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Full text of "Annual Report 1945-1946 Golden Jubilee Edition"

The National 
Farm School 

and 

Junior College 

FARM SCHOOL, PENNSYLVANIA 



GOLDEN JUBILEE 



ANNUAL REPORT 

1945 - 1946 



The National Farm School 
and Junior College 

FARM SCHOOL, BUCKS COUNTY. PENNSYLVANIA 



GOLDEN JUBILEE 
EDITION 



ANNUAL REPORT 
1945 - 1946 




Joseph Krauskopf 

Founder 



Officers and Board of Trustees 

|ami;s \\ our I'rrsidott and Treasurer 

LoLis A. 1 IiKscii Vice-President 

Maurice Jacobs Vice-President 

TuECDORE F. KuPKR V icc-Prcsideut 

David Levin Assistant Treasurer 

Ei.siE M. Belfield Secretary 

Joseph H. Hagedorn 

Honorary Chairman Board of Trustees 

Leon AIer/, 
Chairman Board of Trustees 



Sydney K. Allman, Jr. 
Isidore Baylson 
J. Griffith Boardman 
David Burpee 
Harry Burstein 
LIorace Fleisher 
S. S. Greenbaum 
Joseph H. Hagedorn 
Lester Hano 



Honorary Trustees 

Roy a. Heymann 
Julian A. Hillman 
Joseph H. Hinlein 
Stanley- H. FIinlein 
Louis A. Hirsch 
Maurice Jacobs 
Charles Kline 
Mrs. Joseph Krauskopf 
AL R. Krauskopf 



Al Paul Lefton 
Leon Merz 
Louis Nusbaum 
Leon Rosenbaum 
Edwin H. Silverman 
Philip Sterling 
Isaac Stern 
Emanuel W. Wirkman 
James Work 



William M. Adler 
Gusta-\ E C. Ballenberg 
Samuel Cooke 
Gabriel Da\idson 
Sylvan D. Einstein 
Edwin B. Elson 
Benjamin Goldberg 
Lester M. Goldsmith 
Albert M. Greenfield 
Mrs. Albert M. Greenfield 
W. A. Haines, Sr. 



Elected Trustees 

Rudolph M. Hirschwald 
Mrs. M. J. K.A.RPELES 
A. Spencer Kaufman 
David Levin 
Albert A. Light 
David H. Fleet 
Theodore G. Rich 
Lee I. Robinson 
Edward Rosewater 
Matthew B. Rudofker 



Max Semel 
Harry Shapiro 
Nathan J. Snellenburg 
Israel Stiefel 
Maurice L. Strauss 
Max Trumper 
Fred H. Weigle 
Edwin li. Weil 
Bernard Weinberg 
U'illiam H. Yerkes, Jr. 



Alumni Representatives 

Samuel S. Rudley Solomon Shapera 



Women's Auxiliary Committee 

Chairman, Mrs. Jos. Krauskopf Mrs. A. M.arks, Trcasiirfr 



Mrs. .\. J. B.\MBERGER 

Mrs. Hexry S. Belber 
Mrs. D. T. Berlizheimer 
Mrs. Leox Cohex 
Mrs. Louis Fixkel 
Mrs. Sol Flock 



Miss Belle Floersheim 
Mrs. Hexrv G.'^rtm.ax 
Mrs. Samuel Colder 
Mrs. a. M. Greexfield 
Mrs. M. J. K.ARPELES 
Mrs. a. M. Klein 



Mrs. M. R. Kr.auskopf 
Mrs. Sidxey Lowexstein 
Mrs. Theo. Xetter 
Mrs. Abr. A. Neumax 
Mrs. W'm. Fleet 



National Board of State Directors 



ISAAC STERN, New York City, Acting Chairman 



Edmund H. Abrahams, Savannah, Ga. 

B. Abrohams. Green Bay, Wis. 

Sam Albrecht, Vicksburg, Miss. 

Henry A. Alexander, Atlanta, Ga. 

Arthur A. Aronson. Raleigh, N. C. 

Marcus Bachenheimer, Wheeling, W. Va. 

Melvin Behrends, Washington, D. C. 

Dr. Henry J. Berkowitz, Portland, Ore. 

W. P. Bloom, Tuscaloosa, Ala. 

R. D. Blum, Nashville, Tenn. 

S. B. Brunwasser, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Edgar M. Cahn, New Orleans, La. 

Gabriel M. Cohen, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Julius L. Cohen, Superior, Wis. 

Louis Cohen, Ft. Smith, Ark. 

Miss Felice Cohn, Reno, Nev. 

Heiman Cone, Greensboro, N. C. 

Allen V. deFord, Washington, D. C. 

Max de Jong, Evansville, Ind. 

Samuel Edelberg, Saranac Lake, N. Y. 

Herbert U. Feibelman, Miami, Fla. 

Rabbi J. B. Feibelman, New Orleans, La. 

Rabbi A. J. Feldman, Hartford, Conn. 

Stanley Frank, San Antonio, Tex. 

Ike L. Freed, Houston, Tex. 

Max Friedwald, Billings, Mont. 

Louis M. Fushan, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Judge Edward I. Gleszer, Bangor, Me. 

N. Greengard, Mandan, N. D. 

Mrs. H. A. Guinzburg, New York, N. Y. 

Judge Samuel J. Harris, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Hugo Heiman, Little Rock, Ark. 

Harry Hirsch. Toledo, O. 

Wm. L. Holzman, Beverly Hills, Cal. 

Robt. W. Isaacs, Clayton, N. M. 

Carl H. Kahn, Chicago, 111. 

Thos. Kapner, Bellaire, O. 

Edmund I. Kaufmann, Washington. D. C. 

Howard Kayser, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Daniel E. Koshland, San Francisco, Cal. 

Rabbi Isaac Landman. Brooklyn, N. Y. 

G. Irving Latz, Ft. Wayne, Ind. 

Isidore Lehman, Jackson, Miss. 

Jos. G. Lehman, Dayton, O. 

Bernard Levitt, Wichita, Kan. 

Dan A. Levy, Fort Worth, Tex. 

Dr. I. H. Levy, Syracuse, N. Y. 

M. Lipinsky, Asheville, N. C. 

Alex. Lischkoff, Pensacola, Fla. 



J. H. Loveman. Birmingham, Ala. 

A. L. Luria, Reading, Pa. 

H. A. Mackoff, Dickinson, N. D. 

Herbert Marcus, Dallas. Tex. 

Ben. H. May, Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Isaac May, Rome, Ga. 

Jewell Mayes. Richmond, Mo. 

Sam Meyer, Meridian, Miss. 

William Meyer, Butte, Mont. 

M. G. Michael. Athens, Ga. 

Abe Miller, Chicago, 111. 

Louis Mosenfelder, Rock Island, 111. 

Herbert A. Moses, Sumter, S. C. 

N. Murov, Shreveport, La. 

Chas. Nussbaum, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Michael Panovitz, Grand Forks, N. D. 

Judge Max L. Pinansky, Portland, Me. 

James A. Pratt, Loch Raven. Md. 

Chas. S. Rauh, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Hiram S. Rivitz, Cleveland, O. 

Alex Rosen, Bismarck, N. D. 

Bernath Rosenfeld, Tucson, Ariz. 

Arthur Rosenstein, Boston, Mass. 

Emil Rosentock, Sioux City, la. 

Dr. Henry Ross, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Dr. Leo S. Rowe, Washington, D. C. 

Samuel Rudley, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Oliver R. Sabin, New York, N. Y. 

Henry Sachs. Colorado Springs, Col. 

Judge S. B. Schein, Madison, Wis. 

Charles Schoen, Cedar Rapids, la. 

Dr. Laurence Selling, Portland, Ore. 

Max Semel, New York. N. Y. 

David Snellenburg, Wilmington, Del. 

Samuel Stern, Fargo, N. D. 

Bertram A. Stroock. Jackson Heights, N.Y. 

Milton Sulzberger, Providence, R. I. 

Louis Tober, Portsmouth, N. H. 

Louis Veta, Cheyenne, Wyo. 

Jerome A. Waterman, Tampa, Fla. 

Adolph Weil, Paducah, Ky. 

Isadore Weil, Montgomery, Ala. 

Herschel Weil, Lexington, Ky. 

Lionel Weil, Goldsboro, N. C. 

Morris Weil, Lincoln, Neb. 

Leo Weinberg, Frederick, Md. 

Henry Weinberger, San Diego. Cal. 

M. J. Weiss, Alexandria, La. 

S. D. Wise, Cleveland, O. 



Administration 

1ami;s Work President and Treasurer 

TuEODORK F. Kui'ER Vice-President 

Elsie M. Bei.field Secretary 

Samuels B. Samuels Business Manager 

Albert F. Carpenter Dean of Students 

Daniel Miller Assistant Dean of Students 

Selig J. Miller Chaplain 

Norman Finkler Librarian 



Faculty 

Aaron Appleby. B.S. (New York University), D.V.M. (A. & M. College of Texas), 
M.S. (Virginia Polytechnic Institute), Associate Protessor of Animal Husbandry 

Isidore Bavlson, LL.B. (University of Pennsylvania), Instructor in Farm Law 

Paul R. Bowen, A.B. (DePauw University), M.Sc, Ph.D. (Yale University), Pro- 
fessor of Biology 

Albert F. Carpenter, A.B. (New York University), A.M. (Columbia University), 
Assistant Professor of History 

Bernard M. Crigger, B.Sc. (University of Kentucky), Instructor in Poultry Hus- 
bandry 

Jesse Elson, B.Sc. (Rutgers University), B.Sc. (Virginia Polytechnic Institute), 
M.Sc. (North Carolina State College), Associate Professor of Soils 

Herman G. Fiesser (Gartenbauschule. Geisenheim, Germany). Instructor in Flori- 
culture 

Norman Finkler, B.Sc. (Temple University), Instructor in English 

Earl Frick, B.Sc. (West Chester State Teachers College). M.Sc. (Temple Univer- 
sity). Instructor in Music 

Walter J. Groman (The National Farm School), Associate Professor of Agricultural 
Engineering 

William A. Haines, D.V.M. (University of Pennsylvania), Professor of Animal 
Husbandry 

Hayes M. Herschler, B.Sc. (Ohio State University), Associate Professor of Agri- 
cultural Economics 



Thomas Johxstox, B.Sc. (Pennsylvania State College), Assistant Professor of Voca- 
tional Agriculture 

NoRMAX G. Myers, Instructor in Farm Carpentry 

Daxiel Miller (The National Farm School), Instructor in Vocational Agriculture 

Selig J. Miller, A.B. (University of Pennsylvania), A.M. (Columbia University), 
A'l.H.L. (Jewish Institute of Religion), Assistant Professor of Philosophy 

David M. Purmell, B.Sc. (Michigan State College), Associate Professor of Pomology 

Reddixg H. Rufe, M.D. (University of Minnesota), Instructor in Applied Mygiene 

Samuel B. Samuels, B.Sc. (Massachusetts State College), Professor of Social Sciences 

Henry Schmieder, B.Sc, M.Sc. (University of Pennsylvania), Associate Professor of 
Chemistry 

George M. Wiiitexack, A.B. (Wabash College), (Princeton Theological Seminary), 
Professor of Mathematics 



Staff 

W.ALTER J. Gromax — Superintendent of Farms 

Herman G. Fiesser — Superintendent of Greenhouses and Nurseries 

Heister Reixhart — Superintendent of Buildings 

Carl Billmax, Joshua Feldsteix — Assistants in Horticulture 

Abrah.am Rellis — Assistant in Floriculture 

Mervix L. Johxsox, \^'ILLIAM Gallo — Assistants in Dairy Husbandry 

Raymoxd Rice, Irwix Kulp — Assistants in Poultry Husbandry 

Charles Mashtaler, Aloysius Happ — Assistants in General Agriculture 

Katherixe Maxtz — Dietician and Nurse 

Axna Wodock — Assistant Nurse 



JAMES WORK ELECTED PRESIDENT 

On Ma}' 23, 1946, Mr. James \\ ork was elected President of the 
National Farm School and Junior College. 

Mr. \\'ork assumes the task of this office eminently qualified by 
inclination, training and experience in agriculture, finance, business 
organization and administration. A graduate of the School he now 
heads as its Fifth President, he is thoroughly imbued with its aims. 
ideals and traditions. 

Elected as a member of the Board of Trustees in 1923, he has 
rendered active service on various committees of the Board and more 
recently was chairman of the Planning Committee whose study, in- 
vestigation and recommendations resulted in the adoption of a long- 
range policy of expansion, the first phase of which has already been 
accomplished under his leadership in the conversion of the School 
into a three-year Junior College. 

In 1943, he was elected Treasurer of the Institution, which office 
he still retains. He served as Acting President for many months 
during the illness of the retiring President, Louis Nusbaum. 

The election of Mr. Work brings the assurance of unexcelled 
leadership as the Institution enters upon its second half-century of 
notable service in the field of agricultural and cultural education. 




J 



A TRIBUTE TO 
DR. LOUIS NUSBAUM 

Resolutions unanimously adopted by the Board of Trustees at 
a meeting held March 24, 1946, on the retirement of Dr. Nusbaum 
as President: 

Whereas, Dr. Louis Nusbaum has resigned as President of the 
National Farm School and. 

Whereas, for 33 years he has been a loyal and devoted trustee 
of the School and he was enabled by a long career, rich with experi- 
ence as an Associate Superintendent of the public school system of 
the City of Philadelphia, to counsel wisely our Board of Trustees in 
his capacity as Chairman of the Educational Committee and, 

Whereas, he has strengthened our Board by his personal char- 
acter, his integrity and his distinguished professional reputation, and. 

Whereas, he has been a pioneer and ardent advocate of the 
School becoming a Junior College, now, therefore, be it 

Resolved that the Board of Trustees hereby express their regret 
concerning his resignation and express their sincere hope for his long 
and continued interest in our School. 



"MY DAY" 

ELEANOR ROOSEVELT: 

I was interested to receive a notice of the efforts bemg 
made to raise a fund to improve The National Farm School, 
which is a Junior College located in Bucks County, near Doy- 
lestown. Pa. 

This school is fifty years old. Leo Tolstoy inspired the 
voung Jewish Rabbi Krauskopf who founded it in this coun- 
try. But it was always "/or Jewish lads and other lads." Thus 
it not only gives a great lesson in tolerance but the ability to 
get along with others regardless of creed, nationahty or racial 
origin. 



THE WHITE HOUSE 

WASHINGTON 



January 17, 19^6 



Dear Mr. Merz: 

The origin of the National Farm School is 
as interesting as its subsequent history has been 
notable, 

I aa glad to send my hearty congratulations 
and warmest perscxial greetings as you celebrate the 
fiftieth anniversary of an institution founded v/ith 
the blessing of one of my illustrious predecessors 
and in a measure inspired by the great Russian reformer^ 
Count Tolstoy. 

Both President Cleveland and Count Tolstoy, 
ivith clear vision and unerring insight, sair that nations 
like individuals draw their strength from the soil. Now, 
as always, agriculture is the nation's bulv/ark. A sode^ 
with its roots deeply imbedded in mother earth is a stable 
society. 

The celebration of your Golden Jubilee will 
afford a splendid opportiinity to appraise the achieve- 
ments of the school's first half century amd to glimpse 
its possibilities for f\irther service in the decades 
that lie ahead. 



Very sincerely yoyj^j" 



Mr, Leon Uerz, /I *^ 

Chairman, Board of Trustees, / 
National Farm School, ' 

Faim School, Pennsylvania, 



THE PRECURSOR OF A NEW WAY OF LIFE 

An Address by 
Albert M. Greenfield 

October 14, 1945 

It is characteristic of most of us to take the accomplished fact 
for granted. We see magnificent buildings, learn of great discoveries, 
and come face to face with many inspired works of man, but we 
accept them as a matter of course. We assume that, like Topsy, they 
"Just growed up." We never ask, "How was this thing created? 
How was it nurtured? How did it grow?" And so, we miss its 
romance, that mystic human equation which in many instances is 
the most appealing element in man's work. Thus, it is that many, 
admiring this institution with its broad and beautiful fields, not 
knowing how it was conceived, not knowing of its trials and tribula- 
tions, have missed a story as romantic and as beautiful as the fields 
themselves. 

Fifty years ago two great and inspired men met. They came 
from opposite corners of the world. In the days when travel was 
both difficult and dangerous. Dr. Joseph Krauskopf, imbued with 
the love of his fellowman, travelled half 'way round the world and, 
on the fields of distant Russia, he met Count Leo Tolstoi. Two great 
humanitarians, one a Christian, the other a Jew, both noblemen In 
the brotherhood of man, pondered the problem of their fellow-beings. 
Count Tolstoi loved the soil. The "Back to the Soil" Movement was 
his creed — it was part of his very being. Dr. Krauskopf loved his 
fellowman — that was his very being. 

It was in the days when our co-religionists, seeking to escape 
the pogrom and the cruelties of the Old World, came to this blessed 
land by the thousands and the tens of thousands. Here, strangers in 
a strange land, they clung together in the ports of disembarkation. 
They had landed in America. That had been their goal. Having 
arrived, they knew not where to go and so they huddled together, 
sharing a common insecurity — not understanding and being them- 
selves misunderstood. These victims of European cruelty and intoler- 
ance, seeking freedom for themselves and their families, soon became 
victims of the sweatshop and economic miseries of over-crowded cities. 
The Jew, seeking to escape the European ghetto, soon found himself 
in one of his own making — unhappy and disillusioned from within, 
and viewed with suspicion and distrust from without. 

Dr. Krauskopf was inspired by a desire, nay, a passion to rescue 
the Jewish youth from this ghetto and to return him to the farm, to 
the ancient calling of his fathers. It was in this meeting with the 
great Tolstoi that the seed of this Institution took root. It was 

11 



planted in the soil of human service and sacrifice and. because of this, 
it grew. 

To you who have lived with the School, to you who have been 
its support and its pillars, I need not repeat the story of its struggles 
and its successes, of its joys, and its sorrows, for you were a part of its 
life. Xor need I remind you of the opportunities and advantages it 
has given to its individual students. Many members of its Alumni 
are here today, as proud of the School as the School is of them. 
Rather would I address myself to the School, not as an individual 
institution but as a representative of scientific agriculture, because 
that science of which this Institution is a living part, in its contribu- 
tion to mankind, went far beyond the School's original concept of 
transferring the Jewish youth from the ghetto to the farm. I prefer 
to think of this School as a disciple of a "Xew Way of Life" — as 
the exponent of a science that has lifted age-old burdens from the 
shoulders of man. We are teaching a new way of life, a way blessed 
in the sight of man. 

Since childhood, the thought of the harvest and harvest-time 
fills me with a feeling of deepest reverence. Having been reared in 
the Faith of our Fathers, I came to know at an early age of the 
Festival of the Harvest, Shabuoth, "The Feast of Weeks.'" It 
was "The Day of the First Fruit OfTering" — the day on which the 
first fruit was brought to the temple with prayers of gratitude for 
the blessings of the harvest. I learned of Succoth. The Feast of 
Tabernacles, when we are commanded to dwell in booths to com- 
memorate the wanderings of our ancestors, and the divine protection 
given them in those days. The Succa itself, in my juvenile imagin- 
ation, became a magic carpet which transplanted me from the city 
street to the fertile fields and lands of our ancestors. In the rooms of 
our Hebrew Sunday School Society and from the Rov in the Chedar, 
I learned and gloried in those pages of our history when we were 
land owners, tillers of the soil and harvesters. 

In the prayers of our elders, I could feel their reverent gratitude 
to the Giver of all things for the bountiful harvests which came from 
the soil. Even those of our people who tolled In the sweatshops which 
abounded in our city — those who rarely saw the sun and seldom, if 
ever, saw the green fields — went to the Synagogue to thank the 
Almighty for the blessings of the harvest. 

And so I came to think of the harvest as a phenomenon which 
came to man only by virtue of God's fiat — otherwise, why would the 
city dweller, the slave of the sweatshop so far removed from the 
beauty and the comfort of the soil itself — be so reverently grateful. 
Surely, I thought, God is sowing and man is reaping. Man had but 
to wait. That man had to toil to reap the harvest was nowhere 
indicated in our prayers or ceremonies. Agriculture was indeed a 
gracious miracle — man but stretched forth his hand and there was 
the harvest. 

But enlightenment and disillusionment often come together. I 

12 



came one dav before a reproduction of Francois Millet's remarkable 
painting "Tlie Man with the Hoe" and Edwin Markham's stirring 
poem of the same name which the picture inspired him to_ write. 
These two great artists, one with the brush and the other with the 
word, using with full measure the license which their great art per- 
mits, created in color and word a soul-stirring symphony protesting 
against the old "Way of Life," a way filled with toil and sorrow and 
drudgery. It was not a protest against farm labor, for labor is both 
ennobling and inspiring. Labor is not the sorrow, but the joy of 
man. Labor is a benediction. Drudgery is a curse. It was_ against 
man's serfdom, against drudgery, that these crusaders cried out. 
Markham, in his great poem, as if calling upon civilization for an 
accounting, thus pictures the hoe man — 

"Bowed by the weight of centuries, he leans 
Upon his hoe and gazes upon the ground. 
The emptiness of ages in his face 
And on his back the burden of the world. 
Who made him dead to rapture and despair 
A thing that grieves not and that never hopes. 
Stolid and stunned, a brother to the ox?" 

I knew of course, that neither the picture nor the poem was 
trulv representative of the typical farmer, but nevertheless my 
childish dream that the harvest came without toil and struggle van- 
ished and I came to realize that both symbolized man's unending 
struggle for existence. Many before had cried out against the evils 
of tlie sweatshop and the factory systems with their oppressive 
economic inhumanities, but few voices were ever raised m protest 
against the unhappy plight of the tiller of the soil. With compassion 
for his fellowman, Markham cries out, 

"This monstrous thing distorted and soul quenched 
How will you straighten up this shape:" 

How indeed will you "straighten up this shape": And who will 
straighten it up — and when? The answer is that you, Dr. Krauskopf, 
by vour heart and vision, hand in hand with science are "straightening 
up'' the bent and weary body! Knowledge and science— planning 
instead of guessing, principles instead of superstitions, learning 
instead of ignorance — are creating a blessed new way of life. Science 
in agriculture, with a mission and a purpose just as potent, just as 
important as science in medicine. Science in the field and in the lab- 
oratorv. Science to tell the farmer when to plant and where to plarit 
and how to plant — to tell the farmer of crop rotation, of artificial irri- 
gation and drainage, of incubation, of crop control and pest control — 
to tell him of the enemies to be fought and how to fight the fight. 
The farmer can now become the master and not the victim of his fate. 

13 



In this science, with its new horizons in dairying, animal hus- 
bandry, poultrying and agricultural engineering, the soil itself, the 
source from which so many blessings flow, becomes a major study. 
Who, in the days of pre-scientific agriculture, dreamed that the soil, 
like the human being, could become tired and overworked: Who 
would have dared suggest that the soil was exhaustible? To question 
the unlimited fruitfulness of the soil, to question the methods, the 
judgment and practices of their ancestors, that was sacrilege I And 
so man struggled in ancient ways, bowed indeed by "the weight of 
centuries." But finally science awakened, and its research and dis- 
coveries, when applied to the task of the farmer, react like trans- 
fusions to the wounded. Both the farm and the farmer take on new 
life. Studying the weather and its cycles has done away with the 
belief that harvest losses are unavoidable or even pre - ordained. 
Planting the right seed in the right place is no longer a matter of 
guessing and hoping. All is now planned and science's planning is 
good. And thus science, whose voice is heard thru this School, is 
creating a happier way of life. It is erasing the "brother to the ox" 
and re-establishing him in his natural birthright — as "brother to 
man." 

Science in agriculture came late. The tiller of the soil living in 
the world of nature, being on Intimate terms with the everchanging 
sky by day, and the starry heavens by night, feeling the warm earth 
as it turned under his plow, accepted his lot and dared not challenge 
his fate. He felt himself a part of Nature, and, as he dared not chal- 
lenge the ways of his fathers, so would he not blaspheme by challeng- 
ing the ways of Nature. Thus, progress came slowly. In other fields 
of endeavor, the inventive and scientific genius of our Nation trav- 
elled far and quickly. Each year, each day — oil, gold, silver, copper 
and even the elusive radium — were all taken from Mother Earth by 
new methods. Each scientific discovery lessened man's labors. Our 
industrial system was put on the assembly line. Working hours and 
even working days were reduced. Man had more leisure, more tune 
to live, more time to be with his family. 

Life was more than sweat, labor and hardships. Science, which 
has for years been working for the worker in industry, awakened 
late and perhaps conscience-stricken. It turned to the task of liber- 
ating the farmer. Carrying out that purpose is the mission of this 
Institution. That is your contribution, not only to your individual 
students, but to the farmer, to the Nation, and to mankind. Science 
has geared itself to the oldest of all of man's labors — Agriculture. Man 
is no longer harnessed to the plow. Brain power and science now pull 
the plow together. Your learning and your teachings, your scientific 
research, have put agriculture on the assembly line so that the 
farmer may be unharnessed from a pitiless life of hardship. Now he 
can lift his head and gaze upon the sun. 

By this I do not mean that the farmer is not the hard and faith- 
ful worker which I know him to be. His work is both dignified and 
honorable. Nor am I unmindful of the fact that, during the dark 

14 



days thru which we have jiisi passed, the farmer imposed upon him- 
self superhuman burdens that our men and our Nation might survive. 
His efforts and his labors seemed beyond human endurance. But 
without scientific agriculture — patriotism and labor itself could not 
have accomplished that which was essential to achieve Victory. With- 
out the farmer, our Army and Navy could not have ''carried on." 
Without the farmer and the miracle which science helped him to per- 
form, the War, and perhaps civilization itself, might have been lost. 
For the first time in the history of civilization, one country was at the 
same time the world's arsenal and the world's granary — and this 
without plunder or aggression. It was the work of free men fighting 
for justice. Even the prophets did not seem to foresee that the sword 
and the plowshare could, at the same time and in the same hands, be 
instruments of those seeking Peace and Justice. 

I wish that I had the ability of an Edwin Markham so that I 
might describe the modern farmer and his achievement. I would that 
I could pay my tribute to scientific agriculture which causes the 
garden to flourish where once was a desert — that I might, as a 
pseudo-farmer, your neighbor, tell you what a boon to mankind has 
been your research and your discoveries. What medicine is to the 
human body, so has been your science to the soil and its harvests. 
\^'hat technology has done for industry, you have done for agricul- 
ture. Alan is born with a passion for the land. What child does not 
enjoy playing with mud pies? Nor is this pleasure confined only to 
childhood. Many men, having achieved success beyond their dreams, 
as they sit in their industrial or financial houses, would give much to 
again feel the soft, warm earth in the wake of the plow as it curled 
itself around their bare feet. And who can capture the fragrance of 
the field or meadow, or that of the new-mown hay.' Man is born of 
the soil. He is of the soil. He is part of the soil and neither time nor 
environment can quench his love for it. 

But beyond all this there was another ideal — it was the "Ideal 
Supreme" that guided Dr. Krauskopf in his labors. One crop was 
dearer to him than all the others — that crop was the student body. 
Teaching good citizenship — manhood — tolerance — love of fellow 
beings and of his country. This was his Holy of Holies. To save men 
from a life of hardship, yes ! to prove that our people could again, if 
given the opportunity, create lands of "milk and honey." Yes! But 
first — to create men! "Happy men!" 

To help students grow mentally, morally, intellectually, to 
teach tolerance and understanding, to show that non-sectarianism 
in the School, if carried into later life, will be a benediction to the 
individual and to the Nation, here indeed was Dr. Krauskopf's 
crowning hope and vision. 

\\ ho can tell what contribution our 1300 graduates have made 
in their various activities — what part they played yesterday or will 
play tomorrow? Dr. Krauskopf planted an acorn from which a 
might}- oak has grown — an oak whose branches reach throughout 

15 



the length and breadth of the land. Our graduates are teaching a 
new and better way of life. "The bread which has been cast upon 
the waters" is returning after many days and in many ways. 

I could not, in the very nature of things, conclude my remarks 
without expressing both my recognition and appreciation for the very 
great contribution made to this Institution by a fellow-Trustee for 
whom I have the deepest respect and affection, my fellow-Trustee, 
Mrs. Joseph Krauskopf. Without her encouragement in the face of 
others' skepticism, without her enthusiasm when others predicted 
failure, without her unending sympathy and understanding, it is not 
possible that our Founder, with all his faith and courage, could have 
continued his struggle. Without her, who can say that this Institu- 
tion could have survived? To you, Mrs. Krauskopf, for your own 
labors and contributions and for your loyalty to him and to this great 
Institution, we extend our heartfelt thanks. 

Dr. Krauskopf himself, without Millet's magic brush and with- 
out Markham's magic word, but solely on the heart-strings of his 
love for his fellowman, has created this School, this monument — a 
monument which is a living, vital part of America. It is America! 
And as we, who are here assembled in silent reverence, think of 
Dr. Krauskopf, let us resolve that his work will be carried forward 
as a tribute to him, as a duty to our people, and as a service to 
our country. 





16 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT 
LOUIS NUSBAUM * 

October 14, 1945 

This annual meeting and harvest festival comniemorates forty- 
nine years of the schooFs existence, and carries us into the fiftieth 
our Golden Jubilee year. The- history of the School through this half 
century has 'been marked by varying tides of fortune. Our pupilage 
has risen and fallen at various times. The low ebb of_ pupilage has 
occurred during these last few years of war time. This follows the 
pattern of all educational institutions. Many colleges and secondary 
schools found it necessary to close their doors. Others survived only 
through virtual government subsidy of courses for the armed service. 
Attendance at public high schools of the country fell off more than 
one million during the war. It is commonly known that periods of 
industrial and economic prosperity adversely affect school enroll- 
ments, not only of regular pupils, but also of adults in evening schools 
and extension classes. 

The National Farm School continued to operate, at great sacri- 
fices, to be sure; but it maintained the integrity of its functioning, and 
the continuity of its service. Our Board of Trustees, looking forward 
to the values of our school's community service in the post-war period, 
deliberately assumed the obligation of keeping the school intact 
through this period of stress. 

The experiences we have gained have not been without their 
values to us. We lowered the age limit of admission to fifteen years 
because of the impact of enlistments and selective service on boys 
seventeen and eighteen years old, and we have found a degree of 
immaturity and irresponsibility of vocational purpose that are not 
suited to the aims of a school like ours. Correspondingly we had to 
relax on academic standards for admission, and we have founda lack 
of the background and of the preparation necessary for the scientific 
study required of students aiming to accomplish the purposes of our 
curriculum. 

Tzvo Progressive Steps 

With a realization of these situations, our Board of Trustees 
decided on two significant moves to rehabilitate the school, and to 
expand its functions into fields of greater usefulness, without sacri- 
ficing any of the magnificent ideals and purposes of the founder. With 
a view to this expansion the board decided to inaugurate a fund rais- 
ing campaign to mark its Golden Jubilee anniversary, and it appointed 
a Planning Committee to recommend such reorganization of cur- 
riculum and procedure as would accomplish the purposes outlined. 

The fund raising campaign has just within a few weeks gotten 
underway with the appointment of a Public Relations Director_ in 
charge of the movement. The Planning Committee has been working 

* Retired ~as of May 1, 1946. 

17 



continuously for the past four months, and, with the help of a group 
of eminent experts, has about completed its recommendations for 
early action by our board. 

Detailed announcements of these moves will soon be ready.* 

Their accomplishments will depend on the public's re- 
action. Without the enthusiastic support of the community no such 
movement can succeed. This community support must include not only 
the public at large but also members of the Board of Trustees, faculty 
and staff, alumni, student body, welfare agencies, and all other friends 
of the school. A movement of this kind must be a co-operative enter- 
prise. Planned publicity will keep all interested parties informed 
of the parts they are expected to play and of the progress of the 
movement. The fund so raised will be used primarily for the purpose 
of expanding and improving our educational facilities, for wiping out 
operational deficits, and for the replenishment of the school's endow- 
ment fund which in these late years has been seriously depleted. 
Expansion of the new program will require new housing facilities and 
other essential buildings, as well as expanded and rehabilitated equip- 
ment. It is confidently expected that all of these objectives will be 
attained. 

It is too early to give definite details of the contemplated school 
reorganization, but if the plans under consideration are substantially 
adopted the level of pupil admission to the school, and the advanced 
curriculum should make it possible for the school's future graduates 
to be far better prepared to assume positions in farm management 
and administration, and to become more efficient leaders of farm 
movements in their respective fields or communities. For those who 
desire to pursue still further their collegiate training in order to be- 
come agricultural specialists or research workers, there should be no 
difficulty for them to enter the junior year of any agricultural college. 

This entire picture opens new horizons for The National Farm 
School and it should arouse a new enthusiasm in all persons interested 
in the school's development and progress. Reconversion is in the air, 
and this forward outlook for the school takes its place with other new 
things promised for the post-war era, as in industrial and economic 
fields. 

The Past Year 

It seems almost prosaic to turn from these considerations to an 
accounting of the school's affairs in the past year. However, these 
matters should be recorded. 

Mention has been made above of the reasons for our small 
student body. This has not been without its compensations. The 
administration and the students have been able to establish closer 
personal relations, and better understanding of the purposes and 
problems of each. In consequence, the morale of the student body has 

*The Board of Trustees on Deceviber 13, 1945, adopted the report of 
the Planning Committee to expand the currindum. of the School to 
that of a Junior College. On May 8, 194-6, The National Farm School 
was approved by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania as a junior 
College. 

18 



been tine, and we feel that the school has become a vital factor in the 
making of a body of fine young citizens. 

During the year the school has been ofTicIally designated b\- the 
Veterans' Administration as an approved institution for the training 
and retraining of veterans under the G. I. Bill of Rights, and the 
Disabled Veterans' Act. 

During the past school year The National Farm School, in co- 
operation with the State Department of Public Instruction, again 
provided evening extension courses for farmers living within reason- 
able radius of the school. These courses were designed primarily to 
promote War Food Production and to help farmers to conserve their 
machinery and equipment. Seventy-eight students were enrolled last 
year. 

The Farm School's services to the community include many items 
not specifically advertised. Our near neighbors and others frequently 
appeal to us to analyze soil samples, to examine blighted plants of 
various kinds, to diagnose and advise regarding many difficulties 
which beset agriculturists. More and more the school is coming to be 
looked upon as a centre for giving advice and assistance with regard 
to many types of farm problems. All such inquiries are answered to 
the best of our ability. 

Pla7it and Equipment 

The maintenance of the physical plant of an institution like ours 
is a matter of major importance. Our property has been appraised at 
over one million dollars. Our buildings alone, nearly fifty in number, 
and scattered over one thousand acres, are valued at well over one- 
half million dollars. Keeping this vast property inusableand up-to-date 
condition requires constant oversight and spending of money. Such 
items as roofing, plumbing, painting, heating, and water supply need 
continued care and attention, to say nothing of contingencies which 
require major operations to important parts of the plan. New wells 
need to be sunk from time to time, new pumps provided, roads rebuilt, 
retreated, and maintained; provision for livestock of all kinds renewed 
and rehabilitated; machinery and equipment modernized or replaced 
— these and similar Items require constant vigilance, and large 
sums of money. Without attempting to specify the major Improve- 
ments made In the past year I want merely to point out that as much 
is being done constantly alone those lines as our funds will permit. 

Memorial and Festive Groves 

The school has under way plans for modifying the past procedure 
regarding the planting of memorial and festive trees. As we grow in 
age so do the trees thus planted, and the time comes when such trees 
die or must be removed, and the memorial intended to be more or 
less permanent disappears. Our new plans provide for setting aside 
two appropriate groves, one for festive and one for memorial pur- 
poses, and to perpetuate the names of those to be honored by Inscrip- 
tion on an appropriate tablet set up In each grove respectively. It will 
then be the purpose of the school to maintain these groves In suitable 
condition, taking out trees as becomes necessary, and planting others 

19 



from time to time. Thus each of these groves will be kept always in a 
condition which will suitably commemorate the names and events 
concerning those to be honored. Provision will be made to continue 
the planting of individual trees under certain conditions which will 
be prescribed. 

Our Department Activities 

The only way to tell of progress in the production department is 
to give statistical figures. I doubt that more than a few persons in 
this audience are interested in masses of figures, so these will be 
omitted. Excerpts from reports by department heads will be included 
with this report when printed. Meanwhile we should say that the 
varying fortunes of the farmer's lot have also beset the work of the 
school. Warm weather in early spring sent our fruit trees into a 
gorgeous riot of blossoming. Heavy frosts a month later dashed our 
hopes of a bumper crop. Late in summer while in the midst of our 
peach harvesting, and looking forward to a reasonable remaining 
apple crop, we were visited with a heavy hail storm, which put an 
end to the peach crop, and badly damaged what was left of the apples 
and the small fruit. 

Heavy rains through the summer did much damage to our vege- 
table crop, but we had a good harvest of grains, particularly of fine 
wheat which sold at a premium price as seed wheat, and of corn for 
feed and silage. 

Our dairy herd has been improved and built up to the point 
where with about one half the number of cattle in the herd about two 
years ago, we are producing about the same quantity of milk. Our 
small herd of Ayrshire cows has been officially rated as the fifth best 
herd in the United States, and our entire herd, including Holsteins 
and Guernseys, is making excellent production records. The school's 
poultry flock has had unusual difficulties with epidemics of diseases, 
but it seems now to have been rehabilitated and is functioning very 
satisfactorily. The greenhouses and nurseries have been making a 
very creditable record. This department of the school will be greatly 
expanded thus increasing our instructional facilities as well as our 
production. 

Student Activities 

We are glad to be able to report, as we did last year, that not- 
withstanding our small pupilage, student activities have in general 
continued with no loss of enthusiasm or co-operation. The various 
classes have gone ahead with publication of their year books, and of 
the school magazine, "The Gleaner"; the band has continued to play 
and our major athletic activities have proceeded unbroken, not 
without some extra burdens put on the various production depart- 
rhents, but certainly with a fine boost to school morale. It is remark- 
able that at this writing, our school football team has not lost a game 
in the past three years. Other interscholastic activities have proceeded 
with like satisfaction. 

During the past year the school has instituted a program of 

20 



intra-nuiral athletics as a regular part of its curriculum, anJ every 
student of the school participates for a two-hour period once each 
week. This, we believe, is a distinctly forward move for an institution 
like ours, and is evidently appreciated by the students. 

Recreational activities have proceeded In our normal fashion. 
Periodic school dances are held; the students are provided with 
swimming opportunities in summer; volley ball, hand ball, and tennis 
courts have been made available, and, of course, the annual school 
picnic at the end of summer. The several alumni gatherings, football 
rallies, and conventions of various kinds provide opportunities for 
added student contacts. 

Residence throughout the year in a remote rural situation is 
necessarily trying on the endurance of students accustomed to city 
life; therefore, the school loses no opportunity of promoting suitable 
variations from the routine and monotony of full time country 
isolation. 

Friends of the School 

This report would not be complete without mention of the fine 
support we have had from our many friends. The Commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania has increased its appropriation to the school by ten per 
cent. Our individual contributors, Jewish congregations, and Welfare 
Organizations throughout the country have continued in their gen- 
erous support of the school. Our alumni, too, are invaluable, not only 
because of their financial aid, but also because of their enthusiastic 
participation in many extra-curricular activities of the school. They 
give an inspiration and an example for the students, and they often 
help where help is most needed. It has been said that a school is as 
good as its alumni support. Judged by this standard The National 
Farm School should rank high. 

The members of our Board of Trustees have shown an increasing 
interest in the affairs of the school and have been more active in its 
behalf than at any previous time of the school's history. It is almost 
unnecessary to say that without this kind of support no institution 
could long endure. I should like to make individual mention of some 
of our hard working trustees, but to do so would take more time than 
we should give to this subject, and it might be embarrassing to some 
who might be named. My personal appreciation goes to those mem- 
bers and to our Board as a whole for their loyal devotion to our school. 

And finally, I want to make brief mention of our hard working, 
loyal faculty and staff, and of the fine co-operative young men 
that make up our student body. After all, it is the spirit of these 
groups that makes The National Farm School what it actually is 
in the training of skilled agriculturists and of fine American citizens. 



21 



APPENDIX 

Excerpts from Department Reports 

Stident Activities 

"During the past year the school concluded a contract with the 
Philadelphia office of the Veterans Administration to admit discharged 
veterans for courses in agriculture. Our first veteran students ent- 
ered in February, 1945, with others following intermittently. Some 
enrolled for the regular three-year period while others are registered 
for a one to two year course. 

"Although the number of our regular students is less than in 
former years, insistence on a more rigid academic standard and a 
closer scrutiny of the candidates at the time of their admission have 
resulted in a high caliber of student personnel. 

"The extra curricular activities were maintained during this 
period of small pupilage. Two hours each Saturday were devoted to 
intramural athletics, which helped greatly in encouraging school spirit, 
good fellowship, and co-operative interest. The social function of the 
students included several dances, and recreational room activities. 
The Canteen served as a meeting place and a source of refreshments. 
The band, although small in number, continued to be an inspiration 
and a source of student enjoyment." 

General x\griculture 

"The greatest single factor that retarded most farmers during the 
past spring and summer was the weather. There was considerable loss 
from continued rains, but some gain. Listed below are the highlights 
of the past year: 

1. We did a great deal of cleaning work such as removing old 
trees, cleaning fence lines, picking stones, relocating roads and re- 
arranging fields. A great deal remains to be finished but this type of 
work can only be done during periods when the farm work is 
completed. 

2. The acreage that we planted to different crops was as follows: 

Wheat — 120 acres 

Oats with alfalfa — 42 acres 

Potatoes — 15 acres 

Corn — 110 acres 

Hay — 210 acres 

3. Harvesting these crops presented one of the most difficult 
problems, due to wet conditions. We have in the barns the following 
materials : 

Hay — 13,000 bales, approximately 
Straw — 5,000 bales, approximatelv 
Wheat— 3.000 bushels 
Oats— 1,200 bushels 
"Grain harvest was the source of most of the trouble in this sec- 
tion. From July 15 until August 7 we could do nothing but wait for 

22 



clear weather. Deterioralion of ^landing grain was considerable. Cm-n 
made excellent growth with a bumper crop assured. Potatoes are un- 
certain. We have to dig before we can give an estimate. 

"Soybeans will go well over our estimated returns. From one half 
of the acreage planted we have already exceeded that goal. 

"To complete this outline, several matters should get future at- 
tention. One of these is a survey of our fields with a view to applying 
conservation practices. We have done some work along these lines 
but the whole acreage should be surveyed and recommendations made 
and followed where practicable. This work would take several years 
to complete and should not be too expensive." 

Ornajniental Horticulture 

"During the year 1944 to 1945, we had an exceptional chrysan- 
themum crop in addition to other cut flowers and pot plants. 

"We also have increased propagation in azaleas, which will ap- 
pear soon in our major production program. A substantial number of 
conifers have been propagated and should in the near future become 
an addition to our expanding nursery. 

"The grounds around Segal Hall, as well as the grounds around 
the Alumni house, have been remodeled and improved. The general 
appearance of our campus has been kept up in accordance with the 
tradition and expectations of an agricultural educational institution. 

Horticulture 

A cold and late spring retarded the early vegetable crops. 
Spring frosts killed the grape, strawberry, cherry, plum blossoms 
and a good many apple and peach buds. 

A very wet summer increased the scab on apples and made culti- 
vation and weeding of vegetable crops an impossibility. 
A severe hail storm struck on August 25, and seriously injured our 
late peaches. 

On the brighter side of the picture we can report the following: 
The removal of one half of the old peach orchard and the planting 
of 300 peach trees consisting of the new New Jersey varieties, 
such as : White Hale, Red Rose, Newday, Triogen and Afterglow. 
The harvesting of 2,000 baskets of early peaches. These w^ere larger 
in size and remarkably free from oriental worm injury. 
A bigger and better sweet corn, tomato, onion and early cabbage 
crop. 

The apple crop, while smaller this year because of frost injury, will 
bring in a commensurate return. 

Domestic Department 

"The dining room at The National Farm School is considered a 
very important phase of this institution's organization. In many as- 
pects, it may be compared to the hub of a wheel around which 
revolves all activity. Good educational facilities and a fine staff of 

23 




e 



< 






24 



faculty members would all be in vain if the students were not nor- 
mally content with food which is served for their consumption. 

'"Almost all the food, especially the milk and vegetables, are the 
result of the boys' educational efforts. The menu served takes mto 
consideration that the student body represents adolescent boys m the 
growing stage and the fact that they are working as part of their 
training. Therefore, the food served is more than the normal amount 
of substantial and wholesome foods that would be required on the 
average well-balanced menu for students in purely academic studies. 

"The kitchen staff is headed by two competent chefs and the kit- 
chen and the student dining room are always kept within the standard 
of immaculate cleanliness. The students all take regular assignments 
in waiting on student tables. 

"Through the continuous surge of increasing prices of com- 
modities we were not caught unprepared. We have kept abreast with 
the many economic problems and the conditions which have been 
rapidly affecting increased prices and scarcity of various esseritial 
foods. As a result at no time were we handicapped for the need of 
food items nor have we found it necessary to pay exorbitant prices 
Fortunately, the purchase of most commodities, such as coal, canned 
goods and other important items has been well effected to the extent 
of maximum possibilities." 

Dairy Department 

"The dairy has been culled and animals removed untilwe will be 
able to house the entire herd in the dairy barns this coming winter. 
This will enable their being cared for with the greatest economy in 
labor and permit observation of the younger members of the herd 
continuously, rather than at twice a day intervals. 

"The average production per milking cow has materially in- 
creased so that even with the reduction in milking cow population, 
we still meet the sales requirements in Philadelphia, as well as that of 
the kitchen at Farm School. _ r tt i • 

"Among specific cases to be noted is the production of a Holstein 
cow, Farm School Lassie DeKol, who at fifteen years of age had 
recently completed an official lactation record of 17,640 pounds of 
milk and 606 pounds of fat. This wonderful old cow is soon to freshen 
again and is being made comfortable in a roomy, well bedded, box 
stall. She is being carefully supplied with the most tempting and 
nourishing feeds obtainable with the hope that she may duplicate her 
last production record, which would be considered outstanding for 
two times a day milking for an animal years younger than she. 

"We have another Holstein cow. Farm School Pearl Cassie, that 
has recently completed a lactation record on two times a day milking 
of over 18,000 pounds milk and more than 700 pounds of fat. This 
record would be a credit to a cow in any herd, but this animal is in 
the prime of her life and production ability and not in the age class 
as the animal above referred to. 

"The General Agriculture Department has furnished us silage of 
excellent quality, the mows with hay, and the cribs with corn, so that 

25 



the dairy will be supplied with roughage and cornmeal of the best 
nutritive value." 

Poultry Department 

''This department, after a prolonged struggle for disease control, 
apparently has mastered the problem and we hope will soon again be 
a profitable enterprise at Farm School. The trouble has not been 
without its educational value to those students and others who are 
familiar with the circumstances. 

"We are marketing the first of the winter crop of broilers, a nice 
thrifty appearing lot that averaged over three pounds in weight at 
twelve weeks of age. There will be several shipments of these to 
market at intervals of about two weeks. 

"The well cleaned and disinfected buildings are filled with pullets 
of egg producing age. We are planning a yearly change of poultry 
range which will assist in disease control. 

"The senior class in Poultry Husbandry are especially interested 
in a capon breeding project. This consists in the mating of females of 
several of the heavy breeds, with a Cornish Indian Game male. The 
resulting male chicks of the several breed crossings to be caponized, 
grown and finished for the market. The comparative study of the 
several breed crosses in capon quality should provide an interesting 
and valuable study. 

"The turkey raising project has been successful. Those slaught- 
ered for the Thanksgiving market wxre well breasted and the flesh of 
excellent quality. For the Christmas market they will be larger in size 
but the quality cannot be better. 

Athletic and Recreational Activities 

"Three major sport teams are represented in the school. They 
are football, basketball, and baseball. In football, the varsity team, 
composed of the best players among the students, represents the 
group, and they compete with other preparatory school, vocational 
school, and college organizations. Consideration is also given to the 
need of active participation of the students who do not have the ability 
to represent the varsity teams. In order successfully to achieve this 
purpose, class teams are formed which compete in their annual games. 

"The basketball team is also represented by a similar varsity 
group of boys, and then the entire student body is divided into a 
basketball league of six teams which play a schedule of games against 
each other, thereby developing considerable interest among the entire 
student body. There is also freshman-junior competition in this sport. 

"A varsity baseball team and the class and club representative 
teams have organized in the school in a similar manner. This system 
gives every student in the school an opportunity to participate in the 
major athletic actvities which are supported by the institution. Very 
often a boy who had very little confidence in his athletic ability is 
encouraged to play on a club or class team with students of the same 
comparative caliber, and he develops rapidly enough to become even- 
tually a good representative on the school varsity team. 

26 



''The matter of financing an athletic program which makes it 
possible for all the students to participate in these activities is a 
problem. In the interest and the welfare of the students, it is 
important that we have the proper equipment, which entails con- 
siderable expenditure when realizing that three major activities are 
supported. It is also our policy to schedule as many varsity games as 
possible to be played at home. This involves expenditure for 
traveling expenses for other schools to play here, but we consider 
it worthwhile because it serves to give our student body entertain- 
ment in watching these games and to keep them on the campus in- 
stead of taking time and money to follow their boys, when they play 
away from home. 

"The efforts and expenditures in the entire athletic program, as 
explained, have not been in vain, and one who observes these teams 
in action for the first time will soon be inoculated with the students' 
spirit of enthusiasm and will be sure to become an ardent supporter 
of the boys and The Natonal Farm School w^hich they represent. 

"As a result of this fine spirit among the student body and the 
team members, the past competitive athletic season has been one of 
the best in the annals of Farm School athletic teams. The football 
team has been undefeated for the past three years. The basketball 
team lost three out of eleven games and the baseball team also did 
very well. 

"It is interesting to note, and we mention with great pride, that 
our more than three hundred men In military service, in correspond- 
ing, express keen interest in the athletic activites and progress of the 
teams representing their Alma Mater." 

Campus and Farm Building Maintenance 

"During the past few months considerable progress has been 
made with the problem of maintenance. This is especially significant 
considering that help and material are nearly impossible to obtain. 
At the Dairy Department, the entire electric wiring and power system 
has been replaced. This was of vital importance due to the fact that 
the old system was obsolete and constanly in need of repair. We have 
also constructed a new water well and pump and this should prevent 
any possibility of water shortage due to breakdowns. The old well at 
present is showing signs of losing its usefulness. The painting program 
and all other repairs of importance have been completed. 

"During the year all the roofs of campus buildings including 
farm barns have been inspected and repaired. Most of the general 
repair maintenance is in progress or on schedule." 

Sales Department 

''We have been fortunate in obtaining the best prevailing market 
prices for most of our produce includmg peaches, other fruits, vege- 
tables, and seed wheat. This has been due largely to the splendid 
group of customers who represent large organizations and are willing 
to pay good prices for high quality merchandise. It is gratifying to 
notice in records of the present year that the income for farm prod- 
ucts has been considerably in excess of previous years." 

27 



HARVEST FESTIVAL AND 
FORTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL MEETING 

October 14, 1S45 

The Forty-Eighth Annual Meeting and Harvest Festival of The 
National Farm School took place in the Louchheim Auditorium on 
the campus on Sunday, October 14, 1945. 

The speakers' platform was artistically decorated with the fruits 
of the harvest and farm products exhibits lined the side walls of 
the Auditorium. 

Albert M. Greenfield, of Philadelphia, was the guest of honor 
and principal speaker. His address, entitled "The Precursor of a New 
Way of Life" is reprinted on pages 11 to 16 of this report. The 
report of the President, also reprinted on pages 17 to 27, was 
submitted by Louis Nusbaum. Gilbert Katz, President of the senior 
class, made a brief address on behalf of the student body. 

Announcement of exhibit awards to students for the various dis- 
plays and exhibits of competitive and educational entries of farm 
products, farm animals and scientific displays, was made by David 
M. Purmell, chairman of the faculty committee on awards. 

The Nominating Committee Report was submitted by Edwin H. 
Silverman, Chairman. The following trustees whose terms of office 
had expired were unanimously re-elected for three-year terms: Gus- 
tave C. Ballenberg, Edwin B. Elson, Benjamin Goldberg, Albert M. 
Greenfield, Dr. A. Spencer Kaufman, Sydney J. Markovitz, Theo- 
dore G. Rich, Max Semel, Nathan J. Snellenburg, Edwin H. Weil and 
William H. Yerkes, Jr. Fred H. Weigle was elected to fill an un- 
expired term ending September, 1946. 

The student band, led by Earl Frick, Director, furnished music 
before and during the exercises. 

Reverend Charles E. Freeman, Pastor of the Salem Evangelical 
and Reformed Church, Doylestown, Pa., offered the opening prayer, 
and benediction was given by Reverend Joseph Klein, Rabbi of 
Reform Congregation Keneseth Israel, Philadelphia. Leon Merz, 
Chairman of the Board of Trustees, presided. 



The National Farm School 
AND Junior College 
hereby expresses sincere appreciation to 
generous friends whose contributions made 
possible the publication of this Annual 
Report without cost to the College. 



28 



IN MEMORIAM 

The Board of Trustees of The National Farm School and 
Junior College held on Thursday, May 23, 1946 noted the 
death of 

MORRIS R. BLACKMAN 

one of its members who was originally elected by the Alumni 
Association of the School as its representative to the Board 
and who later was re-elected by the choice of his fellow 
trustees. He faithfully fulfilled his duties as trustee, and he 
was a loyal supporter of the Alumni Association and of the 
School. Now, therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, that the Board of Trustees of The National 
Farm School and Junior College express their sincere regret 
at the death of Morris R. Blackman, and further be it, 

RESOLVED, that an engrossed copy of these resolutions 
be presented to his beloved wife and family. 

COMMITTEE: 

Sylvan Einstein 
Benjamin Goldberg 

A^ANFRED R. KrAUSKOPF 

James Work 

IsADORE Baylson, Chairman 



29 



FORTY-SIXTH 

ANNUAL GRADUATION EXERCISES 

March 24, 1946 

The Forty-Sixth Annual Graduation Exercises of The National 
Farm School Vv^ere held in Segal Hall Auditorium, Sunday afternoon, 
March 24, 1946. The low ebb of pupilage due to wartime conditions 
made the 1946 graduating class again one of the smallest in the 
school's history. Six seniors remained to receive diplomas. 

Charles H. Boehm, Superintendent of Puplic Schools of Bucks 
County, Pennsylvania, gave the graduation address, congratulated 
the students on their choice of a vocation and pointed out the oppor- 
tunities open to those trained for agricultural leadership. 

The complete program of exercises follows: 

America Mrs. Walter J. Groman, Accompcmist 

Invocation Seymour Baumrind, Rabbi Beth Israel 

Congregation, Lansdale, Pa. 

Welcome Louis Nusbaum, President 

Salutatory Philip Hoffman 

Address Charles H. Boehm, Superintendent 

Public Schools of Bucks County, Pa. 

Valedictory Daniel Tannenbaum 

Passing of the Hoe Gilbert Katz, President Senior Class 

Farewell Message ... .David M. Purmell, Representing the Faculty 
Awarding of Prizes Daniel Miller, Acting Director Student Relations 

Presentation of Diplomas President Nusbaum 

Star Spangled Banner 

THE GRADUATES 
Department of Animal Science 

Animal Husbandry and Dairying 

PHILIP HOFFMAN Philadelphia, Pa. 

HERBERT SHERMAN Philadelphia, Pa. 

Poultry Husbandry 

MACY BRENNER Brooklyn. N. Y. 

gilbert katz Bronx. N. Y. 

Department of Pomology and Vegetable Gardening 

NATHAN KUSNITZ Brooklyn, N. Y. 

DANIEL TANNENBAUM Mamaroneck, N. Y. 

PRIZES 

Best General Record Through Three-Year Course Gilbert Katz 

Pomology and Vegetable Gardening Prizes 

Best Practical Work Nathan Kusnitz 

Highest Scholastic Record Daniel Tannenbaum 

Dairy Husbandry Prizes 

Best Practical Work Philip Hoffman 

Highest Scholastic Record Herbert Sherman 

Poultry Husbandry Prize Gilbert Katz 

A number of other prizes are distributed more informally in student 
assembly. 

30 



HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE 

The National Farm School was founded in 1896 by the late 
Rabbi Joseph Krauskopf, D.D., for the purpose of training young 
men to become scientific and practical agriculturists. In fifty years 
the School has grown from a small institution consisting of only one 
farm, to an institution covering twelve hundred acres of land, with 
a beautiful campus and buildings, classrooms, laboratories, and shops, 
sufficient to properly house and educate a student body of two hun- 
dred. The National Farm School is, and has been since its inception, 
conducted on a non-sectarian basis. Its splendid equipment and 
opportunities are open to any deserving young man who may meet 
the entrance requirements. 

On May 8, 1946, The National Farm School was approved by 
the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania as a Junior College. 



LOCATION 

The National Farm School and Junior College is located in 
Bucks County, Pennsylvania, in one of the richest agricultural sec- 
tions in the United States. It is thirty miles north of Philadelphia 
and seventy miles south of New York City, on U. S. Route 202. The 
nearest town is Doylestown, which is only one mile from the campus. 
Doylestown is the County Seat and is rich in historical tradition. 
Doylestown has a population of approximately five thousand and has 
a number of churches, high class hotels, and a fine shopping district. 
The Philadelphia and Reading Railroad runs through the College 
grounds with a station known as Farm School. The Post Office, 
also known as Farm School, is located in the Administration Buildins. 



CAMPUS 

The College campus consists of twenty-seven acres of landscaped 
lawns with two football fields, a baseball diamond and tennis courts. 
On the east side of the campus are Allman Hall, used for adminis- 
trative purposes; Lasker Hall which houses the reception rooms, 
dining rooms, kitchen, infirmary, and other domestic facilities; the 
Chapel and Eisner Hall. South of the campus is the beautiful 
Krauskopf Library. West of the campus are Penn Hall, Segal Hall, 
and LHman Hall. These buildings contain dormitories, classrooms, 

31 



AIMS AND PURPOSES OF THE COLLEGE 

The objective of the College is twofold: 

First: To prepare young men to become successful farmers 

or workers in agriculture or allied industries. 
Second: To provide young men with an academic and cultural 
education which will lead to well-rounded citizenship 
and leadership in their community. 
A three-year course, both terminal and preparatory, has been 
established. The College provides instruction in both practical and 
scientific agriculture as well as in the cultural subjects. The establish- 
ment of a three-year course provides the opportunity to teach all of 
the students the practical operations required as a fundamental for 
the occupations of Floriculture, Horticulture, Landscape Gardening, 
Poultry Husbandry, Dairy Husbandry and General Agriculture. This 
practical instruction is considered an essential part of the curriculum 
and is mandatory for all students. 

GENERAL COURSES OF STUDY 

The general education covered is aimed to provide the back- 
ground of information, skills, and attitudes necessary for proper living 
in a democratic society. So far as the course of study is concerned, 
this material is frequently classified under four major heads. These 
are the Physical Sciences, the Biological Sciences, the Social Sciences, 
and the Humanities. Often these are presented in four survey courses 
which ofi"er a bird's-eye view of the fields. The National Farm School 
and Junior College course of study adapts and improves upon this 
approach. Since this is an agricultural college, major emphasis must 
be placed upon basic sciences, in order to graduate students who are 
prepared to put into practice the best modern methods. 

In order to meet academic requirements of colleges to which 
students may transfer after graduation, and to provide a well-rounded 
and thorough education for terminal students, the above courses have 
been established. The courses outlined present a more thorough pro- 
gram of studies than is found in many junior colleges, both in number 
of credits earned and in breadth of fields covered. This is possible 
because three, rather than two, years are devoted to the curriculum. 

The outline of courses for the first year is prescribed for all stud- 
ents. In the second and third year a choice of specialization is offered 
in one of the six major courses as shown in this catalogue, with a 

32 



curriculum of studies prescribed for each. Provision is made for guid- 
ance and encouragement of students to bring out the best which each 
has to ofTer. Those students having proper ability will be encouraged 
to seek further education, through contacts with universities and 
senior colleges. All students are assisted in securing positions after 
graduation and are encouraged to maintain, as alumni, their contact 
with the College. 

During the third year a place is left for electives. These will be 
foreign language, specialized agricultural courses, and other subjects 
depending upon student interest. 

The fundamental aim of The National Farm School and Junior 
College is the educational growth of students. All experiences on farm, 
in classroom, in social contacts, are planned to produce better farmers, 
better citizens, and potential leaders of rural communities. 

The various courses directly related to the business and agri- 
cultural facilities of the College are so arranged and outlined that the 
whole college is the living example of the principles and truths being 
taught. Farm Accounting is taught not wholly from the textbook, but 
also from actual accounts kept on the farm, the dairy, and the other 
departments. The same is true of testing of soils, testing of milk, 
farm surveying, merchandising, and numerous other subjects. 



Slpervised Practice 

Every student, regardless of the amount of fees paid or scholar- 
ships received, is required to engage in supervised agricultural prac- 
tice, or vocational experience, forty-two hours per week during the 
three summer terms and twelve hours per week during the first and 
second semester of each college year. Students are required to enter 
the college at the beginning of the summer term in order that they 
may receive the benefit of three full summer terms of supervised 
practice. The farms, the greenhouses, the dairy and poultry plants, 
and the orchards are regarded as a huge laboratory in which the 
science and practice of agriculture may be taught to a higher degree 
and with a better understanding than is possible in the classroom or 
the conventional school laboratory. The course in supervised practice 
is so established that the first summer term is spent on the instruction 
fields, and the second and the third summer terms in the department 
covering the course in which the student has elected to specialize. 
Agriculture consists of many skills, and one of the major objectives is 
to teach the student these skills, not merely expose him to them. Xo 

33 



student shall be graduated who has not passed the necessary grades 
in practical work. The farms and other production activities are man- 
aged and operated at the highest efficiency as a means of educating 
the student in successful agricultural procedures. 

Physical Education 

Every student is given the opportunity for complete physical de- 
velopment. This includes lectures on health, nutrition, and hygiene, 
as well as competition in intra-mural and inter-collegiate athletics. All 
students are required to engage in physical education activities. 

VETERANS 

The College has established a counseling service for veterans who 
may desire to obtain an agricultural education under the G. I. Bill of 
Rights. 

Credit is allowed for military experience and training by a 
standard of measurement set up by colleges throughout the country. 
All veterans must meet the standard entrance requirements of the 
College. 




Ulmax Dormitories 
34 




THE NATIONAL FARM SCHOOL and 
JUNIOR COLLEGE program of tree dedica- 
tions makes it possible for those who wish to 
commemorate a joyous occasion or to pay last- 
ing tribute to a departed one, to do so through 
the dedication of living, growing trees. Trees 
can symbolize as no other memorial, expressions 
of joys and sorrows and keep fresh the memory 
of those persons and occasions we wish to re- 
member. 

The National Farm School and Junior College has established for 
such purposes: 

A Patriots Grove — to honor those who have made the supreme 
sacrifice or have otherwise served or are 
serving in the armed forces of our country. 
A Festive Grove — to commemorate births, birthdays, confir- 
mations, graduations, betrothals, weddings 
and other occasions and aniversaries. 
A Memorial Grove — to memorialize the departed. 
The names of those persons for whom dedications are made will be 
inscribed on a suitable plaque at the entrance to the groves. 

Contributors will appreciate this fine means of sharing festive occa- 
sions or of expressing sympathy while at the same time, enjoying the 
satisfaction of helping a worthy institution. Contributions ranging from 
$10 to $100 and over are acceptable for this purpose. 
The form below may be used in sending in requests. 



THE NATIONAL FARM SCHOOL AND JUNIOR COLLEGE 

FARM SCHOOL, BUCKS COUNTY 



PENNSYLVANIA 



_194. 



Enclosed is contribution of $ , for which inscribe 

The Name of 

City and State 

Event Date of Event 

In the 

Patriots Grove □ 
Festive Grove n 
Memorial Grove □ 
Please send acknowledgment to: 

Name 

Address 

Name of Contributor 

Address 



35 



THE NATIONAL FARM SCHOOL AND JUNIOR COLLEGE 

FARM SCHOOL, BUCKS COUNTY 
PENNSYLVANIA 

Membership of The National Farm School 
and Junior College 

Date 



1, the undersigned, being in sympathy with the object of The National 
Farm School and Junior College — the training of youth in the science and 
practice of agriculture — do hereby agree to subscribe as one of the main- 

tainers of the institution the sum of dollars annually. 

Name 



Benefactor . 


. $100 


Friend 


50 


Patron 


25 


Member . . . 


10 


Supporter . . 


. . 5 



Address 

Make checks payable to The National Farm School 
and Junior College 



Form of Legacy to The National Farm School 
and Junior College 

"7 give and bequeath unto The National Farm School and Junior College, 

Bucks County, Pa., near Doylestown, the sum of dollars 

free from all taxes to be paid to the Treasurer, for the time being, for the 
use of the institution." 



Form of Devise 

ON REAL ESTATE OR GROUND RENT 

"/ give and devise unto The National Farm School and Junior College, 
Bucks County, Pa., near Doylestown (here describe the property or ground 
rent), together with the appurtenances, in fee simple, and all policies of 
insurance covering said premises, ivhether fire, title or otherivise, free from 
all taxes." 



A donation or bequest of $10,000.00 will found a perpetual scholarship, 
the income from which will go toward maintaining one student each year; 
such scholarship may bear the name of the donor or such names as the donor 
may designate. A donation of $900.00 will provide instruction, board and 
room of a student for one year (a twelve-month term) ; $2,700.00, for three 
years (thirty-six months) to graduation. 



Gifts to The National Farm School and Junior College 

IN Cash, War Bonds and War Savings Stamps 

Are Allowable Iivtcome Tax Deductions 



36