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Full text of "Annual report"

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SIXTEENTH 



ANNUAL REPORT 



TRUSTEES OF THE PUBLIC LIBKARY, 




BOSTON: 

ALFRED MUDGE & SON, CITY PRINTERS, 34 SCHOOL STREET. 

1868. 



The Superintendent would respectfully invite correspondence with 
librarians and others interested upon points of library economy raised in 
this report; and in behalf of this library would particularly request, 
where it has not already been done, that sets of the printed reports, 
blanks, forms, etc., used in other libraries, may be forwarded to him. 



City Document. — No. 132, 



CITY OF BOSTON. 




SIXTEENTH 
ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

TRUSTEES OF THE PUBLIC LIBRARY. 

1868. 



In Board of Aldermen., November, 30, 18G8. 
Laid ou the table, and 2,000 copies ordered to be printed. 
Attest : S. F. McCLEARY, City Clerk. 



CITY OF BOSTON 



Public Library, Boston, November 30, 1868. 

His Honor Nathaniel B. Shurthff, Mayor of the City of Boston : 

Sir : I have the honor to transmit to you, herewith, the Six- 
teenth Annual Report of the Trustees of the Public Library, 
prepared in obedience to the fourth section of the Ordinance 
relative to the Public Library, passed on the 20th of October 
1863. 

Yery respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JUSTIN WINSOR, 

Secretary of the Board of Trustees. 



SIXTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



TRUSTEES OF THE TUBLIC LIBRARY 



Ijf obedience to the requisitions of an Ordinance concerning 
the Public Library, passed Oct. 20th, 1863, the Trustees have 
the honor to submit to the City Council their Sixteenth Annual 

REPORT. 

The year has been an important one in the history of the 
Institution. The changes, both in persons and in methods, will 
have a large effect upon its future welfare. Its privileges have 
been more widely extended, and special efforts have been made 
to meet the wants of all students and readers, and to keep it 
fully supplied with the last publications of the old as well as of 
the new world, whether in art, science, or literature. To impart 
to the public the necessary knowledge of these acquisitions, sev- 
eral numbers of the Bulletin, of which the first issue was 
noticed in the last Report, have been printed. Both in the 
Bates and Lower Halls the work of caring for the old collec- 
tions and of preparing for use and for putting into circulation 
the new books, has gone forward with more continuity of laboi- 
than the previous history of the library had witnessed. A satis- 
factory indication of the minute care with which all the opera- 
tions of the Institution are watched and recorded, will be found 
in the documents accompanjang this Report. 



6 CITY DOCUMENT.- No. 132. 

The first of these, in order, is the Report of tlie Examining 
Committee [Document A.], a Committee appointed annually 
under the provisions of the Sixth Section of the Ordinance, 
consisting of one member of the Board of Trustees, and five 
citizens selected at large. The Committee for the present year 
arc Charles F. Bradford, Esq., the Rev. George L. Chaney, 
John S. D wight, Esq., Samuel Eliot Esq., and Dr. J. S. Lom- 
bard, with Dr. Samuel A. Green, of the Board of Trustees, as 
Chairman. The questions discussed in their Report are of 
great importance, and will receive attentive consideration. 

Whether the Library service can be continued year after year 
in an institution of this magnitude without any temporary cessation 
for examination or repairs, is an experiment never yet attempted 
with a collection of books so largely subject to popular wear 
and its consequent deterioration. It is possible that the plan 
suggested, or some other that may occur, may secure that peri- 
odical oversight of the books required for cleanliness, order, 
and safety. The proposal will have the early examination of 
the Board. 

The conclusions of the Committee relative to the opening 
and lighting of the Bates Hall in the evening, will be found to 
be judicious. If any reasonable demand for the use of the 
books contained in the Bates Hall should hereafter arise, out- 
side of the present arrangements for supply, there will be no 
difficulty in meeting the emergency. 

Both these questions have been discussed in successive 
Boards for a series of years, with the desire to do everything 
for the public, consistent with the conscientious administra- 
tion of the Trust. The other topics of interest brought for- 
ward by the Committee, will receive attentive perusal from the 
friends of the Institution. The annual inspection of its work- 
ings by intelligent and thoughtful men, fresh to its ramified 
details, should always prove useful in correcting misconceptions 
so inseparable from superficial observation, and in criticising 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 7 

the various parts of a system which was framed as an experi- 
ment, and which has been modified and expanded as experience 
warranted. 

Of the Repoi-t of the Superintendent of the Library [Docu- 
ment B.], the Trustees do not purpose to speak at length. It 
should be read by every one desirous of knowhig how many 
books the Library contains, how many have been added during 
the past year, how much and how often they are used, how 
large are the library's requirements for the public service, in 
cataloguing, printing and distribution, what are its receipts and 
expenditures, and how the public that we serve, can help us. 
The information which he has gathered with such scrupulous 
exactness, from the routine, not only of our own Library, but. 
also from that of kindred institutions in England and this 
country, will show a remarkable parallelism in the uses of 
books in widely separated communities, and a taste for works 
of imagination which has increased with the ability of authors 
and the press to supply them. A Public Librar}^ which does 
not furnish to its readers books which they want, may prove in 
the end only a reference library for scholars. 

In the month of January last, within a few weeks after the 
publication of the last Report, Mr. Jewett, the accomplished 
Superintendent of the Library, died. The Trustees marked their 
sense of the loss by the passage of appropriate resolutions, a 
copy of which will be found in the Appendix to this Report. 
Few of his contemporaries possessed so large a number of the 
qualifications necessary to the guardian of a great library, as 
were his by nature and acquisition. Familiar with books from 
his youth, with a foreign experience, not only as a purchaser, but 
as an intelligent inspector of the various systems under which 
the larger collections in Europe were administered, he brought 
to the beginnings of a large popular Library, the sort of knowl- 
edge most needed for its proper and systematic development. 
In the preparation of lists of works to be obtained in the 



8 CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 132. 

various markets of Europe and iu this country, his information 
'vas of wide extent and value. When the period arrived for 
communicating to the public, by means of printed catalogues, a 
knowledge of the books contained in tlie collection, his plan of 
arrangement produced volumes which have met with universal 
praise from experts, both at home and abroad. His relations 
to the Board of Trustees and to the numerous staff of assist- 
ants employed in the building, were invariably equable and 
pleasant. Idis name will always be associated with those 
earlier days of vigorous growth which have made the Library 
what it is at present. 

The vacancy caused by liis death was first filled by electing 
as his successor. Prof. William E. Jillson, formerly the Libra- 
rian of the Patent Office at Washington, and who had been 
more recently connected with our Library as General Assistant. 
Combining with the education of a bibliographer, an experi- 
ence in the working detail of all processes in a library, and a 
remarkable executive ability, it was a source of deep regret, 
that ill health did not permit him to undertake the duties of the 
office. Under these circumstances, having in view the large 
work already in preparation for the year, and the necessity of a 
familiarity with all the paits of our system of labor, the Trus- 
tees selected for the position, Mr. Justin Winsor, at that time a 
Trustee of the Institution, who at once entered upon the ser- 
vice. His energetic administration of affairs, the order, prompt- 
ness and accuracy with which the various work has been 
arranged and carried forward, and his earnest efforts to make 
the Library fulfil public expectation, have, each and all, fully 
justified the choice of the Trustees. His report, to which 
reference has already been made, will sufficiently indicate the 
zeal as well as the care with which he has gone over the large 
circle of his duties. 

During the last spring there was presented to the city for 
perpetual deposit in the Public Library, a marble bust of Mr. 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 9 

GeorgG Ticknor, its second President. As a work of art, and 
as a faithful likeness, it does great credit to the sculptor, Mr. 
Martin Milmore. The eminent citizens who made this gift, 
were aAvare of the great services which Mr. Ticknor had ren- 
dered to the Library from its earliest origin to the time when 
he resigned his position as Trustee. As the projector, siibstan- 
stantially, of the free system of book circulation, — the peculiar 
cliaracteristic of the Institution, — he gave to it from the begin- 
ning a far-reaching oversight, and contributed to its growth, 
not only by personal effort, but by large benefactions of his 
own. His connection with it should always be held in grateful 
remembrance by the community, for whose benefit his time and 
disinterested labor were so freely bestowed. 

The present condition of the Library, as well as its work for 
the year, may thus be briefly stated. It contains 144,012 books, 
besides many thousand pamphlets. The 11,791 persons fre- 
quenting it last year, used 175,127 books, of which 33,874 
were from the Bates Hall, and 141,853 from the Lower Hall, 
during the 279 days that the Library was open. The Reading 
Room was open 300 days, and was visited by 87,620 readers, 
and by 18,031 visitors not readers. The expenditures for the 
year ending September 30th, amounted to- $50,930.76, of which 
sum there was used for salaries $23,285.43, fully one-third of 
which was "paid for the clerical labor employed upon the cata- 
logues. The books and periodicals cost $13,143.70, and the 
binding $4,067.29, the catalogues and other printing $3,511.23, 
and the balance went to the payment of incidental expenses, 
fuel, gas, stationery and transportation. There have been 
printed during the year, five numbers of the Bulletin, com- 
prising 78 pages in double column, uniform with the Indexes of 
the Bates Hall; a catalogue of the American portion of the 
Prince Library, in 84 pages ; and two Finding Lists of the 
Lower Hall, containing 109 pages in treble column. Of the 
numbers of the Bulletin and the Finding Lists, 3,000 copies 



IQ CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 

have been latterly printed, as a smaller nnmber was found 
insufficient to supply the demand. 

As a natural result of the first year of a new registration, 
the circulation of the whole library has diminished, although it 
has largely increased in the Bates Hall. From the probable 
inaccuracy of the figures given in the last two Annual Reports, 
it is impossible now to state exactly the percentage of decrease, 
1)ut the present use of books is known to be largely in advance 
of the circulation among the same number of borrowers in former 
years. For the last two years, the Library has had the advantage 
of its present system of recording loans, and in connection with 
the more careful oversight of the applicants for cards, its losses 
have sensibly diminished. The last Report contained an ac- 
count of the disappearance of books from the Lower Hall, 
which if continued in the same ratio, without re-supply, would 
at no distant day, have emptied its shelves. As stated by the 
Trustees, it was not expected by them that the new plan of 
registration would relieve the Library from all losses, but they 
are happy to find that the losses of books charged to borrowers, 
have diminished in both Halls, from 231 in 1867, to 35 in 1868. 
How far this improvement may be due to the refusal, for satis- 
factory reasons, to issne cards for the Library to 233 out of the 
12,057 applicants (including nearly 1,100 from Roxbury), is a 
question which cannot be answered. One resulf ' further is 
apparent ; the Trustees have heard of no person entitled to the 
privileges of the Listitution, who has been deprived of any 
right which he possessed, or who was unable to obtain the 
books which he needed. Its rules and regulations have been 
framed for the accommodation of the lai-gest number of its 
users, and must sometimes be expected to conflict with individ- 
ual convenience. 

The Library now, so far as is known to the Trustees, is the 
freest library in the world. It will continue to hold that proud 
position, only so long as the inhal)itants of the city, no less than 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. H 

all persons visiting it, shall recognize it as a Trust immedi- 
atelj committed to their keeping. It throws open its doors to 
all. Every individual not debarred by uncleanliness of person, 
or by drunkenness, or unseemly behaviour, can freely enter and 
obtain for perusal in the building, the books which he desires. 
All inhabitants who are willing to submit to the trifling annoy- 
ance of giving two satisfactory references without pecuniary 
responsibility, can take books for liome use. A Reading Room, 
unequalled upon this continent, offers its attractions to those 
wishing to read the current periodical literature of Europe 
and this country. An opportunity is extended to all seekers 
after knowledge, to obtain books needed by them, which are 
not already on the shelves of the Library. Special arrange- 
ments have been made to purchase promptly the new books of 
value and interest published not only in our own country, but 
also in Great Britain, Germany, France, and Italy. It is the 
aim of the Trustees, that the Institution shall not only meet all 
reasonable requirements, but that it shall, so far as is practi- 
cable, become a living library, containing as little lumber as can 
be avoided, and no book beyond the reach of the reader or stu- 
dent to whom it can bo useful. It should follow, as the neces- 
sary result of these liberal arrangements, that tlie use of the 
Institution will be more widely extended as its advantages are 
more widely known. 

In placing this Report in the hands of the City Government, 
the Trustees should not omit to recall to its notice, the 
imperfections as well as the wants of the Building. Its defi- 
ciency in ventilation, tlie want of light in its alcoves, the absence 
of suitable accommodation outside of the alcoves, for the vari- 
ous processes of the library, the narrowness of its room in 
certain departments, especially in the space devoted to the 
invaluable English Patent Specifications, — these, and other 
minor difficulties, are not new to the City Council. A portion 
of these may be overcome by the extension of the present 



12 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 

building, but others can only be coiTccted at so large a cost as 
would be entirely inexpedient. It will be prudent to give early 
consideration to tlic prospective requirements of the Institution 
for light and shelf-room, no less than for the convenience of the 
people who frequent its halls. 

In conclusion, the Trustees cannot but hope that the Public 
Library will continue to merit for the future, as it has received 
in the past, the generous and unfailing support of the City 
Council. No better use can be made of money than its devo- 
tion to the education of the community. No other institution 
can contribute so directly to inform and instruct so many per- 
sons of all ages and classes as is within the scope and aim of 
this free depository of all knowledge. 

Respectfully submitted, 

WM. W. GREENOUGH, 
J. P. BIGELOW, 
E. P. WHIPPLE, 
WESTON LEWIS, 
GEO. PUTNAM, 
J. D. BRAI^IAN, 
JAMES M. KEITH, 
ALBERT J. WRIGHT, 
SAMUEL A. GEEEN. 

Public Library, 24f/t Nov., 1868. 



[A] 
REPORT OF THE EXABIINING COMMITTEE. 



The City ordinance wliich established the Public Library 
requires an annual examination by a Committee of five citizens 
at large, with a member of the Board of Trustees to act as 
Chairman. It is expected that this Committee will examine the 
Library in detail, report on its condition, and offer such sug- 
gestions as may seem to them advisable for its successful admin- 
istration. In accordance with this requirement and expectation, 
your Examining Committee for the year 1868, have the honor to 
submit the following 

REPORT. 

They have met at the Library, formally as a Committee and 
informally as individuals, as often as was necessary for the 
duties required of them. Following the custom of their pre- 
decessors, they have directed their inquiries to the Books, the 
Catalogues, the Building, and the Administration. 

I. BOOKS. 

The number of books in the Upper or Bates Hall, as re- 
ported on the 1st of August, is 117,406, classified as follows: — 



Books placed on the shelves 
Books not then placed 
Duplicates for sale or exchange 
Duplicates in the Parker collection 



110,088 

1,327 

5,805 

186 



14 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 

The number of books in the Lower Hall, reported at the 
same time, is 26,G06, making a total of 144,012. The number 
of books added during the year is 8,G08, of which 7,055 
have been procured by purchase or exchange, and 1,553 by gift 
from 332 diflFerent persons who are known, and from a few who 
are unknown. Of the books bought, or received in exchange, 
6,605 have been placed in the Bates Hall, and 2,003 in the 
Lower Hall. Those placed in the Lower Hall were classified 
as follows : — 

Fiction and Juvenile Works . . . 1,113 volumes. 

Sciences, Arts, and Professions . . . 195 

Libraries, Collections, and Bound Periodicals 184 

In Foreign Languages .... 132 

Travels 105 

Biography 103 

Poetry, Drama, Oratory, and Rhetoric . 86 

Foreign History and Politics ... 42 

American History and Politics ... 38 

Books of Reference 5 

It has been the policy of the Trustees to put the books of 
the greatest popularity and most likely to have the widest cir- 
culation into the Lower Hall. Such books comprise works of 
fiction and those that are read mostly by young folks. For this 
reason, the proportion of light reading to be found there is 
much greater than in the Upper Hall. By this arrangement, 
the convenience of the public is consulted, as the Lower Hall is 
more easy of access, and the number of persons who use it is 
much greater than the number of those who use the Upper 
Hall. The issues of books in the Lower Hall during the past 
year, amounted to 141,853, while the issues in the Upper Hall 
were 33,874. This takes in the volumes read in the Library, 
though it does not include the use made of the very full collec- 
tion of works of reference, to which the public have free access. 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 15 

Of the additions, it may seem that fiction forms a larger share 
than should belong to it. It has been a question of serious mo- 
ment how far novels should make up the collection. While the 
public taste should Ijc consulted, it is important that it should 
be directed aright a,nd stimulated. In public libraries, the ten- 
dency is towards popular reading. To what extent this should 
be carried is a question that is important in all its bearings, 
and demands the strictest attention. On the whole, however, 
your Committee incline to the opinion that the tendency is not 
so bad as it seems at first. It is better that a book of mod- 
erate merit should, be read than no book at all. Reading begets 
a taste for reading, and what satisfies the mind to-day will not 
be satisfactory to-morrow. Much may be gained from books 
that are far below standard works. For these reasons, a taste 
even for light reading should be encouraged, in the hope that it 
may lead to something better. Every inducement should be held 
out to draw people to the Library, by giving them, within rea- 
sonable limits, what they want and what they will use. 

In the Bates Hall, the departments relating to the different 
professions are remarkably full. The books in Theology and 
Ecclesiastical Histor}^ already constitute a very choice collection, 
and most of the standard works on Medicine are added as fast 
as they come from the press. The best collection of books on 
Surgery and Medicine, to be found in the city, is here thrown 
freely open to the physicians and medical students of the 
community. During the last summer more than four hundred 
and fifty volumes on Physiology and its kindred sciences, from 
the library of Professor Brown-Sequard, were added by pur- 
chase. The works on Law are neither so numerous nor so 
much used as the other special collections. It is intended that 
books in this department sliould rather supplement other law 
libraries than enter into any competition with them in furnish- 
ing those woi-ks which are to be found elsewhere. 



16 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 

The Trustees are equally careful to supply wliat is needed 
for the successful study of the various sciences and useful arts. 
Blanks are furnished to all applicants who wish to have any 
book bought for the Library tliat is not already there. Such 
applications are not confined to any particular studies, nor to 
any branch of literature. In addition to this, books tlius 
applied for are kept five days from general circulation, and the 
applicaot is informed of the fact. This is done so that, if he 
wishes, he can have the first reading of the book. During the 
past year more persons have availed themselves of this privi- 
lege than during any similar period in the history of the 
Library. As the existence of such opportunities becomes 
known, it is hoped that they will be used as freely as they are 
furnished. The value of books is never so great as when they 
are in use, and, other things being equal, it is better to buy 
those that are known to be wanted. It is understood, of course, 
that an application for a wicked or worthless book would 
not be considered, but practically such applications are not 
made, so that they may be disregarded in a general state- 
ment. A person who would use a public library has too much 
self-respect to ask for what is known to be bad, or even doubt- 
ful in its character, and sucli a person would not wish to com- 
mit himself in writing, as wanting anything of this description. 
Books are sometimes asked for that cannot be found in the 
market, and of course they cannot be bought ; in these cases 
the applicant is informed of the result, if it be practicable to do 
so. In many instances it is necessary to send to Europe, and it 
may take months to find them, if they are out of print, as is 
frequently the case. 

It is the desire of the Trustees to get everj^ book that repre- 
sents the earnest and honest thought of any sect or party, and 
is considered a fair exponent of the views that it is intended to 
represent; to get every book that relates to the arts, sciences, 
or literature, or that embraces any subject that is useful to 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 17 

mankind. It is not expected that all these will be obtained; 
but they come within the scope of the Library. The only 
recognized limit is the ability to buy. The symmetrical devel- 
opment of the different branches of literature in a library 
comes with time. A librai-y grows by successive accretions, 
and is not made up at once. A large collection of books on 
any subject will not spring into existence at the bidding, but it 
must be waited for and bought as opportunity offers. Some 
of the departments, however, in the City Library, show a ful- 
ness that is gratifying. 

A special effort has been made to collect everything of an 
historical character that bears upon the Great Rebellion. It is 
important to have every printed history of a regiment, brigade, 
or division, that took part in the war. Such a collection should 
not be confined to the literature of one side only, but should 
embrace rebel as well as loyal publications. In all parts of the 
country, funeral sermons have been published, commemorating 
the valor and virtues of brave soldiers, known but little beyond 
their native districts ; and all such are wanted for the library. 
Accounts of campaigns, records of personal experiences, these, 
too, should be collected. Much has already been done in this 
direction, and much remains to be done. It is with the aid of 
these materials that the future history of the war is to be 
written. It will require time to temper the statements of enthu- 
siastic and interested writers, but eventually the truth will be 
told, and it will be found by sifting the accounts taken from 
these various sources. 

Since the last annual report, the printing of ihe catalogue of 
the Prince Library has been begun, — the American portion 
having been issued. This collection, so rich in the early history 
of our country, deserves more than a passing notice. It was 
made by the Rev. Thomas Prince, who began early in the last 
century to collect books and pamphlets that related in any way 
to New England History. At that period, the number of per- 

2 



18 CITY DOCUMENT. —No. 132. 

sons interested in this subject was very small. For this reason 
his competitors were few; and his position as a clergyman gave 
him many opportunities for forming a library, the value of which 
at the present time is inestimable. The collection com- 
prises nearly 2,000 volumes. Some of these include several 
works, where different pamphlets are bound together and form 
a single volume. About one-third of these volumes bear, 
directly or indirectly, on American History. The remainder 
of this collection is made up of the Theology and Literature 
that formed, invariably, the large proportion of the libraries 
of the clergymen and scholars in the first half of the last 
century. These books were bequeathed by Mr. Prince to the 
Old South Church, of which he was the pastor at the time of his 
death ; and they have recently been deposited by its pastors and 
deacons, under certoin conditions, in the Public Library. This 
collection was made "from a public view, and with a desire that 
the memory of many important transactions might be preserved, 
which otherwise would be lost." Such was the reason given by 
Mr. Prince when he left it to the church. Keeping in view his 
motive, it is certain that his wishes are more fully carried out 
by this action of the pastors and deacons than they would be, if 
the Library were kept in any inconvenient place. Among the 
volumes of bibliographical note and value in the collection may 
be mentioned the "Bay Psalm Book," being the first book 
printed in British America ; also, a copy of each edition of the 
Indian Bible, a monument of the learning and patience of John 
Eliot; besides many pamphlets of great rarity and interest, 
written by the early founders of New England. There are also 
seven bound volumes of valuable manuscripts, which have lately 
been printed under the auspices of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society. 

The pamphlets of the Public Library are beginning to assume 
the proportions commensurate with their importance. During 
the past few months they have been arranged, and many of them 



PUBLIC LIBRAE Y. 19 

bound or prepared for binding. They constitute a feature of a 
library now recognized everywhere as of great importance. It 
is not many years since they were thrown aside by most per- 
sons as not worth the trouble of keeping, and they found their 
final resting-place in the garret or the waste-basket. 

All pamphlets are not equally valuable, nor is every pamphlet 
now valuable ; but, as a whole, they form a collection by all 
means worth saving, particularly in a large library of reference. 
It is impossible to discriminate between them so as to throw out 
what will not be wanted at some future day. The best way, there- 
fore, is to take them all. The pamphlet literature of a political 
character, published between 1765 and 1775, furnishes an 
important element in the history of our country. No person 
can l)e conversant with the primary causes of the American 
Revolution without knowing the facts that have been preserved 
only in this precarious way. There ought to be in the Library, 
sets of the printed reports of all the societies and associations 
of this city and neighborhood; and as fast as a set is com- 
pleted, it ought to be bound. It may be of no particular credit 
to have a pamphlet, but it is a discredit not to have it. This 
remark will apply to books that are to a certain extent, super- 
seded by later publications. What is written now on some 
branches of science will not suffice a short time hence, on 
account of further investigations in those branches. But such 
books should be kept, not because they are old, but because 
they may be wanted in tracing the history of the science. 

Many duplicate volumes in the Public Library have been 
exchanged with other libraries, and such exchanges work to 
mutual advantage. The duplicates took up valuable room, and 
required care and attention. The books received in return for 
them have been credited to the givers of those duplicates. By 
doing this, no injustice is done, and the intention of all parties 
is carried out. 

The number of periodical works received at the reading- 



20 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 

room, is probably the largest in tlie country. The mimljcr of 
reviews, magazines, and serial pul)lications there to be found, is 
two hundred and ninety-one; in which are included the 
prominent publications of America and Europe. It is a 
gratifying fact, that never has the reading-room been so much 
used as it now is. The present plan of keeping the peri- 
odicals behind a counter and giving them out by an atten- 
dant when called for, works satisfactorily. It saves much 
time, and is of great convenience to the readers. When they 
were exposed on the tables, some copies would get misplaced, 
and it would take time to find them. Now this does not happen. 
It is rare, also, that any are stolen or defaced, as was formerly 
the case. An applicant leaves his name and address with the 
attendant in charge, which serves as a check against such 
irregularities. 

During the past year, a marble bust of Mr. George Ticknor 
has been given to the city, by some of its most distinguished 
citizens, and has been placed in one of the rooms of the build- 
ing, where it is to be kept in acknowledgment of his eminent 
services to the Library. As a faithful and beautiful piece of 
workmanship, it reflects much credit upon the artist, Mr. Martin 
Milmore. 



II. CATALOGUES. 

A catalogue for a library is what an index is to a book, and it 
is more indispensable. Not to know where a book is to be found 
is the same as not to have it. The card system now in use is 
satisfactory, and answers all the uses to be expected of an 
unprinted catalogue. It may be considered the result of the 
experience of our large libraries. The custom of publishing a 
periodical bulletin, giving a list of the accessions available for 
use, is continued, and is no longer an experiment. It has proved 
successful, and cannot well be dispensed with. It is sold at a 



PUBLIC LIBRAEY. 21 

small price, and editions of three thousand copies are necessary. 
By means of it, the public are kept informed of the books 
added for reference or circulation. 

III. THE BUILDING. 

Your committee would touch briefly upon the main defects of 
the building, as they have been already so often pointed out. 

The lower alcoves of the Bates Hall are so poorly lighted, that 
it is often impossible in a dark day to read the back-titles of the 
books as they stand on the shelves. This is a source of much 
annoyance to those whose duty it is to run for the books, and at 
the same time it increases the chances of mistakes in putting 
them back in their places. An experiment was made with a view 
to correct this defect, by placing a reflector so that the light 
would be sent into the dark corners, but unfortunately, this did 
not succeed. It will probably be necessary in some of the 
alcoves to have a small gas-burner, which may be used in 
cloudy weather, to obviate this difficulty. The ventilation of 
the delivery-room of the Lower Hall is inadequate, and the 
best way of remedying the defect is not very clear. When the 
room is crowded, as it is at certain hours of the day, the air is 
positively bad. 

The want of space is felt by those who arc engaged in the 
various kinds of work incidental to a large library, and an 
inseparable condition of its management. Much inconvenience 
is experienced in this way, and it is hoped that an enlargement 
of the building will take place before many years, as it will 
soon become necessary. 

lY. CIRCULATION. 

It has been the custom of all large libraries to shut their 
doors to the public for a limited season, in order to make an 
annual examination, and this Library has been no exception to 



22 CITY DOCUMENT. —No. 132. 

the rule. For this purpose a few weeks liavc been taken in the 
summer months, when the Library is least used. During this period 
the books are taken down and dusted, the shelf-lists verified 
and the building cleaned. This work can be done with greater 
convenience to the persons charged with doing it, and more 
readily, while the building is closed. The question then naturally 
arises whether the public do not have such rights as to require 
a modification of this custom. If any method can be devised 
by which this inconvenience may be avoided, your Committee 
think that it is the duty of the Trustees to adopt it. It is 
certainly necessary that an examination be made for ascertaining 
whether the books are in their proper places, as well as for the 
general cleaning and dusting; but the public should not be de- 
barred from their customary privileges while this annual exami- 
nation is going on. The number of persons who would use the 
Library during the short period when it is closed is not great, 
but for these the deprivation is a hardship. It would seem 
possible to make this annual examination, not at once as is now 
done, but by sections of the Library, and extending, if necessary, 
through the year. The Library might be divided into twelve 
sections, and one of these examined each month by a person 
whose particular duty it should be to attend to that business. 
In this way the whole Library might be gone over during the 
twelve months. The principal objection to this plan is the 
expense, which would be greater than it now is, as it would be 
necessary to have one or two persons in each Hall, in addition to 
the present force. Yei if the public can be better served in this 
manner, their convenience should be considered rather than the 
cost, if it be moderate. Money would be well spent in this way, 
and would not be grudged by the City. Great care should of course 
be used against an undue expenditure of money, but this does 
not seem to come under that head. The privileges of the Library 
should be extended as freely as is consistent with the safety of 
books and a due regard to economy. For these reasons your 



PUBLIC LIBEARY. 23 

Committee would recommend that a trial be made of keeping tlic 
Library open during the whole year, without closing for the 
annual examination. This can be tried, and then it can be seen 
whether or not it would succeed. Another reason for the change 
might be stated, though it is not one of great force. There are three 
distinct years connected with the present system and recognized 
in its administration! First, the organization year, corresponding 
nearly with the municipal year of the city and beginning in 
January ; secondly, the financial year, beginning in May ; and, 
thirdly, the statistical year, which has hitherto begun in September, 
or immediately after the annual examination. If the plan 
recommended should be adopted, it will do away with the present 
statistical year, which can be made to conform to one of the 
other two years. Under the present arrangement, it can be 
known what books are missing at the beginning of the statis- 
tical year, though not necessarily the exact date of their disap- 
pearance. Under the proposed plan it would be known only 
what books were missing during a year. 

It has sometimes been asked why the Bates Hall cannot be 
thrown open to the public in the evening. This is a question of 
great importance, and has been very carefully considered by 
your Committee. The great objection to this proposition is the 
expense. It is estimated that the annual cost for gas necessary 
for the purpose would amount to more than $2,000. This may 
seem a large estimate, but, when it is considered that all the 
alcoves would require lighting, it does not seem too great. It 
would be a more judicious expenditure to buy books with this 
money, and at the same time be of greater service to a larger 
number of persons. The greatest good to the greatest number, 
is the principle on which the Library should be conducted. 
Already the appropriations of the City for it are liberal, and your 
Committee would hesitate before recommending a plan that 
would involve an expenditure of money for the larger number of 
attendants that would be necessary, as well as for the increased 



24 CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 132. 

expense of lighting. Furllicrmorc, it would require a main gas 
pipe from the street into the building larger than the present 
one. The advantages resulting from this outlay would not be in 
proportion to the cost. Apart from the financial aspect of the 
question, the risk from lire would be considerably increased. 

A complaint on the part of certain personshas reached the ears 
of your Committee, that the Administration of the Library is too 
strict. It is said that not enough freedom of the alcoves in Bates 
Hall is given to the public, and that too many books are kept from 
general circulation by being " starred." It sometimes happens 
with an applicant for books that he does not know exactly 
what he wants, but would like to go behind the railing and 
select for himself. It must be remembered that the Library is , 
not in any sense a class institution, and the privileges granted 
to one person should be open to all. In each case like the one 
cited, it would be impossible to spare a special attendant to accom- 
pany the applicant, as each attendant has regular and necessary 
duties to perform. There is a catalogue of all the books in the 
Hall, which is accessible to anybody who will take the trouble 
to consult it, and to this catalogue the new books are added as 
fast as they come in. With these liberal facilities, there is no 
good ground for finding fault on the score of too much restraint 
in the building. It is considered by some a hardship that certain 
books are not allowed to circulate, though they may be used in 
the Hall. This restriction applies principally to works of refer- 
ence, files of bound newspapers, and books of such rarity that if 
once lost, they cannot be easily replaced. All such works are too 
important to the public to be monopolized for a fortnight by any 
one person at home. It must be remembered, too, that many of 
these books were given and accepted on the condition of being 
used only in the building. Then again, it is considered by others 
a hardship that a reference to two citizens is required, before 
cards on which books are lent are issued, though such reference 
carries with it no pecuniary responsibility on the part of the 



PUBLIC LIBEART. 25 

citizens. It is simply a guarantee that there is such a person 
as the applicant living in the city. It was found by experi- 
ence that certain dishonest people would give fictitious names 
and false residences, and when books were not returned that 
were charged to such persons, it was impossible to trace them. 
In this way many books were lost. The subject received a great 
deal of attention more than a year ago, when the present plan 
of requiring a reference was adopted. Naw their statements 
have to be verified, and when found correct, every privilege of 
the Library is open to them. To a person who really wants to 
use the Library, tliis is no hardship. The proof of the expe- 
diency of this rule is found in the fact that only one seventh 
part of the number of books, that was formerly lost, is lost now. 
The Trustees would be derelict in their duty if they neglected 
any wise measure for the safety of the property of tlie City. The 
money spent on books should be considered an investment rather 
than an expenditure, and such property should be guarded with 
religious care, as it is intended for postetity as well as for our- 
selves. Some of your Committee entered upon the examination 
of the Library in partial sympathy with the criticisms that have 
been made on its Administration, but since they have seen the 
practical working of the present system and compared it with 
the old plan, they are convinced that it is the part of wisdom 
to ask for the references now required. 

In conclusion, your Committee would congratulate the City on 
having a Library so complete in its details, and so much used 
by its citizens. It cannot fail to leave its mark permanently on 
the character of the community, and is a grand supplement to 
the system of public schools. The plan of universal educa- 
tion culminates fitly in an institution of this kind. Let the 
school-children be taught that their education does not stop 
when they leave their teachers, but is a duty which lasts through 
life, and that in doing this duty they will find great help by 
using the Public Library. If this fact be fixed in their minds, 



26 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 

it will redound to the learning and morality of the next genera- 
tion. 

Respeetfully submitted, 

SAMUEL A. GREEN, Chairman, 
CHAS. F. BRADFORD, 
GEO. L. CHANEY, 
JOHN S. DWIGHT, 
SAM'L ELIOT, 
J. S. LOMBARD. 

Public Library, November 11th, 1868. 



[B] 
REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 



To THE Teustees : 

Gentlemen : The great loss which befell this Library and 
the science of Bibliography in the death of my predecessor in 
January last, makes it devolve upon me to report the aJEfairs of 
the institution for the whole year, though my administration has 
extended through only half of it. It was our further misfortune 
to find in our unexpected straits that the health of Professor 
Jillson, the General Assistant of the Library, was not sufiBciently 
established to warrant his acceptance of the superintendency to 
which he was unanimously called. 

I beg leave to put upon permanent record a notice of the 
death of Professor Jewett, which was printed in the Bulletin of 
the Library, issued next after that sad event, and whicli forms 
the Appendix of this Report, marked A. 

THE BUILDING. 

A closer intimacy with the details of the Library service has 
served to strengthen in my own mind the convictions expressed 
by the Examining Committee of last year, that this building 
fails to meet the requirements. 

Of the experiments which have recently been made to give 
more light to the lower alcoves of the Bates Hall, and to the 
corner alcoves of the galleries, the introduction of a gas- 
jet seems alone to have succeeded. We were, upon several 
afternoons of the past winter, obliged to suspend the delivery of 



28 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 

books ill the Bates Hall, because the runners could not see 
tlicir numbers at the shelves; but latterly they have been pro- 
vided with dark lanterns, to which there are of course manifest 
objections ; and there does not seem any way in which we can so 
practicably solve this vexed question, as by the introduction into 
all the alcoves of a gas-jet similar to the one experimented 
with. 

The arrival of books in large invoices at the same time (as 
happened just after Mr. JcAvett's death), and any sudden accu- 
mulation of donations, exchanges, or other matters demand- 
ing much detail, render it almost impossible, in the present 
cramped quarters for such work, to do it with positive accu- 
racy and expedition. It is always a matter of gratulation 
with me, that no more errors arise than really do. One 
scene of confusion and untidiness has been cleared up by the 
removal of the library hinder ij from one of the alcoves to an 
extemporized room in the basement. The arrears of pamphlet 
binding and repairs are now disappearing, and experiments are 
making to ascertain by gradual expansion, how far it is practi- 
cable in an economic sense to do all binding work within the 
building. 

Under the new arrangements made in May last, foreign books, 
with the exception of periodicals and continuations of serial 
publications, will hereafter be received in a bound condition. 
Heretofore, such of our Continental purchases as were bought 
between the annual invoices, had to be bound after their recep- 
tion. With the new system operating, we shall have consider- 
ably fewer new books to bind; and the work can be more 
easily done in the building. Our repairs to books must neces- 
sarily increase year by year, as well as the miscellaneous work 
of his trade, which a single workman can attend to ; and unless 
from the results of the experiments now in progress, it shall be 
found advantageous to employ additional hands, it seems hardly 
possible that we can expect entirely to dispense with the assist- 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 29 

ance of outside binderies. Meanwhile, our basement seems very 
well adapted for what uses of this nature we may require 
of it. 

The arrangement of the pamphlets has also demonstrated the 
insufficiency of space. It is possible, I think, if no better accom- 
modation is ever provided for the (estimated) 30,000 duplicate 
pamphlets, and 6,000 duplicate volumes which we now possess 
(a number likely to increase), that another of the basement 
apartments now used as a lumber room, can be fitted to receive 
them, whenever it is thought necessary for the sake of better 
ventilation to remove the present false ceiling of the Lower Hall 
Delivery Room (which forms the floor of the present pamphlet 
room) ; and whenever the increase of the collection proper 
demands the whole of the upper galleries of the Bates Hall. 

This leaves our collection of shelf-pampldets to be provided 
for, and they consist of two classes : 

I. Those received in a bound state, but without classification 
by author or subject, of which we have now about five hundred 
and fifty volumes. But few of these volumes are sufficiently 
specific in their composite nature to warrant their being placed 
in the general classes of books by subjects. This kind of volume 
will only grow by gifts, as a heterogeneous binding together of 
pamphlets can hardly meet with the approval of librarians. 
But in such a way the number will grow, and definite shelf- 
room must in time be assigned them. They have no fixed loca- 
tion at present. 

II. Some 20,000 unbound pamphlets, which number will 
probably increase to over 25,000 before they get that com- 
pleteness, which will warrant binding tliem by subject or 
author; and to this increase we are now paying special 
attention. As fast as bound they will find their appropriate 
place on the shelves, according to the general classifications of 
the Library. Meanwhile the incomplete series must be kept in 
boxes, which can be located as books. Still there will be a con- 



30 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 

siderablc numljer so miscellaneous, that they will need to be put 
temporarily at least, with the bound heterogeneous pamphlets. 
Low cases, backed against the iron rail in the Bowditch gallery, 
would hold all such, and if we had the cases, that would seem 
to be the most convenient disposition to be made of them. Cor- 
responding cases will have to be placed in due time in the 
gallery over the Bowditch, to accommodate the increase of the 
British Parliamentary Documents. We shall need some addi- 
tional shelf-room during the coming year for the Specifications 
of the British Patents. All the available space in the present 
room which can be assigned to the folios, is more than occupied. 
Temporary accommodation, pending a more spacious apartment, 
which we may hope to have hereafter, can best be secured, 1 
think, by similar low cases backed against the rail in the gallery 
devoted to the American Congressional Documents. 

"With the shelving recently done in certain alcoves, all spaces 
are now occupied, which were intended originally to be devoted 
to shelves. It may become necessary later to give to this pur- 
pose certain places, where the shelving will somewhat mar the 
architectural symmetry of alcove and gallery. 

We are already locating large works of plates, etc., in imag- 
inary cabinets, in anticipation of some cases of this kind being 
placed in the alcoves of the first gallery, where they are much 
needed in certain classifications. 

We have now no suitable accommodations for hound news- 
papers, and our collection is fast increasing by exchange, and 
by gift, induced by the list of our deficiencies printed in the 
Bulletins. The volumes are kept wherever sufQcient shelf alti- 
tude permits. If no provision is made for this department by 
an extension of our building, we may be obliged to devote one 
of the lumber-rooms of the basement to this end. 

Our classifications of American history and literature, and of 
periodicals have already outgrown considerably the space allotted 
them. 



PUBLIC LIBRAE V. 



31 



THE BOOKS. 

Extent op the Entire Collection. (See Appendix B.) 
The Library contained, August 1, 1868, over 144,000 volumes; 
and about 20,000 pamphlets, destined to make, say, 2,000 bound 
volumes ; beside, say, 30,000 pamphlets, which are duplicates. 

Tills enumeration puts us for extent, second in the list of 
American Libraries, and gives us a respectable standing among 
the lesser of what may be called the great libraries of the 
world. The Library of Congress has 175,000 volumes, and 
from 50,000 to 70,000 pamphlets, and takes the first place in 
this country, and must keep it, while it and our own library 
retain respectively their present rate of increase. It secures 
under the copyright act a copy of every American book, without 
cost; and Congress now appropriates $10,000 for foreign 
books, no part of which is taken for binding, except it be done 
abroad; all home work of this kind being effected at the 
Government bindery. It also expends 1 1,500, per year for 
Periodicals. Our present income for all such purposes is about 
$17,500, which must pay for American books as well as for for- 
eign, and a part of which is further chargeable to binding. 

The other large libraries of this continent come after our own 
in the following order, and their present condition is rather 
favorable to the belief that the gap between this and such others 
will be widened rather than contracted. 



Aster Library, N. Y. . 
Gore Hall (Harvard College) 
Boston Atheufeum 
New York Mercantile Librar}" 
Philadelphia Library Company 
Library of Parliament, Ottawa 
Yale College Library . 
American Antiquarian Society 



138,000 vols. 


118,000 ' 


100,000 pph 


100,000 ' 


70,000 " 


98,000 ' 




85,000 ' 




60,000 ' 




50,000 ' 


' 20,000 " 


50,000 ' 





32 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 

The Libraries in Bostiii having over 10,000 volumes arc as 
follows : 

Public Library . . 144,000 

Athenaeum . . . 100,000 

State Library . . . 28,500 

Mercantile Library . . 20,000 

Boston Library . . 19,000 

Mass. Historical Society . 18,500 

Natural History Society . 12,000 

Our library is the only one among the large libraries of the 
country supported in the niai-i by municipal grants. Only two 
other of the pvUlc libraries of this country have as yet assumed 
any considerable proportions, namely that of 

New Bedford . . 21,000 vols. 

Cincinnati . . . 20,000 " 

The largest of the j^ublic libraries of England established 
under the Parliamentary acts, which allow a penny in the pound 
valuation, to be assessed for the support of such libraries, are 
those of 



Liverpool 


84,000 vols. 


Manchester 


84,000 « 


Birmingham 


50,000 « 



Extent op the Bates Hall Collection. (See Appendix B.) 
A comparison of this year and last is shown by the following 
statement : 





1867. 


1868. 


The General Library .... 


87,658 


93,953 


Bowditch Library .... 


2,542 


2,542 


Parker Library ..... 


11,721 


11,721 


" Duplicates (not for sale) 


186 


186 


Prince Library 


1,952 


1,952 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 33 



Books not located August 1 
Duplicates and odd volumes (for sale) 



1867. 


1868. 


1,678 


1,327 


5,146 


5,805 



110,881 117,486 
Deduct loss since 1861 .... 99 80 



110,782 117,406 

It will be observed that this year's report represents fewer 
lost from tlie opening of this hall than were last year accounted 
in that category. Although six are unaccounted for this year 
which were on the shelves last year, twenty-five are on the 
shelves this year which were reported, correctly or otherwise, 
missing last year. 

Extent of the Lower Hall Collection. (See Appendix B.) 
The number of volumes on the shelves, 

August 1, 1867 25,199 

Added to August 1, 1868 2,003 



Deduct transfers of books to Bates Hall 339 
Condemned during the year . . . 257 



27,202 



596 



In the Lower Hall, August 1, 1868, 26,606 

The above transfers were all in the Department of Travels 
and Biography, and were such books as would find more use in 
the upper library. In the printing of new Finding Lists, and 
in the revision of the old, it is likely that during the coming 
year, a considerable number of other transfers will be made. 

Total Increase for the Year. (See Appendix B.) Nearly 
8,300 volumes have been added during the year, — a larger 
gain than ever before made, except when the great Bates gift 
and the Parker bequest were received ; and it is considerably 
above the average yearly gain otherwise, which for the past ten 
years has been 6,379. 
3 



34 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 



Except the Library of Congress (wliicli lias had the excep- 
tional yearly gain for the past three years of over 28,000 
volumes, owing to its absorption of other collections), there 
is but one other library in the country showing equal increase. 
Tlie New York Mercantile Library has added for the last three 
years, an average of 9,821 volumes; but it should be remarked, 
that it buys duplicates by the hundred, and sells them off, when 
their circulation slackens, at a large discount upon cost, so 
that this increase is not the measure of the permanent enlarge- 
ment of the library. Some deduction for ephemeral du- 
plicates must also be made from our own increase, before 
comparing with libraries which buy few or no duplicates. The 
average increase for the past three years has been as follows, 
of the libraries under named : — 



Philadelphia Mercantile Library 
Peabody Institute, Baltimore (ex 
Boston Athenaeum 
Cincinnati Mercantile Library 
Gore Hall (Harvard College) 
State Library, (Albany) . 
Astor Library 

San Francisco Mercantile Library 
Yale College (exceptional) 







5,500 vols 


xceptional), 


4,132 " 






2,500 " 


. 




2,315 " 


. 




2,250 " 






2,200 " 


T 




2,100 " 
2,000 " 
1,950 " 



Increase of the Bates Hall. (Sec Appendix B.) 



Gain in located books for the year 


6,297 vols 


Of these not located at last report (1867) 


1,678 " 


Added and located .... 


4,619 " 


Added and not located August 1 


1,327 " 


Net increase of duplicates 


659 " 


Bates Hall gain for the year 


6,605 " 


Deduct volumes transferred to B. H. 


339 " 


Net gain for the year 


6,266 " 



PUBLIC LIBRAllY. 35 

Increase op the Lower Hall. (See Appendix B.) 
Added duriug the year .... 2,003 vols. 
Less transfers and condemned books . . 596 " 

Net gain of L.H 1,407 " 

Increase prom New Books, New publications have made 
nearly forty-tliree per cent of the additions to both halls during 
the year, and more than last year, as follows : 

1867. 1868. 

English Books with British imprint 635 708 vols. 

English Books with American imprint 1,154 1,445 " 

English Books with Continental imprint 104 100 " 

Foreign Books . . . . 539 673 " 

Duplicates of either class . . 97 

2,529 2,826 " 

The duplicates this year are included in the divisionary items. 

Donations. (See List of Donors in Appendix E.) Exclud- 
ing anonymous donors, the average number of persons who have 
given books to the Library during the nine years before this 
last, was two hundred and fifty-six each year; and I have to 
record for the year now closed, the larger number of three hun- 
dred and forty-two. It will be seen by Appendix B that the 
number of books given, 1,554, is in excess of any year since the 
Parker Library was received; while the pamphlets given, 2,513, 
constitute a fair average. 

As the collection stands to-day, nearly one-half of its 144,000 
volumes have been added by direct gift, while of the remainder 
a very large proportion, and nearly all of its costly works and 
books of permanent value, have been bought with the income of 
funds, established by private munificence. The collection of- 
pamphlets has been almost wholly given. 



36 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 

This gratifying feature was dwelt upon in tlie Report of the 
Examining Connnittec for last year. There is some force in the 
rejoinder that donations to public libraries are very apt to be 
of the refuse lumber of private collections. The nucleus of our 
present library, which was stored for some years in the old 
'• City Hall " — a collection of some two or three thousand 
volumes — had doubtless little of much value. The beginnings 
of all libraries, started on a commoji impulse in a community to 
accumulate at once, is very likely to show similar results. Of 
the 3,200 volumes given to start the Free Library of Manches- 
ter, England, over 2,000 were reckoned of little value. 

Of the 70,000 volumes, which in round numbers may be said 
to be the extent of our growth from this cause, there can be no 
doubt about the great value of the nearly 25,000 given by Mr. 
Bates, the nearly 12,000 bequeathed by Mr. Parker, the 2,500 
volumes of the Bowditch collection, and the several thousands 
given each by Mr. Ticknor and Mr. Everett; making, say 50,000 
volumes of unquestionable value. Of the remaining 20,000 a 
considerable portion were useful, and a large part doubtless 
duplicates of previous acquisitions, which have served in 
exchanges, and will continue to do so. 

By far the larger part of the books given find their location 
in the Bates Hall, because not suited for popular circulation. If 
sometimes of little market value, they are entitled to preserva- 
tion with a care that perennial books, because often reprinted, 
do not so emphatically demand. They are quite as likely to be 
hereafter the foundation of history as better books are. That 
Library which seems securely permanent and regardful of care- 
fully preserving its treasures, invites donations with an urgency 
of its own, and it behooves those who thoughtlessly complain 
of our diligence in guarding to a reasonable degree the books, 
which friends of the community have intrusted to the City for 
the use of those who come after them, to remember that we shall 
alienate our benefactors, and those intending to be such, if we 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 37 

arc unmindful of the trust that is committed to us. But for the 
assurance of permanency, which we are bound to make good, 
we should hardly have been cared for by private benefactions to 
the extent we have. 

Libraries which are subject to the caprices of associations, 
and may be voted asunder, seldom secure the favors of benefac- 
tors. The Mercantile Libraries of the country, which are gen- 
erally flourishing institutions, find few additions from donations. 
The Mercantile Library of New York makes its large annual 
addition almost wholly from purchases. 

Our donations during the last three years have been nearly a 
quarter as many as our purchases, taking the whole librarj^, 
but the proportion is far larger for the Bates Hall alone, which 
must be considered in comparison with the great libraries of the 
countrj^, which have but to small extent, the equivalent of our 
lower department. At the Astor Lil)rary, out of a yearly 
increase of 2,100 volumes, only 300 come from gifts. 

Shelf Duplicates. Located duplicates are not found in 
the Bates Hall, in large numbers ; but the accession of entire 
libraries like the Parker, Bowditch, and Prince, has necessarily 
increased such duplicates, so far as they contained counterparts 
of the General Collection and of each other. There seems to 
have been an unfortunate omission in the printed supplemental 
catalogue of the Bates Hall, inasmuch as such titles in the Parker 
Collection, and some others, as were duplicates of books already 
designated in the first volume, were not repeated. There being 
no printed reference to these duplicates, the use of them is cut 
ofi", when it might be desirable, while the other copy may be in 
the hands of a borrower. 

It is a matter deserving some thought how far the Lower Hall 
should be duplicated in the Bates Hall, During the past year 
this has been done in the accessions more freely than usual, and 
to it, I assign in part the cause of the greater use made of the 



38 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 

Bates Hall. Every book suited for a popular recognition at 
once, and likely also to maintain its value, except it be in the 
class of fiction, seems naturally to be demanded for each hall, 
as answering the ends of each. It is hardly practicable, however, 
if more than two copies of a book arc needed, that the third and 
subsequent copies should be placed otherwise than in the Lower 
Hall, where provision for many duplicates is alone made. With 
this view measures have been taken to provide the Bates Hall 
with copies of the standard though popular histories, Avhich have 
been heretofore confined to the Lower Hall. Copies of Irving, 
Cooper, Hawthorne, and Thackeray have also been put in the 
Bates Hall /or reference only, and on the same ground Dickens and 
Bulwer will be, when they are no longer living. In judging 
of the eligibility of contemporary novelists and pojmlar belle- 
lettrists of the higher class, it has been deemed best to exclude 
them during their lives, except in some cases perhaps when 
writing in foreign tongues, and not to admit them generally 
for home use, as they can be obtained for that object from the 
Lower Plall. 

The untidy condition, into which popular books suffered to go 
into the hands of a promiscuous clientage, must necessarily fall, 
naturally gives some a distaste'for frequenting the Lower Depart- 
ment ; but it is obvious that such persons cannot be supplied with 
cleaner copies of the same books in the Upper Hall without the 
risk of inviting those to use them who would soon obliterate the 
distinctions of cleanliness between the two Halls. This duplica- 
tion of other books than fiction, when not merely ephemeral, can, 
I think, go on without the same, and perhaps with scarcely 
any risk, where more than one copy is desirable. 

When our records show that 35,000 new paper covers were 
put upon books in* the Lower Hall during the past year, it 
would indicate that considerable assiduity is experienced to keep 
the outside of the books presentable. A large number have 
had their bindings repaired or renewed; and two hundred and 



PUBLIC LIBKARY. 39 

fifty-seven volumes have beea coudeinned. After the thorough 
examination which Mr. Jillson gave this lower collection a year 
ago, and the discarding of a large number of volumes as worn 
beyond repair, it seems probable that, for the past year, its 
26,000 volumes have been in a better condition than for a long 
time previous. 

These discarded volumes consisted of books defective in them- 
selves or belonging to broken sets. The latter are now among 
our odd volumes, held for exchange; while the others were 
divided between the Insane Hospital at South Boston and the 
City Hospital, where they have had a new run of usefulness. 

Shelf duplicates constitute one-quarter of the entire Lower 
Hall collection. They make one half of the volumes in the 
alcoves of Fiction and Juveniles, and one-quarter of those of 
Biography. The new system of recording loans by slips has 
enabled us constantly to test the circulation on our number of 
copies, and we have bought duplicates with more freedom, when 
we could do it with so much greater knowledge of what was 
required. 

Sale Duplicates and Odd Volumes. (See Appendix B.) 

1867. 1868. 

Number at beginning of j-ear . . 4,955 5,146 vols. 

Added during the 3'ear, those 
for 1868 including 214 odd vol- 
umes from the L. H 714 1,004 " 

5,669 6150 " 
Disposed of ..... 523 345 " 

Total, not including Parker Duplicates 5,146 5,805 " 

We have thus over five hundred more duplicates, after exclud- 
ing the odd volumes, than we ever before possessed. Our 
Bulletin advertisements and the completion of our pamphlet sets 
are now afi"ording additional facilities for exchanges, over what 
we have before possessed. 



40 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. ^ 

Our duplicates for cxcliange arc exceeded in number by tliosc 
of the Library of Congress, 9,000 volumes, and tliosc of the New 
York Mercantile Library, 8,000; but the latter's arc chiefly 
popular books of the day, whose circulation has fallen below the 
demand existing, when they bought them in duplicate by the 
hundreds. There are a great many books of considerable value 
among our duplicates. There is no other library in the country 
which has over 2,000. 



Yale College Library has 
New York State Librar^^ 
Cincinnati Public Library 
American Congregational Library 
Peabody Institute, Baltimore 
Astor Library 

Natural History Society, Boston 
Massachusetts Historical Societ}' 
Boston Athenaeum . 



1,500 
1,500 
500 
500 
400 
400 
—400 
250 
100 



Pamphlets. (See Appendix B.) A more satisfactory report 
can now be made of this department than ever before. 

Owing to the large number bequeathed by Mr. Parker, and 
given by Mr. Wm. Everett, our average gain in pamphlets has 
been about 3,000 a year ; throwing out those large gifts, the 
average would be about 2,000; and something like 2,800 have 
been added during the year past. 

If we add those worth preserving, of several thousand book- 
catalogues (of sales and booksellers' stocks, etc.) which have not 
always been counted as accessions, we may say that in round num- 
bers nearly 60,000 pamphlets have been added to the Library from 
the beginning; and of these about 2,500 have alone been bought. 
Excluding those which now are in binding and count as books 
or parts of books, we may reckon that there are 50,000 remaining 
unbound, and that over one-half of these are duplicates. These 
last need to be arranged, so that any pamphlet can be found, 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 41 

thereby facilitating exchanges. The others are now all sub- 
divided, and among them there are nearly 8,000 of a mis- 
cellaneous kind, which I hope to dispose of in large part as 
bound books, arranged in group::; or singly, by authors as far as 
possible, and secondarily by subjects. These I also hope to' 
increase materially by application to their authors, to supply 
our deficiencies in their issues of this kind. We are now by 
this sort of application and by exchanges with other libraries, 
extensively increasing, preparatory to binding, the class of docu- 
ments of cities, towns, etc., and Reports of Corporations, Societies, 
etc., which on the 1st of August numbered over 5,000. The four 
hundred then reported, of Rail Road reports will doubtless be 
swelled materially as our efforts succeed in completing broken 
sets. Between 3,000 and 4,000 of library and book catalogues 
are already in large part assorted and bound as need be. 
Between one hundred and two hundred odd numbers of Alma- 
nacs have had, since the enumeration, the broken sets of the 
principal ones among them partially or wholly filled up, and are 
likewise now prepared for the shelves, either bound or in boxes. 
Nearly 1,200 Documents of the United States Government are 
doubtless duplicates of others in our set of Congressional Papers, 
— now esteemed the completest in existence, since the one hun- 
dred volumes given by the heirs of Josiah Quincy have filled 
in an important gap in the set originally formed by Mr. Everett. 
The other divisions consist of odd serial numbers of books, 
catalogues of Fine Arts Exhibitions, Guide books and odd 
numbers of Periodicals, (of which we have no sets). 

I am in hopes before another year to report considerable 
progress in the cataloguing, arranging in boxes, or binding of all 
these, and perhaps in the assortment of the duplicates. 

Three other libraries have larger collections than ours, as is 
shown by the following list : 



42 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 

Harvard Collogo . . . 100,000 catalogued. 

P.ostou Atlieiiivnim . . . 70,000 mostly catalogued. 

Library of Congress . . .50-70,000 two-thirds catalog'd. 

American Congregational Library 30,000 arranged. 

]\Iassacliu setts Historical Society 20,000 catalogued. 

Brown University . . . 20,000 in vols., catalogued. 

N. Y. Mercanti.e Librar}^ . . 12,000 small part catalog'd. 

CIRCULATION. 

The Registration op Book-takers. (Sec Appendix F.) 
Last year's Report stated the grounds for a new registration 
to have been a plundering of the institution by book-takers to 
an extent which had outgrown tlie increasing circulation in a 
tenfold ratio. It may have been done by two or three in a hun- 
dred ; ■ but this- small number of the unfaithful could not be 
restrained unless by some system, under which the faithful would 
act in concert with us, and submit to some check themselves, 
though it need be but slight. If the books had been stolen from 
our shelves, a system of espionage in the building, at a cost of 
five or six hundred dollars a year, might have left the faithful 
to their old ways ; and a system of espionage upon the habit 
of giving aliases and wrong residences (means by which the 
evil practices were carried on), could scarce be less offensively 
established than by the method decided upon. There was the 
additional duty incumbent on the institution of not continuing a 
system which was demoralizing rapidly the youths frequenting 
the library, by ofiering the chance of depredation with impunity, 
and which further permitted, with little chance of detection, the 
practice of securing several cards under assumed names. 

The notice stated that the names of two responsible citizens 
would be required ; but in practice the names of anybody were 
taken, and cards were given, if the investigation proved satisfac- 
tory. It was apparent that in a public institution we must 
require this of everijhoJij, and it was hoped no umbrage would 



PUBLIC LIBKARY. 43 

be taken at so reasonable a course, wliicli was tlic only way in 
which the library could escape the imputation of granting class- 
privileges. It is not known that the asking of these two names 
has kept away a single person who co/dd not give them, but some 
who ivoidd not have foregone its privileges rather than do this 
penance for the public good. It mnst be remembered that the 
founders of the library contemplated much more stringent meas- 
ures than these. The preliminary Report of 1852 recommended 
pecuniary guarantees from persons not personally or reputably 
known, and it was this report that induced Mr. Bates to do 
what ho did. Because the Trustees subsequently thought to 
try the freer experiment it is not binding upon their successors 
to fail to be governed by the results of the experiment. 

It is a fact that all libraries of any considerable size find it 
necessary to go farther than we now go in the matter of guar- 
antees. Libraries of colleges are t^ecured by the bonds given 
by their students, Corporated libraries have the stock and 
assessments of their shareholders to depend upon. Libraries of 
Congress and States have prior claims upon the pay of legisla- 
tors. Ought not public libraries, throwing open their collections 
to all, to have some protection ? There are nearly sixty free 
public libraries in the towns and lesser cities of Massachusetts, 
and the practice is usual with them (where the chances of know- 
ing personally the applicants is much greater than in a city 
like Boston), to demand vouchers, particularly for minors. 
The Public Library of Cincinnati demands a deposit of Ihree 
dollars from its citizens who wish to use its books. 

It seems puerile, but for some misjudgments in the commu- 
nity, to re-iterate the necessity of protecting property reasonably, 
which is committed to persons in trust. The city pledges its 
faith in accepting donations, whether a single pamphlet or of 
such value as the gifts of Mr. Bates, that diligent care shall be 
exercised to preserve them, not only for the citizen of to-day but of 
all time. Without this implied assurance, the Library must lose 



44 CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 132. 

its liokl upon the sympatliics of those who have or may become 
its benefactors. Those who care always to fmd a book they 
wish, will suffer less deprivation from a preventive system than 
from anotlicr which renders tlieir chances uncertain. The man- 
agers of the Lib]-ary are under the joint obligation to preserve 
what is committed to their charge, and to extend the use of it as 
far as can be done witli a reasonable reconcilement of the two 
duties; and it would be, without permitting license, difficult to 
devise a more liberal construction of this requirement than the 
present scheme of registration allows. 

Our Library is in practice open to anybody who wishes to con- 
s-jlt a book within the building. We take the applicant's name 
and address, and have not suffered from relying upon his good 
faith while he uses the book under the eye of the library attend- 
ants ; but the case is far different when the applicant takes the 
book away. They are equally generous at the Astoi Library, 
and in 1859 their Trustees were warranted in saying, "It is 
made accessible to the whole community more freely than was 
ever found practicable in any similar institution before estab- 
lished." Since that year this Library in its Bates Hall collec- 
tion, does not allow the Astor to stand alone in such good work ; 
but it must be remembered it does the additional work of circu- 
lating its books, which Dr. Cogswell of that Library thought 
when it was founded, an utterly impracticable thing, for New 
York City. 

Purely reference libraries are not however exempt from very 
serious depredations, without some restrictive system. In 1865 
they lost at the Imperial Library in Paris, five hundred and 
twenty-three books from unfaithful readers ; and this led to the 
adoption of the following manner of securing themselves from 
such losses in future. 

The visitor receives on entering a white blank, having the rules 
printed on it, on which he writes his name, address, and the book 
wanted. He goes to a desk and on a yellow slip repeats this, 



PUBLIC LIBRARy. 45 

and this slip is used in finding the book, and he claims it, 
when brought, with the white slip, which has the word Rendu 
staoiped in red on it against the titles, when he returns the 
book to the desk. The slip thus stamped must be shown to 
the janitor in passing out. If a package is taken into the 
library, it is examined before allowed to go out. The system 
was vigorously attacked in the public prints ; but the Directors 
satisfactorily rejoined, and when shortly after one of these public 
writers died, it is said that twenty five volumes with the stamp 
of the library on them, were found in his apartments ! 

The considerable diminution of the number of registrations, 
which it was thought would at first follow, has not been experi- 
enced. At the year's end as many persons possessed cards for 
using the Library as held them the previous year when the old 
regulation ceased, and it was known that during that year 12,000 
persons had used the Library. The new registration proceeded 
with unprecedented rapidity, 8,474 names being registered 
before the 1st of January, though less than 8,000 had been 
registered in a similar period, when the library was first opened 
in this building in 1859, and when new cards were given out in 
1867. Three hundred and twenty -nine applications were re- 
ceived in one da}^, September 2d. During the year there wore 
12,057 applicants, and of this number Roxbury furnished 1,100, 
and if these be deducted, the number still left shows no material 
reduction from last year, and does not prove that the newly 
imposed safeguards have stood in the way of applicants. 

Of these 12,057 applicants, 5,887 took cards for the Bates 
Hall, and 10,884 those for the Lower Hall; and while some of 
them ai-e in both enumerations, a considerable number are in one 
only. 

Of these 12,057 cases, there seemed no further verification 
necessary in 9,247 cases, than the Directory gave ; and in the 
remaining 2,810 cases, the applications were givc^n to the Police, 
who were instructed in each case to make the necessary in- 



46 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 

quiries at the app'icant's alleged rcsidcucc, if found, and if not 
satisfactorily answered there., of the referees. The officers were 
cautioned in eaL':h case that theii" ei'rand was merely "a matter 
of inquiry, and implied no sort of suspicion with regard to any 
particular persou," and he was requested " always to state at 
once the object of his call." This was in pursuit of the only 
safeguard we required, respectable character and a known 
residence. The Directory failing in the last particular, there 
was of course no other way of ascertaining the fact. The 
Franklin Society of Paris, which is doing so much to estab- 
lish libraries throughout France, calls it a necessity that the 
users of books in these libraries should have a ''known resi- 
dence," and there would seem to be no question about the 
propriety of taking suitable measures to verify this. 

Of the 2,810 cases given to the Police, such returns were 
made as warianted the issue of cards in all but two hundred 
and thirty-three cases, where there were discovered attempts at 
deceiving as to age and residence, and where the referees warned 
us against granting the privilege. If two hundred and thirty- 
three deceitful and irresponsible persons made attempts to get 
admitted and failed, we may well suppose that with no checks a 
much larger number Avould have tried and have succeeded. Of 
the cards granted during the year, thirty-three were reclaimed 
for good reasons. 

Twelve thousand cards among a population of 250,000 may 
seem small, and give rise to the inference that the public is indif- 
ferent to such privileges ; but two things must be borne in mind. 
The Athenaeum Library, the old Boston Library, and numerous 
smaller collections, open to the public, and a large number of 
private libraiies, prevent this Listitution being the sole supplier 
of the people's wants. Further than this, a large city like Boston 
has not that homogeneous population conducive to a relatively 
large clientage, like smaller places. If we take places like Fall 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 47 

River, Fitcliburg, and New Bedford, and throw out of the com- 
parison the want of rivals to their public libraries, in the 
measure that we experience them in Boston, we shall find that 
their similar institutions have from 1,000 to 1,500 users of their 
books to every 10,000 of their population, and that is twice to 
three times the proportion in Boston, which is roundly about five 
hundred out of every 10,000 inhabitants. The proportion at 
Maiciiester, England, cannot be over four hundred and fifty on 
the same ratio; and at Liverpool not far from two liundred, 
while at Birmingham it is less than three hundred ; though three 
times as many use their Reference Library. It should not be 
forgotten that these English libraries offer superior advantages 
over Boston to invite a large number of users, in their system of 
branch libraries. 

Use of Lower Hall. (See Appendix G.) Our count this 
year is of the slips, showing the number of books retui-ned to 
the Library, which is nearly 142,000. Last year the count was 
gathered from the last consecutive number stamped by a Nume- 
rator on the slips. Early the past year suspicion was awakened 
as to the accuracy of this last tally, and the number stamped by 
this instrument on the slip last used was 154,702, or about 
13,000 more than the counting of the slips showed. This seemed. 
to prove the erratic character of the machine, induced perhaps 
by the disproportionate wear of the cog-wheels enumerating 
units and tens (where its errors were not so likely to come to 
notice when footing up a day's work, as if the trouble Avere in 
the higher places), and furthermore raised unfortunately a de- 
gree of suspicion about the results given by its returns in last 
year's enumerations. There seems no way, however, of verify- 
ing or rectifying last year's figures, and they must stand in our 
tables, with this uncertainty attached to them. The tendency of 
the machine, however, is plainly to exaggerate; nor can perfect 
reliance, I think, be placed on earlier figures in our tables, when 



48 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 



tlie tally was kept by dropping a pea in a box for each book 
delivered. It is to be lioped that our present method of count- 
ing- each day's slips as the work goes on, will give us more trust- 
worthy records. 

The record of Doohs Returned for the year, stands thus by 
months : — 



Sept., 1867, 


3,916 


April, 1868, 


15,686 


Oct., " 


10,075 


May, " 


13,883 


Nov., « 


12,606 


June, " 


12,876 


Dec., " 


13,213 


July, " 


11,518 


Jan., 1868, 
Feb., " 


14,497 
16,526 






Total, 


141,853 


March, " 


17,057 







This total is nearly 42,000 below the total as given last year 
on the faith of the Numerator, and no full year, since the Library 
has been in the present building, has beeu reported as showing 
so small a number. 

If this decrease is accounted real and not apparent, (and to a 
partial extent, for the reasons I shall give, I think it is real) it 
may be accepted as an instance of departure from a scale of accu- 
mulating benefit, to which all libraries seem subject. We have 
experienced a decline before, without so good a reason for it. 
Our daily average fell off eighty in 1860, but it was gained all 
back the next year. The issues of the Astor Library dropped 
from 59,51G in 1861 to 44,966 in 1866, and ascended to 54,314 
again in 1867. The Reference Library, at Manchester, showed 
160,496 issues in 1862, only 108,237 in 1864, and went up to 
194,349 in 1867. If we look to some of our lesser institutions 
in Massachusetts we shall see the use of the Public Library at 
Fall River drop in five years from 31,000 to 24,500. That at 
Charlestown has shown a more rapid decline in three years from 
nearly 77,000 to 56,400 last year. 

There may be local causes in these ca":es for a decline ; and 



I 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 49 

notably in the instances last named, it may be the Inability of the 
institution to purchase duplicates in sufficient numbers to lure the 
novel readers from the circulating libraries. There was proba- 
bly sufficient reason in our own case for a considerable diminu- 
tion, because of the slowness with which any new registration 
fills up its numbers to the average takers for a year. The 
increase of the Bates Hall circulation also gives rise to the hope 
that the decrease in one hall has caused the increase in the 
other. Another reason may exist in the more persistent efforts to 
follow up delinquents and to search for detained books, Mr. Ford 
having failed in only five per cent of the instances to be success- 
ful, whereas the Messenger Corps employed last year failed in 
thirty-one per cent. There are always some persons uneasy 
under compulsion however wholesome, who would give up the 
best privileges, if they could not enjoy them without being held 
to a strict accountability. 

None of the reasons already alleged recognize any cause for 
the decline, in the nature of the new registration, for it does not 
seem to have diminished the number of card holders, and there 
must be other causes than any requirements of that registration, 
to operate detrimentally if the same number of persons fail to 
take out an equal number of books. 

There were some influences at work, but for which the decrease 
would perhaps have been greater ; such as the facilities afforded 
by the Indicator — the latest practical device with which the 
ingenuity of my predecessor advanced the library service, — 
and by the Bulletins, which have met with great demand ; and 
by the very free and more satisfactory purchases of duplicates, 
as the slip system made known where they could be augmented 
with advantage. 

If we have an equal number of card-holders with the previous 

year, it must be remembered their terms of using the library 

extended over widely varying portions of this year, while of a 

similar number during the preceding, not far from one-half held 

4 



50 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 

over their righ't by renewal from the year before. In this I think 
lies the real secret of the falling off, which must be consider- 
able, even if we do not measure its extent by the difference of 
the returns. 

During the first year that the present building was occupied, 
13,329 persons signed to use the Library, then a novelty, and 
they took 149,468 volumes, or an average of more than eleven to 
each. The past year 11,824 different persons held cards, and 
they took from the Library (both halls being now open) 158,873 
volumes, or an average of between thirteen and fourteen each. 
In this view it would not seem that any depressing effect upon 
the use of books has arisen from our Janitor's efforts to keep 
delinquents aware of their obligations. 

It does not follow that an increase of borrowers will aug- 
ment the circulation in a like ratio. Manchester in 1867 
increased its borrowers one hundred per cent; but the conse- 
quent increase of circulation was only fifty per cent. 

The persons who used our Lower Hall the past year took on 
an average thirteen volumes for the year. It is not clearly dis- 
cernible in the nature of the population of different places, why 
there is such a wide variation in the frequency with which the 
card-holders of libraries resort to them for books. The rule of 
averages seems to be at fault somewhere, in the following tables 
which show the average number of volumes taken in a year by 
the users of the several libraries ; and it must be confessed the 
figures are rather curious than directly instructive. It will be 
seen there is a wide difference in the English libraries, and even 
in the separate leading branches of one institution, as the figures 
against Manchester indicate : — 

Liverpool Lending Libraries ... 51 average. 
Birmingham " .... 27 " 

Manchester " . . 17, 18, 27, 27 each. 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



51 



In the enumerations to follow, of some of the public libraries 
of Massachusetts, the great variations are to be accounted for, 
in part doubtless, by the fact that, in some of the smaller places, 
only the heads of families sign for the privilege, while the other 
members enjoy them ; and in regard to the libraries of Associa- 
tions, it must be remembered that more than one book may in 
some of them be taken at a time, as for example, at the Phila- 
delphia Mercantile Library, from four to eight are issued ; and 
that books are likewise delivered at houses. 



Public Libraries in Massachusetts. 



Lynn, 


44 


Fall River, 


13 


Dana, (Cambridge) 


43 


Leominster, 


13 


South Eeading, 


34 


Northampton, 


13 


Weston, 


30 


Waltham, 


12 


"Wayland, 


27 


Winchester, 


12 


Holton, (Brighton) 


20 


Brookline, 


10 


Fitchburg, 


19 


Concord, 


10 


New Bedford, 


17 


Newburyport, 


9 


Phillipston, 


14 


Beverly, 


8 


Taunton, 


14 


Westford, 


6 


Stoneham, 


13 







Libraries of Associations. 

Troy Young Men's Association . 
Detroit Young Men's Association 
Cleveland Library Association 
San Francisco Mercantile Library 
Boston Mercantile Library 
Brooklyn Mercantile Library 
Philadelphia Mercantile Library . 
New York Mercantile Library 



37 
36 
31 
28 
27 
27 
25 
17 



The extent of Libraries, and particularly the proportion of 
fiction and juveniles in their purchases, naturally affect both the 
number of users and issues. The tables, which I have educed 



52 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 

under this head, arc rather suggestive, I am aware, than demon- 
strative of any definite conclusion, in the absence of thorough 
classifications of the libraries, and an analysis of the people using 
them. 

Small libraries with their users close about them must neces- 
sarily have a circulation in larger proportion to their extent, than 
larger ones, with their users widely scattered. Thus it is that 
thi'ee of the branches at Manchester, whose aggregate volumes 
are but little more than our Lower Hall collection, have yet 
double the number of issues. The same principle holds among 
these Manchester branches, for that at Campfield, which has more 
than double the volumes of the Chorlton branch, had but little 
more than four-fifths as many issues. 

Still if we compare our Lower Hall, which shows that every 
volume of its 26,000 went out on an average more than five 
times for the year, with the lesser public libraries of Massachu- 
setts, we shall see we are not low in the scale ; and moreover 
the instance of New Bedford will be given to prove how rela- 
tively small purchases of fiction for adults and youths, will lessen 
the proportion. I put in parentheses the extent of their pur- 
chases of such books. 



Charlestown (60 per cent) 


6— 


Boston (55 per cent) 


. . 5+ 


Lynn (60 per cent) .... 


5— 


Brighton (33-50 per cent) 


. . 4-h 


Newport (50 per cent) . . 


4 


New Bedford (8-9 per cent) 


. . 1+ 



As a general thing libraries of Associations do not re-dupli- 
cate their extent in their issues so greatly as free libraries, as 
for example : — 

Hartford Young Men's Institute .... 3 
Pittsburg Mercantile Library .... 2^+ 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



53 



New York Mercantile Librarj^ (50 per cent) . 2^ 

San Francisco Mercantile Library (33-50 per cent) 2^ 
Cincinnati Mercantile Library . . . . 1-f- 

This same difference was remarked in England in 1857, when 
the experiment of Free Libraries had been tried for five years, 
and it was made an argument for the greater usefulness of the 
Public Library, as these two columns show : — 





Free. 




Associated. 




Sheffield, 




17— 


Leeds' Mech's Inst., 


^ 


Liverpool, 




•12— 


CarHsle 


H 


Kidderminster, 


m 


Manchester Y. M. Ch. Asso 


.21 


Salford, 




n 


Manchester Mech's Inst., 


n 


Oxford, 




6 


Manchester Athenaeum, 


2 


Cambridge, 




6 


Pendleton Mech's Inst., 


2 


Bolton, 




H 


Salford Mech's Inst., 


H 


Manchester, 




5 


Liverpool Mech's Inst., 


1+ 



Use op Bates Hall. (See Appendix G-.) As a collection 
grows, and particularly when it has supplied, as ours has, its 
shelves with the classes of books most commonly deemed standard 
in various departments, it must draw in a larger proportion of 
out-of-the-w^ay works, which, while they add value to the library, 
do not invite use. An undue tendency to this kind of accumu- 
lation in our higher department is studiously avoided, for our 
policy is eminently one calculated to supply positive rather than 
possible wants. Our foreign agencies were so arranged in May 
last, that we have since then been receiving invoices every fortnight 
from London, Paris and Leipsic, a good part of which has been 
made up of the best current issues, transmitted immediately upon 
publication, without loss of time in ordering ; and our Bulletins and 
Daily manuscript lists have made them promptly known. A 
large proportion of these naturally go into the Bates Hall, and the 
same may be said of those books, which are added on the recom- 



54 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 

mcndation of citizens ; for in books of the popular character of 
the Lower Hall, our own free purchases nearly preclude the 
chances for such recommendation. This system of buying at 
once the best neiv books and meeting individual preferences, 
must remove from the library any imputation of not being alive 
to the wants of its frequenters. 

Our record of "books asked for" is often shown to strangers 
interested in library management, and they are struck with the 
general good character of the recommendations. Adults have 
too much of the proper feeling to ask for worthless books, and 
the books asked for by youths, are usually duplicate copies of 
popular books. Each of these latter applications is always inves- 
tigated, and when additional copies are warranted, they are 
bought; but a record of duplicates forms no part of the system 
now under consideration. The increased use of this privilege 
is more than commensurate with the increased use of this hall. 
The total of these applications for last year was 1,120, being 
double that of the year previous, which was much in excess of 
any former record, and these records, be it remembered, are by 
titles not vohmes. In one hundred and eighty-three of these 
instances the book already belonged to the Library ,• of the 
remaining, about six were too vaguely described to order, and 
one or two of such cost that the outlay was not deemed wise at 
the time ; so that about nine hundred and thirty orders went out 
during the year, and four hundred and twenty-three had been 
answered at the close of it, beside some which had been sent in 
years previous. We may say then that perhaps a thousand 
volumes (not duplicates and going chiefly into the Bates Hall) 
of the more than 8,000 added to the Library during the year, 
were nearly sure of one perusal before going upon the shelves. 
I^See Appendix H.) 

Fortunately the figures of the use of the Bates Hall last year 
were based upon an actual count, so that I feel certain of the 
great increase of use which the figures show, notwithstanding 
the drawbacks incident to any new registration. 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 55 

The home use is twenty-five per cent in excess of last year, and 
one hundred and forty per cent more than the smallest annual use 
heretofore. Hardly any, perhaps not another, large library of the 
valuable character and public nature of our Bates Hall collection, 
in the world, permits or experiences so extensive home use of its 
books. At the Imperial Library in Paris, only authors domi- 
ciled in that city, who have published books of repute, and have 
made special applications, and strangers for whom their coun- 
try's ambassador will become responsible, can take books away, 
in number not more than five works, to be kept not over three 
months. The privileged borrowers of the Royal Library at 
Berlin take away only 30,000 volumes a year of its 700,000. 

The hall use shows more than equal gain. Practically, every 
person of decent exterior, whether known or not, is given books 
to use in the hall, on the sole guaranty of his signature and 
address. 

There is a considerable share of hall use with us, that fails to 
appear in our returns, but is made a part of the figures in some 
other libraries (the Reference Departments of the three princi- 
pal English libraries particularly), and consequently precludes 
any just comparison. I refer to the Reference books about the 
desk, to protracted investigations in alcoves, which are almost 
daily of considerable extent among the Patent Reports and 
Specifications of America, France, and Great Britain. The 
use of these last has risen fifty per cent. (See Appendix H.) 

The daily average use, both home and hall, is thirty per cent, 
or one hundred and twenty-one volumes more than last year. 
This number is nearly doubled when we take the daily average 
of the busiest week in the year, and the two hundred and twenty- 
eight volumes then used per day is sixty-five per cent more than 
a similar average for last year. 

Bates Hall Reading. (See Appendix J.) By reference 
to the Table it will be seen that books under the heading of 



56 CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 132. 

America liavc had a use more nearly approaching to those relat- 
ing to England, than ever before. Those in the rather mis- 
cellaneous class headed by Theology, arc regaining their old 
standing. It is probably owing to the non-circulation of their 
books, that the kinds of book most in demand for reference at 
the Astor Library do not exactly correspond with ours. There 
Theology shares with the Patents the pre-eminence of alcove use ; 
the Fine Arts department has about one-half of the respective 
demands of those just named, and at the same time it is in 
two or three times the request of any of the other classes. In 
1854 the last department was thought to head the list at the 
Astor, in all use. In the latest enumeration I have seen of the 
Astor issues, books under the head of America were in demand 
compared with those of England, as ten to twenty-one ; with us 
the past year it has been as twelve to seventeen. 

Lower Hall Reading. (See Appendix K.) In examining 
the Table, it should be known that the figures of last year, 
subdividing the alleged total of 183,714, were approximately 
deduced from proportionate measurement of the compressed 
slips recording the loans. The return this year is from absolute 
count of each day's work by departments. 

The table will show a slight relative increase of the issues (a 
gain of one per cent on the whole) in the departments of Science 
and History; in every other case a considerable decline, which 
accounts for the material increase of six per cent in the circulation 
of fiction. This advance was anticipated from the action of the 
Indicator, which applies to that class of books only. The novelty 
of the instrument and the expedition it insures has naturally 
tended to augment the call for this kind of book. During the 
early weeks of the year, the ratio ran as high as seventy-nine 
per cent, and for weeks it never fell below seventy-six per cent ; 
but as the newness of the instrument wore ofl", the circulation 
began to show a suificient decline to put the proportion for the 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 57 

year at seventy-four per cent. The class called " Collections," 
etc., contains Bolin's libraries and some similar sets, wliich are 
in part composed of fiction; and the use of the class of foreign 
books is likewise largely fiction, so that it may be estimated 
that over three quarters of our issues are of this sort. 

Fiction in English constitutes something over thirty per cent 
of our entire lower collection, and this, apparently by no prede- 
termination, coincides with what on an average seems to be 
judged best for the service of public libraries. From the kind 
responses to my inquiries, which have been made so generally 
by the librarians of the numerous public and other libraries in 
this State, and elsewhere, here and in Europe, I find that in Mas- 
sachusetts it is just about the average percentage given by these 
libraries to fiction in their annual purchases, though the practices 
of individual libraries range from five per cent to sixty-six per 
cent ; and for our library the past year fiction has constituted 
more than fifty per cent of its additions. Again comparing these 
same libraries in our lesser cities and towns, it will appear that 
these issues of fiction range from twenty-five per cent to eighty- 
three per cent, fixing an average at about fifty-five per cent. 
Furthermore the extent of their use of fiction is almost always 
in direct accordance with the extent of their purchases in this 
department. The library (Lynn) which buys most largely 
(sixty per cent) of fiction, has the largest proportion of such 
use (eighty-three per cent). 

Taking ten of the most active associated libraries of the 
country, situated in our principal cities, I find that while on an 
average their purchase of fiction is just the same (thirty-two 
per cent), their use of it rises to seventy per cent; and singu- 
larly enough the one which has the largest use, ninety per cent, 
is one which makes only twenty-five per cent of its additions 
out of fiction, the Milwaukee Young Men's Association. At the 
New York Mercantile Library, where they supply duplicates on 
a liberal scale not elsewhere attempted, they follow this rule in 



58 CITY DOCUiMENT. — No. 132. 

buying: " Of novels, if six fruitless calls are made daily for an 
old title, three or four additional copies arc added. If from 
twent^'-five to fifty such calls for a new novel are made daily, ten 
to fifteen new copies are ordered. Of books, not novels, a new 
copy is added for every two calls daily, which cannot be met." 

This same preponderance prevails in England. At the public 
libi-ary at Oxford their purchases are thirty-three per cent ; at 
Salford, fiction, forming fifty per cent of its lending libraries, 
makes ninety per cent of its issues ; at Liverpool, seventy-one 
per cent; while at Sheflfield it is only forty-seven per cent. 

In France the proportion of fiction is fixed by the Franklin 
Society — an institution that ought to be copied among us — at 
much the same as with us. This Society, in founding and encour- 
aging libraries throughout France, establishes for their guidance 
the principle that of every twenty volumes, seven should be fiction, 
five travels, four history, and four in science. 

With us then for the past year, it appears that each volume 
of ^fiction has found thirteen readers, while all other books in 
this hall got less than two. K what Sir James Mackintosh held 
is true, that nothing popular can be frivolous, and that which 
influences multitudes must be important, then these results can- 
not be wholly undeserving of kindly consideration, while the 
impulse is so powerful to give them a bad significan<;e. To 
be sure in viewing the favorable side we are prone to take pos- 
sible advantages for probable ones. When we find men like 
Bacon and Mackintosh accounting fiction a grand instrument in 
moral education; Stuart Mill judging it to be a mentor that 
ennobles the mind ; Talfourd calling the best novelist the truest 
benefactor ; Robertson, of Brighton, confessing that he found his 
spirit's refreshment in Waverley and the rest ; and our own 
Dewey comparing with the pulpit battery, the flying artillery of 
the satire of Thackeray, that scales inaccessible points and 
strikes at folly, — when we regard such testimonials we may not 
be apt to remember that each is recounting the influence of the 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 59 

best fiction on uncommon perceptions, which is a very different 
thing from the measure of popular advantage, where so few have 
these finer susceptibilities. 

But it does not follow that certain advantages may not accrue 
to the average reader. When Whately affirmed that the mind, 
like the stomach, did not thrive on concentrated food, but needed 
bulk of matter as well as nutriment, it was a proposition very 
closely touchiug this question. Most novels show some good 
purpose or give some fractional information, which would be dis- 
regarded if concentrated into moral pith or educational precept. 
A hand-book of " Good Manners " or " Etiquette " will not make 
many gentlemen, and many novels have a far more effective influ- 
ence to that end. " I often see," says Mr. Emerson, and no doubt 
truly, " traits of the Scotch and the French novel in the courtesy 
and brilliancy of young midshipmen, collegians, and clerks." 

But whether for good or evil, or for a mixed influence, the 
astounding increase of works and readers of fiction seems to 
render it certain that the time for eradicating this greed is very 
far distant, and that the well-being of communities is better 
served by regulating the supply than by denying it altogether. 
The increase is moreover a natural result of the advantage 
gained by story-tellers since Richardson's day, in becoming of 
more influence for good or evil, than the writers of all other depart- 
ments of literature combined ,• and of all literatures, our own in 
the judgment of Mackintosh, has the most to lose, if we undervalue 
this species of composition. Whether it be out of the love of 
popularity or the necessity for gain, nearly all the strong writers 
of our day are herding into fiction. In part they follow and in 
part they lead the popular appreciation. The wi'iter craves a 
large auditory, and seeking it with what a large auditory can 
comprehend, he allures the selecter classes to follow after by virtue 
of his own personality. Kingsley could not have so effectually 
with the many defended the necessity of Christianity to success 
in life, had he not given his judgments the shape they took in 



60 CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 132. 

" Alton Locke " and " Hypatia." Godwin fought his philosophical 
battles more noticeably in his novels than elsewhere. Dr. 
Holmes has turned to more angles his theories of psychological 
mysteries in " Elsie Venner " and the " Guardian Angel," than 
he could liave found a patient public for in disquisitionary form. 
Dickens has givTn social abuses more effectual stabs than the 
prosy moralists. It is the food in bulk with appetizing condi- 
ments that does the duty. 

The experience of public libraries shows that this craving is 
not one of low minds alone. It is a sort of Carlylian ostentation 
to say that the reading of Marryat induces a vacuity of thought, 
worth while as giving a fresh start for new advances in intellec- 
tual labor ; but Dr. Jacob Bigelow seems to have told us in his 
" Limits of Education," the plain fact : " The world is not con- 
tent with history. It requii-es the supplementary aid of fiction, 
which finds facts not in testimony, but ixi probability." Here 
I think is where it invites the great mob of readers. People 
like to gauge matters by their own experience. It requires labor 
to test and understand historical or scientific facts ; but every- 
body has notions of what is probable in human action. The 
small span of years of the youth who come to our Lower Hall 
is verge enough to establish their own mental criteria of proba- 
bilities, and they seek what will give these accomplishments 
activity. If our Lower Hall collection did not circulate, forcing 
readers to hall use alone, tiicre would doubtless be a less per- 
centage of fiction read, for novel reading is particularly home- 
reading ; but still a large use of fiction does prevail in reference 
libraries that furnish it. Even at such a library as the Astor, 
the librarians keep on tables close at hand a good part of what 
fiction they have, to have it ready, for the use of it they know to 
be inevitable. At the library of Parliament in Ottawa, of the 
books used by other than members, one half are fiction, though 
they buy but twenty or thirty volumes a year in that department. 
The Librarian of Congress, at Washington, estimates that in his 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



61 



library, fifteen per cent of its use is novels. If we look at the 
reference departments of the English libraries, we find recorded 
of Liverpool that thirty-four per cent of their issues is fiction ; at 
Oxford, the class of " light literature " is forty-two per cent ; 
and at Salford, ten years ago, when their reference library had 
but one-thirty-fourth part fiction, the issues were to fiction read- 
ers, from one-quarter to one-third. 

The question of the kind of people using our Library is one 
closely touching the inquiry before us. Observation would point 
to the conclusion that one-half of the frequenters of our Lower 
Hall are minors. Exact statistics on this point have not been 
ascertained ; but this proportion is borne out by the precise rec- 
ords of the English libraries. At Birmingham, last year, nearly 
one-half were under twenty, and two-thirds were under twenty- 
five. An inquiry has been made into the conditions of the fii'st 
two thousand who applied for cards last year, so far as their 
occupations show them; and throwing out one hundred and 
eighteen males and six hundred females who gave no occupation, 
I find among the remaining 1,280 people these classes most 
numerously represented : — 



Bookkeepers, Salesmen, Clerks . 


330 


Teachers (male twelve, female fifty-five) 


67 


Pupils (forty-five male, female twenty) 


65 


Students 


63 


Merchants ...... 


50 


Printers 


42 


Physicians 


35 


Lawj'ers 


28 


Machinists 


28 


Office or shop boys .... 


20 



I think, if we had the means of comparison vnth the early 
years of the Library in this respect, that the increase of readers 
would be found to be at the lower end of the social scale. I 



62 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 

think this is the experience of public libraries, though there may- 
be exceptions. There is a fondness in those connected with 
such libraries for imagining the character of the reading is 
improving. It was held so in the early reports of this Library. 
I read it in the reports of other fresh and eager librarians. At 
the Philadelphia Mercantile Library they claim that the pro- 
portion of fiction called for is diminishing ; but I conjecture that 
in most cases of diminution, it is because the taste for it is not 
as lavishly catered to as formerly. 

The educated classes, in cities above all, read fewer books 
perhaps than formerly, though they may buy more; but the 
working classes read vastly more. This doubtless tells upon 
the use of fiction in libraries ; but the frequency of private col- 
lections among the class capable of buying books, tells quite 
as much in the same way. Books that this class hesitate to buy 
for their ephemeral character, they flock to libraries to devour. 
The small percentage of standard literature used from our 
Lower Hall is not called for by the better classes, but by the 
poorer, simply because that kind of reading the former class 
have on their own shelves. Other librarians tell me the same 
thing. There is another result of the same cause. Public libra- 
ries at the start are much frequented by the better classes, who 
drop away and surrender their places to others lower in the 
social scale. This arises from the latter body being eager for 
a book, not a particular book. The comparatively few dupli- 
cates of the last popular book do not render it possible that 
more than a small part of those who frequent the Library for such 
books, can get them ; and, wearying of futile applications, the 
craver of the latest novelty deserts the public, for the nearest cir- 
culating library. A very large proportion of the 1,100 signers 
for Roxbury last year were of the higher classes ; but I do not 
look for their retention on our list, unless they are lured by the 
attractions of the Bates Hall ; but as they leave us to go back 
to Loring's, we shall see their places filled up from the lower 
ranks. 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. (33 

It was said in the preliminary report of 1852, "that no popu- 
lation of 150,000 souls, lying so compactly together as to be 
able with tolerable convenience to resort to one Library, was 
ever before so well-fitted to become a reading, self-cultivating 
population as our own." It is to be hoped this is true; but 
with the vast facilities of inter- communication going on, and the 
cosmopolitanizing of the world, we are daily being reduced to the 
common level of other less favored communities. Accepting this 
tendency, we must expect its symptoms. The change in our 
public which renders such a percentage of fiction-using possible 
is by no means peculiar to us. The greed for such reading has 
long been growing. It was thought grievous more than a long 
lifetime ago, and moralists of the last century mourned over it. 
Thirty years ago when in a decade they were re-printing more 
standard literature, than ever before, the alarm was still franti- 
cally sounding. 

In our day we have seen religious magazines seek to increase 
their buyers by printing secular novels, as " Good Words " did 
those of Alexander Smith, Even the venerable Sylvanus Urban 
has metamorphosed himself into an editor of stories. In Great 
Britain last year, about a quarter of the total 4,000 books pub- 
lished, were novels and juveniles. 

The career of the " London Journal " — a paper perhaps few 
in this country know anything about, and not many of the edu- 
cated class in England ever see — precisely illustrates the pow- 
erfulness of sensational and mediocre fiction. It was started in 
1845 on the flood tide. G. W. Rej^nolds and Eugene Sue wrote 
continuous stories in it, and giving it a circulation surprising for 
those days, 80,000. In 1845, Mr. J. F. Smith's stories run its 
list up to between 300,000 and 400,000. In 1854, one of his 
stories gave it half a million circulation. The sequel is 
instructive. A man of real genius took hold, and Charles 
Reade's " White Lies " caused a rapid decline. They resorted 
to re-printing Scott's novels — it dropped fifty per cent. The 



64 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 

question for the sociologist is wlictlicr with Smith's novels a 
regulated use could do more for good, than an abandonment 
in large part of all influence by an attempt to raise the literary 
standard. 

There is in the masses an impatience of such denial of their 
tastes. I know not how our community would relish such a rule 
as prevails at the Imperial Library at St. Petersburg, where 
novels and romances are only issued upon special application to 
the Director ; or even at Cincinnati, where fiction-use does not 
exceed fifty per cent, because it is confined almost entirely to 
adults, since they do not issue novels to minors except on a 
written order from their parents. 

There was a time in the history of this Library when the run- 
ners were instructed to deliver the non-fiction rather than fiction, 
if numbers representing both classes of books were on the cards ; 
and it may have worked to diminish the preponderance of fiction j 
but it may also have discouraged applicants, who came to the 
Library for the chance of getting now and then a novel. 

There is perhaps not a better way of understanding what the 
great masses do read, or what they frequent a public library for, 
than by examining the tables of the circulation of certain authors 
and books which form Appendix L. 

These statistics however, are to be used cautiously in drawing 
conclusions. A book's circulation will depend largely upon 
the number of copies ; and the number of copies, stated in the 
appendix, pertained to the book at the year's close, and may not 
have been on the shelves all through the year. New books, too, 
ofier returns for only the part of the year transpiring since their 
publication. The relative popularity of authors is also not to 
be hastily deduced from these figures. If large numbers did 
not own Dickens and Scott, their use would doubtless be pro- 
portionally greater. 

Reading Room. (See Appendix M.) The tables in the 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 65 

appendix show a considerable increase in the number of periodi- 
cals taken, mostly in English as to language, and in the literary 
class. The following figures will show that we have the finest 
collection of the periodical literature of the world, accessible at 
one place, in this country. A news-room, our hall was not 
intended to be, and we offer no comparison with other reading 
rooms in that respect. 



Newspapers. 

Boston Public Library 287 4 (foreign only.) 

Cooper Union, N. Y 215 55 

N. Y. Mercantile Library 150 200 

Library of Congress 123 58 

Boston Atheuseum 115 82 

Natural History Society 100 

Philadelphia Mercantile Library . . 100 200 

San Francisco Mercantile Library . . 80 300 

Philadelphia Mercantile Library . . 64 236 



Manchester Reference Library ... 91 15 

Duplicates are taken of twenty-four different periodicals, as 
eleven of Harper's, five of the Atlantic, etc. 

The use of the room increases gradually from September till 
March, when it is most used, and each month shows thereafter 
a decrease till August. 

The table shows a gain of 14,000 in the total number of 
readers. There is a decrease in the number of reference 
readers, the tally of which is kept solely by observation, and is 
therefore uncertain. There is however, a gain of 20,000 in the 
readers of periodicals, which is an actual count of slips. 

The continued increase of readers is the best answer to the 
complaints of the delivering of the periodicals on slips, which 
also renders almost certain, a perfect collation of the magazines 
for binding at the year's end. This is in great contrast to our 

5 



66 CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 132. 

experience under tlic old system of exposure on tables. We 
have now unfit to bind, and consequently kept from the public, 
over 200 volumes of periodicals whiph are deficient in from one 
to a dozen numbers ; and that, after repeated efforts heretofore 
to repair the damage done in the eight years of license which pre- 
vailed antecedent to the last two years. Depredations made 
during that time not only injured the public then, but have con- 
tinued and will continue to injure them till our broken sets can 
be completed. It is worthy of remark that at Manchester tlieir 
experience forced them into just the system of delivery that we 
have ; and their librarian writes to me, that it entirely prevents 
loss as it does with us. 

Losses and Delinquents. (See Appendix N.) The table 
in the appendix will show the results, which were anticipated 
from the new registration. I am unable to find among last 
year's statistics the exact correspondences of those I present 
this year. Enough is presented in the parallels however to estab- 
lish the fact that a larger proportion (by six per cent) of the 
books finable were returned without requiring a messenger ; that 
against sixteen per cent of the messenger books, whose takers 
could not be found at their addresses last year, we have less 
than seven per cent this year ; and that the total loss of the 
year from unfaithful takers is thirty-five this year against two 
hundred and thirty-one last year. 

This loss of thirty-five out of 158,873 books which were taken 
from the building, is the equivalent of one in every 4,540. I 
believe this immunity from loss in some part owing to the exclu- 
sion in a large degree of irresponsible persons ; but still in a 
greater degree to the persistency with which delinquents have 
been followed. This enforcement is doubtless annoying to some 
who fancy they are asking equal privileges in demanding special 
ones. There would seem to be no question of the propriety of 
holding the public to a strict accountability. I learn from the 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 67 

reports of the Franklin Society in Paris, tliat tliose libraries, which 
it has nurtured throughout France, have all failed in which there 
was laxity in this respect. The officers of the law can call upon 
citizens to help preserve the peace ; and can we not expect from 
our frequenters — at even a little inconvenience to themselves — 
that they will help us by conforming to wholesome rules, in the 
work of preservation and discipline which we have to do ? 
Where the individual suffers, the community gains. We deal 
here with a large proportion of the youth of the city. If they 
find they can abuse with impunity the public treasures here kept, 
they may learn to believe that public possessions of other 
kinds are accumulated for individual cupidity. It is a question 
more often put to me than any other by strangers, what protec- 
tion do you have in lending a book ? When it is remembered 
that the institution opens its doors very wide to all the inhabi- 
tants of a large city, all that are not confused in their notions 
of liberty and license must see that this question of strangers is 
a natural one, and that there may be grave misgivings with such, 
at the risk of such freedom as we accord. But the fact that our 
experience is no Avorse than it is, must not mislead us into 
ignoring what it actually is. Our early reports show that it was 
felt our immunity from abuse was surprising, but the abuse crept 
in, as it always will with familiarity and trial of impunity. They 
are now going through the same phase of gratulatory experience 
at Worcester, where their library numbers less now than our 
yearly accessions. " The experiment " says their last report, 
" as it was deemed at first, of great freedom without guaranty, 
can now be set down a success." The danger of increasing 
wontedness to the library is well illustrated in the flourishing 
institution at Charlestown. Last year their loss was double 
what it was three years before, although their circulation had 
diminished one-quarter. 

The loss in libraries depends largely upon the efficiency of 
such disciplinary measures with the takers. The following 



68 



CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 132. 



list is cited as showing a comparative statement of losses in 
several libraries, of diifering grades, sizes, or degrees of exact 
management. . The first column of figures shows the loss their 
circulation should have borne to be relative to ours. The second 
column is what they actually did lose. 



Beverly Public Library . 
Helton (Brighton) Library 
Stoneham Public Library 
Charlestown Public Library 
Lynn Public Library 
Northampton Public Library . 
New Bedford Public Library . 
Syracuse (N. Y.) Public Library 
New York Mercantile Library 
San Francisco Mercantile Library- 
Providence Athenseum 



Vols. 


Vole. 


2 to 3 


10 to 15 


. 10 to 12 


10 to 12 


. 3 to 4 


25 


. 12 to 13 


14 


. 10 to 11 


62 


. 2 to 3 


12 


8 


35 


7 


13 


51 


300 


15 


125 


4 to 5 


12 to 20 



The returns of the five leading libraries at Manchester show 
conclusively how the exaction of positive security, almost entirely 
protects them in a circulation of nearly half a million. Of the 
ninety-two volumes lost (which is about the ratio of our losses) 
all but four were replaced by the losers (fifty-eight) or the 
guarantors (thirty). 

Our loss from the Bates Hall, notwithstanding our circulation 
of books in that department, has hardly equalled that of the 
Astor Library, which has lost three hundred volumes in twenty 
years, while our loss has been eighty in seven years. 



Can the use op the Library be satisfactorily Ex- 
tended ? — I refer to several heads : 

I. By more duplicates in fiction. This would enlarge our cir- 
culation ; but at the expense of accumulating ephemeral books 
to a burdensome degree. The policy followed, and there is 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 69 

ground for believing it the wisest, is to provide as nearly as may 
be tliat* number of copies, which after the wear and tear of the 
first demand, will leave in serviceable condition afeout the requi- 
site number for the slackened call. 

II By ope7iing the Bates Hall in the evening. This would 
necessitate an additional charge for gas of from $2,000 to $2,500 
a year, with $1,000 and perhaps more for attendants, beside 
a preparatory outlay of considerable extent upon the gas pipes. 
Dr, Cogswell, in 1854, when disappointment was expressed 
that the Astor Library was not open evenings, said, " If it were 
practicable I should be glad to see the experiment tried, to con- 
vince those who entertain such an opinion of their mistake. The 
expense of maintaining a library would be doubled, and the 
numbers availing themselves of the accommodation very few." 
I do not feel at all sure of the result of such an experiment as 
regards the numbers who would come to the Hall, while the ex- 
periment would be a costly one. A statement published in 
England, in 1857, went to show that when a free popular library 
was only opened in the daytime, its issues for the year were 
less than its number of volumes ; while they increased to five 
and even to seventeen times that number, when opened in the 
evening. Should a collection like the Bates Hall show such an 
increase — which from its character may be deemed very doubtful 
— my figures for attendance already given are very far too low. 

III. By dispensing loith the vacation. ' ' I am not aware that 
any considerable library, used with frequency, ever omits the 
annual vacation. This Library certainly never has, and the 
tendency has not been to lengthen the interval in proportion to 
the increase of the collection. We took this year twenty-two 
working days to clean and examine over 140,000 volumes. At 
Manchester they give three days each quarter, twelve in the year 
to this work upon theii' reference library of 40.000; and eight 
days each to their five lending libraries, having an aggregate 
of 45,000, or twenty days to a total of 84,000 volumes. I have 



70 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 

selected tlie returns of tliis work as given l)y the li1)rarians of a 
few of our different classes of libraries : — 



Boston Athenteum 
Cincinnati Public Library- 
Library of Congress 
Cincinnati Mercantile Library 
Charlestown Public Library 
Astor Library .... 
Philadelphia Library . 
Philadelphia Mercantile Library . 
Boston Mercantile Library 
Baltimore Mercantile Library 



14 days 
14 " 
August 
3 weeks 

1 month 
August 
3 weeks 

2 " 
2 " 
2 " 



It is utterly impracticable to carry out an examination (and 
no one familiar with library economy will . deny the neces- 
sity of an examination) with fresh assistants, called in for the 
purpose, while the circulation is going on. It would inevitably 
happen that undrilled hands would make confusion worse con- 
founded. It must be done with regular drilled assistants, and 
their number can be kept at the lowest by providing a way to 
go over the Library by instalments. A special attendant 
charged with the care of the shelf lists — and one perhaps, 
would be necessary for each hall — with a young person to 
assist, might I think accomplish the task, with no farther with- 
drawing of the books from circulation than perhaps half the 
novels at one time, when that department may be under survey 
in the Lower Hall. 

The gain would be a use of the Library at a time, when its 
daily issues would probably be half the average daily use of the 
year ; a more direct personal responsibility where there is now 
a divided one, inducing lapses common to such' divisions ; a more 
systematic preparation and care of the shelf lists and conduct 
of the examination from the uninterrupted attention of particular 
attendants ; and the ability to make our Library and fiscal years 
correspond. 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 71 

The disadvantages would be an increase of our pay-roll about 
$1,500, and perhaps more, without possibly an increase of circu- 
lation warranting it ; and our inability to know tl^e exact status 
of the Library at one particular time, not essential perhaps to 
our proper conduct of its affairs. At the same time it must be 
confessed the departure from the established rule, based upon 
experience the world over, will be made with misgivings, and with 
no certainty of success in the practical working of what seems 
clear in theory. The necessary details of the work done in this 
way will hardly be as simple, and may prove too complex with 
the ordinary use going on, to be thorough and effectual in their 
working. ' 

CATALOGUES. 

I look for the printing of the third volume of the Bates Hall 
Catalogue, during the coming year. 

To hasten the printing of the first volume, which was delayed 
nearly three years after this building was occupied, large classes 
of cross-references were thrown out, which materially lessens 
the value of the volume, great as it is. The second volume 
followed the same plan ; but it seems now desirable that these 
omissions should be embodied in the third, — namely, cross 
references under " subjects " from all collected works of authors, 
serial works (not periodicals), and pamphlets. Cross references 
under " subjects " are now given to monographic works only, 
and not to these if in pamphlet form, or of less than a hundred 
pages — a poor test of course of the value of a production, and 
particularly so in science. These omissions make our present 
printed catalogues very unsafe guides under the head of sub- 
jects, as it will be seen no reference is made to three large 
classes of productions. This matter to be printed is all con- 
tained in the card catalogues, but our experience shows that this 
card catalogue is of little value to anybody but the officers, and 
it is consulted by the public with the utmost iufrcquency, — not 



72 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 

five or six times a year. The labor which has been bestowed 
on the preparation of these cross references is well nigh lost, 
unless they are put in print. They will increase the bulk of 
the third volume materially it is true ; but it seems futile to 
amass a large library without preserving the most perfect guide 
to its contents. Such a system would add infinitely to the value 
of great libraries in Europe ; but it must grow with the library 
if it is ever done. 

In order to render duplicate shelf copies available, their shelf- 
numbers should be always inserted with those of the original 
copies. This has not invariably been done, and a large number 
of such books belonging to the Parker collection, found no 
record in our Supplement, because their titles had appeared in 
the first volume. 

Of the Lower Hall Finding Lists, it is probable that all will 
be printed before another report. That for " Fiction " has 
already required a third edition, each time augmented. It will 
be a question to be decided when the work is all done, whether 
the needs of our Lower Hall are not "better served by frequent 
editions of these class lists, and more economically, than by a 
bibliographical volume of one alphabet, like that of 1858. K 
we begin a third volume of the Bates Hall catalogue, there 
seems no alternative but depending upon these Finding Lists 
until the completion of that work. 

Our printed Bulletins have been a success. They have been 
eagerly welcomed by our frequenters ; greatly valued by other 
institutions ; and I have received very laudatory opinions of them 
from accomplished librarians in Europe. 

The daily manuscript Bulletins of accessions have been kept 
up for each hall. Every thing is inserted, except duplicates, in 
that for the Lower Hall ; but in that for the Bates Hall, only 
such American books as have been published within a year, and 
foreign books of not over three years' standing. This last was 



PUELIC LIBRARY. ' 73 

begun on the 1st of October, 1867, and to the 22d of July, 
1868, there had been 1,810 titles entered. 

The Indicator has given continued satisfaction, and the libra- 
ries at Lynn, Newport, and perhaps others, have adopted its 
fundamental principles. They have an instrument for tlie same 
purpose at Syracuse. A photograph of ours sent to Manchester, 
England, elicited the fact that they had had a similar contrivance 
in use there for eight years. The common experience of this 
library and theirs, seems to have driven the two to similar prac- 
tices, not only in this matter, but in others. Our instrument 
has been verified three times during the year, and the variations 
from the shelves has been found each time, to be only between 
six and twelve. 



FINANCE. 

The table (Appendix 0.), shows our expenditures for our 
library — not our fiscal — year. 

The means and facilities of the Library of Congress exceed 
ours. The income of the New York Mercantile Library, is 
about equal to ours ($57,000). The other of the libraries of 
the country, having large resources, follow in this order. 

Philadelphia Mercantile Library . . . $31,600 

Boston Athenseum ...... 22,000 

San Francisco Mercantile Library . . ■ . 20,000 

Astor Library 15,000 

The Library at Liverpool has granted it by rates, <£ 8,000. 
The act of Parliament establishing the English public libraries, 
allowed a levy of a half-penny in the pound sterling, according 
to the act of 1850 ; but the rate was raised to a penny in 1855. 
Sheffield levies three farthings. 



74 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 



FINE ARTS. 
The Library has been fortunate during the past year in receiv- 
ing from the hands of certain gentlemen, (who knew the extreme 
value of tlie services rendered by Mr. George Ticknor, during 
-his long connection with it,) a bust of that gentleman, executed 
with admirable skill by Mr. Martin Milmore. 

Respectfully submitted. 

JUSTIN WINSOR, 

Siqjerintendent. 
NOVEMBEB Ist, 1868. 



APPENDIXES 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT 



1868. 



APPENDIX [A]. 

DEATH OF MR. JEWETT. 



Since the publication of the last Bulletin, the Library and the 
community have experienced an irreparable loss in the death of 
Charles C. Jewett, the late Superintendent. He was attacked by 
apoplexy about three o'clock on the afternoon of the 8th of Janu- 
ary, 1868, while at his post in the Library, and, in a state of partial 
paralj'sis, was a few hours later conveyed to his home at Braintree. 
He became unconscious on the way, and after lingering through 
the early part of the night, died an hour after midnight, in the fifty- 
second year of his age. "When the sad intelligence reached the 
city, through the press and in public and private cu'cles, the loss 
was mourned with a more extensive recognition of his worth than 
often follows upon the death of a citizen. 

On the 10th, a special meeting of the Trustees was held, when 
they were addressed by their President, TV. "VV. Greenough, Esq., 
as follows : 

" Gentlemen of the Board op Trustees : 

" I have asked you to come together to-day for the purpose of 
taking suitable action in reference to the death of Mr. Charles 
Coffin Jewettj late Superintendent of this institution. Mr. Jewett 
had early given his attention to the formation, arrangement and 
cataloguing of libraries. He had possessed himself, by study at 
home and abroad, of an amount of general accomplishment in this 
specialty, probably unequalled by any other person in this country. 
In the year 1855, when it first became evident that the Public Li- 
brary of the City of Boston was, through the generosity of Mr. 
Bates, to become one of the great libraries of the country, the ne- 



78 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 

cessity of securing the best bibliographic skill made itself evident 
to the Board of Trustees. Fortunately, at this time Mr. Jewett 
had given up his connection with the Smithsonian Institution, and 
was ready for a new engagement. His services were secured, and 
he entered upon his new duties in the autumn of that year, tempora- 
rily at the library of Mr. Ticknor, until a house in Boylston Place, 
leased by the Trustees, was ready for the books given by Mr. Bates. 
He continued his work there until the present building was ready 
for the deposit of the whole library. He was then, in the year 1858, 
elected as Superintendent b}' the City Council, upon the unanimous 
recommendation of the Board of Trustees, and from that time to 
the present has been its recognized head. The extent and variety 
of his labors can only be known to those who have watched over 
his work during its progress. The noble catalogues of the Bates 
and Lower Halls owe to him the system, arrangement and com- 
pleteness which have made them not only indispensable to every 
one using the Library, but also valuable as text-books of universal 
knowledge. He was in himself a library of useful information, and 
the result of its application to our institution has been the creation 
of a system which future experience will find it hard to improve. 
I cannot close this brief sketch without a reference to the personal 
qualities which made him so agreeable an associate, not only to 
those with whom he was officially connected, but to all who con- 
sulted him in reference to their wants or their studies. His kind- 
ness of manner was based upon real kindness of heart. In the va- 
rious complicated and perplexing duties which he was called upon 
to fulfil, no one ever questioned the conscientiousness as well as 
the kindliness of their discharge. With this brief introduction, I 
submit the matter to your consideration, with the desire that there 
shall be placed upon our records a suitable memorial of the services 
which he has rendered to the Library, and of our appreciation of 
his qualities as a man." 

The following preambles and resolutions were then passed by a 
unanimous vote, all present rising as a mark of respect : — 

" Whereas, We have been suddenly called upon to recognize 
the hand of Divine Providence, laid in token of His will to receive 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 79 

him, upon the head of one who was connected with us by both offi- 
cial and friendly ties ; and 

"Whereas, In the loss of our endeared Superintendent we feel 
no common sorrow, and experience unwonted bewildei-ment ; there- 
fore be it 

" Resolved^ That in the death of Charles Coffin Jewett this Li- 
brary is deprived of a steadfast friend, and an officer of such inge- 
nious mind and such rare knowledge apposite to his duty, that we 
hardly know where to find his equal. 

" Resolved, That during the years that he has borne official rela- 
tions to this Board and its predecessors, he has been found to have 
unvarying courtesy, Christian kindliness, prudence in counsel, a 
skilful readiness in practical devices, and untiring forethought, 
destined to inure to the benefit of this institution. 

" Resolved^ That the President be requested to close the Library 
on the day set apart for his funeral. 

" Resolved, That we testify our most sincere attachment to our 
departed friend by attending in a body the ceremonies of his burial. 

^'■Resolved, That inasmuch as the deceased endeared himself to 
all with whom he came in contact, we know we anticipate the 
wishes of the past Trustees, and present and past attendants of 
the Library in inviting them to join with us in the last solemnities 
of respect. 

" Resolved, That these proceedings be entered upon the records 
of this Board. 

" Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be transmitted to 
the family of Mr. Jewett, with the assurance of our entire sympathy 
for them in the loss of a husband and a father who was as con- 
spicuous in those relations as he was efficient in others, more 
particularly within our cognizance. 

" Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be transmitted to 
His Honor the Mayor, for the information of the City Council." 

The funeral ceremonies took place at Trinity Churcli, in this 
city, on Saturday, the 11th inst., at noon ; and were conducted by 
Bishop Eastburn, assisted by the Rev. Henry Burroughs, Jr., of 



30 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 

Christ Church, Quincy. The following gentlemen acted as pall- 
bearers : — 
• lion. George S. Ilillard. 

Hon. Charles R. Train. 

Charles Folsom, Esq. 

Dr. John Appleton, Librarian of the Historical Society. 

Dr. Samuel C. Jackson, of the State Library. 

Hon. Edward Avery, of the Senate. 

Wm. F. Poole, Esq., of the Boston Athenseum. 

Prof. "Wm. E. Jillson, General Assistant of the Public Library. 

A large congregation was present, consisting of the family of 
the deceased, the present and past Trustees and attendants of the 
Library, and many men of prominent station and name. The re- 
mains were deposited beneath the church. 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



81 



APPENDIX [B]. 

EXTENT AND INCREASE OF THE LIBRARY. 



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JTOTE.— To account for discrepancies noticeable in the above table, compiled from the 
Annual Reports, it should be stated that, prior to the Report of 1861, the annual statement of 
the whole number of volumes was obtained by adding the accessions of the year to the pre- 
vious aggregates; and although the numbers in both Halls are now obtained by actually 
counting the books upon the shelf-lists, there still remain several sources of unavoidable dis- 
crepancies, such as the following : Works reported at first as containing a certain number of 
volumes, afterwards for good reasons bound in a diflferent number; works reported as 
duplicates subsequently exchanged for works in a different number of volumes ; pamphlets 
bound separately and counted as books; also volumes lost or worn out, but for some reason 
not replaced, which disappear in the aggregates, but remain as originally reported among 
the accessions. 



82 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 



APPENDIX [C]. 

BATES HALL CLASSIFICATIONS, 
Not including the Parker, Bowditch and Prince Libraries, nor the sale duplicates. 



Classes. 


155 


Is 

"3 




fi 

§•-3 


ii 


13 

1° 


Cyclopaedias, etc 


24 


1,054 


86 


.014 


1,140 


.012 


Bibliograpliy aud Literary History . 


170 


2,585 


231 


.037 


2,816 


.03 


General History aud Geography 


170 


3,070 


140 


.022 


3,210 


.C34 


American History and Polite Literature 


515 


9,339 


1,168 


.186 


10,507 


.112 


English " " " . . 


493 


11,049 


762 


.121 


11,811 


.126 


French " " " . . ' 


188 


5,983 


335 


.053 


6,318 


.067 


Italian " " " . . 


87 


4,679 


229 


.036 


4,908 


.052 


German " " " 


228 


3,486 


159 


.025 


3,645 


.039 


Greek, Latin, and Philology 


190 


3,072 


100 


.016 


3,172 


.034 


Other History and Literature 


214 


2,707 


216 


.034 


2,923 


.031 


Periodicals and Transactions 


314 


10,458 


341 


.054 


10,799 


.115 


Theology, Ecclesiastical History, etc. 


968 


7,962 


595 


.095 


8,557 


.081 


Metaphysics and Social Sciences 


185 


2,820 


343 


.054 


3,163 


.033 


Jurisprudence 


145 


2,014 


161 


.026 


2,175 


.023 


Political Economy .... 


79 


671 


66 


.001 


737 


.008 


Medical Science 


370 


4,405 


556 


.08f 


4,961 


.053 


Natural History 


155 


3,925 


170 


.027 


4,095 


.044 


Mathematics and Physical Sciences . 


312 


4,556 


318 


.051 


4,874 


.052 


Useful Arts 


96 


877 


116 


.018 


993 


.011 


Fine Arts 


197 


2,557 


205 


.033 


2,762 


.039 


Bound Miscellaneous Pamphlets 


• • 


387 






387 


.004 


Totals 


5,100 


87,656 


6,297 




93,953 





PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



83 



APPENDIX [D]. 

LOWER HALL CLASSIFICATIONS. 



CI.ASSES. 


i 




Mi 
pi 


<3 


Theology, Moral and lutellectual Sci- 
ence, etc 


1,488 


84 




1,572 


Jurisprudence and Political Science 


270 


7 




277 


Medicine, Mathematics, Physics, Natu- 
ral Sciences 


1,705 


74 




1,779 


Useful and Fine Arts, Military and Na- 
val Science 


599 


30 




629 


American History and Politics 


1,023 


38 


2 


1,059 


Foreign History and Politics . 


1,333 


42 




1,375 


Poetry, Drama, Oratory, Rhetoric . 


2,2G8 


86 




2,354 


Fiction and Juveniles .... 


7,165 


1,113 




8,278 


Biography . . . 


2,342 


103 


216 


2,229 


Travels 


1,897 


105 


121 


1,881 


Libraries, Collections, Periodicals, etc. . 


2,621 


184 




2,805 


German Books 


1,137 


69 




1,206 


Italian Books 


221 






221 


French Books 


1,043 


63 




1,106 


Books of Reference 


87 


5 




92 




25,199 


2,003 


339 


26,863* 



* The two hundred and fifty-aeven condemned books for the year have not been excluded 
from this count. 



84 



CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 132. 



APPENDIX [E]. 



LIST OF DONORS, 1867-8 

Bates, Joshua, London, interest on the fund of 

Bigelow, Hon. John P., " " " 

Franklin Club, " " " 

Lawrence, Hon. Abbott, " " " 

Phillips, Hon. Jonathan, " " " 

Townsend, Mary P., " " " 



850,000 

1,000 

1,000 

10,000 

30,000 

4,000 

$96,000 



The interest of these donations, with the exception of that of 
the Townsend Fund (which is invested in a mortgage at six per 
cent), has been paid in gold, at the rate of five per cent, per 
annum. 



A bust, in marble, of Mr. Ticknor, by Martin Milmore, pre- 
sented by several gentlemen. 

The donation of Mr. Ticknor, in the following list, is of particu- 
lar interest, as it constitutes what we may hope will prove the 
nucleus of a department of embossed books for the Blind. 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



85 



DONORS. 


Vols. 


Pam. 


Abbeville. Societe imperiale d'emulation, 


1 




Adams & Co., 




1 




Adlev, G. J., A. 3L, 






2 


Albany. Young Men's Association, 






1 


Alcott, A. B., 






1 


American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 


2 




American Baptist Missionary Union, 




1 




American Bible Society, 






3 


American B'd of Commissioners for For 


eign Missions, 




2 


American Tract Society, 




1 




American Unitarian Association, 




3 


1 


Andovcr. Theological Seminary, 




1 


1 


Anonymous, 1 Broadside, 1 map. 




37 


68 


Appleton, William S., 




1 




Atwood, Gilbert, 




4 




Austin, Samuel, Providence, 




4 




Babcock, W. G., 






1 


Baker, Nathaniel B., Adjutant Geneml 


of loiva, 


1 




Baker, Nelson M., Lafayette, N. Y., 




1 




Balfour, David M., 




2 




Ballard, Joseph, 




1 




Baltimore. Peabody Institute, 




1 




Barnard, Henry, LL.D., 




1 


2 


Barnard, James M,, 




1 




Bates, Samuel R., 






1 


Benedict, Lieut. George G., 




1 




Bickmore, Albert S., 






2 


Bigelow, Dr. George F., 






1 


Bill, Ledvard, New York, 




2 




Bird, F. W., East Walpole, 






1 


Blunt, Hon. Orison, N. Y., 




2 




Bogart, William H., Albany, N. Y., 




9 


30 


Boston. City of. 




23 




T'mrd nf Trndo 




11 


416 








2 


Free Religious Association, 






1 


Gas Light Co., 




5 




General Theological Library, 






3 


AT^TTT TTnrvlonrl r^/^in oni-iTn f /-.vtt i-\f '\fna\f 




1 


Provident Association, 


■^'^"■-"^» 




4 






1 


1 












1 


Young Men's Christian Association, 




1 


Both, Dr. Carl, 






2 


Boutwell, Hon. George S., Oroton, 




1 





86 



CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 132. 



DONOKS. 


Vols. 


Pam. 


Bo^Yditcll, Henry I., 31. D., 


3 


43 


Bowles, Leonard C, 






Bradford, Charles T., 






Bradlec, Eev. Caleb Davis, 1 map, 1 plan, 


11 


138 


Brigham, Charles B., 






Brigham, William T., 






Brighton. Town of. 




6 






3 


Brown, George W., Baltimore, 




1 


Brown, S. G., D.D. 




1 


Bullock, His Excellency Alexander H., 




1 


Burnham, Caj)t. F. A., North Hanson, 


4 




Burnham, T. 0. H. P., 


3 




Burroughs, Rev. Henry, Jr., 


1 




Cambridge. Harvard College, 




2 


Astronomical Observatory, 


2 




Canada, House of Commons, 




1 


Capen, John, 




1 


Carrillo, Bev. Crescendo, by Dr. H. Berends, 


1 




Cartier, Hon. G. E., of Canada, 


4 


2 


Chambers, George E., Registrar of Philadelphia, 




1 


Charlestown, 




2 


Cheever, David W., 3L D., 




1 


Cheny, Hon. R. H., 


3 




Chicago Historical Society, 


2 




Christian Inquirer, Publishers, 


1 




Christian Register, Publishers, 


2 




Christern, F. "W., New York, 


17 


4 


Cincinnati. Ohio Mechanics' Institute, 




1 


Public Library, 




1 






1 






Young Men's Mercantile Library Association, 




2 


Clapp, David, & Son, 


3 




Clarke, Edward H., 3f. D., 


1 




Cleveland, Rev. Charles, 


3 




Cook, George, 31. D., 




1 


Cutter, Charles A., 


3 


2 


Dalton, Edward B., 3L D., 


1 




Dana, Edmund T., 


1 




Deane, Charles, Cambridge, 




1 


Derby, George, 31. D., 




1 


Des Moines Library Association, 




1 


Dexter, Franklin B., New Haven, 


1 


52 


Dexter, George, Cambridge, 


4 


2 


Dexter, Julius, Cincinnati, 


8 


3 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



87 



DONORS. 


Vols, 


Pam. 


Divoll, Ira, St. Louis, 3fo., 


1 




Drowne, Bev. T. S., 




1 


Dunham, Rev. Samuel, West BrooJcfield, 


1 




Dunlap, S. F., 


2 




Dureu, E. F., Bangor, 


1 




Ellis, Charles M., 




1 


Ezoquiel de Elia, Sr. Don, by E. Ritchie Dorr, 


1 




Evfinsville, Indiana. Board of Trade, 


1 




Everett, H. S., Mw York, 


1 




EA-erett, William, 


13 


3 


Feltou, Frankliu E., 




1 


Fernald, Woodbury M., 


1 




Ferris, John A., 


2 




Fisher, A. E., 




1 


Foley, William J,, 


1 




French, Jonathan, Odd Numbers of Newspapers, 


238 


224 


Galitzen, Prince Michel A., 


1 




Gannett, Ezra 8., i). D., 




2 


Gerhard, Fr., Mw York, 




2 


Godkin & Co., 


1 




Goldsmith, Seth, 


1 




Graham, Theodore, 


1 




Gray, Horace, 


2 




Great Britain. Commissioners of Patents, 


69 






1 








T?/-\TTril A C'fl>i^V-»/-»V>-il /^O 1 W/-\/»l i-»f TT 


3 








Green, Samuel A., 31. D., 2 maps, 


6 


350 


Greenough, William W., 


9 


1 


Griscom, John II., 3L D., 


1 




Haliburton, R. G., 31. A., 






Harris, Samuel, D. D., 






Haskins, Bev. G. F., 






Haynes, Prof. Henry W., 


1 




Heinzen, Karl, 


4 




Henchman, Daniel, 






Ilevves, George W., Philadelphia, 






Hewitt, Girart, St. Paul, 3Iinnesota, 






Hey wood, J. C, New York, 


1 




Hill, Hamilton A., 




64 


Hill, Hiram, 


1 




Holtun, Isaac F., 


1 




Hooper, Hon. Samuel, 


7 


2 


Huggins, Samuel, England. 


1 




Iowa, State of. 


•l 




Jackson, 3Iiss E. C, 


15 





88 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 



DONORS. 


Vols. 


Pam. 


Jaj', John, 


1 




Jeffries, Drs. J. and B. J., 


130 




Jillson, Prof. Willimn E., 


3 




Johnson, Elizabeth, 


4 




Kin^sbuiy, William B., 


3 




Kirk, Edward N., D. D., 


1 




Kleeberg, , Washington, D. C, 


1 




Kroeger, A. E,, St. Louis, 




7 


Lawrence, Abbott, 


117 


38 


Leonard, Joseph, 


2 


12 


Lewis, Hon. George, 


1 




Lewis, "Weston, 


1 




Lewis, Winslow, M. D., 




1 


Liberal Christian, Publishers, 


1 




Lincoln, Ilenr}' W., 


1 




Lincoln, Hosea H., 




1 


Lippincott & Co., 




4 


Litchfield, Simeon, 


2 




Little, T. A., JanesviUe, Wisconsin, 




1 


Liverpool. Free Public Library, 




7 


Lloyd, Samuel 11., 


2 




Lombard, Dr. Josiah S , 




5 


London. Corporation of. 




1 


Listitution of Civil Engineers, 


1 




Royal Geographical Society, 


2 




Royal Society, 


1 




Long Island Historical Society, 




1 


Loring, James S., 


31 


24 


Lowefl, City of. 


1 




McCammon, D. C, PhiladeljMa, 


1 


2 


McDougall, Hon. William, Ottawa, Canada, 


1 




McLellan, George W., 


1 




Madison, Wis. Historical Society, 




2 


Magill, Edward H., 


2 




Manchester, Eng., City of. 




2 


Public Library, 






Mansfield, M. B., Salem, 


2 




Marv'ii; Selden E., Adjutant General of New York, 






Marvin, TheopMlus R., 


1 




Massachusetts. State of. 


6 




TTi'of/~.Tir»o1 Krvoiof-ir 


1 




Xi-ioLVJi ik^tii kj^^^icty , 
















1 








May, IIiss Abby W., 


1 




Miles, Dr. C. E., 




2 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



89 



DONORS. 


Vols. 


Pam. 


Miller, Wood & Co., 


2 




Milwaukee. Young Men's Association, 






Missouri, State of. 






Mitchell, Edward L., 






Moore, Charles W., 






Morgan, Horace H., ;S^^. Louis, 






Morgan & Co., 






Morse, Godfre}', 






Motte, E. L., 


3 




MuUer, Frederick, 




2 


INIunsell, Joel, Albany, 


1 


8 


Napoleon III, Emperor of the French, 


2 




Nash, Nathaniel C, 




1 


Neely, Edward B., 




1 


New Bedford. Free Public Library, 




4 


New Haven. Merchants' Exchange, 




1 


"\^.t1/^ r~'^1Irvr.-/-> 




2 






New Yoi'k. Chamber of Commerce, 


1 








1 


l\T/^i»j^m"i (-1 1 ri r .1 »"»i»n TXT A o c/~\r»i o f i i^n 




1 


Union League Club, 




2 


Stito nf 


\ 




Newport. Eedwood Library and Athemeum, 




1 


Nichols, William, Jr., 




2 


Nichols, W. R., 


2 




Norcross, John E., 




1 


Ohio. State Library, 




1 


Oliver, F. E., M. D., 




1 


Onderdonk, Henry, Jr., Jamaica, L. I., 




3 


Osgood, Rev. Samuel, 




1 


Otis, Miss INIary, 


1 




Padrick & Co., Cincinnati, 


8 




Paige, James W., 


232 


138 


Paine, Prof. Marty n, 3L D., 


1 




Palfrey, William, 


1 




Parker, Henry T., London, 


3 




Parker, John W., 




18 


Patterson, Ptobert, 


1 


8 


Peabody Institute, South Danvers, 




1 


Pepper, Bev. George W., Raleigh, N. C, 




2 


Perkins Institution and Massachusetts Asylum for the 






Blind, 




1 


Perrv, Rev. John B., 




2 


Perry, Rev. W. S., 




6 


Phelps, Hon. Charles A., 


1 





90 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 



DONORS. 


Vols. 


Pam. 


Pliiladelphia. Dental College, 




1 


Philadelphia, riiihulelphia Library Co., 




1 


Mercantile Library Co., 




2 


Presbyterian Historical Society, 


2 




Pittsburg. Young Men's Mercantile Library Associa- 






tion, 




1 


Poughkeepsle. Vassar College, 


1 




Preble, Ca2')t. George IL, 


1 




Presbury, B. F., 


1 




Preston, Joshua P., 


18 




Providence, City of, 


1 


1 


Athenaeum, 




1 


Butler Hospital for the Insane, 




1 


Punchard, Rev. George, 


3 


1 


Putnam, Mrs. E., 


1 




Putnam, George, D. D., 


2 




Putnam, James 0., 




1 


Quincy, Edmund, 


1 




Quincy, Misses Eliza and Susan, 




1 


Quincy, Hon. Josiah, 




86 


Rankin, Rev. Jeremiah E., Charlestown, 


1 




Redhead and Wellslager, Publishers^ Des 3foines, 


1 




Rhees, William J., Washington, 


1 




Rhode Island Numismatic Association, 




1 


Rice, Hon. Alexander IL, 


3 




Robbins, Hon. James M., 


1 




Ropes, Joseph S., 




1 


Sabine, John D., Washington, 




19 


St. Louis. Mercantile Library Association, 




1 






1 
93 


Salter, Richard H., M. D., 


7 


San Francisco. Mercantile Library Association, 




2 






1 


Seaverns, Joel, M. D., 


2 


Seidensticker, James G., 


3 


15 


Shaw, Benjamin S., M. Z>., 




1 


Simson, James, New York, 


1 




Slack, Charles W., 


7 




Smith, C. C, 




2 


Smith, Dexter, 


1 




Smith, Freeman A., 


1 




Snow, Edwin M., M. D., 


1 


2 


Somerville. Tufts College, 




2 


Spooner, The Misses, 


69 


33 


Spooner, Lysander, 




3 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



91 



DONORS. 


Vols. 


Pam. 


Stevens, Benjamin F., 


1 




Stimpson, Frederic IL, 


10 




Stokes, J. W., 


1 




Stone, Rev. Edwin M., 




1 


Storer, David Hnmphreys, M. i)., 


1 




Storer, Prof. Frank H.," 




3 


Storer, Horatio R., M. D., 




2 


Sumner, Ron. Charles, 


28 


51 


Sunday Times, Publishers, 


2 




Talbot, I. Tisdale, 3f. D., 


1 


4 


Taunton. Public Library, 




1 


Terwilliger, James, Neiv York, 


1 




Thayer, "l/iss Charlotte, Dorchester, 


1 




Thorndike, John H., 




3 


Ticknor, Ifiss Anna, 


19 




Ticknor, George, 


8 




Tiffany, W. G., 




2 


Toohey, Prof. J. H. W., 




3 


Townsend, Solomon B., 31. D., 


27 


26 


Tracy, Pev. Joseph, 


2 




Troy. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 




1 


Trumbull, Hon. J. Hammond, Hartford, 




1 


Union Republican Committee, 


1 




United States, Department of the Interior, 


G7 






y 


1 


TimT'in Ci^ ^ivin-itinn 


1 


1 


. Naval Academy at Annapolis, 




1 




1 








T^/~\»^o I'i^t^-im^^ i^f* iA-\f\ \^r\o^ (\f\^/ir\ 1 -m r> i^ 










Department of State, 


1 




■■ — Dep. of the Treasury', Bureau of Statistics, 




11 


. Department of War, Bureau of Refugees for 






Freedmen, etc., 


1 


4 


Corp"^ of En^ineer'^ 30 mai}'' 


5 


2 




3 


2 


Qin'r.-/^/-\Ti r^ nnni'nVa C\P(\nn 


3 


1 


Library of Congress, 




4 


Sanitary Commission, Executive Committee of 






Boston Associates, 




1 


Venice. Istituto Veneto, 


1 


3 


Vermont. Colonization Society, 




1 


University of. 




3 


Vienna. K. K. Geologische Reichsanstalt, 


1 




Voss, M. L., Leipzig, 


1 




Walch, John T., Neivhern, X. C, 




2 



92 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 



DONOKS. 


Vols. 


Pam. 


"VValley, lion. Samuel II., 




1 


Waltliam, Town of, 




1 


Walton, Geoi-o-e A., Laivrence, 1 broadside, 


7 




AVard, Joseph^ W., 


2 




Washington. Smitlisonian Institution, 


1 




Webber, Samuel G.. 3L I)., 


1 




Wells, Eev. E. M. P., 




1 


West Point IMilitary Academy, 


2 




Weston, Eev. David, Worcester, 




1 


Wheatland, Dr. Henry, Salem, 


8 


190 


Wheeler, William A., 


2 




Wheelwright, William, Buenos Ayres, 1 photograph, 3 






maps, 3 broadsides, 


9 


7 


Whipple, Charles K., 


8 




White, Samuel S., PIdladelpMa, 


1 




Whitmore, William H., 


4 


14 


Whitney, Rev. Frederic A., Brighton, 


1 


3 


Whitney J. D., Northampton, 




1 


Wilson, Hon. Henry, 


5 




Winchell, Rensselaer, 


2 




Wiusor, Justin, 


3 




Winthrop, lion. Robert C, 


1 




Wood, Rev. Horatio, Loivell, 




1 


Woodman, Cyrus, Cambridge, 




1 


Woodward, H. E., 




4 


Worcester. City of. 


2 




American Antiquarian Society, 




3 


Free Public Library, 




1 


Worthington and Flanders, 


1 




Wright and Potter, 




(^Q 


Wyman, Jeflries, M. D., 




1 


Wyman, Morrill, M. D., 




1 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 93 

PERIODICALS. 

Complete Files for the Year from the Publishers. 

Advocate of Peace. 

American Baptist Missionary Union. Missionary Magazine. 

American Unitarian Association. Monthly Magazine. 

Boston Daily Evening Traveller. 

Boston Musical Times. 

Bostoner Intelligenz-Blatt. 

Commonwealth, The 

Edinburgh. Royal Society. 

Freemason's Monthly Magazine. 

Hall's Journal of Health. 

Herald of Health. 

Herald of Peace. 

Journal of the Society of Arts. 

London. Royal Astronomical Society. Monthly Notices. 

. Royal Geographical Society. Proceedings. 

Masonic Monthl}'. 

Nation, The. New York. 

New England Farmer. 

Notes and Queries on China and Japan. 

Orpheus, The. 

Radical, The. 

Salem. Essex Institute. Historical Collections. 

Proceedings. 

Saturday Express. 

Student and Schoolmate. 

Sunday Times. 

Triibner's American and Oriental Literary Record. 

Vienna. K. K. Geologische Reichsanstalt. Jahrbuch. 

Weekly Standard. Buenos Ayrts. 



94 



CITY DOCUMENT. — Xo. 132. 



APPENDIX [F]. 



REGISTRATION. 



Tears. 


Names. 


Applications 
sent to 
Police. 


Cards 
Refused. 


Cards 
for- 
feited. 


Cards issued 
for B. H. 


Cards 

issued for 

L.H. 


Persons 
using Cards. 


1854-8 

1859-07 

18G8 


17,066 
52,859 
12,057 


2,810 


233 


33 


10,884 


5,887 


11,791 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



95 



APPENDIX [G]. 



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96 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 



APPENDIX [H]. 

BOOKS ASKED FOR, AND BRITISH PATENTS. 



Books asked tor. 


Use of British 
Patents. 


Years. | agj^edVor. 

1 


already. 


Received 
since. 


Persons. 


Hours' use. 


185-t . 

1855 . 

1856 . 

1857 . 

1858 . 

1859 . 

1860 . 

1861 . 

1862 . 

1863 . 
186i . . 

1865 . 

1866 . 

1867 . 

1868 . 




123 

221 

121 

18 

85 

178 

91 

115 

204 

135 

56 

58 

306 

oiG 

1,120 


95 
183 


260 
423 


182 
187 
197 
269 


. 243 

248 
248 
367 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



97 



APPENDIX [J]. 

BATES HALL READING. 





Percentage of Use. 


Classifications. 
















1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


1867. 


1868. 


English History, Topography, and General 
Literature . 


17.5 


16 


13 


18 


20 


17 


American (Northern and Southern) History, 
Topography, and General Literature 


6 


8.5 


10 


8 


12 


12 


French History, Topography, and General 
Literature 


5 


7.5 


6 


6 


7 


4 


German History, Topography, and General 
Literature 


2.5 


2 


2.5 


2 


4 


' 


Italian History, Topography, and General 
Literature 


4 


2.5 


2 


3 


3 


2 


Other History, Topography, and General 
Literature 


3.5 


3.5 


2.5 


4 


4 


5 


General and Epochal History 


4.5 


4.25 


3 


3 


3 


3 


Greek, Latin, and Philology .... 


3 


3.5 


3 


3 


3 


2 


Bibliography 


2.5 


3 


3 


3 


1 


2 


Transactions 


3 


1.5 


2.3 


5 


7 


5 


Periodicals 


7 


6 


6 


11 


7 


8 


Useful and Fine Arts 


9 


12 


16.5 


8 


5 


8 


Natural History 


4 


4 


4.6 


3 


3 


4 


Theology, Ecclesiastical History, Ethics, 
Education, etc 


11 


11 


8.5 


4 


4 


8 


Medicine 


7 


5 


4.6 


8 


6 


6 


Law, Government, and Political Economy . 


1.5 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


Mathematics and Physics, etc. 


5.5 


5.5 


7.5 


7 


8 


7 


Miscellaneous Pamphlets, bound . 


2 


.75 


.75 


2 


1 


2 



98 



CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 132. 



APPENDIX [K]. 







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PUBLIC LIBRARY, 



99 



APPENDIX [L]. 



Lower Hall. 

CIRCULATION OF PARTICULAR BOOKS AND AUTHORS, 

180 8. 

Note. — Figures in the first column represent C02)ies, when the work is bound in one volume! and 
volumes, when in more than one. 





Copies, or 


Circulation 




vols. 


in vols. 


NOVELS, ETC., IN ENGLISH. 






Austen, Jane, total. 


40 


267 


Edition of Novels, 


5 


34 


Emma, 


6 


41 


Mansfield Park, 


7 


47 


Northanger Abbey, 


1 


12 


Persuasion, 


1 


12 


Pride and Prejudice, 


10 


82 


Sense and Sensibility, 


10 


39 


Braddon, M. E., total, 


56 


948 


Aurora Floyd, 


18 


175 


Doctor's Wife, 


3 


74 


Eleanor's Victory, 


3 


63 


John Marclimont's Legacy, 


4 


78 


Lady Audley's Secret, 


3 


62 


Lady's Mile, 


3 


73 


Sir Jasper, 


3 


41 


Others, 


19 


382 


Bront6, C, total, 


28 


382 


Jane Eyre, 


10 


85 


Professor, 


9 


68 


Shirley, 


4 


112 


Villette, 


5 


117 


BuLWER, total, 


171 


1560 


Alice, 





72 


Caxtons, 


11 


73 


Devereux, 


4 


28 


Disowned, 


6 


97 


Ernest Maltravers, 


15 


122 


Eugene Aram, 


17 


74 


Eva, 


2 


35 


Falkland, 


1 


12 


Godolphin, 


8 


45 



100 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 





Copies, or 


Circulation 




vols. 


in vols. 


Godolpbin and Falkland, 


2 


10 


Harold, 


4 


44 


Pompeii, 


7 


110 


Barons, 


3 


19 


Leila, 


5 


74 


Lost Tales of Miletus, 


2 


16 


Lucretia, 


6 


68 


My Novel, 


25 


145 


Night and Morning, 


6 


57 


Oxonians, 


1 


25 


Paul Clifford, 


7 


157 


Pelham, 


10 


81 


Pilgrims of the Rhine, 


3 


14 


Rienzi, 


3 


48 


Strange Story, 


7 


82 


What will he do with it ? 


8 


121 


Zanoni, 


3 


41 


Charles, Mrs., total. 


54 


514 


Draytons, etc.. 


8 


44 


Kitty Trevylyan, 


6 


93 


Schonberg-Cotta Family, 


22 


98 


Others, 


18 


279 


Cooper, total, 


273 


4417 


Afloat and Ashore, 


6 


233 


Bravo, 


10 


213 


Deerslayer, 


16 


295 


Last of the Mohicans, 


16 


245 


Lionel Lincoln, 


9 


29 


Miles Wallingford, 


10 


147 


Pathfinder, 


20 


160 


Pilot, 


11 


159 


Pionc ers, 


14 


225 


Prairie, 


11 


149 


Red Rover, 


13 


276 


Spy, 


8 


217 


Stories of the Sea, (Selections), 


9 


209 


Stories of the Woods, " 


11 


238 


Others, 


109 


1662 


Cummins, Miss, total. 


30 


446 


El Fureidis, 


11 


73 


Haunted Hearts, 


5 


110 


Lamplighter, 


5 


77 


Mabel Vaughan, 


9 


186 


Dickens, total, 


381 


4777 


American Notes, 


7 


113 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



101 





Copies, or 


Circulation 




vols. 


in volB. 


Barnaby Riiclge, 


17 


164 


Bleak House, 


14 


158 


Christmas Books and Short Stories, 


41 


776 


David Copperfiekl, 


29 


298 


Dombe^^ and Son, 


27 


460 


Great Expectations, 


17 


144 


Hard Times, 


12 


99 


Little Dorrit, 


30 


220 


Master Humphrey's Clock, 


17 


195 


Martin Chuzzlewit, 


21 


338 


Nicolas Nickleby, 


38 


383 


Old Curiosity Shop, 


3 


60 


Oliver Twist, 


17 


382 


Our Mutual Friend, 


22 


254 


Pickwick, 


26 


416 


Pictures of Italy, 


3 


30 


Sketches, 


6 


76 


Tale of Two Cities, 


11 


122 


Uncommercial Traveller, 


1 


18 


Child Pictures from Dickens, 


5 


24 


Readings, 


1 


2 


Edgewokth, Miss, 


110 


193 


Edition of Tales, etc., 


98 


81 


Sepamte Novels^ etc., 


12 


112 


Eliot, Geo. (Mrs. Lewes), 


34 


188 


Adam Bede, 


9 


34 


Felix Holt, 


7 


69 


Mill on the Floss, 


7 


49 


Eomula, 


2 


14 


Scenes of Clerical Life, 


2 


8 


Silas Marner, 


7 


14 


Fielding. 






Joseph Andrews, 


1 


8 


Tom Jones, 


5 


75 


Amelia, 


1 


9 


Grey, Mrs., total, 


43 


812 


Hawthorne, 


74 


355 


Blithdale Romance, 


7 


76 


House of the Seven Gables, 


9 


89 


Marble Faun, 


12 


60 


Old Manse, 


15 


51 


Scarlet Letter, 


10 


19 


Twice Told Tales, 


17 


43 


Others, 


4 


177 


Hentz, Mrs., total, 


113 


2678 



102 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132 





Copies, or 


Circulation 




vole. 


in vols. 


Earnest Linwood, 


15 


259 


Planter's Northern Bride, 


15 


323 


Rena, 


10 


209 


Others, 


73 


1887 


Hood, Tom, 






Tales, 


2 


40 


Tylney Hall, 


5 


17 


Hughes, Tom, total, 


47 


521 


School Days at Rugby, 


10 


212 


Oxford, 


30 


215 


White Horse, 


7 


94 


James, G. P. R., total, 


178 


1855 


Richelieu, 


3 


56 


Lever, total, 


153 


1953 


Charles O'Malley, 


17 


281 


Tom Burke of " Ours," 


16 


209 


LOXGFELLOW. 






Hyperion, 


8 


30 


Kavanagh, 


5 


17 


Makkyat, Fred., total. 


148 


2845 


Midshipman Easy, 


21 


327 


Privateersman, 


7 


143 


Mitchell, D. G. 






Doctor Johns, 


4 


53 


Dream Life, 


5 


31 


Fudge Doings, 


2 


11 


Lorgnette, 


4 


3 


Reveries, etc.. 


7 


89 


MuEHLBACH, C. (Mrs. Mundt), total. 


130 


2270 


Andreas Hofer, 


5 


38 


Berlin, etc.. 


8 


142 


Daughter of an Empress, 


12 


235 


Empress Josephine, 


10 


101 


Frederick the Great, 


11 


242 


Frederick and his Family, 


5 


88 


Henry VIII, 


9 


125 


Joseph II, 


10 


209 


Katharine Parr, 


2 


96 


Louisa of Prussia, 


7 


144 


Marie Antoinette, 


10 


305 


Merchant of Berlin, 


11 


278 


Napoleon in Germany, 


20 


181 


Germany in Storm and Stress, 


10 


86 


MuLOCK, Mlss (Mrs. Craik), total, 


110 


1601 


John Halifax, 


13 


196 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



103 





Copies or 


Circulation 




vols. 


in Tola. 


Opie, Mrs., total. 


37 


451 


Reade, Chas., totals 


67 


588 


Cloister and the Hearth, 


10 


53 


Clouds and Sunshine, 


5 


81 


Foul Play, 


10 


26 


Griffith Gaunt, 


1 


14 


It is never too late to Mend, 


IG 


111 


Love me little, love me long. 


4 


64 


Peg Wofflngton, 


3 


65 


Others, 


18 


174 


Scott, totals 


321 


1677 


Edition in 27 vols.. 


221 


598 


Abbot, (8 copies add'l in above ed.), 


5 


27 


Antiquary (5 ditto), 


7 


49 


Betrothed and Talisman (7 ditto), 


1 


22 


Black Dwarf (7 ditto), 


3 


67 


Bride of Lammermoor (11 ditto). 


4 


19 


Fortunes of Nigel (10 ditto), 


3 


40 


Guy Manneriug (10 ditto), 


6 


76 


Heart of Mid-Lothian (19 ditto), 


2 


47 


Ivanhoe (20 ditto). 


3 


44 


Kenilworth (8 ditto), 


5 


79 


Monastery (9 ditto). 


5 


75 


Old Mortality (7 ditto), 


2 


27 


Peveril of the Peak (6 ditto). 


4 


45 


Pirate (12 ditto). 


2 


65 


Quentin Durward (11 ditto), 


6 


107 


Redgauntlet (6 ditto). 


2 


53 


Rob Roy (13 ditto). 


2 


81 


St. Ronan's Well (7 ditto), 


1 


20 


Tales of a Grandfather (30 ditto), 


5 


46 


Waverley (3 ditto). 


8 


51 


Waverley Anecdotes, 


3 


39 


Woodstock (6 in above ed.). 






Chronicles of Canongate (14 ditto), 






Anne of Gierstein (5 ditto). 






Count Robert of Paris (4 ditto), 






SiMMS, W. G., total, 


110 


1726 


Stephens, Mrs., total, 


37 


893. 


Stowe, Mrs., 






Agnes of Sorrento, 


6 


145 


Dred, 


30 


122 


Little Foxes, 


1 


20 


May Flovper, 


2 


24 


Minister's AYooing, 


4 


10& 



104 



CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 132. 





Copies or Circulation 




vols. 


in voU. 


Our Chiirley, 


1 


92 


Pearl of Orrs Island, 


10 


200 


Queer Liltlc People, 


1 


22 


Uncle Tom, 


12 




Thackeray, total, 


115 


927 


English Humorists, 


2 


22 


Newcomes, 


10 


8G 


Pendennis, 


18 


121 


Vanity Fair, 


6 


121 


Trowbridge J. T. 






Neighbor Jackwood, 


13 




Cudjo's Cave, 


7 


143 


WiNTHROP, Theo., total, 


22 


197 


Canoe and Saddle, 


2 


53 


Cecil Dreeme, 


9 


63 


Edwin Brothertoft, 


2 


26 


John Brent, 


9 


55 


YoNGE, Miss, total, 


192 


1123 


Heir of Redcliffe, 


22 


159 


ESTABLISHED EICTION. 






Children of the Abbey (Roche), 


9 


48 


Don Quixote, 


7 


145 


Gil Bias, 


3 


73 


Gulliver's Travels, 


5 


97 


Paul and Virginia, 


1 


27 


Picciola, 


2 


15 


Sam Slick (Haliburton), 


1 


28 


Sanford and Merton (Day), 


3 


37 


Tristram Shandy, 


2 


27 


Vicar of Wakefield, 


5 


79 


Undine, 


4 


53 


BOOKS RECENTLY POPULAR, BUT NO LONGER 






FRESH. 






Amber Gods, 


1 


24 


Alton Locke, 


4 


31 


Artemus Ward, 


4 


82 


Charles Auchester, 


4 


41 


Coningsby, 


4 


29 


Dunn Browne, 


1 


22 


Elsie Venner, 


16 


250 


Kennedy's (J. P.) tales. 


11 


191 


Lavengro, 


2 


22 


New Priest (Lowell), 


5 


14 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



105 





Copies or 


Circulation 




vols. 


in vols. 


Naomi, 


2 


30 


Pique, 


7 


115 


Potiphar Papers, 


1 


13 


Vivian Grey, 


3 


48 


Ware, (Wm.) tales. 


16 


58 


Typee, 


3 


36 


Verdant Green, 


3 


46 


JUVENILES. 






Mayne Reid's books. 


199 


4784 


Andersen's books. 


20 


386 


Grimm's Tales, 


11 


238 


Oliver Optic's books, 


113 


3668 


Ballantyne's books. 


61 


1436 


Kingston's (W. H. G.) books. 


41 


852 


Winning bis Way (Carleton), 


6 


146 


Every Boy's Book, 


2 


9 


Boy's Own Book, 


3 


30 


Swiss Family Robinson, 


4 


108 


Robinson Crusoe, 


4 


85 


Tanglewood Tales (Hawthorne), 


2 


65 


POETRY. 






Byron, 


28 


57 


Burns, 


35 


35 


Browning, Robert, 


6 


18 


Browning, Mrs., 


7 


43 


Bryant, 


3 


14 


Clough, 


1 


2 


Campbell, 


5 


20 


Holmes, 0. W., 


6 


35 


Holland (Kathrina), 


3 


25 


Hood, 


26 


46 


Longfellow, 


44 


122 


Lowell, 


3 


24 


Milton, 


26 


65 


Moore, 


16 


13 


Meredith Owen, 


3 


12 


Pope, 


11 


35 


Shakespeare, poems. 


4 


22 


plays. 


45 


128 


Saxe, 


3 


8 


Scott, 


48 


118 


Swinburne, Song of Italy, 


1 


2 


Tennvson. 


13 


' 8a 



106 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 





Copies orj 


Circulation 




vols. 


in vols. 


Tiippcr, 


4 


12 


Taylor, Bayard, 


6 


14 


Whittier, 


7 


43 


"Wordsworth, 


12 


18 


HISTORY, ETC. 






Abbott's Histories, 


15 


168 


Adams' (,Tohn) AVorks, 


10 


9 


Alison's Europe, 


7 


38 


Bancroft, 


81 


187 


Benton's Thirt}^ Years, 


4 


22 


Bunsen's Egypt, 


5 


15 


Carlyle's French Revolution, 


4 


22 


Calhoun's Works, 


6 


2 


Catlin's Indians, 


2 


12 


Drake's Indians, 


1 


9 


Fronde's England, 


40 


276 


Franklin's Works, 


10 


9 


Headley's Histories, 


7 


16 


Hume's England (with continuations), 


42 


107 


Motley's Histories, 


50 


246 


Macaulay, 


43 


127 


Michelet's France, 


4 


20 


Napoleon Ill's Cffisar, 


2 


14 


Prescott, 


74 


154 


Parkman's Pontiac, 


2 


8 


Parkman's Pioneers, 


1 


3 


Robertson, 


12 


18 


Squier's Central America, 


3 


4 


Washington's Works, 


12 


6 


Webstei^'s Works, 


12 


29 


ON THE REBELLION. 






Barnard's Peninsular Campaign, 


1 


7 


Coffin's Four Years' Fighting, 


2 


20 


Greeley's American Conflict, 


2 


27 


Miles O'Reilly, 


2 


28 


Mosby and his Men, 


1 


10 


iSTichols' Great March, 


1 


3 


Richardson's Secret Service, 


1 


14 


Semmes's Cruise, 


2 


31 


Sherman's March, 


1 


1 


With General Sheridan, 


1 


14 


Youth's History of the Rebellion, 


8 


11 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



107 





Copies or 


Circulation 




vols. 


in voIb. 


LOCAL HISTORY. 






Barry's Massachusetts, 


3 


G 


Drake's Boston, 


3 


37 


Frothinghara's Siege of Boston, 


7 


21 


Wells's Sam. Adams, 


3 




Loriug's Boston Orators, 


2 


5 


BIOGRAPHY. 






Boswell's Johnson, 


2 


6 


Bj-ron, by Moore, 


3 


2 


Carson (Kit), Life of. 


4 


25 


Choate's Works, 


10 


7 


Davis, Jeff, Life and Imprisonment of, 


1 


3 


Forster's Goldsmith, 


1 


2 


Franklin, various lives of, 


25 


Go 


Grant, various lives of, 


11 


45 


Lessing, by Stahr, 


2 


2 


Lincoln, various lives of, 


10 


18 


McClellan, various lives of, 


5 


7 


Parton's Famous Americans, 


1 


9 


Burr, 


14 


20 


" Franklin, 


15 


25 


" Jackson, 


7 


19 


Quincy's Life of Josiah Quincy, 


3 


36 


Washington, various lives of. 


48 


103 


TRAVEL. 






Agassiz's Brazil, 


7 


84 


Baker's Albert Nyanza, etc., 


2 


16 


Burton's Travels, 


9 


6 


Du Chaillu, 


7 


26 


Eothen, 


2 


4 


Hayes's Open Polar Sea, 


4 


37 


Hillard's Italy, 


4 


14 


Howell's Italian Journeys, 


3 


11 


Kane's Arctic Explorations, 


20 


32 


Livingston's Africa, 


12 


32 


Speke's Africa, 


5 


5 


Taylor's (Bayard) Travels, 


41 


94 



108 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132 





Copies * 


Circulation 




vols. 


in voU. 


SCIENCES, AKTS, rKOFESSIONS. 






Agassiz's books, 


8 


26 


Allen's Grape Culture, 


3 


9 


Arago's books, 


2 


5 


Blot's Cookery, 


2 


15 


Beecher's (II. W.) books, 


9 


38 


Copeland's Landscape Gardening, 


2 


14 


Downing's Landscape Gardening, 


4 


9 


Faraday's books, 


7 


19 


Guyot's Earth and Man, 


1 


9 


Halleck's Military Art, 


1 




How I managed my Children, 


4 


5 


How to get a Farm, 


2 


10 


How to Farm Profitably, 


1 


6 


Inquire Within, 


3 


24 


Mackenzie's Receipts, 


6 


34 


Miller, Hugh, 


14 


51 


Napoleon Ill's Works, 


2 


8 


Putnam's (Mrs.) Cook-book, 


2 


13 


Powell's Plurality of Worlds, 


2 


2 


Rand's Parlor Gardener, 


3 


11 


Ruskin's books. 


21 


128 


" Modern Painters, 


16 


37 


Six Hundred a Year, 


1 


7 


Ten Acres Enough, 


2 


20 


Walton's Complete Angler, 


2 


8 


Whewell's Plurality of Worlds, 


4 


3 


THEOLOGICAL, ETC. 






Channing's Works, 


6 


13 


Ecce Homo, 


4 


41 


Ecce Deus, 


4 


43 


Essays and Reviews, 


1 


2 


Reply to, 


1 


1 


Ingraham's Pillar of Fire, 


1 


5 


Ingraham's House of David, 


2 


13 


Pilgrim's Progress, 


5 


15 


Renan's Jesus, 


4 


22 


Robertson's (F. W.), Life, 


12 


4 


" Sermons, 


5 


23 


Spurgeon's books. 


2 


19 


Comte's Positive Philosophy, 


1 ' 


10 



PUBLIC LIBRAKY. 



109 





Copies or 


Circulation 




TOlS. 


in voU. 


FRENCH, GERMAN AND ITALIAN. 






About, 


7 


33 


Auerbach, 


36 


139 


Dante, 


5 


2 


Dudevant (Geo. Sand). 


26 


57 


Goethe, 


55 


78 


Goldoni, 


4 


4 


Hugo, v., 


19 


58 


Heine, 


12 


19 


Kotzebue, 


40 


260 


Lessing, 


10 


33 


Moliere, 


6 


17 


Petrarch, 


2 


1 


Racine, 


1 


4 


Richter, 


35 


30 


Rousseau, 


20 


19 


Schiller, 


36 


101 


Scribe, 


5 


20 



no 



CITY DOCUMENT. —No. 132. 



APPENDIX [M]. 

READING IIOOM. 



Periodicals divided by Languages. 



English 
French 
German 
Italian 

Total 
Kept in Bates Hall 

Total in the Library 



By Classes. 

Scientific 

Literary 

Religious 

Illustrated and foreign newspapers 
Commercial .... 

Fashion 

Illustrated comic magazines 

Juveniles 

Fine arts 



Statistics of Use. 

Number of days open 

Readers of periodicals, males . 

Readers of periodicals, females 

Readers of reference books, males 

Readers of reference books, females 

Readers non-resident 

Total readers 

Daily average readers 

Magazines read, total . 

Magazines read, daily average 

Visitors not reading . 

Visitors not reading, daily average 




1868. 



PUBLIC LIBKArtY. 

APPENDIX [N]. 



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112 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 132. 



APPENDIX [O]. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 
Expenditures from 1 October, 1807, to 30 September, 18C8. 



Binding . 

Books 

Catalogues 

Expense 

Fuel 

Furniture 

Gas 

Periodicals 

Printing 

Salaries 

Stationery 

Transportation 



$ 4,0G7 29 

11,476 75 

2,004 16 

1,348 02 

193 50 

1,934 81 

1,644 46 

1,665 95 

1,507 07 

23,285 47 

1,172 14 

633 14 

$50,932 76 



The main items for fuel this year did not go into our accounts till after October, 1868. 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



113 



POSTSCRIPT, 



Since the completion of this report, the Library has suffered a 
great loss in the death of its General Assistant, Professor Wm. E. 
Jillson, who died at his house in Jamaica Plain, November 27, 
18G8, in the forty-fifth j^ear of his age. A native of Cumberland, 
R. I., he pursued his studies at Day's Academ3', Wrentham, 
Mass., and entered Brown University in the autumn of 1841, and, 
being obliged to leave his studies during one year on account of 
feeble health, did not graduate till 1846. He then taught in the 
High School at Providence, and was subsequently at the head of a 
similar institution at Bristol, R. I. In 1850, he went abroad and 
remained several jj-ears, chiefly in the north of Europe, studying 
its languages, and the principles of library econamy in the large 
libraries under the advice of the late Superintendent Professor 
Jewett. Returning, he became instructor of French and German 
at Brown University, and subsequently accepted the Professorship 
of Rhetoric and the modern Languages in Columbian College, 
Washington, where he taught successfullj^ for more than five years. 
He was next called to the Librarianship of the Patent Office, where 
he had a field for his remarkably combined executive and biblio- 
graphical abilities. During his summer vacations, meanwhile, he 
rendered the late Superintendent of this Library eflScient assis- 
tance in the preparation of the first volume of the Bates Hall Cat- 
alogue in 1858 and 1859 : and later in the summer of 1865, he was 
again temporarily employed on the proofs of the Supplemental 
Catalogue. The Trustees then thought so well of his talents, that 
he Avas invited to fill the office of General Assistant, which posi- 
tion he accepted in October of that year. In April, 1867, he was 
attacked in the library by bleeding of the lungs ; and the prerao- 



114 CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 132. 

nitions of his disease prevented his acceptance of the Superin- 
tendencj' as mentioned in the Report. 

At a meeting of the Trustees held Dec. 1st, the following reso- 
lutions were unanimousl}^ adopted : — 

Resolved, That in the 'death of Wm. Everett Jillson, General 
Assistant of this Library, the institution has lost an officer of rare 
attainments, practised efficiency, and discriminating talents ; the 
public a servant alive to their interests in the administration of its 
affairs, and this Board an agent in whom the}' had unvarying con- 
fidence, and for whose character they entertained great respect. 

Resolved, That this Board offers to his bereaved family the 
assurance of their deep sympathy. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be entered upon the recoi'ds of 
the Board, and a copy of the same be transmitted to the family of 
the lamented dead. 



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NOV 23 1878