONS 



207 




COLUMBIA COLLEGE 

NEW REGISTRATIONS 1907-1916 

A. New Freshman registrations in Septem- 

ber 

B. Total new registrations in September 

C. Total new registrations for the academic 

year 

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E. New students admitted with advanced 

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colleges, including those entering the 
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COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 




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BARNARD COLLEGE 


NEW REGISTRATIONS 1907-1916 1 


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Ba. 


Total new students registered in Sep- 




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Ca. 


Total new registrations for the aca- 




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SCHOOLS OF MINES, EN- 
GINEERING AND CHEMISTRY 

NEW ADMISSIONS 1906-1913 

(1913 was the last year in which students 

were admitted directly from secondary 

schools) 
Ab. New students in First Year Class 
Bb. Total new students 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, I917 

To the President of the University: 
Sir: 

I beg to submit the report of the Secretary of the University 
for the year ending June 30, 1917. 

The activity of this office seems to have been concerned at 
least for the last four or five months with war work of one 
kind or another. In fact, it is rather difficult to remember that 
we had any existence before diplomatic relations were broken 
off. Such being the case, it seems out of place to deal with the 
prosaic workings of University machinery, and I shall conse- 
quently confine myself to reporting a few matters simply for 
record. 

The year just ended completes the first year of the Univer- 
sity Printing Office — the outgrowth of the old Bureau of 
Printing. The Office has had a demand made upon 
it for service which was never contemplated in the University 
original plan for University printing. It had always ^ ' 

been thought possible to rearrange the University's 
work so that the need for rush work would be reduced to a 
minimum. Experience shows, however, that much of the work 
at the University contains a time element which cannot be 
ignored and that the Printing Office will always have to have 
sufficient equipment to take hold of emergency work. The 
situation at the plant is now such, that in order to meet the de- 
mand of the patrons of the Office it is sometimes necessary to 
interrupt jobs already on the press, and it is, of course, very 
costly to lift forms from the press once the run has started. It is 
becoming more and more evident that if the University Print- 
ing Office is to develop as it should and become a real active 
and progressive department of the University's work, it must 
have quarters of its own on property that will enable it to do 



210 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

work which is not connected with the University. Outside 
work is desirable, both from the point of view of carrying a 
larger plant, and from the point of view of providing a suffi- 
ciently large variety of work, to keep a permanent organization 
of a high type of printing talent, and to keep that organization 
always occupied with a new and difficult work that will test its 
ingenuity and its competence. Although the University's work 
is already beginning to show the efifect of the systematization of 
the Printing Office, and the product of the Printing Office is 
constantly being improved from a technical point of view, the 
result is still far from satisfactory to those in charge of the 
plant, and until the shop arrangement can be such that the 
several departments can work in less crowded conditions, both 
as to time and as to space, but little more progress can be made. 
In the general interest of University standards we are deliver- 
ing daily to the departments work of better character than 
they would themselves demand, and we are doing this work at 
figures comparable with those previously paid for the most 
slipshod execution. It is in this item that the most funda- 
mental advantage of the University Printing Office to Colum- 
bia must be. With economical operation, it is possible for 
the office to produce for the University good printing at a 
reasonable price. Almost all of the work done by the Printing 
Office is now done for departments which are striving to 
keep expenses within the limit of appropriations, and the 
chief interest in the production of the job in good style and of 
defensible workmanship lies with the University Printing 
Office alone and not with the customer. A very thorough ex- 
amination of the finances of the Printing Office and of its opera- 
tions from the engineering point of view has been made, in 
order to insure its absolute soundness as a business proposi- 
tion. Leaving out of account entirely the matter of finances, 
which the auditors have reported as being entirely satis- 
factory, the appended report in regard to the equipment, the 
accommodations, and the physical contents of the plant will 
be of interest. 

The entire credit for the organization and the effectiveness 
of the Printing Office is due to Mr. Douglas C. McMurtrie, and 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 211 

the very efficient group of men and women that he has gathered 
together to work with him. 



ASSOCIATION OF EMPLOYING PRINTERS 

New York, September 14, 191 7 
University Printing Office 

2960 Broadway, New York City 

Gentlemen : 

I have, at your request, made a careful study of the plant, 
operation and equipment of the University Printing Office, and 
submit, for your information, the following findings: 

A . Advantages : 

1 . I find the Office to be equipped with machinery and furni- 
ture of the most modern and approved type. I believe this 
equipment will be of relatively permanent value and will 
require the minimum of replacement or displacement. You 
will find your factor of depreciation to be low. 

2. I believe you have built up during your period of opera- 
tion, an organization of workmen well above the average, 
and that a good start has been made in training these em- 
ployees to a uniform style and standard of workmanship. 

3. I have found, by examination of specimens of practically 
every job produced by the Office during the past six 
months, that the printing is of unusual quality and of a 
character entirely in keeping with University standards. 

B. Disadvantages : 

I find the physical accommodations of the plant are quite 
inadequate to the volume, and unsuited to the character of 
work produced. I feel that a radical improvement of these 
accommodations would be economical financially, and 
advantageous to the quality of product. I have learned 
something of the history of the Office, and while the course 
of development seems logical and necessary, I would 
recommend that the factors of disadvantage hereunder 



212 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

enumerated be eliminated as promptly as possible. Only 
thus can the plant develop further. 

1 . Lack of floor space. This is the most urgent requirement. 
The greatest difficulties consist in your inability to store 
and handle stock on open platforms, in the insufficient 
number of compositors' frames to take care of the type 
faces you require, in the illogical location of some of the 
machinery lately installed, in the serious congestion of the 
bindery, and in the entire lack of shipping facilities. The 
average good plant, producing the amount of printing you 
are turning out, would have practically double the floor 
space, and would find the additional rental charge rather 
an economy than a loss. You may find this lack of floor 
space an even greater handicap in the future than it is at 
the present time, in that you will have no leeway at all in 
adjusting the proportions of various departments, as the 
character of your work may undergo change from time to 
time. 

2. The character of your present accommodation is far from 
satisfactory for a high-grade printing plant. The excessive 
dampness obtaining in your basement is always injurious to 
printing in which any degree of accuracy is required. I 
have seen printed sheets from your presses from the same 
form, where the register on one side varied a quarter of an 
inch from the register on the other, this shrinkage being 
caused by the effect of excessive dampness. Some of your 
machinery, because of these damp quarters, show signs of 
rust, although by your records the machines have been in- 
stalled but a few months. This same amount of corrosion 
would not occur in years in a properly housed plant. 
Much of the floor space on which your stock is stored is 
damp and subject to constant leakage. This should be 
avoided. 

3. I would recommend the placing of your cylinder presses in 
such position as to secure for them natural light. It is im- 
portant for all kinds of printing, and imperative for color 
work, and even for careful jobs in black and white. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 213 

4. I would recommend the separation of the composing room 
and the press room, as the noise resulting from press opera- 
tion is disadvantageous to the effectiveness of compositors 
and keyboard operators. The great distances between the 
proof-room and the composing room is also unwise. These 
last two departments should work in close conjunction. 

5. It is important to allot to the shipping room specific floor 
space. At the present time this department seems to have 
no quarters whatever. It would also prove economical to 
have your mailing department in close proximity to the 
binding and the shipping room, so that the publications 
mailed need not be handled unnecessarily. With the mail- 
ing department on the eighth floor, the amount of un- 
necessary handling is excessive and not economical. 

6. According to the practice of other plants of like character 
the accommodations of your business office are entirely out 
of proportion to the size of the plant. I should recommend 
an extension in ofifice control of plant operation. This 
could easily be done by installation of a more complete 
system. 

7. You should assuredly have a store room in which could be 
kept the various kinds of paper stock, envelopes, and other 
items of material required. Being considerably removed 
from the downtown paper houses, it seems important for 
you to carry regular stock on hand, especially since you are 
fortunate in having so few different lines to carry, due to 
the comparative standardization of your work. 

8. I find, by inspection of your payroll records, that you have 
been paying for an abnormal proportion of overtime. 
I believe in your case you would find it advantageous to 
minimize such overtime to as great a degree as possible. 
This would, however, require more space and facilities 
than you now possess. 

The advantages mentioned are assets on which your plant 
can further build. The disadvantages, although only serious 
handicaps to your present operation, are such, in my opinion, 



214 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

to make impossible further progress, in case you have this in 
mind. 

To permit of further development, or, in fact, satisfactory 
present operation, I would recommend your securing without 
delay larger and more suitable premises. 

Very truly yours, 

Chas. McCoy 

Assistant Secretary, 
Association of Employing Printers 

During the summer of 1916 the Committee on Student Or- 
ganizations in consultation with the several Deans and Direc- 
tors, made certain changes in the eligibility 
ew igi 1 1 y ^^1^ governing the students taking part in 

public performances. 
During the year 1916-1917, these revised rules were placed 
on trial without the confirmation of the University Council. 
The rules operated so successfully that the Committee on 
Student Organizations is now applying to the University 
Council for their ratification. The revised rules stand as 
follows : 

A. ELIGIBILITY AS DETERMINED BY ENROLMENT 
IN THE UNIVERSITY 

Records of the Registrar Decide 

None but actual members of the University shall be candi- 
dates for, or represent the University in any contest or perform- 
ance. 

B. ELIGIBILITY AS DETERMINED BY STANDING IN SCHOLARSHIP 
ADOPTED BY THE UNIVERSITY COUNCIL 

Records of the Registrar Decide 
Required of all Students Alike 

Any student, in order to be eligible to represent the Univer- 
sity in any contest, performance, or organization — athletic or 
non-athletic — or on any publication, must fulfil the following 
requirements : 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 215 

{a) He either must be free of entrance conditions, or, if 
conditioned, must be taking a program which will, if satisfac- 
torily completed, free him of conditions within one year from 
entrance or have made definite arrangements for removing the 
condition at some specific time. 

{b) If in the College or School of Business, he must not be on 
probation; he must have secured credit for fifteen points dur- 
ing the previous half-year (if the Dean has approved a program 
of less than fifteen points, credit for the entire program must be 
secured) or, at the beginning of the current half-year, have to 
his credit, a minimum of points for previous half-years com- 
pleted as follows : 

At the beginning of the second half-year 12 

At the beginning of the third half-year 26 

At the beginning of the fourth half-year 41 

At the beginning of the fifth half-year 58 

At the beginning of the sixth half-year 73 

At the beginning of the seventh half-year 88 

At the beginning of the eighth half-year 106 

If in the Schools of Law, Engineering, Medicine or Phar- 
macy, except as hereinafter provided for candidates for the 
degree of Master of Laws and Master of Science, he must be 
registered with the class or group in which he entered; i.e., 
must be taking a majority of his hours therein. 

If in the School of Journalism, he must be registered in the 
class or group with which he entered and he must have to his 
credit with a grade of at least C all prescribed courses of the 
previous half-year. 

If a candidate for the Degree of Master of Arts, Master of 
Science, Master of Laws, or Doctor of Philosophy, he must be 
taking at least four full courses and must not have been in resi- 
dence longer than the minimum period required for the degree 
for which he is a candidate. 

If in the School of Architecture, he must be a regularly regis- 
tered candidate for the Degree or Certificate, must at the be- 
ginning of the current half-year have had to his credit the full 
number of points for the term preceding and must at the time 
of his application be properly registered for all required work 
for his year. 



2l6 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

If in Teachers College, he must receive the approval of the 
Dean. 

If primarily registered in Extension Teaching, a student is 
not eligible. 

(c) In case he has been dropped from his class or from any 
school or department of the University by reason of his defi- 
ciencies, he must thereafter have completed satisfactorily a 
half-year's work. 

Any candidate for a team, crew or association, or a member 
thereof, representing the University in a public contest or per- 
formance, or a manager or assistant manager who shall seem 
to his Dean or Director during the term or year sufficiently 
neglectful of the work to warrant such action, may be reported 
to the Committee on Student Organizations and may there- 
upon be declared ineligible. 

Any change in registration from the matriculated to the non- 
matriculated class, or vice versa, or from one school or depart- 
ment to another, shall not make an otherwise ineligible student 
eligible. 

ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR NON- 
MATRICULATED STUDENTS 

(o) Any non-matriculated student, in order to be eligible, 
must have satisfied the entrance requirements of the school in 
which he is registered, or have been in the University at least 
one academic year during which a satisfactory year's work shall 
have been completed by him. 

(b) Must be registered for a full year's or term's work. 

(c) Must, in the absence of required examinations in any of 
his studies, file with the Registrar a certificate from the official 
in charge of his course that he is satisfactorily fulfilling his re- 
quirements. 

A year's or term's work shall be interpreted as involving the 
following minimum hour requirements: 

For the College and the School of Business At least 15 hours per week 

For Mines, Engineering and Chemistry 

Including laboratory work At least 21 hours per week 

Without laboratory work At least 15 hours per week 

For the School of Law At least 13 hours per week 

For the School of Journalism At least 1 8 hours per week 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 217 

Any student absent from a lecture, recitation, class or labora- 
tory work, due to a contest or performance previously ap- 
proved by the Committee on Student Organiza- 
tions, shall be excused for such absence, but he 
shall be held responsible for the subject matter, and the ab- 
sence shall be included in and shall in no individual case exceed 
the maximum number of absences permitted to any student 
without penalty. 

Absence on account of rehearsals and practice and absences 
from examinations shall not be so excused. 

C. ELIGIBILITY AS DETERMINED BY PHYSICAL FITNESS 

Director of the Gymnasium Decides 

1. A student to be enrolled as a candidate for an athletic 
team or crew must obtain from the Director of the Gymnasium 
a certificate to the effect that his physical condition is such as 
will warrant his taking up the work of the team or that of 
preparation for it. 

2. Three classes of certificates will be issued by the Director 
of the Gymnasium each holding good for the current academic 
half-year only, viz.: 

Class A. Basketball, boxing, football, hurdling, lacrosse, rowing, running, 
skating, swimming, wrestling. 

Class B. Association football, baseball, fencing, gymnastics, handball, 
hockey, jumping, pole vault, shot put, sprinting, tennis. 

Class C. Bowling, cricket, golf, shooting. 

3. Only one examination under the above rule is required of 
any student in a given academic half-year unless a student de- 
sires to transfer himself from one class of athletic sport to a 
higher class, in which case he must obtain from the Director 
of the Gymnasium the certificate of such higher class. 

A seeming lack of coordination among the several religious 
activities upon the campus led to the general survey of the 
religious work of the University by the Committee 
on Religious Work. The result of the survey was A^t'^v"^ 
a series of recommendations to the Trustees of the 
University which the Trustees enacted into legislation by the 
following statutes which a lack of funds will prevent putting 
into effect at once. 



2l8 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

The direction of religious and social work shall be assigned 
to an Administrative Board consisting of not to exceed seven 
officers of the University, of whom the Chaplain shall be one, to 
be appointed by the Trustees for a term of three years upon the 
nomination of the President. The Chaplain shall be the Chair- 
man of such Administrative Board. 

The Chaplain shall be appointed by the Trustees, and, sub- 
ject to the authority of the President, shall have charge of the 
stated Chapel services, together with general supervision and 
direction of religious work and instruction carried on at the 
University or by authority of the Trustees. 

Attendance upon the Chapel services shall be voluntary, and 
all persons connected with the University, whether as officers 
or students, shall be invited to take part in such services. 

There shall be a Director of Religious and Social Work who 
shall aid the Chaplain in building up the religious life of the 
University community, cooperate with the volunteer work of 
religious organizations of every sort, supervise the housing con- 
ditions of students, and, when desired, aid both students and 
alumni in securing occupation. Such Director shall be the 
Secretary of the Administrative Board of Religious and Social 
Work. 

The very rapid growth of the University and the changes in 

organization brought about by the advancing of standards in 

several of the schools made the existing Consti- 

Student tution for the Board of Student Representa- 

^ ^. . tives somewhat out of date. Upon the recom- 

Constitution . , , r n • 

mendation of the 191 7 board, the followmg 

revisions were made in the Constitution. The revision was ap- 
proved by the University Committee on Student Organizations 
and is now pending before the University Council for final 
confirmation. 

CONSTITUTION OF THE BOARD OF STUDENT 
REPRESENTATIVES 

Article I 
There is hereby constituted a board to be known as the 
Board of Student Representatives of Columbia University. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 219 

Article II 
The object of this Board shall be: 

1 . To furnish a representative body of men who, by virtue of their posi- 
tion and influence in student affairs, shall be able to express the opinion and 
wishes of the students. 

2. To encourage student activities, to make regulations for the control 
and conduct of the same, and to decide matters of dispute between student 
organizations in so far as the exercise of these functions does not conflict 
with University legislation. 

3. To provide a suitable medium through which student opinion may be 
presented to the University authorities. 

Article III 
The Board shall consist of seven members; elected from 
among the male undergraduate students by vote of the male 
undergraduate students. The Board so elected shall meet for 
organization on the second Monday in May, but it shall not 
assume any of its powers and duties (mentioned in Articles 
VIII to XIII inclusive) until the day after Commencement. 
This Board shall hold office during the entire ensuing academic 
year. Five members of the Board shall constitute a quorum. 

Article IV 

To be eligible^for election a student must be, at the time 
of the election, a regularly matriculated male undergraduate 
student and of junior academic standing, and must have 
entered the University with his class as a Freshman. 

By 'undergraduate student' shall be meant regularly ma- 
triculated candidates for a first degree. 

Article V 

Each candidate for election must be nominated by a male 
undergraduate student and must be seconded by at least nine 
other undergraduate students. 

All nominations must be filed in writing with the Chairman 
of the Board at least two weeks before the first day of the 
election period. 

Nominations not complying with these conditions shall not 
be considered. 



220 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Article VI 
The members of the Board shall be chosen at elections held 
as follows: 

1. During the month of February two representatives shall be elected to 
membership on the Board of the following year, with the privilege of attend- 
ing without vote all meetings of the then active Board. 

2. During the last week of April of the same academic year there shall be 
held an election, at which the remaining five members of the new Board 
shall be elected. 

3. At each election all voting shall be by ballot only. The election period 
during which balloting may take place shall extend over three days, between 
the hours of 9 a. m. and 5 p. m. of each day. In the elections provided for in 
Section l of this Article, the two candidates receiving the highest number of 
votes shall be considered elected. In the election provided for in Section 2 
of this Article, the five candidates receiving the highest number of votes shall 
be considered elected. A ballot shall be declared void if more or less than 
six of the candidates on the ballot are voted for. 

4. The Board shall have the power to fill any vacancy arising in its mem- 
bership between elections. 

Article VII 

The officers of the Board shall be a Chairman and a Secre- 
tary-Treasurer, who shall hold office for one year. The Chair- 
man and Secretary-Treasurer shall be elected by a majority 
vote of the Board at its first meeting which shall be held on 
the Second Monday in May — as provided tor in Article III. 
The Chairman shall preside at meetings. In the event of his 
absence, the Board may elect a Chairman pro tem. The posi- 
tion of Chairman shall carry with it no prerogatives beyond 
those of an ordinary member, except in cases where the Chair- 
man shall be authorized and instructed at a meeting of the 
Board. 

The Secretary-Treasurer shall keep minutes of the meetings 
of the Board, shall have custody of its records and funds, and 
shall conduct its correspondence. 

Article VIII 

The Board of Student Representatives shall have the right: 

I. To confer with any officer, or representatives of any recognized body of 
officers, of the University on matters of peculiar interest and concern to the 
student body; and it shall furthermore be the right of the Board to receive 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 221 

early notice regarding contemplated legislation primarily affecting the extra- 
curricular activities of the student body. 

2. To refer to the President of the University for consideration matters 
of peculiar interest and concern to the students. 

Article IX 
The Board shall have authority, and it shall be its duty, to 
take into consideration, on its own motion, or upon charges 
preferred, the conduct of any student or body of students which 
may seem detrimental to the interest or the good name of the 
University; and having conducted an investigation, shall itself 
take or, where necessary, recommend to the appropriate au- 
thorities, such action as it deems just and reasonable, to the 
end that such detrimental conduct shall be properly repre- 
hended and any repetition of it prevented. 

Article X 

Subject to the reserved power of the University authorities, 
this Board shall exercise control over all inter-class affairs and 
intramural sports. 

The Board shall take charge of all class and general elections, 
and shall have the power to appoint the times for holding class 
elections and all inter-class contests. 

Article XI 
Any petition submitted through the Board shall receive 
official acknowledgment and shall be acted upon by the appro- 
priate authorities as soon as may be practicable. 

Article XII 
A report of the Board shall be submitted annually to the 
President of the University on or before June 30. 

Article XIII 
This Constitution may be amended, upon written notice of 
not less than five days to all members of this Board, by vote of 
five members of the Board, such amendment, before becoming 
effective, to be ratified by the student body and the University 
Committee on Student Organizations. 



222 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Article XIV 

All meetings of the Board shall be open to all students of the 
University, excepting when the Board on motion, regularly 
adopted, retires into executive session. 

At regular meetings, upon prior notice to the Secretary of the 
Board, any student will be given the opportunity to be heard, 
the length of time being at the discretion of the Board. 

Immediately upon the outbreak of the war the University 
added to its service to education the problem of organization 
for national service in war times. The great variety and the 
importance of the opportunities which the University found, 
and of which it availed itself, are set forth in the appended 
report prepared by Professor Coss, the executive secretary of 
the organization committee. 

It is my duty to record the resignation of Paul C. Holter of 
the Class of 1907 as Secretary of Appointments. Mr. Holter 
served in that capacity with efficiency for a number of years, 
and has now gone to an important position with W. R. Grace 
& Co. During the year 1917-1918 the work of the Committee 
will be carried on by Mr, Edward M. Earle of the Class of 1917. 

Very careful attention is asked for the several appendices to 
this report, which deal with some of the University's most 
important work. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Frank D. Fackenthal, 

Secretary 
June JO, igi^ 



APPENDIX I 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE FOR WOMEN 
GRADUATE STUDENTS 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, I917 

To the President of the University, 
Sir: 

The Committee for Women Graduate Students have the 
honor to present the following report for the academic year 
1916-1917. 

The number of women registered under the graduate facul- 
ties during the past year has been greater by i66 than during 
the preceding year. The figures are as follows : 

Faculty of Philosophy . . 327 Teachers College 459 

Faculty of Political Science 171 Unclassified 121 

Faculty of Pure Science . 91 ii6q 

On Commencement Day, out of a total of 693 candidates 
receiving the degree of Master of Arts, 350 were women ; of 82 
receiving the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, 15 were women. 

In order that the interests of all women students might be 

cared for, President Butler, at a meeting in October, requested 

the Committee to extend its jurisdiction over all ^^ ^ . 
, , . , ,T • • New Duties 

the women students m the University except 

those in Barnard College and Teachers College. To represent 

the new schools thus included, the President appointed two 

additional members of the Committee, Professor James C. 

Egbert, Director of the Department of Extension Teaching 

and the School of Business, and Dr. Talcott Williams, Director 

of the School of Journalism. 

The plans of the committee have been seriously affected by 

the national situation. The hope of a residence hall for 

women graduate students, which the committee „ ., ,t ,i 
. , , 1 . 1 .1 Residence Hall 

for several years has urged in order to provide 

proper living accommodations for the increasing number of 

women students, must for the present be deferred. Early 



224 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

in the year the Secretary submitted to the President a report 
embodying the results of an investigation of Hving conditions 
in the neighborhood and a preHminar\' sketch of the type of 
building which would appear to meet most satisfactorily the 
needs of our advanced students. The fact that five hundred 
women are living in small rooms, that they are subject to the 
inconvenience of noise, insufficient light, of seeking table 
board in another building, and that they are not provided with 
suitable reception rooms, has forced upon the attention of 
the committee the serious nature of this problem. The careful 
consideration which the Secretary's report received at the 
hands of the President, and the recommendation in his Annual 
Report to the Board of Trustees that a dignified and appro- 
priate building be provided for the women are highly gratify- 
ing. The President announced that the site at the northeast 
corner of Broadway and 114th Street had been reserved for 
the residence hall until the necessary funds could be obtained. 

The earnest desire on the part of the women for a proper 
building as a center for their intellectual and social activities 
was expressed in a petition addressed to the President bearing 
the signatures of over six hundred students, together with a 
letter from the Women's Graduate Club stating the need of 
such a center and urging the speedy erection of the proposed 
residence hall. It is hoped that as soon as possible funds may 
be secured which will provide this interesting and essential 
addition to the University. 

Another plan which seemed promising has been complicated 

by the war. The committee has for some time been desirous 

,, ,. , ^ , , of securing the admission of women to the 

Medical School r r)i- • • j c 11 

College of Physicians and Surgeons as well 

as the School of Law. The Medical Faculty, the University 
Council, and the Board of Trustees had voted a year ago to 
admit women to the Medical School as soon as adequate 
accommodations could be provided. In view of the pressing 
demand for medical training, and the increasing number of 
opportunities opening to women physicians in private prac- 
tice, research work, sanitation and hygiene, as well as appoint- 
ment in the municipal departments of Health, Justice, Chari- 



APPENDIX I 225 

ties and Education, our committee offered to cooperate with 
Dean Lambert in raising the sum of $50,000 for a new building. 
This would provide additional space for laboratories and 
permit an increased registration, impossible under existing 
circumstances. The multitude of demands caused by the war 
has made it difficult to secure subscriptions, and the rapid 
rise in the cost of building materials has increased the amount 
needed; but the committee still hopes that the additional 
space may be obtained for the next academic year. Mean- 
while, to our great gratification, the Medical School has 
decided to admit, in any event, six women students to the 
first-year class next September. 

One fellowship in the department of history has been 
awarded by the University to a woman graduate student for 
the year 1917-1918. During the past two years five women 
have held fellowships and three of this number have already 
received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 

The problem of providing facilities for physical exercise 
has been partially solved by an arrangement which reserves 
one tennis court on East Field for the use of women students 
on payment of a small fee. It is hoped that the privileges of 
the gv-mnasium and swimming pool in the new Students' 
Building at Barnard College will be extended to the women 
in the graduate schools. 

The equipment of the serving room in connection with 
301 Philosophy Hall, which was recommended in last year's 
report, has been effected. This extends the usefulness of the 
reception room to numerous social organizations for evening 
meetings. 

The headquarters of the University Committee on Women's 

War Work are established in 301 Philosophy Hall. This 

committee supplies information in regard to courses ... .., , 
• • r • 11 1 • /-I War Work 

and opportunities for service and through its hies 

is able to reach those women who have volunteered their help 

in emergency. Women graduate students have held office on 

various committees on war work, and have offered their 

services in the clerical work of the office, in investigation, and 

in answering calls outside the University. 



226 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

In November the committee gave its annual reception to 
the body of women graduate students. This function is 
highly valued by the women who, coming to the 
city as strangers, have here an opportunity early 
in the year to meet the committee, the Faculty of the Gradu- 
ate Schools and their fellow students. 

The Commencement Day luncheon, which, through the 
generosity of friends, has for some years been given to the 
candidates for higher degrees, was this year omitted. The 
Women's Graduate Club, however, came to the assistance of 
the committee by holding a reception in honor of the candi- 
dates. In this connection the Women's Graduate Club should 
be warmly commended for the generous manner in which it 
has assumed social responsibility, not only for its own mem- 
bers but for the whole body of women students. During the 
past year it held receptions at the opening of both winter 
and spring session for the new students and also entertained 
the men in the graduate schools. The Club should receive 
hearty encouragement and, if possible, substantial support, 
for on very slender means it is attempting to serve the needs 
of all women in the graduate departments. The membership 
has now reached nearly four hundred. A graduate student 
was last year engaged to act as social secretary, to keep regular 
office hours and manage the increasing business of the Club. 
The plans of the organization along intellectual as well as 
social lines have been highly successful. Study classes for 
examinations have been carried on which ofifer an opportunity 
for students coming from widely separated parts of the coun- 
try to compare standards of work and to exchange views. 
Circles have been formed to discuss general topics, and depart- 
mental groups have met at luncheon to talk over their special 
subjects. The opportunity which the Club provides for 
intellectual self-expression must inevitably enhance the value 
of the students' academic work. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Virginia C. Gildersleeve, Chairman 
June JO, 1Q17 Emma P. Smith, Secretary 



APPENDIX 2 

REPORT OF THE UNIVERSITY 
MEDICAL OFFICER 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, I917 

To the President of the University, 
Sir: 

As University Medical Officer, I have the honor to submit 
the following brief statement of the work of this department 
for the academic year ending June 30, 1917. 

The past year has shown increasing demands upon this de- 
partment of the University. Our records show that during the 
academic year, 9964 visits have been made to 

this office for treatment and consultation re- ^ ,^ . ^^ 
,. .„ , r 111, Consultations 

gardmg illness and matters of personal health. 

Had it been possible for the office hours to be lengthened the 

number of visits would have been materially increased. 

The large number of consultations would seem to indicate a 
considerable amount of illness among the students and mem- 
bers of the staff. This conclusion, however, is not substan- 
tiated by a survey of the details of the cases. Many patients 
suffered from mild respiratory or gastro-intestinal diseases. 
While a large number of cases was treated, covering a variety 
of diseases, the health of the students in general, and especially 
of the students in the dormitories, was exceptionally good. 

While the chief object of our health work is to prevent rather 

than to treat diseases, in order to keep our community at work 

and to maintain a high degree of physical fitness, 

we must have a repair shop where our faculty ^ 

1 , r , ,. 1 Community 

and students may come for overhaulmg when 

even a slight illness overtakes them, or when the quality or the 

caliber of their work seems to be falling below the normal. 

Such is the place that this department has attempted to fill in 

the life of the University. The need for such work is apparent 



228 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

from the number of visits to this ofifice during the past year 
and every year since the establishment of the woric in 1912. 

The value of health was never so universally appreciated as 
it is at the present time. After the declaration of war, many 
for the first time took account of their physical 
Value of Health capital. A standard of physical fitness was 
p. set by the government and failure to measure 

up to this standard was the cause of many a 
man's rejection from the Officers' Reserve Corps and other 
military units. To a number this was a sad realization. 
Physical shortcomings prevented men from entering a ser- 
vice through which they earnestly sought to do their bit to 
maintain freedom and the good name of their country in the 
greatest struggle in the world's history. Many students sought 
advice in this ofifice as to how to improve their general health 
and physical vitality so that they might pass the army and navy 
tests and fit themselves for active service. The desire to serve 
was almost universal, even among those who through ill-health 
or physical defects were disqualified from service in the line. 
Not a few of those disqualified through faulty vision, defective 
hearing or deformity of body were inconsolable because of their 
irremediable defects, thwarting them from standing up with 
Columbia's contingent in preserving the ideals of civilization. 

The youth of our country have never been more willing than 
at present to seek and accept advice and instruction that would 
tend to make them physically and mentally fit for the strenuous 
days that lie before them during the war and the years of re- 
construction after the struggle is over. We recognize this 
privilege of service and will in every way possible, during the 
coming year, use the opportunities we have as medical advisers 
in giving an effective impetus to this desire to improve health 
and gain physical power. 

At a time when this ofifice is taxed to its utmost, it is oppor- 
tune that the Trustees of Barnard College should make it 
possible to appoint a physician to be 

ew ppoin men associated with the University Medical 

Officer in caring for the health work among the Barnard stu- 
dents. Dr. Gulielma Alsop, '03 Barnard, a graduate of the 



APPENDIX 2 229 

Woman's Medical School of Philadelphia, has been appointed 
College Physician with direct responsibility for the Barnard 
students. 

Miss Martha Carling, who for the past five years has so 
efficiently served the University as nurse in this department, 
has been granted a leave of absence for the dura- . 

tion of the war. She has been called into the 
service of the Canadian Red Cross and will begin her work in 
the Toronto Base Hospital on the first of September. 

The year's work has proven the need for developing the 

facilities of this office to deal with outside problems affecting 

conditions that directly bear upon the health 

and efficiency of the students. Many cases ,,. .,. ,.. 

■^ . ^ Visiting Nurse 

that seek treatment m the orhce prove so ill 

that they must be sent home and to bed. When such cases live 
in boarding-houses where they have no facilities for home treat- 
ment, it is difficult for them to obtain the proper care and at- 
tention. Often when instructed to put themselves under the 
care of a physician and to remain in bed, they fail to do so. 
Because we have practically no means of following up these 
cases, we frequently lose track of them. And because of lack 
of supervision, they lose more time than is necessary from their 
classes. We need the services of a visiting nurse who could 
follow up all such cases as well as investigate cases of reported 
illness among the students living within a circumscribed area 
of the University. The services of a visiting nurse would add 
materially to the efficiency of the office work. 

For some time the need for more careful supervision of the 
dormitory patients has been pressing. The infirmaries are 
there, but it is unsatisfactory to send a 

man to the infirmary and leave him to care ,^t^^ f^ Resident 

^ , . ,p . ,, .^ . Medical Attendant 

for himself, especially if a man is very .^^ Dormitories 

much indisposed, or quarantined. We 

need a matron in the dormitories, one trained in the care of the 

sick, to be responsible for men sent to the infirmaries or ill in 

their rooms. Such a woman, past middle life, could do many 

things for the comfort of the patients, as well as prepare and 

serve their meals. The experience of the last five years has 



230 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

shown that this home care of our temporarily indisposed men 
in the dormitories is more urgent than the services of a male 
trained nurse on full time, who could not and would not be 
willing to look after these matters of personal comfort and 
domestic needs. Where a case requires the services of a trained 
nurse, his services to the patient would be greatly enhanced by 
the assistance of a matron who knew where and how to obtain 
supplies, etc., provided by the University as part of its respon- 
sibility to its resident students. 

Again we wish to give full credit to the hospitals of the 
city which, through their continued cooperation with our work, 
have made it possible to accomplish much for the student pa- 
tients. Especially do we appreciate the fine spirit and cordial 
cooperation of the authorities at St. Luke's Hospital. 

Respectfully submitted, 

William H. McCastline 
University Medical Officer 

June 30, IQ17 



APPENDIX 3 

STATISTICS REGARDING THE TEACHING AND 

ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF FOR THE 

ACADEMIC YEAR 1916-1917 

Summary of Officers 

1915-16 1916-17 

Professors 172 180 

Associate Professors 46 56 

Assistant Professors 117 113 

Clinical Professors 25 26 

Associates 41 48 

Instructors 171 209 

Curators 3 3 

Lecturers 41 36 

Assistants 91 84 

Clinical Assistants no 108 

Total 817 863 

Other Instructors in Teachers College 134 153 

Other Instructors in College of Pharmacy 8 8 

959 1,024 

*Administrative Officers 41 39 

*Other Administrative Officers, Barnard College, 

Teachers College, and College of Pharmacy. ... 10 11 

Total 1,010 1,074 

Emeritus Officers 13 16 

Total 1,023 1.090 

* Excluding those who are also teaching officers and included above. 



232 columbia university 

Vacancies 

By Death, Resignation, Retirement, or Expiration of Term of Appoint- 
ment, occurring, unless otherwise indicated, on June 30, 191 7 

Professors and A dministrative Officers 

Charles A. Beard, Ph.D. (Oct. 9, 1917), Professor of Politics 

Arthur H. Blanchard, C.E., A.M. (Nov. 5, 191 7), Professor of Highway 

Engineering 
George E. Brewer, M.D., Professor of Surgery 
Clifford K. Brown, A.B., Secretary of Earl Hall 

James McKeen Cattell, Ph.D., LL.D. (Oct. i, 1917), Professor of Psy- 
chology 
Henry W. L. Dana, Ph.D. (Oct. i, 1917), Assistant Professor of Compara- 
tive Literature 
Emmanuel de Martonne, Visiting French Professor 1916-1917 
George S. Fullerton, Ph.D., Professor of Philosophy 
Virgil P. Gibney, M.D., Professor of Orthopedic Surgery 
Frederick A. Goetze, M.Sc. (Feb. 20, 191 7), Dean of the Faculty of 

Applied Science 
Mellen E. Haskell, Ph.D. (Feb. i, 191 7), Exchange Professor of Mathe- 
matics 
Friedrich Hirth, Ph.D., Dean Lung Professor of Chinese 
Paul C. Holter, A.B. (Aug. i, 1917), Secretary of Appointments 
J. Gardner Hopkins, M.D., Assistant Professor of Bacteriology 
Paul E. Howe, Ph.D. (Feb. i, 1917), Assistant Professor of Biological 

Chemistry 
Daniel Jordan, Pd.B., Assistant Professor of Romance Languages and 

Literatures 
James F. Kemp, LL.D., Sc.D., Professor of Geology 
Harold B. Keyes, M.D., Assistant Professor of Physical Education in 

Teachers College 
GusTAVE Lanson, Litt.D., Professor of French Literature 
A. Arthur Livingston, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Italian 
Herbert G. Lord, A.M., as Acting Dean of Columbia College 
William G. MacCallum, M.D., Professor of Pathology 
Thomas F. Main (died April 2-j, 1917), Secretary of the College of Phar- 
macy 
Floyd J. Metzger, Ph.D. (Feb. i, 1917), Associate Professor of Chemical 

Engineering 
Leonard D. Norsworthy, C.E., A.M., Assistant Professor of Civil Engi- 
neering 
Naomi Norsworthy, Ph.D. (died Dec. 25, 1916), Associate Professor of 

Educational Psychology 
William Noyes, A.M., Assistant Professor of Industrial Arts in Teachers 
College 



APPENDIX 3 233 

George B. Preston, Mech.E., Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engi- 
neering 
Julius Sachs, Ph.D., Professor of Secondary Education in Teachers College 
Hermann von W. Schulte, M.D., Assistant Professor of Anatomy 
Frank Dempster Sherman, Ph.B. (died Sept. 19, 1916), Professor of 

Graphics 
Homer F. Swift, M.D., Associate Professor of the Practice of Medicine 
Milton C. Whitaker, M.S., LL.D., Professor of Chemical Engineering 
Friedrich O. Willhofft, M.E., A.M., Assistant Professor of Mechanical 
Engineering 

Associates 
L. Ward Bannister, LL.B., Law 

Walter Bensel, M.D., Hygiene and Preventive Medicine 
Frederick S. Goucher, A.M. (Sept. i, 1917), Physics 
Arthur K. Kuhn, A.M., LL.B., Law 
Isaac Levin, M.D., Cancer Research 
George M. Mackenzie, M.D., Pathology 
Daniel E. Moran, M.Sc, Civil Engineering 
Francis A. Nelson, B.S., Architecture 
Albert E. Sumner, M.D., Clinical Medicine 
John E. Teeple, Ph.D., Chemical Engineering 
William Weinberger, M.S., Biological Chemistry 

Instructors 

Gottlieb A. Betz, Ph.D., Germanic Languages and Literatures (Barnard 

College) 
J. Eliot Booge, Ph.D., Chemistry 

Traugott Bohme, Ph.D., Germanic Languages and Literatures 
Robert Burlingham, M.D., Medicine 
Homer L. Carr, E.M., Mining 
Calvin B. Coulter, M.D., Bacteriology 
Harold B. Curtis, Ph.D., Mathematics (Barnard College) 
CoNDicT W. Cutler, Jr., M.D., Physiology 
Pauline H. Dederer, Ph.D., Zoology (Barnard College) 
Leon Eraser, Ph.D., Politics 
Harry F. Gardner, B.S., Mineralogy 
Leland B. Hall, A.M., English 
Francis W. Heagey, M.D., Anatomy 
Warren Hildreth, M.D., Obstetrics 
James W. Jameson, M.D., Surgery 
George V. Kendall, A.M., English 
Benjamin S. Kline, M.D., Pathology 

Walter M. Kraus, M.D. (Nov. 1,1916), Biological Chemistry 
Gerhard R. Lomer, Ph.D., Journalism 



234 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Sergius Morgulis, Ph.D. (Nov. i, 1916), Biological Chemistry 

James I. Osborne, A.M., English 

Harold E. B. Pardee, M.D. (Feb. i, 1917), Physiology 

John P. Peters, Jr., M.D., Clinical Medicine 

Allen W. Porterfield, Ph.D., Germanic Languages and Literatures 

Frank H. Redwood, M.D., Medicine 

Wythe M. Rhett, M.D., Pharmacology 

Robert E. Rockwood, A.M., French 

Frank E. Ross, A.M., Sociology 

George H. Ryder, M.D. (Feb. i, 1917), Gynecology 

Maurice J. Sittenfield, M.D., Pathology 

William W. Stifler, Ph.D., Physics 

Alfred Stillman, M.D., Clinical Surgery 

Euen Van Kleeck, M.D., Physiology 

Herbert N. Vermilye, M.D., Pathology 

James R. Whiting, M.D., Urology 

Lecturers 

George E. Barnett, Ph.D., Economics 

James W. Bell, A.M., Economics 

Albin H. Beyer, C.E., Civil Engineering 

Norman T. Boggs, A.M., Philosophy 

Julius A. Brown, A.M., Physics 

Robert H. Brown, S.B., Sanitary Engineering 

Madeleine H. Doby, B. es L., Romance Languages and Literatures (Bar 
nard College) and Secretary of the Maison 
Frangaise 

Harold D. Hazel tine, LL.B., J.U.D. (Dec. 31, 1916), Carpentier Lecturer 
on English Legal History 

Sterling P. Lamprecht, A.M., B.D., Philosophy 

Seabury C. Mastick, Chemical Patents (Non-resident) 

Mrs. Ruth Raeder Mook, A.M., Geology (Barnard College) 

Mabel Newcomer, A.M. (Feb. i, 1917), Economics 

George W. Peckham, Jr., A.B., Philosophy 

E. E. Southard, M.D., Psychology (Non-resident) 

GusTAVE R. TusKA, C.E., M.S., Street Cleaning and Municipal Waste 
Disposal 

Leonard C. Van Noppen, A.M., Queen Wilhelmina Lecturer on the His- 
tory, Language and Literature of The Netherlands 

A ssistants 

J. Arthur Balmford, E.E., Electrical Engineering 
Wyndham B. Blanton, M.D. (Jan. i, 1917), Pathology 



APPENDIX 3 235 

J. EAiiLE Brown, B.S. (Jan. i, 1917), Mineralogy 

Ernst P. Boas, M.D., Pathology 

Cyril S. Boland, B.S., Electrical Engineering 

James L. Cobb, M.D., Anatomy 

Walter E. Curt, B.S., Mathematics 

Samuel C. Dellinger, A.B., Zoology 

Wilfred S. Dennis, M.D., Pathology 

Everett W. Fuller, A.M., Chemistry 

Arthur B. Gabel, A.B., Physics 

Arthur I. Gates, A.M., Psychology 

A. F. Hamdi, E.E., Electrical Engineering 

Ali a. Hassan, Jr., Mineralogy 

Bela Hubbard, B.S., Palaeontology 

W. George Johnson, Metallurgy 

Russell S. Knappen, A.M., Geology 

Leila C. Knox, A.B. (Oct. i, 19 16), Cancer Research 

WiLLARD R. Line, M.S., Chemical Engineering 

Joseph Lintz, M.D. (Jan. i, 1917), Pathology 

Gabriel A. Lowenstein, A.M., Biological Chemistry 

Robert S. McEwen, A.M., Zoology 

Isabel McKenzie, A.M., History (Barnard College) 

Constantine J. MacGuire, Jr., M.D., Surgery 

Henry J. Masson, A.M., Chemical Engineering 

Henry F. A. Meier, A.M., Botany 

Frederick Miller, C.E., Civil Engineering 

Kenneth P. Monroe, B.S., Chemistry 

J. Howard Mueller, M.S., Pathology 

Russell W. Mumford, A.M., Chemical Engineering 

Ernest L. Nixon, M.S., Botany 

Earle T. Oakes, A.m., Chemistry 

Richard H. Paynter, A.M., Psychology 

Morris A. Raines, B.S., Botany (Research) 

Merril V. Reed, B.S. (May 31, 1917), Botany 

George P. Russell, Chemistry 

Andrew J. Scarlett, Jr. (Dec. 31, 1916), Chemistry 

Aura E. Severinghaus, Zoology 

George C. Southworth, M.S., Physics 

Waldemar M. Stempel, M.S., Physics 

Jennie Tilt, M.S., Chemistry (Barnard College) 

Edward A. Van Valkenburgh, A.B., Chemistry 

Walter B. Veazie, A.B., Philosophy 

Clara C. Ware, A.B., Zoology (Barnard College) 

Sarah Parker White, M.D., Philosophy (Barnard College) 

E. Stagg Whitin, Ph.D., Social Legislation 

M. Lester Witherup, B.S. (May 31, 1917), Botany 

Cecil Yampolsky, B.S., Botany 



236 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



Promotions 

To take effect, unless otherwise indicated, July i, 191 7 



Professors and Administrative Officers 



Name 
Charles P. Berkey, Ph.D. 

RoscoE C. E. Brown, A.M. 

Louis Casamajor, M.D. 

Anna M. Cooley, B.S. 

John J. Coss, A.M., B.D. 
John R. Crawford, A.M. 
Henry W. L. Dana, Ph.D. 
Vera Danschakoff, M.D. 
Dean S. Fansler, Ph.D. 
Hermon W. Farwell, A.M. 
James K. Finch, A.M. 
S. Philip Goodhart, M.D. 

Louise H. Gregory, Ph.D. 

Maude A. Huttmann, A.M. 

Daniel D. Jackson, M.S. 
Eleanor Keller, A.M. 

Adrian V. S. Lambert, M.D. 



To 



Subject 



From 
Associate 

Professor Professor Geology 
Associate Assistant 

Professor Journalism 
Assistant Associate 

Professor Professor Neurology 

Assistant Associate Household Arts 

Professor Professor Education 
(Teachers 
College) 
Instructor Assistant 

Professor Philosophy 

Instructor Assistant Roman 

Professor Archaeology 

Instructor Assistant Comparative 

Professor Literature 
Instructor Assistant 

Professor Anatomy 
Lecturer Assistant 

Professor English 
Instructor Assistant 

Professor Physics 
Assistant Associate Civil Engineer- 
Professor Professor ing 
Assistant 

Professor Assistant 

(Clinical) Professor Neurology 

Instructor Assistant Zoology 

Professor (Barnard 
College) 

Instructor Assistant History 

Professor (Barnard 
College) 

Assistant Associate Chemical Engi- 

Professor Professor neering 

Instructor Assistant Chemistry 

Professor (Barnard 
College) 
Associate Acting 

Professor Professor Surgery 



APPENDIX 3 



237 



Howard L. McBain, Ph.D. 

Joseph F. McCarthy, M.D. 
George L. Meylan, M.D. 
James P. C. Southall, A.M. 
Oliver S. Strong, Ph.D. 
May B. Van Arsdale, B.S. 



Associate Eaton 
Professor Professor 

Instructor Assistant 
Professor 
Associate 

Professor Professor 
Assistant Associate 
Professor Professor 
Instructor Assistant 
Professor 
Assistant Associate 
Professor Professor 



Thurman W. Van Metre, Ph.D. Insttuctor Assistant 

Professor 
H. Parker Wh^lis, Ph.D. Lecturer Professor 

William H. Woglom, M.D. Assistant Associate 

Professor Professor 

A ssociates 
James A. Corscaden, M.D. Instructor Associate 

George L. Rohdenburg, M.D. Assistant Associate 



James C. Sharp, M.D. 
Charles H. Smith, M.D. 

Allen O. Whipple, M.D. 

Arnold K. Balls, B.S. 
Gaston A. Carlucci, M.D. 



Jesse J. Galloway, Ph.D. 
Grace H. Goodale, A.M. 



Instructor Associate 
Instructor Associate 

Instructor Associate 



Municipal 
Science and Ad- 
ministration 

Urology- 
Physical 
Education 

Physics 

Neurology 
Household Arts 
(Teachers 
College) 
Transportation 

Banking 

Cancer 

Research 



Surgery 

Serology 

Anatomy 

Diseases of 

Children 

Surgery 



Gustave R. Manning, M.D. Assistant Instructor 

Jesse F. Sammis, M.D. Assistant Instructor 

Herbert J. Wiener, M.D. Assistant Instructor 



Instructors 
Assistant 
(Biological 

Chemistry) Instructor Bacteriology 
Assistant 

(Clinical Anatomy and 

Pathology) Instructor Surgery 
Curator Instructor Palaeontology 
Lecturer Instructor Classical 
Philology 
(Barnard 
College) 
Diseases of 
Children 
Diseases of 
Children 
Medicine 



238 COLUMBIA 


UNIVERSITY 






Lecturers 




Laura C. Brant, A.M. 




Assistant Lecturer 


Physics 

(Barnard 

College) 


Emory C. Unnewehr, B.S. 




Assistant Lecturer 


Physics 



Changes of Title 

To take effect, unless otherwise indicated, July i, 191 7 
Professors and Administrative Officers 



Name 
Daniel D. Jackson, M.S. 
(Feb. 5, 1917) 



Emma P. Smith, A.M. 
Frederick Tilney, M.D. 

H. Rawle Geyelin. M.D. 



Calvin B. Coulter, M.D. 

(Sept. I, 1916) 
Emilie J. Hutchinson, A.M. 

Samuel Swift, ^LD. 

Arthur H. Terry, Jr., M.D. 
(Oct. I, 1916) 

Benjamin T. Terry, M.D. 



Donald R. Belcher, A.M. 
Arthur M. Buswell, A.M. 



From To 

Assistant Professor of Assistant Pro- 
Civil Engineering fessor of Chem- 
ical Engineer- 
ing 
Secretary for Women Adviser to VVo- 
Graduate Students men Graduate 

Students 
Professor of Professor of 

Neurology Neurology and 

Neuro-Anato- 
my 
A ssociales 

Associate in Clinical Associate in 



Pathology 

Instructors 

Associate in 

Pathology 

Instructor 

Instructor in 
Gynecology 
Instructor in 
• Physiology 

Instructor in 
Pathology 

Lecturers 

Instructor in 
Mathematics 
Instructor in Chem- 
ical Engineering 



Medicine 



Instructor in 
Bacteriology 
Lecturer in 
Economics 
Instructor in 
Obstetrics 
Instructor in 
Clinical Medi- 
cine 

Instructor in 
Bacteriology 

Lecturer in 
Mathematics 
Lecturer in 
Chemical En- 
gineering 



WiLLARD R. Line, M.S. 
(Feb. 5, 1917) 



APPENDIX 3 239 

Assistants 

Assistant in Sanitary Assistant in 
Chemistry Chemical En- 

gineering 



Appointments 

To take effect, unless otherwise indicated, July i, 1917 
Professors and Administrative Officers 



Name 

GULIELMA F. AlSOP, M.D. 

Leo H. Baekeland, Sc.D. 

William C. Bagley, Ph.D. 

Fernand Baldensperger 

Otis W. Caldwell, Ph.D. 

Francis W. Coker, Ph.D. 

Arthur D. Dean, B.S. 

George C. Diekman, M.D. (May 3, 191 7) 

Henry S. Dunning, M.D. 
Henry Jones Ford, A.B. 

Henry W. Gillette, D.M.D. 

Herbert E. Hawkes, Ph.D. 

Clare M. Howard, Ph.D. (Jan. 8, 1917) 

Truman L. Kelley, Ph.D. 

Alexander Lambert, M.D. (Dec. i, 1916) 
Herbert G. Lord, A.M. (April 18, 191 7) 
Arthur H. Merritt, D.D.S. 



Office 

College Physician at Bar- 
nard College 

Honorary Professor of 
Chemical Engineering 

Professor of Education in 
Teachers College 

Professor of French Liter- 
ature 

Professor of Education in 
Teachers College 

Lecturer in History with 
professorial rank 

Professor of Education in 
Teachers College 

Acting Dean of the Col- 
lege of Pharmacy 

Professor of Oral Surgery 

Lecturer in Politics with 
professorial rank 

Professor of Operative 
Dentistry 

Acting Dean of Columbia 
College 

Adviser to Women Stu- 
dents in the School of 
Journalism 

Assistant Professor of Ed- 
ucation in Teachers Col- 
lege 

Professor of Clinical Medi- 
cine 

Acting Dean of Columbia 
College 

Professor of Oral Hygiene 



240 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



Walter W. Palmer, M.D. 

Thomas I. Parkinson, LL.B. 

Fred A. Peeso, D.D.S. 

George B. Pegram, Ph.D. (Feb. 20, 1917) 

Katharine C. Reiley 

James P. Ruyl, D.D.S. 

Julius Sachs, Ph.D. 

Edwin R. A. Seligman, LL.D. (Jan. 10, 1917) 
Wilhelmina Spohr, B.S. 



J. Bentley Squier, M.D. (Feb. i, 191 7) 
Isabel M. Stewart, A.M. 



Marion Rex Trabue, A.M. 



Frank T. Van Woert, M.D. 
Leuman M. Waugh, D.D.S. 
J. Lowe Young, D.D.S. 

A ssociates 

Albin H. Beyer, C. E. (Sept. i, 1917) 
Richard H. Cunningham, M.D. 
Maynie R. Curtis, Ph.D. (Oct. 15, 1917) 
Gertrude Dudley 

Robert T. Frank, M.D. 
William Bayard Long, M.D. 
Ralph H. McKee 
John E. Teeple, Ph.D. (Feb. i, 191 7) 



Associate Professor of the 

Practice of Medicine 
Professor of Legislation 
Professor of Dentistry 
Acting Dean of the Fac- 
ulty of Applied Science 
Assistant Professor of 

Classical Philology 
Assistant Professor of Den- 
tistry 
Emeritus Professor of Ed- 
ucation in Teachers Col- 
lege 
Acting Dean of the Gradu- 
ate Faculties 
Assistant Professor of 
Household Arts Educa- 
tion in Teachers College 
Professor of Urology 
Assistant Professor of 
Nursing and Health in 
Teachers College 
Assistant Professor of Ed- 
ucation in Teachers Col- 
lege 
Professor of Prosthodontia 
Professor of Pathology 
Professor of Orthodontia 



Civil Engineering 
Physiology 
Cancer Research 
Physical Education (Bar- 
nard College) 
Cancer Research 
Cancer Research 
Chemical Engineering 
Chemical Engineering 



Ittstructors 

Walter P. Anderton, M.D. (Oct. i, 1916) CUnical Medicine 

Colin L. Begg, M.D. Urology 

Ralph H. Blanchard, Ph.D. Insurance 

Ralph S. Boots, A.M. Politics 



APPENDIX 3 



241 



J. Floyd Bowman, M.D. 

Edward C. Brenner, M.D. 

Dorothy Brewster, Ph.D. 

George F. Cahill, M.D. 

Edward A. Cameron, M.D. 

Charles E. Carr, M.D. (Nov. i, 1916) 

Roy J. Colony, B.Chem. (Nov. i, 1916) 

William W. Cox, M.D. (Nov. i, 1916) 

Paul A. Dineen, M.D. 

James L. Dohr, M.S. 

Seward Erdman, M.D. 

Frank M. Hallock, M.D. 

John Munn Hanford, M.D. 

W. Hall Hawkins, M.D. 

R. HODDER-WlLLIAMS (Sept. I, I917) 

Joseph A. Hyams, M.D. 

Charles G. Irish, M.D. 

Peter Irving, M.D. (Oct. i, 1916) 

Edward T. Kennedy 

Leo Kessel, M.D. 

Samuel J. Kiehl, A.B. 

Joseph W. Krutch, A.B. 

William S. Ladd, M.D. (Sept. i, 1917) 

Kenneth M. Lamson, Ph.D. 

Bird Larson, B.S. 

Otto H. Leber, M.D. (Feb. i, 1917) 

Karl J. Loewi, M.D. (Sept. i, 1917) 

Edward C. Lyon, Jr., M.D. (Feb. i, 1917) 

J. H. H. Lyon 

Gilbert W. Mead, A.M. 

Hymen R. Miller, M.D. 



Dudley H. Morris, M.D. 

Emery E. Neff, A.M. 

Hanson S. Ogilvie, M.D. (Oct. i, 19 17) 

Charles Osgood, M.D. 

Michael Osnato, M.D. 

Otto C. Pickhardt, M.D. 

Edward L. Pratt, M.D. (Nov. i, 1916) 

Frank H. Redwood, M.D. (Jan. i, 1917) 

IsADORE Rosen, M.D. 



Clinical Laryngology and 
Otology 

Medicine 

English 

Urology 

Gynecology 

Medicine 

Geology 

Physiology 

Clinical Surgery 

Accounting 

Clinical Surgery 

Neurology 

Surgery 

Anatomy and Surgery 

Military Training 

Urology 

Physiology 

Clinical Medicine 

Physical Education 

Medicine 

Chemistry 

English 

Medicine 

Mathematics (Barnard 
College) 

Physical Education (Bar- 
nard College) 

Physiology 

Surgery 

Gynecology 

English 

English 

Bacteriology (also Assis- 
tant in Clinical Medi- 
cine) 

Surgery 

English 

Neurology 

Laryngology and Otology 

Neurology 

Anatomy 

Laryngology and Otology 

Medicine 

Syphilis 



242 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



Charles Rosexheck, M.D. 
Herbert W. Schneider, Ph.D. 
Thayer A. Smith, M.D. 
Maximilian Stern, M.D. 
Dorothy Stiles 

Edgar T. Tsen, M.D. 
Clarence T. Van Woert, D.D.S. 
Herbert N. Vermilye, M.D. (Jan. i, 1917) 
John A. Vietor, M.D. 
Raymond M. Weaver, B.S. 
Isr.\el S. Wechsler, M.D. 
Davenport West, M.D. (Oct. i, 1916) 
Thomas S. Winslow, M.D. (Jan. i, 1917) 
Stanley R. Woodruff, M.D. 
Alphonse a. Wren, M.D. 



Lecturers 
Emilio Agr.\monte, Jr., C.E., LL.B. 
Harry E. Barnes 

Albin H. Beyer, C.E. (May i, 1917) 
Margaret Burns 

Clarke E. Davis, Ph.D. 
Haven Emerson, M.D. 

Henry F. Grady, A.B. 

Lucy Gregory, A.B. 



Harold D. Hazeltine, LL.B., J.U.D. 

(Nov. 6, 191 6) 
Maurice G. Kains, ]\LS.A. 
Bernice W. Lyle, A.m. 
Clarence A. ^L\NNING, Ph.D. 
Henry F. Munro 

Stewart Paton, ^LD. (Oct. i, 1917) 
Joseph L. Perrier, Ph.D. 
Blanche Prenez 

Clalt)e E. Scattergood, ^LSc., LL.B. 
Col. Edward R. Shreiner, M.D. (Oct. i, 

Lucia H. Smith, A.B. 

E. E. Southard, M.D. (Dec. i, 1916) 



Neurology 
Philosophy 
Medicine 
Urology 

Physical Education (Bar- 
nard College) 
Bacteriology 
Dentistry 
Pathology 
Anatomy 
English 
Neurology 
Clinical Medicine 
Medicine 
Urology 
Urology 



Spanish 

History 

Civil Engineering 

Physical Education (Bar- 
nard College) 

Chemical Engineering 

Hygiene and Preventive 
Medicine 

Economics (Barnard Col- 
lege) 

Germanic Languages and 
Literatures (Barnard 
College) 

Carpentier Lecturer on 

English Legal History 
• Horticulture 

Zoology (Barnard College) 

Slavonic Languages 

International Law 

Psychiatry 

French (Barnard College) 

French (Barnard College) 

Business Statistics 
1917) Military Medicine and 
Surgery 

Chemistry (Barnard Col- 
lege) 

Psychology (Non-resident) 



APPENDIX 3 



243 



Assistants 



George Barsky, B.S. 

Mabel E. Baldwin 

Lewis Bibb, M.D. (Nov. i, 1916) 

Ernst P. Boas, M.D. (Feb. i, 1917) 

Dean R. Brimhall, A.M. 

Robert Burlingham, M.D. (Oct. i, 1916) 

Wilfred S. Dennis, M.D. (Feb. i, 191 7) 

David Felberbaum, M.D. (Oct. i, 1917) 

Lizette a. Fisher, Ph.D. 

Everett W. Fuller, A.M. (Jan. i, 1917) 

Frederic S. Granger, A.M. 

Ali A. Hassan, Jr. (Jan. i, 1917) 

Florrie Holzwasser, A.B. 

Alfred F. Huettner, A.B. 

Mary Leland Hunt, Ph.D. 

Norma E. Johann, A.B. 

W. George Johnson (Oct. i, 1916) 

Gabriel A. Lowenstein, A.M. (Feb. 

Kenneth R. McAlpin, M.D. 

Jos6 D. Moral, M.D. (Oct. i, 1917) 

Helen H. Parkhurst, Ph.D. 

Ethel A. Prince, A.B. 

Merril V. Reed, B.S. (Feb. i, 1917) 

Alma G. Ruhl, A.B. 

Zachary Sagal, M.D. 

Franz Schrader, B.S. 

Adelaide Spohn, M.S. (Oct. i, 1916) 

Robert A. Steinberg, A.M. 

Clarence G. Stone, Jr., A.M. 

Clarence P. Thomas, M.D. 

Lewi Tonks, A.B. 

H. W. Truesdell 

Martha L. Washburn 



Chemistry 

Chemistry 

Clinical Pathology 

Pathology 

Psychology 

Clinical Pathology and 
Medicine 

Pathology 

Clinical Medicine 

English (Research) 

Chemistry 

Chemistry 

Mineralogy 

Geology (Barnard College) 

Zoology 

English (Research) 

Chemistry 

Metallurgy 
I, 1917) Biological Chemistry 

Clinical Pathology 

Bacteriology 

Philosophy (Barnard Col- 
lege) 

Psychology (Barnard Col- 
lege) 

Botany 

History (Barnard College) 

Clinical Pathology 

Zoology 

Physiology (Research) 

Botany 

Physics 

Surgery 

Physics 

Botany 

Chemistry 



Leaves of Absence 

For the whole or part of the year 1916-1917 were granted 
to the following officers: 
For the entire year: 

DiNO Bigongiari, A.B. Assistant Professor of Italian 

John B. Clark, LL.D. Professor of Political Economy 



244 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



Carlton C. Curtis, Ph.D. 
George S. Fullerton, Ph.D. 
Daniel Jordan, Pd.B. 
James F. Kemp, Sc.D., LL.D. 
Cassius J. Keyser, Ph.D. 
Helen Kinne 

Henri F. Muller, Ph.D. 
William Noyes, A.M. 

Allen W. Porterfield, Ph.D. 

Milton C. Whitaker, LL.D. 



Associate Professor of Botany 

Professor of Philosophy 

Assistant Professor of French 

Professor of Geology 

Adrain Professor of Mathematics 

Professor of Household Arts Education in 

Teachers College 
Assistant Professor of French 
Assistant Professor of Industrial Arts in 

Teachers College 
Instructor in the Germanic Languages and 

Literatures in Barnard College 
Professor of Chemical Engineering 



For the Winter Session: 

William B. Fite, Ph.D. 
Patty S. Hill 

George P. Krapp, Ph.D. 
AzuFAH J. Latham, A.B. 

Henry A. Ruger, Ph.D. 

Henry R. Seager, Ph.D. 



Professor of Mathematics 

Assistant Professor of Kindergarten Edu- 
cation in Teachers College 

Professor of English 

Assistant Professor of Oral English in 
Teachers College 

Assistant Professor of Educational Psy- 
chology in Teachers College 

Professor of Political Economy 



For the Spring Session: 
Franklin T. Baker, Litt.D. 

Carlton J. H. Hayes, Ph.D. 
Friedrich Hirth, Ph.D. 
Margaret E. M.\ltby, Ph.D. 

Henry L. Moore, Ph.D. 
George C. D. Odell, Ph.D. 
Edward D. Perry, LL.D. 
Julius Sachs, Ph.D. 

Munroe Smith, LL.D., 

J.U.D., J.D. 
Mabel F. Weeks, A.B. 
George V. Wendell, Ph.D. 
Frederick J. E. Woodbridge, 

LL.D. 



Professor of the English Language and 

Literature in Teachers College 
Associate Professor of History 
Dean Lung Professor of Chinese 
Associate Professor of Physics in Barnard 

College 
Professor of Political Economy 
Professor of English 
Jay Professor of Greek 
Professor of Secondary Education in 

Teachers College 
Professor of Roman Law and Comparative 

Jurisprudence 
Associate in English in Barnard College 
Professor of Physics 
Johnsonian Professor of Philosophy 



APPENDIX 3 245 

For a period of Jour months: 

Maurice A. Bigelow, Ph.D. Professor of Biology and Director of the 

School of Practical Arts in Teachers Col- 
lege 

Charles T. McFarlane, Professor of Geography and Controller of 

D.Pd. Teachers College 

May B. Van Arsdale, B.S. Assistant Professor of Household Arts in 

Teachers College 

Representatives of the University during 1916-1917 

At the installations of — 

President Hopkins, Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H. — 

Provost Carpenter 
President Reinhardt, Mills College, Cal. — 

John C. Spencer, '82, '85 P. & S. 
President Jessup, State University of Iowa, Iowa City, la. — 

Professor Paul Monroe 
President Vinson, University of Texas, Austin, Tex. — 

Professor Charles G. Haines, Ph.D. '09 
President Warfield, Wilson College, Chambersburg, Pa. — 

Rev. Floyd Appleton, '93, Ph.D. '06 

At the anniversary celebrations of — 

Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass. — 

Charles S. Knox, '62, A.M. '65 
The Lutheran Society (Reformation Anniversary Celebration) — 

Chaplain Knox 
Moravian Parochial School, Bethlehem, Pa. (175th) — 

Professor Jones 
Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N. J. (150th) — 

President Butler, Dean Keppel, 
Dean Gildersleeve, Professor 
J. L. R. Morgan, Professor Davis 
Miscellaneous — 

Association of the Colleges of the State of New York, Albany, N. Y. — 

Dean Keppel, Professor Jones 
and Secretary Fackenthal 
Association of American Universities, Worcester, Mass. — 

Dean Woodbridge and Provost Carpenter 
Association of Urban Universities — 

Provost Carpenter 
Association of Colleges and Preparatory Schools of the 
Middle States and Maryland, Baltimore, Md. — 

Dean Keppel, Dean Gildersleeve and Professor Jones 



246 COLUMBIA UNIVEK5ITY 

\fanaging Committee of tbe American Scboo) <A Oriental 
Rese are h in Jerasalem, Haverford, Pa. — 

American Institute (A Anjiitects, Mnrnraptfe, Mii^r. — 

Prolessof Bo£iXG 
Asscxsatiao at Coflegkte Sdioois of Architecttire, Minne- 
apcAs, Minn. — 

Convocation of the Uni\ta=ity c: tie 5: = :r : :' N^ - ?>.¥. — 

fesrors JoxES ana Paix Moxeoe 

National O^kgiate Athletic Asodaticm, New York City — 

Pnrfessor Metlan and Chazles H. Mapks, '85 

Committee on Selectioo of Rhodes Scholars, Albany, X. Y. — 

Professcw JoXES 

Cczrr::r .: I :r-5tructh-e Patriot^n, Wa^iington, D. C. — 

BEXjAicry B. Lawjlesxe. Science 
'78, HE£BE2T L. Satteillee, '83, 
Ph-D. '85, and Professor &roDiXG5 
Board of Fgt'matp and Apportionment and Board of Alder- 
men of the City of New York — ^Services in Memory of 
Seth Low, LL.D.— 

Deans Woc»bridge, Keppel, Gil- 

DEl rJ .EETE, RCSSELL, GOETZE, 
LaMBEET, PrO%-TKt CARFKSfTER, 

Professtws Sloase, Peeky, Deax, 
Buss, Chandler and Caxfield 



APPENDIX 4 

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF APPOINTMENTS 

JUXE I. I916. TO JUNE I, 191 7 

To the President of the University, 

Sir: 

It gives me pleasure to submit herewith a record of the 
acti\-ities of this Office for the year 1916-1917. 

Not until the Office is estabhshed on a better financial and 
more dignified basis will it be able to perform adequately and 
with any degree of completion those functions which are being 
recognized by all progressive and forward-looking educators 
and professional authorities as paramount to the development 
and growth of a well-rounded college or university. It cannot 
coordinate the various appointment and employment problems 
of the University- and serve the community satisfactorily until 
those in authorit>- give it the support which its record demands. 
Smaller and less heavily endowed institutions are taking up 
the work of helping students and graduates with an enthusiasm 
and determination which does not augur well for Columbia. 
It is a challenge to us all. 

A sum of $100,000 for Student Employment, and $183,000 
for Graduate Appointments for one year, the earnings reported 
as secured through the Office alone is no mean figure and de- 
sers-es more whole-hearted consideration and recognition than 
has been its lot in the past. If it is longer -^-ithheld the Uni- 
versity- will suffer through its lack of supporting in this manner 
students worthy of aid. and graduates deser\-ing to be per- 
manently placed. 

That the Office was not remiss in adjusting itself to the needs 

of the Government and the Nation is e\-idenced by the aid it 

rendered in establishing the Committee for „, ^ 

, . • War bervnce 

Agricultural \ olunteers and m ad\ismg students 

for other forms of ser\-ice as is indicated in Table XL It was 



248 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

instrumental in selecting a number of men for service not only 

with the Advance Army in France but also with the Red 

Cross and Y. M. C. A. With larger funds the Ofifice could be 

made a very important clearing center for the Nation during 

the war, and a distinctive Columbia contribution during the 

crisis. 

What has been said in previous reports about the student 

'working his way through college' still holds true. To 'find 

oneself in New York and to prove one's worth 

c. , .is often a very difficult task. Competition is 

Employment . ■' ^ 

keen and it takes more than energy, persever- 
ance and ability to retain a place. No one should come to 
Columbia with less than $300. Tables I to XII show the 
various kinds of work in which students were engaged last 
year and the earnings by schools and for the different groups 
of employment. In each case the women and men have been 
arranged separately. Table III — Average Earnings — perhaps 
supplies the best test to which total earnings can be put. Of 
almost equal interest are Tables IX and X. 

Little need be added regarding Tables XII to XVI except 
that the registration increased almost fifty per cent., that is, 

1,006 for the previous year and 1,461 for the past 
Graduate rj^, , r .... , 

A • . . year. Ihe number 01 appomtments jumped 
Appomtments ■' ^^ . •* ^ 

from 169 to 293 and the total earnings from 
$109,536 to $183,072 (See Table XVI). Under this heading 
the positions for women also have been listed separately for 
obvious reasons. 

A plan for vocational guidance and expert counsel has been 
worked out by the Columbia College Faculty Committee on 

Advice and the College Alumni Association Vo- 

„ . , cational Committee and is simply awaiting final 

Guidance . _; . . 

development and execution. The idea is so em- 
bracing in scope that it should immediately win the recognition 
of all broad-minded men with any degree of imagination who 
are desirous of far-reaching results. It is to be hoped that 
the next report may embody definite announcement of its 
workings. 



APPENDIX 4 249 

The need of additional clerical assistance is greater than 
ever and the want will probably never be supplied until the 
. Office is endowed with a fund of at least $100,000. 
This would provide for its growth and expan- 
sion and place it on an independent basis. 

To the Secretary of the University, to the Dean of the 
College, and the other members of the Faculty who have so 
generously given advice, thanks are due. May the coming 
year open a far wider activity for the Ofifice. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Paul C. Holter 
Secretary 

June JO, igiy 



250 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



STUDENT EMPLOYMENT 
TABLE I 

POSITIONS FILLED DURING THE YEAR I916-I917 





Women 


Men 




Women 


Men 


Accountant 




I 


Messenger 




44 


Addressing 


II 


48 


Mimeographing 




I 


Architectural Draftsman 




2 


Miscellaneous 


ID 


SS 


Artist's Model 




10 


Motor Boat Operator 




4 


Assayist 




I 


Motorcyclist 




3 


Athletic Coach 




13 


Monitor 


113 


3SI 


Attendant to invalid 




3 


Moving Picture 




4 


Bank Clerk 




5 


Musician 




4 


Blood Transfusion 




3 


Night Clerk 




6 


Bookkeeper 


I 


10 


Notary Public 




I 


Boys' Club 




II 


Office Attendant 


4 


5 


Camp Assistant 




7 


Optometrist 




I 


Campaign Worker 




I 


Page 




I 


Canvassing 


4 


6 


Pianist 




14 


Caretaker 


2 


6 


Playground 




IS 


Cashier 


S 


3 


Printing 




I 


Cataloguing 


I 




Proof Reader 


I 


6 


Chauffeur 




9 


Public Speaking 




I 


Chemist 




2 


Reader 


7 


20 


Clerical 


32 


126 


Recounting Ballots 




I 


Clerk 




32 


Research Worker 




a 


Collector 




I 


Revising Manuscript 




2 


Companion 


20 


43 


Salesman 




lOS 


Conductor 




7 


Saleswomen 


5 




Counterman 




I 


Secretary 




2 


Counting Traffic 




8 


Singer 






Conversation (foreign 






Social Assistant 






language) 




3 


Soda Dispenser 






Dancing Escort 




5 


Settlement Worker 






Dancing Instructor 




I 


Skating Instructor 






Distributing 


2 


26 


Snow Shoveling 




IS 


Draftsman 




19 


Soliciting 


4 


46 


Electrical Engineer 




II 


Statistical 




2 


Electrical Work 




I 


Stenographer 


17 


39 


Elevator Operator 




2 


Storekeeper 




I 


Editorial 




3 


Student Janitor 




2 


Farm Hand (see table XI} 




I 


Supervisor 




2 


Filing 




S 


Supernumeraries 




2 


Guide 




10 


Telephone Operator 




7 


Gymnasium Instructor 




I 


Ticket Agent 




23 


Hotel Clerk 




2 


Transit Work 




I 


Instructor 


2 


45 


Translator 




14 


Interviewer 




IS 


Tutor 


36 


258 


Investigator 




21 


Typewriting 


13 


121 


Laboratory Assistant 




I 


Usher 




64 


Law Clerk 




2 


Verger 




I 


Lettering 




3 


Violinist 




3 


Machine Shop Work 




I 


Waiter 


6 


47 


Magazine Writer 




I 


Watcher 




IS4 


Mathematical Comp. 




6 














Total 


299 


2,000 








Grand Total 




2,299 



TABLE II 
A comparative table of positions filled from year to year since 1908. 



1908- 
1909 


1909- 

1910 


I9I0- 
I9II 


I9II- 
I9I2 


I9I2- 
I9I3 


I9I3- 
I9I4 


I9I4- 
I9IS 


I9IS- 
I9I6 


I9I6- 
I9I7 


614 


lOIO 


909 


1496 


188s 


1433 


1266 


2809 


2299 



APPENDIX 4 



251 







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t~i 







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Ixi 







'56 



COLUMBIA U N I \' E R S I T Y 



to *% 



< 't. 






eI S 



APPENDIX 4 



^0/ 



TABLE IX 

EARNINGS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO AMOUNTS 

Summer igi6 

MEN 



School 


Up 
to 


$50 
to 


Sioo 
to 


J200 
to 


$300 
to 


$400 
to 


Ssoo 
to 


$600 
to 


5700 
to 


I800 
to 


I900 
to 


Over 

liooo 

and 

Amount 


Total 




S50 


$100 


$200 


J300 


I400 


Isoo 


$600 


f70O 


S800 


^900 


5 1 000 




College 


35 


44 


75 


28 


10 


I 




I 






{ 


I $1200 

I I1800 


|xe<5 


Law 


18 


4 


24 


15 


7 


2 


I 








{ 


r $1300 
I 2500 


}" 


Medicine 


6 


4 


10 


8 


I 


2 




I 










32 


Applied 




























Science 


12 


I 


17 


7 


4 
















41 


Graduate 


15 


6 


2 


7 


4 








I 




{ 


I Iraoo 
r J1300 


)" 


Fine Arts 


3 




3 


3 


2 
















II 


Teachers 


I 


4 


10 


I 


















16 


Journalism 


7 


2 


9 


4 
















I J1400 


23 


Business 


4 


I 


2 




















7 


Extension 


4 


r 


7 


6 


2 


r 




I 










33 


Total 


105 


(57 


/59 


79 


JO 


(5 


/ 


3 


I 






7 


458 





Up 


I50 


Jioo 


5200 


$300 


$400 


Isoo 


J600 


5700 


J800 


I900 


Over 

$1000 

and 

Amount 




School 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


Total 




$50 


$100 


J200 


$300 


$400 


Jsoo 


J600 


$700 


58 00 


$900 


$1000 




Graduate 


2 


3 


5 


I 


I 
















13 


Barnard 


S 


6 


I 




















13 


Teachers 


7 


2 


4 


I 


I 
















15 


Journalism 




























Extension 




























Total 


14 


II 


10 


3 


3 
















39 



258 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



TABLE X 
EARNINGS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO AMOUNTS 

Academic Year October i to May j/ 

MEN 





Up 


ISO 


$100 


$200 


$300 


$400 


$500 


$600 


$700 


$800 


$900 


Over 

$1000 

and 

Amount 




School 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


Total 




ISO 


Sioo 


$200 


$300 


$400 


$500 


$600 


$700 


$800 


$900 

I 


$1000 




College 


79 


42 


57 


26 


6 


3 


5 










239 


Law 


12 


17 


l8 


13 


8 


4 


6 


3 


I 








82 


Medicine 


7 


2 


I 


I 


2 


I 




I 










15 


Applied 




























Science 


12 


II 


6 


S 


3 














I $lo8o 


37 


Graduate 


13 


13 


II 


II 


5 


5 


S 


4 


2 


2 


3] 


I $1676 
I li8S4 


1 ''^ 


Fine Arts 


2 


2 


I 


I 


















6 


Teachers 


5 


3 


7 


8 


I 


4 


I 




2 








3t 


Journalism 


II 


S 


2 


3 


I 


I 














23 


Business 


3 


I 


I 


9 












I 




I $1040 


16 


Extension 


7 


9 


9 


4 


2 




3 


I 






I 




36 


Total 


IS' 


I OS 


113 


*/ 


2* 


/<? 


20 





J 


4 


4 


4 


543 



WOMEN 





Up 


$50 


$100 


$200 


$300 


$400 


$500 


$600 


$700 


$800 


$900 


Over 

$1000 

and 

Amount 




School 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


Total 




$50 


$100 


$200 


$300 


$400 


$500 


$600 


$700 


$800 


$900 


$1000 




Graduate 


II 


4 


8 


6 


2 


I 






I 


2 




I $1988 


36 


Barnard 


5 




I 


I 


















7 


Teachers 


8 


5 


2 


3 




I 














19 


Journalism 


4 
























4 


Extension 


9 


6 


8 


10 


2 




2 












37 


Business 




I 






















I 


Total 


37 


16 


19 


20 


4 


2 


2 




/ 


2 




I 


104 



APPENDIX 4 
TABLE XI 



259 



Number of students on Appointments Office list who are serving their 
country. 



Agriculture 


210* 


National Guard 


3 


Ambulance Corps 


18 


Naval Reserve 


18 


Army 


3 


Navy 


4 


Aviation Corps 


3 


Quartermaster Service 


2 


Enlisted 


4 


Red Cross 


I 


Government Positions 


II 


To France 


8 


Medical Reserve Corps 


I 


To Russia 


I 


Military Drill 


6 


Training Camp 


S2 


Motor Reserve Corps 


I 


United States Marines 


I 


Munition Work 


6 










Total 


353 



* S3 on list of Appointments Office. 



TABLE XII 

The following table shows the earnings of the students since 1 898-1 899, 
both with and without the aid of the Office. In the years 1902-1903 to 
1910-1911 all students in the University were asked to make a report of 
their earnings. Only those regularly registered with the Office have been 
asked to report since 191 1. 





With 


Without 


Total 


I898-I899 


$1,600.00 


Unreported 


$1,600.00 


1899-1900 


3,000.00 


Unreported 


3.000.00 


Igoo-1901 


4.977.00 


Unreported 


4,977.00 


I90I-I902 


S.4S9.68 


$10,204.50 


15,664.18 


I902-I903 


I6.S74-94 


41.149.63 


57. 724.57 


I903-I904 


27.432.10 


46,569.07 


74.021.17 


I904-I90S 


43,032.11 


49.404.09 


92,436.20 


I90S-1906 


39,660.96 


64,529.43 


104,190.39 


I906-I907 


30,645.33 


80,515.95 


111,161.28 


I907-I908 


28,766.15 


67.089.85 


95,856.00 


I908-I909 


29,245.83 


65.908.89 


95.154.72 


I909-I9IO 


39.054-02 


127,723.47 


166.777.49 


I9IO-I9II 


24,861.02 


50,848.43 


75.709.45 


I9II-I9I2 


35,419.56 


59.615.97 


95.035-53 


I9I2-I9I3 


S7.192.74 


63,086.56 


120,279.30 


I9I3-I9I4 


78,982.41 


62,752.70 


141. 753-11 


1914-1915 


37.2S3-II 


6S.763.63 


103,016.74 


I9IS-I9I6 


65.S32.88 


90,444.08 


155.976.96 


1916-1917 


100,575.85 


121,343.26 


221,921.11 


Total 1898-1917 


$66g,28s.6Q 


$1,066,951.51 


$1,736,255.20 



26o 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

GRADUATE APPOINTMENTS 
TABLE XIII 

GRADUATES LISTED FOR PERMANENT POSITIONS 



(o) Teaching 




Women — continued 




Men 


345 


Miscellaneous 


2 


Women 


297 


Pharmacist 


2 


Total 


784 


Psychologist 
Publishing 


3 
3 


{b) Business and Professional 




Research Work 
Secretarial 


7 
38 


Accountant 


3 


Social Work 


3 


Advertising 


7 


Statistician 


I 


Architect 


6 


Stenographer 


48 


Banking 


4 


Typist 


I 


Bookkeeping 
Clerical 


2 
8 


Total 


146 


General 
Manager 


69 
S 


Law 




Manufacturing 


4 


Admiralty 


3 


Mercantile 


3 


Corporation 


4 


Miscellaneous 


14 


General 


145 


Newspaper 


14 


International 


2 


Optician 


2 


Litigation 


4 


Publishing 


10 


Miscellaneous 


3 


Salesman 


21 


Real Estate 


2 


Secretary 
Social Service 


IS 
5 


Total 


163 


Statistician 
Medical 


S 

I 


Engineering 




Total 


ig8 


Chemical 
Chemist 


19 
22 


Women 




Civil 
Electrical 


SS 
IS 


Architect 


I 


Highway 


I 


Art 


I 


Mechanical 


34 


Chemist 


6 


Mining 


19 


Clerical 


IS 


Miscellaneous 


3 


File Clerk 


2 


Railroad 


I 


Governess 


3 


Telephone 


I 


Interior Decorator 


I 


Total 




Journalism 


4 


170 


Librarian 


5 


Grand total 


1,461 



APPENDIX 4 
TABLE XIV 

APPOINTMENTS 



261 





No. of 


No. of 


Aggregate 




Positions 


Salaries 


Salaries 


1 


Filled 


Reported 


Reported 


(i) TEACHING: 








*Head of Biology Department 


I 






Assistant Professor of Botany 


I 






Assistant Professor of Biology 


I 






Assistant Professor of Botany and Plant Physiology 


I 






*Substitute in Chemistry and Physics 


I 


I 


$1,200 


*Assistant in Classics 


I 


I 


1,200 


*Assistant in Department of Economics 


I 


I 


1. 500 


Assistant Professor in Economics 


I 






*Instructor in English 


5 


S 


S.soo 


Instructor of English in Engineering School 


I 


I 


SOO 


*Instructor in French 


3 






^Instructor in German 


I 






Instructor in German 


5 


3 


4.750 


Teacher of German (One-half year) 


I 


I 


275 


Fellow in German 


I 


I 


500 


Instructor in Geology 


3 


3 


4,000 


Assistant Professor in Geology 


3 


3 


4,800 


Assistant in Geology 


I 


I 


600 


Paleo Botanist 


I 


I 


1,500 


*Instructor in History 


I 


I 


1,500 


*Instructor in History and Economics 


I 






♦Instructor in International Relations (S. School) 


I 


I 


200 


♦Substitute Instructor in Latin 


I 






♦Instructor in Modern Languages 


I 


I 


575 


Assistant in Pathology (Department of Agriculture) 


I 






♦Instructor in Political Science 


I 


I 


1,800 


♦Assistant Professor in Politics 


I 






Expert in Plant Pathology 


I 






Instructor in Physics 


2 


I 


1,140 


Professor of Physical Education 


I 


I 


3.500 


Instructor in Psychology 


3 






Fellow in Psychology 


2 






Lecturer in Psychology and Education 


I 






Instructor in Zoology 


2 


2 


2,200 


Assistant in Zoology 


I 






Total 


34 


30 


$37,240 



* These were secured directly by office, aU others through departments. 



262 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



(z) WOMEN— TEACHING: 

Assistant in Botany 

Instructor in Economics 
♦Instructor in English 

Instructor in Freshman and Sophomore Enghsh 
♦Instructor in French 

Instructor in Geology 

Instructor in Physics 

Assistant in Psychology 

High School Teacher 
Total 



(3) MEN— BUSINESS AND PROFESSIONAL: 
♦Architectural Draftsman 
♦Assistant 
♦Assistant Purchasing Agent 

Assistant Organist 

Assistant Superintendent 

Assistant Editor House Organ 
♦Bank Clerk 
♦Bond Salesman 

Censor Work 
♦Chief Clerk 
♦Clerical Assistant 
♦Clerk 

Campaign Worker 

Copy Reader 
♦Correspondent 

Editor 
♦Executive and Editorial 
♦German Translators 
♦Export and Import Department 
♦Statistical Department 
♦Investigator 

Librarian 
♦Publishing 

Pharmacists 

Publicity 

Recorder 
♦Registrar 
♦Reporter 

Research Assistant 

Research Work 
♦Salesman 
♦Salesman 
♦Social Worker 
♦Stock Clerk 
♦Telegraph Editor 
Total 



No. of 

Positions 

Filled 



69 



No. of 
Salaries 
Reported 



Aggregate 
Salaries 
Reported 



$1,200 

1,000 

900 

600 



$3,700 



I912 

1,104 

720 

700 

864 

2,400 

1,480 

4.944 

1,000 

720 

S.472 

2,400 

1,200 

720 

2,400 

3.300 

7,200 

720 

780 

900 

160 

720 

S.800 

2,400 

840 

800 

720 

1,200 

1,800 

1,200 

1,200 

1,000 

1,820 

$59.SQ6 



* With aid of office. 



APPENDIX 4 



26- 





No. of 


No. of 


Aggregate 




Positions 


Salaries 


Salaries 




Filled 


Reported 


Reported 


(4) WOMEN— BUSINESS AND PROFESSIONAL : 








♦Bookkeeper 


I 


I 


J864 


♦Clerical Assistant 


2 


2 


1,200 


♦Correspondence Clerk 


I 


I 


720 


♦Assistant Stenographer and Telephone Operator 


I 


I 


672 


Research Psychology Assistant 


I 






♦Mail Reader 


I 


I 


720 


Reporter 


2 


2 


1.728 


Secretary 


18 


18 


IS,SS2 


♦Secretary 


2 


2 


1.420 


♦Statistician 


I 


I 


916 


Stenographer 


4 


4 


3.140 


♦Stenographer 


12 


II 


7,892 


Total 


46 


44 


^ 34, 8 24 


(5) *LAW CLERKS 


18 


6 


$3,178 


(6) ENGINEERING: 








Assistant Sanitary Engineer 


S 


S 


26,000 


Bacteriologist 


I 


I 


1.200 


Chemical Engineer 


21 


12 


11.530 


♦Assistant in Chemical Laboratory 


I 


I 


720 


Chemist 


s 


4 


3.920 


♦Civil Engineer 


6 


4 


4. 116 


♦Electrical Engineer 


2 


I 


2.0X6 


♦Geologist 


I 


I 


1, 500 


♦Mechanical Engineer 


6 


6 


8.852 


Inspector Electro-Metallurgical Work 


I 






Mining Engineer 


8 


I 


1.800 


♦Mining Engineer 


I 


I 


900 


Research Chemist 


2 






Research in Hydrometallurgical Work 


I 






Research Metallurgist 


I 






Research Physicist 


I 


I 


1,980 


Total 


63 


38 


$44,534 


Grand total 


263 


177 


$183,072 



* Secured directly through ofifice, others through departments. 



264 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
TABLE XV 



A comparison of the number of permanent appointments secured from 
year to year. 





No. of 


No. of 


Aggregate 






Positions 


Salaries 


Salaries 


Average 




Filled 


Reported 


Reported 




I9I2-I9I3 


47 


20 


$18,452 


J923 


I9I3-I9I4 


55 


26 


26,15s 


1,006 


I9I4-I9IS 


169 


82 


85,556 


1,043 


I9I5-I9I6 


293 


112 


109.536 


970 


I9I6-I917 


263 


177 


183,072 


1,034 


Total 


827 


417 


$422,765 


$1,014 



APPENDIX 5 

REPORT OF THE CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD OF 
STUDENT REPRESENTATIVES 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, I917 

To the President of the University 
Sir: 

The Board of Student Representatives has the honor to 
present the following report for the academic year 1916-1917. 

In the history of extra-curricular activities at Columbia 
University there never has been a year when student self- 
government met with more diversified problems or more 
serious duties. The crisis arising out of the breach of diplo- 
matic relations between the United States and the German 
Empire, and the subsequent declaration of war, diverted the 
normal course of student thought and activities from Univer- 
sity to national channels. Athletics, debating, dramatics, 
publications — all of these gave way to serious thought and 
earnest discussion of the international situation and the active 
participation in the various branches of national service which 
were opened to college men after the outbreak of the war. 

In reciting in considerable detail in this report the history 
of student government and undergraduate activities for the 
whole year the Board is not unaware of the fact that the im- 
portance of its activities during the last few months com- 
pletely overshadow those of the Fall and the early part of the 
Winter. But it feels strongly that, in so far as the latter 
tended to the development of a sense of social responsibility, 
as well as to the development of individual character, all of 
these earlier student interests were preparation and experience 
for the solution of the later and more unusual problems. 

The interclass rushes were held during the early weeks of the 
Fall Term, under the supervision of the Board and a committee 
of upperclassmen. The Freshmen won the Tug-of-war and the 



266 COLUMBIA UNIV^ERSITY 

Flag-Rush. The Tie-Rush was abandoned because, after two 

years of trial, it was found unsatisfactory and undesirable. A 

nominal admission was charged to the rushes, 

and the funds thus secured were used largely 

to defray the expenses of the Student Board. 

The Board cooperated with the Columbia University Chris- 
tian Association in the annual reception to members of the 
Freshman class, held during the first week of October. 

The election of officers of the Freshman class was held 
shortly after the Thanksgiving holidays. Shortly before the 
balloting took place, the Board was compelled to disqualify 
one of the candidates for a violation of the rule which pro- 
hibited electioneering. 

The mid-year election for members of the 191 8 Board of 
Student Representatives resulted in favor of Robert R. 
O'Loughlin and Joseph H. Brown. The annual election for 
the remaining six members was held in April, and the follow- 
ing members of the Junior Class were elected: J. M. Bijur, 
A. L. Huelsenbeck, D. W. Leys, I. T. Rosen, H. W. Vollmer, 
and L. W. Zychlinski. 

Balloting for class officers was conducted in conjunction 
w^ith the April election for members of the Board of Student 
Representatives. This was a departure from the formpr sys- 
tem of choosing officers at a class meeting. The results of the 
experiment were highly satisfactory. 

On the suggestion of Coach Metcalf, the Board enacted 
eligibility rules for interclass football. 

The Board granted permission for a Sophomore 
egis a ion gj^Q^^ ^y^ Qj^\y after the members of the managing 
committee had given written guarantees that no possible 
deficit would be liquidated by funds in the class treasury. 
The Show was produced successfully in the Brinckerhoff 
Theatre. 

The rule prohibiting class fighting at the annual banquets 
of the lower classes was re-enacted and rigorously enforced. 

One of the most important pieces of legislation was that by 
which the Board, in February, suspended indefinitely the rule 
prohibiting electioneering at all student elections. The Board 



APPENDIX 5 267 

made it clear at the time that it hoped electioneering would be 
frowned upon by undergraduate opinion; but the rule itself 
was objectionable because it was enforceable only by auto- 
cratic methods and because it was looked upon with consider- 
able suspicion and disfavor by a large number of students. 

A committee of the Board, in cooperation with the Univer- 
sity Committee on Student Organizations, revised the con- 
stitution of the Board of Student Representatives to conform 
to the changes in the organizations of the University since the 
original constitution was adopted. The Committee reported 
in favor of the following amendments: 

1. The number of the members of the Board should be reduced 
from nine to seven. 

2. Membership in the Board should be limited to male under- 
graduate students of junior academic standing. 

3. Only male undergraduate students should be permitted to 
vote in elections for members of the Board. 

The revised Constitution was submitted to the student body 
at the regular spring elections and was ratified by a large 
majority. 

The Board appointed Mr. Ray Perkins to make a selection 
of Columbia songs, with the purpose of providing the under- 
graduates and the alumni with an authorita- 
tive collection of twenty-four of the most o • t t . 

. . Special Interest 

popular Columbia songs m a form more con- 
venient than the official Song Book and more complete than 
the Blue Book. In cooperation with the Alumni Federation 
the Board published 5,000 copies of the vest-pocket song 
booklet prepared by Mr. Perkins. 

The Interclass Regatta, held on the Hudson in the Fall, 
was a great success. Some 500 undergraduates attended, 
viewing the races from two tugs very generously donated for 
the occasion by Mr. Frederick Coykendall, President of the 
Alumni Federation. The Student Band furnished music. 
The Board provided refreshments. 

On November 23, a huge undergraduate smoker was held 
in the Commons. Over 1,000 undergraduates attended. The 
Glee Club gave a concert; there were cheers and songs for 



268 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

the football team, which was to play New York University 
the following Saturday; several student leaders made speeches; 
and after the smoker over 500 men paid a midnight visit to 
the New York University campus. This was the largest 
undergraduate gathering ever held on Morningside Heights, 
exceeding by about 300 men the number at the great mass 
meeting for football, held in 1915. 

In conjunction with the Alumni Committee the Board ar- 
ranged the program for Alumni Day, February 12. For the 
first time, the Cane Sprees were held at this time of the year, 
and with the alumni as spectators. 

Under the direction and supervision of the Board, a large 
number of Columbia men, including the battalion, took part 
in the parade conducted by the Mayor's Committee on 
National Defense to commemorate the anniversary of the 
Battle of Lexington. 

The Chairman of the Board addressed the student body of 
Hunter College at the annual installation of the Hunter College 
Student Council. His topic was, 'The War-Time Opportu- 
nities and Responsibilities of Student Government'. 

The Board organized and supervised the undergraduate 
participation in the special University convocation at which 
honorary degrees were conferred upon Marshal Joffre, M. 
Viviani, the Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour, and the Rt. Hon. Baron 
Cunliffe of Headley. 

A Student Committee on Mobilization was appointed by 
the Board and accepted by the President of the University. 
The Committee was subdivided into a Committee on Military 
Affairs and a Committee on Non-Military Mobilization. The 
Committee on Military Affairs held a mass meeting in the 
Gymnasium; recruited and secured drillmasters for the under- 
graduate battalion; supplied information regarding the 
Plattsburg training camps for officers; and was of material 
assistance in securing a satisfactory enrollment for the sum- 
mer military course at Camp Columbia. 

The Committee on Non-Military Mobilization conducted a 
bureau which secured positions on farms for more than 200 
Columbia men ; organized a hospital unit which bears the name 



APPENDIX 5 269 

of Columbia University, and which has been accepted by the 
United States Government; and aided the University General 
Staff in securing more general and more effective student 
cooperation. 

The Board recommended to the Committee on Instruction 
of Columbia College that men going into non-military national 
service before the end of the regular spring term should be 
given proper academic credit along the same lines, and on an 
equality with men taking up military or naval service. The 
Board had particularly in mind the necessity of augmenting 
the supply of agricultural workers but felt that the principle 
also should apply to men entering any other field of useful 
non-military service. With the spirit of cooperation with 
which it has acted on all matters of student government, the 
Committee accepted the suggestion of the Board in its entirety. 

Article IX of the Constitution of the Board of Student 
Representatives reads as follows: 

c^ J , The Board shall have authority and it shall be its duty, 

T-v- . ,- to take into consideration, on its own motion, or upon 

charges preferred, the conduct of any student or body of 
students which may seem detrimental to the interest or the good name of 
the University; and having conducted an investigation, shall itself take or, 
where necessary, recommend to the appropriate authorities, such action 
as it deems just and reasonable, to the end that such detrimental conduct 
shall be properly reprehended and any repetition of it prevented. 

Until the past year the Board has felt called upon only 
seldom to exercise the power hereby conferred upon it, but 
during the spring of 191 7 the best interests of student self- 
government demanded that several members of the under- 
graduate body be severely disciplined. 

The first case on which the Board took action was that of 
Morris Ryskind, of the School of Journalism, and editor of 
Jester. The February issue of Jester contained an ungentle- 
manly editorial and a scurrilous poem," which were so thor- 
oughly out of harmony with the purpose and spirit of the 
pubHcation as to lead Mr. Ryskind's co-editors to request his 
resignation. Acting independently of the Board of Editors, 
the Board of Student Representatives removed Mr. Ryskind 
as editor of Jester and authorized the remaining members of 



270 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

the editorial staff to choose his successor. Later the Board 
made the following recommendation to the Director and the 
Administrative Board of the School of Journalism: 

Because of the ungentlemanly character of an editorial and the scurrilous 
nature of a poem which appeared in the February number of Jester the 
Board of Student Representatives, by virtue of the power conferred upon 
it by its constitution, removed Mr. Morris Ryskind as editor of that pub- 
lication and authorized the remaining members of the board of editors to 
choose his successor. Mr. Ryskind's professional training must have con- 
vinced him that the contents of Jester was libelous and that his conduct 
warranted far more drastic action than mere removal from his position. 
In spite of this, however, Mr. Ryskind not only showed no disposition to 
recant, but resorted to further breaches of gentlemanly conduct by attack- 
ing the Board and its members. 

In view of all these facts the Board of Student Representatives recom- 
mends to the Director and Administrative Board of the School of Jour- 
nalism that Mr. Morris Ryskind be summarily expelled from Columbia 
University. This recommendation was adopted by unanimous vote at a 
meeting of March 27th. The Board feels that such action on the part of 
the faculty of the School of Journalism would be in the best interests of 
student self-government and university discipline. 

The Board then took under consideration the case of C. G. 
Papazian, of Columbia College, author of the objectionable 
poem appearing in the February number of Jester. After an 
investigation, the Board authorized the Chairman to send the 
following communication to the Committee on Instruction of 
Columbia College, 

The Board of Student Representatives has taken under consideration the 
case of Mr. C. G. Papazian, author of a poem, 'The Servant in the House', 
published in a recent issue of Jester. The Board feels that conduct such as 
Mr. Papazian's under no circumstances should be permitted to pass un- 
noticed. However, in view of the fact that he has submitted a written 
apology, action less drastic than under other circumstances should be 
taken. I am instructed, therefore, to recommend that the Committee on 
Instruction severely reprimand Mr. Papazian for his breach of gentlemanly 
conduct and academic discipline. 

At a mass meeting held in the Gymnasium to discuss and 
provide for military training at the University, several students 
forcibly ejected Mr. James W. Danahy, of the School of 
Journalism. The investigation conducted by the Board 
showed that Mr. Danahy had behaved in a gentlemanly man- 
ner and had committed no act which in any way would either 



APPENDIX 5 271 

explain or justify the treatment he received. The only appa- 
rent reason for his ejection from the meeting was that he was 
known to be opposed to the purpose for which the meeting 
was called. The Board was unable to fix the responsibility 
for the disorder which occurred at the meeting; however, 
justice to Mr. Danahy and to the whole student body de- 
manded a complete disavowal of the occurrence. The Board 
therefore issued the following statement to the Spectator. 

The Board of Student Representatives feels that the great majority of 
the men interested in the cause of military training at Columbia have no 
sympathy with any action which would seem to imply intolerance of the 
views of others. The whole spirit of the University's plan of mobilization 
has been eminently respectful of the conscientious opinions of the indi- 
vidual members of the University, and it is not the desire of the under- 
graduate body to depart from that spirit in any way. Therefore, the Board, 
by motion of a meeting of March 27, desires, on behalf of the student body, 
to express dissatisfaction and regret for the violent ejection of Mr. J. W. 
Danahy at the mass meeting held in the University gymnasium on March 8, 

It is not probable that the incoming Board of Student 

Representatives will be called upon to sit in judgment on 

cases arising out of the discussion of pre- 

1 J xu J • i i.* 1 Conclusion and 

paredness and the war and mternational „ j .• 

... ™, . r r 1- • Kecommendations 

policies. The time for free discussion appears 

to have passed. The problems of the new Board will be dif- 
ferent. The great war has given, or should give, us the critical 
attitude toward all existing institutions. It should lead the 
new leaders of student activities to examine those activities 
with a view to determining their relative usefulness. In so far 
as an activity develops character, initiative, resourcefulness, 
physical efficiency, or any similar attributes, it should be 
retained at all costs and should be carried on with greater 
determination and enthusiasm than ever. In a time of great 
expenditure of the wealth and youth of this nation every effort 
should be made to conserve and develop the wealth and the 
youth which remain. This is the opportunity, the respon- 
sibility, the duty of student government, during the national 
emergency. 

It is the opinion of the 191 7 Board of Student Representa- 
tives that student activities have made a record during the 



272 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

first few months of the war which more than justifies their 
existence. It is our hope that the incoming Board will do 
all in its power to keep these activities going. We are not 
unmindful of the fact that in contests with other colleges we 
may meet discouragement and defeat. But keeping in mind 
the goal for which we are striving — the highest usefulness of 
Columbia and of every Columbia man in the coming trying 
times — defeat will be victory. 

Edward M. Earle 

Chairman 
June JO, 1(^17 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 3O, I917 

To the President of the University, 

Sir: 

As Registrar of the University, I have the honor to present 
the following report for the academic year 1916-1917: 

The tables that summarize the records of the year correspond 
in general to those of the last previous report. The statistics 
of Extension Teaching appear in an additional section, and the 
report of the Summer Session of 191 7 immediately follows. It 
has seemed well this year to report as an appendix the action 
which was taken last Spring by the authorities of the several 
schools and colleges of the University relative to the granting of 
academic credit in the case of students withdrawing to enter 
national service. 

The total enrollment for 1916-1917, excluding students in 
Extension Teaching and all duplicates, was 14,899, a net in- 
crease of 2,132 or about 19.3 per cent, over that p ,, 
of 1915-1916. In the Summer Session of 1916 
the gain was 2,062 as compared with 371 in 1915. In the 
University corporation exclusive of the Summer Session the 
enrollment was 4,524 as against 4,394 in 1916. Including the 
Summer Session and making allowance for duplicates, the 
enrollment of the corporation increased from 9,606 to 11,768. 
Adding to this the net enrollment in Extension Teaching, 5,368, 
we have for the University corporation the grand total of 
17,136. If to the grand net total of 14,899 given for the whole 
University under Table I be added, with proper allowance for 
duplicates, those who took work at the University in Extension 
Teaching classes, the total number of persons in classes at the 
University will be found to be 19,462. The corresponding total 
last year was 18,273; in 1914-1915, 16,172. In addition to the 
19,462 who studied at the University, there were 805 students 
enrolled in the extramural courses of Extension Teaching. 



274 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

This makes a grand total of 20,267 different individuals who re- 
ceived instruction from the University from July i, 1916, to 
June 30, 1 91 7. This does not include 2,285 registrations in 
brief, special classes which bestow no general University 
privileges and carry no academic credit. The actual number 
of registration units, duplicates not having been deducted, was 
23,020. Making proper deduction for non-matriculated stu- 
dents, for duplicate matriculated students in the Summer Session 
and for students in ExtensionTeaching, there were 8,655 candi- 
dates for degrees and diplomas in residence during the year. 

The registration under the several faculties is classified in 
Table I. In Table II will be found a summary of the registra- 
tion by faculties since 1 906-1 907; and in Table Ilia survey of 
the rate of increase and decrease by years and by periods. 
Tables II and III must be examined in the light of circum- 
stances bearing upon registration, such as increase of tuition 
charges and the requirements for admission. 



I897-I898 




I9I6-I9I7 




GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF STUDENTS 

(1916-1917 is inclusive of 1916 Summer Session, but not of 
Extension Teaching) 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
Total Enrollment including Summer Session 

1 866- 1 9 1 7 



11 


o o 

CO CO 




K 00 

CO CO 


CO CO 

2 5 


o o 

CD O 

2 2 


On CK 
00 5 


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o o 
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-, in 
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O CJ\ 


§2 


~ in 


O^ ON 




(5200 

14^00 



































13600 
12300 






















































12000 






















= 


























11.200 
lOAOO 








































































9.600 












































p 




S.800 
















































8.000 




















H 
























-1 




7.200 




































































6.400 
5.600 








































p 




























4800 
















r 


SJ 


















y 




4.000 


















J 
























3200 


































1 






2,400 
















pj 


























(.600 
800 










rv. 


n^ 


L? 








y 


u- 




IT 



















REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 
TABLE I 



275 



REGISTRATION AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY IN ALL FACULTIES, DURING THE 
ACADEMIC YEAR I916-1917 



Faculties 





i-i 






a 











> 


•0 


^ 


t 






"2 


to 


w 


H 


457 


346 


281 


194 


177 


143 


OSI 


S23 


424 


29 


23 




147 


IIS 


166 


117 


9S 


118 


38 


42 


30 


207 


201 


18 


igr 


161 


351 



Columbia College ^ 
Barnard College 
Total undergraduates 

Faculty of Political Science 

Faculty of Philosophy 

Faculty of Pure Science 

Total non-professional graduate students^ 

Faculty of Applied Science 

Faculty of Law ' 

Faculty of Medicine ' — 

School of Journalism ^ 

Faculty of Pharmacy 

_ , ^ „ , f School of Education 

Teachers College * | gchool of Practical Arte 

School of Architecture ' 
School of Business ' 
Total professional students 

Unclassified University students 
Deduct double registration ^ 
Net total 

Summer Session, 1916 
Grand total 

Deduct double registration • 
Grand net total 

Extension Teaching 
Regular classes (net) ' 
Special classes (see B, page 310) 



284 
144 
428 



162 



85 

76 

161 



33 
41 
25 
14 

437 
244 



35 
206 



472 

60s 

281 

1358 

29 
5 



840 



1453 

734 

2187 



1358 

276 
474 
451 
155 
428 
1277 
I167 

90 

61 

4379 

206 
36 

8004 

8023 
16117 

1218 
14890 



5368 
2285 



1 The registration by years in Columbia College is according to the technical classifica- 
tion, deficient students being required to register with a class lower than that to which they 
would normally belong. 

2 The total 1,358 does not include 9 college graduates: in Law (8), Medicine (i), who 
are also candidates for the degree of A.M. or Ph.D. It likewise does not include 716 candi- 
dates for higher degrees enrolled in the Summer Session only. 

^ Exclusive of College students who registered also under the professional faculties (in 
the exercise of a professional option) , as follows: S3 Seniors in the School of Law; 22 Juniors 
and 44 Seniors in the School of Medicine; 3 Seniors and i Junior in the School of Architec- 
ture; 3 Seniors in the School of Journalism; 2 Juniors and 8 Seniors in the School of Business. 

* Does not include 785 candidates for a higher degree enrolled in the Summer Session only. 

s Represents students who, during the course of the year, transferred from one school 
or college to another. 

« Summer Session students who returned for work at the University. 

'Attendance at the University (excluding 1,216 matriculated students and 283 students 
also registered in the Summer Session) 4,563; attending away from the University, 805. 



276 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
TABLE II 



REGISTRATION AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, IN ALL FACULTIES, DURING THE 
ACADEMIC YEARS I906-I907 TO I916-I917 








00 










t> 


<:> 


Ov 


Ov 


Ov 


vO 
Ov 


Ov 


Faculties 





V 


Ov 


1 




0. 


1 






1 
HI 

Ov 


1 

n 

M 

o> 


4 

M 

Ov 


1 

Ov 


1 

Ov 
M 


Columbia College 
Barnard College 
Total undergraduates 


638 

419 

1057 


650 

453 
1103 


667 

498 
1163 


692 

535 

1227 


802 

547 
I34Q 


820 
640 
1460 


877 
618 

I4Q5 


941 

666 

1607 


III6 

730 

1846 


1256 

694 

J 950 


1453 
734 

2/^7 


Facultiesof Political Science, 
Philosophy, Pure Science ' 

Total non-professional gradu- 
ate students 1 


877 
877 


977 
077 


1015 
1015 


1138 
1 1 38 


1367 
1367 


1433 
1433 


1570 
1570 


1727 
7727 


2074 
2074 


1516 
I516 


1358 
1358 


Faculty of Applied Science 

Faculty of Law 

Faculty of Medicine 

Journalism 

Faculty of Pharmacy 

Teachers College 

Education - 

Practical Arts 


537 
264 
381 

247 

743 


618 
249 
314 

224 
896 


697 
330 
330 

267 

992 


686 
324 
346 

313 
II23 


724 
376 
329 

275 

IS7I 


671 
417 
351 

287 

1623 


669 
478 
344 
76 
414 

1422 
262 


675 
467 
344 
115 
448 

1475 
335 


481 

453 
374 
143 
495 

950 
1057 


375 
485 
376 
144 
510 

II57 
1 06s 


276 
474 
451 
155 
428 

1277 
1167 


Finp Arf? (Architecture 
Fine Arts ^-^^^^^3 

School of Business 

Total professional students 


106 
31 

2309 


125 
31 

2437 


130 

28 

2774 


142 
23 

2Q57 


IS8 
24 

34S7 


135 
20 

3304 


141 
16 

3822 


XSI 
19 

4029 


112 

4063 


95 
4207 


90 

61 

4379 


Unclassified University 

Students 
Deduct double registration* 
Net total 


154 
408q 


195 
4342 


204 
4750 


20s 
5117 


280 
5893 


324 
6073 


362 
6323 


429 
6934 


651 
7334 


i6i 

160 

7674 


206 
36 

S094 


Summer Session 
Grand net total ' 


1041 

4852 


1395 
5373 


1532 
5887 


1971 
6602 


2632 
7858 


2973 
8363 


3602 
9379 


4539 
I0460 


5590 
1 1876 


S961 
12482 


8023 

14899 


Students in Extension 
Teaching 


2719 


3267 


3013 


2583 


1008 


1280 


1828 


2813 


330s 


4252 


5368 



' In 1915-1916 candidates for the degree of Master of Arts whose subject of major interest 
was Education (654) were, for the first time, included only under the Faculty of Education. 
In 1916-1917 all students engaged in graduate study with Education as their subject of 
major interest were counted under the Faculty of Education only. 

2 Including, prior to 1912-1913, those here classified under the School of Practical Arts. 

3 In 1914 the School of Music was discontinued. 

♦ Students in Teachers College enrolled in the non-professional graduate faculties as candi- 
dates for the higher degrees and students who graduated fromColumbiaCoUege in February 
and entered a graduate or professional faculty at that time. 

' Excluding Summer Session students who returned for work in the succeeding fall. The 
Summer Session falls at the beginning of the year, as here reported. The first session was 
in the summer of 1900, the last included here is that of 1916. A detailed report of the Sum- 
mer Session of 19 17 is appended. 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 



277 





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„ 


N 


TTin M Tj- 


0\i>in 


»*t 


t^ 


-* 


M 


00 




a M 0, 


M 


»^ 


in q Ov M 


00 PI ro 


Ov 


H 


in 


q 


M 


1161-0161 


lA cj 0, 


d 


d 


in>d 4 <N 


dv >-i 4 


^ 


•o 


ro 


dv 


d 






N 


p) 


M 1 H. 

1 


to " 


H 


»-i 


to 


»^ 






^ ro M 


j_, 




00 N m fo 


M rooo 


Ov 


1-1 


-0 


•n 


r~ 


0161-6061 


t~. -^fj 


w 


H 


moooo w 


N N I> 


■n 


(V. 


Tt- 


^ 


M 


ro t> •^ 


pj 


cj 


M M 4 t^ 


to dv w 


^ 


N. 


00 


d 


4 






*"* 


►-1 


1 1 w 


M 1 






c 


p< 


V 




M ro ^ 


00 


00 


00 M Ov Ov 


M t^ 





Ov 


M 


^ 


r- 




O\>o 


00 


06 


!>■>-; q w 


r-. qo 


Ov 


in 


00 


■n 


t^ 


6o6i-go6l 


« d>^ 


ro 


fo 


cJ N 10 dv 


d 4dv 

M 1 


1-1 


dv 


dv 


dv 


1 




00 w in 








000000 M 


Ov « 


■n 


oo 


« 


1^ 


m 




00 M "^ 


•* 


^ 


qo in ro 


in q q 


■^ 


K 


C^ 


N. 




806l-io6l 


HOO -^ 






in in t^ dv 


d t^ d 


0' 


vd 


to 


d 


d 






*^ 


■^ 


«,M , 


N M 






fO 


H 


M 






















to 








«j 






i2 








1-1 


« 











V 


K 








w 






■a 

2 
00 




3 


■0 








C 




11 a 








V 


a 








.0 


u 


11! 


<u 





Applied Science 
Law 

Medicine 
Journalism 
Pharmacy 
Education 1 
Practical Arts( 
Fine Arts jArchi 


s 
.0 

1 


■3 



s 


s 

B 


2 



1) 

W 




= S2 
ca 


0^ 3 


«5 


"a 





a 

3 


s 
a 


T3 
3 




umt^ 


f^lllC^ 


^ 


t^ 


W 


U 


w 



E2i 



•Sb 



vO-^ 



rt.2 
3 rt 

&5 



.a- 



&•?: 






O Ov • 



toWW 

1'v_'« 



gii 






« »i IJ 

Ov'^'O 
« G C 



278 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



The proportion of men and women for the past eight years, 
exclusive of the Summer Session and Extension Teaching, is 
as follows: 





1909- 
1910 


1910- 
1911 


1911- 
1912 


1912- 

I9I3 


1913- 
1914 


1914- 
191S 


191S- 
1916 


1916- 
1917 


Men 


3.297 


3,662 


3,763 


4,072 


4,277 


4,466 


4.524 


4,682 


Women 


1,820 


2,231 


2,310 


2,453 


2,657 


2,868 


3.150 


3.412 



Total 5,117 5,893 6,073 6,525 6,934 7,334 7,674 8,094 



TABLE IV 

DUPLICATE REGISTRATIONS BETWEEN THE SUMMER SESSION OF I916 AND 
THE ACADEMIC YEAR I916-I917 

A. Students of the Summer Session Who Returned in the Winter or Spring 
Sessio)is of igi6-jgi7 



SCHOOL OR FACULTY TO WHICH THEY RETURNED 


Men 


Women 


Total 


Architecture 


19 


r 


20 


Barnard College 




75 


75 


School of Business 


2 




2 


Columbia College 


340 




340 


Graduate Faculties (Political Science, Philosophy and 








Pure Science) 


140 


95 


23S' 


Journalism 


23 


I 


24 


Law 


63 




63 


College of Physicians and Surgeons 


53 




53 


Schools of Mines, Engineering and Chemistry 


50 




SO 


Teachers College { f ^^"3'^^'°'^ ^"'^ ^'=''°°' ""^ Practical 


119 


239 


358' 


Extension Teaching 


131 


152 


283 


Toials 


940 


563 


1503 



B. Matriculated Graduate Students of the Summer Session of igi6 Who Did 
or Did Not Return in the Spring or Winter Sessions of igid-igij 



Faculties 


Returned 


Did Not Return 


Total 


Political Science, Philosophy and Pure.Science 
Education and Practical Arts 

Totals 


218 
109 

327 


716 
78s 

1501 


934 
894 

1828 



• Of this number 17 (11 men and 6 women) were not graduate students in the Summer 
Session. 

2 Of this number 249 (54 men and 195 women) were not graduate students in the Summer 
Session. 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 
TABLE V 

CLASSIFICATION OF STUDENTS IN THE SCHOOLS OF MINES, 
ENGINEERING AND CHEMISTRY 



279 





New 
Course 


Old Course 




Departments 


Cil 

> 


1^ 

•a 
a 



1-1 


§••2 


m 3 

fort 






M 




s 


di 


(2 








M 


a. 


Chemical Engineering 


16 


s 


37 


3 


2 


63 


67 


Chemistry 






3 


S 


I 


9 


4 


Civil Engineering 


3 


3 


42 


I 




49 1 


75 


Electrical Engineering 


6 


2 


31 


3 


s 


47 


71 


Highway Engineering 








I 


5 


6 


23 


Mechanical Engineering 


4 


5 


26 


5 


12 


52 


63 


Metallurgy 


2 




3 


ID 


4 


19 


17 


Mining Engineering 


6 


8 


20 


S 




39 


SS 


Total 


572 


23 


Ida 


33 


29 


284^ 


J75 



J Including 6 students taking the option in Sanitary Engineering. 

2 The totals 37 and 284 include 8 College Seniors exercising professional option in Applied 
Science, as follows: 4 Chemical Engineers, 2 Mechanical Engineers, 2 Mining Engineers. 



TABLE VI 

CLASSIFICATION OF SEMINARY STUDENTS 





11 


>. 
si 
0. 

g 


ji 




Totals 


Seminaries 


I 

M 




M 

o> 

M 
1 

M 


10 

M 
0\ 
M 

■* 

»-* 

IH 


Union Theological Seminary 
General Theological Seminary 
Drew Theological Seminary 
Jewish Theological Seminary 
New Brunswick Theological Seminary 

Total 




82 
18 
13 
12 

125 




82 
18 
13 

12 
125 


92 

22 

9 

12 

2 

137 


99 
35 
13 
16 

I 

164 



280 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



TABLE VII 

CLASSIFICATION OF CANDIDATES FOR THE DEGREES OF MASTER OF ARTS, 
MASTER OF LAWS, MASTER OF SCIENCE AND DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 

A. By Primary Registration 





1916-1917 


191S-1916 


Political Science, Philosophy, and Pure Science 


1 103 


II16 


Law 

Medicine 
Applied Science 
Architecture 


14 
I 

29 
2 


32 
S 

47 


Business 

Education and Practical Arts 

Theological Seminaries 

Philanthropy 

Botanical Garden 

Officers 

Summer Session 


S 

840 

125 

23 

I 

97 

1501 


6S4 

137 

28 

S 

97 

1026 


Total 


3741 


3147 



B. By Faculties, including the Summer Session 





1916-1917 


191S-1916 


Political Science, Philosophy, and Pure Science 

Applied Science 

Architecture 

Education and Practical Arts 


2074 

29 

2 

1625 


1918 
47 

1182 


Business 
Law 


5 
6 




Total 


3741 


3147 



C. By Faculties, omitting students registered primarily in the professional 
faculties of Law and Medicine, but including Summer Session 



Political Science, Philosophy, and Pure Science 

Applied Science 

Architecture 

Education and Practical Arts 

Business 

Total 



3726 



I9I6-I9I7 


19 


15-1916 


206s 




1881 


29 




47 


2 






162s 




1182 


5 







D. By Faculties, omitting Summer Session and students registered primarily 
in the professional faculties of Law and Medicine 



Political Science, Philosophy, and Pure Science 

Applied Science 

Architecture 

Education and Practical Arts 

Business 

Total 



I9I6-I9I7 


I9IS-I916 


1349 


1383 


29 


47 


2 




840 


6S4 


S 




2225 


2084 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 
TABLE VIII 



281 



SUBJECTS OF MAJOR INTEREST OF STUDENTS REGISTERED FOR THE HIGHER 

DEGREES 





Political 














Science, 








Educa- 




Subjects 


Philos- 
ophy and 

Pure 
Science 


Applied 
Science 


Archi- 
tecture 


Business 


tion and 

Practical 

Arts 


Total 


Agriculture 


2 










2 


Anthropology 


7 










7 


Architecture 






2 






2 


Astronomy 


I 










I 


Bacteriology 


13 










13 


Biological Chemistry 


15 










15 


Botany 


24 










24 


Business 








5 




5 


Chemistry 


85 


I 








86 


Chinese 


I 










I 


Comparative Literature 


16 










16 


Constitutional Law 


I 










I 


Chemical Engineering 


5 


2 








7 


Economics 


96 










96 


Education and Practical Arts 










840 


840 


Electrical Engineering 




5 








5 


English 


225 










225 


Fine Arts 


I 










I 


Geology 


15 










15 


German 


62 










62 


Greek (incl. Gk. Arch.) 


8 










8 


Highway Engineering 




5 








5 


History 


158 










158 


Indo-Iranian 


3 










3 


International Law 


12 










12 


Latin 


42 










42 


Mathematical Physics 


4 










4 


Mathematics 


61 










61 


Mechanical Engineering 




12 








12 


Metallurgy 




4 








4 


Music 


2 










2 


Neurology 


I 










I 


Pathology 


3 










3 


Philosophy (incl. Ethics) 


98 










98 


Physics 


8 










8 


Physiology 


6 










6 


Political Economy 


6 










6 


Politics 


41 










41 


Psychology 


52 










52 


Public Law 


II 










II 


Roman Law and Comparative 














Jurisprudence 


7 










7 


Romance Languages (incl. 














Celtic) 


74 










74 


Semitic Languages 


18 










18 


Slavonic Languages 


4 










4 


Social Economy 


61 










61 


Sociology and Statistics 


81 










81 


Zoology 


35 










35 


Total 


1365 


29 


2 


5 


840 


2241 



282 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
TABLE IX 

A. SUMMARY BY DIVISIONS 





Political 




% 










Science, 








Educa- 




Divisions 


Philos- 


Applied 


Archi- 


Business 


tion and 


Total 




ophy and 


Science 


tecture 




Practical 






Pure 








Arts 






Science 












Ancient and Oriental Languages 


72 










72 


Biology 


96 










96 


Business 








S 




5 


Chemistry- 


85 


I 








86 


Education and Practical Arts 










840 


840 


Engineering 


5 


24 








29 


Fine Arts — Architecture 


I 




2 






3 


Geology and Mineralogy 


IS 










15 


History, Ex;onomics, and Public 














Law 


476 










476 


Mathematics and Physical Sci- 














ence 


74 










74 


Mining and Metallurgy 




4 








4 


Modern Languages and Litera- 














tures 


381 










381 


Music 


2 










2 


Philosophy, Psychology, and 














Anthropology 


158 










158 


Total 


1365 


29 


2 


5 


840 


2241 



B. SUMMARY BY FACULTIES 



Faculties 


Number of Students 


Political Science, Philosophy, and Pure Science 

Applied Science 

Architecture 

Business 

Education and Practical Arts 

Total 


136s 

29 

2 

S 

840 

2241 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 283 

TABLE X 

RESIDENCE OF STUDENTS 



















.a S 






















lU 










g 

•a 


01 










I9I6-I9I7 








c 


3 


i 




Kl 


3 


u 




Q 


1 


5 




Si. 


•$■ 


•5 


T3 





"3 


1 


aduat 
Politic 
ilosop 
reSci 




•a 
;-< 

E 


3^ 


CI 
M 

Si 




■3. 



H 




"o 


rt 




a 


^ 




3 


•-^JS 3 


C k. 


ca 


T3 £ 


"o 


3 


lU 







^ 


§ 


<: 


< 


>-> 


CQ 


O^PhAh 


;30 


M 


KCL, 


U 


Q 


:z; 


United States 






















North Atlantic Division 


1342 


349 


372 


204 


51 


IJO 


i5 


544 


154 


(5*2 


i(55j 


421 




6j25 


(78.14 per cent.) 






























Connecticut 


13 


12 


20 


2 


I 


7 


2 


19 


3 


7 


60 


7 




153 


Maine 


I 


3 






I 


I 


I 


8 






14 


3 




32 


Massachusetts 


16 


12 


3 


I 


2 


8 


I 


41 


2 


10 


88 


3 




187 


New Hampshire 


3 


I 


3 


I 








5 






7 






26 


New Jersey 


142 


49 


SI 


25 


5 


10 


4 


109 


8 


81 


335 


45 




864 


New York 


1130 


258 


28s 


169 


38 


79 


25 


697 


130 


579 


1007 


359 




4756 


Pennsylvania 


32 


10 


6 


s 


3 


5 




S8 


10 


5 


133 


3 




270 


Rhode Island 


4 


2 


3 


I 








3 






4 






17 


Vermont 


I 


2 


I 




I 






4 


I 




IS 


I 




26 


South Atlantic Division 


15 


25 


2i 


8 


6 


8 


4 


54 


12 


15 


10.S 


I 




255 


(3.56 per cent.) 






























Delaware 


I 














I 






3 






5 


District of Columbia 


3 


3 




2 


2 






8 


I 


2 


8 






29 


Florida 
















3 






4 






7 


Georgia 


S 


6 


10 


I 


2 


I 


2 


ID 


S 


4 


19 






65 


Maryland 


2 


2 




2 


I 


I 




8 


I 


I 


26 






44 


North Carolina 




3 


4 






5 


2 


9 


I 




4 






28 


South Carolina 


I 


3 


2 


3 


I 






S 


2 


3 


13 






33 


Virginia 


2 


6 


4 






I 




18 


2 


5 


19 


I 




58 


West Virginia 


I 


2 


2 










2 






12 






19 


South Central Division 


14 


34 


11 


3 


i 


5 


4 


J^ 


4 


14 


*o 


I 




213 


(2.63 per cent.) 






























Alabama 


2 


4 


I 


I 






I 


7 


I 


2 


7 






26 


Arkansas 


I 


S 






I 






4 






6 






17 


Kentucky 


3 


3 


I 




I 


2 


I 


5 




2 


15 






33 


Louisiana 


2 


I 




I 














5 






9 


Mississippi 






2 










2 


I 




2 


1 




8 


Oklahoma 




4 


I 






I 




2 




3 


6 






17 


Tennessee 


2 


7 


3 




3 


I 




9 




3 


13 






41 


Texas 


4 


10 


3 


I 




I 


2 


9 


2 


4 


26 






62 


North Central Division 


37 


39 


20 


IP 


21 


19 


// 


175 


II 


15 


J^o 


I 




751 


(9.28 per cent.) 






























Illinois 


3 


I 




2 


5 




I 


20 


5 


I 


48 


I 




87 


Indiana 


2 


9 


3 


2 


I 


3 




27 




I 


28 






76 


Iowa 


2 


9 


I 


3 




2 


I 


IS 


I 


I 


30 






6S 


Kansas 


I 


I 




I 




2 




9 






32 






46 


Michigan 


3 


2 


2 


I 


2 


3 




IS 




I 


37 






66 


Minnesota 


4 


2 


4 


2 


2 






12 






32 






58 


Missouri 


6 


S 


2 


2 


I 


5 


2 


II 




4 


44 






82 


Nebraska 




I 






3 


2 


I 


7 


I 




10 






25 


North Dakota 


I 






I 


I 












4 






7 


Ohio 


12 


7 


4 


3 


3 


2 


2 


50 


3 


4 


72 






162 


South Dakota 




2 












4 




I 


7 






14 


Wisconsin 


3 




4 


2 


3 




4 


8 


I 


2 


36 






63 



284 



C O L U M H I A L X I \' E R S I T V 
TABLE X— {Continued) 



























>. 






















S ?^" 


i5 












I9I6-I9I7 






V 





s 


0) 

3 


E 




e Faculti 
cal Scienc 
>hy, and 
ence 


•0 


■3 




-^ 


B 

u 

&, 



tr 


15 




■3 


% 


c 
•5 
2 


-a 
a 


tJ 




"3 

c 

3 



c 

3 


raduat 
■ Politii 
hilosop 
ure Sci 




13 
« 

u 

re 


•2 re 
•32 


CI 

■3 


"a 
3 



H 

5 




U 


J 


< 


< 


1-1 


a 


ocuft- 


PO 


m 


UCU 


U 


Q 


2; 


Western Division 


14 


16 


19 


JJ 


9 


J 


69 


17 


4 


JJO 






277 


(3.34 per cent.) 






























Arizona 


I 




I 










I 






I 






4 


California 


s 


9 




I 


I 


4 


I 


32 


I 




49 






103 


Colorado 


I 


I 


3 


I 




I 




9 


I 


2 


II 






30 


Idaho 


1 




I 


1 




I 






I 




4 






9 


Montana 








2 


1 






I 




I 


3 






8 


Nevada 








2 




















2 


New Mexico 




I 


I 






I 






I 










4 


Oregon 


2 


2 


2 


2 




I 




9 


2 




16 






36 


Utah 






8 


I 








6 


2 




2 






19 


Washington 


4 


3 


2 


3 


I 




2 


II 


3 


I 


23 






S3 


Wyoming 






I 






I 










I 






3 


Insular and Non-contig- 






























uous Territories 


4 


J 




2 




I 




2 




2 


5 


/ 




20 


(0.25 per cent.) 






























Alaska 


I 


























I 


Hawaiian Islands 


2 






I 














I 






4 


Philippine Islands 


I 


I 








I 










I 






4 


Porto Rico 




2 




I 








2 




2 


3 


I 




II 


Totals 


1426 


466 


444 


249 


86 


/52 


5J 


1295 


752 


732 


2J46 


425 




7868 


New York City 


913 


IQJ 


i<5j 


138 


45 


54 


^J 


587 


125 


448 


704 


2*7 




3670 


(45.34 per cent.) 






























Foreign Countries 






























Argentina 
















2 


I 




2 






5 


Armenia 




I 


















2 






3 


Australia 
















I 






2 






3 


Austria 








1 




















2 


Bahama Islands 


I 


























I 


Belgium 




























I 


Brazil 


I 


























I 


Bulgaria 




























2 


Canada 


2 


I 


I 


2 


I 


I 


I 


12 


I 


I 


27 


I 




SI 


Chile 




























I 


China 


ID 


I 




7 


I 




3 


22 


I 




24 






69 


Colombia 
























I 




I 


Costa Rica 








I 




















2 


Cuba 


2 


4 




I 


I 


















9 


Denmark 




























I 


Egypt 








I 




















I 


Finland 




























I 


France 
















I 












I 


Germany 


2 






I 




I 




I 












6 


Great Britain 


I 




I 






I 




3 












8 


Greece 




























I 


Holland 


2 














I 


I 










4 


Iceland 




























I 


India 


I 




I 


3 








3 






4 






12 


Italy 






I 






















I 


Japan 


I 


I 




2 


I 




I 


10 


9 




5 






30 


Mexico 








I 








I 






I 






3 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 
TABLE X — {Continued) 



285 

















— 










>. 






























u 






















OJ OJ 








(H 














CD 










T3 


to 










I9I6-I9I7 






a> 


C 

"a 
W 


3 


i 




cd 


3 


"3 








s 


3 




V 






13 





a 

u 

3 

*—> 


M 




'i ^ 


•a 


.2 a) 

■4-> (J 


<y 


cd 







V 


% 


2 

•3 


"S 
Q 





3 


3S wW 
•0 D 


1^ 

c2 




•52 




Q 
3 


ILI 




U 


►J 


S 


<: 


< 




oSii 


DO 


m 


WCU 





Q 


2; 


Newfoundland 




















I 


Nicaragua 


I 


























I 


Norway 




























I 


Panama 




























3 


Poland 














I 














2 


Portugal 
















I 












I 


Rumania 


I 


























2 


Russia 


I 




2 










I 












5 


Santo Domingo 
























I 




I 


Siam 






















I 






I 


South Africa 






















3 






3 


Spain 








6 








I 


I 










8 


Sweden 








I 












I 








2 


Switzerland 






















I 






I 


Turkey in Asia 






















2 






2 


Turkey in Europe 
















2 






2 






4 


Uruguay 


I 


























I 


West Indies 






I 










I 












2 


Total (3.22 per cent.) 


27 


8 


7 


27 


4 


3 


6 


63 


14 


2 


98 


3 




2(52 


Grand total 


1453 


474 


45. 


276 


go 


155 


61 


1358 


206 


7J4 


2444 


428 


36 


80 04 



286 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



The following summary compares the percentage of stu- 
dents from the several geographical divisions during the last 
eight years: 



North Atlantic Division 
South Atlantic Division 
South Central Division 
North Central Division 
Western Division 
Insular Territories 
Foreign Countries 



o 


„ 


N 


n 


■t 


m 









H-t 










Oi 





o> 


c 





0. 


Oi 


M 


*-* 


►"• 


•^ 


t-* 


t-4 


M 


i^ 


i 






n 


't 


u» 










M 


W 


IH 


Ov 


o> 


Oi 


o> 


0^ 


o\ 


Oi 




M 








•^ 


*^ 


79-87 


79-40 


77.6s 


79-84 


79-53 


80.51 


79-86 


317 


3.56 


3-8S 


4-35 


4-03 


3-27 


3-55 


2.42 


2.26 


2.54 


2.25 


2.30 


2.32 


2.30 


8.72 


8.72 


8.76 


7.92 


8.32 


8.22 


8.62 


2.68 


2.58 


2.82 


2.58 


2.79 


2.48 


2.37 


0.27 


0.24 


0.16 


0.26 


0.24 


0.17 


0.17 


2.87 


3-24 


4.22 


2.80 


2.75 


3-02 


3-13 



78.14 

3-S6 
2.63 
9.28 
3-34 
0.25 

3.22 



Three thousand six hundred and seventy students are perma- 
nent residents of New York City. This is 45.34 per cent, of the 
total enrolment. Last year's total was 3,509. 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 



287 



Table XI shows the comparative geographical distribution 
of students in the University for the past ten years. 

TABLE XI 

RESIDENCE OF THE STUDENTS OF THE ENTIRE UNIVERSITY (EXCLUDING 
SUMMER SESSION AND EXTENSION TEACHING) FOR THE PAST TEN YEARS 





00 


a 





w 


M 


fO 


-* 


10 





r~ 












M 










M 






o\ 


Ov 


0. 




Oi 


0. 


0, 


Cv 


0\ 
M 


o. 




1 


1 
00 


1 

0\ 


1 



1 


1 


I 


1 


1 


1 

VO 













W 






w 










0\ 


0. 


Ov 

M 




a 


a 


0. 


a 


M 


0. 


United States 






















North Atlantic Division 


3404 


3807 


4087 


467Q 


471(5 


5200 


3513 


3Q04 


6128 


632s 


Connecticut 


67 


86 


91 


95 


119 


134 


no 


125 


143 


153 


Maine 


22 


26 


24 


33 


32 


24 


31 


29 


IS 


32 


Massachusetts 


73 


89 


86 


86 


108 


118 


130 


ISO 


164 


187 


New Hampshire 


II 


13 


13 


10 


II 


17 


16 


27 


21 


20 


New Jersey- 


413 


458 


494 


569 


562 


636 


627 


752 


752 


864 


New York 


2673 


2990 


3195 


3676 


3603 


4021 


4351 


4539 


4738 


4756 


Pennsylvania 


122 


125 


160 


175 


236 


224 


209 


247 


239 


270 


Rhode Island 


10 


II 


13 


16 


16 


19 


18 


16 


19 


17 


Vermont 


13 


9 


II 


19 


29 


16 


23 


23 


37 


26 


South Atlantic Division 


147 


152 


162 


210 


234 


284 


280 


240 


272 


288 


Delaware 


8 


9 


4 


4 


4 


I 


5 


4 


5 


5 


District of Columbia 


IS 


12 


14 


14 


24 


28 


23 


17 


22 


29 


Florida 


S 


7 


8 


7 


9 


12 


15 


13 


II 


7 


Georgia 


30 


27 


24 


35 


30 


48 


51 


34 


55 


6S 


Maryland 


16 


22 


28 


38 


37 


38 


33 


39 


52 


44 


North Carolina 


27 


23 


24 


26 


40 


51 


51 


30 


28 


28 


South Carolina 


17 


17 


21 


30 


29 


24 


26 


30 


26 


33 


Virginia 


21 


25 


36 


46 


49 


70 


59 


61 


64 


58 


West Virginia 


8 


10 


3 


10 


12 


12 


17 


12 


9 


19 


South Central Division 


III 


go 


124 


133 


IS4 


147 


z6o 


170 


178 


213 


Alabama 


21 


17 


21 


28 


39 


28 


25 


20 


23 


26 


Arkansas 


6 


7 


13 


4 


7 


5 


6 


14 


12 


17 


Kentucky 


20 


14 


24 


19 


22 


16 


19 


25 


30 


33 


Louisiana 


9 


7 


6 


6 


8 


7 


9 


II 


9 


9 


Mississippi 


9 


4 


II 


19 


12 


II 


13 


15 


9 


8 


Oklahoma 


4 


7 


9 


7 


II 


II 


16 


13 


14 


17 


Tennessee 


19 


9 


18 


27 


23 


28 


33 


37 


35 


41 


Texas 


23 


25 


22 


23 


32 


41 


39 


35 


46 


62 


North Central Division 


380 


308 


446 


514 


5J2 


317 


377 


603 


(5(5j 


731 


Illinois 


52 


57 


68 


71 


67 


58 


76 


74 


87 


87 


Indiana 


44 


55 


52 


63 


72 


58 


71 


62 


85 


76 


Iowa 


23 


24 


32 


41 


40 


36 


41 


45 


58 


65 


Kansas 


17 


23 


24 


30 


22 


27 


36 


34 


51 


46 


Michigan 


33 


35 


49 


54 


54 


49 


52 


65 


76 


66 


Minnesota 


31 


35 


43 


37 


40 


44 


34 


51 


45 


58 


Missouri 


34 


33 


39 


49 


44 


49 


42 


64 


46 


82 


Nebraska 


II 


16 


14 


16 


22 


21 


22 


28 


25 


25 


North Dakota 


II 


9 


7 


3 


4 


4 


18 


12 


9 


7 


Ohio 


88 


86 


96 


107 


127 


130 


139 


134 


136 


162 


South Dakota 


5 


I 


6 


4 


5 


4 


7 


5 


7 


14 


Wisconsin 


31 


24 


16 


39 


35 


37 


39 


29 


36 


63 


Western Division 


121 


124 


137 


152 


171 


/6.S 


IP4 


182 


J82 


271 


Arizona 


4 


2 


3 


5 


4 


4 


4 


I 


3 


4 


California 


46 


41 


45 


55 


64 


67 


71 


67 


61 


103 


Colorado 


18 


15 


20 


23 


37 


28 


29 


28 


29 


30 


Idaho 




I 


2 


2 


2 


7 


5 


4 


II 


9 


Montana 


14 


14 


9 


10 


7 


7 


9 


7 


10 


8 


Nevada 


2 


I 


2 


I 




3 


2 


I 


I 


2 


New Mexico 


I 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


4 


8 


6 


4 


Oregon 


7 


17 


13 


14 


14 


12 


18 


II 


14 


36 


Utah 


10 


8 


17 


12 


14 


17 


27 


19 


17 


19 


Washington 


18 


22 


23 


26 


24 


17 


32 


32 


29 


S3 


Wyoming 


I 


I 


I 


2 


3 


3 


3 


4 


I 


3 



288 



COLUMBIA U iN I V E R S I T Y 



TABLE XI— (Continued) 





00 


0. 





^ 


— « — 


ro 


-t 


1/5 





r- 




o 







M 
















a 


Ov 


0. 





Oi 


Oi 





o> 


Ov 


Ov 




'-' 


M 


M 


"-" 


►H 


M 


►-• 


M 


•-* 


►-v 




1 
1^ 


1 
00 


k 


1 



i 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 




o 










)-< 




M 


»-t 








OS 


Oi 


Oi 


0. 


Ov 


o> 


0. 





Ov 


Ov 




•-• 


*-* 


»-• 








M 


►-* 


M 


M 


Insular and Non-contig- 






















uous Territories 


6 


13 


14 


X-; 


10 


/7 


17 


13 


IJ 


20 


Alaska 


I 






I 




I 


2 


I 


I 


I 


Hawaiian Islands 


3 


3 


4 


5 


5 


5 


4 


3 


7 


4 


Philippine Islands 




4 


3 






3 


5 


4 




4 


Porto Rico 


2 


6 


7 


8 


S 


8 


6 


S 


S 


II 


Totals (United States) 


4i6g 


4584 


4970 


5702 


5^/7 


6342 


6934 


7112 


74J4 


7S6S 


New York City 


2087 


2423 


2670 


2931 


2846 


3194 


3368 


3613 


3509 


3670 


Foreign Countries 






















Argentina 


I 


2 


I 










2 


2 


S 


Armenia 




















3 


Australia 


I 


I 


I 


3 


I 


3 


2 


2 


I 


3 


Austria-Hungary 


2 


3 


I 




9 


I 






I 


3 


Bermuda and Bahamas 










I 








I 


I 


Brazil 


4 




I 


I 


3 


2 


2 


1 


a 


I 


Belgium 


I 












3 


2 




I 


Bulgaria 






I 


I 












2 


Bolivia 










I 












Canada 


39 


31 


37 


53 


61 


44 


42 


43 


48 


51 


Chile 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


I 






I 


I 


Colombia 


I 


3 






I 


I 


2 


2 


I 


I 


Costa Rica 


I 








I 


2 


3 


2 




2 


Cuba 


12 


14 


S 


3 


8 


6 


10 


8 


8 


9 


China 


9 


12 


24 


39 


52 


S6 


51 


68 


63 


69 


Denmark 


2 




I 


I 








2 




I 


Egypt 


















a 


I 


Finland 
















2 




I 


France 


2 


4 


4 


5 


5 




3 


2 


a 


I 


Ecuador 


2 


3 


















Germany 


9 


8 


5 


12 


25 


5 


6 


3 


8 


6 


Great Britain 


8 


13 


9 


9 


9 


7 


8 


7 


II 


8 


Greece 




I 


I 




2 


I 


2 


2 




I 


Holland 


I 


I 




3 


I 










4 


Honduras 




I 


















Iceland 




















I 


India 


3 


3 


6 


6 


5 


4 


6 


12 


5 


12 


Italy 


2 


I 


I 




5 


3 


2 


2 


4 


I 


Japan 


37 


23 


IS 


27 


19 


23 


17 


20 


41 


30 


Korea 
















I 






Mexico 


4 


6 


9 


8 


4 


3 


4 


3 


3 


3 


Newfoundland 


















3 


I 


Nicaragua 


I 


I 






I 


2 


2 


I 


3 


I 


Norway 


I 








I 


I 


I 




3 


I 


New Zealand 














I 


I 






Panama 


I 


3 


2 


2 




2 


2 


4 


4 


3 


Peru 


I 


I 






I 


I 


2 


3 


5 




Persia 


3 


I 


2 








I 


I 






Poland 




I 


2 














2 


Portugal 




















I 


Rumania 


I 














I 




2 


Russia 


13 


10 


6 




22 




2 


4 


5 


5 


Santo Domingo 




















I 


Spain 


I 


2 


I 




I 








I 


8 


Siam 
















2 




I 


South Africa 


z 




I 






I 


2 


4 


4 


3 


Sweden 


2 


2 


I 




I 




3 




3 


3 


Switzerland 


I 


4 


I 










I 




I 


Syria 




2 












3 


I 




Turkey in Europe 


2 


3 


I 




10 


12 


9 


II 


7 


4 


Turkey in Asia 


I 


I 


I 




2 


2 


2 




S 


2 


Uruguay 






I 












I 


I 


West Indies 


I 


3 


3 




2 




2 


I 


I 


a 


Totals (Foreign Countries) 


173 


j6S 


^47 


liii 


25(5 


I*J 


Ifll 


222 


245 


2(52 


Grand total 


4342 


4750 


5117 


5893 


6073 


<552J 


<50J4 


7334 


7670 


*7J0 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 289 

TABLE XII 

PARENTAGE OF HIGHER DEGREES HELD BY STUDENTS 

Note: The inclusion of an institution in this Table does not signify the recognition o its 
degrees by Columbia University. 

A. HIGHER INSTITUTIONS IN THE UNITED STATES 



















Mi 


t. 












4/ 








3.2 c 


< 














<u 






u cd 
am 


rt 




I9I6-I9I7 




& 


c 
'S 

■3 


'a 


3 


"a 

E 

3 


.s 


aduate F 
Political i 
ilosophy, 
re Scienc 


•0 
3 


"B 




"3 


rt 




ex. 


i-. 






ti^— 3 


-6 







u 


J 


!§ 


< 


< 


1-^ 


n 


O^PhO. 


W 


H 


Adelphi College 
















16 


9 


25 


Agnes Scott College 
















I 




I 


Alabama Polytechnic Institute 
















2 




2 


Albany Normal College 


















7 


7 


Albert Lea College 
















I 




I 


Albion College 
















3 


I 


4 


Albright College 
















I 




I 


Alfred University 






I 












3 


4 


Allegheny College 






I 










5 


3 


9 


Alma College 












I 








I 


American Veterinary College 










I 










I 


Amherst College 




7 


2 


I 








17 


3 


30 


Atlanta Law School 




I 
















I 


Augustana College 
















I 




I 


Austin College (Texas) 


















I 


I 


Baker University 
















I 


I 


2 


Baldwin Wallace College 
















I 




I 


Bates College 
















S 


2 


7 


Baylor University 














I 




3 


4 


Beaver College 


















I 


I 


Berea College 




I 










I 






2 


Bessie Tift College 


















I 


I 


Bethany College 




I 














I 


2 


Biltmore Forest School 








I 












I 


Blackburn College 


















I 


I 


Boone University 


















I 


I 


Boston University 




I 














4 


s 


Bowdoin College 




I 












I 


2 


4 


Bridgewater College 
















I 




I 


Bradley Polytechnic Institute 


















I 


I 


Brigham Young University 






I 










3 




4 


Brooklyn College 






2 














2 


Brown University 


I 


5 


I 










13 


9 


29 


Bryn Mawr College 
















IS 


I 


16 


Bucknell University 




I 




I 








2 


3 


7 


Butler College 
















2 




2 


Caldwell College 


















I 


I 


Canisius College 






I 














I 


Carleton College 


















3 


3 


Carnegie Institute of Technology 








2 












2 


Carroll College 








2 








I 


I 


4 


Carsons College 
















I 




I 


Cathedral College 
















I 




I 


Catholic College 






I 














I 


Catholic University of America 
















r 




I 


Central College 


















I 


r 


Central University of Kentucky 


















I 


I 


Chattanooga University 


















I 


I 


Clark College 
















I 


I 


2 


Clark University 
















I 


5 


6 


Clemson A. & M. College 














I 






I 



290 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
TABLE Xll— (Continued) 



















4; 


(-, 












<u 








'%h 


< 












B 








y rt 















CJ 









arr, V 


CS 




I9I6-I9I7 


U 


1 


V 

c 
'u 


.Si 
"5. 

Q 
< 


3 


< 


B 

c 

3 


1— > 


(U 

C 
3 

cq 


Graduate F 
of Political ; 
Philosophy, 
Pure Scienc 


u 

Oi 

•0 

c 
•d 


3 



Colby College 






1 




I 






2 


I 


S 


Colgate University 




4 


2 


I 








7 


5 


19 


College of Charleston 




I 
















I 


College of the City of New York 




23 


24 


5 






I 


116 


37 


206 


College of Mount St. Vincent 


I 














2 




3 


College of St. Catherine 
















I 




I 


Coe College 


















I 


I 


Colorado Agricultural College 


















I 


I 


Colorado College 
















I 




I 


Colorado School of Mines 








3 












3 


Columbia University 


2 


78 


58 


25 


6 


I 


6 


342 


238 


7S6 


Converse College 
















4 




4 


Cooper Union 


I 






2 








I 




4 


Cornell College (Iowa) 
















4 




4 


Cornell University 




16 


2 


I 








23 


15 


57 


Dartmouth College 




10 


S 


I 








13 


3 


31 


Davidson College 






I 






I 








3 


Defiance University 




I 
















z 


Denison University 
















2 


I 


3 


Denver University 


















I 


I 


DePauw University 




5 


I 










S 




II 


Dickinson College 




I 












2 


S 


8 


Doane College 
















I 




I 


Drake University 
















I 


I 


3 


Drew Theological Seminary 
















8 




8 


Drury College 














I 


2 




3 


Earlham College 
















7 


3 


10 


Elmira College 
















2 




2 


Emory College 




I 












2 




3 


Emory and Henry Coll 




J 












2 




3 


Emporia College 


















5 


S 


Emporia Normal School 


















I 


I 


Episcopal Theological Seminary 


















I 


I 


Erskine College 






I 














I 


Fairmount College 
















I 




I 


Florida Normal School 


















I 


I 


Florida State College for Women 


















I 


I 


Fordham University 


2 


2 


3 










I 


I 


9 


Franklin College 


















I 


I 


Franklin and Marshall College 
















8 


2 


10 


Friends University 
















I 




I 


General Theological Seminary 
















3 




3 


Georgetown College 




2 












I 




3 


Georgetown University 




2 












I 


I 


4 


George Washington University 






I 










5 


2 


8 


Georgia School of Technology 








2 












2 


Gettysburg College 


















2 


2 


Goucher College 
















5 


6 


II 


Greeley Normal School 


















I 




Greenville College 


















I 




Grinnell College 














I 








Grove City College 
















4 






Hamilton College 




4 


2 










7 


4 


17 


Hamline University 
















4 






Hampden Sidney College 






2 
















Hampton College 


















I 




Hanover College 
















I 






Hartford Theological Seminary 
















I 







REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 29I 

TABLE Xll—iContinued) 



1916-1917 



V V 



u 3 



Harvard University 

Hastings College 

Haverford College 

Heidelberg University (Ohio) 

Hendrix College 

Hillsdale College 

Hiram College 

Hobart College 

Holy Cross College 

Hood College 

Hope College 

Howard University 

Hunter College 

Huron College 

H. Sophie Newcomb College 

Illinois College 

Illinois Wesleyan College 

Illinois Woman's College 

Indiana State Normal School 

Indiana University 

Iowa State College 

Iowa State Teachers College 

Iowa Wesleyan University 

James Millikin University 

John B. Stetson University 

Johns Hopkins University 

Judson College 

Juanita College 

Kalamazoo College 

Kansas City School of Law 

Kansas State Agricultural College 

Kansas State Normal College 

Kansas Wesleyan University 

Kentucky College for Women 

Kentucky Wesleyan University 

Kenyon College 

Keuka College 

Knox College 

Lafayette College 

La Grange College 

Lake Forest College 

Lawrence College 

Lebanon Valley College 

Lehigh University 

Leland Stanford University 

Lincoln-JeHerson University 

Lincoln University 

Livingstone College 

Louisiana State University 

Lutheran Theological Seminary 

McCormick Theological Seminary 

McMinnville College 

Macalester College 

Manhattan College 

Marietta College 

Maryland College 

Maryville College 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology 



104 
3 



133 
3 



28 
I 
6 



292 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
TABLE XU— {Continued) 



1916-1917 



'-' <j a 

0^0- a, 



Mercer University 

Miami University 

Micliigan Agricultural College 

Michigan State Normal College 

Middlcbury College 

Mills College 

Milwaukee Downer College 

Mississippi State College for Women 

Missouri State Normal School 

Missouri Wesleyan College 

Monmouth College 

Morgan College 

Morningside College 

Mount Allison College 

Mount Holyoke College 

Mount St. Mary's College 

Mount Union College 

Muhlenberg College 

Nashotah Theological Seminary 

New Brunswick Theological Seminary 

New Linn Institute 

New Mexico State College 

New Rochelle College 

New York College of Pharmacy 

New York College for Women 

New York Homeopathic College 

New York Law School 

New York State Teachers' College 

New York University 

Niagara University 

Northwestern College 

Northwestern University 

Notre Dame University 

Oberlin College 

Occidental College 

Ohio State University 

Ohio University 

Ohio Wesleyan University 

Oklahoma Agric. and Mech. College 

Olivet College 

Oregon Agricultural College 

Ottawa University (Kansas) 

Otterbein University 

Park College 

Parsons College 

Peabody College 

Peabody Normal School 

Pennsylvania College (Gettysburg) 

Pennsylvania Military College 

Pennsylvania State College 

Pike College 

Polytechnic Institute (Brooklyn) 

Pomona College 

Princeton University 

Puget Sound University 

Purdue University 

Radclifife College 

Randolph-Macon College 



16 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 
TABLE Xll— (Continued) 



293 



















qj «j 


2 












V 








Lii 


< 












a 


V 






^di^'^P. 


^ 




I9I6-I9I7 


(U 






•a 
■U 


3 
1 


a 

"3 


§ 


jate F 
litical i 
3ophy, 
Scienc 


a 






i> 


^ 


•3 


■3. 


2 


a 


_C 


•o u 


(d 


13 




"o 


a 




a 


t-l 




3 


•:[II-G 3 


■6 







U 


J 


S 


< 


< 


>-> 


m 


oOhPh 


w 


H 


Randolph-Macon Women's College 
















2 




2 


Reed College 




I 












6 


I 


8 


Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 






I 










I 




2 


Rhode Island State College 


















I 




Richmond College 
















I 






Richmond University 


















I 




Roanoke College 
















I 






Rolla School of Mines 








I 














Rose Polytechnic (Indiana) 








I 














Rutgers College 




3 


6 


2 








8 


3 


22 


San Antonio Woman's College 


















I 




St. Bonaventure College 






I 
















St. Francis Xavier College 




2 


















St. John's College (Brooklyn) 




I 


2 










r 






St. John's College (Maryland) 


















I 




St. Joseph's College 






I 










I 






St. Lawrence University 
















3 






St. Louis Law School 
















I 






St. Mary's College 
















I 






St. Paul's College 


















I 




St. Peter's College 






3 










I 


I 


S 


St. Stephen's College 


I 




I 










3 




S 


Seton Hall College 






I 












I 


2 


Sheffield Scientific School 






3 


2 












5 


Shurtleff College 


















I 


r 


Simmons College (Boston) 
















3 


I 


4 


Simmons College (Texas) 




I 
















I 


Smith College 
















34 


16 


50 


Smith College for Women 


















I 


I 


South Dakota State College 




I 
















I 


Southern Methodist University 
















I 




I 


Southern University 






I 














I 


Southwestern University 
















2 


I 


3 


Spaulding Institute 


















I 


I 


Springfield Normal School 


















I 


I 


State College for Teachers 


















I 


I 


State University of Kentucky 
















r 




I 


Southwestern University 
















I 




I 


Stevens Institute of Technology 








2 










I 


3 


Swarthmore College 
















3 


I 


4 


Sweet Briar College 
















2 




2 


Syracuse University 




4 










I 


9 


6 


20 


Temple University 
















I 




r 


Texas Agr. and Mech. College 










2 










2 


Texas Christian University 






I 










I 




2 


Trinity CoUege (Conn.) 




2 


I 










S 


2 


10 


Trinity CoUege (N. C.) 












I 




3 




4 


Trinity College (Texas) 




I 
















I 


Trinity University 
















4 




4 


Tufts College 




I 


I 














2 


Tusculum College 




I 
















I 


Union College 




6 


4 














10 


Union Theological Seminary 
















IS 


3 


18 


Union University 
















3 




3 


United States Naval Academy 




4 




18 












22 


University of Alabama 


I 


4 




I 












6 


University of Arkansas 




4 












2 




6 


University of Arizona 
















1 




I 



294 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
TABLE XU— (Continued) 



1916-1917 



u u rt 

■a o o 1, 



University of California 
University of Chicago 
University of Cincinnati 
University of Colorado 
University of Denver 
University of Georgia 
University of Illinois 
University of Iowa 
University of Kansas 
University of Kentucky 
University of Louisville 
University of Maine 
University of Maryland 
University of Michigan 
University of Minnesota 
University of Mississippi 
University of Missouri 
University of Montana 
University of Nashville 
University of Nebraska 
University of North Carolina 
University of Oklahoma 
University of Oregon 
University of Pennsylvania 
University of Pittsburgh 
University of Redlands 
University of Rochester 
University of Santa Clara 
University of South Carolina 
University of South Dakota 
University of Southern California 
University of Tennessee 
University of Texas 
University of Utah 
University of Vermont 
University of Virginia 
University of Washington 
University of West Virginia 
University of Wisconsin 
University of Wooster 
University of Wyoming 
Upsala College 
Ursinus College 
Utah Agricultural College 
Valparaiso University 
Vanderbilt University 
Vassar College 
Virginia Military Institute 
Wabash College 
Wake Forest College 
Washburn College 
Washington College 
Washington and Jefferson College 
Washington and Lee University 
Washington State College 
Washington University 
Wellesley College 
Wells College 



36 



30 
3 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 
TABLE Xll— (Continued) 



295 



















S lU 


m 












V 








2s-« 


^ 





















3.Si C 














a 


V 






rt 


i 




1916-1917 




^ 


a 


W 

"a 


3 

1 
IS 




i 

E 
3 




aduate F 
Political ; 
ilosophy, 
re Scienc 




H 




"o 


CS 




a 


k. 




3 


ti^-G 3 


•6 










J 


s 


< 


< 


1—1 


P3 


oPkOi 


w 


H 


Wesleyan College 






2 










8 


I 


II 


Wesleyan University 


I 


2 














2 


5 


West Chester State Normal School 


















I 


I 


Western College 


















I 


I 


Western Maryland College 
















I 


I 


2 


Western Reserve University 






I 










S 


I 


7 


Westminster College 
















2 




2 


Whitman College 








2 








3 


2 


7 


William and Mary College 
















I 




I 


Williamette University 
















I 




r 


Williams College 


I 


16 


8 


2 


I 






6 


I 


35 


Wilmington College 


















I 


I 


Wilson College 
















I 


3 


4 


Winthrop College 


















2 


2 


Wittenberg College 




2 












I 




3 


Wofford College 




I 


I 














2 


Woman's College 


















I 


I 


Yale Divinity School 


















I 


I 


Yale University 


2 


34 


22 




4 






22 


6 


90 


Total (.Domestic Institutions) 


25 


408 


28s 


103 


52 


22 


2J 


1S13 


856 


J2(5p 



296 COLUMBIA U N I N' E R S I T Y 

TABLE XU~{Co>iti)!i<e(i) 

B. HIGHER INSTITUTIONS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES 



1916-191: 



•O O O l; 



Acadia University (Canada) 

Alliance Francaise (France) 

Anatolia College (Turkey) 

Anglo-Chinese College (China) 

Ateneo de Manila (Manila) 

Athence Royal (Belgium) 

Bombay University (India) 

Bonn University (Germany) 

Boone University (China) 

Brantford College (Canada) 

Canton Christian College (China) 

Central Turkey College (Turkey) 

Chekiang Prov. College (China) 

College de Vannies (France) 

College Royal (Belgium) 

Constantinople College (Turkey) 

Costa Rica University (South America) 

Dalhousie University (Canada) 

Ecole Normale (Switzerland) 

Ecole Polytechnic (Canada) 

Glasgow University (Scotland) 

Grenoble University (France) 

Gymnasium Lemberg (Austria) 

Hamergal College (Canada) 

Havana Institute of Science (Cuba) 

Huguenot College (South Africa) 

Institute de la Habana (Cuba) 

Kelvin College (England) 

Kiote Imperial University (Japan) 

Knox College (Canada) 

Kwassui College (Japan) 

Lausanne University (Switzerland) 

Laval University (Canada) 

Lycee Janson de Sailly (Paris) 

McGill University (Canada) 

McMaster University (Canada) 

MacDonald Institute (Canada) 

Montserrat College (British West Indies) 

Melbourne University (Australia) 

Mt. AUison University (Canada) 

Nanking University (China) 

Nicolek College (Canada) 

Normal School (Germany) 

Normal School (japan) 

Normal School (Mexico) 

Normal School (New Brunswick, Canada) 

Normal School (Nova Scotia) 

Normal School (Ontario) 

Normal School (Panama) 

Normal School (Philippine Islands) 

Normal School (Porto Rico) 

Normal School (Toronto) 

Pei-Yang University (China) 

Peking University (China) 

Queen's University (Canada) 

Roslyn College (Canada) 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 
TABLE X.U— {Continued) 



297 











CI 












< 












c 









5^rH"'o 






I9I6-I9I7 


V 






•a 


3 



a 




uate F 
litical i 
sophy, 
Scienc 


2 

•a 

c 






_4; 


s 


•5 


■3. 




3 


m 


'a {M 


cd 


"3 




"o 


(5 




a 


u 




3 


t^J^ 3 


■d 










J 


s 


< 


< 


i-> 


n 


oOl,Cl, 


W 


H 


Royal Gymnasium (Hungary) 
















I 




I 


Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden) 








I 












I 


St. John's University (China) 




I 












I 




2 


St. Paul's College (Japan) 


















I 


I 


St. Servan College (France) 


















I 


I 


School of Mines (Spain) 








3 












3 


Seminos de San Carlos y Ancude (Chile) 
















I 




I 


Teachers College Cracow (Galicia) 
















I 




I 


Teachers Training College (Australia) 


















I 


I 


Tokio Imperial University (japan) 




I 




I 








I 




3 


Tri-State College (India) 


















I 


I 


University of Amsterdam (Holland) 
















I 




I 


University of Berne (Switzerland) 






I 


I 












2 


University of Cambridge (England) 
















2 


I 


3 


University of Chile (South America) 


















I 


I 


University of Havana (Cuba) 




2 














I 


3 


University of Heidelberg (Germany) 
















I 




I 


University of Italy 






I 














I 


University of Kiel (Germany) 






I 














I 


University of London (England) 




I 












2 




3 


University of Madrid (Spain) 
















I 




I 


University of Manitoba (Canada) 


















I 


I 


University of Nanking (China) 
















I 




r 


University of Oxford (England) 




I 












2 


2 


S 


University of Paris (France) 
















I 




I 


University of the Philippines 




I 
















I 


University of Poitiers (France) 
















I 




I 


University of Rome (Italy) 
















I 




I 


University of Rostock (Germany) 
















I 




I 


University of St. Andrew's (Scotland) 
















I 


2 


3 


University of Saskatchewan (Canada) 
















I 




I 


University of Sorbonne (France) 




I 












3 




4 


University of South Africa 


















I 


I 


University of Sydney (Australia) 
















2 




2 


University of Toronto (Canada) 
















4 


S 


9 


University of Wales (England) 
















2 




2 


Valparaiso University (South America) 








I 












I 


Victoria College (South Africa) 


















I 


I 


Waseda University (Japan) 
















I 




I 


Whitby Ladies' College (Canada) 


















I 


I 


Zabern College (Germany) 






I 














I 


Total {Foreign Institutions) 


I 


12 


4 


15 


J 








50 


67 


150 



298 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
TABLE XU— {Continued) 

SUMMARY 











V 








J si 

= .Sia 


< 















V 






^^"^^ 


i 




I9I6-I9I7 




> 


c 
'0 


■5, 


3 

i 

CJ 


i 

c 


V 


aduate F 
Political ; 
ilosophy, 
re Scienc 


2 

•0 

c 


^ 




"o 


CQ 




a 


c 




a 


^,_-C 3 


•a 










>-) 


s 


< 


< 


•-1 


CQ 


O^euCL, 


U 


H 


Total graduates of domestic 






















institutions 


25 


408 


28s 


103 


32 


22 


25 


1S13 


856 


3269 


Total graduates of foreign 






















institutions 


1 


12 


4 


IS 


I 








so 


67 


150 


Grand total graduates of high- 






















er institutions 


26 


420 


289 


118 


33 


22 


2S 


1563 


923 


3419 


Deduct for graduates of more 






















than one institution 


2 


21 


12 


6 


3 





4 


246 


106 


400 


Total students holding degrees 


24 


399 


277 


112 


30 


22 


21 


1317 


817 


3019 


Total students enrolled 


1453 


474 


451 


276 


90 


IS5 


61 


1358 


2444 


6762 


Percentage holding degrees, 






















1916 


1-5 


88.5 


69.9 


34-7 


28.4 


16.6 




lOO.O 


29.0 


47.S 


Percentage holding degrees, 






















1917 


I.I 


84.1 


61.42 


40.2 


34-0 


14.19 


34.4 


96.97 


33-4 


44.64 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 299 

TABLE XIII 

NATURE OF DEGREES HELD BY STXTOENTS 













-oris 






















toC^.a 








«< 














•S .W 








l-a 












g 















Degrees 1916-1917 






V 


a 
'3 




4) 

3 


i 




3 CO 






4) 

■3 

u 


a 


c 
'u 

•5 



a 
< 


11^ 

^ S 
0(ii 


< 


"3 
c 
u 
3 

►-1 


a 

3 
03 


"o 

8§ 





Bachelor of Architecture 












I 








I 


Bachelor of Arts 


13 


316 


ISS 


21 


I0I2 


18 


19 


16 


490 


2060 


Bachelor of Chemistry- 








I 


I 








I 


3 


Bachelor of Divinity 










33 








8 


41 


Bachelor of Electricity 




I 




I 












2 


Bachelor of Engineering 








I 










I 


2 


Bachelor of Forestry 








I 












I 


Bachelor of Laws 


I 


23 






16 






I 


S 


46 


Bachelor of Letters 


I 


I 


7 




5 








IS 


29 


Bachelor of Literature 


I 


15 




I 


12 


I 




3 


2 


35 


Bachelor of Music 










2 










3 


Bachelor of Pedagogy 


















13 


13 


Bachelor of Philosophy 


I 


II 


10 


2 


46 


I 








71 


Bachelor of Science 


5 


45 


82 


S3 


226 


10 


3 


3 


231 


658 


Bachelor of S. E. 










I 










I 


Chemist 










3 










3 


CivU Engineer 






2 


4 


3 










9 


Doctor of Civil Law 




I 
















I 


Doctor of Dental Surgery 


2 


















2 


Doctor of Divinity 










I 








I 


2 


Doctor of Jurisprudence 










I 


I 








2 


Doctor of Laws 










I 










I 


Doctor of Medicine 


I 


I 


9 


I 


3 










IS 


Doctor of Philosophy 




I 


2 


I 


3 








2 


9 


Doctor of Science 






I 














I 


Doctor of Veterinary Surgery 












I 








I 


Electrical Engineer 










4 








I 


S 


Engineer of Mines 






I 


6 












7 


Graduate in Pharmacy 


I 


I 


I 


I 










I 


S 


Graduate U. S. Naval Academy 




4 




18 












22 


Master of Arts 




10 


7 


2 








2 


14s 


166 


Master of Commercial Science 




I 






334 










33S 


Master of Divinity 


















I 


I 


Master of Laws 










2 








I 


3 


Master of Letters 


















I 


I 


Master of Pedagogy 


















4 


4 


Master of Philosophy 










2 








I 


3 


Master of Science 






I 


I 


IS 








I 


18 


Mechanical Engineer 








3 


I 










4 


Pharmaceutical Chemist 




2 


19 


I 












32 


Total degrees held 


26 


433 


297 


up 


1727 


33 


22 


25 


925 


3607 


Deduct for students holding more than one degree 


2 


34 


20 


7 


410 


3 





4 


108 


588 


Total students holding degrees, igiy 


24 


399 


277 


112 


1317 


30 


22 


21 


817 


3019 


Total students holding degrees, IQ16 


19 


413 


284 


89 


J516 


27 


35 




609 


2982 



300 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

TABLE XIV 

DEGREES AND DIPLOMAS GRANTED, 1916-I917 





Men 


Women 


Total 


A. Degrees conferred in course 








Bachelor of Arts 


125 


136 


261 


Bachelor of Laws 


I6S 




i6s 


Bachelor of Science 


no 


20 


130 


Bachelor of Science (Business) 


2 




2 


Bachelor of Science (Pharmacy) 


2 




2 


Bachelor of Science (Practical Arts) 


38 


288 


326 


Bachelor of Architecture 


18 


I 


19 


• Bachelor of Literature 


21 


5 


26 


Chen'ical Engineer 


36 




36 


Chemist 


I 




I 


Civil Engineer 


33 




33 


Electrical Engineer 


25 




25 


Engineer of Mines 


22 




22 


Mechanical Engineer 


24 




24 


Metallurgical Engineer 


3 




3 


Doctor of Medicine 


90 




90 


Pharmaceutical Chemist 


II 


4 


IS 


Master of Arts 


208 


181 


389 


Master of Arts (Education) 


133 


172 


30s 


Master of Laws 


3 




3 


Master of Science (Applied Science) 


25 




25 


Master of Science (Architecture) 


2 




2 


Master of Science (Business) 


4 




4 


Master of Science (Practical Arts) 




2 


2 


Doctor of Philosophy 


67 


15 


82 


Total 


ii6f{ 


824 


1092 


Deduct duplicates ' 


6 


2 


8 


Total individuals receiving degrees in course 


1163 


822 


1984 


B. Honorary degrees 








Master of Arts 


I 


I 


2 


Doctor of Letters 


I 




I 


Doctor of Laws 


8 




8 


Doctor of Science 


3 




3 


Doctor of Sacred Theology 


I 




I 


Total 


14 


I 


15 


C. Certificates and Teachers College Diplomas granted 








Certificate of Proficiency in Architecture 


8 




8 


Bachelor's Diploma in Education 


27 


21 1 


238 


Master's Diploma in Education 


86 


113 


199 


Doctor's Diploma in Education 


3 


I 


4 


Total 


124 


32s 


449 


Total degrees and diplomas granted 


1306 


1150 


2456 


Deduct duplicates 2 


1x9 


328 


447 


Total individuals receiving degrees and diplomas 


1187 


822 


2009 



' Distributed as follows: A.M. and LL.B., 2 men; A.M. and M.D., i man; A.M. and 
B.S., I man, i woman; A.M. and A.B., 2 men, i woman. 

2 In addition to those noted under Note i (8), the following duplications occur: A.B. 
and Teachers College Diploma, 3 women; B.S. and Teachers College Diploma, 26 men, 
207 women; M.S. and Teachers College Diploma, i man; A.M. and Teachers College 
Diploma, 83 men, in women; Ph.D. and Teachers College Diploma, 3 men, i woman; 
Teachers College Diploma, 4 women. 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 30I 

TABLE XV 

NUMBER OF DEGREES AND DIPLOMAS GRANTED, I907-I917 





r~oo 


oLo, 


1 

OiO 


1 

" 


1 


1 


n Tj- 


TtW 


1 


1 










" 


















Oi 0. 


c\ 


0< Oi 


0\0. 


Oi C\ 


Cv 


0. 


0. 


0. 


0, 


A. Degrees conferred in course 




Bachelor of Arts (men) 


94 


91 


93 


94 


94 


127 


99 


105 


lOI 


125 


Bachelor of Arts (women) 


97 


98 


86 


105 


114 


136 


113 


141 


112 


136 


Bachelor of Laws 


55 


69 


80 


94 


116 


137 


140 


135 


134 


165 


Bachelor of Science (Columbia 






















College) 


15 


25 


28 


48 


S8 


61 


77 


8S 


75 


no 


Bachelor of Science (Barnard 






















College) ■ 






2 




4 


3 


7 


8 


6 


20 


Bachelor of Science (Teachers 






















College) 


120 


139 


158 


214 


255 


235 


218 


337 


) 




Bachelor of Science in Practical 


















/337 


326 


Arts 














5 


19 




Bachelor of Science (Architecture) 


6 


6 


2 


I 


I 




I 








Bachelor of Science (Business) 




















2 


Bachelor of Science (Chemistry) 


9 


6 


I 
















Bachelor of Science (Pharmacy) 




















2 


Bachelor of Architecture 




2 


6 


7 


7 


3 


17 


10 


7 


19 


Bachelor of Music 






2 


2 


I 


I 




3 






Bachelor of Literature 












9 


IS 


22 


24 


26 


Chemist 






2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


4 




I 


Chemical Engineer 




6 


6 


6 


II 


20 


18 


20 


18 


36 


Civil Engineer 


20 


25 


31 


28 


26 


37 


27 


37 


33 


33 


Electrical Engineer 


21 


20 


27 


10 


7 


IS 


8 


15 


17 


25 


Engineer of Mines 


30 


29 


39 


46 


38 


25 


38 


20 


II 


22 


Mechanical Engineer 


12 


22 


12 


15 


30 


21 


14 


27 


19 


24 


Metallurgical Engineer 


3 


4 


3 


6 


3 


5 


8 


6 


S 


3 


Doctor of Medicine 


81 


82 


70 


70 


86 


100 


71 


85 


73 


90 


Pharmaceutical Chemist 


21 


7 


8 


II 


15 


20 


24 


8 


12 


15 


Doctor of Pharmacy 


3 


5 


4 


3 


2 


7 


7 


2 


I 




Master of Arts 


219 


231 


269 


315 


370 


S03 


492 


633 


407 


389 


Master of Laws 


2 








I 


I 


3 


I 


2 


3 


Master of Arts (Teachers College) 


















226 


30s 


Master of Science (Applied 






















Science) 


















29 


25 


Master of Science (Architecture) 




















2 


Master of Science (Business) 




















4 


Master of Science (Practical Arts) 




















2 


Doctor of Philosophy 


55 


59 


44 


76 


81 


67 


65 


71 


88 


82 


Total 


863 


Q26 


973 


1 1 S3 


1322 


1533 


1470 


1814 


1737 


1992 


Deduct duplicates 


7 


7 


6 


II 


14 


20 


18 


13 


21 


8 


Total individuals receiving degrees 


856 


gig 


967 


114^ 


J308 


151S 


1452 


l507 


771(5 


1984 


B. Honorary degrees 




Master of Arts 


I 


I 


2 


I 




2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


Master of Science 




I 


I 


2 


I 




12 








Doctor of Science 


I 


I 


3 


I 


I 


2 


I 


2 




3 


Doctor of Letters 


2 


2 


4 


2 


4 


2 


I 


I 


I 


I 


Doctor of Sacred Theology 


I 


I 


I 


2 


I 


I 


I 




I 


I 


Doctor of Laws 


5 


7 


2 


4 


3 


3 


5 


5 


2 


8 


Doctor of Music 














I 








Total 


10 


13 


13 


12 


10 


10 


24 


10 


(5 


15 


C. Certificates and Teachers College 




diplomas granted 






















Certificates in architecture 


I 




3 


2 


4 


6 


13 


8 


12 


8 


Consular certificate 


I 














2 






Bachelor's diploma in education 


133 


134 


15S 


220 


273 


277 


253 


323 


268 


238 


Special diploma in education 


89 


109 


103 


153 


205 


169 


21 








Master's diploma in education 


51 


S6 


65 


82 


83 


148 


174 


226 


199 


199 


Doctor's diploma in education 


5 


4 


8 


IS 


II 


10 


13 


5 


5 


4 


Total 


280 
1153 


303 
1242 


337 
1323 


472 
1637 


576 
igo8 


610 
2155 


474 
ig68 


564 

2J^5 


484 
2227 


^-^P 


Total degrees and diplomas granted 


245(5 


Deduct duplicates 


187 


201 


230 


303 


400 


495 


436 


563 


410 


447 


Total individuals receiving degrees and 






















diplomas 


96b 


1041 


1093 


1334 


1S08 


1660 


1532 


1^23 


1817 


2009 



302 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

TABLE XVI 

A. SPECIALTIES OF RECIPIENTS OF HIGHER DEGREES, I916-I917 





A.M. 


Ph.D. 


M.S. 


LL.M. 


Total 


Subjects of Major 




c 






c 




c 




c 




B 


Interest 


c 


E 


c 


S 


fi 


1 


c 


E 


c 


1 






c 

















CJ 







s 


^ 


s 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


s 


^ 


Anthropology 




I 
















I 


Architecture 










2 








2 




Bacteriology 


3 


2 


I 












4 


2 


Biological Chemistry 


3 


3 


3 


I 










6 


4 


Botany 


2 


4 


I 












3 


4 


Business 










4 








4 




Chemical Engineering 






2 




I 








3 




Chemistry 


23 


8 


7 


2 










30 


10 


Chinese 


I 
















I 




Classical Philology 








I 












I 


Comparative Literature 


2 


S 














2 


5 


Constitutional Law 


I 
















I 




Education and Practical 






















Arts 






8 


I 




2 






8 


3 


Electrical Engineering 










5 








S 




English 


20 


39 


I 


I 










21 


40 


Geography (Physiogra- 






















phy) 






I 












I 




Geologj' 


3 


I 


2 












S 


I 


Germanic Languages 


4 


16 


I 












s 


16 


Greek 


2 
















2 




Highway Engineering 










3 








3 




History 


26 


38 


8 


3 










34 


41 


Indo-Iranian 


I 
















I 




International Law 


4 


I 


I 












S 


I 


Latin 


I 


7 














I 


7 


Mathematics 


II 


9 


4 


I 










15 


10 


Mathematical Physics 


I 
















I 




Mechanical Engineering 










12 








12 




Metallurgy 










4 








4 




Music 


I 
















I 




Neurology 


I 


I 














I 


I 


Pathology 


I 




I 












2 




Philosophy 


18 


4 


4 












32 


4 


Physics 


4 




2 












6 




Physiology 


I 
















I 




Political Economy 


26 


4 


S 


3 










31 


7 


Politics 


8 


3 


I 












9 


3 


Psychology 


3 


7 


7 












10 


7 


Public Law 














3 




3 




Romance Languages 


3 


12 


4 


I 










7 


13 


Semitic Languages 


3 




I 












4 




Slavonic Languages 


2 
















2 




Social Economy 


9 


10 




I 










9 


II 


Sociology and Statistics 


16 


4 














16 


4 


Zoology 


4 


3 


3 












6 


2 


Total 


308 


181 


67 


15 


J/ 


a 


J 




JOO 


IP* 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 
TABLE XNl— {Continued) 

B. HIGHER DEGREES GRANTED UNDER EACH FACULTY 



303 





A.M. 


Ph.D. 


M.S. 


LL.M. 


Total 


Faculties 




S3 

1 





E 
1 


n 


e 



13 

CI 


e 
S 
1 




1 



Political Science, Philos- 
ophy, and Pure Science 
Applied Science 
Architecture 


208 


181 


67 


IS 


25 

2 








275 

25 

2 


196 


Business 
Law 










4 




3 




4 
3 




Total 1917 


208 


181 


67 


15 


Ji 




J 




300 


196 


Education and Practical 
Arts 


133 


172 








2 






133 


174 


Total 1917 {including 
Teachers College) 


341 


353 


67 


15 


5-r 


2 


J 




442 


570 


Total 1916 


332 


301 


75 


13 


2i) 




2 




436 


314 


Total igis 


362 


271 


61 


10 






I 




423 


281 


Total jgi4 


282 


210 


54 


ZI 






3 




336 


221 



304 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

TABLE XVII 

Table of Ages 

ages of entering freshmen, columbia college, i916-i917 



Ase 


Number 


Age 


Number 


Age 


Number Age 


Number 


14-15 




19-20 


75 


24-25 


8 


29-30 


I 


15-16 


6 


20-21 


43 


25-26 


5 


30-31 


I 


16-17 


40 


21-22 


17 


26-27 


I 


35-36 


I 


17-18 


123 


22-23 


10 


27-28 




39-40 


I 


18-19 


119 


23-24 




23-29 


1 


Total 


450 



AGES OF SENIORS, COLUMBIA COLLEGE, I916-I917 



Age 


Number 


Age 


Number 


Age 


Number 


Age 


Number 


17-18 


2 


21-22 


58 


25-26 


2 


30-31 


I 


18-19 


3 


22-23 


33 






31-32 


2 


19-20 


26 


23-24 


17 






33-34 


I 


20-21 


57 


24-25 


9 






Total 


211 



COMPARATIVE TABLE OF AGES OF ENTERING FRESHMEN, 
COLUMBIA COLLEGE, FOR THE PERIODS INDICATED 



Period 


1916--1917 


191S-1916 


1906-1907 


Average age 
Median age 


18 years, 11 months 
18 years, 11 months 


18 years, 5 months 
18 years, 2 months 


18 years, 4 months 
18 years, r month 



COMPARATIVE TABLE OF AGES OF SENIORS OF COLUMBIA COLLEGE 
FOR THE PERIODS INDICATED 



Period 


1916-1917 


1915-1916 


1906-1907 


Average age 
Median age 


21 years, 6 months 
21 years, 2 months 


21 years, 5 months 
21 years, 2 months 


21 years, 4 months 
21 years, 1 month 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 
TABLE XVIII 



305 



CLASSIFICATION OF STUDENTS ATTENDING ONE OR MORE COURSES OF 
INSTRUCTION IN THE VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS 



1916-1917 



College 



Department 
Agriculture 
Anatomy (ind. Histology 

and Embryology) 
Anthropology 
Architecture 
Astronomy 
Bacteriology 
Biological Chemistry 
Botany 
Business 

Chemical Engineering 
Chemistry 
Civil Engineering 
Classical Philology 

Class. Civilization 

Greek 

Latin 
Dermatology and Sypholog\' 
Diseases of Children 
Economics 
Education 

Electrical Engineering 
Engineering Drafting 
English 

Comp. Literature 
Fine Arts 
Geology 

Germanic Lang, and Lit. 
Government and Industry 
Gynecology 
Highway Engineering 
History and Political Philos- 
ophy 
Hygiene and Preventive 

Medicine 
Journalism 

Laryngology (incl. Otology) 
Mathematics 
Mechanical Engineering 
Mechanics (Mathematical 

Physics) 
Metallurgy 
Mineralogj' 
Mining 

Municipal and Private Law 
Music 
Neurology 
Obstetrics 
Ophthalmologj- 
Oriental Languages 

Chinese 

Indo-Iranian Languages 

Semitic Languages 
Orthopedic Surgery 



46 



66 



156 



36 



38 



o ca 



24 



455 



a< 0,1:1, 



47 
106 



244 

84 

6 

18 

76 



00 



48 



58 



43 



36 



87 



34 



H 

•a 
|| 
Ho 



12 

244 

51 

102 

isr 
148 
157 
44 
194 
122 
796 
124 

9 

44 

168 

113 

202 

667 

223 

193 

i6r 

1460 

166 

IS 

135 

474 

52 

201 

6 

1099 

105 
201 
113 
754 
266 

163 

120 

75 

41 

563 

72 

212 

315 

113 

3 

7 

27 

113 



306 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
TABLE XVUl—iContitiued) 





College 






V 


S'S 


c 











































5 «>i, 


•o 








IM 


















c 


3 


(U 






01 


I9I6-I9I7 


c 
1 

J! 


a 

s 

"a 


2 


'S 

3 
>— 1 


2 


'c 


•a 
2u 


§ 
J 


4; 
c 

•5 
1 


W 

XI 

.a 

"a 
c. 
< 


"oS 3 
CUQhQh 


^0 


3 

U 

V 

u 

< 


B 

■3 

c 

3 



c 

3 


is 

ll 

Ho 


Department 




























Pathology 














118 




3 


I 








122 


Pharmacology. Materia 






























Medica and Therapeutics 














318 














318 


Philosophy 


406 


133 


67 


SO 


27 








137 


22 




33 


I 


876 


Physical Education 


416 


138 


58 


49 


16 






26 








52 


I 


756 


Physics 


69 


85 


81 


45 


28 






77 


31 


7 








423 


Physiology 














248 




20 










268 


Politics and Government 


122 


102 


79 


46 


13 


I 




I 


107 


5 




80 


I 


557 


Practice of Medicine 














311 














311 


Psychology 


8 


42 


68 


42 


4 


I 






75 


9 


I 






250 


Public Law 






I 


10 




201 






71 


8 






I 


292 


Religion 


8 


16 


13 


6 




















43 


Roman Law and Jurispru- 






























dence 












72 






7 










79 


Romance Lang, and Lit. 






























Celtic 


















2 










2 


French 


185 


123 


70 


43 


17 








80 


16 


I 


37 


7 


579 


Italian 


2 


s 


2 


2 










12 


4 


I 






28 


Spanish 


48 


67 


44 


33 


6 








35 


7 


I 


6 


5 


252 


Science of Language 


















10 










10 


Slavonic Lang, and Lit. 








2 










2 










4 


Polish 


















4 


2 








6 


Russian 


















6 


2 








8 


Social Economy 








I 










81 


IS 








97 


Sociology 


S 


17 


27 


17 


2 


I 






173 


29 








271 


Surgery 














315 














31S 


Urology 














113 














113 


Zoology 


42 


72 


27 


20 


12 








52 


4 








229 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 
TABLE XIX 



307 



AGGREGATE ATTENDANCE IN ALL COURSES, I916-I917 (EXCLUDING BARNARD 
COLLEGE, TEACHERS COLLEGE AND COLLEGE OF PHARMACY) 





Number of 


Number of 


Percentage 


I9I6-I9I7 


Half-Year 
Courses 


Registrations 


of Total 
Enrolment 


Departments 








Agriculture 


6 


16 


.04 


Anatomy (including Histology) 


II 


286 


.75 


Anthropology 


IS 


123 


.32 


Architecture 


62 


868 


2.27 


Astronomy 


5 


IS9 


.42 


Bacteriology 


12 


217 


.57 


Biological Chemistry 


15 


210 


.55 


Botany 


31 


137 


.36 


Business 


33 


743 


I.9S 


Chemical Engineering 


20 


290 


.76 


Chemistry 


84 


1784 


4.6s 


Civil Engineering 


33 


S2S 


1.38 


Classical Philology 


2 


15 


.04 


Classical Civilization 


I 


17 


.05 


Greek 


31 


95 


.25 


Latin 


37 


337 


.88 


Dermatology 


I 


97 


.26 


Diseases of Children 


4 


341 


.89 


Economics 


43 


146 1 


3.81 


Education 


131 


459 


1.20 


Electrical Engineering 


36 


738 


1.94 


Engineering Drafting 


9 


29s 


.77 


English 


86 


3219 


8.40 


Comparative Literature 


20 


270 


.71 


Fine Arts 


14 


29 


.08 


Geology 


43 


291 


.76 


Germanic Languages and Literatures 


68 


1018 


2.66 


Government and Industry 


2 


98 


.25 


Gynecology 


4 


336 


.88 


Highway Engineering 


5 


S 


.01 


History and Political Philosophy 


87 


2303 


6.04 


Household Arts 


IS 


21 


.04 


Hygiene and Preventive Medicine 


3 


95 


• 25 


Journalism 


24 


994 


2.61 


Laryngology and Otology 


2 


194 


.51 


Mathematics 


48 


1357 


3.54 


Mechanical Engineering 


80 


1214 


3.16 


Metallurgy 


26 


445 


1.18 


Mineralogy 


7 


94 


.25 


Mining 


16 


249 


.65 


Municipal and Private Law 


46 


4752 


12.42 


Music 


28 


296 


.78 


Neurology 


13 


358 


.94 


Obstetrics 


4 


336 


.88 


Ophthalmology 


2 


194 


.51 


Oriental Languages 








Chinese 


4 


8 


.02 


Indo-Iranian Languages 


IS 


22 


.04 


Semitic Languages 


24 


93 


.24 


Orthopedic Surgery 


I 


94 


.25 


Pathology 


3 


190 


.50 


Pharmacology, Materia Medica and Therapeutics 


4 


190 


•SO 


Philosophy 


46 


1556 


4.07 


Physical Education 


10 


1597 


4.17 


Physics 


34 


802 


2.10 


Mathematical Physics (Mechanics) 


17 


274 


.72 


Physiology 


13 


243 


.64 


Politics and Government 


27 


953 


2.48 


Practice of Medicine 


4 


330 


.87 


Psychology 


26 


527 


1.38 



3o8 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
TABLE XlX—iConlinned) 





Number of 




Percentage 


I9I6-I9I7 


Half-Year 
Courses 


Registrations 


of Total 
Enrolment 


Public Law- 


20 


240 


.63 


Religion 


3 


66 


.18 


Roman Law and Jurisprudence 


2 


7 


.03 


Romance Languages and Literatures 








Celtic 


2 


4 


.01 


French 


48 


106s 


2.80 


Italian 


II 


48 


.13 


Spanish 


14 


428 


1. 13 


Russian 


9 


32 


.08 


Science of Languages 


2 


14 


.04 


Social Economy 


25 


321 


.84 


Sociology 


IS 


542 


1.42 


Surgery 


6 


524 


1.38 


Urology 


2 


194 


•SO 


Zoology 


40 


475 


1.24 


Total 


i6q2 


38,220 


100.00 



TABLE XX 

THE AMOUNT AND DISTRIBUTION OF FREE TUITION OTHER THAN THAT 
PROVIDED BY SCHOLARSHIPS 








•0 2 2 


"ot3 C 








Faculty or School 


^ t! 
2 


C 4- « 
en oc-<t: 


c.SS 


c i2 


-ss 


Total 




0£ 


C SO 




J3 3 






Columbia College 


$276.00 


$1,488.00 




$198.00 




$1,962.00 


School of Law 


150.00 


150.00 








300.00 


Schools of Mines, Engineer- 














ing, and Chemistry 


732.00 


250.00 






45-00 


1027.00 


School of Business 




78.00 








78.00 


Political Science, Philosophy, 














and Pure Science 


11.463.50 


281.00 


12,338.00 






24,082.50 


Total 


$12,621.50 


$2,247.00 


$12,338.00 


$iq8.oo 


$45-00 


$47.44950 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 309 

EXTENSION TEACHING 

The number of students registered in Extension Teaching 
at Morningside, not including those in special classes, was 
6,062. The corresponding total in 1915— 1916 was 4,503; in 
1914-1915, 3,407. The 6,062 includes 1,216 matriculated stu- 
dents, about 20 per cent, of the total. These matriculated 
students are not included in the total given in Table A on 
page 310, since they are duplicates of registrations there 
counted under the several faculties. The above total like- 
wise includes 283 students registered in the Summer Session 
of 19 1 6 who are similarly excluded from the total given in 
Table A. As shown by Table D, the elimination of the 1,499 
duplicates from the total of 6,062 and the addition of the 
805 non-matriculants attending elsewhere than at Morning- 
side produced the total of 5,368 as given in Table A. This 
total last year was 4,252; in 1913-1914 it was 3,305. Table 
B this year gives the registration in special classes. 

The classification according to residence as given in Table 
E shows that a large majority of the students live in New 
York City and in New Jersey. This is of interest in that it 
illustrates that at Columbia, Extension Teaching means the 
throwing open of the resources of the University to those who 
are not able to attend the regular classes at the usual time 
rather than the establishment of branches of the University 
in outlying sections. 



310 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
STATISTICAL SUMMARY 

A. STUDENTS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO SEX 





Morn- 
ingside 


Extra- 
Mural 
Centers 


Total 


Men 
Women 


2930 
3132 


193 
612 


3123 
3744 


Totals 


6062 


80s 


6867 


Duplicate registrations: 
Matriculated students 
Summer Session (1916) 






1216 
283 


Total attendance in Extension Teaching only 






S368 



B. REGISTRATIONS IN SPECIAL CLASSES (nOT INCLUDED IN OTHER 

tables) 





Men 


Women 


Total 


1. Spoken Languages 

2. Insurance 

3. Metropolitan Police Course 

4. Practical Arts 

5. Fine Arts 

6. Emergency Courses (Military) 

Totals 


192 
22 

157 
94 
26 
54 

S4S 


397 

I 

1012 
184 
146 

1740 


589 
23 
157 
1106 
210 
200 

2285 



C. STUDENTS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FACULTIES 





Morn- 


Extra- 


Total 




ingside 


Mural 


I. Non-matriculated: 








Columbia 


4170 


805 


4975 


Teachers College (exclusively) 


676 




676 


2. Matriculated: 








Columbia College 


349 




349 


Barnard College 


43 




43 


Mines, Engineering, and Chemistry 


66 




66 


Law 


7 




7 


Fine Arts 


15 




IS 


Journalism 


24 




24 


Business 


43 




43 


Political Science 


117 




117 


Philosophy 


190 




190 


Pure Science 


14 




14 


Medicine 


8 




8 


Pharmacy 


S 




5 


Teachers College 


335 




335 


Totals 


6062 


80s 


6867 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 
STATISTICAL SUMMARY— (Continued) 



311 



D. STUDENTS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO RESIDENCE 



New York City: 

Manhattan and the Bronx 

Brooklyn 

Queens 

Richmond 
New York State (outside New York City) 
New Jersey 

Totals 

Other States: 
Alabama 
Arizona 
Arkansas 
California 
Colorado 
Connecticut 
Delaware 

District of Columbia 
Florida 
Georgia 
Idaho 
Illinois 
Indiana 
Iowa 
Kansas 
Kentucky 
Louisiana 
Maine 
Maryland 
Massachusetts 
Michigan 
Minnesota 
Mississippi 
Missouri 
Montana 
Nebraska 
New Hampshire 
New Mexico 
North Carolina 
North Dakota 
Ohio 

Oklahoma 
Oregon 
Pennsylvania 
Rhode Island 
South Carolina 
South Dakota 
Tennessee 
Texas 
Utah 
Vermont 
Virginia 
Washington 
West Virginia 
Wisconsin 
Wyoming 

Totals 

Foreign Countries: 
Argentina 
Armenia 
Canada 



Morn- 


Extra- 


Grand 


ingside 


Mural 


Total 


3194 


57 


3251 


491 


316 


807 


135 


17 


152 


26 




26 


SSI 


72 


623 


693 


7 


700 



3 

37 
II 
70 

6 
18 

9 
31 

3 
31 
29 
17 

8 
18 

6 
17 
10 
85 
25 
19 

3 
28 

3 



14 

2 

61 



93 
14 
12 

5 
IS 
43 

6 
10 
26 
17 

3 
27 



3969 



469 



142 



803 



3 

38 

II 

199 

6 
18 

9 
31 

3 
33 
29 
18 

8 
18 

6 
18 

ID 

134 

25 

19 

3 
28 

3 
12 



14 

2 

63 



235 
14 
12 

6 
15 
44 

6 
13 
26 
17 

3 
27 



6772 



312 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
STATISTICAL SUMMARY— (Cotithiucd) 





Morn- 


Extra- 


Grand 




ingside 


Mural 


Total 


China 


20 




20 


Cuba 


10 




10 


Egypt 


I 




I 


France 


2 




2 


Germany 


7 




7 


Great Britain 


2 




2 


India 


4 




4 


Japan 


9 


I 


10 


Mexico 


2 




2 


Nicaragua 


3 




3 


Norway 


I 




I 


Peru 


I 




I 


Russia 


II 




n 


Spain 


2 




2 


Totals 


93 


2 


55 


Grand Total 


6062 


805 


(55(57 



AGGREGATE ATTENDANCE ON COURSES 





Number of 


Number of 






Half- Year Courses 


Registrations 


Percent- 
age of 
Total 


Subjects 
















Morn- 


Extra- 




Morn- 


Extra- 








ing- 


Mural 


Total 


ing- 


Mural 


Total 


/ 




side 


Centers 




side 


Centers 






Administration 


20 




20 


85 




85 


• 51583 


Agriculture 


14 




14 


119 




119 


.72283 


Architecture 


29 




29 


320 




320 


1-93993 


Astronomy 


I 




I 


20 




20 


.12193 


Biblical Literature 


I 




I 


4 




4 


.02497 


Biology 


9 




9 


50 




50 


•30373 


Bookkeeping 


4 




4 


lOI 




lOI 


.61279 


Botany 


8 




8 


41 




41 


.24919 


Business 


49 




49 


1752 




1752 


10.61821 


Chemistry 


27 


2 


29 


458 


183 


641 


3.88512 


Civil Engineering 


II 




II 


141 




141 


•85519 


Clothing 


25 




25 


320 




320 


l^93993 


Contemporary Literature 


2 




2 


150 




ISO 


•90972 


Cookery 


19 




19 


240 




240 


I^455I4 


Drafting 


8 




8 


91 




91 


• SS2I9 


Drawing 


14 




14 


68 




68 


.41281 


Economics 


4 


I 


5 


197 


19 


216 


1.30969 


Economic Science 


4 




4 


18 




18 


.10981 


Education 


22 


3 


25 


191 


167 


358 


2.17021 


Electrical Engineering 


S 




S 


94 




94 


.57037 


English 


68 


8 


76 


278s 


467 


3252 


19.70792 


Fine Arts 


52 




52 


553 




553 


3.35191 


French 


23 


3 


26 


675 


69 


744 


450937 


Geography 


2 




2 


19 




19 


.11587 


Geology 


3 




3 


25 




25 


.15223 


German 


34 


3 


37 


549 


130 


679 


4. 1 1 547 


Greek 


2 




2 


12 




12 


•07345 


History 


25 


5 


30 


574 


203 


777 


4-70935 


Household Arts 


3 




3 


5 




S 


.03103 


Hygiene 


4 




4 


35 




35 


.21283 


Industrial Arts 


5 




5 


14 




14 


.08557 


International Law 


10 




10 


58 




58 


•35221 


Internationsil Relations 


2 




2 


11 




II 


.06739 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 313 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY— {Continued) 





Number of 


Number of 






Half- Year Courses 


Registrations 


Percent- 
age of 
Total 


Subject 
















Morn- 


Extra- 




Morn- 


Extra- 




Enrol- 
ment 




ing- 


Mural 


Total 


ing- 


Mural 


Total 




side 


Centers 




side 


Centers 




Italian 


3 




3 


18 




18 


.10981 


Latin 


12 




12 


131 




131 


• 79459 


Library Economy 


II 




II 


199 




199 


1.20667 


Mathematics 


19 




19 


463 




463 


2.80651 


Mechanics 


I 




I 


S 




5 


.03102 


Metalworking 


4 




4 


17 




17 


.10376 


Mineralogy 


I 




I 


27 




27 


•16435 


Music 


35 




35 


193 




193 


1.17031 


Nursing 


6 




6 


42 




42 


•25525 


Nutrition 


2 




2 


37 




37 


.22495 


Optometry 


20 




20 


412 




412 


2.4974s 


Penmanship 


2 




2 


17 




17 


•I037S 


Philosophy 


14 


I 


IS 


3SS 


25 


380 


2^30353 


Photography 


I 




I 


3 




3 


.01891 


Photoplay Writing 


4 




4 


124 




124 


• 75217 


Physical Education 


23 




23 


204 




204 


1.23697 


Physical Training 


2 




2 


8 




8 


.04921 


Physics 


8 


2 


10 


138 


220 


358 


2.17021 


Plastic Anatomy 


I 




I 


3 




3 


.01891 


Politics 


9 


I 


10 


122 


51 


173 


1.04911 


Practical Arts Music 


31 




31 


99 




99 


.60067 


Psychology 


10 




10 


232 




232 


1.40665 


Religion 


2 




2 


7 




7 


•0431S 


Sanitation 


2 




2 


12 




12 


•07345 


Science of Languages 


I 




I 


8 




8 


.04921 


Secretarial Correspondence 


2 




2 


61 




61 


•37039 


Social Economy 




I 


I 




46 


46 


•27949 


Social Science 


7 




7 


64 




64 


.38857 


Sociology 


IS 


I 


16 


267 


60 


327 


1-98235 


Spanish 


12 




12 


638 




638 


3-86701 


Speech 


6 




6 


66 




66 


.40069 


Stenography 


12 




12 


323 




323 


1.95811 


Structural Mechanics 


10 




10 


123 




123 


.74611 


Textiles 


5 




5 


19 




19 


.11587 


Typewriting 


10 




10 


319 




319 


1^93387 


Typography 


I 




I 


30 




30 


.18253 


Zoology 


2 


2 


4 


72 


220 


292 


1.77025 


Total 


Sis 


33 


848 


14633 


i860 


16493 


100.00000 



314 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



SUMMER SESSION OF I917 

Six thousand one hundred and forty-four were registered in 
the Summer Session of 1917. 

The total enrolment of 6,144 is a decrease of 1,879 over 
1916. The percentage loss over 1916 is 23.42 per cent. 















Percentage of Increase 


Year 


General 






Medical 


Total 


or Decrease Over 
Preceding Year 


1900 


417 








417 




1901 


S79 








579 


38.85 


1903 


643 








643 


11.05 


1903 


940 






S3 


993 


54-43 


1904 


914 






47 


961 


— 3.23 


190S 


976 






42 


1,018 


5-93 


1906 


1,008 






33 


1,041 


2.26 


1907 


I.3S3 






42 


1,395 


33.72 


1908 


1,498 






34 


1,532 


10.05 


1909 


1,949 






22 


1,971 


28.6s 


1910 




2,632 




2,632 


33-54 


1911 




2,973 




2,973 


12.96 


191a 




3,602 




3,602 


21.16 


1913 




4.S39 




4,539 


26.01 


1914 




S.S90 




5,590 


23.14 


191S 




5,961 




5,961 


6.63 


1916 




8,023 




8,023 


34-59 


1917 




6,144 




6,144 


—23.42 



3,042 degrees are held by 2,400 of the students as follows: 



I6I4 


A.B. 


4 


Hon.A.M. 


I 


LL.D. 




M.C.S 


516 


B.S. 


2 


B.Ch. 


18 


M.D. 




D.S. 


36 


B.L. 


2 


B.S.A. 


15 


B.D. 




B.D.S. 


I 


M.L. 


II 


Ph.G. 


I 


D.D. 




B.Th. 


2 


Litt.D. 


I 


Phar.D. 


I 


DD.S. 




S.T.D. 


4 


B.Mus. 


50 


Pd.B. 


8 


B.C.S. 




M.O. 


383 


A.M. 


I 


B.S.Pd. 


4 


Ed.B. 




D.O. 


23 


M.S. 


9 


Pd.M. 


4 


B.Di. 


12 


M.E. 


124 


Ph.B. 


I 


Pd.D. 


3 


M.Di. 


3 


C.E. 


6 


Ph.M. 


10 


L.I. 


4 


B.S.D. 


3 


Ch.E. 


27 


Ph.D. 


40 


LL.B. 


13 


B.E. 


2 


E.E. 


I 


Hon.A.B. 


2 


LL.M. 


I 


B.O. 


60 


Misc. 


12 


B. Litt. 















The tables appended hereto need but little comment. The 
percentage of women students has increased from 64.51 per 
cent, to 67.40 per cent. The percentage of new students shows 
a decrease, 55.38 per cent, against 61.97 per cent. The num- 
ber of matriculated students has decreased by 663, about 20 
per cent. 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 315 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY 



Classification 



Numbers 



Number 
Totals 



Percentages 



Percentage 
Totals 



A. Students Classified According 
TO Sex 
Men 
Women 



Students Classified as Old and 
New 
Previously registered 
New students 



C. Students Classified According 
to Faculties 
I. Non-matriculated 
II. Matriculated: 

1. Columbia College 

2. Barnard College 

3. Mines, Engineering, and 

Chemistry 

4. Law 

5. Medicine 

6. Architecture 

7. Political Science 

8. Philosophy 

9. Pure Science 

ID. Teachers College 
Undergraduate 
Graduate 

11. Journalism 

12. School of Dentistry 

13. School of Business 



D. Students Classified According 
TO Teaching Positions 
Elementary schools 
Secondary schools 
Higher educational institutions 
Normal schools 
Industrial schools 
Principals (school) 
Supervisors 
Superintendents 
Special teachers 
Private school teachers 
Private teachers 
Librarians 
Technical schools 
Business schools 
Not engaged in teaching 



E. Students Classified According 
TO Residence 
North Atlantic Division: 
Connecticut 
Maine 

Massachusetts 
New Hampshire 
New Jersey 



2003 
4141 



2742 
3402 



212 

87 

7 

35 

28 

2 

147 

31S 

158 

753 
-835 



152 

40 

201 



6144 



6144 



2507 
6144 



6144 



15-20 

15-62 
6.01 
3-03 

■ SO 

6.5S 
3-68 
2.49 
1. 81 
4-77 
.60 

.20 

.63 

.08 

38.80 



42.27 



31^> COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

STATISTICAI. SUMMARY— (Con/mMcd) 



Classification 


Numbers 


Number 
Totals 


Percentages 


Percentage 
Totals 


New York 

Outside of N. Y. City 626 
Manhattan and 

the Bronx 1255 
Brooklyn 323 
Queens 50 
Richmond 9 










1637 


2263 








Pennsylvania 
Rhode Island 
Vermont 


423 
31 

22 













3577 




58.21 


South Atlantic Division: 
Delaware 

District of Columbia 
Florida 
Georgia 
Maryland 
North Carolina 
South Carolina 
Virginia 
West Virginia 


14 

6S 

43 

108 

106 

no 

5S 

171 

45 












717 




11.67 


South Central Division: 
Alabama 
Arkansas 
Kentucky 
Louisiana 


54 
15 
55 
28 








Mississippi 
Oklahoma 
Tennessee 
Texas 


TO 
IS 
55 

III 












343 




5.58 


North Central Division: 
Illinois 
Indiana 
Iowa 
Kansas 
Michigan 
Minnesota 


102 
176 
54 
6q 
128 
73 








Missouri 

Nebraska 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

South Dakota 

Wisconsin 


84 
39 
IS 
359 
13 
69 












1172 




19.07 


Western Division: 
Arizona 
California 
Colorado 
Idaho 
Montana 
New Mexico 
Oregon 
Utah 

Washington 
Wyoming 


6 
60 
24 

5 
12 

4 
16 
10 

26 
3 












166 




2.71 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 317 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY— {Continued) 



Classification 


Numbers 


Number 
Totals 


Percentages 


Percentage 
Totals 


Insular and Non-Contiguous Terri- 










tories: 










Alaska 


I 








Hawaiian Islands 


I 








Philippine Islands 


8 








Porto Rico 


13 












23 




■37 


Foreign Countries: 










Bermuda 


2 








Brazil 


1 








Canada 


70 








China 


27 








Cuba 


8 








Ecuador 


I 








Greece 


I 








India 


I 








Italy 


4 








Japan 


18 








Mexico 


S 








Newfoundland 


I 








Panama 


2 








Persia 


I 








Peru 


I 








South Africa 


I 








Spain 


I 








Switzerland 


2 












147 
6144 




2-39 
100.00 



318 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
TABLE F 



Subjects 



Accounting 

Administration 

Agriculture 

Anatomy 

Architecture 

Art Metal Working 

Astronomy 

Bacteriology 

Banking 

Biological Chemistry 

Biology 

Bookkeeping 

Botany 

Business 

Cancer Research 

Chemical Engineering 

Chemistry 

Clothing 

Comparative Literature 

Cookery 

Drawing 

Economics 

Education 

Electrical Engineering 

Engineering Drafting 

English 

Fine Arts 
French 

General Linguistics 

Geology 

Geography 

German 

Greek 

History 

Household Arts 

Industrial Arts 

International Relations 

Italian 

Japanese 

Journalism 

Kindergairten 

Latin 

Law 

Librarj- E/ronomy 

Mathematics 

Mechanics 

Metallurgy 

Military Service 

Mineralogy 

Music 

Nature Study 

Neurology 

Nursing 

Nutrition 

Obstetrics 

Penmanship 

PhUosophy 

Photoplay Composition 

Physical Education 

Physics 

Physiology 

Politics 

Portuguese 

Practice of Medicine 

Psychology 

Public Law 



No. of 
Courses 



9 

17 
I 
4 

42 
5 
4 

II 

S 

7 

144 

3 

6 

31 



5 

6 
26 

4 
23 

9 



33 
9 
6 
6 



No. of 
Registrations 



IS 
201 
41 
6 
21 
14 
42 
58 
14 
13 
34 
19 
SI 
223 
7 
18 
418 
20s 
I2S 
250 
4S 
125 
6208 
12 
21 
966 
382 
458 
S 
14 
116 
254 
21 
394 
SO 
31 
S 
32 
S 
46 
181 
210 
119 
103 
421 
8 
II 
140 
25 
191 
6 
38 
89 
78 
I 
16 
174 
23 
1152 

152 

77 
40 
4 
SO 
146 
38 



Percentage 

of Total 
Enrolment 



.09 
1.29 
.28 
•03 
.13 
.09 
.26 
.38 
.09 
.08 
.23 
.12 
•34 
1.44 
.04 
.11 
2.70 
1.32 
.80 
1.62 
.29 
.81 
40.0s 
.07 
.13 
6.24 
2.46 
2.95 
.03 
.09 
• 75 
1.64 
.13 
2.55 
.33 
.19 
.03 
.20 
•03 
•30 
1. 17 
1.36 
.78 
.77 
2.73 
•OS 
.07 
.90 
.16 
1.24 
.03 
.25 
.59 
.50 
.01 
.09 
1. 13 
.14 
7.44 
.99 
.51 
.25 
.02 
.32 
.95 
.24 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 319 

TABLE F — {Continued) 





No. of 


No. of 


Percentage 


Subjects 


Courses 


Registrations 


of Total 
Enrolment 


Religion 


4 


33 


.21 


Russian 


I 


9 


•05 


Sanitary Science 


3 


9 


•05 


Social Economy 


5 


69 


•44 


Social Science 


I 


36 


.23 


Sociology 


4 


109 


.70 


Spanish 


8 


292 


1.87 


Speech 


4 


160 


1.02 


Statistics 


2 


35 


.22 


Stenography 


S 


100 


.64 


Surgery 


I 


ID 


.06 


Textiles 


I 


22 


.14 


Typewriting 


4 


in 


.71 


Zoology 


2 


41 


.26 


Totals 


670 


15-494 


100.00 



320' COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

APPENDIX 

RECORD OF ACTION TAKEN IN THE SEVERAL SCHOOLS AND 

COLLEGES OF THE UNIVERSITY CONCERNING ACADEMIC 

CREDIT FOR STUDENTS WHO HAVE WITHDRAWN 

FOR WAR SERVICE 

COLUMBIA COLLEGE 

1. Examinations were held on April lo and 1 1 and subsequent 

tests later, to determine the grades which should be as- 
signed to students desiring to withdraw for service or 
training. In some cases the mid-term grade was assigned 
as final. On the basis of these marks full credit for the 
session was allowed, provided the students actually 
performed the service for which they were enrolled. 
Wherever possible, students were allowed to attend 
classes informall}^ without preparing any recitations to 
increase their knowledge of the subject. 

2. Students taking up agricultural work under the Farm 

Bureau were assigned a final grade at their departure, but 
credit for the session was contingent upon their remaining 
in service until September. 

3. Whenever students who had reduced their programs were 

able subsequently to re-enter classes and take final ex- 
aminations, the mark already standing for them might be 
raised but could not be lowered. 

4. The Committee on Instruction was authorized to arrange 

for the organization of special classes at some time in the 
future where students might without extra payment 
make up work which is prerequisite for the remainder of 
their programs. 

SCHOOL OF LAW 

I. Notice was given by the Dean to the effect that members of 
the first and second year classes and those members of the 
third year who had been in attendance at least one year 
preceding the current one, would receive credit if they 
had actually enlisted or were in attendance at training 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 32 1 

camps for Officers' Reserve Corps expecting to be called 
into service by the government for the army or navy, 
and were, therefore, unable to attend the final examina- 
tions. Students desiring to claim exemption under these 
conditions were required to file in the office of the Dean a 
certificate of a superior officer certifying to the fact of 
enlistment or presence in training camps and to their 
inability to be present at examinations. 

COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

1. General action taken — None. 

2. Special action taken — Two students were given special ex- 

aminations the last of April and recommended for the 
degree of Doctor of Medicine in order that they might 
join the navy at once. 

FACULTY OF APPLIED SCIENCE 

RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE COMMITTEE OX INSTRUCTION 

Resolved: That a student in the Schools of Mines, Engineering 
and Chemistry in good standing in any course who goes 
into active service in the army or navy before the end of 
this session shall be given full credit as for the completion 
of the course he is taking. 

Resolved: That for the students now enrolled in the Motor 
Boat Patrol course, attendance upon and satisfactory 
work in this course be accepted in substitution for work in 
regular courses scheduled in afternoon hours for the rest 
of the present session. 

Whereas: The United States Naval Officers detailed for post- 
graduate work in engineering at Columbia were ordered 
to active service before completion of their work ; and 

Whereas: The character of the work already done by these 
students was of a high grade and their military duties will 
preclude their doing further academic work; be it 

Resolved: That the United States Naval Officers who were 
regularly matriculated for the degree of Master of Science 



322 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

and who were in good standing at the time that they were 
ordered from the University to active service, be recom- 
mended to the Faculty for the degree of Master of Science. 

Resolved: That upon the recommendation of the department 
the Dean may arrange for examination and credit for any 
student accepting a position which may be regarded as 
public service in the present emergency and upon which 
it is necessary to enter before the end of the term. 

Resolved: That a fourth year student in active military or 
naval service, or holding a position of military value on 
May 27, having only to complete a summer course to 
satisfy the requirements for his degree, may be recom- 
mended for graduation in June. 

SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 

I. Each case was considered individually upon written appli- 
cation by the student for entire or partial relief from 
attendance upon classes or collateral work. The cases 
were passed upon by the Committee on Instruction of the 
School and each applicant received a written statement 
of the amount of relief granted him. In general, students 
were granted exactly the relief that they requested, and 
marks were given as of April 2 to students who were al- 
lowed to discontinue their classes. In the case of students 
who were on probation, a leave of absence only was 
granted with the reservation that, if such students gave a 
good account of themselves in the national service, their 
cases would be reviewed in September or at any time 
thereafter, to determine the conditions under which they 
could be readmitted to the school. 
In the case of Design, students were allowed a number of 
points computed on the pro rata basis so that for the 
period April 2 to June i they received a number of points 
proportionate to those which they won (on the competi- 
tive basis) during the period September 28 to April 2. 
The proportion was established by comparing the num- 
ber of points won with the number of points tried for. 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 323 

SCHOOL OF JOURNALISM 

The Administrative Board of the School of JournaHsm' 
adopted on April i6, 1917, the following resolutions: 

1. That the Committee on Instruction is authorized to take 

the responsibility of changing the content of any present 
School course in such a way as to provide instruction 
needed in the present national emergency. 

2. That the action of the Committee on Instruction in making 

provision for special tests before the close of the session 
for students desiring to enter the service of the United 
States or to receive intensive preparation for such service, 
be confirmed. 

3. That on the basis of the entire records of such students, the 

Committee on Instruction of the School of Journalism 
be authorized to grant full or partial credit for the session, 
and to permit students to drop either the entire program 
for which they are registered or such part of it as may be 
necessary to insure adequate military training, or in order 
to discharge any special emergency work that may be 
assigned to them by properly accredited University 
authorities. 

4. That the Committee on Instruction be authorized to ar- 

range for the organization at some suitable time in the 
future for special classes in which students leaving the 
School at this time for military service may have an 
opportunity to make up, without tuition fees, such parts 
of any fundamental subjects as may be specifically requi- 
site to the remainder of their programs. 
Students were allowed to take final examinations to improve 
their grades if they wished to do so. 

FACULTIES OF POLITICAL SCIENCE, PHILOSOPHY 
AND PURE SCIENCE 

I. When an individual recommendation came in from the 
department of major interest to the effect that the stu- 
dent was withdrawing for national service, credit for 
academic attendance to the end of the year was granted. 



324 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

2. Where written examinations were required every student 

was held to the examination. If it was impossible for the 
student to return to take the examination at the ap- 
pointed date, arrangements were made for earlier or later 
examinations without the payment of an additional fee. 
In general the examination covered the entire work of the 
course, but where the student had found it impossible to 
go on with his studies privately, the examination was 
limited to that part of the subject covered up to the date 
of his departure. 

3. In the case of a few candidates for the degree of Doctor of 

Philosophy, a special examination, which covered both 
the examination for candidacy to the degree and the final 
examination itself were held on the same day. 



BARNARD COLLEGE 

Action was taken by the Committee on Instruction to the 
effect that any student withdrawing from College for 
definite war service of a useful sort might, at the discre- 
tion of the Committee, be excused from attendance for 
the remainder of the semester and be allowed to take 
special final examinations or to substitute for them ap- 
propriate essays, provided that the regular examinations 
conflicted with the war work. 



TEACHERS COLLEGE 

1. General action taken — None. 

2. Special action taken — The Executive Committee granted 

in individual cases credit for the remainder of the 
academic year where the student had definitely with- 
drawn for war service, provided his work in his classes 
up to the time of his withdrawal had been entirely 
satisfactory to his instructors. 

3. Action taken as concerns the academic year 1917-1918 is 

attached. 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 325 

RESOLUTION PASSED BY FACULTIES OF EDUCATION 
AND PRACTICAL ARTS 

1. Resolved that during the academic year 1917-1918 credit 

may be given toward the degrees of A.M. and B.S. for 
work done by students in aiding members of the teaching 
staff to supply information to the federal, state, and city 
governments, provided that credit will not be given for 
routine work. 
Members of the teaching staff are authorized to count such 
work hour for hour toward the satisfaction of any course 
in making their regular report to the Registrar; and the 
Dean is authorized to credit work not already credited 
toward the satisfaction of the requirements of some regu- 
lar course upon the written recommendation of any mem- 
ber of the teaching staff. 

2. That during the academic year 1917-1918 credit may be 

given toward the degree of Doctor of Philosophy for 
work done by students in aiding members of the teaching 
staff to supply information to the federal, state, and city 
governments, provided such work requires ability of the 
extent and quality characteristic of successful candidates 
for the Ph.D. degree. 

3. That permission to register in Teachers College during the 

academic year 1917-1918 be with the understanding that 
the student may be called upon to replace part of the 
regular work of certain courses by assistance to the teach- 
ing staff in conducting original investigations or providing 
information for the federal government or the govern- 
ments of the City and State of New York. 



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 
The action taken in a special case was as follows : 

A student in good standing who withdrew for service was 
given his degree, his military service having been ac- 
cepted in place of the unfinished college work. 



326 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

SCHOOL OF BUSINESS 

Students were not allowed to withdraw from their courses 
unless they were actually enlisted or called by the 
national government for war service. In the case of 
such men, special examinations were given and a final 
rating allowed by special arrangement. 

DEPARTMENT OF EXTENSION TEACHING 

1. Students were not allowed to withdraw from classes and 

obtain credit unless they were actually enlisted or called 
out by the government for service. In that case a special 
examination might be given if approved by the Depart- 
ment of Extension Teaching. 

2. College students taking Extension Teaching work were 

given the same consideration as allowed them in the 
College. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Frank A. Dickey, 

Registrar 
June 30, igiy 



REPORT OF THE ACTING LIBRARIAN 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, I917 

To the President of the University, 

Sir: 

As Acting Librarian of the University, I have the honor to 
submit the following report for the year ending June 30, 191 7 : 

The year of my incumbency of the office of Acting Librarian 

has been largely devoted to a scrutiny of the conditions at 

hand in the Library and the administration of its ^ . . 

rr . .11 1 r • i • Organization 

anairs, with the result 01 many mmor changes m 

methods of procedure which have seemed to be demanded in 
the interest of an increased efficiency. There has been a need 
in the Library, in particular, of a more carefully interrelated 
organization of its working parts. There is a great temptation, 
inherent in the necessary method of organization, to depart- 
mentalize, and consequently to decentralize, the work of a 
library. Any library, however, it would seem under most 
circumstances is small enough as an organization to make 
centralization possible, and in our own Library there has been 
a notable change of attitude toward this matter during the 
year. The Library, it may be stated, is beginning to work more 
effectively, not as a library organized into departments, but 
as departments organized into a library, and if this can be 
continued and increased, the disadvantages inherent in any 
departmental library system will presently be minimized. To 
contribute to this result, monthly conferences attended by the 
Assistant Librarian, all heads of Library departments, and the 
department librarians, have been held in the office of the Act- 
ing Librarian, when general matters of policy and special con- 
ditions of administration have been considered and discussed. 
A matter that has perforce received particular attention 
during the year because of the very obvious nature of its de- 
mands is that of space. We already need more room for books 



328 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

in certain subjects, and we need more room for readers, and 

it is apparent that the possibihties of the J^ibrary building 

for future development in both of these direc- 

J^^^^. tions should presently receive most careful con- 

Requirement . , / • , , 

sideration to determme the conditions involved. 

Attention is called later on in this report to immediate needs. 

The policy of the Library has again been brought into question 

(as frequently before has been the case) in the matter of 

collections offered to the Library on deposit or by 

eposi .j-^ rpj^^ matter has not always been wisely 

Collections ° . . r ^ • 11 • i 

determined. The wisdom of taking a collection on 
deposit' depends clearly so much upon the nature of the col- 
lection and on the conditions of the deposit that a hard and 
fast rule can scarcely be made. The question this time arose 
in the case of the collection of American poetry made by the 
Poetry Society of America, which it was first proposed to de- 
posit, but later was given to the Library, on the condition that 
it should be held together, and that reader's privileges should 
be given to the members of the Society, which in its turn 
agrees to increase the collection as circumstances may favor. 
The very valuable collection of the papers, consisting of wills, 
deeds, and documents belonging to the Phillipse-Gouverneur 
family, much of it from early Colonial times, obtained for the 
University through the interest and instrumentality of Mr. 
John B. Pine, has been 'deposited'. In both cases the same care 
and attention will be given, and in both instances it would seem 
that the best interests of the Library have been safeguarded. 
The page service of the Library has provoked much atten- 
tion and caused much embarrassment and dilihculty during the 
. year. The occupation itself more or less fixes its 
own limitations, since it definitely leads nowhere, 
and the much higher wages and better prospects offered by 
manufacturing and business interests of various kinds, quite 
regardless of the individual's ability or special fitness for the 
work for which he is engaged, have drawn the boys away. To 
keep the places filled, new and indifferent boys have perforce 
been taken on, and the service has suffered as a. consequence, 
in every respect. Girls have been tried in these positions, but 



REPORT OF THE ACTING LIBRARIAN 329 

with only moderate success, since although they are intelligent 
and willing, they are not strong enough to carry heavy books. 
The need is for intelligent and responsible boys who will stay 
with us for a reasonable time. It remains to be seen whether 
we shall in the future be able to get and keep them, either by 
increasing their wages to compete with other interests, or b^^ 
improving their prospects. The difficulty is one that threatens 
to complicate the whole system of the Library. Under exist- 
ing conditions each book has its own place, and it is seemingly 
a perfectly simple matter to put it in its place. A book, how- 
ever, that is not in its exact place, according to the catalog, is 
'lost', and these new boys fail frequently in accurately re- 
placing books. It will, accordingly, be necessary under these 
circumstances to follow up books reported as 'not found' more 
carefully than ever before. 

The 'lost book' question has been made a matter of especial 
inquiry because of the very evident defects of the present 
method of following up missing books. The 'lost ^ ^ , 

•,• r iiir Lost Books 

book question hmges upon two tacts: the shell 
list must be absolutely exact, and the shelves must be read by 
some one who will investigate any discrepancy. The present 
state of affairs, which is much more frequent than it should 
be, is usually a result, in this way, of inadequate care in read- 
ing the shelves and the inaccurate correction of records. The 
making of the shelf list is, in my opinion, as important in its 
effect as the cataloging of the book, and the person who does it 
should be entitled to the same status and stipend. The ulti- 
mate responsibility should be divided. The missing list that 
results from the shelf reading must be taken actively into 
consideration, not only by the Loan Desk, but by the catalog 
room. The present system is briefly that a memorandum of 
books not found on the shelf when demanded, or when the 
usual inventory is taken, is given to the Shelf Department, 
which keeps a list of them and informs the Catalog Depart- 
ment when the cards should be removed from the catalog. It 
is impossible, however, to withdraw cards from the catalog 
at all promptly, since the books often turn up later automati- 
cally, and it is not necessary to replace all lost books immedi- 



330 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

ately. If a better class of labor were used for reading the 
shelves, and if the responsibility of determining when a 'not 
found' book becomes a 'lost book' were placed with the Cata- 
log Department, the remedy for a disturbing condition would 
doubtless be found. Books which are discovered to be 'lost' 
in the process of the inventory should primarily be listed and 
treated as they are at present. Books, however, which are 
found to be 'lost' when they are asked for should be brought 
up for decision without delay. No reader should have to wait 
long when applying for a book which is on the missing list. 
Books of which two copies could well be used should be re- 
placed at once. Books which are important and out of print 
should immediately be noted, so that no opportunity for ob- 
taining a copy from second-hand or sale catalogs should be lost. 
No undue hesitation, finally, should be shown in taking out 
of the catalog lost books which can not be replaced. If it is 
definitely lost, the book is not in the Library, however valu- 
able it may be. 

The policy of the Library is not to catalog articles which 
have been reprinted from periodicals, if the periodical itself is 

^, ^ , already in the Library. Those periodicals also 

Ihe Catalog , i , i • i • r m 

are only analyzed which are not satisiactorily 

analyzed in the different printed bibliographies. Cards, how- 
ever, are put in the catalog for all bibliographical articles, as 
part of a general policy to make access to all lists as easy as 
possible. Reprints are sent to the different departments, to 
be used there as they desire, and if they can list them and cata- 
log them for departmental use, it is excellent. But it seems 
inadvisable that these reprints should be either represented in 
the general catalog or cataloged by the cataloging staff of the 
Library. If reprints of articles on one subject are represented 
in the catalog, the whole question of the policy of the Library 
as to such material arises, and the heavy cost of cataloging 
makes this question an important one. It should be possible 
to use a simpler method of cataloging reprints for a depart- 
ment catalog than the elaborate method necessary for the 
general catalog. Such work done in the general catalog room 
hinders the general work. The binding, too, of these reprints 



REPORT OF THE ACTING LIBRARIAN 33I 

should be shown separately in the accounts of library binding, 
since it is not part of the essential upkeep of the Library. 

In the work of recataloging, the task that is always with us 
and apparently will always be with us, letters B, D, E, and F to 
'Fill' have been completed, so far as printed cards can be 
obtained. In addition, many titles for which no printed cards 
could be secured have been recataloged to complete impor- 
tant authors and subjects, and a great many others have been 
revised and recataloged in connection with the current work 
of the Library. The recataloging of law books has gone steadi- 
ly forward, and a considerable part of foreign law has been 
completed. 

For many years the American Library Association has been 
printing cards for important articles in serial publications and 
sending them to subscribing libraries. The Columbia Uni- 
versity Library has always been a large subscriber, and has 
received from 3,000 to 5,000 cards a year. For a long time 
these cards were filed by author and subject in the general 
catalog. As time went on, however, many serials were in- 
dexed in printed volumes and were regularly included in this 
way in the catalog. The fact, too, that the addition of these 
analytical cards was greatly increasing the size of the catalog 
ultimately determined the discontinuance of filing such cards 
until some more satisfactory method of dealing with them 
could be found. This year it has been decided that, excluding 
monographs which are now in the catalog, all of these ana- 
lytical cards, together with others which shall be received, shall 
be filed separately in the immediate vicinity of the printed in- 
dexes and forming a supplement to them. In accordance with 
this decision, the analytical cards are being withdrawn from 
the catalog during the process of recataloging, and will be regu- 
larly filed with the rest, so soon as new filing cases are provided. 

An important addition to the catalog, prepared during the 
year, the printing of which has been made possible by a 
special appropriation, is the list, arranged alphabetically by 
author and indexed by subject, of about 4,000 Masters' Es- 
says. This makes available a mass of valuable material that 
is more and more in demand by graduate students, but is at 



332 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

present wholly buried and unavailable. It is proposed here- 
after to print yearly supplements separately indexed, and to 
cumulate these in a possible period of five years. 

The crowded condition of the Reading Room shelves, in 
spite of the weeding out that constantly goes on, has increased 
during the year and should receive active con- 
sideration. Books in the reference Reading 
Room do not circulate, and should consequently be limited 
to reference and standard works, the number of these latter 
to be limited to those which are in constant use and for which 
there is adequate shelf room at the time. The present habit 
of placing books on the ledges is undesirable, for it is incon- 
venient for the readers, perilous for the books, and a disfigure- 
ment of the room. Strict economy of space under the circum- 
stances at hand is obviously essential, and careful considera- 
tion should be given to the transference of books from the 
shelves to the Reading Room. In future, the space available 
should be the controlling factor, and nothing should be added 
or included, unless there is space enough and an ample demand 
to justify it. 

The great war has brought to the Library, too, its serious 
problems of administration due to the abnormal conditions 

„, „ ,, that have developed. The whole matter of 

War Problems r • i i • • • i i- • 

foreign book importation is the condition most 

immediately and radically affected, and entirely new problems 
have arisen. German and Russian publications have long 
since ceased coming and nothing at the present time can be 
done about obtaining them, and although all possible pre- 
cautions have been taken to have material collected for us 
abroad to be held until the conclusion of the war, we 
cannot be sure that this is being done. At one time, the entire 
list of outstanding German orders was worked through with 
the idea of obtaining a permit to import them, but by the time 
the list was completed, according to certain specifications 
required by the Government, war had been declared by the 
United States, and no further action has been possible. 

Because of inability to obtain German books, our French 
and English orders have been greatly increased. Here good 



REPORT OF THE ACTING LIBRARIAN 333 

results have been obtained, notwithstanding the irregularity 
of the mails and the increased difficulties of shipment. Let- 
ters containing orders sent between January 18 and February 
17, however, were sunk on the Laconia and had to be repeated. 
There have been other difficulties. Owing to the increased 
cost of raw materials, publishers in England and France have 
found it necessary in order to protect themselves against loss 
to print small editions, which in many cases have been quickly 
exhausted. Many books are thus at the very beginning 'out 
of print', and have been hard to obtain. The problem is even 
greater in the case of periodicals. Most publishers now issue 
only a few more copies than are actually necessary to fill their 
subscriptions, and it has become almost impossible to secure 
an extra copy, particularly of the current year. 

One unfortunate experience in shipment, but not due to 
the war, occurred during the year. In November two cases 
of books were sent by our Paris agent, on the Chicago. A fire 
occurred on the voyage and the contents of the cases were 
badly damaged by water. As some of the books were rare and 
out of print, a number were pressed, dried, and rebound, but 
the paper had suffered so much from the water that the experi- 
ment was not successful and the books will not stand much 
use. The remainder of the shipment, wherever it was possible, 
was reordered. 

The war has had other effects beside those noted. During 
the year, considerable difficulty has been found in obtaining 
binding materials to match books in sets and series already 
bound. In many instances, it was impossible for the manu- 
facturer to obtain dye stuffs, and the quality of the leather 
in most cases was far below the usual standard. As a conse- 
quence, it has been necessary to substitute other material for 
bindings and, wherever it is possible, for the present to elimi- 
nate leather altogether. 

An important change completed during the year, was the 
transfer of Philosophy to the room which originally housed the 
entire collection of the Avery Library and later was used for 
general and special exhibitions. The room is an ideal seminar 
and reading room, and for the time being, at least, is abun- 



334 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

dantly adequate for its purposes. A new seminar room has 
also been arranged for Ancient History in Room 209, adjoin- 
ing the Philosophy room. Transfers made neces- 

_ „ . sary by the new use of the exhibition room were 

Collections 

the removal of the Phoenix Collection back to its 

original place in the galleries, and the inclusion of the small 
group of the more interesting books belonging to the Johnson 
Collection with the rest, which are also shelved in the gal- 
leries. The entire collection of rare and valuable books, known 
as the 'B' collections, consisting of first and early editions, in- 
cunabula and manuscripts, also shelved for the time being in 
the exhibition room, was returned to its former place in Room 
104 in the basement as provided for in the original plan of 
the Library. Other transfers were the removal of the general 
learned society publications and transactions from the loft of 
Room 113 to the loft of Room 306; the transference of 
American literature from the main floor of Room 306 to the 
loft of the same room ; of a large number of long sets on Com- 
merce and Railroads from the loft of Room 301 to the loft 
of Room 413; of the general collection in Philology and Celtic 
literature from the loft of Room 413 to Room 208; of the 
folios in English History from Room 206 and the various folios 
in Latin and Greek literature and history from Room 209 to 
the roller shelves in Room 210; of works on Religion from the 
loft of Room 306 to the loft of Room 402. Aside from all of 
these transfers, it was necessary during the year to shift 
backward or forward the contents of practically every room 
in the Library, more particularly, however, the entire contents 
of Room 306, embracing all books on American, English, and 
German literature and the Romance languages and litera- 
tures; the sociological and economic subjects, including Bank- 
ing, Finance, Commerce, Socialism, and American History in 
Room 301 ; the Indo-Iranian and Semitic languages. Mu- 
nicipal Documents, and general magazines in Room 413; the 
English and European History and Mathematics in Rooms 
206, 106, and 107; American and Foreign Documents, the 
American Mathematical Society's collection, and the Natural 
Sciences and Useful Arts in Room 113. All of this transfer 



REPORT OF THE ACTING LIBRARIAN 335 

and extensive shifting was due to the overcrowding of shelves 
in almost every part of the Library, in great part unforeseen in 
the previous assignment of space. 

The inventory of the General Library has been completed, 
with the exception of the Columbiana collection, Italian liter- 
ature, and the departmental libraries, which are 
either being reclassified or where a rearrangement 
has been proposed or is under way. 

The catalog of current periodicals received in various parts 
of the Library has been extended during the year to include 
certain other collections, like those of the Law p • j- , 
Library and Barnard College. The Avery Library 
and Journalism records are also nearly completed, and the 
Teachers College records will immediately be added. In actual 
service rendered this catalog has abundantly justified itself 
and should be continued. 

The General Library distributed pamphlets, doctoral dis- 
sertations, and volumes on various subjects, not desired for 
preservation, among the following institutions: 
Teachers College, Union Theological Seminary, 
Jewish Theological Seminary, American Museum of Natural 
History, Hispanic Museum, New York Public Library, and 
the New York Botanical Garden. Duplicate volumes were 
exchanged with the Missionary Research Library of this city 
and with the Jewish Theological Seminary. One hundred and 
thirty-three mail sacks containing duplicates of United States 
Government documents were returned to the Superintendent 
of Documents, Washington. Duplicate unbound material 
sent to the H. W. Wilson Company on the running exchange 
account numbered 17,762 pieces, for which a credit was given 
of $177.62, as against a charge for material received from them 
of $146.32. A systematic plan for regulating the permanent 
exchanges of the Library has been devised, and the matter will 
hereafter be administered on what is assumed to be a more 
reasonable basis. As part of the plan, a check list of the 1916 
dissertations was printed to be enclosed with shipments. 

Under the system of inter-library loans, 300 volumes were 
borrowed by Columbia, exclusive of those obtained from the 



336 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Branch Station of the New York PubHc Library within 
the Library building. The number of books loaned by Co- 
lumbia was 425. The value of the service rendered 
or received cannot be expressed by the number of 
volumes interchanged, since in some instances the loan was of 
extreme importance, both to us and to those with whom we 
exchange, in supplying the link otherwise missing in a special 
study or investigation, and in others was merely a temporary, 
but welcome convenience. 

The statistics appended at the end of the report show the 
number of volumes acquired by the Library during the year. 
The more notable gifts were as follows: From 
President Butler, 245 volumes, 12 pamphlets; 
Provost Carpenter, 116 volumes; Professor Chaddock, 200 
pieces; J. C. Pumpelly, 117 volumes, 25 autographs, 2 medals; 
Montgomery Schuyler, 172 pieces; Department of Astron- 
omy, 150 volumes; Columbia University Press, 36 volumes; 
Poetry Society of America, 98 volumes; Political Science 
Quarterly, 65 volumes; University Club, 600 pieces. From 
Mrs. Frank Dempster Sherman was received 76 volumes of 
American poetry from the library of the late Professor Sher- 
man, many of them containing autograph dedications as 
presentation copies. From Mrs. Barrett Wendell was received 
'in memory of Seth Low', the beautiful folio, Old Silver in 
American Churches. For all of these the receipt has been 
gratefully acknowledged. The Geology library received from 
Professor Kemp the gift of many books, reprints, and maps 
that have greatly increased the value and completeness of the 
collection in economic geology. The gift includes a complete 
file of the Mining Magazine, many volumes of the Mining and 
Scientific Press, the Engineering and Mining Journal, and the 
publications of foreign Societies. There are also a number of 
rare books and reprints. 

The most important single accession of the year was the 
acquirement by purchase, subject to subsequent orders for 
delivery, of the Bushe-Fox Collection, consisting of the library 
of early printed books, principally relating to English law, 
formed by the late L. H. K. Bushe-Fox, Fellow of St. John's 



REPORT OF THE ACTING LIBRARIAN 337 

College, Cambridge. There are approximately 1,000 different 
works in 5,000 volumes. About 500 of the items are early 
English law books. The collection is rich in English statutes 
and law reports, including three editions of Plowden and sev- 
eral of Coke. There are editions of the Year-books of Edward 
II, III, IV, V, Henry IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, and Richard III. 
Of the great classics of English law there are three editions of 
Glanville; two of Bracton, Britton, Fleta; Littleton's Tenures 
in the editions of 1581, 1585, 1604, 1608, 1621, 1627, 1671; 
five editions of Coke on Littleton ; seven editions of Saint Ger- 
main's Doctor and Student; Perkin's Profitable Book, Stamford, 
Selden, Spelman, Nathaniel and Francis Bacon, Fortescue, 
Dugdale, Blackstone, Hale, Madox, Prynne, and many others. 
Of books on law study there are copies of the following rare 
items : Fulbeck's Direction on Preparative, Dodridge's Lawyer's 
Light, and Phillipp's Studii Legalis Ratio. The abridgments 
are represented by Fitzherbert, Broke, Rolle, and by two 
copies of Statham. The Law Library already has two copies 
of this great work, so that with four copies minutely anno- 
tated in court-hand law French the Library has unrivaled 
opportunity for the study of the first great Abridgment. 
There is a large collection of formularies and books of prece- 
dents, including the old Natura Brevium, Fitzherbert's Natura 
Brevium, and the Registrum Brevium in three editions. Gro- 
tius' De Jure Belli ac Pads is represented by the editions of 
1651, 1677, and 1689. There are also in addition to these 
many early trials and political tracts. In this same field of 
law, by gift and purchase, law reports, codes and annual 
laws have been obtained from Brazil, Columbia, Costa Rica, 
Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, 
Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Guatemala. We were for- 
tunate in obtaining a copy of the only compilation of Danish 
laws relating to the Danish West Indies, now the American 
Virgin Islands. Important progress was also made toward 
completing sets of law reports and statutes for the British 
Colonies and especially those of the Dominion of Canada. 
Gaps in the collection of American Session Laws have been 
filled for thirty-five states. 



338 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Special appropriations were made during the year for the 

purchase of books on International Law and Chinese, which, 

when expended, will place both of these sub- 
Special Purchases . ^ rr >_• u • r ^i 

jects on an enective basis tor the purposes 

of study and research. 

Certain papers deposited in the Library by Seth Low, in 
1913, after consultation with Mrs. Low and by her authority, 
were carefully looked through. Some were de- 
stroyed, others bearing upon the administration 
of the city during Mr. Low's incumbency of the mayoralty 
were turned over to the Mayor's ofifice, and were gratefully 
acknowledged, and the rest were put together and placed in 
the Library. 

On Alumni Day an interesting exhibition of Columbia 
material, consisting of manuscripts, early documents relating 
. . to King's College and to Columbia College, in- 
cluding the original seals and the original charter, 
books, and photographs, was held in the Columbiana room. 
A series of letters and other writings of the successive Presi- 
dents, and essentially complete from the beginning, was made 
an especial part of the exhibit. 

The war map exhibition has been continued during the year 
in the Geology Library in Schermerhorn Hall, and the daily 
progress of the contending armies has been followed on large 
scale maps. New maps have been added from time to time 
as important ones have been issued and new war areas opened. 
There have been 2,075 visitors to this exhibition. In order to 
observe the Tercentenary of Richard Hakluyt, a small ex- 
hibition was arranged in the same Library. The Avery Li- 
brary exhibitions are recorded elsewhere. 

A list of 1916 publications by graduates from every part of 

the University was prepared for the Alumni News and pub- 

.„.,,. , lished in that journal in its issue of 
Alumni Bibliography ^ 

January 19. 

Important changes in the Library staff during the year 

were the resignation of Miss Helen R. Keller as Librarian of 

the School of Journalism, and the appointment in her place 

of Miss Mary A. Cooke, at the time Supervisor of the Acces- 



REPORT OF THE ACTING LIBRARIAN 339 

sions department, who in her turn has been succeeded by Miss 

Doris E. Wilber, from the Catalog department. On the first 

of July, Professor John R. Crawford, of the De- 

partment of Latin, becomes the Librarian of the 

Avery Library, in succession to Mr. Edward A. Smith, retired. 

The statistics of Library administration as kept have 

seemed unnecessarily extended and have been reduced to the 

minimum compatible with a record of efifi- ^ , . . 

^ . _ 1 • • Administration 

ciency. Every set 01 figures now reported it is 

thought has a definite and distinct value. It would be easily 

possible to increase these records, but it would not appear that 

they could add any actual meaning to the work that is done 

and which it is necessary statistically to chronicle. 

An increased centralization of the accounting system in 
the Library has been made possible, which works in many 
ways for the conservation of Library funds and expedites the 
entire business processes of the Library administration. The 
department in its function is the clearing house of the Library, 
and its records as kept give an immediately available account 
of the state of all funds and of all transactions involving re- 
ceipts and expenditures. The action of the Trustees of the 
University in making all book funds 'continuing funds' has 
removed an embarrassment caused by the inability to include 
orders outstanding at the end of the fiscal year, and often 
uncertain in amount, in the budget appropriation of that year, 
thus making these amounts a lien on the succeeding year's 
appropriations. 

The various departmental and special libraries have re- 
ceived attention, and particularly from the point of view of a 
closer articulation than has been at hand in 

some of them with the conditions of the General ^^^'^ .!"^".^ 

Libraries 

Library. The messenger and telephone service, 
in this way, between the Loan Desk and these libraries and 
among these libraries themselves, has been systematized and 
improved. When a book is called for and is found to have 
been temporarily transferred as a reserve book to a particular 
department, an inquiry by telephone is made as to the loca- 
tion of the volume before informing the reader, in order to 



340 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

prevent a needless trip to the department library in question 
where the book may be in use or for some special reason has 
been loaned — a matter that in the past has been the source of 
rather frequent annoyance and complaint. In this same con- 
nection, a special set of keys to the several department libra- 
ries, including every book-case and locker containing books 
indexed in the general catalog as property of the Library, 
has been provided for the Loan Desk to make access to these 
books at all times possible. The departmental library of the 
School of Architecture, which for some unknown reason has 
been conceived to be the particular property of the School, 
although some of its books are cataloged in the General 
Library, has been included with the rest under direct Library 
control. The Avery Library, too, has been more closely cor- 
related with the General Library administration and brought 
more directly into line with its processes, with the result, it is 
thought, of increased efficiency and economy. 

The usefulness of the Chemistry Reading Room in Have- 
meyer Hall has been greatly restricted by lack of shelf space 
for books, but more especially by lack of room for readers. 
Provision has been made during the year by a special appro- 
priation to equip immediately for library purposes the large 
room. Room 301, now used as a lecture room, and to occupy it 
instead of the present contracted quarters. Plans have been 
drawn and estimates made and approved for the change, 
which will be effected during the coming summer. The use 
of the Chemistry Library has greatly increased, and under pre- 
vailing conditions is constantly increasing, within and without 
the University, where frequent calls come from other libraries 
and from business and professional men in the city. The new 
equipment will greatly relieve the present pressure and largely 
contribute to the development in the University of a highly 
important subject. 

A collection of books of vital interest at this time has been 
placed together in the Engineering Reading Room. Most of 
them are technical and valuable aids, particularly to students 
enrolled in the military and naval emergency courses, but 
many have a general and non-technical interest. The subjects 



REPORT OF THE ACTING LIBRARIAN 34I 

covered include aeronautics, gasoline motors, motor-boats, 
aero-engines, radio-telegraphy, signalling, ordnance and muni- 
tions of war, submarines and warships. These books have been 
widely and appreciatively used. A collection of the recent and 
important books on military matters and the war, placed in the 
General Reading Room of the Library, has also been in con- 
stant demand. 

In the Avery Library, appropriations granted during the 
year have greatly improved the equipment, and further im- 
provements are under way to remedy defects in shelf con- 
struction and the inadequate lighting. A much-needed cata- 
log case has been provided, and the catalog itself is under- 
going a thorough revision in the process of transferring the 
cards to their new places. As a part of this revision, ref- 
erences to scarce and expensive works in collections other than 
the Avery are being included, together with material of differ- 
ent kinds occasionally useful, but not of sufficient value to 
justify its purchase. The catalog of the Avery Library will 
show, when this arrangement is completed, references to books 
in the New York Public Library and the Metropolitan Museum 
which the Avery could not afford to buy or are rarely used, but 
which are of sufficient importance to the occasional reader to 
warrant their inclusion as available subsidia. It is proposed 
to extend this system of cross references to the various so- 
cieties and institutions maintaining libraries in which material 
of interest to architects is included, like the Hispanic Society, 
the New York Historical Society, and others. If the Avery 
Library is to be permanently handicapped by the lack of funds 
adequately to keep pace with the demands made upon it, as 
at present is notably the case, the best means at hand must 
be used to make architects aware of the existence of the best 
material, even though it is not in the Avery Library itself. 
During the past year the service of the Avery Library to 
readers outside the University by mail and by telephone, was 
largely increased, not only to architects, but to artists in other 
fields, such as interior decorators, sculptors, designers of 
moving-picture backgrounds, designers of stained glass and 
mosaics, wood carvers, modelers, metal workers, and crafts- 



342 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

men in other fields. Certain conditions of reciprocity have 
been established in the opposite direction. The Architectural 
League, for instance, annually presents to the Avery Library 
a quantity of material which has been received from publishers, 
societies, and other sources, and the Joan of Arc Committee 
has given several cases of books, pamphlets, and other ma- 
terial bearing upon Joan of Arc and her time. The special 
appropriation granted by the Trustees during the year will 
solve for a few years, at least, the serious question of rebinding 
in^the* Avery, where the wear and tear upon books, owing to 
their great weight and size and to the fact that many of them 
must be constantly used in connection with drafting, is ex- 
cessive. Exhibitions held in the Avery Library, in addition to 
those mentioned in the report of the School of Architecture, 
were Photographs and Etchings of Paintings, by Frank Du- 
veneck, and Sculpture, by Solon Borglum; Engraved Book- 
plates of Arthur N. McDonald; and at Commencement docu- 
ments and papers from the collection deposited with the 
University belonging to the Phillipse-Gouverneur family. 

Important accessions to the Law Library have already been 
noted in this report. The collection, as a whole, is growing as 
fast as available funds permit, and it is now the second largest 
law school library in the country. It takes this rank, more- 
over, in spite of the fact that several large groups of books, like 
constitutional and administrative law, are shelved in the 
General Library, instead of forming part of the Law Library, 
as is the custom elsewhere. In the inventory of the library, 
1,781 volumes of Cases and Points, belonging to it in 1915- 
1916, no longer appear. In 1915, it had been decided not to 
attempt to maintain a collection of Cases and Points or Briefs 
and Records. With the approval of the Dean of the School of 
Law the volumes of Cases and Points for the New York Court 
of Appeals and the Appellate Division, First Department, were 
transferred to the New York State Law Library, at Albany, to 
assist in the restoration of its collection destroyed by fire in 
191 1. The transfer was a gift, except for 383 volumes which 
had been bound by this Library. For these volumes the State 
Library remitted the actual cost of binding, $287.25. The 



REPORT OF THE ACTING LIBRARIAN 343 

State Law Library has supplied gratuitously from its dupli- 
cates many volumes and missing parts of periodicals. By 
action of the Trustees of the University, on the recommenda- 
tion of the Dean of the School of Law and the Acting Librarian, 
$1,500 of the $3,624 then remaining of the Law Alumni Fund, 
was set aside as a nucleus of a permanent Law Alumni Li- 
brary Fund, the interest only of which is to be used. This 
action was taken in order that the dual purpose of the Law 
Alumni Fund, as originally intended, might not be wholly lost 
sight of, namely, to raise a fund of $50,000 for immediate ex- 
penditure, and a like sum as a permanent endowment for the 
support of the Law Library. Additional funds for this pur- 
pose are urgently needed. The increase in the number of law 
books and the great advance in their price has long since made 
entirely inadequate the regular University appropriation 
known in the budget as 'Law books and binding'. 

A marked and gratifying increase in the use of books in the 
library of the School of Medicine is attested by the statistics 
submitted by the Librarian. A serious obstacle, however, to 
complete library efificiency is the separation through the 
buildings and under different jurisdictions of the collections of 
medical books and periodicals, and their non-inclusion in the 
general catalog in the reading room. The ultimate goal of 
development of the medical library is the unification of these 
now widely separated divisions into one centralized organiza- 
tion with authority to control the use of books in all depart- 
ments of the School. The accomplishment of this purpose 
would unquestionably benefit the teaching staff, laboratory 
investigators and students alike, and would advance, in no 
uncertain way, the progress of medical education. The oldest 
library in the School of Medicine was established with the 
inauguration of laboratories for clinical and research purposes, 
about 1878, under the inspiration of Professor Francis Dela- 
field. It consisted of his own private library and the journals 
to which he currently subscribed. Other periodicals were con- 
tributed by various members of the staff and added to the 
list, but this method of sustaining the library became a heavy 
burden to Professsor Delafield's successors, who finally asked 



344 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

the Alumni Association to assume its charge and maintenance.- 
This work has been cheerfully carried on for a number of 
years, but the Association now contemplates a project for 
using its funds in another direction and desires to be relieved 
of further obligation in the support of the library. An offer 
of its transfer to the University has been made, and the 
library may become the property of the School and a part of 
the general library, providing it continues its maintenance on 
the present basis, which involves an annual expenditure of 
$700 for periodical subscriptions and binding. If the project 
can be carried out, as it is earnestly hoped it may be, the 
Alumni Library, which is the most valuable collection in the 
subject of Psychology outside the main library, will occupy a 
most important place in the whole future development of the 
library facilities of the College of Physicians and Surgeons. 
Important gifts were received from the New York Academy of 
Medicine, 430 volumes; Dr. Adrian V. S. Lambert, 1 1 journals 
and 687 reprints; Dr. Edward Frankel, 408 volumes and 936 
reprints. The Frankel gift contains a number of works on 
biography and bibliography that are rarely on the market. 
Professor Frederic S. Lee presented during the year the re- 
mainder of his private library to the University, the gift con- 
sisting of about 600 volumes. This action transfers the entire 
library of the Department of Physiology to the School and 
provides for its inclusion in the general catalog. At the 
Presbyterian Hospital an additional room was added to the 
Janeway Library to accommodate current accessions. It 
made possible a needed rearrangement of books in the reading 
room through which those in daily use have been brought to- 
gether and current journals have been made more accessible. 
The Janeway Library is a model departmental library and is 
extensively used. 

The library of Barnard College was increased during the 
year from 10,833 to 11,630 volumes. The library will be 
closed during the summer in preparation for its removal to its 
new quarters in advance of the opening of the Winter Session. 

The library of the College of Pharmacy has been increased 
during the year by the addition to the shelves of 743 books and 



REPORT OF THE ACTING LIBRARIAN 345 

bound volumes of journals. It now numbers about 6,000 
volumes. The important matters of the year in the work of 
the library were the development of an information bureau 
for druggists and others using pharmaceutical information, 
which is already largely made use of, and the beginning of a 
cumulative index of pharmacy and the allied branches. 

The immediate need of the Library, apart from the instal- 
lation of an electric lift in place of the outworn pneumatic lift, 

in the service of the Loan desk, and lighting the ,, , 

... Needs 

galleries of the main reading room, for which provision 

has been made, is for additional shelving in many parts of the 
general Library and in several of the department libraries. 
Room 206, for instance, should immediately be provided with 
additional shelving to accommodate the newly added books on 
English History and to relieve the present crowded condition. 
The same is true in like measure of Room 108 and of other 
parts of the Library. The Engineering reading room is also 
sadly in need of additional shelving. There is at the present 
time in this room literally not an inch of available shelving 
space to provide for the coming year's expansion. The collec- 
tion of current trade catalogs, which contain up-to-date 
material and data not to be found elsewhere and form under 
present conditions an essential part of the library work in the 
Engineering Schools, is at present piled on tables and floors, 
and should be adequately shelved to be made available. There 
is also urgent need of new shelving in the Geology reading 
room, which is seriously overcrowded. To provide for these 
needs would require a special appropriation. 

In conclusion, I would submit the following statistics: 

Accessions: 

Gifts: 1,674 volumes, 3,031 pamphlets 

Exchanges: Dissertations Others Total 

Pieces received 308 292 600 

Pieces exchanged 1,679 5^^^ 2,240 

Orders sent out: 9,361 



346 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Total number of volumes cataloged during the year: 

General Library and Departments 20,039 

School of Law 2,550 

School of Medicine 1,466 

Teachers College 2,477 

Barnard College 628 

College of Pharmacy 243 

Total 27,403 

Total of volumes in Library, June 30, 191 7 687,279 

Cataloging: (See Accessions) 

Cards made and filed in General Library and Departments: 

New cards 62,201 

Cards replaced 34,379 

Depository catalog 50,027 

Total 146,607 

Printed cards received for Depository Catalog: 

Library of Congress 39,883 

Harvard University 3,200 

John Crerar Library 6,944 

Total 50,027 

Binding: 

Number of volumes repaired in the building 3,i47 

Number of pamphlets bound in the building 4,476 

Total 7,623 

Number of volumes bound outside 4,966 

Number of volumes rebound outside 4,830 

Total 9,796 

Circulation: 

Number of volumes supplied from Loan Desk for outside use 

(including 30,150 renewals) 202,700 

For use in building 65,631 

Supplied from reading rooms for outside use 177,115 

Used in reading rooms 680,807 

Total recorded use of libraries 1,126,253 

Respectfully submitted, 

Wm. H. Carpenter, 

Acting Librarian 
June 30, IQ17 



REPORT 

To the Trustees of 

Columbia University in the City of New York: 

The Treasurer makes the following report of the financial 
affairs of the Corporation for the year ended June 30, 1917. 



INDEX 

Page 

Income and Expense Account 349 

Income of the Corporation 350-351 
Expenses — Educational Administration and 

Instruction 352-369 

Expenses — Buildings and Grounds 37t>-37i 

Expenses — Library 372-374 

Expenses — Business Administration 375 

Expenses — Annuities 376 

Interest 377 

Balance Sheet 378-379 

Arrears of Rent 381 
Receipts and Disbursements of Income of 

Special Funds 382-387 
Gifts and Receipts for Designated Purposes: 

Receipts and Disbursements 389-399 
Securities Owned for Account of Special and 

General Funds 400-415 

University Land, Buildings and Equipment 416-420 

Other Property 420 

Redemption Fund 421. 

Special Funds 422-443 

Permanent Funds 444-445 

Summary of Capital Account 446 

Gifts for Special Funds, etc., received during 

1916-1917 447-451 

Auditors' Certificate 452 



INCOME AND EXPENSE ACCOUNT FOR THE YEAR ENDING 
JUNE 30, 1917 

INCOME 
FROM ALL SOURCES 

From Students: 

Fees. (See page 6) |i,3Si,S48.70 

Other Charges. (See page 6) 27,267.93 

$1,378,816.63 

From Endowment: 

Rents. (See page 7) 1679,999.23 

Income of Investments in Personal Property. (See 

page 7) 80,802.18 

Kennedy (John Stewart) Fund. (See page 7) 100,805.18 

Redemption Fund Investments. (See page 7) 27,736.65 

$889,343.24 

From Special Funds. (See page 7) 347.945-71 

From Gifts and Receipts for Designated Purposes. (See page 7) 194,849.63 

From Payments by Allied Corporations for Salaries, etc. (See page 7) . . . 415,745.20 

From Miscellaneous Sources. (See page 7) 21,983.20 



$3,248,683.61 



EXPENSES 
INCLUDING REDEMPTION FUND PAYMENT 

Educational Administration and Instruction. (See page 25) $2,448,014.74 

Buildings and Grounds — Maintenance. (See page 27) 294,717.83 

Library. (See page 30) 128,068.04 

Business Administration of the Corporation. (See page 31) 77.315. 59 

Annuities. (See page 32) 42,280.00 

Interest on Corporate Debt, Notes, etc. (See page 33) 127,740.04 

Redemption Fund for Bond Issue 100,000.00 



$3,218,136.24 
Surplus for year 1916-1917 after providing for Redemption Fund 30,547-37 

$3,248,683.61 



350 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



INCOME OF THE CORPORATION, YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1917 

FROM STUDENTS: 
Fees: 

Morningside: 

University J37.476.97 

Late Registration 2,540.00 

Tuition S23.9i7.49 

Graduation 31.643.33 

Entrance and Special Examinations 6.650.00 

Locker 121.00 

Rooms in Residence Halls 141,620.27 

$743,969.06 



College of Physicians and Surgeons: 

University 4,275.00 

Late Registration 15.00 

Tuition 9S,509.23 

Examinations 405.00 

Graduation 2,250.00 

Post Graduate 350.00 

$102,804.23 

Summer Course in Surveying 2,205.00 

Summer Session, 1916: 

Morningside $316,467.96 

Less Teachers College pro- 
portion 157,420.00 

159,047.96 



College of Physicians and Surgeons 3,603.00 



162,650.96 



Extension Teaching 339.9i9.4S 

$1,351,548.70 

Other Charges: 
Morningside: 

Supplies and Materials furnished to 
Students in 

Chemistry 26,043.29 

Chemical Engineering 121.83 

Mechanical Engineering 2.56 

Metallurgy 197-78 

Breakage and Keys in Residence 

Halls 177.18 

26,542.64 



College of Physicians and Surgeons: 

Supplies and Materials furnished to Stu- 
dents in 

Anatomy 163.50 

Osteology 67.00 

Biological Chemistry 494-79 



27,267-93 



Carried forward 1,378,816.63 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER 35I 

Brought forward 51,378,816.63 

FROM ENDOWMENT: 
Rents: 

Upper and Lower Estates $671,067.28 

No. 407 West 117th Street i,599-96 

No. 421 West 117th Street 1,500.00 

No. 431 West 117th Street 1,350.00 

Nos. 91-93 Ninth Avenue 283.17 

No. 83 Barclay Street 595-00 

No. 72 Murray Street 1 240.87 

Interest on Rents 2,362.95 I679 999.23 



Income of Investments in Personal Property: 
Interest: 

On General Investments $77,072.32 

On Deposits of General Funds 3 663.73 

On Loans from Special 1914-1915 

Students' Loan Fund 4S-40 

On Loans from Extension Teaching 

Students' Loan Fund 20.73 

$80,802.18 

Kennedy (John Stewart) Fund Income 100,805.18 

Redemption Fund Investment Income 27,736.65 



415,745-20 



FROM MISCELLANEOUS SOURCES: 
Barnard College: 

Electric Current $1,100.02 

Steam Heat and Power 5.823.00 



$6,923.02 

Annual Catalogue iSi.3S 

Post OfEce 483.34 

Telephone Service 10,750.99 

Income from Tennis Courts 637.50 

Sales of Books, Catalogues, etc 182.44 

Buildings and Grounds, Old Furniture and Fixtures Sold 2,012.00 

Consents 3So,oo 

Troy Gift 3.00 

Interest from Columbia University Printing Office 489.56 



$889,343-24 



FROM SPECIAL FUNDS. (See page 44) $347,945-71 

FROM GIFTS AND RECEIPTS FOR DESIGNATED 

PURPOSES. (See page S3) $194,849.63 

FROM PAYMENTS BY ALLIED CORPORATIONS 

FOR SALARIES. (See page 54) 

Teachers College $i97,39S-00 

Barnard College 147,937.50 

Carnegie Foundation 48,254.35 

Harkness Fund 22,158.35 



$610,594.83 



21,983.20 
$3,248,683-61 



352 



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REPORT OF THE TREASURER 377 



INTEREST ACCOUNT 

INTEREST paid: 

On Corporate Debt $120,650.00 

On Columbia University Notes 2,847.08 

On Loubat Annuity Mortgage 20,160.00 

On Medical School New Site 1 1,250.00 

On Uninvested Special Funds used for General Purposes 58.25 



$154,965.33 



DEDUCT INTEREST APPORTIONED, AS FOLLOWS: 

Gaillard-Loubat Library Endowment Fund $25,924.04 

George Crocker Research Building 1,301.25 $27,225.29 

$127,740.04 



378 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



BALANCE SHEET, JUNE 30, 1917 



Cash at Banks: 

Special Funds JS.pSQ-zs 

Designated Funds 4,777-23 

General Funds 42.S63-5S 



Is6,300.03 

Arrears of Rent. (See page 37) 20,482.93 

Loans to Students 30,570.73 

Insurance in Advance 363-87 

Advances against future appropriations, etc., etc 4S,iSi-i5 

Overdrafts on Income of Special Funds. (See page 43) 82,873.58 

Materials and Supplies, Chemistry Department 25,763.04 

Expenses re Leases, etc., in Suspense 18,474.42 

Securities owned for account of General and Special Funds. (See page 71) I3,I34,8SS-6S 

University Land, Buildings and Equipment — Morningside. (Seepage 76) 14,930,679.31 

Stadium — Hudson River, Morningside 1,203.00 

College of Physicians and Surgeons 925,742.91 

Camp Columbia, Morris, Connecticut 39,765.27 

Columbia University Printing Office, open account 78,981.39 

Columbia University Printing Office, Equipment and Machinery 75,510.28 

Rental Properties: 

Upper and Lower Estates, New York City. (1916 

Tax Valuations) 119,740,500.00 

Upper and Lower Estates, New York City, Buildings 

Purchased 116,173.75 

Other Property, New York City. (See page 76) 1,090,271.74 

^20,946,945.49 

Redemption Fund: 

Investments 1692,532.50 

Cash 7,467.50 

J700,000.00 

151,113,663.05 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER 



379 



BALANCE SHEET, JUNE 30, 1917 

FUNDS AND LIABILITIES 

Special Funds — Principal. (See page 99) 511,140,005.99 

Special Funds — Income Unexpended. (See page 43) 213,219.26 

Unexpended Gifts for Designated Purposes. (See page S3) 733,747.88 

Permanent Funds — For Purchase of Land and Erection of Buildings. 

(See page loi) 7,951,221.15 

Funds for Loans to Students 31,069.70 

General and Special Funds — Accounts Payable, etc 13,608.89 

Deposits re Leases in Suspense 5,562.16 

Fees received in Advance, Deposits, etc 32,357.12 

Columbia University Notes Payable 250,000.00 

Mortgages on New York Property 698,000.00 

Columbia College 4% Mortgage Bonds 3,000,000.00 

Capital Account: 

Estate Summary $21,158,295.34 

Real Estate Sales Account 5,886,575.56 

$27,044,870.90 



151,1x3,663.05 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER 381 



ARREARS OF RENT, JUNE 30, 1917 

Arrears of Rent, 1913-1914 $1,915.72 

Collected in 1916-1917 $1,915.72* 

Arrears of Rent, 1914-191S $7,090.48 

Arrears of Rent, 1914-1S, charged 1916-17 2,000.00 9,090.48 

Collected in 1916-1917 7,190.20 1,900.28* 

Arrears of Rent, 1915-1916 20,700.75 

tArrears of Rent, 1915-16, charged 1916-17 2,000.00 22,700.75 

Collected in 1916-1917 i9,99S-32 2,705.43* 

Rents Receivable from Upper and Lower Estates, 1916-1917. . 667,067.28 

Collected in 1916-1917 653,105.78 13,961.50 

Total Arrears, June 30, 1917 $20,482.93 



* In litigation. 

fThis amount has been reduced since June 30th to $17,431.23. 



200-20oa Barclay Street and Park Place, 6 months' rent to May i, 1917 $1,300.00 

20i-20ia Barclay Street and Park Place, 6 months' rent to May I, 1917 1,250.00 

219-220 Greenwich Street, 6 months' rent to May i, 1917 (balance) 250.00 

6s West 48th Street, 18 months' rent to May i, 1917 (balance) 2,364.06* 

46 West 49th Street, 6 months' rent to May I, 1917 735.00* 

17 West 49th Street, 6 months' rent to May i, 1917 1,452.50* 

45 West 49th Street, 6 months' rent to May i, 1917 (balance) 823.00 

67 West 49th Street, 18 months' rent to May i, 1917 (balance) 1,408.87 

69 West 49th Street, 6 months' rent to May i, 1917 (balance) 470.50 

36 West 50th Street, 6 months' rent to May i, 1917 (balance) 458.00 

44 West 50th Street, 12 months' rent to May i, 1917 1,811.00* 

19 West 50th Street, 48 months' rent to May i, 1917 7,632.00* 

34 West 51st Street, 6 months' rent to May i, 1917 (balance) 528.00 



$20,482.93t 



382 



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Credit 

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400 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



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REPORT OF THE TREASURER 



401 



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COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



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REPORT OF THE TREASURER 



403 



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COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 












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REPORT OF THE TREASURER 



405 






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COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



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REPORT OF THE TREASURER 



407 



3 






































3 






































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3 






































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COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



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REPORT OF THE TREASURER 



409 



































d 

to 
to 


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to 

to 
to 
0" 

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q 
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100,000.00 

16,000.00 

110,000.00 

105,000.00 
45,000.00 
27.750.00 

140,000.00 
4,000.00 
15,000.00 

35,000.00 

70,000.00 






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Avenue, New York City at 4K per cent., due 
1021 


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410 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



Q ? 








U 




T3 
C 
CS 


1 
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1 

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a 




V 

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g 

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411 






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412 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



Q 2 



-" t^ >. 

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REPORT OF THE TREASURER 



413 



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REPORT OF THE TREASURER 42 1 



REDEMPTION FUND 

Balance in Fund at June 30, 1916 |6oo,ooo.oo 

Add: Securities deposited with Trustees of Fund 100,000.00 

Balance in Fund at June 30, 1917 $700,000.00 

Composed of: 

BONDS 

$100,000.00 Anglo-French s per cent. External Loan 

Bonds due 1920 194,875.00 

30,000.00 Baltimore & Ohio Ry. Go's. (P., L. E. & W. 

Va. System) 40-year 4 per cent. Refunding Bonds 

due 1941 27,450.00 

50,000.00 Baltimore & Ohio Ry. Go's. (S. W. Division) 

2^2 per cent. First Mortgage Bonds, due 1925 44,937-50 

40,000.00 Central New England Ry. Go's, so-year 4 

percent. First Mortgage Bonds, due 1961 37,211.25 

50,000.00 Chicago Union Station 4^2 per cent. First 

Mortgage Gold Bonds, due 1963 49,875.00 

50,000.00 Northern Pacific-Great Northern 4 per cent. 

Joint Bonds, due 192 1 (G. B.&Q. Collateral) 47,933.75 

30,000.00 St. Louis, Southwestern Ry. Go.'s, 4 percent. 

First Mortgage Bonds, due 1989 27,750.00 

BONDS AND MORTGAGES 

On northwest corner Second Avenue and 12th Street, 

New York, at 4K per cent., due 1919 $94,250.00 

On 14 West 48th Street, New York, at 5 per cent., due 

1917 70,000.00 

On 52 West 48th Street, New York, at 4K per cent, due 

1916 10,000.00 

On 62 West 48th Street, New York, at 4K per cent., due 

1911 36,750.00 

On 425 West 117th Street, New York, at 4M per cent., 

due 1898 15,000.00 

On 720 St. Nicholas Avenue, New York, at 5 per cent. 

due 1919 8,000.00 

On 212 Grand Street, New York, at 5 per cent., due 1919 28,500.00 

On Southwest Comer 174th Street and St. Nicholas 

Avenue, at 4^ per cent, due 1922 100,000.00 $692,532.50 

Cash 7,467.50 

$700,000.00 



422 



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423 



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437 



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444 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

PERMANENT FUNDS 

FOR THE PURCHASE OF LAND AND ERECTION OF BUILDINGS 



At June 30, 
1916 



Adams (Edward D.) Gift (for Deutsches 

Haus) 

Alumni Memorial Hall Gift (University Hall 

Enlargement) 

Anonymous Gift for Hamilton Statue 

Anonymous Gift toward erection of Philoso- 
phy Building 

Association of the Alumni of Columbia College 

(Hamilton Statue) 
Avery (Samuel P.) Gift (Avery Architectural 

Library Building) 
Babcock and Wilcox Gift (Steel Boilers for 

Power House) 
Clark (Edward Severin) Gift (Fountain of 

Pan) 
Class of 1874 Gift (Marble Columns in 

Library) 

Class of 1880 Gift (Hamilton Hall. Gates) . 

Class of 1881 Gift (Flagstaff) 

Class of 1881, Arts, Mines and Political Science 

Gift (Gemot in Hamilton Hall) 

Class of 1882 Gift (i20th Street Gates) 
Class of 1883 Gift (Torcheres, St. Paul's 

Chapel) 
Class of 1883, Mines, Gift (Setting of Bust of 

Professor Egleston) 

Class of 1884. Arts, Gift (Marble Clock. 

Hamilton Hall) 

Class of 1884, Mines, Gift (Grading South 

Field) 

Class of 1890, Arts and Mines, Gift (Pylons) . 

Class of 1899 Gift (Grading South Field) 

Class of 1909, College, Gift (Class Shield in 

Hamilton Hall) 

Contributions to Bloomingdale Site 

Contributions to Buildings, College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons 

Contributions to Medical School, Removal and 

Rebuilding Fund 

Dodge (Marcellus Hartley) and Mrs. Helen 

Hartley Jenkins Gift (Hartley Hall) 

Dodge (William E.) Gift (Earl Hall) 

Fayerweather Legacy (Fayerweather Hall) . . . 
Fumald (Estate of Francis P. Furnald and 

Mrs. S. Ella Furnald), Gifts (Fumald Hall) 

Carried Forward $2,499,816.43 



$30,000.00 

100,756.41 
1,000.00 

3S0,000.00 

10,000.00 

339,250.00 

3,250.00 

12,013.50 

1,678.00 
2,020.00 
4,600.00 

1,000.00 
1,500 00 

5,280.00 

390 00 

1,913 90 

5,000.00 

8,598.72 
5,000. 00 

20.00 
331.150.00 

71.551 OS 

18,000.00 

350,000.00 
164,950.82 
330,894 03 

350,000.00 



Additions 

during the 

year 



§10,000 00 



$10,000.00 



At June 30, 
1917 



$30,000.00 

100,756.41 
1,000.00 

350,000 00 
10,000.00 

339,250.00 

3,250.00 

12,013.50 

1,678.00 
2,020.00 
4,600.00 

1,000 00 
1,500.00 

5,280.00 

390.00 

1,913 90 

5,000.00 

8,598.72 

5,000.00 

20.00 

331,150.00 

71,551.05 

28,000.00 

350,000.00 

164,950.82 
330,894.03 

350,000.00 



^2,509,816. 43 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER 



445 





At June 30, 
1916 


Additions 

during the 

year 


At June 30, 
1917 




$2,499,816.43 

507.059-16 
414,206.65 

33,300.00 

494.872.57 

250,000.00 
1,100,639.32 

1,124.00 
14,300.00 
19,972.70 

1.03s 00 

11,836.20 

250,000.00 

2,846.62 

27,000.00 

458,133-18 

563,501.21 

6,000.00 

399.263.14 

4.932.88 

54.707.00 

1,500.00 
1,200.00 
1,000.00 

350,000.00 
50,000.00 

420,000.00 


Jio.ooo.oo 


12,509,816.43 




507,059.16 






414,206.65 


Hepburn (A. Barton) Gift for Maison Fran- 




33,300.00 


Kent HaU: 

Anonymous Gift $100,000.00 


(1)800.00 




Charles Bathgate Beck Gift. . 384,872. 57 
Francis Lynde Stetson Gift. . 10,000.00 


495.672.57 
250,000.00 


Lewisohn (Adolph) Gift (School of Mines 


Low Library Gift (Library Building) 

Livingston (Edward de Peyster) Gift (Me- 






1,124.00 






14,300.00 


Model of Buildings and Grounds Gift 

Morgan (William Fellowes) Gift (Illuminating 




19,972 70 




1,035.00 


President's House, Furnishing (Anonymous 
Gift) 

St. Paul's Chapel Gift (Anonymous) 

St. Paul's Chapel Furniture Gift (Anonymous) 

St. Paul's Chapel Organ and Case Gifts 

Schermerhorn Gift (Schermerhorn Hall) 

School of Journalism Building Gift (Pulitzer) 

Sloan Torcheres Gift (Library Building) 

Sloane (Mr. and Mrs. WUliam D.) Gift (Addi- 
tions and Alterations to Sloane Hospital for 


(5)1,015-45 


12,851.65 
250,000.00 




2,846.62 




27,000.00 




458,133. 18 




563,501.21 




6,000.00 




399.263.14 






4,932 . 88 


South Field Fund 




54.707.00 


South Field Grading Gift (Anonymous) 

Stabler (Edward L ) Gift 




1,500.00 




1,200.00 


Torcheres for School of Mines Building Gift.. 




1,000.00 




350,000.00 






50,000.00 


New Medical School Site Gifts (ii6th Street 




420,000.00 


Class of 1906 Gift (Class of 1906 Clock) 


1,159.64 


1,159.64 








S7,938,246.o6 


$12,975-09 


$7,951,221.15 



Q) Stock Dividend. 

(') Transferred from Anonymous Gift for Current Needs. 



446 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



SUMMARY OF CAPITAL ACCOUNT 

Balance at June 30, 1916: 

Estate Summary $21,110,164.51 

Real Estate Sales Account 5.886,575.56 

$26,996,740.07 

Less: 

Expenses and Losses re obtaining possession of and 

re-leasing properties 1911 to 1917 $32,916.54 

Special Fire Insurance Fund established by resolution 

of Committee of Finance 50,000.00 

82,916.54 



$26,913,823.53 



Add: 

Gift for Alumni Association (School of Medicine) for 

year 1915-1916 — Paid last year from general funds. $500.00 

Surplus for year 1916-1917 130, 547-37 

$27,044,870.90 

Balance at June 30, 1917: 

Estate Summary $21,158,295-34 

Real Estate Sales Account 5,886,575.56 

$27,044,870.90 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER 447 

GIFTS FOR SPECIAL FUNDS, ETC., RECEIVED DURING 
1916-1917 

SPECIAL FUNDS: 

Anonymous Fund for Church and Choral Music (addi- 
tional) 168,000.00 

Chamberlain (Joseph P.) Endowment Fund 150,000.00 

Class of 1892 Arts and Mines Fund 6,600.00 

Class of 1905 Fund (additional) 41.96 

Crocker (George) Special Research Fund (additional) . . 50.00 

DeWitt (George G.) Scholarship Fund 15,000.00 

Hamilton (Adelaide) Bequest 1,000.00 

Kennedy (John Stewart) Endowment Fund (additional) 2,100.00 

Montgomery (Robert H.) Prize Fund 1,000.00 

Pulitzer (Joseph) Fund for School of Journalism (addi- 
tional) 61,573-90 

Saunders (Leslie M.) Scholarship Fund 6,000.00 

School of Dentistry Endowment Fund 127,500.00 

Sloane Hospital for Women Fund (additional) 75,000.00 ?5i3.865 86 



PERMANENT FUNDS: 

Class of 1906 for the Class of 1906 Clock $1,159.64 

Anonymous Gift for Medical School Removal and Re- 
building Fund (additional) 10,000.00 11,159.64 



DESIGNATED GIFTS: 

Adams (Mr. Edward D.) for the Special Ernest Kempton 

Adams Research Fellowship S5,ooo.oo 

Alumni Association to cover the Alumni Association an- 
nual prize 50.00 

Alumni Club of Yonkers for a special scholarship 41.00 

American Association for International Conciliation for 

courses on International Relations 400.00 

American Road Machinery Company for Highway En- 
gineering Fund 6,000.00 

Anonymous, for Biological Chemistry, Departmental 

Appropriation 250.00 

Anonymous, for Biological Chemistry, Departmental 

Appropriation 50.00 

Anonymous, for Biological Chemistry, purchase of office 

equipment 173-70 

Anonymous, for Chinese printing equipment 2,500.00 

Anonymous, for Dental School Equipment 100.00 

Anonymous, for expenses of School of Dentistry 4,000.00 

Anonymous, for Department of Agriculture Maintenance 250.00 

Anonymous, for Deutsches Haus Maintenance 500.00 

Anonymous, for Extension Teaching Choral Music 600.00 

Anonymous, for Income of Hartley Scholarship Fund... 68.50 

Anonymous, for Legislative Drafting Research Fund . . . 7,500.00 

Anonymous, for military training course at Camp 

Columbia 50.00 



Carried forward $27,533.20 $525,025.50 



448 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Brought forward i27,333-20 $525,025.50 

Anonymous, for National Emergency Fund. Contri- 
butions secured by Miss Katherine Reily through 

the Committee on Women's War Work 225.00 

Anonymous, for Pathology Salaries 750.00 

Anonymous, for Pharmacology Salaries 2,770.00 

Anonymous, for Philosophy and Psychology Salaries . . . 500.00 

Anonymous, for Poliomyelitis Research Fund 1,250.00 

.•\nonymous, for Practice of Medicine Salaries 400.00 

Anonymous, for President's War Preparation Fund .... 500.00 

.\nonymous, for President's War Preparation Fund .... 25.00 

Anonymous, for President's War Preparation Fund .... 1,000.00 

Anonymous, for St. Paul's Chapel Choir 500.00 

Anonymous, for St. Paul's Chapel Choir 250.00 

Association of the Alumni of Columbia College for 

Scholarships 1,200.00 

Association of the Alumni of the College of Physicians 

and Surgeons for the Alumni Association Prize 500.00 

Banks (Mr. Talcott M.) for Poliomyelitis Research Fund. 100.00 
Barnard Board of Trustees toward the expenses of the 

University Committee on Women's Work 300.00 

Beekman (Mr. Gerard) for Exchange Professors Salaries 1,750.00 
Behr (Mr. Herman) for Deutsches Haus Maintenance . . . 50.00 
Bethlehem Steel Company for the President's War Pre- 
paration Fund 1,000.00 

Blum (Dr. Richard) for Dental School Equipment 100.00 

Board of Religious Education of the Diocese of New 

York for the New York Diocesan Fellowship 500.00 

Brewer (Dr. George E.) for Dental School Equipment . . 100.00 

Bridgham (Mrs. Fannie) for Religious Work 200.00 

Carey (Mr. Edwin F.) for the Students' Loan Fund .... 75.oo 
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace for course 

on International Relations 650.00 

Chamberlain (Mr. Joseph P.) to be added to the income 

of the Joseph P. Chamberlain Endowment Fund. . . . 1,250.00 
Chamberlain (Mr. Joseph P.) and Mr. Thomas I. Park- 
inson for the Legislative Drafting Research Fund . . . 7,500.00 
Chandler (Dr. Charles F.) for the Chandler Museum 

Maintenance Fund 744.04 

Chase, Jr. (Dr. Oscar Jerome) for Dental School Equip- 
ment 500.00 

Chase (Mr. Paul) for Dental School Equipment 100.00 

Childs (Mr. William Hamlin) for Extension Teaching, 

Penal Problems 500.00 

Clarke (Miss Anna M.) for Music, Departmental Ap- 
propriation 500.00 

Colgate (Mr. William) for military training course at 

Camp Columbia ." 100.00 

Committee Felix Adler Professorship Fund for Plii- 

losophy and Psychology Salaries 2,900.00 

Coolidge (Mrs. Elizabeth S.) for research fellowships in 

Medicine, 1917-1918 2,500.00 

Corliss (Mr. Charles A.) for Poliomyelitis Research Fund. 25.00 

Carried forward 158,847-24 $525,025.50 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER 449 

Brought forward $58,847.24 $525,020.50 

Dawes (Mr. Dexter B.) and Miss E. M. Dawes for 

Poliomyelitis Researcli Fund 30.00 

Dudley (Mr. Pendleton) for the Students' Loan Fund . . 90.00 

Dunn (Mr. Gano) for the Gano Dunn Scholarship 250.00 

Dunning (Dr. Henry Sage) for Dental School Equip- 
ment 1,000.00 

Dwight (Mr. Arthur S.) School of Mines as the Presi- 
dent may direct 2,500.00 

East River Homes Foundation to be applied toward the 
work in tuberculosis at the College of Physicians and 

Surgeons 10,000.00 

Estate of John S. Kennedy to be added to the income 

of the John Stewart Kennedy Fund 187.50 

Field, 3d (Mr. Marshall) for Dental School Equipment. . . 100.00 

First District DentsJ Society for Dental Research Equip- 
ment, Biological Chemistry 100.00 

Flagler (Mr. Harry Harkness) for Student Orchestra 150.00 

Fowler (Mrs. Eldridge M.) for Extension Teaching, 

Penal Problems 200.00 

France-America Committee for Maison Francaise 

Maintenance 2,500.00 

Frasch (Mrs. Herman) for Special Scholarship 250.00 

Frissell (Mr. A. S.) for the President's War Preparation 

Fund 20.00 

Gerard (Mrs. James W.) for Marcus Daly Scholarship. . . . 1,000.00 

Gurnee (Mr. A. C.) for military training course at Camp 

Columbia 100.00 

Harriman (Mrs. E. H.) for the Harriman Fund for Sur- 
gical Research 4,000.00 

Hasbrouck (Dr. James F.) for Dental School Equipment . 1,000.00 

Hasslacher (Mr. Jacob) for Deutsches Haus Maintenance 50.00 

Hepburn (Mr. A. B.) for the purchase of French books for 

the Library 3.030.38 

Jackson (Professor A. V. W.) for Indo-Iranian Languages 

Salaries 500.00 

Jackson, Jr. (Mr. E. E.) for Dental School Equipment.. 250.00 

Jackson (Dr. V. H.) for Dental School Equipment 1,000.00 

Jarvie (Dr. William) for Dental School Equipment 500.00 

Jenkins (Mrs. Helen Hartley) for Extension Teaching 

Courses in Criminology 425.00 

Jenkins (Mrs. Helen Hartley) for running expenses of the 

Marcellus Hartley Research Laboratory 2,000.00 

Jenkins (Dr. Newell S.), through Professor William J. 

Gies, for dental research. Biological Chemistry 1,000.00 

Jenkins (Dr. N. S.) for Dental School Equipment 1,000.00 

Kahn (Mr. Otto) for Deutsches Haus Maintenance .... 100.00 

Kane (Mrs. Annie C.) for Religious Work 200.00 

King (Mr. Willard V.) for the President's War Prepara- 
tion Fund 1,000.00 

King (Mr. Willard V.) for a special scholarship 100.00 

Kneeland (Mr. Yale) for the Poliomyelitis Research Fund 250.00 

Carried forward $93.730.I2 $525,025.50 



450 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Brought forward $93,730.12 5525.025-50 

Lawrence (Mr. Benjamin B.) toward equipment for stu- 
dent military' and naval activities 500.00 

Lee (Dr. Frederic S.) for Physiology, Departmental 

-Assistance 287.50 

Lee (Dr. Frederic S.) for Physiology Salaries 1,720.00 

Lee (Dr. Frederic S.) and Mrs. Lee for a research fellow- 
ship in Physiology i ,000.00 

Lewisohn (Mr. Adolph) for Extension Teaching, Penal 

Problems 500.00 

Lewisohn (Mr. Samuel S.) for the Menorah Prize 100.00 

Loeb (Mr. James) for Library, James Loeb Fund 175.00 

Low (Mr. W. G.) for Library, W. G. Low Fund 250.00 

McClymonds (Mrs. Annie M.) for Louis K. McClymonds 

Scholarships 1916-1917 1,300.00 

Anonymous for Philosophy (Mediaeval) Salaries 500.00 

Anonymous for the Surgical Research Fund 10,000.00 

Merritt (Dr. Arthur H.) for Dental School Equipment. . 1,000.00 

Meyer (Dr. Willy) for Deutsches Haus Maintenance. . . 100.00 

Milhkin (Dr. Seth) for the Poliomyelitis Research Fund . . 20.00 

Montgomery (Mr. Robert H ) to be added to the income 

of the Robert H. Montgomery Prize Fund 25.00 

National Committee on Prisons for Extension Teaching, 

Penal Problems 250.00 

Netherlands Government for the Queen Wilhelmina 

Lecturer 1,750.00 

Parsons (Mr. Herbert) for Extension Teaching, Penal 

Problems 50.00 

Perkins (Mr. G. W.) for Extension Teaching, Penal 

Problems 250.00 

Perking (Mr. Russell) for the Poliomyelitis Research 

Fund 100.00 

Piel (Mr. Gottfried) for Deutsches Haus Maintenance.. 100.00 

Prosser (Mr. Seward) for Poliomyelitis Research Fund. . . 50.00 

Pupin (Professor M. I.) for Electrical Engineering Sal- 
aries 600.00 

Pupin (Professor M. I.) for Summer Session Salaries. . . 150.00 

Pupin (Professor M. I.) for Slavonic Languages 

Salaries 750.00 

Raegener (Mr. Louis C.) for Special Scholarships 150.00 

Research Committee of the Dental Society of the State 
of New York for dental research. Biological Chem- 
istry 200.00 

Rhein (Dr. M. L.) for Dental School Equipment 1,000.00 

Rhein (Dr. M. L.) for prizes in Oral Hygiene 50.00 

Ross (Mr. F. J.) for Dental School Equipment 100.00 

Sargent (Mr. Homer E.) for Anthropology, Research 

among Indians of British Columbia 1,000.00 

Schifl (Mr. Jacob H.) for Social Science Salaries 1,000.00 

Schiff (Mr. Mortimer L.) for Extension Teaching, Penal 

Problems 400.00 



Carried forward }i 19,157.62 $525,025.50 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER 45I 

Brought forward $119,157.62 $525,025.50 

School of Business Building Construction Fund 586,500.00 

Seligman (Mr. Isaac N.) for Extension Teaching, Penal 

Problems 250.00 

Senff (Mrs. Charles H.) for military training course at 

Camp Columbia 1,000.00 

Sharpe (Mr. Henry D.) for Extension Teaching, Penal 

Problems 500.00 

Shearer (Mr. George L.) for military training course at 

Camp Columbia 100.00 

State of New York for the Agricultural Ekiucation Fund . 500.00 

State of New York for the Agricultural Special Equip- 
ment Fund 500.00 

Stern (Dr. Leo) for Dental School Equipment 1,000.00 

Sulzberger (Dr. N.) for Chemical Engineering Research 

Equipment 100.00 

Talcott (Mrs. James) for Special Scholarship 200.00 

Taylor (Dr. James) for Dental School Equipment 100.00 

Teachers College toward the work of the Women's Com- 
mittee on War Preparation 500.00 

Towne (Mr. Henry R.) for military training course at 

Camp Columbia 25.00 

Tracy (Dr. William D.) for Dental School Equipment. . 1,000.00 

Troy (Mr. Richard H.) for the Richard H. Troy Gift. .. 3-oo 

Warburg (Mr. Felix M.) for Deutsches Haus Mainte- 
nance 100.00 

Warburg (Mr. Paul M.) for Deutsches Haus Mainte- 
nance 250.00 

Wawepex Society for the John D. Jones Scholarship 200.00 

White (Mr. A. C.) for military training course at Camp 

Columbia 200.00 

White (Mr. W. A.) for the President's War Preparation 

Fund 10.00 

Young (Dr. J. Lowe) for Dental School Equipment ... . 1,000.00 713,195.62 



$1,238,221.12 



Frederick A. Goetze 

Treasurer 
ISiEVf York, June 30, 1917 



452 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



ARTHUR W. TEELE, C. P. A. 
JOHN WHITMORE 
HAMILTON S. CORWIN, C. P. 
HAROLD F. LEEMING, C. A. 
F. R. C. STEELE, C. A. 
JAMES Wn,LING, C. K. 



PATTERSON, TEELE & DENNIS 

ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS 
NEW YORK AND BOSTON 



CABLE ADDRl 

"dignus" 



120 BROADWAY 

NEW YORK, SEPTEMBER 29, I917 



We have audited the accounts of the Treasurer of Columbia 
University, for the year ending June 30, 1917, and certify: 
That the income receivable from invested funds and deposits 
with banks and trust companies has been duly accounted for; 
that the securities representing the invested funds have been 
produced to us; that all other income shown by the books of 
the University has been duly accounted for; that all payments 
have been properly vouched; that the cash in banks and on 
hand has been verified, and that the balance sheet and ac- 
counts submitted herewith contain a true statement of the 
financial condition of the University at the close of business 
on June 30, 1917, and are in accordance with the books. 

Patterson, Teele & Dennis 

Accountants and Auditors 



BARNARD COLLEGE 



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BARNARD COLLEGE 

PRINCIPAL OF SPECIAL FUNDS JUNE 30, I917 

ALDRICH (MARY GERTRUDE EDSON) PRIZE FUND: 

Gift of Mrs. James Herman Aldrich. Established 1916 f 1,000 00 

BARNARD (ANNA E.) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of Miss Emily H. Bourne in honor of the late Mrs. John G. 
Barnard, for a scholarship to be awarded annually at the discretion 
of the founder in conference with the representatives of the Col- 
lege. Established 1899 3,078 72 

BARNARD SCHOOL SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of the Alumnae of the Barnard School for girls. Established 1916 . . 4,000 00 

BOGERT (CHARLES E.) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Legacy from the estate of Mrs. Annie P. Burgess. The annual income 
is to defray the tuition and expenses of a worthy pupil who is 
unable to pay her own expenses. Established 1913 S.ooo 00 

BOGERT (ANNA SHIPPEN YOUNG) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Legacy from the estate of Mrs. Annie P. Burgess. The annual income 
is to defray the tuition and expenses of a worthy pupil who is 
unable to pay her own expenses. Established 1913 5,000 00 

BREARLEY SCHOOL SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of pupils of the Brearley School for a scholarship to be awarded 

annually to a student who deserves assistance. Established 1899 3,000 00 

BRENNER (MARTHA ORNSTEIN) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift in memory of Martha Ornstein Brenner, Class 1899, by her 

friends. Established 1915 4,000 00 

BROOKS (ARTHUR) MEMORIAL FUND: 

Gift of Miss Olivia E. Phelps Stokes as a memorial of the late Reverend 
Arthur Brooks, D.D., Rector of the Church of the Incarnation, 
and Chairman of the Board of Trustees of Barnard College during 
the first six years of the existence of the College. The income of 
the fund is to aid needy and deserving students of the College. 
Established 1897 5,976 25 

BURGESS (ANNIE P.) FUND: 

Legacy from the estate of Mrs. Annie P. Burgess. Established 1913. . 63,308 33 

CARPENTIER (HENRIETTA) FUND: 

Gift of General H. W. Carpentier, in memory of his mother toward 
the Endowment Fund of Barnard College. The income of the 
fund is to be used for the payment of three annuities. Estab- 
lished 1898, 1900, 1911, 1913, I9i4,^nd 1915 499.956 48 

CHISHOLM (ELIZA TAYLOR) MEMORIAL SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 
Gift of the Alumnae Association of Miss Chisholm's School for a scholar- 
ship, to be awarded annually by the Committee on Scholarships 
of the Faculty to a student in need of assistance, said Alumnae 
Association reserving the privilege of precedence for such candi- 
dates as they may recommend. Established 1901 3.000 00 



456 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

CLARKSON (JENNIE B.) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of the late Mrs. W. R. Clarkson for a scholarship to be awarded 

annually to a student who deserves assistance. Established 1898 l3,ooo 00 

COE (MRS. HENRY CLARKE) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of the National Society of New England Women for a scholarsiiip 
to be awarded on the nomination of the Chairman of the Scholar- 
ship Committee of the above society, to a student from New 
England or of New England parentage. Established 1904 3,600 00 

ENDOWMENT FUND: 3.952 50 

FISKE FOUNDERSHIP FUND: 

Gift of the late Mrs. Martha T. Fiske-Collord in memory of Mr. Josiah 
M. Fiske. The income of the fund is to be applied to the running 
expenses of the College S.188 08 

FISKE HALL FUND: 

Legacy from the late Mrs. Martha T. Fiske-Collord, the income of 
which is to be applied to the care, maintenance, and improvement 
of Fiske Hall. Established 1910 122,000 00 

FISKE SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of the late Mrs. Martha T. Fiske-Collord, the income of which is 
to be placed at the disposal of the Dean of Barnard College. 
Established 1893 5.719 94 

FISKE (MARTHA T.) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of Miss Anna E. Smith for a non-resident scholarship in memory 

of Mrs. Martha T. Fiske-Collord. Established 191 1 5. 000 00 

GALWAY FUND: 

Gift of an anonymous donor for a scholarship. Established 191 2 2,559 08 

GIBBES FUND: 

a. Legacy of the late Emily O. Gibbes. The income of the fund is to 

be used for the general needs of the College. Established 1908. . . 272,391 70 

b. Legacy of the late Emily O. Gibbes. The income of the fund is paid 

for life to Edwina M. Post. Established 1908 100,000 00 

GR-AHAM SCHOOL SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of the Alumnse Association of the Graham School. The income 
of the fund is to be applied to the tuition of a student. Established 
1907 3,000 00 

HARRIMAN FUND: 

Gift of Mrs. E. H. Harriman to establish a fund, the income therefrom 
to be used for physical education and development, or to meet 
the deficit in running expenses. Established 1914 50,000 00 

HEALTH FUND: 

Gift from an anonymous donor to promote the physical health of the 

students and officers of the College. Established 1917 5,000 00 

HERRMAN BOTANICAL PRIZE FUND: 

Gift of the late Mrs. Esther Herrman, for a prize to be awarded annu- 
ally to the most proficient student in Botany 1,000 00 

HERRMAN FOUNDERSHIP FUND: 

Gift of the late Mrs. Esther Herrman. The income of the fund is to 

be applied to the general needs of the College S,ooo 00 



BARNARD COLLEGE 457 

HERTZOG (EMMA) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift to establish a scholarship in memory of Miss Emma Hertzog, who 
for a long period of years was prominently identified with the 
intellectual life of Yonkers. The income is awarded annually to 
a graduate of the Yonkers High School. EstabUshed 1904 53, 000 00 

KAUFMANN (JESSIE) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of Mr. Julius Kaufmann to establish a scholarship in memory of 
his daughter, Jessie Kaufmann. The annual income of the fund 
is awarded on the merits of the entrance examinations to a student 
who, after careful investigation, is found to have no relative able 
to assist her financially. Established 1902 4,000 00 

KENNEDY (JOHN STEWART) FUND: 

Legacy from the estate of the late John Stewart Kennedy. Estab- 
lished 1910 49.918 90 

KINNICUTT (ELEONORA) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of friends of the late Mrs. Francis P. Kinnicutt, a trustee of the 
College, to establish a scholarship. The income is awarded to a 
student who needs assistance. Established 191 1 5, 000 00 

KOHN MATHEMATICAL PRIZE FUND: 

Gift of Mrs. S. H. Kohn for a prize to be awarded annually to a senior 

for excellence in Mathematics 1,148 94 

McLEAN (MRS. DONALD) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of the New York Chapter of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution. The income of the fund is awarded in conference 
with a representative of the Chapter to a deserving student who 
agrees to pursue the study of history (chiefly that of the United 
States) continuously throughout her college course. Established 
1906 3,000 00 

MOIR (WILLIAM) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Legacy from the estate of Mrs. Emily H. Moir in memory of her 

husband. Established 1912 10,000 00 

OGILVIE (CLINTON) MEMORIAL FUND: 

Gift of Mrs. Clinton Ogilvie. The income of this fund is to be applied 
to the salaries of assistants in the Department of Geologj'. 
Established 1914 10,000 00 

POPE (MARY BARSTOW) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift in memory of Miss Mary Barstow Pope, sometime teacher in 
Miss Chapin's School, by her friends, her fellow teachers, and her 
pupils. Established 1913 4,318 15 

PULITZER (LUCILLE) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of the late Mr. Joseph Pulitzer in memory of his daughter, Lucille 
Pulitzer. The income of the fund is to be used for scholarships. 
Established 1899 and 1903, 1913 and 1916 176,553 78 

REED (CAROLINE GALLUP) PRIZE FUND: 

Gift of Mrs. William Barclay Parsons. Established 1916 1,000 00 

ROCKEFELLER (JOHN D.) ENDOWMENT FUND: 

Gift of Mr. John D. Rockefeller toward the permanent endowment of 

Barnard College. Established 1901 250,000 00 

SANDERS (ELEANOR BUTLER) FOUNDERSHIP FUND: 

Legacy from the estate of the late Mrs. Henry M. Sanders. The in- 
come of the fund is used for the current needs of the College. 
Established 1908 5,000 00 



458 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of friends of Barnard College. The income of the fund is applied 
toward helping deserving students through college. Established 
1901 I9.680 00 

SMITH (ANNA E.) FUND: 

Legacy from the estate of Anna E. Smith. Established 1916 10,000 00 

SMITH (EMILY JAMES) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of Miss Emily H. Bourne in honor of Miss Smith, Dean of Bar- 
nard College. The income of the fund is awarded in conference 
with the founder. Established 1899 3,068 92 

SMITH (GEORGE W.) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of the late Mrs. Martha T. Fiske-CoUord, in memory of Mr. 
George W. Smith, a Trustee of Barnard College. The income of 
the fund is placed at the dispo.sal of the Dean of Barnard College. 
Established 1906 S,43S 19 

SPER.A.NZA (CARLO L.) PRIZE FUND: 

Gift from an anonymous donor for the founding of a prize in memory 
of Professor Carlo Leonardo Speranza, to be awarded annually to 
a student in Barnard College for excellence in Italian. Established 
1911 1,000 00 

TALCOTT (JAMES) FUND: 

Gift of Mr. James Talcott, to found a professorship for Religious 

Instruction. Established 1915 100,000 00 

TATLOCK PRIZE FUND: 

Gift in memory of Jean Willard Tatlook, Class of 1895, by her friends 
to found a prize to be awarded annually to the undergraduate 
student most proficient in Latin. Established 1917 1,250 00 

TILLOTSON (EMMA A.) ENDOWMENT FUND: 

Legacy from the estate of Emma A. Tillotson. Established 1910 s.ooo 00 

TILLOTSON (EMMA A.) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Legacy from the estate of Emma A. Tillotson. Established 1910 S.ooo 00 

VELTIN SCHOOL SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of the Alumnae of Mile Veltin's School. Established 1905 3, 000 00 

VON WAHL PRIZE FUND: 

Gift from the friends of Constance Von Wahl, 1912, to found a prize to 
be awarded annually to a senior who has rendered the highest 
type of service to the College. Established 191s 1,000 00 

WEED (ELLA) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of the pupils of Miss Anne Browne's School, in memory of Miss 
Ella Weed, who was Chairman of the Academic Committee of the 
Board of Trustees of Barnard College during the first five years 
of its existence. Established 1897 3.392 Si 

WOERISHOFFER FUND: 

Gift of Mrs. Charles Woerishoffer for endowment. Established 1913 . . S.ooo 00 

$1,860,497 47 



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APPENDIX 6 
THE WAR RECORD OF COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

FEBRUARY 6, I917-JANUARY 3I, I918 
PART I 

Every educational institution in the Nation has a chapter in 
the record of war service, for no place of learning has remained 
outside the compelling current of the events of the past nine 
months. The records are interesting to the public because 
they show how rapidly and effectively educated men and 
women have responded to the need of the country, and they 
are the pride of all those connected with the institutions whose 
services they chronicle. 

The Columbia record was presaged by the following telegram, 
sent to President Wilson on March 31, 1917, on behalf of five 
hundred ofhcers of the University: 
To the President 0} the United States: 

Our national self-respect demands energetic resistance to Germany's 
lawless attacks. It should be recognized and formally declared that Ger- 
many is waging war against the United States. 

The common cause of law-abiding democratic nations demands our full 
cooperation with France and her Allies against the common foe. Armed 
support we should give as soon as possible , financial aid we should give at 
once. 

To France such aid should be tendered not as a loan, but as a repay- 
ment. To her we owe an old debt for aid in achieving our independence, 
as well as a new debt for her defense of law, liberty, and civilization. We 
should at least repay her all she has paid us since this war began for supplies 
used in fighting our battle. 

I 

THE university's ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION 
FOR WAR WORK 

I. The General Assembly. On February 6, 19 17, at noon, a 
General Assembly was held to voice the University's loyalty to 
the President in the crisis attending the breach in diplomatic 



464 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

relations with Germany. The speakers were President Butler, 
Professors Giddings and Erskine, and Dean Keppel. Cards 
were distributed at this meeting on which willingness to serve 
the Nation in the crisis was to be indicated. {See Alumni 
News, February g, 1917.) 

2. The University Census. On the afternoon of February 12 
a Committee of the Faculty met with the President of the 
University to formulate and institute plans for work. Pro- 
fessor H. E. Crampton proposed a plan for organizing the 
teaching staff into eight corps for enrolling officers, graduates 
and students of the University in such fashion as to determine 
specific qualifications for service. {See Alumni News, March 2 
and g, igiy.) 

In the preparation, mailing and receipt of the cards of regis- 
tration, Mr. F. A. Dickey, Registrar, and his staff were of 
great assistance. In all, about 55,000 cards were sent out. 
By May 11 about 18,000 cards had been returned. 

The classification of the cards by sex, ability, equipment 
possessed, and geographical location was undertaken by the 
Division of Statistics, Professor R. E. Chaddock, Chief, Mr. 
Ross, Assistant, and the Columbia University Mobilization 
Committee for Women's War Work, to which the women's 
cards were turned over. The cards for the men were classified 
according to the mobilized staff scheme and duplicates were 
sent to the Division chiefs. Mr. W. E. Harned and his students 
of the Secretarial school prepared the duplicate cards. 

The Bureau of Education of the Department of the Interior 
adopted the Columbia Mobilization plan as a model for the 
registration of educational institutions, and a descriptive cir- 
cular was sent by the Bureau to the presidents of colleges and 
universities throughout the country. {See Alumni News, 
April 13, igiy.) 

3. The Administration of Military Training. The Univer- 
sity possessed at the time of our entrance into the war no 
departments for military training. Emergency training corps 
were promptly organized, however, by the Eighth, or Mili- 
tary, Training Corps, of which James Duane Livingston, '80, 
is chairman. 



APPENDIX 6 465 

About April 10 a Military and Naval Bureau was established 
in East Hall with David Keppel, '01 F.A., as Executive Sec- 
retary. {See Alumni News, April 13, ipi7, p. 6y6.) This 
Bureau finished its work on June 10, when Mr. Keppel entered 
the service of the government at Washington. The success of 
the undergraduate drill, the large number of men who went 
to the first series of officers' training camps, and the establishing 
and the success of Camp Columbia are in large measure due to 
Mr, Keppel's efforts. He secured the services of Captain 
(then Lieutenant) R. Hodder- Williams as officer of military 
instruction for the camp, and so provided an administrator of 
the military training at the University. 

On April 17 the Staff Corps constituted an Executive Com- 
mittee on Military Affairs with the following personnel: 
Professor H. E, Crampton, '93, Chairman, Professors James 
C. Egbert, '81, and Charles E. Lucke, '03 Ph.D., J. D. Liv- 
ingston, '80, Frank D. Fackenthal, '06, and John J. Coss, 
'08 A.M. This Committee was to assist the Eighth Corps 
in matters requiring the cooperation of University instruction. 
The Executive Committee on April 19 appointed John J. 
Coss, '08 A.M., its executive secretary with his office in 321 
University Hall. Professor Crampton subsequently requested 
Mr. Coss to act as his adjutant in the general work of the 
University mobilization. {See Alumni News, April 27, ipi^, 
p. 714.) 

Mr. Coss has published in the Alumni News lists of war 
service opportunities which are open to college men, and kept 
office hours daily in 321 University Hall for the purpose of 
answering inquiries regarding these positions or other types of 
military service, until on January 7, 191 8, when he took up in 
Washington work with the War Department Committee on 
Personnel of the National Army. His work was then taken 
over by the Appointments Committee of the University- 

4. The Committee on Women's War Work. The Columbia 
University Committee on Women's War Work, Miss Virginia 
Newcomb, Executive Secretary, began its work on April 10, 
with offices in 301 Philosophy Hall. This Committee took 
charge of the registration cards of the women of the Univer- 



466 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

sity, and in October sent out 15,000 cards for a re-registration 
made necessary by the character of the calls for service which 
were coming in. To acquaint University women with the 
various lines of useful war work nine bulletins were printed 
and something over 30,000 copies were distributed. The 
Committee has cooperated with Extension Teaching and the 
Summer Session in interesting women in special training for 
war work, and has been in touch with all the more important 
Committees in New York City for women's work. Over 
5,000 applicants for positions or information have been inter- 
viewed, and a large number of volunteer and paid positions 
have been filled. {See Alumni News, December 21, 1917.) 

5. The Farm Employment Bureau. A farm bureau was 
established on April 16, in East Hall. Joseph J. Brown, '18, 
and later Dr. Evans acted as Executive Secretary. {See 
Alumni News, October 12, 1917.) 

6. Administration of New Courses. Expansion in the way 
of new courses was provided primarily by the administration 
of Extension Teaching and Teachers College. 

II 

A. THE university's WORK OF INSTRUCTION IN BRANCHES 
ESTABLISHED BEFORE THE WAR 

7. The Work of the Spring Session. The work of the entire 
Spring Session was afTected by the National situation, and 
after April 6 the activities of officers and students were scarcely 
normal. War activities and war duties demanded attention. 
The classes were continued as usual, and training in military 
and naval service was instituted. {See paragraphs 15 et seq.) 

8. Credits. Many students entered some form of National 
service, military, industrial, agricultural, or of some other sort. 
In general full credit was given for the number of points for 
which the students were registered for the Spring Session, pro- 
vided satisfactory evidence was furnished that the students 
actually completed the work for which courses were dropped 
or leaves of absence requested. {See Ahamii News, April 13, 
1917, p. 67s.) 



APPENDIX 6 467 

For the Winter Session 191 7 to 191 8 the ruling was similar, 
except that no credit was given if students left before the mid- 
term reports. The final credits were given on the basis of the 
mid-term rating. 

9. Summer Session and Extension Teaching. In the Sum- 
mer Session, July 9 to August 17, the following training was 
offered: Volunteer emergency shorthand and typewriting 
courses; a combination of courses for the preparation of 
workers in banks and trust companies. 

An emergency course in gardening was given July 2 to August 
31 in cooperation with the National League for Women's 
Service. Emergency clerical courses are offered by Extension 
Teaching in the Winter Session. 

10. Teachers College. Teachers College offered on April 16 
emergency courses for volunteer health visitors and visiting 
nurses' aids, closing on May 26. 

The regularly enrolled students of Teachers College in the 
School of Education and the School of Practical Arts were 
given opportunity for nine day special emergency courses 
beginning on May 16. An offer of service was made to Sec- 
retary Houston in teaching clothing and food economy, but 
has not yet been accepted. Emergency courses for outsiders 
were offered in Teachers College May 21 to June 8. 

No special emergency courses were offered at Teachers 
College during the Summer Session, but several members of 
the staff were busy on emergency projects. 

1 1 . The Columbia War Publications. The work of instruc- 
tion carried on by the University has been given a new direc- 
tion by addressing to the wider public a number of War Papers 
published under the direction of Professors Pitkin, R. C. E. 
Brown, and H. B. Mitchell, of the Division of Intelligence and 
Publicity. This Division carried on in the spring a newspaper 
feature and magazine article service for the students of the 
School of Journalism. It has also carried on the publicity 
work of the emergency activities of the University. 

The War Papers are as follows : 

I. Enlistment for the Farm. Professor John Dewey. 10,000. 5,000 re- 
print. Reprinted by school authorities in Philadelphia and Ann Arbor. 



468 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

2. German Subjects Within Our Gates. National Committee on Prisons 

and Prison Labor. 10,000. National Committee on Prisons and 
Prison Labor distributed 5,000. 

3. Mobilize the Country-Home Garden. Professor R. C. E. Brown. 

10,000. 5,000 reprint. 

4. Our Headline Policy. Professor H. B. Mitchell. 10,000. 

5. Deutsche Reichsangehorige hier zu Lande. (Translation of No. 2.) 

5,500. Most of edition distributed by National Commission on 
Prisons and Prison Labor. 

6. Food Preparedness. Professors H. R. Seager and R. E. Chaddock. 

5,500. 40,000 reprint for Chase National Bank. 

7. How to Finance the War. Professor E. R. A. Seligman and R. M. Haig. 

10,000. 3,500 of edition to Hanover National Bank. Reprinted by 
National Bank of Commerce in own Series. 40,000 by Chase 
National Bank. 

8. Farmers and Speculators. B. M. Anderson, Jr. 10,000. 

9. Directory of Service. John J. Coss, editor 5,000. 3,500 reprint by 

Alumni News. This War Paper was used by the Committee on 
Public Information, W^ashington, D. C, as a model for the prepara- 
tion of the National Service Handbook, which Mr. Coss was called 
to Washington to edit. The Handbook was published July 30, 1917, 
and has reached a circulation of 300,000 copies. 

10. City Gardens. H. G, Parsons. 5,000. 

11. Bread Bullets. Roy S. MacElwee. 2,000. 

12. Rural Education in War. Warren H. Wilson. 10,000. 

13. Why Should We Have Universal Military Service? Compiled from 

writings of Munroe Smith, Franklin H. Giddings, Frederic Louis 
Huidekoper and General Emory Upton. 2,000. 

14. How Canada Organized Her Man Power. J. D. Sears. 5,000. 

15. Wheat Substitution. Robert E. Chaddock, Henry C. Sherman, Mary 

Swartz Rose and Mary B. Van Arsdale. 5,000. 

16. The House Revenue Bill. Edwin R. A. Seligman. 36,000. 

17. The War Cripples. Douglas C. McMurtrie., 7,000. 

In all about 150,000 pamphlets have been circulated. Some 
of these papers have been used by syndicates conducting 
boiler-plate circulation, and have thus reached a reading public 
of close to 20,000,000. 

Teachers College has published the following bulletins which 
have a war reference: 

Technical Education Bulletin No. 3. Economical Diet and Cookery in 
Time of Emergency, by Mary Swartz Rose, Cora M. Winchell, Bertha 
E. Shapleigh, April 21, 191 7. 



APPENDIX 6 469 

Technical Education Bulletin No. 31. Simple lessons on the physical care 
of the body, by Josephine H. Kenyon. September 8, 1917. 

Technical Education Bulletin No. 33. How to plan meals in war time, by 
Mary Swartz Rose and others. 

Technical Education Bulletin No. 34. Ninety tested palatable and eco- 
nomical receipts. Department of Foods and Cookery. 

The War Service Information series mentioned as the pub- 
Hcations of the University Committee on Women's War Work 
form a third series of pamphlets which the University has 
issued in connection with the war. 

12. The Research Work of the University. While the research 
work at the University has been and will be continued along 
lines begun before the declaration of war, there will doubtless 
be a redirecting of the chief subjects of investigation in the 
interest of National service. Applied Science and Political 
Science are both fields for very effective help at the present 
time. These Divisions might well afford to turn their entire 
attentions to problems which the war has forced us to solve. 

13. Educational Theory and the War. Educationally, 
much may be learned from a study of teaching in war times. 
Instructors bear witness to the interest and enthusiasm shown 
by students in the emergency work. The immediate and 
practical bearing of their activity makes the effort expended 
satisfying. Men teaching in the naval and army training 
classes report that students who made but a mediocre showing 
in college have mastered with enthusiasm the new tasks set 
before them, even when these involved text-book study. 

War needs have already given an immediately practical 
subject matter to several departments. In the Bacteriological 
laboratory of the College of Physicians and Surgeons many new 
disinfectants have been tested for the General Medical Board, 
and in the process a new technique for the testing of disinfec- 
tants has been developed. The School of Architecture took as 
a class problem the design and drawings for a semi-permanent 
extension to be built on the west end of St. Luke's Hospital. 
This war emergency extension will be erected according to 
these plans. The Department of Fine Arts, Teachers College, 
has used war posters as a class problem, and has produced 



470 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

some very telling designs. The classes in cookery, Teachers 
College, tested a large number of recipes which have been 
published as an emergency bulletin. 

14. Honorary Degrees. The degree-granting power of the 
University was exercised in a memorable way when on the 
afternoon of May 10 before an extraordinary convocation of 
the University, which 40,000 persons attended, the degree of 
Doctor of Laws was conferred upon Marshal Joffre, M. Viviani, 
Hon. Arthur James Balfour, and Lord CunlifTe, members of 
the French and British Missions. 

B. THE university's WORK OF INSTRUCTION IN BRANCHES 
NOT PREVIOUSLY TAUGHT 

MILITARY INSTRUCTION 

When war became practically certain after diplomatic rela- 
tions were severed, the students of the University were anxious 
to train for military service on land and sea. No courses in 
military science or practice were offered by the University. 
To provide emergency training the Eighth Corps, James Duane 
Livingston, '80, Chief, Major A. S. Dwight, '85 Mines, and 
Captain H. L. Satterlee, '83, Assistants, undertook to provide 
such instruction as would prepare students for the examination 
for the Officers' Reserve Corps of the Army and Navy. The 
following calendar gives a resume of the work. 

15. Training for the Army. {A). Undergraduates and 
graduate and professional students. 

February 9. Alumni Federation Committee on Military Affairs appointed. 

{See Alumni News, February 2j, IQ17.) 
March 8. Mass Meeting of undergraduates decided on to support Officers' 

Training Corps. 
March 12. Regular Drills begun in Gj'mnasium under direction of Major 

Dwight. Drills daily 3-6, except Saturday and Sunday. 
March 13. Drills transferred to Twenty-second Regiment Armory. 

Captain Philip Mathews, Coast Artillery, U. S. A., in charge. 
March 15. Cavalry Drill at Brooklyn Riding and Driving Academy begun 

under Major Cochran. 
jNIarch 30. Lectures on Reserve Officers' Examination Material begun by 

Captain Mathews who is recalled from drill command. 
April 2. Captains Hudson and Gifford and Lieutenant Hoyt in charge of drill. 



APPENDIX 6 471 

April 5. Quiz sections to review lectures started by Messrs. Hayden and 

Taylor and ten other instructors. 
April 10. Military Bureau starts. 
April 17. Drill companies given permanent roll and provision made for 

regularizing attendance for credit. 
April 19. Six hundred students in drill companies in celebration at Stadium 

of Battle of Lexington Anniversary. About 480 in uniform. Greatest 

number reached. 
April 20. Order issued that all Reserve Officers must go to training camp 

before receiving commissions. 

Captain Mathews stops lecturing. 
April 23. Captain Robinson and Captain Van Liew carry on the lectures 

until the end of semester. 
April 23. First men enroll for Plattsburg. 

April 24. Captain Robinson in charge of drills until end of semester. 
April 27. Camp Columbia announced as offering training for 170 men in 

army drill and elementary engineering. 
May 8. Farewell service at Chapel with West Point Choir for men going 

to Plattsburg. 
May 9. Guard of Honor to Envoys at City Hall. 
May 10. Guard at the University Convocation for Envoys. 
May 12. Three hundred Undergraduates and Alumni leave for Plattsburg, 

first series, Officers' Training Camps. 
May 16. Lieutenant R. Hodder-Williams of the Canadian forces engaged 

for Camp Columbia. 
May 29. National colors presented on South Field by Mr. H. H. Cammann. 

Battalion colors presented by the Society of Early Eighties. 
June 2. Fifty-nine men leave for Camp Columbia. 
July 9. Military' Training Summer Session begins. 
July II. Course of five weeks for military interpreters begun. 
July 14. Camp Columbia closes. 
July 30. Course of six weeks in stores handling in Quartermaster and 

Ordnance begun. These courses later repeated. 
August 17. Summer Session Military Training ends. 
August 27. About 800 Alumni and students go to camps in second series 

of Officers' Reserve Corps Training Camps. 
September 27. Drills begun for Columbia Corps. 
October 17. Drills begun for men under Slater Law of the State, compelling 

boys from sixteen to nineteen to drill one hour per week. 
December 3. P. and S. begins eight weeks' course for Neuro-Surgical Medi- 
cal Officers. 
December 8. First Review of Columbia Corps on South Field. 300 men 

in uniform. 
January 2. The School of Military Cinematography established at the 

University with headquarters in Kent Hall. 



472 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Drills and lectures for the undergraduates were efficiently 
carried on. The men at Plattsburg reported that they were 
at a distinct advantage because of their work at the University. 
More undergraduates from Columbia were taken for the Platts- 
burg Camp than from any of the other colleges of the State. 

The students of the School of Pharmacy drilled in the old 
Twenty-second Armory, Broadway and 68th Street, during the 
Spring Session. 

From June 4 to July 14, fifty-eight men, all physically quali- 
fied for army service, were given military instruction at Camp 
Columbia, Morris, Connecticut. Captain (then Lieutenant) 
R. Hodder-Williams, M.C., Princess Patricia's Canadian Light 
Infantry, on leave by permission of the Canadian General 
Staff, was in command. (See Alumni News, November 2, ipiy.) 
With him were associated Professor J. K. Finch, '06 S., Resi- 
dent Director, who instructed in map reading and making, 
Professors Williams and Rogers, and Mr. J. A. Strong. Captain 
E. F. Robinson, 22nd N. Y. Engineers, instructed in musketry. 
The Camp was modelled on the Cadet Officers' Training School 
of the British Imperial Army. In addition to parade ground 
work, field work was added, consisting of musketry, map read- 
ing, entrenching, manoeuvres and marches. Daily lectures 
supplemented the field and parade work. Thirty-two men 
trained at Camp Columbia made application for the second 
series. Reserve Officers' Training Camps. Reports from all 
quarters indicate that both in spirit and results attained the 
Camp was remarkably successful. (See Alumni News, Sep- 
tember 28, iQiy.) 

At the last college faculty meeting for 1916-1917 the power 
to establish and direct work in military training was given to 
the Committee on Instruction. 

Military training for the academic year 1917-1918 is under 
the command of Captain R. Hodder-Williams, M.C. Provi- 
sion was made at the opening of the academic year in Septem- 
ber for three sections of cadets, each to drill four hours a week 
in uniform. One of these sections meets on Tuesday and 
Thursday nights, and for their use South Field has been lighted 
by banks of reflectors on Hamilton and Livingston Halls. The 



APPENDIX 6 473 

fee at first charged for the course was later aboHshed, while 
credit (3 points) was given to all who registered before October 
13. The final registration date was October 17. The total 
number of men in the Corps is 290. {See Alumni News, 
October 26, 1917.) 

In addition to the drills, the men are given a thorough course 
in map making and reading under Professor J. K. Finch, '06 S. 
{See Alumni News, December 7, 1917.) 

The students of the Corps have shown great steadiness and 
pleasure in the military training, and at the first review on 
December 8, displayed real soldierly qualities in the midst of a 
blinding snowstorm. 

In addition to the Columbia Corps, there is a body of about 
150 men drilling two hours a week without uniform. The 
University provides this section for those liable for training 
under the Slater law. {See Alumni News, October 26, 1917.) 

It is proposed to conduct a training camp for military 
service at Camp Columbia during the coming summer. It 
should be given with the object of training men who will prob- 
ably be called to the National Army. The War Department 
does not recognize the training given at Columbia as qualifying 
civilians for admission to the series of Officers' Reserve Training 
Camps. Only ninety-three colleges in the country are so 
recognized: those at which regular Army Officers were sta- 
tioned in September, 19 17. Secretary Baker commended the 
work done at Camp Columbia last summer, and it is undoubt- 
edly true that the six or eight weeks' training received there 
renders a man much more useful when called for service and 
much more likely to be cited for the Officers' Training Camps 
provided for those actually in the Army. The present plans 
call for a camp of 120 men, and require contributions of $4,000 
beyond the usual budget for Camp Columbia. 

16. Training for the Army. {B) Training for Alumni. 

February 9. Alumni Federation Committee on Military Affairs appointed. 

April 3. Alumni under Major George G. Cochran, '84 M., begin drills in 
Gymnasium. (Tuesday, Wednesday and Friday, 8-10.) Work out- 
doors, Brooklyn, Saturday 3-6, Sunday 10-12. 

May I. (about). Plans for Summer Camp in Brooklyn for Alumni 
announced. 



474 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

May 10. Present at University Convocation for Allies' Envoys. 

May 15. (about). First use of camp for week end. 

May 29. National colors presented on South Field by Mr. H. H. Canimann. 
Battalion colors presented by the Society of Early Eighties. 

May 30. Major Cochran and Mr. Livingston request Governor Whitman 
to recognize the Columbia Training Corps as a State Organization. 

June I. (about). Companies elect executive committees. 

June 12. Letter to members of corps proposing that two divisions be 
organized — one as a State Militia reserve, the other as training without 
enlistment. 

June 12. General meeting held in 301 Hamilton Hall attended by Alumni 
Corps, Trustees Bangs and Livingston, and representatives of the 
State Militia. Two factions in distinct opposition — those in favor of 
becoming a part of the troops organized for service in the state, and 
those desiring to continue the corps as an unattached training organi- 
zation. 

June 15. (about). Major Cochran retires from command. 

June 23. Trustees Bangs and Livingston meet with representatives of the 
companies in East Hall. Steps taken to form a State Militia company. 

July 27. Captain Morro, in charge of the corps, urges men to become 
identified with the State Militia. 

July 31. Captain Morro suspends for the month of August all drills except 
those on Tuesday. 

August 7. The Columbia Battalion disbanded on motion of Ward Melville, 
'09, and a self-appointed Committee decided to ascertain the number of 
men desirous of joining the State Militia. 

The Alumni drills, which were quite distinct from the under- 
graduate training, called out a large number of Alumni and 
their friends. Probably about 1,000 men were on the rolls, of 
these about 300 were Columbia alumni. The work was ham- 
pered by lack of a very definite company formation, and by 
an insufficient number of trained instructors. The effective- 
ness of the training was in part marred by the disagreement 
within the battalion as to its affiliation with the State Reserve 
Militia. Many felt that the organization should be a part of 
the State Guard, subject to state orders and equipped by the 
state. More, however, were of the opinion that the corps was 
useful for training, and were inclined to leave to the individual 
the decision as to what use he put that training. The estab- 
lishment of the officers' training camps and the provision for 
armed forces by the selective draft combined to decrease the 



APPENDIX 6 475 

enthusiasm of the battalion. In addition to the usual infantry 
drill, some of the alumni trained in signalling and topographical 
work and some drilled for cavalry service at the Brooklyn 
Riding and Driving Club. 

The Alumni were splendidly represented at the first and 
second of the Officers' Training Camps. During the Winter 
Session some drilled with the night section of the Columbia 
Corps. 

17. Training for the Army. (C) Special courses in Exten- 
sion Teaching, A course for military interpreters in French 
and German was given at the University, July 11 to August 17. 
There were twenty registrations, and army examiners who 
passed on the candidates were very greatly pleased at the 
quality of work done. Most of the registrants were appointed 
interpreters, Sergeant Grade, in the United States Army. 

At the request of the Quartermaster Corps and the Ordnance 
Department a course in stores and stores handling was given 
daily from July 3 to September 7. This was repeated once for 
the Quartermaster's Corps, and three times for the Ordnance. 
The last of these Ordnance courses began January 5, The 
work embraced military drill, army regulations and reports, 
and scientific management and transportation. Those taking 
the course were required to enlist in the Quartermaster's Corps 
or Ordnance Department, and though a few were given non- 
commissioned positions, most of the men entered the service 
as privates. 

18. Training for the Army. (D) The Neuro-Surgical School 
of New York. On December 3 there started, at the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons, an eight weeks' course in Neuro- 
surgery, which is intended for surgeons already commissioned 
in the Army. The work was undertaken at the request of the 
Surgeon General's Office. 

19. Early in January the United States Government ac- 
cepted an offer by the University of certain facilities for the 
establishment at Columbia of a United States School of Mili- 
tary Cinematography. The School was immediately organized 
with Captain Joseph D. Sears, '11, as Commandant. The 
students, numbering upwards of one hundred, receive instruc- 



476 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

tion in both still and motion phases of land photography. The 
men to whom instruction is given are drawn largely from the 
National Army. Most of them have had previous experience 
in photography, and from the output of the School will be 
chosen most of the official war photographers. University 
laboratories were adjusted to meet the needs of the School. 
Strict military regulations are in force and the ground floor 
of Kent Hall is used as barracks. 

20. Training for the Navy. 

March 19. Motor Boat Unit discussed. 

March 23. Meeting of men interested in Motor Boat patrol. {See Alumni 
News, March 30, 191 7, p. 633.) 

March 23. Lecture by Lieutenant Commander Riggs on board Naval 
Militia boat 'Granite State'. 

March 26. Ph.D. Alumni Association presents set of signal flags. 

March 31. Boat for patrol work provided by Charles G. Meyers, '01. 
Used continuously to May 18. 

April 24. Dr. Geo. A. Soper, '99 Ph.D., appointed Director of Motor Boat 
Patrol. 

April 27, Twelve men enlist in Naval Reserve of Second, Newport, 
District. 

May 14. Group of enrolled Naval Reserve Officers visit University, and 
begin their training under Professor Lucke. 

May 18. Work of volunteer training for naval service ends. 

May 30. Lieutenant Commander Barnard makes arrangements with 
President Butler for use of the University plant and some of its officers 
for the instruction of enrolled officers of the Naval Reserve. Work to be 
carried out under the direction of Professor Lucke, with Captain W. B. 
Franklin, N. Y. N. M., of the Third New York Naval District, in com- 
mand, and Lieutenant Commander J. H. Barnard, U. S. N. R. F., and 
Ensign A. G. Hatch, U. S. N., detailed for instructing. Men under in- 
struction from 100 to 300, dependent on instructing staff. Training to 
be in piloting, coastwise navigation, signalling and gunnery for deck 
men; in engines, electrical auxiliaries and accessories for engine men. 
{See Alumni News, September 28, 1917.) 

July ID. Lieutenant Commander J. H. Barnard goes to Pelham Bay Camp, 
and Lieutenant L. D. Moss becomes acting head. 

July 16. College of Pharmacy begins training of Naval Hospital Corps. 
Course ends September 22. 

September 5. United States Navy Gas Engine School begins under Pro- 
fessor C. E. Lucke, Civilian Director. 

November 15. (about). Last of Naval Reserve men transferred to Pelham 
Bay Camp. 



APPENDIX 6 477 

January 15. (about). Establishment of a Navy Aviation Engine School in 
connection with the United States Navy Gas Engine School (see above) . 

The interest and influence of George A. Soper, '99 Ph.D., 
are responsible for the instruction of the 150 students under 
the earlier work in naval training from March 19 to May 18. 
To the Department of Mechanical Engineering with the co- 
operation of Electrical Engineering should be given the credit 
for the teaching done in this period. Professors Lucke and 
Moss, Mr. Walter, and Mr. Lemmon were unfailing in their 
service as instructors. Professor Spiers, Dr. Freeburg, and Mr. 
Rockwood on the Arts Faculty rendered assistance on Mr. 
Meyers's boat and as Quiz masters. 

Dr. Soper, during the period of volunteer training, published 
an article on the expansion of naval training. (See Alumni 
News, April ij, 1917.) 

Columbia, because of her geographic position, her past and 
present connection with the Navy, and because of the large 
number of yachtsmen and sailors in the vicinity, is undoubtedly 
very favorably situated as a possible center of instruction in 
navigation, signalling, engine work, and allied subjects. 

The training of the ofificers and enlisted men of the Naval 
Reserve in the New York Naval District was undertaken at 
the request of the Naval Reserve authorities, and enabled them 
to provide instruction for men while the new station at Pelham 
Bay was under construction. In the organization of this work, 
Professor C. E. Lucke performed a very valuable service. He 
and Assistant Professor H. L. Parr, of the Department of 
Mechanical Engineering, and Professor Batesman of Cooper 
Union, gave instruction on a volunteer basis throughout the 
summer. A considerable number of the members of the De- 
partment of Mechanical Engineering received commissions, 
and were detailed at the Columbia School, where for some 
months Senior Lieutenant L. D. Moss, formerly Assistant 
Professor in Mechanical Engineering, was commanding ofificer. 
{See Alumni News, September 28, 1917. 'U. S. Naval Reserves 
at Columbia'.) In all about 2,000 men received training at 
the University during the summer months. 



478 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

The United States Navy Gas Engine Sciiool began on Sep- 
tember 5 as a school for experienced engineers in the regular 
service. These men were sent to the University to take special 
training in the engine and auxiliaries used on the new iio-foot 
submarine chasers. The equipment of these boats is unlike 
any used in the Navy, and in training the men who will man 
the engine rooms the University is solving a new problem. 
The Navy Department has recently inspected the School, and 
gave most unstinted praise to it and to its civilian director, 
Professor C. E. Lucke. {See Alumni News, November i6, IQ17.) 

To the United States Navy Gas Engine School at the Univer- 
sity was added early in 191 8 an Aviation School to prepare 
engineers and mechanicians for service at the Naval Flying 
Base Stations abroad. Professor Charles E. Lucke, the civilian 
director of the Gas Engine School, had charge of the instruction 
in the new branch, and in the laboratories of the Engineering 
Building were set up one or more of each of the types of 
aeroplane engines, including the Liberty motor in use in the 
United States Navy flying boats. The men from the School 
are prepared to go into foreign service, cooperating in the 
work of the submarine chasers and of the fleet. 

The expansion in training men already in the Navy cannot 
be predicted, but the University is prepared to assume what- 
ever responsibilities it may be asked to bear. In many ways, 
the training of men already in the service seems the most 
immediately effective use to which the skill of University in- 
structors and the facilities of the laboratories can be put. 

The Naval Hospital Corps found itself in June unable to 
train the large number of men needed to meet the increase in 
the Navy. The Columbia University College of Pharmacy 
was able to provide the needed instruction and from July 16 
to September 22 had 300 men of the Regular Navy under 
training. The staff of instructors volunteered their services. 
Warm letters of appreciation have been received from the Chief 
Medical Officers of the Navy for the excellent work done by the 
College of Pharmacy. {See Alumni News, November 2j, JQ17.) 

21. Aviation. About April i, James Duane Livingston, '80, 
appointed Mr. Clarence Martin, '03, Chief of Aviation. Some 



APPENDIX 6 479 

one hundred men enrolled and spent April 22 at Port Washing- 
ton. The University was advised by Secretary Daniels that the 
establishment of a school was inadvisable and by General 
Squier, Chief Signal Officer, that no United States officer could 
be detailed for instruction. Plans for training in aviation were 
therefore abandoned on recommendation of the Executive 
Committee on May 2. 

22. The Merchant Marine. The Nation needs officers for 
the new cargo and transport ships being built by the Emer- 
gency Fleet Corporation. It was with pleasure, therefore, that 
the University found itself able to render assistance in training 
men who intend to enter the Merchant Marine. It is doing 
this by giving classroom space, and the use of the pool, to the 
students of the New York State Nautical School, whose 
schoolship 'Newport' is tied up at the 129th Street Pier for the 
winter. This School is an old institution supported by State 
and Federal grants and administered by representatives of 
the most important shipping and commercial bodies of the 
State. The Ship is commanded by Captain Felix Riesenberg, 
'11 S. In return for the University's cooperation, the School's 
excellent course of training in Navigation, Theoretical and 
Practical Seamanship, has been opened to some eighteen of 
our own students, most of whom are on furlough from the 
Naval Reserve for the purpose of completing their college 
course. The University is thus able to provide exceptional 
Naval training for its own students, training which in every 
way equals that provided for Army service. {See Alumni 
News, October 26, 1917.) 

Ill 

COOPERATION OF THE UNIVERSITY WITH WAR ENTERPRISES 
NOT PRIMARILY EDUCATIONAL 

23. Leave of Absence for National Service. The University 
granted leave of absence of varying length to members of the 
teaching staff in order that they might enter some form of Na- 
tional Service. The leave has been granted with part salary 
(frequently the difference between the Government salary and 



480 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

the normal University salary) or without salary. The list of 
those who have entered war work is given under 'Faculty' in 
the lists published in the Alumni News. 

23. Office of the Secretary of War. In April, Frederick Paul 
Keppel, '98, Dean of Columbia College, went to Washington 
and has been in the office of Secretary Newton D. Baker from 
that time in the capacity of Confidential Secretary to the 
Secretary of War. 

24. The Office of the Adjutant General. The Adjutant Gen- 
eral's Ofifice is taking a vocational census of the National Army 
and what was formerly the National Guard. Much of the 
work is done by the Scientific Staff of the Committee on Classi- 
fication of Personnel of the Army, of which Professor E. L. 
Thorndike is chairman. (See Alumni News, December 7, IQ17.) 

On January 7, 1918, Mr. John J. Coss was called to Wash- 
ington to take a position on the staff of this Committee. 

25. The Office of the Surgeon General. Examinations by 
psychologists have been conducted in four of the National 
Army Cantonments to determine relative intellectual capacity. 
This work will probably be expanded. In the standardizing of 
the tests used both Professors R. L. Woodworth and E. L. 
Thorndike were active. {See Alumni News, October 12 and 
December 7, 1917.) 

26. Local Draft Boards. Barnard College and then East 
Hall and the Deutsches Haus housed local draft boards, and 
Professors Johnston, Baldwin, Gottheil, F. G. Moore, and 
Jacoby have served on the Administrative Staff. Several mem- 
bers of the Law School Faculty are serving on the Legal 
Advisory Boards. 

27. The Council of National Defense. Professor Henry C. 
Crampton, '93, was connected with the Council of National 
Defense from its beginning and during the summer months 
served on the Committee on Engineering and Education. 
Professor W. B. Pitkin was associated with the Council during 
the past summer as adviser on publicity for the Section on Co- 
operation with States. Miss Mary Nutting, of Teachers Col- 
lege, is Chairman of the Committee on Nursing under the 
General Medical Board. 



APPENDIX 6 481 

28. The National Research Council. Major R. A. Millikan, 
'95 Ph.D., Professor of Physics at the University of Chicago, 
is Vice-Chairman of the Executive Committee of the National 
Research Council, and Chairman of the Physics Section. {See 
Alumni News, November 16, 1917.) Professor M. T. Bogert, 
'90, '94 Mines, of the Department of Chemistry, is Chairman 
of the Chemistry Section. {See Alumni News, October ig, 1917, 
p. yg.) Mr. Arthur MacMahon is on the staff of the States 
Relations Section of the Council. In addition many of the 
faculty are serving with the Council in administrative or re- 
search positions. {See lists in the Alumni News.) 

29. The Emergency Fleet Corporation. Charles Piez, '89 
Mines, is Vice-President of the Emergency Fleet Corporation, 
and is directly responsible for the progress made in building the 
new merchant marine. {See Alumni News, December 7, igi^.) 

30. Legislation. In much of the important legislation of the 
last session of Congress the Legislative Drafting Bureau of the 
University has been active in an advisory capacity. 

31. The Columbia War Hospital. 

United States Army General Hospital No. i. 

One of the most important enterprises carried on with 
University cooperation is the Columbia War Hospital. 

Early in April, Dr. J. Bentley Squier, '94 M., recently ap- 
pointed Professor in Urology at the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, and President of the New York County Medical 
Society, proposed that there be constructed at the Columbia 
Oval, Gun Hill Road, in the Borough of Bronx, a portable 
base hospital with a capacity of 500 beds. This proposal was 
approved by the Trustees at a meeting on April 2, 191 7. 

An Executive Committee composed of Dean Samuel W. 
Lambert, Dr. Adrian V. S. Lambert, Dr. J. Bentley Squier, 
Dr. W. H. Bishop, Dr. Francis Carter Wood, Mr. Frederick A. 
Goetze, Mr. Willard V. King, was appointed by President 
Butler. Mr. W. B. Osgood Field generously gave his time to 
act as Quartermaster during the construction of the hospital. 

This Committee, in collaboration with Dr. Sidney R. 
Burnap, '09 M., and Mr. Walter Bloor, drew up plans for the 
hospital. Donations were obtained to the amount of approxi- 



482 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

mately $275,000, Mr. Daniel G. Reed generously giving 
$175,000 through his friend Dr. Alexander Lambert. Mr. 
William H. Woodin, President of the American Car and 
Foundry Company, kindly volunteered to act as Treasurer, 
and placed his office force at the disposal of the Committee 
for this purpose. 

The hospital was originally planned to offer teaching facili- 
ties and emergency medical service for the city of New York 
and to accommodate the sick of the Army and Navy stationed 
in the vicinity of New York, but it was shortly found that as 
this would be the only building immediately available for 
handling military patients in the city of New York, and as the 
War Department was anxious to keep all patients from the 
Army in a hospital of their own, proposals came from Wash- 
ington to have the hospital placed at the disposal of the War 
Department. This seemed to the Committee a very much 
larger and more important function for the hospital than the 
one which they had originally planned, and with the approval 
of the Trustees, the buildings and the Gun Hill Road property 
were leased on July 18 to the Government for the period of the 
war at a nominal rental. {See Alumni News, July, 1917.) 

The construction of the buildings, which cover some ten 
acres, was so far advanced that they were inspected by mem- 
bers of the American Medical Association on June 7. The 
whole plant was completed by the end of August, but even 
before completion was used as a temporary camp for the 
various Red Cross Units awaiting transports to carry them to 
France. As many as 400 nurses and physicians were using 
the hospital by the first of September. 

Colonel E. R. Schreiner was delegated by the War De- 
partment to take charge of the institution, and the Execu- 
tive Committee furnished a number of Columbia graduates, 
who accepted commissions, and served under Colonel Schreiner 
in the wards and laboratories of the institution. Later 
Colonel Schreiner was transferred, and Colonel D. S. Duval 
was placed in charge. 

The property was formally turned over to the Government 
on October 3. {See Alumni News, October 12, 1917.) For 



APPENDIX 6 483 

some months past it has been filled to capacity by patients 
from the large Army camps near New York. An addition of 
1,500 beds is to be made in the near future. 

32. Hospital Supply Work. When the Columbia War Hos- 
pital was begun the ladies of the Faculty under the chairman- 
ship of Mrs. Butler undertook to furnish the linen, dressings, 
and supplies. The work was at first carried on at the Maison 
Frangaise, but the rooms are at present located in the Deutsches 
Haus, and the Hospital is still receiving supplies from ladies 
of the Faculty. 

33. The Red Cross. 

(A) Columbia University Ambulance Unit. Under the chair- 
manship of Henry E. Montgomery, '88, the Alumni, Teachers 
College, and the Faculty subscribed $44,171 for a complete am- 
bulance unit of twenty cars, eight reserve cars, one two-ton 
truck and one three-quarter ton truck. The Unit is being used 
with the French Army. This fund was raised with only $132 
for expenses. {See Alumni News, May 25 and October ig, 1917.) 

(B) Columbia Ambulance Units. On April 23, P. M. Wood, 
'17, began recruiting a Columbia Ambulance Unit. Eighty- 
seven men enlisted and went to AUentown, Pennsylvania, and 
later to Tobyhana, Pennsylvania, under Doctor, now Major, 
Rockwell. To this Unit the Barnard students gave $450. 
This Unit is now in France. 

(C) A Columbia Red Cross Auxiliary was established in the 
early spring as No. 34. It is said to be the first auxiliary estab- 
lished in a University. 

(J9) Membership Campaign. Barnard and Journalism stu- 
dents were active on the Campus, both in the spring and this 
Christmas, in securing membership pledges to the Red Cross. 

{E) Re-education Work for Cripples. Professor E. T. Devine 
and Mr. Douglas C. McMurtrie, of the Columbia University 
Printing Ofifice, assisted in the preparations made for the re- 
habilitation and re-education of wounded soldiers and sailors. 
Professor Devine went to France and Mr. McMurtrie was 
made Director. {See Alumni News, December 21, 1917.) 

34. The Y. M. C. A. The various schools of the University 
contributed $50,000 to the War fund of the Y. M. C. A. {See 



484 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Alumni News, November jo, iQiy.) On or about January i, 
Professors Erskine, Siceloff, Pansier, and Dr. Evans sailed for 
work with the Y. M. C. A. in France. Dr. George L. Meylan, 
Director of the Gymnasium, was on leave of absence for the 
entire year to assist in this very important work. 

35. Liberty Loan Committee. Near the end of the subscrip- 
tion period for the first Liberty Loan an Intercollegiate Liberty 
Loan Committee of the Federal Reserve District Number Two 
was organized through the efforts of President Butler and 
Professor E. E. Agger. The Presidents of most of the large 
schools of this Federal Reserve District are on this Committee. 
President Butler is Chairman, and Professor Agger Executive 
Secretary. During the first week of October Professor Agger 
visited the collegiate institutions of the state to organize Bond 
Selling Committees among the students. At Columbia he was 
assisted by Professor Siceloff. The work of this Committee is 
financed by Professor W. T. Bush. The Committee will con- 
tinue its work and expects to assist in the sale of small denomi- 
nation saving certificates and later bond issues. 

36. Columbia was represented on the Mayor's Committee 
of Women on National Defense by Dean Virginia C. Gilder- 
sleeve of Barnard, Miss E. J. Hutchinson of the Barnard 
Faculty, and Mrs. C. C. Rumsey of the Barnard Trustees. 
Under Dean Gildersleeve's leadership there was formed a 
Council of the women's organization in New York City to 
meet monthly for the purpose of organizing the special demand 
for women workers. An Educational Clearing House con- 
ducted by the Public Education Association under the advisory 
direction of an administrative board, and a Clearing House for 
volunteer service to be formed by the Mayor's Committee of 
Women, were two of the most important plans in which Dean 
Gildersleeve was interested. The former coordinated courses 
offered in preparation for war service. The latter operated in 
connection with the organizations in New York City which 
register women for volunteer service. 



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