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Full text of "Annual report"

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FIFTEENTH 




ANN UAL R EPORT 


OF THK 


1 
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TRUSTEES OF THE PUBLIC 


LIBRARY. 


1867. 




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1 




BOSTON: 

.\LFliKI) MUDGP: & SON, CITY PRINTEIiS, 34 SCHOOL STREET. 
186 7. 



City Document. — No. 114. 



eiTY OF BOSTON 




FIFTEENTH 

ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

TRUSTEES OF THE PUBLIC LIBRARY. 

1867. 



In Board of Aldermen^ November 25, 1867. 
Laid on the table, and ordered to be printed. 

Attest : S. F. McCLEARY, City Clerk. 



CITY OF BOSTON. 



Public Library, Boston, November 21, 1867- 

His Honor Otis Norcross, Mayor of the City of Boston : 

Sir: I have the honor to transmit to you, herewith, the 
Fifteenth Annual Report of the Trustees of the Public 
Library, prepared in obedience to the fourth section of the 
Ordinance relative to the Public Library, passed on the 20th 
of October, 1863. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

CHARLES C. JEWETT, 

Secretary of the Board of Trustees. 



FIFTEENTH ANNUAL EEPOKT 



TRUSTEES or THE PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



In obedience to the requisitions of an Ordinance concerning 
the Public Library, passed October 20th, 1863, the Trustees 
have the honor to submit to the City Council their Fifteenth 
Annual 

REPORT: 

The activity noticed in the last Annual Report, in all branches 
of the library service, has continued without intermission during 
the present year. The amount of labor performed has increased, 
and the difficult task of insuring that each department should 
fully meet the demands made upon it, so that none of the interests 
of the institution should suffer to the inconvenience of the public, 
or to the detriment of its own operations, has, so far as practi- 
cable, been performed. The year of which we have now to 
make report necessarily includes six months of the term of our 
predecessors in office, and comprises the record of a new organ- 
ization of the Board by the City Council, as well as of the 
important changes made by the present Trustees in the economy 
of the Library. 

Of the large class of facts relative to the institution in which 
the City Council and the community have a direct interest, a 
full narration is given in the Report of the Examining Committee 
accompanying this Report. This Committee, appointed under 
the sixth section of the Ordinance, consists of five citizens at 



b CITY DOCUMENT. —No. 114. 

largo, witli a mcinl^er of the Board of Trustees as Chairman. 
The Committee for the present year are Alfonso Bowman, Esq., 
C. W. Freeland, Esq., C. D. Homans, M. D., Herman J. Warner, 
Esq., and Rev. R. C. Waterston, with Justin Winsor, Esq., 
as Chairman. Their Report (Document A) will be found 
to contain ampler statistics of the circulation and use of the 
books and periodicals than have hitherto been in the possession 
of the institution. These statistics have been derived from the 
new system of circulation, from which such large results were 
hoped at the time of the last Annual Report. The various 
recommendations of the Committee deserve the careful attention 
of the City Council, and will hereafter be made the subject of 
examination on the part of the Trustees. 

The Report of the Superintendent (Document B) is also 
appended. Like the document of the Examining Committee, it 
will be found full of figures and facts to indicate the uses of the 
books and periodicals. It likewise fulfils the requirements of 
the third section of the Ordinance, that there should be made 
known to the City Council, annually, "the condition of the 
Library, the number of books that have been added during the 
past year, with an account of its receipts and expenditures." 
The tables, classifying the books of the Lower Hall, giving the 
number of duplicates upon its shelves, and showing the wear of 
this department of the Library during nine years, will be found 
important by all persons interested in lending libraries. 

On the 31st December, 1866, an Ordinance was passed by the 
City Council, increasing the number of the Trustees, and changing 
their tenure of office. It doubled the representation from the 
Common Council, and added one to those selected from the 
citizens at large, making a new Board to consist of nine instead 
of seven members. It also arranged, in conformity with the 
management of other city institutions, that the citizens elected at 
large should serve for a term of three years, two being chosen 
each year. This measure was evidently designed to give per- 
manency and character to the Board, and to secure the services 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 7 

of competent and reliable men in the administration of this great 
trust. It is, indeed, possible under the Ordinance, to elect five 
new members in the Board each year — but this probably was 
not the intention of the City Council. 

It will be remembered, that for several years great difficulty 
had arisen in consequence of the want of power on the part of 
the Trustees to punish individuals abusing or destroying the 
property of the Library. To meet this emergency, the Legisla- 
ture passed at its last session a general " Act for the Preservation 
of Books and other Property belonging to Public Libraries." 
The penalties under this law are sufficiently severe. No prosecu- 
tions under it have yet been necessary, and none may be neces- 
sary; but it is of the last importance to every public library 
that its guardians should have authority sufficient to protect the 
property placed in their charge for safe keeping. 

The causes which led to the new registration of the persons 
using the Library, are stated at length in the Report of the Ex- 
amining Committee and of the Superintendent, It is only proper 
to add here that the measure was adopted upon the unanimous 
vote of the Board, after careful deliberation. Already a large 
number of persons have registered, and we have yet to learn of 
any one deserving and entitled to the use of the Library, who has 
been excluded thereby from its privileges. If there be any de- 
serving persons, who have no friends or acquaintances, and yet 
are desirous to use the books or Reading Room, let them promptly 
make known their necessities to the Trustees. As the Library is 
intended for the freest use of the greatest number of people, who 
ought to use it, it is obvious that more books can be circulated, 
if they are so protected as to go only into the hands of those 
who will take care of them, and return them at the proper time 
to the Library. 

It has not been expected by the Trustees that a new registra- 
tion, including a system of reference, would relieve the Library 
from all losses. Immunity from loss can only result from actual 
security given, either from the names of responsible persons 



o CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 

agreeing to make good possible loss, or from the actual money 
deposit of the value of the book loaned. But it may fairly be 
concluded that any system which will tend to exclude notoriously 
dishonest people from the Library, will diminish the number of 
books lost or stolen. Since the opening of the Lower Hall, over 
6000 l:)ooks have disappeared from the shelves, either lost, stolen, 
or worn out. It is probable that more than one-half of these 
were worn out, but the proportion absolutely lost through the 
unfaithfulness of borrowers, it is now impossible to fix: here- 
after it will be exactly known. 

During the year new editions of the " By-Laws relative to the 
Trustees and Officers of the Library," and of the " Rules and 
Regulations for the use of the Public Library," have been printed. 
In the first of these, such alterations were made as would adapt 
it to the newly enlarged Board. The number of Standing Com- 
mittees has been increased, the duties of all more exactly speci- 
fied, and changes arranged in the work committed to the charge 
of the various principal officers of the institution. This has 
been done with a view so to distribute labors and responsibili- 
ties as to meet all the demands upon the library service, and to 
render, so far as practicable, the details of administration har- 
monious and complete. 

Only one important alteration in the Rules and Regulations 
needs notice here. The Trustees, after observation of the fre- 
quenters of the Library, desirous that its benefits should be extended 
as widely as possible, diminished by two years the limits of the ages 
of admission to the Reading Room and to the uses of the Library. 
The results, so far, have justified the change. A large class ot 
readers has been added, and of an age when a good book makes 
a more lasting and decided impression than upon maturer minds. 
A book remaining unused and idle upon the shelf does not fulfil 
the purpose for which it was produced, and the largest use con- 
sistent with the safety of the property must be the steady aim 
in any successful management of a great public library. 

Grateful mention is made in tlie Report of the Superintendent, 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. » 

of the various benefactions to the institution. Among these, 
special notice should be given to the busts of Mr. Everett by- 
Thomas Ball, presented by the subscribers to the Everett statue, 
and to that of Mr. Motley, by Richard S. Greenough, due to the 
generosity of Mr. Thomas B. Curtis. The increasing number 
of works of art in the library, has had recent attention from 
the Trustees. No provision was originally made in the library 
building for their preservation or exhibition. The room now 
used for their temporary deposit is utterly unsuited for the pur- 
pose ; and in the changes consequent upon any future extension 
or alteration of the present edifice, it is hoped that such arrange- 
ments will be made, as may secure an appropriate position for 
the statuary and paintings now in our possession, and shall 
insure to future benefactors of works of art the conditions which 
shall enable the student to proceed from the text-books on the 
shelves of the library to galleries illustrating their contents, by 
specimens of the best works of modern painters and sculptors. 

Among the conveniences added to the library during the 
year, the Indicator deserves the principal place. It appears to 
have been instantly understood and appreciated by the borrow- 
ers of our books, and has diminished, in a very marked degree, 
the time of waiting in the distributing-room. Securing compar- 
ative rapidity of delivery, it lessens confusion at the hours of the 
greatest demand for books. 

Of the other new arrangements to facilitate the use of the 
books by the public, the most important is the publication of the 
"Bulletin," of which one number has been issued, and with 
marked success. The work owes its origin to the suggestions 
of the Examining Committee of last year, who felt the impor- 
tance of a readier communication with readers than the ordi- 
nary processes of printing Catalogues and Finding Lists would 
permit. One can hereafter procure, within a reasonable time, 
and at a trifling expense, a list of all the new books added to 
both halls of the Library, and the natural desii-e to obtain 



10 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 

the last works upon any given subject will be readily grati- 
fied. 

Since the first opening of the Public Library, and the publica- 
tion of the early reports, indicating to the public the principles 
upon which it would be managed, it has gradually grown in the 
general estimation. The hitherto untried experiment of opening 
its doors wide to all inhabitants of the city, with the fewest 
possible limitations and safeguards, during fifteen years has 
had a thorough trial. The percentage of losses has been small 
as compared with the whole number of books circulated. It 
has been the aim of the present Board still further to extend 
the privileges of the institution, due reference being had to the 
certain return of the books loaned. It is, in their judgment, a 
mistake to suppose that the increasing number of books lost was 
of insufficient consequence, and that no restrictions were neces- 
sary to prevent further losses. The very fact of immunity to 
one unfaithful borrower tempts others to a like dishonesty. 
To set such a snare before the young and thoughtless would be 
highly unjustifiable. 

In conclusion, the Trustees take leave to commend the Library 
anew to the City Government, to whose continuous bounty and 
favor it has been so largely indebted. It is now, we suppose, 
in size the second institution of the kind in the country, and, 
if its past prosperity shall continue, may ere long be the first. 
To arrive at this result, it must keep pace with the wants of the 
community, and be administered for its benefit. 

WM. W. GREENOUGH, 
J. P. BIGELOW, 
NATH'L B. SHURTLEFF, 
WINSLOW LEWIS, 
JUSTIN WINSOR, 
E. P. WHIPPLE, 
THOMAS GAFFIELD, 
WESTON LEWIS, 

JEREMIAH L. NEWTON. 

Public Libraey, 19th Nov.^ 1867. 



[A] 
REPORT OF THE EXAMINING COMMITTEE. 



The Examining Committee appointed by the Trustees of the 
Public Library for tlie year 1867, ask leave to 

REPORT. 

They directed their attentian to th3 

I. BUILDING, 

and learned that its history shows the usual experience with 
public edifices, of inconveniences discovered in use that had not 
been anticipated in the accepted plans. It was a condition of 
Mr. Bates's original gift that the building should be an archi- 
tectural ornament to the city — a provision which Mr. Everett, 
two years before in a letter to the Mayor, had feared might yet 
be interposed, while in his opinion the attempt at architectural 
display would end in failure. Mr. Bates's condition — whatever 
we may think of the way in which it was met — did not of 
course forbid any of the requirements of fitness, and Mr. 
Winthrop, who made the address at the laying of the corner- 
stone, believed that the building, when completed, would bo found 
to have few edifices of a like character, to equal it in practical 
appropriateness and convenience ; and the Trustees at that time 
reported that it would compare favorably with any public build- 



12 CITY DOCUIMENT. — No. 114. 

ing in tlio world for position, convenience and adaptation. When 
the Library was dedicated, it was suggested that no disappoint- 
ment should be felt, if the building should be found deficient in 
some details, and that it would not be surprising if alterations 
might finally become necessary. It is not strange, perhaps, that 
the Commissioners, in their joint capacity, did not successfully 
guard against any such future development, since libraries are 
various in character, and have produced diverse experiences, 
while those who have made their construction a study are not at 
all agreed upon the prime necessities of their plan. Besides, a 
free circulating library like this, and of its destined magnitude, 
did not exist, whence the tests of actual trial could be drawn. 
After the building had been occupied three or four years, we 
began to hear complaints of its construction from the Examining 
Committees, supported by those, who were deriving from the 
management of the institution, a practical insight into its de- 
fects. 



"What are its Main Defects ? A want of light in some of 
the alcoves of the Bates Hall, of ventilation in the lower 
story, and the absence of working-rooms. Moreover, a mistake 
had been made in the height of the alcoves, since movable steps 
are required to reach the higher shelves, — a fault too late, 
probably, now to remedy. 

In the matter of light, the defect is often very inconvenient. 
The needless fluting of the exterior walls, devised to afford light 
to the Lower Hall, and which has not proved of use, both 
enhanced the cost of the edifice, and deprived the Bates Hall of 
valuable room. To reconstruct the walls now, so as to make a 
straight line, would, we are informed, cost an. amount that it is 
hardly desirable to expend in view of the future, if not immediate 
necessity, of an additional building in the rear. It is practica- 
able, perhaps, to cut through long, narrow loopholes in the outer- 
most parts of the wall, in the-.two lovrei;- range* of alcoves (the 



PUBLIG LIBRARY. 13 

upper range being light enough) and the expense might not be 
disproportioned to the benefit. 

In regard to ventilation, your Committee found the atmosphere 
of the lower Delivery Room invariably very bad, and that of the 
Reading Room not so good as it should be, when many are occu- 
pying it, particularly in the evening, when the gas is burning. 
The matter, we learned, had often been investigated without any 
satisfactory result. The only effectual remedy in the Delivery 
Room would seem to be the removal of its present false-ceiling, 
and even this might not be sufficient without some contrivance 
for facilitating the draught in the flues. It is possible some arti- 
ficial appliance for this end may work relief in the Reading 
Room. 

The need of working accommodations seems to your Committee 
to be seriously felt, and the arguments for special rooms, in our 
opinion, outweigh those in favor of using the galleries and 
alcoves, as is now the case, for work which, it seems to us, 
requires greater room and more fitting conveniences, to insure 
facility and accuracy. All the labor upon the newly-received 
books — the collating, the varied cataloguing, and other work ot 
preparing them for the shelves — is at present done in so narrow 
a space that two persons can barely pass beside the tables ; and 
the room is very insufficient for assorting the books, as may be 
necessary, in making proper classifications. The crowded con- 
dition of this part of the gallery causes more or less confusion, 
and the neighboring shelves of l30oks are exposed to an increase 
of dust. In the alcoves where binding and repairing to bindings 
have been done since 1863, these last considerations seem more 
valid, while the workmen are necessarily put to some inconven- 
ience in timing the noisy parts of their trade to intervals when 
the hall is free from readers. 

The large collection of pamphlets is kept in a low and dark 
apartment over the Delivery Room, and their assortment and 
examination -requires light as well as space. If the ceiling of 



14 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 

tlic Delivery Room, which makes the floor of this apartment, is 
removed, accommodations will have to be provided for this col- 
lection elsewhere. 

A small room in one of the rear towers is now devoted to the 
British Patent Specijicalions and Reports, and its shelves can 
receive but a few volumes more of a collection, which, through 
the liberality of the British Government, is constantly growing. 
It is probable that space must be gained by some temporary 
expedient, before another room could be furnished, even if an 
enlargement of the present building be deemed desirable. 

The records of the institution in volumes and slips have now 
reached an inconvenient bulk, if no regular place of deposit is 
provided for them. At present they are necessarily disposed 
in various corners and spaces, and a suitable room for their reg- 
ular arrangement is to be desired. 

The collection of the Fine Arts now small, is well begun, and 
the time cannot be far distant, when the hall at present devoted 
to their reception will be wholly inadequate. 

The Reading Room at times is filled in every part, and might 
well, even now, be enlarged. 

The assistant, who has charge of the monetary accounts, is at 
present only provided for in a much frequented passage-way, 
with extemporized conveniences for the work. 

There is no apartment at present furnished for the keeping 
and showing of maps and large sheets oi plans or engravings. 

Some of the higher range of alcoves in the Bates Hall are 
now used for storing sale-duplicates of books and pamphlets; 
but the increase of the Library is gaining upon those alcoves, 
and some place of deposit, not now in view, should be made 
ready for them, since a large library, receiving donations, must 
always be burdened with such duplicates. 

In the matter of shelving, a cursory examination of the Library 
might seem to show that sufficient room existed for the accumu- 
lations of several years to come. The building was calculated 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 15 

to hold about 200,000 volumes in the Bates and 40,000 in the 
Lower Hall, and it now contains about 136,000 volumes in 
both, exclusive of some 35,000 pamphlets. But the measure of 
further accommodation in the Bates Hall is not wholly deter- 
mined by a difference of some 80,000 or 90,000 volumes. 
Every large library, to be useful, must be classified, and the 
classifications must be preserved locally with some degree of 
distinctness. Hence it is very undesirable to allow the over- 
flowings of one department to encroach on the neighboring one, 
which is sure in time to eject the intruders, and cause much con- 
fusion in the catalogues. Accordingly, though the shelves of the 
Bates Hall will still accommodate a large accession of volumes, 
not many thousands more can be received without departing 
locally from the classifications so needful to make a library use- 
ful. Already some inroads have necessarily been made on a 
strict system. The Parker collection had, by a condition of the 
gift, to be kept together, and the most eligible position for it 
compelled the division of the Fine Arts collection, which is thus 
inconveniently halved and put in separate corners of the build- 
ing, and similar disturbances have been made in the departments 
of bibliography and literary history. Of course, the Library, 
in accepting other equally extensive collections, may be obliged 
to take them on similar conditions. Such could not, on the 
present shelves, be accommodated without the greatest disturb- 
ance to the library's classifications. It seems very desirable 
that a series of independent rooms should be provided, of vari- 
ous sizes and suitable arrangements, to relieve the present hall 
of these minor consolidated collections, and not only to lodge, 
but to invite further accessions of a like character. 

It has been held from the beginning that the ordinary annual 
increase of the Library would be about 6,000 volumes ; and in 1854 
it was reckoned, on this basis, that it would contain in fourteen 
years a hundred thousand volumes. Experience has shown that, 
for the ordinary increase, the calculation was nearly cprrect ; but 



16 CITY DOCUMENT. —No. 114. 

since, before reaching the end of fourteen years, we have fully 
13G,000 volumes, the dilfercnce shows that there arc extraordi- 
nary accessions, like the Parker library and the gift in books of 
Mr. Bates, which are not calculable. Two more such windfalls 
now would find the present shelving insufficient to receive them. 
Your Committee then feel, that though there may not be pressing 
need of shelf-room, but a few years can elapse before such will 
be the case ; and it possibly may be, at any day. 

What is the Remedy ? This state of affairs induces your 
Committee to suggest the occupation at some early day of the 
ground in the rear, provided for such an emergency. They will 
not devise a plan, but leave that to be determined by the neces- 
sities of the case, as understood by the Trustees ; but, in general, 
it seems to be desirable that the ceiling of the Delivery Room be 
raised to the height of the adjacent apartments, and the lower 
library be moved back into the proposed new structure, which 
should contain also the grand staircase (removing the existing 
one) ; and by this means to secure ampler space in the lower 
story of the present building for a Delivery Room, a Reading 
Room, and a Fine Arts Room. The new structure need not be 
costly from ornamentation within, or from exterior finish, as it is 
chiefly needed for working-rooms, and for supplementary collec- 
tions. The present Bates Hall would still be kept as the chief 
architectural attraction of the library. 

In case of such enlargement, it may be deemed best to ex- 
change the present defective mode of warming the building for 
the apparatus of steam or hot-water heating. Your Committee 
understand, that the furnaces now in use are only kept in order 
by constant repairs, and something before long will have to be 
done with them, if no change in the manner of heating is made. 

Your Committee would suggest that any radical change in the 
Lower Hall, by which the shelf-numbers of the books Avould be 
altered,. ought, if possible, to be made before the consolidating of 



PUBLIC LIBEARY. 



17 



the Finding Lists now in progress is effected in a ne-w printed 
Catalogue of that Hall. The same consideration will apply, 
though not so urgently, to the Bates Hall. 



. 


96,819 


. 


1,952 




4,955 


. 


103,726 


5,100 vols 




1,678 




186 





II. BOOKS. 

Has the Increase been Satisfactory ? The number of vol- 
umes in the Bates Hall as reported, Aug. 1, 1866, was of 

Located books 

Prince Library, not then located 

Sale duplicates 

Making a total then of . 
Located 1866-67 . 
Not yet located 
Parker duplicates 
Excess of duplicates received over 
exchanges . . . . 191 

7,155 

The present number in the Bates Hall, 110,881 

An actual count might fiall a trifle short of this ; first, because 
about one hundred volumes are missing from the shelves, either 
lost, or charged to borrowers and not yet returned ; and second, 
because, in re-binding, two volumes have been in some cases put 
together and now stand on the shelves as one. 

In the Lower Hall the shelf-lists show that, includmg 3,002 
volumes added during the past year, there have been placed in 
this collection from the beginning . . . 31,802 vols. 

An actual count the present year gives . 25,199 " 



Deduct transfers to Bates Hall 



6,603 
360 



And we have 6,243 " 

which must be understood to cover all missing and worn-out 
books since 1858 to the end of the last library year. 



18 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 

Your Committee reckon, tlien, for a total enumeration, not far 
from 13(5,000 volumes. There is reason to believe that the Bos- 
ton Public Library is destined to become the largest on this con- 
tinent, while it is unequalled for its accessibility among the great 
public collections of the world. It is now, we believe, only sur- 
passed, as to size, in this country by the Library of Congress, 
now that the Library of the Smithsonian Institution, and that of 
Hon. Peter Force, have been joined to the national collection. 
They calculate, at the British Museum, that 40,000 volumes will 
take a mile of shelf-room, which proportion would give this 
Library over three miles of occupied shelves. 

To this collection of books, we must add an increase for the 
year, of 7,877 iiampUets, making a total of 44,443, united to the 
collection from the beginning. It must be borne in mind, how- 
ever, that, say from four to five thousand of these, have been 
culled from the mass as of sufficient importance to bind sepa- 
rately, and are now enumerated as books. Moreover, perhaps a 
thousand have been bound in groups, and an equal number 
exchanged, for which there has not been received an equivalent 
numerical return. Roughly, then, from this computation, the 
Library may be said to contain about 35,000 pamphlets; and the 
accessions of this sort the past year have been largely in excess 
of any previous year, owing to the several thousand liberally 
turned over to the Library by Mr. William Everett, from the 
collection of his lamented father. 

Your Committee consider this record of increase very satis- 
factory. 

Does the record op Donations show on the part of the 
PUBLIC A sustained INTEREST IN THE LIBRARY? Nearly one- 
half of the collection of books, and a vast preponderance — say 
all but about 2,000 — of its pamphlets, have been the gift of 
3,279 persons and institutions, not enumerating anonymous 
donors, and counting the same source each time that it appears 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 19 

on the annual return of donors. This one-half is independent of 
the purchases with the interest of the trust-funds, which are, in 
fact, likewise the fruit of private munificence. If we add these 
to the casual presentations, it would show that the vast majority 
of our books is the result of other causes than the City appro- 
priations. The average yearly number of casual donors has 
been about two hundred and nineteen, and the past year there 
were three hundred. 

Mr. Edwards, in his " Memoirs of Libraries," affirms that 
" casual donation is a totally untrustworthy source for the forma- 
tion of public libraries under any circumstances," but we are 
glad to say the experience here is quite the reverse. Half, 
indeed, of our total donations of books have come in large bulk, 
but an accumulation of between 30,000 and 40,000 volumes in 
lesser gifts, varying from a single volume to two thousand, is no 
small benefit from casual responses to our needs. Indeed, Mr. 
Edwards, who at the time was librarian of the Manchester Free 
Library, so far qualifies his statement as to say, " In Boston 
there has been precisely that co-operation between corporate 
functionaries on the one hand, and independent citizens on the' 
other, which is, I think, to be desiderated here." Your Committee 
think no other large free library in the world will show so large 
accessions from casual donors. We have seen no recent enu- 
meration of the British Museum, but of its 540,000 volumes in 
1857, only 218,000 had been given. In four of the chief free 
libraries of England established under the Public Library Acts, 
almost coincidently with this institution, their aggregate vol- 
umes in five years amounted to 140,000, and of these only 
30,000 were gifts. In the libraries of this country, that of 
Harvard College is made up to a considerable extent of dona- 
tions ; but as a collection for general use it is greatly inferior in 
the quality of its books to ours, very deficient in recent and 
current literature, and its garnering from private soui'ces shows 
a much greater proportion of mere literary lumber. Private 



20 CITY DOCTUMENT. — No. 114. 

munificence lias rarely bestowed a more solid value in books 
upon any institution, than came from the second gift of Mr. 
Bates. The Astor Library is so emphatically the creation of a 
single family that it is hardly to be reckoned either as a public 
endowment or as the outgrowth of an ordinary private benefac- 
tion. In the choice of its books, it is to be doubted if its founda- 
tion was laid in any better manner than, or even as well, as ours. 
The library of the Boston Athemeum is in effect a subscription 
one, and has grown from private aid to be a valuable collection, 
but, in the nature of the case, it does not make the same appeals 
to the public interest. Subscription libraries cannot ordinarily 
depend upon further private assistance than comes from the 
payments naturally accruing to their treasury. The most flour- 
ishing, perhaps, in the country, that of the New York Mercantile 
Library, while it increased its collection by some 9,000 volumes 
in 1865-66, found that only one hundred and seventy were given. 
The records of tlie Boston Public Library then show, eminently, 
we think, that it has invited the contributions of the public with 
a success not elsewhere equalled in libraries of its character. 

Do THE Bates and Lower Halls maintain relatively a 
PROPER size to their COLLECTIONS ? The Batcs Hall was de- 
signed to contain about five times the volumes of the Lower Hall ; 
and this, with slight fluctuations, has been the proportion kept up. 
It is about the ratio preserved at Manchester, between their central 
library and the average of their five branch or lending libraries. 
Your Committee see no reason to object to this proportion at 
present, but they question if it be desirable to increase the bulk 
of the Lower Hall much over its present numbers, for two rea- 
sons. First, because, in a collection circulating so extensively, it 
is not desirable to use galleries, if as many volumes as will 
maintain a lively circulation can be shelved on a single floor ; 
and, secondly, because the system of recording loans, now in 
operation, will show year by year the books that are least called 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



21 



for, thus pointing out at the season of each new consolidating of 
the catalogue, what books can be transferred to the Bates Hall, 
to make room in the Lower for the fresher publications, and 
those in more active demand. 

The growth of these two halls is, in the nature of the case, 
somewhat determined by the relative amounts of the Trust 
Funds' interest and the City appropriation ; the former, being out 
of regard to the expressed or implied wishes of the donors, spent 
for works of solid and permanent value, which find their place 
commonly, though not always, in the Bates Hall, while the money 
allowed by the City Council is entirely devoted to the demands 
of the Lower Hall and the Periodical Room. 



Do THE VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS OF LEARNING IN EITHER HaLL 

SHOW RELATIVELY PROPER PROPORTIONS ? In the Bates Hull, if 
we exclude the Parker, Bowditch and Prince collections (which 
may be put apart as characteristic in themselves, making together 
over 16,000 volumes), and throw out something over 5,000 sale 
duplicates, we shall have an aggregate of about 90,000 volumes, 
thus far located, and they are divided in classes thus : 



Periodicals and Transactions . 
English History and Literature 
American History and Literature 
Theology and Ecclesiastical History 
French History and Literature 
Italian History and Literature 
Medicine .... 
Mathematics and Physical Sciences 
General History and Geography 
German History and Literature 
Greek, Latin and Philology . 
Bibliography and Literary History 
Other History and Literature 
Metaphysics, Ethics, Social Science 
Fine Arts 



12 per cent. 

12 

11 

10 

7 

5 

5 

5 

4 

4 

4 



Jurisprudence 


J. 11*. 

2 per (jent. 


General Cyclopffidias 


1 


Political Economy . 


1 " 


Useful Arts .... 


1 " 


Miscellaneous 


1 



The accessions of the last year show, relatively, a large 
increase in Theology and Ecclesiastical History ; an increase in 
American history and literature, and a decrease in English and 
French history and literature. The department of American 
history and literature now stands to English history and litera- 
ture about as ten to eleven, which, considering the extent of the 
two in printed books, shows that our collection affords a more 
complete examination into our national life and letters than it 
does into any other, and your Committee think this extensive 
garnering of our own literature and history most commendable. 
If the average call for books in the two departments might be 
taken as a criterion, our national history and literature might 
be thought to be unduly cherished, for, of readers in the Bates 
Hall, those calling for English history and literature to those 
asking for American, has been for five years an average of sev- 
enteen to nine. The proportions of demand and classifications 
in other departments have run comparatively even, except 
that the demand for works in the useful and fine arts is 
probably somewhat in excess of the relative supply in that 
department. 

Your Committee learn, that, from the first gathering of the 
Bates Hall collection, the aim has been to make each depart- 
ment of relative importance to the needs of this community, and 
they cannot see that the Library is other than a- success in this 
respect. They are told, that, through the instrumentality of Mr. 
Ticknor, men distinguished for proficiency in special fields of 
investigation were invited, early in the history of the collection, 
to furnish lists of the most desirable works, and that from the 
thoroughness of these returns the Library has gained much. A 



PUBLIC LIBKARY. 23 

special effort was made in 1857 to secure all that was rare and 
valuable in books on America, and a list prepared by Mr. 
Greenough was printed and distributed among dealers with 
orders to buy, and about one-third of that list has not yet been 
acquired. 

Your Committee learned that the system of the Trustees is to 
establish regular agents of the Library in the chief European 
book-marts, and in this capacity Mr. Henry T. Parker is em- 
ployed at London; Doctor Fliigel at Leipzig; Monsieur C. 
Porquet at Paris ; and Chevalier Alberi at Florence. Sums of 
money are periodically placed to their credit in the hands of 
Messrs. Baring, Brothers & Co., and these agents, who are 
statedly furnished with lists of books to be purchased, are in- 
structed to draw upon those bankers to a specified extent. The 
London agent has a considerable margin allowed him to pur- 
chase current books, not ordered ; and a lesser margin is some- 
times allowed the continental agents for important books, 
though not ordered. Invoices from the London agency are con- 
stantly arriving, and those from the continent come seldom 
oftener than once a year. For current literature in foreign 
tongues dependence is placed upon an importer in New York, 
as the most expeditious way of procuring them. Of the current 
American publications all are sent for examination to the Library 
by an agent, Mr. Burnham, and none are rejected but the 
positively frivolous, immoral or needless. Your Committee deem 
this system well devised to keep the Library supplied with a due 
variety of books in all the classifications. 

The Lower Hall shows naturally a very large proportion of 
fiction, say 7,000 to 8,000, or about one-third of its entire num- 
ber of volumes, — a proportion not relative to the demand, but 
in your Committee's opinion quite large enough, as we shall later 
show. There has been no strict account published of the classi- 
fications in this hall since 1860, but the proportion is not per- 
haps much changed since. It is not always easy to compare the 



24 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 



classifications of tvro libraries, they arc so generally kept on 
diflfercut bases in some particulars ; but we should say that while 
in the circulating department of the Manchester Free Library, 
history and biography have a larger share of books than with 
us, in the sciences and the arts the preponderance is on our 
side. The percentage arrived at in 1860, regarding the classifi- 
cations of this hall were as follows : 



Novels and Amusing Miscellanies . 37.4 per c( 


Science and Arts 


12.3 


Biography .... 


10.3 « 


Travels .... 


9. 


Foreign Books . 


8.8 


Poetry and Drama 


G.7 " 


Miscellaneous History . 


6.5 " 


Religion .... 


4.7 


American History 


4.3 " 



Since 1860 the department of Foreign books has been ad- 
vanced nearly one per cent of the whole, and at present it con- 
tains of 



German books 
French books 
Italian books 



1,036 

1,042 

221 



Total 



2,299 



The selection seems to your Committee to be well made. 
There has been no enumeration of the entire library by lan- 
guages since 1863, and then there were of 



English books 


59 per cent 


French books 


18 " 


German books 


9 " 


Italian books 


8 " 


Latin books . 


4 " 


Others .... 


2 " 



PUBLIC LIBKARY. 25 

It is to be expected, as the Library grows, that more and more 
attention will be bestowed upon the foreign literatures, since 
recourse can be prudently had to further explorations among 
them, as the most desirable parts of English literature become 
more and more gathered in. 

Is A Due Amount of Current Literature Purchased ? It has 
been the aim, as your Committee understand, to keep the collec- 
tion promptly up to the times, purchasing, as a general thing, 
books of long standing with what moneys are left after supplying 
the current publications. This plan is subject, however, to some 
conditions. The Library has, at present, in interest from the 
Trust Funds, in currency about $7000, chiefly to be spent for 
books of permanent value (the conditions of one of the funds 
require the books to be of five years' standing), and unfortu- 
nately there is but a small portion of current publications, which 
a catholic judgment can pronounce in that category. The great 
dependence for this end is, then, the City appropriation. For 
the three years previous to the past there has been an average 
yearly accession of this current description, of 1,570 volumes. 
During the past year there has been received the following : 

English books ...... 635 

American books 1,154 

Continental books printed in English . 104 

Foreign books 539 

2,432 

Duplicates ...... 97 

Total 2,529 

This is much in excess of the recent average, and of this num- 
ber a larger proportion are foreign, than last year. 

Your Committee learn, with satisfaction, that measures have 
been taken to make known these fresh accessions, as soon as 
4 



26 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. lU. 

they arc prepared for circulation. Something further was clearly 
needed than the entries in the interleaved catalogues. A book 
of accessions of current publications, posted week by week, fully 
meets the requirement. Besides this, periodically, perhaps 
monthly, a printed list of all accessions is to be distributed. 

Are the Pamphlets Increasing Beyond the Present 
Means of Managing Them ? The collection, as before stated, 
numbers about 35,000, and such as have been assorted, are 
arranged within presses, in pamphlet cases, in an alphabetical 
order of their case-title, so that any pamphlet on a particular 
subject is easily found. The system of assortment pursued is to 
place them one by one in these cases, as the subject requires ; 
and by a periodical examination of the cases, it is ascertained 
when a sufficient number on one subject, or of the proper 
sequence are obtained, to make a volume for binding to put 
upon the shelves. In this way, some valuable accessions are 
made yearly to our catalogue of books. Other pamphlets are 
judged of sufficient value to bind separately, and however thin 
they may be, a device in the hands of Mr. Goldsmith, the library- 
binder, makes the back of sufficient breadth to receive the title 
and shelf-number, without necessitating the accumulation of 
blank paper within the covers. 

Your Committee ascertained that this assortment is now in 
such arrears that six months' labor of the usual assistant in this 
department, would not more than suffice to bring them up ; mean- 
while the collection is growing daily. Your Committee also 
learned, that it is impossible, with the various other duties requir- 
ing service in the Library, to allow this assistant more than a 
fraction of his time for this labor ; and they cannot but see, that 
with the present force in the Library, these arrears are becoming 
more and more unmanageable, and must inevitably get into such 
bulk and confusion, as to be discreditable to the institution. 
Your Committee then most earnestly recommend that in the 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



27 



appropriations for another year, the trustees secure, if 
a distinct allowance for this department. 



Is THE Management of Duplicates Judicious? In a 
library of this character, duplicates are of two kinds, those 
needed for the shelves to meet the demand, and those not 
needed, and so held for sale or exchange. 

The shelf-duplicates constitute one-quarter of the entire number 
of volumes in the Lower Hall, being mostly in fiction, though in 
other classes some books require, or have required them. Thus 
we have of 



Kane's Arctic Explorations, in 2 vols. 22 volumes. 


Livingstone's Africa 


11 




Different editions of Tennyson 


12 




" " Longfellow 


44 




" " Whittier 


6 




Fronde's England, in 10 vols. 


40 




Motley's Histories, in 5 vols. 


25 




Fresco tt's " in 16 vols. 


101 




Bancroft's " in 9 vols. 


67 




Ecce Homo .... 


4 




Ecce Deus .... 


4 





Of the recent " Early Life of the Prince Consort," four cop- 
ies were at once provided for the Lower Hall, and the English 
edition for the Bates Hall, and more will be added, if neces- 
sary. 

It is evident that the demand for any book will slacken mate- 
rially in time ] but this fact, as well as what books require more 
duplicates, would not be satisfactorily ascertained, when it 
depended upon observation alone. The present registration of 
loans by slips brings together, at the year's end, the slips of 
each book, rendering it easy to determine, where duplicates are 
in excess of demand, and where more are needed. Further- 



28 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 

more, by the new " Indicator " it can be ascertained at shorter 
intervals, say •weekly, when the duplicates of any book are 
exhausted, and when the same book is so reported, week after 
week, more copies can be ordered, if the character of the book 
warrants it. 

It ouglit not to be expected of a free Public Library, that in 
meeting the temporary demands for a fresh book, it will compete 
in the number of duplicates with a private circulating library 
established for that end. This institution is not a commercial 
speculation, and if five hundred copies of a popular novel are 
purchased, and in a month or two not four hundred of the copies 
are needed, any percentage on their prime cost, that could be 
received by selling them, would entail too great a pecuniary 
loss for having endeavored to meet the demands for an ephemeral 
book. Where a book is really good, even in fiction, the call for 
it may be measurably met, on the ground that a good novel will 
always maintain a fair circulation ; but with the novels of the 
day it would be bad policy commercially, and demoralizing 
beside, for the city to undertake to cater to transient, though 
popular literary furors. The inevitable surplusage of stale 
fiction, which must follow the attempt, cannot be disposed of 
profitably except by subscription libraries, and even then the 
policy of smaller town and village libraries is to secure fresh 
fiction, and a book that has secured a month or two probation 
elsewhere, is so likely to be denominated musty, that this market 
for their sales is already too abundantly supplied. Your 
Committee are of the opinion that such a bartering business is 
no part of the duty of a library like this ; and to follow it would 
entail a pecuniary loss altogether disproportionate to any gain 
that might accrue. 

In the Bates Hall the duplicates are in very much less pro- 
portion. Some shelf-duplicates are desirable. Two copies of 
a valuable work will allow one to circulate, while the other may 
be restricted. A book with autographs or manuscript annota- 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 29 

tions may be of such distinct value as to require another copy 
for circulation. A different edition, as distinct from a different 
impression, has of course a separate bibliographical value. 

The sale-duplicates are of another character, and naturally 
increase yearly in a collection which grows so much from casual 
gifts. In 1859, when the present building was first occupied, 
there were within it 1,804 such volumes, and now there are 
5,146, Exchanges are constantly taking place with other 
libraries, but the process involves a good deal of labor, inas- 
much as it is sought to make them book by book, so that the 
name of the original donor may be inscribed in a work of cor- 
responding value. During the past year there were 714 dupli- 
cates added and 523 exchanged, increasing the aggregate by 
191 volumes. During the war, by direction of the City Council, 
duplicates in considerable numbers were sent to the military 
hospitals, and some are still furnished occasionally to the City 
Hospital. If ever branch libraries are established in different 
parts of the city, use can be found for most of the present dupli- 
cates, and those yet to be acquired, by turning them over to 
these minor institutions. Meanwhile they cannot be other than 
the source of a good deal of labor. To sell them at auction, 
and to purchase new books with the proceeds, might seem to be 
the most desirable, as it would be the most expeditious way 
of managing them ; but such a course is often considered ruth- 
less by donors, and to preserve an equivalent for every gift by 
such a wholesale disposition would be far from easy. It is 
known that fifty years ago such a course cost the British Museum 
several valuable bequests ; and since they stopped this selling in 
1831, it is thought that the interests of that institution have 
been advanced beyond the drawback from their accumulation, 
which in twenty years was so large that they had 10,000 dupli- 
cates of the commoner kinds of books. Where the consent of a 
donor to an exchange has been withheld, it has been found 
desirable in some cases to exchange the earlier copy, if a pur- 



30 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 

chased one, and this has been done to some extent in regard to. 
the duplicates of the Parker collection. 



III. CATALOGUES. 

Are they well Devised, in Good Order, and well kept 
UP ? The question of cataloguing is one of vast importance, and 
it has become a very vexed oVie, though the decisiveness of a 
Panizzi is little warrant for a hasty judgment from less worthy 
hands. The difficulty increases disproportionately with the 
growth of a library. Success, passable perhaps at best, can only 
be serviceable by keeping the registration well up, which your 
Committee understand to be the case with this institution. The 
system here in use embodies the labor of many, and profits by 
the experience of other libraries, and has been adequately de- 
scribed in previous reports. The card system for an imprinted 
catalogue with full titles is more and more valued with expe- 
rience. In all the subsidiary cataloguing the system of this 
Library seems to be as particular and diversified as is needful to 
cover all details, and to enable its officers to keep well in hand 
its literary forces. This reduplicated labor involves time and 
money, but if it is desirable — as it certainly is — to insure and 
have at command a perfect knowledge of the Library's condition, 
it is necessary. Large libraries are conducted oftentimes with 
but a part of this machinery, as is the case, we are informed, with 
the Astor Library, but its Superintendent must often be at a dis- 
advantage where ours is not. Of course, with a free circulating 
library like this, these means of discovering irregularities, such 
as shelf-list, etc., are much more necessary than in a collection 
that does not leave the building. 

The last voluminous Supplement to the prhited Index of the 
Bates Hull is but a year old, and probably some years must pass 
before another of equal bulk will be required. In the mean time, 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 31 

new titles are entered promptly in an interleaved catalogue, 
accessible to the public, besides being given, as we have before 
stated, in a printed Bulletin, to be issued monthly, if required, 
and being enumerated — such of them as are current issues — 
in the order of accession in a " List of New Books received." 

When the Finding Lists for the Lower Hall, which are print- 
ing, alcove by alcove, according to the classifications, are com- 
pleted, it will be practicable to consolidate the titles in a new 
Index for that hall, thus dispensing with the present inconvenient 
Index, with its numerous Supplements. 

The new Indicator is, also, an adjunct of the catalogues. There 
was a record made in 1860, for three days, of the novel-seekers 
who went away without a book because every one on their cards 
was out, and they proved to be three per cent of the whole. 
This disappointment, as well as the need of some plan of expe- 
diting the delivery, led to the device, by the Superintendent, of 
this simple but effective instrument, which, if consulted, will pre- 
vent such uncertainties, while, from its facilitating the process of 
administration, it is to be hoped it will invite frequenters from 
the classes who could ill afford the time necessary to get a book 
under the old arrangement. The instrument seems liable to 
error only from the failure of the attendant to turn the pin, but 
this is guarded against at present by stated verifications ; and in 
time it is expected its management will become almost automatic 
on the part of those in charge. 

IV. ADMINISTRATION. 

Are the Records of all kinds m Good Order ? An institu- 
tion conducted with so much machinery as a large library for 
popular use, must have a complete system of records, or its 
variety of detail does not afford the instruction for its better 
management that it should. Other than the catalogues, there is 
a variety of records connected with the books, such as the book 



32 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 

or invoices, record of " books asked for/' of exchanges and of 
the statistics of circulation — all of which your Committee found 
in good order. The records of the Trustees have been kept with 
precision and neatness from the beginning, and are well cared 
for, with the files of reports and letter books. The books con- 
taining the signers for the use of the Library now occupy several 
large folios, and must be of interest at some future time as auto- 
graphs of our generation. One book was of interest to your 
Committee, namely, that in which the officers and assistants of 
the institution enter their names, with the hour and minute (if 
after the regular time), in reporting for duty in the morning, and 
they were pleased to observe a commendable degree of prompt- 
ness. 

Are the Expenditures properly cared for ? Your Com- 
mittee learned that it is but two or tliree years since a set of 
monetary accounts, on a thorough system, was begun in the build- 
ing, and they found them very creditably kept by the assistant 
in charge. Before that time there was much difficulty in appor- 
tioning the books bought, to the several Trust Funds, and there 
was no accurate knowledge of the general expenses of the insti- 
tution to be attained except through the City Auditor. The 
amount of expenditures had become too large, not to have the 
means of scrutinizing the record, near at hand. There are 
eighteen permanent accounts opened, covering the twelve items 
of appropriations from the City Council, and the six Trust Funds, 
each book bought with the income of one or the other being 
carried to that fund. Besides these there is a great number of 
individual and painor accounts. In the Trust Funds' accounts 
for the year ending in May, we find an income of $5,760, mostly 
in gold, equivalent in currency to $6,874 21 ; and at that date, 
the whole of this had been appropriated for books, except 
$295 59; to cover which there was in the hands of Messrs. 
Baring $2,111 67, for the purchase of books. 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 33 

It lias been the policy of the Trustees, from the beginning, never 
to handle money, and all bills are payable to the holders on a 
requisition of the President upon the City Treasury, after the 
items have been examined by the Superintendent, approved by 
the proper Committee, passed by the Committee on Finance, and 
confirmed by the full board. The only money received in the 
building is the small sums collected in fines, which last year 
amounted to $364.55, and which the Librarian is charged to pay 
into the City Treasury ; besides the small amounts received from 
the sale of the catalogues, finding lists, etc., likewise disposed of 
in the same manner. 

Is THE LiBRAEY OPEN AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE ? The Library 
proper has been open on an average for the last ten unbroken 
years, 276 days, and for the past year, 277 days. It has been 
kept open in one year (1860) for 297 days, which is one reason, 
probably, why the daily average delivery diminished materially for 
that year. 'The regulations close the Library on the fifty-two 
Sundays, and on six holidays, and if to these be added two days 
for any extraordinary occasions, and the month of August, we 
have left 278 days, which may be considered a fair average 
opening for a year. The month, that is now required for clean- 
ing the building and verifying the shelf-lists, book by book, may 
not have been necessary in years past. The first year in this 
.building, but eleven working days were required for this pur- 
pose, but then the building was new, and the shelves were much 
less filled. The task of seeing that every volume of a hundred 
and thirty-six thousand is in its proper place is no small one, and 
the recess is not by any means a season of relaxation to the 
attendants. It will be fortunate, if in coming years, this work 
can be kept within the month. ' ' In libraries that do not circulate, 
less time will be naturally required. At the British Museum, ten 
years ago, they kept open 293 days ; any later account, since the 
completion of their new reading hall, we have not seen. This 

6 



34 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 

number is ordinarily exceeded in the Reference Library at Man- 
chester, and they adopt there the plan of three cleaning days 
each quarter ; but in addition to not circulating the books, this 
Reference Library contains but a little more than one-third of 
our number of volumes. 

During August of the present year, the Reading Room for the 
first time was not closed, (except for a brief interval while the 
periodicals were removed to another room, to allow the Reading 
Room to be newly painted.) It seems desirable that this should 
be the case hereafter. 

The staff of assistants needs periods of relaxation, and the 
absence of any one regular attendant necessarily disorders 
somewhat the routine of the library business. This matter is 
regulated as well as is practicable by allowing as few as possi- 
ble to be absent at any one time. 

Is THE Library conducted so as to be as useful as pos- 
sible TO ALL Classes? The institution was begun expressly 
on popular grounds. Mr. Everett, in his letter to the Mayor, in 
1851, called it the completion of our public school system, and 
that has been a favorite designation of it ever since. In the 
preliminary report of 1852 — the body of which was drawn by 
Mr. Ticknor — it was wisely recommended that a beginning 
should be made without any sharply defined plan, so that sug- 
gestions from experience could be made effectual ; and it was 
not thought well to make it at once an imposing, learned or 
scientific collection, but rather to gather a library most fitted for 
the masses. Mr. Ticknor — whose contributions to the Library 
in time and experience cannot be overvalued — expressly says, 
in a letter accompanying a valuable donation of books in 1860, 
that he would " never have put his hand to the institution at all^ 
but with the understanding that it should be made useful to the 
greatest possible number of citizens ; " and he says that for 
eight years there had not been any real difference among the 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 35 

Trustees on that point, nor can we learn that there has been any 
since. 

Up to 1856 the system of purchases had looked to supplying 
the most popular wants. The collection, which had then grown 
to near 30,000 volumes, was deemed large enough to satisfy the 
most reasonable demands of a general kind ; and it began to be 
felt that there were particular classes of our citizens, apart from 
the general body, whose wants deserved recognition. So about 
that time we find that books in the foreign tongues began to be 
added, and the higher departments of literature more fully de- 
veloped. The donations to the Trust Funds, now accruing, in 
being expended for books of solid and permanent value, served 
to strengthen very materially the upper classifications; while 
Mr. Bates's last munificent gift of books developed our weight in 
the same direction. The time was now come when it was very 
properly agreed that there was no department of learning, which 
some portion of the community was not interested in ; and that 
every department should be cared for to meet such requirements. 
So the two distinct collections have been developed — the Lower 
Hall to meet the most ordinary demands of the people, and the 
Bates to serve the higher requirements of the studious classes, 
or of investigators in special matters — a scheme which your 
Committee can but think naturally evolved, and conducive to the 
satisfaction of every mental grade, and answering the require- 
ments of all the intellectual demands of the community. 

There is one feature connected with the methods of purchase, 
which your Committee can but consider almost unprecedented for 
its liberality, though it confers a privilege that comparatively 
few seem ready to take. It has always been the pleasure of the 
Trustees to order any book, if a proper one, when asked for, and 
not already in the collection. From 1854 to 1865, the number 
of requests of this kind annually made, greatly fluctuated be- 
tween 18 and 221, and in one year (1860) several thousand 
notices were put in all the books delivered for a fortnight, but 



36 CITY DOCUMENT. —No. 114. 

it secured only 25 a])plications, and the averao-e for these twelve 
years was only 117. Latterly the plan has produced better 
results. Last year there were 306, and during that just past, 
546, and in 95 cases the applicants had failed to discover the de- 
sired books were already in the Library, and of the remainder, 
260 vols, have been received, leaving 191 still on the order- 
books of our agents. This privilege is an inestimable one to 
scholars, and indeed to all, and it is somewhat surprising to 
your Committee, that it is not more enjoyed. It is really an in- 
ducement for an inquirer in any department to make Boston his 
residence over any other city on this continent. It gives him, 
or any citizen in need of a particular book, facilities for search- 
ing the book-marts of the world, that the wealthiest can hardly 
command. 

Your Committee also believe that in no other large library are 
readers more expeditiously served. The catalogues are well 
kept up and accessible. It can be at once known if book or 
pamphlet is in the collection, and the place of its deposit ascer- 
tained. In some other of the libraries about us, this is done only 
with delay. It takes from six to ten minutes to get a book at 
the British Museum, after the slip is handed in ; so it will be 
seen that the extent of a collection must necessarily enhance the 
average delay, however well organized the delivery system may 
be. With some of the large libraries of the continents of 
Europe, we have a startling proof of the inconvenience of a less 
systematic process, in the hours that may be passed in waiting, 
which are sometimes so extended that a second day's pursuit 
becomes necessary. 

Your Committee have heard occasional complaints from hasty 
people, that the Library can be of no use to them because they 
are debarred access to the alcoves, but they have forgotten, that 
with a printed catalogue of subjects as well as authors, the 
Boston Public Library is far more serviceable than another col- 
lection might be without this aid. Students have told your Com- 
mittee that at this Library they can investigate a point with far 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 37 

greater expedition than they can in collections where their priv- 
ileges give them the range of the alcoves, but where they have 
no assistance from similar catalogues. 

Dr. Cogswell, of the Astor Library, has said, in one of his 
printed reports, that a free circulating library in New York was 
an impossibility, and that in less than five years any collection 
for that purpose in so large a city would be scattered to the 
winds. Such an opinion may be extravagant, but it is clear that 
no collection can maintain its usefulness unimpaired without due 
restrictions, and experience has shown in Boston, that, as you 
extend the privilege of such an institution, it is likely that those 
classes least accustomed to books, and least influenced by that 
reverence for books which is most wholesome, will be drawn in. 
Yet these are not the only people who commit depredations. 
Bibliomaniacs are proverbially notorious for some strangely lax 
notions, and, unfortunately, bibliomaniacs are fond of mousing 
in alcoves. To make class distinctions is not proper, since, 
instead of a free library, you have then a library for the elect. It 
is admitted that an hour's search in an alcove may in some cases 
satisfy an investigator better than a much longer time at the out- 
side tables ; and such access is always accorded to any one who 
has a determinate literary or other consistent purpose, in the 
presence of an attendant, if the request is properly made. It is 
not infrequently replied that all freedom and ease of investigation 
is out of the question, with such a looker-on to pass you the books. 
With some temperaments this is doubtless true, but it must be 
remembered that in allowing one reader a freedom from such 
restraint, the Library may be of diminished value to hundreds 
who come after him. Studious persons are not always the most 
orderly in obeying injunctions or in returning books to their 
exact place on the shelves, and their misplacements may remain 
undiscovered until the annual cleaning, so that every intervening 
inquirer for the misplaced book must be disappointed. This 
restraint, it seems clear, though sometimes irksome, is really pre- 
servative of the Library for the many to come. 



o8 CITY DOCUMENT. —No. 114. 

Some exception is now and then taken to the rule which keeps 
from circulation rare or costly works, unless it be by the consent 
of the Superintendent or of two of the Trustees. This, doubt- 
less, causes delays ; but witliout these obstacles in the way of 
mere curiosity or amusement, valuable architectural works for 
instance would be a great deal of the time in the hands of idlers 
as picture-books, and when the student of that art required them 
it would be fortunate if he did not find them mutilated, or un- 
cleanly, to a degree that might reasonably disturb his sense of 
propriety. Such restrictions are properly made, it seems to your 
Committee, for the preservation of the books /or the classes most 
intercsied in them, and for whose benefit in part the Library has 
been gathered. A little reflection must convince those who have 
been most harassed in this respect of the truth of this. 

Does the City Ordinance Relative to the Public Libra- 
ry NEED Amendment? The Trustees are charged with the 
management of the Library, and are properly allowed the ap- 
pointment of their executive officers, inasmuch as their own good 
name is largely entrusted to the fidelity of such. In assigning 
duties to the various officers, they are not free to exercise fully 
their own judgment, until the apportionment of the salaries goes 
with the assignment. They have this liberty in all cases but 
with the Superintendent and Librarian, on whom the most re- 
sponsibility falls, and upon whose trustworthiness they must 
depend before all others. It is eminently proper that the City 
Council should fix the limit in the aggregate of all salaries, but 
it seems to your Committee that it would be desirable to remove 
the restraint now existing, so that the Trustees may apportion 
the recompense, as well as define the duties, of all under them, 
Avithin some aggregate limits. 

The Ordinance of last year, re-organizing the Board of Trus- 
tees, opens the way to put five new members, or a majority, into 
the Board at any election — a conjunction of aflairs that might 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 39 

work serious detriment to the institution in some season of tem- 
porary clamor — always to be provided against at times given to 
devising safeguards for the future — when the unseating of a ma- 
jority of those most versed in the management of the Library may 
throw the control into the hands of the inexperienced, or of those 
chosen, in obedience to some passion of the hour, on other grounds 
than their peculiar fitness. It seems to your Committee most de- 
sirable that two successive elections should at least be required 
before the predominating influence in the Board can be changed, 
and this would give a portion of the final majority a year's ex- 
perience before they shall decide the policy of the Board. A 
majority at a single election, if given to views gathered outside 
of the peculiar experience of the Library, might, it seems to your 
Committee, very likely act in a way prejudicial to its interests. 
It is most proper that a full representation of the City Council 
should remain, as at present, in the Board, and the change must 
accordingly be devised among the other members. It has been 
suggested, though some objections at once present themselves, that 
the term of service for those chosen from the citizens at large, 
should be six years, with one electable every year. This, with 
the annual three from the City Council, would secure a majority 
in two years. 

V. CIRCULATION. 

Is THE Circulation Satisfactory ? The number of signers 
from the beginning up to the opening of the present building 
was something short of 16,000. A new registration was then 
ordered, and an equal number signed in a little more than a 
year's time. Since then there has been a yearly increase of 
between four and five thousand, so that when the year closed on 
the first of August, something like 53,000 names stood on the 
books. It was known that a large proportion of this number, 
either from death, removal or want of inclination, did not use 



40 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 

the Library; and new cards were given out last year, and 
including the new signers for that year, some twelve or thirteen 
thousand were taken, which number must, however, be in excess 
of the habitual ire(|uenters of the Library, though probably 
below the number of readers, since in families a book may find 
several to read it besides the card-holder. At Manchester, for 
the same circulation as ours, in 1866 they had 7,339 cards in 
use. 

The total number of books in use in hotli halls for the past 
year was 208,963, a daily average of 754, which is larger than 
ever before ; while the greatest delivery in any single day was 
1,813 (against 1,534, the largest previously, in 1863), and of 
this, 206 were in the Bates Hall, and 1,607 in the Lower Hall. 
This heavy work comes usually in February. 

Lower Hall. The number of volumes taken from the Lower 
Hall, in 1859, was about 150,000; and the past year it was'^ 
183,714, which is very nearly the average of the last four years. 
There would, probably, the past year, have been a material 
increase over the previous year, but for the fact, that it was 
necessary in the preparation of the " Finding Lists " to keep 
two or three thousand volumes from circulation at once, and they 
were oftentimes of the most popular description. The daily 
average of loans the past year for the Lower Hall was 664. 
We can best understand the importance of the work we 
are doing by a comparison with other libraries, as far 
as statistics can be used, though any comparison is open to some 
qualifications. Three of the largest of the lending libraries of 
the Manchester institution had, in 1866, an aggregate of just 
about the number of volumes in our Lower Hall, or perhaps a 
thousand or two more. These circulated very nearly the same 
number of volumes, as with us for the same year, but as their 
libraries were open more days, it gives Boston the advantage in 
daily average of near forty, and it must be remembered Man- 
chester has a population at least double that of Boston, and 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 41 

■with its system of branch libraries brings its books much nearer 
to a larger number of households. Nevertheless, with those 
things in its favor, the circulation of the most prosperous of 
similar institutions in England varied so little from ours, as to 
be fairly considered identically the same. 

The New York Mercantile Library has usually been consid- 
ered the most flourishing of contemporary libraries with us. In 
1866, it contained more than three times the volumes of our 
Lower Hall (to which it nearly corresponds in character), 
while its circulation for the same year fell more than 5,000 short 
of ours. The last yearly report of that institution (April, 1867) 
shows 90,000 volumes (to our 24,219), 206,120 issues of vol- 
umes (to our 183,714), taken by 12,274 subscribers, which indi- 
cates renewed exertions to extend its sphere, made effectual in 
large part by a vast preponderance of fiction among its 10,000 
purchased volumes for the year. It should be remembered that 
more than one-third of the circulation of this New York institu- 
tion (judging from the returns for 1866, not having seen this 
item in the last report) is through its two branch deliveries in 
different parts of the city, and also that, in a vastly larger popu- 
lation, it has no effective rival. 

With a system of branch libraries with us, say one in Rox- 
bury, one in South Boston, and one in East Boston, it seems 
probable that our popular circulation could be made far larger 
relatively, than it is even now to the most successful of such 
establishments at home and abroad. At Manchester, the system 
is well-established and works successfully. Their central col- 
lection, though considerably more popular in character than our 
Bates Hall, is a reference library, and does not circulate its 
books. A year ago, it contained 38,426 volumes. The five 
lending or branch libraries contained in the aggregate, 39,318 
volumes. The accumulation of duplicates at a central library is 
always less burdensome, when there are supplemental institu- 
tions among which to share them. -^ 

6 



42 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 

Bafes Hall. The total number of volumes lent from this hall 
for home use since 1 802, when the collection was first open, is 
53,920, and the past year it was 13,690, the largest number of 
any year. 

It is not so easy to find the actual number of volumes, used in 
the hull for the year, there are so many not taken into account, 
as when any one by the consent of the Trustees is allowed to 
make protj'acted investigations in the alcoves; and, though 
record is kept of the consultations in the Patent Room, it is by 
hours and applicants and not by volumes ; and, furthermore, no 
record is made of the use of the excellent reference collection, 
around the desk, to which the public have unrestrained access. 
Independent, then, of these classes, there have been used in the 
hall itself since 1862, 63,525 volumes, and the past year, 11,553 
volumes, which was exceeded in 1865, when 13,090 were called 
for. 

The largest number of books delivered in this hall for either 
use in any one day was 206. The average daily delivery has 
been 92 volumes. 

Comparisons with the use to which other libraries of the 
solid character of our Bates Hall are put, must be made cau- 
tiously. As regards the Reference Library of Manchester, which 
is a little more than one-third as large as our Bates Hall col- 
lection, and shows about three times the number of users, it 
must be remembered that the population which sustains it is 
about twice as large, and that its only rival is the Chetham Li- 
brary, one of those old monastic foundations, which is not of a 
character to interfere with the success of its upstart neigh- 
bor ; while within much the same area, and with a far smaller 
population, the Boston Public Library must share this class 
of more or less cultivated frequenters, with the collections of 
Harvard College and the Boston Athenaeum. Beside this, we 
in this community are uncommonly w^ell supplied with lesser col- 
lections, accessible to persons making investigations, like the 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 43 

libraries of the Historical Society, the Genealogical Society, 
State Library, the Academy Library, the Social Law Library, the 
old Boston Library, the General Theological Library, etc., so 
that in the aggregate there are at least half a million volumes in 
our community, accessible to the public, or reached with ease 
by any one desiring to use them. 

There are two other considerations to be borne in mind in 
making the comparison with Manchester. First, that it does 
not appear that they omit to make record of the use in pro- 
tracted investigations ; and, second, that their Reference Library 
is not of the high character, relative to their lending libraries, 
that our Bates Hall bears in comparison with our Lower Hall. 
They put upon its shelves a great deal of contemporary English 
fiction, while our Bates Hall has little of this kind of literature, 
except what is classic from long-established fame. Bearing in mind 
that our upper collection is three times as large as their Refer- 
ence Library, it will he seen how much more thorough, relatively, 
we are in the higher departments, if we take a few test authors, 
and put against each the number of titles in the respective cat- 
alogues, including both editions and commentaries. 



Homer, 


6 at Manchester 


. 118 at Boston. 


Dante, 


4 


. 93 


Goethe, 


11 


. 38 


Shakspeare, 


40 


. 175 


Lessing, 


1 


. 44 


Muratori, 


13 (vols) " 


. 92 (vols) " 



Turning to the Astor Library we find that, in 1860, it had 
about the same number of volumes that our Bates Hall at pres- 
ent possesses, but its number of volumes used was twice the 
number of those used in the Bates Hall the past year. Every quali- 
fication that we have used in regard to Manchester applies with 
greater force to the largest city of our country, and tlie most 
cosmopolitan perhaps of the world, excepting that in the Astor 



44 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 

enumeration, they exclude, as with us, protracted investigations, 
and that in tone and quality its collection is much the same as 
our Bates Hall. It should always be remembered that since the 
Astor Library does not permit its books to leave the build- 
ing, a considerable share of its frequenters (and very likely 
enough to reduce, if they were excluded, its delivery to the level 
of ours) is of the class that with us find their wants supplied in 
our Lower Hall. 

Ten years ago the British Museum was six times larger than 
our present Bates Hall, and its daily use was twelve times ours 
to-day ; but of course there are a multitude of reasons applica- 
ble to a collection which of itself draws many yearly to the 
greatest city of Europe. 

Your Committee, then, have no reason to feel that the Bates 
Hall is not doing its proportionate good. As the Library grows 
and gets a national reputation it will, of course, draw investi- 
gators to the city, and swell the record beyond the present. It 
needs to be more generally known how excellent a working 
library, in character and machinery, we have got. The fact 
already mentioned, that it stands ready to provide any proper 
book, if it can be found in the book marts of the world, is war- 
rant that it invites the largest use. If that privilege, or the col- 
lection itself, is not enjoyed to the highest possible limit, it is 
owing to the public wants being in part supplied in other direc- 
tions, and not to the management of the institution, since, in all 
the collections with which we have compared it, much more strin- 
gent regulations are in vogue. 

What is the Character op the Reading in the Bates 
Hall ? This hall has been open five years, and the overage 
yearly use of books in the several classifications is as follows : — 

English History and Literature . . 17 per cent. 
Useful and Fine Arts . . . . 10 " 
Americau History and Literature . . 9 " 



PUBLIC LIBEART. 






Theology, Metaphysics, Ethics, Education 


8 per cent. 


Periodicals 




7 " 


Mathematics and Physics 




7 " 


Medicine 




6 « 


French History and Literature 




6 " 


General History and Literature . 




4 


Italian History and Literature 




4 


Natural History .... 




4 " 


Transactions of Learned Societies 




4 " 


German History and Literature 




3 " 


Greek and Latin . . , . 




3 « 


Other (including Oriental) History 


and 




Literature .... 




3 " 


Bibliography .... 




2 " 


Law and Political Economy . 




2 " 


Miscellaneous .... 




1 



45 



The most marked annual variation has been in the classifica- 
tion, headed by Theology, which has fallen gradually from 11 
percent, in 1862 to 4 per cent, in 1867. This is owing, perhaps, to 
the fact, that, at the outset, special eflforts were made to interest the 
clergy and educators in the Library ; and possibly, also, to the fact, 
that the General Theological Library has been since established. 
American History and Literature have gradually gained, owing, per- 
haps, in some measure, in the historical part, to the late rebellion 
fostering an inclination to learn our own antecedent history, and 
possibly to the eflForts which the Library has made to secure 
everything in any language relating to that rebellion. It will be 
seen that the use of books in this department is not much more 
than half what it is in English History and Literature, which is not 
so strange, perhaps, in view of the relative extent of the two de- 
partments. Nevertheless, there is doubtless a disproportionate 
inclination among readers for profit to go to books and themes 
of the old world. Prof Lowell, in a recent review of the Life 
of Josiah Quincy, gives a statement, which he was perhaps in as 
good a position as any one to make, to the effect that " it may 



46 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. lU. 

safely be affirmed that for one cultivated man in this country, 
who studies American, there are fifty who study European his- 
tory, ancient and modern." 

The use of Transactions of Learned Societies has grown. The 
other departments have not much varied, except that of Useful 
and Fine Arts, which has greatly fluctuated. 

We have no printed record of the use of books at the Astor 
Library, except in 1860, and by a comparison, as nearly as can be 
made, it seems apparent that with us the demand for books in the 
Useful and Fine Arts and for the Transactions is more, and for 
English, American and General History less, than at that New 
York institution. In Law and Political Economy, the Astor finds 
considerably more readers, and this is the department in least 
demand with us, owing, perhaps, to the existence of the State 
Library and the Social Law Library. 

The records of our Patent Room collection are kept indepen- 
dently, and we have no means of knowing how the use of it 
compares with either of the other five sets in the United States. 
The past year 197 persons used them for 248 hours; being ten 
more persons than the previous year, and the same number of 
hours. The fact, that at Manchester the record is by volumes, 
and that the specifications are bound separately, while with us 
they are bound in groups, prevents any comparison between 
the two. 

What is the Character of the Reading in the Lower 
Hall ? Your Committee have already shown that it was through 
the Lower Hall the mass of the people was sought in the begin- 
ning. The preliminary report of 1852 contended, that, if the 
habit of reading could be engendered, it would go on improving 
in character. In 1855, it was thought there was recognizable a 
demand for higher and higher classes of literature, and accord- 
ingly the next year the Trustees reported that they were buying 
fewer books of mere amusement and more of a higher kind, be- 
ginning at this time to add some in the foreign languages. In 



PUBLIC LIBKARY. 47 

1859, it was reported, that only the best of the lighter class of 
literature was bought. The next year there was a marked falling 
off in circulation, but such fluctuations are as inevitable as they 
sometimes are unaccountable. At Manchester they have experi- 
enced it in much wider range than with us, and our records gen- 
erally show a steady increase. At Manchester their circulation 
in 1866 was no higher than it was ten years previously, yet in 
the interim it had been 50 per cent, more. The records of the 
British Museum show that an institution like that is by no means 
sure of a steady hold upon the class that consults its treasures. 
When our circulation fell off in 1860 (the average daily lendings 
dropping from 588 to 508) it was thought that this effort to raise 
the standard of reading, by buying fewer novels, together with 
the then recent opening of private circulating libraries, was the 
cause of it ; but the next year's returns showed a gain equal to 
the previous loss. 

In 1861, an attempt was made to ascertain what proportion of 
readers sought for fiction, and two days were selected for the 
test. On one there were 32 per cent, and on the other 50 per 
cent, of all borrowers. Not till the past year has it been pos- 
sible to reach any exact conclusion in the matter, since the slips 
for the 183,000 volumes that circulated for the year, are now 
arranged so as to show how many times any book was out. The 
returns, as made, show what the various classifications were in 
this demand ; but it must not be forgotten that this pertains to 
the Lower Hall solely. 

Fiction and Juveniles 
Libraries, Collections, etc. 
Sciences, Arts, Professions . 
Drama, Poetry, Rhetoric, Belles Lettres 
Travels .... 

History and Politics 
Biography .... 
Foreign Languages 



68 ^2^ per cent 


6^2, 




6VV 




^-^ 




4f^ 




^^% 




3^ 




2xV 





48 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 

The class, " Libraries, Collections, etc.," includes such sets as 
Bolm's Libraries and the like, and a good proportion of its 6 per 
cent, undoubtedly belongs to Fiction, so that roundly about 70 
per cent, of the Lower Hall circulation is in the nature of English 
Fiction, including in this, however, it should always be remem- 
bered, a very large share of Juvenile books. 

This large proportion for a class of literature that ordinarily 
includes so much that is morbid and even pernicious, may alarm 
some of the good friends of the institution, but the subject is not 
to be dismissed without examination from many points ; and 
your Committee are of the opinion that although they might wish 
a different record, they must accept the condition as arising from 
the mental tendency of the masses of the community ; and they 
hope to show that the result with us is no worse than elsewhere, 
and even sometimes creditable by comparison. 

A very competent authority in 1860 (Wm. Chambers) classed 
the cheap publications of Great Britain, as showing a montJily 
issue of these grades : 

Improving books .... 843,000 

Exciting but not positively immoral books 1,500,000 
Immoral and irreligious . . . 80,000 

As these books are published for commercial speculation, it is 
fair to presume they hit the demand relatively, and it will be 
seen that in Great Britain the chance is about twice as good for 
selling an exciting but not positively immoral book, as it is for 
selling an improving book, when they are of the class of cheap 
publications. The exciting class will doubtless find more 
readers in the household than the improving, and it cannot be 
too much to say that tliree will read the exciting book to one the 
other. This, as we have seen, is above the proportion of our cir- 
culation between fiction and non-fiction, and our readers are 
doubtless of much the same average class that the cheap pub- 
lications reach in England. It may then be taken as the normal 
intellectual taste of that class j but with us the exclusion of 



PUBLIC LIBKARY. 49 

juveniles ought fairly to be made, before instituting a comparison, 
"wliich would then be largely in our favor. The fact that the 
"Finding List" for fiction was the earliest printed the past 
year, thereby meeting that class of readers more openly, has 
also, doubtless, conduced in some degree to raise the percentage 
of the demand in this department. 

Of course, as we rise into the more cultured classes, we find 
the proportion of novels dwindling, though the "Saturday 
Review " not long since, in giving its views on the demand for 
fiction, expresses the opinion that fifty novels are now read in 
England, for one that was read at the beginning of the century. 
With the class of our community depending on the Boston Athe- 
naeum, for instance, it would not be surprising to find that their 
circulation of fiction is not equal to ours, yet it cannot be very 
greatly inferior. Eichard Cumberland, in the " Observer," 
eighty or ninety years ago, testifies that it was the surfeit of 
novels then beginning, that led to the frequent establishment of 
circulating libraries, as a commercial speculation, though Ramsay, 
in Edinburgh, had begun one on a small scale a half century before. 
Yet, when these institutions are adapted to the higher classes, as is 
the case with Mudie's, in London, we find that novels, though still 
numerous, are not in the majority. Thus Mudie, in the ten 
years ending 1 862, put upon his shelves 960,000 volumes, or seven 
times as many as this building now contains. We will compare, 
under a few prominent heads, the percentage of Mudie's pur- 
chases, with our Lower Hall collection (as it stood in 1860 — not 
much changed relatively now), and with our cii^culation in that 
hall the past year ; it being borne in mind, of course, that Mudie's 
purchases include a large share of such books as we would put 
in our Bates Hall. 



Class. Mudie. Lower Hall. 


Circulation. 


Fiction . . ,44 per cent. 37 per cent. 


75 per cent. 


History and Biography 22 " 21 " 


6 " 


Travels and Adventure 13 " 9 " 


4 " 


Othera . . . 21 " 33 " ■ 


15 " 



50 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 

It will 1)0 seen that our Trustees have catered loss to the 
demand for fiction, than Mudic, in his commercial spirit, has 
shown the demand would bear, with his far hi<>her class of 
readers ; notwithstanding it is apparent that, with our Lower 
Hall readers, every volume of fiction will secure seventeen 
readers a year, while every volume, not of fiction, will get only 
four, on an average. 

It is not easy to get at any satisfactory apportionment of our 
frequenters by a social or intellectual gradation, other than 
as the books they take may be the measure of it. It was 
thought that possibly the slight restrictions put upon the appli- 
cants in the new registration now making, might serve to qualify 
the number already using cards, in such a way as to represent 
a class more eager to enjoy its better privileges. With that 
idea, an examination was made of all the slips, showing the 
entire number of books out at the end of a fortnight, after the 
library opened in September, but the proportion was much the 
same, or even larger, for fiction and juveniles. 

Mr. Edwards, when he had charge of the Manchester Library, 
after a careful enumeration, made out that three-fifths of its 
frequenters were of the class of artisans, mill-workers, opera- 
tives and their families, while the other two-fifths were shop- 
keepers, clerks, teachers, students, school-boys, etc. It is proba- 
ble that, with our frequenters of the Lower Hall, much the same 
proportion is preserved among corresponding classes in our 
community. By the reports of the Manchester Library, it is not 
possible to say what proportion, year by year, fiction has held in 
their circulation, but Mr. Edwards determined, in 1857, that it 
was five-eighths of the whole, which is probably in excess of 
what ours is now, if our juveniles be thrown out ; and they have, 
at Manchester, a subordinate department for such readers, which 
relieves of this class, in a measure, the general circulation. 

It will be seen that, counting duplicates, over one-third of our 
liower Library is fiction and juveniles ; and if the Trustees were 



PUBLIC LIBKARY. 51 

to make their purchases three-fourths of this class, according to 
the demand, thus multiphdng the copies of popular fiction, they 
could much, and probably vastly, increase the aggregate circula- 
tion ; but it would inevitably augment the fiction-readers out of 
all proportion to the other readers. It is in this way that the 
New York Mercantile Library has runup its large circulation, 
even among a class of subscription-readers, which must average 
on a social scale above ours at the Lower Hall, and which does 
not include readers of juveniles. They have latterly sought to 
make their purchases meet the demand, and the result has been 
that while -in 1851, 27 percent, of its purchases were novels, the 
proportion has been increasing so that it is now full 75 per cent. 
or somewhat more than our circulation is, including juveniles. 

Your Committee, then, are not of the opinion that this large 
percentage of fiction with us, is anything that need surprise or 
alarm us. Good fiction is doubtless salutary, and the general 
character of juvenile literature is much improved over what it 
formerly was. That there are some books among the collection in 
our Lower Hall which are not of the wholesomest, may be allowed ; 
but a conscientious efibrt is made to exclude rigorously everything 
that is of decidedly evil tendency, and of the half-morbid sort to 
allow but one, or at most but a very few copies. We may say 
that the best novels are seldom read in a way to do the most 
good ; but that is a circumstance of course beyond any library's 
control, and there is a good deal to say in favor of supplying 
the masses with reading of even an inferior order rather than 
they should not read at all. Some are of the opinion that much 
reading of the lower grades will naturally conduce to over-satisfy 
such half-formed or vitiated tastes, and divert the reader into more 
wholesome ways. There are others who hold that excess only 
confirms the bad tendency. We will not judge between them. 
It needs must be that to most minds of a low intellectual 
culture, books must be of a character attractive in subject to that 
grade, or thev will not be regarded at all. Once regarded, there 



52 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 

is a fair chance of substituting for books attractive in subject, 
tliose atti'activc in manner, thus leading to a higher range of 
subjects. Take two instances : The Miihlbach novels have no 
great artistic or literary merit, but they make history attractive 
to an average order of minds, and the change from them to an 
attractive historian is not too abrupt to be easy. The Ma}Tie 
Reid books — most of them — are exceedingly entertaining in 
matters of natural history, and show what an advance has 
been made within a half century in preparing science for the 
enlightenment of the young. The transition from such books to 
attractive works on science, say such as Hugh Miller's, is not 
uncommonly made. Your Committee look upon the passion for 
reading as formative, and, with such influences as is hoped may 
be at work in the public schools and in the family, capable of 
remunerative results even at the bottom of the scale. It is not 
to be expected, however, that this progressive betterment will 
show itself in our statistics, for every year a new influx of 
readers may take the place of those advancing, and preserve the 
old ratio. Indeed, it would not be strange, if as our circulation 
enlarges, there is a show of retrogression. The private circu- 
lating libraries are in the way of our greatly increasing the 
number of our frequenters in the Lower Hall from the higher 
classes ; and we must descend lower and lower in the scale to 
increase at all beyond the natural growth of the classes ordina- 
rily frequenting. Such a descent must inevitably tell upon the 
character of our circulation. 

Your Committee were desirous of ascertaining by some test 
authors and test books, the general nature of this large demand 
for fiction, which included about 138,000 volumes for the year. 
They present first, a tabularization of some juveniles, showing 
the aggregate circulation of each in volumes. 

Mayne Reid's Books 4,903 

Abbott's Stories 3,521 

Harpers' Story Books 2,219 

Franconia Stories ..... 982 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



53 



Andersen's Tales 


390 


Grimm's Tales 


311 


Florence Stories 


200 


Carleton's " Winning His Way " . 


183 


Oliver Optic's " All Aboard " 


199 


" "Brave Old Salt" . 


■ 120 


" " " Young Lieutenant " 


270 


Every Boy's Book .... 


156 


Boy's Own Book 


72 


Swiss Family Robinson 


lO 


Robinson Crusoe 


55 


Tanglewood Tales (Hawthorne) . 

will next comDare some iDODuIar novelist. 


50 
\ showii 



number of volumes to each, including duplicates, and the average 
circulation per volume. 



Author. 

Cooper . . . . 
Marryat . . . . 


No. of 
vols. 

173 
116 


Aggregate 
circulation. 

5,460 
3,730 


Circulation 
per vol. 

32 
32 


Sirams . . . . 


104 


2,345 


22^ 


Dickens . 


206 


3,955 


19 


Thackeray 
Charles Reade 


79 
57 


1,295 
923 


16J 
16 


Lever . . . . 


126 


2,146 


17 


Scott . 


200 


2,663 


13 


Hawthorne 


63 


722 


11 


Tom Hughes . 


43 


449 


10 


Theodore Winthrop 
Mrs. Hentz 


22 

96 


210 
3,375 


9 
35 


Mrs. Grey 
Mrs. Stowe 


29 
. 50 


805 
980 


28 
20 


Miss Braddon 


. 49 


946 


19 


Mrs. Stephens 
Miss Muloch . 


. 33 
101 


630 
1,663 


19 
16^ 


Miss Cummins 


. 28 


379 


13 


Miss Yonge . . 
Mrs. Charles . 


143 
. 40 


1,312 
350 


9 
9 



54 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 



Of course, this return must be taken cautiously, as showing 
the reUitive popularity of the several authors. To be accurate, 
it should be certain that the Library is supplied with copies of 
each relative to the demand ; and regard must also be had to 
the fact, whether an author's works arc in one or two volumes, 
since the return is by volumes and not by books ; and with some 
of them, Miss Braddon, for instance, the number of copies was 
kept purposely less than the demand. 

Some unexpected developments occur with regard to separate 
books. Thus, one of Cooper's least known novels ranks highest 
of all his, while the " Pioneers," which his publishers say sells 
the best, shows but little more than half the lendings to a 
volume. 



Authors. 


No. vols. 


Total. 


Average 


Cooper. Miles Wallingford . 


8 


257 


32^ 


Stories of the Sea . 


7 


258 


37 


Pioneers 


10 


258 


25^ 


Marryat. Midshipman Easy 


5 


385 


77 


Privateersman . 


2 


70 


35 


SiMMS. Katharine Walton . 


9 


207 


23 


Border Beagles 


4 


131 


33 


Dickens. Pickwick 


20 


386 


19 


Nicholas Nickleby 


31 


344 


11 


Lever. Charles O'Malley . 


12 


273 


22a 


Scott. Ivanhoe . . 


22 


293 


13 


Guy Mannering 


13 


259 


19 


Tales of the Crusaders . 


12 


144 


12 


Chas. Reade. White Lies . 


2 


60 


30 


Cloister and Hearth 


10 


136 


m 


Very Hard Cash . 


8 


126 


19 


Never too Late, etc. 


23 


223 


10 


Box Tunnel, etc. . 


1 


26 


26 


Christie Johnstone 


. 4 


126 


31 


Peg Wofflngton . 


2 


61 


30 


Clouds and Sunshine 


4 


120 


30 


Love me Little, etc. 


3 


43 


14 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



55 



Authors. 

Tom Hughes. Rugby . 




No. vols. 

6 


TotaL 

169 


Average. 

28 


Oxford . 




30 


175 


18 


White Horse 




. 7 


105 


15 


Tom Hood. Tales 




1 


20 


20 


Tylney Hall . 
Prose and Verse 




2 
1 


40 
13 


20 
13 


Hawthorne. Scarlet Letter. 




10 


200 


20 


Seven Gables 




9 


112 


12 


Blithedale E-omanc 


B 


7 


100 


14 


Marble Faun . 




12 


100 


8 


Twice Told Tales 




. 16 


85 


5 


Old Manse . 




1 


75 


75 


D. G. Mitchell. Dr. Johns 




4 


56 


14 


Other Books 




16 


107 


m 


Longfellow. Hyperion 




8 


70 


8f 


Kavenagh 




5 


36 


7^ 


Theo. Winthrop. Cecil Dreeme 




9 


88 


10 


John Brent 




. 9 


60 


7 


Canoe and Saddle 


1 


41 


41 


Edwin Brothertoft 


. 2 


21 


10 


Trowbridge. Neighbor Jackwood 


. 14 


420 


30 


Cudjo's Cave 
Miss Cummins. Mabel Vaughan . 


6 
9 


212 

187 


35^ 
21 


El Fureidis . 


. 11 


100 


9 


Lamplighter 
Haunted Hearts . 


. 8 
5 


75 
17 


25 
3 


Mrs. Hentz. Eena 


9 


279 


31 


Planter's Northern Bride 


. 14 


400 


29 


Ernest Linwood 


. 13 


371 


28/3 


Mrs. Grey. Flirt 


2 


182 


91 


Miss Muloch. John Halifax 


. 12 


241 


20 


Christian's Mistake 


. 8 


184 


23 


Miss YoNGE. Heir of Redcliffe . 


. 19 


205 


11 


Daisy Chain . 
Ben Sylvester 




32 
. 10 


144 
60 


6 



56 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 

Take some single, long-established works ofjiction : 

Don Quixote 96 

Gil Bias ........ 58 

Gulliver's Travels 92 

Paul and Virginia ...... 35 

Tristram Shandy 21 

Vicar of Wakefield 75 

Miss Burney's Evelina, 9 vols 245 

Undine 43 

Picciola 18 

Take, now, a few good or popular books of recent years which 
may be presumed to have lost theu' freshness : 

William Ware's Tales 160 

Lavengro ....... 22 

Potiphar Papers 20 

Elsie Venner 300 

Caxtons 66 

Lowell's New Priest 8 

Pique . . . . . . . .140 

Amber Gods 18 

Alton Locke 33 

Vivian Grey 16 

J. P. Kennedy's books 180 

Typee 40 

Charles Auchester 77 

Naomi 46 

Jane Eyre 181 

Coniugsby . . . . . . .12 

Sam Slick 39 

Out of His Head 35 

A few of the more ephemeral type : 

Dunn Browne . . . . , . .30 

Artemas Ward 95 

Verdant Green 45 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



57 



We turn, now, to the remaining quarter of our circulation, 
covering other books than fiction. The circulation of French, 
German and Italian books was 5,064, and these authors are 
noted : 

Dudevant (George Sand) . . . 11 

Victor Hugo 203 

Goethe 338 

Kotzebue 217 

Schiller 262 



Richlcr in English translations : 

Campaner Thai 
Levana .... 
Titan .... 
Walt and Vult 



Poetry, brama. Rhetoric and Belles Lettres circulated 8,750 ; and 
these are noted : 



Tennyson, 12 vols. 
Longfellow, 44 vols. 
Whittier, 6 vols. . 
C lough . 
Shakespeare . 
Bell's Theatre 
Minor Drama 



124, or 10 each 
429, or 10 each 
91, or 15 each 
4 
545 
859 
757 



Sciences, Arts, Professions, etc., circulated 12,250 vols.; and 



these are noted in Domestic Economy and Agr 



culture 



Mrs. Hale's Cook Book, 4 copies 

Mrs. Putnam's Cook Book, 1 copy 

Mackenzie's Receipts, 4 copies, 

Inquire Within, 2 copies . 

$600 a Year, 1 copy . 

How I Managed My Children, 4 copies 

Copeland's Landscape Gardening, 2 copies 

How to Get a Farm, 2 copies . 



4 
12 

50 
16 
4 
3 
6 
8 



58 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 



I low to Farm Profitably, 1 copy 
Ten Acres Enough, 2 copies 
Allen's Grape Culture, 3 copies 
Rand's Parlor Gardener, 1 copy 
Downing's Landscape, etc., 3 copies 

Travels circulated 8,837 ; and these are noted 
Kane's Arctic Explorations, 23 vo 
Livingstone's Africa, 11 vols. . 
Burton's Travels, 8 vols. . 
Speke's Africa, 1 vol. 
B. Taylor's books, 28 vols. 

Eothen 

Crescent and Cross . 
Fletcher's Brazil 



3 

17 
15 
16 
25 



205 
58 
IG 
13 

141 
7 

14 
20 



History and Politics circulated 5,425 ; and there are noted 
Froude's England, 40 vols. . . . . 154 



Motley's Histories, 24 vols. 
Prescott's Histories, 101 vols. 
Abbott's Histories, 10 vols. 
Bancroft, 67 vols. 
Headley's Histories, 2 vols. 
Carlyle's Frederick, 10 vols. 
Parkman's Pontiac . 
Parkman's Pioneers . 
Benton's Thirty Years, 2 vols. 

These of local interest : 

Frothingham's Siege of Boston 
Drake's Boston . 
Barry's Massachusetts, 3 vols. 
Wells' Samuel Adams, 3 vols. 
Loring's Boston Orators . 

These connected with the late war 

Nichols' Great March 
Miles O'Reilly . 



. 125 
. 323 
. 64 
. 137 
. 14 
. 21 
. 14 
. 2 
. 12 



42 
34 



PUBLIC LIBRARY, 



59 



Semmes' Cruise 

Coffin's Four Years' Fighting . 
Greeley's American Conflict, 2 vols. 
Youth's History of the Rebellion 
Barnard's Peninsular Campaign 



These few iheolc 



d or similar works : 



Ecce Homo, 4 copies 
Ecce Deus, 4 copies . 
Kenan's Jesus, 4 copies 
Cumming's books 
Spurgeon's books, 5 copies 
Ingraham's Pillar of Fire . 
Ingraham's House of David 
Pilgrim's Progress 
Essays and Reviews . 

These few miscellaneous : 

Dana's Idle Man 

Thoreau's Walden 

Catlin's Indians 

Webster's Works 

John Adams' Works . 

Harper's Monthly, (bound volumes) 

Guerin's Journal 

Oehlenschlager's Correggio, (Eng. transl.) 



37 
8 
22 
20 
22 



34 

15 
39 
85 
14 
10 
15 
18 
13 



. 20 

. 54 

. 3 

. 32 

. 9 

2,737 

. 13 

. 16 



It should not be forgotten that these statistics pertain to the 
Lower Hall solely ; and some of the works designated may also be 
found in the Bates Hall. Your Committee cannot but sec that 
here are the means, through this record of slips, of apportioning 
supply in duplicates to demand, better than were at hand before 
this new system was put in practice. 

Is THE Reading Room Wi^ll-managed and Sufficiently 
Supplied ? Until the past year there has never been any trust- 
worthy record kept of the use of this department. The new 



60 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 

system of delivering periodicals on application, while it debars 
some from a rapid survey of all as they lie upon tables, works 
advantageously for the greater nmnber, secures order, and pro- 
tects the property from mutilation and loss, to a degree not pos- 
sible by any system of espionage. It has, accordingly, been safe 
to add duplicates freely, and of 13 periodicals we now have 53 
copies, and 195 single copies of other periodicals, making 208 
in all. The Reading Room was opened in 1859 with 140. The 
present number is divided by languages : 

English 141 

French 39 

German 27 

Italian 1 

And by classes : 

Scientific 85 

Literary 68 

Religious 18 

Illustrated and foreign newspapers . . 12 

Commercial ...... 9 

Fashions 6 

Illustrated Magazine 3 

Juveniles 3 

Fine Arts 3 

Diplomacy 1 

During the past year there have been 91,832 readers of peri- 
odicals and reference books, and of this number 12,348 were 
females. It shows something of the ditferent constitution of so- 
ciety, that of the 71,353 readers in the corresponding department 
at Manchester, but 288 were females. The average number of 
readers daily the past year was 254, and 283 magazines were 
read on an average daily for the 289 days the room was open. 
Some 60 persons, mostly strangers, enter the room daily, out of 
curiosity. 



PUBLIC LIBEART. 61 

Can AnythinCx more be done to guard the Books from Mu- 
tilation AND Loss ? Mr. Ticknor, in the preliminary report of 
1 852, in sketching out a plan for the Library, novel in some impor- 
tant respects for a public institution, and which is substantially 
the basis upon which it is administered to-day, urged strongly the 
desirability and probable safety of circulating the books freely 
among certain classes of our community ( where the class bore 
with it a kind of responsibility), without any surety but their per- 
sonal recognizance ; but contemplated that it might become neces- 
sary in ordinary cases to require some pecuniary guaranty. The 
free libraries in England, which were about that time starting, 
under the Parliamentary acts of 1850, were requiring this as a 
condition, before tlieir privileges were accorded to a citizen ; and 
they have retained it without any apparent check upon their 
usefulness, and with much greater security to their property, 
than we have enjoyed. Still, the experiment of a freer library 
than the world had ever known, was not, perhaps, an ill-timed 
one, and, for a while, it was thought to have been an un- 
varying success, and, to this day, no pecuniary voucher is de- 
manded. 

A few books were reported lost, at first, in Mason Street, and 
the number had increased, until the last year in that place, it 
was two hundred for the year. Still, it was thought there had 
been no wantonness. Li 1857, we began to hear of mutilations, 
with hints at future stringency. The next year, it was thought 
some degree of wantonness was discoverable. The first year 
in the present building (1859), one hundred and thirty were 
reported lost ; of these, forty-two were subsequently recovered, 
leaving eighty-eight unaccounted for. It increased yearly, until 
it had got to be annually between five and six hundred, when, at 
the beginning of last year, some check was put upon it by issu- 
ing new cards and recalling the old ones. Still, for the past 
year, four hundred and sixty volumes are reported missing, and 
of these, two hundred and ten are charged to borrowers, who 



62 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 

cannot be found or traced at the addresses they gave, leaving 
the sad inference of premeditated fraud. 

Nor is tliis a measure of the wanton damage to the books. 
Mutilations and defacements are becoming common. In 1862, 
the Superintendent reported, that, in his judgment, more was to 
be feared from this evil than from loss ; and in successive reports 
it has been dwelt upon, and the time predicted when stricter 
supervision of the delivery would be necessary. There was 
formerly no adequate remedy for this kind of injury when dis- 
covered, and it was hardly possible with the force at command 
to collate a sixth part of the books returned. Last winter the 
necessary law to meet such cases of mutilation and defacement 
was passed by the Legislature; and the statutes of the Com- 
monwealth now ajBford a wholesome remedy in discoverable 
cases. 

The losses from wear and tear, if actually done in good ser- 
vice, excite no unpleasant inferences. Not a few books come 
into the library's possession partly worn. While in Mason Street 
200 were reported worn out; and since the library has been in 
the present building, the number worn out must have averaged 
that yearly. The ratio will of course increase as the books are 
longer in use. During the past year over 4,800 volumes have 
been either rebound or had their bindings repaired, a small por- 
tion of which belonged to the Bates Hall. Your Committee 
cannot learn that this absolute wearing out of books is anything 
more than ought to be expected. Comparing our experience with 
that at Manchester, there seems to be something in our favor, pro- 
vided, of course, the same degree of damage condemns a book in 
both libraries. Thus the aggregate circulation at Manchester for 
its first five years was about the same as ours for the first three 
years in the present building, and while at Manchester 800 vol- 
umes were reported worn out, with us it was less than 500. A 
popular novel usually wears out two or three strong bindings 
before it is condemned. Some estimates can be made of the 



PUBLIC LIBRAKY. 63 

wear, from the fact that one person is employed most of the time 
in renewing the paper covers on the Lower Hall books. 

The total number of missing and worn out hooks has been 
about 6,700 volumes from the beginning ; and this, on an aggre- 
gate circulation of 2,000,000, is only something over one-third 
of one per cent., which is not excessive certainly. This amount 
of loss is almost exactly the same that the records of tlie New 
York Mercantile Library show it to have sustained, on the same 
number of volumes, during its career. 

What proportion of this number can be put down to abso- 
lute theft or books. unaccounted for, it is not easy to ascer- 
tain ; but your Committee see by the records that this most dis- 
graceful kind of loss is increasing out of all proportion to the cir- 
culation, which is now only 30 per cent, more than it was in 
1859, while the loss in unaccounted-for books, on the best data that 
can be found, is something like 300 per cent. more. This increase 
does not probably show a relative increase of offenders, since a 
few, by observing the impunity with which it could be done, 
would naturally enlarge their range of depredations. The refer- 
ence books around the desks in the Bates Hall and the Reading 
Room are open to the inroads of a class of thieves, known to the 
police, to exist in fraternities, so that books stolen from libraries 
and shops in one large city, are transmitted to their fellows in 
another to be disposed of These practices are in no small 
degree doing a work of demoralization, which every consider- 
ation of justice and well-being requires to be checked. 

To do this without temporarily curtailing the circulation were, 
perhaps, not easy. The example of Manchester showed, that 
where considerable restraint had been put at the start and .con- 
sistently kept up, a large circulation could be maintained. Your 
Committee know that it is more difficult to impose restraints at 
a late day ; but they believe it is never too late to do right ; and 
the public will be sure to see that by right-doing their privileges 
are more fully protected than ever. 



64 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 

At ^lanclicster they require two pecuniary vouchers among 
the rate-payers, renewed every five years, for each applicant. 
On the same circulation as ours in 1865-6, they lost but fifty-six 
volumes, and they were all replaced — thirty-three by the bor- 
rowers, and twenty-three by the guarantors. Beside this they 
enforce pecuniary satisfaction for mutilations and defacements. 

Your Committee understand that in the new registration now 
in progress each applicant is required to give two referees, who 
can, if need be, verify his statements. By this means, several 
irregularities that might have caused confusion and loss, have 
been discovered and guarded against. Your Committee believe 
this restraint good as far as it goes, and trust that it will not be 
found necessary to go to the limit employed at Manchester ; but 
they have no hesitation in saying, that this community should 
assert its right to be called quite as orderly as any other ; and 
if that pre-eminence can only be secured by the pecuniary 
vouchers, they should be required. 

In the Bates Hall the loss has not as yet been great. There 
w^ere reported last year as lost since the opening in 1862, 43; 
and of these 10 have been recovered; and 18 have been added 
to this number during the past year, some of which will doubt- 
less be found, so that the total now gone from the shelves is 51, 
beside 48 charged to borrowers and not yet returned. 

In conclusion, your Committee would bespeak for the Public 
Library of the City of Boston, from all quarters, a continuation 
of that enlightened interest, which has in the past been bestowed 
upon it with a success, that is both gratifying to this community, 
and a source of admiration with strangers. 

Respectfully submitted, 

JUSTIN WINSOR. 
ALFONSO BOWMAN. 
CHAS. W. FREELAND. 
C. D. ROMANS. 
HERMAN J. WARNER. 

R. C. WATERSTON. 

Public Library, Nov. 11th, 1867. 



[B] 
REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 



To the Trustees of the Public Library of the City of Boston. 

Gentlemen : In obedience to the requirements of the By- 
Laws, I beg leave to present to you a Report upon the condition 
and increase of the Library for the year ending September 1, 
1867. 

In consequence of the facilities furnished by the new method 
of recording loans, I had the satisfaction of presenting to you 
immediately after the close of the year ending July 31, 1867, the 
annual statistics respecting the growth and use of the Library 
which heretofore could only be partially obtained two or three 
months later. These statistics have given to the Committee of 
Citizens appointed to examine the Library, much better means of 
knowing accurately and fully the condition and progress of the 
institution, than any of their predecessors had enjoyed. In their 
Report will be found a systematic analysis of these figures, and 
deductions from them of great importance. 



INCREASE 


OF THE COLLECTIONS. 




In Both Halls. 








Books. Pamphlets. 


other articles. 


Presented . 


. 1,465 7,769 


33 


Purchased . 


. 7,395 104 




By Exchange 


. 337 4 





Total of Accessions . 9,197 7,877 33 



66 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 

Whole number of donors, 300. 

A list of the names of donors is appended to this Report, and 
marked [AAJ. 

It will be understood that some of the books added — most of 
them donations — are duplicates, and that many of the pamphlets 
have been bound and placed on the shelves as books, and a 
large number of books lost and worn out since the opening of 
the Library have not been replaced ; consequently the accessions 
for the year cannot be added to the aggregate reported last 
year, in order to find the present extent of the collection. 

Among the donations for the year are several which should be 
particularly mentioned. 

The Hon. William Gray presented at one time 417 volumes, 
many of them works of importance, besides pamphlets and sev- 
eral large maps and plans of special value. 

William Everett, Esq., presented, besides several valuable 
books, 6,829 pamphlets, some of them of much rarity, collected 
by his late honored and lamented father. 

The children of the late Hon. Josiah Quincy have given to the 
Library a large number of the early Public Documents of the 
United States Government, bound in 128 volumes folio and octavo, 
collected as they were published, by their father, with indexes 
and notes in his own handwriting. The importance of this col- 
lection to the Public Library is very great. The set presented 
by Mr. Everett was perhaps the very best in the country. He 
commenced it in the earliest days of his public life, and spared 
neither money nor time to make it complete. But before his day 
a large number of these documents were quite beyond reach. It 
is these earliest and scarcest of the government publications 
which Mr. Quincy, with characteristic foresight and care, gath- 
ered and guarded, and which his children have now most worth- 
ily placed where they may add to the many permanent memorials 
of the public spirit and high intelligence of their father. 

A bust of Mr. Everett, by Thomas Ball, was presented to the 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



67 



city by the subscribers to the Everett statue, with the request 
that it should be deposited in the Public Library. It is placed 
in the Lower room, now devoted to works of art. 

A bust of J. Lothrop Motley, by Richard S. Greenough, has also 
been presented by Mr. Thomas B. Curtis, and has been placed 
most appropriately with the bust of Mr. Everett. 

The accessions to the Bates Hall for the year may be generally 
classified by subjects as follows. The classification is, however, 
of books as they now stand upon the shelves. It does not include 
those books which are necessarily placed by themselves, such as 
the Bowditch, Parker, and Prince Libraries. The divisions in 
the Lower Hall are not given. It is known, however, that they 
are, all of them, of the popular class of books, and most of them 
in the English language. 

The whole number of books placed during the year in the 
Lower Hall, is 3,002. 



Classification of Accessions in the Bates Hall, 1866-67. 



Cyclopaedias, etc. 

Bibliography and Literary History 

General History and Geogi'aphy . 

American History and Literature 

English Histor}^ and Literature . 

French History and Literature 

Italian History and Literature 

German History and Literature . 

Greek and Latin Classics and Philology 

History and Literature of other countries of Europe 

and Asia 

Periodicals and Transactions of Learned Societies 

Theology and Ecclesiastical History 

Metaph^^sics and the Social Sciences 

Jurisprudence .... 

Political Economy 

Medical Science .... 



24 vols. 
170 
170 
515 
493 
188 

87 
228 
190 



214 
314 
968 
185 
145 
79 
370 



68 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 



Natural History . . . . . 
Mathematics and the Physical Sciences 

Useful Arts. 

Fine Arts 



. 155 vo' 

. 312 
. 96 

. 197 

5,100 
Prince Library 1,952 

Total 7,052 



The following statement shows the number of recent publica- 
tio7is included among the accessions : 

English books printed in Great Britain, 635 volumes. 

" " printed in America, 1,154 " 

" " printed on the Continent, 104 " 

Foreign 539 " 



uplicates . 



2,432 volumes. 

97 " 

2,529 volumes. 



The Trustees have, by a standing invitation, — often repub- 
lished, — requested persons wishing books which they could not 
find in the Library, to ask for them by filling blanks furnished 
for the purpose ; and the promise has been made that such books 
shall, unless there is some special reason to the contrary, be 
purchased as soon as possible. The number of these requests 
has increased latterly from year to year. It frequently happens 
that persons ask for books already in the Library. In such 
cases they are immediately informed of the fact through the 
mail. When a book asked for has been procured, the applicant 
receives immediate notice, and is told that the volume will, be 
retained five days subject to his order. 

The following table shows the number of booTcs asked for dur- 
ing each month of the last year, the number of them which were 
found to be already upon the shelves, and the number procured : 



i 



PUBLIC LIBKARY. 



69 



Date. 






No. asked for. 


No. in Lib'y. 


No. rec'd 


1866. August .... 7 




3 


" September 






. 17 


5 


8 


" October 






. 42 


11 


20 


" November 






. 46 


10 


25 


" December . 






. 36 


8 


18 


1867. January 






. 51 


12 


27 


" February 






. 92 


14 


55 


. " March 






. 62 


7 


45 


" April 






. 67 


6 


35 


" May . 






V . 22 


8 


5 


" June . 






. 51 


9 


12 


" July . 






. 53 


5 


7 



546 



95 



260 



PRESENT EXTENT OF THE COLLECTIONS. 

The Library contained by shelf-lists on the 1st of August, 
1867: 



In the Bates Hall 
In the Lower Hall 



Total 

The books in the Bates Hall comprise : 

The general Library, classified by subjects 

The Bowditch Library, kept by itself . 

The Parker Library, kept by itself 

The Prince Library, kept by itself 

Sale Duplicates not located . 

Books not located Aug. 1, 1867, (all located since) 



110,782 
25,199 

135,981 



87,o57 
2,542 

11,721 
1,952 
5,332 
1,678 

110,782 



The classification of the books by subjects, is, in the Bates 
Hall: 

Cyclopredias 1,054 vols. 

Bibliography and Literary History .... 2,585 " 



lO CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 

History and Geography ..... 

American History and Literature 
English History and Literature . . - . 
French History and Literature 
Italian History and Literature 
German History and Literature 
Greek and Latin Classics and Philology . 
Histoiy and Literature of other countries of Europe 
and Asia ....... 

Periodicals and Transactions of Learned Societies 
Theology and Ecclesiastical History 
Metaphysics, Ethics, and the Social Sciences 
Political Economy ...... 

Jurisprudence 

Medical Science 

Natural History 

Mathematics and the Physical Sciences . 

Useful Arts 

Fine Arts 

Miscellaneous pamphlets .... 



3,070 ^ 


-^ols 


9,339 




1,049 




5,983 




4,679 




3,486 




3,072 




2,707 




0,458 




7,962 




2,820 




671 




2,014 




4,405 




3,925 




4,556 




877 




2,557 




387 


(( 



87,656 vols. 
From which deduct books not at present on the shelves 99 " 



87,557 vols. 



This classification does not include the Parker, Bowditch, and 
Prince Libraries. 

With regard to the numbers assigned to the Lower Hall, it 
was remarked last year in my Report, that the enumeration in- 
cluded all the books which from the beginning had been placed 
there. The enumeration was, however, taken from the shelf-lists, 
without regard to the lost and replaced books, of which it was 
then impossible to give any satisfactory statement. It was added, 
that when the re-organization, at that time only commenced, should 
be completed, a more exact enumeration would be made, which 
would doubtless show a considerably diminished number. This 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 71 

year I am able to report the figures after the revision. It will be 
seen, that, although 3,002 volumes have been placed during the 
year in the Lower library, the present number of books is actu- 
ally 167 less than the number reported last year. It thus appears 
that 3,169 books, lost or worn out during the nine years since the 
library was first opened to the public, have not been replaced. 

The following table represents the present classification of the 
books by subjects in the Lower Hall: 

No. on shelves. 

Theolog}^, Moral and Intellectual Science, Education . 1,488 

Jurisprudence, Political Science .... . 270 

Medicine, Mathematics, Physics and Natural Sciences 1,705 

Useful and Fine Arts, Military and Naval Art and Sciences 599 

American History and Politics 1,023 

Foreign History and Politics 1,333 

Poetry, Drama, Oratory and Rhetoric .... 2,268 

Fiction and Juvenile Works 7,165 

Biography 2,342 

Travels 1,897 

Libraries, (Bohns, etc.) Collections, Periodicals, etc. . 2,621 

German Books 1,137 

Italian Books 221 

French Books 1,043 

Books of Reference in the Reading Room ... 87 



25,199 



The number of Pamphlets reported, 1866 . 36,566 

" added by purchase, 1867 . . 108 

" " " " donation, 1867 . . 7,769 



Total 44,443 

This enumeration includes all the pamphlets which have been 
reported as added to the Library from the beginning. But more 
than 5000 have been bound either separately or in volumes con- 
taining several pamphlets each. By far the greater part of the 



72 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 

remainder are tlui)licates or odd numbers of magazines and 
legislative documents, or publications of little, if of any, value. 
The whole collection should be revised, and every pamphlet 
of which another copy exists in the Library, or which is not 
esteemed of value, be no longer included in the enumeration. 
Although much has been done, it has been impossible, with the 
force employed in the Library, to do all that is required for the 
proper care of the pamphlets ; and the place, where of neces- 
sity they are kept, is insufficient and extremely inconvenient. 

The Sale Du Ucates^ August, 1866, were . . .5,141 vols. 
" added, 1866-67, mostly donations 714 " 

5,855 vols. 
Duplicates disposed of, 1866-67 . . . . 523 " 

Total remaining in the possession of the Library 5,332 vols, 

USE OF THE LIBRAEY. 

Notwithstanding the fact that some two or three thousand 
volumes at a time have during the year been, in the Lower Hall, 
retained from circulation in order to prepare the Finding Lists, 
we have to report a more extensive use of the books than in any 
previous year. 

In the Bates Hall were lent for home use, 13,696 vols. 
In the Lower Hall .... 183,714 " 



Total for home use . . . 197,410 vols. 
Add books used in the Bates Hall . 11,553 " 



208,963 vols. 

The Library was open 277 days. 

The average, therefore, of books used each day was 754.37 

Of which, used in Bates Hall .... 91.98 

The greatest circulation on any one day was on the 23d of 
February, when 1,813 books were given out, and in the Lower 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



73 



Hall 1,411 returned; a circulation larger by nearly three 
hundred than on any previous day in the history of the Library. 

These figures do not represent the use of the books of refer- 
ence in the Bates Hall, nor in the Reading Room, nor the use of 
large numbers of books for extensive researches, often permitted 
on especial applications, nor the use of the specifications of 
English Patents which have been consulted during the year by 
197 persons, 248 hours. 

The following table represents the jiercentage of use of the 
various classes of books in the Bates Hall : 



Bibliography 

General Histor}^ and Literature 
American History and Literature . 
English History and Literature 
French History and Literature 
Italian History and Literature 
German History and Literature 
G^'eek and Latin Classics 
Oriental History and Literature 

Periodicals 

Transactions of Learned Societies 
Theology, Ethics, and Education . 
Jurisprudence, Government, Political Economy 

Medicine 

Natural History 

Mathematical and Physical Sciences 
Fine and Useful Arts . • . . 
Miscellaneous 



1 per cent. 

3 
12 
20 

7 

3 

4 

3 

4 

7 

7 

4 

2 

6 



As compared with the table for the preceding year, this shows 
an increase of 4 per cent, in American History and Literature, of 
2 per cent, in English History and Literature, and of Transactions 
of Learned Societies, and of German History, and of 1 per cent, 
in French History and Literature and in the Mathematical and 
Physical Sciences ; and a decrease of 4 per cent, in the use of 

10 



74 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 

Periodicals, 3 i)cr cent, in the Useful and Fine Arts, 2 per cent, 
each in Medicine and J3ibliography, and 1 per cent, in Miscella- 
neous books. 

For the first time since the Library was opened to the public, 
we have been able to obtain full and exact statistics respecting 
the use of books in the Lower Hall. The record-slips of books 
borrowed and returned are all preserved in the order of their 
shelf-numbers, and it is possible to ascertain the number of books 
on every subject borrowed, and the number of times each book 
has been lent. These slips furnish a resource never before pos. 
sessed for ascertaining the real wants of the public, and the 
directions in which the Library may be made more useful. The 
Examining Corumittee have, with much care and minuteness, 
attended to the details thus furnished, and in their Report have 
presented elaborate, instructive and interesting results and 
deductions. The importance to the future usefulness of the 
Library must be great. The facts will, some of them, perhaps, 
be unexpected ; but they are facts and should be known, and 
their bearing and tendency should be carefully considered, as 
they fortunately have been by the Committee. 

I will merely present, in this place, the general classijication of 
the Loans in the Lower Hall, and refer to the ample details in 
the Report of the Examining Committee. 





No. of Loans. 


Per cent. 


Of Books in Science, Arts and Professions . 


. 12,250 


.066 


History 


. 5,425 


.029 


Poetry, Drama ..... 


. 8,750 


.047 


Biography 


. 7,245 


.039 


Voyages and Travels 


. 8,837 


.048 


Periodicals and Libraries (like Bohn's) 


. 11,480 


.062 


French, German and Italian 


. 5,064 


.027 


Fiction and Juvenile Books 


. 124,663 


.682 



183,714 .100 



PUBLIC LIBKARY. 75 

It was stated; in the last Report, that it was deemed necessary 
to renew the cards of all persons using the Library, and that it 
was hoped that by this means many of the evil practices which 
had brought discredit upon the Library would be checked. Of 
the eifect of the renewal, in this respect, I shall have occasion to 
speak in another part of this Report. During the year, 6,990 
cards were given to new applicants, and the cards of about 5,000 
former signers were renewed, making the whole number of 
persons who had registered their names from the first opening of 
the Library in this building — 52,859. 

LOSSES AND INJURIES. 

The report this year of losses and injuries is full and accurate. 
How far the Library has been abused is no longer a matter of 
judgment and estimate, but of facts and figures. The way in 
which the wrongs have been done is also in most cases known. 
The point to which the measures of prevention are to be directed, 
also, has become distinctly noticeable. 

In the Bates Hall^ the whole number of books missing from 

the beginning, to August, 1866, was ... 33 

From August, 1866, to August, 1867 .... 18 

Total from the beginning . . . . 51 

The whole number of books charged to borrowers and 
not returned from the beginning, to August, 1866, 
was .......... 27 

From August, 1866, to August, 1867 .... 21 

Total from the beginning .... 48 

Some of the missing books will, doubtless, be regained ; and 
most of those charged to individuals will, probably, be replaced. 
The condition of the books in the Bates Hall is generally excel- 
lent. No complaints have been made of mutilations or deface- 
ment. 



76 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 

Li the Lower Hall, the accumulated losses and misplacements, 
the natural wear and tear, and the many irregularities of the 
unparalleled use for nine years had borne heavily upon the con- 
dition of the Library, and required great labor and patience in 
the revision which has been pursued under the skilful guidance 
of Mr. Jillson, with the striking results here numerically pre- 
sented. 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



77 



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78 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 

The A^'hole number of persons to whom notices were sent 
b}' mail that they had kept the books borrowetl over 
the fom-teeu days allowed by the Rules, was . . . 15,G52 

The whole number of persons who kept their books over 
twenty-one da^^s, and to whom a special messenger was 
sent to regain the books 1,449 

The whole number not returned at the close of the Library 

year 315 

Number of these recovered or accounted for . . . 105 

Whole number which were taken by persons who could not 

be found of which a few have been returned . . . 237 

The amount paid for postage and messenger's service was $714 48 

The amount received for fines and messenger's fees . $366 50 

These statements show the great slackness of borrowers with 
regard to the return or renewal of their books. When it is 
remembered that the term of the loan may be doubled, without 
returning the book to the Library, on simply requesting by note 
the renewal, this amount of delinquency seems the more strange 
and inexcusable. 

The labor and expense of writing and sending by mail 15,652 
notices to delinquents was very considerable. 

Still greater were the cost and trouble of sending for books 
by the messenger. He was engaged in searches often fruitless, 
and even when he succeeded in regaining the book, it was fre- 
quently after a long and tedious pursuit. 

And, after all the labor and expenditure, the result now is that 
two hundred and ten books were taken, as it would appear, with 
deliberate deception. 

The delinquents were not only unjust to the Library, but to 
many honest frequenters of it who desired to use the books thus 
withdrawn from their reach. 

The time of the attendants in the Library required in tracing 
these delinquencies, was a serious charge upon the funds of the 
institution, while the exercise of less vigilance would have resulted 
in a gTeat loss of books and a reproach which would have 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 79 

rested heavily upon the generally careful frequenters of the 
Library. It will be seen, also, that the fines and messenger's fees 
collected are but a partial offset to the amount paid for postage 
and the services of the messenger. 

Were the circulation small, and the persons using the Library 
few in number, it might be possible to exercise greater care in 
the delivery of the books and in the scrutiny of applicants. But 
in a circulation like this it is utterly impossible to do anything 
more than to answer applications without questions or delays. 

The reasons why so many who had borrowed books could not 
be found, was, that they had registered false names or false resi- 
dences. One person was ascertained to have had in use three 
cards at one time taken under aliases. Several persons had 
taken two cards on one name at different times. Many were 
using cards of other persons improperly obtained. It appeared, 
too, upon inquiry, that these evil practices had most alarmingly 
increased. 

These facts came gradually to the full knowledge of the Trus- 
tees, as the careful methods of recording loans and following 
delinquents under the new system brought them to light from 
week to week. They were well considered. The cause of the 
evil became clearly manifest. The registration had been too 
unguarded. But it ^vas a difficult question how to apply the 
remedy. To require of each applicant for cards a pecuniary 
guarantee was the most obvious, the easiest, and the most com- 
mon way. But it was feared that this might sometimes operate 
to prevent poor but worthy people from applying. It was, there- 
fore, proposed to try first a plan of requiring every one asking 
for a card to name two persons who could verify his statements. 
Such reference does not involve any pecuniary responsibility on 
the part of the persons referred to, nor impose any trouble upon 
them, nor raise any questions of delicacy in making the reference. 

But such references, if required of one, must be of all. Other- 
wise offence might be taken. No thoughtful person, it was sup- 



80 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 

posed, would object to so small a service for the public good, 
when he considers that humbler people would have tl>eir pride 
seriously wounded should they notice that they alone and not all 
others were required to give the means of verifying their state- 
ments. In this plan there seems to be the least possible trouble 
to applicants consistent with probable security for the books, and 
it is earnestly hoped that it may be effectual, and obviate the ne- 
cessity of resorting to more stringent measures. 

Objections would, of course, be made to any change, that it 
would drive people from the Library, diminish the circulation, etc. 
The same objections were made last year against the new sys- 
tem of recording loans then introduced, and they are now seen 
and acknowledged to have been entirely groundless. But, thus 
far, during three months, instead of driving people away, the 
registration has proceeded more rapidly than during the same 
length of time when the first records were opened in this build- 
ing, and the new measures are showing beneficial results. Al- 
ready attempts have been detected at forging the names of other 
persons upon the application-slip, and at committing various 
irregularities which would have caused much trouble and ex- 
pense, had they not been forestalled. 

THE READING ROOM FOR PERIODICALS. 

The use of the Reading Room for periodicals has never be- 
fore been so large, nor its order ever so satisfactory. None of 
the magazines have been stolen or wantonly mutilated. This 
improvement is due entirely to the new system of placing the 
magazines under the care of an attendant, to be given out on 
application signed by the borrower. 

I regret to state that some of the books placed for free con- 
sultation in this room have been stolen. It is believed, however, 
that they were nearly all taken by one person, who for. several 
months has desisted from his nefarious practices here. 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



81 



PERIODICALS. 

Whole number in the Reading Room . 
Whole number of which there are duplicates 

as follows : 
Atlantic Monthly 
American Agriculturist 
American Phrenological Journal 
Godey's Lady's Book 
Dwight's Journal of Music 
Every Saturday . 
Harper's Bazar . 
Harper's Monthly 
Harper's Weekly 
Our Young Folks 
Nation .... 
North American Review 
Peterson's Magazine . 
Round Table 



208 
14 

5 copies. 

2 " 

2 " 

4 " 

2 " 

4 " 

4 " 

11 " 

4 " 

4 " 

2 " 

2 « 

4 " 

2 " 



At the suggestion of a reader, a Bulletin is now placed in the 
room, giving the date of reception of the last number of each 
periodical. 

The following are the statistics of the room for the year : 



Readers of Books of Reference 5^^^^^ . . . . 
( Females 


14,319 
3,955 


Readers of Periodicals and Books of Reference 5 ^^^^^ • 

C Females 


65,165 
8,393 


Whole number of readers 


73,558 


Number of magazines read . . . . . , 


81,783 


Visitors not reading 


17,623 


Number of days open from August 15, 1866, to August 




1, 1867 


289 


Average of readers per day 


254^11 


Average of visitors not reading 


60iii 


Ave- age of magazines read ....... 

U 


282fig 



82 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 



CATALOGUES. 



In the Bates Hall, since the publication of the large Supple- 
ment, the accessions have been made known to the public by 
means of the interleaved catalogues which have been promptly- 
kept up to the last books located. 

The Catalogue of the Prince Library upon cards, has been 
completely finished with the fulness, and it is hoped, with the 
minute accuracy, which the importance of this valuable collection 
demands. The part containing books relating to America, has 
been copied for the press with titles abridged, but still of suffi- 
cient length to render each book and edition identifiable, and the 
printing has been commenced. 

In the Lower Hall, the work upon the " Finding Lists " has 
been pressed forward as rapidly as possible. But it has been 
impeded by the necessity of fu'st revising and reorganizing the 
whole collection, while, at the same time, the Library was open 
to the public. Notwithstanding these difficulties, the Finding 
Lists for twelve of the alcoves, containing the Departments of 
Fiction, Arts and Sciences, History, and Foreign Languages, have 
been published and distributed — the lists of two alcoves of 
Biography, and two of Voyages and Travels are now made nearly 
ready for the press, and some of the work of collation and reor- 
ganization has been performed for the remaining four alcoves. 
These Finding Lists have been received with much favor, and 
when the printing of them shall be completed, it will be possi- 
ble to commence almost immediately upon the re-publication of 
the Index to the Lower Library, with all subsequent accessions, 
in the form so lono; familiar to our readers. 



THE BULLETIN. 



So great were the labors of the officers of the Library during 
the year, that it was found impossible to commence the publica- 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 83 

tion of the Bulletin as recommended by the last Examining 
Committee, before the month of October, when the first number 
■was issued, containing the books received in the Library during 
the month of September, and in the Lower Hall, all titles supple- 
mentary to the various Finding Lists which have been printed. 
These Bulletins are sold at the merely nominal price of two 
cents a copy, and have been widely distributed. It is proposed 
to continue them at intervals, which, if the publication proves as 
acceptable and useful as now expected, may be monthly. 

In each branch of the Library a Daily Bulletin is open to the 
public, of all newly published books as they are received. Such 
books are almost invariably made accessible to readers within 
twenty-four hours after they are brought into the building. 

THE INDICATOR. 

One other means, recently adopted for the convenience of the 
public, remains to be described, which has received the name of 
the Indicator. 

Every borrower has from the beginning been allowed to place 
upon his card applications for twenty books at one time, that 
he might be the more sure of getting a book, and the visitor^ 
who had thus filled his card with requests, was obliged to wait 
his turn for the attendant to make search, perhaps for every one 
of the twenty books, to be disappointed after all. The delay 
thus experienced was often greatly increased by the common 
practice of visitors, which it seemed impossible to prevent, of 
immediately sending back the card which had been returned 
without a book, with the same numbers remaining upon it. This 
state of things was long a most serious inconvenience to the fre- 
quenters of the Library and a severe burden upon the attendants. 

To obviate these great difficulties, the device named has been 
recently invented and placed in the Library. It shows to a 
borrower, at a glance, without the necessity of reference to an 



84 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 

attendant of the Library, whether any book sought, is, at the 
moment, on the shelf or lent out ; and, therefore, renders it unnec- 
essary to send in a card indicating books which cannot be 
procured. 

The Indicator at present constructed, applies to Alcoves 4, 7, 
14, and 17, containing works of fiction and juvenile books, of 
which a separate Finding List has been printed. 

An upright framework is so arranged as to receive strips of 
wood, one inch square and about two feet in length, placed one 
above another, to represent each a shelf, and pierced with rows 
of holes, say five-eighths of an inch in diameter, to contain re- 
versible pins, each of which represents a book. 

The shelf-number is to be found at the end of each strip. The 
number denoting the order of the book upon the shelf is placed 
upon each end of every pin. 

The pins are reversible. On one end of each pin the num- 
ber is printed in black on while ground. When the book is on 
the shelf, this end of the pin is always turned outwards. 

On the other end of the pin, the number of the book is 
printed in white on black ground. When the book is out, this 
end of the pin is always turned outwards. 

The use of the Indicator seems to have been readily under- 
stood even by children. It has proved already of the greatest 
convenience to frequenters of the Library, and has been received 
with much favor. There seems no reason to doubt that it will 
prove permanently useful. 

The two tables previously published, giving the statistics of 
the progress of the Library are appended to this Report, and 
marked [BB]. 

The usual financial statement is appended to this Report, and 

marked [CO]. 

Respectfully submitted, 

CHARLES C, JEWETT, 

Superintendent. 
Public Library, Nov. 12, 1867. 



[AA] 

LIST OF DONORS. 



Bates, Joshua, London, 


interest on 


the fund of 


. S50,000 


Bigelow, Hon. John P., 


a 


' " 


1,000 


Franklin Club, 


a 


" 


1,000 


Lawi-ence, Hon. Abbott, 


It 


" " 


. 10,000 


Phillips, Hon. Jonathan 


a 


" 


30,000 


Townsend, Mary P., 


a 


" " 


4,000 



$96,000 

The interest of these donations, with the exception of that of 
the Townsend Fund (which is invested in a mortgage at six per 
cent.), has been paid in gold, at the rate of five per cent, per 
annum. 



A bust in marble of Mr. Everett, by Thomas Ball, presented by 
the subscribers to the Everett Statue, through their Committee. 
The pedestal in marble presented by the artist. 

A bust in marble of J. Lothrop Motley, by Richard S. Greenough, 
presented by Mr. Thomas B. Curtis. 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 



DONORS. 


Vols. 


Pam. 


Abbot, Ezra, Cambridge^ 


2 


1 


Abbot, Samuel L., M. />., 


1 




Adams, Mrs. Susan J., 


1 




Albany. Young Men's Association, 




1 


American B'd of Commissioners for Foreign missions, 


1 


1 


American Peace Society, 




1 


American Philosophical Society, 


2 




American Tract Society, 




1 


American Unitarian Association, 


2 




Ames, Ellis, Canton, 


1 




Amory, Thomas C, 




1 


Andover Theological Seminary, 




1 


Anonymous, 


20 


44 


Appleton, John, M. D., 


1 




Appletop, William S., 




1 


Asta-Burnaga, Francisco Solano, Chilian Minister, 


1 




Atwood, Charles, 


6 


3 


Babcock, Rev. Samuel B., DedJiam, 




1 


Baker, Nathaniel B., Adjutant General of Iowa, 


2 




Balfour, David M., 


2 


1 


Barlow, Francis C, Secretary of State, N. Y., 


1 




Barnard, James M., 


3 


2 


Bartlett, Hon. John R., Secretary of State, R. I., 


1 




Bates, Henry W., 


1 




Bates, Samuel P., 


1 




Belding, Keith & Co., 


1 




Bemis, George, 


2 




Black, James, Lancaster, Pa., 




1 


Bodichon, B., 


2 


1 


Bogart, W. H., Albany, N. Y., 


3 


1 


Bokum, Rev. Hermann, Wash., D.G., 1 piece sheet music. 




1 


Boston. City of. 


9 




Athenaeum, 




4 


Bnnrd nf Tride 


1 




P";4-TT TJ/->OT-Wl + ol 


1 








Gas Light Company, 


4 




TT/-.A'v»ri -fV^i. A rff\r\ ~\ll mn 




1 


Impartial Suffrage League, 


2 




Mercantile Library Association, 




1 






12 


Society for Medical Improvement, 


1 




Society of Natural History, 


1 




Boutwell, Hon. George S., 


2 




Bradlee, Rev. Caleb Davis, 


27 


2 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



87 



DONORS. 


Vols. 


Pam. 


Brighton. Holton Library, 


1 


1 


Brooks, Rev. Charles, Medford, 




3 


Brown, Francis Henry, M. Z>., 


1 




Brown, G. H., 




1 


Brown, John Carter, Providence^ R. I. 


1 




Brown, Sam'l G., Fres. of Hamilton Col, Clinton, N.Y., 


1 




Bullock, His Excellency Alexander H., 




1 


Burnham, T. 0. H. P., 


1 




Burroughs, Rev. Henry, Jr., 


1 




Bush, Rev. Solon Wanton, 




36 


California. Academy of Natural Sciences, 


1 




Cambridge. Harvard College, 




1 


Charlestown. Naval Library and Institute, 




1 


Cheever, David W., M. D., 


1 




Chicago. Historical Society, 


4 


5 


Young Men's Association, 


1 


2 


Christern, F. W., New York, 


2 


1 


Clapp, Hon. William W , 


5 




Clarke, Edward H., 3f. D., 


1 




Clarke, Henry, Poultney, Vt., 




1 


Coolidge, Joseph, 


1 




Cornell, William M., M. D., 




2 


Cotting, Benjamin E., Roxbury, 




1 


Cotting, Miss Charlotte C, 


1 




Creamer, David, 


1 




Cutter, Charles A,, Cambridge, 


1 


1 


Dalton, Edward B., M. D., 


1 




Dana, Charles F., 


30 




Dana, Richard H., Jr., 




1 


Davis, Rear Admiral Charles H., 


3 




Dawson, Henry B., Morrisania, N. Y., 


1 




Deane, Charles, 




1 


Delmar, Alexander, Bureau of Statistics, U. S., 




3 


Detroit. Young Men's Society, 




1 


Divoll, Ira, St. Louis, Mo., 


1 


2 


Donnelly, J., 




3 


Dorr, Eben Ritchie, 


1 




Dorr, Frederic H., 




1 


Duren, Elnathan, Bangor, Me., 




1 


Dutton, E. P., and Co., 


1 




Eagleswood. Military Academy, 




1 


Edinburgh. Royal Society, 


2 




Eliot, Hon. Thomas D., 




1 


Ellis, Charles M., 




1 


Everett, William, 


13 


6829 



88 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 



Farnham, Rev. Luther, 

Farwell, Stephen T., 

Fole.y, William J., 

Forman, Rev. J. G-., Alton, 111.., 

Foster, William H., Andover, 

Gannett, Ezra S., D.D., 

Goldsmith, Seth, Charlestown, 

Gould, Ho7i. John S., 

Gould and Lincoln, 

Gray, Hon. William, Newspaper cuttings, 16 maps. 

Great Britain. Commissioners of Admiralty, 

Commissioners of Patents, 

Royal Observatory, 

Secretary of State for War, 



Green, Samuel A., M. D., 

Greene, George Washington, 

Greenough, William W., 

Halifax, N. S. Free Library, 

Hallivvell, James O., London, 

Harper and Brothers, New York, 

Hartford. Young Men's Institute, 

Haynes, Henry W., 

Hilgard, J. E., U. S. Coast Survey Office, 

Holton, Isaac F., South Maiden, 

Hooper, Hon. Samuel, 

Howard, Maj. Gen. O. O., 

Huber, John F., Lancaster, Pa., 

Inglis, James, 

Irvine, William, Adjutant General, N. Y., 

Jarvis, Edward, M, D., 

Jenkins, Thornton N., U. S. Bureau of Navigation, 

Keokuk. Library Association, 

Lane, Frederick A., New York, 

Langworthy, Rev. Isaac P., 

Lawrence, Abbott, 1 map. 

Leigh, Dr. Edwin, 

Leonard, Joseph, 

Lewis. Winslow, M. D., 

Lincoln, Hon. Frederic W., Jr., 

Lincoln, Henry W., 

Lissovski, Admiral, of Russia, 

Littell and Gay, 

London. British Museum, 

Corporation of, 



2 
415 
2 
71 
1 
1 



13 



2 
1 
1 
4 
2 
1 
1 

16 



5 

1 

1 

13 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



London. Institution of Civil Engineers, 6 

Royal Astronomical Societ}^ 1 

Ro3^al Geographical Society, 2 

Royal Society, 1 

Long Island College Hospital, 1 

Long Island Historical Society, 1 2 

Loring, Hon. Charles G., , 1 

Loring, Joseph S., 

Lousada, Marquis, 1 

Lowell, Mr., , 2 

Lowell. City of, ' 1 

City Library, 1 

Lunt, Hoyi. George, 1 

MacCarthy, Denis Florence, Dublin, 

McCleary, Samuel F., 1 

M'CuUoch, Eon. Hugh, Sec. Treas., U. S., 1 

McDougail, Hon. William, Ottawa, Canada^ 7 1 

Mackie, William B., M. D., 11 

Maine. Adjutant General, 8 

Manchester, Eng. Free Library, 1 1 

Marvin, Seldeu E., Adjutant General of N. Y., 2 

Maryland Historical Society, 1 

Mason, Mrs. A. B., 1 

Massachusetts. State of, 1 

State Library, 1 

Massachusetts College of Pharmacy, 1 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 2 3 

May, Miss Abby W., 1 10 

Meigs, Gen. Montgomerv C, Quartermaster Gen. U.S.A., 4 2 
Metcalf, Hon. Theron," 4 

Milan (Muncipality of), 7 7 

Reale Istituto Lombardo, 19 7 

Miles, C. Edwin, M. D., Eoxbury, 6 

Minnesota Historical Society, 1 

Minot, Francis, 3L D., 1 

Minot, William, 1 

Moore, Charles W., 1 

Morgan, Henry J., Canada, 1 

Munsell, Joel, Albany, 43 

Napoleon III, Emperor of the French, 2 

National Association of Wool Manufacturers, 1 

New Bedford. Free Public Librar}^, 2 

New England Historic-Genealogical Society, 1 

New England Loyal Publication Society, 10 broadsides. 1 

New Haven. Yale College, 2 

12 



90 



CITY DOCUMEIST. — No. 114. 



New York. Astor Library, 


1 






1 




V^lululUt;! Ol l^OIlilUfcrl Cc, • 


1 




Loyal Publication Society, 


1 




Mercantile Library Association, 




1 




2 
1 




Newburyport. Public Library, 




Nicholson, Eev. Henry D., 


1 




Nicolson, Samuel, 


1 




Odiorne, James C, 


1 




Ohio Mechanics' Institute, 




1 


Onderdonk, Henry, Jr., Jamaica, L. /., 


2 


2 


Otis, Miss Mary, 


4 




Parker, Henry Tuke, London, 


19 


2 


Parkhurst, Henry M,, 


1 




Peabody, Rev. Andrew P., 




1 


Peirce, Prof. Benj., Supt. Coast Survey, U. S. A., 1 map. 






Pennsylvania. Alleghany College, 




1 


Perkins, Benjamin, 




1 


Perr}-, liev. William Stevens, 


1 


4 


Philadelphia. Board of Health, 




1 


Library Company, 




2 

1 


JUOgciniiill XJiULd^Ty^ 


Philbrick, John D., 


1 




Pickering, J. Frank, 


3 




Pim, Bedford, Commander R. N., 


1 




Pittsburg. Young Men's Mercantile Library Associa- 






tion, 


^ 


1 


Powers, Thomas H., Philadelphia, 


2 




Pratt, Rev. J. B., LL. D., Cruden, Aberdeenshire, 




1 


Providence. City of. 


1 




Butler Hospital for the Insane, 




1 


Punchard, Rev. George, 


34 


25 


Quincy, Family of the late Hon. Josiah, 


128 




Rangabe, Bis Excellency, A. R. 


4 


1 


Rankin, Rev. Jeremiah E., Charlestown, 




1 


Read, John Meredith, Jr., 


1 




Read, William, M. D., 




3 


Reiff, J. C, 




1 


Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 




1 


Rhode Island M. W. Grand Lodge, 




1 


Rice, Hon. Alexander H., 3 maps. 


21 




Richardson, James B., 


2 




Rimmel, Julius, London, 


1 




Rogers, John K., Treats. Boston Type Foundi-y, 


1 





PUBLIC LIBRxlRY. 



91 



Salter, Richard H., M. D., 47 

San Francisco. Mercantile Library Association, 

Odd Fellows' Library, 

Seidensticker, James G., Chicago, ill., 

Shaw, Benjamin S., M. D., 

Sibley, John Langdon, Librarian of Harvard University, 

Smith, Charles C, 

Smith, Samuel, Worcester, 1 

Snow, Edwin M., Providence, R. I. 

Sonle, Richard, and Wheeler, W. A., 1 

South Danvers. Peabod}'' Institute, 

Spath, Julius, 

Spofford, A. R., Librarian of Congress, 

Springfield. City Library Association, 

Squier, Hon. E. George, New York, 1 

Stevenson, Hon. J. Thomas, 1 

Story, Joseph, 4 

Sturgis, 3Iiss, 2 

Sturgis, F. R., M. D., 

Sumner, Hon. Charles, 52 

Sutton, Hon. J. Manners, Gov. of Trinidad, 1 

Talbot, I. Tisdale, M. D., 1 

Taunton. Public Library, 2 

Thayer, Alexander Wheelock, 1 

Ticknor, George, 1 newspaper. 20 

Torrance, Prof. F. W., Montreal, 

Townsend, Solomon D., M. D., 14 

Troy. Young Mens' Association, 1 

Triibner and Co., London, 

Turner, Alfred, 

Tuttle, Charles W., 

United States. Bureau of Statistics, 

Coast Survey Office, 1 

Department of the Interior, 63 

Department of State, 

Naval Observatory, 2 

Sanitary Commission, 3 

Upton, George B., 

Venice. Istituto Veneto, 1 

Vienna. K. K. Geologische Reichsanstalt, 1 

"Walley, Hon. Samuel H., 

Waltham. Public Library, 

"Warner, Hermann J., 59 

Warren, ILon. Charles H., - 1 

Warren, J. Mason, M. D., 



92 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 



DONORS. 


Vols. 


Pam. 


Warren, Josiah, 14 newspapers. 
Washington, Hon. Peter G., 




1 


Washington. Smithsonian Institution, 


3 


1 


Waterston, Rev. Robert C, 


1 




Welles, Edgar T., Clerk, Navy Department, U. S., 
Welles, Hon. Gideon, Secretary of the Navy, U. S., 


1 

1 




Wells, Hon. Chandler J., 




2 


Whitmore, William H., 


6 


2 


Whitney, Eev. Frederic A., Brighton, 
Whitney, Henry Austin, 
Wilder, Burt G., S. B. M. D., 


1 
1 


1 
1 


Wilder, Hon. Marshall P., 




15 


Williams and Norgate, London, 




3 


Willis, Nathaniel, 


3 




Wilson, Hon. Henry, 


47 


2 


Wines, Eev. E. C, 


1 




Winthrop, Ho7i. Robert C, 

Wisconsin. Institution for the Education of the Blind, 


1 


1 


Wood, F. A., Neiv York, 




1 


Wood, Bev. Horatio, Lowell, 




2 


Worcester. American Antiquarian Society, 
Free Public Library, 


1 


1 


Worthington and Flanders, 


2 




Wright, J. J., 




1 


Young, His Honor, Chief Justice, W., Halifax, N. S., 




2 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 93 



PERIODICALS. 



Complete Files for the Year from the Publishers. 

Advocate of Peace. 

American Baptist Missionary Union. Missionary Magazine. 

American Unitarian Association. Monthly Magazine. 

Boston Daily Evening Traveller. 

Boston Musical Times. 

Bostoner Intelligenz-Blatt. 

Commonwealth. 

Freemason's Monthly Magazine. 

Hall's Journal of Health. 

London. Royal Astronomical Society. Monthly Notices. 

Royal Geographical Society. Proceedings. 

Masonic Monthly. 

Nation, The, New York. 

New England Farmer. 

Philadelphia. Entomological Society. Proceedings. 

Radical. 

Salem. Essex Institute. Proceedings. 

Saturday Express. 

Student and Schoolmate. 

Sunday Times. 

Triibner's American and Oriental Literary Record. 

Weekly Standard, Buenos Ayres. 



94 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 114. 



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s s s s 



g g 



OS o 

'lo "at 



"g g g "S S S 2 g 



t § 



§ s y 






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2". 52 



O M O 



OS CO CO 



S S 



O M O 



I I "S 1 1 I I 



Sso 



Note. — To account for discrepancies noticeable in the above table, compiled from the 
Annual Reports, it should be stated that, prior to the Report of 1861, the annual statement of 
the whole number of volumes was obtained by adding the accessions of the year to the 
previous aggregates ; and although the numbers in both Halls are now obtained by actu- 
ajly counting the books upon the shelf-lists, there still remain several sources of unavoidable 
discrepancies, such as the following : Works reported at first as containing a certain number 
of volumes, afterwards for good reasons bound in a different number; works reported as 
duplicates subsequently exchanged for works in a different number of volumes ; pamphlets 
bound separately and counted as books ; also volumes lost or worn out, but for some reason 
not replaced, which disappear in the aggregates, but remain as originally reported among the 
accessions. 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



95 



TABLE II. 



1854.. 

1855.. 

1856.. 

1857.. 

1858.. 

1859.. 

I860.. 

1861.. 

1862.. 

1863. 

1864. 

1865. 

1865-6 

1866-7 



6,5901 
3,905 

2,361 y 1 17,066 
2,236 
1,974 
13,3291 
4,809 
4,522 
4,326 

3,495 y ^52,859 

o 
4,758 

;24 

5,036 

6,990 



Circulation. 



Whole No. 
Lent. 



35,389 

81,281 
82,661 
89,423 
75,570 
149,468 
151,020 
160,877 
180,302 
138,027 
184,035 
194,627 
193,862 
208,963 



Daily 
Average. 



Largest 
No. in 
one day. 



250 

284 

291 

310 

383 

588.5 

508.5 

587.1 

626 

643.56 

664.34 

707.73 

732 

754 



535 

606 

647 

730 

693 

1,335 

1,052 

1,303 

1,517 

1,534 

1,424 

1,464 

1,589 

1,818 



Sep. 16 
Feb. 10 
Feb. 23 
Jau. 24 
Feb. 27 
Mar. 5 
Feb. 4 
Feb. 23 
Mar. 1 
Feb. 7 
Feb. 27 
Nov. 19 
Feb. 10 
Feb. 23 



Lent in 
Bates 
HaU. 



7,400 
5,222 
7,468 

10,371 
9,763 

13,696 



10,263 
7,124 
11,057 
13,090 
10,438 
11,553 



LOG] 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 

EXPENDITURES, 

Fro)n Octoher 1, 1866, ^o September 30, 1867. 



Binding $3,807 03 

Books . . . 11,222 21 

Catalogues 3,351 66 

Expense 1,716 26 

Fuel 2,608 72 

Furniture 594 61 

Gas 1,808 37 

Periodicals 1,850 35 

Printing 1,879 53 

Salaries 21,239 57 

Stationery 1,702 17 

Transportation 878 24 

$52,658 72 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



iillll, 

3 9999 06314 626 8 



D.P.L.Liiiclefy. 
NOV 23 1878