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Full text of "Annual report"

THE BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



ANNUAL REPORT 1 990-1 991 



THE BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 

Annual Report 

For the Year Ending June 30, 1991 




Document 15 



The Trustees of the Pubhc Library of the City of Boston 



Trustees of the Public Library 

of 

The City of Boston 

William M. Bulger, President 

Arthur F. F. Snyder, Vice President 

Robert W. Gonsalvo 

Berthe M. Gaines 

William O. Taylor 



ANNUAL REPORT FY91 

As the Queen expressed it in Carroll's Through the Looking 
Glass, "It takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same 
place. If you want to get somewhere else, you must run at least 
twice as fast as that!" 

The Queen's remarks aptly describe the pattern of the 
Library's FY91. The year was characterized by building on the 
efforts of the prior years: advancing in automation and 
presentation, restoration of the McKim building, programming 
and exhibitions, and responsiveness to patrons' needs. The 
forward motion was accomplished in the face of obstacles 
related to budget reduction, increased materials costs, and staff 
and space shortages. 

The two major themes of the year for the Research 
Library office were planning for budget reductions and planning 
for the renovation of the Mcl^m building. The thrust of budget 
planning was to preserve public serv^ice as much as possible. As a 
result, greatest losses were in staffing special collections, the 
areas which make the Library a major research institution 
throughout the world, but invite less general public, day-to-day 
usage. 

Budget planning commenced in November and continued 
throughout the year. There were dramatic cuts in several 
departments. The reassignment of all staff of the Jordan 
Collection was necessitated by proposed budget losses as was 
the cutback of staff in the Print Department and in the Ivirstein 
Business Branch, also the continuing vacancies in the 
Conservation Laboratory, the Fine Arts Department, and the 
Research Library office — all described by the assistant director 
for resources and processing as "debilitating." 

Planning for remote storage of materials has been an 
activity that grows in importance. The necessity to plan because 
of the renovation of the McKim building has meant that we have 
gathered more information, done more charts, and thought 



more about the long term space needs of the Library than we 
may otherwise have done. We have used the personal computer 
to build a database of information that includes materials stored 
presently in various locations, quantified in linear or cubic feet 
required for storage, where such materials will need to be 
moved, whether repacking, storage in cartons or on shelves, 
special handling, or special storage conditions are needed. This 
database has already proved very valuable in making 
arrangements for the storage of materials in the Gharlestown 
Service Building. 

In its status as a major research library in the nation, 
several years the Library has concentrated on preservation 
needs. With the creation of a modem conservation library, with 
leadership in the region in state-of-the-art methods and 
equipment, and with the production of an instructive video 
cassette on conservation, the Library has moved ahead in 
insuring the longevity of rare items. 

Continuing a project begun in FY90, representatives 
from the entire staff of the Library participated in the 
Preservation Self-Study sponsored by the Association of 
Research Libraries, but the greatest emphasis of the study was 
on research Library materials and staff. A six-member study 
team began work in the fall on a background paper. When that 
was completed, five task forces were appointed to study specific 
areas of need. These task forces worked from fall to early March 
when they made their reports to the study team. The team then 
began to prepare the final report, which will be published by the 
Association of Research Libraries. It is hoped that this study will 
be a major tool for the Library to use in the next several years in 
determining priorities for preservation activities. The study also 
became a staff development opportunity with a project structure 
already identified to help staff members formulate goals, do 
research, and come up with conclusions in a fairly short period 
of time. Many people who worked on the study were impressed 



with what they themselves had accompHshed so it also became a 
vehicle of confidence-building. 

Another extremely important preservation project was 
the awarding by the U.S. Department of Education of a grant to 
the Boston Public Library under the Strengthening Research 
Libraries program for cataloging and preservation of selected 
items in the Allen A. Brown Music Collection. This grant for 
^123,733 will enable the Library to preserve some items that 
have been withdrawn from serv^ice because they are so fragile. It 
will enable the Library to catalog on a national database all the 
items from the collection that have already been filmed so that 
scholars throughout the country will have access to them. The 
grant becomes a reaffirmation of the importance of the Boston 
Public Library's unique special collections. 

A key achievement this year was the completed 
conserv^ation of the John Adams Collection. \Vhen the 
conservation laboratory in the Rare Book Department was 
established in 1981 with a grant from the Office of Higher 
Education, Title II, work commenced immediately on the 
personal library of the second president of the United States. All 
three thousand volumes were in conditions mandating 
conservation attention. In FY91 all volumes have become 
accessible to scholars. In celebration of the completed task an 
exhibit vv^as mounted with photographs of items before 
restoration and the volumes themselves after restoration. Three 
descendants of John Adams attended the reception which 
opened the exhibition. 

Evidence of the Electronic Age 
The opportunities presented by the electronic age became more 
and more visible this year as the Research Library departments 
became more involved in on-line searching, the use of CD/ROM 
databases, and the electronic links to other library catalogs and 
databases. On-line access to the Boston Library Consortium 
Union List promises to be a great advantage in helping patrons 



with information on periodical holdings. It is expected that in 
the coming year the Index to State and Local Documents, 
prepared by the Government Documents Department, will be 
available on-Hne. The three CD/ROM workstations installed at 
Kirstein Business Branch are regularly in use, and other 
departments are asking for workstations. 

This demonstrated need to acquire databases and 
equipment has had major impact on the acquisitions budget 
since funds for electronic sources are taken from funds formerly 
used to purchase books. The number of books purchased is 
sharply curtailed as a growing percentage of the already limited 
funds is spent for computers, modems, discs, telecommun- 
ications, and access to databases. Staff training in the use of 
these new sources is also costly. 

The changing technology has altered user expectations 
considerably. Reference staff note that patrons demand ever 
quicker, ever more detailed and sophisticated information, and 
want answers to questions rather than knowledge of how to find 
the answers. The impact is felt when more professional meetings 
are devoted to resource sharing since it is impossible to buy 
everything, and new technology makes sharing more feasible. 
Research Library staff have been involved in committees of the 
Boston Library Consortium and Board of Library Com- 
missioners that are focused on resource sharing. Each Research 
Library department now has at least one electronic piece of 
equipment and many have several. 

This year saw continued development in the area of 
applying computer technology to services and operations in 
Community Library Services. During the year, retrospective 
barcoding was completed on the collections of nine more branch 
libraries. As of this time, 18 of the 25 branches, in addition to 
the central library, are offering fully automated circulation 
services on the new DRA system. 

Early in the year, the DRA system use was expanded to 
include the "reserve" system component. This means that a 



reserv^e request for a patron anywhere in the system can now be 
filled with any copy from the central library or a branch. As a 
result of this system, the waiting lists and waiting time for very 
popular titles such as best sellers have been dramatically 
reduced, and at some sites, eliminated. From Adams Street 
Branch came a commentary repeated frequently: "All our 
public, young and old, now make wide use of the computerized 
reserv^e system. Previously, it was rare for a child to reserv^e a 
book. Now it is becoming routine through the wonders of 
barcoding. It has also affected the type of books reserved. Before 
it was mainly best sellers. With the advent of the computer, 
older titles and more diverse titles are ordered. The collection 
has literally been open up to the public, and is used more widely 
than ever." 

The newest development in the Audio-Visual Department 
was the circulation of the compact disc collection. In addition, 
the circulation of audio-cassettes and recordings has continued 
to increase. 

Microcomputer technology was or will be added at four 
sites in Community Library Services. An APPLE computer and 
"Book Brain" software were added to the resources of the 
central library's children's room through a "Boston Works 
Smarter" award. Based on answers given by the child to a series 
of questions that define reading levels and interests, this 
computer software can be used by a child to compile lists of 
books to read. Also as a result of a "Boston Works Smarter" 
award, a microcomputer was installed in the Mobile Library 
Services Department. With the eventual addition of database 
management software, the computer will allow staff to automate 
complex records of reading interests and histories of homebound 
individuals whom the department serves. 

Local businessman Reinhard Goethert presented the 
Brighton Branch Library with an APPLE II Plus computer and 
software for use by children. The computer and games have 
been very popular with children ranging in age from 3 to 14. 



A grant from the Massachusetts Board of Library 
Commissioners under the LSGA Title I program was awarded to 
the Access Center for a second phase of technological 
development. Through this grant, access will be provided for 
disabled patrons to CD/ROM reference materials and eventually 
to the Library's on-line public access catalog, through the use of 
an IBM compatible computer and large print. Braille, and speech 
peripherals. 

Exhibitions and Programming 
The Research Library departments. General Library, and 
branches continued to acquaint the public with the richness and 
diversity of the Library's collections through exhibitions. 
"Marching to the Tune of the Union" was inspired by Ken 
Burns's Civil War. "Politics and Polkas" was timed to coincide 
with the gubernatorial election. A list of exhibits numbered in 
the hundreds. And the interests of adults, young adults, and 
children were represented in hundred of programs. For example, 
a series of workshops utilized puppetry and storytelling to 
highlight "Tales of Women in History." And for young adults, 
Sedric Jones of the New England Patriots described his life as an 
athlete. Suffice it to say that the device of capturing viewer and 
audience attention with imaginative, interpretive, timely 
exhibits and programs was pursued with a flourish. 

Programs in central and branches repeatedly called on 
authors as speakers. Noting the accelerated importance of 
nonprint media, the special projects officer in central said: "No 
matter how modern and automated libraries become, most 
people still think of libraries as places where they can borrow 
books, and it is a major goal of library programs to enhance and 
promote books and their authors." 

In still other programming efforts offered in cooperation 
with local groups, the annual lecture sponsored with the Society 
of Architectural Historians, New England, this year featured 
architect Gerhard Kallmann. And Harvard Professor Richard 



8 



Pipes spoke about his widely acclaimed book The Russian 
Revolution, and still with a Russian setting, Joseph Finder spoke 
on his thriller The Moscow Club. Art historian Henry Augustine 
Tate celebrated Valentine's Day with a lecture: "Arts, Hearts, 
and Valentines: The Theme of Lovers in Art from Ancient Times 
to the Contemporary Scene." The Calumet Quintet performed 
at the Library as part of the Library's announcement of the 
receipt of a grant of iS123,000 from the U.S. Department of 
Education for cataloging and microfilming the Brown Collection. 
Quintet members are regular users of the Music Department and 
performed at a much reduced performance fee. 

The Rare Book Department celebrated the 90th 
anniversary of the founding of the Boston Authors Club with a 
lecture, reception, and an exhibit. The traditional Dwiggins 
Lecture was offered this year by Keeper of Prints Sinclair H. 
Hitchings. Columbus was approached from a Spanish point of 
view with a lecture by Professor Francisco Morales Patron from 
the University of Seville. 

Grants and Gifts 
More than $1,000,000 in grants was received by the Library in 
FY91, including $400,000 from the National Endowment for the 
Humanities for the bibliographic implementation phase of the 
Massachusetts Newspaper Program; a grant of $123,000 for the 
cataloging and preservation of materials from the Allen A. 
Brown Collection; the fourth payment of a $1 miUion pledge 
from the Boston Globe Foundation directed to the endowment 
for literacy and reading enhancement programs; $50,000 from 
the Associates of the Boston Public Library targeted for special 
collections and projects; a grant of $75,000 from the SURDNA 
Foundation for a visiting scholar to work on prints; almost 
$20,000 for the Access Center to expand its computer 
technology; $2,036 from the Massachusetts Council on the Arts 
and Humanities for a joint project between the Library and the 
Handel & Hayden Society to microfilm concert programs and 



9 



scrapbook materials; and 27 passes to the Museum of Science 
(valued at )^13,500), a gift from the Lowell Institute. 

A grant of ^119,750 (LSGA Title III) was received by the 
Boston Library Consortium that will allow the Library access to 
NEARnet (New England Academic Research Network); also 
received by the Consortium was a grant of )^195,734 from the 
Higher Education Act for Library Technology that will support 
the installation of a computer system and components to serve 
as a platform for Union List searching. 

A substantial number of major gifts was received this 
year, among them: a splendid copy of Through the Looking 
Glass by Lewis Carroll, illustrated by Barry Moser; Surinomo: 
PHnts by Elbow, a limited edition with special paper and 
bindings related to the graphic arts; volumes 1-7 of Louis L 
Kahn Archives: Completely Illustrated Catalogue of the 
Drawings in the Louis L Kahn Collection; the archives of 
Impressions Workshop, gift of Stephen Andrus; a portfolio. Stone 
with the Angel, poems by Leo Bronstein and ten lithographs by 
Arthur Polansky; a limited facsimile edition of The Book of Kells, 
gift of Daniel Rea; 40 newspapers from 1828-1898, including the 
New York Times April 1865 edition reporting the assassination 
of President Lincoln; and hundreds of other important gifts. 

The gift items received in FY91 numbered 26,309 and 
represented the full range of formats: hardcovers, paperbacks, 
magazines, newspapers, records, cassettes, videos, compact 
discs, sheet music, and more. Gifts were checked against the 
holdings of the Library for titles not already in the collection 
and also underwent comparative checking with materials 
already in the Library to determine the better items. A total of 
10,310 were added to the Research Library including 82 items 
which merited inclusion in the Rare Book Department. 

Behind-the-Scenes/Book Activities 
Before the books and other materials appear on shelf there is 
much behind-the-scenes preparation: from examination of new 



10 



books for ordering consideration, then ordering, then cataloging, 
and finally physical preparation of the item for circulation or 
research use. 

Numbers of acquisitions this year diminished. Although 
the Library budgets in FY90 and FY91 were not significantly 
different, the purchasing power of the present year was lower. 
Inflation, the high cost of non-print material, and the number of 
non-book bibliographic services cut into the book budget. The 
range of what is broadly referred to as "books" is broad: works 
for adults and children, from major publishers, universities, and 
small presses; U.S. and foreign, current and replacement titles, 
paperbacks and large print books. 

Added to the print materials here described are the 
essential serials acquisitions. The Library remains in the 
forefront of serials control with a planned installation of 
INNOVAGQ, which goes well beyond a check-in system by 
offering managerial reports and the ability to tapeload invoice 
information. Budget restrictions led this year to the curtailment 
of many serial orders. Mentioned earlier, in terms of budget 
allocation for materials acquisition, is the considerable 
percentage now dedicated to CD ROM subscriptions. 

During FY91 the Library purchased 50,576 titles and 
152,387 volumes. The Library added 18 CD ROM products and 
14 new Infotrac work stations. 

The work of Automated Cataloging Support encompassed 
several operations in addition to generating cards and labels for 
the Library, the Eastern Region deposit centers, and the 
approximately 55 members of the GGP (Cooperative Cataloging 
Program). The department conducted ongoing development for 
the new SPECTRUM system for the CCP and gave 
demonstrations. More work remains to be done before the 
system becomes operational. 

Staff training was provided on PRISM, OCLC's new on- 
line cataloging and searching database. In continuing support of 
other OCLC services, the department busily implemented new 



11 



software programs, handled hardware trouble-shooting, 
telecommunications programs, installation of new equipment, 
and writing and distribution of documentation. A few statistics 
demonstrate the intensive activity of the department: total 
catalog cards produced numbered 1,005,944, and 281,197 
labels. 

The Book Preparation section prepared book and non- 
book materials (cassettes, mixed media, books on tapes, sound 
recordings) for circulation in an effort that included barcoding 
and relabeling. A total of 280,959 items were "prepped" in 
FY91. 

Resources and Processing managed several activities that 
enhanced the organization, preservation, and accessibility of 
materials already part of the Library's holdings. Completed in 
December 1990 was a project, supported by the Library Services 
and Construction Act, which had begun in August 1989. This 
project led to the processing of a backlog of some 30,000 
volumes. In still another effort, the preparation of the inventory 
of nonprint items in the Joan of Arc Collection continued. 
Targeted for the inventory are more than 500 pieces — pictures, 
figural items, and other nonprint items in the gift from John 
Cardinal Wright. In the Brown Collection project, attention was 
given to the cataloging of music scores, to technical 
implications, and to formulation of protocols. 

The Massachusetts Newspaper Program advanced this 
year with completion of the cataloging of all titles (a total of 
1,663) held on microfilm by the Library, as well as many Boston 
newspapers on film (463). In related activities, the Library 
generated interest in the project with the exhibit of the only 
extant copy of Piiblick OccuiTences; participated in a panel 
sponsored by the New England Press Association; and took part 
in a program of the New England Library Association on the 
regional newspaper projects. 

A major book-centered activity is the Interlibrary 
Loan/Catalog Information Department. In FY91, the proverbial 



12 



wires buzzed with thousands of transactions. Aided by the DRA 
automated circulation/reserve system and facsimile trans- 
mission, staff were able to supply patron requests throughout 
the Library branch system and Eastern Regional System. 

Testament to the accelerated response to patron requests 
were the repeated acknowledgments: a 96-year-old blind woman 
on Gape God was "happy to remember again" a verse by Edwin 
Markham; A Foxborough patron gratefully acknowledged 
receiving a needed article from the Jouimal of the American 
Medical Association in one day. In FY91 Massachusetts public 
libraries were sent 26,497 items; non-public libraries, 5,597 
items. Information conveyed by Gatalog Information reached a 
total of 28,253 phone calls, and staff answered 22,813 ready 
reference questions. Key words in Interlibrary Loan as it shipped 
books, FAXes, and answers by phone are "fill Rate" and 
"turnaround time." The statistics for both were positive in 
FY91 — and mounting. 

To the reader, the researcher, and the visitor, the Library 
emerges as the center of books, exhibits, and programs. To make 
such materials and services possible, the Library is necessarily a 
major business operation. Behind the scenes, the Business 
Office, supported by Accounting, handles the full spectrum of 
contract management, ordering of all supplies — everything from 
pencils and paper towels to acid-free storage containers and 
snow removal equipment to the books themselves. All the steps 
of acquisition include shipping arrangements, storage, and 
inventory control, and, of course, the receipt, payment, and 
eventual auditing of the costs encumbered. 

The Shipping Department is charged with the in and out 
flow of mail, library materials, supplies, and equipment. The 
processes include receiving, sorting, and distributing arriving 
materials. Shipping serves all central library units, branch 
libraries, members of the Eastern Regional Library System, and 
the Boston Library Gonsortium. Daily delivery service this year 



13 



handled 79 locations on four truck routes. The department 
processed 208,752 pieces through the U.S. Postal System. The 
central library received approximately 1,250,000 pieces of mail. 
In response to requests for items from central and branches, the 
stock room of the Shipping Department received 1,200 supply 
requisitions requesting approximately 12,912 items of which 
93% were supplied. 

A busy arm of the Business Office is the Duplicating 
Section that is charged with the production of print items: 
flyers, invitations, programs, posters, reading lists, bookmarks, 
booklets, and forms for the Library, the Boston Library 
Consortium, the Metro Boston Library Network, the Office of 
Higher Education, the Eastern Region, and the Associates of the 
Boston Public Library. The procedures involved in the print 
operation, in addition to printing itself, are numerous and 
mandate special equipment: the creation of plates or duplicating 
impressions, copying, collating, stapling, folding/perforating, 
scoring, padding, shrink wrapping, inserting, addressing, and — 
finally — distribution. In FY91 the items produced in the 
Duplicating Section numbered 1,023 jobs which utilized 
1,162,138 sheets of paper. 

Buildings 
This year the McKim building achieved full readiness for the 
actual beginning of restoration/renovation. By February the 
trustees had successfully attained all permits necessary to issue 
formal construction bids for Phase I. Plans were made for the 
removal of the extensive Research Library holdings to the 
Gharlestown Service building. At least 100,000 items need to be 
transferred. 

By the end of March, plans and specifications for the 
project were advertised with bids from sub-contractors 
(masonry, metal fabrications, waterproofing, glazing) due May 2 
and general contractor bids due May 30. With the conclusion of 
FY91, the lowest bidder, Peabody Construction Company of 



14 



Braintree, having complied fully with specifications and legal 
obligations, was awarded the contract. Gerald E. Dopp was 
named clerk of the works. 

The scope of activities in the Buildings Department 
remained demanding and extensive in FY91. Attention was 
directed to electrical/mechanical/plumbing systems in central 
and the branches, to security, communications, custodial and 
laborer services, repairs, painting, carpentry, and extermination. 
Carpentry projects ranged from building bookcases to repairing 
damages from storms or vandalism. The frequent installation or 
dismantling of central library exhibits often called for carpentry. 
Painting assignments included refurbishing branches and 
central, removal of graffiti, and refinishing furniture. 

Particular attention went to Inspection and Information 
Services with the objective of training and educating staff in 
relations with the public and consistency in enforcing library 
policies related to security. 

Custodial Services experienced great turnover in FY91, 
leaving staff coverage thin. The plan to create a travel crew of 
custodians, ready to serve as branch replacements or to respond 
immediately to units needing custodial attention failed to 
become a reality. 

Cost containment was a major focus this year. The 
department worked with Boston Edison Energy Conservation in 
relamping Dudley Branch and the central cafeteria. Branch 
buildings were monitored to control costs of lighting and 
mechanical equipment. 

Preparation moved ahead for the expansion of data 
processing by planning for laying out cables and terminals 
throughout the system. Air-conditioning, essential for central 
data processing equipment, was constantly monitored. 

The Buildings Department worked in close cooperation 
with the Boston Athletic Association for the Boston Marathon 
that finishes in front of the Library on Boylston Street. 



15 



The supervisor of Library buildings summed up his 
department's mission: "Since the operation of the Buildings 
Department reflects the Library visually, we will continue to 
perform its duties with a goal of improving the quality of work 
with high standards." 

Friends 
Since last year, two more neighborhood Friends of the Library 
groups have been formed at the Godman Square and Uphams 
Corner Branch Libraries. There are now 20 such neighborhood 
groups, in addition to the City-Wide Friends and the Associates. 
The combined membership of these groups is now estimated at 
more than two thousand individuals. 

In addition to continuing their financial support of 
library programs, Friends groups also contributed to other 
special projects. In Charlestown, for instance, the Friends 
underwrote the costs of restoring the branch library's painting 
by Samuel F. B. Morse. In the West End, the Friends received a 
second two-thousand-dollar grant from the Boston Foundation 
under the Greenspace Alliance Program to continue im- 
provements to the library grounds. The Faneuil Branch Friends 
contributed 40 stackable chairs to augment available seating for 
branch programs. 

Of particular note was an initiative of the City- Wide 
Friends to underwrite the costs for provision of admission passes 
to the New England Aquarium at all 25 branch libraries and the 
central library. The passes complement Museum of Science 
admission passes which were donated for the first time this year 
by the Museum under a grant it had received from the Lowell 
Institute. Both passes are in constant use and are proving to be 
an effective means of encouraging greater use of these Boston 
institutions by local neighborhood residents. 



16 



Staff 
Many staff members were recognized this year for their 
achievements and special contributions. Euclid (Ed) Peltier, 
founder of the Library's Audiovisual Department, retired after 
more than 40 years of service. In their meeting of 27 February 
1991, the Trustees voted to bestow on Ed Peltier the title of 
Curator of Films, Emeritus, citing his extensive contributions to 
the Library and its patrons, to libraries across the nation, and to 
the film industry. In an overflow Rabb Lecture Hall, Ed's friends 
and colleagues gave a special tribute. Michael Blowen, film critic 
for the Boston Globe, called Ed "one of Boston's most important 
protectors of film art." 

Ruth Chamberlain Kowal was named this year to the post 
of Regional administrator of the Eastern Massachusetts Regional 
Library System. Kowal came to the Library from her position as 
Regional Administrator, Central Massachusetts Regional System 
in Worcester. She had previously served in executive library 
positions in southeastern Massachusetts and in New York State. 

Concluding Thoughts 
Once again as FY91 draws to a close the Library is faced with 
budget problems and the need to plan alternatives in terms of 
hours of service and staffing for FY92. Let me quote the ever 
quotable David McCord, who wrote at the time of the Library's 
centennial: "The problems of adapting this great building to the 
present-day pressures, with the periodic need for more space, is 
not easy of solution." 

Almost forty years later, adapting the central library and 
branches to current problems is not easy, but we are moving in 
double-time to find solutions. 

Arthur Curley 
Director and Librarian 



17 



Library Resources 

General Book Collections 



Volumes 




5,904,605 


Special Collections 






Rare Books and Manuscripts 


1,238,612 


Prints 




725,924 


Patents 




9,435,056 


Maps 




319,218 


Government Documents 


2,110,908 


Musical Scores 




96,910 


Periodicals 






Current Subscriptions 




16,923 


Non-Print Materials 






Audio-Recordings 




329,618 


Films & Video Cassettes 


17,445 


Microforms 




4,416.851 




TOTAL 


24,612,070 


Library 


Use 




Visitors 




2,085,716 


Programs 




5,024 


Program Attendance 




168,029 


Items Borrowed 




2,127,039 


Volumes Consulted 




976,033 


Reference Inquiries 




1,339,049 


Photocopies 




1,498,000 



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