FARM SCHOOL, PENNSYLVANIA
1945 - 1946
The National Farm School
and Junior College
FARM SCHOOL, BUCKS COUNTY. PENNSYLVANIA
1945 - 1946
Officers and Board of Trustees
|ami;s \\ our I'rrsidott and Treasurer
LoLis A. 1 IiKscii Vice-President
Maurice Jacobs Vice-President
TuECDORE F. KuPKR V icc-Prcsideut
David Levin Assistant Treasurer
Ei.siE M. Belfield Secretary
Joseph H. Hagedorn
Honorary Chairman Board of Trustees
Chairman Board of Trustees
Sydney K. Allman, Jr.
J. Griffith Boardman
S. S. Greenbaum
Joseph H. Hagedorn
Roy a. Heymann
Julian A. Hillman
Joseph H. Hinlein
Stanley- H. FIinlein
Louis A. Hirsch
Mrs. Joseph Krauskopf
AL R. Krauskopf
Al Paul Lefton
Edwin H. Silverman
Emanuel W. Wirkman
William M. Adler
Gusta-\ E C. Ballenberg
Sylvan D. Einstein
Edwin B. Elson
Lester M. Goldsmith
Albert M. Greenfield
Mrs. Albert M. Greenfield
W. A. Haines, Sr.
Rudolph M. Hirschwald
Mrs. M. J. K.A.RPELES
A. Spencer Kaufman
Albert A. Light
David H. Fleet
Theodore G. Rich
Lee I. Robinson
Matthew B. Rudofker
Nathan J. Snellenburg
Maurice L. Strauss
Fred H. Weigle
Edwin li. Weil
U'illiam H. Yerkes, Jr.
Samuel S. Rudley Solomon Shapera
Women's Auxiliary Committee
Chairman, Mrs. Jos. Krauskopf Mrs. A. M.arks, Trcasiirfr
Mrs. .\. J. B.\MBERGER
Mrs. Hexry S. Belber
Mrs. D. T. Berlizheimer
Mrs. Leox Cohex
Mrs. Louis Fixkel
Mrs. Sol Flock
Miss Belle Floersheim
Mrs. Hexrv G.'^rtm.ax
Mrs. Samuel Colder
Mrs. a. M. Greexfield
Mrs. M. J. K.ARPELES
Mrs. a. M. Klein
Mrs. M. R. Kr.auskopf
Mrs. Sidxey Lowexstein
Mrs. Theo. Xetter
Mrs. Abr. A. Neumax
Mrs. W'm. Fleet
National Board of State Directors
ISAAC STERN, New York City, Acting Chairman
Edmund H. Abrahams, Savannah, Ga.
B. Abrohams. Green Bay, Wis.
Sam Albrecht, Vicksburg, Miss.
Henry A. Alexander, Atlanta, Ga.
Arthur A. Aronson. Raleigh, N. C.
Marcus Bachenheimer, Wheeling, W. Va.
Melvin Behrends, Washington, D. C.
Dr. Henry J. Berkowitz, Portland, Ore.
W. P. Bloom, Tuscaloosa, Ala.
R. D. Blum, Nashville, Tenn.
S. B. Brunwasser, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Edgar M. Cahn, New Orleans, La.
Gabriel M. Cohen, Indianapolis, Ind.
Julius L. Cohen, Superior, Wis.
Louis Cohen, Ft. Smith, Ark.
Miss Felice Cohn, Reno, Nev.
Heiman Cone, Greensboro, N. C.
Allen V. deFord, Washington, D. C.
Max de Jong, Evansville, Ind.
Samuel Edelberg, Saranac Lake, N. Y.
Herbert U. Feibelman, Miami, Fla.
Rabbi J. B. Feibelman, New Orleans, La.
Rabbi A. J. Feldman, Hartford, Conn.
Stanley Frank, San Antonio, Tex.
Ike L. Freed, Houston, Tex.
Max Friedwald, Billings, Mont.
Louis M. Fushan, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Judge Edward I. Gleszer, Bangor, Me.
N. Greengard, Mandan, N. D.
Mrs. H. A. Guinzburg, New York, N. Y.
Judge Samuel J. Harris, Buffalo, N. Y.
Hugo Heiman, Little Rock, Ark.
Harry Hirsch. Toledo, O.
Wm. L. Holzman, Beverly Hills, Cal.
Robt. W. Isaacs, Clayton, N. M.
Carl H. Kahn, Chicago, 111.
Thos. Kapner, Bellaire, O.
Edmund I. Kaufmann, Washington. D. C.
Howard Kayser, Minneapolis, Minn.
Daniel E. Koshland, San Francisco, Cal.
Rabbi Isaac Landman. Brooklyn, N. Y.
G. Irving Latz, Ft. Wayne, Ind.
Isidore Lehman, Jackson, Miss.
Jos. G. Lehman, Dayton, O.
Bernard Levitt, Wichita, Kan.
Dan A. Levy, Fort Worth, Tex.
Dr. I. H. Levy, Syracuse, N. Y.
M. Lipinsky, Asheville, N. C.
Alex. Lischkoff, Pensacola, Fla.
J. H. Loveman. Birmingham, Ala.
A. L. Luria, Reading, Pa.
H. A. Mackoff, Dickinson, N. D.
Herbert Marcus, Dallas. Tex.
Ben. H. May, Oklahoma City, Okla.
Isaac May, Rome, Ga.
Jewell Mayes. Richmond, Mo.
Sam Meyer, Meridian, Miss.
William Meyer, Butte, Mont.
M. G. Michael. Athens, Ga.
Abe Miller, Chicago, 111.
Louis Mosenfelder, Rock Island, 111.
Herbert A. Moses, Sumter, S. C.
N. Murov, Shreveport, La.
Chas. Nussbaum, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Michael Panovitz, Grand Forks, N. D.
Judge Max L. Pinansky, Portland, Me.
James A. Pratt, Loch Raven. Md.
Chas. S. Rauh, Indianapolis, Ind.
Hiram S. Rivitz, Cleveland, O.
Alex Rosen, Bismarck, N. D.
Bernath Rosenfeld, Tucson, Ariz.
Arthur Rosenstein, Boston, Mass.
Emil Rosentock, Sioux City, la.
Dr. Henry Ross, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Dr. Leo S. Rowe, Washington, D. C.
Samuel Rudley, Philadelphia, Pa.
Oliver R. Sabin, New York, N. Y.
Henry Sachs. Colorado Springs, Col.
Judge S. B. Schein, Madison, Wis.
Charles Schoen, Cedar Rapids, la.
Dr. Laurence Selling, Portland, Ore.
Max Semel, New York. N. Y.
David Snellenburg, Wilmington, Del.
Samuel Stern, Fargo, N. D.
Bertram A. Stroock. Jackson Heights, N.Y.
Milton Sulzberger, Providence, R. I.
Louis Tober, Portsmouth, N. H.
Louis Veta, Cheyenne, Wyo.
Jerome A. Waterman, Tampa, Fla.
Adolph Weil, Paducah, Ky.
Isadore Weil, Montgomery, Ala.
Herschel Weil, Lexington, Ky.
Lionel Weil, Goldsboro, N. C.
Morris Weil, Lincoln, Neb.
Leo Weinberg, Frederick, Md.
Henry Weinberger, San Diego. Cal.
M. J. Weiss, Alexandria, La.
S. D. Wise, Cleveland, O.
1ami;s Work President and Treasurer
TuEODORK F. Kui'ER Vice-President
Elsie M. Bei.field Secretary
Samuels B. Samuels Business Manager
Albert F. Carpenter Dean of Students
Daniel Miller Assistant Dean of Students
Selig J. Miller Chaplain
Norman Finkler Librarian
Aaron Appleby. B.S. (New York University), D.V.M. (A. & M. College of Texas),
M.S. (Virginia Polytechnic Institute), Associate Protessor of Animal Husbandry
Isidore Bavlson, LL.B. (University of Pennsylvania), Instructor in Farm Law
Paul R. Bowen, A.B. (DePauw University), M.Sc, Ph.D. (Yale University), Pro-
fessor of Biology
Albert F. Carpenter, A.B. (New York University), A.M. (Columbia University),
Assistant Professor of History
Bernard M. Crigger, B.Sc. (University of Kentucky), Instructor in Poultry Hus-
Jesse Elson, B.Sc. (Rutgers University), B.Sc. (Virginia Polytechnic Institute),
M.Sc. (North Carolina State College), Associate Professor of Soils
Herman G. Fiesser (Gartenbauschule. Geisenheim, Germany). Instructor in Flori-
Norman Finkler, B.Sc. (Temple University), Instructor in English
Earl Frick, B.Sc. (West Chester State Teachers College). M.Sc. (Temple Univer-
sity). Instructor in Music
Walter J. Groman (The National Farm School), Associate Professor of Agricultural
William A. Haines, D.V.M. (University of Pennsylvania), Professor of Animal
Hayes M. Herschler, B.Sc. (Ohio State University), Associate Professor of Agri-
Thomas Johxstox, B.Sc. (Pennsylvania State College), Assistant Professor of Voca-
NoRMAX G. Myers, Instructor in Farm Carpentry
Daxiel Miller (The National Farm School), Instructor in Vocational Agriculture
Selig J. Miller, A.B. (University of Pennsylvania), A.M. (Columbia University),
A'l.H.L. (Jewish Institute of Religion), Assistant Professor of Philosophy
David M. Purmell, B.Sc. (Michigan State College), Associate Professor of Pomology
Reddixg H. Rufe, M.D. (University of Minnesota), Instructor in Applied Mygiene
Samuel B. Samuels, B.Sc. (Massachusetts State College), Professor of Social Sciences
Henry Schmieder, B.Sc, M.Sc. (University of Pennsylvania), Associate Professor of
George M. Wiiitexack, A.B. (Wabash College), (Princeton Theological Seminary),
Professor of Mathematics
W.ALTER J. Gromax — Superintendent of Farms
Herman G. Fiesser — Superintendent of Greenhouses and Nurseries
Heister Reixhart — Superintendent of Buildings
Carl Billmax, Joshua Feldsteix — Assistants in Horticulture
Abrah.am Rellis — Assistant in Floriculture
Mervix L. Johxsox, \^'ILLIAM Gallo — Assistants in Dairy Husbandry
Raymoxd Rice, Irwix Kulp — Assistants in Poultry Husbandry
Charles Mashtaler, Aloysius Happ — Assistants in General Agriculture
Katherixe Maxtz — Dietician and Nurse
Axna Wodock — Assistant Nurse
JAMES WORK ELECTED PRESIDENT
On Ma}' 23, 1946, Mr. James \\ ork was elected President of the
National Farm School and Junior College.
Mr. \\'ork assumes the task of this office eminently qualified by
inclination, training and experience in agriculture, finance, business
organization and administration. A graduate of the School he now
heads as its Fifth President, he is thoroughly imbued with its aims.
ideals and traditions.
Elected as a member of the Board of Trustees in 1923, he has
rendered active service on various committees of the Board and more
recently was chairman of the Planning Committee whose study, in-
vestigation and recommendations resulted in the adoption of a long-
range policy of expansion, the first phase of which has already been
accomplished under his leadership in the conversion of the School
into a three-year Junior College.
In 1943, he was elected Treasurer of the Institution, which office
he still retains. He served as Acting President for many months
during the illness of the retiring President, Louis Nusbaum.
The election of Mr. Work brings the assurance of unexcelled
leadership as the Institution enters upon its second half-century of
notable service in the field of agricultural and cultural education.
A TRIBUTE TO
DR. LOUIS NUSBAUM
Resolutions unanimously adopted by the Board of Trustees at
a meeting held March 24, 1946, on the retirement of Dr. Nusbaum
Whereas, Dr. Louis Nusbaum has resigned as President of the
National Farm School and.
Whereas, for 33 years he has been a loyal and devoted trustee
of the School and he was enabled by a long career, rich with experi-
ence as an Associate Superintendent of the public school system of
the City of Philadelphia, to counsel wisely our Board of Trustees in
his capacity as Chairman of the Educational Committee and,
Whereas, he has strengthened our Board by his personal char-
acter, his integrity and his distinguished professional reputation, and.
Whereas, he has been a pioneer and ardent advocate of the
School becoming a Junior College, now, therefore, be it
Resolved that the Board of Trustees hereby express their regret
concerning his resignation and express their sincere hope for his long
and continued interest in our School.
I was interested to receive a notice of the efforts bemg
made to raise a fund to improve The National Farm School,
which is a Junior College located in Bucks County, near Doy-
This school is fifty years old. Leo Tolstoy inspired the
voung Jewish Rabbi Krauskopf who founded it in this coun-
try. But it was always "/or Jewish lads and other lads." Thus
it not only gives a great lesson in tolerance but the ability to
get along with others regardless of creed, nationahty or racial
THE WHITE HOUSE
January 17, 19^6
Dear Mr. Merz:
The origin of the National Farm School is
as interesting as its subsequent history has been
I aa glad to send my hearty congratulations
and warmest perscxial greetings as you celebrate the
fiftieth anniversary of an institution founded v/ith
the blessing of one of my illustrious predecessors
and in a measure inspired by the great Russian reformer^
Both President Cleveland and Count Tolstoy,
ivith clear vision and unerring insight, sair that nations
like individuals draw their strength from the soil. Now,
as always, agriculture is the nation's bulv/ark. A sode^
with its roots deeply imbedded in mother earth is a stable
The celebration of your Golden Jubilee will
afford a splendid opportiinity to appraise the achieve-
ments of the school's first half century amd to glimpse
its possibilities for f\irther service in the decades
that lie ahead.
Very sincerely yoyj^j"
Mr, Leon Uerz, /I *^
Chairman, Board of Trustees, /
National Farm School, '
Faim School, Pennsylvania,
THE PRECURSOR OF A NEW WAY OF LIFE
An Address by
Albert M. Greenfield
October 14, 1945
It is characteristic of most of us to take the accomplished fact
for granted. We see magnificent buildings, learn of great discoveries,
and come face to face with many inspired works of man, but we
accept them as a matter of course. We assume that, like Topsy, they
"Just growed up." We never ask, "How was this thing created?
How was it nurtured? How did it grow?" And so, we miss its
romance, that mystic human equation which in many instances is
the most appealing element in man's work. Thus, it is that many,
admiring this institution with its broad and beautiful fields, not
knowing how it was conceived, not knowing of its trials and tribula-
tions, have missed a story as romantic and as beautiful as the fields
Fifty years ago two great and inspired men met. They came
from opposite corners of the world. In the days when travel was
both difficult and dangerous. Dr. Joseph Krauskopf, imbued with
the love of his fellowman, travelled half 'way round the world and,
on the fields of distant Russia, he met Count Leo Tolstoi. Two great
humanitarians, one a Christian, the other a Jew, both noblemen In
the brotherhood of man, pondered the problem of their fellow-beings.
Count Tolstoi loved the soil. The "Back to the Soil" Movement was
his creed — it was part of his very being. Dr. Krauskopf loved his
fellowman — that was his very being.
It was in the days when our co-religionists, seeking to escape
the pogrom and the cruelties of the Old World, came to this blessed
land by the thousands and the tens of thousands. Here, strangers in
a strange land, they clung together in the ports of disembarkation.
They had landed in America. That had been their goal. Having
arrived, they knew not where to go and so they huddled together,
sharing a common insecurity — not understanding and being them-
selves misunderstood. These victims of European cruelty and intoler-
ance, seeking freedom for themselves and their families, soon became
victims of the sweatshop and economic miseries of over-crowded cities.
The Jew, seeking to escape the European ghetto, soon found himself
in one of his own making — unhappy and disillusioned from within,
and viewed with suspicion and distrust from without.
Dr. Krauskopf was inspired by a desire, nay, a passion to rescue
the Jewish youth from this ghetto and to return him to the farm, to
the ancient calling of his fathers. It was in this meeting with the
great Tolstoi that the seed of this Institution took root. It was
planted in the soil of human service and sacrifice and. because of this,
To you who have lived with the School, to you who have been
its support and its pillars, I need not repeat the story of its struggles
and its successes, of its joys, and its sorrows, for you were a part of its
life. Xor need I remind you of the opportunities and advantages it
has given to its individual students. Many members of its Alumni
are here today, as proud of the School as the School is of them.
Rather would I address myself to the School, not as an individual
institution but as a representative of scientific agriculture, because
that science of which this Institution is a living part, in its contribu-
tion to mankind, went far beyond the School's original concept of
transferring the Jewish youth from the ghetto to the farm. I prefer
to think of this School as a disciple of a "Xew Way of Life" — as
the exponent of a science that has lifted age-old burdens from the
shoulders of man. We are teaching a new way of life, a way blessed
in the sight of man.
Since childhood, the thought of the harvest and harvest-time
fills me with a feeling of deepest reverence. Having been reared in
the Faith of our Fathers, I came to know at an early age of the
Festival of the Harvest, Shabuoth, "The Feast of Weeks.'" It
was "The Day of the First Fruit OfTering" — the day on which the
first fruit was brought to the temple with prayers of gratitude for
the blessings of the harvest. I learned of Succoth. The Feast of
Tabernacles, when we are commanded to dwell in booths to com-
memorate the wanderings of our ancestors, and the divine protection
given them in those days. The Succa itself, in my juvenile imagin-
ation, became a magic carpet which transplanted me from the city
street to the fertile fields and lands of our ancestors. In the rooms of
our Hebrew Sunday School Society and from the Rov in the Chedar,
I learned and gloried in those pages of our history when we were
land owners, tillers of the soil and harvesters.
In the prayers of our elders, I could feel their reverent gratitude
to the Giver of all things for the bountiful harvests which came from
the soil. Even those of our people who tolled In the sweatshops which
abounded in our city — those who rarely saw the sun and seldom, if
ever, saw the green fields — went to the Synagogue to thank the
Almighty for the blessings of the harvest.
And so I came to think of the harvest as a phenomenon which
came to man only by virtue of God's fiat — otherwise, why would the
city dweller, the slave of the sweatshop so far removed from the
beauty and the comfort of the soil itself — be so reverently grateful.
Surely, I thought, God is sowing and man is reaping. Man had but
to wait. That man had to toil to reap the harvest was nowhere
indicated in our prayers or ceremonies. Agriculture was indeed a
gracious miracle — man but stretched forth his hand and there was
But enlightenment and disillusionment often come together. I
came one dav before a reproduction of Francois Millet's remarkable
painting "Tlie Man with the Hoe" and Edwin Markham's stirring
poem of the same name which the picture inspired him to_ write.
These two great artists, one with the brush and the other with the
word, using with full measure the license which their great art per-
mits, created in color and word a soul-stirring symphony protesting
against the old "Way of Life," a way filled with toil and sorrow and
drudgery. It was not a protest against farm labor, for labor is both
ennobling and inspiring. Labor is not the sorrow, but the joy of
man. Labor is a benediction. Drudgery is a curse. It was_ against
man's serfdom, against drudgery, that these crusaders cried out.
Markham, in his great poem, as if calling upon civilization for an
accounting, thus pictures the hoe man —
"Bowed by the weight of centuries, he leans
Upon his hoe and gazes upon the ground.
The emptiness of ages in his face
And on his back the burden of the world.
Who made him dead to rapture and despair
A thing that grieves not and that never hopes.
Stolid and stunned, a brother to the ox?"
I knew of course, that neither the picture nor the poem was
trulv representative of the typical farmer, but nevertheless my
childish dream that the harvest came without toil and struggle van-
ished and I came to realize that both symbolized man's unending
struggle for existence. Many before had cried out against the evils
of tlie sweatshop and the factory systems with their oppressive
economic inhumanities, but few voices were ever raised m protest
against the unhappy plight of the tiller of the soil. With compassion
for his fellowman, Markham cries out,
"This monstrous thing distorted and soul quenched
How will you straighten up this shape:"
How indeed will you "straighten up this shape": And who will
straighten it up — and when? The answer is that you, Dr. Krauskopf,
by vour heart and vision, hand in hand with science are "straightening
up'' the bent and weary body! Knowledge and science— planning
instead of guessing, principles instead of superstitions, learning
instead of ignorance — are creating a blessed new way of life. Science
in agriculture, with a mission and a purpose just as potent, just as
important as science in medicine. Science in the field and in the lab-
oratorv. Science to tell the farmer when to plant and where to plarit
and how to plant — to tell the farmer of crop rotation, of artificial irri-
gation and drainage, of incubation, of crop control and pest control —
to tell him of the enemies to be fought and how to fight the fight.
The farmer can now become the master and not the victim of his fate.
In this science, with its new horizons in dairying, animal hus-
bandry, poultrying and agricultural engineering, the soil itself, the
source from which so many blessings flow, becomes a major study.
Who, in the days of pre-scientific agriculture, dreamed that the soil,
like the human being, could become tired and overworked: Who
would have dared suggest that the soil was exhaustible? To question
the unlimited fruitfulness of the soil, to question the methods, the
judgment and practices of their ancestors, that was sacrilege I And
so man struggled in ancient ways, bowed indeed by "the weight of
centuries." But finally science awakened, and its research and dis-
coveries, when applied to the task of the farmer, react like trans-
fusions to the wounded. Both the farm and the farmer take on new
life. Studying the weather and its cycles has done away with the
belief that harvest losses are unavoidable or even pre - ordained.
Planting the right seed in the right place is no longer a matter of
guessing and hoping. All is now planned and science's planning is
good. And thus science, whose voice is heard thru this School, is
creating a happier way of life. It is erasing the "brother to the ox"
and re-establishing him in his natural birthright — as "brother to
Science in agriculture came late. The tiller of the soil living in
the world of nature, being on Intimate terms with the everchanging
sky by day, and the starry heavens by night, feeling the warm earth
as it turned under his plow, accepted his lot and dared not challenge
his fate. He felt himself a part of Nature, and, as he dared not chal-
lenge the ways of his fathers, so would he not blaspheme by challeng-
ing the ways of Nature. Thus, progress came slowly. In other fields
of endeavor, the inventive and scientific genius of our Nation trav-
elled far and quickly. Each year, each day — oil, gold, silver, copper
and even the elusive radium — were all taken from Mother Earth by
new methods. Each scientific discovery lessened man's labors. Our
industrial system was put on the assembly line. Working hours and
even working days were reduced. Man had more leisure, more tune
to live, more time to be with his family.
Life was more than sweat, labor and hardships. Science, which
has for years been working for the worker in industry, awakened
late and perhaps conscience-stricken. It turned to the task of liber-
ating the farmer. Carrying out that purpose is the mission of this
Institution. That is your contribution, not only to your individual
students, but to the farmer, to the Nation, and to mankind. Science
has geared itself to the oldest of all of man's labors — Agriculture. Man
is no longer harnessed to the plow. Brain power and science now pull
the plow together. Your learning and your teachings, your scientific
research, have put agriculture on the assembly line so that the
farmer may be unharnessed from a pitiless life of hardship. Now he
can lift his head and gaze upon the sun.
By this I do not mean that the farmer is not the hard and faith-
ful worker which I know him to be. His work is both dignified and
honorable. Nor am I unmindful of the fact that, during the dark
days thru which we have jiisi passed, the farmer imposed upon him-
self superhuman burdens that our men and our Nation might survive.
His efforts and his labors seemed beyond human endurance. But
without scientific agriculture — patriotism and labor itself could not
have accomplished that which was essential to achieve Victory. With-
out the farmer, our Army and Navy could not have ''carried on."
Without the farmer and the miracle which science helped him to per-
form, the War, and perhaps civilization itself, might have been lost.
For the first time in the history of civilization, one country was at the
same time the world's arsenal and the world's granary — and this
without plunder or aggression. It was the work of free men fighting
for justice. Even the prophets did not seem to foresee that the sword
and the plowshare could, at the same time and in the same hands, be
instruments of those seeking Peace and Justice.
I wish that I had the ability of an Edwin Markham so that I
might describe the modern farmer and his achievement. I would that
I could pay my tribute to scientific agriculture which causes the
garden to flourish where once was a desert — that I might, as a
pseudo-farmer, your neighbor, tell you what a boon to mankind has
been your research and your discoveries. What medicine is to the
human body, so has been your science to the soil and its harvests.
\^'hat technology has done for industry, you have done for agricul-
ture. Alan is born with a passion for the land. What child does not
enjoy playing with mud pies? Nor is this pleasure confined only to
childhood. Many men, having achieved success beyond their dreams,
as they sit in their industrial or financial houses, would give much to
again feel the soft, warm earth in the wake of the plow as it curled
itself around their bare feet. And who can capture the fragrance of
the field or meadow, or that of the new-mown hay.' Man is born of
the soil. He is of the soil. He is part of the soil and neither time nor
environment can quench his love for it.
But beyond all this there was another ideal — it was the "Ideal
Supreme" that guided Dr. Krauskopf in his labors. One crop was
dearer to him than all the others — that crop was the student body.
Teaching good citizenship — manhood — tolerance — love of fellow
beings and of his country. This was his Holy of Holies. To save men
from a life of hardship, yes ! to prove that our people could again, if
given the opportunity, create lands of "milk and honey." Yes! But
first — to create men! "Happy men!"
To help students grow mentally, morally, intellectually, to
teach tolerance and understanding, to show that non-sectarianism
in the School, if carried into later life, will be a benediction to the
individual and to the Nation, here indeed was Dr. Krauskopf's
crowning hope and vision.
\\ ho can tell what contribution our 1300 graduates have made
in their various activities — what part they played yesterday or will
play tomorrow? Dr. Krauskopf planted an acorn from which a
might}- oak has grown — an oak whose branches reach throughout
the length and breadth of the land. Our graduates are teaching a
new and better way of life. "The bread which has been cast upon
the waters" is returning after many days and in many ways.
I could not, in the very nature of things, conclude my remarks
without expressing both my recognition and appreciation for the very
great contribution made to this Institution by a fellow-Trustee for
whom I have the deepest respect and affection, my fellow-Trustee,
Mrs. Joseph Krauskopf. Without her encouragement in the face of
others' skepticism, without her enthusiasm when others predicted
failure, without her unending sympathy and understanding, it is not
possible that our Founder, with all his faith and courage, could have
continued his struggle. Without her, who can say that this Institu-
tion could have survived? To you, Mrs. Krauskopf, for your own
labors and contributions and for your loyalty to him and to this great
Institution, we extend our heartfelt thanks.
Dr. Krauskopf himself, without Millet's magic brush and with-
out Markham's magic word, but solely on the heart-strings of his
love for his fellowman, has created this School, this monument — a
monument which is a living, vital part of America. It is America!
And as we, who are here assembled in silent reverence, think of
Dr. Krauskopf, let us resolve that his work will be carried forward
as a tribute to him, as a duty to our people, and as a service to
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT
LOUIS NUSBAUM *
October 14, 1945
This annual meeting and harvest festival comniemorates forty-
nine years of the schooFs existence, and carries us into the fiftieth
our Golden Jubilee year. The- history of the School through this half
century has 'been marked by varying tides of fortune. Our pupilage
has risen and fallen at various times. The low ebb of_ pupilage has
occurred during these last few years of war time. This follows the
pattern of all educational institutions. Many colleges and secondary
schools found it necessary to close their doors. Others survived only
through virtual government subsidy of courses for the armed service.
Attendance at public high schools of the country fell off more than
one million during the war. It is commonly known that periods of
industrial and economic prosperity adversely affect school enroll-
ments, not only of regular pupils, but also of adults in evening schools
and extension classes.
The National Farm School continued to operate, at great sacri-
fices, to be sure; but it maintained the integrity of its functioning, and
the continuity of its service. Our Board of Trustees, looking forward
to the values of our school's community service in the post-war period,
deliberately assumed the obligation of keeping the school intact
through this period of stress.
The experiences we have gained have not been without their
values to us. We lowered the age limit of admission to fifteen years
because of the impact of enlistments and selective service on boys
seventeen and eighteen years old, and we have found a degree of
immaturity and irresponsibility of vocational purpose that are not
suited to the aims of a school like ours. Correspondingly we had to
relax on academic standards for admission, and we have founda lack
of the background and of the preparation necessary for the scientific
study required of students aiming to accomplish the purposes of our
Tzvo Progressive Steps
With a realization of these situations, our Board of Trustees
decided on two significant moves to rehabilitate the school, and to
expand its functions into fields of greater usefulness, without sacri-
ficing any of the magnificent ideals and purposes of the founder. With
a view to this expansion the board decided to inaugurate a fund rais-
ing campaign to mark its Golden Jubilee anniversary, and it appointed
a Planning Committee to recommend such reorganization of cur-
riculum and procedure as would accomplish the purposes outlined.
The fund raising campaign has just within a few weeks gotten
underway with the appointment of a Public Relations Director_ in
charge of the movement. The Planning Committee has been working
* Retired ~as of May 1, 1946.
continuously for the past four months, and, with the help of a group
of eminent experts, has about completed its recommendations for
early action by our board.
Detailed announcements of these moves will soon be ready.*
Their accomplishments will depend on the public's re-
action. Without the enthusiastic support of the community no such
movement can succeed. This community support must include not only
the public at large but also members of the Board of Trustees, faculty
and staff, alumni, student body, welfare agencies, and all other friends
of the school. A movement of this kind must be a co-operative enter-
prise. Planned publicity will keep all interested parties informed
of the parts they are expected to play and of the progress of the
movement. The fund so raised will be used primarily for the purpose
of expanding and improving our educational facilities, for wiping out
operational deficits, and for the replenishment of the school's endow-
ment fund which in these late years has been seriously depleted.
Expansion of the new program will require new housing facilities and
other essential buildings, as well as expanded and rehabilitated equip-
ment. It is confidently expected that all of these objectives will be
It is too early to give definite details of the contemplated school
reorganization, but if the plans under consideration are substantially
adopted the level of pupil admission to the school, and the advanced
curriculum should make it possible for the school's future graduates
to be far better prepared to assume positions in farm management
and administration, and to become more efficient leaders of farm
movements in their respective fields or communities. For those who
desire to pursue still further their collegiate training in order to be-
come agricultural specialists or research workers, there should be no
difficulty for them to enter the junior year of any agricultural college.
This entire picture opens new horizons for The National Farm
School and it should arouse a new enthusiasm in all persons interested
in the school's development and progress. Reconversion is in the air,
and this forward outlook for the school takes its place with other new
things promised for the post-war era, as in industrial and economic
The Past Year
It seems almost prosaic to turn from these considerations to an
accounting of the school's affairs in the past year. However, these
matters should be recorded.
Mention has been made above of the reasons for our small
student body. This has not been without its compensations. The
administration and the students have been able to establish closer
personal relations, and better understanding of the purposes and
problems of each. In consequence, the morale of the student body has
*The Board of Trustees on Deceviber 13, 1945, adopted the report of
the Planning Committee to expand the currindum. of the School to
that of a Junior College. On May 8, 194-6, The National Farm School
was approved by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania as a junior
been tine, and we feel that the school has become a vital factor in the
making of a body of fine young citizens.
During the year the school has been ofTicIally designated b\- the
Veterans' Administration as an approved institution for the training
and retraining of veterans under the G. I. Bill of Rights, and the
Disabled Veterans' Act.
During the past school year The National Farm School, in co-
operation with the State Department of Public Instruction, again
provided evening extension courses for farmers living within reason-
able radius of the school. These courses were designed primarily to
promote War Food Production and to help farmers to conserve their
machinery and equipment. Seventy-eight students were enrolled last
The Farm School's services to the community include many items
not specifically advertised. Our near neighbors and others frequently
appeal to us to analyze soil samples, to examine blighted plants of
various kinds, to diagnose and advise regarding many difficulties
which beset agriculturists. More and more the school is coming to be
looked upon as a centre for giving advice and assistance with regard
to many types of farm problems. All such inquiries are answered to
the best of our ability.
Pla7it and Equipment
The maintenance of the physical plant of an institution like ours
is a matter of major importance. Our property has been appraised at
over one million dollars. Our buildings alone, nearly fifty in number,
and scattered over one thousand acres, are valued at well over one-
half million dollars. Keeping this vast property inusableand up-to-date
condition requires constant oversight and spending of money. Such
items as roofing, plumbing, painting, heating, and water supply need
continued care and attention, to say nothing of contingencies which
require major operations to important parts of the plan. New wells
need to be sunk from time to time, new pumps provided, roads rebuilt,
retreated, and maintained; provision for livestock of all kinds renewed
and rehabilitated; machinery and equipment modernized or replaced
— these and similar Items require constant vigilance, and large
sums of money. Without attempting to specify the major Improve-
ments made In the past year I want merely to point out that as much
is being done constantly alone those lines as our funds will permit.
Memorial and Festive Groves
The school has under way plans for modifying the past procedure
regarding the planting of memorial and festive trees. As we grow in
age so do the trees thus planted, and the time comes when such trees
die or must be removed, and the memorial intended to be more or
less permanent disappears. Our new plans provide for setting aside
two appropriate groves, one for festive and one for memorial pur-
poses, and to perpetuate the names of those to be honored by Inscrip-
tion on an appropriate tablet set up In each grove respectively. It will
then be the purpose of the school to maintain these groves In suitable
condition, taking out trees as becomes necessary, and planting others
from time to time. Thus each of these groves will be kept always in a
condition which will suitably commemorate the names and events
concerning those to be honored. Provision will be made to continue
the planting of individual trees under certain conditions which will
Our Department Activities
The only way to tell of progress in the production department is
to give statistical figures. I doubt that more than a few persons in
this audience are interested in masses of figures, so these will be
omitted. Excerpts from reports by department heads will be included
with this report when printed. Meanwhile we should say that the
varying fortunes of the farmer's lot have also beset the work of the
school. Warm weather in early spring sent our fruit trees into a
gorgeous riot of blossoming. Heavy frosts a month later dashed our
hopes of a bumper crop. Late in summer while in the midst of our
peach harvesting, and looking forward to a reasonable remaining
apple crop, we were visited with a heavy hail storm, which put an
end to the peach crop, and badly damaged what was left of the apples
and the small fruit.
Heavy rains through the summer did much damage to our vege-
table crop, but we had a good harvest of grains, particularly of fine
wheat which sold at a premium price as seed wheat, and of corn for
feed and silage.
Our dairy herd has been improved and built up to the point
where with about one half the number of cattle in the herd about two
years ago, we are producing about the same quantity of milk. Our
small herd of Ayrshire cows has been officially rated as the fifth best
herd in the United States, and our entire herd, including Holsteins
and Guernseys, is making excellent production records. The school's
poultry flock has had unusual difficulties with epidemics of diseases,
but it seems now to have been rehabilitated and is functioning very
satisfactorily. The greenhouses and nurseries have been making a
very creditable record. This department of the school will be greatly
expanded thus increasing our instructional facilities as well as our
We are glad to be able to report, as we did last year, that not-
withstanding our small pupilage, student activities have in general
continued with no loss of enthusiasm or co-operation. The various
classes have gone ahead with publication of their year books, and of
the school magazine, "The Gleaner"; the band has continued to play
and our major athletic activities have proceeded unbroken, not
without some extra burdens put on the various production depart-
rhents, but certainly with a fine boost to school morale. It is remark-
able that at this writing, our school football team has not lost a game
in the past three years. Other interscholastic activities have proceeded
with like satisfaction.
During the past year the school has instituted a program of
intra-nuiral athletics as a regular part of its curriculum, anJ every
student of the school participates for a two-hour period once each
week. This, we believe, is a distinctly forward move for an institution
like ours, and is evidently appreciated by the students.
Recreational activities have proceeded In our normal fashion.
Periodic school dances are held; the students are provided with
swimming opportunities in summer; volley ball, hand ball, and tennis
courts have been made available, and, of course, the annual school
picnic at the end of summer. The several alumni gatherings, football
rallies, and conventions of various kinds provide opportunities for
added student contacts.
Residence throughout the year in a remote rural situation is
necessarily trying on the endurance of students accustomed to city
life; therefore, the school loses no opportunity of promoting suitable
variations from the routine and monotony of full time country
Friends of the School
This report would not be complete without mention of the fine
support we have had from our many friends. The Commonwealth of
Pennsylvania has increased its appropriation to the school by ten per
cent. Our individual contributors, Jewish congregations, and Welfare
Organizations throughout the country have continued in their gen-
erous support of the school. Our alumni, too, are invaluable, not only
because of their financial aid, but also because of their enthusiastic
participation in many extra-curricular activities of the school. They
give an inspiration and an example for the students, and they often
help where help is most needed. It has been said that a school is as
good as its alumni support. Judged by this standard The National
Farm School should rank high.
The members of our Board of Trustees have shown an increasing
interest in the affairs of the school and have been more active in its
behalf than at any previous time of the school's history. It is almost
unnecessary to say that without this kind of support no institution
could long endure. I should like to make individual mention of some
of our hard working trustees, but to do so would take more time than
we should give to this subject, and it might be embarrassing to some
who might be named. My personal appreciation goes to those mem-
bers and to our Board as a whole for their loyal devotion to our school.
And finally, I want to make brief mention of our hard working,
loyal faculty and staff, and of the fine co-operative young men
that make up our student body. After all, it is the spirit of these
groups that makes The National Farm School what it actually is
in the training of skilled agriculturists and of fine American citizens.
Excerpts from Department Reports
"During the past year the school concluded a contract with the
Philadelphia office of the Veterans Administration to admit discharged
veterans for courses in agriculture. Our first veteran students ent-
ered in February, 1945, with others following intermittently. Some
enrolled for the regular three-year period while others are registered
for a one to two year course.
"Although the number of our regular students is less than in
former years, insistence on a more rigid academic standard and a
closer scrutiny of the candidates at the time of their admission have
resulted in a high caliber of student personnel.
"The extra curricular activities were maintained during this
period of small pupilage. Two hours each Saturday were devoted to
intramural athletics, which helped greatly in encouraging school spirit,
good fellowship, and co-operative interest. The social function of the
students included several dances, and recreational room activities.
The Canteen served as a meeting place and a source of refreshments.
The band, although small in number, continued to be an inspiration
and a source of student enjoyment."
"The greatest single factor that retarded most farmers during the
past spring and summer was the weather. There was considerable loss
from continued rains, but some gain. Listed below are the highlights
of the past year:
1. We did a great deal of cleaning work such as removing old
trees, cleaning fence lines, picking stones, relocating roads and re-
arranging fields. A great deal remains to be finished but this type of
work can only be done during periods when the farm work is
2. The acreage that we planted to different crops was as follows:
Wheat — 120 acres
Oats with alfalfa — 42 acres
Potatoes — 15 acres
Corn — 110 acres
Hay — 210 acres
3. Harvesting these crops presented one of the most difficult
problems, due to wet conditions. We have in the barns the following
Hay — 13,000 bales, approximately
Straw — 5,000 bales, approximatelv
Wheat— 3.000 bushels
Oats— 1,200 bushels
"Grain harvest was the source of most of the trouble in this sec-
tion. From July 15 until August 7 we could do nothing but wait for
clear weather. Deterioralion of ^landing grain was considerable. Cm-n
made excellent growth with a bumper crop assured. Potatoes are un-
certain. We have to dig before we can give an estimate.
"Soybeans will go well over our estimated returns. From one half
of the acreage planted we have already exceeded that goal.
"To complete this outline, several matters should get future at-
tention. One of these is a survey of our fields with a view to applying
conservation practices. We have done some work along these lines
but the whole acreage should be surveyed and recommendations made
and followed where practicable. This work would take several years
to complete and should not be too expensive."
"During the year 1944 to 1945, we had an exceptional chrysan-
themum crop in addition to other cut flowers and pot plants.
"We also have increased propagation in azaleas, which will ap-
pear soon in our major production program. A substantial number of
conifers have been propagated and should in the near future become
an addition to our expanding nursery.
"The grounds around Segal Hall, as well as the grounds around
the Alumni house, have been remodeled and improved. The general
appearance of our campus has been kept up in accordance with the
tradition and expectations of an agricultural educational institution.
A cold and late spring retarded the early vegetable crops.
Spring frosts killed the grape, strawberry, cherry, plum blossoms
and a good many apple and peach buds.
A very wet summer increased the scab on apples and made culti-
vation and weeding of vegetable crops an impossibility.
A severe hail storm struck on August 25, and seriously injured our
On the brighter side of the picture we can report the following:
The removal of one half of the old peach orchard and the planting
of 300 peach trees consisting of the new New Jersey varieties,
such as : White Hale, Red Rose, Newday, Triogen and Afterglow.
The harvesting of 2,000 baskets of early peaches. These w^ere larger
in size and remarkably free from oriental worm injury.
A bigger and better sweet corn, tomato, onion and early cabbage
The apple crop, while smaller this year because of frost injury, will
bring in a commensurate return.
"The dining room at The National Farm School is considered a
very important phase of this institution's organization. In many as-
pects, it may be compared to the hub of a wheel around which
revolves all activity. Good educational facilities and a fine staff of
faculty members would all be in vain if the students were not nor-
mally content with food which is served for their consumption.
'"Almost all the food, especially the milk and vegetables, are the
result of the boys' educational efforts. The menu served takes mto
consideration that the student body represents adolescent boys m the
growing stage and the fact that they are working as part of their
training. Therefore, the food served is more than the normal amount
of substantial and wholesome foods that would be required on the
average well-balanced menu for students in purely academic studies.
"The kitchen staff is headed by two competent chefs and the kit-
chen and the student dining room are always kept within the standard
of immaculate cleanliness. The students all take regular assignments
in waiting on student tables.
"Through the continuous surge of increasing prices of com-
modities we were not caught unprepared. We have kept abreast with
the many economic problems and the conditions which have been
rapidly affecting increased prices and scarcity of various esseritial
foods. As a result at no time were we handicapped for the need of
food items nor have we found it necessary to pay exorbitant prices
Fortunately, the purchase of most commodities, such as coal, canned
goods and other important items has been well effected to the extent
of maximum possibilities."
"The dairy has been culled and animals removed untilwe will be
able to house the entire herd in the dairy barns this coming winter.
This will enable their being cared for with the greatest economy in
labor and permit observation of the younger members of the herd
continuously, rather than at twice a day intervals.
"The average production per milking cow has materially in-
creased so that even with the reduction in milking cow population,
we still meet the sales requirements in Philadelphia, as well as that of
the kitchen at Farm School. _ r tt i •
"Among specific cases to be noted is the production of a Holstein
cow, Farm School Lassie DeKol, who at fifteen years of age had
recently completed an official lactation record of 17,640 pounds of
milk and 606 pounds of fat. This wonderful old cow is soon to freshen
again and is being made comfortable in a roomy, well bedded, box
stall. She is being carefully supplied with the most tempting and
nourishing feeds obtainable with the hope that she may duplicate her
last production record, which would be considered outstanding for
two times a day milking for an animal years younger than she.
"We have another Holstein cow. Farm School Pearl Cassie, that
has recently completed a lactation record on two times a day milking
of over 18,000 pounds milk and more than 700 pounds of fat. This
record would be a credit to a cow in any herd, but this animal is in
the prime of her life and production ability and not in the age class
as the animal above referred to.
"The General Agriculture Department has furnished us silage of
excellent quality, the mows with hay, and the cribs with corn, so that
the dairy will be supplied with roughage and cornmeal of the best
''This department, after a prolonged struggle for disease control,
apparently has mastered the problem and we hope will soon again be
a profitable enterprise at Farm School. The trouble has not been
without its educational value to those students and others who are
familiar with the circumstances.
"We are marketing the first of the winter crop of broilers, a nice
thrifty appearing lot that averaged over three pounds in weight at
twelve weeks of age. There will be several shipments of these to
market at intervals of about two weeks.
"The well cleaned and disinfected buildings are filled with pullets
of egg producing age. We are planning a yearly change of poultry
range which will assist in disease control.
"The senior class in Poultry Husbandry are especially interested
in a capon breeding project. This consists in the mating of females of
several of the heavy breeds, with a Cornish Indian Game male. The
resulting male chicks of the several breed crossings to be caponized,
grown and finished for the market. The comparative study of the
several breed crosses in capon quality should provide an interesting
and valuable study.
"The turkey raising project has been successful. Those slaught-
ered for the Thanksgiving market wxre well breasted and the flesh of
excellent quality. For the Christmas market they will be larger in size
but the quality cannot be better.
Athletic and Recreational Activities
"Three major sport teams are represented in the school. They
are football, basketball, and baseball. In football, the varsity team,
composed of the best players among the students, represents the
group, and they compete with other preparatory school, vocational
school, and college organizations. Consideration is also given to the
need of active participation of the students who do not have the ability
to represent the varsity teams. In order successfully to achieve this
purpose, class teams are formed which compete in their annual games.
"The basketball team is also represented by a similar varsity
group of boys, and then the entire student body is divided into a
basketball league of six teams which play a schedule of games against
each other, thereby developing considerable interest among the entire
student body. There is also freshman-junior competition in this sport.
"A varsity baseball team and the class and club representative
teams have organized in the school in a similar manner. This system
gives every student in the school an opportunity to participate in the
major athletic actvities which are supported by the institution. Very
often a boy who had very little confidence in his athletic ability is
encouraged to play on a club or class team with students of the same
comparative caliber, and he develops rapidly enough to become even-
tually a good representative on the school varsity team.
''The matter of financing an athletic program which makes it
possible for all the students to participate in these activities is a
problem. In the interest and the welfare of the students, it is
important that we have the proper equipment, which entails con-
siderable expenditure when realizing that three major activities are
supported. It is also our policy to schedule as many varsity games as
possible to be played at home. This involves expenditure for
traveling expenses for other schools to play here, but we consider
it worthwhile because it serves to give our student body entertain-
ment in watching these games and to keep them on the campus in-
stead of taking time and money to follow their boys, when they play
away from home.
"The efforts and expenditures in the entire athletic program, as
explained, have not been in vain, and one who observes these teams
in action for the first time will soon be inoculated with the students'
spirit of enthusiasm and will be sure to become an ardent supporter
of the boys and The Natonal Farm School w^hich they represent.
"As a result of this fine spirit among the student body and the
team members, the past competitive athletic season has been one of
the best in the annals of Farm School athletic teams. The football
team has been undefeated for the past three years. The basketball
team lost three out of eleven games and the baseball team also did
"It is interesting to note, and we mention with great pride, that
our more than three hundred men In military service, in correspond-
ing, express keen interest in the athletic activites and progress of the
teams representing their Alma Mater."
Campus and Farm Building Maintenance
"During the past few months considerable progress has been
made with the problem of maintenance. This is especially significant
considering that help and material are nearly impossible to obtain.
At the Dairy Department, the entire electric wiring and power system
has been replaced. This was of vital importance due to the fact that
the old system was obsolete and constanly in need of repair. We have
also constructed a new water well and pump and this should prevent
any possibility of water shortage due to breakdowns. The old well at
present is showing signs of losing its usefulness. The painting program
and all other repairs of importance have been completed.
"During the year all the roofs of campus buildings including
farm barns have been inspected and repaired. Most of the general
repair maintenance is in progress or on schedule."
''We have been fortunate in obtaining the best prevailing market
prices for most of our produce includmg peaches, other fruits, vege-
tables, and seed wheat. This has been due largely to the splendid
group of customers who represent large organizations and are willing
to pay good prices for high quality merchandise. It is gratifying to
notice in records of the present year that the income for farm prod-
ucts has been considerably in excess of previous years."
HARVEST FESTIVAL AND
FORTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL MEETING
October 14, 1S45
The Forty-Eighth Annual Meeting and Harvest Festival of The
National Farm School took place in the Louchheim Auditorium on
the campus on Sunday, October 14, 1945.
The speakers' platform was artistically decorated with the fruits
of the harvest and farm products exhibits lined the side walls of
Albert M. Greenfield, of Philadelphia, was the guest of honor
and principal speaker. His address, entitled "The Precursor of a New
Way of Life" is reprinted on pages 11 to 16 of this report. The
report of the President, also reprinted on pages 17 to 27, was
submitted by Louis Nusbaum. Gilbert Katz, President of the senior
class, made a brief address on behalf of the student body.
Announcement of exhibit awards to students for the various dis-
plays and exhibits of competitive and educational entries of farm
products, farm animals and scientific displays, was made by David
M. Purmell, chairman of the faculty committee on awards.
The Nominating Committee Report was submitted by Edwin H.
Silverman, Chairman. The following trustees whose terms of office
had expired were unanimously re-elected for three-year terms: Gus-
tave C. Ballenberg, Edwin B. Elson, Benjamin Goldberg, Albert M.
Greenfield, Dr. A. Spencer Kaufman, Sydney J. Markovitz, Theo-
dore G. Rich, Max Semel, Nathan J. Snellenburg, Edwin H. Weil and
William H. Yerkes, Jr. Fred H. Weigle was elected to fill an un-
expired term ending September, 1946.
The student band, led by Earl Frick, Director, furnished music
before and during the exercises.
Reverend Charles E. Freeman, Pastor of the Salem Evangelical
and Reformed Church, Doylestown, Pa., offered the opening prayer,
and benediction was given by Reverend Joseph Klein, Rabbi of
Reform Congregation Keneseth Israel, Philadelphia. Leon Merz,
Chairman of the Board of Trustees, presided.
The National Farm School
AND Junior College
hereby expresses sincere appreciation to
generous friends whose contributions made
possible the publication of this Annual
Report without cost to the College.
The Board of Trustees of The National Farm School and
Junior College held on Thursday, May 23, 1946 noted the
MORRIS R. BLACKMAN
one of its members who was originally elected by the Alumni
Association of the School as its representative to the Board
and who later was re-elected by the choice of his fellow
trustees. He faithfully fulfilled his duties as trustee, and he
was a loyal supporter of the Alumni Association and of the
School. Now, therefore, be it
RESOLVED, that the Board of Trustees of The National
Farm School and Junior College express their sincere regret
at the death of Morris R. Blackman, and further be it,
RESOLVED, that an engrossed copy of these resolutions
be presented to his beloved wife and family.
A^ANFRED R. KrAUSKOPF
IsADORE Baylson, Chairman
ANNUAL GRADUATION EXERCISES
March 24, 1946
The Forty-Sixth Annual Graduation Exercises of The National
Farm School Vv^ere held in Segal Hall Auditorium, Sunday afternoon,
March 24, 1946. The low ebb of pupilage due to wartime conditions
made the 1946 graduating class again one of the smallest in the
school's history. Six seniors remained to receive diplomas.
Charles H. Boehm, Superintendent of Puplic Schools of Bucks
County, Pennsylvania, gave the graduation address, congratulated
the students on their choice of a vocation and pointed out the oppor-
tunities open to those trained for agricultural leadership.
The complete program of exercises follows:
America Mrs. Walter J. Groman, Accompcmist
Invocation Seymour Baumrind, Rabbi Beth Israel
Congregation, Lansdale, Pa.
Welcome Louis Nusbaum, President
Salutatory Philip Hoffman
Address Charles H. Boehm, Superintendent
Public Schools of Bucks County, Pa.
Valedictory Daniel Tannenbaum
Passing of the Hoe Gilbert Katz, President Senior Class
Farewell Message ... .David M. Purmell, Representing the Faculty
Awarding of Prizes Daniel Miller, Acting Director Student Relations
Presentation of Diplomas President Nusbaum
Star Spangled Banner
Department of Animal Science
Animal Husbandry and Dairying
PHILIP HOFFMAN Philadelphia, Pa.
HERBERT SHERMAN Philadelphia, Pa.
MACY BRENNER Brooklyn. N. Y.
gilbert katz Bronx. N. Y.
Department of Pomology and Vegetable Gardening
NATHAN KUSNITZ Brooklyn, N. Y.
DANIEL TANNENBAUM Mamaroneck, N. Y.
Best General Record Through Three-Year Course Gilbert Katz
Pomology and Vegetable Gardening Prizes
Best Practical Work Nathan Kusnitz
Highest Scholastic Record Daniel Tannenbaum
Dairy Husbandry Prizes
Best Practical Work Philip Hoffman
Highest Scholastic Record Herbert Sherman
Poultry Husbandry Prize Gilbert Katz
A number of other prizes are distributed more informally in student
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
The National Farm School was founded in 1896 by the late
Rabbi Joseph Krauskopf, D.D., for the purpose of training young
men to become scientific and practical agriculturists. In fifty years
the School has grown from a small institution consisting of only one
farm, to an institution covering twelve hundred acres of land, with
a beautiful campus and buildings, classrooms, laboratories, and shops,
sufficient to properly house and educate a student body of two hun-
dred. The National Farm School is, and has been since its inception,
conducted on a non-sectarian basis. Its splendid equipment and
opportunities are open to any deserving young man who may meet
the entrance requirements.
On May 8, 1946, The National Farm School was approved by
the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania as a Junior College.
The National Farm School and Junior College is located in
Bucks County, Pennsylvania, in one of the richest agricultural sec-
tions in the United States. It is thirty miles north of Philadelphia
and seventy miles south of New York City, on U. S. Route 202. The
nearest town is Doylestown, which is only one mile from the campus.
Doylestown is the County Seat and is rich in historical tradition.
Doylestown has a population of approximately five thousand and has
a number of churches, high class hotels, and a fine shopping district.
The Philadelphia and Reading Railroad runs through the College
grounds with a station known as Farm School. The Post Office,
also known as Farm School, is located in the Administration Buildins.
The College campus consists of twenty-seven acres of landscaped
lawns with two football fields, a baseball diamond and tennis courts.
On the east side of the campus are Allman Hall, used for adminis-
trative purposes; Lasker Hall which houses the reception rooms,
dining rooms, kitchen, infirmary, and other domestic facilities; the
Chapel and Eisner Hall. South of the campus is the beautiful
Krauskopf Library. West of the campus are Penn Hall, Segal Hall,
and LHman Hall. These buildings contain dormitories, classrooms,
AIMS AND PURPOSES OF THE COLLEGE
The objective of the College is twofold:
First: To prepare young men to become successful farmers
or workers in agriculture or allied industries.
Second: To provide young men with an academic and cultural
education which will lead to well-rounded citizenship
and leadership in their community.
A three-year course, both terminal and preparatory, has been
established. The College provides instruction in both practical and
scientific agriculture as well as in the cultural subjects. The establish-
ment of a three-year course provides the opportunity to teach all of
the students the practical operations required as a fundamental for
the occupations of Floriculture, Horticulture, Landscape Gardening,
Poultry Husbandry, Dairy Husbandry and General Agriculture. This
practical instruction is considered an essential part of the curriculum
and is mandatory for all students.
GENERAL COURSES OF STUDY
The general education covered is aimed to provide the back-
ground of information, skills, and attitudes necessary for proper living
in a democratic society. So far as the course of study is concerned,
this material is frequently classified under four major heads. These
are the Physical Sciences, the Biological Sciences, the Social Sciences,
and the Humanities. Often these are presented in four survey courses
which ofi"er a bird's-eye view of the fields. The National Farm School
and Junior College course of study adapts and improves upon this
approach. Since this is an agricultural college, major emphasis must
be placed upon basic sciences, in order to graduate students who are
prepared to put into practice the best modern methods.
In order to meet academic requirements of colleges to which
students may transfer after graduation, and to provide a well-rounded
and thorough education for terminal students, the above courses have
been established. The courses outlined present a more thorough pro-
gram of studies than is found in many junior colleges, both in number
of credits earned and in breadth of fields covered. This is possible
because three, rather than two, years are devoted to the curriculum.
The outline of courses for the first year is prescribed for all stud-
ents. In the second and third year a choice of specialization is offered
in one of the six major courses as shown in this catalogue, with a
curriculum of studies prescribed for each. Provision is made for guid-
ance and encouragement of students to bring out the best which each
has to ofTer. Those students having proper ability will be encouraged
to seek further education, through contacts with universities and
senior colleges. All students are assisted in securing positions after
graduation and are encouraged to maintain, as alumni, their contact
with the College.
During the third year a place is left for electives. These will be
foreign language, specialized agricultural courses, and other subjects
depending upon student interest.
The fundamental aim of The National Farm School and Junior
College is the educational growth of students. All experiences on farm,
in classroom, in social contacts, are planned to produce better farmers,
better citizens, and potential leaders of rural communities.
The various courses directly related to the business and agri-
cultural facilities of the College are so arranged and outlined that the
whole college is the living example of the principles and truths being
taught. Farm Accounting is taught not wholly from the textbook, but
also from actual accounts kept on the farm, the dairy, and the other
departments. The same is true of testing of soils, testing of milk,
farm surveying, merchandising, and numerous other subjects.
Every student, regardless of the amount of fees paid or scholar-
ships received, is required to engage in supervised agricultural prac-
tice, or vocational experience, forty-two hours per week during the
three summer terms and twelve hours per week during the first and
second semester of each college year. Students are required to enter
the college at the beginning of the summer term in order that they
may receive the benefit of three full summer terms of supervised
practice. The farms, the greenhouses, the dairy and poultry plants,
and the orchards are regarded as a huge laboratory in which the
science and practice of agriculture may be taught to a higher degree
and with a better understanding than is possible in the classroom or
the conventional school laboratory. The course in supervised practice
is so established that the first summer term is spent on the instruction
fields, and the second and the third summer terms in the department
covering the course in which the student has elected to specialize.
Agriculture consists of many skills, and one of the major objectives is
to teach the student these skills, not merely expose him to them. Xo
student shall be graduated who has not passed the necessary grades
in practical work. The farms and other production activities are man-
aged and operated at the highest efficiency as a means of educating
the student in successful agricultural procedures.
Every student is given the opportunity for complete physical de-
velopment. This includes lectures on health, nutrition, and hygiene,
as well as competition in intra-mural and inter-collegiate athletics. All
students are required to engage in physical education activities.
The College has established a counseling service for veterans who
may desire to obtain an agricultural education under the G. I. Bill of
Credit is allowed for military experience and training by a
standard of measurement set up by colleges throughout the country.
All veterans must meet the standard entrance requirements of the
THE NATIONAL FARM SCHOOL and
JUNIOR COLLEGE program of tree dedica-
tions makes it possible for those who wish to
commemorate a joyous occasion or to pay last-
ing tribute to a departed one, to do so through
the dedication of living, growing trees. Trees
can symbolize as no other memorial, expressions
of joys and sorrows and keep fresh the memory
of those persons and occasions we wish to re-
The National Farm School and Junior College has established for
A Patriots Grove — to honor those who have made the supreme
sacrifice or have otherwise served or are
serving in the armed forces of our country.
A Festive Grove — to commemorate births, birthdays, confir-
mations, graduations, betrothals, weddings
and other occasions and aniversaries.
A Memorial Grove — to memorialize the departed.
The names of those persons for whom dedications are made will be
inscribed on a suitable plaque at the entrance to the groves.
Contributors will appreciate this fine means of sharing festive occa-
sions or of expressing sympathy while at the same time, enjoying the
satisfaction of helping a worthy institution. Contributions ranging from
$10 to $100 and over are acceptable for this purpose.
The form below may be used in sending in requests.
THE NATIONAL FARM SCHOOL AND JUNIOR COLLEGE
FARM SCHOOL, BUCKS COUNTY
Enclosed is contribution of $ , for which inscribe
The Name of
City and State
Event Date of Event
Patriots Grove □
Festive Grove n
Memorial Grove □
Please send acknowledgment to:
Name of Contributor
THE NATIONAL FARM SCHOOL AND JUNIOR COLLEGE
FARM SCHOOL, BUCKS COUNTY
Membership of The National Farm School
and Junior College
1, the undersigned, being in sympathy with the object of The National
Farm School and Junior College — the training of youth in the science and
practice of agriculture — do hereby agree to subscribe as one of the main-
tainers of the institution the sum of dollars annually.
Member . . .
Supporter . .
. . 5
Make checks payable to The National Farm School
and Junior College
Form of Legacy to The National Farm School
and Junior College
"7 give and bequeath unto The National Farm School and Junior College,
Bucks County, Pa., near Doylestown, the sum of dollars
free from all taxes to be paid to the Treasurer, for the time being, for the
use of the institution."
Form of Devise
ON REAL ESTATE OR GROUND RENT
"/ give and devise unto The National Farm School and Junior College,
Bucks County, Pa., near Doylestown (here describe the property or ground
rent), together with the appurtenances, in fee simple, and all policies of
insurance covering said premises, ivhether fire, title or otherivise, free from
A donation or bequest of $10,000.00 will found a perpetual scholarship,
the income from which will go toward maintaining one student each year;
such scholarship may bear the name of the donor or such names as the donor
may designate. A donation of $900.00 will provide instruction, board and
room of a student for one year (a twelve-month term) ; $2,700.00, for three
years (thirty-six months) to graduation.
Gifts to The National Farm School and Junior College
IN Cash, War Bonds and War Savings Stamps
Are Allowable Iivtcome Tax Deductions