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Full text of "Annual report"

CITY OF BOSTOK. 



City Document No, 66. 



TWENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE TRUS- 
TEES OF THE PUBLIC LIBRARY. 1877. 

Public Library, June 30, 1877. 

His Honor Frederick 0. Prince, Mayor of tJie City of 
Boston : — 

Sir, — I have the honor to transmit to you, herewith, the 
Tweuty-lilth Annual Report of the Trustees of the Public 
Library, prepared in obedience to tlie fourth section of the 
Ordinance of 1869, relative to the Public Library. 
Very respectfully, 

JUSTIN WINSOR, 

Secretary of the Board of Trustees. 

Li conformity with the requirements of the ordinance con- 
cerning the Pul)lic Library, the Trustees have the honor to 
present to the City Council their Twenty-tilth Annual 

REPORT; 

being the eighth made under the last ordinance, and includ- 
ing the results of administration for the year ending on the 
3Uth April last. 

There are also submitted herewith, two reports : one of 
the Examining Committee, which consists for the present 
year of Gilbert Attwood, Esq., James R. Chadwick, M. D.% 
Rev. James Freeman Clarke, John C. Gray, Jr., Esq., and 
Mrs. Kate Gannett Wells, with George B. Chase, Esq., of 
the Board of Trustees, as Chairman ; the other, of the 
Superintendi-nt, with the usual full tabulations of the condi- 
tion of the Library, and of the details of its work during 
the year. Further reference to these documents will be 
made later in the present report. 

After the lapse of a quarter of a century, and Avhen this 
institutiou has become an integral part of the daily life of a 
large portion of the community, it is just to the original 



2 City Document No. GQ. 

Trustees to examine anew the principles upon 'which it was 
established, to see how far the reasonable expectations of its 
projectors have been realized, and to state what experience 
has added upon their original outlook. 

By a vote of the City Council, passed on the 30tli June, 
1852, the Trustees of the Public Library were requested to 
report upon the oi)jects to be attained by the establishment 
of a public library, and the best UK^de of eifecting them. 

On the 6th July following the Trustees made a full and 
exhaustive report upon the questions presented for their 
consideration. The document was substantially from the 
brain and hand of Mr. Geo. Ticknor, in which he evolved 
the plan which he considered vital to success, and which was 
mianimously recommended by a large committee, consisting 
of members of the City Government and the whole Board of 
Trustees. 

In considering this report, one may first notice the key- 
note of the movement; "Although the school, and even 
the college and university are, as all thoughtful persons are 
well aware, but the first stages in edueation, the public 
makes no provision for carrying on the great work. It im- 
parts, with a noble equality of privilege, a knowledge of the 
elements of learning to all its children ; but it aftbrds them 
no aid in going beyond these elements. It awakens a taste 
for reading, but it furnishes to the public nothing to read. 
It conducts our yoinig men and our young women to that 
point where they are qualified to acquire from books the 
various knowledge in the arts and sciences which books 
contain ; but it docs nothing to put these books within their 
reach." 

These patent necessities the Trustees proposed to reach 
by forming a Library which should embrace four classes of 
publications : — 

/'Vvvs'/. — Books that cannot be taken out of the Library, 
comprising books strictly of reference, cyclopedias, diction- 
aries, public documents, and works which, from their rarity 
and costliness, cannot easily be replaced. 

/Second. — Books that but few persons will wish to read, 
of which, therefore, but one copy will be kept, but which 
should l)e peiniitted to circulate fully. 

Third. — Books that will be often asked for. By follow- 
ing the popular taste, — unless it should ask for something 
unhealthy, — one may hope to create a real desire for general 
reading. 

Fourth. — Periodical pn1)lications, probably excluding 
newspapers, except such as may be given by their pro- 
prietors. 



Public Library. 3 

Having thus indicated the classes of works of which they 
considered the acquisition desirable, they proceed to say 
that "the establishment of such a library should be made 
without any sharply defined plan, but to be governed by 
circumstances as they arise. The commencement should 
be made, of preference, in a very unpretending manner : 
erecting no new building, and making no sh'>w; but spend- 
ing such moneys as may be appropriated for the purpose 
chiefly on books that are known to be really wanted, rather 
than on such as will make an imposing, a scientific, or a 
learned collection ; trusting, however, most confidently, that 
such a Library in the long run will contain all that anybody 
can reasonably ask for. For, to begin by making it a really 
useful library ; by awakening a general interest in it as a city 
institution, important to the whole people, a part of their 
education, and an element of their happiness and prosperity, 
is the surest way to make it at last a great and rich library 
for men of science, statesmen, and scholars, as w^ell as for the 
great body of the people, many of whom are always suc- 
cessfully struggling up to honorable distinctions, and all of 
whom should be encouraged and helped to do it." 

How far these principles, then first declared, proved to 
be wise and prophetic, the statistics of this and of other 
libraries formed upon the same basis will abundantly indi- 
cate. 

The next important consideration was the condition under 
which the pro[)osed collection of books might be loaned for 
home use. "All officers of the city government, therefore, 
including the police, all clergymen settled amongst us, all 
city missionaries, all teachers in our public schools, all mem- 
bers of normal schools, all young persons who have received 
medals or other honorary distinctions on leavino: our m-am- 
mar and higher schools, and, in fact, as many classes as can 
safely be enti usted with it as classes, might enjoy, on the mere 
names and personal responsil)ility of the individuals com- 
posing them, the right of taking out freely all books that 
are permitted to circulate, receiving one volume at a time. 
To all other persons, women as well as men, living in the 
city, the same privilege might be granted on depositing the 
value of the volume, or of the set to which it may belong; 
believing that the pledge of a single dollar, or even less, 
may thus ensure i)leasant and profitable reading amongst us. 

"In this way the Trustees would endeavor to make the 
Public Library of the city, as far as possible, the crowning 
glory of our system of city schools ; or, in other words, they 
would make it an institution fitted to continue and increase 
the best effects of that system by opening to all the means 



4 City Document No. 6G. 

of self-culture through books, for Avhich these schools have 
been specially qualifying them." 

The closing sentence is equally striking : " Should the 
expectation of the Trustees be realized, and should it (the 
library) be found to supply an existing defect in our other- 
wise admirable system of public education, its future con- 
dition may well be left to the judicious liberality of the city 
government and the public spirit of the community." 

These were the facts, theories, and princi[)les upon which 
this library was projected. The liberty of use was, how- 
ever, upon its opening largely increased by extending its 
freedom, in the regulation adopted bib. November, 1853, to 
" all inhabitants of the City of Boston, who may be duly 
certified to the Librarian," after signing a promise that they 
will observe all the existing rules and regulations of the 
Library. 

One sentence in this report proved immediately prophetic. 
The Trustees " are inclined to think that, from time to time, 
considerable collections of books will be presented to the 
library by citizens of Boston, who will take pleasure in re- 
quiting in this way the advantages they have received from 
its public institutions, or who for any other reason are de- 
sirous of increasing the means of public improvement." In 
consequence of this suggestion, Mr. Joshua Hales, of Lon- 
don, who had spent a portion of his early life in Boston, 
made his first noble donation of $50,000, the income of 
which was to be devoted to the purchase of books of a per- 
manent value. 

]n fact, the hope expressed by ^Ir. Ticknor had to some 
extent been realized. The contributions to the Librnry 
in additions to its variety and vahie of books had found 
expression in two forms already, and gradually extended 
to others mcn-e important. In the first inception, l)y the 
gift of numerous volumes, and of n)oneys to be ex- 
pended in the purchase of books ; and afterwards in the 
donation or bequest of smns to be funded, the interest of 
which woukl be in trust for the purchase of books ; in the 
bestowal of libraries previously collected by private indi- 
viduals ; in the gift of volumes or scries of publications from 
the public spirit of individuals; in the gift of moneys, the 
whole or the interest of which, could be expended at the 
option of the Trustees; and, further, in services for the 
Library having a money value, hut made without charge. 
In these forms public sympathy and support have been 
manifested. Ihe donation of Mr. Bates placed the institu- 
tion upon a firm foundation, and the recognition of the fact 
and the subsequent liberality of its friends have been in entire 



Public Libraey. 5 

harmony with the first strong sympathy which gave support 
to its earliest stnigules to accomplish its destined work. In 
fact, this Avas the first Library organized for public use on 
this continent Avhich was disposed to take in a large way to 
itself individual contributions, and to hold sacredly, accord- 
ing*to the exjjressed wishes of the donor, the gift or bequest 
upon the exact terms required, whether or not subject to 
the conditions of entire freedom. Other libraries in the 
country, already large, were either general collections with 
no provision for specialties, or founded by individual gen- 
erosity and named for the founder, which precluded other 
names to be of sufiicient value in the connection to tempt 
those otherwise disposed to assist in a result of which the 
only credit would redound to the founder. In this Library 
every book given singly would bear forever, or until the 
book was extinct with use, the name of the donor, and every 
collection of books made for special objects, or for the 
varied pursuits of its donor, could be kept together in mem- 
ory of the scholar or scientist who had made these works 
his companions and servants during his lifetime, and was 
desirous that their use' should be systematically continued in 
the future. 

Gf the oldigations of the institution to these benefactors, 
the Trustees cannot speak too Avarmly in gratitude. In the 
classifications of generosity it is most agreeable to call atten- 
tion to the assistance rendered to the stores of the collection 
by the following public-spirited individuals, — as well as by 
corporate bodies ; the enumeration naturally divides itself 
into four principal classes : — 

First. — Gifts of books in considerable numbers or of large 
value. 

1841 and 1847. The City of Paris, by means of the sj'stem 
of international exchange projected and put into operation 
by M. Vattemare. 

1849. From Hon. Robert C. Winthrop and J. D. W. 
Williams. 

1850. From Edward Everett. 

Previous to 1853. From George Tickuor and John P. 
BigeloAv. 

1854. Charles G. Putnam and John Ware. 

1855. George S. Hillard and Jonathan Phillips. 
185(). Walter Channing and Thomas G. Appleton. 

1857. Lemuel Shattuck. 

1858. Miss Elizabeth Belknap and Joshua Bates. 
18G0. William Gray. 

1867. William Everett. 



6 City Document No. 6(j. 

1868, Jonathan French and James W. Paige. 

1869. John C. Eopes. 

1872. W. C. Gannett. 

1873. Henry R. Dalton and the Massachusetts Medical 
Society. 

1874. John J. Dixwell. • 

The largest donors, after Mr. Bates, were ]\Ir. George 
Ticknor, avIio, in addition to his bequest of his special library, 
gave 4,417 volumes ; Mr. Edward Everett, Avho, at various 
times presented 1,688 vohmies ; and the Massachusetts 
Medical Society, who contributed their own medical and 
surgical collectitm, 1,887 volumes, to that department of 
our own lil)rary, now the most extensive in New England. 

Second. — Gifts of Libraries. In 185S, the Bowditch 
Library and the English Patents, through the interposition of 
Mr. Joseph Story. In 1860, the Library of Theodore Parker. 
In 1866, th(^ Prince Library, placed on deposit. In 1871, the 
Ticknor Library of Spanish and Portuguese books. The 
Sumner Library, and East Boston Lihrar}^ Association's 
collection in l'S70. The ^Nlattapan I^ihrary of South Bos- 
ton in 1872. The Dorchester and Milton Library in 1875. 

Third. — Benefactions of money to be expended in books : 
In 1852, James Brown, Samuel A})pletou. In 1853, James 
Nightingale, J. lugersoll Bowditch. In 1855, ^Nlrs. Sally 
I. K. Shepard. In 1865, J. L. Stoddard. 

Fourth. — Gifts and bequests of money to be funded and 
interest used in purchase of b(»oks : In 1850, J. P. Bigelow, 
$1,000. In 1852, Joshua Bates, $50,000. In 1853, Jona- 
than Phillips, $10,000. In 1859, Ahbott LaM'rence, $10,000 ; 
Mary P. Townsend, $4,000. In 1861, Jonathan Phillips, in 
addition, $20,000. In 1863, Franklin Club, $1,000. In 
1871, George Ticknor, $4,000, for increase of his special 
collection. In 1874, Henry L. Pierce, $5,000, — whose 
donation was made on condition that the expenditure of 
jirincipal as well as interest was subject to the judgment of 
the Trustees. 

As a result of this combination of municipal support and of 
private generosity, the Library possessed, on the 1st of May, 
812,010 volumes, of which 212,885 were deposited in the 
Central Library, and 69,125 were distributed among its 
six branches. During the twenty-live 3'ears of its history 
there has been drawn from the City Treasury, for the pur- 
chase of books and periodicals, the sum of $315,482.0.5, of 
which $124,410 was derived from the interest of the trust- 
funds belonging to the Library, and iu keeping of the City 



Public Library. 7 

Treasurer. Besides this Mr. Bates had expended $50,000 
in the purchase of books ; so that the real cost to the tax- 
payers of the city for the contents of this magnificent collec- 
tion has been only $191,072 05. 

Of the books it is found that 110,794 volumes have been 
received as gifts, without counting the 26,825 obtained with- 
out any direct expense, by the annexation of Cliarlestowu 
and Brighton, and the consequent ownership of the Public 
Libraries already established. The expenditure of public 
moneys for books is therefore represented approximately by 
175,425 volumes purchased therewith, beside many thousand 
no longer existing because worn out in legitimate use. 

But pecuniary statements can give no proper presentation 
of the absolute material value of this great Library. The 
purchases made under the direction of Mr. Bates, the Parker 
and Bowditch Libraries, the unique Spanish and Portuguese 
Library of ]\Ir. Ticknor, the priceless Prince collection, the 
Shakespearian and general wealth of the Barton Library, 
and the special mathematical importance of the Bowditch 
Library cannot, as a whole, be measured by any money- 
value. 

But the friends of this institution have not been satisfied 
by the simple presentation of books. They have adorned its 
interior and increased its attractions by the gifts of works of 
art, of themselves alone a permanent interest to all visitors. 
In 1858 there were received from Mr. J. T. Eldridge and 
others, the statue of the Arcadian Shepherd Boy, by Mr. AV\ 
W. Story, and from Mr. Edward Brooks an original portrait, 
by Duplessis, of Benjamin Franklin, the representative 
Bostonian of his age. In 1859 Mr. Josiah Quincy and 
others gave to the Library, to be forever kept within its 
walls, the great picture by John Singleton Copley, represent- 
ing King Charles I. of England demanding from the House 
of Commons the five recusant members in Jan., 1642. Mr. 
Gardner Brewer, a constant friend of the institution, pre- 
sented to it, in 1865, Toschi's group in marble of the Holy 
Family, and in 1872 Greuze's portrait of Franklin, another and 
important study of the marked features of that distinguished 
patriot. In 1869 Mr. Thomas G. Appleton, in addition to 
his previous generous help, covered the walls of our public 
rooms and filled our portfolios with the rare engravings of 
Cardinal Tosti's collection, which had been purchased by him 
for the piu-pose in Rome. 

Of portraits and portrait busts, there have been given to 
the Library busts of its two first presidents ; of Mr. Everett, 
in 1863, and of Mr. Ticknor, in 1868. The Baroness Van de 
Weyer, in 1«66, presented the portrait and bust of her father, 



8 City Document No. GQ. 

Mr. Joshua Bates, our greatest beuefactor. Besides these 
the Library possesses a bust 1>y li. S. Greenoug-h, of J. 
Lothrop Motley, whose recent death is so deeply mourned by 
two continents, the oflering of Thos. B, Curtis, Esq. ; 
Young's portrait of Mr. Everett, given in 1870 ; and Wight's 
half-length of Charles Sumner, painted in 1856, and pre- 
sented to the city in 1874. 

The patriotic reverence for the great names of history 
associated with distinguished services to the City of Boston, 
has added materially to our treasures. In 187(5, the city 
came into jiossession, through a subscription started by one 
of the earliest and most constant friends of the Liln*ary, the 
Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, of the original gold medal voted 
by Congress to General Washington in commemoration of 
the evacuation of Boston by the British troops in 1776. The 
condition of the gift of this unique and precious national as 
well as local memorial was that it should be kept forever iu 
the Public Library. Before this, however, there had been 
presented, in the year 18(i6, as the result of another sub- 
scription, the magnificent silver vase given by the citizens of 
Boston to ]\Ir. Webster, in 1835, in recognition of his 
unsurpassed intellectual efforts in the Senate of the United 
States in sui)p(>rt of the Constitution and of the Union. It 
was purchased after his deatli from the representatives of his 
family, with their full approbation of the place of its final 
deposit. There is also another national memorial, purchased 
at the Boston Sanitary Fair, by two hundred subscriptions 
of five dollars each, — the paroles of General Burgoyne and 
General Kiedesel, and the officers of their army, signed after 
their arrival at Cambridge, whither they were conducted 
after their surrender to General Gates at Saratoga. It had 
been the property of J. AVingate Thornton, Es(|., who had 
presented it to the Fair on condition that it should be sold for 
$1,000, and thereafter be deposited iu the Boston Public 
Library. 

These freewill offerings to decorate the building, to increase 
the value and variety of its contents, and to illustrate the 
history of the city and country, will not fail to act as incen- 
tives to similar actions in the future. 

The gatherinir of the Library and its varied treasures hav- 
ing been considered, its relations to the public at its opening, 
and its con-sequent use, witii the changes of administration 
which have been gradually adopted, demand examination and 
notice. 

It is safe to say that no substantial change of much im- 
portance has been made in the freedom with which books 
were distributed. In the additions looking towards a more 



Public Library. 9 

entire liberty, required under the ordinance of 1852, which 
made the duty of the Trustees " to adopt such measures as 
shall extend the benefit of the Li1)rary as widely as practica- 
ble through the community ; " but suljsequently chano;ed in 
18()9 to "as widely as possible among the citizens and resi- 
dents of Boston," alterations were made in the regulations 
regarding some of the classes which might avail themselves 
of the uses of books. No change was made in the first class, 
which permitted any person, with the consent of the Libra- 
rian, to consult any book in the building; but in the other 
class, having reference to loans, the ages of possible borrowers 
were diminished from 18 to 16 years, and by the ordinance 
of 1869, in order to make the more important scientific, 
historic, and special treatises in the collection contribute to 
the general education and advancement of the whole com- 
munity, the Trustees were empowered, on the suggestion 
of the President of the Board, "to grant, for a limited 
period, privileges in the Library to other individuals not 
inhal)it;ints of Boston, when in their judgment the public 
interests will be advanced." But in this same ordinance a 
change came which extended more fidly the same liberties 
over wider districts. Authority was given the Trustees " to 
establish branch libraries of popular and useful books and 
periodicals in sections of the city distant from the main col- 
lection, provided the same be not established until the 
necessary appropriations be duly voted by the City Council, 
and the estimates for such appropriations be made a part of 
the annual estimates of the City Auditor. For this purpose 
they shall be authorized to provide suitable rooms, to 
appoint the necessary attendants, and to establish regula- 
tions for the same." 

In the year 1870, the reference for every applicant for 
library privileges was reduced to a single individual, who 
should testify in needful cases, without responsibility for 
any loans, that the person was to be found at the address 
which was part of the application. In the experience of 
eighteen years it had l^ecome gradually apparent that one 
name was sufficient for library administration. 

The application of these principles to the establishment 
of branches has been productive of the most signal and 
brilliant results. The Trustees, with the consent of the 
City Government, have established four branches, and the 
annexation of Charlestow^i and Brighton added tw^o addi- 
tional libraries. The total contents in those collections, on 
the 1st of May, was 69,125 volumes, which were circulated 
in the previous year among 593,222 borrowers, without 
diminishing, or, rather, from their inception, with a regular 



10 City Document No. 66. 

incren.se of the use of the simihir attractions of the lower 
hall of the Central Library, which use has grown from the 
establishment of the first branch at East Boston in 1871, 
from 231,110 to 405,732 issues in 1876-77. 

In 1854 the suggestion of Mr. Ticknor, that books of a 
suitable character, recommended for purchase, should be 
added to the Library, took a practical and systematic form. 
Under this privilege it is not surprising that many works 
were a'-ked for which were either beyond the pecuniary 
means of the Library, or out of proportion in some special 
department, or rarities difficult to obtain, or works absolutely 
out of print. Notwithstandhig the opportunity afforded to 
the public for the term of fourteen years, but 1,711 works 
were applied for; and the records do not show what pro- 
portion of these was acquired. In the eleven years since 
that period there have been recommended 18,605 works, 
of which there were, at the time of asking, already in the 
library 4,001 works, and 9,172 have been received since. 
The value of this direct connection between the reader and 
student and the Library has been very important, inasmuch 
as followers of special departments of knowledge have 
watched for the appearance of publications in these depart- 
ments, of which the Library has been kept informed, and 
thus enabled to keep pate with the necessities of profes- 
sional and educational scholarship. 

From the beginning of the Library the books were bought 
under a system arranged by Mr. Ticknor. Lists wore pre- 
pared by liim of foreign publications suitable for its needs, 
and forwarded first to Mr. Bates, and afterward to the agents 
appointed in Europe. Works printed in the English as well 
as foreign languages were purchased by him until the year 
1856, when the duty of acquiring books in English and new 
works in French was mainly assigned to Mr. Greenough, 
w^ho attended to the work of the examination of sale cata- 
logues, and of direct purchase, until 1868. From the time 
when Mr. Jewctt became Superintendent, in 1858, the foreign 
lists, relating to the standard literature of the past, were in- 
trusted to his care. From the year 18()8, all books have 
been bought under the system established, with the consent 
of the book connnittee, by the present Superintendent. 

The great development of the administrative force of the 
Library, attendant upon the enormous increase of its volumes 
and their facility of use, the great variety of their sul)jects, 
and the corresponding public demand for their distribution, 
have not entirely received the appropriate recognition from 
the City Government Avhich the interests of the great com- 
munity of readers Avould have naturally suggested. This 



Public Library. 11 

institution is the one of the educational conditions of the city 
which from its growth and value must be the most permanent. 
Schools, scholars and forms of teaching change from day to 
day. The book and the library remain as the indicators and 
exponents of the progress of learning and the arts. "When it 
became .-ipparent that the tree had taken root, when it was to 
be hol|)ed, watered, and kept in vigorous growth by the 
intelligent assistance of the City Government, there came a 
failure to i)erceive the extent of the direct accountability 
which had been placed upon the Trustees, which was mortify- 
ing and unexpected. In the mnin, the city h;id been, and it 
has continued to be, the best friend and support of the insti- 
tution. But when the suggestion came that a special conser- 
vative control shonld l>e exercised in the future, irrespective 
of annual elections, the City Council refused to relinquish 
any considcra])le or important portion of their poAver. Every 
condition relative to the administration of the Library had 
been received and carried ou as a trust. No person had been 
appointed to any position except upon their presumed merits. 
No person has been appointed up to to-day upon any official 
interposition, or upon any personal influence, irrespective of 
merit and fitness. 

When the Library, in its rapid progress, indicated the ne- 
cessity of a proportionate growth of administrative and bib- 
liothecal powers, a proposal was made to the City Government 
to change the ordniance under which the institution was 
governed, into a new form better adapted to its present ne- 
cessities. In order to obtain a permanency of the principles 
already indicated in this brief statement, it was felt to be 
essential to the Library that a Superintendent shonld be ap- 
pointed.. Avho should do the general work which had hitherto 
been performed by members of the Board of Trustees, but 
which in the future should be made the employment and the 
duty of some accomplished person who would devote his 
whole time to the proper development, arrangement, and 
presentation for public and individual uses of the treasures 
of the institution then in possession and to be acquired 
after\vard. 

On the 2d of November, 18o7, the Trustees, by the hand 
of Mr. Everett, first called the attention of the City Council 
to tile precarious tenure of the most important administra- 
tive officer of the Library. The Librarian up to that date had 
been chosen "by the concurrent vote of the two branches of 
the City Council. The Trustees conceive that this is too 
precarious a tenure for such an office. The Trustees are not 
aware that it has ever been deemed expedient in any ])art of 
the country to subject the teachers or the librarians in our 



12 City Document No. 66. 

universities and colleges to the nncertainty of an annual 
election, by public 1>odies partaking largely of a political 
character. As the Trustees are directly responsible to the 
city for the condition and working of the institution, and as 
the duty of making the requisite regulations for its manage- 
ment, and of seeing that they are carried into etfect. devolves 
on ihem, they are of opinion, for ol)vious reasons, that the 
appointment of the Librarian, and of any other officer who 
may be established in pursuance of the foregoing recommen- 
dation, should be devolved upon the Hoard." 

In consequence of this recommendation, the City Council 
gave to the Hoard the powder of appointment of" the Superin- 
tendent, subject, how^ever, to the approval of the Council, 
and to a rate of remuneration fixed by the same power. The 
tenure of office became so uncertain under this ordinance, 
and the future welfare of the Librar}' was so much at risk, 
that, in 1^63, the Trustees again called the attention of the 
Council to the danger of the situation, under the enlightened 
and trusted conclusions of the President, Mr. Everett, 
while giving voice to the unanimous opinion of the Board, 
that " as the Trustees are responsible to the City Council 
and the public for the care and administration of the Library, 
it seems but just, and it is in conformity with usage in other 
dejiartments of the government, that they should be entrusted 
with the power of electing tliose officers, subject at all times 
to the removal of the City Council." 

In response to this sugirestion the City Council relin- 
quished the power of contirmation of the Superintendent or 
Librarian, but still kept in its hands the iixing of the salary 
of the principal officer, which it h;is retained up to the pres- 
ent time, irrespective of the unanswerable presentation of 
the question presented by Mr. Ticknor, as President of the 
Board of Trustees, in 18().5. The history of the institution 
since, with its accumulated experience, and notwithstanding 
the conceded necessity of the most intelligent and indepen- 
dent adaptation of every fibre of its organization to popular 
education and improvement, has not changed this conclusion 
of the government. The responsibility of management still 
rests by ordinance with the Trustees, but they are denied 
the i)ower of executing the duties assigned them in giving 
a suitable compensation for services, of whieh, from their 
nature, they only can be the correct and proper judges. 

Tnis fact in the history of the Libiary is not stated in the 
way of complaint. The Trustees cannot be sufficiently gr.ite- 
ful for the constant lil)erality of the government which, for 
twenty-tive years, has enabled them to keep safely the 
donations of its benefactors, and by its generous help in the 



Public Library. 13 

purchase of popular books to fulfil one of the most impor- 
tant functions ot the institutif)n. Besides this, in what was 
even more important than the largest collection of volumes 
in the country, it has appropriated funds for skilled labor, 
for personal attendance, and for suitable catalogues whereby 
such books as were in the possession of the Library became 
available for the largest number of people in the most intelli- 
gent and best way. 

What the duties and qualifications of the Superintendent of 
a great Lil)rary should be, are set forth with entire clearness 
in Mr. Ticknor's communication. iSuffice it to say, that, in 
the history of the institution, after the continuation of the ser- 
vices of Mr. Capen as Librarian, — a position occupied by him 
from the opening of the Mason-street Library, — it was found 
expedient for the interests of the now important collection 
to appoint Mr. Chas. C. Jewett the Superintendent, in 1857. 
Mr. Jewett brought to the office the knowledge of the bibli- 
ographer, the experience of the book-buyer in the great marts 
of Europe, a perception of the needs of American educat- 
ors and education, the tendencies and wants of specialists, 
and above and beyond this a system of rendering a collection 
of books useful to its readers by a form of catalogue original 
and superior to any previously existing. Under this system 
were printed the first index of the Bates Hall Library, in IStll, 
and the supplement, in 1866, which gave to the institution not 
only the local attention of scholars and of the gatherers of 
public and private libraries, but a recognition in the older 
world most flaitering to the perception and practical talents 
of the originator ot the system and to the institution which 
had placed it in the service of the great body of readers. 
Previous catalogues had been usually mere lists of books, 
either arranged alphabetically under the titles of l)ooks or 
the names of their authors, with the occasional addition of 
divisions into subjects, under which, with mtn-e or less mi- 
nuteness, the student could find in one or other division with 
diligent htI)or the book or books desired. In the plan of 
Mr. Jewett, the alphabetical, or as it is now termed the dic- 
tionary, arrangement afforded the opportunity to the seeker 
to find the works wanted, if contained in the Libraiy, upon 
the subjects to be explored, without knowing the name of 
any author or the title of any l)ook on the subject, by 
seeking the su])ject in its alphabetical place. Tliis was an 
enormous boon to the general reader. During the superin- 
tendency of Mr. Jewett, the Library grew from 34,896 to 
136,080 volumes, and from a circulation and use of 89,423 
to 208,963 volumes. His eminent services to the institution 
terminated with his death. 



14 City Document No. 66. 

Of the obligations of the Library to bis successor, the 
present Superintendent, the Trustees cannot spealv too 
strongly. 1'he Library has increased since his appointment, 
with the addition of the six branches, to the position 
of the hirgest collection on the continent, now numbering 
312,010 volumes, and having in nine years increased its cir- 
culation more than tive-tbld, — having distributed and 
placed in the hands of readers during the past year 1,140,000 
volumes. The requirements of the office have been most 
completely filled, but at the expense of the most unremit- 
ting lal)or at the Library and at home, and bej'ond human 
strength to sustain for a series of years. The scholastic and 
administrative demands of this great institution, with its six 
branches, have not only been fully met, but the methods of 
public contact and usefuhiess have been simplified, as well 
as extended and improved. The catalogue, under his direc- 
tion, has received a new value, — having become not only a 
key to the books, but a manual for readers and scholars. 
It is proper to say that the class lists printed for the Boston 
Library have given it a reputation and a following both in 
America and in Europe, most flattering to a city, now 
more extensively known throughout the world by this than 
by any other of its institutions. 

In the recital of these details of the growth of this great 
Library, the Trustees cannot but feel that there are abundant 
reasons to congratulate the conunuuity that sufficient mate- 
rial support was given it to enable the previously untried 
experiment, of full trust in the honesty of borrowers, to 
achieve a triumphant success. 

In considering the report of the Examining Committee for 
the past year, and its criticisms and recommendations, it is 
proper at the outset to state that this bod}^ of citizens is an 
independent formation required by the ordinance, and con- 
sists of five citizens at large, with a member of the Board of 
Trustees as chairman. The addition of this official was for 
the ])urp()se of giving, through a meml)er of the governing 
board, such information to the connnittee as they might 
require, to further such examinations as they might elect to 
make, and to show how the methods of administration could 
be fully investigated and imderstood. Of late \ears, a mem- 
ber of the body, selected h}^ themselves, his written the 
report, in order more distinctly to develop their own views 
of the results of their examination. This course has been 
pursued during the present year, and the report is from the 
hand of ,hunes R. Chadwiek. M. D. 

The topics Avliieh are mainl}' presented for consideration 
embrace the unsuitable and contracted accommodations of the 



Public Library. 15 

building for its present necessities, and the importance of an 
early and intelligent prcpamtion for its future wants ; the 
system of administration, and the propriety of adequate re- 
muneration for its otficers, and the urgent need of suitable 
ventilation for the whole buikling. 

The question of when and how there shall be added to the 
present structure sufficient provision for its immediate growth 
and for the convenience of the public, has formed a part of 
the report of the Trustees for the past two years ; notwith- 
standing the alterations and additions to the building (1872 
and 1(5 74) had given shelf-room for 125,000 additional vol- 
umes and provision for the administrative staff, the purchase 
of the adjoining estate by the city in 1872 was with the view 
of meeting the approximate needs of the institution. It is 
prol)able that if the pecuniary condition of the community 
had been more prosperous at any time since the acquisition 
of the property, the building would have already been 
erected and have fulfilled its objects. But the growth of the 
Library and its public uses have advanced to such a degree 
as to show that such addition would merely serve a tempo- 
rary purpose. Indeed, the accommodations which it could 
afford would be entirely absorbed by the present state of 
the institution. The Examining Committee propose a plan of 
extension which is eminently worth the consideration of the 
City Council, — as it could be carried oat at a less expense 
than similar room could be obtained elsewhere, with more 
convenience to the public, with sufficient amount of light 
and ventilation, and with the necessary isolation afforded by 
wide streets in front and on one side, with the power of sep- 
aration from adjacent buildings in the rear, so essential for 
protection in case of fire. 

The questions relative to the administration of the Library 
have been brought to the attention of the City Council ear- 
lier in this report. It is sufficient here to say that the con- 
clusions of the committee were obtained without consultation 
with the Trustees or Superintendent. 

It is hoped that some action niay result from the intelli- 
gent examination of the committee of the ventilation of the 
building, including the irregular and injurious distribution 
of heat and cold, owing to the peculiarities and want of pro- 
vision in its structure. Much public complaint hns been 
made, and private suffering created and endured, from this 
inattention to the simplest laws of comfort and health. In 
again asking the attention of the City Council to this crying 
evil, the Trustees would rejoice to learn that the practical 
suggestions of ej^perts could be immediately carried out to*a 
full attainment of the result desired. 



16 City Document No. 6Q. 

In addition to the special Library considerations pertaining 
to the administration of the institution during- the past year, 
the Superintendent, in his report to the Trustees, passes in 
review the history of the Library during the decade in which 
he has held his office, with such large results to its progres- 
sive advance in popular nse and public estimation. The 
details may not be recapitulated here, — for they will be 
read with deep interest not only by the friends of the 
Library at home, but ])y every librarian and manager of 
cognate free libraries throughout the country, it fur- 
nishes an example for every organization having in view the 
end of making every book worthy of use, useful. 

Referring to the results achieved by the last year's work, 
in presenting to the City Council and to their ffll(AV-citizeus 
the usual summary of administrative detail, no indication of 
diminished interest or value will be shown. The use develops 
a varying but progressive ratio in proportion to the power 
to be of use. 

The Central Lilirary in Boylston street now holds 242,885 
volumes, divided between 35,478 in the popular branch and 
208,441 in the Bates Hall collection ; the branches contain 
69,125 volumes. The total contents are 312,010 volumes, 
— an increase for the year of 15,169 volumes. 

The Libraries were open during the year for popular use 
and consultation 306 days. The loans and hall-use of the 
Bates Hall collection advanced from 114,329 volumes in the 
previous year to 141,618 volumes, — again of nearly 24 per 
cent. The Lower Hall issued to borrowers 405,732 vol- 
umes, against a previous circulation of 348,842, — showing 
an intrcase of nearly 17 per cent., — a result most sur- 
prising when the confined and unsuitable (juarters to which 
the pul)lic are admitted are taken into consideration. From 
the six branches there were issued 593,202 volumes. The 
following table gives the number of books in each of the 
popular Libraries, and their comparative use during the 
present and past year : — 

No. of Vols. Use. Av. per Vol. Last Yr. 

Lower Hall, Boylston St., 35,478 405,732 11.35 9.9 
East Boston Branch, 9,643 102,(527 10.53 10.06 

South " " 8,178 135,179 16.53 16.3 

lioxbury *' 

Charlestown " 
Brighton *' 

Dorchester *' 

In considering these figures it must be remembered, in 



12,535 


146,429 


11.71 


9.4 


18,084 


106,816 


5.90 


4.93 


12,317 


29,792 


2.42 


2.08 


8,147 


71,979 


8.83 


9.29 



Public Libkary, 17 

making comparisons that each popular Library differs from 
the other not only in convenience of access, bnt in tlie char- 
acter of the vohimes composing the collection. Three of 
the branches have stood in immediate need of new catalogues. 
East Boston, Sonth Boston, and Charlestown would show a 
larger percentage of distribution if borrowers could learn 
with accuracy what books are within their reach. In- 
adequate accommodation also diminishes the popular attend- 
ance at South Boston. Notwithstanding the rapid growth 
of the Fellowes Athenreum in books of a solid character, 
which make the collection similar to that gathered in the 
Bates Hall, to the great credit of the Eoxbury readers and 
students, the popular average has increased in the year 
nearly 25 per cent* 

It is not surprising that the great percentage of increase 
in circulation which the last year showed over the previous 
year could not be sustained. The aggregate issue of 1875-6 
was 947,621 volumes, while that of 1876-7 has been 
1,140,572 volumes. Though the increase in use was 192,951 
volumes, a larger number than ever before, yet the percent- 
age has diminished from 25 to 20 per cent. The utmost 
extent of circulation for any given population in a district is 
determined by the convenience of access and the propor- 
tionate number of volumes, fiction inclusive, which it desires 
to borrow. If a public Library is administered upon the 
principle of giving fiction in preference to books of solid 
value, and as much as is wanted, there is no limit to the 
circulation which such popular Library may acquire. 

This element of the due proportion of imaginative read- 
ing in a popular collection has only been approximately 
determined. Various experiments have been made without 
any absolute or fixed results. These must depend upon the 
intelligence and cultivation of the community supplied by 
the Library, and disposed to improve its opportunities, l)oth 
for reading and instruction. A Library without fiction may 
be established and find readers in sufficient numbers to 
authorize its establishment, but a Library to meet the wants 
of the largest number of readers and tax-payers cannot 
exclude from its collection the books which they require, 
except that a supervision should be exercised over the moral 
element upon which works of imagination exercise so impor- 
tant an influence. It must always be remembered that a 
community which spends its otherwise unoccupied time in 
reading books, without immoral tendency, is getting an edu- 
cation which diminishes crime and increases the general 
capacity of obtaining an advanced educational result from 
such books as attract its perusal. 



18 City Document No. 66. 

The reading-rooms of such libraries as were opened to the 
public, including Sundays, through the year, received 
visitors on 360 days, during which 339,514 readers made 
use of 424,664 periodicals, — an increase of 22,206 readers 
and of 24,212 periodicals. The employment on Sundays of 
the branch reading-rooms, as intimated in the last report of 
the Trustees, has become so limited that a portion of them 
has been discontinued. 

The contributions to the collection from individual gener- 
osity since the last acknowledgment of the Trustees, show 
1,125 benefactors, who have given an aggregate of 3,562 
volumes, and 11,071 pamphlets. Besides this, there has 
been placed at the service of the institution by a previous 
benefactor, J. Ingersoll Bowditch, Esq.» the sum of five 
hundred dollars, to be expended in the purchase of math- 
ematical works, — for the purpose of adding to the Bowditch 
Library such publications as are needed to keep pace 
with the progress of that science. Our permanent funds 
have also been increased by the addition of the balance of 
$335.13, remaining in the hands cf the managers of 
the Dorchester and Milton Circulating Library-, when that 
collection was presented to the city, — an amount which it is 
hoped the citizens of Dorchester will augment to an extent 
which will enable the Trustees to add to the Dorchester 
branch such works of permanent value as the general appro- 
priation for books on the part of the city does not permit the 
Trustees to purchase. 

The losses of the Lil)rary in books not recovered from 
borrowers still show the Central Library as the principal 
sufferer. The Roxbury Library has no volume missing from 
its circulation of 146,829 volumes, — the largest circulation of 
a single Library without loss yet known to our experience. 
The total issues of the branches were 593,202, and there 
are missing only 10 volumes, being one for each 59,322 
circulated. Owing to the more changeable population of the 
city proper its record is not so satisfactory, 119 volumes 
not having been returned from a delivery of 547,350 vol- 
umes, or one out of every 4,600, — a somewhat larger pro- 
portion of loss for the central departments than recent years 
have indicated. 

In concluding this l)rief narrative of the progress of the 
institution during the past twenty-five years, inclusive of 
the report upon its operations during the past twelve 
months, the Trustees submit that the whole constitutes a 
record for which the city of Boston and their fellow-citizens 
may well l)o congratulated. Year by year its ramifications 
have been wider, its influence deeper, and its position 



Public Library. 19 

higher. Founded for the advaiicemeut of popular education, 
it has amply fulfilled the original expectation of becoming "at 
last a great and rich Library for men of science, statesmen, 
and scholars." To-day it contains the largest number of 
volumes of any Library on the ^Yestern continent, and is not 
surpassed by the best in the variety and value of its con- 
tents. What its future may be none can predict. " It may 
well be left," where it was originally left, "to the judicious 
liberality of the City Government and the public spirit of the 
commmiity." 

AVM. W. GEEENOUGH, 
GEORGE B. CHASE, 
JOHN T. CLARK, 
RICHARD FROTHINGHAM, 
SAMUEL A. GREEN, 
OSBORNE HOWES, Jr., 
W^ESTON LEWIS, 
RICHARD POPE, 
BENJAMIN F. THOMAS. 

Public Library, 30th June, 1877. 



20 City Document Xo. GG. 



[B.] 

EEPORT OF THE EXAMINING COMMITTEE, 



CONSISTING OF 



Eev. James Freeman Clarke, James R. Chadwick, M. D., 
John C. Gray, Jr., Esq., Gilbert Attavood, Esq., Mrs. 
Kate Gannett Wells, with Mr. Geo. B. Chase, of the 
Trustees, as Chairman. 

In behalf of the Examining Committee, appointed nnder 
the sixth section of the city ordinance to examine the 
Library, the undersigned has the honor to present the follow- 
ing report to the Trustees : — 

The committee would express its entire accord with 
the committee of last year in disapproving of the wooden 
gallery in the rear of Bates Hall, owing to the danger 
from fire to which the Library is there! )y exposed. The 
introduction of heavy iron screens for lowering in all the 
passages connecting this gallery with the main building 
would be advisable, as affording a certain amount of protec- 
tion against the flames should they chance to attack this 
wooden structure. 

The need of an additional wing for the accommodation of 
the readers who already find insufficient space in Bates Hall 
and the lower reading-room ; for the rearrangement, increase 
and use of the Ticknor and BoAvditch Libraries, and of the 
newspaper files now exposed to injury from the dampness 
of the basement ; for enlargement of the bindery ; and for 
toilet-rooms, which decency and health require should be 
provided for the staff of the Library, — has been fully set forth 
by the Superintendent in his report and has our unanimous 
endorsement. It is a matter of regret that the City Architect 
could not find it compatible with his other engagements 
to submit to the connnittee, in response to repeated re- 
quests, a rough draft of his plans for a wing upon the east 
side of the Library. The purchase of the Hotel Pelliam, 
which it is understood can now be effected on favorable 
terms, wcnild, in our opinion, be a wise provision to meet 
the speedy call for additional wings which the present rapid 
development of the Lil)rary justifies us in predicting. 

The committee greets Avith satisfaction and approval the 
inauguration of a more .adequate system of selecting and 



Public Library. 21 

purchasing books for the Lil^raiy, m the appointment of three 
experts to advise as to the expenditure of the special funds 
for the enlargement of the Bowditch Library. We are 
satisfied that this plan can be advantageously extended to 
other departments of the Library. While the regular staff is 
fully competent to judge of the wants in many domains of 
knowledge, yet it is evident that, in others, its members 
cannot be fully informed as to the scope of the volumes 
already upon the shelves, and more especially as to the value 
of new publications. 

The committee cannot praise too highl}^ the administration 
of the Library in all its details. The credit of this redounds 
to the honor of the city and its citizens, but is really due to 
the distinguished ability and untiring zeal of the Librarian. 
jMr. VVinsor* has won for himself, for the Library, and for the 
city of Boston, the foremost place in the management of free 
public Libraries. His principles and methods are watched 
in all parts of the civilized world, and accepted as the 
models for imitation. His position as a skilful, energetic, 
and successful library administrator, if not actually the first 
in the world, is certainly second to none. The aggregate 
value of the property under his charge is more than a million 
dollars : the force employed numbers nearly a hundred and 
forty individuals. The influence which his measures exert 
upon the education and future welfare of the citizens is 
be3^ond computation. The character and attainments requi- 
site in the incumbent of such a post are in no wise inferior 
to those sought for in the President of Harvard University 
or of any great institution of learning. President Eliot 
receives what is equivalent, it is believed, to $6,000 a year. 
The Mayor, Solicitor, Auditor, and Treasurer of this city 
receive $5,000 annually ; the City Engineer, $4,500 ; the City 
Clerk and the City Collector, $4,000. In marked contrast to 
these salaries stands that of the Superintendent of the Public 
Library, this year reduced from $3,600 to $3,300, which 
does not exceed that of a well-paid assistant or chief clerk. 
This salary does not correspond to the duties and respon- 
sibilities of the position, to the remarkable ability and high 
professional standing of the present incumbent, or to the 
salaries assigned to other officers of similar grade by the 
City of Boston. The committee is unanimously of opinion 
that this salary is discreditably small, and should be made 
equal to those given to the heads of the other higher depart- 
ments of the public service. It should further be said that 
no hint has been received from Mr. Winsor upon this sub- 

*This report was made before Mr. Winsor received an invitation to go to Cam- 
bridge. 



22 City Document No. 66. 

ject, nor is it known to him that any alkision to his position 
or sahiry has been made in this report. 

In this conuection the committee would be derelict of its 
duty to the public and to the Library did it allow the action 
of the City Council, during the past winter, with reference 
to the Lil)rary, to pass without comment. 

The original ordinance of the city provided that the elec- 
tion and salary of the Snperintendent should be determined 
by the City Council, whereas the choice of all the other 
officers and the determination of their salaries should be left 
with the Trustees. At one time an unsuccessful attempt to 
defeat the re-election of Mr. Jewett as Superintendent, upon 
political grounds, led to an amendment of the ordinance, 
whereby the Trustees were given authority to choose the in- 
cumbent of this office, while the salary was still to be fixed by 
the City Council. In exercise of the jiowers thus conferred 
upon them by the ordinance, the Trustees have always 
chosen all the officers, and have, until this year, deter- 
mined the salaries, except that of Superintendent. During 
the past winter the City Council adoi)ted an order regulat- 
ing the salaries of more than thirty officers of the Liljrary, 
and limiting the number of persons employed and their sal- 
aries to such proportions as should meet the approval of the 
Committee of the City Council on the Library. 

As it had always been supposed that an ordinance took 
precedence of an order, it was inferred that the order above 
alluded to could not be legally enforced. The Trustees, 
however, as has been elicited by the inquiries made by our 
committee, — having been informed by the City Auditor, 
that, in accordance with instructions from the City Solicitor, 
he should be governed in the disbursement of funds l)y the 
provisions of the order, — addressed two communications to 
the City Solicitor, at intervals of several Aveeks, aslving his 
opinion. As two months had elapsed since the first of these 
conmiunications and no reply been received, a third was 
addressed to the City Solicitor, at the instigation of our com- 
mittee, asking for an early response ; but none has yet been 
made. 

In fixing the thirty odd salaries, the Committee on Re- 
trenchment of the City Council — as we have learned on 
pursuing our inquiry' — sought no information of the Trus- 
tees or Superintendent ;is to the direction in M'hich reductions 
could be made Avith least injury to the Ijibrary ; and conse- 
quently, through ignorance, did great injustice to individual 
incumbents, and great detriment to the efficient management 
of the Library. The committee, for reasons that were not 
given, confined the reductions to the Central Library. The 



Public Ltbrary. 23 

salaries Avere modified by the committee in such ignorance 
of thefacts that, in two instances, instead of being lowered, 
they were absolutely raised. In the case of a valuable 
officer, who had been retained in the service of the Library 
by an increase in his pay, when a more lucrative position 
had 1)oen offered him elsewhere, the committee, although 
informed of the fact, reduced his salary with the rest, — 
thereby breaking the engagement made with him in good 
faith by the Trustees. Other officers of the same grade and 
equal merit had their salaries reduced in different propor- 
tions. 

By the enforcement of this order the system of the Trus- 
tees, which had been found to work for the Library's advan- 
tage, — of fixing the salaries at an even grade when the duties 
were first assumed, and raising them as length of service and 
qualification justified, — was entirely abolished. 

In the bindery the salaries had been originally determined 
by the regular rates prevailing in the other binderies of the 
city for the same class of w^ork, yet the same reductions 
were made by the committee as in the rest of the library, 
with the full cognizance of the fact. 

On page 26, of City Document No. 20 (1877), are placed 
in juxtaposition the total sums expended annually in the 
payment of salaries in the Public Library at intervals of five 
years. These figures are published, with the sanction of the 
Committee on Retrenchment, in explanation and justifica- 
tion of the reductions recommended. The apparently rapid 
increase in the sum total of salaries in each successive 
column is found, on scrutiny, to be due, in a measure, to 
certain errors that have crept into the tables. For instance, 
the sum total of salaries in 1860-()1 is put at $3,900, Avhich 
includes only the salary of the Superintendent, Assistant 
Superintendent, and janitor; whereas, during that year, 
there were twenty other subordinate officers drawing salaries 
in the Library, of which fact no mention is made by the com- 
mittee. In the last column $68,410 is cited as the sum total 
of salaries for 1876-77, — no reference being made to the fact 
that over $9,000 of this sum were paid for binders' salaries, 
that item having been charged to a different account in previous 
years. These and other similar errors were pointed out to the 
Committee on Retrenchment before the presentation of their 
report, but were not corrected. An authentic comparison 
of these years was submitted in print to the Trustees of the 
Library by the Superintendent on Feb. 13, 1877. 

The above facts have l)een here advanced, in order to indi- 
cate the nature of the danger to which the Library is liable 
to be exposed by the exigencies of the public service and the 



24 City Docujient Ko. 66. 

action of the City Council or its representatives. In view of 
such events the committee urgently recommends that the 
Library be placed upon an independent basis, either by an 
act of incorporation under the State laws, or by such meas- 
ures as shall be found expedient. 

An examination of the accounts of the Library by the 
committee shows them to be kept in a simple, intelligible 
manner, so that the Superintendent is able at any moment 
to inform himself of the state of the different Library 
funds and appropriations. 

A new rule has been enforced in the Librarj^ during the 
past six months, limiting the number of days which a book 
can be kept, before renewal, to seven instead of fourteen as 
formerly. While the propriety of this measure is evident in 
its application to new books, which are sought by many 
readers, the committee entertains some doubt as to its effect 
upon the character of the books read by the public, and is 
glad to know that it is to be regarded as an experiment for 
another six months before being definitely adopted by the 
Trustees. 

Before closing this report the committee desires to present 
some suggestions upon the 

Ventilation of the Library, 

based upon a special investigation, made with the co-opera- 
tion of Dr. D. F. Lincoln of this city, an acknowledged 
expert in all matters pertaining to sanitary science. 

It is not expedient or possible here to consider in detail 
the hygienic condition of each floor or hall, but the aim will 
be to indicate briefly the present status, and to suggest 
changes or devices that may conduce to the health and 
greater comfort of the staft' and the public, without undue 
expense. 

The matter of ventilation appears to have been wholly 
disregarded in the original plan of the building, the result 
being that in no one of the halls is any suitable provision 
made lor removal of the air when it has become foul. The 
few ventilating flues conducting from the lower halls, and 
the ventilators inserted into sky-lights above the alcoves, in 
Bates Hall, are so utterly inadequate to eftect the proposed 
ends as not to merit a moment's consideration. A step in 
the right direction was taken last year, at the suggestion of 
one of your Board, Mr. Weston Lewis, in making a single 
opening in the floors of both the lower hall for delivery, and 
the ireneral readinu-room, throuah which a downward draft 
was maintained by means of pipes connected with stoves in 
the basement. These undoubtedly did good work, but were 



Public Library. 25 

so small, ill proportion to the size of tlie rooms and the 
rapid vitiation of the air, as to prechide their making a sensi- 
ble change in the quality of the latter. 

The late Dr. George Derby found the atmosphere of the 
lower h:dl for delivery to be, when thronged, as it often is 
in the winter afternoons, more foul and unwholesome than 
that of any other room in the State. This is not to be won- 
dered at in view of the crowds that till its precincts, and the 
lowness of its ceiling. The only openings through Avhich a 
change of air can be etfected in the winter are the door- 
ways communicating with the entrance to the ])uilding and 
with the adjoining rooms, and the hemispherical aperture in 
the ceiling corresponding to one of the windows on the 
south side. Through the last a constant escape of heated 
air takes place into the low store-rooms above, and thence 
up the circular stairway into Bates Hall, where it is dis- 
seminated to pollute that place. If the adjoining rooms 
contained a relatively pure air, the doors communicating 
with them would allow an interchange of atmospheres, which 
would be to the advantage of the delivery hall ; but as they 
have their own sources of contamination and are equally 
devoid of ventilation, but little relief is derived from these 
quarters. 

Three methods seem available for the ventilation of this 
room: (1) Through the floor, by means of ten or more 
shafts similar to the one recently put in at the suggestion of 
Mr. Lewis. (2) Through the ceiling, by means of registers 
connected by pipes with the ventilators now existing in the 
skylights of Bates Hall ; the pipes could be so placed in the 
alcoves as not to interfere with the handling of the books. 
(3) The conversion of the circular stairway from the store- 
room into a ventilating shaft, by encasing it in wood and 
glass, or sail-cloth, and by substituting a large ventilator for 
the sky-light above it in the main roof. 

The first and second methods would necessitate a consider- 
able outlay of money, whereas the third, which is in reality 
but a more perfect adaptation of the present means of ventila- 
tion, can be tested at a trifling expense, by enclosing the stair- 
case temporarily with cotton or linen cloth, and capping it 
with a ventilator. This plan need not interfere with the use 
of the stairs, as swinging doors or curtains could be placed 
at each landing. Of course those entering the stairway would 
be subjected to a very oppressive atmosphere ; yet this would 
only be for a few moments at a time, and would scarcely be 
worse than that to whicli others are now exposed continu- 
ou:?ly in the Delivery Room. 

This scheme would prevent the constant pollution of the 



26 City Document No. G6. 

atrqosphere in Bates Hall by the foul nir from the Delivery 
Eoom, and thus fulfil one of the first requirements of any 
proper system of ventilation. 

The entrance of the air into this extemporized ventilating 
shaft would be facilitated, and at the same time the cubic 
space of the Delivery Hall be greatly augmented, by cutting 
away the iron floors of the Store-Room between the iron 
pillars, so that the Delivery Hall would become as high as 
the other halls in the first story, and the Store-Room be con- 
verted into a gallery. The staircase should then be cut 
ofl" on the level of the floor of Bates Hall ; the segment 
removed being now very rarely used, and not at all needed 
for the service of the Library. 

No ventilation of a room will be eflicient through the 
operation of escape-pipes alone, unless corresponding pro- 
vision be made for the introduction of fresh air. This is 
best eflected by openings in the floors communicating, both 
directly with the outer air, and indirectly by way of a 
chamber containing steam radiators ; by suitable valves the 
proportions of hot and cold air thus admitted can be regu- 
lated, while the volume remains the same. Such a system 
of i)ipes should be introduced into each hall in the Library 
building. 

The General Beadinr/-Jioom, M'hich is commonly very 
close and op[)rcssivc, and the S];)ecial Heading-Room, can 
be ventilated through the floors as in one of the plans pro- 
posed for the Delivery Room, or, more economically , through 
openings in the ceiling connected by pipes with the venti- 
lators in the sky-lights of Bates Hall. The draft in these 
pipes may be made more rapid at night by having them 
terminate in hoods encircling the posts above the gas-jets. 
A still better plan would be 'to have them terminate in the 
ceiling over clusters of jets, — called sunlight, — which 
supply the best illumination for the readers in the hall, while 
they would produce the most rapid currents in the flues. 

The Lower Hall Boole-Room seems to require no special 
system of ventilation, owing to its size and the small number 
of persons occupied in it. Our only concern need be for 
those three or four individuals whose tables are in the gallery. 
It is evident that the temperature of a room which will be 
comfortable to those on the floors must l)c too hot for those 
within a few feet of the ceiling. Such is found to be the 
case in this room, but the difficulty can undoubtedly be over- 
come by moving the desks to the windows at either end of 
the room, and shutting ofl' these portions of the gallery from 
the body of the room by glass partitions. This change Avill, 



Public Library. 27 

moreover, give the employes much more daylight for their 
work than they now have. 

In Bates Hall the great height would preclude ventilation 
through the ceiling, owing to the impossibility of maintaining 
the temperature on the floor at a comfortable warmth, were 
much of the heated air at the top of the hall to be allowed 
egress. It will therefore be advisable to carry ventilating 
shafts from a great many ventilators in the sky-lights nearly 
to the floor, where they can open in the shape of hoods 
above the gas-jets. Special gas-jets kept constantly burning 
in all such pipes would greatly accelerate the currents. In 
the gallery at the south side of the hall, where many of the 
statf are regularly occupied, much complaint is justly made 
of the heat and foulness of the air. This can be remedied, 
as in the Lower Book-Room, by shutting it off from the 
hall by means of glass windows, without in any way 
marring the architectural appearance of the hall . 

The Superintendent's room, the Patent Room, and others, 
are heated by radiators, there being no provision whatsoever 
for a change of the air. Great improvement could be made 
in the atmosphere of these small rooms by boxing up these 
radiators, and admitting fresh air into the chambers thus 
made, by pipes connecting with patent ventilators placed in 
the lower part of the windows in front of which the radia- 
tors now stand. By this simple device air could be admit- 
ted through the windows even in the coldest winter weather. 

Green shades are mucli needed in the Patent Room to keep 
out the excessive glare and heat during the summer months. 

Awnings for the same purpose should be provided for the 
windows to the gallery on the south side of Bates Hall. 

It should be stated, in conclusion, that the suggestions as 
to ventilation are of course intended to meet the wants of 
the Library during the winter months, when the windows 
cannot be opened without creating dangerous drafts ; and, 
further, that the above plans are only mentioned to indicate 
that much improvement may be efiected without a great ex- 
penditure of mone}'. We would urge upon your Board the 
expediency of nppointing a committee of experts to consider 
the hygienic condition of the Central Library building and of 
all the branches, and to present schemes for their improve- 
ment. 

The committee begs leave to close the report l)y express- 
ing its obligations to the Superintendent and other ofhcials of 
the Library for the uniform courtesy with which its members 
have been received. 

For the Committee, 

JAMES R. CHADWICK. 



28 City Documeat Ac. Gio. 



[C] 

EEPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 

To the Trustees: — 

The present report is tlie tenth of my administration as 
Superintendent, and the twenty-fifth from the foundation of 
the Library. The juncture seems a fitting one for an ex- 
tended examination of the history of our institution, and 
such a one I intend to present to you at a later day. In 
this phice I must confine myself to a sj'uopsis of the prog- 
ress of the Library during the last decade. 

The death of Professor Jewett, my predecessor, left the 
Library in a flourishing condition. The foundations had 
long been laid, and his own exertions had done much to 
strengthen them. On the occupation of the present build- 
ing in Boylston street, the executive charge of the Library 
devolved upon him, and for ten years, by his administrative 
fiicnlties and bibliogra])hical attainments, he proved himself 
worthy of an institution Avhose future seemed certain of 
eminence. During this period, the Library doubled both in 
its extent and its usefulness, and he left it with over one 
hundred and forty thousand volumes on its shelves, and 
with a record of annual issues of about two hundred 
thousand volumes. The institution had firmly estab- 
lished itself as a popular educational factor, and in this 
respect was without a peer in the country. The Boston 
Athena3um had long been, with its excellent collection, 
the main dependence for reference and more scholarly 
uses to the inhabitants of Boston ; but the Boston Public 
Libraiy in this respect also was now about to eclipse its 
neighbor, and in the collection of Bates Ilall it ofiered a 
Library for research quite the equivalent of both those of the 
Boston Athcuivum and of Harvard College, and surpassed 
only among the Libraries of the country in this respect by 
the Astor Library in New York, and by that of Congress, 
which, by the then recent purchase of the collection of 
Peter Force and by the engulfing of that of the Smithsonian 
Institntion, had taken the first place. 

Such was the position of this Library ten years ago, when 
the sudden loss of its Superintendent, and the ill-health of 
its next succeeding ofiicer, the late Professor Jillson, caused 



I 



Public Library. 29 

a vacancy, which the Trustees chose to fill b}^ the appoint- 
ment of one of their own number. I found myself in a 
position congenial to my tastes, conscious both of the excel- 
lent condition in which the institution was placed for a 
career of development, and ambitious of enlarging its scope, 
in accordance with the principles which wise men had made 
its fundamental laws. It was a work worthy of any one's 
endeavors. With the countenance and encouragement of a 
Board of Trustees in sympathy with the project and largely 
instrumental in its success, and with a City Council respon- 
sive to demands for increased accommodations and resources, 
the results have been reached, which you will allow me 
briefly to set forth. 

In 1867 our sphere of work widened from what is 
now called the Central Library ; but in the report of 
the Examining Committee for that year attention was drawn 
to the success which had attended the branch system with 
the English Libraries, and as warranting its trial with us. 
The enabling acts of the Legislature of Massachusetts had 
early recognized the necessity, and had included Branches in 
the permission which they had afforded to cities and towns 
to establish Public Libraries ; but this Library had been 
founded eighteen years before its first Branch was opened at 
East Boston, in 1870. It wns ascertained at that time that 
the chance of a resident of that island using the Library in 
Boylston street was not a third of that of a resident of the 
city proper, — so important is the nearness of books to the 
homes of the people in developing a use of them. In 1872 
the second Branch w^as opened, at South Boston ; the third, 
in 1873, at Roxbury, under the favorable auspices attending 
a junction with the resources of the Fellowes Atheni:eum, 
whose income opportunely became then for the first time 
available. With 1874, the acts of annexation,. by which the 
City of Charlestown and the Town of Brighton became a 
part of our municipal territory, provided that their respec- 
tive Libraries should become branches of ours. Early in 
1875 our youngest dependency was opened in Dorchester. 
This made the number of our Branches six in all, outlying 
like a cordon of posts, at distances from head-quarters vary- 
ing from a mile and a quarter to four miles and a half. 

A further development was begun in 1875 by the opening 
of a Delivery of the Dorchester Branch at the Lower Mills ; 
and again, in 1876, by a similar outgrowth of the Roxbury 
Branch at Jamaica Plain. These Deliveries are maintained 
at comparatively small expense, and have proved so far 
caoable each of addins; ten or twelve thousand issues an- 
nually to our circulation. Brighton, our least-used Branch, 



30 City Document No. QQ. 

scores about thirty thousand issues a year, and it may be 
well questioned if the villages dependent upon the Lower 
Mills Delivery, with the same facilities, would not patronize 
a Brauch to an equal extent with Brighton. I am confident 
that at Jamaica Plain the circulation, by converting its De- 
livery to a Hranch, could be carried far ahead, and that it 
would surpass even that of Dorchester, which now records 
about seventy thousand issues for the year ; and there are 
regions still beyond, at Eoslindale and West Eoxbury, 
which, as Deliveries of a Branch at Jamaica Plain, would 
largely enhance the usefulness of the Library. 

We have had abundant proof in our experience that the 
Branches, with the territorial extent which has been left be- 
tween them, have not at all diminished the usefulness either 
of one another or of the Central Library. Some apprehension 
was felt, at the institution of the system, that Boston was 
hazarding its chances of making the Library in Boylston 
street an important one for the country, and even for the 
world, in thus dissipating, as it was feared, the resources of 
the city among lesser projects, which would detract from the 
interest felt in the parent institution. The result has been 
just the reverse, as will appear from the following table : — 



Public Library. 



31 



Ol O <M O 



O O O i-t 



O CI cc 



00 lO Oi O 



CO t' i-H 



C) rH rH 



P 



pa e= B 



W OQ P5 o p ft 



32 City Document No. 6Q. 

The check in the cn-culatioii m 1872-3 in the Central 
Library was owing to changes going on in the internal ar- 
rangements of the building. It should also be remembered 
that the first years of the Roxbury, Charlestown, Brighton 
and Dorchester Branches were not full years. 

The table shows that, while the circulation of the entire 
Library has increased nearly seven times, the present aggre- 
gate is by no means wholly owing to the additional work of 
the Branches ; since the use of the popular collection in the 
Lower Hall has nearly trebled, and that of the higher de- 
partment of the Bates Hall has quadrupled. The Bates Hall 
delivers as many books now as the Lower Hall did ten years 
ago. Our experience has been that also of the principal 
English Libraries. Dr. Crestadoro writes to me from Man- 
chester, that the successive establishment of the Branches of 
their Library has in no wise interrupted the constant appre- 
ciation in use of the pre-existing departments. 

A system then so well established, and of so good record, 
must linger but little in further development. We need but 
a return of prosperity in the business affairs of the com- 
munity for the Library to take a new departure with an 
acceleration all the greater for the present reservation of 
energy. A proposition now before the City Government for 
accepting the books of the Mercantile Library Association, 
using a part of them as the nucleus of a Branch at the South 
End, if agreed to, will give us a dependency, which must 
prove one" of our most important.* The time cannot be far 
distant when Jamaica Plain wilf demand a Branch instead 
of a Delivery, t I think also one will be necessary somewhere 
between Beacon and Copp's Hills. An increase in our 
Deliveries I think inevitable. 

As already indicated, a Branch at Jamaica Plain will 
lead to Deliveries at Roslindale and AVest Roxbury. 
The importance of the Dorchester Branch will be much 
increased by such natural dependencies at Neponset, 
Mount Bowdoin, Mattapan, and in the region lying 
between the Dorchester and Ashmont stations on the rail- 
roads. The Five Corners and Washington Village will per- 
haps more easily depend upon the South Boston Branch, if 
indeed the region they cover must not in time be advanced 
to the rank of a Branch district. South Boston Point and 
Bay View will also claim in time their partial if not entire 
independence of the same Branch. The remoter regions of 
Charlestown and East Boston will demand such accommo- 
dation. The Roxbury Branch must in time throw out 

* This has since been determined upon. 
tTbis has also since been determined upon. 



Public Library. 33 

Deliveries both in the direction of Upham's Corner to the 
south-east, and of Longwood on the north-west. 

The possibilities of further annexations to the city are 
beyond our prescience. The Public Libraries of Brookline, 
Cambridge, Somerville, and Chelsea are at least well situated 
to add to the symmetry of our network, as delineated on the 
map. 

Within the past year a sort of sub-delivery has been es- 
tablished at Deer Island, for the benefit of the City Institu- 
tions situated there, books being sent in boxes from the 
Central Library once a month, two or three hundred at a 
time. At the request of the Fire Commissioners, a similar 
service has been given to thirteen of the engine-houses in the 
Cit}^ Proper, and to the fire-boat, for the benefit of the fire- 
men ; and it is probable that the Protective Department will 
come within the same rules.* Under a guaranty from the 
authorities of the Navy Yard, a like privilege has been 
granted to the reading-room within the walls of the yard, for 
the advantage of the enlisted men on the station ; but the 
arrangement has not yet been put in force. 

Such, then, is the extent of the circulating service of the 
institution compared with what it was ten years ago. The 
increase is great ; but I think we find the condition of mat- 
ters to-day as favorable for an equal increase during the next 
decade, and perhaps for a still greater one. I look for 
greater favor being accorded to the Branch system by devices 
for increasing the promptitude of the business by means of 
telegraphic wires for the transmission of messages, and not 
unlikely with telephonic attachments. 

This enlargement of circulation from 200,000 to 1,200,000, 
or sixfold, has been in part brought about by other agencies 
than by a multiplication of points of delivery. It could have 
been increased still more largely had we consented to aug- 
ment the accessions of fiction, and to duplicate to a great 
extent the copies of the last new book. I have heard my 
predecessor maintain that there was scarce a limit to the 
extent of circulation, should such a policy be persistentl}^ 
carried out. I am glad to say that this increase has been 
made without any corresponding augmenttitiou of that class 
of reading ; indeed, with a diminution of it ; and this has 
been brought about through an improvement in our cata- 
logues, which I may speak of a little later. Increased days 
and hours of access have also borne their share in the w^ork. 
In 1869, for the first time in the experience of a large 
Library, it w^as not found necessary to close our doors for the 

* It has since been done. This Department has two houses. 
3 



84 City Document No. G6. 

cleaning of the shelves and for the taking an account of 
stock, and since that time the days on which the Library has 
been closed have been confined to the legal holidays, with an 
occasional exception of a general gala-day. This change 
was made through no neglect of stock-taking ; but the newly 
adopted method of charging books on slips, which were 
arranged for the year's record numerically by the shelf-num- 
ber of the book delivered, rendered it possible to account 
for books missing from the shelves and charged to borrowers, 
without an absolute inspection of the volumes. Under the 
previous ledger system, of charging loans in accounts with 
borrowers, the multitude of such accounts to be searched for 
a record of the book to be accounted for, made the business 
practically impossible. 

Beside this increase of days, the aggregate of hours per 
week within which the books are delivered has been con- 
siderably extended ; and it still remains a question of serious 
moment whether the most important department of the 
Library can l)e held to fulfil its perfect mission, until it can 
be as freely visited in the evening hours as it is now in the 
daytime. I think considerations of increased expense have 
only so far stood in the way of this change. The practica- 
bility of an evening service succeeding to the work of a day 
force has for some years been tested in our Lower Hall, and 
could be as well applied to the Bates Hall, for the delivery 
of books and for the answering of ordinary demands. 
Research of a curious and recondite order is increasing rapidly 
among the frequenters of the upper department, and requisi- 
tions are nuicli more frequently made than formerly upon 
the time of its officers and the trained assistants of the cata- 
logue department. The two assistants in charge of the 
Pu))lic Card Catalogue, on the floor of the Bates Hall, assisted 
1,560 readers last year, which number was increased to 8,867 
fur the year just closed. It would be hardly possible to 
duplicate such oflicers and assistants for the evening hours ; 
and the hours of this service at present arc Inirdensome 
enough, with the mental strain accompanying them. Lideed, 
I may say that the skilled workers of the Library, though 
their labors require a breadth of knowledge and an acumen 
of the critical faculties rarely brought into requisition by the 
teachers of the schools, are subjected to greater application 
daily, with far less respite from vacation. They are, more- 
over, recompensed with salaries, which leave many of them 
to eke out a support by labors that impair their energies for 
the morrow's work. If the tax-payers of the city demand 
this sacrifice, the struggle must go on, and the harness must 
gall while the goal is reached. There is too much ambition 



Public Library. 35 

to maintain the good iiiime of the Library to allow any spirit 
of indifference to abate the labors imposed. 

I think something, too, of the greater use made of the 
books is due to the changes which have been made in the 
methods of delivery, by Avhich the average delay in finding- 
books has been materially shortened. In the Lower Hall 
this has been partly accomplished by bringing the books, 
which were in galleries, all upon the main floor ; but I am 
sorry that, owing to the faulty construction of the building, 
the awkwardness of obtaining books from shelves beyond the 
reach of the hand still exists, to the great detriment of the 
promptness of delivery. This blunder has not been repeated 
in the new additions of the Central Library, nor in the 
Branches. Our present method of making the public do 
their own charging, by filling out the slips which are left as 
a voucher for their loan, enables us to deliver in a busy 
season nine or ten thousand volumes a day with much less 
confusion and with more expedition than fifteen hundred 
volumes were delivered ten years ago. In our busiest days 
now, in the Lower Hall, when twenty-five hundred volumes 
are issued a day, the delivery clerk needs but the occasional 
assistance of the oflicer in charge, to accomplish a business 
that it took, under the old system of ten years ago, five or 
six people to meet, with less than half the number of issues. 
I do not deem that we have by any means reached the limit 
of circulation which the Lower Hall ought to maintain, 
though we are fast approaching the extent which is possible 
without an enlargement of the delivery hall. Among our 
branches. South Boston particularly finds its issues checked 
by the wants of larger space for the public in waiting ; and 
it is to be hoped that the enlargement contemplated for that 
Branch will not be long delayed. 

In the Bates Hall the time is also not far distant when 
want of space for the frequenters will interfere with its use- 
fulness, as it clearly has on some days during the past 
winter. Ten years ago its aggregate annual issues were 
something over 25,000 volumes, or a daily average of less 
than a hundred, at a time when the space on the floor was 
given wholly to public use ; but the case is fiir diflerent 
when the issues per year are approaching 150,000, and the 
largest daily use is between nine hundred and a thousand 
volumes ; and when, in addition, a considerable share of the 
open floor has been occupied by the cases of the Card Cata- 
logue, with its attendant keepers. Furdiermore, about 
fourteen months ago, it became necessary to enclose a 
larger space for a desk of delivery as well as of receipt, 
where one desk answered both purposes before, and to 



36 City Docuiment No. Q6. 

afford an adclitioiial counter for the consultation of reference 
books. The loss to the public floor has been in a measure 
compensated for by the new study-room in the rear of the 
main desk, where those requiring facilities of research and 
ink for writing are accommodated. 

It will thus be seen that want of room is a serious obstacle 
to the Bates Hall doing all the work which it ought. . You are 
aware that the City Architect and myself have been engaged 
upon plans for an extension of the building easterly, so to 
enlarge the Bates Hall in the direction of the Hotel Pelham, 
and to afl"ord additional accommodation for books as well as 
for placing of reading tables for the use of the public. The 
plan also aims to provide fit storing rooms for our bound 
newspapers and duplicates, now disgracefully stacked in a 
basement, ill lighted and damp, and for an enlarged bindery ; 
for additional book room to meet the growth of the Tiokuor 
and Bowditch libraries, and of other parts of our collections ; 
and for suitable convenience of a toilet nature, demanded by 
the physical and moral good of the present large stafi" of both 
sexes. It also contemplates that enlargement of the public 
waiting rooms in connection with the popular Library in the 
lower story, now so necessary to the proper development of 
the advantages which ought to spring from the use of that 
hall. In the Periodical Reading-Koom attached to this 
department the want of enlarged space is equally felt. 
While its issues now are nearly five times Avhat they were a 
decade ago, for a year or two its use has not increased as it 
would have done with more ample space for readers. Its 
increase of use the past year over the previous year has 
fallen somewhat short of that of the Lower Hall Library, the 
former showing an increase of 13 per cent. ; the latter of 16 
per cent. ; while the Bates Hall has increased in use nearly 
24 per cent. At our most flourishing Branch, Roxbury, 
where the accommodation is ample, the increase over last 
year has been nearly 45 per cent., and during the winter has 
been over 60 per cent., while during the summer it was 
almost 23 per cent. With the Lower Hall, under the 
enforced restrictions of space, the reverse has been the case, 
and the percentage of gain in use in the summer months, 
when the accommodation is in better proportions to the 
number of frequenters, was thirty, which fell to less than 
twelve during the winter months. 

There are one or two particular points which Avell express 
the relative interest of the public in the Library , to which I will 
fuithcr direct your attention. The system of inducing the 
public to reconnncnd books not in the Library was begun with 
the organization of the Library, and it was looked upon as 



Public Library. 37 

one of the best means of interesting the community in the 
Library's work. This belief was for several years trnsted to 
in the hope that if results were not patent, they would 
become so in time. Every effort made to induce the public 
to recommend books produced little. During the decade pre- 
ceding the last, one year fewer than twenty titles were handed 
in ; and for the whole decade there was an annual average 
of no more than 225 titles recommended. This inertia, 
however, came to an end with that period, and in 18G7 the 
number of titles derived from this source mounted to 546, 
from 300 for the previous year. The annual number has 
been rising steadily since, and it is now about 2,500 titles, 
or about five times what it was ten years ago. 

Li 1867 the patent-room was visited by less than 200 
persons, and the necessary oversight of it was given by any 
assistant from the other departments, who was detailed as 
occasion required. Now, it demands the constant attendance 
of one assistant, and the frequenters for the year have 
increased to over 2,600, or thirteen times. 

Li 1867 the registration of applicants for the right to use 
the Library, which had been begun in 1859, had reached 
about 53,000 names, showing an average of between six and 
seven thousand a year ; and it was at that time, though a 
mistake, as I think, set aside, and a new one ordered. 
Beside causing additional labor, the new registration put 
extra formalities upon a public, always impatient of inter- 
positions of such sort, and resulted in a temporary check of 
the circulation. The registration then begun reached 12,000 
within a year, indicating the number of cards in the hands 
of the public at that time. It has gone on increasing, re- 
ceiving extraordinary accessions in 1874, when the existing 
registrations of the Libraries at Charlestown and Brighton 
were assumed, until at the present time the number of cards 
liable to be presented for books amounts to 130,000, This 
shows ten times as many to be watched to-day as there were 
in 1867 ; and the yearly increase of this number is now 
about twelve or thirteen thousand, or doul)le what it was 
then. 

It is not likely, of course, that this full number of cards 
is in use to-day. Death and removal from the city have 
thrown out large numbers ; but comparatively few have 
been presented for cancellation, and accordingly nearly this 
full number are under surveillance. When the dead, as we 
technically call them, bear so large a proportion to the 
quick, as they must do to-day, it is manifest that for ficility 
of manipulating, some process of elimination must go on, if 
the whole is not periodically discarded for a new beginning. 



38 City Document No. 66. 

The process in lieu of the latter, which we now pursue, 
saving annoyance to the public, is to remove the record-slips 
from the general file to a subsidiary one, as we have evi- 
dence, through applications for new cards in place of those 
filled up, that the privileges of the Library are still availed 
of. In that way we estal^lish a quick file, which answers the 
great bulk of demands, and which leaves but a few inquiries 
to be determined from the dead file. The quick file now 
contains four-fifths of the entire 130,000, leaving over 100,000 
users in more or less active use of the Library. 

One or two other items will clearly indicate the gain in the 
administrative work of the Library attendant upon the 
increase of its use. In 1867 something short of 16,000 
notices were sent through the mail for books over-detained, 
and finable. While the circulation is now six times as large, 
this sort of delinquency has only increased four times, but 
this necessitates the sending of over 60,000 such notices a 
year. The Library has gained, with the rest of the commu- 
nity, in expedition and economy, from the use of postal 
cards, which now convey our notifications of all sorts. 
Before the government adopted the plan, the Library did, 
and for a year anterior to the appearance of the postal card 
in the mails, the Library used its own, but with the neces- 
sity, of course, of two cents postage. The gain, never- 
theless, was obvious. At present its mail service of all 
kinds on post;d cards consumes nearly 70,000 a year, — no 
small item in our account of of expenses. 

With all the advantages of this augmentation, the most 
gratifying chmige of all is in the nature of a positive, as well 
as relative, reduction. In 1867 that portion of the com- 
munity who were most regardless of their obligations to 
the Li])rary, whether from wilfulness, or a culpable nejilect 
bordering upon it, were increasing the losses of the Library 
to a degree, and with an accumulated proportion to the cir- 
culation, that boded a serious set-back to the good opinions 
which we were otherwise winning. One of the latest en- 
deavors of my predecessor was to organize a system of fol- 
lowing up delinquents, which has proved in the ten years 
since elapsed to have had the effect of reducing the per- 
centage of loss in relation to the circulation, so that now the 
chance of a book's return is ten times as great as it Avas ten 
years ago. JMot only the Library, but the community have 
gained, since the certainty of a delinquent being called to 
account has made the I^ibrary an impoitant moral agent, and 
the sanctity of the mutual obligation of Library and patron 
has l)een so enforced that its rules and necessities command 
the respect and adherence of its patrons to a remarkable 



Public Library. 39 

degree. With a circulation to-day of six times the extent, 
the number of books which require a messenger to recover 
them is but comparatively few more than ten years ago, — a 
little over 1,800 now, to 1,450 then. And of the books 
finally unrecovered, one in a thousand issues then is set 
ao-ainst one in eiffht or ten thousand now. It has also been 
demonstrated that in the more confined localities supplied by 
our Branches, the issues can be made to reach more than 
100,000 volumes, without theloss of a single one. I do not 
think the community is more honest now than then, but I do 
maintain it to be proved that the Library has added to its 
natural qualifications the credit of accomplishing a moral 
reform in enforcino; a reo-ard for the observance of its rules. 

All these enlargements of the scope of the Library work 
have been brought about without a corresponding increase of 
the material which accomplished it. The collection of books 
has not grown in equivalent proportions. The number of 
volumes has increased from 136,000 to about 312,000, or 
about two and a quarter times ; and while the popular 
departments, ten years ago, constituted a little more than 
a third of the whole, the congeries of such departments 
to-day embrace not far from a quarter of the aggregate 
volumes. 

In some respects the most important work of the Library 
is that bestowed upon its Catalogues. Ten years ago the 
s,ystem of its printed indexes had already received a full 
development under Mr. Jewett. In the Bates Hall the two 
large volumes, probably the last instalments of a general 
2Jrinted Catalogue of that department, had been issued ; and 
the first of a series of special Catalogues was in progress, 
covering the antiquarian and theological collection of the 
Prince Library. In the Lower Hall, the last of its general 
Catalogues had been so long printed that an accumulation of 
animal supplements had already rendered consultation difii- 
cult ; and a series of divisionary Finding Lists had been 
begun, to serve a temporary purpose, while that depart- 
ment was undero-oino; thorousfh revision, rendered necessarv 
by the wear and tear of a dozen or more years. There was 
no systematic organization of the Catalogue force ; and the 
current accessions passing through the hands of those work- 
ing on the Catalogue amounted to between five and six 
thousand volumes a year, the cards of which were acumu- 
lating in but a single set, with no proper arrangements for 
their consultation. A selection merely \fere entered by 
main title only in an interleaved copy of the first index, 
which was the sole accessible guide for the public. 

The Cataloguing Department to-day is organized with au 



40 City Document No. GQ. 

interdependence of service and methods, conducive to a regu- 
larity of work and efficiency for public nse, that has become 
necessary with the enlarged scope of the operations. Four 
times as many volumes, or some twenty thousand a year, 
pass under its care, and among them is a much larger share 
of those, composed of many pamphlets, and which require 
an aggregation of work, often curiously disproportioned to 
their seeming value, as compared with books ; but which, 
without such work, may as well have been kept altogether 
from the shelves. Instead of the laborious multiplication of 
references, rendered less irksome as well as less satisfactory 
by abridgment, a process not dreamed of at that time 
affords fac-similes of the transcriber's script, with a profusion 
that costs no time, with an accuracy that dispenses with 
revision, and with a fulness that preserves for the cross- 
references even more information than was griven with the 
main entry before. A full recoid, both for public and 
official use, is kept up with a promptness that causes but a 
brief interval to elapse before the latest accession is known 
to be in the Library ; and in a catalogue (so far as the public 
is concerned) which presents in one alphabet already the 
entire contents of the Bates Hall, and will, before long, 
embody those of the Lower Hall also. In the latter depart- 
ment, the temporary Finding Lists have become class-lists, 
which preserve their divisionary character for the conven- 
ience of new^ issues with less delay from time to time, while 
the additions are made accessible through subsidiary lists, 
maintained for the intervals between publication. The 
cataloguing for the Branches is added to the work of the 
Central Department, involving the printing of catalogues for 
each, the recording accessions between editions, both in the 
catalogue cases of the separate Branches, and in the con- 
solidated record kept for all in the Central Department. At 
present, besides the work on the ordinary accessions, it 
devolves upon this force to carry through the press the 
Catalogue of the Spanish collection, bequeathed by Mr. 
Ticknor, which fell to the special care of the late head of 
this department. ]\Ir. Wheeler, in the first instance, and now 
falls upon his successor, Mr. Whitney. The next of our 
special Catalogues following the Ticknor will be that of the 
Barton Library, the preparation of wdiich is at present in 
the hands of the junior head of the department, Mr. 
Hubbard. 

In 1873 the Library made an innovation in the biblio- 
graphical matter which was made an adjunct of its popular 
Catalogues. The new departure w%ms a natural one, and 
followed as a matter of course in the development of the 



Public Library. 41 

influence which it was the aim of the fathers of the Library 
to bestow^ upon the public. Mr. Everett, its first president, 
enunciated a sentiment that has never been lost sight of, 
when he claimed that its mission was to supplement the 
schools ; and a happy embodiment of the idea has found 
shape of late in the phrase of "The People's College." 
With the growth of any collection the ease of consultation 
naturally gives way to an indecision in the face of accumu- 
lated titles on every subject, and without some guide to a 
choice of books discouragement is likely to ensue from any 
haphazard selection out of many, for any particular purpose. 
A consideration of these difficulties ripened the plan. As 
preliminary the thought occurred of alluring the pastime 
reader, of whom all Libraries, in any degree popular, have a 
large following, by easy steps, to become a reader of better 
purpose. I am too much a believer in the general straight- 
forwardness of ingrafted impulses ever violently to counter- 
act them. I believe men can he led rather than pushed. 
The implanting in mankind of the story-telliug fiiculty, and 
the enjoyment of it in others, was not an idle creation ; and 
the imagination has done too much for the amelioration of 
mankind not to deserve our acceptance of it, as a handmaid 
of virtue and a promoter of intellectual advancement. This 
assistance was accordingly invoked in a list of historical 
fiction, which was prepared in chronological grouping under 
countries, as calculated to instigate a study by comparison, 
and lead the mind to history and biography by the inciting 
of the inquisitive fiiculties. I have reason to believe that 
the idea was not a futile one, from the interest manifested in 
the movement, and the avidity with which more than one 
edition of it was taken up. This was but a trial. The next 
step was the more serious one of endeavoring to direct the 
ductile perceptions of the less learned among readers. The 
eflbrt was not to propound positively any course of reading, 
for there is danger always in dogmatism, however right its 
foundation may be. The notes which were appended to the 
subject-references in the History, Biography, and Travel 
Catalogue of the Lower Hall, in 1873, served to render the 
ordinary reader more able to choose to his liking w^hen an 
undistinguishable mass of equivalent titles perplexed him. 
That Catalogue was a year in passing through the press, a 
term lengthened by the destruction of part of the work on it in 
the great fire of November, 1872 ; and when it was published 
in August, 1873, I was able to record for the next year, 
month by month, a remarkable increase of the use of books 
from the Lower Hall, in history, biography, and travel, 
amounting in some months to two hundred per cent. At the 



42 City Document No. 66. 

end of the year we of course had to gain upon the work of 
its influence twelve months before, and the ratio of gain fell 
at once, though it still remained to give some testimony of 
its continued helpfulness. The files of the Library show the 
opinions upon these results entertained by many gentlemen 
interested in projects of popular education. A veteran in 
this sphere, Mr. George B. Emerson, said, "I have never 
seen anything so excellent ; and hereafter no large Catalogue 
will be considered complete without something similar 
appended to it." From Europe like expressions of approval 
came. "I have shown it to some of the profession here," 
wrote one of the chief British librarians, " and they are as 
much astonished at the idea as at the execution of it. I do 
not think there will be many imitators. The labor of such 
a work must be enormous, and certainly beyond our 
resources and methods." 

The expectation which was expressed by ]\Ir. Emerson 
was soon realized in the adoption of many of its notes in the 
Catalogues of some of the smaller libraries, and in 1875, the 
Public Library of the town of Quincy fully committed itself 
to the scheme, in the publication of an excellent Catalogue, 
which had the editorial supervision of Mr. Charles Francis 
Adams, Jr., the President of its Trustees. Somewhat simi- 
lar work, particularly eml)odying references to the sources 
of study in periodical literature, which had been made a part 
of the scheme, appeared in the careful Catalogue of the 
Mercantile Library of Brooklyn ; but the whole elibrt of its 
librarian, Mr. S. B. Noyes, cannot be appreciated • until 
his work is completed. Simihir notes, simplified to meet 
the wants of a smaller constituency, and improved in many 
respects, were repeated in a new edition of the Roxbury 
Branch Catalogue, issued last year. A set of references 
in elucidation of English history, printed in large type on 
broadside sheets, with spaces for the filling in of the shelf 
numbers, was perfected, with the numbers of each depart- 
ment inserted, and posted, with good effect, in the respec- 
tive halls. The edition printed was small, and the demand 
for them from other places could not be met ; but for the 
testing of its value in other communities copies were sent to 
various Libraries in this country and in England, and I have 
since observed, in their reports, several references to their 
value. 

The latest attempt of a similar kind is the recently printed 
Fiction List of the Lower Hall. The S3'steni of class lists 
has its advantages, in enabling the Library'' to supply new 
editions of those sections most in demand, without involving 
a reprint of others, as a general Catalogue would require. 



Public Library. 43 

An objection is often made to a separate Fiction List, that 
tlie searcher loses the chance of l^eing attracted by other and 
perhaps more profitable books. It is certainly not without 
force. In the preparation of this new edition, this objection 
was met by the embodiment of the " Chronological Index to 
Historical Fiction," already mentioned, and by interpolating 
sections of " historical references " for pointing out the 
sources of the plots and delineations, and for marking the 
methods of parallel reading. It has been too recently issued 
to be able to draw any deductions as to its effect on the char- 
acter of our issues ; and the commingling of classes in it may 
render any statistical deductions difficult or impossible. 

Considerable labor of a like kind of bibliographical assist- 
ance will be found to have been bestowed upon the Ticknor 
Catalogue, a large portion of which is due to the care of Mr. 
Whitney, the head of the Catalogue Department. It is a 
part of the plan of the Barton Catalogue, now in progress, to 
include much elucidatory matter, and, as far as the original 
issues of Shakespeare are concerned, notes of a tentative 
nature have already been submitted to Shakespearian 
scholars, through the medium of the Superintendent's 
Monthly Reports, and are still in progress in the same 
place. 

In 1867 the Library issued its first Bulletin of new books, 
a meagre affair compared with its forty-page record of to-day. 
Every quarter, since the issue of the Catalogue of 1873, this 
Bulletin has been made the vehicle of communications, in- 
tended to convey to readers some comprehension of the 
position which important new books have taken in the litera- 
ture of their subjects. Upon various matters of present 
interest more extensive research has been bestowed in 
various bibliographical essays. Subjects like art, in which 
interest has of late years been prominent, have thus been 
treated. A growing and studious class interested in 
philosophical studies have been thought of in another 
series of papers. In this way, also, the interest in 
the centennial period has induced a series of reviews of 
the literature appertaining to the events of a century 
ago, which have been carried along year by year with 
the recurrence of the anniversary, and will be continued till 
the period has passed. In order to make them component 
parts of a more comprehensive rendering of the historical 
stud}^ of the country from ths earliest discovery, a series of 
notes has also been begun, which will in due time be brought 
down to the opening of the struggle for independence. If 
continued ultimately beyond the revolutionary war, into the 
present century, we shall have the material ready formed, 



44 City Document No. 66. 

subject of course to revision, for issuing, in the end, such a 
synoptical summary of the literature of oiu" history as does 
not elsewhere exist, and which will be such a contribution to 
its study, for the benefit of the more thoughtful of our patrons, 
as seems worthy our endeavors. 

The plan as thus developed, I am sorry to say, has given 
but comparatively little attention to the scientific side of 
knowledge ; but 1 trust that the conditions of the staff will 
in the future be more favorable for a due presentation of 
this element. 

Up to 1868 the Library had done but little in proportion 
to its destined importance in the gathering of pamphlet pub- 
lications. The energies of the government had properly 
been devoted to the accumulation of the more substantial 
evidences of knowledge, somewhat arbitrarily called books, 
as distinguished from tracts or pamphlets. A great Library, 
it is conceded, cannot wisely neglect the preservation of all 
sorts of ephemera, and the destined value of the meanest 
printed production can never be anticipated. But such 
accumulations come with time and the opportunity ; and in 
a Library confessedly governed for the greatest good of the 
greatest number, that time will come later in its develop- 
ment, and these opportunities will be sought when its first 
objects are assured. Previous to 1868 perhaps 50,000 
pamphlets had been secured, or au average of about 3,000 
a year. The chief accessions in masses had come with the 
Parker Lil)rary, and with the divisions of the pamphlet col- 
lection of the late Edward Everett, wdien William Everett, 
Esq., gave a due shai-e to the institution, upon whose career 
and jjood name his father had exercised so jjreat an influence. 
Within the last nine years the claims of pamphlets for 
preservation have been fully recognized ; and our etibrts 
have been unremitting to gather them and combine them 
with our collection, first by assortment, then by binding and 
cataloguing, till we have acquired a collection which can 
hardly, in this country, be surpassed for serviceableness. 
In this nine years we have added an average of over 16,000 
a year, or an aggregate of 150,000, w'liich represents probably 
nearly as much work, in care and cataloguing, as the bound 
books shelved in the same interval. 

The annual increase of the Library up to the establish- 
^nV nient of the first Branch, in 1870, averaged, if the excep- 
tional increase from the Bates donation and the Parker 
Library be throAvn out, about 6,500 volumes a year. Since 
that period it has never been less than doul)le that number; 
and one year, 1873-74, by the purchase of the Barton 
Library, and through the accession of the Libraries at 



Public Library. 45 

Charlestown and Brighton, it ran up to over 50,000 vol- 
umes. The present year it is over 20,000 volumes. But 
the oToss increase of books has had to be diminished for a net 
result of permanent addition, by the number of lost and of 
worn-out books, which, from accumulating wear and tear, is 
naturally increasing year by year. Ten years ago this loss 
was from 200 to 400 a year ; now it is ten times as much. 

It has always been the custom of the Library to bind all 
books purchased in Europe before their shipment for 
America. In 1867 almost all of the binding and repair- 
ino; done on the books here was carried on in outside 
binderies, under contracts for the work. The time of a 
single workman was partly given to repairs within the build- 
mg ; now fourteen hands are employed in a bindery in the 
basement, and 10,000 to 15,000 volumes are 1)ound a year. 
We have occasionally now to employ other binderies ; and it 
would be prolitable to the Library to enlarge our own 
bindery, as we hope to do whenever another extension is 
added to our building. The experiment of doing our own 
binding is a satisfactory one. The gain is not so much in 
diminished cost per volume, though that may be reckoned at 
25 per cent., as in convenience, absence from risk on val- 
uable books, thoroughness of work, and genuineness of 
material. I have never found that specifications, however 
precise, could ensure against poor stock, where it could be 
concealed, or insufficiency of work, where the outside show 
could be made to have a good appearance. There is always 
difficulty in recruiting a bindery which gives a large part of 
its attention to ''old work," as it is called, with hands that 
have been apprenticed to all the processes of the art in an 
age where division of labor is carried into all mechanical 
operations ; and I have found that such workmen are more 
easily procured from the smaller binderies of the lesser 
towns than from the establishments of the city. 

It has always been a difficulty with the boys whom we 
employ as pages for the bringing of books, that their defi- 
ciencies of education unfit them for advancement ; and it 
has always become a question of submitting to their spiritless 
performance of duty, when they have outgrown their work, 
or of discharging them upon the world to begin anew in 
some more profitable luie of employment. During the past 
year one such page has been transferred to the bindery, as 
an apprentice, and if the experiment succeeds we shall not 
do amiss in providing for an increase of our force in the 
bindery from recruits of our own training. 

The decade has also seen some important changes in the 
building of the Central Library, chiefly in increase of 



46 City Document No. GG. 

capacity, and iu enlarging the official and working quarters, 
which were never even decently provided for in the original 
plan. The building can never become creditable, if adapta- 
tion to the purpose for which it was intended be considered 
the criterion of such approbation. Its defects are radical, and 
grew partly out of the inexperience of those, or rather a 
majority of the commission, superintending its erection, the 
records of that body showing a vote of four to three on all 
essential points concerned in arranging the plans, which 
induced an inability to comprehend the extent of work 
needful to be done in a rapidly growing Library, and 
partly from a sacriUce of titness to a desire for ostenta- 
tion. What has been done by alterations has, as far as 
possible, conduced to improve the building for its uses. In 
the Lower Hall the galleries have been converted into 
much-needed apartments for Avorking and storing purposes ; 
and the Ijooks transferred to cases on the main floor have 
been brought much nearer into connection with the points 
of delivery. In the Bates Hall the futile serrature of 
the lateral walls has been removed, and the alcoves, squared 
and subdivided, have been increased in capacity by nearly 
double the shelf-room, and have been lighted where they 
were before dark, l)y windows pierced in the walls. A 
large extension has been joined to the south-west angle of 
the buildino;, affording enlarged accommodations for the 
bindery, and for some special collections, together with a 
capacious patent-room, and much-needed official quarters, 
catalogue-rooms and work-rooms. 

The last extension is that of a two-story gallery, external 
to the rear of the building, which gives a room for students 
below, and an apartment for the work of the ordering and 
receivins: of books above. It was calculated that the build- 
iiig would contain, as originally constructed, 240,000 
volumes, 200,000 of which could be shelved in the Bates 
Hall. It is safe to sa}' that as at present arranged its 
capacity is more than twice that, or about half a million 
volumes. It will be easily understood, however, that the 
limit of convenient storage for a classitied library will be 
reached long before its full measure of capacity is tilled. 

From the statements which I have made it will appear 
that in most respects the work of the Library has apparently 
increased from live to ten fold. The work of detail 
naturally accruing to all processes which require handling of 
records of one kind or another is much larger, however, on 
each item, by reason of the larger masses to manipulate in 
a Lil)rary of 312,000 than in one of 136,000 volumes. Con- 
sequently the ai)parent increase of work, as shown by 



Public Librahy. 47 

statistics of results, is not adequate to represent the positive 
eulargetnent of labor. Nevertlieless, it can be shown that 
the expenses of the Library to-day are not one-half as much, 
relatively, as in 1867. At that time our expenditure was 
152,658 for the year, while for the past year we had to ex- 
jDend the city appropriation of $111,500, with $6,300 income 
from our trust funds, maising a total of $117,800, or not 
greatly in excess of twice the amount in 1867. If the 
annual expenditure be' divided by the amount of circulation, 
it will show that the measure of the Library's usefulness, as 
indicated by such reckoning of the cost of issue per volume, 
has been reduced from twenty-five cents in 1867 to less than 
ten cents In 1877. I made an estimate of the cost for issuiuo; a 
single volume in the Lower Hall and in all our Branches for 
the month of February last, reckoning from a division of 
salaries only, and I found it to range pretty evenly all around 
at about two cents. Of course the including of other ex- 
penses would somewhat increase the average ; bnt it is appar- 
ent that the Library is delivering l)ooks quite as cheaply to 
its frequenters, at the expense of the city, as the private 
Circulating Libraries do, which require a fee of two cents 
a day for each book loaned, while the Library and its Cata- 
logue offers scope for the advancement of the public educa- 
tion with which the Circulating Library affords no comparison. 
The returns to the City Treasury from fines and the sales of 
Catalogues is indeed small, but it has increased from $500 
in 1867 to near $3,500 in 1877. 

The year which has now closed has been probably the 
most important one yet passed for the Library interests of 
the entire country. The centennial fervor has extended its 
animation to librarians, who carried through successfully a 
convention of their number in Philadelphia, in October last. 
The desirability of such a gathering has been felt for some 
years, and when the only previous convention of the kind, 
presided over by my predecessor, in New York, above 
twenty years ago, and previous to his connection with this 
Library, adjourned, it was with the expectation of other 
meetings to follow. In the interval which elapsed, however, 
almost a new generation of librarians had grown up, and 
the Free Librarj^ system, then only in its infancy, has devel- 
oped the most important Libraries of the country. The pro- 
fession and all interested — and the public's interest is not 
too remote for consideration — owe it to the energy and hard 
work of ]Mr. Melvil Dewey, late librarian of Amherst Col- 
lege, that the movement was made, and carried so happily 
through. It gave three days' pleasant and profitable inter- 



48 City Document No. 6Q. 

course to over a hundred delegates, and has done much to 
make known the importance of the profession. Out of it 
has grown a National Association of Librarians, and of others 
interested in the work of Libraries, which has taken up the 
task of diminishing the cost of maintenance of Libraries, 
by inaugurating methods of co-operation, Avhich it is 
hoped will secure in the department upon which money is 
too grudgingly bestowed, that of the catalogue, not only a 
diminished expense, but also uniformity in good methods, 
now so much desired. Measures are already in train for a 
new edition of Poole's Index to Periodical Literature, under 
a combination of labor, planned for some of the principal 
libraries. Other work of a similar nature will in due time 
follow. 

Whatever may have been the satisfaction to the members 
of this conference during the soason of it, the procession of 
events already following upon it is likely to prove of much 
more importance. It has made known much to librarians in 
this country, by which their labors are lightened or rendered 
more eflective. In Europe it has helped to make known the 
work which we are accomplishing here in a way so different 
from their own, and it has instigated movements for similar 
gatherings in England and in Germany. In Great Britain 
the project bids fair to succeed ; but in Germany the Libraries 
are largely under the charge of officers who divide the 
interest in their work with other duties, much to the loss of 
an effective emnlation. In France there is moi-e sympa- 
thy, and various recognitions of the advantages of our Free 
Library system have been made of late in their public press, 
in which this Library has more than once been pointed out as 
its exemplar. The destinies of Europe for the next decade 
may lucklessly be left to the arbitrament of war, but the 
season of the coming Exposition at Paris is likely, it is 
thought, to bring with it an international convention of libra- 
rians. It is somewhat significant that in a recent official 
document, laid l)efore the Municipal Council of Paris, Avhile 
a review is made of the budget for the ensuing year, the 
question is raised of the propriety of that city's establishing 
a great Public Library for popnlar use, and the system of our 
own is connnented upon as the titling one. I 'have been 
called npon for more details regarding it than our usual 
printed reports show, and a summary of such as I have given 
is now appearing serially in the Journal Ojficiel, under the 
supervision of Mons. Guillaume Depping, Librarian of the 
Bibliotheque Ste. Genevieve. 

Growing out of the interest engendered with the Philadel- 
phia conference, a new journal, devoted to the economy of 



Pdblic Library. 49 

libraries, has been set on foot, again largely through the 
eflbrts of Mr. Dewey, who secured the co-operation of the 
principal librarians of the country, and found in Mr, Ley- 
poldt a publisher in sympathy with the cause. In it have 
been printed the proceedings of the Philadelphia convention ; 
and month by month its readers are favored with matters 
and records of events that closely touch their professional 
interests. 

Two or three years ago the Bureau of Education at 
Washington determined that their contribution to the records 
of the national anniversary should be an exposition of the 
Library development of the country. General Eaton confided 
the immediate direction of this work to two gentlemen ; also 
sought the assistance of the chief librarians of the States ; 
and the result of all their joint labors took shape in a ponder- 
ous volume, which must pass for a bibliothecal cyclopaedia, 
if the most varied and extensive gathering of knowledge and 
experience in Library economy ever made entitles it to that 
designation. 

I have made mention in a former report of contribut- 
ing a set of our catalogues, with scrap-books of our admin- 
istration blanks, to the exposition at Vienna. The City of 
Boston receiving for its varied exhibition the highest award, 
we were denied the same, onl}^ under the rule which pre- 
vented the recognition of a department, when the city had 
been honored as a whole. For the exhibition of 1876 we 
entrusted a similar array of volumes, set forth in the handi- 
work of our own bindery, to the Board of Education of the 
State of Massachusetts, to become part of their exhibition. 
What we sent gave us a prominence that insured an award 
" for the extent and value of the work as shown by the 
reports, and especially for the great usefulness of the Cata- 
logues, containing, as they do, bibliographical information, 
not only worthy the attention of scholars, but of the greatest 
use to the whole body of readers." The Honorable Leverett 
Saltonstall, the Massachusetts Commissioner to the exhibi- 
tion, said in his final Report to the Governor and Council : 
" The exhibits of the free Libraries of the State w^ere especially 
good, and attracted much attention. That in Boston, the 
largest in the country, with its 300,000 volumes, and lending 
more than a million a year, at a loss of only ^i^ of one per 
cent., was represented by seventeen volumes, giving its his- 
tory, catalogues, and an account of its administration." We 
shall endeavor to maintain our position at the Paris Exposi- 
tion. 

It remains to chronicle a few of the indicative manifesta- 
4 



50 City Document No. G6. 

tions in our experiences the past year ; though I must refer 
you as heretofore to the records of the Appendix for the 
fullest i^articulars. At the date of the last report the new 
Card-Catalogue Room, with the students' room beneath, was 
in process of erection. Its completion and subsequent use 
have greatly facilitated an important department of the work, 
and with the crowded state of the Bates Hall, from the gather- 
ing of the ordinary takers of books, the lower apartment has 
afibrded a much-needed room for the use of students, who 
require space and quiet for their studies. The shelving in 
the alcoves is hardly adapted to large volumes, particu- 
larly if expensive ones ; and the cabinets which have con- 
tained such additions are approaching repletion. It will 
accordingly prove desirable, I think, to prepare the ante- 
room of this office, which was formerly the room of the 
Superintendent, for such accumulations, to be kept in locked 
cases. For protection against the danger of falling from the 
ladders in the galleries of the Bates Hall, iron bars have 
been put across the opening of the alcoves ; and to equip the 
service with prompter aid in case of fire, a telegraphic wire, 
tested daily, now connects the Library with the nearest 
engine-house, and additional extinguishers have 1)een placed 
about the building. The floor of the Bates Hall has been 
still further encroached upon by cases for the Card Catalogue, 
and it is only a question of time when its space must be 
enth'ely given up to such incumbrances, and a reading hall 
be found adjacent in a new extension. 

The ventilation of the Lower Hall has always been exces- 
sively bad. Indeed, at times, according to the experiments 
of the late Dr. Derby, Secretary of the State Board of 
Health, the worst air prevailed there that he could find in 
the State. It is hoped, however, that an improvement has 
been effected by pipes, arranged to conduct the foul air from 
the floor into the flues, where a current is induced by hot 
air. The arrangement was suggested by Mr. Lewis, of the 
Board. The closed windows of another Avinter will test 
more thoroughly its efficiency than has been possible since 
it was put in operation, onl}' a few weeks ago. 

I have spoken already of the plan under consideration for 
the enlargement of the waiting-rooms of the Lower Hall. 
Its necessity was constantly apparent during the past winter ; 
and on some days, at certain hours, the crowd was almost 
unmanageable for purposes of a prompt supply of books. 

No definite arrangements have yet been made for the con- 
templated enlargement of the South Boston Branch, though 
I have long since submitted a plan to the City Architect. 
The need of action is pressing. At Charlestown it has 



Public Library. 51 

become necessary to give more space to the public waiting 
for books by transferring to such purpose a portion of the 
space devoted to the reading-room. At Eoxbury the Trus- 
tees of the Fellowes Athena?um are now finishing a room in 
the upper part of one of the towers of the Library building, 
which will give much needed accommodation for the accumu- 
lation of unbound newspapers, pamphlets, etc. It will 
probably be necessary during the year to shelve an addi- 
tional wall-surface in the book-room to accommodate the 
rapidly growing collection of the Fellowes AthenjBum. 

By the figures of Appendix I. it will be seen that the 
Library now holds about 313,000 volumes, — an enumeration 
probably in advance of that of any other Library in the coun- 
try. The net increase of the year includes the collection of 
books relating to the West Lidies, and to the immigration of 
poor into this country at an early period, which had been 
collected by the late Benjamin P. Hunt, of Philadelphia. - 
The books as received numbered (312 bound volumes; but 
with them came a mass of manuscripts, maps, views, etc., 
which have now been arranged in other volumes, so that the 
collection at present numbers nearly 700 volumes. They 
are accompanied by a catalogue, annotated with care, which 
is likely to be of great service in the cataloguing of them 
under our own system. Among them are also some manu- 
script treatises, which are thus described in the catalogue : — 

With this collection of books, nianuscriiDts, maps, charts, etc., re- 
lating to the West Indies, are included, — 

First. — An unfinished account of " The Haytians,"byMr. B. P. Hunt, 
of Philadelphia, with theii- social, mox'al and political condition at the 
time of the author's residence in the island, from 1840 to 1857, making 
about 120 folio pages. 

"With this account of " The Haytians " are six note-books, of different 
sizes, filled with cuttings from newsjiapers, extracts from books, items 
of information, and incidents which came under Mr. Hunt's observation. 

Second. — A History of Hayti, or the French part of the island of St. 
Domingo, from 1625 to 1695, consisting of 172i folio pages in manu- 
script, written by Mr. B. P. Hunt, of Philadelphia, and by him left as a 
part of his bequest to the Public Library of the City of Boston, in the 
hope that at some future time sufficient interest would be taken in the 
subject to induce some student of the island's histoxy to complete it. 

Third. — " The Redemjitioners ; or, Some Account of the early Emi- 
gration of the Poor to America, and its Causes." By Mr. B. P. Hunt, of 
Philadeliihia. 

With this unfinished manuscript, consisting of about 112 4to pages, 
are eight volumes of MS. notes, comprising extracts from books, news- 
papers and records, all bearing upon the condition of the jioor, from 
feudal times to the jDresent, together with a small pocket note-book, 
containing a list of all the books and newspapers from which extracts 
have been made in the eight large note-books. 

This history of "The Redemptioners," with the note-books which 
accompany it, was also given to the Public Library of the City of 



52 City Document No. 6Q. 

Boston, by its author, in the hoj^e that some individual, studying this 
interesting subject, would be induced to complete it. 

Our first knowledge of the bequest came through the 
following letter : — 

Philadelphia, Feb. 23, 1877. 
To the Preside7it of the Boston Public Library : — 

Dear Sir, — Mr. Benjamin P. Hunt, formerly of Chelmsford, Massa- 
chusetts, but for many years a citizen of Philadelphia, died on the 2d 
inst. In his will (of which iis widow and I are executors) it is thus 
contained : — 

" I give and bequeath to the Public Library of the City of Boston, 
Massachusetts, of which Justin Winsor appears to have been on June 
21st, 1871, the Superintendent, my collection of books, pamphlets, 
manuscripts, maps, charts and engravings relating to the West Indies, 
the titles and descriptions of wlaich are contained in a catalogue marked 
on the cover ' Special Catalogue of Books, etc., relating to the West 
Indies,' and I direct that this catalogue, now deposited on my Library 
table, shall accompany the said collection, which shall be delivered 
within three months after my death." 

And by codicil the testator further directs : — 

" I give to the Public Library of the City of Boston, to which I have 
given my West India books and papers, all my manuscripts, notes and 
collections relating to the Emigration of the Poor and to Hayti, which 
shall not be otherwise disposed of at the time of my death.'' 

I have no sjiecial knowledge of the value of the bequest, but am 
informed that the late ]Mr. Hunt (whose interest in and study of the 
subject entitled him to an opinion) considered this collection to be 
second only to one now in Paris. 

In pursuance of my duty, I make this formal notification, and will 
only add that the executors will, of course, comjily with the directions 
of the will as to time of delivery. When the necessary formalities of 
inventory, etc., are completed, I will write you again. 

Very truly, 

JOSEPH PARRISH, 

Excaitor. 

A sketch of the life of Mr. Hunt has l)ccn furnished by 
his executor, at my request, and may be found, with other 
accounts of the bequest, in Appendix XXIX. 

The accessions for the year as reported do not include nearly 
ahundr(!d volumes, which are now in the binder}', and illus- 
trate the history and character of the Philadelphia Exhibition. 
They embrace pamphlets, circulars, advertisements, maps, 
prints, photographs, etc., etc., pertaining thereto, Avhich 
wore gathered for us, and transmitted monthly by an agent, 
who was in Philadelphia during the continuance of the ex- 
hibition. The labor of arranging and scrapping has been 
chietly done by the Assistant Office Secretary. In addition 
to this, the exhibition is ilhistrated on our shelves probably 
V>y ;is many more volumes, which were either issued as 
books or disposed of as such on receipt. 

We have aimed to gather all local historical tracts and 



Public Libraky. 53 

other publications which the Centennial year has called 
forth; and, had it not been for the thoughtful care of the 
Eev. Dr. Tuttle, President of Wabash College, we should 
not have been able to trace a large number, particularly 
relating to the local records of parishes of the Presbyterian 
Church. 

The tariff seriously interferes with the promptness with 
which we can put new and popular foreign books before the 
public of our Branches. Only two copies of a book are 
allowed to be imported at one time under the clause of 
exemption from duty ; and we have consequently been 
obliged to make a succession of importations by twos. A 
letter to the Secretary of the Treasury, calling attention to 
the peculiar constitution of our institution, as a congeries of 
libraries, but under one direction, was duly considered, but 
no way was found to change the interpretation of the law. A 
statement of the case was entrusted to our Representative in 
Congress, the Hon. Henry L. Pierce, who kindly brought 
the difficulty to the attention of the Committee on Ways and 
Means, but without as yet any result. 

It will be remembered that when the Prince Lil)rary came 
into our custody it contained but two of the five copies of 
the Bay Psalm-book which originally belonged to it. The 
others had been parted with for a consideration, and were 
respectively in the keeping of the late Dr. N. B. Shurtleff, 
of the late George Brinley, of Hartford (who had received 
it from the estate of the late Edward A. Crowninshield), 
and of the late George Livermore, of Cambridge. After 
the death of Dr. Shurtleff, the copy which had been in his 
possession, and which was the most interesting of them all, 
as it had behniged to Richard Mather, one of its compilers, 
was offered for sale at public auction, December 2d, 1875, and 
an injunction was served to prevent the sale, at the instance 
of the Deacons of the Old South Church, who are the legal 
owners of the property, as trustees, the Boston Public 
Library holding under a contract by them with the city as 
sub-trustees. The claim of the counsel of the Deacons 
was, that the sale of the book to Dr. Shurtleff was illegal, 
because of the want of authority in them as Trustees to 
alienate any part of the trust; and evidence was adduced, 
showing that it ^vas known at the time that the books given 
by Dr. Shurtleff in payment were not equivalent in value, 
and that it was the understanding of all parties to the 
transaction that the book would in due time be returned to 
its proper repository. The defence claimed a notorious 
possession of the book for fifteen years, and plead the 
statute of limitations. The court sustained the latter 



54 



City Document No. 66. 



point. The volume was afterwards sold by auction, Octo- 
ber 12tli, 187G, to Mr. C. Fiske Harris, of Providence, for 
$1,025, to whose collection of American poetry, the finest 
in the country, it proved an important contribution, as the 
first book and first collection of verse printed in British 
America. This decision removes all chance of successful 
claim to the other two copies, both of which are now, or may 
hereafter be, ofi'ered for sale as parts of their respective col- 
lections. 

In 1858 the kindly appreciation of this Library entertained 
by the family of the late Dr. Nathaniel Bowditch induced 
them to place Avith us his collection of books, which is 
known as the Bowditch Library, and it has added largely to 
the value of our mathematical department. The eldest son of 
that family, J. Ingersoll Bowditch, Esq., has within the 
year handed in his check for $500, to be expended on 
works in pure mathematics, to be added to his father's 
collection, and placed under the same conditions. Com- 
munication has been opened with Prof. J. M. Peirce, of 
Cambridge, with President Runkle, of the Institute of 
Technology, and with Mr. Seaver, the head-master of the 
English High School, for their assistance in a selection of 
titles. 

Early in the yaxr the balance of money, amounting to 
$335.13, as due the Li1)rary under the agreement of the pre- 
vious year, by Avhich the Lower Mills Delivery was estab- 
lished, and the books of the Dorchester and Milton Circulating 
Library were turned over to the city, was received and paid 
into the treasury, Avhere it is hoped it will become the 
nucleus of a fund to be held for the benefit of the Dorches- 
ter Branch. 

The figures in A})pendix XII. will show that the circula- 
tion of the year has increased nearly 20 per cent, on that of 
the previous year, the gain in the several departments being 
independently as follows : — 



Bates Hall, 


24 per cent. 


South Boston, 


17 per cent 


Lower Hall, 


16 " 


Roxbury, 


45 " 


East Boston, 


13 " 


Charlestown, 


24 " 


Brighton, 


20 «^ 


Dorchester, 


9 " 



The a<;gre2:ate of issues shows a chano^e in the relative 
business of some of the Branches. South Boston, which has 
been first, yields that position to Roxl)urv, which gains it 
doubtless in part from the help that the Delivery at Jamaica 
Plain and the circulation of the books of the Fellowes Athe- 
nteum aftbrd, and partly from the impetus naturally following 
upon a new edition of its Catalogue. In the third and fourth 



Public Libraey. 



55 



places, East Boston has given place to Charlestown without 
so apparent reasons. The circuhition of both of these 
Branches sufiers doubtless from the interval that has passed 
since their respective Catalogues were .printed. The dis- 
couragement arisiug from the use of old Catalogues in a 
Library of great use, with a consequent displacement of 
books, from wear and tear, will be understood from the re- 
sults of an examination of 53 unsuccessful calls for books not 
fiction in the Lower Hall, one day in March last, which dis- 
closed that 28, or over half, no longer existed, though still 
standing in the printed catalogues. 

The large demand for books shown during the year has 
been partly due no doubt to the large number of people out 
of employ. This is shown in part in the great increase of 
books issued for use in the buildings. The gain over last 
year in this particular is five times that of the home issues. 
There has been a great difference in the increase of such use' 
in the several departments, as follows : — 



Dorchester, 388 per cent. 

South Boston, 224 " 

Roxbury, 126 " 

East Boston, 55 " 



Brighton, 54 per cent. 

Charlestown, 36 " 

Bates Hall, 28 " 

Lower Hall, 23 " 



The calls for books have been so much in excess of the 
supply that users of the Library suggested, what seemed 
pertinent, that some plan should be devised for insuring a 
prompter return of books loaned, so that a larger number of 
people could have the perusal of the same book in a given 
time. Investigations showed that scarcely more than one- 
third of the books were kept over a week, and that the pro- 
portion conld well be reduced without more hardship to 
present readers than might reasonably be endured out of 
regard to expectant ones. Accordingly, on the first of 
November, a change of the rules was made, by which books 
were allowed to the same borrower for no longer period 
than one week, with the right to reuewal for a fortnight 
longer in the case of books not newly added,. The operation 
of this rule can be seen from the following table, which shows 
the gain in percentage of issues over the corresponding 
month of the previous 3^ear : — 



56 



City Document No. 66. 



Departments. 



Bates Hall . . 
Lower Hall . 
East Boston . 
South Boston 
Roxbuiy . . 
Charlestown 
Brighton . . 
Dorchester . 



Total 



3*3 



24 
10 
14 
24 
58 
23 
25 



These figures show a clear gain of about one-third for the 
entire Library under the new rule. In the Bates Hall, 
where it was apprehended, on account of the character of the 
books, that the rule might work a detriment to the circula- 
tion, the gain has been 33 per cent. In the Lower Hall the 
decline — though there is still an absolute gain of issues — 
has been equally marked; but it is chiefly to be accounted 
for from the crowded state of its Delivery Hall in the winter 
months, compared with the summer. In fact, the capacity of 
that department for an increase of use is about reached, ex- 
cept in the months of lighter service. Of the Branches, 
Dorchester alone shows a gain diminished by 25 per cent. 

The various catalogue work of the Library has gone for- 
ward as usual, under the general charge of Mr. AMiitney, 
who has specially cared for the progress through the press 
of the Ticknor Catalogue, which is likely to be completed 
during the coming year ; at the present writing, the letter 
M being in the printer's hands. An additional value will be 
given to it, by including all Spanish books in other sections 
of the Library ; and by references in the notes to works 
elucidating the principal subjects, where the resources of the 
general LibraryTmiplify the lacilities of the Ticknor Lil)rary. 
The puljlication of the Memoirs of jNIr. Ticknor during the 
A^ear has augmented the interest in the collection ; and in 
those memoirs the public has again been able to judge of the 
important part which Mr. Ticknor played in forming the 
Library, and in shaping its policy. The cataloguing of the 
Barton Collection has been in the immediate charge of Mr. 
Hubbard, and is progressing at a rate which may warrant the 
printing of the Shakespearian section of it during the year. 



Public Library. 57 

Meanwhile, the books have been made accessible to the ])ub- 
lic by the insertion of brief main entries, for a temporary pm*- 
pose, in the Public Card Catalogue. The Superintendent's 
Monthly Reports have continued the Shakespearian notes ; 
and through the favor of Wm. F. Fowle, Esq., formerly of 
Boston, now of London, the wealth of the British Museum in 
the early quartos of Shakespeare, with collations and descrip- 
tions, have been put in print for the purpose of comparison 
with the resources of the collections of this country. A 
brief tentative essay, on the bibliographical contributions of 
America to Shakespearian knowledge, was prepared early in 
the year from the Barton shelves, by Mr. Carl Knortz, and 
published in Boston, as preliminiuary to a contribution on 
Shakespearian Study in America, which that gentleman 
intends to make to the Shakespeare-Gesellschaft of Ger- 
many. 

The Quarterly Bulletins have been made, as heretofore,' 
the vehicle of bibliographical communications, which may be 
of interest to studious classes ; and efforts have been made 
by sending them to such for the purpose of enlarging the 
circle of our patrons. It is hoped that in this way the con- 
siderable class who are interested in the study and progress 
of mental philosophy may have profited by the work of Mr. 
F. B. Perkins, the ofiice secretary, on that topic ; and the 
numerous classes, whose perceptions of artistic beauty have 
been awakened of late years, through the Art Club, the 
Bric-a-brac Club, the schools of art, and the beneficent 
influence of the Museum of Fine Arts, have derived, it is 
apparent, not a little assistance from the paper on " Pottery 
and Porcelain, "which was prepared by Col. Ware, the keejier 
of the Bates Hall. In the address which was made by the 
Mayor, at the formal opening of the Art Museum, on the 3d 
of July last, he spoke of the Library and that institution as 
the crown of our educational system. There is every chance 
for the two to work in harmony, with the President of our 
Trustees, ex-officio, a member of the Board of Trustees of 
the Aluseum. 

I have spoken in the earlier part of this report of other 
subjects which the Bulletins have follo^^ed, and of the 
characteristic features which were given to the new editions 
of the Catalogues of the Roxbury Branch, and of prose fic- 
tion in the Lower Hall. Following an example which was 
set by Mr. Poole, of the Chicago Library, five hundred 
copies of the forty-five hundred which constituted the edition 
of the Fiction List were printed on a Manilla paper, of the 
same weight to the ream, forty pounds, with the ordinary 
white paper on which the rest were printed. The Manilla 



58 City Document No. QQ. 

costs 8| cents per poimcl, against 11^ for the white. The 
experience of Mr. Poole, and of our own use of the sheets 
during the printing, is, that with the copies for public use the 
duration of wear is increased by at least a third. As the 
appearance is agreeable to the eye, there seems no reason 
why Manilla should not become a favorite paper for catalogues, 
and indeed for school-books, and works of reference requiring 
much handling. The printers soon learn that it must be put 
on the press dry. 

The usual broadside-sheets of the gelatine process have 
been continued, and 338, of 20 titles each, have been pre- 
pared, and cut up and inserted in the various Card Cata- 
logues, against 260 for last year. In addition, an increased 
extent of cataloguing has been done in manuscript, where 
the use is temporary, pending the printing of volumes, and 
where the requirements for cross-references have been small. 
The work of transcribing, inscribing, and assorting may be 
judged from a record ot nearly 107,000 cards being put in 
the several Card Catalogues, against 70,000 for last year. 

The indexing of the United States documents has been 
completed, consolidated and revised by Mrs. Eastman. As 
the work approached completion, a petition of the Trustees, 
joined in l)y the principal libraries and literary societies of 
the country, was presented to Congress, through the Hon. 
Henry L. Pierce, asking that the work which had been done 
for our own community should be made available for others 
by being printed. The matter was referred to the Com- 
mittee on the Library of Congress ; and some correspondence 
ensued, by which it appeared that a consolidated index, not 
only of the regular documents of Congress, but also of the 
Congressional Globe and the Journals of the Houses, was in 
preparation, under the charge of the Librarian of Congress. 
The connnittce further expressed a wish that the Index of 
the Documents, as prepared by this Library, should be in- 
trusted to Mr. Spottbrd, to be embodied in his general index. 
In this way the matter has been for the ]3reseut left. 

I have already mentioned, as one of the results of the 
Philadelphia conference, that, under the co-operation of vari- 
ous Libraries, a new edition of Poole's Index to Periodicals 
is to be prepared and printed. As the work is likely to be 
for a considerable period in hand, and as the references to 
current periodical literature is one of the growing uses to 
which our Library is put, it was arranged, some months 
since, that about lifty of the chief periodicals^ of this and 
other countries should be immediatyly, on receipt of the 
successive numbers, distributed to certain of the principal 
officers, and indexed on uniform slips of paper. These slips 



Public Library. 59 

are handed in to the keeper of the Bates Hall, and are kept 
by him in an alphabetical order for consultation. 

The Appendix contains the nsual tables recording the pro- 
portions of the various classes of books as sent into circula- 
tion. It will be seen that there is little change in these 
ratios. The' most significant and gratifying is a marked 
diminution, since 1873, of the use of ficton in the Lower 
Hall ; but it is apparent that the change has been brought 
about by the methods of instruction which we employ. The 
natnral craving of the masses is for story-telling. It cannot 
be eradicated. The attempt would only drive the frequent- 
ers of the Library away in large numbers. I look upon the 
dominating taste in reading, as Kant regarded the general 
tendencies of mankind, — to accept it and to strive to better 
it. The wise course is to regulate it, and to use the instinct as - 
a means of its own improvement. T selected one Saturday in 
the height of our season, and directed that all slips, handed ill 
at the Lower Hall counter, which failed to secure a book, should 
be saved. They numbered nearly 5,000, showing that twice as 
many slips failed of their purpose as succeeded. An analysis 
of these requests shows that 404, or about a twelfth part, only 
were non-tiction ; more than two-twelfths were a miscel- 
laneous assemblage of novels, each asked for once, twice, 
or perhaps thrice, but not sufficiently characteristic to signify 
any marked intent. Over 500, or more than a tenth part, 
were calls for dime novels, but few of which are now left in 
the Library, — the remnants of a set which were, some years 
ago, experimentally put into use, but which at this time still 
stood in the printed Catalogues which were on hand. The 
single author most in request was Horatio Alger, jr., a writer 
for youths, whose books were marked on 390 slips. Mrs. 
Southworth came next, 301 times; then Oliver Optic, 292 ; 
Dumas, 199 ; Mrs. Stephens, 158 ; Miss Braddon, 154; Mrs. 
Holm?s, 146 ; Fosdick, a waiter for boys, 125 ; Fleming, 
87 ; Kingston, a boys' writer, 83 ; Ainsworth, 69 ; Mrs- 
Wood, 60; Grant, 59; Lever, 58; Mrs. Grey, 54. The 
most sought-for single book was Alger's '' Timothy Crump's 
Ward," — 64 times. Almost a quarter of the entire number 
"may be called juvenile books. Over a third certainly would 
class among the lower grades of popular novelists, Avithout 
counting such as were not popular and of this grade. About 
a sixth of the whole may be considered from fair to first 
class as to literary merits. Out of this 4,875 total, some of 
the Avell-known names in literature stand low in the scale of 
demand, as, for instance, Don Quixote, 2 ; Jane Austen, 2 ; 
Goldsmith, 2 ; Swift, 3 ; Goethe, 4 ; George Sand, 4 ; Scott, 
5 ; Thackeray, 5 ; George Eliot, 9 ; Hawthorne, 10 ; Bul- 
wer, 10 ; Charles Reade, 10 ; Miss Muloch, 10 ; Dickens, 25 ; 



60 City Document No. 66. 

Wilkie Collins, 27; Cooper, 34; Marryat, 44; James, 
44. 
■"^ — This record shoiilcl not aflbrcl the foundation for off-hand 
conclusions. The hours during which the slijDs Avere saved 
were the busiest of the week, and which the better readers 
shun. Duplicates of the higher class of novels being sup- 
plied on less urgency than those of inferior position, the 
exhaustion of such books signifies a relatively greater demand 
than is the case with the lower classes. It should always be 
further borne in mind that in public Libraries the demand 
for the better Ijooks is considerably lessened, from the fact 
that such books are bought more commonly for the family 
book shelf than the inferior ones. It is for this reason that 
reputable authors of popular fame, like Irving and Haw- 
thorne, never represent, in the circulation of pubTic Libraries, 
their hold upon readers. 

On the other hand there is compensation in the growing 
circulation of the Bates Hall, representing the highest read- 
ing. wTifty-two per cent, of its issues are for reference in 
the building. A seventh jxirt of the books recommended 
for purchase are in foreign languages. 

A scrutiny was made in April of 200 issues to the firemen 
in one day, as indicating the average demands of adults. 
Only one-third was fiction, and the proportion of the lower 
gi-ades was low. Of the remainder the selections indicated 
a wide range of interests, and exhibited a very creditable 
standard of intellectual requirements for a responsible arm 
of our municipal service. 

The large circulation for the year has been maintained with 
the same satisfactory immunity from loss as before. Out of 
nearly 1,200,000 issues only 129 are uurecovered, or one in 
eight or nine thousand. The Central Library sustains the 
burden of this loss. In the Branches it has proved possible 
to deliver at Eoxbury 146,829, with no loss Mhatever ; at 
.South Boston, 135,179, with a loss of two ; at Chailestowu, 
106,816, with a loss of three ; at East Boston, 102,607, with 
a loss of four; at Brighton, 29,792, with a loss of one ; and 
at Dorchester, 71,979, with no loss at all. That is, an aggre- 
gate Branch delivery has amounted to 593,202, with a'ltotal 
loss of ten, or one in nearly 60,000 issues. The heavier 
loss of the Central Libraiy arises, as I have several times 
before explained, from the greater difficulty of tracing delin- 
quents in the larger masses of the City Proper. It is one 
in -4,599 for this 3^ear, against one in 4,824 for last 
year, and in 5,124 for the year ])efore. One kind of loss, 
which swells the aggregate at the Central Library, arises 
from the delivery of books for hall use from the Lower 



Public Library. 61 

Hall. Green slips for drawing such books used to be ex- 
posed, to be taken at will ; but for two or three years past 
they have only been given to special applicants, each of 
wliom comes under an officer's eye. Nearly 13,000 volumes 
are thus given out in the Lower Hall during the year, and of 
them nine were not returned, or one in 1,400 or 1,500. The 
proportion is a good deal larger than the loss from books 
delivered for home use, and may not yet have become 
alarming ; but it proves the value of our method of estab- 
lishing identity, as is required for the issue of a card to those 
who draw books for home use. It may possibly be necessary 
to establish some further checks. It is not the fault of the 
system, for 74,786 such issues were made in the Bates Hall, 
without any loss ; but the difficulty lies in the lessened 
suj)ervision of the cn^wds which fill the lower halls. 

Late in the year a considerable increase of the force in the 
bindery was made, as it was apparent that the accumulation" 
of books needing binding or repairs increased beyond our 
power to dispose of them. Notwithstanding this strength- 
ening of that service, the balance of Avork and accomplish- 
ment is not yet reached, and I am fearful that we shall fall 
still further behind the coming year. The wear and tear of 
the books naturally increases 3'ear by year ; and with the 
constantly growing accessions the ability of the bindery to 
meet our requirements is severely taxed. We have in- 
troduced during the year an expeditious way of binding 
pamphlets. Covers of various sizes, half bound in leather, 
are kept in stock, and from one to three pamphlets, as their 
importance may determine, being in the first place stitched 
with stout thread, are -attached to guards within the covers. 
The style is serviceable for the purpose, and not only relieves 
the bindery, but expedites the accessibility of such publica- 
tions. Notices of the discussions on binding at the Phila- 
delphia conference elicited statements in the English journals 
regarding the use of buckram instead of leather ; and I 
learned from Mr. Nicholson, the Librarian of the London 
Institution, that ten years' use had satisfied them of its ex- 
cellent qualities for durability, while gas-lighted and heated 
apartments may render it much more permanent than any 
leather. The article is a stout linen cloth, of various colors, 
highly glazed, and maybe used with a leather lettering piece, 
or it will take tooling of itself. The samples which have 
been produced in our bindery, with loose joints, such as are 
used in parchment or blank work, and dressed with varnish 
on completion, present a satisfactory appearance. The article 
has never been introduced into this country, but I have 
brought it to the attention of importers of Scotch linens, who 



62 City Docu.v:ent No. GQ. 

will iutroduce it at once. As the duty is 40 per cent, ad 
valorem, its cost compared with American skins may be in- 
creased to make it more nearly equal to that of leather than 
it is in England. 

The pressure of the times caused us to figure so closely at 
the beginning of the year on the anticipated cost of main- 
tenance for the year, that I expressed in my last report an 
apprehension of the result. We were with difficulty enabled 
to compass our outlay with the funds at disposal, and it 
would have been impossible without the balances abroad 
with which we opened the year. I feel imder the same 
difficulties regarding the allowance for the coming year. It 
certainly will not permit us to extend our usefuhiess to meet 
all the demands upon us, and the amount to our credit in 
Europe will not compare with that of last year. For the 
several items we can depend as follows : — 

Binding. — City appropriation . . . $5,500 00 

f City appropriation . . . 15,000 00 

jy J I Balance with Barings, London . 2,192 78 

nd } l^iilf^wce with Fliigel, Leipzig . 382 77 

-r. .7. 7 I Balance with Riafio, Madrid . 197 34 

Periodicals. | ^^^^^.^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^jt ... 5OO 00 

l^ Income from funds . . . 6,300 00 

Catalogue. — City appropriation . . . 6,000 00 

Fuel. " " ... 4,000 00 

Furniture. " " ... 2,000 00 

Gas. " " ... 5,000 00 

Expense, etc. — City appropriation . . 3,000 00 

Printing and Stationery. — City appropriation, 6,000 00 

Salaries (including binders) " " 70,626 00 

Transportation, postage, etc. " " 3,000 00 

Total $129,698 89 

Of the above sum $120,126 is the regular appropriation 
of the City Council. The total available for books and 
periodicals is $24,572.89, and if binding and the salaries of 
binders is included, $40,224.89. Besides this there is the 
income of the Fellowes Fund, for the benelit of the Roxbury 
Branch, on account of which $1,833 has been spent the 
past year. There has been no change in the investment of 
our funds (see Appendix XXV.) ; and the financial state- 
ment for the year is given in Appendix XXIV. 

I cannot close this statement of the year's work, and this 
review of a ten years' service, without reference to the 
general good feeling and spirit of emulation in fidelity 



Public Library. 63 

which has on the whole characterized the staff. I think the 
Library owes much to an esprit de coiys among its servants, 
who have felt that they were sharers in the advantages of its 
good name. Barely ten of the hundred and forty names of 
the regular and extra service now on our rolls w^ere on it 
when it fell to my lot to direct their labors. Of the im- 
portant officers, who have been associated with me, the 
name of one must show the asterisk of death. The late As- 
sistant Superintendent, Mr. William A. Wheeler, entered 
the service only a few months after my own appointment, 
and until his death, in October, 1874, he w^as my coadjutor 
and friend, — two terms mutually suggestive, and which I 
wdll not here qualify with a redundance, that can avail 
nothing. In the Board of Trustees the term of service of 
their President now embraces more than a score of years, 
and his recollections of the Library's career extend beyond 
that of any one in the Board or on the staff. Only one 
other member of the Board, Mr. Weston Lewis, can date his 
acquaintance with the Library as far back as my own. The 
Chief Janitor of the institution, Mr. William E. Ford, leads 
in seniority on the staff, his entrance into the service dating 
back to 1858. 

Finally, let me say, that if much has been done, a great 
deal remains to do. The same spirit of mutual accommoda- 
tion and common endeavor, which has brought the Library 
where it is, can but carry it onward towards a goal continu- 
ally receding, only because one step of development opens 
the way to another. 

Eespectfully submitted, 

JUSTIN WINSOR, 

Superintendent. 

Public Libeart, May 1st, 1877. 



APPENDIXES 



TO THE 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



1877 



LIST OF APPENDIXES. 



I. Extent of the Library (by Years). 

II. Yearly Increase by Purchase and Donation. 

III. Extent of the Bates Hall Collection. 

IV. Extent of the Loaver Hall Collection. 
A^. Rale Duplicates and Odd Volumes. 

VI. Increase of the Several Departments. 

VII. Increase from Newly" Published Books. 

VIII. Volumes Located in Bates Hall. 

IX. Bates Hall Classifications. 

X. Lower Hall Classifications. 

XI. Funds and Donations. 

XII. Circulation. 

XIII. Registration of Applicants. 

XIV. Books Recommended. L'^se of British Patents. 
XV. Bates Hall Reading. . 

XVI. Lower Hall Reading. 

XVII. East Boston Reading. 

XVIII. South Boston Reading. 

XIX. RoxBURY Reading. 

XX. Brighton Reading. 

XXI. Dorchester Reading. 

XXII. Periodical Reading Rooms. 

XXIII. Losses and De;,inquents. 

XXIV. Financial Statement. 
XXV. Library Funds. 

XXVI. Library Service. 

XXVJI. Report on the Examination of the Shelves. 

XXVIII. Work in the Library Bindery. 

XXIX. The Hunt Bequest. 



Public Library 



67 



APPENDIX I. 

EXTENT OF THE LIBRARY BY YEARS. [\V.] 



•SntnniSaq 


1H O 
CO 


6,507 
12,386 
16,053 
17,938 
19,255 
20,707 
27,381 
28,874 
31,043 
31,837 
32,553 
36,566 
44,443 
47,254 


to 


O CO 
t- 00 


100,383 
112,163 
134,628 
150,921 
181,653 
196,968 


•HDKvaa 

KIV7<I 




(M T 00 IM 














'^^ "^ '^ 






•HOVVHa 

KoxHOiag 




::::::::::::;:!:.::::" ^ - - 


O^ -*^ C^ 70^ 


|I^ ^ ^ ^ 




•HOVVHa 

NAOXsaiHvno 




CO o ^ -f 


^ ^„ ^ ^ 








B 
o 

« 

>< 

s 
K 
!< 

1 


1 




i-H CO f-< O CO 


-* CO 00 O <N 


■""^ ""* 






CO C> CO <N CD 


IM (N CO -^ 




SI 




^ lO Ol -* 00 t- 


^ ^ '^^ "^ ^-. 




•HDNVHg 
NOXSOa HiflOS 










4,365 
5,174 
5,807 
6,622 
7,288 
8,178 


























•HOKvag 

Noxsoa xsva 










6,767 
7,291 
7,812 
8,393 
9,037 
9,643 








:-^ 




















< 

a 

S' 

< 

a 

H 

o 

1 








to 

o 


SI oi 


T)< CO . o CO i-( ira 

T-" C» C5 CO C-l 00 

CO r- Tj* Ci 00 05 




ooooicOT-iao-^-a'O 






. . .r-.r-.CC-^OiO-t'-'SiOira 


to 


o 5p 


^ OO a, o, ^ ^ 


||.i 
^^^■s 




■noipanoo nun saj^a aq; m papnpni ;C[9noTA3.i(j 


2,111 
2,212 
2.604 
2,939 
*3,096 


c3 




Cl O I-" rH It:) C-l O «0 05 o 


n 




t- lo o >o e-i oo 

•M O O OV U5 l- 
CO O t-O CO tH ^ 




QCOrHQOOOOOCO — =P 


o t- o o C-1 eo -I* o >o CO 




§ g 


r-( (N Ol CO O to 
CO CO CO CO CO CO 




(N M ^ (N 


ll 




ooot-cni-iO(Mrto — 


to 




142,685 
149,477 
168,748 
175,122 
184,938 
*192,326 




60,42 
66,22 
75,21 
79,35 
82,80 

93,17 
100,17 
105,73 
111,68 


i 


00 ri 
CO C-1 
CO c<l 


22,617 

28,080 

34,896 

70,851 

78,043 

85,031 

*97,386 

105,034 

110,563 

116,934 

123,016 

130,678 

136,080 

144,092 


o 

o 

c-f 


CO o 
iO IN 


192,958 
209,456 
260,550 
276,918 
297,873^ 
312,010 


7! 

K 


CO ■<* 

a 


1854-55 
1855-66 
1856-57 
1857-58 
185S-59 
1859-60 
1860-61 
'861-62 
1862-63 
1863-64 
1864-65 
1865-66 
1866-67 
1867-68 


1 

1 


oo « 


1871-72 

1872-73 

1873-74 

1874-75 

1875-76 r 

1876-77 










r-c IM 


N"*.atOt-<»0 0--<M:OTllu?co 


1^ 


CO o> 


O -- (M CO -r vr5 

<N <N <N (N (M IN 



Note. — The aggregate of pamphlets " added from the beginning " includes many since bound, 
singly or in groups (which are now counted among volumes), and a very lai-go number of duplicates 
which are thrown out and put among t'.io pamphlets held for exchange. 



68 



City Document No. GG. 



APPEOT)IX II. 

YEARLY INCREASE OF THE WHOLE LIBRARY BY PURCHASE 
AND BY GIFTS. — [W.] 

Note. — The increase of volumes is not the sum of those added by gift and purchase, etc., 
because lost and condemned books are deducted. 





Teaks. 


Increase. 
(yet after 1861.) 


Gifts. 


Purchases, in- 
cluding those 
charged to funds 
and added by 
exchange. 


ii 

o o 


"2 2 
•S ° 
a) >, 

£2 




Vols. 


Pamph. 


Vols. 


Pamph. 


Vols. 


*Pamph. 


Vols. 


a " 

O 60 


1. 




1852-53 


9,688 


961 


4,000 


961 


5,688 










75 


2. 




1853-54 


6,533 


2,989 


2,152 


2,989 


4,381 










105 


3. 




1854-55 


6,.396 


2,557 


2,663 


2,468 


3,733 


89 








153 


4. 




1855-56 


5,463 


5,879 


1,865 


5,330 


3,598 


549 








126 


5 . 




1856-57 


6,816 


3,667 


1,686 


3,646 


5.130 


21 








132 


6. 




1857-58 


35.955 


1,885 


30,214 


1,885 


5,741 










381 


7. 




1858-59 


7,192 


1,317 


3,405 


1,317 


3,787- 










247 


8. 




1859-60 


6.989 


1,4.52 


3,744 


1,452 


3,245 










207 


9 . 




1860-61 


16,948 


6,674 


12,299 


6,656 


4,649 


18 








242 


10. 




1861-62 


7,391 


1,493 


1,274 


1,493 


6,117 










234 


11 . 




1862-63 


5,529 


2,169 


829 


1,958 


4,700 


212 








194 


12. 




1863-64 


6,226 


2,9.39 


1,081 


2,772 


5,145 


167 








219 


13. 




1864-65 


6,082 


1,516 


804 


1,026 


5,178 


490 








323 


14. 




1865-66 


7,662 


4,013 


1,476 


3,342 


6,286 


671 








336 


15. 




1866-67 


5,303 


7,877 


1,465 


7,769 


7,732 


108 








300 


16. 




1867-68 


7,673 


2,811 


1,554 


2,513 


6,396 


298 








342 


17. 




1868-69 


8,685 


13,923 


2,138 


10,984 


6,531 


2,939 








649 


18. 




1869-70 


7,775 


13,593 


1,643 


10,228 


6,129 


3,365 








666 


19 . 




1870-71 


18,099 


14,976 


9,750 


10,805 


8,349 


4,171 








604 


20. 




1871-72 


13,708 


10,637 


4,349 


5,831 


9,359 


4,806 








610 


21. 




1872-73 


14,644 


11,770 


3,939 


8,060 


10,705 


3,710 


865 


601 


22. 




1873-74 


51,094 


22,475 


4,783 


17,138 


18,671 


5,337 


1,330 


739 


23. 




1874-75 


16,372 


16,293 


4,169 


15,899 


17,080 


394 


572 


1,091 


24. 




1875-76 


20,955 


30,732 


5,749 


5,891 


15,206 


^,841 


759 


694 


25. 




1876-77 


16,974 


13,305 


3,562 


11,071 


16,544 


2,234 




7 


38 


1,125 

1 



* Includes pamphlets added both by purchase and exchange, as taken from the Accession 
Catalogue. 

t Included in previous columns. These volumes are not the property of the Public 
Library, but form a part of tlie Koxbury Branch by agreement. 

(0) Of the incn-ase, 24,618 were the Hate.s gift. 

(9) Of the increase, 11,721 were the Parker bequest. 

(19) 3,774 vohunes of the Ticknor bequest, and 2,682 from the Sumner Library Associa- 
tion, are includoil in the increase. 

(20) 1,471 vohmu'.-i from the Mattapan Literary Association are included in the increase. 
(22) The increase of tliis year includes the totals of the libraries at Charlestown and 

Brighton, and also, under purchases, the Barton Library. 

(24) The pureha.-ies of this year inchule thirty volumes to replace books in the Bates Hall 
long lost. Tln> great accession of pamplilets came from the purchase of duplicates from 
Harvard-College Library, 



Public Library. 



69 





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H 




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70 



City Document No. GQ. 



APPENDIX lY. 

EXTENT OF THE LOWER HALL COLLECTION. [G.] 





e 

H 




» © 


r4 
SB 


H 


« 


w4 


QD 
r4 




H 


Reported the pre- 




25,199 
2,003 


26,606 

2,469 


28,723 
1,417 


29,909 
2,780 


30,574 


SI S27 


32,605 
1,465 


32,596 


as SQs 


35,152 
3,830 


Added during the 




2,614 1,799 


3 385 a S7n 










Total ..... 




27,202 
339 


29,075 
93 


30,140 
19 


32,689 

23 

859 

],233 


33,188 as fi-^fi 


34,070 

6 

16S 

1,308 


35,981 

37 

10 

2,539 


36,965 
394 

1,419 


38,982 
19 


Books transferred 
to Bates Hall . . 




535 
819 


1 
342 
678 


Books transferred 




27 


Condemned during 




257 


259 


212 


1,655 
1,803 


Losses of ten years 
























Total left . . 


*25,199 26,606 


28,723 


29,909 


30,574 


31,827 


32,605 


32,596 


33,395 


35,152 


*35,478 



* Actual count. 
Note. — The "Losses of ten years" are explained iu Appendix X. 



APPENDIX Y. 

SALE DUPLICATES AND ODD VOLUMES. [K.] 

C27bt including the Parker duplicates, or a large lot of odd and imperfect volumes of books, 
not likely to have the missing volumes supplied, which are boxed up at intervals.) 









9 
9 

H 


© 

QC 
H 


H 

ae 


H 


XI 


X) 


X) 


X) 

H 


x> 


Number at begin- 
ning of year . . . 

Added during the 
year 


4,955 

714 


5,146 
1,004 


5,805 
847 


6,106 
443 


383 


C,954 
996 


7,314 
1,375 


8,183 
1,641 


9,490 
1,234 


9,938 
1,902 


11,321 
1,015 


Disposed of ... . 


5,669 
523 


6,150 
345 


6,652 
546 


6,549 
304 


234 


7,950 
636 


8,689 
506 


9,824 
334 


10,724 
786 


11,840 
519 


12,336 
t351 


Total • 


5,146 


5,805 


6,106 


6,245 


*6,954 


*7,314 


*8,183 


9,490 


9,938 


*ll,32l 


11,985 



* This number is by an actu.il count of the serviceable volumes now arranged in our Dupli- 
cate Room ; and it includes one hundred and fifty-eight volumes of newspapers. 

t Of these 294 were parted with on exchange account, and 57 were transferred to different 
departments of the Library. 

XOTE. — There are also of pamphlets some forty thousand duplicates, arranged and ready 
for exchanges. Libraries are invited to make such exchanges. 



Public Library. 



71 



APPENDIX yi. 

INCREASE OF THE SEVERAL DEPARTMENTS. [W.] 







« 


9 


9 


H 


« 


M 


^ 


» 


O 


t< 






O 


C 


l» 


t» 


J* 


l» 


r» 


*» 


I- 


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ac 


QC 


QC 


5C 


QD 


35 


ac 


« 


(X> 






H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


^ 


H 


H 


rt 


H 




f Gain in located 
























books (App. 
























VIII.) . . . 


6,297 


7,475 


6,206 


7,508 


10,384 


6,622 


6,198 


6,564 


9,227 


9,337 




Of these not 
























located at last 
























Report . . . 
Added and lo- 


1,678 


1,327 


140 


294 


4,135 


651 


829 


187 




591 


1 
























cated .... 


4,619 


6,148 


6,156 


7,214 


6,249 


5,971 


5,369 


6,377 


9,227 


8,746 


■u 


Added and not 






















-^ 


located . . . 
Total gain . . . 


1,327 


140 


294 


4,135 


651 


829 


*12,244 




591 


303 




5,946 


6,288 


6,450 


11,349 


6,900 


6,800 


17,613 


6,377 


9,818 


8,443 




Condemned . . 
Net gain . . . 




2 






1 


5 




3 


2 


21 












5,946 


6,290 


6,450 


11,349 


6,899 


6,795 


17,613 


6,374 


9,816 


8,422 



^ f Gain in b'ooks . 
~ Less transfers 
tH andcondem'd 
J, -, books .... 


2,003 
596 


2,469 
352 


1,417 
231 


2,780 
2,115 


2,614 
1,361 


1,799 
1,021 


1,405 

1,480 


3.385 
2,586 


3,570 
1,813 


3,830 
1,701 


•^ {Not gain . . . 


l.i07 


2,117 


1,186 


665 


1,253 


778 


15 

(l08S)t 


799 


1,757 


2,129 















254 


101 


402 


335 


157 
















































254 


101 


402 


335 


157 




















'Gain by addition 
Less loss by ex- 
changes, etc. 



Net gain 













1,375 
506 


1,641 
334 


1,234 

786 


1,902 
519 






















659 


301 


139 


149 


360 


869 


1,307 


448 


1,383 



1,015 
351 











5,936 


881 
50 


621 

97 


664 
148 


915 
334 


917 
273 


856 


o -< Condemned and 








250 


Kl|1 












(.Net gain . . , 








5,936 


831 


524 


521 


581 


644 


606 

























885 
76 


850 
217 


1,359 
644 


1,261 
495 


1,303 


o .g Condemned and 
§ s lost 












413 


fc; ?1 














Net gain . . . 










4,365 


809 


633 


715 


766 


890 















* Includes 12,057 (close estimate) of the Barton books, and 187 other volumes. 

t The condemnations have been large for the year, the transfers few; but their combined 
excess over the gains, which are exceptionally small on ■ account of the few books published 
in this country, shows, for the first time, an absolute loss for the year. 



72 



City Document No. 66. 
APPEm)IX YI.— Continued. 







9 


© 

H 


H 
H 


H 


« 

H 






e 

H 


H 




■ Gain in city part 
Condemned and 












3,754 

4 


1,069 
26 


1,296 
46 


1,299 
163 


1,396 














304 


•L: 
















1 - 












3,750 
865 


1,043 
1,330 


1,250 

572 


1,136 
759 


1,092 
738 


Fellowes Athe- 
naeum. (Net 












1=^ 




























4,615 


2,373 


1,822 


1,895 


1,830 

















.^ 
















15,932 
144 


1,305 
403 


1,004 
300 


1,123 
433 


5 


Condemned and 














«; 


















,5 














15,788 


902 


704 


690 


^ 

































11,049 
12 


4S0 
76 


599 
130 


480 


s Condemned and 
P J lost 














74 


^ 1 






























11,037 


405 


469 


406 










. . . 


1 





















3,905 


3,179 
32 


1,057 


g Condemned and 
















16 


«i 




















(§ Net gain . . 














54 


3,905 


3,147 


1,041 

















■§'5 ( Duplicates re- 

Sij § ^ served for this 

. > ' Branch . . . 












24 


19 


39 


139 

















Bates n.ill gain 
Lower Ilall gain 
Newspaper 

Room gain . 
Duplicate Room 

gain 

E. B. Branch 

gain 

B. B. Branch 

gain 

Rox. Branch 

gain 

< Fellowes Athe- 

uwum gain . 
Chn. Branch 

gain 

Bri. Brancli 

gain 

Dor. Branch 

gain 

J. F. Branch 

giiiii 



Total gain . 



5,946 
1,407 



6,290 
2,117 



6,450 
1,186 



11.349 
666 



149 
5,936 



7,775 



18,099 



6,899 
1,253 



360 

831 

4,365 



13,708 



6,795 
778 

254 

869 

524 

809 

3,750 

8G5 



19,271 
(loss) 15 

101 

1,307 

521 

633 

1,043 

1,330 

15,788 

11,037 

64 

24 

61,094 



6,374 
799 

402 

448 

581 

715 

1,250 
672 
902 
405 

3,905 
19 

16.372 



9,816 
1,757 

335 

1,383 

644 

766 

1,136 

759 

704 

469 

3,147 

39 

20,955 



8,422 
2,129 

157 

664 

606 

890 

1,092 
738 
690 
406 

1,041 
139 

16,974 



Public Library. 



73 



APPENDIX yii. 

INCREASE FROM NEWLY PUBLISHED BOOKS. [P.] 



English Books with British I 
imprint i 

English Boolrs with Amer- ) 
lean impriut ) 

English Boolcs with Con- ) 
tinental imiiriut . . . . j 

Foreign books 

Duplicates of either class, 1 
when not Included in the > 
other items ) 

Total 



635 

1,154 

104 
539 



2,529 



708 

1,445 

100 
673 



625 
1,455 



3,396 



811 
1,411 

50 

487 



3,007 



899 
2,206 



4,194 



1,096 
3,642 

115 

891 



5,744 



1,389 

4,301 

291 
1,064 



7,045 



1,294 

3,807 

125 



6,084 



1,533 

7,365 

375 
767 



10,040 



2,830 

10,501 

316 



15,505 



2,237 

6,761 

180 
1,742 



10,920 



APPENDIX yni. 

VOLUMES LOCx\.TED IN BATES HALL, BY MONTHS. 



[G-] 



Months. 



May . . . 
June . . . 
July . . . 
August . . 
September 
October . , 
November . 
December . 
January . . 
February . 
March . . 
April . . . 



Total 





© 


H 










© 


5C 
H 


H 


© 


w4 

H 


an 

H 


M 

H 




a 
iy 

ac 

H 


758 




727 


455 


584 


357 


383 


830 


509 




480 


464 


584 


527 


477 


845 


1,037 




462 


291 


631 


839 


713 


829 


383 


347 


520 


518 


554 


405 


560 


566 


713 


833 


378 


511 


457 


436 


622 


1,036 


866 


697 


546 


295 


520 


414 


590 


602 


443 


763 


695 


*4,528 


489 


377 


722 


925 


639 


632 


905 


651 


646 


507 


758 


567 


626 


834 


427 


611 


658 


665 


427 


579 


563 


633 


706 


724 


456 


594 


349 


645 


521 


382 


1,001 


788 


651 


472 


419 


752 


417 


1,175 


661 


t598 


492 


605 


544 


1,050 


7,475 


6,296 


7,508 


10,384 


6,622 


6.198 


6,564 


9,226 



671 

613 

733 

591 

611 

751 

697 

772 

1,014 

677 

649 

1,558 

9,337 



Pamphlet volumes arranged by 
the Curator 



385 



* 3,876 are hooka of the Ticknor Library, then assigned to permanent places. 

t Includes 31 vols, of the Ticknor MSS. 

Note. — These monthly figures are the results of the tables made out year by year, like the 
one constituting Appendix VI for 1869. The figures for May, June, and July, 1868-69, should 
follow those for April of the same year. They were misplaced to adapt the table to a change of 
the Library year. 

Pamphlets. — Diiring the year the Curator of pamphlets has continued the arrangement of 
all the loose pamphlets by subjects, etc., in the Cabinet Room; and such as were duplicates and 
not needed have been arranged in adjacent apartments. 



i 



















1 APPENDIX IX. 

BATES HALL CLASSIFICATIONS. 
(Not including volumes added, but not j'et located.) 
























Special Libraries. 


6 

'A 

'< 

■i 

a 


Classes. 


1 
GENERAi Libraries. 


1 


Losses from the opening 
of the hall, and deducted 
in next column. 


f£3 


1858. 


1861. 


1866. 


1871. 


1873. 










.is 
-5 


c ?"■ 


o ^ 

«5 






■s -■ 


3 


f3 


h 


5 


1;: 

1" 


•T3 

3 


f 


■^ . 








1 


1' 


i^ 


all 
1=3 




276 
596 
650 
711 

6V3 

413 

291 

1,287 

1,123 
82 
369 

708 

3,242 

1,247 

307 

98 

66 

124 

90 

9 

29 


6 
3 

54 
680 

69 

7 

8 
196 

1 

5 

874 
49 
13 

22 

20 

1 


253 
33 
223 

19 

62 

30 

■ 24 

126 
3,309 

144 
367 
118 
65 
20 
4 
31 
61 
24 
4 


21 
702 

95 
872 

3,081 

2,429 

331 

240 

619 
204 
218 

471 
238 

139 
29 
17 
25 
90 
48 
6 
65 
73 
30 
2,761 


199 

2,316 

216 


I. 
II. 
ni. 

IV. 
V. 
VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 

IX. 
X. 
XI. 

XII. 
XIII. 

XIV. 
XV. 
XVI. 

xvn. 

XVIII. 
XIX. 
XX. 
XXI. 

xxn. 
xxin. 

XXIV. 




24 
170 
170 

516 

493 

188 

87 

228 
190 


86 
231 
140 

1,168 

762 

335 

229 

159 
100 


19 
326 
184 

1,438 

739 

413 

189 

266 
112 


22 
271 
167 

918 

767 

207 

160 

222 
97 


22 
278 
223 

1,306 

1,018 

263 

238 

260 
107 


32 
235 
284 

911 

636 

443 

249 

260 
82 

27 

176 
397 
496 
263 
106 
68 
669 
331 
434 
181 
215 
3 


10 
206 
199 

983 

605 

530 

60 

260 
123 
47 

222 
394 
620 
324 
116 
101 
747 
289 
323 
266 
201 
9 
49 


9 
166 
210 

962 

712 

433 

198 

210 
98 
57 

143 
208 
672 
290 
109 
97 
499 
188 
301 
265 
162 
5 
1 


13 
178 
240 

1,386 

611 

271 

147 

184 
114 
25 

148 
222 
684 
397 
116 
148 
670 
223 
263 
174 
215 
9 


16 
179 
285 

1,266 

953 

848 

520 

264 
116 
81 

289 
769 
797 
368 
190 
88' 
400 
182 
355 
273 
379 

9 


1,286 
5,002 
5,486 

21,662 

17,332 

10,161 

6,807 

5,826 

4,403 

719 

4,389 

14,576 
14,602 
6,974 
3,382 
1,745 
9,690 
6,067 
7,034 
3,728 
4,746 
464 


5 
3 

9 

36 

28 

6 

4 

4 
2 






6 
4 
13 

68 

50 

9 

6 

8 
3 


1,883 
6,583 
6,334 

24,333 

23,465 

13,337 

7,470 

7,392 
6,473 






6 
18 
7 

2 
3 


1 
3 

14 

16 
4 

1 

1 


16 
96 


General History, Biograplhy, Travel, and Geography .... 
American History, Geogriiphy, Biography, Travel, and Polite 


76 


English History, Geography, Biography, Travel, and Polite 


69 


French History, Geography, Biography, Travel, and Polite 


9 






Italian History, Geography, Biography, Travel, and Polite 


7 


Germanic History, Geography, Biography, Travel, and Polite 


6 
20 


Greel:, Latin, and Philology 


2 


Other History, Geograpby, Biography, Travel, and Litera- 


214 
314 
968 
186 
146 

79 
370 
155 
312 

96 
197 


216 
341 
695 
343 
161 
66 
556 
170 
318 
116 
205 


189 
607 
836 
429 
111 
118 
706 
172 
394 
119 
193 
15 


160 
445 
617 
444 
112 
76 
515 
212 
449 
102 
338 
6 


262 
560 
985 
378 
114 
130 
365 
191 
485 
76 
253 
6 


5 

7 
6 
7 
4 
2 

11 
2 

10 
6 

12 
1 


2 
3 

7 
4 


3 

1 


7 
12 
16 
12 

4 

3 
19 

7 
19 
11 
23 

1 


4,979 


928 




16,832 






19,467 


6 




7,532 






3,789 


69 




6 
5 
3 


1 
6 

4 
3 
9 


1,945 






9,810 


14 




6,316 


854 




8,107 


4 




3,771 






4,845 






533 






18 


32 


dVoumesofMisceUaneou P p et 










80 






uscrp 
























2,761 












^^""^"^ 


































2,692 


12,291 


2,028 


4,929 


12,804 


2,731 






5,100 


6,297 


7,478 


6,296 


7,508 


6,477 


6,622 


5,995 


6,383 


8,626 


164,951 


168 


69 


68 


306 


tl92,326 



















Explanation. — Class III includes General History, Universal Biographies, Histories of Eras, Voyages, and 
Travels, when embracing several countries, and collected works of historians. 

Class IV includes North and South American history. Documents and Statistics, Biographies of Americana, 
Geography of, and Voyages and Travels in America, with the collected works of American writers, and what of 
American Literature is sometimes termed Polygraphy. 

Class V, Class VI, Class VII, Class VIII. — These have the same scope for the respective countries that Class 
IV has for America. Class VIII includes also Belgium, the Netherlands, and Switzerland, as also the Scandina- 
vian nations. 

Class-XI includes Russia, Greece, Turkej;, with Asia, Africa, Australia, Polynesia, etc. 

Class XIV includes Political Science, Social Science, and Ethics appUed and unapplied. Intellectual Science, 



Education, Rhetoric, Logic, Phrenology, etc. 



Class XIX includes Mechanics, Military and Naval Arts, Agriculture, Domestic Arts, etc. 
Class XXII embraces .all such pamphlet volumes as may have been received from time to time, and are 
generally too heterogei 



Libr 



Cla 



.„„ „^.,..„g^..^„„„ ... their make-up to be classed otherwise than by themselves. 
I XXIV includes only the Shakespeare collection of the Barton Library, and not that of the General 



The subdivisions of classes are k.jpt in ranges by themselves, so that for purposes of enumeration or learmng 
percentage of use, it is practicable at any time to get exact figures upon tlie subdivisions ; as also upon such 
points as Biography, Travel and Voyages, etc., by summing the results of the ranges devoted to them ui tbe 
several alcoves. ^ ,v vi . 

Note. — The increase of the several special libraries is included in the hgures for these libiaries. 



•Includes all hooks in the Room G, — 12,108 of them belonging to the Barton Library, 



■iginally shelved there, t Actual count. 



Theology, Moral and Intellectual Science, etc 

Jurisprudence and Polllical Science 

Medicine, Mathematics, Physics or Natural Science 

Useful and Fine Arts, Military and Naval Science 

American History and Politics 

Foreign History and Politics 

Poetl-y, Drama, Oratory, Rhetoric 

KngUsh Prose Fiction, including Juvenile Fiction, and other juvenile books . 

Biography . . . .' 

Travels 



Libraries, Collections, Periodicals, etc' 

G^erman Books 

Italian Books 

French Books 

Spanish Books 

Books of Reference 



Totals . 



1,023 
1,333 
2,268 
7,165 
2,342 



2,621 
1,137 



represents those charged to borrowers and not recovered The iten «Tf .f 1 , 
rirr c^u-n" ^a! "" fT' -.-"= "^ '■' ''■^- -"' -- " ™i "ubt; dThey 
IppTenlesTLd IV:™"""' -" '"""""""^ '""^'''''''' -^" '" "'^^ -er so Z 



APPENDIX X. 

LOWER HALL CLASSIFICATIONS. [G . 1 



1809 ISrO 1871 1872 187* 1874 1875 1870 



647 
1,082 
1,387 
2,634 
9,130 
2,300 
1,989 
3,126 



1,401 
2,576 
9,818 
2,336 
2,041 
3,305 
1,246 
224 



1,753 

269 

1,908 

639 

1,086 

1,363 

2,467 

10,469 

2,298 

1,990 

3,478 

1,247 

226 



2,529 
11,281 
2,281 
1,980 
3,771 
1,250 
226 



1,077 
1,354 

2,544 
11,864 
2,246 
1,965 
3,827 



1,070 
1,362 
2,640 
11,858 
2,234 
1,986 
3,728 
1,261 



2,672 
12,426 
2,278 
2,040 
3,698 
1,263 
229 
1,241 



716 
1,112 
1,392 
2,667 
13,899 
2,347 
2,061 
3,923 
1,201 
203 



61 


13 


24 


2 


18 


20 


42 


5 


72 


18 


623 


982 


64 


23 


43 


41 


100 


65 


92 




10 




1 




7 




1,184 


1,17 



To be deducted. 



738 
1,147 
1,425 
2,746 



KNUMXRAT ION BY ACTOAl CODNT, 1877. 



1,129 
1,477 



15,310 


13,501 


2,420 


2,489 


2,163 


2,186 


4,081 


3,865 


1,293 


1,31! 


203 


15! , 


1,000 


1,00 2 


2 


2 


278 


41 )2 


37,281 


35,4 78 



■ usual process of adding accessions and 

'. The column "Missing" shows books 

■obably represent errors in the records 

■owers ; and the " Delinquent " column 

iting to 1,663 volumes, have never been 

1 left of 35,618, or only 140 more than 

I'be actual figures (35,478) are used In 



like Bohn^s "Libraries." etc., includes many books, of co urse, which. In a minute classification, 

* This class embracing sets ^^^^^ ^^ ^^.^ j^^,^ 

would have been divided among aUt, ^J^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ . .^^,„,,, books condemned m ; <''^f°''yil'l2^ZZri^,,ol^,^„ 

NOTE. -The column of " C ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^__^^^_, ^,. ^^,^,„^, „, p„t „pou the shelves, co. n.tmg as one those bouna 
year. The column " Total added 
in one, etc. 



Public Library. 



75 



APPENDIX XI. 



GIFTS MAY 1, 187G, TO APRIL 30, 1877. [P.] 



Givei'S (excluding anon3'nious) 
Volumes .... 
Pamphlets . . . . 



1,125 

3,562 

11,071 



A gift of $500 has been made by J. Ingersoll Bowditch, Esq., 
for the purchase of books in pure mathematics, to be added to the 
Bowditch Librar_y. The following table also shows another consid- 
erable gift in the Hunt Collection of books on the West Indies, 
etc., mentioned in the Report. 

Note. — The income of the Library Funds is expended for books, which are credited 
yearly to the respective founders. See Appendix XXIII. 



Abbot, Francis E 

Abbott, Edward, Cambridge ...... 

Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 

Adams, Hon. Charles F. ...... . 

Adams, Prof. Charles K., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Adier, Miss Johanna ........ 

Adrian College, Adrian, Mich. ...... 

Akins, Thomas B., Halifax, JV. S. . 

Alabama Insane Hospital, Tuscaloosa .... 

Albany Hospital, Albany, N. Y. ..... 

Albany Law School, Alba^iy, N. Y. . 

Albion College, Albion, Mich. ...... 

Alger, Arthur M 

Alger, Rev. William R., New York 

Allen, J. H 

Allen, Robert D., Farmdale, Ky. ..... 

Allen, Zachariah, LL.D., Providence, R. I. . 
Allgemeine Deutsche Unterstutzungs-Gesellschaft, San 

Fra?icisco, Cal. ........ 

American Academy of Arts and Sciences .... 

American Antiquarian Society, Worcester .... 

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 

Salem .......... 

American Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb, Hartford, 

Conn. .......... 

American Bible Society. Neiv York City .... 

American Bridge Company, Chicago, III 

American Church Missionary Society .... 

American Gfeograpliical Society, New York City 



Vols. 



Pphs. 



1 

15 
8 
1 
1 

7 



12 



1 

10 



76 



City DocUxAient No. 66. 



Vols 



CiUj 



American Institute of Mining Engineers, Easton, Pa 
American Pharmaceutical Association, Philadeljphia 
American Pliilosophical Society, Philadelphia . 
American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, Ky 
American Ship Windlass Company, Providence, R. I. 
American Society of Civil Engineers, New York City 
American Unitarian Association 
American Veterinary Hospital, New York City 
Andover Theological Seminary . 
Andrews, H. A. & Co., Chicago, III. 
Andrews, Sidney .... 

Anonymous, 17 broadsides, 63 newspapers 
Ansonia Brass and Copper Company, New York 
Appleton, Mrs. Charles T. 
Appleton, Nathan, 10 broadsides 
Apprentices' Library, New York City 
Apprentices' Library Company, Philadelph 
Arbey, Ferdinand, Paris, France 
Argentine Centennial Commissioners . 
Arkansas Institute for the Education of the Blind, Little 
Rock ...... 

Astor Library, New York City . 
Asylum at Walnut Hill, Hartford, Conn. 
Atkinson, Edward .... 

Atlantic and St. Lawrence Railroad Company 
Attwood, Cornelius S. . . . 

Attwood, Gilbert & Co. 
Australian Centennial Commissioners. 
Austrian Centennial Conmiissioners . 
Authors' Publishing Company, New York 
Babcock, Prof. James F. . 
Bachc, Tliomas H., Philadelphia 
Bache, William, Bristol, Pa. 
Bacon, Mrs. William .... 

Bailey, Alliion li., Somerville . 

Baker, Walter 

Baker, William 1'^. S., Germantown, Pa. 
Bakcwell and Marthens, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Balch, Joseph W. .... 
Balch, Thomas . . . , 
Baldridge, Rev. Samuel C, Friendsville, Ind. 
Baldwin, Charles C, Cleveland, Ohio 
Baldwin, 0., New York City 
Baldwin Place Home for Little Wanderers 
Baldwin University, Berea, Ohio 

Balfour, David M 

Barclay, James J., Philadelphia 

Barlow, S. L. M., New York City 

Barnard, James M. ... 

Barnett, G. and H., Philadelphia 

Barrows, Henry D., Los Angelos, Cal. 

Batchelder, Joseph A., Middleton 

Bates College, Letciston. Me. 

Baxter, J. H., M.D., Washington, D. C. 

Bay State Iron Company, 31 majis, 6 newspapers 

Belfield, Henry & Co., Philadelphia 

Belgian Centennial Commissioners 

Bell, A. Graham 



City 




map 



Bell, James B 

Bell, S. N., Manchester, N. II. . 

Beloit College, Beloit, M'is. 

Benard, Prof. Ch., Paris, France 

Benhaiii, Gen. H. W. 

Beutel, Margedant & Co., lIamUto7i, Ohio 

Bergstrom, K. L 

Bethel College, Ensselville, Ky. 
Blgclow Free Public Library, Clinton 

Binney, Henry P 

Birchmore, Rev. John W. . 

Bishop, Robert R., Newton 

Bliss, Charles M., Bennington, Vt. . 

Blood, Hon. Hiram A., Fitchhurg 

Boardman, Samuel L., Augusta, Me. 

Boemler, Charles, St. Louis, Mo. 

Boiling, S. M., Fairfield, Iowa . 

Bolton, Eng., Public Library and Museum 

Bosson, George T 

Boston, City of 

City Missionary Society . 

College 

Gas Light Company 

Medical Library Association . 

Merchants' Association . 

Museum of Fine Arts 

Safe Deposit and Trust Company, 

Society for Medical Improvement 

Society for Medical Observation 

Society of Medical Sciences . 

Society of Natural History 

University .... 

Boude, Frederic, 3Iarseilles, France . 

Boutwell, Hon. George S. . 

Bowditch, Henry I., J/. Z>. 

Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Me. 

Bowron, William M., Philadelphia . 

Bradford, Charles F 

Bradford, Duncan .... 

Bradford, Gamaliel, Grantville . 

Bradlee, Rev. Caleb D., 29 broadsides, 22 

Bradley, S. Messenger, M.D., 3Ianchester 

Brainard, Erastus, 9 broadsides, 3 maps 

Brazilian Centennial Commissioners . 

Brewer, Mrs. Gardner, 10 maps, 1 newspaper 

Brewer, Thomas M., M.D. 

Bridgeman, Alfred, New York City . 

Brigham, Rev. Charles H., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Brighton, Eng., Free Library, Museum, and Picture 
lery 

British Centennial Commissioners 

British Museum, London .... 

Britten, Mrs. E. H 

Brock, R. A., Richmond, Va., 1 newspaper 

Brookline Public Library .... 

Thursday Club .... 

Brooklyn, N. Y., Collegiate and Polytechnic Institute 

Daily Argus Publishing Company . 



newspapers 
Eng. 



Gal- 



1 
1 
1 

50 

1 
9 
17 
2 
1 
1 
3 
1 



156 



1 

1 

30 



16 
2 

25 



27 



1 

11 



23 
I 



12 

152 

4 

392 

370 
5 

2 

1 



78 



City Document No. 66. 



Brooklyn Eye and Ear Hospital . 

Homoeopathic Hospital . 

Brooks, Alfred A. . . . . 

Brooks, W. G 

Brooks, Rev. William H., Hanover . 

Broughton, Hon. John H., Portsmouth, N. H. 

Brown, Francis H., M.D. . 

Brown, George P., Indianapolis, Lid. 

Brown, John C. J. . 

Brown, Mrs. John Carter, Providence, R. I. 

Brown, O. Phelps, Jersey City, N. J. 

Brown, Samuel W., Providence, R. I. 

Brown University, Providence, R. I. . 

Browne, J. W., Carlville, III. . 

Buchanan, Roberdeau, Washington, D. C 

Buck, James S., Milwnvkee, Wis. 

Buenos Aires Centennial Commissioners 

BufF and Berger ..... 

Buissor, Fr., Paris, France 

BuUard, Gen. Edward F., Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 

Bullock, Hon. Alexander H. 

Burdge, Franklin, New York City 

Burger, J. C, M.D., Pittsburg, Pa. . 

Burlington College, Burlington, N. J. 

Burlington University, Burlington, Iowa 

Burnham, Arthur .... 

Burr, George, M.D., Binghamton, N. Y. 

Burrall, F.A., M.D., XewYork City. 

Burroughs, Rev. Henry 

Busl), Charles V. . . , . 

Butler, George B., New York City . 

Butler, James D., Madison, Wis. 

Butler Hospital for the Insane, Providence, R. 

Cadwallader, Bassott, Evansville, Ind. 

California Pharmaceutical Society, San F) 

Calvert, George H., Newport, R. I. . 

Cambridge Dispensary 

Cami)bel'l, Col. Joseph H. . 

Canadian Ci'ntennial Commissioners . 

Cane Hill College, Boonshoro', Ark. . 

Capital University, Columbus, Ohio . 

Carey, Henry C, Philadelphia . 

Carleton College, Northfield, Minn. . 

Carmil, O., Gilly, Belgium 

Carpenter, Harvey, 3 broadsides. 

Carret, .Mrs. S. T. .... 

Cartee, Cornelius S., M.D. 

Carter, Samuel T., Amherst 

Carthage College, Caiihage, III. 

Castellani, Signor A., Rome, Italy . 

Caswell, Edward T., M. I)., Providence, R. I. 

Cecilian College, Hardin County, Ky. 

Centennial Catalogue Company, Philadelph 

Central College, Fayette, Mo. 

Central Tennessee College, Nashville 

Central University of Iowa, Pella 

Centre College, Danville, Ky. . 

Cernuschi, Henri .... 




1 

18 



Public Library. 



79 



Chadwick, James K., M.D. 
Chamberlain, Hon. Joshua L., Brunswick, 3Ie. 
Chambers, George E., Philadelphia 
Chandler, Alfred D . . 
Cliandler, Horace P. . 
Chaney, Rev. George L. 
Channing Home, The 
Chaplin, Rev. Jeremiah 
Charity Hospital, New Orleans, La. 
Chase, Prof. A. Fitzroy, Readjield, Me. 
Chase, George B. 
Chase, William L. 
Chicago, III., Board of Trade 
Public Library 



Child, Prof. Francis J., Cambridge, 
Children's Mission 
Chilian Centennial Commissioners 
Christern, F. W., New York City 
Cincinnati, Ohio, Board of Education 

Hospital .... 

Public Library 

Sanitarium 



broadsides 



Clafflin University, Orangeburg, N. Y. 

Clapp, W. W., 31 broadsides 

Clark, Samuel, Northborough . 

Clarke, E. H., 3f.D. . 

Clarke, Robert, & Co., Cincinnati, 2 portraits 

Clarke Institution for Deaf-Mutes, Northampton 

Cleveland, Ohio, Hospital for the Insane 

Clyde, Rev. John E., Frazer, Pa. 

Coates, J. & P., Philadelj^hia, 1 centennial thermometer, 

Cobb, Jlon. Samuel C. . . . . 

Cobb, Stephen S., Lansing, Mich. 
Cobb, Hon. William H., Chiltonville 
Cobden Club, London .... 

Coffin, Charles C. . . . . . 

Cohn, Albert, Berlin, Prussia . 

Colburn, Jeremiah ..... 

Cokhvater, Mich., School Committee . 

Cole, Capt. James E. 

Collar, AVilliam C. . . 

College of St. Francis Xavier, New York City 

College of the City of New York 

College of the Holy Cross, Worcester 

College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Va. 

Columbia College, Neio York City 

Columbia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, 

ton, D.C. 

Concord Public Library, 1 broadside . 
Concord, A".//., Public Library . 
Concordia-Collegium, Fort Wayne, hid. . 
Conej', George H. . . . . . 

Connecticut Centennial Commissioners 

Hospital for the Insane, Middletown 

Cook, J. D., Toledo, Ohio .... 
Cook, James B., Philadelphia . 
Coolidge, T. JeflFerson .... 
CooT^Qv, 'SSiiWi&m 3., Toronto, Ont. . 



Washing 




1 
20 



1 
1 

10 

1 
3 
1 



40 



1 
1 
1 
10 
1 



104 



1 

11 

1 



280 



1 

51 
1 



1 
1 

2 

1 

682 

1 



3 

1 

13 

7 
1 



18 

374 

1 

4 



10 
1 



80 



City Document No. 6G. 




Oregon 



Cornell College, Mt. Vernon, Iowa 

Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Corson, Prof. Hiram, Ithaca, N. Y. . 

Corvallis State Agricultural College, Corvallis, 

Cotton, J. Warren, Cambridge . 

Cowdin, IIoji. Elliot C, New York City . 

Cowles, Edward, M.D. .... 

Cowley, Charles, Lowell .... 

Crane & Co., Dalton ..... 

Crane, Mrs. E. . 
Crane Brothers Manufacturing Company, Chicago, III. 
Crichton Royal Institution for Lunatics, Dumfries, Scot 
land ....... 

Crosby, John L., Bangor, 3Ie. . 

Crosby, Nathan ...... 

Cross, James M., Providence, R.I. . 
CuUingworth, Charles J., M.D., Manchester, E, 
Cunningham, George P., M.D., Chicago, III. 
Currier, John J., Neivhuryport . 
Curtis, Daniel S., Paris, France 

Curtis, J., M.D 

Curtis, Mrs. Laura G., a manuscript 

Cutter, Abram E. . . . 

Cyr, Prof. Narcisse . 

Dakota League of ALassachusetts 

Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.II. 

Davidson College, Mecklenburg County, N.C. 

Davies, Prof. J. E., 3Iadison, Wis 

Davis, C. E., 1 broadside . 

Davis, Rev. J. G., Amherst, N.IT. 

Day, Albert, M.D. . 

Dayton, Ohio, Board of Education 

Hospital for the Insane . 

Dean Academy, Franklin . 
Deane, Charles, Cambridge 
De Costa, Rev. Benjamin F., New Yo 
Dedham ruhlic Library 

School Comiiiittce . 

DeForest, E. L., Watertown, Conn. 

Degcn, A von, Baltimore, Md. . 

Dennet, William H. . 

Denny, C. A., Leicester 

Depping, Mons. G., Paris, France 

Deutsche Shakespeare-Gesellscliaft,, Weimar 

Dexter, Franklin B , New Haven, Conn. . 

Dexter, George, Cambridge 

Dickinson, M. F., yr. . .... 

Dickinson, William L., Jersey City, N..I. . 
Dill, J. Martin .... 

Dillaway, Charles K. . 
Dillenback, Hiram J., M.D. 
Diocesan Board of Missions 
Doane College, Crete, Neb. 
Doliber, Thomas 
Doll & Ilichards .... 

Dorchester and Milton Circulating Library 
Downing, AMUiam, Birmingham, Eng. 
Draper, F. W., M.D 



rk City 



1 

18 



Public Library. 



81 




litho 



Drowne, Rev. T. Stafford, D.D., Broolclyn, N. Y. 

Drury College, Sj)ringfield, Mo. 

Ducq and Dulient, Brussels 

Dundee, Scotland, Free Library 

Duren, Elnathan F., Bangor, Me. 

Earle, Pliny. M.D., Northampton 

Eastern Lunatic Asylum, Williamsburg, Va. 

Eastern Yacht Club 

East St. Louis Public Library, St. Louis, Mo. 

East Tennessee University, Knoxville, Tenn. 

Edmunds, Hon. J M., Washington, D.C. 

Eliot, Charles Wyllys, Cambridge 

Elliot, Joseph D., Newton . 

Ellis, Rev. George E., D.D. 

Emerson, Hon. George B., 18 broadside; 
1 manuscript, 1 map . 

Eminehce College, Eminence, Ky. 

Endicott, Hon. Charles 

Engbers, B. H., Cincinnati, Ohio 

Ensor, J. F., M.D., Columbia, S.C. . 

Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge 

Ernst, Dr. Adplplius, Caraccas . 

Essex Institute, Salem. 

Estey, J., & Co., Brattleloro, Vt. 

Eureka College, Eureka, III. 

Everett, Mrs. 0. C, Cambridge, 142 broadsides, 4 

16 newspapers 
Fairmount Park Art Association, Philadelphia 
Fales, Lewis, Milford 
Fall River Public Library . 
Fellowes Athenajum, 606 newspapers 
Felt, Charles W., Harvard 
Fernald, Prof. 0. M., Williamstown . 
Firth, Abraham ..... 
Fish, Hon. Hamilton, Washington, D.C. 
Fisk University, Nashville^ Tenn. 

Fiske, Charles H 

Fiske, William P., Concord, N.H. . 
Fitz, Reginald H., M.D., Cambridge. 
Fletcher Free Library, Burlington, Vt. 

Flint, Charles L 

Foley, AVilliam J 

Folsom, C. J., Cambridge, 2 newspapers 

Folsom, Charles F., 31. D., 1 set of maps 

Folsom, Charles AV., Cambridge 

Folsom, Rev. Nathaniel S. 

Folsom, Norton, M.D. 

Foote, A. E., M.D., Philadelphia 

Foote & Horton, Salem 

Foote, Rev. Henry W. . . . 

Ford, William E 

Ford, William H 

Fort Wayne College, Fort Wayne, Ind. 
France, Department of Agriculture . 
Franklin Telegraph Company, New York City 
French, Hon. Henry F., Concord 
French, J. D. W., North Andover . 
French, William M. R., Chicago, III. 
French Centennial Commissioners 



maps 



rap! 



1 

2 
47 
12 

1 
2 

2 
1 



Pphs. 



82 
6 

1 

7 
1 



752 

1 

1 

2 

222 

20 

8 

27 

2 



1 

672 

1 

1 



3 
1 

1 

1 

425 

1 



82 



City Document No. 66. 



York 



broadsides, 468 



Friends Asylum for the Insane, Philadelphia 
Friesen, Kiohard, Freiherr von, Dresden . 
Frothingliam, Miss Martha W. . 
Frothingham, Hon. Richard • . 
Furber, Hon. William H., Somerville 
Furness, Horace H., Philadelphia 
Gaffield, Thomas, 4 broadsides . 
Galny, August, 31. D., St. Louis, Mo. 

Garceau, Treffle, M.B 

Garrison, Frank J. .... . 

Gatling Gun Company, Hariford, Conn. . 
General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen, New 

City _ . 

Geneva College, West Geneva, Ohio . 
Georgetown College, Georgetown, D.C. . 
Georgia Academy for the Blind, Macon, Ga. 

Historical Society, Savannah, Ga 

German Centennial Commissioners 

Gerould, Rev. Samuel L., Goffstown, N.H. 

Gilbert and Barker Manufacturing Company, Springfield 

Giles, Alfred E 

Gilman, Arthur ..... 
Globe Publishing Company 

Glufling, Daniel 

Godkin, E. L., & Co., New York City, 6 

newspapers ..... 
Goss, Elliridge H., 3Ielrose 
Gould, I'rof. Benjamin A., Cordoba . 
Gould, S. C., Manchester, N.H. 
Gould's Manufacturing Company, Seneca Falls, N. i 
GrSard, M., Paris, France. 
Great Britain, Commissioner of Patents 

Green, Samuel A., M.D., 4 broadsides, 3 newspapers 

Greene, Milbrey, M.D. 

Greenough, William W., 1 newspaper 

Griggs, Samuel M., Westhoro' . 

Groton, Town of ... . 

Guild, Chester, a lot of broadsides 

Gymnasium der Evangelisch-Lutherischen 
town. Til's. , . . . . 

Gynecological Hospital, Philadelphia 

Hacliette & Co., Paris, France . 

Hackett, Mrs. Mary W., Newtonville 

Hale, George S. . . 

Hall, Amos T., Chicago, 111. 

Hall, Edward W., Waierville, Me. 

Hall, Joseph, Hartford, Conn. . 

Hall, S. Forbes, New York City 

Halliwell-Phillipps, James O., London 

Ham, John K., M.D., Dover, N. H. . 

Hamilton, W. C, Fond Du Lac, Wis. 

Hamm, Mrs. S. A 

Hampden Sidney College, Prince Edicard County, Va. 

Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, Hampton, Va 

Harmon, J. M., West Springfield 

Harney, George J., Cambridge . 

Harris, J. D , Germantown, Pa. 

Harris, William T., St. Louis, Mo. . 

Harrison, C. H., Chicago, 111. . 



Synode, 



Water 




1 

1 
7 
1 
11 
1 
1 



1 
1 
1 
1 
4 
117 
15 



Public Library. 



83 




Hart, Charles H., Philadelphia . 

Hart, James H 

Hartford Hospital . ■. . . 
Hartranft, Hon. John F., Harrishurg, Pa 
Hartt, Charles F., Rio de Janeiro 
Harvard University .... 

Library, 28 broadsides . 

Medical School 

Museum of Comparative Zoology 

Observatory .... 

Hathaway and Pond .... 

Haven, H. J , Worcester 

Haverhill Public Library . 

Hawley, Rev. Charles, D.D., AuBurn, N. 

Hazard, Thomas R., Vandiise, R. I. . 

Hazen, Rev. A. W., Middletown, Conn. 

Heard, Horace, Wayland . 

Heinzen, Karl ..... 

Heinzen, Karl F. . . . . 

Henderson College, Henderson, Texas 

Herschel, Clemens .... 

Hey wood, George, Concord 

Hildreth, Henry 0., Dedham 

Hill, Hamilton A. . . . . 

Hiram College, Hiram, Ohio 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 

Hiwassee College, near Sweetwater, Tenn. 

Hobart College, Geneva, N. Y. . 

Hodgman, Edwin R., Westford . 

Holmes, Prof Oliver W. . 

Home for Incurables, Fordham, N. Y. 

Home for the Friendless, New Haven, Conn 

Homes, Henry A., Albany, N. Y. 

Hopkinson, Charles H., Groveland . 

Horner, Mrs. A., PhiladeljMa . 

Hospital of St. Barnabas, Newark, N. J. 

Hospital of the Good Shepherd, Radnor, Pa. 

House, Edmund H., Tokio, Japan 

House of Mercy, Pittsfield 

Hovey, William A 

Howard, Charles P., North Reading . 

Howard College, Marion, Ala. . 

Howard University, Washington, D. C. 

Howe, George F., West Boyhton 

Howell, G. R., Albany, N. Y., I newspaper cutting- 

Hoyt, Col All)ert H 

Hubbard, Gardiner G., Cambridge . 

Hubbard, Rev. James M. . 

Hudson, John C, Horncastle, Eng. . 

Hudson County Church Hospital and Home, Jersey City 

Huidekoper, Frederic, Meadville, Fa. 

Humane Society of Massachusetts 

Humphreys, Edward R., 31. B. . 

Hunnewell, James F 

Hunt, Benjamin F., Philadelphia, estate 
Hunt, iViss Louisa L., Barrytown, N. Y. 
Huntington, Mrs. LA.. 
Hupp, J. C, Wheeling, West Va. . 
Hurd, John C. . . . 



N.J. 



21 
1 

1 

1 
1 
1 
G93 
2 
52 

98 



1 

256 
1 
1 



14 

221 

1 

4 

1 

9 
1 



1 
4 
2 
3 
13 
1 
1 
3 
1 



1 

275 



84 



City Document No. 66. 



lasigi, Joseph A. .... 

Illinois Centennial Commissioners 

(^entral Hospital for the Insane, Jacksonville, III. 

College. Jacksonville, III. ... 

Northern Hospital for the Insane, Elgin, III. 

Wesleyan University, Bloomington, III, 

Indiana ("entennial Commissioners 

Hospital for the Insane, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Institute for the Blind, Indianapolis, Ind. 

University, Bloomington, Ind. 

Industrial Aid Society 

Ingham University, Le Roy, N. Y . 

Institution for the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind, Romney, ^Yest Ya 

Institution of Civil Engineers, London 

Iowa, State of . . 

College, Grinnell, Iowa . 

Jackson, Charles C 

Jacobs, Hon. John J. . 

Jacobsen, John J., Baltimore, Md. . 

Japan Centennial (Commissioners 

Jarvis, Edward, M.D. 

Jefferson College, St. James, La. 

Jeffries, B. Joy, M.D. 

Jeffries, Walter L 

Jenkins. E. K., Andover . 

Jenks, Charles W 

Jenks, Rev. Henry F. . . . 

Jerome. Hon. George H., Kiles, Mich. 
Jewish Hospital Association, Philadelphia 
Jillson, Jlon Clark, Worcester . 
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
Joiinson & Co., Diichling and Keymer, Eng. 
Jones, L E., New York City 
Jordan, Mrs. A. M., 15 newspapers. 
Kaiserliche Koenigliche Keichsanstalt, Vienna 
Kansas Centennial Commissioners 

State Insane Asylum, Osawatomie . 

University, Lawrence 

Katzcnmeyer, li., Xew York City 

Kaup, Augustus, Darmstadt 

Kelley, Edward S. . . . . . 

Kendall, George A., Walpole 

Kennard, Martni P. . 

Kentucky Institution for the Blind, Louisville 

Military Institute, Farmdale . 

University, Lexington 

Kctchum, Rev. Silas, Maplewood 

Kiddor, Henry P. .... . 

Kiivg's Countv Lunatic Asylum, Flatbush, N. Y 

Kirk, Miss H.N. . " . 

Kirkbride, Thomas S., M D., Philadelphia 

Kite, William, Germnntown, Pa. 

Kiyotaka, (lov. Kuroda, Tokio, Japan 

Kleczowski. Cointe, Paris, France 

Knai)p, Arthur M. . . . . . 

Knapp, George B. . . . . . 

Knox, Rev Ciiarles E., D.D., Bloomficld, N. Y. 
Koenigliche Bayerische Academic der Wissi 

Munich 



nsch 



iften, 



1 

10 

2 

1 
1 
44 
2 
2 

11 



Public Library. 



85 



GIVERS. 


Vols. 


Pphs. 


Kronberg, S ' • 


1 




Kronberg, W 










5 




Labarer, Rev. J. C, Randolph . 










I 




Lafayette College, Easton, Fa. . 












2 


Lancaster Library Committee . 












2 


Lancefield & Brothers, Hamilton, Ont. 










1 




Lane, Rev. James P., Bristol, R. I. . 










7 




Langdon, Rev. William C, Cambridge, 2 i 


naps 








25 




Lapham, William B., Avgusta, Me. , 










1 




La Salle College, Philadelphia . 












3 


Lathers, Richard, New Rochelle, JV. Y. 












1 


Laval University, Quebec . 












1 


Lawrence, Abbott .... 










1 


20 


Lawrence, George W., Little Rock, Ark. 










1 




Lawrence Public Library . 










1 


2 


Lawrence University, Appleton, Wis. . 












15 


Leavitt, George A. & Co , New Yo7-k City 










1 




Lee and Shepard, 1 engraving , 












3 


Lee, J. M. W., Baltimore, Md., 1 map 










1 




Leech, Daniel J., lU.D , London 












1 


Leeds, Eng., Public Library 










1 




Leicester Public Library .... 












1 


Leicester, Eng., Museum Committee . 












1 


T i + ^T.fn.ir »»»i/^l "PKili-vo^TAl-ii^rt 1 G/^^1^4-^ 












1 




Leigh, Edwin, Brooklyn, N. Y. 










1 




Lenox, James, New York City . 










1 




Lenox Library, New York City . 












1 


Leonard, Henry T., New Bedford 










2 


1 


Lewis, D., Philadelphia . 










1 




Lexington, Town of . 










1 




Leypoldt, F., New York City . 










26 


16 


Lincoln, Francis H., . 












1 


Lincoln University, Chester County, Pa. 












20 


Lindsay, Lord, London 










1 




Little, Brown & Co 










1 


1 


Little, David, Edinburgh . 












1 


Little, William, Newbury . 












1 


Littlehale, M F., 








a» 


18 


22-i 


Liverpool, Eng., Free Public Library 










1 


1 


Literary and Philosophical Society 










13 




Longyear, H. W., M.D., Detroit, Mich. 












1 


Lorimer, J G., Gi-and Manan, N. B. 










1 




Loring, J. S., Brooklyn, N. Y. . 












5 


Lovell, Leander, Plymouth 












1 


Lowell City Library .... 












1 


Lund, Edward, M.D., Manchester, Eng. 










1 


9 


Lunkenheimer, F., Cincinnati, Ohio 










1 




Lunt, Joseph 












18 


Lynch, Frank H 










1 




Mal)ille, E., Amboise, France . 










1 




McAvoy, Miss Mary .... 










2 




McCarthy, Nathaniel J. . . . 










4 




McClear and Kendall, Wilmington, Del. 










1 




McCracken, S. B., Lansing, Mich. . 










1 




MeCurdy, Theodore F., Norwich, Conn. 










20 


68 


McDonald, Mnj. W. J., Washington, D. C 


1 








1 




Macdonough, A. R., New York City . 












1 


McElroy, William H., Albany, N. Y. 












1 


McGlenen, Henry A 










2 





86 



City Document No. GQ. 



M'Kendree College, Lebanon, III. 
McKenzie, Rev. Alexander, Cambridge 
McPhetres, Samuel A., Lowell . 
Madison University, Madison, iV. Y. . 
Maine Centennial Commissioners 

General Hospital, Po7-tland 

Historical Society, Brunswick 

State College of Agriculture, Orono 

Manchester, Eng., Medical Society . 

Mancliester, N.TL, Board of Water Commissioners 

Manhattan Eye and Ear Hospital, New York City 

Manning, J. W., Reading . 

Manson, A. S. . 

March, Pmf. Francis A., Easton, Pa. 

Marcus, Alfred A 

Marden, G. E., Lowell 
Marietta College. Marietta, Ohio 
Marsh, Charles N., Hingham 
Marthens, John F., Pittsburgh, Pa. . 
Martin, Alexander, Greencastle, Ind. 
Martin, Hon. Henry S., Keene, N.H. 
Maryland Eye and Ear Institute, Baltiwor 

Hospital for the Insane, Catonsville 

Maryville College, Maryville, Tenn. . 
Mason, Orion A., Medway . 
Massachusetts, State of . . . 

Agricultural College 

Hoard of Education 

Hoard of State Charities . 

Centennial Commissioners 

Historical Society . 

Horticultural Society 

Infant Asylum 

Mathews, A. S. Stonington, Conn. . 

May, Miss Abby W. .... 

Medical College of South Carolina, Charleston 

Meek, Henry W., Salem . 

Mellish, Rev. ^\m H., North Scituate, R.L 

Melrose I'ublic Library 

Memorial Hall Library, Andover 

Memphis, Tenn., Board of Education 

Mentzel, August, Leipzig . . 

Mercantile Library Association, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mercantile lyibrary Association, New York City 

Mercantile Library Association, San Francisco, Cal 

Mercantile Library Company, Philadelphia 

Mercer>burg College, Mercersbvrg, Pa. 

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City 

Michell, Nicholas, Falntoitih, Eng. . 

Michigan (^entennial Commissioners . 

State Library, Lansing . 

Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vt. . 
Middlesex Hospital, London 
Middleton, C. W., Philadelphia 
Mignon and Rouart, Paris, France . 
Minnesota Hospital for the Insane, St. Peter 
Mississip]>i College, Ci'inton 
Missouri Centennial Conunissioners . 
State Board of Agriculture 




Public Libraky. 



87 



Vols. Pphs. 



Missouri State Lunatic Asylum, Fulton 

Mitchell, Prof. E. C, London . 

Mitcliell, J. E., Philadelphia 

Mitchell, John, Baltimore, Md. . 

Mixter, Calvin S., Arlington 

Monmouth Collc|sre', Monmonth, III. . 

Moore, Rev. William IL, Hartford, Conn 

Moore's Hill College, Moore's Hill, Ind. 

Morgan, Duttim v., i^oM^Zow 

Morrison Library, Richmond, Ind. 

Morse Institute, Nutick 

Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, South Hadley 

Mount Hope Retreat, Baltimore, 3Id. 

Mount Union College., Mount Union, Ohio 

Mudge, Alfred, and Son .... 

Muller, Frederick, Amsterdam . 

Mullins, J. D., Birmingham, Eng. . 

Munsell, Joel, Alhany, N.Y. . 

Munson, Loveland, Manchester, Vt. . 

Nahant, Town of .... . 

National Association for the Relief of Destitute Colored 

"Women and Children, Washington, D. C. 
National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, 

ton, D C. 
Naugatuck Railroad Company, Bridgeport, Conn 
Nebraska. Board of Agriculture 
Needham, Hon. Daniel, Ayer 
Nelson, William .... 

Neophogen College, Gallatin, Tenn. . 
Netherlands Centennial Commissioners 
New Bedford Free Public Library 
Newburyport, City of . 
Public Library 



New England Cotton Manufacturers' Asssociation 

Historic, Genealogical Society 

Society of Orange, N. J. 

New Hampshire Medical Society, Concord . 
New Haven Colony Historical Society 
New Jersey State Lunatic Asylum, Trenton 
Newport, Eng., Free Public Library . 
New South Wales Centennial Commissioners 
Newton Free Library .... 

New York City. Board of Education 

City Mission and Tract Society 

Department of Public Parks . 

Ear Dispensary .... 

Eye and Ear Infirmary . 

Free Dispensary for Sick Children . 

Historical Society .... 

Orthopaedic Dispensary . 

Plow Company .... 

New Zealand Centennial Commissioners . 

Nichols, Hon. George, Rutland. Vt. . 

Nicholson, Jam^-s B., Philadelphia . 

Nicholson, John P., Philadelphia 

Norske Luther College, Decorah, Iowa 

Northern Dispensary, Philadelphia . 

Northern Home for Friendless Children, Philadelphia 

Northern Illinois College, Fulton .... 



Washing 



5 
1 
6 
14 
I 



88 



City Document No. Q6. 



North Street Union Mission 
Northwestern University, Evanston, III. 
Northwestern University, Wntertoicn, Wis 
Nourse, Prof. Joseph E., Washington, B.C. 
Nye, Gideon, Canton, China 
Oakley, Henry A., JVew York City 
Oberlin College, Oherlin, Ohio . 
Ohio State Library, Columbus . 

University, Athens . 

Oliver, Fitch E 

Olivet College, Olivet, Mich. 
Ongania, Ferd., Venice, Italy 
Ontario Centennial Commissioners 

Library of Parliament, Toronto 

Ophthalmic and Aural Institute, Xew York City 
Orphans' Home and Asylum, New York City 

Osgood, J. K., & Co 

Otis, Prof. Charles P 

Otterbein University, Westeo'ville, Ohio 
Oxnard, Miss ...... 

Pabisch, Pev.F. J., D.D., Cincinnati, Ohio 
Paddock, Rt. Rev. Benjamin H. 
Page, Henry A. . . . . . 

Paine, Prof. John K., Cambridge, 1 manuscript 

Paine, Nathaniel, Worcester 

Paliitinate College, Myerstown, Mo. . 

Palestine Exploration Fund, London . 

Palestine Exploration Society, New York City 

Park, John II., M.D., Salt Lake City, Utah 

Parkhurst, Henry M., New York City 

Parrish, Clemmons, Philadelphia 

Patterson, Cnpt. C. P., Washington, D. 

Peabody Institute, Dangers 

Peabody Institute, I'eahody 

Pease, Hon. G. M., San Francisco, Cal. 

Penitent Females* Refuge . 

Pennsylvania Bible Society 

Board of Public Charities 

(^ollege, Gettysburg 

State Hospital for the Insane, War 

Steel Comi)any, Philadelphia 

Peoria, ///., Board of Trade 

Perkins, A. M., and Sons, London 

Perkins, Charles C. . 

Perkins, Thomas IL, 3 broadsides. 

Perkins Institution .... 

Perley, M. V. B., Gloucester 

Perry, Tiiomas S., . 

Perry, Rt. Rev. AVilliam S., Davenport, Iowa, 12 broadsides 

Peruvian Centennial Commissioners . 

Pfatf, Augustus, Pliiladelphia . 

Philadel])hia Bible Society . 

Board of Trade 

Directors of City Trusts . 

Dispensary .... 

()rth<)]ia'(lic Hospital 

Phillips' Exeter Academy, Exeter, N. II. 
Pierce, Ifon. Henry L., 5 broadsides . 
Pool, Calvin W., Rockport 




10 



1 
41 



24 



Public Librart. 



89 



Pool, Wellington, Wenham 
Poole, W. F., Chicago, III. 
Poore, Ben. Perley, Washington, D.C. 
Porter, Rev. Noah, D.D., New Haven, Go 
Portuguese Centennial Commissioners 
Preble, Com. George H. . . . 
Presbyterian Hospital, New York City 
Prescott, Jeremiah .... 

Priest, John T 

Prince, Hon. Frederick O. . 

Providence, R. I., Athenajum 

Pusey, /ones & Co., Wilmington, Del. 

Quebec Centennial Commissioners 

Queensland Centennial Commissioners 

Quincy, Edmund, Dedham . 

Quincy, Miss EHza S., 1 engraving, Plates of Quincy 

History of Boston 
Racine College, Racine, Wis. 
Eadford, Thomas, M.D., Manchester, Eng 

Rand, Hon. Mr 

Rand, George D., Portland, Me. 
Randolph Macon College, Ashland, Va. 
Ransorae, Arthur, M.D., Manchester, Eng. 
Raymond, Prof. R. W., Easton, Pa. 
Reale Instituto Lombardo, Milan, Italy 
Redwood Library, Newport, R.I. 
Reed, J. Harris ..... 
Retreat for the Insane, Hartford, Conn. 
Reuter, Henry H. . . . . 
Rice, Isaac L., New York City . 
Richards, Joseph L. . 
Richardson, William L., il/.Z). . 
Richmond and Gordon, Duke of. 
Richmond, Va., City Almshouse 
Ridgely, Rev. G. W , Greensboro', Md. 
Ridgeville College, Ridgeville, Ind. . 
Riley, Prof. Charles V., St. Louis, Mo. 
Riley, Charles W., Philadelphia 
Ripon College, Ripon, Wis. 
Ritter, Miss Fannie R. . . . 
Roberts Brothers .... 

Roberts, D. Lloyd, M.D., Manchester, Eng. 

Robins, Richard 

Robinson, H. H., Columbus, Ohio 
Robinson, J. C. . 
Rochester, N Y, City Hospital . 
Rochester, A\ Y, Theological Seminary 
Rock-Hill College, Ellicott City, Md. 
Rockwell, Mrs. Alfred P. , 
Rockwell, Hon. Julius, Lenox 
Rodgers, Rear-Admiral C. R. P, 
Roelker, Miss M. D., Cincinnati 
Rogers, Edward H., Chelsea 
Rogers, John 
Rogers, John K. 
Rogers, Prof. William B. . 
Rolfe, William J., Cambridge 
Roosevelt IIos])ital, New York City . 
Ross, James, M.D., Manchester, Eng. 



, Annapo 
Ohio 



lis, Md 




1 
15 



1 
1 
70 
1 
1 



1 

2 

1 

12 

2 



1 
11 
7 
1 
3 
12 



1 

1 

20 

1 



4 
1 

2 
2 

45 



1 

40 

1 

1 



90 



City Document No. 6Q. 



Vols. 



Rowe, Walter R., Lawrence 

Rowell, George P., ^^eiv Yoj-k City 

Rowell, W R. . . . 

Royal Geographical Society, London 

Royal Historical Society, London 

Royal Society, Edinburgh . 

Royal Society, London 

Ruger, J. W , & Qo.' Buffalo, N. T. 

Russell, John A., San Francisco, Cal. 

Russell Library, Middletown, Conn 

S. R. Smith Infirmary, Tompkinsville, N. Y. 

Sabin, Joseph, New York City . 

St. Augustine College, Benicia, Cal. 

St. Barnabas Hospital, Foiiglikeepsie, N. Y. 

St. Bonaventure's College, Allegany, N. Y. 

St. Charles College, Grand Coteau, La. 

St. Elizabeth's Hospital and Home, Utica, N. I 

St. Francis Hospital, New York City 

St. Ignatius College, Chicago. 111. 

St. Ignatius College, San Francisco, Cal. 

St. John's College, Annapolis, Md. . 

St. John's College, Brooklyn, N. Y. . 

St. Jolin's College, ^S7. Joseph, Minn. 

St. John's Hospital, Brooklyn, N. Y. , 

St. John's Riverside Hospital, Yonkers, N. Y. 

St. Johnsbury, Vt., Athenaeum . 

St. Joseph's ('ollege, Bardstown, Ky, 

St. Joseph's College, Buffalo, N. Y. . 

St. Joseph's Hospital, Paterson, N.J. 

St. Lawrence University, Canton, N. Y. 

St. Louis, Mo., Lying-in Charity 

Mercantile Lilirary 

Public School Library 

University .... 

St. Luke's Honu' for Convalescents . 

St. Luke's Hospital, Detroit, Mich. . 

St. Mary of the Pacific, Benecia, Cal. 

St. Mary's College, Marion County, Ky 

St. Mary's College, Snn Francisco, Cal. 

St. Mary's Hosi)ital for Children, New York City 

St. Mary's Hospital for Women, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

St. Xavier College, Cincinnati, Ohio . 

Salado College, Salado, Texas . 

Salem Hosj)ital . . ■ . 

Salisbury, Prof. E. E., New Haven, Conn 

Saltonstall, Leverett . 

Sandwich Island Centennial Commissioners 

Sanford, E. I., New Haven, Conn. 

£>anta Clara College, Santa Clara, Cal 

Savage, E. H., Chief of Police . 

Sawyer, Hon. Timothy T. . 

Schouler, James .... 

Sclater, Philip L., London 

Scoville Manufacturing Company, New York City 

Scudder, Samuel 11., Cambridge 

Searle, Frederick A., 188 broadsides. 

Seaverns, Joel, MD. . 

Seeley, Montressor S., Woburn . 

Sellers, William & Co., Philadelphia 



Public Library. 



91 




New 



Selwyn, Hon. Alfred R. C, Montreal 

Scwall, Samuel, Burlington .... 

Shaler, Prof. ^. S., Camh ridge. 

Sharpless and Watts, Philadelphia . 

Shaw, John C, St. Paid, Minn. 

Sheffield, £■?!£?., Public Library . 

Shepard. Rev. Thomas, D.B., Bristol, R. I. . 

Shepherd, Henry E., Baltimore, Md. 

Shepley, George F., Portland, Me. . 

Shinn, ^ei'. George W., iVewtow 

Shore, George A., Dighton .... 

Shurtleff College, Upper Alton, III. . 

Sill, John M. B., Detroit, Mich. 

Simonds, Prof. F. W., Ithaca, N. Y. 

Simpson, John B. ..... . 

Sinnickson. Robert, Trenton, N. J., 10 broadsides 
Slaughter, Col. W. B., Middleton, Wis. 
Smith, Amos D., 3d . 

Smith, Miss E. L 

Smith, F. Wayland, Oneida, iV. Y. . 
Smith, James & Co., Philadelphia 
Smith, Oberlin, Bridgeton, N. J. . . . 
Smith, Samuel, Worcester] ..... 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. G. 
Sneaden, George L. . 
Snow, Edwin M., Providence, R. I. . 
Society for the Reformation of Juvenile Delinquents 
York City ....... 

Society of Arts, London 

Sohier, Edward D. ..... . 

Soldan, Louis, St. Louis, Bio. .... 

Somerhy, Charles P., New York City 

Somes, John J., Gloucester .... 

Somerville Public Library 

Sotheran, Henry, London ..... 
South Australian Centennial Commissioners 
Southbridge Public Library . . • . 
South Carolina State Library .... 
South Shields, Eng., Public Library . 
Sowles, Hon. Edward A., Montpelier, Vt. , 
Spanish Centennial Commissioners ... 
Spelling Reform Association, Fernwood, Pa. 

Springfield City Library 

Water Connnissioners .... 

Staples, S. C, Worcester 

State Asylum for Insane Criminals, Auburn, N. Y. 

State Asylum of California, Stockton . 

State Hospital for the Insane, Danville, Ky. 

State Hospital for Women and Infants, Philadelphia 

State Lunatic Asylum, Utica, N. Y. . 

State Lunatic Hospital, Northampton 

State Lunatic Hospital of Pennyslvania, Harrishurg 

Stephenson, Thomas, New Bedford ... 

Stevens, B. F., London 

Stewart College, Clarksville, Te^in. . . . 
Stiles and Parker Press Company, Middletown, Conn. 
Stilwell and Bierce Manutacturing Company, Dayton, Ohio 
Stockwell, Thomas B., Providence, R. I. . 
Stone, Gen. Charles P., Cairo, Egypt, 1 map . 



Pph8. 



1 
10 



1 

32 
1 
1 



1 

5 

19 
1 

5 

5 
2 



2 
2 
1 

10 

4 
12 

2. 
27 

I 
80 

1 



92 



City Document No. QQ. 



Pphs. 



Stott, Rev. W. T , Franklin, Ind. . 
Strout, James C, Washington, D. C. 
Sumner, (^harles A , San Francisco, Cat. . 
Sutherland, Duke and Duchess of 

Sutter, Carl 

Swedish Centennial Commissioners . 
Swett, Hon. John, San Francisco, Col. 
Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. Y. 
Taft, Rev. S. H., llumholdt, Iowa . 
Tallad<ga College, Talladega, Ala. . 
Tanaka, Fujimaro, Tokio, Japan 
Tennessee Hospital for the Insane, Nashville 

Medical Society, Nashville 

Tenney, David B., Haverhill 

Tenney, Rev. E. P , Ashland 

Terrell, Gen. AV. H. H., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Texas German Land and Emigration Bureau, St. Louis, Mo. 

Texas Military Institute, Austin 

Thomas, Flavel S , M.D., Hanson 

Thompson, Rev Augustus C, D.D. . 

Thorburn, J , Af.D., Manchester, Eng. 

Thornton, J. Wingate 

Thurston, Prof. Kohcrt H., Ilohoken, N. J. 

Tiele, Dr. P. A., Leyden . 

Tileston, Miss Mary W. 

Tinkham, J. G., Somerset . 

Titus, Charles H 

Todd, Prof. U. P., Washington, D.C. 
Toner, Joseph M., M.D., Washington, D 
Tongaloo University, Tongaloo, Miss. 
Touzalin, A. E., Lincoln, Neb. . 
Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. 
Trinity College, rj-i/nYy, .¥.C. . 
Trowbridi^e, Thomas R., New Haven, Con 
True, Nathaniel T., M.D., Beihtl, Me. 

Tucker, William W 

Tudor, Frederic 

Tufts College, Medford 

Turner, Alfred T 

Turner, Josopli W. .... 

Turner Free Librarj', Randolph 

Tuttle, Rev. Joseph F., D.D., Grawfordsville, Ind., 1 

broadside, 1 newspaper 
Tuttle and Bailey Manufacturing Company, New York City. 
Twining, Frof. E. II., Cohnnhia, Mo. 
Tyler, A. W., Baltimore, Md. . 
Tyson, Rev. Ira C, Bedford, NIL . 
Union College, Schenectady, N. Y. 
United States, Bureau of Education . 

Bureau of Navigation 

Bureau of Statistics 

Chief of Engineers . 

Chief of C)rdnance . 

Department of Agriculture 

Department of State 

Department of the Interior 

Department of the Treasury . 

Department of War 

Library of Congress 



53 



1 

1 

1 

G8 

7 
2 
2 

84 
1 



15 
2 
1 
9 
1 

10 

48 



1 
3 
1 
2 
10 
2 
2 



104 

1 

20 

1 

103 



Public Library. 



93 



GIVERS. 


Vols. 


PphB. 


United States, Naval Observatory 


2 




P'ltont Office .... 


18 




Surgeon General's Office ...... 


1 


6 


Univers^alist Sabbath School Union 




1 


University of California, Berkeley 




18 


University of Chicago 




4 


University of Deseret, Salt Lake City, Utah 


1 




University of Minnesota, Mi7ineapolis .... 




2 


University of Missouri, Columhia ..... 




2 


University of Nashville, Tennesse ..... 




7 


University of Nebraska, Lincoln 




16 


University of Rochester 




4 


University of South Carolina 




8 


University of the City of New York . . . 




1 


University of the South, Sewanee, Tenn. .... 




8 


University of Vermont, Burlington ..... 




5 


University of Virginia, Charlottesville .... 




G 


University of Wisconsin, Madison ..... 




64 


University of Wooster, Wooster, Ohio .... 




7 


Upham, William P., Salem /..... 


1 




Urbino, Sampson R. ....... . 


1 




Ursinus College, Freeland, Pa 




2 


Vance, Mitchell, ^^ew' York City 


1 




Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N.Y. 


1 


5 


Venezuela, Government of. 


33 




Vereeniging des Boekhandels in Nederland, Amstei'dam . 


1 




Vermont Asylum for the Insane, Brattlehord' 




15 


Vibbert, Rev. George H., Somerville ..... 


1 


4 


Victoria Centennial Commissioners 


7 




Viles, Daniel F., Waltham 




2 


Villanova College, Delaware County, Pa 




1 


Vinton, Frederick, Princeton, N.J. 


1 


1 


Waco University, Waco, Texas 




1 


Wales, George W. ........ 


1 




Walker, Joseph R., Wilmington, Del., 1 newspaper . 


1 




Wallace, John W., Philadelphia 


1 




Walsall, Eng., Free Library ...... 




1 


Walworth Manufocturing Company ..... 


1 




Ware, Col. Henry 


1 




Ware, William, & Co. ^ 


2 


5 


Warren, Hon. William W. 


8 


2 


Warren Institution for Savings 


2 




Warriner, Miss E 


15 


5 


Warrington, Eng., Museum 


1 




Washburn, Col. John D., Worcester 


1 




Washington University, St. Louis, Mo 




2 


Washingtonian Home ....... 




1 


Waterbury, Rev. J. H 


2 




Waterston, Rev. Robert C. 


1 




Watertown Free Public Library 




2 


Watts, Albert 




1 


Wayland Library Committee 




1 


Wellman, Rev. Joshua W., Maiden 


1 


4 


Wells College, Aurora, N.Y. 




1 


Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn 


1 


2 


West Chicago, III., Central Free Dispensary 




1 


Western Lunatic Asylum, Staunton, Pa 




4 


Western Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, Dixmont . 




1 


Western Reserve College, Hudson, Ohio .... 




4 



94 



City Document No. 66. 



Y. 



Westfield Collepre, Wesifidd, III. 
Westminster College, Fulton, Mo. 
Westminster College, New Wilmington, Pa 
West Virginia Hospital for the Insane, Wheeling 

Wheelwright, H. C 

Wheildon, William W., Ooncord 

Whitaker, Joseph, London 

White, Andrew D., LL D., Ithaca, N. Y. . 

White, Charles B., 31. D., New Orleans, La. 

White, Horace, Chicago, III. 

White, Rev. William O., Keene, N.II. 

Whitehead, Walter, M.I)., Manchester, Eng 

Whitehill, Rev. John, Attleboro' 

Whitney, Rev. Frederick A. . . . 

Whitney, Mrs. Frederick A. . . . 

Whitney, James L., 4 broadsides, 2 newspapers 

Whitney, r7-of. Josiah D., Cambridge 

Whitney, Prof. William D., New Haven, Conn 

Whittemore, T. . 

Wightman, William J., Reading 

Wilder, Hon. Marshall P 

Wiley William H., Terre Haute, Ind. 
AVillard, J. A., Mankato, Minn. 
Willard Asylum for the Insane, Willard, N 
Willey, Rev. S. H., Santa Cruz, Cal. 
William Jewell College, Liberty, Mo. 
Williams, A., & Co. ..... 

Williams, James, Columbus, Ohio 
Williams College, Williamstown 
Willoughby College, WiUoughby, Ohio 
Wilmington College. WiJrningion, Ohio 
Wilmington Institute, Wilmington, Del. 
Wilson, J. Ormand. Washington, D. C. . 
Winchester Home for Aged Women . 
Winthrop, Hon. Kobcrt C, 9 newspapers . 
Wisconsin Institution for the Blind, Janesville 

iState Hospital for the Insane, Mendota 

Wise, W. Lloyd, London .... 
Withington, Moses, Brookline . 

Woburn Puhlic Lil)rary 

Woman's Baptist Missionary Society . 
Woman's Hospital, New York City . 
Woman's Meilical College, Philaddphia . 
Woodhridge, W. E., M.D., Washington, D. C. 

Woods. S A 

Woodworth, Rev. W. W., Berlin, Conn. . 
Worcester County Free Institute, Worcester 
Worthington and Flanders .... 

Wyeth, James H , Cambridge . 
Xavier Union, New York City . . 
Yale College, Neic Haven, Conn. 
Young, Prof. Edward J., Cambridge 
Young, James ...... 

Young Men's Benevolent Society 
Young Men's ("hristian Association, Worcester 
Young Men's Mercantile Library, Cincinnati, Ohio 
Young Women's Christian Association 




Pphs. 



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99 



APPEIS^DIX XIY. 



BOOKS RECOMMENDED, USE OF BRITISH PATENTS AND 
TOSTI ENGRAVINGS. 



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* The paitial disuse of the Bates Ilall, on account of tlie alterations going on, atfected this number. 

NoTK. — The column of " Received since" denote* those received of the ''Total recommended." the 
same year. What may he in subse'iucnt years received of such "Total recnminendcd" does not appear in 
this table. For instance, of the 1.120— ( 1S3 -[- 42:i) = .514 not received in 18(i8 of the total recommended that 
year, a larpe part has been since received. 

P«/e»r,<;. — Thi- American. French, and British Patents have now been placed in the new Patent Room, 
under charKc of a Curator. The fisures before 1S74 in the table showed the use of the British Patents only. 

Engravings.— The statistics refer only to the bound volumes, not to those framed and ou the walls. 

The Curnlor shows them every day from 9 to \i. 



100 



City Docibient No. 66. 



APPENDIX XY. 

BATES HALL READING. [H. \Y.] 



Classification. 



English History, Topography, 
Biography, Travel, and Po- 
lite Literature 

American (North and South) 
History, Topographj-, . Bi- 
ography, Travel, and Polite 
Literature 

French History, Topography, 
Biography, Travel, and 
Polite Literature 

Germanic History, Topogra- 
phy, Biography, Travel, 
and Polite Literature . . . 

Italian History, Topography, 
Biography, Travel, and Po- 
lite Literature 

Other History, Topography, 
Biograpliy, 'i'ravel, and Po- 
lite Literature 

General and Epochal History, 
Geography, Biography, etc. 

Greek, Latin and Philology . 

Bibliograph5' 

Transactions 

Periodicals 

Fine Arts 

Natural Historj' and Science . 

Theology, Ecclesiastical His- 
tory, Ethics, Education, etc. 

Medicine 

Law, Government, and Politi- 
cal Economy 

Useful Arts, Mathematics, 
Physics, etc 

Miscellaneous Pamphlets, 
bound 











Percentage of Use. 










« 

H 


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H 


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9 

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1 




























17.5 


16 


13 


18 


20 


17 


17 


17 


17 


12 


19 


16 


15 


15 


6 


8.5 


10 


8 


12 


12 


12 


12 


13 


10 


12 


11 


11 


12 


5 


7.5 


6 


6 


7 


4 


5 


5 


5 


4 


6 


6 


5 


5 


2.5 


2 


2.5 


2 


4 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


3 


3 


4 


3 


4 


2.5 


2 


3 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


3.5 


3.5 


2.5 


4 


4 


5 


5 


3 


3 


3 


4 


3 


4 


4 


4.5 


4.25 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


1 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3.5 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


4 


4 


3 


2.5 


3 


3 


3 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


3 


1.5 


2.3 


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7 


5 


4 


5 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


7 


6 


6 


11 


7 


8 


9 


10 


8 


10 


8 


8 


7 


7 


9 


12 


16.5 


8 


5 


8 


8 


8 


9 


11 


10 


11 


11 


10 


4 


4 


4.6 


3 


3 


4 


3 


4 


4 


5 


3 


4 


3 


3 


11 


11 


8.5 


4 


4 


8 


9 


8 


11 


14 


10 


11 


11 


10 


7 


5 


4.6 


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6 


6 


8 


8 


9 


9 


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7 


6 


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2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


3 


5.5 


5.5 


7.5 


7 


8 


7 


6 


5 


6 


8 


5 


6 


7 


9 


2 


.75 


.75 


2 


1 


2 


1 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


3 


3 



Note. — In computing this percentage, the use of books in the Bowditch, Parker, Barton, 
and Prince Libraries — which arc kept apart from the general classifications of the Library — 
is reckoned as near as possible and included in the usual divisions, as is indicated in the 
table. (See Ejphtnutiotis to Appendix IX.) 



Public Library. 



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Hall of the Central Library, where juvenile hooks are scattered among the other classes, as 
the <»haracter of the book, whether fiction, history, biography, etc., would require. 



102 



City Document No. 66. 





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Public Library. 



103 



APPENDIX XIX. 

EOXBURY BRANCH AND FELLOWES ATHEN^UM READING. 
Note. — The two sections of this talsle refer to two diiferent collections of books. 



O 



I. 

n. 
III. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 

vn. 
vrii. 

IX. 



1, 3, 5, 
2,4 . 

6,8 . 
9,11 . 
10,12 
13,14 
15,17 

16 . . 
18,19 



O 
I. 
II. 

in. 

IV. 
V. 
VI. 

vn. 
vni. 

IX, 
X. 



7,23 



50,54, 59 . 

55, 57 . . 

51,53,65,67 
52, 56 . . 

58, 70 . . 

60. . , , 

61. . . . 

62. . . . 

63. 69 . . 
64,66,63 . 



Classes. 



Prose Fiction , 
Travels . . . . 
History . . , 
.Juveniles . . , 
Biography . . 
Periodicals . , 



Arts, Sciences, Pro- 
fessions 



Poetry and Drama . 

Collected Works and 
Lit. Miscellanies 

Books in Foreign 
Languages . . . . 



Total 

/ 

History, Biography, 
Travels 

Modern Foreign Lan- 
guages 

Periodicals 

Miscellaneous Liter- 
ature 

Theology, Sociology, 
Ethics 

Medicine 

Greek and Latin Lan- 
guages and Litera- 
ture 

Fine Arts, Engineer- 
ing 

Law, Politics, Gov- 
ernment 

Mathematics, Natu- 
ral and Applied 
Science 



1874. 



ml 



28,575 
2,623 
1,121 

19,261 
1,351 
1,019 

2,757 
1,219 

724 

55 



58,605 



1,982 

729 
160 



412 

46 



5,691 



-49 
-5 
-2 
32-f 

2+ 
-2 

-4 
-2 



1875. 


1876. 


1877 


^1 


O 0) 


'6 

a 

O 3 


§ 6 


g Books 
"to returned. 


40,666 


52 


47,307 


53 


2,555 


3+ 


2,519 


3 


2,745 


1,133 


1+ 


1,598 


2 


2,377 


25,650 


34 


28,918 


32 


40,871 


1,583 


2 


1,575 


2 


2,143 


1,338 


-2 


1,785 


2 


3,110 


2,815 


4 


2,992 


3 


3,858 


1,235 


2+ 


1,326 


1 


1,712 


1,069 


2+ 


887 


1 


1,815 


114 


1+ 


119 


1 


190 


78,8.58 




89,026 


• • . 


127,786 


3,754 


-43 


3,548 


38 


5,335 


1,073 


12+ 


921 


9 


1,773 


331 


4 


488 


5 


2,313 


921 


10+ 


976 


10 


1,474 


550 


6+ 


517 


5 


1,151 


81 


1 


126 


1 


249 


374 


4+ 


376 


4 


687 


750 


Sk 


932 


10 


1,243 


149 


-2 


250 


3 


446 


846 


-10 


1,414 


15 


1,739 


8,829 




9,548 




16,410 



54 
2 
2 

32 

2 

2+ 

3 

1+ 



104 



City Document No. 6Q. 



APPENDIX XX. 

BRIGHTON BRANCH READING. 





Ranges. 


Classes. 


1874- 


■> 


1875- 


a 


1876-7 


d 

5 


13 
<a 

O 3 


o 
cs 

a 


(§2 


S3 


'6 

o 

(§1 


t 
a 

1 


I. 


1, 2, 3, 4 . 

5, 6, 7, 8 . 

9 to 17 . . 


Fiction 


17,662 

1,424 
1,957 


84 

7 
9 


19,532 

1,677 

3,226 


80 

7 
13 


22,838 

2,451 
4,611 


77 


II. 
III. 


Biography, Travel, and 
History 

Others 


8 
IS 












Totals 


21,043 




24,435 




29,900 





APPENDIX XXI. 

DORCHESTER BRANCH READING. 



I. 

II. 

III. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 

IX. 

X. 



Ranges. 



1,11,21 

2, 12 . . 

3, 13, 23 . 
4,14,24. 

5, 15, 25 

6, 16, 26 

7, 17, 27 

8, 18 . . 

9, 19 . . 

10, 20, 28 



Classes. 



Poetry, Drama . . 
Travels 

Fiction 

-Juveniles 

History 

Biography . . . . 
Periodicals . . . . 
Arts, Sciences, etc. 
Miscellanies, etc. . 

Totals 



1874-5 



n 



221 

535 

3,983 

2,877 

5,348 

285 

414 

162 

465 

311 



1875-0 



Ks: 



627 

2.233 

21,880 j 

13,701 i 

17,363 

1,555 

1.567 

1.311 

2,274 

1,671 



1876-7 



,021 

,133 

,107 j 

,059] 

,071 

,650 

,655 

,193 

,157 

,459 



57 

26 
2+ 
2+ 
3 
3 
2 



14,601 



64,487 



CHARLESTOWN BRANCH READING. 

Note. — Ko classification of tlie use Is practicable, as the books are shelved without 
regard to classes. Tables similar to those of the other branches will be possible when a 
rearrangement of the books is made. 



Pdblic Library. 



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City Document No. Q6. 






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. LiBUART Account, 



prill tiuDB. 



BiDdiog , 

Book , 

PeriocHoali* 

CiiUlogues (printing) . 



c {cabineU, aliulvlng, (ixi 



I'rinlliig (mUcdIanei 
etatloiuTy 



$4,400 00 

7,500 00 

4,800 00 
1,H00 00 
1,300 00 



«S,231 3i 
1 12,109 68 



TmnaporlJittciii, Poatnge, i 



$5,200 00 

0,000 00 

6,700 00 
2,000 00 
1,650 00 



14,538 60 
3,130 1)8 
3,731 85 



2,200 00 


2,290 14 


1,400 00 


1,537 44 


35,000 00 


34,507 71 


1,000 00 


1.210 85 



Branchm. 


East Boat 


)Ti Braiitli. 


Books unci Pi-ri.jdiculs 


4,250 00 
3.000 uo 


3,» 69 


Siiliirlci 


1,117 3S 




»i 6,000 00 


$70,443 70 





APPEISTDIX XXIY 



FINANCIAL S T A T K iM E N '^ . [N.] 



$4,000 00 1 
9,000 00 



$5,860 Oil 

35,697 28 

8,«10 00 

4,305 00 

2.580 00 

2,b70 00 

5,022 00 



$5,883 03 
( 44,131 56 
( 2.679 57 



2,720 60 
1,462 65 



5,280 72 
48,782 76 



Soutti Boston UD<1 Rosbury Brauclms. 



343 42 
175 34 



$8,080 84 
{ 16.962 45 

3.361 57 
4,159 59 
3,440 8S 

10.2.W 55 



Dorchcater Branch. 



( appro. 
lulionB. 



Expended, j aSS. 



$6,137 14 
( 2B.36S 13 



3,181 01 
2,490 76 
2,i*71 87 



E Expended. 

$3,786 85 
( 21,714 50 
I 2,849 88 



09,332 10 
2,401 12 



I appropriiiUoa includes an increase of $11,650, by vote of the City Couniril in December, 1873, In uiiticlpatlon of the annexAllon of Churlcatown and Briyhlon, 



• Tlie appropriation for pcriodlcalB is Included in tbiit for booka. 

I i f," ''''''^^P'''''"''" f"i" binding before this year lind Includid tho aalarlos of tho workmen in the Bindery, bul Ib now changed to the approprlntiun for eafarii 
1 $i..S,19, .28 of this amount brought from lait year, and added to tho approprintloH for bookb to '""^^^ ^^^ Trustees to buy the Uarton Library. The total a 
nifl Dy llie Income of the Trust Fuudit. ' 

Note. — The espcndlturea for books cover tho cost of thosu chargeable to our Trust Puiids Accoi '"'' "" *°" *" ''"'^" charged to the annual appropriutSous from the City, and also includes such ua arc bought with the balances wllh our foreign agents at the cloae of the previous year. Our (Inanclal and library yi 
subsoquenlly to the middle of March (when the last requisition of the year, payable April let \b anoro ^*^^ ''"^ ^"^ audited In the suhseqnunl year's account, beginning nominally May lat, In this w.ty books ad<If(l b.-tween Marob 15tb and May 1st may b.' counted in one year's growib, and paid for in the 
year makes piirt of the general items of the several approorlatlons. • i F 



385 01 

203 02 



1,150 Q 
1.472 J 



an. The fdKTorence of the total Jimonnt 
mtiB uoM r Qomtnally correspond, bul It < 



expended and approprlaled is 
(viil happen that bills accruing 



Public Libkary. 



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110 



City Document No. QQ. 



APPEm)IX XXYI. 

LIBRARY SERVICE. 

(April 30, 1877.) 



Name. 



JUSTIN WINSOR . 

Jajies L. Whitnet . 

James M. Hubbard . . 

Frederic B. Perkins . 

Cbarles A. Wilson . . 

Miss Annie P. Call . . 

Miss A. A. Nichols . . 

Frank H. Tbomas . . 

Total 



James L. Whitney . 

James M. Hubbard . . 

William H. Foster . . 
Arthur Mason Knapp 

Miss Mary F. Osgood . 

Richard Raj' 

Jose F. Garret . . . , 



Mrs. Susan A. Joslyn 
Mrs. A. C. D. Keen . 
Mrs. Eliz. T. Reed . , 
Mrs. R. M. Eastman , 
Miss Mary E. Joslyn 
Frank C. Blaisdell . 



^ > 



1868. 

1869. 

1874. 

1874. 

1871. 

1872. 

1868. 
1874. 



Positions, Duties, Etc. 



Superintendent and Secretary of the 
Trustees 



Assistant Superintendent and head 
of Catalogue Department .... 



Principal Assistant and second iu 
Catalogue Department .... 



Office Secretary and sub-executive 
officer 



Despatch Clerk. {See also Bates 
Mall) 



Assistant Office Secretary and 
catalogue work 



Auditor and Cashier . . 
Superintendent's runner 



1869. 

1874. 

1860. 
1875. 

1877. 
1876. 
1875. 

1873. 

1872. 
1873. 
1859. 
1871. 
1876. 



Head of the Department. 
Executive Department) . . 



(See 



Second in the Department. (See 
Executive Department) 



Proof Reader 



Pamphlets, periodicals, newspa- 
pers, duplicates, and Barton and 
Prince libraries 



Assistant to Mr. Knapp 
Assistant to Mr. Knapp 



Patents, engravings, and Catalogue 
work 



Assistant in Patent Room, etc. . . 

General Cataloguer 

Assistant General Cataloguer . . . 

Extra. Documents, etc 

Extra. Catalogue work 

Runner 



Public Library. 



Ill 



LIBRARY SERVICE. — Continued. 



^ 

rt 

i* 

o 


Name. 




Position, Duties, etc. 


u 

a 

"3 . 
btiO 

It 








Card Catalogue. 
Miss H. E. Geeen .... 

Miss Alice M. Poree . . . 
Miss Josephine Hewins . 
Miss Emily C. Osgood . . 
Miss Ellen F. McCarthy . 
Total 


1873. 
1866. 
1875. 
1875. 
1872. 




16 


2 




s 












<^ 












<2 






18 












Miss Harriet N. Pike . 
Miss Mary A. McGrath . 

Marie L. Clapp 

Miss Ellen Stevenson . . . 
Total . , . . ..... 


1867. 
186S. 
1876. 
1869. 


Chief Clerk 








■« §< 






eg, 


Assistant 








4 












1 


Appleton p. C. Griffin 
Timothy Donovan .... 

John Mahony 

Annie M. Kennedy .... 
Total 


1865. 
1873. 
1876. 
1869. 


Custodian 

B. H. Assistant 
















4 














Henry Ware 

Charles A. Wilson .... 

Miss L. F. Knowles . . . 
Miss Mary E. Brooks . . . 
Alfred Newmarch .... 

Thomas Whyte 

John Cameron 

Robert J. Donovan .... 

John A. Lathrop 

Total 


1875. 
1871. 

1867. 
1873. 
1875. 
1874. 
1876. 
1876. 
1876. 










1 


Assistant Keeper (see also Ex- 
ecutive Department) .... 

Delivery Assistant 

Receiving Assistant 




& 






^ 














Runner . . 


9 














Elbridge Bradshaw . 
Alfred A. Brooks .... 
Miss Sarah A. Mack . . . 
Miss EUza J. Mack .... 
Miss Elizabeth Ross 


1869. 
1875. 
1863. 
1863. 
1869. 










1 


Assistant Keeper 




' s 


Receiving Clerk 

Keeper's Clerk 





112 



City Document No. 6Q. 

LIBEAKY SEEVICE. — Continued. 



Miss Ella Sturmy .... 
Margaret A. Sheridan . 

Mary Connor 

Margaret Donovan . . . 

Annie G. Shea 

Margaret Doyle .... 
Win. F. Robinson . . . 
Miss Caroline E. Poree . 
Miss Ellen E. Bresnahan 
Evening Service. 

Frederic Kyle 

■WiUiam Hanna 

David W. Tyler .... 
Miss Ella Dillon .... 
Miss Catherine McGrath 
Miss ^imelia McGrath . 

Robert B. Ross 

Mary N. Burke 

Hannah Clifford .... 
Margaret Clifford . . . 

Minnie Moore 

Florence Richards . . . 
Total 






18V2. 
1875. 
1873. 

1874. 
1874. 
1875. 
1872. 
1859. 
1869. 

1874 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1873, 
1869 
1873, 
1875, 
1876, 
1876, 
1876 
1876 



Position, Duties, etc. 



Assistant 

Assistant Delivery Clerk . . 

Runner 

Runner 

Runner 

Art-Room attendant , . . . 
Registration and Fine Clerk 
Reading-Room attendant . . 
Assistant R. R. attendant . . 



Registration Clerk . . . , 

Sunday sei-vice 

Evening Police , 

Delivery Clerk 

Receiving Clerk . . . . , 

Assistant 

Beading-Room attendant 
Runner 



Runner ■ 
Runner 
Runner 
Runner 



William E. Ford . 
Thomas Collins . . . 
Jerry Sullivan .... 
Extra daily assistaiits 
Total 



1858. 

1867. 
1874. 



Chief Janitor , 
Assistant . . , 

Assistant . . 



Frank P. Hathawat 
Andrew M. Blake . . . 

Romeo Ccrvi * 

J. R. Beckett 

Michael J. Healy .... 
James Pendergast . . . 



1871. 
1870. 
1874. 
1875. 
1875. 
1875. 



Foreman . 
Assistant 
Assistant 
Assistant 
Assistant 
Assistant 



* Absent in Europe part of the year. 



Public Library. 



113 



LIBRARY SERVICE. — Continued. 



Name. 



Edward M. Roe .... 
William F. Sampson . . 
■yrilliam K. Sanderson . 
Mrs. M. Wheeler .... 
Miss Mary E. Austin . . 
Miss Mary Moriarty . . 
Mrs. S. E. Bowen . . . 
Miss Kate Reilly .... 
Geo. W. Merson .... 
Total 






18T6. 
1876. 
1876. 
1869. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 
1876. 
1875. 



Position, Duties, etc. 



Assistant 
Assistant 
Assistant , 
Sewer . . 
Sewer . . , 
Sewer . . 
Sewer . . , 
Sewer . . 
Apprentice 



rS S 



Miss Sarah C. Godbold 
Miss Mary R. Pray .... 
Miss A. M. Wing . . . . 
Miss Mary E. Cathcart . . 
Miss Nellie L. Lennon . . 

Addie H. Ghen 

Laura B. Morse 

Abbie M. Keen ...... 

Bella Griffin 

George H. Hosea 

Total 



1871. 
1870. 
1872. 
1870. 
1872. 
1876. 
1875. 
1874. 
1876. 
1873. 



Librarian 

Reading Room Assistant 

Desk Assistant 

Assistant 

Extra Assistant .... 

Extra runner 

Extra runner 

Extra runner 

Extra runner .>.... 
Janitor 



Miss Alice J. Bragdon 
Miss Abbie Dalton .... 
Miss Ellen A. Eaton . . . 
Miss Emma Davis .... 
Miss Honora McCarthy . . 

Miss Cora Hale 

Mary Watson 

Elizabeth McCarthj' . . . 

Ida Sampson 

Minnie Sampson 

Marguerite Watson .... 

Joseph Baker 

Total 



1872. 
1875. 
1872. 
1873. 
1872. 
1877. 
1873. 
1873. 
1877. 
1877. 
1877. 
1872. 



Librarian 

Receiving Clerk .... 
Reading Room Assistant 

Delivery Clerk 

Assistant 

Extra Assistant .... 

Extra runner 

Extra runner 

Extra runner 

Extra runner 

Extra runner 

Janitor 



114 



City Document No. 6Q. 



LIBEAEY SEKVICE. — Continued. 



w 



Positions, Duties, etc. 



? ' c " " "" 

c S o 



°a 



Miss Clara E. Sanborn 
MiBS Sarah Bunker . . . . 
Miss Mary Bradley . . . . 
Miss Marietta Goldamitli . 
Margaret E. Blood . . . . 

Mary M. Floden 

Mary Osgood 

Florence Vose 

Catharine Cleary 

L. Karcher 

Miss Alice W. Wheeler . . 

Charles R. Curtis 

Annie J. Barton 

Timothy Johnson . . . . 



1873. 
1876. 
1876. 
1873. 
1872. 
1874. 
1877. 
1876. 
1875. 
1877. 
1876. 
1873. 
1876. 
1876. 



Librarian 

Reading Room Assistant 

Desk Assistant 

Desk Assistant 

Runner 

Extra runner 

Extra runner 

Extra runner 

Extra runner 

Extra runner 

Sunday service 

Janitor 

Jamaica Plain Delivery 
Jamaica Plain Janitor . 



Total , 



Dr. Cornelius 8. Cart£e 
Miss Susan Edwards . . . 
Miss 8. M. Eberle . . . .' 

Lilian Davis 

Miss Annie-E. Eberle . • . 
Miss Harriet N. Davis . . 

John P. Jacobs 

H. Woodward 

Thomas E. Smith .... 



1870. 
1869. 
1874. 
1874. 
1874. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 
1874. 



Total 



Librarian 

Desk Assistant 

Reading-Room Assistant 

Runner . . 

Extra assistant 

Extra assistant 

Extra runner 

Extra runner 

Janitor 



Miss Mary E. Brock 
Bridget T. Grailey . . 
Miss A. J. Wilson . . 
Charles F. Wheeler . 

Total 



1875. 
1874. 
1875. 
1875. 



Librarian . . . 
Assistant . . . . 
Extra Assistant 
Janitor 



Public Library. 

LIBRARY SERVICE. — Concluded. 



115 



Name. 



Miss Makt G. Coffin 
Miss Esther R. Whiton 
Miss Jennie Sheridan . 

Mary Elms 

MissM. A. Hill . . . 
Edward Davenport , . 



Total 



W 



1874. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 
1875. 
1875. 



Positions, Duties, etc. 



Librarian 

Assistant 

Extra Assistant 

Extra Assistant 

Agent at Lower Mills Delivery 
Janitor 



SUMMARY. 



Superintendent .... 
Office Secretaries, Despatch Clerk, Audi 

tor, and Runner .... 
Catalogue Department ... 
Ordering and Receiving Department 
Shelf Department .... 
B. H. Cir'julating Department 
L. H. Circulating Department, Day 

Evening, and Sunday Service 
Janitorial Department . 
Binding Department 



Regulars. 
1 

5 

16 

4 

4 



14 

3 

15 



Extras. 



12 



Central Library. 
70 regulars. 
14 extras. 

84 in all. 



East Boston Branch 
South Boston Branch 
Roxbury Branch . 
Charlestown Branch 
Brighton Branch . 
Dorchester Branch 

Totals 



Grand Total 



5 
6 
6 
4 
2 
3 

96 
43 

139 



5 
6 
8 
5 
2 
3 

43 



Branches. 
26 regulars. 
29 extras. 

55 in all. 



AGENCY DEPARTMENT. 

Messrs. Lee and Shepard, Boston. 

Messrs. Little, Brown, and Co., and Sampson Low, Marston, Low, and 
Searle, Boston and London. 
Mr. Edward G. AUen (for English patents), London. 
Mr. F. W. Christern, and M. Charles Reinwald, New York and Paris. 
Dr. Felix Fliigel, Leipsie. 
Chev. Eugenio Alberi, Florence. 
Senor Don Juan F. Riaiio, Madrid. 



116 



City Document No. 66. 



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Public Library. 117 



To the Superintendent : — 

In the foregoing tables are respectfully presented the results of 
the annual examinations of the Central Library and Branches for 
the 3'ear ending April 30, 1877. In the 

Bates Hall 

the number of missing books is slightly increased from last 3'ear. 
Of the books missing previous 3'ears, the following have been 
found : 1 missing m 1869 was found in its place on the shelf, and 1 
in the Pph. Department. 3 missing in 1875 have appeared ; 2 were 
returned at the desk by borrowers, but no record of a loan could 
be found ; 1 was found in the Ordering Department. Of 30 books 
missing last j'ear, 8 have been found in various ways, viz. : 2 
were at the binder's, 2 misplaced on the shelf, 2 were in use in the 
building, 1 had been transferred to the Lower Hall, and 1 be- 
longing to the Parker collection was returned by a gentleman who 
had purchased it at a second-hand book-store. I have also to 
report that 7 books sent to the binder at different times cannot be 
found. In the 

Lower Hall 

the result is ver}' gratifying, as there is a reduction of nearly one- 
half in the number of books unaccounted for ; 1 book missing in 
1866, 1 in 1868, 2 in 1874, 3 in 1876, have been found. 

From the Bates Hall Desk, — Weller's Diet, of the English and 
French languages is missing. 

From the R. R. Desk — Soule, English synonymes ; Encyclo- 
paedia Americana, v. 12 ; Boston Public Library Bulletins, vol. 1. 

From the Brighton Branch R. R. — Smith, Diet, of Greek and 
Roman Antiquities ; Smith, Greek and Eng. lexicon. 

Respectfully submitted, 

APPLETON p. C. GRIFFIN, 

Custodian of the Shelves. 
Public Librakv, May 31, 1877. 



118 



City Document No. 66. 



appe:n'dix xxvni. 



WOKK IN THE LIBRARY BINDERY. 



Character of Work. 



Bates Hall books bound and 
finished ......... 

Books of the Lower Hall 
and Brancbos 

Books repaired 

Catalogues wired and cov- 
ered for public use in 
Lower Hall and Branches. 

Maps dissected and mounted 

Map-volumes and shelf-lists 
mounted 

Pamphlet cases 

Portfolios 

Removable covers for cata- 
logues and for paper-cov- 
ered books 

Maps mounted, bound, and 
bordered 

Hours of miscellaneous 
work 



is7i-a 



2,219 

1,015 
396 

490 
47 

212 

5-i6 

& 

206 
64 

1,842 



1872-3 



2,008 

744 
430 

437 

28 

165 
64 



263 

41 

2,297 



18T3-4 



753 

492 

287 


109 
24 



8j 



1,437 



18T4-5 



2,613 

1,508 
444 



493 



1,520 



2,486 



1875-6 



3,223 

7,765 
959 



1876-7 



4,759 



1,287 



2,183 



8,743 
873 



2,712 



1,271 



3,586 



Public Library. 119 



APPE:NrDIX XXIX. 



THE LATE BENJAMIN P. HUNT, OF PHILADELPHIA. 

Philadelphia, April 23, 1877. 

To Justin Winsor, Esq., Supt. Boston Public Library^ Boston^ 

Mass : — 

Dear Sir, — In compliance with your request, I send you a 
sketch of the life and character of the late Benjamin P. Hunt, 
written by Miss Chamberlain, the young lady who for some years 
has acted as Mr. Hunt's secretary and amanuensis. From her 
knowledge of, and intimacy with, Mr. Hunt, I know of no one 
better qualified to prepare such a memorial ; and it appears to me 
to be simply and naturally written, and within the limits of just 
eulogy. You will make such use of it as j'ou please. 

I fear I shall be unable to furnish you with a jDortrait of him of 
an}' kind, which I regret, as he was a man of noble presence and 
marked features.* 

Very truly yours, 

JOSEPH PARRISH, 

Executor. 



SKETCH. 

Benjamin Peter Hunt was born in Chelmsford, Middlesex 
County, Massachusetts, on the 18th day of Ma}^, 1808. His an- 
cestors were of the early Puritan stock, and in 1641 we find one of 
them, " William Hunt, admitted freeman of Concord," and in 
1655 another, Edmund Chamberlain, the same, of Chelmsford. 
From his mother he inherited a wonderfully retentive memory, a 
calm and impartial judgment, and the absolute loathing of all 
deception, shams, and falsehood, which made him such a terror to 
evil-doers. 

He attended the common school until he was seventeen, when a 
year spent under the instruction of Ralph Waldo Emerson, at the 
Chelmsford Academy, gave him an impulse to a higher education. 
In 1828 he entered Harvard College, the classmate, among others, 
of the Rev. Doctors Bellows and Osgood, the Honorable Geo. T. 
Curtis, John S. D wight, Esq., and the Rev. Charles T. Brooks. 
Not remaining to finish the course, he came to Philadelphia, liter- 
ally to seek his fortune. He taught a classical and scientific school 
for a number of j^ears, reading everything that came in his way. 



* An excellent photographic likeness has kindly been forwarded to us. 



120 City Document No. QQ. 

and always seeking for his associates the cultivated and refined of 
both sexes. At last, digusted with the school-master's drudgery, 
he determined to adopt a new calling, and sailed for Kingston, 
Ja., on the 6th of March, 1840, as supercargo of the brig 
" Olive." An account of this vo3'age was published in two num- 
bers of "The Dial," in 1843. Emerson speaks of it as follows: 
"It seems to me the best of all sea vo^-ages. Besides its rhetorical 
value, it has another quite additional, inasmuch as it realizes so 
fully for me the promise of the large, wise boy who made my 
school-daj-s in Chelmsford so glad by his lively interest in books 
and his native delight in ethical thought, and life looks more «olid 
and rich to me when I see these man}- years keep their faith." 
Hawthorne cites this piece from "The Dial" as " a solitary exam- 
ple of facts which had not lost their vigor b}' passing through the 
mind of a thinker." 

In 1842 Mr. Hunt went to Hayti to engage in mercantile busi- 
ness, landing at Cape Haytien in Ma}', 1842, just after the earth- 
quake had nearl}' buried the town. Here, at the scene of the 
defeat of Le Clerc's expedition, he visited the birthplace of Tous- 
saint, and the old haunts of Dessalines and Christophe, and here 
began his stud}' of the West Indian negro character and his almost 
unique collection of books relating to these islands. Success 
attended his efforts, and he became the head of a wealth}' commer- 
cial house in Port-au-Prince. The natural integrity of his charac- 
ter, his close attention to business, and his pleasure in literature, 
kept him from the dissipation and immorality into which foreigners 
in the West Indies so often fall. In 1851 he married a lady of 
Philadelphia, and in 1858, after making several visits to the United 
States, his health began to fail, and he retired from business, 
making Philadelphia his home, and he was only too happy to 
spend his life in his quiet library among his beloved books. In 
1860 he wrote and published a pamphlet called " Remarks on 
Hayti as a Place of Settlement for Afric-Americans, and on the 
Mulatto as a Race for the Tropics." If in it he advocated the 
amalgamation of the white and black races, it was because he had 
found the mulattoes of Hayti a self-respecting, intelligent, prosper- 
ing, and healthy people, infinitely superior to the blacks in all 
mental qualities, and particularly adapted to the tropical climate. 
" The merchants, the lawyers, the doctors, the schoolmasters, of 
Hayti were all of the mixed race, and even among laboring men 
the mulattoes were equal to the blacks in strength and endurance, 
and superior to them in skill and address." An unconscious Dar- 
winian, he had found the blacks, " by the marvellous and burr- 
like tenacity with which they stick to the white man and his 
localities," extinguishing their own lower race, and giving way to 
a higher. He arrived at these convictions after years of patient 
study, earnest observation, and daily intercourse with the Haytiens. 

A sincere abolitionist, Mr. Hunt early took part in work for the 
freedmen, and earnestly labored as the Corresponding Secretary of 
the Port Royal Relief Committee, the Secretary and Treasurer of the 
Pennsylvania Freedmen's Relief Association, — which latter position 
he relinquished when it became a salaried office, — and as one of the 



Public Library. 121 

Supervisor}^ Committee for Recruiting Colored Soldiers in Penn- 
S3lvania. When the war was ended, he set himself to right the 
wrongs of the colored people in his adopted city. Soldiers' wives, 
going in the street cars to visit their husbands and relatives at 
Camp "Wilham, were from day to day rudely pushed from the plat- 
form or made to stand outside in pouring rain. An Episcopal 
clergyman was forcibl}' pushed to the ground from a car because 
he was colored, and this without a word of remonstrance from his 
white brethren in the ministry. Seeing this brutality committed 
daily under the sanction of the law and public opinion, Mr. Hunt, 
almost single-handed, set to work to effect a remedy. He col- 
lected money, he called public meetings, he prosecuted the presi- 
dents of railroad companies, lie petitioned the Legislature. For 
two 3-ears the struggle continued, until in March, 1867, an act was 
passed making such exclusions amenable to law. Perhaps at our 
next centennial some antiquarian will happen upon a huge scrap- 
book, now in Mr. Hunt's library, in Avhich he will find ever}- letter 
that was written, every case tried, and memoranda of every dollar 
collected by the laborious committee of which Mr. Hunt was the 
moving spirit. 

In 1868, when five thousand orphans of the white soldiers of 
Penns^'lvania had been gathered into the homes provided for them 
b}' the State, and not one orphan of a colored soldier had been 
noticed, he entered upon the work of securing to them their share 
of the benefits. These orphans were scattered far and wide over 
the State, many of them receiving no pensions, and unable, through 
ignorance and want of friends, to make their wrongs known. He 
sought them out, and from highways and bywaj^s, from alms- 
houses and houses of refuge, he took these little orphan children 
literallj" b}' the hand to a spacious dwelling on the Delaware, pro- 
vided for their reception by " certain godly men and women of 
Philadelphia," whom he had interested in their behalf, and where 
they received from the State the support and education which had 
been pledged to them. 

In June, 1869, Mr. Hunt was requested by President Grant, 
through Secretary Fish, to "join a party of gentlemen, going to 
the West Indies for the purpose of obtaining information concern- 
ing several interesting localities in those islands, but more 
especiall}' Saint Domingo." This project of annexation was very 
dear to him, but from motives entirely different from such as gov- 
erned many of those interested in the subject. To some it was 
either the advantages of a coaling station, or so much more gold, 
sugar, coffee, and rum added, free of duty, to their commerce ; but 
to him it was the door which opened the way for our laws, civili- 
zation, and Christianit}^, to permeate a half-barbarous community 
of blacks, who are keeping up to this day many of the supersti- 
tious practices which they brought from Africa. On the eve of 
the commission's departure from New York he was obliged 
reluctantly to give up his share in it, on account of sickness ; but 
he kept, to the day of his death, the unshaken faith, that, sooner or 
later, the islands of the West Indies will form a part of the great 
Republic of America ; and he left, unpublished, a most interest- 



122 City Document No. QG. 

ing and valuable account of the condition of society as he found 
it in Hayti, which his long intercourse with its people, his sympa- 
thy for them, and his insight into character, rendered him pecu- 
liarly fitted to describe. 

At this time his generally failing health preventing him from 
active participation in works of charit}', with sincere pleasure he 
took up a long-cherished scheme of writing a history of the poor. 
Hundreds of volumes he read, or had read to him, and from them 
made extracts, covering the period from the days of villeinage 
down to the beginning of the 19th centur}'. No detail nor scrap 
of information was passed by, and his labor of love was fast 
growing into shape under his hands, when it was interrupted by 
his sickness and death. In this, as in ever}' work of his life, the 
good of humanity was his motive and principle. 

As, partly to reveal the hidden springs which kept in motion 
this life of love to the neighbor, brief mention should be made of 
his deeply religious character. In 1844, being then at Cape Hay- 
tien, his mother wrote to him, " You observe that j'ou have made 
up your mind to call nothing of misfortune but a sinful life. . . . 
When 3'ou were a child, 3'ou read the Bible more than any one of 
my children, and I hope you do not neglect it now that you have 
arrived almost at the meridian of life." And his Bible was neither 
forgotten nor neglected, but its sacred precepts were ever upon his 
lips. In 1854 his friend, the Hon. John Bigelow, placed some of 
the works of Swedenborg in his hands. Thoughtful reading of 
them was succeeded b}- profound and reverent belief in their doc- 
trines. His entire trust in the goodness and wisdom of God and 
his spiritual humanity were marked characteristics of the man. 

His phj'sician said, " When I look at Mr. Hunt in his sufferings, 
I can think of no other word than ' majestic,' to describe his 
appearance." Wlien some one said to him a few days before his 
death, " I think you will be a judge in the spirit world, — for if 
ever any one could decide between right and wrong, justice and 
injustice, you are that one," he replied, "I cannot tell what I 
shall be there, nor even if I shall go to heaven ; but wherever the 
Lord appoints me, and gives me a work to do, there is my place, 
and there I shall be satisfied." 



In the preface of a little work recently published, " The Wit 
and Wisdom of the IIa3-tiens," bj- John Bigelow, there is the 
following reference to our benefactor : — 

"*In this work, I was under special obligations to Mr. B. P. 
Hunt, of Philadelphia, then the head of a large commercial house 
in Port-au-Prince, who, to a general culture of high order, added a 
familiarity with the histor}- of Hayti, and with the peculiarities of 
its people, which is possessed by no other i)ersou to my knowl- 
edge. His collection of books relating to the Antilles is the most 
complete in this countr}*, perhaps in the world. He lias been 
good enough to increase my manifold obligations to him b}' look- 
ing over the following collection, and making notes the value of 
which I have taken the liberty of sliaring with my readers." 



Public Library. 123 

Miss Chamberlain kindly communicates the following memoran- 
dum concerning the other librar}', relating to the West Indies, 
which Mr. Parrish referred to in his first note, printed in the body 
of this report. Mr. Sumner at one time communicated with this 
Library on the matter ; but the suraa sked, and the mone}' at our 
disposal at that time, forbade its purchase : — 

" Ii^ 1872 Mr. Linstant Fradine, of Port au Prince, sent to Mr. 
Himt a catalogue of his collection of books relating to the West 
Indies, slavery, etc., offering it for sale, and asking his assistance 
in doing so. The books were then in Paris, and the price he 
offered them for was $8,000. 

" On examining the catalogue, he found the collection to consist 
of about 3,745 books, including pamphlets; but more than half 
the number related to colonies in general, — Bourbon, Mauritius, 
Africa, Madagascar, slaver}', etc., — so that it is more than probable 
that, of the two collections of books, relating wholl}' to the West 
Indies, Mr. Hunt's is the more valuable. He sent the catalogue 
to the Librarians of the Congressional Library, of the Astor Li- 
brary, and of the N. Y. Historical Societ}^, and was in correspond- 
ence with Mr. Sumner and Dr. S. G. Howe in regard to offering 
it to the Boston Public Library. Want of interest in the subject, 
together with want of means, prevented Mr. Hunt from finding any 
sale for it, and he sent back the catalogue in October, 1875, to its 
owner in Port-au-Prince. 

" Mr. Hunt had a very high opinion of Mr. Pradine and his books. 
He wrote to the Librarian of Congress, as follows : ' Mr. Lin- 
stant Pradine is a Ha3'tien lawyer of distinction, who has not only 
been employed in high positions at home, but has, at different 
times, represented Hayti, as Charge d'Affaires, both at London 
and Paris. He is also the author of an elaborate work entitled 
" Recueil des Lois et Actes du Gouvernement d'Haiti," in five 
volumes, as well as some other works of interest, relating to his 
country'.' " 




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